Sample records for absorption spatial profiles

  1. Spatial Variability in the Ratio of Interstellar Atomic Deuterium to Hydrogen. II. Observations toward γ2 Velorum and ζ Puppis by the Interstellar Medium Absorption Profile Spectrograph (United States)

    Sonneborn, George; Tripp, Todd M.; Ferlet, Roger; Jenkins, Edward B.; Sofia, U. J.; Vidal-Madjar, Alfred; Woźniak, Prezemysław R.


    High-resolution far-ultraviolet spectra of the early-type stars γ2 Vel and ζ Pup were obtained to measure the interstellar deuterium abundances in these directions. The observations were made with the Interstellar Medium Absorption Profile Spectrograph (IMAPS) during the ORFEUS-SPAS II mission in 1996. IMAPS spectra cover the wavelength range 930-1150 Å with λ/Δλ~80,000. The interstellar D I features are resolved and cleanly separated from interstellar H I in the Lyδ and Lyɛ profiles of both sight lines and also in the Lyγ profile of ζ Pup. The D I profiles were modeled using a velocity template derived from several N I lines in the IMAPS spectra recorded at higher signal-to-noise ratio. To find the best D I column density, we minimized χ2 for model D I profiles that included not only the N(D I) as a free parameter, but also the effects of several potential sources of systematic error, which were allowed to vary as free parameters. H I column densities were measured by analyzing Lyα absorption profiles in a large number of IUE high-dispersion spectra for each of these stars and applying this same χ2-minimization technique. Ultimately we found that D/H=2.18+0.36-0.31×10-5 for γ2 Vel and 1.42+0.25-0.23×10-5 for ζ Pup, values that contrast markedly with D/H derived in Paper I for δ Ori A (the stated errors are 90% confidence limits). Evidently, the atomic D/H ratio in the ISM, averaged over path lengths of 250-500 pc, exhibits significant spatial variability. Furthermore, the observed spatial variations in D/H do not appear to be anticorrelated with N/H, one measure of heavy-element abundances. We briefly discuss some hypotheses to explain the D/H spatial variability. Within the framework of standard big bang nucleosynthesis, the large value of D/H found toward γ2 Vel is equivalent to a cosmic baryon density of ΩBh2=0.023+/-0.002, which we regard as an upper limit since there is no correction for the destruction of deuterium in stars. This paper is

  2. Smartphone laser beam spatial profiler. (United States)

    Hossain, Md Arafat; Canning, John; Cook, Kevin; Jamalipour, Abbas


    A simple, low-cost, portable, smartphone-based laser beam profiler for characterizing laser beam profiles is reported. The beam profiler utilizes a phosphor silica glass plate to convert UV light into visible (green) light that can be directly imaged onto an existing smartphone CMOS chip and analyzed using a customized app. 3D printing enables the ready fabrication of the instrument package. The beam's diameter, shape, divergence, beam quality factor, and output power are measured for two UV lasers: a CW 244 nm frequency-doubled Ar ion laser and a pulsed 193 nm ArF exciplex laser. The availability of specialized phosphor converters can extend the instrument from the UV to the near infrared and beyond, and the smartphone platform extends the Internet of Things to map laser beam profiles simultaneously in different locations.

  3. Spatial and Temporal Aggregation in Racial Profiling


    Dragan Ilić


    In the last decade, models of rational choice have chimed into the discussion on racial profiling, the use of race in stop and search decisions of the police. The models describe the behavior of motorists and the police and provide empirical tests to assess the question whether the police exhibit racial animus. However, existing studies have neglected the effect of spatial and temporal aggregation of the data on the application of the tests. Using data from the Florida Highway Patrol, this pa...


    Buchele, D. R.


    This computer program calculates the temperature profile of a flame or hot gas. Emphasis is on profiles found in jet engine or rocket engine exhaust streams containing water vapor or carbon dioxide as radiating gases. The temperature profile is assumed to be axisymmetric with a functional form controlled by two variable parameters. The parameters are calculated using measurements of gas radiation at two wavelengths in the infrared spectrum. Infrared emission and absorption measurements at two or more wavelengths provide a method of determining a gas temperature profile along a path through the gas by using a radiation source and receiver located outside the gas stream being measured. This permits simplified spectral scanning of a jet or rocket engine exhaust stream with the instrumentation outside the exhaust gas stream. This program provides an iterative-cyclic computation in which an initial assumed temperature profile is altered in shape until the computed emission and absorption agree, within specified limits, with the actual instrument measurements of emission and absorption. Temperature determination by experimental measurements of emission and absorption at two or more wavelengths is also provided by this program. Additionally, the program provides a technique for selecting the wavelengths to be used for determining the temperature profiles prior to the beginning of the experiment. By using this program feature, the experimenter has a higher probability of selecting wavelengths which will result in accurate temperature profile measurements. This program provides the user with a technique for determining whether this program will be sufficiently accurate for his particular application, as well as providing a means of finding the solution. The input to the program consists of four types of data: (1) computer program control constants, (2) measurements of gas radiance and transmittance at selected wavelengths, (3) tabulations from the literature of gas

  5. Stiffness Confinement Method with Pseudo Absorption for Spatial Kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Beom Woo; Joo, Han Gyu; Chao, Yungan


    The primary advantage of the SCM is that it is possible to use larger time step sizes. This advantage comes from the fact because the SCM involves the solution of an eigenvalue problem instead of the ordinary form of a fixed source problem. Since using a large time step size is strongly desired in the direct whole core transport calculation for transient problems, we investigate here the SCM for spatial kinetics first with a simple one-dimensional, one-group diffusion equation and propose an improved formulation. The performance of the improved SCM for spatial kinetics is assessed by comparing the SCM solutions with the standard method solutions employing the Crank-Nicholson method with exponential transform. The stiffness confinement method for spatial kinetics was refined with the pseudo absorption term representing the dynamic frequencies. It was verified that the proposed SCM works much better than the Crank-Nicholson method with exponential transform in that time step sizes larger than 20 msec can be using in a super prompt-critical transient involving 1.5$ reactivity insertion

  6. Error analysis for mesospheric temperature profiling by absorptive occultation sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Rieder

    Full Text Available An error analysis for mesospheric profiles retrieved from absorptive occultation data has been performed, starting with realistic error assumptions as would apply to intensity data collected by available high-precision UV photodiode sensors. Propagation of statistical errors was investigated through the complete retrieval chain from measured intensity profiles to atmospheric density, pressure, and temperature profiles. We assumed unbiased errors as the occultation method is essentially self-calibrating and straight-line propagation of occulted signals as we focus on heights of 50–100 km, where refractive bending of the sensed radiation is negligible. Throughout the analysis the errors were characterized at each retrieval step by their mean profile, their covariance matrix and their probability density function (pdf. This furnishes, compared to a variance-only estimation, a much improved insight into the error propagation mechanism. We applied the procedure to a baseline analysis of the performance of a recently proposed solar UV occultation sensor (SMAS – Sun Monitor and Atmospheric Sounder and provide, using a reasonable exponential atmospheric model as background, results on error standard deviations and error correlation functions of density, pressure, and temperature profiles. Two different sensor photodiode assumptions are discussed, respectively, diamond diodes (DD with 0.03% and silicon diodes (SD with 0.1% (unattenuated intensity measurement noise at 10 Hz sampling rate. A factor-of-2 margin was applied to these noise values in order to roughly account for unmodeled cross section uncertainties. Within the entire height domain (50–100 km we find temperature to be retrieved to better than 0.3 K (DD / 1 K (SD accuracy, respectively, at 2 km height resolution. The results indicate that absorptive occultations acquired by a SMAS-type sensor could provide mesospheric profiles of fundamental variables such as temperature with

  7. Early pharmaceutical profiling to predict oral drug absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, Christel A S; Holm, René; Jørgensen, Søren Astrup


    Preformulation measurements are used to estimate the fraction absorbed in vivo for orally administered compounds and thereby allow an early evaluation of the need for enabling formulations. As part of the Oral Biopharmaceutical Tools (OrBiTo) project, this review provides a summary of the pharmac......Preformulation measurements are used to estimate the fraction absorbed in vivo for orally administered compounds and thereby allow an early evaluation of the need for enabling formulations. As part of the Oral Biopharmaceutical Tools (OrBiTo) project, this review provides a summary...... and state-of-the art methodologies to study API properties impacting on oral absorption are reviewed. Assays performed during early development, i.e. physicochemical characterization, dissolution profiles under physiological conditions, permeability assays and the impact of excipients on these properties...

  8. Dependence of plasma profiles on ECH power absorption in Heliotron-E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasaki, Kazunobu; Mizuuchi, Tohru; Besshou, Sakae


    Dependence of plasma profiles on the power absorption of electron cyclotron heating is experimentally studied in the Heliotron-E helical device. A focused Gaussian beam with controllable polarization makes it possible to change the power absorption. The electron density and temperature profiles are sensitive to the single pass absorption rate. The electron temperature profile is peaked and the density profile is hollow as the single pass absorption increases. The resonance position is also important for determining their profiles. The electron temperature profile is changed from a peaked one to a hollow one, depending on the resonance position. The non-diffusive outward flow, which is necessary to form a hollow temperature profile, is estimated by using a simple heat transport model. (author)

  9. Exploiting the spatial profiles of light

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L


    Full Text Available We implement digital holograms for the creation and detection of the spatial modes of light. We make use of modal decomposition theory to determine the numerous properties of light, from the modal content of laser beams to decoding the information...

  10. Intercomparison of ozone profiles measurements by a differential absorption lidar system and satellites at Buenos Aires, Argentina (United States)

    Pazmino, Andrea F.; Wolfram, Elian; Quel, Eduardo J.; Lavorato, Mario; Piacentini, Ruben; Godin-Beekmann, Sophie M.; Porteneuve, Jacques; Megie, Gerard J.


    A ground-based differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system has been implemented at CEILAP laboratory, located in the Buenos Aires industrial suburbs, The goal was to perform measurements of the stratospheric ozone layer. Since early 199 systematic measurements of zone concentration profiles from approximately 18 to 35 km altitude are performed. Our measurements are carried out in 5 hours in average during the night and in cloudless conditions. The DIAL system allows us to calculate directly the ozone profile from the lidar backscattering radiation since it is a self- calibrating technique. The signals processing takes into account the influence of the temperature profile on the ozone cross section. The temperature data is obtained from the radiosondes measurements performed at Ezeira International Airport. The evolution of the stratospheric ozone profile is studied for different months. Results are compared with the data obtained by different satellites like SAGE II and HALOE. The spatial and temporal range of the satellites must be taken into account.

  11. Profile development for the spatial data transfer standard (United States)

    Szemraj, John A.; Fegeas, Robin G.; Tolar, Billy R.


    The Spatial Data Transfer Standard (SDTS), or Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 173, is designed to support all types of spatial data. Implementing all of the standard's options at one time is impractical. Therefore, implementation of the SDTS is being accomplished through the use of profiles. Profiles are clearly defined, limited subsets of the SDTS created for use with a specific type or model of data and designed with as few options as possible. When a profile is proposed, specific choices are made for encoding possibilities that were not addressed, left optional, or left with numerous choices within the SDTS. Profile development is coordinated by the U.S. Geological Survey's SDTS Task Force. When completed, profiles are submitted to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for approval as official amendments to the SDTS. The first profile, the Topological Vector Profile (TVP), has been completed. A Raster Profile has been tested and is being finalized for submission to the NIST. Other vector profiles, such as those for network and nontopological data, are also being considered as future implementation options for the SDTS.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, D.-Y.; Yang, M.-H.; Zhao Hui; Liang Zhichao; Sun, M.-T.


    Observed acoustic power in magnetic regions is lower than the quiet Sun because of absorption, emissivity reduction, and local suppression of solar acoustic waves in magnetic regions. In the previous studies, we have developed a method to measure the coefficients of absorption, emissivity reduction, and local suppression of sunspots. In this study, we go one step further to measure the spatial distributions of three coefficients in two active regions, NOAA 9055 and 9057. The maps of absorption, emissivity reduction, and local suppression coefficients correlate with the magnetic map, including plage regions, except the emissivity reduction coefficient of NOAA 9055 where the emissivity reduction coefficient is too weak and lost among the noise.

  13. Atmospheric pressure and temperature profiling using near IR differential absorption lidar (United States)

    Korb, C. L.; Schwemmer, G. K.; Dombrowski, M.; Weng, C. Y.


    The present investigation is concerned with differential absorption lidar techniques for remotely measuring the atmospheric temperature and pressure profile, surface pressure, and cloud top pressure-height. The procedure used in determining the pressure is based on the conduction of high-resolution measurements of absorption in the wings of lines in the oxygen A band. Absorption with respect to these areas is highly pressure sensitive in connection with the mechanism of collisional line broadening. The method of temperature measurement utilizes a determination of the absorption at the center of a selected line in the oxygen A band which originates from a quantum state with high ground state energy.

  14. Similarity between neonatal profile and socioeconomic index: a spatial approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    d'Orsi Eleonora


    Full Text Available This study aims to compare neonatal characteristics and socioeconomic conditions in Rio de Janeiro city neighborhoods in order to identify priority areas for intervention. The study design was ecological. Two databases were used: the Brazilian Population Census and the Live Birth Information System, aggregated by neighborhoods. Spatial analysis, multivariate cluster classification, and Moran's I statistics for detection of spatial clustering were used. A similarity index was created to compare socioeconomic clusters with the neonatal profile in each neighborhood. The proportions of Apgar score above 8 and cesarean sections showed positive spatial correlation and high similarity with the socioeconomic index. The proportion of low birth weight infants showed a random spatial distribution, indicating that at this scale of analysis, birth weight is not sufficiently sensitive to discriminate subtler differences among population groups. The observed relationship between the neighborhoods' neonatal profile (particularly Apgar score and mode of delivery and socioeconomic conditions shows evidence of a change in infant health profile, where the possibility for intervention shifts to medical services and the Apgar score assumes growing significance as a risk indicator.

  15. Spatial profile of contours inducing long-range color assimilation. (United States)

    Devinck, Frédéric; Spillmann, Lothar; Werner, John S


    Color induction was measured using a matching method for two spatial patterns, each composed of double contours. In one pattern (the standard), the contours had sharp edges to induce the Watercolor Effect (WCE); in the other, the two contours had a spatial taper so that the overall profile produced a sawtooth edge, or ramped stimulus. These patterns were chosen based on our previous study demonstrating that the strength of the chromatic WCE depends on a luminance difference between the two contours. Low-pass chromatic mechanisms, unlike bandpass luminance mechanisms, may be expected to be insensitive to the difference between the two spatial profiles. The strength of the watercolor spreading was similar for the two patterns at narrow widths of the contour possibly because of chromatic aberration, but with wider contours, the standard stimulus produced stronger assimilation than the ramped stimulus. This research suggests that luminance-dependent chromatic mechanisms mediate the WCE and that these mechanisms are sensitive to differences in the two spatial profiles of the pattern contours only when they are wide.

  16. Absorption and emission profiles of unresolved arrays near local thermodynamic equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busquet, M.; Klapisch, M.; Bar-Shalom, A.


    The absorption and emission arrays in the unresolved transition array (UTA) and super transition array (STA) models are usually assumed to have the same Gaussian spectral shape. It is shown, starting from a Boltzmann population distribution, that the assumption of profile identity for both absorption and emission is inconsistent with Kirchhoff's law. A correcting formula is established. It is extended to the cases where one or two effective population temperatures are involved. Examples are shown where the effect is noticeable

  17. Neutron absorption profile in a reactor moderated by different mixtures of light and heavy waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, Mohamed E.; Aly, Mohamed N.; Gaber, Fatma A.; Dorrah, Mahmoud E.


    Highlights: • We studied neutron absorption spectra in a mixed water moderated reactor. • Changing D 2 O% in moderator induced neutron energy spectral shift. • Most of the neutrons absorbed in control rods were epithermal. • Control rods worth changes were not proportional to changes of D 2 O% in moderator. • Control rod arrangement influenced the neutronic behavior of the reactor. - Abstract: A Monte-Carlo parametric study was carried out to investigate the neutron absorption profile in a model of LR-0 reactor when it is moderated by different mixtures of heavy/light waters at molecular ratios ranging from 0% up to 100% D 2 O at increments of 10% in D 2 O. The tallies included; neutron absorption profiles in control rods and moderator, and neutron capture profile in 238 U. The work focused on neutron absorption in control rods entailing; total mass of control rods needed to attain criticality, neutron absorption density and total neutron absorption in control rods at each of the studied mixed water moderators. The aim was to explore whether thermal neutron poisons are the most suitable poisons to be used in control rods of nuclear reactors moderated by mixed heavy/light water moderators

  18. Semi-analytical model of laser resonance absorption in plasmas with a parabolic density profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pestehe, S J; Mohammadnejad, M


    Analytical expressions for mode conversion and resonance absorption of electromagnetic waves in inhomogeneous, unmagnetized plasmas are required for laboratory and simulation studies. Although most of the analyses of this problem have concentrated on the linear plasma density profile, there are a few research works that deal with different plasma density profiles including the parabolic profile. Almost none of them could give clear analytical formulae for the electric and magnetic components of the electromagnetic field propagating through inhomogeneous plasmas. In this paper, we have considered the resonant absorption of laser light near the critical density of plasmas with parabolic electron density profiles followed by a uniform over-dense region and have obtained expressions for the electric and magnetic vectors of laser light propagating through the plasma. An estimation of the fractional absorption of laser energy has also been carried out. It has been shown that, in contrast to the linear density profile, the energy absorption depends explicitly on the value of collision frequency as well as on a new parameter, N, called the over-dense density order.

  19. The spatial and kinematic structure of QSO metal-line absorption systems (United States)

    Lanzetta, Kenneth M.


    Recent attempts to infer the spatial and kinematic distributions of the material responsible for absorption lines observed in the spectra of background QSOs are presented. Current models of the absorbing regions are compared, and initial observational results are described. This research is expected to lead eventually to a detailed picture of the extended gaseous halo regions of galaxies at early evolutionary stages and to an understanding of the physical processes at work in these halos.

  20. Profiling biopharmaceutical deciding properties of absorption of lansoprazole enteric-coated tablets using gastrointestinal simulation technology. (United States)

    Wu, Chunnuan; Sun, Le; Sun, Jin; Yang, Yajun; Ren, Congcong; Ai, Xiaoyu; Lian, He; He, Zhonggui


    The aim of the present study was to correlate in vitro properties of drug formulation to its in vivo performance, and to elucidate the deciding properties of oral absorption. Gastrointestinal simulation technology (GST) was used to simulate the in vivo plasma concentration-time curve and was implemented by GastroPlus™ software. Lansoprazole, a typical BCS class II drug, was chosen as a model drug. Firstly, physicochemical and pharmacokinetic parameters of lansoprazole were determined or collected from literature to construct the model. Validation of the developed model was performed by comparison of the predicted and the experimental plasma concentration data. We found that the predicted curve was in a good agreement with the experimental data. Then, parameter sensitivity analysis (PSA) was performed to find the key parameters of oral absorption. The absorption was particularly sensitive to dose, solubility and particle size for lansoprazole enteric-coated tablets. With a single dose of 30 mg and the solubility of 0.04 mg/ml, the absorption was complete. A good absorption could be achieved with lansoprazole particle radius down to about 25 μm. In summary, GST is a useful tool for profiling biopharmaceutical deciding properties of absorption of lansoprazole enteric-coated tablets and guiding the formulation optimization. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Differential absorption lidars for remote sensing of atmospheric pressure and temperature profiles (United States)

    Korb, C. Laurence; Schwemmer, Geary K.; Famiglietti, Joseph; Walden, Harvey; Prasad, Coorg


    A near infrared differential absorption lidar technique is developed using atmospheric oxygen as a tracer for high resolution vertical profiles of pressure and temperature with high accuracy. Solid-state tunable lasers and high-resolution spectrum analyzers are developed to carry out ground-based and airborne measurement demonstrations and results of the measurements presented. Numerical error analysis of high-altitude airborne and spaceborne experiments is carried out, and system concepts developed for their implementation.

  2. Absorption line profiles in a moving atmosphere - A single scattering linear perturbation theory (United States)

    Hays, P. B.; Abreu, V. J.


    An integral equation is derived which linearly relates Doppler perturbations in the spectrum of atmospheric absorption features to the wind system which creates them. The perturbation theory is developed using a single scattering model, which is validated against a multiple scattering calculation. The nature and basic properties of the kernels in the integral equation are examined. It is concluded that the kernels are well behaved and that wind velocity profiles can be recovered using standard inversion techniques.

  3. Dissipative Vortex Solitons in Defocusing Media with Spatially Inhomogeneous Nonlinear Absorption (United States)

    Lai, Xian-Jing; Cai, Xiao-Ou; Zhang, Jie-Fang


    In this paper, by solving a complex nonlinear Schrödinger equation, radially symmetric dissipative vortex solitons are obtained analytically and are tested numerically. We find that spatially inhomogeneous nonlinear absorption gives rise to the stability of dissipative vortex solitons in self-defocusing nonlinear medium in the presence of constant linear gain. Numerical simulation reveals the interaction effect among linear gain and nonlinear loss in the azimuthal modulation instabilities of these vortices suppression. Apart from the uniform linear gain indeed affects the stability of vortex in this media, another noticeable feature of current setup is that the steep spatial modulation of the nonlinear absorption can suppress sidelobes effectively and support stable vortex solitons in situations with uniform linear gain. Under appropriate conditions, the vortex solitons can propagate stably and feature no symmetry breaking, although the beams exhibit radical compression and amplification as they propagate. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11705164 and the Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. LQ16A040003

  4. Early pharmaceutical profiling to predict oral drug absorption: current status and unmet needs. (United States)

    Bergström, Christel A S; Holm, René; Jørgensen, Søren Astrup; Andersson, Sara B E; Artursson, Per; Beato, Stefania; Borde, Anders; Box, Karl; Brewster, Marcus; Dressman, Jennifer; Feng, Kung-I; Halbert, Gavin; Kostewicz, Edmund; McAllister, Mark; Muenster, Uwe; Thinnes, Julian; Taylor, Robert; Mullertz, Anette


    Preformulation measurements are used to estimate the fraction absorbed in vivo for orally administered compounds and thereby allow an early evaluation of the need for enabling formulations. As part of the Oral Biopharmaceutical Tools (OrBiTo) project, this review provides a summary of the pharmaceutical profiling methods available, with focus on in silico and in vitro models typically used to forecast active pharmaceutical ingredient's (APIs) in vivo performance after oral administration. An overview of the composition of human, animal and simulated gastrointestinal (GI) fluids is provided and state-of-the art methodologies to study API properties impacting on oral absorption are reviewed. Assays performed during early development, i.e. physicochemical characterization, dissolution profiles under physiological conditions, permeability assays and the impact of excipients on these properties are discussed in detail and future demands on pharmaceutical profiling are identified. It is expected that innovative computational and experimental methods that better describe molecular processes involved in vivo during dissolution and absorption of APIs will be developed in the OrBiTo. These methods will provide early insights into successful pathways (medicinal chemistry or formulation strategy) and are anticipated to increase the number of new APIs with good oral absorption being discovered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Preliminary results of spatially resolved ECR ion beam profile investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panitzsch, L.; Stalder, M.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R.F.


    The profile of an ion beam produced in an Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) can vary greatly depending on the source settings and the ion-optical tuning. Strongly focussed ion beams form circular structures (hollow beams) as predicted by simulations and observed in experiments. Each of the rings is predicted to be dominated by ions with same or at least similar m/q-ratios due to ion-optical effects. To check this we performed a series of preliminary investigations to test the required tuning capabilities of our ion source. This includes beam focussing (A) and beam steering (B) using a 3D-movable extraction. Having tuned the source to deliver a beam of strongly focussed ions of different ion species and having steered this beam to match the transmittance area of the sector magnet we also recorded the ion charge state distribution of the strongly focussed beam profile at different, spatially limited positions (C). The preliminary results will be introduced within this paper: it appears that our 3D-movable extraction is very efficient to steer and to focus the beam strongly. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (authors)

  6. Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy characterization of gaseous atmospheric pressure plasmas with 2 mm spatial resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laroche, G. [Laboratoire d' Ingenierie de Surface, Centre de Recherche sur les Materiaux Avances, Departement de genie des mines, de la metallurgie et des materiaux, Universite Laval, 1065, avenue de la Medecine, Quebec G1V 0A6 (Canada); Centre de recherche du CHUQ, Hopital St Francois d' Assise, 10, rue de l' Espinay, local E0-165, Quebec G1L 3L5 (Canada); Vallade, J. [Laboratoire Procedes, Materiaux et Energie Solaire, PROMES, CNRS, Technosud, Rambla de la Thermodynamique, F-66100 Perpignan (France); Agence de l' environnement et de la Ma Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I -carettrise de l' Energie, 20, avenue du Gresille, BP 90406, F-49004 Angers Cedex 01 (France); Bazinette, R.; Hernandez, E.; Hernandez, G.; Massines, F. [Laboratoire Procedes, Materiaux et Energie Solaire, PROMES, CNRS, Technosud, Rambla de la Thermodynamique, F-66100 Perpignan (France); Nijnatten, P. van [OMT Solutions bv, High Tech Campus 9, 5656AE Eindhoven (Netherlands)


    This paper describes an optical setup built to record Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectra in an atmospheric pressure plasma with a spatial resolution of 2 mm. The overall system consisted of three basic parts: (1) optical components located within the FTIR sample compartment, making it possible to define the size of the infrared beam (2 mm Multiplication-Sign 2 mm over a path length of 50 mm) imaged at the site of the plasma by (2) an optical interface positioned between the spectrometer and the plasma reactor. Once through the plasma region, (3) a retro-reflector module, located behind the plasma reactor, redirected the infrared beam coincident to the incident path up to a 45 Degree-Sign beamsplitter to reflect the beam toward a narrow-band mercury-cadmium-telluride detector. The antireflective plasma-coating experiments performed with ammonia and silane demonstrated that it was possible to quantify 42 and 2 ppm of these species in argon, respectively. In the case of ammonia, this was approximately three times less than this gas concentration typically used in plasma coating experiments while the silane limit of quantification was 35 times lower. Moreover, 70% of the incoming infrared radiation was focused within a 2 mm width at the site of the plasma, in reasonable agreement with the expected spatial resolution. The possibility of reaching this spatial resolution thus enabled us to measure the gaseous precursor consumption as a function of their residence time in the plasma.

  7. Spatial and directional control of self-assembled wrinkle patterns by UV light absorption (United States)

    Kortz, C.; Oesterschulze, E.


    Wrinkle formation on surfaces is a phenomenon that is observed in layered systems with a compressed elastic thin capping layer residing on a viscoelastic film. So far, the properties of the viscoelastic material could only be changed replacing it by another material. Here, we propose to use a photosensitive material whose viscoelastic properties, Young's modulus, and glass transition temperature can easily be adjusted by the absorption of UV light. Employing UV lithography masks during the exposure, we gain additionally spatial and directional control of the self-assembled wrinkle pattern formation that relies on a spinodal decomposition process. Inspired by the results on surface wrinkling and its dependence on the intrinsic stress, we also derive a method to avoid wrinkling locally by tailoring the mechanical stress distribution in the layered system choosing UV masks with convex patterns. This is of particular interest in technical applications where the buckling of surfaces is undesirable.

  8. Phenolic Acids from Wheat Show Different Absorption Profiles in Plasma: A Model Experiment with Catheterized Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Natalja; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Theil, Peter Kappel


    consumed. Benzoic acid derivatives showed low concentration in the plasma (diets. The exception was p-hydroxybenzoic acid, with a plasma concentration (4 ± 0.4 μM), much higher than the other plant phenolic acids, likely because it is an intermediate in the phenolic acid metabolism......The concentration and absorption of the nine phenolic acids of wheat were measured in a model experiment with catheterized pigs fed whole grain wheat and wheat aleurone diets. Six pigs in a repeated crossover design were fitted with catheters in the portal vein and mesenteric artery to study....... It was concluded that plant phenolic acids undergo extensive interconversion in the colon and that their absorption profiles reflected their low bioavailability in the plant matrix....

  9. Comparative QSAR studies on PAMPA/modified PAMPA for high throughput profiling of drug absorption potential with respect to Caco-2 cells and human intestinal absorption (United States)

    Verma, Rajeshwar P.; Hansch, Corwin; Selassie, Cynthia D.


    Despite the dramatic increase in speed of synthesis and biological evaluation of new chemical entities, the number of compounds that survive the rigorous processes associated with drug development is low. Thus, an increased emphasis on thorough ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity) studies based on in vitro and in silico approaches allows for early evaluation of new drugs in the development phase. Artificial membrane permeability measurements afford a high throughput, relatively low cost but labor intensive alternative for in vitro determination of drug absorption potential; parallel artificial membrane permeability assays have been extensively utilized to determine drug absorption potentials. The present study provides comparative QSAR analysis on PAMPA/modified PAMPA for high throughput profiling of drugs with respect to Caco-2 cells and human intestinal absorption.

  10. Measurement of atmospheric NO2 profile using three-wavelength dual-differential absorption lidar (United States)

    Liu, Qiuwu; Chen, Yafeng; Wang, Jie; Huang, Jian; Hu, Shunxing


    Lidar instruments are efficient detectors of air pollutants such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2). However, the measurement errors are not negligible due to the influence of the aerosol in the atmosphere. We present a novel lidar for measuring tropospheric NO2 vertical profiles. For improving the received powers, the emitter unit consists of two pulsed pump laser - dye laser combination, and use three wavelengths of 448.10nm, 447.20nm and 446.60 nm corresponding to the strong, medium and weak absorption of NO2 respectively. The effects of aerosol on tropospheric NO2 measurements by three - wavelength (448.10 -447.20 -446.60 nm) dual differential absorption lidar (dual-DIAL) and conventional two - wave length (448.10- 446.60nm) differential absorption lidar (DIAL) are theoretical analyzed, and their system err are computer simulated. Experimental results show that the three - wavelength dual - DIAL method is more effective to reduce the effects of aerosol than the two - wavelength DIAL method, and its system error is no more than 4% without correcting the aerosol effect.

  11. Catalysts at work: From integral to spatially resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk; Kimmerle, B.; Baiker, A.


    Spectroscopic studies on heterogeneous catalysts have mostly been done in an integral mode. However, in many cases spatial variations in catalyst structure can occur, e.g. during impregnation of pre-shaped particles, during reaction in a catalytic reactor, or in microstructured reactors...... to efficiently determine the distribution of the oxidation state of a catalyst inside a reactor under reaction conditions. The new technical approaches together with quantitative data analysis and an appropriate in situ catalytic experiment allowed drawing important conclusions on the reaction mechanism......, and the analytical strategy might be similarly applied in other case studies. The corresponding temperature profiles and the catalytic performance were measured by means of an IR-camera and mass spectrometric analysis. In a more advanced experiment the ignition process of the partial oxidation of methane...

  12. Spatial Skill Profile of Mathematics Pre-Service Teachers (United States)

    Putri, R. O. E.


    This study is aimed to investigate the spatial intelligence of mathematics pre-service teachers and find the best instructional strategy that facilitates this aspect. Data were collected from 35 mathematics pre-service teachers. The Purdue Spatial Visualization Test (PSVT) was used to identify the spatial skill of mathematics pre-service teachers. Statistical analysis indicate that more than 50% of the participants possessed spatial skill in intermediate level, whereas the other were in high and low level of spatial skill. The result also shows that there is a positive correlation between spatial skill and mathematics ability, especially in geometrical problem solving. High spatial skill students tend to have better mathematical performance compare to those in two other levels. Furthermore, qualitative analysis reveals that most students have difficulty in manipulating geometrical objects mentally. This problem mostly appears in intermediate and low-level spatial skill students. The observation revealed that 3-D geometrical figures is the best method that can overcome the mentally manipulation problem and develop the spatial visualization. Computer application can also be used to improve students’ spatial skill.

  13. Microwave absorption of a 2D electron system in spatially varying perpendicular magnetic field (United States)

    Magill, B. A.; Polyanskii, A. A.; Engel, L. W.; Lilly, M. P.; Simmons, J. A.; Reno, J. L.


    We report on microwave measurements of a two dimensional electron system (2DES) in a spatially varying magnetic field, Bz, provided by a ferromagnet in proximity to the sample in a homogenous external field, Bz0. Dy, permalloy, and neodymium iron boron ferromagnets are used in two configurations, rods and plates with holes in them. The radius, rm, of the rods or holes ranges from 0.125 mm to 0.5 mm. The microwave transmission of the 2DES exhibits a resonance which decreases in peak frequency as Bz0 is increased. We observe peak frequencies from ˜ 9.5 GHz to150 MHz for external magnetic fields in a range from .02 Telsa to 1.5 Tesla. We will interpret the data in terms of plasma excitations similar to edge magnetoplasmons [1] but confined along the magnetic field inhomogeneity by the large magnetic field gradients there. The interpretation of the data will utilize profiles of the spatially varying magnetic field obtained by magneto optical imaging using iron garnet indicator films with an in-plane magnetization.

  14. An absorption profile centred at 78 megahertz in the sky-averaged spectrum (United States)

    Bowman, Judd D.; Rogers, Alan E. E.; Monsalve, Raul A.; Mozdzen, Thomas J.; Mahesh, Nivedita


    After stars formed in the early Universe, their ultraviolet light is expected, eventually, to have penetrated the primordial hydrogen gas and altered the excitation state of its 21-centimetre hyperfine line. This alteration would cause the gas to absorb photons from the cosmic microwave background, producing a spectral distortion that should be observable today at radio frequencies of less than 200 megahertz. Here we report the detection of a flattened absorption profile in the sky-averaged radio spectrum, which is centred at a frequency of 78 megahertz and has a best-fitting full-width at half-maximum of 19 megahertz and an amplitude of 0.5 kelvin. The profile is largely consistent with expectations for the 21-centimetre signal induced by early stars; however, the best-fitting amplitude of the profile is more than a factor of two greater than the largest predictions. This discrepancy suggests that either the primordial gas was much colder than expected or the background radiation temperature was hotter than expected. Astrophysical phenomena (such as radiation from stars and stellar remnants) are unlikely to account for this discrepancy; of the proposed extensions to the standard model of cosmology and particle physics, only cooling of the gas as a result of interactions between dark matter and baryons seems to explain the observed amplitude. The low-frequency edge of the observed profile indicates that stars existed and had produced a background of Lyman-α photons by 180 million years after the Big Bang. The high-frequency edge indicates that the gas was heated to above the radiation temperature less than 100 million years later.

  15. Similarity between neonatal profile and socioeconomic index: a spatial approach


    d'Orsi, Eleonora; Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Cruz, Oswaldo Gonçalves


    This study aims to compare neonatal characteristics and socioeconomic conditions in Rio de Janeiro city neighborhoods in order to identify priority areas for intervention. The study design was ecological. Two databases were used: the Brazilian Population Census and the Live Birth Information System, aggregated by neighborhoods. Spatial analysis, multivariate cluster classification, and Moran's I statistics for detection of spatial clustering were used. A similarity index was created to compar...

  16. Paradoxical nonmonotonic behavior of excitation-rate spatial profiles in bounded plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsendin, L.D.; Bogdanov, E.A.; Kudryavtsev, A.A.


    Paradoxical nonmonotonic behavior of spatial profiles of excitation rates in bounded plasmas have been analyzed. It is shown that the effect is related to the nonlocal character of the electron distribution function

  17. Two Photon Absorption Laser Induced Fluorescence for Neutral Hydrogen Profile Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scime, Earl E.


    The magnitude and spatial dependence of neutral density in magnetic confinement fusion experiments is a key physical parameter, particularly in the plasma edge. Modeling codes require precise measurements of the neutral density to calculate charge-exchange power losses and drag forces on rotating plasmas. However, direct measurements of the neutral density are problematic. In this work, we proposed to construct a laser-based diagnostic capable of providing spatially resolved measurements of the neutral density in the edge of plasma in the DIII-D tokamak. The diagnostic concept is based on two-photon absorption laser induced fluorescence (TALIF). By injecting two beams of 205 nm light (co or counter propagating), ground state hydrogen (or deuterium or tritium) can be excited from the n = 1 level to the n = 3 level at the location where the two beams intersect. Individually, the beams experience no absorption, and therefore have no difficulty penetrating even dense plasmas. After excitation, a fraction of the hydrogen atoms decay from the n = 3 level to the n = 2 level and emit photons at 656 nm (the H α line). Calculations based on the results of previous TALIF experiments in magnetic fusion devices indicated that a laser pulse energy of approximately 3 mJ delivered in 5 ns would provide sufficient signal-to-noise for detection of the fluorescence. In collaboration with the DIII-D engineering staff and experts in plasma edge diagnostics for DIII-D from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), WVU researchers designed a TALIF system capable of providing spatially resolved measurements of neutral deuterium densities in the DIII-D edge plasma. The laser systems were specified, purchased, and assembled at WVU. The TALIF system was tested on a low-power hydrogen discharge at WVU and the plan was to move the instrument to DIII-D for installation in collaboration with ORNL researchers. After budget cuts at DIII-D, the DIII-D facility declined to support installation on their

  18. Two Photon Absorption Laser Induced Fluorescence for Neutral Hydrogen Profile Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scime, Earl E. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)


    The magnitude and spatial dependence of neutral density in magnetic confinement fusion experiments is a key physical parameter, particularly in the plasma edge. Modeling codes require precise measurements of the neutral density to calculate charge-exchange power losses and drag forces on rotating plasmas. However, direct measurements of the neutral density are problematic. In this work, we proposed to construct a laser-based diagnostic capable of providing spatially resolved measurements of the neutral density in the edge of plasma in the DIII-D tokamak. The diagnostic concept is based on two-photon absorption laser induced fluorescence (TALIF). By injecting two beams of 205 nm light (co or counter propagating), ground state hydrogen (or deuterium or tritium) can be excited from the n = 1 level to the n = 3 level at the location where the two beams intersect. Individually, the beams experience no absorption, and therefore have no difficulty penetrating even dense plasmas. After excitation, a fraction of the hydrogen atoms decay from the n = 3 level to the n = 2 level and emit photons at 656 nm (the Hα line). Calculations based on the results of previous TALIF experiments in magnetic fusion devices indicated that a laser pulse energy of approximately 3 mJ delivered in 5 ns would provide sufficient signal-to-noise for detection of the fluorescence. In collaboration with the DIII-D engineering staff and experts in plasma edge diagnostics for DIII-D from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), WVU researchers designed a TALIF system capable of providing spatially resolved measurements of neutral deuterium densities in the DIII-D edge plasma. The laser systems were specified, purchased, and assembled at WVU. The TALIF system was tested on a low-power hydrogen discharge at WVU and the plan was to move the instrument to DIII-D for installation in collaboration with ORNL researchers. After budget cuts at DIII-D, the DIII-D facility declined to support

  19. Integrative fitting of absorption line profiles with high accuracy, robustness, and speed (United States)

    Skrotzki, Julian; Habig, Jan Christoph; Ebert, Volker


    The principle of the integrative evaluation of absorption line profiles relies on the numeric integration of absorption line signals to retrieve absorber concentrations, e.g., of trace gases. Thus, it is a fast and robust technique. However, previous implementations of the integrative evaluation principle showed shortcomings in terms of accuracy and the lack of a fit quality indicator. This has motivated the development of an advanced integrative (AI) fitting algorithm. The AI fitting algorithm retains the advantages of previous integrative implementations—robustness and speed—and is able to achieve high accuracy by introduction of a novel iterative fitting process. A comparison of the AI fitting algorithm with the widely used Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) fitting algorithm indicates that the AI algorithm has advantages in terms of robustness due to its independence from appropriately chosen start values for the initialization of the fitting process. In addition, the AI fitting algorithm shows speed advantages typically resulting in a factor of three to four shorter computational times on a standard personal computer. The LM algorithm on the other hand retains advantages in terms of a much higher flexibility, as the AI fitting algorithm is restricted to the evaluation of single absorption lines with precomputed line width. Comparing both fitting algorithms for the specific application of in situ laser hygrometry at 1,370 nm using direct tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) suggests that the accuracy of the AI algorithm is equivalent to that of the LM algorithm. For example, a signal-to-noise ratio of 80 and better typically yields a deviation of cloud chamber aerosol interactions and dynamics in the atmosphere (AIDA)—a unique large-scale facility to study atmospheric processes. The robustness of the AI fitting algorithm has been validated for typical AIDA conditions encompassing strong transmission fluctuations during the formation of droplet or ice

  20. Aerosol absorption profiling from the synergy of lidar and sun-photometry: the ACTRIS-2 campaigns in Germany, Greece and Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsekeri Alexandra


    Full Text Available Aerosol absorption profiling is crucial for radiative transfer calculations and climate modelling. Here, we utilize the synergy of lidar with sun-photometer measurements to derive the absorption coefficient and single scattering albedo profiles during the ACTRIS-2 campaigns held in Germany, Greece and Cyprus. The remote sensing techniques are compared with in situ measurements in order to harmonize and validate the different methodologies and reduce the absorption profiling uncertainties.

  1. Study of an intense proton beam profiler based on laser absorption; Etude d'un profileur optique de faisceaux intenses de protons par absorption laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pottin, B


    Among the challenges of high current proton accelerators, the development of new beam diagnostics is of major importance. The main difficulty for these instruments, is the beam power which deteriorates any instruments used to catch it. The chosen detectors are therefore 'non-interceptive systems. After an introduction concerning characteristics of the used accelerator (chapter I), parameters defining a beam of particles are presented (chapter II). Among these ones, the profile is an important beam characteristic for its transport. After the description of the different types of beam profilers, their problematic application to intense beams is discussed. New physical phenomena have to be used for profilers. Thus, we have prospected optical luminescence phenomena. The light produced during the interaction of protons with the residual gas and/or locally injected is a source of informations on beam characteristics. In chapters III and IV, there is an experimental and theoretical analysis of the luminescence. Chapter V is a direct application of spectroscopic measurements to estimate the output of protons with a non-interceptive technique. With the spectral analysis, the idea of a profiler based on laser absorption is developed. This presentation is both theoretical and experimental (chapters 6 and 7). The laser absorption needs the use of metastable states we define in the chapter 6. The evolution of the metastable states, with time and space, has been rigorously studied to discuss the concept of an optical profiler. Chapter VII presents all the necessary instrumentation for the use of a laser and the first measurements with the beam. At the thesis end, the first recorded profile is presented. An experimental critic is presented with a description of the different sources of errors and the proposed cures. (author)

  2. Spatial variability of heating profiles in windrowed poultry litter (United States)

    In-house windrow composting of broiler litter has been suggested as a means to reduce microbial populations between flocks. Published time-temperature goals are used to determine the success of the composting process for microbial reductions. Spatial and temporal density of temperature measurement ...

  3. Use of electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry for size profiling of gold and silver nanoparticles. (United States)

    Panyabut, Teerawat; Sirirat, Natnicha; Siripinyanond, Atitaya


    Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) was applied to investigate the atomization behaviors of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in order to relate with particle size information. At various atomization temperatures from 1400 °C to 2200 °C, the time-dependent atomic absorption peak profiles of AuNPs and AgNPs with varying sizes from 5 nm to 100 nm were examined. With increasing particle size, the maximum absorbance was observed at the longer time. The time at maximum absorbance was found to linearly increase with increasing particle size, suggesting that ETAAS can be applied to provide the size information of nanoparticles. With the atomization temperature of 1600 °C, the mixtures of nanoparticles containing two particle sizes, i.e., 5 nm tannic stabilized AuNPs with 60, 80, 100 nm citrate stabilized AuNPs, were investigated and bimodal peaks were observed. The particle size dependent atomization behaviors of nanoparticles show potential application of ETAAS for providing size information of nanoparticles. The calibration plot between the time at maximum absorbance and the particle size was applied to estimate the particle size of in-house synthesized AuNPs and AgNPs and the results obtained were in good agreement with those from flow field-flow fractionation (FlFFF) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Furthermore, the linear relationship between the activation energy and the particle size was observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Quantitative depth profiling of photoacid generators in photoresist materials by near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhu, Vivek M.; Sambasivan, Sharadha; Fischer, Daniel; Sundberg, Linda K.; Allen, Robert D.


    Near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy was used to quantify the surface composition and depth profiling of photoacid generators in thin film photoresist materials by varying the entrance-grid bias of a partial electron yield detector. By considering model compositional profiles, NEXAFS distinguishes the surface molar excess within the top 6 nm from the bulk. A surface enriched system, triphenylsulfonium perfluorooctanesulfonate, is contrasted with a perfluorobutanesulfonate photoacid generator, which displays an appreciable surface profile within a 6 nm segregation length scale. These results, while applied to 193-nm photoresist materials, highlight a general approach to quantify NEXAFS partial electron yield data

  5. Spatial Mapping and Profiling of Metabolite Distributions during Germination. (United States)

    Feenstra, Adam D; Alexander, Liza E; Song, Zhihong; Korte, Andrew R; Yandeau-Nelson, Marna D; Nikolau, Basil J; Lee, Young Jin


    Germination is a highly complex process by which seeds begin to develop and establish themselves as viable organisms. In this study, we utilize a combination of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography-fluorescence, and mass spectrometry imaging approaches to profile and visualize the metabolic distributions of germinating seeds from two different inbreds of maize ( Zea mays ) seeds, B73 and Mo17. Gas chromatography and liquid chromatography analyses demonstrate that the two inbreds are highly differentiated in their metabolite profiles throughout the course of germination, especially with regard to amino acids, sugar alcohols, and small organic acids. Crude dissection of the seed followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of polar metabolites also revealed that many compounds were highly sequestered among the various seed tissue types. To further localize compounds, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging was utilized to visualize compounds in fine detail in their native environments over the course of germination. Most notably, the fatty acyl chain-dependent differential localization of phospholipids and triacylglycerols was observed within the embryo and radicle, showing correlation with the heterogeneous distribution of fatty acids. Other interesting observations include unusual localization of ceramides on the endosperm/scutellum boundary and subcellular localization of ferulate in the aleurone. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Spatial transport of atomic coherence in electromagnetically induced absorption with a paraffin-coated Rb vapor cell. (United States)

    Lee, Yoon-Seok; Moon, Han Seb


    We report the spatial transport of spontaneously transferred atomic coherence (STAC) in electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA), which resulted from moving atoms with the STAC of the 5S(1/2) (F = 2)-5P(3/2) (F' = 3) transition of (87)Rb in a paraffin-coated vapor cell. In our experiment, two channels were spatially separate; the writing channel (WC) generated STAC in the EIA configuration, and the reading channel (RC) retrieved the optical field from the spatially transported STAC. Transported between the spatially separated positions, the fast light pulse of EIA in the WC and the delayed light pulse in the RC were observed. When the laser direction of the RC was counter-propagated in the direction of the WC, we observed direction reversal of the transported light pulse in the EIA medium. Furthermore, the delay time, the magnitude, and the width of the spatially transported light pulse were investigated with respect to the distance between the two channels.

  7. Spatial Dependencies in the Absorption of Funds from Regional Operational Programmes on NUTS 3 Regional Level in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Modranka


    Full Text Available Financial support is the main instrument of regional development policy in the European Union. Concentration, programming and partnership, are presented as "core principles" for improving the effectiveness of structural expenditure based on compensating the structural disadvantage of the assisted regions. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the spatial dependencies in level of absorption of funds in comparison to allocation criteria of intervention funded from Regional Operational Programmes. The research was based on data about the state of implementation of European funds in the subregions (NUTS 3 in 2007-2012., generated from the National Information System SIMIK 07-13.

  8. Spatially resolved photoconductive properties of profiled polycrystalline silicon thin films (United States)

    Savenije, Tom J.; van Veenendaal, Patrick A. T. T.; de Haas, Matthijs P.; Warman, John M.; Schropp, Ruud E. I.


    To study the mobility and lifetime of charge carriers in thin film polycrystalline silicon deposited by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition, time-resolved microwave conductivity measurements have been performed. Using this technique the change in conductivity in the polycrystalline silicon films after pulsed excitation can be monitored on a nanosecond time scale, without the use of electrodes. Due to the different penetration depths of the laser wavelengths used (320, 500, and 690 nm) combined with illumination from different sides, the photoconductivity in different regions within the sample can be measured. Four different samples of polycrystalline silicon deposited on Corning glass have been studied: Poly1 (highly defective), Poly2 (device quality) and profiled layers of Poly1 and Poly2. For front or back illumination, the conductivity transients for the Poly1 film are very similar and show that lifetimes of the charge carriers generated are less than 1 ns. For the Poly2 film the mobility in the interfacial substrate region (μ=0.17 cm2/V s) is more than 1 order of magnitude lower than in the top region (μ=3.8 cm2/V s). The formation of a thin Poly1 film on the surface of the Corning substrate, acting as a seed layer for the Poly2 layer, followed by the deposition of the Poly2 layer, results in only a relatively small increase in the mobility in the region close to the substrate as compared to the bare Poly2 layer, while the mobility in the top region remains approximately constant.

  9. BELINDA: Broadband Emission Lidar with Narrowband Determination of Absorption. A new concept for measuring water vapor and temperature profiles (United States)

    Theopold, F. A.; Weitkamp, C.; Michaelis, W.


    We present a new concept for differential absorption lidar measurements of water vapor and temperature profiles. The idea is to use one broadband emission laser and a narrowband filter system for separation of the 'online' and 'offline' return signals. It is shown that BELINDA offers improvements as to laser emission shape and stability requirements, background suppression, and last and most important a significant reduction of the influence of Rayleigh scattering. A suitably designed system based on this concept is presented, capable of measuring water vapor or temperature profiles throughout the planetary boundary layer.

  10. Effect of a progressive sound wave on the profiles of spectral lines. 2: Asymmetry of faint Fraunhofer lines. [absorption spectra (United States)

    Kostyk, R. I.


    The absorption coefficient profile was calculated for lines of different chemical elements in a medium with progressive sound waves. Calculations show that (1) the degree and direction of asymmetry depend on the atomic ionization potential and the potential of lower level excitation of the individual line; (2) the degree of asymmetry of a line decreases from the center toward the limb of the solar disc; and (3) turbulent motions 'suppress' the asymmetry.

  11. a High Resolution Spectroscopic Study of Absorption Line Profiles in the A-Band of Molecular Oxygen (United States)

    Ritter, Kenneth James

    A study has been made of absorption line profiles in the A-band of molecular oxygen at 13120 cm('-1). High resolution spectra were obtained using a narrow linewidth tunable dye laser in conjunction with a multi-pass optical absorption cell, a photo-acoustic cell, and a variable temperature photo-acoustic cell. Line parameters were determined using a least-squares fitting routine which numerically adjusted parameters of certain standard line profile functions to obtain the best fit with the observed profiles. The standard line profiles used were the Voigt function, two Dicke-narrowed profiles, and a speed dependent Voigt profile. Clear deviations are shown between the observed and simple Voigt profiles, while the other three profiles were found to fit the observed profiles well. Line strengths, pressure broadening coefficients, and pressure induced frequency shifts were also determined from the measured profiles. Line strengths obtained from the absorption measurements are compared with expressions given by Childs and Mecke (1931), Schlapp (1932;1937), Tilford et al. (1965) and Watson (1968). The expressions of Tilford et al. (1965) and Watson (1968) are shown to be in closest agreement with the measurements. Self-broadening coefficients are compared with previous measurements made by other investigators as well as with theoretical calculations made using the semi-classical method of Smith and Giraud (1979). Pressure induced frequency shifts were determined by taking simultaneous spectra of two cells at different pressures. The pressure induced frequency shifts and broadening coefficients were measured in pure oxygen as a function of temperature ( -20(DEGREES)C to 100(DEGREES)C), as well as in air and the broadeners He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe at ambient temperature. The measured gas broadening coefficients are shown to be in close agreement with values calculated using the method of Smith and Giraud (1979). It is also shown that the general behavior observed for the

  12. Anomalies in resonant absorption line profiles of atoms with large hyperfine splitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkhomenko, A.I.; Pod'yachev, S.P.; Privalov, T.I.; Shalagin, A.M.


    We examine a monochromatic absorption line in the velocity-nonselective excitation of atoms when the components of the hyperfine stricture of the electronic ground states are optically pumped. We show that the absorption lines possess unusual substructures for some values of the hyperfine splitting of the ground state (which exceed the Doppler absorption linewidth severalfold). These substructures in the absorption spectrum are most apparent if the hyperfine structure of the excited electronic state is taken into account. We calculate the absorption spectra of monochromatic light near the D 1 and D 2 lines of atomic rubidium 85,87 Rb. With real hyperfine splitting taken into account, the D 1 and D 2 lines are modeled by 4- and 6-level diagrams, respectively. Finally, we show that atomic rubidium vapor can be successfully used to observe the spectral features experimentally

  13. A model for the vertical sound speed and absorption profiles in Titan's atmosphere based on Cassini-Huygens data. (United States)

    Petculescu, Andi; Achi, Peter


    Measurements of thermodynamic quantities in Titan's atmosphere during the descent of Huygens in 2005 are used to predict the vertical profiles for the speed and intrinsic attenuation (or absorption) of sound. The calculations are done using one author's previous model modified to accommodate non-ideal equations of state. The vertical temperature profile places the tropopause about 40 km above the surface. In the model, a binary nitrogen-methane composition is assumed for Titan's atmosphere, quantified by the methane fraction measured by the gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GCMS) onboard Huygens. To more accurately constrain the acoustic wave number, the variation of thermophysical properties (specific heats, viscosity, and thermal conductivity) with altitude is included via data extracted from the NIST Chemistry WebBook [URL, National Institute of Standards and Technology Chemistry WebBook (Last accessed 10/20/2011)]. The predicted speed of sound profile fits well inside the spread of the data recorded by Huygens' active acoustic sensor. In the N(2)-dominated atmosphere, the sound waves have negligible relaxational dispersion and mostly classical (thermo-viscous) absorption. The cold and dense environment of Titan can sustain acoustic waves over large distances with relatively small transmission losses, as evidenced by the small absorption. A ray-tracing program is used to assess the bounds imposed by the zonal wind-measured by the Doppler Wind Experiment on Huygens-on long-range propagation.

  14. Spatial decoupling of light absorption and catalytic activity of Ni-Mo-loaded high-aspect-ratio silicon microwire photocathodes (United States)

    Vijselaar, Wouter; Westerik, Pieter; Veerbeek, Janneke; Tiggelaar, Roald M.; Berenschot, Erwin; Tas, Niels R.; Gardeniers, Han; Huskens, Jurriaan


    A solar-driven photoelectrochemical cell provides a promising approach to enable the large-scale conversion and storage of solar energy, but requires the use of Earth-abundant materials. Earth-abundant catalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction, for example nickel-molybdenum (Ni-Mo), are generally opaque and require high mass loading to obtain high catalytic activity, which in turn leads to parasitic light absorption for the underlying photoabsorber (for example silicon), thus limiting production of hydrogen. Here, we show the fabrication of a highly efficient photocathode by spatially and functionally decoupling light absorption and catalytic activity. Varying the fraction of catalyst coverage over the microwires, and the pitch between the microwires, makes it possible to deconvolute the contributions of catalytic activity and light absorption to the overall device performance. This approach provided a silicon microwire photocathode that exhibited a near-ideal short-circuit photocurrent density of 35.5 mA cm-2, a photovoltage of 495 mV and a fill factor of 62% under AM 1.5G illumination, resulting in an ideal regenerative cell efficiency of 10.8%.

  15. Determination of Spatial Distribution of Air Pollution by Dye Laser Measurement of Differential Absorption of Elastic Backscatter (United States)

    Ahmed, S. A.; Gergely, J. S.


    This paper presents the results of an analytical study of a lidar system which uses tunable organic dye lasers to accurately determine spatial distribution of molecular air pollutants. Also described will be experimental work to date on simultaneous multiwavelength output dye laser sources for this system. Basically the scheme determines the concentration of air pollutants by measuring the differential absorption of an (at least) two wavelength lidar signal elastically backscattered by the atmosphere. Only relative measurements of the backscattered intensity at each of the two wavelengths, one on and one off the resonance absorption of the pollutant in question, are required. The various parameters of the scheme are examined and the component elements required for a system of this type discussed, with emphasis on the dye laser source. Potential advantages of simultaneous multiwavelength outputs are described. The use of correlation spectroscopy in this context is examined. Comparisons are also made for the use of infrared probing wavelengths and sources instead of dye lasers. Estimates of the sensitivity and accuracy of a practical dye laser system of this type, made for specific pollutants, snow it to have inherent advantages over other schemes for determining pollutant spatial distribution.

  16. Spatial mapping of greenhouse gases using laser absorption spectrometers at local scales of interest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobler, Jeremy


    This presentation provides and overview of the development off the GreenLITE system for spatial mapping of atmospheric CO2. The original system was developed for supporting MRV activities for ground carbon storage facilities and has since been expanded to cover larger areas and other applications.

  17. Absorption Profile of (PolyPhenolic Compounds after Consumption of Three Food Supplements Containing 36 Different Fruits, Vegetables, and Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letizia Bresciani


    Full Text Available The market of plant-based nutraceuticals and food supplements is continuously growing due to the increased consumer demand. The introduction of new products with relevant nutritional characteristics represents a new way of providing bioactive compounds and (polyphenols to consumers, becoming a strategy to ideally guarantee the health benefits attributed to plant foodstuffs and allowing the increase of daily bioactive compound intake. A paramount step in the study of nutraceuticals is the evaluation of the bioavailability and metabolism of their putatively active components. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the absorption profile of the (polyphenolic compounds contained in three different plant-based food supplements, made of 36 different plant matrices, which were consumed by 20 subjects in an open one-arm study design. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 1, 2, 5, and 10 h after capsule intake. Twenty quantifiable metabolites deriving from different (polyphenolic compounds were identified. Results showed that the consumption of the three capsules allowed the effective absorption of several (polyphenolic compounds and metabolites appearing at different times in plasma, thereby indicating different absorption profiles. The capsules thus ensured potential health-promoting molecules to be potentially available to target tissues and organs.

