WorldWideScience

Sample records for absorption skin

  1. Percutaneous absorption in diseased skin: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Audris; Tudela, Emilie; Maibach, Howard I

    2012-08-01

    The stratum corneum's (SC) functions include protection from external hazardous environments, prevention of water loss and regulation of body temperature. While intact skin absorption studies are abundant, studies on compromised skin permeability are less common, although products are often used to treat affected skin. We reviewed literature on percutaneous absorption through abnormal skin models. Tape stripping is used to disrupt water barrier function. Studies demonstrated that physicochemical properties influence the stripping effect: water-soluble drugs are more affected. Abrasion did not affect absorption as much. Freezing is commonly used to preserve skin. It does not seem to modify water absorption, but still increases the penetration of compounds. Comparatively, heating the skin consistently increased percutaneous absorption. Removing SC lipids may increase percutaneous absorption of drugs. Many organic solvents are employed to delipidize. Delipidization with chloroform-methanol increased hydrophilic compound permeability, but not lipophilic. Acetone pre-treatment enhanced hydrophilic compound penetration. More data is needed to determine influence on highly lipophilic compound penetration. Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) induces irritant dermatitis and is frequently used as a model. Studies revealed that SLS increases hydrophilic compound absorption, but not lipophilic. However, skin irritation with other chemicals increases lipophilic penetration as much as hydrophilic. Animal studies show that UV exposure increases percutaneous absorption whereas human studies do not. Human studies show increased penetration in psoriatic and atopic dermatitis skin. The data summarized here begin to characterize flux alteration associated with damaged skin. Understanding the degree of alteration requires interpretation of involved conditions and the enlarging of our database to a more complete physicochemical spectrum. PMID:22912973

  2. Epidermal melanin absorption in human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norvang Nilsen, Lill T.; Fiskerstrand, Elisanne J.; Nelson, J. Stuart; Berns, Michael W.; Svaasand, Lars O.

    1996-01-01

    The principle of laser induced selective photothermolysis is to induced thermal damage to specific targets in such a manner that the temperature of the surrounding tissue is maintained below the threshold for thermal damage. The selectivity is obtained by selection of a proper wavelength and pulse duration. The technique is presently being used in the clinic for removal of port-wine stains. The presence of melanin in the epidermal layer can represent a limitation to the selectivity. Melanin absorption drops off significantly with increasing wavelength, but is significant in the entire wavelength region where the blood absorption is high. Treatment of port-wine stain in patients with high skin pigmentation may therefore give overheating of the epidermis, resulting in epidermal necrosis. Melanosomal heating is dependent on the energy and duration of the laser pulse. The heating mechanism for time scales less than typically 1 microsecond(s) corresponds to a transient local heating of the individual melanosomes. For larger time scales, heat diffusion out of the melanosomes become of increased importance, and the temperature distribution will reach a local steady state condition after typically 10 microsecond(s) . For even longer pulse duration, heat diffusing from neighboring melanosomes becomes important, and the temperature rise in a time scale from 100 - 500 microsecond(s) is dominated by this mechanism. The epidermal heating during the typical 450 microsecond(s) pulse used for therapy is thus dependent on the average epidermal melanin content rather than on the absorption coefficient of the individual melanosomes. This study will present in vivo measurements of the epidermal melanin absorption of human skin when exposed to short laser pulses (< 0.1 microsecond(s) ) from a Q-switched ruby laser and with long laser pulses (approximately 500 microsecond(s) ) from a free-running ruby laser or a long pulse length flashlamp pumped dye laser. The epidermal melanin

  3. Near infrared laser penetration and absorption in human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasouri, Babak; Murphy, Thomas E.; Berberoglu, Halil

    2014-02-01

    For understanding the mechanisms of low level laser/light therapy (LLLT), accurate knowledge of light interaction with tissue is necessary. In this paper, we present a three dimensional, multi-layer Monte Carlo simulation tool for studying light penetration and absorption in human skin. The skin is modeled as a three-layer participating medium, namely epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous, where its geometrical and optical properties are obtained from the literature. Both refraction and reflection are taken into account at the boundaries according to Snell's law and Fresnel relations. A forward Monte Carlo method was implemented and validated for accurately simulating light penetration and absorption in absorbing and anisotropically scattering media. Local profiles of light penetration and volumetric absorption densities were simulated for uniform as well as Gaussian profile beams with different spreads at 155 mW average power over the spectral range from 1000 nm to 1900 nm. The results show the effects of beam profiles and wavelength on the local fluence within each skin layer. Particularly, the results identify different wavelength bands for targeted deposition of power in different skin layers. Finally, we show that light penetration scales well with the transport optical thickness of skin. We expect that this tool along with the results presented will aid researchers resolve issues related to dose and targeted delivery of energy in tissues for LLLT.

  4. Povidone iodine skin absorption: an ex-vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesvadbova, Martina; Crosera, Matteo; Maina, Giovanni; Larese Filon, Francesca

    2015-06-15

    Povidone iodine is a water-soluble complex used to disinfect the skin surface and it exerts prolonged germicidal action against a broad spectrum of germs. Indeed, it is often applied on burned skin, large wounds, deep tissues or mucosa. Notably some surgical hand-scrub solutions, which are considered safe antiseptics, contain large amounts of iodine that can be absorbed by skin. The aim of present study was to study the skin absorption of iodine after the application on the skin of povidone-iodine solution, used by health care workers during surgical procedure. We use Franz diffusion static cells with human skin. After 24h from the beginning of our measurement the iodine concentration in the receiving compartment was 11.59±6.3μg/cm(2). The medium flux calculated was 0.73±0.33μg/cm(2)/h with a lag time of 8.9±1.5h. These in vitro results confirmed that povidone iodine could pass through the skin in a relevant amount that can explain the clinical findings in burned or surgically treated patients. In professional use the repetitive contact with povidone iodine, also as soap, can cause iodine skin permeation that must be considered when the washing procedures are repeated more than 20 times a day.

  5. Nanoparticles skin absorption: New aspects for a safety profile evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larese Filon, Francesca; Mauro, Marcella; Adami, Gianpiero; Bovenzi, Massimo; Crosera, Matteo

    2015-07-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) skin absorption is a wide issue, which needs to be better understood. The attempt of this review is to summarize the scientific evidence concerning open questions, i.e.: the role of NPs intrinsic characteristics (size, shape, charge, surface properties), the penetration of NPs through the intact or impaired skin barrier, the penetration pathways which should be considered and the role of NPs interaction in physiological media. The outcomes suggest that one main difference should be made between metal and non-metal NPs. Both kinds have a secondary NPs size which is given after interaction in physiological media, and allows a size-dependent skin penetration: NPs⩽4nm can penetrate and permeate intact skin, NPs size between 4 and 20nm can potentially permeate intact and damaged skin, NPs size between 21 and 45nm can penetrate and permeate only damaged skin, NPs size>45nm cannot penetrate nor permeate the skin. Other aspects play an important role, mostly for metal NPs, i.e., dissolution in physiological media, which can cause local and systemic effects, the sensitizing or toxic potential and the tendency to create aggregates. This paper suggests a decision tree to evaluate the potential risk for consumers and workers exposed to NPs.

  6. Dermal absorption and skin damage following hydrofluoric acid exposure in an ex vivo human skin model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennerlein, Kathrin; Kiesewetter, Franklin; Kilo, Sonja; Jäger, Thomas; Göen, Thomas; Korinth, Gintautas; Drexler, Hans

    2016-04-25

    The wide industrial use of hydrofluoric acid (HF) poses a high risk for accidental dermal exposure. Despite local and systemic hazards associated with HF, information on percutaneous penetration and tissue damage is rare. In the present ex vivo study, the dermal absorption of HF (detected in terms of fluoride ions) was quantified and the skin damaging potential as a function of concentration and exposure duration was assessed. Percutaneous penetration of HF (c=5, 30, and 50%) at 3 exposure durations (3, 5, and 10 min) was investigated in a static diffusion cell model using freshly excised human skin. Alterations of skin were histologically evaluated. HF rapidly penetrated through skin under formation of a considerable intradermal reservoir (∼ 13-67% of total absorbed fluoride). Histologically, epidermal alterations were detected already after exposure to 5% HF for 3 min. The degree of skin damage increased with rising concentration and exposure duration leading to coagulation necrosis. For HF concentrations of ≥ 30%, skin damage progressed into deeper skin layers. Topically applied HF concentration was the principal parameter determining HF induced skin effects. The intradermal HF retention capacity associated with progression and prolongation of HF induced skin effects must be considered in the review of skin decontamination procedures.

  7. A high absorption coefficient DL-MPP imitating owl skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lijun; Zhao, Zhan; Kong, Deyi; Wu, Shaohua; Du, Lidong; Fang, Zhen

    2012-11-01

    This paper proposes a high absorption coefficient micro-perforated panel (MPP) imitating owl skin structure for acoustic noise reduction. Compared to the traditional micro-perforated panel, this device has two unique characteristics-simulating the owl skin structure, its radius of perforated apertures even can be as small as 55μ, and its material is silicon and fabricated by micro-electrical mechanical system (MEMS) technology; So that its absorption coefficients of acoustic noise for normal incidence sound wave whose frequencies arrange from 1.5 kHz to 6.0 kHz are all above 0.8 which is the owl's hunts sensitivity frequency band. Double leaf MPP fabricated by MEMS technology is an absolutely bionic success in functional-imitation.

  8. Absorption of some glycol ethers through human skin in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Dugard, P H; M. Walker; Mawdsley, S J; Scott, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    To assist evaluation of the hazards of skin contact with selected undiluted glycol ethers, their absorption across isolated human abdominal epidermis was measured in vitro. Epidermal membranes were set up in glass diffusion cells and, following an initial determination of permeability to tritiated water, excess undiluted glycol ether was applied to the outer surface for 8 hr. The appearance of glycol ether in an aqueous "receptor" phase bathing the underside of the epidermis was quantified by...

  9. Skin absorption of six performance amines used in metalworking fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Lauriane N; Brooks, James D; Yeatts, James L; Baynes, Ronald E

    2015-05-01

    Every year, 10 million workers are exposed to metalworking fluids (MWFs) that may be toxic. There are four types of MWFs: neat oils and three water-based MWFs (soluble oil, semisynthetic and synthetic), which are diluted with water and whose composition varies according to the mineral oils ratio. MWFs also contain various additives. To determine the absorption of six amines used as corrosion inhibitors and biocides in MWFs, porcine skin flow-through diffusion cell experiments were conducted with hydrophilic ethanolamines (mono-, di- and triethanolamine, MEA, DEA and TEA respectively) and a mixture of lipophilic amines (dibutylethanolamine, dicyclohexylamine and diphenylamine). The six amines were dosed in four vehicles (water and three generic water-based MWF formulations) and analyzed using a scintillation counter or gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. These 24 h studies showed that dermal absorption significantly (P metalworkers. PMID:25186650

  10. Stratum corneum damage and ex vivo porcine skin water absorption - a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duch Lynggaard, C; Bang Knudsen, D; Jemec, G B E

    2009-01-01

    A simple ex vivo screening technique would be of interest for mass screening of substances for potential barrier disruptive qualities. Ex vivo water absorption as a marker of skin barrier integrity was studied on pig ear skin. Skin water absorption was quantified by weighing and weight changes were...... found to reflect prehydration barrier damage. It is suggested that this simple model may be elaborated to provide a rapid, economical screening tool for potential skin irritants....