  18. Absorption Profile of (Poly)Phenolic Compounds after Consumption of Three Food Supplements Containing 36 Different Fruits, Vegetables, and Berries. (United States)

    Bresciani, Letizia; Martini, Daniela; Mena, Pedro; Tassotti, Michele; Calani, Luca; Brigati, Giacomo; Brighenti, Furio; Holasek, Sandra; Malliga, Daniela-Eugenia; Lamprecht, Manfred; Del Rio, Daniele


    The market of plant-based nutraceuticals and food supplements is continuously growing due to the increased consumer demand. The introduction of new products with relevant nutritional characteristics represents a new way of providing bioactive compounds and (poly)phenols to consumers, becoming a strategy to ideally guarantee the health benefits attributed to plant foodstuffs and allowing the increase of daily bioactive compound intake. A paramount step in the study of nutraceuticals is the evaluation of the bioavailability and metabolism of their putatively active components. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the absorption profile of the (poly)phenolic compounds contained in three different plant-based food supplements, made of 36 different plant matrices, which were consumed by 20 subjects in an open one-arm study design. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 1, 2, 5, and 10 h after capsule intake. Twenty quantifiable metabolites deriving from different (poly)phenolic compounds were identified. Results showed that the consumption of the three capsules allowed the effective absorption of several (poly)phenolic compounds and metabolites appearing at different times in plasma, thereby indicating different absorption profiles. The capsules thus ensured potential health-promoting molecules to be potentially available to target tissues and organs.

  19. Atmospheric profiling via satellite to satellite occultations near water and ozone absorption lines for weather and climate (United States)

    Kursinski, E. R.; Ward, D.; Otarola, A. C.; McGhee, J.; Stovern, M.; Sammler, K.; Reed, H.; Erickson, D.; McCormick, C.; Griggs, E.


    Significantly reducing weather and climate prediction uncertainty requires global observations with substantially higher information content than present observations provide. While GPS occultations have provided a major advance, GPS observations of the atmosphere are limited by wavelengths chosen specifically to minimize interaction with the atmosphere. Significantly more information can be obtained via satellite to satellite occultations made at wavelengths chosen specifically to characterize the atmosphere. Here we describe such a system that will probe cm- and mmwavelength water vapor absorption lines called the Active Temperature, Ozone and Moisture Microwave Spectrometer (ATOMMS). Profiling both the speed and absorption of light enables ATOMMS to profile temperature, pressure and humidity simultaneously, which GPS occultations cannot do, as well as profile clouds and turbulence. We summarize the ATOMMS concept and its theoretical performance. We describe field measurements made with a prototype ATOMMS instrument and several important capabilities demonstrated with those ground based measurements including retrieving temporal variations in path-averaged water vapor to 1%, in clear, cloudy and rainy conditions, up to optical depths of 17, remotely sensing turbulence and determining rain rates. We conclude with a vision of a future ATOMMS low Earth orbiting satellite constellation designed to take advantage of synergies between observational needs for weather and climate, ATOMMS unprecedented orbital remote sensing capabilities and recent cubesat technological innovations that enable a constellation of dozens of very small spacecraft to achieve many critical, but as yet unfulfilled, monitoring and forecasting needs.

  20. The pharmacokinetic profile of tamsulosin oral controlled absorption system (OCAS((R)))

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, M. C.; Korstanje, C.; Krauwinkel, W.; Kuipers, M.


    Context: A new formulation of tamsulosin for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia (LUTS/BPH) has been developed. This formulation uses the proprietary oral controlled absorption system (OCAS(R)) technology which has the potential to better control

  1. Reconstruction and analysis of temperature and density spatial profiles inertial confinement fusion implosion cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancini, R. C.


    We discuss several methods for the extraction of temperature and density spatial profiles in inertial confinement fusion implosion cores based on the analysis of the x-ray emission from spectroscopic tracers added to the deuterium fuel. The ideas rely on (1) detailed spectral models that take into account collisional-radiative atomic kinetics, Stark broadened line shapes, and radiation transport calculations, (2) the availability of narrow-band, gated pinhole and slit x-ray images, and space-resolved line spectra of the core, and (3) several data analysis and reconstruction methods that include a multi-objective search and optimization technique based on a novel application of Pareto genetic algorithms to plasma spectroscopy. The spectroscopic analysis yields the spatial profiles of temperature and density in the core at the collapse of the implosion, and also the extent of shell material mixing into the core. Results are illustrated with data recorded in implosion experiments driven by the OMEGA and Z facilities

  2. Radiative Absorption by Light Absorbing Carbon: Uncertainty, Temporal and Spatial Variation in a Typical Polluted City in Yangtze River Delta (United States)

    Chen, D.; Zhao, Y.; Lyu, R.


    The optical properties of light absorbing carbon (LAC) in atmospheric aerosols, including their uncertainties, temporal change and spatial pattern were studied at suburban, urban and industrial sites in Nanjing, a typical polluted city in Yangtze River Delta (YRD). The optical properties of black carbon (BC) and the uncertainty in radiative absorption of BC were quantified combining cavity attenuated phase shift (CAPS) and thermal-optical techniques. It was found that applying a constant value from previous studies for multiple scattering factor could not well represent the actual absorption characteristics of aerosols in Nanjing. The relative deviation between calculated and measured absorption coefficient of BC was up to 56 ± 34%. A significant positive correlation (R2=0.95) was found between multiple scattering factor (C*) and the mixing state of EC (ECopt/EC) within the ECopt/EC ranged 0.43 0.92 (C*=1.64(ECopt/EC)+1.47, 0.43opt/ECbiogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) was higher in summer (5.8%) than that in autumn (0.5%). Brown carbon (BrC) associated with anthropogenic precursors was stronger in light absorption than that from biogenic sources, thus precursors of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) was probably the main reason for seasonal variation in MAE of BrC. At industrial site, linear positive correlation (R=0.87) was found between measured MSOC and secondary organic carbon (SOC), suggesting SOA formation was the major source of MSOC in this area. The lower MAE values of MSOC indicated that BrC generated from secondary sources might demonstrate weaker light absorbing ability than that from primary emissions. Furthermore, quantitative analysis showed that MAE BrC, 365 reduced by 0.26 m2/g when SOC increased by 1μgC/m3. This study provided insights into a more comprehensive understanding of LAC aerosol in cities with heavy particle pollution, since MSOC served as a surrogate for BrC and EC was measured with reliable and effective methods.

  3. Modification of UV absorption profile of polymer film reflectors to increase solar-weighted reflectance (United States)

    Jorgensen, Gary; Gee, Randall C.; White, David


    Provided are reflective thin film constructions including a reduced number of layers, which provides for increased solar-weighted hemispherical reflectance and durability. Reflective films include those comprising an ultraviolet absorbing abrasion resistant coating over a metal layer. Also provided are ultraviolet absorbing abrasion resistant coatings and methods for optimizing the ultraviolet absorption of an abrasion resistant coating. Reflective films disclosed herein are useful for solar reflecting, solar collecting, and solar concentrating applications, such as for the generation of electrical power.

  4. Effects of daily, high spatial resolution a priori profiles of satellite-derived NOx emissions (United States)

    Laughner, J.; Zare, A.; Cohen, R. C.


    The current generation of space-borne NO2 column observations provides a powerful method of constraining NOx emissions due to the spatial resolution and global coverage afforded by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). The greater resolution available in next generation instruments such as TROPOMI and the capabilities of geosynchronous platforms TEMPO, Sentinel-4, and GEMS will provide even greater capabilities in this regard, but we must apply lessons learned from the current generation of retrieval algorithms to make the best use of these instruments. Here, we focus on the effect of the resolution of the a priori NO2 profiles used in the retrieval algorithms. We show that for an OMI retrieval, using daily high-resolution a priori profiles results in changes in the retrieved VCDs up to 40% when compared to a retrieval using monthly average profiles at the same resolution. Further, comparing a retrieval with daily high spatial resolution a priori profiles to a more standard one, we show that emissions derived increase by 100% when using the optimized retrieval.

  5. A new method for measuring coronary artery diameters with CT spatial profile curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimamoto, Ryoichi; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Yamazaki, Tadashi; Tsuji, Taeko; Ohmoto, Yuki; Morita, Toshihiro; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Honye, Junko; Nagai, Ryozo; Akahane, Masaaki; Ohtomo, Kuni


    Purpose: Coronary artery vascular edge recognition on computed tomography (CT) angiograms is influenced by window parameters. A noninvasive method for vascular edge recognition independent of window setting with use of multi-detector row CT was contrived and its feasibility and accuracy were estimated by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). Methods: Multi-detector row CT was performed to obtain 29 CT spatial profile curves by setting a line cursor across short-axis coronary angiograms processed by multi-planar reconstruction. IVUS was also performed to determine the reference coronary diameter. IVUS diameter was fitted horizontally between two points on the upward and downward slopes of the profile curves and Hounsfield number was measured at the fitted level to test seven candidate indexes for definition of intravascular coronary diameter. The best index from the curves should show the best agreement with IVUS diameter. Results: Of the seven candidates the agreement was the best (agreement: 16 ± 11%) when the two ratios of Hounsfield number at the level of IVUS diameter over that at the peak on the profile curves were used with water and with fat as the background tissue. These edge definitions were achieved by cutting the horizontal distance by the curves at the level defined by the ratio of 0.41 for water background and 0.57 for fat background. Conclusions: Vascular edge recognition of the coronary artery with CT spatial profile curves was feasible and the contrived method could define the coronary diameter with reasonable agreement

  6. Customizing longitudinal electric field profiles using spatial dispersion in dielectric wire arrays (United States)

    Boyd, Taylor; Gratus, Jonathan; Kinsler, Paul; Letizia, Rosa


    We show how spatial dispersion can be used as a mechanism to customize the longitudinal profiles of electric fields inside modulated wire media, using a fast and remarkably accurate 1D inhomogeneous model. This customization gives fine control of the sub-wavelength behaviour of the field, as has been achieved recently for transverse fields in simpler slotted-slab media. Our scheme avoids any necessity to run a long series of computationally intensive 3D simulations of specific structures, in order to iteratively converge (or brute-force search) to an empirical `best-performance' design according to an abstract figure-of-merit. Instead, if supplied with an `ideal waveform' profile, we could now calculate how to construct it directly. Notably, and unlike most work on photonic crystal structures, our focus is specifically on the field profiles because of their potential utility, rather than other issues such as band-gap control, and/or transmission and reflection coefficients.

  7. Intercomparison of ozone profiles measurements by a differential absorption lidar system and satellite instruments at Buenos Aires, Argentina (United States)

    Pazmiño, Andrea; Godin, Sophie; Wolfram, Elian; Lavorato, Mario; Porteneuve, Jacques; Quel, Eduardo; Mégie, Gérard


    A ground-based DIfferential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system has been implemented at CEILAP (CITEFA-CONICET) laboratory (34°33'S, 58°30'W), located in the Buenos Aires industrial suburbs. The goal is to perform measurements of the stratospheric ozone layer. Systematic measurements of ozone concentration profiles from ˜18 to ˜35 km altitude are performed since early 1999. Our measurements are carried out in 5 h in average during the night and in cloudless conditions. The DIAL system allows us to calculate directly the ozone profile from the lidar backscattering radiation since it is a self-calibrating technique. The signal processing takes into account the influence of the temperature profile on the ozone cross section. The temperature data are obtained from the radiosondes measurements performed at Ezeiza International Airport (34°30'S, 58°18'W), 27 km from DIAL station. The evolution of the stratospheric ozone profile is studied for different months. Results are compared with the data obtained by different satellites SAGE II, HALOE and GOME. The comparisons between our DIAL system and the satellite measurements show an agreement better than 20% for 20-35 km altitude range.

  8. Laboratory Measurements of the 940, 1130, and 1370 nm Water Vapor Absorption Band Profiles (United States)

    Giver, Lawrence P.; Gore, Warren J.; Pilewskie, P.; Freedman, R. S.; Chackerian, C., Jr.; Varanasi, P.


    We have used the solar spectral flux radiometer (SSFR) flight instrument with the Ames 25 meter base-path White cell to obtain about 20 moderate resolution (8 nm) pure water vapor spectra from 650 to 1650 nm, with absorbing paths from 806 to 1506 meters and pressures up to 14 torr. We also obtained a set at 806 meters with several different air-broadening pressures. Model simulations were made for the 940, 1130, and 1370 nm absorption bands for some of these laboratory conditions using the Rothman, et al HITRAN-2000 linelist. This new compilation of HITRAN includes new intensity measurements for the 940 nm region. We compared simulations for our spectra of this band using HITRAN-2000 with simulations using the prior HITRAN-1996. The simulations of the 1130 nm band show about 10% less absorption than we measured. There is some evidence that the total intensity of this band is about 38% stronger than the sum of the HITRAN line intensities in this region. In our laboratory conditions the absorption depends approximately on the square root of the intensity. Thus, our measurements agree that the band is stronger than tabulated in HITRAN, but by about 20%, substantially less than the published value. Significant differences have been shown between Doppler-limited resolution spectra of the 1370 nm band obtained at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and HITRAN simulations. Additional new intensity measurements in this region are continuing to be made. We expect the simulations of our SSFR lab data of this band will show the relative importance of improving the HITRAN line intensities of this band for atmospheric measurements.

  9. Differential absorption and Raman lidar for water vapor profile measurements - A review (United States)

    Grant, William B.


    Differential absorption lidar and Raman lidar have been applied to the range-resolved measurements of water vapor density for more than 20 years. Results have been obtained using both lidar techniques that have led to improved understanding of water vapor distributions in the atmosphere. This paper reviews the theory of the measurements, including the sources of systematic and random error; the progress in lidar technology and techniques during that period, including a brief look at some of the lidar systems in development or proposed; and the steps being taken to improve such lidar systems.

  10. Application of Physiologically Based Absorption Modeling to Characterize the Pharmacokinetic Profiles of Oral Extended Release Methylphenidate Products in Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxia Yang

    Full Text Available A previously presented physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model for immediate release (IR methylphenidate (MPH was extended to characterize the pharmacokinetic behaviors of oral extended release (ER MPH formulations in adults for the first time. Information on the anatomy and physiology of the gastrointestinal (GI tract, together with the biopharmaceutical properties of MPH, was integrated into the original model, with model parameters representing hepatic metabolism and intestinal non-specific loss recalibrated against in vitro and in vivo kinetic data sets with IR MPH. A Weibull function was implemented to describe the dissolution of different ER formulations. A variety of mathematical functions can be utilized to account for the engineered release/dissolution technologies to achieve better model performance. The physiological absorption model tracked well the plasma concentration profiles in adults receiving a multilayer-release MPH formulation or Metadate CD, while some degree of discrepancy was observed between predicted and observed plasma concentration profiles for Ritalin LA and Medikinet Retard. A local sensitivity analysis demonstrated that model parameters associated with the GI tract significantly influenced model predicted plasma MPH concentrations, albeit to varying degrees, suggesting the importance of better understanding the GI tract physiology, along with the intestinal non-specific loss of MPH. The model provides a quantitative tool to predict the biphasic plasma time course data for ER MPH, helping elucidate factors responsible for the diverse plasma MPH concentration profiles following oral dosing of different ER formulations.

  11. Feasibility of tropospheric water vapor profiling using infrared heterodyne differential absorption lidar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grund, C.J.; Hardesty, R.M. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratoy, Boulder, CO (United States); Rye, B.J. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)


    The development and verification of realistic climate model parameterizations for clouds and net radiation balance and the correction of other site sensor observations for interferences due to the presence of water vapor are critically dependent on water vapor profile measurements. In this study, we develop system performance models and examine the potential of infrared differential absoroption lidar (DIAL) to determine the concentration of water vapor.

  12. Fast spatially resolved exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) distribution measurements in an internal combustion engine using absorption spectroscopy. (United States)

    Yoo, Jihyung; Prikhodko, Vitaly; Parks, James E; Perfetto, Anthony; Geckler, Sam; Partridge, William P


    Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in internal combustion engines is an effective method of reducing NOx emissions while improving efficiency. However, insufficient mixing between fresh air and exhaust gas can lead to cycle-to-cycle and cylinder-to-cylinder non-uniform charge gas mixtures of a multi-cylinder engine, which can in turn reduce engine performance and efficiency. A sensor packaged into a compact probe was designed, built and applied to measure spatiotemporal EGR distributions in the intake manifold of an operating engine. The probe promotes the development of more efficient and higher-performance engines by resolving high-speed in situ CO2 concentration at various locations in the intake manifold. The study employed mid-infrared light sources tuned to an absorption band of CO2 near 4.3 μm, an industry standard species for determining EGR fraction. The calibrated probe was used to map spatial EGR distributions in an intake manifold with high accuracy and monitor cycle-resolved cylinder-specific EGR fluctuations at a rate of up to 1 kHz.

  13. Polarization reversal, migration related shifts in human resource profiles, and spatial growth policies: a Venezuelan study. (United States)

    Brown, L A; Lawson, V A


    "This article examines polarization reversal in terms of changing human resource profiles related to migration and to national policies affecting the spatial pattern of economic growth. It first demonstrates the relationship between these elements through a review that integrates three distinct themes in earlier research. Attention then turns to an empirical study of human resource variation among eight urban districts and the rest of Venezuela treated as a single unit. This comparison utilizes age, gender, educational attainment, and occupational status variables provided by individual records of Venezuela's 1971 Population Census. A concluding section relates empirical findings to policy alternatives." excerpt

  14. Spatial profile of thermoelectric effects during Peltier pulsing in Bi and Bi/MnBi eutectic (United States)

    Silberstein, R. P.; Larson, D. J., Jr.


    The spatial profile of the thermal transients that occur during and following the current pulsing associated with Peltier Interface Demarcation during directional solidification is studied. Results for pure Bi are presented in detail and compared with corresponding results for the Bi/MnBi eutectic. Significant thermal transients occur throughout the sample that can be accounted for by the Peltier effect, the Thomson effect, and Joule heating. These effects are separated and their behavior is studied as a function of time, current density, and position with respect to the solid/liquid interface.

  15. Predicting the profile of nutrients available for absorption: from nutrient requirement to animal response and environmental impact. (United States)

    Dijkstra, J; Kebreab, E; Mills, J A N; Pellikaan, W F; López, S; Bannink, A; France, J


    Current feed evaluation systems for dairy cattle aim to match nutrient requirements with nutrient intake at pre-defined production levels. These systems were not developed to address, and are not suitable to predict, the responses to dietary changes in terms of production level and product composition, excretion of nutrients to the environment, and nutrition related disorders. The change from a requirement to a response system to meet the needs of various stakeholders requires prediction of the profile of absorbed nutrients and its subsequent utilisation for various purposes. This contribution examines the challenges to predicting the profile of nutrients available for absorption in dairy cattle and provides guidelines for further improved prediction with regard to animal production responses and environmental pollution.The profile of nutrients available for absorption comprises volatile fatty acids, long-chain fatty acids, amino acids and glucose. Thus the importance of processes in the reticulo-rumen is obvious. Much research into rumen fermentation is aimed at determination of substrate degradation rates. Quantitative knowledge on rates of passage of nutrients out of the rumen is rather limited compared with that on degradation rates, and thus should be an important theme in future research. Current systems largely ignore microbial metabolic variation, and extant mechanistic models of rumen fermentation give only limited attention to explicit representation of microbial metabolic activity. Recent molecular techniques indicate that knowledge on the presence and activity of various microbial species is far from complete. Such techniques may give a wealth of information, but to include such findings in systems predicting the nutrient profile requires close collaboration between molecular scientists and mathematical modellers on interpreting and evaluating quantitative data. Protozoal metabolism is of particular interest here given the paucity of quantitative data

  16. Visuo-spatial cueing in children with differential reading and spelling profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Banfi

    Full Text Available Dyslexia has been claimed to be causally related to deficits in visuo-spatial attention. In particular, inefficient shifting of visual attention during spatial cueing paradigms is assumed to be associated with problems in graphemic parsing during sublexical reading. The current study investigated visuo-spatial attention performance in an exogenous cueing paradigm in a large sample (N = 191 of third and fourth graders with different reading and spelling profiles (controls, isolated reading deficit, isolated spelling deficit, combined deficit in reading and spelling. Once individual variability in reaction times was taken into account by means of z-transformation, a cueing deficit (i.e. no significant difference between valid and invalid trials was found for children with combined deficits in reading and spelling. However, poor readers without spelling problems showed a cueing effect comparable to controls, but exhibited a particularly strong right-over-left advantage (position effect. Isolated poor spellers showed a significant cueing effect, but no position effect. While we replicated earlier findings of a reduced cueing effect among poor nonword readers (indicating deficits in sublexical processing, we also found a reduced cueing effect among children with particularly poor orthographic spelling (indicating deficits in lexical processing. Thus, earlier claims of a specific association with nonword reading could not be confirmed. Controlling for ADHD-symptoms reported in a parental questionnaire did not impact on the statistical analysis, indicating that cueing deficits are not caused by more general attentional limitations. Between 31 and 48% of participants in the three reading and/or spelling deficit groups as well as 32% of the control group showed reduced spatial cueing. These findings indicate a significant, but moderate association between certain aspects of visuo-spatial attention and subcomponents of written language processing, the

  17. Inner workings of thrombolites: spatial gradients of metabolic activity as revealed by metatranscriptome profiling. (United States)

    Mobberley, J M; Khodadad, C L M; Visscher, P T; Reid, R P; Hagan, P; Foster, J S


    Microbialites are sedimentary deposits formed by the metabolic interactions of microbes and their environment. These lithifying microbial communities represent one of the oldest ecosystems on Earth, yet the molecular mechanisms underlying the function of these communities are poorly understood. In this study, we used comparative metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses to characterize the spatial organization of the thrombolites of Highborne Cay, The Bahamas, an actively forming microbialite system. At midday, there were differences in gene expression throughout the spatial profile of the thrombolitic mat with a high abundance of transcripts encoding genes required for photosynthesis, nitrogen fixation and exopolymeric substance production in the upper three mm of the mat. Transcripts associated with denitrification and sulfate reduction were in low abundance throughout the depth profile, suggesting these metabolisms were less active during midday. Comparative metagenomics of the Bahamian thrombolites with other known microbialite ecosystems from across the globe revealed that, despite many shared core pathways, the thrombolites represented genetically distinct communities. This study represents the first time the metatranscriptome of living microbialite has been characterized and offers a new molecular perspective on those microbial metabolisms, and their underlying genetic pathways, that influence the mechanisms of carbonate precipitation in lithifying microbial mat ecosystems.

  18. Spatial profiling of nuclear receptor transcription patterns over the course of Drosophila development. (United States)

    Wilk, Ronit; Hu, Jack; Krause, Henry M


    Previous work has shown that many of the 18 family members of Drosophila nuclear receptor transcription factors function in a temporal hierarchy to coordinate developmental progression and growth with the rate limiting process of metabolism. To gain further insight into these interactions and processes, we have undertaken a whole-family analysis of nuclear receptor mRNA spatial expression patterns over the entire process of embryogenesis, as well as the 3rd instar wandering larva stage, by using high-resolution fluorescence in situ hybridization. Overall, the patterns of expression are remarkably consistent with previously mapped spatial activity profiles documented during the same time points, with similar hot spots and temporal profiles in endocrine and metabolically important tissues. Among the more remarkable of the findings is that the majority of mRNA expression patterns observed show striking subcellular distributions, indicating potentially critical roles in the control of protein synthesis and subsequent subcellular distributions. These patterns will serve as a useful reference for future studies on the tissue-specific roles and interactions of nuclear receptor proteins, partners, cofactors and ligands.

  19. A Cluster of CO2 Change Characteristics with GOSAT Observations for Viewing the Spatial Pattern of CO2 Emission and Absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Liu


    Full Text Available Satellite observations can be used to detect the changes of CO2 concentration at global and regional scales. With the column-averaged CO2 dry-air mole fraction (Xco2 data derived from satellite observations, the issue is how to extract and assess these changes, which are related to anthropogenic emissions and biosphere absorptions. We propose a k-means cluster analysis to extract the temporally changing features of Xco2 in the Central-Eastern Asia using the data from 2009 to 2013 obtained by Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT, and assess the effects of anthropogenic emissions and biosphere absorptions on CO2 changes combining with the data of emission and vegetation net primary production (NPP. As a result, 14 clusters, which are 14 types of Xco2 seasonal changing patterns, are obtained in the study area by using the optimal clustering parameters. These clusters are generally in agreement with the spatial pattern of underlying anthropogenic emissions and vegetation absorptions. According to correlation analysis with emission and NPP, these 14 clusters are divided into three groups: strong emission, strong absorption, and a tendency of balancing between emission and absorption. The proposed clustering approach in this study provides us with a potential way to better understand how the seasonal changes of CO2 concentration depend on underlying anthropogenic emissions and vegetation absorptions.

  20. Geographic profiling as a novel spatial tool for targeting infectious disease control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuller Douglas O


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geographic profiling is a statistical tool originally developed in criminology to prioritise large lists of suspects in cases of serial crime. Here, we use two data sets - one historical and one modern - to show how it can be used to locate the sources of infectious disease. Results First, we re-analyse data from a classic epidemiological study, the 1854 London cholera outbreak. Using 321 disease sites as input, we evaluate the locations of 13 neighbourhood water pumps. The Broad Street pump - the outbreak's source- ranks first, situated in the top 0.2% of the geoprofile. We extend our study with an analysis of reported malaria cases in Cairo, Egypt, using 139 disease case locations to rank 59 mosquitogenic local water sources, seven of which tested positive for the vector Anopheles sergentii. Geographic profiling ranks six of these seven sites in positions 1-6, all in the top 2% of the geoprofile. In both analyses the method outperformed other measures of spatial central tendency. Conclusions We suggest that geographic profiling could form a useful component of integrated control strategies relating to a wide variety of infectious diseases, since evidence-based targeting of interventions is more efficient, environmentally friendly and cost-effective than untargeted intervention.

  1. Modular injector integrated linear apparatus with motion profile optimization for spatial atomic layer deposition (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolei; Li, Yun; Lin, Jilong; Shan, Bin; Chen, Rong


    A spatial atomic layer deposition apparatus integrated with a modular injector and a linear motor has been designed. It consists of four parts: a precursor delivery manifold, a modular injector, a reaction zone, and a driving unit. An injector with multi-layer structured channels is designed to help improve precursor distribution homogeneity. During the back and forth movement of the substrate at high speed, the inertial impact caused by jerk and sudden changes of acceleration will degrade the film deposition quality. Such residual vibration caused by inertial impact will aggravate the fluctuation of the gap distance between the injector and the substrate in the deposition process. Thus, an S-curve motion profile is implemented to reduce the large inertial impact, and the maximum position error could be reduced by 84%. The microstructure of the film under the S-curve motion profile shows smaller root-mean-square and scanning voltage amplitude under an atomic force microscope, which verifies the effectiveness of the S-curve motion profile in reducing the residual vibration and stabilizing the gap distance between the injector and the substrate. The film deposition rate could reach 100 nm/min while maintaining good uniformity without obvious periodic patterns on the surface.

  2. Monte Carlo simulations of the detailed iron absorption line profiles from thermal winds in X-ray binaries (United States)

    Tomaru, Ryota; Done, Chris; Odaka, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Shin; Takahashi, Tadayuki


    Blueshifted absorption lines from highly ionized iron are seen in some high inclination X-ray binary systems, indicating the presence of an equatorial disc wind. This launch mechanism is under debate, but thermal driving should be ubiquitous. X-ray irradiation from the central source heats disc surface, forming a wind from the outer disc where the local escape velocity is lower than the sound speed. The mass-loss rate from each part of the disc is determined by the luminosity and spectral shape of the central source. We use these together with an assumed density and velocity structure of the wind to predict the column density and ionization state, then combine this with a Monte Carlo radiation transfer to predict the detailed shape of the absorption (and emission) line profiles. We test this on the persistent wind seen in the bright neutron star binary GX 13+1, with luminosity L/LEdd ˜ 0.5. We approximately include the effect of radiation pressure because of high luminosity, and compute line features. We compare these to the highest resolution data, the Chandra third-order grating spectra, which we show here for the first time. This is the first physical model for the wind in this system, and it succeeds in reproducing many of the features seen in the data, showing that the wind in GX13+1 is most likely a thermal-radiation driven wind. This approach, combined with better streamline structures derived from full radiation hydrodynamic simulations, will allow future calorimeter data to explore the detail wind structure.

  3. Monte-Carlo simulations of the detailed iron absorption line profiles from thermal winds in X-ray binaries (United States)

    Tomaru, Ryota; Done, Chris; Odaka, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Shin; Takahashi, Tadayuki


    Blue-shifted absorption lines from highly ionised iron are seen in some high inclination X-ray binary systems, indicating the presence of an equatorial disc wind. This launch mechanism is under debate, but thermal driving should be ubiquitous. X-ray irradiation from the central source heats disc surface, forming a wind from the outer disc where the local escape velocity is lower than the sound speed. The mass loss rate from each part of the disc is determined by the luminosity and spectral shape of the central source. We use these together with an assumed density and velocity structure of the wind to predict the column density and ionisation state, then combine this with a Monte-Carlo radiation transfer to predict the detailed shape of the absorption (and emission) line profiles. We test this on the persistent wind seen in the bright neutron star binary GX 13+1, with luminosity L/LEdd ˜ 0.5. We approximately include the effect of radiation pressure because of high luminosity, and compute line features. We compare these to the highest resolution data, the Chandra third order grating spectra, which we show here for the first time. This is the first physical model for the wind in this system, and it succeeds in reproducing many of the features seen in the data, showing that the wind in GX13+1 is most likely a thermal-radiation driven wind. This approach, combined with better streamline structures derived from full radiation hydrodynamic simulations, will allow future calorimeter data to explore the detail wind structure.

  4. Two-dimensional temperature and carbon dioxide concentration profiles in atmospheric laminar diffusion flames measured by mid-infrared direct absorption spectroscopy at 4.2 μm (United States)

    Liu, Xunchen; Zhang, Guoyong; Huang, Yan; Wang, Yizun; Qi, Fei


    We present a multi-line flame thermometry technique based on mid-infrared direct absorption spectroscopy of carbon dioxide at its v_3 fundamental around 4.2 μm that is particularly suitable for sooting flames. Temperature and concentration profiles of gas phase molecules in a flame are important characteristics to understand its flame structure and combustion chemistry. One of the standard laboratory flames to analyze polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and soot formation is laminar non-premixed co-flow flame, but PAH and soot introduce artifact to most non-contact optical measurements. Here we report an accurate diagnostic method of the temperature and concentration profiles of CO2 in ethylene diffusion flames by measuring its v_3 vibrational fundamental. An interband cascade laser was used to probe the R-branch bandhead at 4.2 μm, which is highly sensitive to temperature change, free from soot interference and ambient background. Calibration measurement was carried out both in a low-pressure Herriott cell and an atmospheric pressure tube furnace up to 1550 K to obtain spectroscopic parameters for high-temperature spectra. In our co-flow flame measurement, two-dimensional line-of-sight optical depth of an ethylene/N2 laminar sooting flame was recorded by dual-beam absorption scheme. The axially symmetrical attenuation coefficient profile of CO2 in the co-flow flame was reconstructed from the optical depth by Abel inversion. Spatially resolved flame temperature and in situ CO2 volume fraction profiles were derived from the calibrated CO2 spectroscopic parameters and compared with temperature profiles measured by two-line atomic fluorescence.

  5. Spatial distribution and vertical variation of arsenic in Guangdong soil profiles, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.H.; Yuan, H.X.; Hu, Y.G.; Wu, Z.F.; Zhu, L.A.; Zhu, L.; Li, F.B.; LI, D.Q.


    Total of 260 soil profiles were reported to investigate the arsenic spatial distribution and vertical variation in Guangdong province. The arsenic concentration followed an approximately lognormal distribution. The arsenic geometric mean concentration of 10.4 mg/kg is higher than that of China. An upper baseline concentration of 23.4 mg/kg was estimated for surface soils. The influence of soil properties on arsenic concentration was not important. Arsenic spatial distributions presented similar patterns that high arsenic concentration mainly located in limestone, and sandshale areas, indicating that soil arsenic distribution was dependent on bedrock properties than anthropogenic inputs. Moreover, from A- to C-horizon arsenic geometric mean concentrations had an increasing tendency of 10.4, 10.7 to 11.3 mg/kg. This vertical variation may be related to the lower soil organic matter and soil degradation and erosion. Consequently, the soil arsenic export into surface and groundwaters would reach 1040 t year -1 in the study area. - Soil arsenic movement export is a potential threat to the water quality of the study area

  6. Accuracy of spatial and temporal averaging of acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) moving boat measurements (United States)

    Gunawan, B.; Neary, V. S.; Hill, C.; Chamorro, L. P.


    Characterization of mean velocity, turbulence levels and secondary currents in rivers and tidal flow is crucial for the annual energy production estimation and structural design of MHK devices. A moving vessel deployment of an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) can obtain 3D velocity data in a large spatial region in an open channel cross-section within a significantly shorter time than other methods currently available. When using such a deployment method, the ADCP measures only a single velocity value at each bin, and therefore the data contain a significant amount of fluctuations due to turbulence velocity fluctuation and instrument's noise. Several researchers have proposed spatial and temporal averaging methodologies for ADCP moving boat (transects) data to deal with this issue. However, little is known about the accuracy of this technique. The effects of spatial and temporal averaging (STA) of ADCP transects data are investigated in the St. Anthony Falls laboratory flume. ADCP transects were obtained upstream and downstream of a 1:10 scale MHK horizontal axis turbine at various bin sizes. The MHK turbine generates a helical vortex flow with its axis parallel to the flume longitudinal direction, similar to the Prandtl's secondary flow of the first and second kind observed in open channels. The ADCP is attached to a computerized cart capable of traversing the ADCP at various speeds and recording the ADCP positions up to 1 mm accuracy. Accuracy of the STA of ADCP transects data with various bin size is assessed against ADCP fixed vessel and ADV point measurements. The accuracy of the STA of ADCP transects in representing the magnitude and direction of the helical vortex flow is also assessed.

  7. Temporal profile monitor based on electro-optic spatial decoding for low-energy bunches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang


    Full Text Available The measurement of electron bunch temporal profile is one of the key diagnostics in accelerators, especially for ultrashort bunches. The electro-optic (EO technique enables the precise longitudinal characterization of bunch electric field in a single-shot and nondestructive way, which can simultaneously obtain and analyze the time jitter between the electron bunch and the synchronized laser. An EO monitor based on spatial decoding for temporal profile measurement and timing jitter recoding has recently been demonstrated and analyzed in depth for low-energy bunches at the Tsinghua Thomson scattering X-ray source. A detailed description of the experimental setup and measurement results are presented in this paper. An EO signal as short as 82 fs (rms is observed with 100  μm gallium phosphide for a 40 MeV electron bunch, and the corresponding length is 106 fs (rms with 300  μm zinc telluride. Owing to the field-opening angle, we propose a method to eliminate the influence of energy factor for bunches with low energy, resulting in a bunch length of ∼60  fs (rms. The monitor is also successfully applied to measure time jitter with approximately 10 fs accuracy. The experiment environment is proved to be the main source of the slow drift, which is removed using feedback control. Consequently, the rms time jitter decreases from 430 fs to 320 fs.

  8. Note: Interpolation for evaluation of a two-dimensional spatial profile of plasma densities at low gas pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Se-Jin; Kim, Young-Chul; Chung, Chin-Wook


    An interpolation algorithm for the evaluation of the spatial profile of plasma densities in a cylindrical reactor was developed for low gas pressures. The algorithm is based on a collisionless two-dimensional fluid model. Contrary to the collisional case, i.e., diffusion fluid model, the fitting algorithm depends on the aspect ratio of the cylindrical reactor. The spatial density profile of the collisionless fitting algorithm is presented in two-dimensional images and compared with the results of the diffusion fluid model.

  9. Diagnostic efficacy for coronary in-stent patency with parameters defined on Hounsfield CT value-spatial profile curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Tadashi; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Shimamoto, Ryoichi; Tsuji, Taeko; Ohmoto-Sekine, Yuki; Morita, Toshihiro; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Honye, Junko; Nagai, Ryozo; Komatsu, Shuhei; Akahane, Masaaki; Ohtomo, Kuni


    Purpose: Hounsfield CT values across coronary CT angiograms constitute CT value-spatial profile curves. These CT profile curves are independent of window settings, and therefore, parameters derived from the curves can be used for objective anatomic analyses. Applicability of parameters derived from the curves to quantification of coronary in-stent patency has not yet been evaluated. Methods: Twenty-five CT value-spatial profile curves were delineated from 10 consecutive coronary stents to test correlation between the curve derived parameter (i.e., the minimum extreme value normalized by dividing by the maximum value of the curves obtained at neighboring outside of stents) and three intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) parameters. Results: Correlation coefficients between normalized minimum extreme value of CT value-spatial profile curves and three IVUS parameters (such as patent cross-sectional in-stent area, the percentage of patent cross-sectional in-stent area, and coronary artery intra-stent diameter) were 0.65 (p < 0.01), 0.44 (p < 0.05) and 0.51 (p < 0.05), respectively. Conclusions: CT parameters defined on Hounsfield CT value-spatial profile curves correlated significantly with IVUS parameters for quantitative coronary in-stent patency. A new approach with CT coronary angiography is therefore indicated for the noninvasive assessment of in-stent re-stenosis

  10. An unsupervised technique for optimal feature selection in attribute profiles for spectral-spatial classification of hyperspectral images (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Kaushal; Patra, Swarnajyoti


    Inclusion of spatial information along with spectral features play a significant role in classification of remote sensing images. Attribute profiles have already proved their ability to represent spatial information. In order to incorporate proper spatial information, multiple attributes are required and for each attribute large profiles need to be constructed by varying the filter parameter values within a wide range. Thus, the constructed profiles that represent spectral-spatial information of an hyperspectral image have huge dimension which leads to Hughes phenomenon and increases computational burden. To mitigate these problems, this work presents an unsupervised feature selection technique that selects a subset of filtered image from the constructed high dimensional multi-attribute profile which are sufficiently informative to discriminate well among classes. In this regard the proposed technique exploits genetic algorithms (GAs). The fitness function of GAs are defined in an unsupervised way with the help of mutual information. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is assessed using one-against-all support vector machine classifier. The experiments conducted on three hyperspectral data sets show the robustness of the proposed method in terms of computation time and classification accuracy.

  11. An assessment of the Living Laboratory approach for collaborative innovation and design of the Regional Spatial Profiler

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mlangeni, P


    Full Text Available The premise of this poster is to highlight the Living Lab approach adopted for the development of the Regional Spatial Profiler (RSP) component of the Integrated Planning and Development Modelling (IPDM) project. The RSP is showcased in this poster...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kumar


    Full Text Available Extended morphological profile (EMP is a good technique for extracting spectral-spatial information from the images but large size of hyperspectral images is an important concern for creating EMPs. However, with the availability of modern multi-core processors and commodity parallel processing systems like graphics processing units (GPUs at desktop level, parallel computing provides a viable option to significantly accelerate execution of such computations. In this paper, parallel implementation of an EMP based spectralspatial classification method for hyperspectral imagery is presented. The parallel implementation is done both on multi-core CPU and GPU. The impact of parallelization on speed up and classification accuracy is analyzed. For GPU, the implementation is done in compute unified device architecture (CUDA C. The experiments are carried out on two well-known hyperspectral images. It is observed from the experimental results that GPU implementation provides a speed up of about 7 times, while parallel implementation on multi-core CPU resulted in speed up of about 3 times. It is also observed that parallel implementation has no adverse impact on the classification accuracy.

  13. Achieving an Accurate Surface Profile of a Photonic Crystal for Near-Unity Solar Absorption in a Super Thin-Film Architecture. (United States)

    Kuang, Ping; Eyderman, Sergey; Hsieh, Mei-Li; Post, Anthony; John, Sajeev; Lin, Shawn-Yu


    In this work, a teepee-like photonic crystal (PC) structure on crystalline silicon (c-Si) is experimentally demonstrated, which fulfills two critical criteria in solar energy harvesting by (i) its Gaussian-type gradient-index profile for excellent antireflection and (ii) near-orthogonal energy flow and vortex-like field concentration via the parallel-to-interface refraction effect inside the structure for enhanced light trapping. For the PC structure on 500-μm-thick c-Si, the average reflection is only ∼0.7% for λ = 400-1000 nm. For the same structure on a much thinner c-Si ( t = 10 μm), the absorption is near unity (A ∼ 99%) for visible wavelengths, while the absorption in the weakly absorbing range (λ ∼ 1000 nm) is significantly increased to 79%, comparing to only 6% absorption for a 10-μm-thick planar c-Si. In addition, the average absorption (∼94.7%) of the PC structure on 10 μm c-Si for λ = 400-1000 nm is only ∼3.8% less than the average absorption (∼98.5%) of the PC structure on 500 μm c-Si, while the equivalent silicon solid content is reduced by 50 times. Furthermore, the angular dependence measurements show that the high absorption is sustained over a wide angle range (θinc = 0-60°) for teepee-like PC structure on both 500 and 10-μm-thick c-Si.

  14. Generation of dual-wavelength, synchronized, tunable, high energy, femtosecond laser pulses with nearly perfect gaussian spatial profile (United States)

    Wang, J.-K.; Siegal, Y.; Lü, C.; Mazur, E.


    We use self-phase modulation in a single-mode fiber to produce broadband femtosecond laser pulses. Subsequent amplification through two Bethune cells yields high-energy, tunable, pulses synchronized with the output of an amplified colliding-pulse-modelocked (CPM) laser. We routinely obtain tunable 200 μJ pulses of 42 fs (fwhm) duration with a nearly perfect gaussian spatial profile. Although self-phase modulation in a single-mode fiber is widely used in femtosecond laser systems, amplification of a fiber-generated supercontinuum in a Bethune cell amplifier is a new feature which maintains the high-quality spatial profile while providing high gain. This laser system is particularly well suited for high energy dual-wavelength pump=probe experiments and time-resolved four-wave mixing spectroscopy.

  15. DMD-based software-configurable spatially-offset Raman spectroscopy for spectral depth-profiling of optically turbid samples. (United States)

    Liao, Zhiyu; Sinjab, Faris; Gibson, Graham; Padgett, Miles; Notingher, Ioan


    Spectral depth-profiling of optically turbid samples is of high interest to a broad range of applications. We present a method for measuring spatially-offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS) over a range of length scales by incorporating a digital micro-mirror device (DMD) into a sample-conjugate plane in the detection optical path. The DMD can be arbitrarily programmed to collect/reject light at spatial positions in the 2D sample-conjugate plane, allowing spatially offset Raman measurements. We demonstrate several detection geometries, including annular and simultaneous multi-offset modalities, for both macro- and micro-SORS measurements, all on the same instrument. Compared to other SORS modalities, DMD-based SORS provides more flexibility with only minimal additional experimental complexity for subsurface Raman collection.

  16. Progress towards an Autonomous Field Deployable Diode-Laser-Based Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL for Profiling Water Vapor in the Lower Troposphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin S. Repasky


    Full Text Available A laser transmitter has been developed and incorporated into a micro-pulse differential absorption lidar (DIAL for water vapor profiling in the lower troposphere as an important step towards long-term autonomous field operation. The laser transmitter utilizes two distributed Bragg reflector (DBR diode lasers to injection seed a pulsed tapered semiconductor optical amplifier (TSOA, and is capable of producing up to 10 mJ of pulse energy with a 1 ms pulse duration and a 10 kHz pulse repetition frequency. The on-line wavelength of the laser transmitter can operate anywhere along the water vapor absorption feature centered at 828.187 nm (in vacuum depending on the prevailing atmospheric conditions, while the off-line wavelength operates at 828.287 nm. This laser transmitter has been incorporated into a DIAL instrument utilizing a 35.6 cm Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope and fiber coupled avalanche photodiode (APD operating in the photon counting mode. The performance of the DIAL instrument was demonstrated over a ten-day observation period. During this observation period, data from radiosondes were used to retrieve water vapor number density profiles for comparisons with the number density profiles retrieved from the DIAL data.

  17. Towards a preservation framework for Spatial Data Infrastructures: a metadata profile approach (United States)

    Shaon, Arif; Woolf, Andrew


    , to apply existing widely adopted preservation mechanisms and standards, such as the Open Archival Information System (OAIS) reference model (a wide adopted ISO standard for digital preservation) to the long-term preservation of geospatial data. And Web services technologies enable harmonized and interoperable accessibility of data, which may be useful for developing effective long-term preservation approaches for geospatial data based on the existing approaches. This talk discusses the applicability of the OAIS reference model to develop a preservation-aware Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) and presents a preservation-profile of ISO 19115 metadata profile for supporting such a SDI. Notably, the work presented may be seen as a preliminary effort for the European Space Agency (ESA) Long-term Digital Preservation (LTDP) initiative that aims to formulate a coordinated and coherent approach to the long-term preservation of the EO space data archives across different member states of the European Union.

  18. Infrared heterodyne spectroscopy of astronomical and laboratory sources at 8.5 micron. [absorption line profiles of nitrogen oxide and black body emission from Moon and Mars (United States)

    Mumma, M.; Kostiuk, T.; Cohen, S.; Buhl, D.; Vonthuna, P. C.


    The first infrared heterodyne spectrometer using tuneable semiconductor (PbSe) diode lasers has been constructed and was used near 8.5 micron to measure absorption line profiles of N2O in the laboratory and black body emission from the Moon and from Mars. Spectral information was recorded over a 200 MHz bandwidth using an 8-channel filter bank. The resolution was 25 MHz and the minimum detectable (black body) power was 1 x 10 to the minus 16th power watts for 8 minutes of integration. The results demonstrate the usefulness of heterodyne spectroscopy for the study of remote and local sources in the infrared.

  19. Bessel spatial profile of a soft x-ray laser beam

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tissandier, F.; Sebban, S.; Ribière, M.; Gautier, J.; Zeitoun, Ph.; Lambert, G.; Goddet, J.P.; Burgy, F.; Valentin, C.; Rousse, A.; Nejdl, Jaroslav; Mocek, Tomáš; Maynard, G.


    Roč. 97, č. 23 (2010), 231106/1-231106/3 ISSN 0003-6951 Grant - others:AVČR(CZ) M100100911 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : soft x-ray laser * beam transverse profile * far-field profile measurment * high-order harmonic Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 3.820, year: 2010

  20. Fano lineshapes of 'Peak-tracking chip' spatial profiles analyzed with correlation analysis for bioarray imaging and refractive index sensing

    KAUST Repository

    Bougot-Robin, K.


    The asymmetric Fano resonance lineshapes, resulting from interference between background and a resonant scattering, is archetypal in resonant waveguide grating (RWG) reflectivity. Resonant profile shift resulting from a change of refractive index (from fluid medium or biomolecules at the chip surface) is classically used to perform label-free sensing. Lineshapes are sometimes sampled at discretized “detuning” values to relax instrumental demands, the highest reflectivity element giving a coarse resonance estimate. A finer extraction, needed to increase sensor sensitivity, can be obtained using a correlation approach, correlating the sensed signal to a zero-shifted reference signal. Fabrication process is presented leading to discrete Fano profiles. Our findings are illustrated with resonance profiles from silicon nitride RWGs operated at visible wavelengths. We recently demonstrated that direct imaging multi-assay RWGs sensing may be rendered more reliable using “chirped” RWG chips, by varying a RWG structure parameter. Then, the spatial reflectivity profiles of tracks composed of RWGs units with slowly varying filling factor (thus slowly varying resonance condition) are measured under monochromatic conditions. Extracting the resonance location using spatial Fano profiles allows multiplex refractive index based sensing. Discretization and sensitivity are discussed both through simulation and experiment for different filling factor variation, here Δf=0.0222 and Δf=0.0089. This scheme based on a “Peak-tracking chip” demonstrates a new technique for bioarray imaging using a simpler set-up that maintains high performance with cheap lenses, with down to Δn=2×10-5 RIU sensitivity for the highest sampling of Fano lineshapes. © (2013) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  1. 24-hour human urine and serum profiles of bisphenol A: Evidence against sublingual absorption following ingestion in soup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teeguarden, Justin G.; Twaddle, Nathan C.; Churchwell, Mona I.; Yang, Xiaoxia; Fisher, Jeffrey W.; Seryak, Liesel M.; Doerge, Daniel R.


    Extensive first-pass metabolism of ingested bisphenol A (BPA) in the gastro-intestinal tract and liver restricts blood concentrations of bioactive BPA to < 1% of total BPA in humans and non-human primates. Absorption of ingested BPA through non-metabolizing tissues of the oral cavity, recently demonstrated in dogs, could lead to the higher serum BPA concentrations reported in some human biomonitoring studies. We hypothesized that the extensive interaction with the oral mucosa by a liquid matrix, like soup, relative to solid food or capsules, might enhance absorption through non-metabolizing oral cavity tissues in humans, producing higher bioavailability and higher serum BPA concentrations. Concurrent serum and urine concentrations of d6-BPA, and its glucuronide and sulfate conjugates, were measured over a 24 hour period in 10 adult male volunteers following ingestion of 30 μg d6-BPA/kg body weight in soup. Absorption of d6-BPA was rapid (t 1/2 = 0.45 h) and elimination of the administered dose was complete 24 h post-ingestion, evidence against any tissue depot for BPA. The maximum serum d6-BPA concentration was 0.43 nM at 1.6 h after administration and represented < 0.3% of total d6-BPA. Pharmacokinetic parameters, pharmacokinetic model simulations, and the significantly faster appearance half-life of d6-BPA-glucuronide compared to d6-BPA (0.29 h vs 0.45 h) were evidence against meaningful absorption of BPA in humans through any non-metabolizing tissue (< 1%). This study confirms that typical exposure to BPA in food produces picomolar to subpicomolar serum BPA concentrations in humans, not nM concentrations reported in some biomonitoring studies.

  2. Vitamin B 12 absorption: correction of intestinal retention by whole-body profile activity of vitamin B 12-58 cobalt and by double tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, M.R. Bencke; Gheldof, R.; Paternot, L. van Tricht; Delmotte, E.; Verschaeren, A.; Martin, P.; Verhas, M.; Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ


    Full text. Intestinal retention could give false negative results in determining the whole-body retention of vitamin B 12 absorption (WBC B12-58Co). After having validate the WBC B12-58Co, taking the Schilling test as reference, we have studied the feasibility to evaluate the intestinal contamination by measurement of the profile activity distribution of vitamin B12-58Co and by a double tracer technique (WBC B12-58Co/ WBC 51 Cr Cl3). Methodology: twenty five patients were studied for the setting up of the new methodology. For eleven of them the WBC B12-58 Co retention was measured at the 7th day after the oral administration of 37KBq of B12-58Co using a four detectors whole body counter. One week later, a Schilling test was performed after the oral absorption of 18,5 KBq B12-57Co. Results were expressed as %ID. In these patients, one single peak of hepatic activity was observed on the whole body profile and thus no further intestinal correction was needed. In order to evaluate the intestinal contribution, we made in nine other patients the profile of the whole body distribution of activity at 1 h, 1 week and two weeks after the oral administration of B12-58Co. For five other patients a double tracer technique was used for intestinal correction after the simultaneous oral administration of 37 KBq of B12-58Co and 1,85 MBq of 51 Cr Cl3. The B12-58Co absorption was evaluated after intestinal correction based on subtraction of the 51Cr Cl3 contribution after the formula: B12-58Co(%ID) = WBC B12-58Co - WBC 51 Cr Cl3/1 - WBC 51 Cr Cl3. Results: the correlation with the Schilling test was found excellent: r=0,94 (n=11). The normality for WBC retention (n=7) was define as 53,2 +-12,4% ID (SD). For nine patients studied at the 7th day, the presence of a double peak (hepatic and intestinal peaks) allowed the subtraction by exponential extrapolation; the correction range was 4,4% to 37,2%. With the exception of one observation there was no difference in the measure of vitamin

  3. Temporal and spatial evolution of dynamic support from river profiles: A framework for Madagascar (United States)

    Roberts, Gareth G.; Paul, Jonathan D.; White, Nicky; Winterbourne, Jeffrey


    We present a strategy for calculating uplift rates as a function of space and time from large sets of longitudinal river profiles. This strategy assumes that the shape of a river profile is controlled by the history of uplift rate and moderated by the erosional process. We assume that upstream drainage area is invariant. The algorithm was tested on a set of ˜100 river profiles which were extracted from a digital elevation model of Madagascar. This set of profiles was simultaneously inverted to obtain uplift rate as a smooth function of space and time. The fit between observed and calculated profiles is excellent and suggests that Madagascar was uplifted by 1-2 km at rates of 0.2-0.4 mm/yr during the last ˜15 Myrs. The location of Madagascar suggests that its topographic elevation is maintained by convective circulation of the sub-lithospheric mantle. Residual depth anomalies of oceanic fragments encompassing the island show that the island straddles a dynamic topographic gradient which generates asymmetric Neogene uplift. Volcanism, warped peneplains and uplifted marine terraces corroborate the existence of youthful uplift. We suggest that sets of longitudinal river profiles contain useful information about the history of regional uplift which can be extracted by inverse modeling and calibrated by independent geologic observations.

  4. Thermal conductivity profile determination in proton-irradiated ZrC by spatial and frequency scanning thermal wave methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, C. [GRESPI, Multiscale Thermophysics Lab., Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne URCA, Moulin de la Housse BP 1039, Reims 51687 (France); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322 (United States); Chirtoc, M.; Horny, N.; Antoniow, J. S.; Pron, H. [GRESPI, Multiscale Thermophysics Lab., Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne URCA, Moulin de la Housse BP 1039, Reims 51687 (France); Ban, H. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322 (United States)


    Using complementary thermal wave methods, the irradiation damaged region of zirconium carbide (ZrC) is characterized by quantifiably profiling the thermophysical property degradation. The ZrC sample was irradiated by a 2.6 MeV proton beam at 600 °C to a dose of 1.75 displacements per atom. Spatial scanning techniques including scanning thermal microscopy (SThM), lock-in infrared thermography (lock-in IRT), and photothermal radiometry (PTR) were used to directly map the in-depth profile of thermal conductivity on a cross section of the ZrC sample. The advantages and limitations of each system are discussed and compared, finding consistent results from all techniques. SThM provides the best resolution finding a very uniform thermal conductivity envelope in the damaged region measuring ∼52 ± 2 μm deep. Frequency-based scanning PTR provides quantification of the thermal parameters of the sample using the SThM measured profile to provide validation of a heating model. Measured irradiated and virgin thermal conductivities are found to be 11.9 ± 0.5 W m{sup −1} K{sup −1} and 26.7 ±1 W m{sup −1} K{sup −1}, respectively. A thermal resistance evidenced in the frequency spectra of the PTR results was calculated to be (1.58 ± 0.1) × 10{sup −6} m{sup 2} K W{sup −1}. The measured thermal conductivity values compare well with the thermal conductivity extracted from the SThM calibrated signal and the spatially scanned PTR. Combined spatial and frequency scanning techniques are shown to provide a valuable, complementary combination for thermal property characterization of proton-irradiated ZrC. Such methodology could be useful for other studies of ion-irradiated materials.

  5. Sub-nA spatially resolved conductivity profiling of surface and interface defects in ceria films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Farrow


    Full Text Available Spatial variability of conductivity in ceria is explored using scanning probe microscopy with galvanostatic control. Ionically blocking electrodes are used to probe the conductivity under opposite polarities to reveal possible differences in the defect structure across a thin film of CeO2. Data suggest the existence of a large spatial inhomogeneity that could give rise to constant phase elements during standard electrochemical characterization, potentially affecting the overall conductivity of films on the macroscale. The approach discussed here can also be utilized for other mixed ionic electronic conductor systems including memristors and electroresistors, as well as physical systems such as ferroelectric tunneling barriers.

  6. Property profiling of biosimilar mucus in a novel mucus-containing in vitro model for assessment of intestinal drug absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Marie; Baldursdóttir, Stefania G; Müllertz, Anette


    to establish a more representative in vitro model for the intestinal mucosa. The rheological profile of a biosimilar mucus mixture composed of purified gastric mucin, lipids and protein in buffer was optimized by supplementing with an anionic polymer to display viscoelastic properties and a microstructure...

  7. A multivariate geostatistical approach to spatial representation of groundwater contamination using hydrochemistry and microbial community profiles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouser, P.J.; Rizzo, D.M.; Roling, W.F.M.; van Breukelen, B.M.


    Managers of landfill sites are faced with enormous challenges when attempting to detect and delineate leachate plumes with a limited number of monitoring wells, assess spatial and temporal trends for hundreds of contaminants, and design long-term monitoring (LTM) strategies. Subsurface microbial

  8. Dietary hemoglobin rescues young piglets from severe iron deficiency anemia: Duodenal expression profile of genes involved in heme iron absorption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Staroń

    Full Text Available Heme is an efficient source of iron in the diet, and heme preparations are used to prevent and cure iron deficiency anemia in humans and animals. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for heme absorption remain only partially characterized. Here, we employed young iron-deficient piglets as a convenient animal model to determine the efficacy of oral heme iron supplementation and investigate the pathways of heme iron absorption. The use of bovine hemoglobin as a dietary source of heme iron was found to efficiently counteract the development of iron deficiency anemia in piglets, although it did not fully rebalance their iron status. Our results revealed a concerted increase in the expression of genes responsible for apical and basolateral heme transport in the duodenum of piglets fed a heme-enriched diet. In these animals the catalytic activity of heme oxygenase 1 contributed to the release of elemental iron from the protoporphyrin ring of heme within enterocytes, which may then be transported by the strongly expressed ferroportin across the basolateral membrane to the circulation. We hypothesize that the well-recognized high bioavailability of heme iron may depend on a split pathway mediating the transport of heme-derived elemental iron and intact heme from the interior of duodenal enterocytes to the bloodstream.

  9. Spatial and temporal beam profiles for the LHC using synchrotron light (United States)

    Jeff, A.; Bart Pedersen, S.; Boccardi, A.; Bravin, E.; Fisher, A. S.; Guerrero Ollacarizqueta, A.; Lefevre, T.; Rabiller, A.; Welsch, C. P.


    Synchrotron radiation is emitted whenever a beam of charged particles passes though a magnetic field. The power emitted is strongly dependent on the relativistic Lorentz factor of the particles, which itself is proportional to the beam energy and inversely proportional to the particle rest mass. Thus, synchrotron radiation is usually associated with electron accelerators, which are commonly used as light sources. However the largest proton machines reach sufficiently high energies to make synchrotron light useful for diagnostic purposes. The Large Hadron Collider at CERN will accelerate protons up to an energy of 7TeV. An optical arrangement has been made which focuses synchrotron light from two LHC magnets to image the cross-section of the beam. It is also planned to use this setup to produce a longitudinal profile of the beam by use of fast Single Photon Counting. This is complicated by the bunched nature of the beam which needs to be measured with a very large dynamic range. In this contribution we present early experimental data of the transverse LHC beam profile together with a scheme for measuring the longitudinal profile with a time resolution of 50 ps. It includes the use of a gating regime to increase the dynamic range of the photon counter and a three-stage correction algorithm to compensate for the detector's deadtime, afterpulsing and pile-up effects.

  10. Seasonal and Spatial Changes of Microorganism Communities in Constructed Wetlands: A Community Level Physiological Profiling Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent Chazarenc


    Full Text Available In constructed wetlands, microorganisms associated with plants are assumed to play a major role. A one-year survey was conducted in five vertical flow constructed wetland systems that had been operating from 2 months to 8 years in small French villages (100–500 People Equivalent to provide a better understanding of microbiological activity. The objective of our study was to highlight the most important factor generating variability between microorganisms communities compared to treatment performances. Results of community level physiological profiling using Biolog Ecoplates were analyzed using principal component analysis. The greatest microbial activity was observed in the oldest wetland during summer. Profiles of fed and rest bed were differentiated by the nature of the main carbon source metabolized. Whereas carbohydrates and carboxylic acids appeared to be better assimilated with fed beds, it seemed that phosphate compounds as well as amines allowed better growth in the plates inoculated with samples of rest beds. In all fed beds, the most important parameters affecting the diversity were the season and the age of the wetlands. There were only slight profile differences between surface and subsurface samples and between the first and second stage samples.

  11. Temporal and spatial morphological variations along a cross-shore intertidal profile, Jiangsu, China (United States)

    Gong, Zheng; Jin, Chuang; Zhang, Changkuan; Zhou, Zeng; Zhang, Qian; Li, Huan


    Fifteen monthly field surveys were conducted from September 2012 to November 2013 at ten representative stations along a cross-shore profile, covering the entire tidal flat. Results indicate that tidal currents significantly affect bed level variations over bare flats, while subsurface processes (e.g., soil subsidence and expansion) are likely to play an important role in changing the bed level of the upper intertidal flat where salt marshes are present. The cross-shore profile shows a clear double-convex shape, and different geomorphic zones display distinctive variation. Above the mean high water level (MHWL), the bed level is generally stable. The region around the MHWL, where the upper convex point is present, is a location of high sedimentation due to the weaker hydrodynamic conditions and the settling and scour lag effects, it keeps growing with the increase of inundation frequency. A concave point occurs in the middle part of the intertidal flat, showing considerable erosion. Near the mean low water level (MLWL), the lower convex point is elevated due to the long-shore tidal current and associated sediment transport (the flood dominated transport during summer exceeds the ebb dominated transport during winter, hence the net effect favors sedimentation). Further seawards, the area below the MLWL is strongly eroded. The cross-shore profile follows a ;stable-accretional-erosional-accretional-erosional; sequence. Overall, the measurements indicate that the interplay among vegetation, hydrodynamics and sediment transport is critical in shaping the cross-shore morphology of the intertidal flats along the Jiangsu coast of China.

  12. Spatial and Temporal Profiling of Griseofulvin Production in Xylaria cubensis Using Mass Spectrometry Mapping (United States)

    Sica, Vincent P.; Rees, Evan R.; Tchegnon, Edem; Bardsley, Robert H.; Raja, Huzefa A.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.


    A large portion of natural products research revolves around the discovery of new, bioactive chemical entities; however, studies to probe the biological purpose of such secondary metabolites for the host organism are often limited. Mass spectrometry mapping of secondary metabolite biosynthesis in situ can be used to probe a series of ecological questions about fungi that may be lost through traditional natural products chemistry extraction protocols. A griseofulvin-producing fungal culture of the Xylariaceae family, isolated as an endophyte of the tree Asimina triloba, was analyzed through a series of spatial and temporal mapping experiments. This fungus produced unique fungal characteristics, such as guttates and stroma, both of which were explored spatially. The distribution of griseofulvin on this culture in isolation was compared to its dispersal when grown in co-culture with a competing Penicillium species via a droplet–based surface sampling system. The fungistatic properties of griseofulvin were visualized, including the consequences for biosynthesis of polyhydroxyanthraquinones in a rival culture. PMID:27199902

  13. Spatial and temporal profiling of griseofulvin production in Xylaria cubensis using mass spectrometry mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent eSica


    Full Text Available A large portion of natural products research revolves around the discovery of new, bioactive chemical entities; however, studies to probe the biological purpose of such secondary metabolites for the host organism are often limited. Mass spectrometry mapping of secondary metabolite biosynthesis in situ can be used to probe a series of ecological questions about fungi that may be lost through traditional natural products chemistry extraction protocols. A griseofulvin-producing fungal culture of the Xylariaceae family, isolated as an endophyte of the tree Asimina triloba, was analyzed through a series of spatial and temporal mapping experiments. This fungus produced unique fungal characteristics, such as guttates and stroma, both of which were explored spatially. The distribution of griseofulvin on this culture in isolation was compared to its dispersal when grown in co-culture with a competing Penicillium species via a droplet–based surface sampling system. The fungistatic properties of griseofulvin were visualized, including the consequences for biosynthesis of polyhydroxyanthraquinones in a rival culture.

  14. Force production and spatial arm coordination profile in arm crawl swimming in a fixed position. (United States)

    Karsai, István; Garrido, N; Louro, H; Leitão, L; Magyar, F; Alves, F; Silva, A


    This study analyzed the relationship between mechanical force production and spatial arm position of the swimming movement for each side of the swimmer. Eight internationally recognized male swimmers performed fix positioned arm only swimming with a dynamometer synchronized with underwater cameras. The upper arm positions (α in side, β in frontal view) and the elbow angles (γ in 3D) were determined at the moment where the force production reached the peak (Fmax) and the maximal values of rate of force development (RFDmax). RFDmax and α values showed significant differences between the sides (Pforce (ImpF50%) was calculated. The defined parameters as the mechanical and spatial predictor system were used for the model. The results of the MRA showed that the predictor system yielded the model structure of the variables that explain the criterion variables for ImpF50% by the dominant (P=0.007) and by the nondominant side (P=0.001), respectively. The alternate contribution of the variables to the models can objectively express the performance difference between the two sides of the swimmer.

  15. Direct measurement of local dissolved oxygen concentration spatial profiles in a cell culture environment. (United States)

    Kagawa, Yuki; Matsuura, Katsuhisa; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Tsuneda, Satoshi


    Controlling local dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) in media is critical for cell or tissue cultures. Various biomaterials and culture methods have been developed to modulate DO. Direct measurement of local DO in cultures has not been validated as a method to test DO modulation. In the present study we developed a DO measurement system equipped with a Clark-type oxygen microelectrode manipulated with 1 μm precision in three-dimensional space to explore potential applications for tissue engineering. By determining the microelectrode tip position precisely against the bottom plane of culture dishes with rat or human cardiac cells in static monolayer culture, we successfully obtained spatial distributions of DO in the medium. Theoretical quantitative predictions fit the obtained data well. Based on analyses of the variance between samples, we found the data reflected "local" oxygen consumption in the vicinity of the microelectrode and the detection of temporal changes in oxygen consumption rates of cultured cells was limited by the diffusion rate of oxygen in the medium. This oxygen measuring system monitors local oxygen consumption and production with high spatial resolution, and can potentially be used with recently developed oxygen modulating biomaterials to design microenvironments and non-invasively monitor local DO dynamics during culture. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Spatial Mapping and Profiling of Metabolite Distributions during Germination1[OPEN (United States)

    Feenstra, Adam D.; Song, Zhihong; Korte, Andrew R.


    Germination is a highly complex process by which seeds begin to develop and establish themselves as viable organisms. In this study, we utilize a combination of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography-fluorescence, and mass spectrometry imaging approaches to profile and visualize the metabolic distributions of germinating seeds from two different inbreds of maize (Zea mays) seeds, B73 and Mo17. Gas chromatography and liquid chromatography analyses demonstrate that the two inbreds are highly differentiated in their metabolite profiles throughout the course of germination, especially with regard to amino acids, sugar alcohols, and small organic acids. Crude dissection of the seed followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of polar metabolites also revealed that many compounds were highly sequestered among the various seed tissue types. To further localize compounds, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging was utilized to visualize compounds in fine detail in their native environments over the course of germination. Most notably, the fatty acyl chain-dependent differential localization of phospholipids and triacylglycerols was observed within the embryo and radicle, showing correlation with the heterogeneous distribution of fatty acids. Other interesting observations include unusual localization of ceramides on the endosperm/scutellum boundary and subcellular localization of ferulate in the aleurone. PMID:28634228

  17. Study of the roles of chemical modifiers in determining boron using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and optimization of the temperature profile during atomization. (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yuhei; Shirasaki, Toshihiro; Yonetani, Akira; Imai, Shoji


    The measurement conditions for determining boron using graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS) were investigated. Differences in the boron absorbance profiles were found using three different commercially available GF-AAS instruments when the graphite atomizers in them were not tuned. The boron absorbances found with and without adjusting the graphite atomizers suggested that achieving an adequate absorbance for the determination of boron requires a sharp temperature profile that overshoots the target temperature during the atomization process. Chemical modifiers that could improve the boron absorbance without the need for using coating agents were tested. Calcium carbonate improved the boron absorbance but did not suppress variability in the peak height. Improvement of boron absorbance was comparatively less using iron nitrate or copper nitrate than using calcium carbonate, but variability in the peak height was clearly suppressed using iron nitrate or copper nitrate. The limit of detection was 0.0026 mg L(-1) when iron nitrate was used. It appears that iron nitrate is a useful new chemical modifier for the quick and simple determination of boron using GF-AAS.

  18. Image-based and eye-based influences on binocular rivalry have similar spatial profiles. (United States)

    Stuit, Sjoerd; Brascamp, Jan; Barendregt, Maurits; van der Smagt, Maarten; Pas, Susan Te


    Binocular rivalry occurs when the images presented to the two eyes do not match. Instead of fusing into a stable percept, perception during rivalry alternates between images over time. However, during rivalry, perception can also resemble a patchwork of parts of both eyes' images. Such integration of image parts across eyes is relatively rare compared to integration of image parts presented to the same eye, suggesting that integration across space during rivalry is primarily rooted at the early monocular level of processing. However, recent evidence suggests that rivalry, and potentially also integration across space during rivalry, has its basis at multiple stages of processing, including stages at which monocular signals are minimal. As such, integration and competition at these later stages would be driven more by image-based factors, such as continuity and color than by eye of origin. Because "higher" visual areas also have increasingly larger receptive fields, image-based integration may occur over a larger spatial extent compared to monocular, eye-based integration. We therefore used rival images containing two separate image parts and varied the interimage-part distance (IIPD) to assess the relative contributions of eye of origin and image features to integration across space at increasing IIPDs. Our hypothesis was that the balance between these contributions would shift toward image features as IIPD increased. Instead, results show that the relative contributions of both factors to grouping remain constant as a function of IIPD. This indicates that image-based grouping is subject to similar spatial constraints as monocular, eye-based grouping, suggesting both kinds of grouping rely on similarly sized receptive fields.

  19. Profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Profiles is a synthetic overview of more than 100 national energy markets in the world, providing insightful facts and key energy statistics. A Profile is structured around 6 main items and completed by key statistics: Ministries, public agencies, energy policy are concerned; main companies in the oil, gas, electricity and coal sectors, status, shareholders; reserve, production, imports and exports, electricity and refining capacities; deregulation of prices, subsidies, taxes; consumption trends by sector, energy market shares; main energy projects, production and consumption prospects. Statistical Profiles are present in about 3 pages the main data and indicators on oil, gas, coal and electricity. (A.L.B.)

  20. Social and Spatial Continuities and Differentiations among Portuguese Ciganos: Regional Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendes Maria Manuela


    Full Text Available The coexistence of people and societies marked by ethnic, social, cultural, religious and linguistic diversity is a subject that still generates controversies in contemporary societies. The “Ciganos’ situation” is an unavoidable issue that crosses the boundaries of different European countries, which leads to controversy and ambivalence in the so-called multicultural and/or intercultural societies characterised by the principle of universalism. In Portugal, despite the social and economic transformations that have occurred, the problems of exclusion and poverty among Ciganos persist. They are still considered the poorest ethnic group, with the worst housing conditions, lest schooling and the main target of racism and discrimination. The Portuguese Ciganos are not a homogeneous community. The diversity and plurality are not always easy to grasp by the glare generated by the adoption of interpretive perspectives that are reductively linear and deterministic of the Portuguese Ciganos. For the purpose of outlining a national picture of Portuguese Ciganos, a national study was developed that combines both qualitative and quantitative methodological approaches. The central goal of this article is to present the main results obtained through a questionnaire survey carried out to Ciganos persons and to discuss the social and spatial continuities and differentiations among Ciganos in Portugal.

  1. Unperturbed, high spatial resolution measurement of Radon-222 in soil-gas depth profile. (United States)

    Mitev, K; Dutsov, Ch; Georgiev, S; Boshkova, T; Pressyanov, D


    This work presents a method for measuring the depth distribution of 222 Rn activity in soil gas. The method is based on the capacity of polycarbonates to absorb 222 Rn and on the possibility of performing sensitive measurements of 222 Rn absorbed by the polycarbonates via liquid scintillation counting (LSC). The method is the following: cylindrical holes are drilled along a metal rod and Makrofol ® N polycarbonate foils enclosed in polyethylene envelopes are placed in each hole. The rod is driven into the soil and kept for a certain time. As long as the rod is in the soil, the polycarbonate foils are exposed to the 222 Rn concentration at their depth. At the end of the exposure the rod is pulled out and the foils are transferred to liquid scintillation (LS) vials filled with liquid scintillator. The 222 Rn absorbed in the foils is then measured with a LS analyzer. The rod with the polycarbonate foils acts as a passive probe which senses the 222 Rn concentration at different depths beneath the ground surface. The achievable minimum detectable 222 Rn activity concentration with the equipment and conditions used in this study is around 12.5 kBq/m 3 . It can easily be lowered below 1 kBq/m 3 if larger foils and low-background LS analyzers are used. Since the method does not require air sampling the depth distribution of 222 Rn in the soil is unperturbed by the sampling. The spatial distribution and the maximum measurement depth are set by the distance between the holes and the depth to which the rod can be fixed into the ground. Results from in situ applications of the method in terrains with high 222 Rn in soil-gas are reported, which demonstrate the feasibility and the usefulness of the proposed approach. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Spatial profiles of potential, ion concentration and flux in short unipolar and bipolar nanopores. (United States)

    Tajparast, Mohammad; Virdi, Gautam; Glavinović, Mladen I


    During release of vesicular content the resistance of the fusion pore sometimes changes rapidly and repeatedly. However, it is not clear why the pore 'flickers'. Engineered nanopores often rectify, but how different factors influence the rectification requires clarification. To better understand the ionic 'causes' of pore conductivity and its changes we simulated ion transport through a short nanopore using Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations, coupling it to the transport of water using Navier-Stokes equations. We extracted the potential, concentration, and ion flux profiles. In uniformly charged nanopores the voltage bias determines which counter-ion flux dominates, and it is carried by the counter-ions of the highest concentration. In unipolar nanopores this simple rule breaks down. The dominant counter-ion in the charged half is from the adjacent compartment, but the bias determines what counter-ion flux is dominant--the same ion (regular bias), or a different and smaller (reverse bias), and this difference determines the level of rectification. In bipolar nanopores the dominant counter-ions in each half are from the adjacent compartments, and the total ion concentration dips in the middle near the wall. With regular bias the total ion concentration peaks in the pore center; the ions that carry the current through the nanopore start as counter-ions and their fluxes are large. With reverse bias the total concentration dips near the wall and in the center, both dominant ion fluxes through the nanopore start as co-ions and are very small, whereas those starting as counter-ions do not go through. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The expression profile of phosphatidylinositol in high spatial resolution imaging mass spectrometry as a potential biomarker for prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Goto

    Full Text Available High-resolution matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry (HR-MALDI-IMS is an emerging application for the comprehensive and detailed analysis of the spatial distribution of ionized molecules in situ on tissue slides. HR-MALDI-IMS in negative mode in a mass range of m/z 500-1000 was performed on optimal cutting temperature (OCT compound-embedded human prostate tissue samples obtained from patients with prostate cancer at the time of radical prostatectomy. HR-MALDI-IMS analysis of the 14 samples in the discovery set identified 26 molecules as highly expressed in the prostate. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS showed that these molecules included 14 phosphatidylinositols (PIs, 3 phosphatidylethanolamines (PEs and 3 phosphatidic acids (PAs. Among the PIs, the expression of PI(18:0/18:1, PI(18:0/20:3 and PI(18:0/20:2 were significantly higher in cancer tissue than in benign epithelium. A biomarker algorithm for prostate cancer was formulated by analyzing the expression profiles of PIs in cancer tissue and benign epithelium of the discovery set using orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA. The sensitivity and specificity of this algorithm for prostate cancer diagnosis in the 24 validation set samples were 87.5 and 91.7%, respectively. In conclusion, HR-MALDI-IMS identified several PIs as being more highly expressed in prostate cancer than benign prostate epithelium. These differences in PI expression profiles may serve as a novel diagnostic tool for prostate cancer.

  4. Spatial and temporal beam profile monitor with nanosecond resolution for CERN's Linac4 and Superconducting Proton Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Hori, M


    The Linac4, now being developed at CERN, will provide 160-MeV H- beams of high intensity . Before this beam can be injected into the CERN Proton Synchrotron Booster or future Superconducting Proton Linac for further acceleration, some sequences of 500-ps-long micro-bunches must be removed from it, using a beam chopper. These bunches, if left in the beam, would fall outside the longitudinal acceptance of the accelerators and make them radioactive. We developed a monitor to measure the time structure and spatial profile of this chopped beam, with respective resolutions and . Its large active area and dynamic range also allows investigations of beam halos. The ion beam first struck a carbon foil, and secondary electrons emerging from the foil were accelerated by a series of parallel grid electrodes. These electrons struck a phosphor screen, and the resulting image of the scintillation light was guided to a thermoelectrically cooled, charge-coupled device camera. The time resolution was attained by applying high-...



    Hong Shen


    The concepts of curve profile, curve intercept, curve intercept density, curve profile area density, intersection density in containing intersection (or intersection density relied on intersection reference), curve profile intersection density in surface (or curve intercept intersection density relied on intersection of containing curve), and curve profile area density in surface (AS) were defined. AS expressed the amount of curve profile area of Y phase in the unit containing surface area, S...

  6. Ultrasonic absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, R.T.


    The paper reviews studies of ultrasonic absorption in liquid alkali metals. The experimental methods to measure the absorption coefficients are briefly described. Experimental results reported for the liquid metals: sodium, potassium, rubidium and caesium, at medium temperatures, are presented, as well as data for liquid alloys. Absorption losses due to the presence of an external magnetic field, and the effects of viscosity on the absorption in metals, are both discussed. (U.K.)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelyag, S. [School of Mathematical Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia)


    Using radiative magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the magnetized solar photosphere and detailed spectro-polarimetric diagnostics with the Fe I 6301.5 Å and 6302.5 Å photospheric lines in the local thermodynamic equilibrium approximation, we model active solar granulation as if it was observed at the solar limb. We analyze general properties of the radiation across the solar limb, such as the continuum and the line core limb darkening and the granulation contrast. We demonstrate the presence of profiles with both emission and absorption features at the simulated solar limb, and pure emission profiles above the limb. These profiles are associated with the regions of strong linear polarization of the emergent radiation, indicating the influence of the intergranular magnetic fields on the line formation. We analyze physical origins of the emission wings in the Stokes profiles at the limb, and demonstrate that these features are produced by localized heating and torsional motions in the intergranular magnetic flux concentrations.

  8. Geospatial Absorption and Regional Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The geospatial absorptions are characterized by a specific complexity both in content and in their phenomenological and spatial manifestation fields. Such processes are differentiated according to their specificity to pre-absorption, absorption or post-absorption. The mechanisms that contribute to absorption are extremely numerous: aggregation, extension, diffusion, substitution, resistivity (resilience, stratification, borrowings, etc. Between these mechanisms frequent relations are established determining an amplification of the process and of its regional effects. The installation of the geographic osmosis phenomenon in a given territory (a place for example leads to a homogenization of the geospatial state and to the installation of the regional homogeneity.

  9. Determination of visible near-IR absorption coefficients of mammalian fat using time- and spatially resolved diffuse reflectance and transmission spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, R. L. P.; Sterenborg, H. J. C. M.; Pifferi, A.; Torricelli, A.; Chikoidze, E.; Cubeddu, R.


    In-vivo optical spectroscopy and the determination of tissue absorption and scattering properties have a central role in the development of novel optical diagnostic and therapeutic modalities in medicine. A number of techniques are available for the optical characterization of tissue in the visible

  10. Development of a Spatially Resolving X-Ray Crystal Spectrometer (XCS) for Measurement of Ion-Temperature (Ti) and Rotation-Velocity (v) Profiles in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, K W; Delgado-Aprico, L; Johnson, D; Feder, R; Beiersdorfer,; Dunn, J; Morris, K; Wang, E; Reinke, M; Podpaly, Y; Rice, J E; Barnsley, R; O' Mullane, M; Lee, S G


    Imaging XCS arrays are being developed as a US-ITER activity for Doppler measurement of Ti and v profiles of impurities (W, Kr, Fe) with ~7 cm (a/30) and 10-100 ms resolution in ITER. The imaging XCS, modeled after a PPPL-MIT instrument on Alcator C-Mod, uses a spherically bent crystal and 2d x-ray detectors to achieve high spectral resolving power (E/dE>6000) horizontally and spatial imaging vertically. Two arrays will measure Ti and both poloidal and toroidal rotation velocity profiles. Measurement of many spatial chords permits tomographic inversion for inference of local parameters. The instrument design, predictions of performance, and results from C-Mod will be presented.

  11. Nonlinear effects in collective absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uenoyama, Takeshi; Mima, Kunioki; Watanabe, Tsuguhiro.


    The collective absorption of high intensity laser radiation is analyzed numerically. Density profile modification due to the ponderomotive force associating laser radiation and the excited electron plasma waves is self-consistently taken into account, and the intensity dependences of the absorption efficiency are obtained. In the high intensity regime, the absorption efficiency is found to be strongly enhanced in the plasma without flow, but reduced with supersonic flow. (author)

  12. Absorption studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganatra, R.D.


    Absorption studies were once quite popular but hardly anyone does them these days. It is easier to estimate the blood level of the nutrient directly by radioimmunoassay (RIA). However, the information obtained by estimating the blood levels of the nutrients is not the same that can be obtained from the absorption studies. Absorption studies are primarily done to find out whether some of the essential nutrients are absorbed from the gut or not and if they are absorbed, to determine how much is being absorbed. In the advanced countries, these tests were mostly done to detect pernicious anaemia where vitamin B 12 is not absorbed because of the lack of the intrinsic factor in the stomach. In the tropical countries, ''malabsorption syndrome'' is quire common. In this condition, several nutrients like fat, folic acid and vitamin B 12 are not absorbed. It is possible to study absorption of these nutrients by radioisotopic absorption studies

  13. A 3D analysis of spatial relationship between geological structure and groundwater profile around Kobe City, Japan: based on ARCGIS 3D Analyst. (United States)

    Shibahara, A.; Tsukamoto, H.; Kazahaya, K.; Morikawa, N.; Takahashi, M.; Takahashi, H.; Yasuhara, M.; Ohwada, M.; Oyama, Y.; Inamura, A.; Handa, H.; Nakama, J.


    Kobe city is located on the northern side of Osaka sedimentary basin, Japan, containing 1,000-2,000 m thick Quaternary sediments. After the Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake (January 17, 1995), a number of geological and geophysical surveys were conducted in this region. Then high-temperature anomaly of groundwater accompanied with high Cl concentration was detected along fault systems in this area. In addition, dissolved He in groundwater showed nearly upper mantle-like 3He/4He ratio, although there were no Quaternary volcanic activities in this region. Some recent studies have assumed that these groundwater profiles are related with geological structure because some faults and joints can function as pathways for groundwater flow, and mantle-derived water can upwell through the fault system to the ground surface. To verify these hypotheses, we established 3D geological and hydrological model around Osaka sedimentary basin. Our primary goal is to analyze spatial relationship between geological structure and groundwater profile. In the study region, a number of geological and hydrological datasets, such as boring log data, seismic profiling data, groundwater chemical profile, were reported. We converted these datasets to meshed data on the GIS, and plotted in the three dimensional space to visualize spatial distribution. Furthermore, we projected seismic profiling data into three dimensional space and calculated distance between faults and sampling points, using Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) scripts. All 3D models are converted into VRML format, and can be used as a versatile dataset on personal computer. This research project has been conducted under the research contract with the Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES).

  14. Folate absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, S.J.


    Folate is the generic term given to numerous compounds of pteroic acid with glutamic acid. Knowledge of absorption is limited because of the complexities introduced by the variety of compounds and because of the inadequacy of investigational methods. Two assay methods are in use, namely microbiological and radioactive. Techniques used to study absorption include measurement of urinary excretion, serum concentration, faecal excretion, intestinal perfusion, and haematological response. It is probably necessary to test absorption of both pteroylmonoglutamic acid and one or more polyglutamates, and such tests would be facilitated by availability of synthesized compounds labelled with radioactive tracers at specifically selected sites. (author)

  15. Narrative absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narrative Absorption brings together research from the social sciences and Humanities to solve a number of mysteries: Most of us will have had those moments, of being totally absorbed in a book, a movie, or computer game. Typically we do not have any idea about how we ended up in such a state. Nor...... do we fully realize how we might have changed as we return for the fictional worlds we have visited. The feeling of being absorbed is one of the most illusive and transient feelings, but also one that motivates audiences to spend considerable amounts of time in narrative worlds, and one...... that is central to our understanding of the effects of narratives on beliefs and behavior. Key specialists inform the reader of this book about the nature of the peculiar state of consciousness during episodes of absorption, the perception of absorption in history, the role of absorption in meaningful experiences...

  16. The effect of formulation additives on in vitro dissolution-absorption profile and in vivo bioavailability of telmisartan from brand and generic formulations. (United States)

    Borbás, Enikő; Nagy, Zsombor K; Nagy, Brigitta; Balogh, Attila; Farkas, Balázs; Tsinman, Oksana; Tsinman, Konstantin; Sinkó, Bálint


    In this study, brand and four generic formulations of telmisartan, an antihypertensive drug, were used in in vitro simultaneous dissolution-absorption, investigating the effect of different formulation additives on dissolution and on absorption through an artificial membrane. The in vitro test was found to be sensitive enough to show even small differences between brand and generic formulations caused by the use of different excipients. By only changing the type of filler from sorbitol to mannitol in the formulation, the flux through the membrane was reduced by approximately 10%. Changing the salt forming agent as well resulted in approximately 20% of flux reduction compared to the brand formulation. This significant difference was clearly shown in the published in vivo results as well. The use of additional lactose monohydrate in the formulation also leads to approximately 10% reduction in flux. The results show that by changing excipients, the dissolution of telmisartan was not altered significantly, but the flux through the membrane was found to be significantly changed. These results pointed out the limitations of traditional USP dissolution tests and emphasized the importance of simultaneously measuring dissolution and absorption, which allows the complex effect of formulation excipients on both processes to be measured. Moreover, the in vivo predictive power of the simultaneous dissolution-absorption test was demonstrated by comparing the in vitro fluxes to in vivo bioequivalence study results. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Remote laser evaporative molecular absorption spectroscopy (United States)

    Hughes, Gary B.; Lubin, Philip; Cohen, Alexander; Madajian, Jonathan; Kulkarni, Neeraj; Zhang, Qicheng; Griswold, Janelle; Brashears, Travis


    We describe a novel method for probing bulk molecular and atomic composition of solid targets from a distant vantage. A laser is used to melt and vaporize a spot on the target. With sufficient flux, the spot temperature rises rapidly, and evaporation of surface materials occurs. The melted spot creates a high-temperature blackbody source, and ejected material creates a plume of surface materials in front of the spot. Molecular and atomic absorption occurs as the blackbody radiation passes through the ejected plume. Bulk molecular and atomic composition of the surface material is investigated by using a spectrometer to view the heated spot through the ejected plume. The proposed method is distinct from current stand-off approaches to composition analysis, such as Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), which atomizes and ionizes target material and observes emission spectra to determine bulk atomic composition. Initial simulations of absorption profiles with laser heating show great promise for Remote Laser-Evaporative Molecular Absorption (R-LEMA) spectroscopy. The method is well-suited for exploration of cold solar system targets—asteroids, comets, planets, moons—such as from a spacecraft orbiting the target. Spatial composition maps could be created by scanning the surface. Applying the beam to a single spot continuously produces a borehole or trench, and shallow subsurface composition profiling is possible. This paper describes system concepts for implementing the proposed method to probe the bulk molecular composition of an asteroid from an orbiting spacecraft, including laser array, photovoltaic power, heating and ablation, plume characteristics, absorption, spectrometry and data management.

  18. Spatial variability in mycorrhizal hyphae and nutrient and water availability in a soil-weathered bedrock profile (United States)

    L.M. Egerton-Warburton; R.C. Graham; K.R. Hubbert


    We documented the spatial distribution, abundance and molecular diversity of mycorrhizal hyphae and physical and chemical properties of soil-weathered bedrock in a chaparral community that experiences seasonal drought. Because plants in this community were known to rely on bedrock-stored water during the summer, the data were used to evaluate the potential role of...

  19. Sex-specific effects of prenatal chronic mild stress on adult spatial learning capacity and regional glutamate receptor expression profiles. (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Ma, Yuchao; Hu, Jingmin; Zhang, Xinxin; Cheng, Wenwen; Jiang, Han; Li, Min; Ren, Jintao; Zhang, Xiaosong; Liu, Mengxi; Sun, Anji; Wang, Qi; Li, Xiaobai


    Both animal experiments and clinical studies have demonstrated that prenatal stress can cause cognitive disorders in offspring. To explore the scope of these deficits and identify potential underlying mechanisms, we examined the spatial learning and memory performance and glutamate receptor (GluR) expression patterns of adult rats exposed to prenatal chronic mild stress (PCMS). Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to reveal the interrelationships among spatial learning indices and GluR expression changes. Female PCMS-exposed offspring exhibited markedly impaired spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze (MWM) task compared to control females, while PCMS-exposed males showed better initial spatial learning in the MWM compared to control males. PCMS also altered basal and post-MWM glutamate receptor expression patterns, but these effects differed markedly between sexes. Male PCMS-exposed offspring exhibited elevated basal expression of NR1, mGluR5, and mGluR2/3 in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), whereas females showed no basal expression changes. Following MWM training, PCMS-exposed males expressed higher NR1 in the PFC and mammillary body (MB), higher mGluR2/3 in PFC, and lower NR2B in the hippocampus (HIP), PFC, and MB compared to unstressed MWM-trained males. Female PCMS-exposed offspring showed strongly reduced NR1 in MB and NR2B in the HIP, PFC, and MB, and increased mGluR2/3 in PFC compared to unstressed MWM-trained females. This is the first report suggesting that NMDA subunits in the MB are involved in spatial learning. Additionally, PCA further suggests that the NR1-NR2B form is the most important for spatial memory formation. These results reveal long-term sex-specific effects of PCMS on spatial learning and memory performance in adulthood and implicate GluR expression changes within HIP, PFC, and MB as possible molecular mechanisms underlying cognitive dysfunction in offspring exposed to prenatal stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc

  20. Spatial imaging and speciation of Cu in rice (Oryza sativa L.) roots using synchrotron-based X-ray microfluorescence and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. (United States)

    Lu, Lingli; Xie, Ruohan; Liu, Ting; Wang, Haixing; Hou, Dandi; Du, Yonghua; He, Zhenli; Yang, Xiaoe; Sun, Hui; Tian, Shengke


    Knowledge of elemental localization and speciation in rice (Oryza sativa L.) roots is crucial for elucidating the mechanisms of Cu accumulation so as to facilitate the development of strategies to inhibit Cu accumulation in rice grain grown in contaminated soils. Using synchrotron-based X-ray microfluorescence and X-ray absorption spectroscopy, we investigated the distribution patterns and speciation of Cu in rice roots treated with 50 μM Cu for 7 days. A clear preferential localization of Cu in the meristematic zone was observed in root tips as compared with the elongation zone. Investigation of Cu in the root cross sections revealed that the intensity of Cu in the vascular bundles was more than 10-fold higher than that in the other scanned sites (epidermis and cortex) in rice roots. The dominant chemical form of Cu (79.1%) in rice roots was similar to that in the Cu-cell wall compounds. These results suggest that although Cu can be easily transported into the vascular tissues in rice roots, most of the metal absorbed by plants is retained in the roots owing to its high binding to the cell wall compounds, thus preventing metal translocation to the aerial parts of the plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Spatially matched in vivo and ex vivo MR metabolic profiles of prostate cancer - investigation of a correlation with Gleason score

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selnaes, K.M.; Gribbestad, I.S.; Bertilsson, H.; Wright, A.; Angelsen, A.; Heerschap, A.; Tessem, M.B.


    MR metabolic profiling of the prostate is promising as an additional diagnostic approach to separate indolent from aggressive prostate cancer. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between the Gleason score and the metabolic biomarker (choline + creatine + spermine)/citrate

  2. Development and Deployment of a Compact Eye-Safe Scanning Differential absorption Lidar (DIAL) for Spatial Mapping of Carbon Dioxide for Monitoring/Verification/Accounting at Geologic Sequestration Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repasky, Kevin


    A scanning differential absorption lidar (DIAL) instrument for monitoring carbon dioxide has been developed. The laser transmitter uses two tunable discrete mode laser diodes (DMLD) operating in the continuous wave (cw) mode with one locked to the online absorption wavelength and the other operating at the offline wavelength. Two in-line fiber optic switches are used to switch between online and offline operation. After the fiber optic switch, an acousto- optic modulator (AOM) is used to generate a pulse train used to injection seed an erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) to produce eye-safe laser pulses with maximum pulse energies of 66 {micro}J, a pulse repetition frequency of 15 kHz, and an operating wavelength of 1.571 {micro}m. The DIAL receiver uses a 28 cm diameter Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope to collect that backscattered light, which is then monitored using a photo-multiplier tube (PMT) module operating in the photon counting mode. The DIAL instrument has been operated from a laboratory environment on the campus of Montana State University, at the Zero Emission Research Technology (ZERT) field site located in the agricultural research area on the western end of the Montana State University campus, and at the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership site located in north-central Montana. DIAL data has been collected and profiles have been validated using a co-located Licor LI-820 Gas Analyzer point sensor.

  3. Baicalin pharmacokinetic profile of absorption process using novel in-vitro model: cytochrome P450 3A4-induced Caco-2 cell monolayers combined with rat intestinal rinse fluids. (United States)

    Morisaki, Tomoko; Hou, Xiao-Long; Takahashi, Kyoko; Takahashi, Koichi


    This study was designed to investigate baicalin (BG) pharmacokinetic profile in absorption process using a new model and evaluate the potentiality as a new model. The effects of BG on intestinal cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A) protein/mRNA expression, activity and permeability glycoprotein (P-gp) were evaluated in CYP3A4-induced Caco-2 cell monolayers or rats. Intestinal rinse fluids (IF) were obtained from rat were added to modified Caco-2 monolayers. Orally administered BG (7 days pretreatment) inhibited intestinal CYP3A activity and protein expression. Baicalein (B) converted from BG by IF was detected in the upper jejunum in a portion-dependent manner. Subsequently, most BG were converted to B in the caecum. In modified Caco-2 monolayers, BG exhibited no effect on CYP3A4 activity or mRNA, whereas B and BG treated with IF inhibited CYP3A4 transcription and activity. Intestinal CYP3A was inhibited following oral administration of BG to rat. Correspondingly, BG-mediated CYP3A inhibition was shown in vitro using modified Caco-2 monolayers treated with IF. Hence, in-vivo intestinal absorption pharmacokinetic was reproduced in vitro. IF is a key determinant of intestinal absorption, and it facilitated inhibition of CYP3A by B, not BG. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  4. Spatial risk profiling of Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia in a high endemicity area in Côte d'Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yapi Ahoua


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to identify demographic, environmental and socioeconomic risk factors and spatial patterns of Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia in a high endemicity area of Africa, and to specify how this information can facilitate improved malaria control at the district level. Methods A questionnaire was administered to about 4,000 schoolchildren in 55 schools in western Côte d'Ivoire to determine children's socioeconomic status and their habit of sleeping under bed nets. Environmental data were obtained from satellite images, digitized ground maps and a second questionnaire addressed to school directors. Finger prick blood samples were collected and P. falciparum parasitaemia determined under a microscope using standardized, quality-controlled methods. Bayesian variogram models were utilized for spatial risk modelling and mapping of P. falciparum parasitaemia at non-sampled locations, assuming stationary and non-stationary underlying spatial dependence. Results Two-thirds of the schoolchildren were infected with P. falciparum and the mean parasitaemia among infected children was 959 parasites/μl of blood. Age, socioeconomic status, not sleeping under a bed net, coverage rate with bed nets and environmental factors (e.g., normalized difference vegetation index, rainfall, land surface temperature and living in close proximity to standing water were significantly associated with the risk of P. falciparum parasitaemia. After accounting for spatial correlation, age, bed net coverage, rainfall during the main malaria transmission season and distance to rivers remained significant covariates. Conclusion It is argued that a massive increase in bed net coverage, particularly in villages in close proximity to rivers, in concert with other control measures, is necessary to bring malaria endemicity down to intermediate or low levels.

  5. A 3D visualization of spatial relationship between geological structure and groundwater chemical profile around Iwate volcano, Japan: based on the ARCGIS 3D Analyst (United States)

    Shibahara, A.; Ohwada, M.; Itoh, J.; Kazahaya, K.; Tsukamoto, H.; Takahashi, M.; Morikawa, N.; Takahashi, H.; Yasuhara, M.; Inamura, A.; Oyama, Y.


    We established 3D geological and hydrological model around Iwate volcano to visualize 3D relationships between subsurface structure and groundwater profile. Iwate volcano is a typical polygenetic volcano located in NE Japan, and its body is composed of two stratovolcanoes which have experienced sector collapses several times. Because of this complex structure, groundwater flow around Iwate volcano is strongly restricted by subsurface construction. For example, Kazahaya and Yasuhara (1999) clarified that shallow groundwater in north and east flanks of Iwate volcano are recharged at the mountaintop, and these flow systems are restricted in north and east area because of the structure of younger volcanic body collapse. In addition, Ohwada et al. (2006) found that these shallow groundwater in north and east flanks have relatively high concentration of major chemical components and high 3He/4He ratios. In this study, we succeeded to visualize the spatial relationship between subsurface structure and chemical profile of shallow and deep groundwater system using 3D model on the GIS. In the study region, a number of geological and hydrological datasets, such as boring log data and groundwater chemical profile, were reported. All these paper data are digitized and converted to meshed data on the GIS, and plotted in the three dimensional space to visualize spatial distribution. We also inputted digital elevation model (DEM) around Iwate volcano issued by the Geographical Survey Institute of Japan, and digital geological maps issued by Geological Survey of Japan, AIST. All 3D models are converted into VRML format, and can be used as a versatile dataset on personal computer.

  6. Spatial organization of process domains in headwater drainage basins of a glaciated foothills region with complex longitudinal profiles (United States)

    McCleary, Richard J.; Hassan, Marwan A.; Miller, Dan; Moore, R. D.


    Lithologic transitions and glaciations create complex longitudinal profiles that control contemporary erosion and deposition processes. In areas with these characteristics, traditional morphometric approaches for predicting process domains, such as area-slope plots, can be augmented by considering other predictors measured from high resolution lidar-derived digital elevation models (DEMs). Ordinal logistic regression was used to model the distribution of hillslope, swale, colluvial channel, and fluvial channel domains, as identified during field surveys. The study area was a glaciated region of the Rocky Mountain foothills with a complex lithostructural setting. Relationships between domains and a suite of geographic information system-derived descriptors were explored. Predictors included profile anomalies measured at the reach and basin scale using a normalized stream length-gradient (SL/k) index. Drainage area was the dominant factor controlling domains. A model with area as the only predictor was 82% accurate. Reach slope relations were not consistent. A model that also included lithology and basin-scale SL/k index variation was 87% accurate. Domain transitions had larger area thresholds in basins with resistant conglomerate versus sandstone or shale formations and where SL/k index was more variable along a profile. In a restricted model of hillslope, swale, and colluvial channel domains, profile curvature measured over 100 m was also related to domain occurrence. A model for regional-scale mapping applications with six additional predictors was 95% accurate. The results showed that ordinal logistic regression can be used to predict and map process domains in regions with complex physiography using descriptors measured from high -resolution DEMs.

  7. Genegis: Computational Tools for Spatial Analyses of DNA Profiles with Associated Photo-Identification and Telemetry Records of Marine Mammals (United States)


    and associated data from molecular markers and ecomarkers (e.g., stable isotopes). We have implemented geneGIS features on two platforms: 1) as...half were associated with a photo-identification encounter. From this total, 2,720 samples were selected for DNA profiling, including a sex marker ...mitochondrial (mt) DNA haplotype sequencing and genotyping at 10 microsatellite loci. As expected, the 10 microsatellites were sufficiently variable

  8. Possibilities of LA-ICP-MS technique for the spatial elemental analysis of the recent fish scales: Line scan vs. depth profiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hola, Marketa [Department of Chemistry, Masaryk University of Brno, Kamenice 5, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Kalvoda, Jiri, E-mail: [Department of Geological Sciences, Masaryk University of Brno, Kotlarska 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Novakova, Hana [Department of Chemistry, Masaryk University of Brno, Kamenice 5, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Skoda, Radek [Department of Geological Sciences, Masaryk University of Brno, Kotlarska 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Kanicky, Viktor [Department of Chemistry, Masaryk University of Brno, Kamenice 5, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic)


    LA-ICP-MS and solution based ICP-MS in combination with electron microprobe are presented as a method for the determination of the elemental spatial distribution in fish scales which represent an example of a heterogeneous layered bone structure. Two different LA-ICP-MS techniques were tested on recent common carp (Cyprinus carpio) scales: (a)A line scan through the whole fish scale perpendicular to the growth rings. The ablation crater of 55 {mu}m width and 50 {mu}m depth allowed analysis of the elemental distribution in the external layer. Suitable ablation conditions providing a deeper ablation crater gave average values from the external HAP layer and the collagen basal plate. (b)Depth profiling using spot analysis was tested in fish scales for the first time. Spot analysis allows information to be obtained about the depth profile of the elements at the selected position on the sample. The combination of all mentioned laser ablation techniques provides complete information about the elemental distribution in the fish scale samples. The results were compared with the solution based ICP-MS and EMP analyses. The fact that the results of depth profiling are in a good agreement both with EMP and PIXE results and, with the assumed ways of incorporation of the studied elements in the HAP structure, suggests a very good potential for this method.

  9. Synthesis of dynamic phase profile by the correlation technique for spatial control of optical beams in multiplexing and switching (United States)

    Bugaychuk, Svitlana A.; Gnatovskyy, Vladimir O.; Sidorenko, Andrey V.; Pryadko, Igor I.; Negriyko, Anatoliy M.


    New approach for the correlation technique, which is based on multiple periodic structures to create a controllable angular spectrum, is proposed and investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The transformation of an initial laser beam occurs due to the actions of consecutive phase periodic structures, which may differ by their parameters. Then, after the Fourier transformation of a complex diffraction field, the output diffraction orders will be changed both by their intensities and by their spatial position. The controllable change of output angular spectrum is carried out by a simple control of the parameters of the periodic structures. We investigate several simple examples of such management.

  10. Spatial Distribution and Mobility Assessment of Carcinogenic Heavy Metals in Soil Profiles Using Geostatistics and Random Forest, Boruta Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Shaheen


    Full Text Available In third world countries, industries mainly cause environmental contamination due to lack of environmental policies or oversight during their implementation. The Sheikhupura industrial zone, which includes industries such as tanneries, leather, chemical, textiles, and colour and dyes, contributes massive amounts of untreated effluents that are released directly into drains and used for the irrigation of crops and vegetables. This practice causes not only soil contamination with an excessive amount of heavy metals, but is also considered a source of toxicity in the food chain, i.e., bioaccumulation in plants and ultimately in human body organs. The objective of this research study was to assess the spatial distribution of the heavy metals chromium (Cr, cadmium (Cd, and lead (Pb, at three depths of soil using geostatistics and the selection of significant contributing variables to soil contamination using the Random Forest (RF function of the Boruta Algorithm. A total of 60 sampling locations were selected in the study area to collect soil samples (180 samples at three depths (0–15 cm, 15–30 cm, and 60–90 cm. The soil samples were analysed for their physico-chemical properties, i.e., soil saturation, electrical conductivity (EC, organic matter (OM, pH, phosphorus (P, potassium (K, and Cr, Cd, and Pb using standard laboratory procedures. The data were analysed with comprehensive statistics and geostatistical techniques. The correlation coefficient matrix between the heavy metals and the physico-chemical properties revealed that electrical conductivity (EC had a significant (p ≤ 0.05 negative correlation with Cr, Cd, and Pb. The RF function of the Boruta Algorithm employed soil depth as a classifier and ranked the significant soil contamination parameters (Cr, Cd, Pb, EC, and P in relation to depth. The mobility factor indicated the leachate percentage of heavy metals at different vertical depths of soil. The spatial distribution pattern of

  11. Optical Analysis of the Oils Obtained from Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Lodd: Mapping Absorption-Emission Profiles in an Induced Oxidation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan P. de Oliveira


    Full Text Available Acrocomia aculeata is a palm tree typical of the Brazilian savanna. Oils extracted from the pulp and kernel of Acrocomia aculeata fruits have gained considerable attention mainly due to their nutritional and medicinal features. Despite their potential applications, a detailed analysis of their oxidative stability is still needed. The present study shows a close analysis of the oxidative stability of the oils obtained from the kernel and pulp of Acrocomia aculeata fruits, evaluating the influence of the intrinsic antioxidants and the fatty acid composition on the oil’s thermal stability. A complete characterization of the physical-chemical and optical properties of the oils was performed. The results showed that 66% of the fatty acids present in the pulp oil are unsaturated, while 75% are saturated in the kernel oil. A higher content of intrinsic antioxidants was obtained in the pulp oil, and an induction period (at 110 °C of 65 and 43 h was determined for the pulp and kernel oil, respectively. Additionally, oil absorption increases due to the formation of degradation products, and a new fluorescent compound was formed during the oil oxidation process at 110 °C. Even though the pulp presented a high content of unsaturated fatty acids, the pulp oil was more stable than the kernel oil due to its higher content of intrinsic antioxidant, especially carotenoids. The results also demonstrated that oil oxidation can be optically determined by analyzing the absorption at 232 and 270 nm, as well as the emission at 424 nm.

  12. Spatial profiles of electron and metastable atom densities in positive polarity fast ionization waves sustained in helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weatherford, Brandon R.; Barnat, E. V.; Xiong, Zhongmin; Kushner, Mark J.


    Fast ionization waves (FIWs), often generated with high voltage pulses over nanosecond timescales, are able to produce large volumes of ions and excited states at moderate pressures. The mechanisms of FIW propagation were experimentally and computationally investigated to provide insights into the manner in which these large volumes are excited. The two-dimensional structure of electron and metastable densities produced by short-pulse FIWs sustained in helium were measured using laser-induced fluorescence and laser collision-induced fluorescence diagnostics for times of 100–120 ns after the pulse, as the pressure was varied from 1 to 20 Torr. A trend of center-peaked to volume-filling to wall-peaked electron density profiles was observed as the pressure was increased. Instantaneous FIW velocities, obtained from plasma-induced emission, ranged from 0.1 to 3 × 10 9  cm s −1 , depending on distance from the high voltage electrode and pressure. Predictions from two-dimensional modeling of the propagation of a single FIW correlated well with the experimental trends in electron density profiles and wave velocity. Results from the model show that the maximum ionization rate occurs in the wavefront, and the discharge continues to propagate forward after the removal of high voltage from the powered electrode due to the potential energy stored in the space charge. As the pressure is varied, the radial distribution of the ionization rate is shaped by changes in the electron mean free path, and subsequent localized electric field enhancement at the walls or on the centerline of the discharge.

  13. On-chip transduction of nucleic acid hybridization using spatial profiles of immobilized quantum dots and fluorescence resonance energy transfer. (United States)

    Tavares, Anthony J; Noor, M Omair; Vannoy, Charles H; Algar, W Russ; Krull, Ulrich J


    The glass surface of a glass-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic channel was modified to develop a solid-phase assay for quantitative determination of nucleic acids. Electroosmotic flow (EOF) within channels was used to deliver and immobilize semiconductor quantum dots (QDs), and electrophoresis was used to decorate the QDs with oligonucleotide probe sequences. These processes took only minutes to complete. The QDs served as energy donors in fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) for transduction of nucleic acid hybridization. Electrokinetic injection of fluorescent dye (Cy3) labeled oligonucleotide target into a microfluidic channel and subsequent hybridization (within minutes) provided the proximity for FRET, with emission from Cy3 being the analytical signal. The quantification of target concentration was achieved by measurement of the spatial length of coverage by target along a channel. Detection of femtomole quantities of target was possible with a dynamic range spanning an order of magnitude. The assay provided excellent resistance to nonspecific interactions of DNA. Further selectivity of the assay was achieved using 20% formamide, which allowed discrimination between a fully complementary target and a 3 base pair mismatch target at a contrast ratio of 4:1. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  14. Investigation of Arctic and Antarctic spatial and depth patterns of sea water in CTD profiles using chemometric data analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotwa, Ewelina Katarzyna; Lacorte, Silvia; Duarte, Carlos


    In this paper we examine 2- and 3-way chemometric methods for analysis of Arctic and Antarctic water samples. Standard CTD (conductivity–temperature–depth) sensor devices were used during two oceanographic expeditions (July 2007 in the Arctic; February 2009 in the Antarctic) covering a total of 1...... properties of the water samples; and 4) we confirm the ability to predict fluorescence values from physical measurements when the 3-way data structure is used in N-way PLS regression.......In this paper we examine 2- and 3-way chemometric methods for analysis of Arctic and Antarctic water samples. Standard CTD (conductivity–temperature–depth) sensor devices were used during two oceanographic expeditions (July 2007 in the Arctic; February 2009 in the Antarctic) covering a total of 174...... locations. The output from these devices can be arranged in a 3-way data structure (according to sea water depth, measured variables, and geographical location). We used and compared 2- and 3-way statistical tools including PCA, PARAFAC, PLS, and N-PLS for exploratory analysis, spatial patterns discovery...

  15. Analysis of biostimulated microbial communities from two field experiments reveals temporal and spatial differences in proteome profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callister, S.J.; Wilkins, M.J.; Nicora, C.D.; Williams, K.H.; Banfield, J.F.; VerBerkmoes, N.C.; Hettich, R.L.; NGuessan, A.L.; Mouser, P.J.; Elifantz, H.; Smith, R.D.; Lovley, D.R.; Lipton, M.S.; Long, P.E.


    Stimulated by an acetate-amendment field experiment conducted in 2007, anaerobic microbial populations in the aquifer at the Rifle Integrated Field Research Challenge site in Colorado reduced mobile U(VI) to insoluble U(IV). During this experiment, planktonic biomass was sampled at various time points to quantitatively evaluate proteomes. In 2008, an acetate-amended field experiment was again conducted in a similar manner to the 2007 experiment. As there was no comprehensive metagenome sequence available for use in proteomics analysis, we systematically evaluated 12 different organism genome sequences to generate sets of aggregate genomes, or “pseudo-metagenomes”, for supplying relative quantitative peptide and protein identifications. Proteomics results support previous observations of the dominance of Geobacteraceae during biostimulation using acetate as sole electron donor, and revealed a shift from an early stage of iron reduction to a late stage of iron reduction. Additionally, a shift from iron reduction to sulfate reduction was indicated by changes in the contribution of proteome information contributed by different organism genome sequences within the aggregate set. In addition, the comparison of proteome measurements made between the 2007 field experiment and 2008 field experiment revealed differences in proteome profiles. These differences may be the result of alterations in abundance and population structure within the planktonic biomass samples collected for analysis.

  16. Spatial and temporal profiles of growth factor expression during CNS demyelination reveal the dynamics of repair priming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria Gudi

    Full Text Available Demyelination is the cause of disability in various neurological disorders. It is therefore crucial to understand the molecular regulation of oligodendrocytes, the myelin forming cells in the CNS. Growth factors are known to be essential for the development and maintenance of oligodendrocytes and are involved in the regulation of glial responses in various pathological conditions. We employed the well established murine cuprizone model of toxic demyelination to analyze the expression of 13 growth factors in the CNS during de- and remyelination. The temporal mRNA expression profile during demyelination and the subsequent remyelination were analyzed separately in the corpus callosum and cerebral cortex using laser microdissection and real-time PCR techniques. During demyelination a similar pattern of growth factor mRNA expression was observed in both areas with a strong up-regulation of NRG1 and GDNF and a slight increase of CNTF in the first week of cuprizone treatment. HGF, FGF-2, LIF, IGF-I, and TGF-ß1 were up-regulated mainly during peak demyelination. In contrast, during remyelination there were regional differences in growth factor mRNA expression levels. GDNF, CNTF, HGF, FGF-2, and BDNF were elevated in the corpus callosum but not in the cortex, suggesting tissue differences in the molecular regulation of remyelination in the white and grey matter. To clarify the cellular source we isolated microglia from the cuprizone lesions. GDNF, IGF-1, and FGF mRNA were detected in the microglial fraction with a temporal pattern corresponding to that from whole tissue PCR. In addition, immunohistochemical analysis revealed IGF-1 protein expression also in the reactive astrocytes. CNTF was located in astrocytes. This study identified seven different temporal expression patterns for growth factors in white and grey matter and demonstrated the importance of early tissue priming and exact orchestration of different steps during callosal and cortical de

  17. Nucleation and growth of surfactant-passivated CdS and HgS nanoparticles: Time-dependent absorption and luminescence profiles (United States)

    Mehta, S. K.; Kumar, Sanjay; Chaudhary, Savita; Bhasin, K. K.


    In this study, we have monitored the formation of CdS and HgS nanoparticles (NPs) using a precipitation method in the presence of surface-active agents. Three surfactants were tested to analyze the dependence of various parameters such as size, growth rate, photoluminescence (PL) emission and polydispersity of NPs on surfactant structure. Optical absorption spectroscopy was mainly used to estimate the optical bandgap and the size of NPs. The surfactant-induced quenching of PL intensity was found to be consistent with the different tendencies of the surfactants to act as Lewis acids towards these surfaces. The time-evolution of the absorbance suggested that the nucleation and growth rates markedly vary in a first-order fashion w.r.t. Cd2+ and Hg2+ salt concentration in excess of sulfide ions. The differences in the stabilization ability of the surfactants are discussed in reference to their structure-dependent adsorption behavior onto the particles. The comparative aspects of the different properties of CdS and HgS NPs prepared with identical methodology are presented in terms of metal cation-surfactant interactions. Changes in UV-vis and PL spectra during nucleation and growth of NPs were used to establish the possible mechanisms for the adsorption of surfactant molecules on the particle surface to restrict the unlimited growth.In this study, we have monitored the formation of CdS and HgS nanoparticles (NPs) using a precipitation method in the presence of surface-active agents. Three surfactants were tested to analyze the dependence of various parameters such as size, growth rate, photoluminescence (PL) emission and polydispersity of NPs on surfactant structure. Optical absorption spectroscopy was mainly used to estimate the optical bandgap and the size of NPs. The surfactant-induced quenching of PL intensity was found to be consistent with the different tendencies of the surfactants to act as Lewis acids towards these surfaces. The time-evolution of the absorbance

  18. Comparative study on intestinal metabolism and absorption in vivo of ginsenosides in sulphur-fumigated and non-fumigated ginseng by ultra performance liquid chromatography quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry based chemical profiling approach. (United States)

    Zhu, He; Shen, Hong; Xu, Jun; Xu, Jin-Di; Zhu, Ling-Ying; Wu, Jie; Chen, Hu-Biao; Li, Song-Lin


    Our previous study indicated that sulphur-fumigation of ginseng in post-harvest handling processes could induce chemical transformation of ginsenosides to generate multiple ginsenoside sulphur derivatives. In this study, the influence of sulphur-fumigation on intestinal metabolism and absorption in vivo of ginsenosides in ginseng was sequentially studied. The intestinal metabolic and absorbed profiles of ginsenosides in rats after intra-gastric (i.g.) administration of sulphur-fumigated ginseng (SFG) and non-fumigated ginseng (NFG) were comparatively characterized by a newly established ultra performance liquid chromatography quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS) with electrospray ionization negative (ESI-) mode. A novel strategy based on the characteristic product ions and fragmentation pathways of different types of aglycones (saponin skeletons) and glycosyl moieties was proposed and successfully applied to rapid structural identification of ginsenoside sulphur derivatives and relevant metabolites. In total, 18 ginsenoside sulphur derivatives and 26 ginsenoside sulphur derivative metabolites in the faeces together with six ginsenoside sulphur derivatives in the plasma were identified in the SFG-administrated group but not in the NFG-administrated group. The results clearly demonstrated that the intestinal metabolic and absorbed profiles of ginsenosides in sulphur-fumigated and non-fumigated ginseng were quite different, which inspired that sulphur-fumigation of ginseng should not be recommended before the bioactivity and toxicity of the ginsenoside sulphur derivatives were systematically evaluated. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Application of Thomson scattering at 1.06{mu}m as a diagnostic for spatial profile measurements of electron temperature and density on the TCV tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke, S. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasma (CRPP)


    The variable configuration tokamak, TCV, in operation at CRPP since the end of 1991, is a particularly challenging machine with regard to the experimental system that must provide essential information regarding properties of confined plasmas with strongly shaped, non-circular cross-sections. The importance of the energy confinement issue in a machine designed specifically for the investigation of the effect of plasma shape on confinement and stability is self-evident, as is the necessity for a diagnostic capable of providing the profiles of electron temperature and density required for evaluation of this confinement. For TCV, a comprehensive Thomson Scattering (TS) diagnostic was the natural choice, specifically owing to the resulting spatially localized and time resolved measurement. The details of the system installed on TCV, together with the results obtained from the diagnostic comprise the subject matter of this thesis. A first version of the diagnostic was equipped with only ten observation volumes. In this case, adequate spatial resolution can only be maintained if measurements are limited to plasmas located in the upper half of the highly elongated TCV vacuum vessel. The system has recently been upgraded through the addition of a further fifteen observation volumes, together with major technical improvements in the scattered light detection system. This new version now permits TS observations in all TCV plasma configurations, including equilibria produced in the lower and upper halves of the vacuum vessel and the highly elongated plasmas now routinely created. Whilst a description of the new detection system along with some results obtained using the extended set of observation volumes are included, this thesis reports principally on the hardware details of and the interpretation of data from the original, ten observation volume system. (author) figs., tabs., 75 refs.