  11. Skin absorption of six performance amines used in metalworking fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Lauriane N; Brooks, James D; Yeatts, James L; Baynes, Ronald E

    2015-05-01

    Every year, 10 million workers are exposed to metalworking fluids (MWFs) that may be toxic. There are four types of MWFs: neat oils and three water-based MWFs (soluble oil, semisynthetic and synthetic), which are diluted with water and whose composition varies according to the mineral oils ratio. MWFs also contain various additives. To determine the absorption of six amines used as corrosion inhibitors and biocides in MWFs, porcine skin flow-through diffusion cell experiments were conducted with hydrophilic ethanolamines (mono-, di- and triethanolamine, MEA, DEA and TEA respectively) and a mixture of lipophilic amines (dibutylethanolamine, dicyclohexylamine and diphenylamine). The six amines were dosed in four vehicles (water and three generic water-based MWF formulations) and analyzed using a scintillation counter or gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. These 24 h studies showed that dermal absorption significantly (P < 0.05) increased from water for the six amines (e.g. 1.15 ± 0.29% dose; DEA in water) compared to other formulations (e.g. 0.13 ± 0.01% dose; DEA in semisynthetic MWF) and absorption was greatest for dibutylethanolamine in all the formulations. The soluble oil formulation tended to increase the dermal absorption of the hydrophilic amines. The permeability coefficient was significantly higher (P < 0.05) with TEA relative to the other hydrophilic amines (e.g. 4.22 × 10(-4) ± 0.53 × 10(-4) cm h(-1) [TEA in synthetic MWF] vs. 1.23 × 10(-4) ± 0.10 × 10(-4) cm h(-1) [MEA in synthetic MWF]), except for MEA in soluble oil formulation. Future research will confirm these findings in an in vivo pig model along with dermatotoxicity studies. These results should help MWF industries choose safer additives for their formulations to protect the health of metalworkers.

  12. In vitro absorption of metal powders through intact and damaged human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filon, Francesca Larese; D'Agostin, Flavia; Crosera, Matteo; Adami, Gianpiero; Bovenzi, Massimo; Maina, Giovanni

    2009-06-01

    The bioavailability of metals, which are known as important contact allergens, is decisive for the development and the maintenance of contact dermatitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the percutaneous penetration of metal powders of cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni) and chromium (Cr) and the effect of skin lesions on skin absorption. In vitro permeation experiments were performed using the Franz diffusion cells with intact and damaged human skin. Physiological solution was used as receiving phase and metal powders (Co, Ni and Cr) dispersed in synthetic sweat at pH 4.5 were applied as donor phase to the outer surface of the skin for 24h. The amount of each metal permeating the skin was analysed by electro-thermal atomic absorption spectroscopy (ETAAS). Donor solution analysis demonstrated that metals were present as ions. Measurements of metals skin content were also exploited. Median Co and Ni concentrations found in the receiving phase were significantly higher when Co and Ni powders were applied on the abraded skin than after application on the intact skin (3566 and 2631ngcm(-2) vs. 8.4 and 31ngcm(-2), respectively). No significant difference was found in Cr permeation through intact and damaged skin. The measurement of metals skin content showed that Co, Ni and Cr concentrations were significantly higher in the damaged skin than in the intact skin. Co and Ni ions concentrations increased significantly when the donor solutions were applied on the damaged skin, while Cr ions concentrations did not increase. This study demonstrated that Co and Ni powders can permeate through damaged skin more easily than Cr powder, which has probably a stronger skin proteins binding capacity. Therefore, our results suggest that is necessary to prevent skin contamination when using toxic substances because a small injury to the skin barrier can significantly increase skin absorption.

  13. Erbium:YAG laser resurfacing increases skin permeability and the risk of excessive absorption of antibiotics and sunscreens: the influence of skin recovery on drug absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woan-Ruoh; Shen, Shing-Chuan; Al-Suwayeh, Saleh A; Li, Yi-Ching; Fang, Jia-You

    2012-06-01

    While laser skin resurfacing is expected to result in reduced barrier function and increased risk of drug absorption, the extent of the increment has not yet been systematically investigated. We aimed to establish the skin permeation profiles of tetracycline and sunscreens after exposure to the erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser during postoperative periods. Physiological and histopathological examinations were carried out for 5 days after laser treatment on nude mice. Percutaneous absorption of the permeants was determined by an in vitro Franz cell. Ablation depths varied in reaching the stratum corneum (10 μm, 2.5 J/cm²) to approach the epidermis (25 μm, 6.25 J/cm²) and upper dermis (40 μm, 10 J/cm²). Reepithelialization evaluated by transepidermal water loss was complete within 2-4 days and depended on the ablation depth. Epidermal hyperplasia was observed in the 40-μm-treated group. The laser was sufficient to disrupt the skin barrier and allow the transport of the permeants into and across the skin. The laser fluence was found to play an important role in modulating skin absorption. A 25-μm ablation depth increased tetracycline flux 84-fold. A much smaller enhancement (3.3-fold) was detected for tetracycline accumulation within the skin. The laser with different fluences produced enhancement of oxybenzone skin deposition of 3.4-6.4-fold relative to the untreated group. No penetration across the skin was shown regardless of whether titanium dioxide was applied to intact or laser-treated skin. However, laser resurfacing increased the skin deposition of titanium dioxide from 46 to 109-188 ng/g. Tetracycline absorption had recovered to the level of intact skin after 5 days, while more time was required for oxybenzone absorption. The in vivo skin accumulation and plasma concentration revealed that the laser could increase tetracycline absorption 2-3-fold. The experimental results indicated that clinicians should be cautious when determining the

  14. Dermal absorption of aromatic amines in workers with different skin lesions: a report on 4 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angerer Jürgen

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There are only few studies about the relationship of skin lesions and the percutaneous uptake of hazardous substances in exposed workers. Several aromatic amines are well known carcinogens for humans and/or animals. This case report emphasizes the relevance of dermal absorption of the aromatic amine ortho-toluidine considering four workers with different skin status (healthy, erythematous and burned skin as well as dishydrotic eczema during the vulcanisation process of rubber products in a components supplier plant for automobile industry. The results of our case report show that dermal absorption of o-toluidine through damaged epidermal barrier is significantly higher than through healthy skin.

  15. Absorption of human skin and its detecting platform in the process of laser cosmetology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-Lin; Ouyang, Li; Wang, Yang

    2000-10-01

    Because of the melanin, hemoglobin and water molecules, etc. contained, light absorption of human skin tissue changes with wavelength of light. This is the principle used in laser cosmetology for treating pigment diseases and vascular lesion diseases as well as skin decoration such as body tattooing, eyebrow tattooing, etc. The parameters of treatment used in laser cosmetology principally come from the research of the skin tissue optical characteristics of whites, and it is not suitable for the Oriental. The absorption spectrum of yellow race alive skin has been researched. The detecting platform for use in the measuring of vivi-tissue absorption spectrum has been developed which using opto-electronic nondestructive testing and virtual instrument techniques. The degree of pathological changes of skin can be detected by this platform also, thus the shortcoming of dosage selection in laser clinical treatments which have been decided only by naked eye observation and past experience of doctors can be solved.

  16. [In vitro percutaneous absorption of chromium powder and the effect of skin cleanser].

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostin, F; Crosera, M; Adami, G; Malvestio, A; Rosani, R; Bovenzi, M; Maina, G; Filon, F Larese

    2007-01-01

    Occupational chromium dermatitis occurs frequently among cement and metal workers, workers dealing with leather tanning and employees in the ceramic industry. The present study, using an in-vitro system, evaluated percutaneous absorption of chromium powder and the effect of rapid skin decontamination with a common detergent. Experiments were performed using the Franz diffusion cell method with human skin. Physiological solution was used as receiving phase and a suspension of chromium powder in synthetic sweat was used as donor phase. The tests were performed without or with decontamination using the cleanser 30 minutes after the start of exposure. The amount of chromium permeated through the skin was analysed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy and Electro Thermal Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Speciation analysis and measurements of chromium skin content were also performed. We calculated a permeation flux of 0.843 +/- 0.25 ng cm(-2) h(-1) and a lag time of 1.1 +/- 0.7 h. The cleaning procedure significantly increased chromium skin content, whereas skin passage was not increased. These results showed that chromium powder can pass through the skin and that skin decontamination did not decrease skin absorption. Therefore, it is necessary to prevent skin contamination when using toxic agents.

  17. Skin aging modulates percutaneous drug absorption: the impact of ultraviolet irradiation and ovariectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Hung, Chi-Feng; Chen, Wei-Yu; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A.; Lin, Yin-Ku; Shih, Hui-Chi; Fang, Jia-you

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) exposure and menopause are known as the inducers of damage to the skin structure. The combination of these two factors accelerates the skin aging process. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the influence of UV and ovariectomy (OVX) on the permeation of drugs through the skin. The role of tight junctions (TJs) and adherens junctions (AJs) in the cutaneous absorption of extremely lipophilic permeants and macromolecules was explored. The OVX nude mouse underwent bilateral ovary...

  18. Topically applied mesoridazine exhibits the strongest cutaneous analgesia and minimized skin disruption among tricyclic antidepressants: The skin absorption assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kuo-Sheng; Chen, Yu-Wen; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Chang, Chia-Wen; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Fang, Jia-You

    2016-08-01

    Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are found to have an analgesic action for relieving cutaneous pain associated with neuropathies. The aim of this study was to assess cutaneous absorption and analgesia of topically applied TCAs. Percutaneous delivery was investigated using nude mouse and pig skin models at both infinite and saturated doses. We evaluated the cutaneous analgesia in nude mice using the pinprick scores. Among five antidepressants tested in the in vitro experiment, mesoridazine, promazine and doxepin showed a superior total absorption percentage. The drug with the lowest total absorption percentage was found to be fluphenazine (dose or at saturated solubility. The follicular pathway was important for mesoridazine and promazine delivery. Mesoridazine showed stronger skin analgesia than the other TCAs although the in vivo skin absorption of mesoridazine (0.34nmol/mg) was less than that of promazine (0.80nmol/mg) and doxepin (0.74nmol/mg). Mesoridazine had a prolonged duration of pain relief (165min) compared to promazine (83min) and doxepin (17min). The skin irritation test demonstrated an evident barrier function deterioration and cutaneous erythema by promazine and doxepin treatment, whereas mesoridazine caused no obvious adverse effect by topical application for up to 7days. PMID:27260201

  19. Skin aging modulates percutaneous drug absorption: the impact of ultraviolet irradiation and ovariectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chi-Feng; Chen, Wei-Yu; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Lin, Yin-Ku; Shih, Hui-Chi; Fang, Jia-You