  20. On-chip multiplexed solid-phase nucleic acid hybridization assay using spatial profiles of immobilized quantum dots and fluorescence resonance energy transfer. (United States)

    Noor, M Omair; Tavares, Anthony J; Krull, Ulrich J


    A microfluidic based solid-phase assay for the multiplexed detection of nucleic acid hybridization using quantum dot (QD) mediated fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) is described herein. The glass surface of hybrid glass-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic channels was chemically modified to assemble the biorecognition interface. Multiplexing was demonstrated using a detection system that was comprised of two colors of immobilized semi-conductor QDs and two different oligonucleotide probe sequences. Green-emitting and red-emitting QDs were paired with Cy3 and Alexa Fluor 647 (A647) labeled oligonucleotides, respectively. The QDs served as energy donors for the transduction of dye labeled oligonucleotide targets. The in-channel assembly of the biorecognition interface and the subsequent introduction of oligonucleotide targets was accomplished within minutes using a combination of electroosmotic flow and electrophoretic force. The concurrent quantification of femtomole quantities of two target sequences was possible by measuring the spatial coverage of FRET sensitized emission along the length of the channel. In previous reports, multiplexed QD-FRET hybridization assays that employed a ratiometric method for quantification had challenges associated with lower analytical sensitivity arising from both donor and acceptor dilution that resulted in reduced energy transfer pathways as compared to single-color hybridization assays. Herein, a spatial method for quantification that is based on in-channel QD-FRET profiles provided higher analytical sensitivity in the multiplexed assay format as compared to single-color hybridization assays. The selectivity of the multiplexed hybridization assays was demonstrated by discrimination between a fully-complementary sequence and a 3 base pair sequence at a contrast ratio of 8 to 1. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Application of Thomson scattering at 1.06μm as a diagnostic for spatial profile measurements of electron temperature and density on the TCV tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franke, S.


    The variable configuration tokamak, TCV, in operation at CRPP since the end of 1991, is a particularly challenging machine with regard to the experimental system that must provide essential information regarding properties of confined plasmas with strongly shaped, non-circular cross-sections. The importance of the energy confinement issue in a machine designed specifically for the investigation of the effect of plasma shape on confinement and stability is self-evident, as is the necessity for a diagnostic capable of providing the profiles of electron temperature and density required for evaluation of this confinement. For TCV, a comprehensive Thomson Scattering (TS) diagnostic was the natural choice, specifically owing to the resulting spatially localized and time resolved measurement. The details of the system installed on TCV, together with the results obtained from the diagnostic comprise the subject matter of this thesis. A first version of the diagnostic was equipped with only ten observation volumes. In this case, adequate spatial resolution can only be maintained if measurements are limited to plasmas located in the upper half of the highly elongated TCV vacuum vessel. The system has recently been upgraded through the addition of a further fifteen observation volumes, together with major technical improvements in the scattered light detection system. This new version now permits TS observations in all TCV plasma configurations, including equilibria produced in the lower and upper halves of the vacuum vessel and the highly elongated plasmas now routinely created. Whilst a description of the new detection system along with some results obtained using the extended set of observation volumes are included, this thesis reports principally on the hardware details of and the interpretation of data from the original, ten observation volume system. (author) figs., tabs., 75 refs

  2. Iron absorption studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekenved, G.


    The main objective of the present work was to study iron absorption from different iron preparations in different types of subjects and under varying therapeutic conditions. The studies were performed with different radioiron isotope techniques and with a serum iron technique. The preparations used were solutions of ferrous sulphate and rapidly-disintegrating tablets containing ferrous sulphate, ferrous fumarate and ferrous carbonate and a slow-release ferrous sulphate tablet of an insoluble matrix type (Duroferon Durules). The serum iron method was evaluated and good correlation was found between the serum iron response and the total amount of iron absorbed after an oral dose of iron given in solution or in tablet form. New technique for studying the in-vivo release properties of tablets was presented. Iron tablets labelled with a radio-isotope were given to healthy subjects. The decline of the radioactivity in the tablets was followed by a profile scanning technique applied to different types of iron tablets. The release of iron from the two types of tablets was shown to be slower in vivo than in vitro. It was found that co-administration of antacids and iron tablets led to a marked reduction in the iron absorption and that these drugs should not be administered sumultaneously. A standardized meal markedly decreased the absorbability of iron from iron tablets. The influence of the meal was more marked with rapidly-disintegrating than with slow-release ferrous sulphate tablets. The absorption from rapidly-disintegrating and slow-release ferrous sulphate tablets was compared under practical clinical conditions during an extended treatment period. The studies were performed in healthy subjects, blood donors and patients with iron deficiency anaemia and it was found that the absorption of iron from the slow-release tablets was significantly better than from the rapidly-disintegrating tablets in all three groups of subjects. (author)

  3. Persistence, temporal and spatial profiles of ultraviolet absorbents and phenolic personal care products in riverine and estuarine sediment of the Pearl River catchment, China. (United States)

    Peng, Xianzhi; Xiong, Songsong; Ou, Weihui; Wang, Zhifang; Tan, Jianhua; Jin, Jiabin; Tang, Caiming; Liu, Jun; Fan, Yujuan


    A variety of personal care products have been classified as emerging contaminants (ECs). Occurrence, fate, spatial and vertical profiles of 13 ultraviolet absorbents, triclocarban (TCC) and its dechlorinated products, triclosan (TCS), 2-phenylphenol and parabens were investigated in riverine and estuarine sediment of the Pearl River catchment, China. Bisphenol A (BPA), a widely applied plasticizer, was also investigated. The ECs were widely present in the bed sediment. TCC was the most abundant with a maximum concentration of 332ngg -1 dry weight. The other prominent ECs included BPA, TCS, octocrylene, and benzotriazole UV stabilizers UV326 and UV328. Treated wastewater effluent was the major source of the ECs in the riverine sediment. TCC, BPA, TCS, methyparaben, UV531, UV326, and UV328 were also detected throughout the estuarine sediment cores, indicating their persistence in the sediment. Temporal trends of the ECs in the sediment cores reflected a combined effect of industrial development, population growth, human life quality improvement, and waste treatment capacity in the Pearl River Delta over the last decades. TCC dechlorination products were frequently detected in the bed sediment with higher levels near treated effluent outlets but only occasionally observed in the sediment cores, suggesting insignificant in-situ TCC dechlorination in the sediment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Nanometer-scale local probing of X-ray absorption spectra of Co/Pt multilayer film (United States)

    Quach, Duy-Truong; Pham, Duc-Thang; Handoko, Djati; Shim, Je-Ho; Eon Kim, Dong; Lee, Kyung-Min; Jeong, Jong-Ryul; Kim, Namdong; Shin, Hyun-Joon; Kim, Dong-Hyun


    We report our local X-ray absorption spectra (XAS) measurement mapping for a Co/Pt multilayer using scanning transmission microscopy with 25-nm spatial resolution and 0.1-eV spectral resolution. We have systematically analyzed the two-dimensional XAS intensity variation over the corresponding magnetic domain patterns, revealing a XAS profile across the magnetic domain wall as well as the simultaneous high-throughput measurement of local XAS spectra.

  5. Techniques for soft x-ray absorption in laser-produced plasmas (United States)

    Burkhalter, P. G.; Mehlman, G.; Newman, D. A.; Ripin, B. H.


    Interest in x-ray absorption derives from soft x-ray transport studies to characterize laser-solid-interaction effects. The object of this work was to determine whether x-ray absorption features were measurable in laser-produced plasmas from solid targets. X-ray emission was made using high-atomic-number microsphere targets irradiated with a focused beam of the Pharos laser while the laser-solid-interaction plasmas were generated by a second beam in Al foil targets. High-resolution, spatially resolved x-ray spectra were collected with instrumentation and geometry similar to previous tracer-dot spectroscopy measurements of plasma profile parameters. Soft x-ray absorption lines, observed at different distances from the aluminum target surface, may be related to density gradients in the laser-generated plasmas.

  6. Hydrographic network control of the spatial variation in tropical forest structure revealed by airborne LIDAR-derived mean canopy profile height (United States)

    Detto, M.; Muller-Landau, H.; Asner, G. P.; Mascaro, J.


    Hydrologic flow and connectivity are important determinants of ecological pattern and process. The watershed structure acts as a template for the spatial distribution of vegetation which self-organizes through local stress optimization within the network flow paths of the basin. These influences have long been recognized in riparian vegetation, deserts, savannas or other water-limited ecosystems. Here, we examine their importance in moist tropical forest. In dry ecosystems, water availability plays a crucial role in the spatial and temporal dynamics of vegetation, providing the most logical causal link with the drainage network, while in moist tropical forest this link is less apparent. Remote sensing offers an invaluable tool to start investigating these variations systematically on larger spatial extent. Recent advances in LiDAR techniques have made it possible to monitor forest structure with unprecedented resolution. Unlike other passive remote sensors, the LiDAR has the advantage to penetrate the canopy and give information on the whole profile, hence it is suitable to study heterogeneous dense forests. For example, LiDAR-derived products such as mean canopy height (MCH) are well correlated with carbon stocks in tropical areas. Furthermore, it provides an accurate digital elevation model (DEM) that perfectly matches the vegetation above. In this study we investigate the connection between the drainage network and LIDAR-derived MCH in a moist tropical forest in central Panama. The study area comprises thousands of hectares of mixed old-growth and old secondary forest in a relatively homogeneous geological formation with a very complex network of small streams that discharge into the Gatun Lake. These characteristics make the area ideal for studying the influence of the network on a relatively large area of land without confounding variation in lithological formation, forest type or climate. Our analysis shows important isotropic scale invariant properties of

  7. Investigation of neutral and ion dynamics in a HiPIMS plasma by tunable laser diode absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) (United States)

    Preissing, Patrick; Hecimovic, Ante; von Keudell, Achim


    High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharges are known for complex plasma interactions, and complex temporal and spatial dynamics. Spatial and temporal dynamic of argon metastable (Arm), Ti atom (Ti0) and Ti ion (Ti+) density and temperature is studied by an extended tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy setup (TDLAS) during a HiPIMS pulse. The TDLAS setup used a beam expander in combination with a 6 photo diode array to simultaneously measure spatial (resolution 5 mm) and time resolved absorption profiles of an Arm, Ti0 and Ti+ transition. This in combination with moving the magnetron in axial direction gives a complete 2D map of the density evolution. Temporal resolution of 400 ns was achieved by recording the photo diode signal on the National Instruments card. Final results allowed to investigate temporal evolution of the observed species in the volume between the target and the substrate.

  8. Reliable determination of tissue optical properties from spatially resolved reflectance (United States)

    Gladytz, Thomas; Hoppe, Alexander; Cantow, Kathleen; Pohlmann, Andreas; Flemming, Bert; Niendorf, Thoralf; Seeliger, Erdmann; Grosenick, Dirk


    Spatially resolved reflectance is a frequently used technique to derive optical properties and physiological parameters of tissue. We have evaluated the accuracy of this method by investigations on a set of phantoms with known optical properties derived from time-resolved measurements. The recorded profiles of spatially resolved reflectance were analyzed by a Monte Carlo model of photon transport. When we took only the shape of the measured profiles into account, we got only poor estimates of the optical properties. In particular, the absorption was strongly underestimated. The main reason for failing of this approach is that the shape of the measured profiles can be well described by many combinations of absorption and reduced scattering coefficients. The separation between scattering and absorption was strongly improved when the reflectance data were calibrated by using a reference phantom. We applied both the relative and the calibration based analysis method to reflectance data obtained from in vivo investigations on the kidney of rats. Despite the limited number of only 4 detector positions the calibration based analysis method yielded reliable estimates of the tissue optical properties.

  9. Are non-linearity effects of absorption important for MAX-DOAS observations? (United States)

    Pukite, Janis; Wang, Yang; Wagner, Thomas


    For scattered light observations the absorption optical depth depends non-linearly on the trace gas concentrations if their absorption is strong. This is the case because the Beer-Lambert law is generally not applicable for scattered light measurements due to many (i.e. more than one) light paths contributing to the measurement. While in many cases a linear approximation can be made, for scenarios with strong absorption non-linear effects cannot always be neglected. This is especially the case for observation geometries with spatially extended and diffuse light paths, especially in satellite limb geometry but also for nadir measurements as well. Fortunately the effects of non-linear effects can be quantified by means of expanding the radiative transfer equation in a Taylor series with respect to the trace gas absorption coefficients. Herewith if necessary (1) the higher order absorption structures can be described as separate fit parameters in the DOAS fit and (2) the algorithm constraints of retrievals of VCDs and profiles can be improved by considering higher order sensitivity parameters. In this study we investigate the contribution of the higher order absorption structures for MAX-DOAS observation geometry for different atmospheric and ground properties (cloud and aerosol effects, trace gas amount, albedo) and geometry (different Sun and viewing angles).


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soler, R.; Oliver, R.; Ballester, J. L.


    Transverse oscillations and propagating waves are frequently observed in threads of solar prominences/filaments and have been interpreted as kink magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes. We investigate the spatial damping of propagating kink MHD waves in transversely nonuniform and partially ionized prominence threads. Resonant absorption and ion-neutral collisions (Cowling's diffusion) are the damping mechanisms taken into account. The dispersion relation of resonant kink waves in a partially ionized magnetic flux tube is numerically solved by considering prominence conditions. Analytical expressions of the wavelength and damping length as functions of the kink mode frequency are obtained in the thin tube and thin boundary approximations. For typically reported periods of thread oscillations, resonant absorption is an efficient mechanism for the kink mode spatial damping, while ion-neutral collisions have a minor role. Cowling's diffusion dominates both the propagation and damping for periods much shorter than those observed. Resonant absorption may explain the observed spatial damping of kink waves in prominence threads. The transverse inhomogeneity length scale of the threads can be estimated by comparing the observed wavelengths and damping lengths with the theoretically predicted values. However, the ignorance of the form of the density profile in the transversely nonuniform layer introduces inaccuracies in the determination of the inhomogeneity length scale.

  11. Nutrition and magnesium absorption


    Brink, E.J.


    The influence of various nutrients present in dairy products and soybean-based products on absorption of magnesium has been investigated. The studies demonstrate that soybean protein versus casein lowers apparent magnesium absorption in rats through its phytate component. However, true magnesium absorption was neither affected by soybean protein in the diet nor by supplemental phytate. The inhibitory influence of soybean protein and phytate on apparent magnesium absorption was found ...

  12. Absorption and excretion tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berberich, R.


    The absorption and excretion of radiopharmaceuticals is still of interest in diagnostic investigations of nuclear medicine. In this paper the most common methods of measuring absorption and excretion are described. The performance of the different tests and their standard values are discussed. More over the basic possibilities of measuring absorption and excretion including the needed measurement equipments are presented. (orig.) [de

  13. Spatial variation in vegetation structure coupled to plant available water determined by two-dimensional soil resistivity profiling in a Brazilian savanna. (United States)

    Ferreira, Joice N; Bustamante, Mercedes; Garcia-Montiel, Diana C; Caylor, Kelly K; Davidson, Eric A


    Tropical savannas commonly exhibit large spatial heterogeneity in vegetation structure. Fine-scale patterns of soil moisture, particularly in the deeper soil layers, have not been well investigated as factors possibly influencing vegetation patterns in savannas. Here we investigate the role of soil water availability and heterogeneity related to vegetation structure in an area of the Brazilian savanna (Cerrado). Our objective was to determine whether horizontal spatial variations of soil water are coupled with patterns of vegetation structure across tens of meters. We applied a novel methodological approach to convert soil electrical resistivity measurements along three 275-m transects to volumetric water content and then to estimates of plant available water (PAW). Structural attributes of the woody vegetation, including plant position, height, basal circumference, crown dimensions, and leaf area index, were surveyed within twenty-two 100-m(2) plots along the same transects, where no obvious vegetation gradients had been apparent. Spatial heterogeneity was evaluated through measurements of spatial autocorrelation in both PAW and vegetation structure. Comparisons with null models suggest that plants were randomly distributed over the transect with the greatest mean PAW and lowest PAW heterogeneity, and clustered in the driest and most heterogeneous transect. Plant density was positively related with PAW in the top 4 m of soil. The density-dependent vegetation attributes that are related to plot biomass, such as sum of tree heights per plot, exhibited spatial variation patterns that were remarkably similar to spatial variation of PAW in the top 4 m of soil. For PAW below 4 m depth, mean vegetation attributes, such as mean height, were negatively correlated with PAW, suggesting greater water uptake from the deep soil by plants of larger stature. These results are consistent with PAW heterogeneity being an important structuring factor in the plant distribution at the

  14. Calcium absorption and achlorhydria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recker, R.R.


    Defective absorption of calcium has been thought to exist in patients with achlorhydria. The author compared absorption of calcium in its carbonate form with that in a pH-adjusted citrate form in a group of 11 fasting patients with achlorhydria and in 9 fasting normal subjects. Fractional calcium absorption was measured by a modified double-isotope procedure with 0.25 g of calcium used as the carrier. Mean calcium absorption (+/- S.D.) in the patients with achlorhydria was 0.452 +/- 0.125 for citrate and 0.042 +/- 0.021 for carbonate (P less than 0.0001). Fractional calcium absorption in the normal subjects was 0.243 +/- 0.049 for citrate and 0.225 +/- 0.108 for carbonate (not significant). Absorption of calcium from carbonate in patients with achlorhydria was significantly lower than in the normal subjects and was lower than absorption from citrate in either group; absorption from citrate in those with achlorhydria was significantly higher than in the normal subjects, as well as higher than absorption from carbonate in either group. Administration of calcium carbonate as part of a normal breakfast resulted in completely normal absorption in the achlorhydric subjects. These results indicate that calcium absorption from carbonate is impaired in achlorhydria under fasting conditions. Since achlorhydria is common in older persons, calcium carbonate may not be the ideal dietary supplement

  15. An alternative coefficient for sound absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnant, Ysbrand H.; Kuipers, E.R.; de Boer, Andries; Sas, P; Jonckheere, S.; Moens, D.


    The acoustic absorption coefficient is a number that indicates which fraction of the incident acoustic power impinging on a surface is being absorbed. The incident acoustic power is obtained by spatial integration of the incident intensity, which is (classically) defined as the time-averaged

  16. [Study on lead absorption in pumpkin by atomic absorption spectrophotometry]. (United States)

    Li, Zhen-Xia; Sun, Yong-Dong; Chen, Bi-Hua; Li, Xin-Zheng


    A study was carried out on the characteristic of lead absorption in pumpkin via atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed that lead absorption amount in pumpkin increased with time, but the absorption rate decreased with time; And the lead absorption amount reached the peak in pH 7. Lead and cadmium have similar characteristic of absorption in pumpkin.

  17. Absorption heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formigoni, C.


    A brief description of the difference between a compression and an absorption heat pump is made, and the reasons why absorption systems have spread lately are given. Studies and projects recently started in the field of absorption heat pumps, as well as criteria usually followed in project development are described. An outline (performance targets, basic components) of a project on a water/air absorption heat pump, running on natural gas or LPG, is given. The project was developed by the Robur Group as an evolution of a water absorption refrigerator operating with a water/ammonia solution, which has been on the market for a long time and recently innovated. Finally, a list of the main energy and cost advantages deriving from the use of absorption heat pumps is made [it

  18. Carbon Dioxide Absorption in a Membrane Contactor with Color Change (United States)

    Pantaleao, Ines; Portugal, Ana F.; Mendes, Adelio; Gabriel, Joaquim


    A pedagogical experiment is described to examine the physical absorption of gases, in this case carbon dioxide, in a hollow fiber membrane contactor (HFMC) where the absorption concentration profile can be followed by a color change. The HFMC is used to teach important concepts and can be used in interesting applications for students, such as…

  19. Solar absorption surface panel (United States)

    Santala, Teuvo J.


    A composite metal of aluminum and nickel is used to form an economical solar absorption surface for a collector plate wherein an intermetallic compound of the aluminum and nickel provides a surface morphology with high absorptance and relatively low infrared emittance along with good durability.

  20. Nutrition and magnesium absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, E.J.


    The influence of various nutrients present in dairy products and soybean-based products on absorption of magnesium has been investigated. The studies demonstrate that soybean protein versus casein lowers apparent magnesium absorption in rats through its phytate component. However, true

  1. Zeeman atomic absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loos-Vollebregt, M.T.C. de.


    A new method of background correction in atomic absorption spectroscopy has recently been introduced, based on the Zeeman splitting of spectral lines in a magnetic field. A theoretical analysis of the background correction capability observed in such instruments is presented. A Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometer utilizing a 50 Hz sine wave modulated magnetic field is described. (Auth.)

  2. Simultaneous in situ characterisation of bubble dynamics and a spatially resolved concentration profile: a combined Mach–Zehnder holography and confocal Raman-spectroscopy sensor system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Guhathakurta


    Full Text Available For a reaction between a gaseous phase and a liquid phase, the interaction between the hydrodynamic conditions, mass transport and reaction kinetics plays a crucial role with respect to the conversion and selectivity of the process. Within this work, a sensor system was developed to simultaneously characterise the bubble dynamics and the localised concentration measurement around the bubbles. The sensor system is a combination of a digital Mach–Zehnder holography subsystem to measure bubble dynamics and a confocal Raman-spectroscopy subsystem to measure localised concentration. The combined system was used to investigate the chemical absorption of CO2 bubbles in caustic soda in microchannels. The proposed set-up is explained and characterised in detail and the experimental results are presented, illustrating the capability of the sensor system to simultaneously measure the localised concentration of the carbonate ion with a good limit of detection and the 3-D position of the bubble with respect to the spot where the concentration was measured.

  3. The spatial extent of the Deep Western Boundary Current into the Bounty Trough: new evidence from parasound sub-bottom profiling (United States)

    Horn, Michael; Uenzelmann-Neben, Gabriele


    Deep currents such as the Pacific Deep Western Boundary Current (DWBC) are strengthened periodically in Milankovitch cycles. We studied periodic fluctuations in seismic reflection pattern and reflection amplitude in order to detect cycles in the sedimentary layers of Bounty Trough and bounty fan, east of New Zealand. There, the occurrence of the obliquity frequency is caused only by the DWBC. Therefore, it provides direct evidence for the spatial extent of the DWBC. We can confirm the extent of the DWBC west of the outer sill, previously only inferred via erosional features at the outer sill. Further, our data allow an estimation of the extent of the DWBC into the Bounty Trough, limiting the DWBC presence to east of 178.15°E. Using the presented method a larger dataset will allow a chronological and areal mapping of sedimentation processes and hence provide information on glacial/interglacial cycles.

  4. Adaptive shaping system for both spatial and temporal profiles of a highly stabilized UV laser light source for a photocathode RF gun (United States)

    Tomizawa, H.; Dewa, H.; Taniuchi, T.; Mizuno, A.; Asaka, T.; Yanagida, K.; Suzuki, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Hanaki, H.; Matsui, F.


    We have been developing a stable and highly qualified ultraviolet (UV) laser pulse as a light source of an RF gun for an injector candidate of future light sources. Our gun cavity is a single-cell pillbox, and the copper inner wall is used as a photocathode. The chirped pulse amplification (CPA) Ti:sapphire laser system is operated at a repetition rate of 10 Hz. At the third harmonic generation (central wavelength—263 nm), the laser pulse energy after a 45 cm silica rod is up to 850 μJ/pulse. In its present status, the laser's pulse energy stability has been improved down to 0.2˜0.3% at the fundamental, and 0.7-1.4% (rms; 10 pps; 33,818 shots) at the third harmonic generation, respectively. This stability has been held for 1 month continuously, 24 h a day. The improvements we had passively implemented were to stabilize the laser system as well as the environmental conditions. We introduced a humidity-control system kept at 50-60% in a clean room to reduce damage to the optics. In addition, we prepared a deformable mirror for spatial shaping and a spatial light modulator based on fused-silica plates for temporal shaping. We are applying both the adaptive optics to automatic optimization of the electron beam bunch to produce lower emittance with the feedback routine. Before the improvements, the electron beam produced from a cathode suffered inhomogeneous distribution caused by the quantum efficiency effect, and some pulse distortions caused by its response time. However, we can now freely form any arbitrary electron beam distribution on the surface of the cathode.

  5. Real-time, profile-corrected single snapshot imaging of optical properties (United States)

    van de Giessen, Martijn; Angelo, Joseph P.; Gioux, Sylvain


    A novel acquisition and processing method that enables real-time, single snapshot of optical properties (SSOP) and 3-dimensional (3D) profile measurements in the spatial frequency domain is described. This method makes use of a dual sinusoidal wave projection pattern permitting to extract the DC and AC components in the frequency domain to recover optical properties as well as the phase for measuring the 3D profile. In this method, the 3D profile is used to correct for the effect of sample’s height and angle and directly obtain profile-corrected absorption and reduced scattering maps from a single acquired image. In this manuscript, the 3D-SSOP method is described and validated on tissue-mimicking phantoms as well as in vivo, in comparison with the standard profile-corrected SFDI (3D-SFDI) method. On average, in comparison with 3D-SFDI method, the 3D-SSOP method allows to recover the profile within 1.2mm and profile-corrected optical properties within 12% for absorption and 6% for reduced scattering over a large field-of-view and in real-time. PMID:26504653

  6. Uranium absorption study pile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raievski, V.; Sautiez, B.


    The report describes a pile designed to measure the absorption of fuel slugs. The pile is of graphite and comprises a central section composed of uranium rods in a regular lattice. RaBe sources and BF 3 counters are situated on either side of the center. A given uranium charge is compared with a specimen charge of about 560 kg, and the difference in absorption between the two noted. The sensitivity of the equipment will detect absorption variations of about a few ppm boron (10 -6 boron per gr. of uranium) or better. (author) [fr

  7. Concentration and spatial distribution of organophosphate esters in the soil-sediment profile of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal: Implication for risk assessment. (United States)

    Yadav, Ishwar Chandra; Devi, Ningombam Linthoingambi; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Covaci, Adrian


    Despite the fact that soil and sediments, which act as a sink or potential source of organic pollutants, have been polluted with organophosphate esters (OPEs) around the globe, extremely constrained data is accessible on environmental concentration and fate of OPEs in solid matrices in whole of the South Asia particularly if there should be an occurrence in Nepal. In this study, surface soil (N=19) and sediments samples (N=20) were analyzed for eight different OPE in Kathmandu Valley during October 2014. The concentration of ∑ 8 OPE measured in sediments samples was 12 times higher than soil and ranged 983-7460ng/g dw (median 2210ng/g dw) and 65-27,500ng/g dw (186ng/g dw), respectively. TMPP was most abundant in soil followed by TCIPP, TEHP and EHDPHP and ranged 17-25,300ng/g dw (41.3ng/g dw), 11.2-911ng/g dw (31.7ng/g dw), 8.52-858ng/g dw (26.1ng/g dw) and 10.2-114ng/g dw (25.6ng/g dw), respectively. TEHP was most prevalent in sediments followed by TMPP and EHDPHP and were in the range of 657-3020ng/g dw (median 1140ng/g dw), 267-2630ng/g dw (median 815g/g dw), 34-418ng/g (median 131ng/g dw), respectively. The sources of the high level of OPEs in soil was related to the end point use of consumer materials, traffic emission, and close proximity to commercial and industrial areas; while domestic sewage discharges and effluents from carpet industry were identified as the possible entry of OPE in sediments. Total organic carbon (TOC) and black carbon (BC) content in soil were moderately and positively correlated with ∑ 8 OPE indicating more or less influence of soil organic carbon. The health risk assessment suggested dermal absorption of OPEs via soil is the primary pathway of human exposure to the general population. The significantly high-risk quotient (RQ) estimated for ∑ 8 OPEs especially TMPP and TPHP suggested significant potential adverse risk for aquatic organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Revisiting Absorptive Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Araújo, Ana Luiza Lara; Ulhøi, John Parm; Lettl, Christopher

    learning processes of absorptive capacity, which comprise combinative and adaptive capabilities. Drawing on survey data (n=169), the study concludes that combinative capabilities primarily enhance transformative and exploratory learning processes, while adaptive capabilities strengthen all three learning......Absorptive capacity has mostly been perceived as a 'passive' outcome of R&D investments. Recently, however, a growing interest into its 'proactive' potentials has emerged. This paper taps into this development and proposes a dynamic model for conceptualizing the determinants of the complementary...

  9. Design, Construction, and Initial Test of High Spatial Resolution Thermometry Arrays for Detection of Surface Temperature Profiles on SRF Cavities in Super Fluid Helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ari Palczewski, Rongli Geng, Grigory Eremeev


    We designed and built two high resolution (0.6-0.55mm special resolution [1.1-1.2mm separation]) thermometry arrays prototypes out of the Allen Bradley 90-120 ohm 1/8 watt resistor to measure surface temperature profiles on SRF cavities. One array was designed to be physically flexible and conform to any location on a SRF cavity; the other was modeled after the common G-10/stycast 2850 thermometer and designed to fit on the equator of an ILC (Tesla 1.3GHz) SRF cavity. We will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each array and their construction. In addition we will present a case study of the arrays performance on a real SRF cavity TB9NR001. TB9NR001 presented a unique opportunity to test the performance of each array as it contained a dual (4mm separation) cat eye defect which conventional methods such as OST (Oscillating Superleak second-sound Transducers) and full coverage thermometry mapping were unable to distinguish between. We will discuss the new arrays ability to distinguish between the two defects and their preheating performance.

  10. Perfil de nascimentos no Município do Rio de Janeiro: uma análise espacial Birth profile for the city of Rio de Janeiro: a spatial analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora d'Orsi


    Full Text Available Neste artigo analisou-se o perfil de nascimentos por bairros do Município do Rio de Janeiro, utilizando-se os dados do Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos de 1994. Foram empregados mapas de padrão e o teste estatístico I de Moran para detecção de cluster espacial. As proporções de nascidos vivos com Apgar entre oito e dez, de cesáreas, de mães com escolaridade acima de segundo grau e de mães adolescentes apresentaram padrão espacial visualmente identificável e autocorrelação espacial significativa. O baixo peso apresentou padrão espacial aleatório, demonstrando que, nesta escala de análise, este indicador não discrimina grupos de risco, apesar do seu inquestionável valor preditivo para morbi-mortalidade infantil em nível individual. O Apgar, apesar do elevado número de não-resposta em alguns bairros, apresenta padrão mais consistente com a distribuição dos bairros, devendo, por isso, ser mais utilizado. Esta metodologia permitiu aprofundar o conhecimento sobre o perfil de nascimentos no Município, apresentando potencial no direcionamento de ações voltadas para áreas específicas.This article analyzes the birth profile by neighborhood in the city of Rio de Janeiro, using data for 1994 from the Data Base on Live Births. Pattern maps were employed in addition to the Moran I statistical test to detect spatial clustering. Proportions of live newborns with an Apgar score of 8-10, cesareans, mothers with greater than a secondary school education, and teenage mothers displayed visually identifiable spatial patterns and significant spatial self-correlation. Low birth weight displayed a random pattern, indicating that on this scale of analysis, this indicator does not distinguish risk groups, despite its unquestionable predictive value for child morbidity/mortality at the individual level. The Apgar score, despite the high number of non-responses in some neighborhoods, showed a pattern more consistent with the

  11. Absorption fluids data survey (United States)

    Macriss, R. A.; Zawacki, T. S.

    Development of improved data for the thermodynamic, transport and physical properties of absorption fluids were studied. A specific objective of this phase of the study is to compile, catalog and coarse screen the available US data of known absorption fluid systems and publish it as a first edition document to be distributed to manufacturers, researchers and others active in absorption heat pump activities. The methodology and findings of the compilation, cataloguing and coarse screening of the available US data on absorption fluid properties and presents current status and future work on this project are summarized. Both in house file and literature searches were undertaken to obtain available US publications with pertinent physical, thermodynamic and transport properties data for absorption fluids. Cross checks of literature searches were also made, using available published bibliographies and literature review articles, to eliminate secondary sources for the data and include only original sources and manuscripts. The properties of these fluids relate to the liquid and/or vapor state, as encountered in normal operation of absorption equipment employing such fluids, and to the crystallization boundary of the liquid phase, where applicable. The actual data were systematically classified according to the type of fluid and property, as well as temperature, pressure and concentration ranges over which data were available. Data were sought for 14 different properties: Vapor-Liquid Equilibria, Crystallization Temperature, Corrosion Characteristics, Heat of Mixing, Liquid-Phase-Densities, Vapor-Liquid-Phase Enthalpies, Specific Heat, Stability, Viscosity, Mass Transfer Rate, Heat Transfer Rate, Thermal Conductivity, Flammability, and Toxicity.

  12. Absorption cooling device. Absorptions-Kuehlvorrichtung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourne, J.; Vardi, I.; Kimchi, Y.; Ben-Dror, J.


    The invention concerns improvements of absorption refrigerators, where a lithium chloride or lithium bromide/water cycle is used. According to the invention an inner separating or dividing structure between different functional parts of a machine of this type is provided. The structure contains two sections of wall, which are separated from one another by a suitable space, in order to achieve thermal insulation. This air space is provided with an opening in the direction towards the inside of the container and the opening is shielded to prevent the entry of liquids (in liquid or spray form).

  13. UV laser long-path absorption spectroscopy (United States)

    Dorn, Hans-Peter; Brauers, Theo; Neuroth, Rudolf


    absorption measurements some specific problems of those detectors have to be solved experimentally (i.e. fixed pattern noise, dark signal noise, nonuniform efficiency of individual elements, spatial sensitivity variations). In order to improve the low spatial resolution we performed laboratory studies using a multiple reflection cell to convert the long path technique to a real in situ point measurement. Under the conditions of field experiments in Julich residual absorbance signals at present are about 1.5x10(exp -4) corresponding to an OH detection sensitivity of 2x10(exp 6) OH/cm(exp 3) using a light path of 5.8 km. Total integration times for one measurement point vary between a few minutes and an hour.

  14. Seventh annual symposium on the anomalous absorption of intense high-frequency waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Abstracts are given for fifty-five papers presented at the conference. The papers covered the following topics: profile modification and related phenomena, nonlinear wave-plasma interactions, profile modification and resonance absorption, fast particles and related phenomena, anomalous transport, magnetic field effects, and absorption and other experiments

  15. Spatial Sense. (United States)

    Del Grande, John


    Describes seven spatial abilities related to mathematics including eye-motor coordination, figure-ground perception, perceptual constancy, position-in-space perception, perception of spatial relationships, visual discrimination, and visual memory. Discusses the relationship of the spatial abilities to the study of geometry. Lists 19 references.…

  16. Vitamin A absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, S.J.


    Investigation of the absorption of vitamin A and related substances is complicated by the multiplicity of forms in which they occur in the diet and by the possibility that they may be subject to different mechanisms of absorption. Present knowledge of these mechanisms is inadequate, especially in the case of carotenoids. Numerous tests of absorption have been developed. The most common has been the biochemical measurement of the rise in plasma vitamin A after an oral dose of retinol or retinyl ester, but standardization is inadequate. Radioisotope tests based upon assay of serum or faecal activity following oral administration of tritiated vitamin A derivaties hold considerable promise, but again standardization is inadequate. From investigations hitherto performed it is known that absorption of vitamin A is influenced by several diseases, although as yet the consistency of results and the correlation with other tests of intestinal function have often been poor. However, the test of vitamin A absorption is nevertheless of clinical importance as a specialized measure of intestinal function. (author)

  17. Extent and structure of intervening absorbers from absorption lines redshifted on quasar emission lines (United States)

    Bergeron, J.; Boissé, P.


    Aims: We wish to study the extent and sub-parsec spatial structure of intervening quasar absorbers, mainly those involving cold neutral and molecular gas. Methods: We have selected quasar absorption systems with high spectral resolution and a good signal-to-noise ratio data, with some of their lines falling on quasar emission features. By investigating the consistency of absorption profiles seen for lines formed either against the quasar continuum source or on the much more extended (Lyα-N v, C iv or Lyβ-O vi) emission line region (ELR), we can probe the extent and structure of the foreground absorber over the extent of the ELR ( 0.3-1 pc). The spatial covering analysis provides constraints on the transverse size of the absorber and thus is complementary to variability or photoionisation modelling studies, which yield information on the absorber size along the line of sight. The methods we used to identify spatial covering or structure effects involve line profile fitting and curve-of-growth analysis. Results: We have detected three absorbers with unambiguous non-uniformity effects in neutral gas. For the extreme case of the Fe I absorber at zabs = 0.45206 towards HE 0001-2340, we derive a coverage factor of the ELR of at most 0.10 and possibly very close to zero; this implies an overall absorber size no larger than 0.06 pc. For the zabs = 2.41837 C I absorber towards QSO J1439+1117, absorption is significantly stronger towards the ELR than towards the continuum source in several C I and C I⋆ velocity components, pointing to spatial variations of their column densities of about a factor of two and to structures at the 100 au-0.1 pc scale. The other systems with firm or possible effects can be described in terms of a partial covering of the ELR, with coverage factors in the range 0.7-1. The overall results for cold neutral absorbers imply a transverse extent of about five times the ELR size or smaller, which is consistent with other known constraints. Although

  18. Gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, R.P.; Oldham, R.D.; Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Moretti, E.S.; Austin, D.J.


    An investigation has been made of the effect of the oxidation state of plutonium on its absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. For mice and rats that have been starved prior to gastrointestinal administration, there is no significant difference between the absorption factors for Pu(IV) and Pu(VI). The value obtained for Pu(VI) is an order of magnitude lower than that reported previously. The value obtained for Pu(IV) is two orders of magnitude higher than those reported previously for nitrate solutions and the same as those reported for citrate solutions

  19. Quantum Absorption Refrigerator (United States)

    Levy, Amikam; Kosloff, Ronnie


    A quantum absorption refrigerator driven by noise is studied with the purpose of determining the limitations of cooling to absolute zero. The model consists of a working medium coupled simultaneously to hot, cold, and noise baths. Explicit expressions for the cooling power are obtained for Gaussian and Poisson white noise. The quantum model is consistent with the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The third law is quantified; the cooling power Jc vanishes as Jc∝Tcα, when Tc→0, where α=d+1 for dissipation by emission and absorption of quanta described by a linear coupling to a thermal bosonic field, where d is the dimension of the bath.

  20. Modern equations of diffractometry. Profile generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.J.


    It is possible to construct an integral which expresses the shape of diffraction spots exactly on the kinematical model, provided that phonon coupling and absorption are negligible. The integral is a function of two distributions describing quite generally the imperfections in the crystal and the beam. In the development, both the Ewald sphere and the diffraction plane are superseded by an infinitely extended quartic surface in reciprocal space reminiscent of an open tulip flower. The finite dual surface which would allow the calculation to be performed entirely in direct space is also described briefly. The method of linearizing the integral is given so that it can be used in the development and verification of profile-analysis algorithms for use with area-detector diffractometers and cameras, whether they be of the functional expansion or of the histogramming type. It is shown that in Gaussian approximation a single second-rank quantity dominates the shapes of every spot in a diffraction pattern, determining both the angular and spatial profiles simultaneously. This same approximation is the ideal zeroth-order expansion of a Weber-Hermite function profile analysis to be described in a later paper. (orig.)

  1. Chemical Absorption Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kaj


    Chemical absorption materials that potentially can be used for post combustion carbon dioxide capture are discussed. They fall into five groups, alkanolamines, alkali carbonates, ammonia, amino acid salts, and ionic liquids. The chemistry of the materials is discussed and advantages and drawbacks...

  2. Neutron resonance absorption theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuss, P.


    After some recalls on the physics of neutron resonance absorption during their slowing down, this paper presents the main features of the theoretical developments performed by the french school of reactor physics: the effective reaction rate method so called Livolant-Jeanpierre theory, the generalizations carried out by the author, and the probability table method [fr

  3. Absorption of cosmic radio noise at different frequencies at Sanae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steyn, T.F.J.


    Electron density profiles are simulated as a function of altitude for the D- and E-regions during disturbed ionospheric conditions using auroral absorption data from riometers recording cosmic radio noise at 20, 30 and 51 MHz at Sanae, Antarctica. An elliptical function was used to simulate, as a function of height, the electron density profiles. Using these profiles the measured absorption was calculated by utilizing the Appleton-Hartree treatment for radio waves crossing the ionosphere. The frequency dependence of the riometer absorption is represented by a power law of the frequency: A(f) = C.f -n , and values of n were determined from calculations of the absorptions from the simulated electron density profiles. This power law is a fairly accurate representation in the frequency range 20 to 51 MHz. It appears that the exponent of the power law and the height of maximum absorption are effective parameters to determine the hardness of the energy spectra of precipitating electrons. A method is discussed whereby interferences on the riometer recordings are filtered from the data. Quiet day curves are obtained by the superposition of successive riometer recordings with a period of one sidereal day. A Fourier series is fitted to the points of maximum density to represent the quiet day recordings. Absorption events on day 175 and day 178 (1982) are analized for each riometer frequency, and the hardness of the precipitating electrons is inferred from the n-values of power law presentation. It is shown that the absorption of cosmic radio noise increases by increasing the depth of ionization without increasing the ionization rate (number of electrons /m 3 ) in the upper D-region. This may mean that a hardening of a precipitation spectrum will increase the absorption of cosmic radio noise

  4. Optical absorption of carbon-gold core-shell nanoparticles (United States)

    Wang, Zhaolong; Quan, Xiaojun; Zhang, Zhuomin; Cheng, Ping


    In order to enhance the solar thermal energy conversion efficiency, we propose to use carbon-gold core-shell nanoparticles dispersed in liquid water. This work demonstrates theoretically that an absorbing carbon (C) core enclosed in a plasmonic gold (Au) nanoshell can enhance the absorption peak while broadening the absorption band; giving rise to a much higher solar absorption than most previously studied core-shell combinations. The exact Mie solution is used to evaluate the absorption efficiency factor of spherical nanoparticles in the wavelength region from 300 nm to 1100 nm as well as the electric field and power dissipation profiles inside the nanoparticles at specified wavelengths (mostly at the localized surface plasmon resonance wavelength). The field enhancement by the localized plasmons at the gold surfaces boosts the absorption of the carbon particle, resulting in a redshift of the absorption peak with increased peak height and bandwidth. In addition to spherical nanoparticles, we use the finite-difference time-domain method to calculate the absorption of cubic core-shell nanoparticles. Even stronger enhancement can be achieved with cubic C-Au core-shell structures due to the localized plasmonic resonances at the sharp edges of the Au shell. The solar absorption efficiency factor can exceed 1.5 in the spherical case and reach 2.3 in the cubic case with a shell thickness of 10 nm. Such broadband absorption enhancement is in great demand for solar thermal applications including steam generation.

  5. Absorptive Capacity and Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristinsson, Kári

    international business, organizational economics, strategic management, technology management and last but not least neo-Schumpeterian economics. The goal of this dissertation is to examine what many consider as neglected arguments from the work by Cohen and Levinthal and thereby illuminate an otherwise......One of the most influential contributions to neo-Schumpeterian economics is Cohen and Levinthal‘s papers on absorptive capacity. Since their publication in the late 1980s and early 1990s the concept absorptive capacity has had substantial impact on research in economics and management, including...... overlooked area of research. Although research based on Cohen and Levinthal‘s work has made considerable impact, there is scarcity of research on certain fundamental points argued by Cohen and Levinthal. Among these is the importance of employee diversity as well as the type and nature of interaction between...

  6. Spatial Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper contains a brief description of the most important operations that can be performed on spatial data such as spatial queries, create, update, insert, delete operations, conversions, operations on the map or analysis on grid cells. Each operation has a graphical example and some of them have code examples in Oracle and PostgreSQL.

  7. Spatializing Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bodil Marie Stavning


    The article analyses some of artist Søren Lose's photographic installations in which time, history and narration is reflected in the creation of allegoric, spatial relations.......The article analyses some of artist Søren Lose's photographic installations in which time, history and narration is reflected in the creation of allegoric, spatial relations....

  8. In Silico Modeling of Gastrointestinal Drug Absorption: Predictive Performance of Three Physiologically Based Absorption Models. (United States)

    Sjögren, Erik; Thörn, Helena; Tannergren, Christer


    Gastrointestinal (GI) drug absorption is a complex process determined by formulation, physicochemical and biopharmaceutical factors, and GI physiology. Physiologically based in silico absorption models have emerged as a widely used and promising supplement to traditional in vitro assays and preclinical in vivo studies. However, there remains a lack of comparative studies between different models. The aim of this study was to explore the strengths and limitations of the in silico absorption models Simcyp 13.1, GastroPlus 8.0, and GI-Sim 4.1, with respect to their performance in predicting human intestinal drug absorption. This was achieved by adopting an a priori modeling approach and using well-defined input data for 12 drugs associated with incomplete GI absorption and related challenges in predicting the extent of absorption. This approach better mimics the real situation during formulation development where predictive in silico models would be beneficial. Plasma concentration-time profiles for 44 oral drug administrations were calculated by convolution of model-predicted absorption-time profiles and reported pharmacokinetic parameters. Model performance was evaluated by comparing the predicted plasma concentration-time profiles, Cmax, tmax, and exposure (AUC) with observations from clinical studies. The overall prediction accuracies for AUC, given as the absolute average fold error (AAFE) values, were 2.2, 1.6, and 1.3 for Simcyp, GastroPlus, and GI-Sim, respectively. The corresponding AAFE values for Cmax were 2.2, 1.6, and 1.3, respectively, and those for tmax were 1.7, 1.5, and 1.4, respectively. Simcyp was associated with underprediction of AUC and Cmax; the accuracy decreased with decreasing predicted fabs. A tendency for underprediction was also observed for GastroPlus, but there was no correlation with predicted fabs. There were no obvious trends for over- or underprediction for GI-Sim. The models performed similarly in capturing dependencies on dose and

  9. Sound absorption of snow


    Maysenhölder, W.; Schneebeli, M.; Zhou, X.; Zhang, T.; Heggli, M.


    Recently fallen snow possesses good sound-absorbing properties. This fact is well-known and confirmed by measurements. Is the filigree structure of snowflakes decisive? In principle we know that the sound-absorbing capacity of a porous material is dependent on its structure. But until now the question as to which structural characteristics are significant has been insufficiently answered. Detailed investigations of snow are to explain this fact by precise measurements of the sound absorption,...

  10. Total Absorption Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio, B.; Gelletly, W.


    The problem of determining the distribution of beta decay strength (B(GT)) as a function of excitation energy in the daughter nucleus is discussed. Total Absorption Spectroscopy is shown to provide a way of determining the B(GT) precisely. A brief history of such measurements and a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of this technique, is followed by examples of two recent studies using the technique. (authors)

  11. Relic Neutrino Absorption Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberle, b


    Resonant annihilation of extremely high-energy cosmic neutrinos on big-bang relic anti-neutrinos (and vice versa) into Z-bosons leads to sizable absorption dips in the neutrino flux to be observed at Earth. The high-energy edges of these dips are fixed, via the resonance energies, by the neutrino masses alone. Their depths are determined by the cosmic neutrino background density, by the cosmological parameters determining the expansion rate of the universe, and by the large redshift history of the cosmic neutrino sources. We investigate the possibility of determining the existence of the cosmic neutrino background within the next decade from a measurement of these absorption dips in the neutrino flux. As a by-product, we study the prospects to infer the absolute neutrino mass scale. We find that, with the presently planned neutrino detectors (ANITA, Auger, EUSO, OWL, RICE, and SalSA) operating in the relevant energy regime above 10{sup 21} eV, relic neutrino absorption spectroscopy becomes a realistic possibility. It requires, however, the existence of extremely powerful neutrino sources, which should be opaque to nucleons and high-energy photons to evade present constraints. Furthermore, the neutrino mass spectrum must be quasi-degenerate to optimize the dip, which implies m{sub {nu}} 0.1 eV for the lightest neutrino. With a second generation of neutrino detectors, these demanding requirements can be relaxed considerably.

  12. Neutron absorption constraints on the composition of 4 Vesta (United States)

    Prettyman, Thomas H.; Mittlefehldt, David W.; Yamashita, Naoyuki; Beck, Andrew W.; Feldman, William C.; Hendricks, John S.; Lawrence, David J.; McCoy, Timothy J.; McSween, Harry Y.; Paplowski, Patrick N.; Reedy, Robert C.; Toplis, Michael J.; Le Corre, Lucille; Mizzon, Hugau; Reddy, Vishnu; Titus, Timothy N.; Raymond, Carol A.; Russell, Christopher T.


    Global maps of the macroscopic thermal neutron absorption cross section of Vesta's regolith by the Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector (GRaND) on board the NASA Dawn spacecraft provide constraints on the abundance and distribution of Fe, Ca, Al, Mg, and other rock-forming elements. From a circular, polar low-altitude mapping orbit, GRaND sampled the regolith to decimeter depths with a spatial resolution of about 300 km. At this spatial scale, the variation in neutron absorption is about seven times lower than that of the Moon. The observed variation is consistent with the range of absorption for howardite whole-rock compositions, which further supports the connection between Vesta and the howardite, eucrite, and diogenite meteorites. We find a strong correlation between neutron absorption and the percentage of eucritic materials in howardites and polymict breccias, which enables petrologic mapping of Vesta's surface. The distribution of basaltic eucrite and diogenite determined from neutron absorption measurements is qualitatively similar to that indicated by visible and near infrared spectroscopy. The Rheasilvia basin and ejecta blanket has relatively low absorption, consistent with Mg-rich orthopyroxene. Based on a combination of Fe and neutron absorption measurements, olivine-rich lithologies are not detected on the spatial scales sampled by GRaND. The sensitivity of GRaND to the presence of mantle material is described and implications for the absence of an olivine signature are discussed. High absorption values found in Vesta's “dark” hemisphere, where exogenic hydrogen has accumulated, indicate that this region is richer in basaltic eucrite, representative of Vesta's ancient upper crust.

  13. Nonlinear Absorptions in Liquids Studied by Laser - Anharmonic Thermal Gratings. (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao-Rong

    In an absorbing medium, nonlinear absorption at a crossed-beam interference pattern creates, through absorptive heating, a temperature modulation containing harmonics of the spatial frequency of the excitation interference pattern, and the temperature dependence of the refractive index then results in an anharmonic volume index grating. A probe beam incident at the Bragg angle for a given spatial harmonic grating will produce a single diffraction order. By measuring the excitation intensity dependence of diffraction efficiencies at several Bragg angles, one can distinguish between various mechanisms of nonlinear absorption. In this dissertation, nonlinear absorption by organic molecules in liquids, with a focus on the sequential two-step absorption, has been studied by a laser-induced anharmonic thermal grating techniques. The nonlinear absorption of all-trans- beta-carotene, a biologically important natural product, in liquids is first investigated, and the results indicate that nonlinear absorption of beta -carotene in hexane is caused by the excited-state absorption, and while the saturation observed in chloroform is due to formation of a long-lived photoisomer. The effect of photoisomerization on saturated absorption of the cyanine laser dye DODCI in alcohols is then examined. It is found that the weaker absorption by the photoisomer and reverse -photoisomerization have made saturation of optical absorption of DODCI difficult. A general numerical method is developed for the first time to treat rigorously the problem of diffraction from anharmonic Gaussian volume gratings. It shows that the previously developed quasi-plane wave approximation (QPWA) theory is valid only at the weak saturation limit for a saturation absorption model. Finally, anomalous dependence of diffraction intensities on the excitation intensity for two tricarbocyanine dyes is observed. A careful analysis shows that it is caused by diffraction from multiple thermal gratings with a 180^ circ

  14. Laser light absorption and reflection in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruer, W.; Valeo, E.; Estabrook, K.; Thomson, J.; Langdon, B.; Lasinski, B.


    Mechanisms by which intense laser light energy is absorbed or reflected by a hot, dense plasma are of central concern in laser fusion studies. Extensive computer simulations show that the plasma waves responsible for absorption near the critical density are produced by instabilities, resonant excitation and, more generally, by off-resonant coupling by non-linearly produced ion density fluctuations. Non-linear modifications in the plasma density profile are found to play a key role in the light absorption. DC magnetic fields large enough to affect electron transport are observed in computer simulations of intense obliquely incident light, even in the absence of irradiation asymmetry. Finally, plasma heating near one-fourth the critical density and the role of bandwidth as a means to control Brillouin reflection are discussed. (author)

  15. Midinfrared absorption measured at a lambda/400 resolution with an atomic force microscope. (United States)

    Houel, Julien; Homeyer, Estelle; Sauvage, Sébastien; Boucaud, Philippe; Dazzi, Alexandre; Prazeres, Rui; Ortéga, Jean-Michel


    Midinfrared absorption can be locally measured using a detection combining an atomic force microscope and a pulsed excitation. This is illustrated for the midinfrared bulk GaAs phonon absorption and for the midinfrared absorption of thin SiO(2) microdisks. We show that the signal given by the cantilever oscillation amplitude of the atomic force microscope follows the spectral dependence of the bulk material absorption. The absorption spatial resolution achieved with microdisks is around 50 nanometer for an optical excitation around 22 micrometer wavelength.

  16. Absorption heat pumps (United States)

    Huhtinen, M.; Heikkilae, M.; Andersson, R.


    The aim of the study was to analyze the technical and economic feasibility of absorption heat pumps in Finland. The work was done as a case study: the technical and economic analyses have been carried out for six different cases, where in each the suitable size and type of the heat pump plant and the auxiliary components and connections were specified. The study also detailed the costs concerning the procurement, installation and test runs of the machinery, as well as the savings in energy costs incurred by the introduction of the plant. Conclusions were drawn of the economic viability of the applications studied. The following cases were analyzed: heat recovery from flue gases and productin of district heat in plants using peat, natural gas, and municipal wastes as a fuel. Heat recovery in the pulp and paper industry for the upgrading of pressure of secondary steam and for the heating of white liquor and combustion and drying the air. Heat recovery in a peat-fulled heat and power plant from flue gases that have been used for the drying of peat. According to the study, the absorption heat pump suits best to the production of district heat, when the heat source is the primary energy is steam produced by the boiler. Included in the flue as condensing is the purification of flue gases. Accordingly, benefit is gained on two levels in thick applications. In heat and power plants the use of absorption heat pumps is less economical, due to the fact that the steam used by the pump reduces the production of electricity, which is rated clearly higher than heat.

  17. Rapidly variable relatvistic absorption (United States)

    Parker, M.; Pinto, C.; Fabian, A.; Lohfink, A.; Buisson, D.; Alston, W.; Jiang, J.


    I will present results from the 1.5Ms XMM-Newton observing campaign on the most X-ray variable AGN, IRAS 13224-3809. We find a series of nine absorption lines with a velocity of 0.24c from an ultra-fast outflow. For the first time, we are able to see extremely rapid variability of the UFO features, and can link this to the X-ray variability from the inner accretion disk. We find a clear flux dependence of the outflow features, suggesting that the wind is ionized by increasing X-ray emission.

  18. Resonant Self-Trapping and Absorption of Intense Bessel Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, J.; Parra, E.; Milchberg, H. M.


    We report the observation of resonant self-trapping and enhanced laser-plasma heating resulting from propagation of high intensity Bessel beams in neutral gas. The enhancement in absorption and plasma heating is directly correlated to the spatial trapping of laser radiation. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  19. Relations between psychophysical measures of spatial hearing and self-reported spatial-hearing abilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Esch, T. E. M.; Lutman, M. E.; Vormann, M.; Lyzenga, J.; Hällgren, M.; Larsby, B.; Athalye, S. P.; Houtgast, T.; Kollmeier, B.; Dreschler, W. A.


    Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate how well the virtual psychophysical measures of spatial hearing from the preliminary auditory profile predict self-reported spatial-hearing abilities. Design: Virtual spatial-hearings tests (conducted unaided, via headphones) and a

  20. Resonant power absorption in helicon plasma sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guangye; Arefiev, Alexey V.; Bengtson, Roger D.; Breizman, Boris N.; Lee, Charles A.; Raja, Laxminarayan L.