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) exposure and menopause are known as the inducers of damage to the skin structure. The combination of these two factors accelerates the skin aging process. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the influence of UV and ovariectomy (OVX) on the permeation of drugs through the skin. The role of tight junctions (TJs) and adherens junctions (AJs) in the cutaneous absorption of extremely lipophilic permeants and macromolecules was explored. The OVX nude mouse underwent bilateral ovary removal. Both UVA and UVB were employed to irradiate the skin. The physiological and biochemical changes of the skin structure were examined with focus on transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin color, immunohistochemistry, and mRNA levels of proteins. UVB and OVX increased TEWL, resulting in stratum corneum (SC) integrity disruption and dehydration. A hyperproliferative epidermis was produced by UVB. UVA caused a pale skin color tone due to keratinocyte apoptosis in the epidermis. E-cadherin and β-catenin showed a significant loss by both UVA and UVB. OVX downregulated the expression of filaggrin and involucrin. A further reduction was observed when UV and OVX were combined. The in vitro cutaneous absorption demonstrated that UV increased the skin permeation of tretinoin by about twofold. However, skin accumulation and flux of estradiol were not modified by photoaging. OVX basically revealed a negligible effect on altering the permeation of small permeants. OVX increased tretinoin uptake by the appendages from 1.36 to 3.52 μg/cm(2). A synergistic effect on tretinoin follicular uptake enhancement was observed for combined UV and OVX. However, the intervention of OVX to photoaged skin resulted in less macromolecule (dextran, molecular weight = 4 kDa) accumulation in the skin reservoir because of retarded partitioning into dry skin. The in vivo percutaneous absorption of lipophilic dye examined by confocal microscopy had indicated that the SC was still important to

  20. In vitro percutaneous absorption of chromium powder and the effect of skin cleanser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larese Filon, Francesca; D'Agostin, Flavia; Crosera, Matteo; Adami, Gianpiero; Bovenzi, Massimo; Maina, Giovanni

    2008-09-01

    The present study tried to investigate, using a synthetic sweat at pH 4.5, whether metallic chromium can pass through the skin (in vitro) and the effect of rapid skin decontamination with a common detergent. A suspension of chromium powder in synthetic sweat at pH 4.5 was prepared and shaken with a stirring plate at room temperature for 30 min. Human skin membranes were set up in Franz-diffusion cells and 1 ml of the freshly made suspension was applied to the outer surface of the skin for 24h. The tests were performed without and with decontamination using the cleanser 30 min after the start of exposure. The appearance of metal ions in the aqueous receptor phase was quantified by Electro Thermal Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (ETAAS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Speciation analysis and measurements of chromium skin content were also performed. Chromium skin permeation was demonstrated in in vitro experiments using the Franz cell system, giving a permeation flux of 0.84+/-0.25 ng cm(-2)h(-1) and a lag time of 1.1+/-0.7h. The cleaning procedure stop Cr permeation but its concentration into the skin significantly increased (Mann-Whitney U test P<0.03). The results revealed that chromium applied as powder can pass through the skin and that decontamination, done after 30 min of exposure, prevent Cr skin permeation but increase Cr content into the skin.

  1. Influence of different layers of skin on the percutaneous absorption of drugs with different lipophilicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guo-feng; Kamiyama Fumio; LIU Li-jie; Yamamoto Akira; CHEN Jian-hai

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the barrier function of different skin layers in the process of percutaneous drug absorption. Methods: In vitro permeability via intact or stripped skin of 6 drugs (5-fluorouracil, theophylline, hydroquinone, barbital, isosorbide dinitrate and ketoprofen) with a wide span of lipophilicity were investigated in the patch dosage forms. Results: Characteristic parabolic relations was observed between the permeability (Kp, cm/h) of the drugs with different lipophilicity and their LogPc via either intact or stripped skin. However, due to the absence of the stratum corneum, increased Kp ratio for the tested drugs was proportional to their solubility in water other than their LogKp. When isopropyl myristate was used as absorption promoter of the drugs, the parabolic relationship no longer existed. For the intact skin, increase of Kp ratio of the drugs was enhanced resulting from IPM as drug's LogPc decreased. On the other hand, in the case of stripped skin, this enhancement was positively related to the solubility of the drugs in IPM. Conclusion: These data and methods present a novel approach to describe percutaneous drug absorption via damaged or diseased skin.

  2. Absorption spectra and light penetration depth of normal and pathologically altered human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barun, V. V.; Ivanov, A. P.; Volotovskaya, A. V.; Ulashchik, V. S.

    2007-05-01

    A three-layered skin model (stratum corneum, epidermis, and dermis) and engineering formulas for radiative transfer theory are used to study absorption spectra and light penetration depths of normal and pathologically altered skin. The formulas include small-angle and asymptotic approximations and a layer-addition method. These characteristics are calculated for wavelengths used for low-intensity laser therapy. We examined several pathologies such as vitiligo, edema, erythematosus lupus, and subcutaneous wound, for which the bulk concentrations of melanin and blood vessels or tissue structure (for subcutaneous wound) change compared with normal skin. The penetration depth spectrum is very similar to the inverted blood absorption spectrum. In other words, the depth is minimal at blood absorption maxima. The calculated absorption spectra enable the power and irradiation wavelength providing the required light effect to be selected. Relationships between the penetration depth and the diffuse reflectance coefficient of skin (unambiguously expressed through the absorption coefficient) are analyzed at different wavelengths. This makes it possible to find relationships between the light fields inside and outside the tissue.

  3. In vitro and in vivo percutaneous absorption of retinol from cosmetic formulations: Significance of the skin reservoir and prediction of systemic absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The percutaneous absorption of retinol (Vitamin A) from cosmetic formulations was studied to predict systemic absorption and to understand the significance of the skin reservoir in in vitro absorption studies. Viable skin from fuzzy rat or human subjects was assembled in flow-through diffusion cells for in vitro absorption studies. In vivo absorption studies using fuzzy rats were performed in glass metabolism cages for collection of urine, feces, and body content. Retinol (0.3%) formulations (hydroalcoholic gel and oil-in-water emulsion) containing 3H-retinol were applied and absorption was measured at 24 or 72 h. All percentages reported are % of applied dose. In vitro studies using human skin and the gel and emulsion vehicles found 0.3 and 1.3% retinol, respectively, in receptor fluid at 24 h. Levels of absorption in the receptor fluid increased over 72 h with the gel and emulsion vehicles. Using the gel vehicle, in vitro rat skin studies found 23% in skin and 6% in receptor fluid at 24 h, while 72-h studies found 18% in skin and 13% in receptor fluid. Thus, significant amounts of retinol remained in rat skin at 24 h and decreased over 72 h, with proportional increases in receptor fluid. In vivo rat studies with the gel found 4% systemic absorption of retinol after 24 h and systemic absorption did not increase at 72 h. Retinol remaining in rat skin after in vivo application was 18% and 13% of the applied dermal dose after 24 and 72 h, respectively. Similar observations were made with the oil-in water emulsion vehicle in the rat. Retinol formed a reservoir in rat skin both in vivo and in vitro. Little additional retinol was bioavailable after 24 h. Comparison of these in vitro and in vivo results for absorption through rat skin indicates that the 24-h in vitro receptor fluid value accurately estimated 24-h in vivo systemic absorption. Therefore, the best single estimate of retinol systemic absorption from in vitro human skin studies is the 24-h receptor fluid

  4. Dermal toxicity elicited by phthalates: evaluation of skin absorption, immunohistology, and functional proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Tai-Long; Wang, Pei-Wen; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Hung, Yi-Yun; Lin, Chwan-Fwu; Fang, Jia-You

    2014-03-01

    The toxicity of phthalates is an important concern in the fields of environmental health and toxicology. Dermal exposure via skin care products, soil, and dust is a main route for phthalate delivery. We had explored the effect of topically-applied phthalates on skin absorption and toxicity. Immunohistology, functional proteomics, and Western blotting were employed as methodologies for validating phthalate toxicity. Among 5 phthalates tested, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) showed the highest skin reservoir. Only diethyl phthalate (DEP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) could penetrate across skin. Strat-M(®) membrane could be used as permeation barrier for predicting phthalate penetration through skin. The accumulation of DEHP in hair follicles was ∼15nmol/cm(2), which was significantly greater than DBP and DEP. DBP induced apoptosis of keratinocytes and fibroblasts via caspase-3 activation. This result was confirmed by downregulation of 14-3-3 and immunohistology of TUNEL. On the other hand, the HSP60 overexpression and immunostaining of COX-2 suggested inflammatory response induced by DEP and DEHP. The proteomic profiling verified the role of calcium homeostasis on skin inflammation. Some proteins investigated in this study can be sensitive biomarkers for dermal toxicity of phthalates. These included HSPs, 14-3-3, and cytokeratin. This work provided novel platforms for examining phthalate toxicity on skin.

  5. Role of transepidermal and transfollicular routes in percutaneous absorption of steroids: in vitro studies on human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueber, F; Schaefer, H; Wepierre, J

    1994-01-01

    Percutaneous absorption theoretically comprises two components: the transepidermal and the transfollicular routes. The aim of the present work was to confirm this hypothesis in the human skin by comparing the in vitro percutaneous absorption of four steroids through scar skin without hair follicles and sebaceous glands and through normal adjacent skin from abdominal or mammary plasties. In all cases, the absorption of the four steroids was significantly higher in normal skin than in scar skin. The cumulative percentages of progesterone and testosterone after 8 h of application were, respectively, 3.1- and 2.4-fold higher in normal skin than in scar skin. After 24 h of application, the cumulative percentages of estradiol and hydrocortisone were 1.7- and 2.4-fold higher in normal skin than in scar skin. At the end of the experiments, the quantities of drugs remaining in the skin after 8 or 24 h of application were the same in normal skin and in scar skin except for progesterone for which they were 2-fold greater in normal than in scar skin. In each case, a histological characterization of the scar skin was made in comparison with the normal adjacent skin. The main modifications observed on scar skin were the following: absence of hair follicles and sebaceous glands, thinning of the collagenous fibers with parallel orientation to the dermoepidermal junction and decrease in the number or disappearance of the elastic fibers. These experiments confirmed that human skin appendages, hair follicles and sebaceous glands, constitute a route of penetration for steroids and thus probably for other chemicals of similar molecular weight and properties.

  6. In vitro predictions of skin absorption of caffeine, testosterone, and benzoic acid: A multi-centre comparison study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Burgsteden, J.A. van; Cage, S.; Carmichael, P.L.; Dick, I.; Kenyon, S.; Korinth, G.; Larese, F.; Limasset, J.C.; Maas, W.J.M.; Montomoli, L.; Nielsen, J.B.; Payan, J.-P.; Robinson, E.; Sartorelli, P.; Schaller, K.H.; Wilkinson, S.C.; Williams, F.M.