    Helicon discharges produce plasmas with a density gradient across the confining magnetic field. Such plasmas can create a radial potential well for nonaxisymmetric whistlers, allowing radially localized helicon (RLH) waves. This work presents new evidence that RLH waves play a significant role in helicon plasma sources. An experimentally measured plasma density profile in an argon helicon discharge is used to calculate the rf field structure. The calculations are performed using a two-dimensional field solver under the assumption that the density profile is axisymmetric. It is found that RLH waves with an azimuthal wave number m=1 form a standing wave structure in the axial direction and that the frequency of the RLH eigenmode is close to the driving frequency of the rf antenna. The calculated resonant power absorption, associated with the RLH eigenmode, accounts for most of the rf power deposited into the plasma in the experiment

  1. An outdoor investigation of the absorption degradation of single ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    thermography was used for mapping the module temperature profile. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used for the absorption characterization. ... The localized heating can cause structural damage which increases surface recombina- tion and reduces the mobility and lifetime of photogenerated electrons.

  2. Rectal absorption of morphine from controlled release suppositories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moolenaar, Frits; Meyler, Pim; Frijlink, Erik; Jauw, Tjoe Hang; Visser, Jan; Proost, Johannes


    The absorption profiles and bioavailability of morphine in human volunteers (n = 13) were described after oral administration of MS Contin tablets and rectal administration of a newly developed controlled release suppository. By manipulating the viscosity of fatty suppository base an entirely


    The absorption spectrum of MnF2 at 4.2K in the 3900A region was measured in zero external fields and in high fields. Exciton lines with magnon ...sidebands are observed, accompanied by a large number of weak satellite lines. Results on the exciton and magnon absorptions are similar to those of...McClure et al. The satellite lines are interpreted as being multi- magnon absorptions, and it is possible to fit the energy of all the absorptions with

  4. Analyzing Water's Optical Absorption (United States)


    A cooperative agreement between World Precision Instruments (WPI), Inc., and Stennis Space Center has led the UltraPath(TM) device, which provides a more efficient method for analyzing the optical absorption of water samples at sea. UltraPath is a unique, high-performance absorbance spectrophotometer with user-selectable light path lengths. It is an ideal tool for any study requiring precise and highly sensitive spectroscopic determination of analytes, either in the laboratory or the field. As a low-cost, rugged, and portable system capable of high- sensitivity measurements in widely divergent waters, UltraPath will help scientists examine the role that coastal ocean environments play in the global carbon cycle. UltraPath(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc. LWCC(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc.

  5. Atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haswell, S.J.


    Atomic absorption spectroscopy is now well established and widely used technique for the determination of trace and major elements in a wide range analyte types. There have been many advances in the atomic spectroscopy over the last decade and for this reason and to meet the demand, it was felt that there was a need for an updated book. Whilst interest in instrumental design has tended to dominate the minds of the spectrocopist, the analyst concerned with obtaining reliable and representative data, in diverse areas of application, has been diligently modifying and developing sample treatment and instrumental introduction techniques. Such methodology is de fundamental part of analysis and form the basis of the fourteen application chapters of this book. The text focuses in the main on AAS; however, the sample handling techniques described are in many cases equally applicable to ICP-OES and ICP-MS analysis. (author). refs.; figs.; tabs

  6. Advanced Covariance-Based Stochastic Inversion and Neuro-Genetic Optimization for Rosetta CONSERT Radar Data to Improve Spatial Resolution of Multi-Fractal Depth Profiles for Cometary Nucleus (United States)

    Edenhofer, Peter; Ulamec, Stephan


    The paper is devoted to results of doctoral research work at University of Bochum as applied to the radar transmission experiment CONSERT of the ESA cometary mission Rosetta. This research aims at achieving the limits of optimum spatial (and temporal) resolution for radar remote sensing by implementation of covariance informations concerned with error-balanced control as well as coherence of wave propagation effects through random composite media involved (based on Joel Franklin's approach of extended stochastic inversion). As a consequence the well-known inherent numerical instabilities of remote sensing are significantly reduced in a robust way by increasing the weight of main diagonal elements of the resulting composite matrix to be inverted with respect to off-diagonal elements following synergy relations as to the principle of correlation receiver in wireless telecommunications. It is shown that the enhancement of resolution for remote sensing holds for an integral and differential equation approach of inversion as well. In addition to that the paper presents a discussion on how the efficiency of inversion for radar data gets achieved by an overall optimization of inversion due to a novel neuro-genetic approach. Such kind of approach is in synergy with the priority research program "Organic Computing" of DFG / German Research Organization. This Neuro-Genetic Optimization (NGO) turns out, firstly, to take into account more detailed physical informations supporting further improved resolution such as the process of accretion for cometary nucleus, wave propagation effects from rough surfaces, ground clutter, nonlinear focusing, etc. as well as, secondly, to accelerate the computing process of inversion in a really significantly enhanced and fast way, e.g., enabling online-control of autonomous processes such as detection of unknown objects, navigation, etc. The paper describes in some detail how this neuro-genetic approach of optimization is incorporated into the

  7. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soffiantini, V.


    Atomic absorption spectrophotometry is essentially an analytical technique used for quantitative trace metal analysis in a variety of materials. The speed and specificity of the technique is its greatest advantage over other analytical techniques. What atomic absorption spectrophotometry can and cannot do and its advantages and disadvantages are discussed, a summary of operating instructions are given, as well as a summary of analytical interferences. The applications of atomic absorption spectrophotometry are also shortly discussed

  8. Multicomponent Analysis of the UV Si IV and C IV Broad Absorption ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    density enhancements) that move radially and intercept the line-of-sight to the central continuum source. Using our method, we find the number of absorption components needed to simulate the BAL profiles, which means the ...

  9. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.


    This review gives a brief description of the theory and application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy, both X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), especially, pertaining to photosynthesis. The advantages and limitations of the methods are discussed. Recent advances in extended EXAFS and polarized EXAFS using oriented membranes and single crystals are explained. Developments in theory in understanding the XANES spectra are described. The application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy to the study of the Mn4Ca cluster in Photosystem II is presented.

  10. Spatial interpolation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, A.


    The theory and practical application of techniques of statistical interpolation are studied in this thesis, and new developments in multivariate spatial interpolation and the design of sampling plans are discussed. Several applications to studies in soil science are

  11. Modelling the effect of oil/fat content in food systems on flavour absorption by LLDPE.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, M.; Willige, van R.W.G.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Voragen, A.G.J.


    One of the phenomena in food packaging interactions is flavour absorption. Absorption of flavour compounds from food products into food-packaging materials can result in loss of flavour compounds or an unbalance in the flavour profile changing a product's quality. The food matrix influences the

  12. Electron cyclotron absorption in Tokamak plasmas in the presence of radial transport of particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, Paulo R. da S.; Ziebell, Luiz F.


    We use quasilinear theory to study effects of particle radial transport on the electron cyclotron absorption coefficient by a current carrying plasma, in a tokamak modelated as a plasma slab. Our numerical results indicate significant modification in the profile of the electron cyclotron absorption coefficient when transport is taken into account relative to the situation without transport. (author)

  13. Phytases for improved iron absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Veller Friis; Meyer, Anne S.


    Phytase enzymes present an alternative to iron supplements, because they have been shown to improve iron absorption by means of catalysing the degradation of a potent iron absorption inhibitor: phytic acid. Phytic acid is a hexaphosphate of inositol and is particularly prevalent in cereal grains...

  14. Atomic absorption instrument functional description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bystroff, R.I.; Boyle, W.G. Jr.; Barton, G.W. Jr.


    This report describes a proposed system for automating atomic absorption analysis. The system consists of two atomic absorption instruments and an automatic sampler that can be attached to either instrument. A computer program controls the sampling and gathers data. The program then uses the data to perform bookkeeping, data processing, and report writing

  15. Multifunctional hybrids for electromagnetic absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huynen, I. [Research Center in Micro and Nanoscopic Materials and Electronic Devices, CeRMiN, Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Information and Communications Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics (ICTEAM), Microwave Laboratory, Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Quievy, N. [Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences (IMCN), Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Bailly, C. [Research Center in Micro and Nanoscopic Materials and Electronic Devices, CeRMiN, Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences (IMCN), Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Institute of Mechanics, Materials and Civil Engineering (iMMC), Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Bollen, P. [Information and Communications Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics (ICTEAM), Microwave Laboratory, Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences (IMCN), Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Institute of Mechanics, Materials and Civil Engineering (iMMC), Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Detrembleur, C. [Center for Education and Research on Macromolecules (CERM), University of Liege, Sart-Tilman B6a, 4000 Liege (Belgium); Eggermont, S.; Molenberg, I. [Information and Communications Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics (ICTEAM), Microwave Laboratory, Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Thomassin, J.M.; Urbanczyk, L. [Center for Education and Research on Macromolecules (CERM), University of Liege, Sart-Tilman B6a, 4000 Liege (Belgium)


    Highlights: > EM absorption requires low dielectric constant and {approx}1 S/m electrical conductivity. > New hybrids were processed with CNT-filled polymer foam inserted in Al honeycomb. > The EM absorption in the GHz range is superior to any known material. > A closed form model is used to guide the design of the hybrid. > The architectured material is light with potential for thermal management. - Abstract: Electromagnetic (EM) interferences are ubiquitous in modern technologies and impact on the reliability of electronic devices and on living cells. Shielding by EM absorption, which is preferable over reflection in certain instances, requires combining a low dielectric constant with high electrical conductivity, which are antagonist properties in the world of materials. A novel class of hybrid materials for EM absorption in the gigahertz range has been developed based on a hierarchical architecture involving a metallic honeycomb filled with a carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer foam. The waveguide characteristics of the honeycomb combined with the performance of the foam lead to unexpectedly large EM power absorption over a wide frequency range, superior to any known material. The peak absorption frequency can be tuned by varying the shape of the honeycomb unit cell. A closed form model of the EM reflection and absorption provides a tool for the optimization of the hybrid. This designed material sets the stage for a new class of sandwich panels combining high EM absorption with mass efficiency, stiffness and thermal management.

  16. Optical absorption of irradiated carbohydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supe, A.A.; Tiliks, Yu.E.


    The optical absorption spectra of γ-irradiated carbohydrates (glucose, lactose, sucrose, maltose, and starch) and their aqueous solutions were studied. The comparison of the data obtained with the determination of the concentrations of molecular and radical products of radiolysis allows the absorption bands with maxima at 250 and 310 nm to be assigned to the radicals trapped in the irradiated carbohydrates

  17. Water absorption in brick masonry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brocken, H.J.P.; Smolders, H.R.


    The water absorption in brick, mortar that was cured separately, and masonry samples was studied using NMR. Models of the moisture transport are usually formulated on the basis of a diffusion equation. In the case of water absorption in separate brick and mortar samples, the moisture diffusivity in

  18. Multifunctional hybrids for electromagnetic absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huynen, I.; Quievy, N.; Bailly, C.; Bollen, P.; Detrembleur, C.; Eggermont, S.; Molenberg, I.; Thomassin, J.M.; Urbanczyk, L.


    Highlights: → EM absorption requires low dielectric constant and ∼1 S/m electrical conductivity. → New hybrids were processed with CNT-filled polymer foam inserted in Al honeycomb. → The EM absorption in the GHz range is superior to any known material. → A closed form model is used to guide the design of the hybrid. → The architectured material is light with potential for thermal management. - Abstract: Electromagnetic (EM) interferences are ubiquitous in modern technologies and impact on the reliability of electronic devices and on living cells. Shielding by EM absorption, which is preferable over reflection in certain instances, requires combining a low dielectric constant with high electrical conductivity, which are antagonist properties in the world of materials. A novel class of hybrid materials for EM absorption in the gigahertz range has been developed based on a hierarchical architecture involving a metallic honeycomb filled with a carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer foam. The waveguide characteristics of the honeycomb combined with the performance of the foam lead to unexpectedly large EM power absorption over a wide frequency range, superior to any known material. The peak absorption frequency can be tuned by varying the shape of the honeycomb unit cell. A closed form model of the EM reflection and absorption provides a tool for the optimization of the hybrid. This designed material sets the stage for a new class of sandwich panels combining high EM absorption with mass efficiency, stiffness and thermal management.

  19. Atmospheric absorption of sound - Update (United States)

    Bass, H. E.; Sutherland, L. C.; Zuckerwar, A. J.


    Best current expressions for the vibrational relaxation times of oxygen and nitrogen in the atmosphere are used to compute total absorption. The resulting graphs of total absorption as a function of frequency for different humidities should be used in lieu of the graph published earlier by Evans et al (1972).

  20. Intestinal Absorption of Thyroid Hormone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Kelderman-Bolk (Nienke)


    textabstractIn this thesis the treatment of hypothyroidism and absorption of T4 is described from a clinical and basic point of view. Put together the thesis gives insight in the factors influencing LT4 absorption and its results have influenced the timing of LT4 intake.

  1. Spatial Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Henrik


    Spatial Culture – A Humanities Perspective Abstract of introductory essay by Henrik Reeh Secured by alliances between socio-political development and cultural practices, a new field of humanistic studies in spatial culture has developed since the 1990s. To focus on links between urban culture...... and modern society is, however, an intellectual practice which has a much longer history. Already in the 1980s, the debate on the modern and the postmodern cited Paris and Los Angeles as spatio-cultural illustrations of these major philosophical concepts. Earlier, in the history of critical studies, the work...... Foucault considered a constitutive feature of 20th-century thinking and one that continues to occupy intellectual and cultural debates in the third millennium. A conceptual framework is, nevertheless, necessary, if the humanities are to adequa-tely address city and space – themes that have long been...

  2. Optical absorption of silicon nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, T.; Lambert, Y.; Krzeminski, C.; Grandidier, B.; Stiévenard, D.; Lévêque, G.; Akjouj, A.; Pennec, Y.; Djafari-Rouhani, B.


    We report on simulations and measurements of the optical absorption of silicon nanowires (NWs) versus their diameter. We first address the simulation of the optical absorption based on two different theoretical methods: the first one, based on the Green function formalism, is useful to calculate the scattering and absorption properties of a single or a finite set of NWs. The second one, based on the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method, is well-adapted to deal with a periodic set of NWs. In both cases, an increase of the onset energy for the absorption is found with increasing diameter. Such effect is experimentally illustrated, when photoconductivity measurements are performed on single tapered Si nanowires connected between a set of several electrodes. An increase of the nanowire diameter reveals a spectral shift of the photocurrent intensity peak towards lower photon energies that allow to tune the absorption onset from the ultraviolet radiations to the visible light spectrum.

  3. Lipid Profile (United States)

    ... Known As Coronary Risk Panel Formal Name Lipid Profile This article was last reviewed on June 29, ... phospholipid molecules. The particles measured with a lipid profile are classified by their density into high-density ...

  4. Data Profiling


    Hladíková, Radka


    Title: Data Profiling Author: Radka Hladíková Department: Department of Software Engineering Supervisor: Ing. Vladimír Kyjonka Supervisor's e-mail address: Abstract: This thesis puts mind on problems with data quality and data profiling. This Work analyses and summarizes problems of data quality, data defects, process of data quality, data quality assessment and data profiling. The main topic is data profiling as a process of researching data available in existing...

  5. Subgap Absorption in Conjugated Polymers (United States)

    Sinclair, M.; Seager, C. H.; McBranch, D.; Heeger, A. J; Baker, G. L.


    Along with X{sup (3)}, the magnitude of the optical absorption in the transparent window below the principal absorption edge is an important parameter which will ultimately determine the utility of conjugated polymers in active integrated optical devices. With an absorptance sensitivity of materials. We have used PDS to measure the optical absorption spectra of the conjugated polymers poly(1,4-phenylene-vinylene) (and derivitives) and polydiacetylene-4BCMU in the spectral region from 0.55 eV to 3 eV. Our spectra show that the shape of the absorption edge varies considerably from polymer to polymer, with polydiacetylene-4BCMU having the steepest absorption edge. The minimum absorption coefficients measured varied somewhat with sample age and quality, but were typically in the range 1 cm{sup {minus}1} to 10 cm{sup {minus}1}. In the region below 1 eV, overtones of C-H stretching modes were observed, indicating that further improvements in transparency in this spectral region might be achieved via deuteration of fluorination.

  6. Sabine absorption coefficients to random incidence absorption coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho


    into random incidence absorption coefficients for porous absorbers are investigated. Two optimization-based conversion methods are suggested: the surface impedance estimation for locally reacting absorbers and the flow resistivity estimation for extendedly reacting absorbers. The suggested conversion methods...

  7. Spatial Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Henrik


    , the notion of aesthetics (taken in the original signification of aisthesis: sensory perception) helped to map the relations between city, human experience, and various forms of art and culture. Delving into our simultaneously optical and tactical reception of space (a dialectics pointed out by Walter...... Benjamin), studies in urbanity and aesthetics may highlight mul-tisensory everyday practices that pass unnoticed in the current era of visual domination. A humanistic approach to urban and spatial cultures should also learn from German sociologist and philosopher Georg Simmel’s hypothesis of a modern need......: Memory”, and ”Staging and Interpretation: Places”....

  8. Absorption factor for cylindrical samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sears, V.F.


    The absorption factor for the scattering of X-rays or neutrons in cylindrical samples is calculated by numerical integration for the case in which the absorption coefficients of the incident and scattered beams are not equal. An extensive table of values having an absolute accuracy of 10 -4 is given in a companion report [Sears (1983). Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Report No. AECL-8176]. In the present paper an asymptotic expression is derived for the absorption factor which can be used with an error of less than 10 -3 for most cases of interest in both neutron inelastic scattering and neutron diffraction in crystals. (Auth.)

  9. Absorption of radiostrontium by rice and effect of application of kieselgur on its behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Jianjun; Wang Shouxiang


    The absorption of 89 Sr by rice and effect of application of kieselgur on the absorption behaviour were studied using isotope tracer techniques. The results showed that the 89 Sr was transferred and accumulated to rice in the ecosystem by absorption action when 89 Sr was entered the surface water. The specific activity of 89 Sr in root was the highest. The absorption and accumulation of 89 Sr in rice were not decreased significantly by application of kieselgur in the surface waster. The specific activity of 89 Sr in soil follows a negative exponential relation with depth of soil profile

  10. Karolinske psychodynamic profile (KAPP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Birgit Bork; Søgaard, Ulf


    psykologiske testmetoder, assesment, Karolinska psychodynamic profile (KAPP), psykodynamisk profil......psykologiske testmetoder, assesment, Karolinska psychodynamic profile (KAPP), psykodynamisk profil...

  11. Spatial Structure of Modern Moscow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria V. Goloukhova


    Full Text Available The article is focused on the spatial structure of modern Moscow and features distinguishing it from the cities of Western Europe and the US. The city has hybrid spatial structure combining elements which emerged on different stages of the city development. In the 14th century two tendencies appeared: the prestige of the city centre and opposition of Western districts as more prestigious to Eastern districts as less prestigious. Crucial spatial characteristics emerged in the Soviet era and up to now they define the image of Moscow. Firstly, it's a peculiar density profile. Population density in post-socialist cities tends to increase as we move further from the city centre while in Western European cities population density is the highest in central districts. Secondly, elementary units of Moscow spatial structure are so called micro-districts (neighbourhoods. The concept of a microdistrict was very popular with Soviet urban planners and widely applied in the residential construction. Another peculiarity of Moscow spatial structure is social heterogeneity of districts and absence of ethnic quarters or ghettos. Furthermore, significant part of the city area is occupied by former industrials zones which are not used anymore and need to be reconstructed. With transition to market economy a number of spatial changes emerged. They were partly related to the large-scale privatization, infill construction and lack of effective urban planning policy. In conclusion the article states the need for the new model of spatial organization which would take into account the specifics of Russian reality.

  12. Absorption of hydrogen in vanadium, enhanced by ion bombardment; Ionenbeschussunterstuetzte Absorption des Wasserstoffs in Vanadium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulus, H.; Lammers, M. [Inst. fuer Technologie- und Wissenstransfer, Soest (Germany); Mueller, K.H. [Inst. fuer Technologie- und Wissenstransfer, Soest (Germany)]|[Paderborn Univ. (Gesamthochschule), Soest (Germany). Fachbereich 16 - Elektrische Energietechnik; Kiss, G.; Kemeny, Z. [Technical Univ. Budapest (Hungary)


    Prior to hydrogen implantation into vanadium, the vanadium specimen usually is exposed to an activation process and is then heated at 1 atm hydrogen to temperatures between 500 and 600 C, subsequently cooled down in several steps. Within this temperature range, hydrogen solubility increases with declining temperature. A decisive factor determining hydrogen absorption is the fact that at temperatures above 250 C, oxygen desorbs from the material surface and thus no longer inhibits hydrogen absorption. Therefore a different approach was chosen for the experiments reported: Hydrogen absorption under UHV conditions at room temperature. After the usual activation process, the vanadium surface was cleaned by 5 keV Ar{sup +} ion bombardment. Thus oxygen absorption at the specimen surface (and new reactions with oxygen from the remaining gas) could be avoided, or removed. By means of thermal desorption mass spectrometry (TDMS), hydrogen absorption as a function of argon ion dose was analysed. TDMS measurements performed for specimens treated by ion bombardment prior to H{sup 2} exposure showed two H{sup 2} desorption peaks, in contrast to the profiles measured with specimens not exposed to ion bombardment. It is assumed that the ion bombardment disturbs the crystal structure so that further sites for hydrogen absorption are produced. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Bei der Beladung von Vandium mit Wasserstoff wird ueblicherweise die Probe nach einer Aktivierungsprozedur bei 1 atm Wasserstoff auf Temperaturen im Bereich von 500 bis 600 C hochgeheizt und danach schrittweise abgekuehlt. In diesem Temperaturbereich nimmt die Wasserstoffloeslichkeit mit abnehmender Temperatur zu. Entscheidend fuer die Beladung ist aber auch die Tatsache, dass bei Temperaturen groesser 250 C Sauerstoff von der Oberflaeche desorbiert und dadurch die Absorption von Wasserstoff nicht mehr blockieren kann. Im Rahmen der hier beschriebenen Untersuchungen sollte die Wasserstoffbeladung unter UHV-Bedingungen bei

  13. Steady state temperature profile in a sphere heated by microwaves (United States)

    Barmatz, M.; Jackson, H. W.


    A new theory has been developed to calculate the microwave absorption and resultant temperature profile within a sphere positioned in a single mode rectangular cavity. This theory is an extension of a total absorption model based on Mie scattering results. Temperature profiles have been computed for alumina spheres at the center of a rectangular cavity excited in the TM354 mode. Parametric studies reveal significant structure in those profiles under special conditions that are associated with electromagnetic resonances inside the spheres. Anomalous behavior similar to thermal runaway occurs at moderate temperatures when there is enhanced absorption associated with resonant conditions in the sphere.

  14. An analysis of uncertainties in the reference resonance absorption calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milosevic, M.; Pesic, M.


    A recently appeared generation of design-oriented methods, which allows to compute the space and energy dependence of the resonant absorption inside the fuel rod, induces a new problem of validation of results obtained with improved resonance treatments, Because no experimental results are available on the spatial and energy distribution of resonance absorption, detailed reference calculations were generated with the continuos-energy Monte Carlo and energy pointwise slowing-down codes. The accuracy of these calculations depends>on various in.fluences. In this paper an analysis of some influences, such as differences ;n nuclear data libraries and philosophy of reproducing the cross section data, is presented. Example application is given for a calculation benchmark that consists of determination of resonance absorption by 238 U in typical PWR pin cell geometry (author)

  15. The Spatial Politics of Spatial Representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kristian; Richardson, Tim


    This paper explores the interplay between the spatial politics of new governance landscapes and innovations in the use of spatial representations in planning. The central premise is that planning experiments with new relational approaches become enmeshed in spatial politics. The case of strategic...... spatial planning in Denmark reveals how fuzzy spatial representations and relational spatial concepts are being used to depoliticise strategic spatial planning processes and to camouflage spatial politics. The paper concludes that, while relational geography might play an important role in building...

  16. Enhanced UV Absorption in Carbonaceous Aerosols during MILAGRO and Identification of Potential Organic Contributors. (United States)

    Mangu, A.; Kelley, K. L.; Marchany-Rivera, A.; Kilaparty, S.; Gunawan, G.; Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.


    Measurements of aerosol absorption were obtained as part of the MAX-Mex component of the MILAGRO field campaign at site T0 (Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo in Mexico City) during the month of March, 2006 by using a 7- channel aethalometer (Thermo-Anderson). These measurements, obtained at 370, 470, 520, 590, 660, 880, and 950 nm at a 5 minute time resolution, showed an enhanced absorption in the UV over that expected from carbon soot alone. Samples of fine atmospheric aerosols (less than 0.1micron) were also collected at site T0 and T1 (Universidad Technologica de Tecamac, State of Mexico) from 5 am to 5 pm (day) and from 5 pm to 5 am (night) during the month of March 2006. The samples were collected on quartz fiber filters with high volume impactor samplers. The samples have been characterized for total carbon content (stable isotope ratio mass spectroscopy) and natural radionuclide tracers (210Pb, 210Po, 210Bi, 7Be, 13C, 14C, 40K, 15N). Continuous absorption spectra of these aerosol samples have been obtained in the laboratory from 280 to 900nm with the use of an integrating sphere coupled to a UV-visible spectrometer (Beckman DU with a Labsphere accessory). The integrating sphere allows the detector to collect and spatially integrate the total radiant flux reflected from the sample and therefore allows for the measurement of absorption on highly reflective or diffusely scattering samples (1). The continuous spectra also show an enhanced UV absorption over that expected from carbon soot and the general profiles are quite similar to those observed for humic and fulvic acids found as colloidal materials in surface and groundwaters (2), indicating the presence of humic-like substances (HULIS) in the fine aerosols. The spectra also show evidence of narrow band absorbers below 400 nm typical of polycyclic aromatics (PAH) and nitrated aromatic compounds. Spectra were also obtained on NIST standard diesel soot (SRM 2975), NIST standard air particulate matter (SRM 8785

  17. Ultrasonic absorption in solid specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siwabessy, P.J. W.; Stewart, G.A.


    As part of a project to measure the absorption of high frequency (50 - 500 kHz) sonar signals in warm sea-water, a laboratory apparatus has been constructed and tested against room temperature distilled water and various solutions of MgSO 4 (chemical relaxation of MgSO 4 is the major contribution to absorption below 200 kHz). The technique involves monitoring the decay of an acoustic signal for different sizes of vessels of water suspended in an evacuated chamber. So far, all containing vessels used have been spherical in shape. Extrapolation of the results to infinite volume yields the absorption due to the water alone. In order to accommodate variations in temperature and pressure, and to make the system more robust (e.g. for ship deck usage), it is desirable to employ stainless steel vessels. However, it was found that the quality of the data was greatly improved when pyrex glass spheres were used. The stainless steel spheres were manufactured by welding together mechanically spun hemispheres. The linear frequency dependence characteristic of acoustic absorption in solids was observed (in contrast to the quadratic frequency dependence of acoustic absorption in water), and the acoustic absorption was found to depend strongly on the thermal history of the steel

  18. Feeding the fire: tracing the mass-loading of 107 K galactic outflows with O VI absorption (United States)

    Chisholm, J.; Bordoloi, R.; Rigby, J. R.; Bayliss, M.


    Galactic outflows regulate the amount of gas galaxies convert into stars. However, it is difficult to measure the mass outflows remove because they span a large range of temperatures and phases. Here, we study the rest-frame ultraviolet spectrum of a lensed galaxy at z ˜ 2.9 with prominent interstellar absorption lines from O I, tracing neutral gas, up to O VI, tracing transitional phase gas. The O VI profile mimics weak low-ionization profiles at low velocities, and strong saturated profiles at high velocities. These trends indicate that O VI gas is co-spatial with the low-ionization gas. Further, at velocities blueward of -200 km s-1 the column density of the low-ionization outflow rapidly drops while the O VI column density rises, suggesting that O VI is created as the low-ionization gas is destroyed. Photoionization models do not reproduce the observed O VI, but adequately match the low-ionization gas, indicating that the phases have different formation mechanisms. Photoionized outflows are more massive than O VI outflows for most of the observed velocities, although the O VI mass outflow rate exceeds the photoionized outflow at velocities above the galaxy's escape velocity. Therefore, most gas capable of escaping the galaxy is in a hot outflow phase. We suggest that the O VI absorption is a temporary by-product of conduction transferring mass from the photoionized phase to an unobserved hot wind, and discuss how this mass-loading impacts the observed circum-galactic medium.

  19. Theoretical interpretations of enhanced laser light absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruer, W.L.


    Intense laser light is not efficiently absorbed classically but can be absorbed by its conversion to electron plasma waves near the critical density. The physical mechanisms for this conversion are discussed, and some simple estimates for heating by plasma waves are applied to some recent experiments. Several effects which strongly influence the absorption of high intensity light are emphasized, including a nonlinear steepening of the plasma density profile which is demonstrated in computer simulations. Finally the possibility of an induced reflection of laser light due to instabilities in the underdense plasma before the critical density is also discussed. Such stimulated reflection can be particularly important in plasmas with very long density gradients. (U.S.)

  20. Generalized radiative transfer theory for scattering by particles in an absorbing gas: Addressing both spatial and spectral integration in multi-angle remote sensing of optically thin aerosol layers (United States)

    Davis, Anthony B.; Xu, Feng; Diner, David J.


    We demonstrate the computational advantage gained by introducing non-exponential transmission laws into radiative transfer theory for two specific situations. One is the problem of spatial integration over a large domain where the scattering particles cluster randomly in a medium uniformly filled with an absorbing gas, and only a probabilistic description of the variability is available. The increasingly important application here is passive atmospheric profiling using oxygen absorption in the visible/near-IR spectrum. The other scenario is spectral integration over a region where the absorption cross-section of a spatially uniform gas varies rapidly and widely and, moreover, there are scattering particles embedded in the gas that are distributed uniformly, or not. This comes up in many applications, O2 A-band profiling being just one instance. We bring a common framework to solve these problems both efficiently and accurately that is grounded in the recently developed theory of Generalized Radiative Transfer (GRT). In GRT, the classic exponential law of transmission is replaced by one with a slower power-law decay that accounts for the unresolved spectral or spatial variability. Analytical results are derived in the single-scattering limit that applies to optically thin aerosol layers. In spectral integration, a modest gain in accuracy is obtained. As for spatial integration of near-monochromatic radiance, we find that, although both continuum and in-band radiances are affected by moderate levels of sub-pixel variability, only extreme variability will affect in-band/continuum ratios.

  1. Sound absorption of microperforated panels inside compact acoustic enclosures (United States)

    Yang, Cheng; Cheng, Li


    This paper investigates the sound absorption effect of microperforated panels (MPPs) in small-scale enclosures, an effort stemming from the recent interests in using MPPs for noise control in compact mechanical systems. Two typical MPP backing cavity configurations (an empty backing cavity and a honeycomb backing structure) are studied. Although both configurations provide basically the same sound absorption curves from standard impedance tube measurements, their in situ sound absorption properties, when placed inside a small enclosure, are drastically different. This phenomenon is explained using a simple system model based on modal analyses. It is shown that the accurate prediction of the in situ sound absorption of the MPPs inside compact acoustic enclosures requires meticulous consideration of the configuration of the backing cavity and its coupling with the enclosure in front. The MPP structure should be treated as part of the entire system, rather than an absorption boundary characterized by the surface impedance, calculated or measured in simple acoustic environment. Considering the spatial matching between the acoustic fields across the MPP, the possibility of attenuating particular enclosure resonances by partially covering the enclosure wall with a properly designed MPP structure is also demonstrated.

  2. Absorption Mode FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Donald F.; Kilgour, David P.; Konijnenburg, Marco; O' Connor, Peter B.; Heeren, Ronald M.


    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry offers the highest mass resolving power for molecular imaging experiments. This high mass resolving power ensures that closely spaced peaks at the same nominal mass are resolved for proper image generation. Typically higher magnetic fields are used to increase mass resolving power. However, a gain in mass resolving power can also be realized by phase correction of the data for absorption mode display. In addition to mass resolving power, absorption mode offers higher mass accuracy and signal-to-noise ratio over the conventional magnitude mode. Here we present the first use of absorption mode for Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry imaging. The Autophaser algorithm is used to phase correct each spectrum (pixel) in the image and then these parameters are used by the Chameleon work-flow based data processing software to generate absorption mode ?Datacubes? for image and spectral viewing. Absorption mode reveals new mass and spatial features that are not resolved in magnitude mode and results in improved selected ion image contrast.

  3. Transdermic absorption of Melagenina II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Gonzalez, I.; Martinez Lopez, B.; Ruiz Pena, M.; Caso Pena, R.


    The transdermic absorption of Melagenina II (MII) was evaluated. MII was a labelled with 125I by the yodogen method and purified by column chromatography with Sephadex LH-20 in ethanol: water (7:3). In vitro absorption of ( 125I ) - MII thought human skin was carried out in Keshary-Chien modified diffusion cells. Tape stripping method was applied after 24 hours to evaluate the accumulated activity in dermis and epidermis. In vivo assays were performed in Sprague Dawley rats to analyze absorption of MII until 24 hours after a single application and for five days a low penetrability of the drug while in vivo there were not found blood levels significantly greater than zero , nevertheless and important amount of radioactivity was found in feces and urine. The activity was concentrated mainly in the application site in both models

  4. Absorption properties of identical atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sancho, Pedro


    Emission rates and other optical properties of multi-particle systems in collective and entangled states differ from those in product ones. We show the existence of similar effects in the absorption probabilities for (anti)symmetrized states of two identical atoms. The effects strongly depend on the overlapping between the atoms and differ for bosons and fermions. We propose a viable experimental verification of these ideas. -- Highlights: •The absorption rates of a pair of identical atoms in product and (anti)symmetrized states are different. •The modifications of the optical properties are essentially determined by the overlapping between the atoms. •The absorption properties differ, in some cases, for bosons and fermions

  5. Mechanistic understanding of time-dependent oral absorption based on gastric motor activity in humans. (United States)

    Higaki, Kazutaka; Choe, Sally Y; Löbenberg, Raimar; Welage, Lynda S; Amidon, Gordon L


    The relationship of gastric motor activity and gastric emptying of 0.7 mm caffeine pellets with their absorption was investigated in the fed state in healthy human subjects by simultaneous monitoring of antral motility and plasma concentrations. A kinetic model for gastric emptying-dependent absorption yielded multiple phases of gastric emptying and rate constants (k(g)) with large inter-individual differences and large variability in onset of gastric emptying (50-175 min). The model suggests that 50% of the dose is emptied in 1-2h and over 90% emptied by 3.5h following dosing, in all subjects. The maximum values of k(g) (k(g)(max)) were much greater than those reported for emptying of liquids in the fasted state and were comparable to k(g) values in the late Phase II/III of the migrating motor complex (MMC). The model described the observed irregular absorption rate-time and plasma concentration-time profiles adequately but not in detail. The model was more successful at simulating double-peak phenomena in absorption rate profiles and onset of caffeine absorption. The results suggest that gastric emptying regulates drug absorption of small particles in the fed state. Further, estimates of k(a) derived using the time-dependent absorption model were closer to the intrinsic absorption rate constant for caffeine.

  6. Cognitive Profile of Turner Syndrome (United States)

    Hong, David; Kent, Jamie Scaletta; Kesler, Shelli


    Turner syndrome (TS) is a relatively common neurogenetic disorder characterized by complete or partial monosomy-X in a phenotypic female. TS is associated with a cognitive profile that typically includes intact intellectual function and verbal abilities with relative weaknesses in visual-spatial, executive, and social cognitive domains. In this…

  7. Aerosol Absorption Measurements in MILAGRO. (United States)

    Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Arnott, W. P.; Paredes-Miranda, L.; Barnard, J. C.


    During the month of March 2006, a number of instruments were used to determine the absorption characteristics of aerosols found in the Mexico City Megacity and nearby Valley of Mexico. These measurements were taken as part of the Department of Energy's Megacity Aerosol Experiment - Mexico City (MAX-Mex) that was carried out in collaboration with the Megacity Interactions: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) campaign. MILAGRO was a joint effort between the DOE, NSF, NASA, and Mexican agencies aimed at understanding the impacts of a megacity on the urban and regional scale. A super-site was operated at the Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo in Mexico City (designated T-0) and at the Universidad Technologica de Tecamac (designated T-1) that was located about 35 km to the north east of the T-0 site in the State of Mexico. A third site was located at a private rancho in the State of Hidalgo approximately another 35 km to the northeast (designated T-2). Aerosol absorption measurements were taken in real time using a number of instruments at the T-0 and T-1 sites. These included a seven wavelength aethalometer, a multi-angle absorption photometer (MAAP), and a photo-acoustic spectrometer. Aerosol absorption was also derived from spectral radiometers including a multi-filter rotating band spectral radiometer (MFRSR). The results clearly indicate that there is significant aerosol absorption by the aerosols in the Mexico City megacity region. The absorption can lead to single scattering albedo reduction leading to values below 0.5 under some circumstances. The absorption is also found to deviate from that expected for a "well-behaved" soot anticipated from diesel engine emissions, i.e. from a simple 1/lambda wavelength dependence for absorption. Indeed, enhanced absorption is seen in the region of 300-450 nm in many cases, particularly in the afternoon periods indicating that secondary organic aerosols are contributing to the aerosol absorption. This is likely due

  8. Sound absorption property of openpore aluminum foams


    WANG Fang; WANG Lu-cai; WU Jian-guo


    This paper presents a study on sound absorption property of aluminum foam by evaluating its sound absorption coefficients using standing wave tube method. Experimental results showed that the average values of sound absorption coefficients (over the test frequency range) are all above 0.4, which indicate very good sound absorption property of the aluminum foams. The sound absorption coefficient is affected by frequency and pore structure, and reaches its maximum value at around 1 000 Hz. With...

  9. New 3D gas density maps of NaI and CaII interstellar absorption within 300 pc (United States)

    Welsh, B. Y.; Lallement, R.; Vergely, J.-L.; Raimond, S.


    Aims: We present new high resolution (R > 50 000) absorption measurements of the NaI doublet (5889-5895 Å) along 482 nearby sight-lines, in addition to 807 new measurements of the CaII K (3933 Å) absorption line. We have combined these new data with previously reported measurements to produce a catalog of absorptions towards a total of 1857 early-type stars located within 800 pc of the Sun. Using these data we have determined the approximate 3-dimensional spatial distribution of neutral and partly ionized interstellar gas density within a distance-cube of 300 pc from the Sun. Methods: All newly recorded spectra were analyzed by means of a multi-component line profile-fitting program, in most cases using simultaneous fits to the line doublets. Normalized absorption profiles were fitted by varying the velocity, doppler width and column density for all intervening interstellar clouds. The resulting total column densities were then used in conjunction with the Hipparcos distances of the target stars to construct inversion maps of the 3D spatial density distribution of the NaI and CaII bearing gas. Results: A plot of the equivalent width of NaI versus distance reveals a wall of neutral gas at ~80 pc that can be associated with the boundary wall to the central rarefied Local Cavity region. In contrast, a similar plot for the equivalent width of CaII shows no sharply increasing absorption at 80 pc, but instead we observe a slowly increasing value of CaII equivalent width with increasing sight-line distance sampled. Low values for the volume density of NaI (nNaI values in the range 10-8 >nNaI > 10-10 cm-3 are found for sight-lines with distance >300 pc. Both high and low values of the volume density of CaII (nCaII) are found for sight-lines 100 pc a value of nCaII ~ 10-9 cm-3 is typical for most sight-lines, indicating that the distribution of CaII bearing gas is fairly uniform throughout the general ISM. Our three maps of the 3D spatial distribution of local neutral Na

  10. Spatially resolved localized vibrational mode spectroscopy of carbon in liquid encapsulated Czochralski grown gallium arsenide wafers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yau, Waifan.


    Substitutional carbon on an arsenic lattice site is the shallowest and one of the most dominant acceptors in semi-insulating Liquid Encapsulated Czochralski (LEC) GaAs. However, the role of this acceptor in determining the well known ''W'' shape spatial variation of neutral EL2 concentration along the diameter of a LEC wafer is not known. In this thesis, we attempt to clarify the issue of the carbon acceptor's effect on this ''W'' shaped variation by measuring spatial profiles of this acceptor along the radius of three different as-grown LEC GaAs wafers. With localized vibrational mode absorption spectroscopy, we find that the profile of the carbon acceptor is relatively constant along the radius of each wafer. Average values of concentration are 8 x 10E15 cm -3 , 1.1 x 10E15 cm -3 , and 2.2 x 10E15 cm -3 , respectively. In addition, these carbon acceptor LVM measurements indicate that a residual donor with concentration comparable to carbon exists in these wafers and it is a good candidate for the observed neutral EL2 concentration variation. 22 refs., 39 figs

  11. Bent Electro-Absorption Modulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    components and the applied electric field in relation to the frequency of the modulated radiation, the bending losses (and possibly coupling losses) will provide extinction of light guided by the bent waveguide section. The refractive index contract may be modulated while keeping the absorption coefficient...... by bendng losses co-operates to provide more compact modulators with improved performance (extinction) and speed....


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Three commonly used techniques, namely atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS-Ashing and. AAS-Non Ashing) and titrimetry (potassium permanganate titration) have been evaluated in this study to determine the calcium content in six food samples whose calcium levels ranged from 0 to more than. 250mg/100g ...

  13. Absorptive capacity and smart companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Moro González


    Full Text Available Purpose: The current competitive environment is substantially modifying the organizations’ learning processes due to a global increase of available information allowing this to be transformed into knowledge. This opportunity has been exploited since the nineties by the tools of “Business Analytics” and “Business Intelligence” but, nevertheless, being integrated in the study of new organizational capacities engaged in the process of creating intelligence inside organizations is still an outstanding task. The review of the concept of absorptive capacity and a detailed study from the perspective of this new reality will be the main objective of study of this paper.Design/methodology/approach: By comparing classical absorptive capacity and absorptive capacity from the point of view of information management tools in each one of the three stages of the organizational learning cycle, some gaps of the former are overcome/fulfilled. The academic/bibliographical references provided in this paper have been obtained from ISI web of knowledge, Scopus and Dialnet data bases, supporting the state of affairs on absorptive capacity and thereafter filtering by "Business Intelligence" and "Business Analytics". Specialized websites and Business Schools` Publications there have also been included, crowning the content on information management tools used that are currently used in the strategic consulting.Findings: Our contribution to the literature is the development of "smart absorptive capacity". This is a new capacity emerging from the reformulation of the classical concept of absorptive capacity wherein some aspects of its definition that might have been omitted are emphasized. The result of this new approach is the creation of a new Theoretical Model of Organizational Intelligence, which aims to explain, within the framework of the Resources and Capabilities Theory, the competitive advantage achieved by the so-called smart companies

  14. Biophysical Profile (United States)

    ... and pregnancy High-risk pregnancy Biophysical profile About Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  15. Plasma profile recovery by function parameterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, P.J.; Sexton, M.C.


    The use of Function Parameterisation for the recovery of plasma profiles as a function of flux surface area from spatial point data directly combined with external magnetic measurements is demonstrated in the case of ASDEX electron temperature and density profiles. The extrapolated temperature on the magnetic axis is shown to be more reliable than that obtained from a conventional fitting procedure. (orig.)

  16. Light Absorption By Coated Soot (United States)

    Sedlacek, A. J.; Lee, J.; Onasch, T. B.; Davidovits, P.; Cross, E. S.


    The contribution of aerosol absorption on direct radiative forcing is still an active area of research, in part, because aerosol extinction is dominated by light scattering and, in part, because the primary absorbing aerosol of interest, soot, exhibits complex aging behavior that alters its optical properties. The consequences of this can be evidenced by the work of Ramanathan and Carmichael (2008) who suggest that incorporating the atmospheric heating due to brown clouds will increase black carbon (BC) radiative forcing from the IPCC best estimate of 0.34 Wm-2 (±0.25 Wm-2) (IPCC 2007) to 0.9 Wm-2. This noteworthy degree of the uncertainty is due largely to the interdependence of BC optical properties on particle mixing state and aggregate morphology, each of which changes as the particle ages in the atmosphere and becomes encapsulated within a coating of inorganic and/or organic substances. With the advent of techniques that can directly measure aerosol light absorption without influences due to collection substrate or light scattering (e.g., photoacoustic spectroscopy (Arnott et al., 2005; Lack et al., 2006) and photothermal interferometry (Sedlacek and Lee 2007)) the potential exists for quantifying this interdependence. In July 2008, a laboratory-based measurement campaign, led by Boston College and Aerodyne, was initiated to begin addressing this interdependence. To achieve this objective measurements of both the optical and physical properties of flame-generated soot under nascent, coated and denuded conditions were conducted. In this paper, light absorption by dioctyl sebacate (DOS) encapsulated soot and sulfuric acid coated soot using the technique of photothermal interferometry will be presented. In the case of DOS-coated soot, a monotonic increase in light absorption as a function DOS coating thickness to nearly 100% is observed. This observation is consistent with a coating-induced amplification in particle light absorption. (Bond et al. 2006) However

  17. Profiling cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciro, Marco; Bracken, Adrian P; Helin, Kristian


    In the past couple of years, several very exciting studies have demonstrated the enormous power of gene-expression profiling for cancer classification and prediction of patient survival. In addition to promising a more accurate classification of cancer and therefore better treatment of patients......, gene-expression profiling can result in the identification of novel potential targets for cancer therapy and a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to cancer....

  18. Spectral fingerprinting of individual cells visualized by cavity-reflection-enhanced light-absorption microscopy. (United States)

    Arai, Yoshiyuki; Yamamoto, Takayuki; Minamikawa, Takeo; Takamatsu, Tetsuro; Nagai, Takeharu


    The absorption spectrum of light is known to be a "molecular fingerprint" that enables analysis of the molecular type and its amount. It would be useful to measure the absorption spectrum in single cell in order to investigate the cellular status. However, cells are too thin for their absorption spectrum to be measured. In this study, we developed an optical-cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopic microscopy method for two-dimensional absorption imaging. The light absorption is enhanced by an optical cavity system, which allows the detection of the absorption spectrum with samples having an optical path length as small as 10 μm, at a subcellular spatial resolution. Principal component analysis of various types of cultured mammalian cells indicates absorption-based cellular diversity. Interestingly, this diversity is observed among not only different species but also identical cell types. Furthermore, this microscopy technique allows us to observe frozen sections of tissue samples without any staining and is capable of label-free biopsy. Thus, our microscopy method opens the door for imaging the absorption spectra of biological samples and thereby detecting the individuality of cells.

  19. Simulation of spatial distribution of absorbed laser energy in spherical microcapsules (United States)

    Geints, Yu E.; Zemlyanov, A. A.; Panina, E. K.


    Specific features of optical field distribution in composite spherical particles consisting of a liquid core and nanocomposite absorbing shell are theoretically studied at different wavelengths of incident radiation. Using the numerical simulation it is shown that the thickness of the shell of the spherical microcapsule particle and its intrinsic absorption coefficient determine the character of the spatial distribution and the absorbed power. The variation of these parameters allows one to change the spatial position of efficient volume absorption regions and peak absorption values. This provides favourable conditions for opening the shells in appropriate spatial zones to release the contents of the microcapsules.

  20. Pulsed photothermal temperature profiling of agar tissue phantoms. (United States)

    Milanic, Matija; Majaron, Boris; Nelson, J Stuart


    We determine experimentally the accuracy of pulsed photothermal radiometric (PPTR) temperature depth profiling in water-based samples. We use custom tissue phantoms composed of agar gel layers separated by very thin absorbing layers. Two configurations of the acquisition system are compared, one using the customary spectral band of the InSb radiation detector (3.0-5.5 microm) and the other with a spectrally narrowed acquisition band (4.5-5.5 microm). The laser-induced temperature depth profiles are reconstructed from measured radiometric signals using a custom minimization algorithm. The results correlate very well with phantom geometry as determined by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and histology in all evaluated samples. Determination of the absorbing layer depth shows good repeatability with spatial resolution decreasing with depth. Spectral filtering improves the accuracy and resolution, especially for shallow absorption layers (~120 microm) and more complex structures (e.g., with two absorbing layers). The average full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the temperature peaks equals 23% of the layer depth.

  1. Saturated two-photon absorption by atoms in a perturber gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nienhuis, G.


    We derive a general expression for the two-photon absorption spectrum of a three-state atom excited by two mono-chromatic radiation fields. Collisional line-broadening effects are incorporated, and the result allows inclusion of profiles with a validity outside the impact limit. Results of previous work are recovered in the appropriate limits. Saturation affects the different lines in the two-photon absorption spectrum in a different fashion. (orig.)

  2. Developing Students' Spatial Ability. (United States)

    Bishop, Jeanne E.


    Discusses the importance of developing students' understanding of certain spatial aspects of important concepts. Piaget's contributions to the development of spatial conceptualization are included. Some examples for applying spatial techniques in earth sciences, physics, and chemistry are also presented. (HM)

  3. Spatial Management Areas (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spatial management files combine all related and relevant spatial management files into an integrated fisheries management file. Overlaps of the redundant spatial...

  4. Spatial angular compounding of photoacoustic images


    Kang, Hyun Jae; Bell, Muyinatu A Lediju; Guo, Xiaoyu; Boctor, Emad M.


    Photoacoustic (PA) images utilize pulsed lasers and ultrasound transducers to visualize targets with higher optical absorption than the surrounding medium. However, they are susceptible to acoustic clutter and background noise artifacts that obfuscate biomedical structures of interest. We investigated three spatial-angular compounding methods to improve PA image quality for biomedical applications, implemented by combining multiple images acquired as an ultrasound probe was rotated about the ...

  5. Skin absorption in vitro of glycol ethers. (United States)

    Larese Filon, F; Fiorito, A; Adami, G; Barbieri, P; Coceani, N; Bussani, R; Reisenhofer, E


    The increased use of glycol ethers (GEs) for water-based paints and cleaning products, combined with a lack of information about many of these products, particularly with regard to the effects of percutaneous exposure, led us to evaluate the skin absorption rates of a group of glycol ethers in vitro. Skin permeation was calculated using the Franz cell method with human skin. A physiological solution was used as the receiving phase. The amount of solvent passing through the skin was analysed with a gas chromatographic technique employing flame ionization detection. A permeation profile was obtained and steady state, lag time and permeation constant flux was calculated for each of the following solvents: ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGMEE), propylene glycol mono-methyl ether (PGMME); propylene glycol mono-methyl ether acetate (PGMMEac); 2-propylene glycol 1-butyl ether (2PG1BE), ethylene glycol dimethyl ether (EGDME), ethylene glycol diethyl ether (EGDEE) and diethylene glycol dimethyl ether (DEGDME). All solvents were tested in their pure form and with 70% acetone. For all solvents tested the lag time was less than 2 h, and for the majority of them was about 60 min. Flux at steady state ranged between 0.017 +/- 0.005 and 3.435 +/- 1.897 mg/cm(2)/h and permeation rate was from 0.0192 to 1.02 x 10(-3) cm/h. The presence of acetone in the solution caused a reduction in lag time and an increase in permeation rate, higher for EGMEE, lower for EGDEE, indicating the enhancing effect of this mixture of solvents. Our results confirm the high percutaneous absorption of the GEs tested. The Franz method might be helpful for obtaining a grading of skin notation for hydrophilic substances: in the case of glycol ethers, it can give us precise information about permeation risk, particularly important in the evaluation of exposure. In the case of solvents with high dermal absorption, the air concentration is no longer a sufficient measure of the total exposure to workers, and

  6. Sound absorption property of openpore aluminum foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Fang


    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on sound absorption property of aluminum foam by evaluating its sound absorption coefficients using standing wave tube method. Experimental results showed that the average values of sound absorption coefficients (over the test frequency range are all above 0.4, which indicate very good sound absorption property of the aluminum foams. The sound absorption coefficient is affected by frequency and pore structure, and reaches its maximum value at around 1 000 Hz. With the increase of porosity and decrease of cell diameter, the sound absorption coefficient values increase.

  7. Narrow absorption lines complex I: one form of broad absorption line (United States)

    Lu, Wei-Jian; Lin, Ying-Ru


    We discover that some of the broad absorption lines (BALs) are actually a complex of narrow absorption lines (NALs). As a pilot study of this type of BAL, we show this discovery through a typical example in this paper. Utilizing the two-epoch observations of J002710.06-094435.3 (hereafter J0027-0944) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we find that each of the C IV and Si IV BAL troughs contains at least four NAL doublets. By resolving the Si IV BAL into multiple NALs, we present the following main results and conclusions. First, all these NALs show coordinated variations between the two-epoch SDSS observations, suggesting that they all originate in the quasar outflow, and that their variations are due to global changes in the ionization condition of the absorbing gas. Secondly, a BAL consisting of a number of NAL components indicates that this type of BAL is basically the same as the intrinsic NAL, which tends to support the inclination model rather than the evolution model. Thirdly, although both the C IV and Si IV BALs originate from the same clumpy substructures of the outflow, they show different profile shapes: multiple absorption troughs for the Si IV BAL in a wider velocity range, while P-Cygni for the C IV BAL in a narrower velocity range. This can be interpreted by the substantial differences in fine structure and oscillator strength between the Si IVλλ1393, 1402 and C IVλλ1548, 1551 doublets. Based on the above conclusions, we consider that the decomposition of a BAL into NALs can serve as a way to resolve the clumpy structure for outflows, and it can be used to learn more about characteristics of the clumpy structure and to test the outflow model, when utilizing high-resolution spectra and photoionization model.

  8. A simulation of laser energy absorption by nanowired surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, Miguel F.S.; Ramos, Alexandre F.


    Despite recent advances on research about laser inertial fusion energy, to increase the portion of energy absorbed by the target's surface from lasers remains as an important challenge. The plasma formed during the initial instants of laser arrival shields the target and prevents the absorption of laser energy by the deeper layers of the material. One strategy to circumvent that effect is the construction of targets whose surfaces are populated with nanowires. The nanowired surfaces have increased absorption of laser energy and constitutes a promising pathway for enhancing laser-matter coupling. In our work we present the results of simulations aiming to investigate how target's geometrical properties might contribute for maximizing laser energy absorption by material. Simulations have been carried out using the software FLASH, a multi-physics platform developed by researchers from the University of Chicago, written in FORTRAN 90 and Python. Different tools for generating target's geometry and analysis of results were developed using Python. Our results show that a nanowired surfaces has an increased energy absorption when compared with non wired surface. The software for visualization developed in this work also allowed an analysis of the spatial dynamics of the target's temperature, electron density, ionization levels and temperature of the radiation emitted by it. (author)

  9. Kennard-Stepanov relation connecting absorption and emission spectra in an atomic gas. (United States)

    Moroshkin, Peter; Weller, Lars; Sass, Anne; Klaers, Jan; Weitz, Martin


    The Kennard-Stepanov relation describes a thermodynamic, Boltzmann-type scaling between the absorption and emission spectral profiles of an absorber, which applies in many liquid state dye solutions as well as in semiconductor systems. Here we examine absorption and emission spectra of rubidium atoms in a dense argon buffer gas environment. We demonstrate that the Kennard-Stepanov relation between absorption and emission spectra is well fulfilled in the collisionally broadened atomic gas system. Our experimental findings are supported by a simple theoretical model.

  10. Absorption/desorption in sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naimpally, A.


    This survey paper shall seek to present the present state of knowledge concerning absorption and desorption in spray chambers. The first part of the paper presents the theories and formulas for the atomization and break-up of sprays in nozzles. Formulas for the average (sauter-mean) diameters are then presented. For the case of absorption processes, the formulas for the dimensionless mass transfer coefficients is in drops. The total; mass transfer is the total of the transfer in individual drops. For the case of desorption of sparingly soluble gases from liquids in a spray chamber, the mass transfer occurs in the spray just at the point of break-up of the jet. Formulas for the desorption of gases are presented

  11. Modernization of Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasic, Visa; Milivojevic, Dragan; Karabasevic, Dejan


    In Copper Institute in Bor, connection has been made between absorption spectrophotometer and standard PC with the aim to make its operation more reliable and comfortable. Applied solution includes both software and hardware components. An I/O interface module has been installed in PC [1]. Software component consists of programs for measuring and interpretation of results. Paper presents details of this job realization.(Author)

  12. Photodetector with enhanced light absorption (United States)

    Kane, James


    A photodetector including a light transmissive electrically conducting layer having a textured surface with a semiconductor body thereon. This layer traps incident light thereby enhancing the absorption of light by the semiconductor body. A photodetector comprising a textured light transmissive electrically conducting layer of SnO.sub.2 and a body of hydrogenated amorphous silicon has a conversion efficiency about fifty percent greater than that of comparative cells. The invention also includes a method of fabricating the photodetector of the invention.

  13. Iodine Absorption Cells Purity Testing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrabina, Jan; Zucco, M.; Philippe, Ch.; Pham, Minh Tuan; Holá, Miroslava; Acef, O.; Lazar, Josef; Číp, Ondřej


    Roč. 17, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-13, č. článku 17010102. ISSN 1424-8220 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-18430S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : iodine cells * absorption spectroscopy * laser spectroscopy * laser standards * frequency stability Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.677, year: 2016

  14. The influence of water mixtures on the dermal absorption of glycol ethers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traynor, Matthew J.; Wilkinson, Simon C.; Williams, Faith M.