    2004-01-01

    To obtain better insight into the robustness of in vitro percutaneous absorption methodology, the intra- and inter-laboratory variation in this type of study was investigated in 10 European laboratories. To this purpose, the in vitro absorption of three compounds through human skin (9 laboratories)

  7. The risk of hydroquinone and sunscreen over-absorption via photodamaged skin is not greater in senescent skin as compared to young skin: nude mouse as an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chi-Feng; Chen, Wei-Yu; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Shih, Hui-Chi; Fang, Jia-You

    2014-08-25

    Intrinsic aging and photoaging modify skin structure and components, which subsequently change percutaneous absorption of topically applied permeants. The purpose of this study was to systematically evaluate drug/sunscreen permeation via young and senescent skin irradiated by ultraviolet (UV) light. Both young and senescent nude mice were subjected to UVA (10 J/cm(2)) and/or UVB radiation (175 mJ/cm(2)). Physiological parameters, immunohistology, and immunoblotting were employed to examine the aged skin. Hydroquinone and sunscreen permeation was determined by in vitro Franz cell. In vivo skin absorption was documented using a hydrophilic dye, rhodamine 123 (log P=-0.4), as a permeant. UVA exposure induced cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) upregulation. Epidermal tight junction (TJ) were degraded by UVA. UVB increased transepidermal water loss (TEWL) from 13 to 24 g/m(2)/h. Hyperplasia and inflammation, but not loss of TJ, were also observed in UVB-treated skin. UVA+UVB- and UVA-irradiated skin demonstrated similar changes in histology and biomarkers. UVA+UVB or UVA exposure increased hydroquinone flux five-fold. A negligible alteration of hydroquinone permeation was shown with UVB exposure. Hydroquinone exhibited a lower penetration through senescent skin than young skin. Both UVA and UVB produced enhancement of oxybenzone flux and skin uptake. However, the amount of increase was less than that of hydroquinone delivery. Photoaging did not augment skin absorption of sunscreens with higher lipophilicity, including avobenzone and ZnO. Exposure to UVA generally increased follicular entrance of these permeants, which showed two- to three-fold greater follicular uptake compared to the untreated group. Photoaging had less impact on drug/sunscreen absorption with more lipophilic permeants. Percutaneous absorption did not increase in skin subjected to both intrinsic and extrinsic aging. PMID:24858384

  8. Absorption and metabolism of 2-chloro-2,6-diethyl-N-(butoxymethyl)acetanilide (butachlor) in human skin in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ademola, J I; Wester, R C; Maibach, H I

    1993-07-01

    Studies have demonstrated that several chemicals are absorbed and metabolized during skin permeation. We investigated the absorption and metabolism of the pesticide butachlor. Radiolabeled butachlor was measured in human (n = 5) skin and the unchanged compound and metabolites were quantified by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and thin-layer chromatography (TLC). Following a 24-hr exposure, an average butachlor quantity of approximately 5.00% of the applied dose (1.01 micrograms) was absorbed by the skin. The mean peak penetration rate was 0.7% of the applied dose per hour. The skin retained 1.40 to 8.10% of the applied butachlor. The retention of 1.4 to 8.1% of the pesticide by the skin suggests the importance of monitoring human skin following topical exposure. Of the dose recovered in the skin, 0.9% was metabolized to 4-hydroxybutachlor, while 1.8% of the dose in the receptor fluid was recovered as polar conjugates (cysteine, 0.29% dose; glutathione, 0.1% dose; unidentified metabolites, 1.4% dose); 2.8 and 6.8% of the dose absorbed by the skin (approximately 5.0%) were recovered as metabolites in the receptor fluids and skin homogenates, respectively. Similar to metabolism during percutaneous absorption, butachlor was metabolized to its conjugated and hydroxyl derivatives by skin fractions. The rate of butachlor glutathione and butachlor cysteine formation using skin cytosolic fractions were 12.0 +/- 1.5 and 48.0 +/- 3.6 pmol/min/mg protein +/- SD, respectively. When human skin microsomes were incubated with butachlor, 4-hydroxybutachlor was formed at the rate of 55.0 +/- 15.0 pmol/min/mg protein +/- SD. 4-Hydroxybutachlor formation was totally dependent on the presence of NADPH. The biotransformation of butachlor using skin fractions indicates the metabolic capacity of the tissue. The biological significance of these metabolites in the disposition of butachlor requires further investigation.

  9. Percutaneous Absorption and Metabolism of Ketoprofen Isopropyl Ester via Excised Nude Mouse‘s and Monkey’s Skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUQuan-gang; HUJin-hong

    2003-01-01

    Aim:To study percutaneous absorption and metabolism of ketoprofen isopropyl ester (KPE)via excised nude mouse's and monkey's skin.Methods:Excised skin was prepared by surgical excision and enzyme digestion.Sideby-side diffusion cells were used for in vitro permeation studies.The concentrations of KPE and its metabolite in samples were assayed by HPLC.Results:All KPE penetration through whole thickness skin and stripped skin was metabolized to ketoprofen(KP).the concentration of which in the reciiver solution increased linearly with time.As to the nude mouse skin.the steady-state flux of KP through whole thickness skin was 2.5 times that of KPE through the whloe thickness skin,but the KP and KPE remaining in the whole thickness skin after the finishing of KPE penetration was 22.2 times in compered with the KP remaining in the whole thickness skin after the finshing of KP penetration.The rate of formation of the steady state KP from KPE throught dermis was significantly lower than that of KPE through the whole thickness skin.In he monkey skin,the rate of formation of the steady-state KP from KPE through the whole thickness skin was 0.7 times that from KPE through stripped skin.The KP and KPE remaining in the whole thickness skin after the finishing of KPE penetration was 2.0 time that in the stripped skin after the finishing of KPE penetration.The rate of fornation of the steady-state KP from KPE through dermis was lower than that from KPE through the whole thickness skin and the stripped skin.the KP remaining in dermis after the finsihing of KPE penetration was also significantly lower than the KP remaining in the whole thickness skin and the stripped skin after the finishing of KPE penetration.Conclusion:KP esters are of benefit to imporove the local action of KP.and skin esterase metabolism mainly develops in the epidermis.

  10. Occupational dermal exposure to nanoparticles and nano-enabled products: Part I-Factors affecting skin absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larese Filon, Francesca; Bello, Dhimiter; Cherrie, John W; Sleeuwenhoek, Anne; Spaan, Suzanne; Brouwer, Derk H

    2016-08-01

    The paper reviews and critically assesses the evidence on the relevance of various skin uptake pathways for engineered nanoparticles, nano-objects, their agglomerates and aggregates (NOAA). It focuses especially in occupational settings, in the context of nanotoxicology, risk assessment, occupational medicine, medical/epidemiological surveillance efforts, and the development of relevant exposure assessment strategies. Skin uptake of nanoparticles is presented in the context of local and systemic health effects, especially contact dermatitis, skin barrier integrity, physico-chemical properties of NOAA, and predisposing risk factors, such as stratum corneum disruption due to occupational co-exposure to chemicals, and the presence of occupational skin diseases. Attention should be given to: (1) Metal NOAA, since the potential release of ions may induce local skin effects (e.g. irritation and contact dermatitis) and absorption of toxic or sensitizing metals; (2) NOAA with metal catalytic residue, since potential release of ions may also induce local skin effects and absorption of toxic metals; (3) rigid NOAA smaller than 45nm that can penetrate and permeate the skin; (4) non rigid or flexible NOAA, where due to their flexibility liposomes and micelles can penetrate and permeate the intact skin; (5) impaired skin condition of exposed workers. Furthermore, we outline possible situations where health surveillance could be appropriate where there is NOAA occupational skin exposures, e.g. when working with nanoparticles made of sensitizer metals, NOAA containing sensitizer impurities, and/or in occupations with a high prevalence of disrupted skin barrier integrity. The paper furthermore recommends a stepwise approach to evaluate risk related to NOAA to be applied in occupational exposure and risk assessment, and discusses implications related to health surveillance, labelling, and risk communication. PMID:27289581

  11. Simulation study of the thermal and the thermoelastic effects induced by pulsed laser absorption in human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Young; Jang, Kyungmin; Yang, Seung-Jin; Baek, Jun-Hyeok; Park, Jong-Rak; Yeom, Dong-Il; Kim, Ji-Sun; Kim, Hyung-Sik; Jun, Jae-Hoon; Chung, Soon-Cheol

    2016-04-01

    We studied the thermal and the mechanical effects induced by pulsed laser absorption in human skin by numerically solving the heat-transfer and the thermoelastic wave equations. The simulation of the heat-transfer equation yielded the spatiotemporal distribution of the temperature increase in the skin, which was then used in the driving term of the thermoelastic wave equation. We compared our simulation results for the temperature increase and the skin displacements with the measured and numerical results, respectively. For the comparison, we used a recent report by Jun et al. [Sci. Rep. 5, 11016 (2015)], who measured in vivo skin temperature and performed numerical simulation of the thermoelastic wave equation using a simple assumption about the temporal evolution of the temperature distribution, and found their results to be in good agreement with our results. In addition, we obtained solutions for the stresses in the human skin and analyzed their dynamic behaviors in detail.

  12. Tensile and Water Absorption Properties of Biodegradable Composites Derived from Cassava Skin/ Polyvinyl Alcohol with Glycerol as Plasticizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural organic and abundant resources biopolymers received more attention due to their low cost, availability and degradability after usage. Cassava skin was used as natural fillers to the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Cassava skin/ poly vinyl alcohol blends were compounded using melt extrusion twin screw extruder and test samples were prepared using the compression method. Various ratios of cassava skin and glycerol were investigated to identify suitable composition based on the water absorption and tensile properties. The water absorption of the cassava skins/ PVA samples increased at higher composition of cassava skin due to their hydrophilic properties but decrease with glycerol content. The strength of the cassava skins/ PVA samples increased with the higher composition of cassava skin up to 70 wt % while gradually decreased with the increasing composition of glycerol. The Young modulus increased with glycerol content but decreased with fibre loading up to 70 wt %. Elongation at break decreased with fibre loading and glycerol up to 70 wt % and 30 phr, respectively. (author)

  13. Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Anthony J

    2004-04-01

    Human skin provides a barrier between the host and the physical, chemical, and biological environment. It is also a potential portal of entry for hazardous or infectious agents and a potential target of environmental toxins. Cutaneous vulnerability may take on many forms in the embryo, infant, child, and adolescent. Teratogenic agents may occasionally target skin, as appreciated in the proposed association of the antithyroid medication methimazole, with the congenital malformation known as aplasia cutis congenita. Percutaneous absorption of topically applied substances and the potential for resultant drug toxicities are important considerations in the child. Many topical agents have been associated with systemic toxicity, including alcohol, hexachlorophene, iodine-containing compounds, eutectic mixture of local anesthetics, and lindane. Percutaneous toxicity is of greatest concern in the premature infant, in whom immaturity of the epidermal permeability barrier results in disproportionately increased absorption. Immature drug metabolism capabilities may further contribute to the increased risk in this population. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure, which increases an individual's risk of cutaneous carcinogenesis, may be a particularly significant risk factor when it occurs during childhood. The "critical period hypothesis" suggests that UV exposure early in life increases the risk of eventual development of malignant melanoma. Other risk factors for malignant melanoma may include severe sunburns during childhood, intense intermittent UV exposure, and increased susceptibility of pediatric melanocytes to UV-induced DNA damage. Last, percutaneous exposure to environmental toxins and chemicals, such as insecticides and polychlorinated biphenyls, may differ between children and adults for several reasons, including behavioral patterns, anatomic and physiologic variations, and developmental differences of vital organs. PMID:15060207

  14. Relationship between concentration and exposed area on absorption and excretion of T-2 mycotoxin through rabbit skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T-2 mycotoxin is a severe skin irritant that can be lethal via the dermal route. A non-occlusive barrier model was developed to study the effects of concentration and size of the exposed area on the absorption rate of toxin in rabbit skin. The skin was shaved and, twenty-four hours later, varying concentrations of both [4H]-labeled and unlabeled T0 toxin in DMSO were painted on the surface. A barrier, consisting of a mesh-jacketed, half-inch foam pad with a hole in the center, was applied to the skin. In order to assess absorption, lethality and excretion were used as endpoints, and dosage, area, and concentration (μ g/cm2) were varied. At doses of 5, 10, and 15 mg/kg of T-2 toxin in DMSO applied to a 200 cm2 area, lethality was 0 of 2, 6 of 11, and 6 of 6 rabbits, respectively. This suggests a direct dose-response relationship. However, at a dose of 10 mg/kg applied in a 100 cm2 area, there were no deaths in 4 rabbits. This indicates a lower rate of absorption at this higher concentration. The percentage of [3H]-toxin excreted was higher at lower doses of T-2 toxin and reduced at higher concentrations. The authors conclude that area, dose, and concentration of applied toxin can influence the amount of T-2 toxin that is absorbed through the skin

  15. In vitro Percutaneous Absorption of Niacinamide and Phytosterols and in vivo Evaluation of their Effect on Skin Barrier Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offerta, Alessia; Bonina, Francesco; Gasparri, Franco; Zanardi, Andrea; Micicche, Lucia; Puglia, Carmelo

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated different strategies to optimize the percutaneous absorption of niacinamide (NA) and soy phytosterols (FITO) by making use of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and penetration enhancers, such as the hydrogenated lecithin. The evaluation of the skin permeation of NA and FITO has been effected in vitro using excised human skin (i.e., stratum corneum-epidermis or SCE). Furthermore, we evaluated the in vivo effect that NA and FITO has on skin barrier recovery after the topical application; using the extent of methyl nicotinate (MN)-induced erythema in damaged skin as a parameter to determine the rate of stratum corneum recovery. Results pointed out the importance of these strategies as valid tools for NA and FITO topical delivery. In fact, soy lecithin based formulations were able to increase the percutaneous absorption of the two active ingredients, while SLN guaranteed an interesting delayed and sustained release of FITO. In vivo evaluation showed clearly that the formulation containing both the actives (NA and FITO) is able to recover about 95% of skin barrier integrity eight days after tape stripping. This effect is probably due to the "synergistic effect" of NA and FITO.

  16. In vitro Percutaneous Absorption of Niacinamide and Phytosterols and in vivo Evaluation of their Effect on Skin Barrier Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offerta, Alessia; Bonina, Francesco; Gasparri, Franco; Zanardi, Andrea; Micicche, Lucia; Puglia, Carmelo

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated different strategies to optimize the percutaneous absorption of niacinamide (NA) and soy phytosterols (FITO) by making use of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and penetration enhancers, such as the hydrogenated lecithin. The evaluation of the skin permeation of NA and FITO has been effected in vitro using excised human skin (i.e., stratum corneum-epidermis or SCE). Furthermore, we evaluated the in vivo effect that NA and FITO has on skin barrier recovery after the topical application; using the extent of methyl nicotinate (MN)-induced erythema in damaged skin as a parameter to determine the rate of stratum corneum recovery. Results pointed out the importance of these strategies as valid tools for NA and FITO topical delivery. In fact, soy lecithin based formulations were able to increase the percutaneous absorption of the two active ingredients, while SLN guaranteed an interesting delayed and sustained release of FITO. In vivo evaluation showed clearly that the formulation containing both the actives (NA and FITO) is able to recover about 95% of skin barrier integrity eight days after tape stripping. This effect is probably due to the "synergistic effect" of NA and FITO. PMID:26201345

  17. Modelling millimetre wave propagation and absorption in a high resolution skin model: the effect of sweat glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafirstein, Gal; Moros, Eduardo G.

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the potential effect of sweat gland ducts (SGD) on specific absorption rate (SAR) and temperature distributions during mm-wave irradiation. High resolution electromagnetic and bio-heat transfer models of human skin with SGD were developed using a commercially available simulation software package (SEMCAD X™). The skin model consisted of a 30 µm stratum corneum, 350 µm epidermis and papillary dermis (EPD) and 1000 µm dermis. Five SGD of 60 µm radius and 300 µm height were embedded linearly with 370 µm separation. A WR-10 waveguide positioned 20 µm from the skin surface and delivering 94 GHz electromagnetic radiation was included in the model. Saline conductivity was assigned inside SGD. SAR and temperatures were computed with and without SGD. Despite their small scale, SAR was significantly higher within SGD than in the EPD without SGD. Without SGD, SAR and temperature maxima were in the dermis near EPD. With SGD, SAR maximum was inside SGD while temperature maximum moved to the EPD/stratum-corneum junction. Since the EPD participates actively in perception, the effect of SGD should be taken into account in nociceptive studies involving mm-waves. This research represents a significant step towards higher spatial resolution numerical modelling of the skin and shows that microstructures can play a significant role in mm-wave absorption and induced temperature distributions.

  18. Modelling millimetre wave propagation and absorption in a high resolution skin model: the effect of sweat glands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafirstein, Gal [Department of Otolaryngology, College of Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4301 W. Markham, 543, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Moros, Eduardo G, E-mail: shafirsteingal@uams.edu [Division of Radiation Physics and Informatics, Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4301 W. Markham, 771, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States)

    2011-03-07

    The aim of this work was to investigate the potential effect of sweat gland ducts (SGD) on specific absorption rate (SAR) and temperature distributions during mm-wave irradiation. High resolution electromagnetic and bio-heat transfer models of human skin with SGD were developed using a commercially available simulation software package (SEMCAD X(TM)). The skin model consisted of a 30 {mu}m stratum corneum, 350 {mu}m epidermis and papillary dermis (EPD) and 1000 {mu}m dermis. Five SGD of 60 {mu}m radius and 300 {mu}m height were embedded linearly with 370 {mu}m separation. A WR-10 waveguide positioned 20 {mu}m from the skin surface and delivering 94 GHz electromagnetic radiation was included in the model. Saline conductivity was assigned inside SGD. SAR and temperatures were computed with and without SGD. Despite their small scale, SAR was significantly higher within SGD than in the EPD without SGD. Without SGD, SAR and temperature maxima were in the dermis near EPD. With SGD, SAR maximum was inside SGD while temperature maximum moved to the EPD/stratum-corneum junction. Since the EPD participates actively in perception, the effect of SGD should be taken into account in nociceptive studies involving mm-waves. This research represents a significant step towards higher spatial resolution numerical modelling of the skin and shows that microstructures can play a significant role in mm-wave absorption and induced temperature distributions.

  19. Percutaneous absorption of estradiol and progesterone in normal and appendage-free skin of the hairless rat: lack of importance of nutritional blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueber, F; Besnard, M; Schaefer, H; Wepierre, J

    1994-01-01

    Percutaneous absorption occurs after passive diffusion through the different layers of the skin and its appendages. Thereafter, a resorption process into the cutaneous microcirculation brings the compounds into the systemic circulation. The objective of this in vivo study in the hairless rat was to compare the percutaneous absorption of two steroids on normal and appendage-free (scar) skin and to show if differences in absorption result only from the lack of hair follicles and sebaceous glands and/or from a modification of local blood flow. Percutaneous absorption was evaluated with estradiol and progesterone after 30 min, 2 and 6 h. Except after 30 min, the reservoir function of the stratum corneum of scar skin was approximately twice as high as in normal skin. Eighty to ninety percent of the estradiol and progesterone found in the stratum corneum were located in its superficial layers. Inversely, whatever the application time was, the concentrations of both steroids in the epidermis and dermis were significantly higher in normal skin than in scar skin with maximal difference between about 40 and 400 microns, the area of sebaceous gland localization. Cutaneous blood flow in full-thickness skin, assessed by the thallium-201 method, was globally identical in normal and in scar skin. In scar skin, at the level of papillary dermis, a decrease in blood flow due to the thicker viable epidermis and the flat dermoepidermal junction has been shown without implying an accumulation of drug in the epidermis and superficial dermis. Under these conditions, our results clearly demonstrate that the nutritional blood flow does not interfere with the percutaneous absorption of estradiol and progesterone in normal and scar skin. Thus, they confirm the significant contribution of hair follicles and sebaceous glands to drug penetration into the skin and subsequently the systemic circulation.

  20. P-Glycoprotein (Abcb1) is involved in absorptive drug transport in skin

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, Katsuaki; Nguyen, Hai Thien; Kato, Yukio; Wakayama, Tomohiko; Kubo, Yoshiyuki; Iseki, Shoichi; Tsuji, Akira

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in drug disposition in skin. The distribution of P-gp substrates (rhodamine 123 and itraconazole) to the skin after administration from the epidermal side was lower in P-gp gene knockout (mdr1a/1b-/-) mice than that in wild-type mice. Coadministration of propranolol, a P-gp inhibitor, decreased the distribution of itraconazole to the skin in wild-type mice, but not in mdr1a/1b-/- mice. These results suggest ...

  1. P-Glycoprotein (Abcb1) is involved in absorptive drug transport in skin

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, Katsuaki; Nguyen, Hai Thien; Kato, Yukio; Wakayama, Tomohiko; Kubo, Yoshiyuki; Iseki, Shoichi; Tsuji, Akira

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in drug disposition in skin. The distribution of P-gp substrates (rhodamine 123 and itraconazole) to the skin after administration from the epidermal side was lower in P-gp gene knockout (mdr1a/1b-/- ) mice than that in wild-type mice. Coadministration of propranolol, a P-gp inhibitor, decreased the distribution of itraconazole to the skin in wild-type mice, but not in mdr1a/1b-/- mice. These results suggest...

  2. Characteristics of anomalous skin effect and evolution of power absorption regions in a cylindrical radio frequency inductively coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a low-pressure radio-frequency (13.56 MHz), inductively coupled argon plasma generated by a normal cylindrical rf coil, electric field, current density, and absorbed power density is calculated from magnetic field measured with a phase-resolved magnetic probe. The anomalous skin effect (ASE) for the cylindrical rf coil is compared to those previously reported for the planar and re-entrant cylindrical rf coils. Physical reasons for our observed characteristics of ASE are presented. With the increasing discharge power, the size and the number of negative and positive power absorption regions evolve into several distinct patterns. For the low discharge power (at 156.9 W), there is one area of positive and one area of negative power absorption in the radial direction. For the medium discharge power (279 W–683.5 W), there are two areas of negative and two areas of positive power absorption. For the even higher discharge power (above 803.5 W), the number of areas is the same as that of the medium discharge power, but the size of the inner positive and negative power absorption areas is approximately doubled and halved, respectively, while the outer positive and negative power absorption areas slightly shrinks. The evolution of positive and negative power absorption regions is explained as a result of electron thermal diffusion and the energy conversion between rf current and electric field. The spatial decays of electric field and current density are also elucidated by linking them with the positive and negative power absorption pattern

  3. Characteristics of anomalous skin effect and evolution of power absorption regions in a cylindrical radio frequency inductively coupled plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Z. F., E-mail: zfding@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion, and Electron Beams, Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Sun, B. [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion, and Electron Beams, Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Xi' an Aerospace Propulsion Institute, China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation, Xi' an 710100 (China); Huo, W. G. [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion, and Electron Beams, Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); School of Physics and Electronic Technology, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029 (China)

    2015-06-15

    In a low-pressure radio-frequency (13.56 MHz), inductively coupled argon plasma generated by a normal cylindrical rf coil, electric field, current density, and absorbed power density is calculated from magnetic field measured with a phase-resolved magnetic probe. The anomalous skin effect (ASE) for the cylindrical rf coil is compared to those previously reported for the planar and re-entrant cylindrical rf coils. Physical reasons for our observed characteristics of ASE are presented. With the increasing discharge power, the size and the number of negative and positive power absorption regions evolve into several distinct patterns. For the low discharge power (at 156.9 W), there is one area of positive and one area of negative power absorption in the radial direction. For the medium discharge power (279 W–683.5 W), there are two areas of negative and two areas of positive power absorption. For the even higher discharge power (above 803.5 W), the number of areas is the same as that of the medium discharge power, but the size of the inner positive and negative power absorption areas is approximately doubled and halved, respectively, while the outer positive and negative power absorption areas slightly shrinks. The evolution of positive and negative power absorption regions is explained as a result of electron thermal diffusion and the energy conversion between rf current and electric field. The spatial decays of electric field and current density are also elucidated by linking them with the positive and negative power absorption pattern.