    Glycol ethers are solvents widely used alone and as mixtures in industrial and household products. Some glycol ethers have been shown to have a range of toxic effects in humans following absorption and metabolism to their aldehyde and acid metabolites. This study assessed the influence of water mixtures on the dermal absorption of butoxyethanol and ethoxyethanol in vitro through human skin. Butoxyethanol penetrated human skin up to sixfold more rapidly from aqueous solution (50%, 450 mg/ml) than from the neat solvent. Similarly penetration of ethoxyethanol was increased threefold in the presence of water (50%, 697 mg/ml). There was a corresponding increase in apparent permeability coefficient as the glycol ether concentration in water decreased. The maximum penetration rate of water also increased in the presence of both glycol ethers. Absorption through a synthetic membrane obeyed Fick's Law and absorption through rat skin showed a similar profile to human skin but with a lesser effect. The mechanisms for this phenomenon involves disruption of the stratum corneum lipid bilayer by desiccation by neat glycol ether micelles, hydration with water mixtures and the physicochemical properties of the glycol ether-water mixtures. Full elucidation of the profile of absorption of glycol ethers from mixtures is required for risk assessment of dermal exposure. This work supports the view that risk assessments for dermal contact scenarios should ideally be based on absorption data obtained for the relevant formulation or mixture and exposure scenario and that absorption derived from permeability coefficients may be inappropriate for water-miscible solvents

  15. Topical absorption and systemic toxicity. (United States)

    Alikhan, Fatima Sasha; Maibach, Howard


    Dermal absorption of some chemicals and drugs can cause systemic toxicity. We evaluated several case reports from the past decade, which discuss the dermal absorption of a specific chemical and potential local and systemic effects. We focused on herbicide and pesticide exposure along with exposure to cutaneous medication, occupational contact, and cosmeceutical exposure. Although causality cannot be established in most cases, it is critical to be aware of the possible effects of topical absorption that may not be immediately apparent. We recommended further studies on specific chemicals to ascertain causality and determine the highest exposure level with no observed adverse affect level (NOAEL) and the reference dose (RfD). Post-marketing epidemiology data in most geographical areas are markedly limited. A weak link in public health resides in the inadequate reporting and workup of alleged chemically related adverse effects. This arena mandates a re-thinking of how to increase this reporting, and workup, as a backup to our preclinical and clinical studies. Public awareness and funding will be rewarded by increased evidence to backup pre-approval pre-marketing studies.

  16. Organizational forms and knowledge absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Nikola


    Full Text Available Managing the entire portion of knowledge in an organization is a challenging task. At the organizational level, there can be enormous quantities of unknown, poorly valued or inefficiently applied knowledge. This is normally followed with the underdeveloped potential or inability of organizations to absorb knowledge from external sources. Facilitation of the efficient internal flow of knowledge within the established communication network may positively affect organizational capacity to absorb or identify, share and subsequently apply knowledge to commercial ends. Based on the evidences that the adoption of different organizational forms affects knowledge flows within an organization, this research analyzed the relationship between common organizational forms and absorptive capacity of organizations. In this paper, we test the hypothesis stating that the organizational structure affects knowledge absorption and exploitation in the organization. The methodology included quantitative and qualitative research method based on a questionnaire, while the data has been statistically analyzed and the hypothesis has been tested with the use of cross-tabulation and chi-square tests. The findings suggest that the type of organizational form affects knowledge absorption capacity and that having a less formalized and more flexible structure in an organization increases absorbing and exploiting opportunities of potentially valuable knowledge.

  17. Is oral absorption of vigabatrin carrier-mediated?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, M. K.; Juul, R. V.; Thale, Z. I.


    by mechanistic non-linear mixed effects modelling, evaluating PAT1-ligands as covariates on the PK parameters with a full covariate modelling approach. The oral absorption of vigabatrin was adequately described by a Michaelis-Menten type saturable absorption. Using a Michaelis constant of 32.8 mM, the model......-mediated and if the proton-coupled amino acid transporter 1 (PAT1) was involved in the absorption processes. Vigabatrin (0.3-300 mg/kg) was administered orally or intravenously to Sprague Dawley rats in the absence or presence of PAT1-ligands l-proline, l-tryptophan or sarcosine. The PK profiles of vigabatrin were described...... estimated a maximal oral absorption rate (Vmax) of 64.6 mmol/min and dose-dependent bioavailability with a maximum of 60.9%. Bioavailability was 58.5-60.8% at 0.3-30 mg/kg doses, but decreased to 46.8% at 300 mg/kg. Changes in oral vigabatrin PK after co-administration with PAT1-ligands was explained...


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Limei; He, Jiansen; Wang, Linghua; Tu, Chuanyi; Zhang, Lei; Peter, Hardi; Chen, Feng; Barczynski, Krzysztof; Tian, Hui; Xia, Lidong


    Transient brightenings in the transition region of the Sun have been studied for decades and are usually related to magnetic reconnection. Recently, absorption features due to chromospheric lines have been identified in transition region emission lines raising the question of the thermal stratification during such reconnection events. We analyze data from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph in an emerging active region. Here the spectral profiles show clear self-absorption features in the transition region lines of Si iv. While some indications existed that opacity effects might play some role in strong transition region lines, self-absorption has not been observed before. We show why previous instruments could not observe such self-absorption features, and discuss some implications of this observation for the corresponding structure of reconnection events in the atmosphere. Based on this we speculate that a range of phenomena, such as explosive events, blinkers or Ellerman bombs, are just different aspects of the same reconnection event occurring at different heights in the atmosphere

  19. NMR imaging of cell phone radiation absorption in brain tissue (United States)

    Gultekin, David H.; Moeller, Lothar


    A method is described for measuring absorbed electromagnetic energy radiated from cell phone antennae into ex vivo brain tissue. NMR images the 3D thermal dynamics inside ex vivo bovine brain tissue and equivalent gel under exposure to power and irradiation time-varying radio frequency (RF) fields. The absorbed RF energy in brain tissue converts into Joule heat and affects the nuclear magnetic shielding and the Larmor precession. The resultant temperature increase is measured by the resonance frequency shift of hydrogen protons in brain tissue. This proposed application of NMR thermometry offers sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to characterize the hot spots from absorbed cell phone radiation in aqueous media and biological tissues. Specific absorption rate measurements averaged over 1 mg and 10 s in the brain tissue cover the total absorption volume. Reference measurements with fiber optic temperature sensors confirm the accuracy of the NMR thermometry. PMID:23248293

  20. Stochasticity of the energy absorption in the electron cyclotron resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez T, C.; Hernandez A, O.


    The energy absorption mechanism in cyclotron resonance of the electrons is a present problem, since it could be considered from the stochastic point of view or this related with a non-homogeneous but periodical of plasma spatial structure. In this work using the Bogoliubov average method for a multi periodical system in presence of resonances, the drift equations were obtained in presence of a RF field for the case of electron cyclotron resonance until first order terms with respect to inverse of its cyclotron frequency. The absorbed energy equation is obtained on part of electrons in a simple model and by drift method. It is showed the stochastic character of the energy absorption. (Author)

  1. Spatial attention systems in spatial neglect. (United States)

    Karnath, Hans-Otto


    It has been established that processes relating to 'spatial attention' are implemented at cortical level by goal-directed (top-down) and stimulus-driven (bottom-up) networks. Spatial neglect in brain-damaged individuals has been interpreted as a distinguished exemplar for a disturbance of these processes. The present paper elaborates this assumption. Functioning of the two attentional networks seem to dissociate in spatial neglect; behavioral studies of patients' orienting and exploration behavior point to a disturbed stimulus-driven but preserved goal-directed attention system. When a target suddenly appears somewhere in space, neglect patients demonstrate disturbed detection and orienting if it is located in contralesional direction. In contrast, if neglect patients explore a scene with voluntarily, top-down controlled shifts of spatial attention, they perform movements that are oriented into all spatial directions without any direction-specific disturbances. The paper thus argues that not the top-down control of spatial attention itself, rather a body-related matrix on top of which this process is executed, seems affected. In that sense, the traditional role of spatial neglect as a stroke model for 'spatial attention' requires adjustment. Beyond its insights into the human stimulus-driven attentional system, the disorder most notably provides vistas in how our brain encodes topographical information and organizes spatially oriented action - including the top-down control of spatial attention - in relation to body position. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Soil Tillage Management Affects Maize Grain Yield by Regulating Spatial Distribution Coordination of Roots, Soil Moisture and Nitrogen Status. (United States)

    Wang, Xinbing; Zhou, Baoyuan; Sun, Xuefang; Yue, Yang; Ma, Wei; Zhao, Ming


    The spatial distribution of the root system through the soil profile has an impact on moisture and nutrient uptake by plants, affecting growth and productivity. The spatial distribution of the roots, soil moisture, and fertility are affected by tillage practices. The combination of high soil density and the presence of a soil plow pan typically impede the growth of maize (Zea mays L.).We investigated the spatial distribution coordination of the root system, soil moisture, and N status in response to different soil tillage treatments (NT: no-tillage, RT: rotary-tillage, SS: subsoiling) and the subsequent impact on maize yield, and identify yield-increasing mechanisms and optimal soil tillage management practices. Field experiments were conducted on the Huang-Huai-Hai plain in China during 2011 and 2012. The SS and RT treatments significantly reduced soil bulk density in the top 0-20 cm layer of the soil profile, while SS significantly decreased soil bulk density in the 20-30 cm layer. Soil moisture in the 20-50 cm profile layer was significantly higher for the SS treatment compared to the RT and NT treatment. In the 0-20 cm topsoil layer, the NT treatment had higher soil moisture than the SS and RT treatments. Root length density of the SS treatment was significantly greater than density of the RT and NT treatments, as soil depth increased. Soil moisture was reduced in the soil profile where root concentration was high. SS had greater soil moisture depletion and a more concentration root system than RT and NT in deep soil. Our results suggest that the SS treatment improved the spatial distribution of root density, soil moisture and N states, thereby promoting the absorption of soil moisture and reducing N leaching via the root system in the 20-50 cm layer of the profile. Within the context of the SS treatment, a root architecture densely distributed deep into the soil profile, played a pivotal role in plants' ability to access nutrients and water. An optimal

  3. Characteristics of water absorption of beans


    上中, 登紀子; 森, 孝夫; 豊沢, 功; Tokiko, Uenaka; Takao, Mori; Isao, Toyosawa


    Characteristics of water absorption of soybean, azuki bean and kidney beans (cv. Toramame and Taishokintoki) were investigated. The way of water absorption of soybean was different from that of other beans, because soybeans absorbed water from whole surface of seed coat immediately after the immersion. Azuki beans absorbed extremely slowly water from only strophiole, and then the water absorption in other tissue was induced by a certain amount of water absorption playing a role of trigger. Th...

  4. Evolution of absorption machines; Evolution des machines a absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soide, I.; Klemsdal, E. [Gaz de France (GDF), 75 - Paris (France); Le Goff, P.; Hornut, J.M. [LSGC-ENSIC, 54 - Nancy (France)


    Most of todays absorption air-conditioning machineries use the lithium bromide-water pair. The most performing can operate at a 150-160 deg. C, the temperature being limited by the corrosion resistance of metals with respect to LiBr solutions. Also, there is a revival of interest for water-ammonia systems. These systems require the use of a rectification column which reduces the coefficient of performance. Higher thermal performances are reached with hydrocarbon pairs and ternary mixtures (water-methanol-LiBr etc..). This paper presents different schemes of refrigerating heat pumps based on these different systems. (J.S.)

  5. Fellow Profile

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 1977 Section: Animal Sciences. Nair, Prof. Narayana Balakrishnan Ph.D and D.Sc. (Madras), D.Sc. (h.c.), FNA, FNASc, FNAAS, FTWAS. Date of birth: 6 July 1927. Date of death: 21 April 2010. Specialization: Aquatic Biology & Fisheries and Ecology Last known address: Swathi, ...

  6. Fellow Profile

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fellow Profile. Elected: 1977 Section: Animal Sciences. Nair, Prof. Narayana Balakrishnan Ph.D and D.Sc. (Madras), D.Sc. (h.c.), FNA, FNASc, FNAAS, FTWAS. Date of birth: 6 July 1927. Date of death: 21 April 2010. Specialization: Aquatic Biology & Fisheries and Ecology Last known address: Swathi, Residency Road, ...

  7. Fellow Profile

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fellow Profile. Elected: 1974 Section: Earth & Planetary Sciences. Koteswaram, Prof. Pancheti D.Sc. (Madras), FNA. Date of birth: 25 March 1915. Date of death: 11 January 1997. Specialization: Atmospheric Physics Meteorology and Hydrology Last known address: 'Varsha', 8-1-11, University Road, Waltair Uplands, ...

  8. Fellow Profile

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fellow Profile. Elected: 1957 Section: Earth & Planetary Sciences. Rao, Mr Mandagere Bharadwaj Ramachandra M.Sc. (Mysore). Date of birth: 5 August 1906. Date of death: 4 September 1992. Specialization: Geology and Exploration Geophysics Last known address: 669, Third Block, Rajajinagar, Bengaluru 560 010.

  9. Application of UV-visible absorption spectroscopy combined with two-dimensional correlation for insight into DOM fractions from native halophyte soils in a larger estuarine delta. (United States)

    Wei, Huaibin; Yu, Huibin; Pan, Hongwei; Gao, Hongjie


    UV-visible absorption spectroscopy combined with principal component analysis (PCA) and two-dimensional correlation (2D correlation) is used to trace components of dissolved organic matter (DOM) extracted from soils in a larger estuarine delta and to investigate spatial variations of DOM fractions. Soil samples of different depths were collected from native halophyte soils along a saline gradient, i.e., Suaeda salsa Comm. (SSC), Chenopodium album Comm. (CAC), Phragmites australis Comm. (PAC), and Artemisia selengensis Comm. (ASC). Molecular weights of DOM within the SSC soil profile were the lowest, followed by the CAC, PAC, and ASC soil profiles. Humification degree of DOM within the ASC soil profile was the highest, followed by the PAC, SSC, and CAC soil profiles. DOM within the soil profiles mainly contained phenolic, carboxylic, microbial products, and aromatic and alkyl groups through the PCA, which presented the significant differentiation among the four native halophyte soil profiles. The 2D UV correlation spectra of DOM within the SSC soil profile indicated that the variations of the phenolic groups were the largest, followed by the carboxylic groups, microbial products, and humified organic materials according to the band changing order of 285 → 365 → 425 → 520 nm. The 2D UV correlation spectra of DOM within the CAC soil profiles determined that the decreasing order of the variations was phenolic groups > carboxylic groups > microbial products according the band changing order of 285 → 365 → 425 nm. The 2D UV correlation spectra of DOM within the PAC soil profile proved that the variations of the phenolic groups were larger than those of the carboxylic groups according to the band changing order of 285 → 365 nm. The 2D UV correlation spectra of DOM within the ASC soil profile demonstrated that the variations of the phenolic groups were larger than those of the other DOM fractions according to the broad cross-peak at

  10. Uniform semiclassical approximation for absorptive scattering systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, M.S.; Pato, M.P.


    The uniform semiclassical approximation of the elastic scattering amplitude is generalized to absorptive systems. An integral equation is derived which connects the absorption modified amplitude to the absorption free one. Division of the amplitude into a diffractive and refractive components is then made possible. (Author) [pt

  11. Structural sound absorption in liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niyazov, S.


    Present article is devoted to structural sound absorption in liquid metals. The study of sound absorption in liquid metals shown that in all studied objects the structural absorption of sound was observed. The mechanism of structural relaxation in molten metal was revealed.

  12. Iron absorption in relation to iron status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnusson, B.; Bjoern-Rasmussen, E.; Hallberg, L.; Rossander, L.


    The absorption from a 3 mg dose of ferrous iron was measured in 250 male subjects. The absorption was related to the log concentration of serum ferritin in 186 subjects of whom 99 were regular blood donors (r= -0.76), and to bone marrow haemosiderin grading in 52 subjects with varying iron status. The purpose was to try and establish a percentage absorption from such a dose that is representative of subjects who are borderline iron deficient. This information is necessary for food iron absorption studies in order (1) to calculate the absorption of iron from the diet at a given iron status and (2) compare the absorption of iron from different meals studied in different groups of subjects by different investigarors. The results suggest that an absorption of about 40% of a 3 mg reference dose of ferrous iron is given in a fasting state, roughly corresponds to the absorption in borderline-iron-deficient subjects. The results indicate that this 40% absorption value corresponds to a serum ferritin level of 30 μg/l and that food iron absorption in a group of subjects should be expressed preferably as the absorption corresponding to a reference-dose absorption of 45%, or possibly a serum ferritin level of 30 μg/l. (author)

  13. Spatial econometrics using microdata

    CERN Document Server

    Dubé, Jean


    This book provides an introduction to spatial analyses concerning disaggregated (or micro) spatial data.Particular emphasis is put on spatial data compilation and the structuring of the connections between the observations. Descriptive analysis methods of spatial data are presented in order to identify and measure the spatial, global and local dependency.The authors then focus on autoregressive spatial models, to control the problem of spatial dependency between the residues of a basic linear statistical model, thereby contravening one of the basic hypotheses of the ordinary least squares appr

  14. Precision Saturated Absorption Spectroscopy of H3+ (United States)

    Guan, Yu-chan; Liao, Yi-Chieh; Chang, Yung-Hsiang; Peng, Jin-Long; Shy, Jow-Tsong


    In our previous work on the Lamb dips of the νb{2} fundamental band of H3+, the saturated absorption spectrum was obtained by the third-derivative spectroscopy using frequency modulation [1]. However, the frequency modulation also causes error in absolute frequency determination. To solve this problem, we have built an offset-locking system to lock the OPO pump frequency to an iodine-stabilized Nd:YAG laser. With this modification, we are able to scan the OPO idler frequency precisely and obtain the profile of the Lamb dips. Double modulation (amplitude modulation of the idler power and concentration modulation of the ion) is employed to subtract the interference fringes of the signal and increase the signal-to-noise ratio effectively. To Determine the absolute frequency of the idler wave, the pump wave is offset locked on the R(56) 32-0 a10 hyperfine component of 127I2, and the signal wave is locked on a GPS disciplined fiber optical frequency comb (OFC). All references and lock systems have absolute frequency accuracy better than 10 kHz. Here, we demonstrate its performance by measuring one transition of methane and sixteen transitions of H3+. This instrument could pave the way for the high-resolution spectroscopy of a variety of molecular ions. [1] H.-C. Chen, C.-Y. Hsiao, J.-L. Peng, T. Amano, and J.-T. Shy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 263002 (2012).

  15. Spatial aspects of reproduced sound in small rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Søren


    This paper reports on the influence of individual reflections on the auditory spatial aspects of reproduced sound. The sound field produced by a single loudspeaker positioned in a normal listening room has been simulated using an electroacoustical synthesis of the direct sound, 17 individual...... characteristics and frequency independent absorption coefficients of the room surfaces and (2) a loudspeaker with directivity similar to a standard two-way system and absorption coefficients according to measurements of real materials. The results have shown that subjects can reliably distinguish between timbre...... and spatial aspect of the sound field, that the spectral energy above 2 kHz of the individual reflection determines the importance of the reflection for the spatial aspects, and that only the first order floor reflection will contribute to the spatial aspects. ©1998 Acoustical Society of America....

  16. Exploring the Time Evolution of Cool Metallic Absorption Features in UV Burst Spectra (United States)

    Belmes, K.; Madsen, C. A.; DeLuca, E.


    UV bursts are compact brightenings in active regions that appear in UV images. They are identified through three spectroscopic features: (1) broadening and intensification of NUV/FUV emission lines, (2) the presence of optically thin Si IV emission, and (3) the presence of absorption features from cool metallic ions. Properties (2) and (3) imply that bursts exist at transition region temperatures (≥ 80,000 K) but are located in the cooler lower chromosphere ( 5,000 K). Their energetic and dynamical properties remain poorly constrained. Improving our understanding of this phenomena could help us further constrain the energetic and dynamical properties of the chromosphere, as well as give us insight into whether or not UV bursts contribute to chromospheric and/or coronal heating. We analyzed the time evolution of UV bursts using spectral data from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS). We inspected Si IV 1393.8 Å line profiles for Ni II 1393.3 Å absorption features to look for signs of heating. Weakening of absorption features over time could indicate heating of the cool ions above the burst, implying that thermal energy from the burst could rapidly conduct upward through the chromosphere. To detect the spectral profiles corresponding to bursts, we applied a four-parameter Gaussian fit to every profile in each observation and took cuts in parameter space to isolate the bursts. We then manually reviewed the remaining profiles by looking for a statistically significant appearance of Ni II 1393.3 Å absorption. We quantified these absorption features by normalizing the Si IV 1393.8 Å emission profiles and measuring the maximum fractional extinction in each. Our preliminary results indicate that Ni II 1393.3 Å absorption may undergo a cycle of strengthening and weakening throughout a burst's lifetime. However, further investigation is needed for confirmation. This work is supported by the NSF-REU solar physics program at SAO, grant number AGS-1560313.

  17. [The percutaneous absorption of diclofenac]. (United States)

    Riess, W; Schmid, K; Botta, L; Kobayashi, K; Moppert, J; Schneider, W; Sioufi, A; Strusberg, A; Tomasi, M


    The percutaneous absorption of diclofenac diethylammonium 1.16% (w/w) in a combination of emulsion cream and gel (Voltaren Emulgel) and of diclofenac sodium 1% (w/w) in a cream formulation (Voltaren cream) was investigated in guinea-pig, rabbit and man. The percutaneous absorption of diclofenac sodium in guinea-pig was 3 to 6% of the dose when the cream formulation in doses of 320, 100 or 40 mg was applied on 10 cm2 of occluded skin and left in place for 6 h. The transdermal delivery of 14C-labelled diclofenac yielded plateau plasma concentrations of radiotracer from 1.5 h after application until removal of the residual cream. Subsequently the steady state drug depots in the skin and muscle tissue were depleted promptly. During daily administration the steady state levels in the muscle tissue in proximity to the application site were about 3 times higher than in distant muscle tissue. By topical application on knee joints of rabbits diclofenac penetrated into the patellar ligament, the adipose corpus and the synovial fluid. In man the percutaneous absorption was 6% of the dose when the Emulgel formulation was spread by 5 mg/cm2 and left for 12 h on non-occluded skin. The pattern of metabolites of diclofenac in human urine was the same after topical and oral administration. In man, upon daily topical administration of 3 times 2.5 g cream formulation (10 mg/cm2) the diclofenac steady state plasma levels were 20 to 40 nmol/l.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. In silico predictions of gastrointestinal drug absorption in pharmaceutical product development: application of the mechanistic absorption model GI-Sim. (United States)

    Sjögren, Erik; Westergren, Jan; Grant, Iain; Hanisch, Gunilla; Lindfors, Lennart; Lennernäs, Hans; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Tannergren, Christer


    Oral drug delivery is the predominant administration route for a major part of the pharmaceutical products used worldwide. Further understanding and improvement of gastrointestinal drug absorption predictions is currently a highly prioritized area of research within the pharmaceutical industry. The fraction absorbed (fabs) of an oral dose after administration of a solid dosage form is a key parameter in the estimation of the in vivo performance of an orally administrated drug formulation. This study discloses an evaluation of the predictive performance of the mechanistic physiologically based absorption model GI-Sim. GI-Sim deploys a compartmental gastrointestinal absorption and transit model as well as algorithms describing permeability, dissolution rate, salt effects, partitioning into micelles, particle and micelle drifting in the aqueous boundary layer, particle growth and amorphous or crystalline precipitation. Twelve APIs with reported or expected absorption limitations in humans, due to permeability, dissolution and/or solubility, were investigated. Predictions of the intestinal absorption for different doses and formulations were performed based on physicochemical and biopharmaceutical properties, such as solubility in buffer and simulated intestinal fluid, molecular weight, pK(a), diffusivity and molecule density, measured or estimated human effective permeability and particle size distribution. The performance of GI-Sim was evaluated by comparing predicted plasma concentration-time profiles along with oral pharmacokinetic parameters originating from clinical studies in healthy individuals. The capability of GI-Sim to correctly predict impact of dose and particle size as well as the in vivo performance of nanoformulations was also investigated. The overall predictive performance of GI-Sim was good as >95% of the predicted pharmacokinetic parameters (C(max) and AUC) were within a 2-fold deviation from the clinical observations and the predicted plasma AUC

  19. Reproducibility of The Random Incidence Absorption Coefficient Converted From the Sabine Absorption Coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Chang, Ji-ho


    Absorption coefficients measured in reverberation chambers, Sabine absorption coefficients, suffer from two major problems. Firstly, they sometimes exceed unity. Secondly, the reproducibility of the Sabine absorption coefficients is quite poor, meaning that the Sabine absorption coefficients vary...... resistivity optimization outperforms the surface impedance optimization in terms of the reproducibility....

  20. Phytases for Improved Iron Absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Veller Friis; Nyffenegger, Christian; Meyer, Anne S.


    Microbial phytases (EC catalyse dephosphorylation of phytic acid, which is the primary storage compound for phosphorous in cereal kernels. The negatively charged phosphates in phytic acid chelate iron (Fe3+) and thus retards iron bioavailability in humans 1. Supplementation of microbial...... phytase can improve iron absorption from cereal-based diets 2. In order for phytase to catalyse iron release in vivo the phytase must be robust to low pH and proteolysis in the gastric ventricle. Our work has compared the robustness of five different microbial phytases, evaluating thermal stability...

  1. Electronic absorption spectra of antiviral aminophenol derivatives (United States)

    Belkov, M. V.; Ksendzova, G. A.; Raichyonok, T. F.; Skornyakov, I. V.; Sorokin, V. L.; Tolstorozhev, G. B.; Shadyro, O. I.


    Electronic absorption spectra of aminophenol derivatives in solutions have been studied. A general property of the absorption spectra of these compounds, the dependence of the maximum of a long-wavelength absorption band on the solvent polarity, is revealed. As a rule, the absorption band maximum of compounds possessing pharmacological properties shows a greater shift to short wavelength with an increase in the medium polarity than that of inactive compounds. Absorption measurements of solutions of aminophenol derivatives can be used for a tentative estimation of their antiviral activity.

  2. Spatially resolved sulfur K-edge XANES spectroscopy of wheat leaves infected by Puccinia triticina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichtenberg, H; Prange, A; Hormes, J [CAMD, Louisiana State University, 6980 Jefferson Hwy, Baton Rouge, LA 70806 (United States); Steiner, U; Oerke, E-C, E-mail: lichtenberg@lsu.ed [INRES-Phytomedicine, University of Bonn, Nussallee 9, 53115 Bonn (Germany)


    In this study, wheat leaves infected with brown rust, a plant disease of serious economic concern caused by the fungus Puccinia triticina, were investigated using spatially resolved XANES (X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure) spectroscopy at the sulfur K-absorption edge.

  3. Recent results of full-spatial scale modeling of fast ignition and shock ignition (United States)

    Tonge, J.; May, J.; Mori, W. B.; Fiuza, F.; Marti, M.; Fonseca, R. A.; Davies, J. R.; Silva, L. O.


    We show recent results of full-spatial scale modeling of fast ignition and shock ignition, from both full-PIC and the recently developed hybrid-PIC capability of OSIRIS 2.0. Our results show full-scale modeling of fast ignition over full density and time scales, where laser absorption, electron beam divergence, and energy deposition in the compressed core will be addressed in a self-consistent manner. Full-PIC and hybrid-PIC simulations of isolated targets will be presented, illustrating the importance of this type of modeling in order to accurately infer the beam divergence and transport properties. We will also demonstrate the possibility of performing full-scale simulations of shock ignition with the new hybrid-PIC capability, using compressed target profiles from hydrodynamic simulations, and studying the self-consistent laser absorption, electron transport, and energy deposition that can lead to the generation of the shock required for ignition. Work supported by DOE under DE-FC02-04-ER54789 and DE-FG52-09NA29552, and NSF under NSF-Phy-0904039, FCT (Portugal), and the HiPER project. Simulations performed on Hoffman at UCLA, Thresher at SDSC, and Intrepid at ANL supported by Incite grant FastIgnitionPIC.

  4. A high resolution atlas of Mg II profiles (United States)

    Ewald, R.; Nichols-Bohlin, Joy Y.; Kondo, Yoji


    An atlas of high dispersion Mg II profiles for standard stars of spectral types B0 through G9 is presented. The atlas contains plots of the Mg II profiles for approximately 65 stars and associated equivalent width measurements for both absorption and emission components, and the subordinate lines. The atlas is used to investigate systematic behavior of the Mg II profiles and correlation of the behavior with spectral classification.

  5. Airborne differential absorption lidar system for water vapor investigations (United States)

    Browell, E. V.; Carter, A. F.; Wilkerson, T. D.


    Range-resolved water vapor measurements using the differential-absorption lidar (DIAL) technique is described in detail. The system uses two independently tunable optically pumped lasers operating in the near infrared with laser pulses of less than 100 microseconds separation, to minimize concentration errors caused by atmospheric scattering. Water vapor concentration profiles are calculated for each measurement by a minicomputer, in real time. The work is needed in the study of atmospheric motion and thermodynamics as well as in forestry and agriculture problems.

  6. Effect of plasma absorption on dust lattice waves in hexagonal dust crystals (United States)

    Kerong, HE; Hui, CHEN; Sanqiu, LIU


    In the present paper, the effect of plasma absorption on lattice waves in 2D hexagonal dust crystals is investigated. The dispersion relations with the effect of plasma absorption are derived. It is found that the temperature effect (electron-to-ion temperature ratio τ) enhances the frequency of the dust lattice waves, while the spatial effect (dimensionless Debye shielding parameter \\tilde{κ }) weakens the frequency of the dust lattice waves. In addition, the system stabilities under the conditions of plasma absorption are studied. It is found that the temperature effect narrows the range of instability, while the spatial effect extends this range. And the range of instability is calculated, i.e. the system will always in the stable state regardless of the value of \\tilde{κ } when τ > 3.5. However, the system will be unstable when τ = 1 and \\tilde{κ }> 4.1.

  7. Iodine Absorption Cells Purity Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hrabina


    Full Text Available This article deals with the evaluation of the chemical purity of iodine-filled absorption cells and the optical frequency references used for the frequency locking of laser standards. We summarize the recent trends and progress in absorption cell technology and we focus on methods for iodine cell purity testing. We compare two independent experimental systems based on the laser-induced fluorescence method, showing an improvement of measurement uncertainty by introducing a compensation system reducing unwanted influences. We show the advantages of this technique, which is relatively simple and does not require extensive hardware equipment. As an alternative to the traditionally used methods we propose an approach of hyperfine transitions’ spectral linewidth measurement. The key characteristic of this method is demonstrated on a set of testing iodine cells. The relationship between laser-induced fluorescence and transition linewidth methods will be presented as well as a summary of the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed technique (in comparison with traditional measurement approaches.

  8. Spatial Data Management

    CERN Document Server

    Mamoulis, Nikos


    Spatial database management deals with the storage, indexing, and querying of data with spatial features, such as location and geometric extent. Many applications require the efficient management of spatial data, including Geographic Information Systems, Computer Aided Design, and Location Based Services. The goal of this book is to provide the reader with an overview of spatial data management technology, with an emphasis on indexing and search techniques. It first introduces spatial data models and queries and discusses the main issues of extending a database system to support spatial data.

  9. Absorption characteristics of epidural levobupivacaine with adrenaline and clonidine in children. (United States)

    Chalkiadis, George A; Abdullah, Farah; Bjorksten, Andrew R; Clarke, Alexander; Cortinez, Luis I; Udayasiri, Sonal; Anderson, Brian J


    To determine if the addition of adrenaline, clonidine, or their combination altered the pharmacokinetic profile of levobupivacaine administered via the caudal epidural route in children. Children aged adrenaline 5 mcg · ml(-1) or clonidine 2 mcg · ml(-1) or their combination. Covariate analysis included weight and postnatal age (PNA). Time-concentration profile analysis was undertaken using nonlinear mixed effects models. A one-compartment linear disposition model with first-order input and first-order elimination was used to describe the data. The effect of either clonidine or adrenaline on absorption was investigated using a scaling parameter (Fabs(CLON), Fabs(ADR)) applied to the absorption half-life (Tabs). There were 240 children (median weight 11.0, range 1.9-56.1 kg; median postnatal age 16.7, range 0.6-167.6 months). Absorption of levobupivacaine was faster when mixed with clonidine (Fabs(CLON) 0.60; 95%CI 0.44, 0.83) but slower when mixed with adrenaline (Fabs(ADR) 2.12; 95%CI 1.45, 3.08). The addition of adrenaline to levobupivacaine resulted in a bifid absorption pattern. While initial absorption was unchanged (Tabs 0.15 h 95%CI 0.12, 0.18 h), there was a late absorption peak characterized by a Tabs(LATE) 2.34 h (95%CI 1.44, 4.97 h). The additional use of clonidine with adrenaline had minimal effect on the bifid absorption profile observed with adrenaline alone. Neither clonidine nor adrenaline had any effect on clearance. The population parameter estimate for volume of distribution was 157 l 70 kg(-1). Clearance was 6.5 l · h(-1) 70 kg(-1) at 1-month PNA and increased with a maturation half-time of 1.6 months to reach 90% of the mature value (18.5 l · h(-1) 70 kg(-1)) by 5 months PNA. The addition of adrenaline decreases the rate of levobupivacaine systemic absorption, reducing peak concentration by half. Levobupivacaine concentrations with adrenaline adjuvant were reduced compared to plain levobupivacaine for up to 3.5 hours. Clonidine as an

  10. Differential absorption lidar systems for tropospheric and stratospheric ozone measurements (United States)

    Mcdermid, I. Stuart; Haner, David A.; Kleiman, Moshe M.; Walsh, T. Daniel; White, Mary L.


    A lidar facility has been established at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory-Table Mountain Facility located at an altitude of 2300 m in the San Gabriel Mountains in Southern California. This facility is using the technique of differential absorption lidar to measure atmospheric ozone concentration profiles. Two separate systems are needed to obtain the profile from the ground up to an altitude of 45 to 50 km. An Nd:YAG-based system is described for measurements from the ground up to 15 to 20 km altitude, and an excimer-laser-based system for measurements from 15 km to 45 to 50 km altitude. The systems were designed to make high-precision, long-term measurements to aid in the detection of changes in the atmospheric ozone abundance through participation in the Network of Detection of Stratospheric Change.

  11. Saturated two-photon absorption by atoms in a perturber gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nienhuis, G.

    We derive a general expression for the two-photon absorption spectrum of a state-atom excited by two monochromatic radiation fields. Collisional line-brodening effects are incorporated, and the result allows inclusion of profiles with a validity outside the impact limit. Results of previous work are

  12. Moisture movement in cement-based repair systems monitored by X-ray absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukovic, M.; Ye, G.; Schlangen, H.E.J.G.; van Breugel, K.


    In concrete repair systems, material properties in the repair material and interface are greatly influenced by the initial moisture content of the concrete (or mortar) substrate. In order to quantify moisture profiles inside the repair system, X-ray absorption was used. Preliminary studies are

  13. Impacts of Aerosol Shortwave Radiation Absorption on the Dynamics of an Idealized Convective Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde Barbaro, E.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Krol, M.C.; Holtslag, A.A.M.


    We investigated the impact of aerosol heat absorption on convective atmospheric boundary-layer (CBL) dynamics. Numerical experiments using a large-eddy simulation model enabled us to study the changes in the structure of a dry and shearless CBL in depthequilibrium for different vertical profiles of

  14. HI Absorption in Merger Remnants (United States)

    Teng, Stacy H.; Veileux, Sylvain; Baker, Andrew J.


    It has been proposed that ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) pass through a luminous starburst phase, followed by a dust-enshrouded AGN phase, and finally evolve into optically bright "naked" quasars once they shed their gas/dust reservoirs through powerful wind events. We present the results of our recent 21- cm HI survey of 21 merger remnants with the Green Bank Telescope. These remnants were selected from the QUEST (Quasar/ULIRG Evolution Study) sample of ULIRGs and PG quasars; our targets are all bolometrically dominated by AGN and sample all phases of the proposed ULIRG -> IR-excess quasar -> optical quasar sequence. We explore whether there is an evolutionary connection between ULIRGs and quasars by looking for the occurrence of HI absorption tracing neutral gas outflows; our results will allow us to identify where along the sequence the majority of a merger's gas reservoir is expelled.

  15. Sound absorption with green materials (United States)

    Trematerra, Amelia; Lombardi, Ilaria


    Green materials are a valid alternative to traditional materials that are by-products of processing oil. At the end of their useful life, green materials can be disposed of without polluting the environment. They are now being used in the construction and automotive industries. While, studies are currently being carried out in the aviation sector on the use of green materials for non-structural components of airplanes. Green materials can be used to improve the acoustic comfort inside buildings as well as mitigate reverberation, echoes effects and reduce the transmission of noise between rooms. In this paper, the acoustic measurements of the properties of green materials are reported. The absorption coefficient of samples of the materials were measured in the frequency range from 200 Hz to 2,000 Hz with an impedance tube, with the flow resistance being measured.

  16. Neutron scattering and absorption properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden, N.E.


    The Table in this report presents an evaluated set of values for the experimental quantities, which characterize the properties for scattering and absorption of neutrons. The neutron cross section is given for room temperature neutrons, 20.43{degree}C, corresponds to a thermal neutron energy of 0.0253 electron volts (eV) or a neutron velocity of 2200 meters/second. The neutron resonance integral is defined over the energy range from 0.5 eV to 0.1 {times} 10{sup 6} eV, or 0.1 MeV. A list of the major references used is given below. The literature cutoff data is October 1993. Uncertainties are given in parentheses. Parentheses with two or more numbers indicate values to the excited states(s) and to the ground state of the product nucleus.

  17. Phosphorus absorption in drip irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guennelon, R.; Habib, R.


    Introducing the use of solute phosphate with drip irrigation may be an unsatisfying practice on account of the very weak mobility of PO 4 anion. Nevertheless P can move down to 30-40 cm depth by following the saturated flux along earth-worms holes or crakes, or by displacement in very narrow structural porosity, even in heavy soils. In this case roots cannot easily absorb PO 4 from soil solution, as soon as the soil is quite saturated. On the other hand, it seems that P absorption occurs very quickly and easily when the implantation of 32 P tagged solution is carried out at the border of zone which is concerned by the irrigation effects [fr

  18. 1.6 μm DIAL Measurement and Back Trajectory Analysis of CO2 Concentration Profiles in the Lower-Atmosphere (United States)

    Shibata, Y.; Nagasawa, C.; Abo, M.


    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the primary greenhouse gas emitted through human activities. In addition to the ground level CO2 network, vertical CO2 concentration profiles also play an important role for the estimation of the carbon budget and global warming in the inversion method. Especially, for the detailed analysis of forest carbon dynamics and CO2 fluxes of urban area, vertical CO2 concentration profiles with high spatial and temporal resolution in the lower atmosphere have been conducted by a differential absorption lidar (DIAL). We have observed several vertical profiles of CO2 concentrations for nighttime and daytime from 0.25 to 2.5 km altitude with range resolution of 300 m and integration time of 1 hour. In order to extract information on the origin of the CO2 masses, one day back trajectories were calculated by using a three dimensional (3-D) atmospheric transport model. In many cases, CO2 low concentration layers of over 1.5km altitude were flown by westerly winds from the forest. In another case, high concentration layers of CO2 were flown from the urban areas. As the spectra of absorption lines of any molecules are influenced basically by the temperature in the atmosphere, laser beams of three wavelengths around a CO2 absorption spectrum are transmitted alternately to the atmosphere for simultaneous measurements of CO2 concentration and temperature profiles. Moreover, a few processing algorithms of CO2-DIAL are also performed for improvement of measurement accuracy. For computation of trajectories and drawing their figures, the JRA-25 data provided by the cooperative research project for the JRA-25 long-term reanalysis of the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) and the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) and the NIPR trajectory model (Tomikawa and Sato, 2005; were used. This work was financially supported by the System Development Program for Advanced Measurement and Analysis of the Japan Science and

  19. Sound absorption of a micro-perforated panel backed by an irregular-shaped cavity. (United States)

    Wang, Chunqi; Cheng, Li; Pan, Jie; Yu, Ganghua


    In the pursuit of more effective noise control devices, the cavity backed micro-perforated panel absorber (CBMPPA) is developed in this study. A CBMPPA differs from the conventional micro-perforated panel (MPP) absorber in that the MPP is backed by a trapezoidal cavity, which allows more effective vibroacoustic coupling between the MPP and the cavity. A two-dimensional theoretical model is established and tested both numerically and experimentally. Based on the verified theoretical model, sound absorption performance of a trapezoidal CBMPPA is investigated numerically. Results show that the shape of the backing cavity can significantly alter the sound absorption mechanisms and frequency distribution of overall sound absorption coefficient of the absorber. Further analyses show that acoustic modes that are initially decoupled from the MPP in the rectangular configuration are coupled with the air motion in the MPP, which accounts for the change in absorption pattern of the trapezoidal CBMPPA. By the same token, it also provides the flexibility for tuning the effective absorption range of the absorber. Due to the varying impedance matching conditions, the absorption performance of the trapezoidal CBMPPA exhibits obvious local characteristics over the MPP surface, which contrasts with the spatially uniform absorption in the conventional MPP absorber.

  20. Mixture component effects on the in vitro dermal absorption of pentachlorophenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riviere, J.E.; Qiao, G.; Baynes, R.E.; Brooks, J.D. [Coll. of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Mumtaz, M. [Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), Atlanta, GA (United States)


    Interactions between chemicals in a mixture and interactions of mixture components with the skin can significantly alter the rate and extent of percutaneous absorption, as well as the cutaneous disposition of a topically applied chemical. The predictive ability of dermal absorption models, and consequently the dermal risk assessment process, would be greatly improved by the elucidation and characterization of these interactions. Pentachlorophenol (PCP), a compound known to penetrate the skin readily, was used as a marker compound to examine mixture component effects using in vitro porcine skin models. PCP was administered in ethanol or in a 40% ethanol/60% water mixture or a 40% ethanol/60% water mixture containing either the rubefacient methyl nicotinate (MNA) or the surfactant sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), or both MNA and SLS. Experiments were also conducted with {sup 14}C-labelled 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCB) and 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB). Maximal PCP absorption was 14.12% of the applied dose from the mixture containing SLS, MNA, ethanol and water. However, when PCP was administered in ethanol only, absorption was only 1.12% of the applied dose. There were also qualitative differences among the absorption profiles for the different PCP mixtures. In contrast with the PCP results, absorption of TCB or PCB was negligible in perfused porcine skin, with only 0.14% of the applied TCB dose and 0.05% of the applied PCB dose being maximally absorbed. The low absorption levels for the PCB congeners precluded the identification of mixture component effects. These results suggest that dermal absorption estimates from a single chemical exposure may not reflect absorption seen after exposure as a chemical mixture and that absorption of both TCB and PCB are minimal in this model system. (orig.)

  1. Impact of transporters in oral absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Luise Kvisgaard; Rist, Gerda Marie; Steffansen, Bente


    was to investigate whether transporters were involved in the intestinal absorption of an organic anion A275 and to compare the impact of interactions related to transporters in the Caco-2 cell model versus the in vivo rat model of intestinal absorption. In both models, it was investigated whether intestinal...... permeation of A275 was concentration dependent and affected by inhibitors or competitive organic anions. Interactions related to transporters in intestinal permeation was clearly demonstrated in the Caco-2 cell model but was not directly evident for in vivo rat absorption. However, an observed biphasic...... in vivo absorption and a large intervariability between rats might mask a dose-dependent absorption of A275. To avoid these suggested interactions, a dose of at least 10 mg/kg, which saturates the intestinal transporters involved in A275 absorption, should be administered, but at doses below that the risk...

  2. Spatial Deixis in Chiwere. (United States)

    Hopkins, Jill D.


    This paper examines spatial deixis in Chiwere (Siouan) in the framework of two theories of deixis. Denny (1978) attempts to define a set of distinctive features for spatial deixis, while Rauh (1983) uses spatial deixis as a template for organizing all deictic dimensions. Chiwere data suggest language and dimension specific expansion of both…

  3. Spatial Language Learning (United States)

    Fu, Zhengling


    Spatial language constitutes part of the basic fabric of language. Although languages may have the same number of terms to cover a set of spatial relations, they do not always do so in the same way. Spatial languages differ across languages quite radically, thus providing a real semantic challenge for second language learners. The essay first…

  4. Phytosterol glycosides reduce cholesterol absorption in humans


    Lin, Xiaobo; Ma, Lina; Racette, Susan B.; Anderson Spearie, Catherine L.; Ostlund, Richard E.


    Dietary phytosterols inhibit intestinal cholesterol absorption and regulate whole body cholesterol excretion and balance. However, they are biochemically heterogeneous and a portion is glycosylated in some foods with unknown effects on biological activity. We tested the hypothesis that phytosterol glycosides reduce cholesterol absorption in humans. Phytosterol glycosides were extracted and purified from soy lecithin in a novel two-step process. Cholesterol absorption was measured in a series ...

  5. Vitamin B12 absorption from eggs. (United States)

    Doscherholmen, A; McMahon, J; Ripley, D


    The assimilation of 57Co B12 from in vivo labeled eggs was much inferior to that of a comparable amount of crystalline 57Co B12. Furthermore, the absorption varied with the form in which the eggs were served. Judged by the urinary excretion test and the plasma absorption of radioactivity the average absorption from boiled and fried eggs was more than twice that from scrambled whole eggs, but less than half that absorbed from crystalline 57Co B12.

  6. Flame emission, atomic absorption and fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horlick, G.


    Six hundred and thirty references are cited in this review. The information in the review is divided into 12 major areas: books, reviews, and bibliographies; fundamental studies in flames; developments in instrumentation; measurement techniques and procedure; flame emission spectrometry; flame atomic absorption spectrometry; flame molecular absorption spectrometry; electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectroscopy; hydride generation techniques; graphite furnace atomic emission spectrometry; atomic fluorescence spectrometry; and analytical comparisons

  7. Absorption of Irrigation Fluid During Thulium Laser Vaporization of the Prostate. (United States)

    Müllhaupt, Gautier; Abt, Dominik; Mordasini, Livio; Köhle, Olivia; Engeler, Daniel S; Lüthi, Andreas; Sauter, Rafael; Schmid, Hans-Peter; Schwab, Christoph


    To assess the prevalence and extent of irrigation fluid absorption during thulium laser vaporization of the prostate. Fifty-four patients undergoing thulium laser vaporization of the prostate were prospectively included into the trial at a tertiary referral center. Isotonic saline containing 1% ethanol was used for intraoperative irrigation. Absorption of irrigation fluid was measured periodically during the operation using the expired breath ethanol technique. Among others, intra- and postoperative changes in biochemical and hematological laboratory findings were assessed. Absorption of irrigation fluid was detected in 7 out of 54 (13%) patients with a median absorption volume of 265 mL (227-615). No significant differences of intra- and postoperative blood parameters were observed between absorbers and nonabsorbers. No risk factor (i.e., age, prostate size, surgery duration, applied energy, and amount of irrigation fluid) for the occurrence of fluid absorption could be identified. Absorption of irrigation fluid also occurs during thulium laser vaporization of the prostate and should be kept in mind, especially in patients at a high cardiovascular risk. However, compared with previously assessed resection and vaporization techniques, thulium vaporization might have a favorable safety profile regarding fluid absorption.

  8. Emission and Absorption Entropy Generation in Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reck, Kasper; Varpula, Aapo; Prunnila, Mika


    While emission and absorption entropy generation is well known in black bodies, it has not previously been studied in semiconductors, even though semiconductors are widely used for solar light absorption in modern solar cells [1]. We present an analysis of the entropy generation in semiconductor...... materials due to emission and absorption of electromagnetic radiation. It is shown that the emission and absorption entropy generation reduces the fundamental limit on the efficiency of any semiconductor solar cell even further than the Landsberg limit. The results are derived from purely thermodynamical...

  9. Differential Photoacoustic Particle Absorption Monitor, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We developed a highly sensitive and compact instrument to directly measure particulate matter (PM) optical absorption. This device is based on differential...

  10. Absorption enhancement in graphene photonic crystal structures. (United States)

    Khaleque, Abdul; Hattori, Haroldo T


    Graphene, a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice, is attracting significant interest because of its potential applications in electronic and optoelectronic devices. Although graphene exhibits almost uniform absorption within a large wavelength range, its interaction with light is weak. In this paper, the enhancement of the optical absorption in graphene photonic crystal structures is studied: the structure is modified by introducing scatterers and mirrors. It is shown that the absorption of the graphene photonic crystal structure can be enhanced about four times (nearly 40%) with respect to initial reference absorption of 9.8%. The study can be a useful tool for investigating graphene physics in different optical settings.

  11. X-ray absorption in atomic potassium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomilsek, Jana Padeznik; Kodre, Alojz; Arcon, Iztok; Nemanic, Vincenc


    A new high-temperature absorption cell for potassium vapor is described. X-ray absorption coefficient of atomic potassium is determined in the energy interval of 600 eV above the K edge where thresholds for simultaneous excitations of 1s and outer electrons, down to [1s2p] excitation, appear. The result represents also the atomic absorption background for XAFS (X-ray absorption fine structure) structure analysis. The K ionization energy in the potassium vapor is determined and compared with theoretical data and with the value for the metal

  12. Energy Absorption in Chopped Carbon Fiber Compression Molded Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starbuck, J.M.


    In passenger vehicles the ability to absorb energy due to impact and be survivable for the occupant is called the ''crashworthiness'' of the structure. To identify and quantify the energy absorbing mechanisms in candidate automotive composite materials, test methodologies were developed for conducting progressive crush tests on composite plate specimens. The test method development and experimental set-up focused on isolating the damage modes associated with the frond formation that occurs in dynamic testing of composite tubes. Quasi-static progressive crush tests were performed on composite plates manufactured from chopped carbon fiber with an epoxy resin system using compression molding techniques. The carbon fiber was Toray T700 and the epoxy resin was YLA RS-35. The effect of various material and test parameters on energy absorption was evaluated by varying the following parameters during testing: fiber volume fraction, fiber length, fiber tow size, specimen width, profile radius, and profile constraint condition. It was demonstrated during testing that the use of a roller constraint directed the crushing process and the load deflection curves were similar to progressive crushing of tubes. Of all the parameters evaluated, the fiber length appeared to be the most critical material parameter, with shorter fibers having a higher specific energy absorption than longer fibers. The combination of material parameters that yielded the highest energy absorbing material was identified

  13. Monitoring the variability of intrinsic absorption lines in quasar spectra , ,

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misawa, Toru [School of General Education, Shinshu University, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan); Charlton, Jane C.; Eracleous, Michael, E-mail: [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)


    We have monitored 12 intrinsic narrow absorption lines (NALs) in five quasars and seven mini-broad absorption lines (mini-BALs) in six quasars for a period of 4-12 yr (1-3.5 yr in the quasar rest-frame). We present the observational data and the conclusions that follow immediately from them, as a prelude to a more detailed analysis. We found clear variability in the equivalent widths (EWs) of the mini-BAL systems but no easily discernible changes in their profiles. We did not detect any variability in the NAL systems or in narrow components that are often located at the center of mini-BAL profiles. Variations in mini-BAL EWs are larger at longer time intervals, reminiscent of the trend seen in variable BALs. If we assume that the observed variations result from changes in the ionization state of the mini-BAL gas, we infer lower limits to the gas density ∼10{sup 3}-10{sup 5} cm{sup –3} and upper limits on the distance of the absorbers from the central engine of the order of a few kiloparsecs. Motivated by the observed variability properties, we suggest that mini-BALs can vary because of fluctuations of the ionizing continuum or changes in partial coverage while NALs can vary primarily because of changes in partial coverage.

  14. Spatial normalization of array-CGH data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brennetot Caroline


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH is a recently developed technique for analyzing changes in DNA copy number. As in all microarray analyses, normalization is required to correct for experimental artifacts while preserving the true biological signal. We investigated various sources of systematic variation in array-CGH data and identified two distinct types of spatial effect of no biological relevance as the predominant experimental artifacts: continuous spatial gradients and local spatial bias. Local spatial bias affects a large proportion of arrays, and has not previously been considered in array-CGH experiments. Results We show that existing normalization techniques do not correct these spatial effects properly. We therefore developed an automatic method for the spatial normalization of array-CGH data. This method makes it possible to delineate and to eliminate and/or correct areas affected by spatial bias. It is based on the combination of a spatial segmentation algorithm called NEM (Neighborhood Expectation Maximization and spatial trend estimation. We defined quality criteria for array-CGH data, demonstrating significant improvements in data quality with our method for three data sets coming from two different platforms (198, 175 and 26 BAC-arrays. Conclusion We have designed an automatic algorithm for the spatial normalization of BAC CGH-array data, preventing the misinterpretation of experimental artifacts as biologically relevant outliers in the genomic profile. This algorithm is implemented in the R package MANOR (Micro-Array NORmalization, which is described at and available from the Bioconductor site It can also be tested on the CAPweb bioinformatics platform at

  15. Spatially-Heterodyned Holography (United States)

    Thomas, Clarence E [Knoxville, TN; Hanson, Gregory R [Clinton, TN


    A method of recording a spatially low-frequency heterodyne hologram, including spatially heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis, includes: splitting a laser beam into a reference beam and an object beam; interacting the object beam with an object; focusing the reference beam and the object beam at a focal plane of a digital recorder to form a spatially low-frequency heterodyne hologram including spatially heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis; digital recording the spatially low-frequency heterodyne hologram; Fourier transforming axes of the recorded spatially low-frequency heterodyne hologram including spatially heterodyne fringes in Fourier space to sit on top of a heterodyne carrier frequency defined by an angle between the reference beam and the object beam; cutting off signals around an origin; and performing an inverse Fourier transform.

  16. Is there further evidence for spatial variation of fundamental constants?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berengut, J. C.; Flambaum, V. V.; King, J. A.; Curran, S. J.; Webb, J. K.


    Indications of spatial variation of the fine-structure constant, α, based on study of quasar absorption systems have recently been reported [J. K. Webb, J. A. King, M. T. Murphy, V. V. Flambaum, R. F. Carswell, and M. B. Bainbridge, arXiv:1008.3907.]. The physics that causes this α-variation should have other observable manifestations, and this motivates us to look for complementary astrophysical effects. In this paper we propose a method to test whether spatial variation of fundamental constants existed during the epoch of big bang nucleosynthesis and study existing measurements of deuterium abundance for a signal. We also examine existing quasar absorption spectra data that are sensitive to variation of the electron-to-proton mass ratio μ and x=α 2 μg p for spatial variation.

  17. Infrared multiphoton absorption and decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.K.; McAlpine, R.D.


    The discovery of infrared laser induced multiphoton absorption (IRMPA) and decomposition (IRMPD) by Isenor and Richardson in 1971 generated a great deal of interest in these phenomena. This interest was increased with the discovery by Ambartzumian, Letokhov, Ryadbov and Chekalin that isotopically selective IRMPD was possible. One of the first speculations about these phenomena was that it might be possible to excite a particular mode of a molecule with the intense infrared laser beam and cause decomposition or chemical reaction by channels which do not predominate thermally, thus providing new synthetic routes for complex chemicals. The potential applications to isotope separation and novel chemistry stimulated efforts to understand the underlying physics and chemistry of these processes. At ICOMP I, in 1977 and at ICOMP II in 1980, several authors reviewed the current understandings of IRMPA and IRMPD as well as the particular aspect of isotope separation. There continues to be a great deal of effort into understanding IRMPA and IRMPD and we will briefly review some aspects of these efforts with particular emphasis on progress since ICOMP II. 31 references

  18. Progress in Spatial Demography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A. Matthews


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Demography is an inherently spatial science, yet the application of spatial data and methods to demographic research has tended to lag that of other disciplines. In recent years, there has been a surge in interest in adding a spatial perspective to demography. This sharp rise in interest has been driven in part by rapid advances in geospatial data, new technologies, and methods of analysis. OBJECTIVE We offer a brief introduction to four of the advanced spatial analytic methods: spatial econometrics, geographically weighted regression, multilevel modeling, and spatial pattern analysis. We look at both the methods used and the insights that can be gained by applying a spatial perspective to demographic processes and outcomes. To help illustrate these substantive insights, we introduce six papers that are included in a Special Collection on Spatial Demography. We close with some predictions for the future, as we anticipate that spatial thinking and the use of geospatial data, technology, and analytical methods will change how many demographers address important demographic research questions. CONCLUSIONS Many important demographic questions can be studied and framed using spatial approaches. This will become even more evident as changes in the volume, source, and form of available demographic data - much of it geocode - -further alter the data landscape, and ultimately the conceptual models and analytical methods used by demographers. This overview provides a brief introduction to a rapidly changing field.

  19. Absorption of ozone by porous particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afanas' ev, V.P.; Dorofeev, S.B.; Sinitsyn, V.I.; Smirnov, B.M.


    The absorption of ozone by porous zeolite, silica gel, and activated carbon particles has been studied experimentally. It was shown that in addition to absorption, dissociation of ozone on the surface plays an important and sometimes decisive role. The results obtained were used to analyze the nature of ball lightning.

  20. A transient absorption study of allophycocyanin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Transient dynamics of allophycocyanin trimers and monomers are observed by using the pump-probe, transient absorption technique. The origin of spectral components of the transient absorption spectra is discussed in terms of both kinetics and spectroscopy. We find that the energy gap between the ground and excited ...

  1. Probing ultrafast carrier dynamics, nonlinear absorption and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    diameter of about 60 nm of the core–shell silicon nanowires, (b) linear optical absorption measurement using a visible–infrared absorption spectrometer. on the nanowires and on the substrate [9]. The overall thickness of the silicon nanowire film was ∼600 nm measured independently using atomic force microscopy ...

  2. Regularity of the interband light absorption coefficient

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In experimental studies the absorption coefficient is a means to study the band gaps at ... to l2( ), where. ⊂ Zd is a finite set. (usually taken to be a lattice cube centred at the origin) and λ±,uλ± are eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of H. ±. ,ω . Then the interband light absorption coefficient A for such finite volume models can.

  3. Anomalous infrared absorption in granular superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, G.L.; Garland, J.C.; Tanner, D.B.


    Granular superconductors are shown to have a far-infrared absorption that is larger when the samples are superconducting than when they are normal. By constrast, theoretical models for these materials predict that when the samples become superconducting, the absorption should decrease

  4. A Low-Cost Quantitative Absorption Spectrophotometer (United States)

    Albert, Daniel R.; Todt, Michael A.; Davis, H. Floyd


    In an effort to make absorption spectrophotometry available to high school chemistry and physics classes, we have designed an inexpensive visible light absorption spectrophotometer. The spectrophotometer was constructed using LEGO blocks, a light emitting diode, optical elements (including a lens), a slide-mounted diffraction grating, and a…

  5. Terahertz absorption spectrum of triacetone triperoxide (TATP) (United States)

    Wilkinson, John; Konek, Christopher T.; Moran, Jesse S.; Witko, Ewelina M.; Korter, Timothy M.