  4. Extrapolation of systemic bioavailability assessing skin absorption and epidermal and hepatic metabolism of aromatic amine hair dyes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manwaring, John; Rothe, Helga; Obringer, Cindy; Foltz, David J; Baker, Timothy R; Troutman, John A; Hewitt, Nicola J; Goebel, Carsten

    2015-09-01

    Approaches to assess the role of absorption, metabolism and excretion of cosmetic ingredients that are based on the integration of different in vitro data are important for their safety assessment, specifically as it offers an opportunity to refine that safety assessment. In order to estimate systemic exposure (AUC) to aromatic amine hair dyes following typical product application conditions, skin penetration and epidermal and systemic metabolic conversion of the parent compound was assessed in human skin explants and human keratinocyte (HaCaT) and hepatocyte cultures. To estimate the amount of the aromatic amine that can reach the general circulation unchanged after passage through the skin the following toxicokinetically relevant parameters were applied: a) Michaelis-Menten kinetics to quantify the epidermal metabolism; b) the estimated keratinocyte cell abundance in the viable epidermis; c) the skin penetration rate; d) the calculated Mean Residence Time in the viable epidermis; e) the viable epidermis thickness and f) the skin permeability coefficient. In a next step, in vitro hepatocyte Km and Vmax values and whole liver mass and cell abundance were used to calculate the scaled intrinsic clearance, which was combined with liver blood flow and fraction of compound unbound in the blood to give hepatic clearance. The systemic exposure in the general circulation (AUC) was extrapolated using internal dose and hepatic clearance, and Cmax was extrapolated (conservative overestimation) using internal dose and volume of distribution, indicating that appropriate toxicokinetic information can be generated based solely on in vitro data. For the hair dye, p-phenylenediamine, these data were found to be in the same order of magnitude as those published for human volunteers. PMID:26028483

  5. Drugs used in Africa as dyes: I. Skin absorption and tolerability of Bixa orellana L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germano, M P; de Pasquale, R; Rapisarda, A; Monteleone, D; Keita, A; Sanogo, R

    1997-06-01

    Bixa orellana L. (Bixaceae) seed extract, used in Africa as a dye, was employed to evaluate the onset of the possible topical localized responses of the rabbit skin in single application, after repeated application and after UV exposure. Histologic studies were also carried out to evaluate the possible damage and penetration of Bixa colouring matter into the rabbit hairless skin and into the hairs. The study showed that Bixa orellana has a good cutaneous tolerability and may encourage the use as a source of colouring matter in cosmetology. PMID:23195400

  6. Extrapolation of systemic bioavailability assessing skin absorption and epidermal and hepatic metabolism of aromatic amine hair dyes in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approaches to assess the role of absorption, metabolism and excretion of cosmetic ingredients that are based on the integration of different in vitro data are important for their safety assessment, specifically as it offers an opportunity to refine that safety assessment. In order to estimate systemic exposure (AUC) to aromatic amine hair dyes following typical product application conditions, skin penetration and epidermal and systemic metabolic conversion of the parent compound was assessed in human skin explants and human keratinocyte (HaCaT) and hepatocyte cultures. To estimate the amount of the aromatic amine that can reach the general circulation unchanged after passage through the skin the following toxicokinetically relevant parameters were applied: a) Michaelis–Menten kinetics to quantify the epidermal metabolism; b) the estimated keratinocyte cell abundance in the viable epidermis; c) the skin penetration rate; d) the calculated Mean Residence Time in the viable epidermis; e) the viable epidermis thickness and f) the skin permeability coefficient. In a next step, in vitro hepatocyte Km and Vmax values and whole liver mass and cell abundance were used to calculate the scaled intrinsic clearance, which was combined with liver blood flow and fraction of compound unbound in the blood to give hepatic clearance. The systemic exposure in the general circulation (AUC) was extrapolated using internal dose and hepatic clearance, and Cmax was extrapolated (conservative overestimation) using internal dose and volume of distribution, indicating that appropriate toxicokinetic information can be generated based solely on in vitro data. For the hair dye, p-phenylenediamine, these data were found to be in the same order of magnitude as those published for human volunteers. - Highlights: • An entirely in silico/in vitro approach to predict in vivo exposure to dermally applied hair dyes • Skin penetration and epidermal conversion assessed in human skin explants and Ha

  7. Extrapolation of systemic bioavailability assessing skin absorption and epidermal and hepatic metabolism of aromatic amine hair dyes in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manwaring, John, E-mail: manwaring.jd@pg.com [Procter & Gamble Inc., Mason Business Center, Mason, OH 45040 (United States); Rothe, Helga [Procter & Gamble Service GmbH, Sulzbacher Str. 40, 65823 Schwalbach am Taunus (Germany); Obringer, Cindy; Foltz, David J.; Baker, Timothy R.; Troutman, John A. [Procter & Gamble Inc., Mason Business Center, Mason, OH 45040 (United States); Hewitt, Nicola J. [SWS, Erzhausen (Germany); Goebel, Carsten [Procter & Gamble Service GmbH, Sulzbacher Str. 40, 65823 Schwalbach am Taunus (Germany)

    2015-09-01

    Approaches to assess the role of absorption, metabolism and excretion of cosmetic ingredients that are based on the integration of different in vitro data are important for their safety assessment, specifically as it offers an opportunity to refine that safety assessment. In order to estimate systemic exposure (AUC) to aromatic amine hair dyes following typical product application conditions, skin penetration and epidermal and systemic metabolic conversion of the parent compound was assessed in human skin explants and human keratinocyte (HaCaT) and hepatocyte cultures. To estimate the amount of the aromatic amine that can reach the general circulation unchanged after passage through the skin the following toxicokinetically relevant parameters were applied: a) Michaelis–Menten kinetics to quantify the epidermal metabolism; b) the estimated keratinocyte cell abundance in the viable epidermis; c) the skin penetration rate; d) the calculated Mean Residence Time in the viable epidermis; e) the viable epidermis thickness and f) the skin permeability coefficient. In a next step, in vitro hepatocyte K{sub m} and V{sub max} values and whole liver mass and cell abundance were used to calculate the scaled intrinsic clearance, which was combined with liver blood flow and fraction of compound unbound in the blood to give hepatic clearance. The systemic exposure in the general circulation (AUC) was extrapolated using internal dose and hepatic clearance, and C{sub max} was extrapolated (conservative overestimation) using internal dose and volume of distribution, indicating that appropriate toxicokinetic information can be generated based solely on in vitro data. For the hair dye, p-phenylenediamine, these data were found to be in the same order of magnitude as those published for human volunteers. - Highlights: • An entirely in silico/in vitro approach to predict in vivo exposure to dermally applied hair dyes • Skin penetration and epidermal conversion assessed in human

  8. Evaluation of 3D-human skin equivalents for assessment of human dermal absorption of some brominated flame retardants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Mohamed Abou-Elwafa; Pawar, Gopal; Harrad, Stuart

    2015-11-01

    Ethical and technical difficulties inherent to studies in human tissues are impeding assessment of the dermal bioavailability of brominated flame retardants (BFRs). This is further complicated by increasing restrictions on the use of animals in toxicity testing, and the uncertainties associated with extrapolating data from animal studies to humans due to inter-species variations. To overcome these difficulties, we evaluate 3D-human skin equivalents (3D-HSE) as a novel in vitro alternative to human and animal testing for assessment of dermal absorption of BFRs. The percutaneous penetration of hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCD) and tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBP-A) through two commercially available 3D-HSE models was studied and compared to data obtained for human ex vivo skin according to a standard protocol. No statistically significant differences were observed between the results obtained using 3D-HSE and human ex vivo skin at two exposure levels. The absorbed dose was low (less than 7%) and was significantly correlated with log Kow of the tested BFR. Permeability coefficient values showed increasing dermal resistance to the penetration of γ-HBCD>β-HBCD>α-HBCD>TBBPA. The estimated long lag times (>30 min) suggests that frequent hand washing may reduce human exposure to HBCDs and TBBPA via dermal contact. PMID:26232142

  9. Evaluation of 3D-human skin equivalents for assessment of human dermal absorption of some brominated flame retardants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Mohamed Abou-Elwafa; Pawar, Gopal; Harrad, Stuart

    2015-11-01

    Ethical and technical difficulties inherent to studies in human tissues are impeding assessment of the dermal bioavailability of brominated flame retardants (BFRs). This is further complicated by increasing restrictions on the use of animals in toxicity testing, and the uncertainties associated with extrapolating data from animal studies to humans due to inter-species variations. To overcome these difficulties, we evaluate 3D-human skin equivalents (3D-HSE) as a novel in vitro alternative to human and animal testing for assessment of dermal absorption of BFRs. The percutaneous penetration of hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCD) and tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBP-A) through two commercially available 3D-HSE models was studied and compared to data obtained for human ex vivo skin according to a standard protocol. No statistically significant differences were observed between the results obtained using 3D-HSE and human ex vivo skin at two exposure levels. The absorbed dose was low (less than 7%) and was significantly correlated with log Kow of the tested BFR. Permeability coefficient values showed increasing dermal resistance to the penetration of γ-HBCD>β-HBCD>α-HBCD>TBBPA. The estimated long lag times (>30 min) suggests that frequent hand washing may reduce human exposure to HBCDs and TBBPA via dermal contact.

  10. A new Monte Carlo code for absorption simulation of laser-skin tissue interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Afshan Shirkavand; Saeed Sarkar; Marjaneh Hejazi; Leila Ataie-Fashtami; Mohammad Reza Alinaghizadeh

    2007-01-01

    In laser clinical applications, the process of photon absorption and thermal energy diffusion in the target tissue and its surrounding tissue during laser irradiation are crucial. Such information allows the selection of proper operating parameters such as laser power, and exposure time for optimal therapeutic. The Monte Carlo method is a useful tool for studying laser-tissue interaction and simulation of energy absorption in tissue during laser irradiation. We use the principles of this technique and write a new code with MATLAB 6.5, and then validate it against Monte Carlo multi layer (MCML) code. The new code is proved to be with good accuracy. It can be used to calculate the total power bsorbed in the region of interest. This can be combined for heat modelling with other computerized programs.