    We report here, for the first time, the terahertz absorption spectrum of triacetone triperoxide (TATP). The experimental spectra are coupled with solid-state density functional theory, and preliminary assignments are provided to gain physical insight into the experimental spectrum. The calculated absorption coefficients are in excellent agreement with experiment.

  6. Absorption of sound by tree bark (United States)

    G. Reethof; L. D. Frank; O. H. McDaniel


    Laboratory tests were conducted with a standing wave tube to measure the acoustic absorption of normally incident sound by the bark of six species of trees. Twelve bark samples, 10 cm in diameter, were tested. Sound of seven frequencies between 400 and 1600 Hz was used in the measurements. Absorption was generally about 5 percent; it exceeded 10 percent for only three...

  7. Spectral interferences in atomic absorption spectrometry, (5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daidoji, Hidehiro


    Spectral interferences were observed in trace element analysis of concentrated solutions by atomic absorption spectrometry. Molecular absorption and emission spectra for strontium chloride and nitrate, barium chloride and nitrate containing 12 mg/ml of metal ion in airacetylene flame were measured in the wavelength range from 200 to 700 nm. The absorption and emission spectra of SrO were centered near 364.6 nm. The absorption spectra of SrOH around 606.0, 671.0 and 682.0 nm were very strong. And, emission spectrum of BaOH in the wavelength range from 480 to 550 nm was stronger. But, the absorption of this band spectrum was very weak. In the wavelength range from 200 to 400 nm, some unknown bands of absorption were observed for strontium and barium. Absorption spectra of SrCl and BaCl were observed in the argon-hydrogen flame. Also, in the carbon tube atomizer, the absorption spectra of SrCl and BaCl were detected clearly in the wavelength range from 185 to 400 nm. (author)

  8. Calculated optical absorption of different perovskite phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castelli, Ivano Eligio; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel


    of perovskites the solar light absorption efficiency varies greatly depending not only on bandgap size and character (direct/indirect) but also on the dipole matrix elements. The oxides exhibit generally a fairly weak absorption efficiency due to indirect bandgaps while the most efficient absorbers are found...

  9. Flue gas treatment with membrane gas absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, R.; Feron, P.H.M.; Jansen, A.E.


    Dutch researchers from the TN0 Institute have developed a technique to carry out gas-liquid contacting operations using hollow fibre membranes in combination with an absorption liquid. The method known as membrane gas absorption, aims to combine the advantages of membrane technology (compactness,

  10. X-ray absorption spectroscopy in the keV range with laser generated high harmonic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seres, Enikoe; Seres, Jozsef; Spielmann, Christian


    By irradiating He and Ne atoms with 3 mJ, 12 fs, near infrared laser pulses from a tabletop laser system, the authors generated spatially and temporally coherent x rays up to a photon energy of 3.5 keV. With this source it is possible to use high-harmonic radiation for x-ray absorption spectroscopy in the keV range. They were able to clearly resolve the L absorption edges of titanium and copper and the K edges of aluminum and silicon. From the fine structure of the x-ray absorption they estimated the interatomic distances

  11. Spectrometer Baseline Control Via Spatial Filtering (United States)

    Burleigh, M. R.; Richey, C. R.; Rinehart, S. A.; Quijada, M. A.; Wollack, E. J.


    An absorptive half-moon aperture mask is experimentally explored as a broad-bandwidth means of eliminating spurious spectral features arising from reprocessed radiation in an infrared Fourier transform spectrometer. In the presence of the spatial filter, an order of magnitude improvement in the fidelity of the spectrometer baseline is observed. The method is readily accommodated within the context of commonly employed instrument configurations and leads to a factor of two reduction in optical throughput. A detailed discussion of the underlying mechanism and limitations of the method are provided.

  12. Z Camelopardalis - Outburst P Cygni profiles and quiescent continuum (United States)

    Szkody, P.; Mateo, M.


    The first orbital study of the C IV P Cygni profile in the dwarf nova Z Cam, a system of intermediate inclination. A modulation of the absorption equivalent width is apparent, with phases suggesting an effect from the mass-transfer stream. Over the outburst cycle, the strength of the P Cygni absorption and emission components is greater after outburst than during the standstill configuration, while the terminal velocities and central absorption wavelengths are similar. The continuum flux distributions during the decline from outburst and during quiescence are discussed.

  13. Absorption of controlled-release iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.D.; Lipschitz, D.A.; Skikne, B.S.


    A multiple-dose double radioiron technic was used to compare absorption of iron administered as a controlled release (CR) capsule and as an elixir; both formulations contained 50 mg elemental iron as ferrous sulfate. When taken by normal subjects in the fasting state, mean absorption from the elixir and CR capsule averaged 4.92% and 4.38%, which gave a CR capsule:elixir ratio of 0.89. This difference was not significant, but when taken with meals that inhibit absorption of dietary iron by different degrees, absorption of the CR formulation was superior. CR capsule:elixir absorption ratios averaged 1.70 from a meal that is mildly inhibitory and 3.13 from a meal that causes more marked inhibition. It is concluded that CR iron formulations may offer a therapeutic advantage to patients who take oral iron with meals to avoid gastrointestinal side effects

  14. Water vapor spectroscopy in the 815-nm wavelength region for Differential Absorption Lidar measurements (United States)

    Ponsardin, Patrick; Browell, Edward V.


    The differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique was first applied to the remote measurement of atmospheric water vapor profiles from airborne platforms in 1981. The successful interpretation of the lidar profiles relies strongly on an accurate knowledge of specific water vapor absorption line parameters: line strength, pressure broadening coefficient, pressure-induced shift coefficient and the respective temperature-dependence factors. NASA Langley Research Center has developed and is currently testing an autonomous airborne water vapor lidar system: LASE (Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment). This DIAL system uses a Nd:YAG-pumped Ti:Sapphire laser seeded by a diode laser as a lidar transmitter. The tunable diode has been selected to operate in the 813-818 nm wavelength region. This 5-nm spectral interval offers a large distribution of strengths for temperature-insensitive water vapor absorption lines. In support of the LASE project, a series of spectroscopic measurements were conducted for the 16 absorption lines that have been identified for use in the LASE measurements. Prior to this work, the experimental data for this water vapor absorption band were limited - to our knowledge - to the line strengths and to the line positions.

  15. Absorption of acrylates and polysilazanes in the far UVC and the VUV regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prager, Lutz, E-mail: [Leibniz-Institut fuer Oberflaechenmodifizierung e.V. (IOM), Chemical Department, Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Wennrich, Luise; Knolle, Wolfgang; Naumov, Sergej; Prager, Andrea [Leibniz-Institut fuer Oberflaechenmodifizierung e.V. (IOM), Chemical Department, Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Absorption coefficients were determined on acrylates and polysilazanes in the VUV spectral range. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coefficients change during irradiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantum-chemical calculations explain the findings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer XPS depth profiles reveal degradation effects in a thin surface layer. - Abstract: A simple but reliable method was developed for the determination of wavelength-dependent absorption coefficients in the vacuum-UV (VUV) spectral range 160 nm < {lambda} < 195 nm. Absorption coefficients were determined on thin layers of UV curable compounds like acrylates and of polysilazanes, which are subject to photo-induced conversion into SiO{sub x} layers. Results were discussed in terms of changing values of the absorption coefficients during irradiation. In case of acrylates polymerization leads to the decrease of the absorption coefficients especially in the wavelength range about 195 nm from about 10 {mu}m{sup -1} to about 1 {mu}m{sup -1}. Results of quantum-chemical calculations explain this finding by the depletion of double bonds for which {pi}{pi}* transitions are characteristic. XPS depth profiles reveal the VUV induced degradation of carboxyl and ether functionalities in a thin surface layer corresponding to the penetration depth of the VUV photons.

  16. Volcanic Plume CO2 Flux Measurements at Mount Etna by Mobile Differential Absorption Lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Santoro


    Full Text Available Volcanic eruptions are often preceded by precursory increases in the volcanic carbon dioxide (CO2 flux. Unfortunately, the traditional techniques used to measure volcanic CO2 require near-vent, in situ plume measurements that are potentially hazardous for operators and expose instruments to extreme conditions. To overcome these limitations, the project BRIDGE (BRIDging the gap between Gas Emissions and geophysical observations at active volcanoes received funding from the European Research Council, with the objective to develop a new generation of volcanic gas sensing instruments, including a novel DIAL-Lidar (Differential Absorption Light Detection and Ranging for remote (e.g., distal CO2 observations. Here we report on the results of a field campaign carried out at Mt. Etna from 28 July 2016 to 1 August 2016, during which we used this novel DIAL-Lidar to retrieve spatially and temporally resolved profiles of excess CO2 concentrations inside the volcanic plume. By vertically scanning the volcanic plume at different elevation angles and distances, an excess CO2 concentration of tens of ppm (up to 30% above the atmospheric background of 400 ppm was resolved from up to a 4 km distance from the plume itself. From this, the first remotely sensed volcanic CO2 flux estimation from Etna’s northeast crater was derived at ≈2850–3900 tons/day. This Lidar-based CO2 flux is in fair agreement with that (≈2750 tons/day obtained using conventional techniques requiring the in situ measurement of volcanic gas composition.

  17. Comparing Spatial Predictions

    KAUST Repository

    Hering, Amanda S.


    Under a general loss function, we develop a hypothesis test to determine whether a significant difference in the spatial predictions produced by two competing models exists on average across the entire spatial domain of interest. The null hypothesis is that of no difference, and a spatial loss differential is created based on the observed data, the two sets of predictions, and the loss function chosen by the researcher. The test assumes only isotropy and short-range spatial dependence of the loss differential but does allow it to be non-Gaussian, non-zero-mean, and spatially correlated. Constant and nonconstant spatial trends in the loss differential are treated in two separate cases. Monte Carlo simulations illustrate the size and power properties of this test, and an example based on daily average wind speeds in Oklahoma is used for illustration. Supplemental results are available online. © 2011 American Statistical Association and the American Society for Qualitys.

  18. Radial stability of density profiles for obliquely incident light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, L.V.; Montry, G.R.; Tanner, D.J.; Berger, R.L.


    Self-consistent steady-state plasma density profiles including the effects of the ponderomotive force for obliquely incident light have been obtained for the case of supersonic upstream flow velocity. The radial stability of these density profiles is studied in one-dimensional spherical geometry. Above a modest threshold laser field, these density profiles are found to be unstable and exhibit unsteady flow. The absorption for unstable profiles is found to vary markedly in time. Radiation and plasma waves can be trapped in density troughs which may be unstable to kink or sausage instabilities in two dimensions. (author)

  19. Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation Study of a Novel Membrane Contactor for Simultaneous Carbon Dioxide Absorption and Stripping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsuan Chang


    Full Text Available Physical absorption is a potential technology for economic carbon capture due to its low energy consumption, however, the absorption efficiency of current systems must be improved. In this study, novel hybrid absorption/stripping membrane contactors (HASMCs for physical solvent carbon capture are proposed. The simultaneous absorption and stripping within one module provides instant regeneration of the solvent and results in the enhancement of absorption. HASMCs with parallel-flow and cross-flow configurations and using empty or spacer-filled channels are investigated by rigorous computational fluid dynamics simulation. The internal profiles of transmembrane mass fluxes reveal that cross-flow HASMCs are much more effective than the parallel-flow ones and the modules using spacer-filled channels give better performance than the ones using empty channels. The mass transfer coefficients of HASMCs are much higher than predicted by correlations in the literature.

  20. Variations in Spectral Absorption Properties of Phytoplankton, Non-algal Particles and Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter in Lake Qiandaohu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangliang Shi


    Full Text Available Light absorption by phytoplankton, non-algal particles (NAP and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM was investigated at 90 sites of a clear, deep artificial lake (Lake Qiandaohu to study natural variability of absorption coefficients. Our study shows that CDOM absorption is a major contributor to the total absorption signal in Lake Qiandaohu during all seasons, except autumn when it has an equivalent contribution as total particle absorption. The exponential slope of CDOM absorption varies within a narrow range around a mean value of 0.0164 nm−1 ( s d = 0.00176 nm−1. Our study finds some evidence for thIS autochthonous production of CDOM in winter and spring. Absorption by phytoplankton, and therefore its contribution to total absorption, is generally greatest in spring, suggesting that phytoplankton growth in Lake Qiandaohu occurs predominantly in the spring. Phytoplankton absorption in freshwater lakes generally has a direct relationship with chlorophyll-a concentration, similar to the one established for open ocean waters. The NAP absorption, whose relative contribution to total absorption is highest in summer, has a spectral shape that can be well fitted by an exponential function with an average slope of 0.0065 nm−1 ( s d = 0.00076 nm−1. There is significant spatial variability present in the summer of Lake Qiandaohu, especially in the northwestern and southwestern extremes where the optical properties of the water column are strongly affected by the presence of allochthonous matter. Variations in the properties of the particle absorption spectra with depths provides evidence that the water column was vertically inhomogeneous and can be monitored with an optical measurement program. Moreover, the optical inhomogeneity in winter is less obvious. Our study will support the parameterization of the Bio-optical model for Lake Qiandaohu from in situ or remotely sensing aquatic color signals.

  1. Spatially Integrated Social Science



    This document contains the chapter abstracts for the book—each chapter  illustrating how the spatial perspective adds value and insight to social science research, beyond what traditional non-spatial approaches might reveal.  The 21 chapters exemplify the founding principle for the Center for Spatially Integrated Social Science (CSISS)—that the analysis of social phenomena in space and time enhances our understanding of social processes. The chapters offer substantive empirical content for il...

  2. Spatial agglomeration dynamics


    Danny Quah


    This paper develops a model of economic growth and activity locating endogenously on a 3- dimensional featureless global geography. The same economic forces influence simultaneously growth, convergence, and spatial agglomeration and clustering. Economic activity is not concentrated on discrete isolated points but instead a dynamically- fluctuating, smooth spatial distribution. Spatial inequality is a Cass-Koopmans saddlepath, and the global distribution of economic activity converges towards ...

  3. Rumlig kultur / Spatial Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of the relationships between urbanity and aesthetics. The articles span five realms: sensory and conceptual architecture, urban spaces, aesthetic textualities, collective memory, and spatial consciousness, all of which contribute to establishing spatial culture as an important field of research within the humanities......Gill University, the substantial captions of more than 100 illustrations make SPATIAL CULTURE accessible to an international readership. All contributions contain abstracts in English....

  4. Measurement and modeling of nitrogen resonance line profiles from an electrodeless discharge lamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, D.R.; Skinner, G.B.; Lifshitz, A.


    Experimental profiles of the 1200 A resonance triplet of atomic nitrogen were measured for a variety of operating conditions of an end-on electrodeless lamp, and corresponding absorption curves were calculated. Each source profile was determined by fitting parameters to an empirical two-layer model, then convoluting with the instrumental function for comparison with experimental data. Each three-component profile was fitted with three adjustable parameters: an absorption parameter for each of the two layers and a third absorption parameter to adjust for radiation trapping. Curves of absorption as a function of atom concentration, calculated from these profiles, are very similar to the shock tube calibrations of Thielen and Roth in which a source of similar design has been used

  5. Stratospheric and Mesospheric Pressure-Temperature Profiles from the Rotational Analysis of CO subscript2 Lines (United States)

    Gunson, M.; Lowes, L.; Abrams, M.; Raper, O.; Farmer, C.; Stiller, G.; Zander, R.; Rinsland, C.


    A simple, classical, and expedient method for the retrieval of atmospheric pressure-temperature profiles has been applied to the high-resolution infrared solar absorption spectra obtained with the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) instrument.


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes vertical profiles of 13-cm and 3.6-cm absorptivity and abundance of sulfuric acid vapor (H2SO4). The data set is composed of the following...

  7. Spatial capture-recapture (United States)

    Royle, J. Andrew; Chandler, Richard B.; Sollmann, Rahel; Gardner, Beth


    Spatial Capture-Recapture provides a revolutionary extension of traditional capture-recapture methods for studying animal populations using data from live trapping, camera trapping, DNA sampling, acoustic sampling, and related field methods. This book is a conceptual and methodological synthesis of spatial capture-recapture modeling. As a comprehensive how-to manual, this reference contains detailed examples of a wide range of relevant spatial capture-recapture models for inference about population size and spatial and temporal variation in demographic parameters. Practicing field biologists studying animal populations will find this book to be a useful resource, as will graduate students and professionals in ecology, conservation biology, and fisheries and wildlife management.

  8. Collective spatial keyword querying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xin; Cong, Gao; Jensen, Christian S.


    With the proliferation of geo-positioning and geo-tagging, spatial web objects that possess both a geographical location and a textual description are gaining in prevalence, and spatial keyword queries that exploit both location and textual description are gaining in prominence. However, the quer......With the proliferation of geo-positioning and geo-tagging, spatial web objects that possess both a geographical location and a textual description are gaining in prevalence, and spatial keyword queries that exploit both location and textual description are gaining in prominence. However...

  9. Spatial electric load forecasting

    CERN Document Server

    Willis, H Lee


    Spatial Electric Load Forecasting Consumer Demand for Power and ReliabilityCoincidence and Load BehaviorLoad Curve and End-Use ModelingWeather and Electric LoadWeather Design Criteria and Forecast NormalizationSpatial Load Growth BehaviorSpatial Forecast Accuracy and Error MeasuresTrending MethodsSimulation Method: Basic ConceptsA Detailed Look at the Simulation MethodBasics of Computerized SimulationAnalytical Building Blocks for Spatial SimulationAdvanced Elements of Computerized SimulationHybrid Trending-Simulation MethodsAdvanced

  10. Diagnosis of laser ablated carbon particles measured by time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyashita, Atsumi; Yoda, Osamu; Ohyanagi, T.; Murakami, K.


    The time and space resolved properties of laser ablated carbon particles were measured by X-ray absorption spectroscopy using LPX as an X-ray source. The energy density of the irradiation laser on the sample was in the range of 0.5-20J/cm 2 and the time delay was varied between 0 and 120ns. The absorption spectra exhibited several peaks originated from level to level transitions and an intense broad absorption in the energy range of C-K edge. At a delay time of 120ns, the absorption peak from 1s→2p transition of neutral carbon atom (C 0 ), C - , C + and C 2+ ions were observed. The absorption peak from C 0 was stronger as the probing position was closer to the sample surface and decreased rapidly with distance from the sample surface. The absorption peak C 2+ ion was observed only at comparatively distant positions from surface. The maximum speeds of highly charged ions were faster than that of neutral atoms and negative charged ions. The neutral atom and lower charged ions were emitted from the sample even after laser irradiation. The spatial distributions of the laser ablated carbon particles in the localized helium gas environment were measured. In the helium gas environment, the ablation plume was depressed by the helium cloud generated on the top of ablation plume. (author)

  11. Virtual edge illumination and one dimensional beam tracking for absorption, refraction, and scattering retrieval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vittoria, Fabio A., E-mail:; Diemoz, Paul C. [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, Malet Place, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Research Complex at Harwell, Harwell Oxford Campus, OX11 0FA Didcot (United Kingdom); Endrizzi, Marco; Olivo, Alessandro [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, Malet Place, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Wagner, Ulrich H.; Rau, Christoph [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Oxford Campus, OX11 0DE Didcot (United Kingdom); Robinson, Ian K. [Research Complex at Harwell, Harwell Oxford Campus, OX11 0FA Didcot (United Kingdom); London Centre for Nanotechnology, WC1H 0AH London (United Kingdom)


    We propose two different approaches to retrieve x-ray absorption, refraction, and scattering signals using a one dimensional scan and a high resolution detector. The first method can be easily implemented in existing procedures developed for edge illumination to retrieve absorption and refraction signals, giving comparable image quality while reducing exposure time and delivered dose. The second method tracks the variations of the beam intensity profile on the detector through a multi-Gaussian interpolation, allowing the additional retrieval of the scattering signal.

  12. Virtual edge illumination and one dimensional beam tracking for absorption, refraction, and scattering retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vittoria, Fabio A.; Diemoz, Paul C.; Endrizzi, Marco; Olivo, Alessandro; Wagner, Ulrich H.; Rau, Christoph; Robinson, Ian K.


    We propose two different approaches to retrieve x-ray absorption, refraction, and scattering signals using a one dimensional scan and a high resolution detector. The first method can be easily implemented in existing procedures developed for edge illumination to retrieve absorption and refraction signals, giving comparable image quality while reducing exposure time and delivered dose. The second method tracks the variations of the beam intensity profile on the detector through a multi-Gaussian interpolation, allowing the additional retrieval of the scattering signal

  13. Spatial quality, location theory and spatial planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assink, Mathijs; Groenendijk, Nico


    This paper deals with spatial quality as a possible factor in location choices made by companies. Actual location decisions as well as location theory have changed over time. In the industrial era primary “hard” cost factors were dominant, to be supplemented by agglomeration factors ever since the

  14. Aerosol Angstrom Absorption Coefficient Comparisons during MILAGRO. (United States)

    Marley, N. A.; Marchany-Rivera, A.; Kelley, K. L.; Mangu, A.; Gaffney, J. S.


    Measurements of aerosol absorption were obtained as part of the MAX-Mex component of the MILAGRO field campaign at site T0 (Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo in Mexico City) by using a 7-channel aethalometer (Thermo- Anderson) during the month of March, 2006. The absorption measurements obtained in the field at 370, 470, 520, 590, 660, 880, and 950 nm were used to determine the aerosol Angstrom absorption exponents by linear regression. Since, unlike other absorbing aerosol species (e.g. humic like substances, nitrated PAHs), black carbon absorption is relatively constant from the ultraviolet to the infrared with an Angstrom absorption exponent of -1 (1), a comparison of the Angstrom exponents can indicate the presence of aerosol components with an enhanced UV absorption over that expected from BC content alone. The Angstrom exponents determined from the aerosol absorption measurements obtained in the field varied from - 0.7 to - 1.3 during the study and was generally lower in the afternoon than the morning hours, indicating an increase in secondary aerosol formation and photochemically generated UV absorbing species in the afternoon. Twelve-hour integrated samples of fine atmospheric aerosols (Petroleo (IMP) and CENICA.

  15. Gastrointestinal absorption of Np in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirth, R.; Volf, V.


    The effect of Np mass and the acidity of the administered Np solutions as well as the age, sex and nutritional status of the animals injected or gavaged with 239Np or 237Np were determined. The latter factor proved to be dominant for absorption of Np from the gut. Thus in fasting weanling and young adult male rats, the absorption of 239Np was sixfold higher (0.18% and 0.12%, respectively) than in fed ones (0.03% and 0.02%, respectively). Absorption by fasted adult females was 0.05% of the administered 239Np, about half of that of adult males. Raising the Np-mass gavaged to fasted female rats to 1 and 10 mg 237Np/kg resulted in an absorption of 0.23% and 0.26%, respectively. Thus, an increased absorption of Np in adult rats seems to be expected only if a large mass is ingested. No dependence of the absorption of Np on nitric acid concentration was found. The data obtained after oral administration of 238Pu and 239Np to adult rats suggest that the f1 factor recommended by the ICRP for fractional absorption of soluble Np compounds from the gut should be decreased, whereas the f1 factor for soluble Pu compounds should be raised

  16. Micronutrient interactions: effects on absorption and bioavailability. (United States)

    Sandström, B


    A potential risk of interactions between micronutrients affecting absorption and bioavailability has to be considered in any supplementation or fortification strategy. At levels of essential micronutrients present in foods, most micronutrients appear to utilise specific absorptive mechanisms and not be vulnerable to interactions. In aqueous solutions and at higher intake levels competition between elements with similar chemical characteristics and uptake by non-regulated processes can take place. These interactions have clearly been demonstrated in experimental absorption studies and to some extent have been confirmed in supplementation studies. Negative effects of iron supplementation on indices of zinc and copper status and of zinc supplementation on iron and copper status have been reported. In contrast, the negative effect of calcium on iron absorption has not been confirmed in long-term supplementation studies. Ascorbic acid has a strong iron absorption promoting potential and in iron deficient populations ascorbic acid supplementation improves iron status. Thus, ascorbic acid supplements or an increased intake of ascorbic acid rich foods could have important public health implications, especially in populations subsisting on a mainly plant food based diet. The effect of poor status of a given micronutrient on absorption and utilisation of other micronutrients should also be considered while developing strategies to improve micronutrient status in a population. Awareness of these interactions, combined with a balanced evaluation of the dietary intake of the population with regard to absorption promoting and inhibiting substances and the risk for multiple deficiencies, could lead to more effective strategies to improve micronutrient status.

  17. Threshold nonlinear absorption in Zeeman transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanan, Andal; Hazra, Abheera; Sandhya, S N


    We experimentally study the absorption spectroscopy from a collection of gaseous 87 Rb atoms at room temperature irradiated with three fields. Two of these fields are in a pump-probe saturation absorption configuration. The third field co-propagates with the pump field. The three fields address Zeeman degenerate transitions between hyperfine levels 5S 1/2 , F = 1 and 5P 3/2 , F = 0, F = 1 around the D2 line. We find a sub-natural absorption resonance in the counter-propagating probe field for equal detunings of all three fields. This absorption arises in conjunction with the appearance of increased transmission due to electro-magnetically induced transparency in the co-propagating fields. The novel feature of this absorption is its onset only for the blue of 5P 3/2 , F = 0, as the laser frequency is scanned through the excited states 5P 3/2 , F = 0, F = 1 and F = 2. The absorption rapidly rises to near maximum values within a narrow band of frequency near 5P 3/2 , F = 0. Our experimental results are compared with a dressed atom model. We find the threshold absorption to be a result of coherent interaction between the dressed states of our system.

  18. Neural regulation of intestinal nutrient absorption. (United States)

    Mourad, Fadi H; Saadé, Nayef E


    The nervous system and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract share several common features including reciprocal interconnections and several neurotransmitters and peptides known as gut peptides, neuropeptides or hormones. The processes of digestion, secretion of digestive enzymes and then absorption are regulated by the neuro-endocrine system. Luminal glucose enhances its own absorption through a neuronal reflex that involves capsaicin sensitive primary afferent (CSPA) fibres. Absorbed glucose stimulates insulin release that activates hepatoenteric neural pathways leading to an increase in the expression of glucose transporters. Adrenergic innervation increases glucose absorption through α1 and β receptors and decreases absorption through activation of α2 receptors. The vagus nerve plays an important role in the regulation of diurnal variation in transporter expression and in anticipation to food intake. Vagal CSPAs exert tonic inhibitory effects on amino acid absorption. It also plays an important role in the mediation of the inhibitory effect of intestinal amino acids on their own absorption at the level of proximal or distal segment. However, chronic extrinsic denervation leads to a decrease in intestinal amino acid absorption. Conversely, adrenergic agonists as well as activation of CSPA fibres enhance peptides uptake through the peptide transporter PEPT1. Finally, intestinal innervation plays a minimal role in the absorption of fat digestion products. Intestinal absorption of nutrients is a basic vital mechanism that depends essentially on the function of intestinal mucosa. However, intrinsic and extrinsic neural mechanisms that rely on several redundant loops are involved in immediate and long-term control of the outcome of intestinal function. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Tunable THz wave absorption by graphene-assisted plasmonic metasurfaces based on metallic split ring resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadivand, Arash, E-mail:; Sinha, Raju; Karabiyik, Mustafa; Vabbina, Phani Kiran; Gerislioglu, Burak; Kaya, Serkan; Pala, Nezih [Florida International University, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering (United States)


    Graphene plasmonics has been introduced as a novel platform to design various nano- and microstructures to function in a wide range of spectrum from optical to THz frequencies. Herein, we propose a tunable plasmonic metamaterial in the THz regime by using metallic (silver) concentric microscale split ring resonator arrays on a multilayer metasurface composed of silica and silicon layers. We obtained an absorption percentage of 47.9% including two strong Fano resonant dips in THz regime for the purely plasmonic metamaterial without graphene layer. Considering the data of an atomic graphene sheet (with the thickness of ~0.35 nm) in both analytical and experimental regimes obtained by prior works, we employed a graphene layer under concentric split ring resonator arrays and above the multilayer metasurface to enhance the absorption ratio in THz bandwidth. Our numerical and analytical results proved that the presence of a thin graphene layer enhances the absorption coefficient of MM to 64.35%, at the highest peak in absorption profile that corresponds to the Fano dip position. We also have shown that changing the intrinsic characteristics of graphene sheet leads to shifts in the position of Fano dips and variations in the absorption efficiency. The maximum percentage of absorption (~67%) was obtained for graphene-based MM with graphene layer with dissipative loss factor of 1477 Ω. Employing the antisymmetric feature of the split ring resonators, the proposed graphene-based metamaterial with strong polarization dependency is highly sensitive to the polarization angle of the incident THz beam.

  20. Gas treating absorption theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Eimer, Dag


    Gas Treating: Absorption Theory and Practice provides an introduction to the treatment of natural gas, synthesis gas and flue gas, addressing why it is necessary and the challenges involved.  The book concentrates in particular on the absorption-desorption process and mass transfer coupled with chemical reaction. Following a general introduction to gas treatment, the chemistry of CO2, H2S and amine systems is described, and selected topics from physical chemistry with relevance to gas treating are presented. Thereafter the absorption process is discussed in detail, column hardware is explain

  1. Optical absorption in a thin nickel wire


    INAGAKI, Takashi; Goudonnet, J.P.; ARAKAWA, E.T.


    Absorption of a 633-nm phonton in a cylindrical nickel wire with diameter 13 m was measured by a photoacoustic method as a function of angle of phonton incidence . A good photoacoustic signal was obtained with a 6-m W He-Ne laser as a light source without employing focusing optics. The absorption measured for p-polarized phontons was found to be in good agreement with geometrical optics calculation. For s-polarized light, however, significant excess absorption was found for >35.

  2. Optical absorption in irradiated natural beryl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotani, S.; Dias, O.L.; Albuquerque, A.R.P.L.


    Three species of beryl irradiated with γ-rays of 60 Co were studied by optical absorption. One became yellow and the other two Maxixe's blue. The effects of heat treatments were determined by the thermal isochronal decays of the optical absorption bands. Activation energies and frequency factor were obtained through the first order process kinetic model. Discussions lend us to assign for the UV band-edge the model of absorption by a hole center stabilized by a Fe 2+ (substituting Al 3+ ) ion in a neighbour oxygen. (Author) [pt

  3. Gastrointestinal absorption of uranium in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, R.P.; Orlandini, K.A.


    A method has been established for determining the fractional absorption of uranium directly in man. Measurements are made of the urinary excretion rates of uranium for individuals whose drinking water has a high 234 U to 238 U activity ratio and is the primary source of 234 U in their diets. For two individuals, the values obtained for the fractional absorption of 234 U were 0.004 and 0.006. The values obtained for the fractional absorption of 238 U, using a literature value for the 238 U intake from food, were 0.008 and 0.015. The present ICRP value is 0.20. 7 references, 1 table

  4. Absorption of proteins and amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeejeebhoy, K.N.


    Although the absorption of proteins and amino acids is an important issue in nutrition, its measurement is not common because of the methodological difficulties. Complications are attributable in particular to the magnitude of endogenous protein secretion and to the diversity of absorption mechanisms for amino acids either as individual units or as peptides. Methods for studying absorption include balance techniques, tolerance tests, tracer techniques using proteins or amino acids labelled with 131 I, 3 H, or 15 N, intestinal perfusion studies, and others; they must be selected according to the nature of the information sought. Improvements over the current methods would be useful. (author)

  5. Sound absorption by a Helmholtz resonator (United States)

    Komkin, A. I.; Mironov, M. A.; Bykov, A. I.


    Absorption characteristics of a Helmholtz resonator positioned at the end wall of a circular duct are considered. The absorption coefficient of the resonator is experimentally investigated as a function of the diameter and length of the resonator neck and the depth of the resonator cavity. Based on experimental data, the linear analytic model of a Helmholtz resonator is verified, and the results of verification are used to determine the dissipative attached length of the resonator neck so as to provide the agreement between experimental and calculated data. Dependences of sound absorption by a Helmholtz resonator on its geometric parameters are obtained.

  6. Absorption spectrum of Iodine around 5915 A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The iodine absorption spectrum around 5915 A is of interest for many authors especially the hyperfine structure of the iodine line. Lodine absorption spectrum was obtained due to the interaction of iodine vapour with dye laser [(R6G) (0.5A) scanning range around 5915 A] which is pumped by(Ar + )laser absorption spectrum. The decrease in the peak of the transmission line around 5915 A shows the signal futher decreased by heating the iodine cell. This analysis has been done using a monochromator

  7. Saturable absorption in detonation nanodiamond dispersions (United States)

    Vanyukov, Viatcheslav; Mikheev, Gennady; Mogileva, Tatyana; Puzyr, Alexey; Bondar, Vladimir; Lyashenko, Dmitry; Chuvilin, Andrey


    We report on a saturable absorption in aqueous dispersions of nanodiamonds with femtosecond laser pulse excitation at a wavelength of 795 nm. The open aperture Z-scan experiments reveal that in a wide range of nanodiamond particle sizes and concentrations, a light-induced increase of transmittance occurs. The transmittance increase originates from the saturation of light absorption and is associated with a light absorption at 1.5 eV by graphite and dimer chains (Pandey dimer chains). The obtained key nonlinear parameters of nanodiamond dispersions are compared with those of graphene and carbon nanotubes, which are widely used for the mode-locking.

  8. Acquiring Common Sense Spatial Knowledge through Implicit Spatial Templates


    Collell, Guillem; Van Gool, Luc; Moens, Marie-Francine


    Spatial understanding is a fundamental problem with wide-reaching real-world applications. The representation of spatial knowledge is often modeled with spatial templates, i.e., regions of acceptability of two objects under an explicit spatial relationship (e.g., "on", "below", etc.). In contrast with prior work that restricts spatial templates to explicit spatial prepositions (e.g., "glass on table"), here we extend this concept to implicit spatial language, i.e., those relationships (genera...

  9. Spatial Keyword Querying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xin; Chen, Lisi; Cong, Gao


    The web is increasingly being used by mobile users. In addition, it is increasingly becoming possible to accurately geo-position mobile users and web content. This development gives prominence to spatial web data management. Specifically, a spatial keyword query takes a user location and user...

  10. Computing with spatial trajectories

    CERN Document Server


    Covers the fundamentals and the state-of-the-art research inspired by the spatial trajectory data Readers are provided with tutorial-style chapters, case studies and references to other relevant research work This is the first book that presents the foundation dealing with spatial trajectories and state-of-the-art research and practices enabled by trajectories

  11. Spatial Data Analysis. (United States)

    Banerjee, Sudipto


    With increasing accessibility to geographic information systems (GIS) software, statisticians and data analysts routinely encounter scientific data sets with geocoded locations. This has generated considerable interest in statistical modeling for location-referenced spatial data. In public health, spatial data routinely arise as aggregates over regions, such as counts or rates over counties, census tracts, or some other administrative delineation. Such data are often referred to as areal data. This review article provides a brief overview of statistical models that account for spatial dependence in areal data. It does so in the context of two applications: disease mapping and spatial survival analysis. Disease maps are used to highlight geographic areas with high and low prevalence, incidence, or mortality rates of a specific disease and the variability of such rates over a spatial domain. They can also be used to detect hot spots or spatial clusters that may arise owing to common environmental, demographic, or cultural effects shared by neighboring regions. Spatial survival analysis refers to the modeling and analysis for geographically referenced time-to-event data, where a subject is followed up to an event (e.g., death or onset of a disease) or is censored, whichever comes first. Spatial survival analysis is used to analyze clustered survival data when the clustering arises from geographical regions or strata. Illustrations are provided in these application domains.

  12. Profile control by local ECRH in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Yoshimura, Y.


    The specific and the important feature of electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) in magnetic fusion experiments is the well defined deposition profile and its controllability. This feature is realized and utilized for the electron temperature profile control, investigating the transport properties and current profile control in LHD. Temporally and spatially high resolution diagnostics, motional Stark effect (MSE), heavy ion beam probe (HIBP) as well as Thomson scattering, electron cyclotron emission (ECE) are applied to such locally heated or current driven plasma in LHD. The relations between the ECRH induced flux or current and the formation of the potential and density or induced current profile structure are clearly shown experimentally for the first time. These detailed diagnostics confirmed that the ECRH power deposition profile is well localized and controlled by steering the antenna and adjusting the magnetic field configuration. The experimental set up with the verification of the beam alignment procedure is described in section 2 . In relation to the deposition profile, the high energy electrons production and its effect on the deposition profile is discussed in section 3. As an application of local power deposition, density profile control experiment (section 4) current profile control experiment (section 5) are described followed by conclusions. (author)

  13. Megagauss magnetic field profiles in laser produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raven, A.; Willi, O.; Rumsby, P.T.


    Measurement of spatial profiles of self generated magnetic fields in Nd:laser produced plasmas have been made with high temporal and spatial resolution (30ps, 1.5 μm) by simultaneous Faraday rotation and interferometry using a Raman shifted second harmonic probe beam. (author)

  14. Theoretical Calculation and Validation of the Water Vapor Continuum Absorption (United States)

    Ma, Qiancheng; Tipping, Richard H.


    The primary objective of this investigation is the development of an improved parameterization of the water vapor continuum absorption through the refinement and validation of our existing theoretical formalism. The chief advantage of our approach is the self-consistent, first principles, basis of the formalism which allows us to predict the frequency, temperature and pressure dependence of the continuum absorption as well as provide insights into the physical mechanisms responsible for the continuum absorption. Moreover, our approach is such that the calculated continuum absorption can be easily incorporated into satellite retrieval algorithms and climate models. Accurate determination of the water vapor continuum is essential for the next generation of retrieval algorithms which propose to use the combined constraints of multi-spectral measurements such as those under development for EOS data analysis (e.g., retrieval algorithms based on MODIS and AIRS measurements); current Pathfinder activities which seek to use the combined constraints of infrared and microwave (e.g., HIRS and MSU) measurements to improve temperature and water profile retrievals, and field campaigns which seek to reconcile spectrally-resolved and broad-band measurements such as those obtained as part of FIRE. Current widely used continuum treatments have been shown to produce spectrally dependent errors, with the magnitude of the error dependent on temperature and abundance which produces errors with a seasonal and latitude dependence. Translated into flux, current water vapor continuum parameterizations produce flux errors of order 10 W/ml, which compared to the 4 W/m' magnitude of the greenhouse gas forcing and the 1-2 W/m' estimated aerosol forcing is certainly climatologically significant and unacceptably large. While it is possible to tune the empirical formalisms, the paucity of laboratory measurements, especially at temperatures of interest for atmospheric applications, preclude tuning

  15. Profiling and Racial Profiling: An Interactive Exercise (United States)

    Semple, Philip


    Racial Profiling has been recognized as a serious problem that affects many segments of our society and is especially notable in law enforcement. Governments and police services have pronounced that racial profiling is not acceptable and will not be tolerated. They have gone to great lengths in trying to eradicate racial profiling through…

  16. Imaging Catalytic Surfaces by Multiplexed Capillary Electrophoresis With Absorption Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christodoulou, Michael [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    A new technique for in situ imaging and screening heterogeneous catalysts by using multiplexed capillary electrophoresis with absorption detection was developed. By bundling the inlets of a large number of capillaries, an imaging probe can be created that can be used to sample products formed directly from a catalytic surface with high spatial resolution. In this work, they used surfaces made of platinum, iron or gold wires as model catalytic surfaces for imaging. Various shapes were recorded including squares and triangles. Model catalytic surfaces consisting of both iron and platinum wires in the shape of a cross were also imaged successfully. Each of the two wires produced a different electrochemical product that was separated by capillary electrophoresis. Based on the collected data they were able to distinguish the products from each wire in the reconstructed image.

  17. Determination of the Rb atomic number density in dense rubidium vapors by absorption measurements of Rb2 triplet bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvatic, Vlasta; Veza, Damir; Niemax, Kay; Vadla, Cedomil


    A simple and accurate way of determining atom number densities in dense rubidium vapors is presented. The method relies on the experimental finding that the reduced absorption coefficients of the Rb triplet satellite bands between 740 nm and 750 nm and the triplet diffuse band between 600 nm and 610 nm are not temperature dependent in the range between 600 K and 800 K. Therefore, the absolute values of the reduced absorption coefficients of these molecular bands can provide accurate information about atomic number density of the vapor. The rubidium absorption spectrum was measured by spatially resolved white-light absorption in overheated rubidium vapor generated in a heat pipe oven. The absolute values for the reduced absorption coefficients of the triplet bands were determined at lower vapor densities, by using an accurate expression for the reduced absorption coefficient in the quasistatic wing of the Rb D1 line, and measured triplet satellite bands to the resonance wing optical depth ratio. These triplet satellite band data were used to calibrate in absolute scale the reduced absorption coefficients of the triplet diffuse band at higher temperatures. The obtained values for the reduced absorption coefficient of these Rb molecular features can be used for accurate determination of rubidium atomic number densities in the range from about 5 x 10 16 cm -3 to 1 x 10 18 cm -3

  18. Gintonin absorption in intestinal model systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Hwan Lee


    Conclusion: The present study shows that gintonin could be absorbed in the intestine through transcellular and paracellular diffusion, and active transport. In addition, the lipid component of gintonin might play a key role in its intestinal absorption.

  19. Electromagnetically induced absorption via incoherent collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xihua; Sheng Jiteng; Xiao Min


    We conduct theoretical studies on electromagnetically induced absorption via incoherent collisions in an inhomogeneously broadened ladder-type three-level system with the density-matrix approach. The effects of the collision-induced coherence decay rates as well as the probe laser field intensity on the probe field absorption are examined. It is shown that with the increase of the collisional decay rates in a moderate range, a narrow dip due to electromagnetically induced transparency superimposed on the Doppler-broadened absorption background can be turned into a narrow peak under the conditions that the probe field intensity is not very weak as compared to the pump field, which results from the enhancement of constructive interference and suppression of destructive interference between one-photon and multiphoton transition pathways. The physical origin of the collision-assisted electromagnetically induced absorption is analyzed with a power-series solution of the density-matrix equations.

  20. Actinide absorption from the gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, M.F.


    A summary of our research is presented, describing the importance of the animal species, route of entry, oxidation state, solubility, and organic binding on the absorption of actinides from the gastrointestinal tract. The animal species tested made little difference in absorption, nor was the oxidation state a major factor in plutonium absorption under nonfasting conditions. The organic binding of actinides to either plant or animal tissues resulted in a 2- to 4-fold increase, except for 237 Np, which caused a 10-fold decrease. The age of the animals was the major influence on absorption. In all species studied, neonates absorbed more actinide than did the adults by two or three orders of magnitude. Retention of the actinide in the intestinal mucosa of rats and swine amounted to about half the dose of 238 Pu-nitrate administered; both after gavage and inhalation

  1. Unveiling the Microfoundations of Absorptive Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Distel, Andreas Philipp


    explores the multilevel antecedents of absorptive capacity using survey data gathered from 342 informants at different levels of analysis in 106 medical technology firms. Multilevel structural equation modeling analyses indicate that formal and informal integration mechanisms are positively related......Although the concept of absorptive capacity has gained wide acceptance in the literature, our understanding of the origins of a firm’s ability to absorb and leverage new knowledge is limited. Drawing on Coleman’s (1990) bathtub framework for macro-micro-macro-relations in social science, this study...... to absorptive capacity at the organizational level and that this relationship is mediated through a microlevel process. The findings reveal that knowledge workers’ cognitive process of perspective taking and their creative behavior are important microfoundations of absorptive capacity. Moreover, the results...

  2. The Driving Forces of Subsidiary Absorptive Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleimer, Stephanie C.; Pedersen, Torben


    The study investigates how a multinational corporation (MNC) can promote the absorptive capacity of its subsidiaries. The focus is on what drives the MNC subsidiary's ability to absorb marketing strategies that are initiated by the MNC parent, as well as how the subsidiary enacts on this absorptive...... capacity in order to compete in its focal market. The dual embeddedness of MNC subsidiaries plays a key role in this investigation, as subsidiaries belong to the MNC network and are simultaneously embedded in their host country environment. We argue that subsidiary absorptive capacity is formed...... as a purposeful response to this dual embeddedness. An analysis of marketing strategy absorptions undertaken by 213 subsidiaries reveals that MNCs can assist their subsidiaries to compete in competitive and dynamic focal markets by forming specific organizational mechanisms that are conducive to the development...

  3. Absorption chillers: Part of the solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Occhionero, A.J.; Hughes, P.J.; Reid, E.A.


    Acid rain, ozone depletion, global warming, and implementation economics are considered as they relate to the advisability of expanding the application of absorption chillers. Introductory and background information are provided to put the discussion in the proper context. Then all four issues are discussed separately as they relate to absorption chillers. Acid rain and ozone depletion concerns, and implementation economics, are found to support the expanded use of absorption chillers. The global warming concern is found to be more of a gray area, but the areas of benefit correspond well with the conditions of greatest economic advantage. All things considered, absorption chillers are believed to be part of the environmental and economic solution. It is further believed that integrated resource planning (IRP) processes that consider electric and gas technologies on an equal footing would come to the same conclusion for many regions of the United States. 9 refs., 3 tabs

  4. Differential Photoacoustic Particle Absorption Monitor, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a highly sensitive and compact monitor to measure light absorption from particulate matters. The fundamental of the proposed device is based on...

  5. Performance Analysis of Solution Transportation Absorption Chiller (United States)

    Kiani, Behdad; Hamamoto, Yoshinori; Akisawa, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Takao

    Thermally activated advanced absorption cycles are considered promising candidates to replace CFCs, HCFCs and HFCs for residential and commercial applications. In such absorption systems, it is desirable to utilize the waste heat from industries for heating and cooling applications in commercial and residential sectors. For this purpose, it is necessary to transport energy over some distance because the waste heat source and demand are generally located apart from each other. Transportation of steam, hot water or chilled water requires high construction costs for insulation. There is an efficient method of energy transportation using absorption system called “ Solution Transportation Absorption System (STA)”. The solution is transported at an ambient temperature so that tube-insulations not required. This paper shows the simulation of the abovementioned system and the optimal result, using mathematical optimization. The optimum system with industry‧s waste heat utilization is obtained. At the end, the effect on the pollution emission and energy conservation is obtained.

  6. Absorption and Scattering by Molecules and Particles (United States)

    Lenoble, Jacqueline; Mishchenko, Michael I.; Herman, Maurice


    The Earth's atmosphere absorbs, scatters, and emits electromagnetic radiation. Although air molecules are the primary actors in these processes, aerosol particles are also present ubiquitously and modify the radiation field. In fact, this modification constitutes the very physical basis of aerosol remote sensing. Whenever clouds are present, they have a much larger influence on radiation which largely overshadows the aerosol impact. Therefore, in aerosol remote sensing, one often has to limit observations to cloudless conditions and screen cloudy pixels. In the solar part of the spectrum, molecular absorption is mostly limited to ultraviolet (UV; ozone) and near-infrared (near-IR; carbon dioxide, water vapor) wavelengths and is characterized by strong and narrow oxygen bands. A brief description of atmospheric molecular absorption is presented in Section 2.2. Shortwave aerosol remote sensing is usually performed outside the absorption bands, but some instruments also have channels capturing absorption bands with the objective of quantifying gaseous components.

  7. Absorption boundary conditions for geomertical acoustics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho


    Defining accurate acoustical boundary conditions is of crucial importance for room acoustic simulations. In predicting sound fields using phased geometrical acoustics methods, the absorption coefficients or surface impedances of the boundary surfaces can be used, but no guideline has been developed...... on which boundary condition produces the best results. In this study, various boundary conditions in terms of normal and random incidence absorption coefficients, and normal incidence surface impedances are used in a phased beam tracing model, and simulated results are validated with boundary element...... solutions. Two rectangular rooms with uniform and non-uniform absorption distributions are tested. It is concluded that the impedance and random incidence absorption boundary conditions produce reasonable results with some exceptions at low frequencies for acoustically soft materials....

  8. Porosity and liquid absorption of cement paste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krus, M.; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Kunzel, H. M.


    are not accessible to the smaller helium atoms. Considering the results of dilatation tests both before and after water and hexane saturation, it seems possible that a contraction of capillary pores due to moisture-related swelling of the cement gel leads to the non-linear water absorption over the square root......The moisture behaviour of building materials exposed to the natural climate is largely dependent on their water absorption. In contrast to most building stones, cementitious materials like concrete do not exhibit a water absorption that is proportional to the square root of time. There must...... be a slowing-down effect which is related to water because the absorption of organic liquids, such as hexane, is quite normal. Measurements of the porosity of hardened cement paste determined by helium pycnometry and water saturation show that water molecules can enter spaces in the microstructure which...

  9. On pair-absorption in intrinsic vapours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotop, R.; Niemax, K.; Schlueter, D.


    The bound-state pair-absorption bands Cs(6 2 S 1 sub(/) 2 ) + Cs(6 2 S 1 sub(/) 2 ) + hν → Cs(5 2 D 5 sub(/) 2 sub(,) 3 sub(/) 2 ) + Cs(6 2 P 1 sub(/) 2 ) and the K-K continuum-state pair-absorptions in the wavelength region 2.350 <= lambda <= 2.850 Angstroem have been investigated experimentally. In the case of the bound-state pair-absorption bands a theoretical approach for the absorption cross section at the band centre is given which is in good agreement with the experimental observation. Differences between our and the theoretical formulas given by the Stanford group are discussed. (orig.)

  10. Regional disparities, absorption capacity and Structural Fund payments: A case study of the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novosák Jiří


    Full Text Available The intention of this paper is to provide empirical evidence on how the factors of socio-economic disadvantage and absorption capacity influence the spatial distribution of Structural Fund (SF payments among the Czech Republic’s micro-regions during the 2007–2013 programming period. The empirical results indicate that agglomeration economies, innovation and entrepreneurship are associated with higher SF absorption capacity and higher SF payments, challenging the tendency for socio-economically disadvantaged regions to converge. SF absorption capacity measured especially by the number of project applications submitted for SF financing and by the average SF budget per project application, is a crucial concept in order to understand the relationship between within-country regional disparities and SF interventions.

  11. Infrared Light Absorption Computed Tomography Measurements for Gaseous Hydrocarbon Fuel Concentration (United States)

    Kawazoe, Hiromitsu; Emi, Yasuyuki; Nakamura, Yoshiaki

    A system to measure gaseous fuel distribution was devised, which is based on infra-red light absorption by carbon-hydrogen stretch mode of vibration and the computed tomography method (IR-CT method). Since the incident light intensity from an infra-red laser fluctuated temporally, the effect was diminished by dividing the beam to two, one of which was monitored for better measurement accuracy. It was found that the error due to the laser fluctuation was within 0.8% and the feasibility of the IR-CT method was confirmed by applying the system to the measurements of the methane fuel concentration in an internal combustion engine model and a burner with diffusion flame. Furthermore, calibration to determine absorptivity was undertaken, which was used for the conversions from the measured line absorption coefficients to spatial fuel concentration in the combustion field.

  12. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of photoionised plasmas at Z (United States)

    Mancini, R. C.


    Photoionised plasmas are found in astrophysical environments such as x-ray binaries, active galactic nuclei, and in the accretion disks of compact objects. The Z facility at Sandia National Laboratories is a powerful source of x-rays that enables us to produce and study in the laboratory photoionised plasmas relevant for astrophysics under well characterized conditions. We discuss an experimental and theory/modeling effort in which the intense x-ray flux emitted at the collapse of a z-pinch experiment conducted at Z is employed to produce a neon photoionized plasma. The broad-band x-ray radiation flux from the z-pinch is used to both create the neon photoionised plasma and provide a source of backlighting photons to study the atomic kinetics through K-shell line absorption spectroscopy. The plasma is contained in a cm-scale gas cell located at about 5 cm from the z-pinch, and the filling pressure is carefully monitored all the way to shot time since it determines the particle number density of the plasma. Time-integrated and gated transmission spectra are recorded with a TREX spectrometer equipped with two elliptically-bent crystals and a set of slits to record up to six spatially-resolved spectra per crystal in the same shot. The spectral resolution is approximately 1000. The transmission data shows line absorption transitions in several ionization stages of neon including Be-, Li-, He- and H-like Ne ions. Detailed modeling calculations of the absorption spectra are used to interpret and model the high-resolution transmission spectra recorded in the Z experiments with the goal of extracting the ion population distribution of the plasma. Furthermore, the analysis of the gated data provides a window into the dynamics of the photoionized plasma. The data analysis is performed with the aid of a novel application of genetic algorithms to plasma spectroscopy.

  13. Systemic Absorption of Nanomaterials by Oral Exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, Mona-Lise; Bredsdorff, Lea; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    This report and accompanying database systematically evaluates the reliability and relevance of the existing scientific literature regarding systemic absorption of nanomaterials by oral exposure and makes specific recommendations for future testing approaches.......This report and accompanying database systematically evaluates the reliability and relevance of the existing scientific literature regarding systemic absorption of nanomaterials by oral exposure and makes specific recommendations for future testing approaches....

  14. Determination of hafnium by atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Isao; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Ueno, Keihei.


    Optimum conditions for atomic absorption spectrophotometric determination of hafnium were investigated by use of a Jarrel-Ash AA-1 instrument which was equipped with a premixed gas burner slotted 50 mm in length and 0.4 mm in width. Absorption of hafnium, which was atomized in an nitrous oxide-acetylene flame, was measured on a resonance line at 307.29 nm. The absorption due to hafnium was enhanced in the presence of ammonium fluoride and iron(III) ion, as shown in Figs. 2 and 3, depending on their concentration. The highest absorption was attained by the addition of (0.15 -- 0.3)M ammonium fluoride, 0.07 M of iron(III) ion and 0.05 M of hydrochloric acid. An excess of the additives decreased the absorption. The presence of zirconium, which caused a significant interference in the ordinary analytical methods, did not affect the absorption due to hafnium, if the zirconium concentration is less than 0.2 M. A standard procedure was proposed; A sample containing a few mg of hafnium was dissolved in a 25-ml volumetric flask, and ammonium fluoride, ferric nitrate and hydrochloric acid were added so that the final concentrations were 0.3, 0.07 and 0.05 M, respectively. Atomic absorption was measured on the aqueous solution in a nitrous oxide-acetylene flame and the hafnium content was calculated from the absorbance. Sensitivity was as high as 12.5 μg of Hf/ml/l% absorption. The present method is especially recommendable to the direct determination of hafnium in samples containing zirconium. (auth.)

  15. Seasonal Solar Thermal Absorption Energy Storage Development. (United States)

    Daguenet-Frick, Xavier; Gantenbein, Paul; Rommel, Mathias; Fumey, Benjamin; Weber, Robert; Gooneseker, Kanishka; Williamson, Tommy


    This article describes a thermochemical seasonal storage with emphasis on the development of a reaction zone for an absorption/desorption unit. The heat and mass exchanges are modelled and the design of a suitable reaction zone is explained. A tube bundle concept is retained for the heat and mass exchangers and the units are manufactured and commissioned. Furthermore, experimental results of both absorption and desorption processes are presented and the exchanged power is compared to the results of the simulations.

  16. Variations in the spectral values of specific absorption of phytoplankton

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sathyendranath, S.; Lazzara, L; Prieur, L

    Absorption spectra of laboratory cultures of eight species of phytoplankton were studied. These spectra, normalized per unit of chlorophyll a concentration (specific absorption) show variability in magnitude and spectral form. Specific absorption...

  17. Encouraging Spatial Talk: Using Children's Museums to Bolster Spatial Reasoning (United States)

    Polinsky, Naomi; Perez, Jasmin; Grehl, Mora; McCrink, Koleen


    Longitudinal spatial language intervention studies have shown that greater exposure to spatial language improves children's performance on spatial tasks. Can short naturalistic, spatial language interactions also evoke improved spatial performance? In this study, parents were asked to interact with their child at a block wall exhibit in a…

  18. Vitamin D and intestinal calcium absorption. (United States)

    Christakos, Sylvia; Dhawan, Puneet; Porta, Angela; Mady, Leila J; Seth, Tanya


    The principal function of vitamin D in calcium homeostasis is to increase calcium absorption from the intestine. Calcium is absorbed by both an active transcellular pathway, which is energy dependent, and by a passive paracellular pathway through tight junctions. 1,25Dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) the hormonally active form of vitamin D, through its genomic actions, is the major stimulator of active intestinal calcium absorption which involves calcium influx, translocation of calcium through the interior of the enterocyte and basolateral extrusion of calcium by the intestinal plasma membrane pump. This article reviews recent studies that have challenged the traditional model of vitamin D mediated transcellular calcium absorption and the crucial role of specific calcium transport proteins in intestinal calcium absorption. There is also increasing evidence that 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) can enhance paracellular calcium diffusion. The influence of estrogen, prolactin, glucocorticoids and aging on intestinal calcium absorption and the role of the distal intestine in vitamin D mediated intestinal calcium absorption are also discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Absorption Spectra of Gold Nanoparticle Suspensions (United States)

    Anan'eva, M. V.; Nurmukhametov, D. R.; Zverev, A. S.; Nelyubina, N. V.; Zvekov, A. A.; Russakov, D. M.; Kalenskii, A. V.; Eremenko, A. N.


    Three gold nanoparticle suspensions are obtained, and mean radii in distributions - (6.1 ± 0.2), (11.9 ± 0.3), and (17.3 ± 0.7) nm - are determined by the transmission electron microscopy method. The optical absorption spectra of suspensions are obtained and studied. Calculation of spectral dependences of the absorption index of suspensions at values of the gold complex refractive index taken from the literature showed a significant deviation of experimental and calculated data in the region of 450-800 nm. Spectral dependences of the absorption of suspensions are simulated within the framework of the Mie-Drude theory taking into account the interband absorption in the form of an additional term in the imaginary part of the dielectric permittivity of the Gaussian type. It is shown that to quantify the spectral dependences in the region of the plasmon absorption band of nanoparticles, correction of the parameters of the interband absorption is necessary in addition to the increase of the relaxation parameter of the Drude theory. Spectral dependences of the dielectric permittivity of gold in nanodimensional state are refined from the solution of the inverse problem. The results of the present work are important for predicting the special features of operation of photonic devices and optical detonators based on gold nanoparticles.