  11. Noninvasive determination of absorption coefficient and reduced scattering coefficient of human skin tissues in vivo with oblique-incidence reflectometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Sun; Yu Wang; Xiaoli Mo; Jinghui Xie

    2008-01-01

    A spatial distribution of diffuse reflectance produced by obliquely incident light is not centered about the point of light entry. The value of shift in the center of diffuse reflectance is directly related to the absorption coefficient μa and the effective attenuation coefficient μeff. μa and the reduced scattering coefficient μ's of human skin tissues in vivo are measured by oblique-incidence reflectometry based on the two-source diffuse theory model. For ten Chinese volunteers aged 15-63 years, μa and μ's are noninvasively determined to be 0.029 - 0.075 and 0.52 - 0.97 mm-1, respectively.

  12. The effects of heat on skin barrier function and in vivo dermal absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Gabriela; Leverett, Jesse C; Emamzadeh, Mandana; Lane, Majella E

    2014-04-10

    Enhanced delivery of ingredients across the stratum corneum (SC) is of great interest for improving the efficacy of topically applied formulations. Various methods for improving dermal penetration have been reported including galvanic devices and micro-needles. From a safety perspective it is important that such approaches do not compromise SC barrier function. This study investigates the influence of topically applied heat in vivo on the dermal uptake and penetration of a model active, allantoin from gel and lotion formulations. A custom designed device was used to deliver 42°C for 30s daily to human subjects after application of two formulations containing allantoin. The results were compared with sites treated with formulations containing no active and no heat, and a control site. In addition to penetration of allantoin, the integrity of the SC was monitored using trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL) measurements. The results showed that just 30s of 42°C topically applied heat was enough to cause significantly more penetration of allantoin from the lotion formulation compared with no application of heat. TEWL data indicated that the integrity of the skin was not compromised by the treatment. However, the application of heat did not promote enhanced penetration of the active from the gel formulation. Vehicle composition is therefore an important factor when considering thermal enhancement strategies for targeting actives to the skin. PMID:24445121

  13. The effects of heat on skin barrier function and in vivo dermal absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Gabriela; Leverett, Jesse C; Emamzadeh, Mandana; Lane, Majella E

    2014-04-10

    Enhanced delivery of ingredients across the stratum corneum (SC) is of great interest for improving the efficacy of topically applied formulations. Various methods for improving dermal penetration have been reported including galvanic devices and micro-needles. From a safety perspective it is important that such approaches do not compromise SC barrier function. This study investigates the influence of topically applied heat in vivo on the dermal uptake and penetration of a model active, allantoin from gel and lotion formulations. A custom designed device was used to deliver 42°C for 30s daily to human subjects after application of two formulations containing allantoin. The results were compared with sites treated with formulations containing no active and no heat, and a control site. In addition to penetration of allantoin, the integrity of the SC was monitored using trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL) measurements. The results showed that just 30s of 42°C topically applied heat was enough to cause significantly more penetration of allantoin from the lotion formulation compared with no application of heat. TEWL data indicated that the integrity of the skin was not compromised by the treatment. However, the application of heat did not promote enhanced penetration of the active from the gel formulation. Vehicle composition is therefore an important factor when considering thermal enhancement strategies for targeting actives to the skin.

  14. Dietary Cerebroside from Sea Cucumber (Stichopus japonicus): Absorption and Effects on Skin Barrier and Cecal Short-Chain Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jingjing; Ishida, Marina; Aida, Kazuhiko; Tsuduki, Tsuyoshi; Zhang, Jin; Manabe, Yuki; Hirata, Takashi; Sugawara, Tatsuya

    2016-09-21

    Sphingolipids from marine sources have attracted more attention recently because of their distinctive structures and expected functions. In this study, the content and components of cerebroside from sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus were analyzed. The absorption of cerebroside from S. japonicus was investigated with an in vivo lipid absorption assay. The result revealed that S. japonicus is a rich source of cerebroside that contained considerable amounts of odd carbon chain sphingoid bases. The cumulative recoveries of d17:1- and d19:2-containing cerebrosides were 0.31 ± 0.16 and 0.32 ± 0.10%, respectively, for 24 h after administration. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first work that shows sphingolipids from a marine source could be absorbed in vivo and incorporated into ceramides. In addition, dietary supplementation with sea cucumber cerebroside to hairless mouse improved the skin barrier function and increased short-chain fatty acids in cecal contents, which have shown beneficial effects on the host. PMID:27585906

  15. Human systemic exposure to a [14C]-para-phenylenediamine- containing oxidative hair dye and correlation with in vitro percutaneous absorption in human or pig skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hueber-Becker, F.; Nohynek, G.J.; Meuling, W.J.A.; Benech-Kieffer, F.; Toutain, H.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the absorption of a commercial [14C]-PPD- containing oxidative dark-shade hair dye in human volunteers as well as in vitro using human or pig ear skin. The hair of eight male volunteers was cut to a standard length, dyed, washed, dried, clipped and collected. Hair, washing water, mat

  16. Efficacy of skin wash on dermal absorption: an in vitro study on four model compounds of varying solubility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: Following dermal exposure to chemicals causing systemic toxicity, the general advice to avoid further systemic exposure is to wash the skin. The present study uses four model compounds (benzoic acid, glyphosat, caffeine, malathion) with varying size and solubility to substantiate...... this advice and quantify the effect of skin wash following 6 h dermal exposure on subsequent extent of skin penetration and deposition within the skin compartment. METHOD: Percutaneous penetration through human skin is studied in an in vitro model with static diffusion cells. RESULTS: The study demonstrates...

  17. Percutaneous Absorption of Salicylic Acid after Administration of Trolamine Salicylate Cream in Rats with Transcutol® and Eucalyptus Oil Pre-Treated Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paniz Sajjadi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study was conducted to assess the effect of skin pre-treatment with Transcutol® and eucalyptus oil on systemic absorption of topical trolamine salicylate in rat. Methods: Pharmacokinetic parameters of salicylic acid following administration of trolamine salicylate on rat skin pre-treated with either Transcutol® or eucalyptus oil were determined using both non-compartmental and non-linear mixed effect modeling approaches and compared with those of control group. Results: Median (% of interquartile range/median of salicylic acid AUC0-8hr (ng/mL/hr values in Transcutol® or eucalyptus oil treated rats were 2522(139% and 58976(141%, respectively as compared to the 3023(327% of the control group. Skin pre-treatment with eucalyptus oil could significantly decrease extravascular volume of distribution (V/F and elimination rate constant (k of salicylic acid. Conclusion: Unlike Transcutol®, eucalyptus oil lead to enhanced transdermal absorption of trolamine salicylate through rat skin.

  18. Percutaneous absorption of nicotinic acid, phenol, benzoic acid and triclopyr butoxyethyl ester through rat and human skin in vitro: further validation of an in vitro model by comparison with in vivo data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotchkiss, S A; Hewitt, P; Caldwell, J; Chen, W L; Rowe, R R

    1992-10-01

    The in vitro percutaneous absorption of three model compounds, nicotinic acid, phenol and benzoic acid, and the herbicide triclopyr butoxyethyl ester (triclopyr BEE) has been investigated in flow-through diffusion cells using skin from male Fischer 344 rats and humans. After the application of the four chemicals to the epidermal surface of unoccluded full-thickness rat skin, the absorption of each compound across the skin and into the receptor fluid at 72 hr reached 3.7 +/- 0.3, 5.7 +/- 0.6, 26.7 +/- 3.7 and 48.3 +/- 1.2% (mean +/- SD, n = 2-7) of the applied dose for triclopyr BEE, nicotinic acid, phenol and benzoic acid, respectively. After the application of the four chemicals to the epidermal surface of unoccluded full-thickness human skin, the absorption of each compound across the skin and into the receptor fluid at 72 hr was significantly (P triclopyr BEE, nicotinic acid, phenol and benzoic acid, respectively. Occlusion of the skin surface with teflon caps often significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced the percutaneous absorption of the model compounds, although this effect was not uniform, varying with the compound under study and the skin (rat or human) used. When rat skin was occluded with teflon caps, the extent of absorption at 72 hr reached 8.6 +/- 0.8, 36.2 +/- 1.7 and 51.8 +/- 3.3% (mean +/- SD, n = 3-4) for nicotinic acid, phenol and benzoic acid, respectively. Corresponding values for human skin occluded with teflon caps were 3.3 +/- 1.6, 47.1 +/- 0.5 and 65.5 +/- 7.1% (mean +/- SD, n = 3-4). The experiments on the absorption of each model compound through rat and human skin were repeated and there was generally good agreement between the results from the two sets of experiments. The in vitro data reported compare favourably with data obtained by other workers using both in vitro and in vivo methodologies. The in vitro: in vivo correlation supports the use of the flow-through diffusion cell system as a model for the prediction of percutaneous absorption

  19. 鳕鱼皮胶原蛋白肽的促钙吸收作用%Calcium absorption increasing effect of collagen peptide from skin of Walleye Pollock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢玉坤; 姜慧明; 王景峰; 王珊珊; 杨霞; 李八方

    2013-01-01

    目的 探究鳕鱼皮胶原蛋白酶解制得梯级多肽的促钙吸收作用.方法 从鳕鱼皮中提取胶原蛋白并酶解制得不同分子量段的胶原多肽,采用低钙饮食建造大鼠缺钙模型,检测大鼠骨钙含量、钙代谢指标和血清钙磷指标,探讨其促钙吸收作用.结果 与加钙组相比,各受试物均能提高大鼠骨钙含量;高低剂量的高分子量胶原多肽能显著提高钙吸收率(P<0.05),高低剂量的低中分子量胶原多肽能极显著提高钙吸收率(P<0.01);而高低剂量的中分子量胶原多肽还能显著提高钙储留率(P<0.05),高低剂量的低分子量胶原多肽能极显著提高钙储留率(P<0.01);同时,各受试物也能相应的提高大鼠的血清钙磷含量.结论 鳕鱼皮胶原蛋白多肽能明显提高大鼠对钙的吸收率和储留率,分子量越小,其促钙吸收效果越好.%Objective To investigate the calcium absorption increasing effect of collagen enzymatic cascade polypeptide from skin of Walleye Pollock.Methods The collagen was extracted from skin of Walleye Pollock and then broken down by enzymes into collagen peptide.The rat calcium deficiency model induced by low calcium diet was used to investigate the calcium absorption increasing effect by detecting the bone calcium content,the calcium metabolism indicators and the serum calcium and phosphorus indicators.Results Compared with calcium-fortified group,all the test substance samples increased the bone calcium content.The high and low doses of high molecular weight collagen peptide significantly increased the calcium absorption rate (P<0.05);the high and low doses of medium molecular weight collagen peptide and low molecular weight collagen peptide more significantly increased the calcium absorption rate (P<0.01).The high and low doses of medium molecular weight collagen peptide also significantly increased the calcium retention rate (P<0.05);the high and low doses of low molecular weight

  20. Absorption of bacampicillin and ampicillin and penetration into body fluids (skin blister fluid, saliva, tears) in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, C; Malerczyk, V; Klaus, M

    1978-01-01

    Equimolar doses of bacampicillin, which is rapidly converted to ampicillin in the body by hydrolysis, and ampicillin were administered orally, in the case of ampicillin also by intravenous injection, to 10 healthy subjects (cross-over study). Comparison of the areas under the serum concentrations curves after intravenous and oral administration showed that bacampillin was absorbed to 95% and orally given ampicillin to 35%. The mean peak serum levels (Cmax) after 0.8 g of oral bacampicillin were higher (15.9 microgram/ml) and appeared earlier (tmax 60 min) than after 0.556 g of oral ampicillin (3.2 microgram/ml, tmax 150 min). One and three hours after oral administration skin blister fluid contained four times more ampicillin after doses of bacampicillin than after oral ampicillin. One hour after intravenous injection of ampicillin the skin blister concentrations were 20 times higher than after oral administration of this antibiotic and three to four times higher than after oral administration of bacampicillin. The levels in saliva and tears were also determined and showed similar relationships. Since higher peaks serum levels resulted in higher and longer lasting concentrations in the extravascular space, bacampicillin is to be preferred for oral therapy.