  20. High temperature measurement of water vapor absorption (United States)

    Keefer, Dennis; Lewis, J. W. L.; Eskridge, Richard


    An investigation was undertaken to measure the absorption coefficient, at a wavelength of 10.6 microns, for mixtures of water vapor and a diluent gas at high temperature and pressure. The experimental concept was to create the desired conditions of temperature and pressure in a laser absorption wave, similar to that which would be created in a laser propulsion system. A simplified numerical model was developed to predict the characteristics of the absorption wave and to estimate the laser intensity threshold for initiation. A non-intrusive method for temperature measurement utilizing optical laser-beam deflection (OLD) and optical spark breakdown produced by an excimer laser, was thoroughly investigated and found suitable for the non-equilibrium conditions expected in the wave. Experiments were performed to verify the temperature measurement technique, to screen possible materials for surface initiation of the laser absorption wave and to attempt to initiate an absorption wave using the 1.5 kW carbon dioxide laser. The OLD technique was proven for air and for argon, but spark breakdown could not be produced in helium. It was not possible to initiate a laser absorption wave in mixtures of water and helium or water and argon using the 1.5 kW laser, a result which was consistent with the model prediction.

  1. Robustness of spatial micronetworks (United States)

    McAndrew, Thomas C.; Danforth, Christopher M.; Bagrow, James P.


    Power lines, roadways, pipelines, and other physical infrastructure are critical to modern society. These structures may be viewed as spatial networks where geographic distances play a role in the functionality and construction cost of links. Traditionally, studies of network robustness have primarily considered the connectedness of large, random networks. Yet for spatial infrastructure, physical distances must also play a role in network robustness. Understanding the robustness of small spatial networks is particularly important with the increasing interest in microgrids, i.e., small-area distributed power grids that are well suited to using renewable energy resources. We study the random failures of links in small networks where functionality depends on both spatial distance and topological connectedness. By introducing a percolation model where the failure of each link is proportional to its spatial length, we find that when failures depend on spatial distances, networks are more fragile than expected. Accounting for spatial effects in both construction and robustness is important for designing efficient microgrids and other network infrastructure.

  2. Absorption of optical power in an S-20 photocathode

    CERN Document Server

    Harmer, S W


    By considering a monochromatic plane wave obliquely incident upon a planar layer of S-20 photocathode material, deposited upon a non-absorbing glass substrate, the distribution of optical power absorbed within the layer can be resolved. This is important to the question of photocathode efficiency, as the absorbed light excites photoelectrons within the photocathode which then may pass from the photocathode into the vacuum of the photomultiplier tube and be collected and multiplied. The calculation uses the measured complex permittivity of an extended red S-20 photocathode in the wavelength range, 375-900 nm. The results show that thin film effects are important within the photocathode, as they give rise to interesting power absorption profiles. This information is invaluable in predicting optimum photocathode thickness for wavelength selective applications. Electromagnetic waves that are obliquely incident upon the photocathode are also considered in both transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarizati...

  3. Time-resolved radiation beam profiles in water obtained by ultrasonic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malyarenko, E.V.; Heyman, J.S.; Heather Chen-Mayer, H.; Tosh, R.E.


    This paper presents a practical ultrasonic system for near real-time imaging of spatial temperature distributions in water caused by absorption of radiation. Initial testing with radiation from a highly attenuated infrared lamp demonstrates that the system is able to map sub-milli-kelvin temperature changes, thus making it suitable for characterizing dose profiles of therapy-level ionizing radiation beams. The system uses a fan-beam tomographic reconstruction algorithm to invert time-of-flight data derived from ultrasonic pulses produced and detected by a circular array of transducers immersed in water. Temperature dependence of the speed of sound in water permits the conversion of these measured two-dimensional velocity distributions into temperature distributions that indicate the absorbed radiation dose. The laboratory prototype, based on a 128-element transducer array, is used to acquire temperature maps of a 230 mm * 230 mm area every 4 s with sub-milli-kelvin resolution in temperature and about 5 mm resolution in space. Earlier measurements with a single-channel version of this prototype suggest refinements in signal-conditioning electronics and signal-processing algorithms that would allow the present instrument to resolve temperature changes as low as a few micro-kelvin. Possible applications include real-time intensity profiling of radiation beams and three-dimensional characterization of the absorbed dose. (authors)

  4. Electron temperature distribution measurement in Z pinch by the laser radiation absorption method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkisov, G.S.; Ehtlisher, B.


    The paper proposes a new method for measuring the temperature of internal region of Z-pinch; the method is based on laser probing of plasma and simultaneous measurements of absorption profiles and interferential run-on of probing radiation phase inside Z-pinch. It is shown that opaque pinch region which occurs laser probing experiments is related to the absorption of radiation. It is shown that laser radiation which has passed through Z-pinch features sufficiently high degree of coherence which enables interferometry of absorption region. The values of electron density and electron temperature were recovered in the experiments with Z-pinches (produced after an explosion of 20 μm aluminium wire by 50 ns pulse of current of about 250 kA for necking the pinch of ∼ 1.4 x 10 20 cm -3 and ∼ 530 eV, respectively. 11 refs., 4 figs

  5. Supporting Structure of the LSD Wave in an Energy Absorption Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Akihiro; Hatai, Keigo; Cho, Shinatora; Arakawa, Yoshihiro; Komurasaki, Kimiya


    In Repetitively Pulsed (RP) Laser Propulsion, laser energy irradiated to a vehicle is converted to blast wave enthalpy during the Laser Supported Detonation (LSD) regime. Based on the measured post-LSD electron number density profiles by two-wavelength Mach Zehnder interferometer in a line-focusing optics, electron temperature and absorption coefficient were estimated assuming Local Thermal Equilibrium. A 10J/pulse CO 2 laser was used. As a result, laser absorption was found completed in the layer between the shock wave and the electron density peak. Although the LSD-termination timing was not clear from the shock-front/ionization-front separation in the shadowgraph images, there observed drastic changes in the absorption layer thickness from 0.2 mm to 0.5 mm and in the peak heating rate from 12-17x10 13 kW/m 3 to 5x10 13 kW/m 3 at the termination

  6. Electromagnetic spatial coherence wavelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda, R.; Garcia-Sucerquia, J.


    The recently introduced concept of spatial coherence wavelets is generalized for describing the propagation of electromagnetic fields in the free space. For this aim, the spatial coherence wavelet tensor is introduced as an elementary amount, in terms of which the formerly known quantities for this domain can be expressed. It allows analyzing the relationship between the spatial coherence properties and the polarization state of the electromagnetic wave. This approach is completely consistent with the recently introduced unified theory of coherence and polarization for random electromagnetic beams, but it provides a further insight about the causal relationship between the polarization states at different planes along the propagation path. (author)

  7. Water vapor differential absorption lidar development and evaluation (United States)

    Browell, E. V.; Wilkerson, T. D.; Mcllrath, T. J.


    A ground-based differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system is described which has been developed for vertical range-resolved measurements of water vapor. The laser transmitter consists of a ruby-pumped dye laser, which is operated on a water vapor absorption line at 724.372 nm. Part of the ruby laser output is transmitted simultaneously with the dye laser output to determine atmospheric scattering and attenuation characteristics. The dye and ruby laser backscattered light is collected by a 0.5-m diam telescope, optically separated in the receiver package, and independently detected using photomultiplier tubes. Measurements of vertical water vapor concentration profiles using the DIAL system at night are discussed, and comparisons are made between the water vapor DIAL measurements and data obtained from locally launched rawinsondes. Agreement between these measurements was found to be within the uncertainty of the rawinsonde data to an altitude of 3 km. Theoretical simulations of this measurement were found to give reasonably accurate predictions of the random error of the DIAL measurements. Confidence in these calculations will permit the design of aircraft and Shuttle DIAL systems and experiments using simulation results as the basis for defining lidar system performance requirements

  8. The SAURON project : XVII. Stellar population analysis of the absorption line strength maps of 48 early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntschner, Harald; Emsellem, Eric; Bacon, Roland; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L.; de Zeeuw, P. Tim; Falcon-Barroso, Jesus; Krajnovic, Davor; McDermid, Richard M.; Peletier, Reynier F.; Sarzi, Marc; Shapiro, Kristen L.; van den Bosch, Remco C. E.; van de Ven, Glenn; Krajnović, Davor


    We present a stellar population analysis of the absorption line strength maps for 48 early-type galaxies from the SAURON sample. Using the line strength index maps of H beta, Fe5015 and Mgb, measured in the Lick/IDS system and spatially binned to a constant signal-to-noise ratio, together with

  9. The SAURON project - XVII. Stellar population analysis of the absorption line strength maps of 48 early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntschner, Harald; Emsellem, Eric; Bacon, Roland; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L.; de Zeeuw, P. Tim; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; Krajnović, Davor; McDermid, Richard M.; Peletier, Reynier F.; Sarzi, Marc; Shapiro, Kristen L.; van den Bosch, Remco C. E.; van de Ven, Glenn


    We present a stellar population analysis of the absorption line strength maps for 48 early-type galaxies from the SAURON sample. Using the line strength index maps of Hβ, Fe5015 and Mgb, measured in the Lick/IDS system and spatially binned to a constant signal-to-noise ratio, together with

  10. Non-standard spatial statistics and spatial econometrics

    CERN Document Server

    Griffith, Daniel A


    Spatial statistics and spatial econometrics are recent sprouts of the tree "spatial analysis with measurement". Still, several general themes have emerged. Exploring selected fields of possible interest is tantalizing, and this is what the authors aim here.

  11. Calcium fortification of breakfast cereal enhances calcium absorption in children without affecting iron absorption. (United States)

    Abrams, S A; Griffin, I J; Davila, P; Liang, L


    Provision of calcium-fortified foods may represent an important component of improving the calcium intake of children. We sought to determine whether the addition of calcium to cereal would have a net positive effect on calcium absorption without decreasing iron absorption. Twenty-seven children, 6 to 9 years of age, were provided two servings per day (30 g of cereal per serving) of either a low (39 mg/serving) or fortified (156 mg/serving) calcium-containing cereal product for 14 days. Calcium absorption was measured by using stable isotopes added to milk (extrinsically labeled) and to the calcium-fortified cereal (intrinsically labeled). Fractional calcium absorption from the fortified cereal was virtually identical to that from milk. Fractional absorption of calcium from milk did not differ significantly when given with enriched or low-calcium-containing cereal. Total calcium absorption increased from 215 +/- 45 mg/d to 269 +/- 45 mg/d with the addition of the calcium-fortified cereal (P Iron absorption was similar when children received the calcium-fortified cereal or unfortified cereal. The addition of a moderate amount of calcium to a cereal product was beneficial to calcium absorption and did not interfere with iron absorption. Use of calcium-fortified food products may be considered a practical approach to increasing the calcium intake of children.

  12. Polarization control of intermediate state absorption in resonance-mediated multi-photon absorption process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Shuwu; Yao, Yunhua; Jia, Tianqing; Ding, Jingxin; Zhang, Shian; Sun, Zhenrong; Huang, Yunxia


    We theoretically and experimentally demonstrate the control of the intermediate state absorption in an (n + m) resonance-mediated multi-photon absorption process by the polarization-modulated femtosecond laser pulse. An analytical solution of the intermediate state absorption in a resonance-mediated multi-photon absorption process is obtained based on the time-dependent perturbation theory. Our theoretical results show that the control efficiency of the intermediate state absorption by the polarization modulation is independent of the laser intensity when the transition from the intermediate state to the final state is coupled by the single-photon absorption, but will be affected by the laser intensity when this transition is coupled by the non-resonant multi-photon absorption. These theoretical results are experimentally confirmed via a two-photon fluorescence control in (2 + 1) resonance-mediated three-photon absorption of Coumarin 480 dye and a single-photon fluorescence control in (1 + 2) resonance-mediated three-photon absorption of IR 125 dye. (paper)

  13. Optical pattern recognition via adaptive spatial homodyne detection. (United States)

    Hsu, Magnus T L; Knittel, Joachim; Morizur, Jean-Francois; Bachor, Hans-A; Bowen, Warwick P


    We present an experimental demonstration of an optical pattern recognition scheme based on spatial homodyne detection. Our scheme is adaptive, all-optical, utilizes a single-element photo-detector, and provides a single parameter readout to quantify the efficacy of pattern recognition, thereby allowing very fast pattern recognition speeds. The spatial homodyne detector was applied to the identification of one- and two-dimensional phase profiles.

  14. Spatial cluster modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Lawson, Andrew B


    Research has generated a number of advances in methods for spatial cluster modelling in recent years, particularly in the area of Bayesian cluster modelling. Along with these advances has come an explosion of interest in the potential applications of this work, especially in epidemiology and genome research. In one integrated volume, this book reviews the state-of-the-art in spatial clustering and spatial cluster modelling, bringing together research and applications previously scattered throughout the literature. It begins with an overview of the field, then presents a series of chapters that illuminate the nature and purpose of cluster modelling within different application areas, including astrophysics, epidemiology, ecology, and imaging. The focus then shifts to methods, with discussions on point and object process modelling, perfect sampling of cluster processes, partitioning in space and space-time, spatial and spatio-temporal process modelling, nonparametric methods for clustering, and spatio-temporal ...

  15. Studying the complex BAL profiles in the BALQSOs spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyratzi, E; Danezis, E; Popovic, L C; Antoniou, A; Dimitrijevic, M S; Stathopoulos, D, E-mail:


    Most of Broad Absorption Lines (BALs) in quasars (QSOs) present very complex profiles. This means that we cannot fit them with a known physical distribution. An idea to explain these profiles is that the dynamical systems of Broad Line Regions (BLRs) are not homogeneous but consist of a number of density regions or ion populations with different physical parameters. Each one of these density regions gives us an independent classical absorption line. If the regions that give rise to such lines rotate with large velocities and move radially with small velocities, the produced lines have large widths and small shifts. As a result they are blended among themselves as well as with the main spectral line and thus they are not discrete. Based on this idea we study the BALs of UV C IV resonance lines in the spectra of a group of Hi ionization Broad Absorption Line Quasars (Hi BALQSOs) using the Gauss-Rotation model (GR model).

  16. Absorption of kaempferol from endive, a source of kaempferol-3-glucuronide, in humans. (United States)

    DuPont, M S; Day, A J; Bennett, R N; Mellon, F A; Kroon, P A


    To determine the absorption, excretion and metabolism of kaempferol in humans. A pharmacokinetic study of kaempferol from endive over 24 h. Four healthy males and four healthy females. Kaempferol, from a relatively low dose (9 mg), was absorbed from endive with a mean maximum plasma concentration of 0.1 microM, at a time of 5.8 h, indicating absorption from the distal section of the small intestine and/or the colon. Although a 7.5-fold interindividual variation between the highest and lowest maximum plasma concentration was observed, most individuals showed remarkably consistent pharmacokinetic profiles. This contrasts with profiles for other flavonoids that are absorbed predominantly from the large intestine (eg rutin). An average of 1.9% of the kaempferol dose was excreted in 24 h. Most subjects also showed an early absorption peak, probably corresponding to kaempferol-3-glucoside, present at a level of 14% in the endive. Kaempferol-3-glucuronide was the major compound detected in plasma and urine. Quercetin was not detected in plasma or urine indicating a lack of phase I hydroxylation of kaempferol. Kaempferol is absorbed more efficiently than quercetin in humans even at low oral doses. The predominant form in plasma is a 3-glucuronide conjugate, and interindividual variation in absorption and excretion is low, suggesting that urinary kaempferol could be used as a biomarker for exposure.

  17. State of insulin self-association does not affect its absorption from the pulmonary route. (United States)

    Hussain, Alamdar; Ahsan, Fakhrul


    This study is designed to compare and contrast the pulmonary absorption profiles of monomeric and hexameric insulin in the presence or absence of ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) or n-tetradecyl-beta-d-maltoside (TDM). The pulmonary absorption of two forms of insulin was studied by monitoring the changes in plasma insulin and glucose levels after intratracheal administration of monomeric or hexameric insulin into anesthetized rodents. EDTA or TDM was added to the formulation in order to evaluate if either of these agents has effects on the rate and extent of pulmonary absorption of monomeric and hexameric insulin. The biochemical changes that may occur after acute administration of TDM-based formulation have also been investigated by estimating lung injury markers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. A dose-dependent increase in the plasma insulin and decrease in plasma glucose levels was observed when increasing concentrations of hexameric or monomeric insulin were administered via the pulmonary route. Pulmonary administration of monomeric and hexameric insulin produced comparable absorption profiles in the presence or absence of EDTA or TDM. The bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analysis did not show differences in the levels of injury markers produced in TDM-treated rats and that produced in saline-treated rats, indicating no evidence for adverse effects of TDM in these short-term studies. Overall, in terms of rapidity of action and efficacy to reduce blood sugar, monomeric insulin did not provide advantages over hexameric insulin when administered via the pulmonary route.

  18. Spatial filter issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.E.; Estabrook, K.G.; Milam, D.; Sell, W.D.; Van Wonterghem, R.M.; Feil, M.D.; Rubenchick, A.M.


    Experiments and calculations indicate that the threshold pressure in spatial filters for distortion of a transmitted pulse scales approximately as I O.2 and (F number-sign) 2 over the intensity range from 10 14 to 2xlO 15 W/CM 2 . We also demonstrated an interferometric diagnostic that will be used to measure the scaling relationships governing pinhole closure in spatial filters

  19. Simultaneous determination of eight B-vitamins in rat intestinal perfusate to identify effects of osmotic pressures on absorptions. (United States)

    Wang, Xiaobo; Xiao, Jian; Zhou, Hui; Qiu, Ying; Peng, Hui; Sun, Yangyang; Zhang, Jiwen; Qian, Wei; Sun, Lixin


    A rapid and accurate HPLC-DAD method was developed and validated to simultaneously determine eight B-vitamins (VBs, namely thiamine, riboflavin, niacinamide, calcium pantothenic, pyridoxine, biotin, folic acid and cyanocobalamin) and phenolsulfonphthalein in rat intestinal perfusate. Chromatographic separation was achieved using an Inertsil ODS-3 column (250 × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 μm) at a temperature of 40°C. Gradient elution mode was applied at the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min with the mobile phase of acetonitrile-30 mm K 2 HPO 4 (pH 5.80). The method was successfully applied to identify the effects of osmotic pressures on the absorption of the VBs. The absorption profiles of single and mixed VBs were also compared. Histological section technology was applied to observe the microstructure of small bowel mucosa after perfusion. The results indicated that each compound possessed a better absorption profile under isotonic conditions than under hypotonic or hypertonic conditions for single or mixed solutions. Compared with single VBs, better absorptions in mixed VBs were observed. Pathological tissue slice test suggested that hypotonic and hypertonic solutions changed or damaged the microstructure of mucosa to varying degrees. Taken together, the investigations indicated that multi-VBs administered orally under isotonic condition could generate fast and complete absorption profiles for VBs. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Spatial representations are specific to different domains of knowledge. (United States)

    Beecham, Rowena; Reeve, Robert A; Wilson, Sarah J


    There is evidence that many abstract concepts are represented cognitively in a spatial format. However, it is unknown whether similar spatial processes are employed in different knowledge domains, or whether individuals exhibit similar spatial profiles within and across domains. This research investigated similarities in spatial representation in two knowledge domains--mathematics and music. Sixty-one adults completed analogous number magnitude and pitch discrimination tasks: the Spatial-Numerical Association of Response Codes and Spatial-Musical Association of Response Codes tasks. Subgroups of individuals with different response patterns were identified through cluster analyses. For both the mathematical and musical tasks, approximately half of the participants showed the expected spatial judgment effect when explicitly cued to focus on the spatial properties of the stimuli. Despite this, performances on the two tasks were largely independent. Consistent with previous research, the study provides evidence for the spatial representation of number and pitch in the majority of individuals. However, there was little evidence to support the claim that the same spatial representation processes underpin mathematical and musical judgments.

  1. Spatial representations are specific to different domains of knowledge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowena Beecham

    Full Text Available There is evidence that many abstract concepts are represented cognitively in a spatial format. However, it is unknown whether similar spatial processes are employed in different knowledge domains, or whether individuals exhibit similar spatial profiles within and across domains. This research investigated similarities in spatial representation in two knowledge domains--mathematics and music. Sixty-one adults completed analogous number magnitude and pitch discrimination tasks: the Spatial-Numerical Association of Response Codes and Spatial-Musical Association of Response Codes tasks. Subgroups of individuals with different response patterns were identified through cluster analyses. For both the mathematical and musical tasks, approximately half of the participants showed the expected spatial judgment effect when explicitly cued to focus on the spatial properties of the stimuli. Despite this, performances on the two tasks were largely independent. Consistent with previous research, the study provides evidence for the spatial representation of number and pitch in the majority of individuals. However, there was little evidence to support the claim that the same spatial representation processes underpin mathematical and musical judgments.

  2. Investigation of Diode Pumped Alkali Laser Atmospheric Transmission Using Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (United States)


    reflectivity of the background. This device can be configured to detect hydrogen fluoride , hydrogen sulfide, or methane. Other related papers with the...absorption spectroscopy and in-situ gas chromatography ”. volume 3758, 109–115. SPIE, October 1999. 42. Hunsmann, S., K. Wunderle, S. Wagner, U. Rascher,, 1 atm He (dashed black) and 10 atm He (short dash back), each with a buffer gas mixture including 100 Torr C2H6. Gain profiles are normalized

  3. Diffuse optical imaging using spatially and temporally modulated light (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Thomas D.; Cerussi, Albert E.; Cuccia, David J.; Tromberg, Bruce J.


    The authors describe the development of diffuse optical imaging (DOI) technologies, specifically the use of spatial and temporal modulation to control near infrared light propagation in thick tissues. We present theory and methods of DOI focusing on model-based techniques for quantitative, in vivo measurements of endogenous tissue absorption and scattering properties. We specifically emphasize the common conceptual framework of the scalar photon density wave for both temporal and spatial frequency-domain approaches. After presenting the history, theoretical foundation, and instrumentation related to these methods, we provide a brief review of clinical and preclinical applications from our research as well as our outlook on the future of DOI technology.

  4. Method of construction spatial transition curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Didanov


    Full Text Available Purpose. The movement of rail transport (speed rolling stock, traffic safety, etc. is largely dependent on the quality of the track. In this case, a special role is the transition curve, which ensures smooth insertion of the transition from linear to circular section of road. The article deals with modeling of spatial transition curve based on the parabolic distribution of the curvature and torsion. This is a continuation of research conducted by the authors regarding the spatial modeling of curved contours. Methodology. Construction of the spatial transition curve is numerical methods for solving nonlinear integral equations, where the initial data are taken coordinate the starting and ending points of the curve of the future, and the inclination of the tangent and the deviation of the curve from the tangent plane at these points. System solutions for the numerical method are the partial derivatives of the equations of the unknown parameters of the law of change of torsion and length of the transition curve. Findings. The parametric equations of the spatial transition curve are calculated by finding the unknown coefficients of the parabolic distribution of the curvature and torsion, as well as the spatial length of the transition curve. Originality. A method for constructing the spatial transition curve is devised, and based on this software geometric modeling spatial transition curves of railway track with specified deviations of the curve from the tangent plane. Practical value. The resulting curve can be applied in any sector of the economy, where it is necessary to ensure a smooth transition from linear to circular section of the curved space bypass. An example is the transition curve in the construction of the railway line, road, pipe, profile, flat section of the working blades of the turbine and compressor, the ship, plane, car, etc.

  5. Radiometric measurement independent of profile. Belt weighers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, J.


    Radiometric measuring techniques allow contactless determination of the material carried by belt conveyors. Data defining the material is obtained via attenuation of gamma rays passing through the material on the belt. The method applies the absorption law according to Lambert-Beer, which has to be corrected by a build-up factor because of the stray radiation induced by the Compton effect. The profile-dependent error observed with conventional radiometric belt weighers is caused by the non-linearity of the absorption law in connection with the simultaneous summation of the various partial rays in a detector. The scanning method allows separate evaluation of the partial rays' attenuation and thus yields the correct data of the material carried, regardless of the profile. The scanning method is applied on a finite number of scanning sections, and a residual error has to be taken into account. The stochastics of quantum emission and absorption leads to an error whose expectation value is to be taken into account in the scanning algorithm. As the conveyor belt is in motion during the process of measurements, only part of the material conveyed is irradiated. The resulting assessment error is investigated as a function of the autocorrelation function of the material on the belt. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Phytoplankton community dynamic detection from the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficient in productive inland waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Sayuri Yoshino Watanabe


    Full Text Available Abstract Aim: In this research, we investigated the spectral variability of the specific phytoplankton absorption coefficient, a*φ, measured in a tropical meso-to-hypertrophic reservoir, aiming to find spectral features associated with the chlorophyll-a (chla and other accessory pigments present in different phytoplankton species. Methods To accomplish this research, two fieldworks were carried out in different seasons in order to report a high bio-optical variation. Phytoplankton absorption coefficient, aφ, and chla concentration were measured in laboratory to estimate a*φ. Results The outcomes have indicated that there is a remarkable phytoplankton community dynamic as spatially as seasonally. Chla absorption features were well-defined at 440 nm and 675 nm. Conclusions All the a*φ spectra exhibited the absorption peak around 630 nm associated with phycocyanin pigment present in cyanobacteria. Some spectra have shown a peak at about 460 nm, which is related to chlorophyll b and chlorophyll c (chlb and chlc, respectively found in different phytoplankton species. In turn, absorption features of carotenoids around 490 nm also were identified, however, well defined just in curves measured in austral autumn. Such spectral features are found in phytoplankton groups already identified in the study area such as Chlorophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, Cyanophyceae, Conjugatophyceae, Chrysophyceae, among others. We expect that the results are useful in researches about remote sensing of phytoplankton and eutrophication in reservoirs.

  7. Nanostructured diode for infrared photodetection through nondegenerate two-photon absorption (United States)

    Fix, Baptiste; Jaeck, Julien; Vest, Benjamin; Verdun, Michaël; Beaudoin, Grégoire; Sagnes, Isabelle; Pelouard, Jean-Luc; Haïdar, Riad


    We investigate infrared detection at room temperature using non-degenerate two-photon absorption in a nanostructured indium phosphide photodiode. We designed the detector structure to achieve a good nonlinear absorption by combining three major ideas: first, we use the non-degenerate two-photon absorption process, which is known to be more efficient than the previously used degenerate two-photon absorption. Second, we ensured a correct spatial overlap of our pump field with our signal field. Third, we optimized the nanostructuration to increase the signal field amplitude locally within the active medium of the device. The resulting device consists of a PIN junction embedded between a back-reflecting gold mirror and a top grating. We experimentally characterized our diode with regard to reflectivity and two-photon absorption generated photocurrent for a continuous-wave pump and a nanosecond pulsed signal of around 3.39 μm. Owing to the nanostructuration, the generated photocurrent shows a gain of 24 with respect to the bulk response of InP.

  8. Near-infrared diode laser absorption diagnostic for temperature and water vapor in a scramjet combustor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jonathan T.C.; Rieker, Gregory B.; Jeffries, Jay B.; Gruber, Mark R.; Carter, Campbell D.; Mathur, Tarun; Hanson, Ronald K.


    Tunable diode laser absorption measurements of gas temperature and water concentration were made at the exit of a model scramjet combustor fueled on JP-7. Multiplexed, fiber-coupled, near-infrared distributed feedback lasers were used to probe three water vapor absorption features in the 1.34-1.47 μm spectral region (2v1and v1+ v3overtone bands). Ratio thermometry was performed using direct-absorption wavelength scans of isolated features at a 4-kHz repetition rate, as well as 2f wavelength modulation scans at a 2-kHz scan rate. Large signal-to-noise ratios demonstrate the ability of the optimally engineered optical hardware to reject beam steering and vibration noise. Successful measurements were made at full combustion conditions for a variety of fuel/air equivalence ratios and at eight vertical positions in the duct to investigate spatial uniformity. The use of three water vapor absorption features allowed for preliminary estimates of temperature distributions along the line of sight. The improved signal quality afforded by 2f measurements, in the case of weak absorption, demonstrates the utility of a scanned wavelength modulation strategy in such situations

  9. Iron absorption after antrectomy with gastroduodenostomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnusson, B.E.O.


    Haematological values were studied in 177 unselected patients 3-6 years after antrectomy with gastroduodenostomy. The majority (76%) had been operated upon for duodenal ulcer, 20% for gastric ulcer and the remaining patients had had both a duodenal and a gastric ulcer before the operation. In 65 patients a vagotomy had been added to the resection. 10% of the males and 15% of the females had a haemoglobin concentration below 13.0 or 12.0 g/100 ml, respectively. The corresponding frequencies for iron defifiency, defined as absence or only traces of haemosiderin in bone marrow smears, were 7% and 15%. The absorption of a small test dose of inorganic iron (0.56 mg Fe ++ as ferrous ascorbate) was studied in all the antrectomized patients. The absorption was also investigated in normal men and in patients who had had a Billroth II partial gastrectomy. No malabsorption of inorganic iron could be found in any of the groups. An inverse relationship between iron absorption and the grading of haemosiderin in bone marrow smears was found in normal subjects as well as in operated patients. Thus, an adequate increase of the absorption of ferrous iron was found even in operated patients with iron deficiency. Gastric acid secretion, measured as the peak acid output (PAO) after stimulation, was determined in all antrectomized patients. In patients having the same grading of haemosiderin (grade II) a slight but significant positive correlation was found between PAO and the absorption from the test dose (Fe ++ ). The absorption of food iron from a composite meal and the absorption from an iron salt (3.0 mg Fe ++ as ferrous ascorbate) was studied in 4 different groups: 1) normal males, 2) non-operated patients with peptic ulcer, 3) antrectomized patients with gastroduodenostomy and 4) patients operated upon with Billroth II partial gastrectomy. The range and mean absorption values from the test dose of inorganic iron were about the same in all groups. The absorption of food iron

  10. Dynamics of water absorption through superabsorbent polymer (United States)

    Chang, Sooyoung; Kim, Wonjung


    Superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) consist of hydrophilic cross-linked polymer networks that can absorb and retain a great amount of water relative to their own mass, so that they are widely used for disposable diapers and holding soil moisture in agriculture. SAPs are typically available in the form of submillimeter-sized particles, and the water absorption is driven by capillary flows between particles as well as diffusion that entail swelling. Although the control of water absorption of SAPs is important in engineering applications, but the dynamics of water absorption in SAP particles has not been fully understood. We examine the dynamics of the water absorption of sodium polyacrylate, one of the most common SAP. We experimentally measured the water absorption of sodium polyacrylate particles in one-dimensional confined channel. The water flows through the particles were analyzed by capillarity dominant at the early stage and by diffusion involving volume expansion critical at a later stage. The results provide a quantitative basis of the hydrodynamic analysis of the water flow through SAP particles from a macroscopic point of view, facilitating the prediction of water uptake of SAPs in hygienic and agricultural applications. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) Grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (No.2015R1A2A2A04006181).

  11. Phytosterol glycosides reduce cholesterol absorption in humans. (United States)

    Lin, Xiaobo; Ma, Lina; Racette, Susan B; Anderson Spearie, Catherine L; Ostlund, Richard E


    Dietary phytosterols inhibit intestinal cholesterol absorption and regulate whole body cholesterol excretion and balance. However, they are biochemically heterogeneous and a portion is glycosylated in some foods with unknown effects on biological activity. We tested the hypothesis that phytosterol glycosides reduce cholesterol absorption in humans. Phytosterol glycosides were extracted and purified from soy lecithin in a novel two-step process. Cholesterol absorption was measured in a series of three single-meal tests given at intervals of 2 wk to each of 11 healthy subjects. In a randomized crossover design, participants received approximately 300 mg of added phytosterols in the form of phytosterol glycosides or phytosterol esters, or placebo in a test breakfast also containing 30 mg cholesterol-d7. Cholesterol absorption was estimated by mass spectrometry of plasma cholesterol-d7 enrichment 4-5 days after each test. Compared with the placebo test, phytosterol glycosides reduced cholesterol absorption by 37.6+/-4.8% (Pphytosterol esters 30.6+/-3.9% (P=0.0001). These results suggest that natural phytosterol glycosides purified from lecithin are bioactive in humans and should be included in methods of phytosterol analysis and tables of food phytosterol content.

  12. Zinc absorption in inflammatory bowel disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valberg, L.S.; Flanagan, P.R.; Kertesz, A.; Bondy, D.C.


    Zinc absorption was measured in 29 patients with inflammatory bowel disease and a wide spectrum of disease activity to determine its relationship to disease activity, general nutritional state, and zinc status. Patients with severe disease requiring either supplementary oral or parenteral nutrition were excluded. The mean 65ZnCl2 absorption, in the patients, determined using a 65Zn and 51Cr stool-counting test, 45 +/- 17% (SD), was significantly lower than the values, 54 +/- 16%, in 30 healthy controls, P less than 0.05. Low 65ZnCl2 absorption was related to undernutrition, but not to disease activity in the absence of undernutrition or to zinc status estimated by leukocyte zinc measurements. Mean plasma zinc or leukocyte zinc concentrations in patients did not differ significantly from controls, and only two patients with moderate disease had leukocyte zinc values below the 5th percentile of normal. In another group of nine patients with inflammatory bowel disease of mild-to-moderate severity and minimal nutritional impairment, 65Zn absorption from an extrinsically labeled turkey test meal was 31 +/- 10% compared to 33 +/- 7% in 17 healthy controls, P greater than 0.1. Thus, impairment in 65ZnCl2 absorption in the patients selected for this study was only evident in undernourished persons with moderate or severe disease activity, but biochemical evidence of zinc deficiency was uncommon, and clinical features of zinc depletion were not encountered

  13. Iron absorption from adequate Filipino meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinidad, T.P.; Madriaga, J.R.; Valdez, D.H.; Cruz, E.M.; Mallillin, A.C.; Sison, C.C.; Kuizon, M.D.


    Iron absorption from adequate Filipino meals representing the three major island groups of the Philippines (Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao) was studied using double isotope extrinsic tag method. Mean iron absorption of the one-day meal for Metro Manila was 6.6 ± 1.26%, Central Visayas, 6.3 ± 1.15% and Southern Mindanao, 6.4 ± 1.19%. Comparison between meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner) for each region as well as one-day meal for the three regions showed no significant differences (P > .01). Correlation tests done between iron absorption and the following iron enhancers: ascorbic acid, amount of fish, meat or poultry and inhibitors: phytic acid and tannic acid did not give significant results. The overall bar x of 6.4 ± 1.20% may be used as the non-heme iron absorption level from an adequate Filipino meal. This value can be considered as one of the bases for arriving at recommended dietary allowances for iron among Filipinos instead of the 10% iron absorption assumed in 1976

  14. Iron absorption from adequate Filipinos meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinidad, T.P.; Madriaga, J.R.; Valdez, D.H.; Cruz, E.M.; Mallillin, A.C.; Sison, C.C.; Kuizon, M.D.


    Iron absorption from adequate Filipino meals representing the three major island groups of the Philippines (Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao) was studied using double isotope extrinsic tag method. Mean iron absorption of the one-day meal for Metro Manila was 6.6 +- 1.26%. Central Visayas, 6.3 +- 1.15% and Southern Mindanao, 6.4 +- 1.19%. Comparison between meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner) for each region as well as one-day meal for the three regions showed no significant differences (P>0.01). Correlation tests done between iron absorption and the following iron enhancers: ascorbic acid, amount of fish, meat or poultry; and inhibitors: phytic acid and tannic acid, did not give significant results. The overall average of 6.4 +- 1.20% may be used as the iron absorption level from an adequate Filipino meal. This value can be considered as one of the bases for arriving at recommended dietary allowances for iron among Filipinos instead of the 10% iron absorption assumed in 1976. (Auth.). 21 refs.; 3 tabs.; 3 annexes

  15. Biotin absorption by distal rat intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, B.B.; Rosenberg, I.H.


    We used the in vivo intestinal loop approach, with short (10-min) and long (3-h) incubations, to examine biotin absorption in proximal jejunum, distal ileum, cecum and proximal colon. In short-term studies, luminal biotin disappearance from rat ileum was about half that observed in the jejunum, whereas absorption by proximal colon was about 12% of that in the jejunum. In 3-h closed-loop studies, the absorption of 1.0 microM biotin varied regionally. Biotin absorption was nearly complete in the small intestine after 3 h; however, only about 15% of the dose had been absorbed in the cecum and 27% in the proximal colon after 3 h. Independent of site of administration, the major fraction of absorbed biotin was recovered in the liver; measurable amounts of radioactive biotin were also present in kidney and plasma. The results support the potential nutritional significance for the rat of biotin synthesized by bacteria in the distal intestine, by demonstrating directly an absorptive capability of mammalian large bowel for this vitamin

  16. Identifying the perfect absorption of metamaterial absorbers (United States)

    Duan, G.; Schalch, J.; Zhao, X.; Zhang, J.; Averitt, R. D.; Zhang, X.


    We present a detailed analysis of the conditions that result in unity absorption in metamaterial absorbers to guide the design and optimization of this important class of functional electromagnetic composites. Multilayer absorbers consisting of a metamaterial layer, dielectric spacer, and ground plane are specifically considered. Using interference theory, the dielectric spacer thickness and resonant frequency for unity absorption can be numerically determined from the functional dependence of the relative phase shift of the total reflection. Further, using transmission line theory in combination with interference theory we obtain analytical expressions for the unity absorption resonance frequency and corresponding spacer layer thickness in terms of the bare resonant frequency of the metamaterial layer and metallic and dielectric losses within the absorber structure. These simple expressions reveal a redshift of the unity absorption frequency with increasing loss that, in turn, necessitates an increase in the thickness of the dielectric spacer. The results of our analysis are experimentally confirmed by performing reflection-based terahertz time-domain spectroscopy on fabricated absorber structures covering a range of dielectric spacer thicknesses with careful control of the loss accomplished through water absorption in a semiporous polyimide dielectric spacer. Our findings can be widely applied to guide the design and optimization of the metamaterial absorbers and sensors.

  17. New Constraints on Quasar Broad Absorption and Emission Line Regions from Gravitational Microlensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutsemékers, Damien; Braibant, Lorraine; Sluse, Dominique [Institut d' Astrophysique et de Géophysique, Université de Liège, Liège (Belgium); Anguita, Timo [Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Santiago (Chile); Goosmann, René, E-mail: [Observatoire Astronomique de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg (France)


    Gravitational microlensing is a powerful tool allowing one to probe the structure of quasars on sub-parsec scale. We report recent results, focusing on the broad absorption and emission line regions. In particular microlensing reveals the intrinsic absorption hidden in the P Cygni-type line profiles observed in the broad absorption line quasar H1413+117, as well as the existence of an extended continuum source. In addition, polarization microlensing provides constraints on the scattering region. In the quasar Q2237+030, microlensing differently distorts the Hα and CIV broad emission line profiles, indicating that the low- and high-ionization broad emission lines must originate from regions with distinct kinematical properties. We also present simulations of the effect of microlensing on line profiles considering simple but representative models of the broad emission line region. Comparison of observations to simulations allows us to conclude that the Hα emitting region in Q2237+030 is best represented by a Keplerian disk.

  18. Spatial and temporal characterization of SCIAMACHY limb pointing errors during the first three years of the mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. von Savigny


    Full Text Available Limb scattering retrievals of atmospheric minor constituent profiles require highly accurate knowledge of the tangent heights during the measurements. The limb scattering measurements of the Scanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CartograpHY (SCIAMACHY on Envisat are affected by tangent height errors of up to 2 km. This contribution provides a summary of the temporal and spatial variation of the SCIAMACHY limb pointing errors during the first three years of the SCIAMACHY mission. The tangent height errors are retrieved from the limb measurements in the UV-B spectral range. A seasonal modulation of the monthly mean tangent height offsets is identified with amplitudes of 800m (220m before (after the improvement of the Envisat orbit propagator model in December 2003. Even after the December 2003 orbit model improvement a constant offset component of about 1km is present. Furthermore, pointing discontinuities are identified that coincide with the daily updates of the on-board orbit propagator model. In order to reduce the errors in ozone profile retrievals caused by pointing errors to less than 5%, the tangent heights have to be known to within 250m.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    The problem of ps absorption accompanied by a first-order reversible reaction, producing a volatile reaction product, is considered. A general analytical solution is developed for the film model, resulting in explicit relations for the concentration profiles in the film and for the mass transfer

  20. Influence of synchrotron self-absorption on 21-cm experiments (United States)

    Zheng, Qian; Wu, Xiang-Ping; Gu, Jun-Hua; Wang, Jingying; Xu, Haiguang


    The presence of spectral curvature resulting from the synchrotron self-absorption of extragalactic radio sources could break down the spectral smoothness feature. This leads to the premise that the bright radio foreground can be successfully removed in 21-cm experiments that search for the epoch of reionization (EoR). We present a quantitative estimate of the effect of the spectral curvature resulting from the synchrotron self-absorption of extragalactic radio sources on the measurement of the angular power spectrum of the low-frequency sky. We incorporate a phenomenological model, which is characterized by the fraction (f) of radio sources with turnover frequencies in the range of 100-1000 MHz and by a broken power law for the spectral transition around the turnover frequencies νm, into simulated radio sources over a small sky area of 10° × 10°. We compare statistically the changes in their residual maps with and without the inclusion of the synchrotron self-absorption of extragalactic radio sources after the bright sources of S150 MHz ≥100 mJy are excised. Furthermore, the best-fitting polynomials in the frequency domain on each pixel are subtracted. It has been shown that the effect of synchrotron self-absorption on the detection of the EoR depends sensitively on the spectral profiles of the radio sources around the turnover frequencies νm. A hard transition model, described by the broken power law with the turnover of spectral index at νm, would leave pronounced imprints on the residual background and would therefore cause serious confusion with the cosmic EoR signal. However, the spectral signatures on the angular power spectrum of the extragalactic foreground, generated by a soft transition model in which the rising and falling power laws of the spectral distribution around νm are connected through a smooth transition spanning ≥200 MHz in a characteristic width, can be fitted and consequently subtracted by the use of polynomials to an acceptable

  1. Reinforced aerodynamic profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to the prevention of deformations in an aerodynamic profile caused by lack of resistance to the bending moment forces that are created when such a profile is loaded in operation. More specifically, the invention relates to a reinforcing element inside an aerodynamic...... profile and a method for the construction thereof. The profile is intended for, but not limited to, useas a wind turbine blade, an aerofoil device or as a wing profile used in the aeronautical industry....

  2. The river absorption capacity determination as a tool to evaluate state of surface water (United States)

    Wilk, Paweł; Orlińska-Woźniak, Paulina; Gębala, Joanna


    In order to complete a thorough and systematic assessment of water quality, it is useful to measure the absorption capacity of a river. Absorption capacity is understood as a pollution load introduced into river water that will not cause permanent and irreversible changes in the aquatic ecosystem and will not cause a change in the classification of water quality in the river profile. In order to implement the method, the Macromodel DNS/SWAT basin for the Middle Warta pilot (central Poland) was used to simulate nutrient loads. This enabled detailed analysis of water quality in each water body and the assessment of the size of the absorption capacity parameter, which allows the determination of how much pollution can be added to the river without compromising its quality class. Positive values of the calculated absorption capacity parameter mean that it is assumed that the ecosystem is adjusted in such a way that it can eliminate pollution loads through a number of self-purification processes. Negative values indicate that the load limit has been exceeded, and too much pollution has been introduced into the ecosystem for it to be able to deal with through the processes of self-purification. Absorption capacity thus enables the connection of environmental standards of water quality and water quality management plans in order to meet these standards.

  3. The absorption of carbon monoxide in COSORB solutions: absorption rate and capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogendoorn, Kees; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria; Versteeg, Geert


    Absorption rate experiments and equilibrium experiments were carried out for the COSORB reaction at 300 K. The equilibrium data at 300 K could reasonably well be described with the following relation: [...] Determination of the kinetics and mechanism of a chemical reaction by means of absorption

  4. Absorption lines, Faraday rotation, and magnetic field estimates for QSO absorption-line clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronberg, P.P.; Perry, J.J.


    We have estimated the extragalactic component of Faraday rotation for a sample of 37 QSOs for which there is good absorption line data, which we have also analyzed. Statistical evidence is presented which suggests that we have isolated a component of Faraday rotation which is occurring in the absorption clouds of some QSOs

  5. Cloud Absorption Radiometer Autonomous Navigation System - CANS (United States)

    Kahle, Duncan; Gatebe, Charles; McCune, Bill; Hellwig, Dustan


    CAR (cloud absorption radiometer) acquires spatial reference data from host aircraft navigation systems. This poses various problems during CAR data reduction, including navigation data format, accuracy of position data, accuracy of airframe inertial data, and navigation data rate. Incorporating its own navigation system, which included GPS (Global Positioning System), roll axis inertia and rates, and three axis acceleration, CANS expedites data reduction and increases the accuracy of the CAR end data product. CANS provides a self-contained navigation system for the CAR, using inertial reference and GPS positional information. The intent of the software application was to correct the sensor with respect to aircraft roll in real time based upon inputs from a precision navigation sensor. In addition, the navigation information (including GPS position), attitude data, and sensor position details are all streamed to a remote system for recording and later analysis. CANS comprises a commercially available inertial navigation system with integral GPS capability (Attitude Heading Reference System AHRS) integrated into the CAR support structure and data system. The unit is attached to the bottom of the tripod support structure. The related GPS antenna is located on the P-3 radome immediately above the CAR. The AHRS unit provides a RS-232 data stream containing global position and inertial attitude and velocity data to the CAR, which is recorded concurrently with the CAR data. This independence from aircraft navigation input provides for position and inertial state data that accounts for very small changes in aircraft attitude and position, sensed at the CAR location as opposed to aircraft state sensors typically installed close to the aircraft center of gravity. More accurate positional data enables quicker CAR data reduction with better resolution. The CANS software operates in two modes: initialization/calibration and operational. In the initialization/calibration mode

  6. Concomitant intake of alcohol may increase the absorption of poorly soluble drugs. (United States)

    Fagerberg, Jonas H; Sjögren, Erik; Bergström, Christel A S


    Ethanol can increase the solubility of poorly soluble and hence present a higher drug concentration in the gastrointestinal tract. This may produce a faster and more effective absorption resulting in variable and/or high drug plasma concentrations, both of which can lead to adverse drug reactions. In this work we therefore studied the solubility and absorption effects of nine diverse compounds when ethanol was present. The apparent solubility was measured using the μDiss Profiler Plus (pION, MA) in four media representing gastric conditions with and without ethanol. The solubility results were combined with in-house data on solubility in intestinal fluids (with and without ethanol) and pharmacokinetic parameters extracted from the literature and used as input in compartmental absorption simulations using the software GI-Sim. Apparent solubility increased more than 7-fold for non-ionized compounds in simulated gastric fluid containing 20% ethanol. Compounds with weak base functions (cinnarizine, dipyridamole and terfenadine) were completely ionized at the studied gastric pH and their solubility was therefore unaffected by ethanol. Compounds with low solubility in intestinal media and a pronounced solubility increase due to ethanol in the upper gastric compartments showed an increased absorption in the simulations. The rate of absorption of the acidic compounds indomethacin and indoprofen was slightly increased but the extent of absorption was unaffected as the complete doses were readily absorbed even without ethanol. This was likely due to a high apparent solubility in the intestinal compartment where the weak acids are ionized. The absorption of the studied non-ionizable compounds increased when ethanol was present in the gastric and intestinal media. These results indicate that concomitant intake of alcohol may significantly increase the solubility and hence, the plasma concentration for non-ionizable, lipophilic compounds with the potential of adverse drug

  7. Spatial transcriptomics: paving the way for tissue-level systems biology. (United States)

    Moor, Andreas E; Itzkovitz, Shalev


    The tissues in our bodies are complex systems composed of diverse cell types that often interact in highly structured repeating anatomical units. External gradients of morphogens, directional blood flow, as well as the secretion and absorption of materials by cells generate distinct microenvironments at different tissue coordinates. Such spatial heterogeneity enables optimized function through division of labor among cells. Unraveling the design principles that govern this spatial division of labor requires techniques to quantify the entire transcriptomes of cells while accounting for their spatial coordinates. In this review we describe how recent advances in spatial transcriptomics open the way for tissue-level systems biology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Selective gas absorption by ionic liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shunmugavel, Saravanamurugan; Kegnæs, Søren; Due-Hansen, Johannes


    processes for flue gas cleaning. The results show that CO 2, NO and SO2 can be reversible and selective absorbed using different ILs and that Supported Ionic Liquid-Phase (SILP) absorbers are promising materials for industrial flue gas cleaning. Absorption/desorption dynamics can be tuned by temperatures......Reversible absorption performance for the flue gas components CO 2, NO and SO2 has been tested for several different ionic liquids (ILs) at different temperatures and flue gas compositions. Furthermore, different porous, high surface area carriers have been applied as supports for the ionic liquids...... to obtain Supported Ionic Liquid-Phase (SILP) absorber materials. The use of solid SILP absorbers with selected ILs were found to significantly improve the absorption capacity and sorption dynamics at low flue gas concentration, thus making the applicability of ILs viable in technical, continuous flow...

  9. Time-resolved absorption measurements on OMEGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaanimagi, P.A.; DaSilva, L.; Delettrez, J.; Gregory, G.G.; Richardson, M.C.


    Time-resolved measurements of the incident laser light that is scattered and/or refracted from targets irradiated by the 24 uv-beam OMEGA laser at LLE, have provided some interesting features related to time-resolved absorption. The decrease in laser absorption characteristic of irradiating a target that implodes during the laser pulse has been observed. The increase in absorption expected as the critical density surface moves from a low to a high Z material in the target has also been noted. The detailed interpretation of these results is made through comparisons with simulation using the code LILAC, as well as with streak data from time-resolved x-ray imaging and spectroscopy. In addition, time and space-resolved imaging of the scattered light yields information on laser irradiation uniformity conditions on the target. The report consists of viewgraphs

  10. Plasmon absorption modulator systems and methods (United States)

    Kekatpure, Rohan Deodatta; Davids, Paul


    Plasmon absorption modulator systems and methods are disclosed. A plasmon absorption modulator system includes a semiconductor substrate, a plurality of quantum well layers stacked on a top surface of the semiconductor substrate, and a metal layer formed on a top surface of the stack of quantum well layers. A method for modulating plasmonic current includes enabling propagation of the plasmonic current along a metal layer, and applying a voltage across the stack of quantum well layers to cause absorption of a portion of energy of the plasmonic current by the stack of quantum well layers. A metamaterial switching system includes a semiconductor substrate, a plurality of quantum well layers stacked on a top surface of the semiconductor substrate, and at least one metamaterial structure formed on a top surface of the stack of quantum well layers.

  11. Intestinal absorption of specific structured triacylglycerols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Høy, Carl-Erik


    -sn-glycerol (10:0/18:2/10:0), and 1,3-didodecanoyl-2-linoleoyl-sn-glycerol (12:0/18:2/12:0) in a rat model. Safflower oil was used in the absorption study in order to compare the absorption of medium- chain fatty acids and long-chain fatty acids, The triacylglycerol species of lymph Lipids were separated......-type triacylglycerols. From the present study we conclude that the medium-chain fatty acids from STAG, in addition to absorption into the portal blood as free fatty acids, are absorbed by the same pathway as the conventional long-chain triacylglycerols, that is, they are hydrolyzed into free fatty acids, absorbed...

  12. Ultrafast Coherent Absorption in Diamond Metamaterials. (United States)

    Karvounis, Artemios; Nalla, Venkatram; MacDonald, Kevin F; Zheludev, Nikolay I


    Diamond is introduced as a material platform for visible/near-infrared photonic metamaterials, with a nanostructured polycrystalline diamond metasurface only 170 nm thick providing an experimental demonstration of coherent light-by-light modulation at few-optical-cycle (6 fs) pulse durations. "Coherent control" of absorption in planar (subwavelength-thickness) materials has emerged recently as a mechanism for high-contrast all-optical gating, with a speed of response that is limited only by the spectral width of the absorption line. It is shown here that a free-standing diamond membrane structured by focused ion beam milling can provide strong, spectrally near-flat absorption over a visible to near-infrared wavelength range that is wide enough (wider than is characteristically achievable in plasmonic metal metasurfaces) to facilitate coherent modulation of ultrashort optical pulses comprising only a few oscillations of electromagnetic field. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Absorption of carbon dioxide in waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, D.T.


    Air flow rates and carbon dioxide concentrations of air entering and exiting eight H-Area waste tanks were monitored for a period of one year. The average instanteous concentration of carbon dioxide in air is within the range reported offsite, and therefore is not affect by operation of the coal-fired power plant adjacent to the tank farm. Waste solutions in each of the tanks were observed to be continuously absorbing carbon dioxide. The rate of absorption of carbon dioxide decreased linearly with the pH of the solution. Personnel exposure associated with the routine sampling and analysis of radioactive wastes stored at SRP to determine the levels of corrosion inhibitors in solution could be reduced by monitoring the absorption of carbon dioxide and using the relationship between pH and carbon dioxide absorption to determine the free hydroxide concentration in solution

  14. Tunable electromagnetically induced absorption based on graphene (United States)

    Cao, Maoyong; Wang, Tongling; Zhang, Huiyun; Zhang, Yuping


    In this paper, an electronically induced absorption (EIA) structure based on graphene at the infrared frequency is proposed. A pair of nanorods is coupled to a ring resonator, resulting in electronically induced transparency (EIT), and then, Babinet's principle is applied to transform the EIT structure into an EIA structure. Based on the bright and dark modes of the coupling schemes, the adjustment of the coupling strength between the dark and bright modes can be achieved by changing the asymmetry degree. In addition, the transparency window and the absorption peak can be tuned by changing the Fermi energy of graphene. This graphene-based EIA structure can develop the path in narrow-band filtering and, absorptive switching in the future.

  15. A Review: Characteristics of Noise Absorption Material (United States)

    Amares, S.; Sujatmika, E.; Hong, T. W.; Durairaj, R.; Hamid, H. S. H. B.


    Noise is always treated as a nuisance to human and even noise pollution appears in the environmental causing discomfort. This also concerns the engineering design that tends to cultivate this noise propagation. Solution such as using material to absorb the sound have been widely used. The fundamental of the sound absorbing propagation, sound absorbing characteristics and its factors are minimally debated. Furthermore, the method in order to pertain sound absorbing related to the sound absorption coefficient is also limited, as many studies only contributes in result basis and very little in literature aspect. This paper revolves in providing better insight on the importance of sound absorption and the materials factors in obtaining the sound absorption coefficient.

  16. Gold analysis by the gamma absorption technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtoglu, Arzu; Tugrul, A.B.


    Gold (Au) analyses are generally performed using destructive techniques. In this study, the Gamma Absorption Technique has been employed for gold analysis. A series of different gold alloys of known gold content were analysed and a calibration curve was obtained. This curve was then used for the analysis of unknown samples. Gold analyses can be made non-destructively, easily and quickly by the gamma absorption technique. The mass attenuation coefficients of the alloys were measured around the K-shell absorption edge of Au. Theoretical mass attenuation coefficient values were obtained using the WinXCom program and comparison of the experimental results with the theoretical values showed generally good and acceptable agreement

  17. Ultrasonic absorption in polymethylmethacrylate at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federle, G.; Hunklinger, S.


    This chapter reports on a study of the absorption of longitudinal sound waves at frequencies between 15 and 195 MHz and temperatures between 0.4K and 300K using commercial PMMA. It demonstrates that the acoustic absorption of PMMA does not steadily decrease on cooling. Below 1K the absorption varies linearly with temperature and can be explained after a small modification of the so-called ''tunnelling model'' which is well-known in the description of inorganic glasses. This is an unexpected maximum at 12K which has a frequency independent position. This behavior is explained by assuming a high density of tunnelling states with well-defined asymmetries and tunnel splittings. It is pointed out that these states couple weakly to the amorphous network and are most probably due to rotational tunnelling of the ester methyl group

  18. Absorption spectra of AA-stacked graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, C W; Lee, S H; Chen, S C; Lin, M F; Shyu, F L


    AA-stacked graphite shows strong anisotropy in geometric structures and velocity matrix elements. However, the absorption spectra are isotropic for the polarization vector on the graphene plane. The spectra exhibit one prominent plateau at middle energy and one shoulder structure at lower energy. These structures directly reflect the unique geometric and band structures and provide sufficient information for experimental fitting of the intralayer and interlayer atomic interactions. On the other hand, monolayer graphene shows a sharp absorption peak but no shoulder structure; AA-stacked bilayer graphene has two absorption peaks at middle energy and abruptly vanishes at lower energy. Furthermore, the isotropic features are expected to exist in other graphene-related systems. The calculated results and the predicted atomic interactions could be verified by optical measurements.

  19. Spatial filters on demand based on aperiodic Photonic Crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gailevicius, Darius; Purlys, Vytautas; Peckus, Martynas; Gadonas, Roaldas [Laser Research Center, Department of Quantum Electronics, Vilnius University (Lithuania); Staliunas, Kestutis [DONLL, Departament de Fisica, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC), Terrassa (Spain); Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), Barcelona (Spain)


    Photonic Crystal spatial filters, apart from stand-alone spatial filtering function, can also suppress multi-transverse-mode operation in laser resonators. Here it is shown that such photonic crystals can be designed by solving the inverse problem: for a given spatial filtering profile. Optimized Photonic Crystal filters were fabricated in photosensitive glass. Experiments have shown that such filters provide a more pronounced filtering effect for total and partial transmissivity conditions. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Surface water - groundwater interactions at different spatial and temporal scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sebök, Éva

    As there is a growing demand for the protection and optimal management of both the surface water and groundwater resources, the understanding of their exchange processes is of great importance. This PhD study aimed at describing the natural spatial and temporal variability of these interactions...... detected large spatial variability in SWI temperatures with scattered high-discharge sites in a stream and also in a lake where discharge fluxes were estimated by vertical temperature profiles and seepage meter measurements. On the kilometre scale DTS indicated less spatial variability in streambed...