  1. Nanostructured lipid carriers-based flurbiprofen gel after topical administration: acute skin irritation, pharmacodynamics, and percutaneous absorption mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Aihua; Su, Zhen; Li, Sanming; Han, Fei

    2015-01-01

    In order to assess the preliminary safety and effectiveness of nanostructured lipid carriers-based flurbiprofen gel (FP NLC-gel), the acute irritation test, in vivo pharmacodynamics evaluation and pharmacokinetic study were investigated after topical application. No dropsy and erythema were observed after continuous dosing 7 d of FP NLC-gel on the rabbit skin, and the xylene-induced ear drossy could be inhibited by FP NLC-gel at different dosages. The maximum concentration of FP in rats muscle was 2.03 μg/g and 1.55 μg/g after oral and topical administration, respectively. While the peak concentration in untreated muscle after topical administration was only 0.37 μg/mL. And at any time, following topical administration the mean muscle-plasma concentration ratio Cmuscle/CPlasma was obviously higher than that following oral administration. Results indicated that FP could directly penetrate into the subcutaneous muscle tissue from the administration site. Thus, the developed FP NLC-gel could be a safe and effective vehicle for topical delivery of FP.

  2. New formulation of chemical peeling agent: 30% salicylic acid in polyethylene glycol. Absorption and distribution of 14C-salicylic acid in polyethylene glycol applied topically to skin of hairless mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Setsuko; Mitsugi, Koichi; Ichige, Kazumi; Yoshida, Kenji; Sakuma, Tomoko; Ninomiya, Shin-ichi; Sudou, Tetsuji

    2002-04-01

    Salicylic acid is used in chemical peeling procedures. However, they have caused many side effects, even salicylism. To achieve a salicylic acid peeling that would be safer for topical use, we recently developed a new formulation consisting of 30% salicylic acid in polyethylene glycol (PEG) vehicle. In an extension of our previous research, we studied the absorption of 30% salicylic acid labeled with 14C in PEG vehicle applied topically to the intact and damaged skin of male hairless mice. An ointment containing 3 mg salicylic acid in 10 mg vehicle was applied to both groups. In animals with intact skin, 1 h after application the plasma concentration of radioactivity was 1665.1 ng eq/ml, significantly lower than the 21437.6 ng eq/ml observed in mice with damaged skin. Microautoradiograms of intact skin showed that the level of radioactivity in the cornified cell layer was similar at 6 h after application. However, in damaged skin, the overall level of radioactivity showed a decrease by 3 h after application. In the carcasses remaining after the treated intact and damaged skin had been removed, 0.09 and 11.38% of the applied radioactivity remained, respectively. These findings confirm that 30% salicylic acid in PEG vehicle is little absorbed through the intact skin of hairless mice, and suggest that salicylism related to absorption through the skin of quantities of topically applied salicylic acid is not likely to occur in humans with intact skin during chemical peeling with this preparation. This new preparation of 30% salicylic acid in PEG vehicle is believed to be safe for application as a chemical peeling agent.

  3. Anti-HepG-2 Cell Properties of Rare Earth Tungstosilicic Polyoxometalates Containing 5-Fluorouracil%The Study of Absorption Efficiency and Restoring Effects of Collagen and Ascorbic Acid on Aged Skin by Fluorescence and Reflection Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xia; WANG Shuai-shuai; FENG Chang-gen

    2012-01-01

    Collagen is one of the main structural proteins in human dermis. The lack and atrophy of collagen induces the appearance of wrinkles and beginning of aging. L-ascorbic acid has significant effects on skin-whitening and anti-oxidation, which helps keep skin beautiful and healthy, respectively. With auto-fluorescence, the amount of collagen is in proportion to the strength of its fluorescence spectrum. Therefore, a new method is proposed to determine the content of collagen and the health of skin through the analysis of fluorescence and reflection spectra. Compared with conventional chemical analysis, this method needs less time, and is much more noninvasive. Solutions of different concentration of external collagen and L-ascorbic acid were applied on healthy, spotted and wrinkled skin in this study. By the time dependence of fluorescence and reflection spectra, the effects of skin absorption and restoration of collagen and L-ascorbic acid were derived, respectively. The experiment shows that the collagen or L-ascorbic acid solution of adequate concentration is best for skin absorption. Admixed with suitable concentration of L-ascorbic acid, the collagen solution was well absorbed and results in effect of smoothing wrinkles; the effect of L-ascorbic acid to clear up the spots was also demonstrated. By scientific explorations shown above, the restoration effects of cosmetic materials were validated, and people's confusion and myth about skincare products were avoided. Consequently, this study helps advance cosmetic industry.

  4. Silver percutaneous absorption after exposure to silver nanoparticles: a comparison study of three human skin graft samples used for clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, C; Adami, G; Crosera, M; Larese, F; Casarin, S; Castagnoli, C; Stella, M; Maina, G

    2014-11-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are increasingly applied to a wide range of materials for biomedical use. These enable a close contact with human skin, thanks to the large release of silver ions that is responsible for a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. Silver can permeate the skin; however, there are no data available on silver permeation through skin grafts commonly used in burns recovery. The aim of our study was to evaluate silver penetration using fresh, cryopreserved, and glycerolized human skin grafts after exposure to a suspension of AgNPs in synthetic sweat using a Franz diffusion cell apparatus for 24 h. Silver permeation profiles revealed a significantly higher permeation through glycerolized skin compared with both fresh and cryopreserved skin: 24-h silver flux penetration was 0.2 ng cm(-2) h(-1) (lag time: 8.2 h) for fresh skin, 0.3 ng cm(-2) h(-1) (lag time: 10.9 h) for cryopreserved skin, and 3.8 ng cm(-2) h(-1) (lag time: 6.3 h) for glycerolized skin. Permeation through glycerolized skin is significantly higher compared to both fresh and cryopreserved skin. This result can generate relevant clinical implications for burns treatment with products containing AgNPs.

  5. Correlation of skin blanching and percutaneous absorption for glucocorticoid receptor agonists by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry imaging and liquid extraction surface analysis with nanoelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Peter; Toteu-Djomte, Valerie; Bareille, Philippe; Perry, Hayley; Brown, Gillian; Baumert, Mark; Biggadike, Keith

    2010-09-15

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) and liquid extraction surface analysis (LESA) with nanoelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry (nESI-MS) have both been successfully employed to determine the degree of percutaneous absorption of three novel nonsteroid glucocorticoid receptor (GR) agonists in porcine ear sections. Historically, the ability of a glucocorticoid to elicit a skin blanching response when applied at low dose in ethanol solution to the forearms of healthy human volunteers has been a reliable predictor of their topical anti-inflammatory activity. While all three nonsteroidal GR agonists under investigation caused a skin blanching effect, the responses did not correlate with in vitro GR agonist potencies and different time courses were also observed for the skin blanching responses. MALDI MSI and LESA with nESI-MS were used to investigate and understand these different responses. The findings of the investigation was that the depth of porcine skin penetration correlates to the degree of skin blanching obtained for the same three compounds in human volunteers.

  6. Aging Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... email address Submit Home > Healthy Aging > Wellness Healthy Aging Aging skin More information on aging skin When it ... treated early. Return to top More information on Aging skin Read more from womenshealth.gov Varicose Veins ...

  7. Skin Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your skin is your body's largest organ. It covers and protects your body. Your skin Holds body fluids in, preventing dehydration Keeps harmful ... it Anything that irritates, clogs, or inflames your skin can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, burning, ...

  8. Study of surfactant-skin interactions by skin impedance measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guojin; Moore, David J

    2012-02-01

    The stratum corneum (SC) plays a very critical physiological role as skin barrier in regulating water loss through the skin and protects the body from a wide range of physical and chemical exogenous insults. Surfactant-containing formulations can induce skin damage and irritation owing to surfactant absorption and penetration. It is generally accepted that reduction in skin barrier properties occurs only after surfactants have penetrated/permeated into the skin barrier. To mitigate the harshness of surfactant-based cleansing products, penetration/permeation of surfactants should be reduced. Skin impedance measurements have been taken in vitro on porcine skin using vertical Franz diffusion cells to investigate the impact of surfactants, temperature and pH on skin barrier integrity. These skin impedance results demonstrate excellent correlation with other published methods for assessing skin damage and irritation from different surfactant chemistry, concentration, pH, time of exposure and temperature. This study demonstrates that skin impedance can be utilized as a routine approach to screen surfactant-containing formulations for their propensity to compromise the skin barrier and hence likely lead to skin irritation. PMID:21923733

  9. Study of surfactant-skin interactions by skin impedance measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guojin; Moore, David J

    2012-02-01

    The stratum corneum (SC) plays a very critical physiological role as skin barrier in regulating water loss through the skin and protects the body from a wide range of physical and chemical exogenous insults. Surfactant-containing formulations can induce skin damage and irritation owing to surfactant absorption and penetration. It is generally accepted that reduction in skin barrier properties occurs only after surfactants have penetrated/permeated into the skin barrier. To mitigate the harshness of surfactant-based cleansing products, penetration/permeation of surfactants should be reduced. Skin impedance measurements have been taken in vitro on porcine skin using vertical Franz diffusion cells to investigate the impact of surfactants, temperature and pH on skin barrier integrity. These skin impedance results demonstrate excellent correlation with other published methods for assessing skin damage and irritation from different surfactant chemistry, concentration, pH, time of exposure and temperature. This study demonstrates that skin impedance can be utilized as a routine approach to screen surfactant-containing formulations for their propensity to compromise the skin barrier and hence likely lead to skin irritation.

  10. Percutaneous absorption from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Rosa Marie; Coman, Garrett; Blickenstaff, Nicholas R; Maibach, Howard I

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Some natural sites, as a result of contaminants emitted into the air and subsequently deposited in soil or accidental industrial release, have high levels of organic and non-organic chemicals in soil. In occupational and recreation settings, these could be potential sources of percutaneous exposure to humans. When investigating percutaneous absorption from soil - in vitro or vivo - soil load, particle size, layering, soil "age" time, along with the methods of performing the experiment and analyzing the results must be taken into consideration. Skin absorption from soil is generally reduced compared with uptake from water/acetone. However, the absorption of some compounds, e.g., pentachlorophenol, chlorodane and PCB 1254, are similar. Lipophilic compounds like dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, benzo[A]pyrene, and metals have the tendency to form reservoirs in skin. Thus, one should take caution in interpreting results directly from in vitro studies for risk assessment; in vivo validations are often required for the most relevant risk assessment. PMID:25205703

  11. Skin Biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyhrquist, N; Salava, A; Auvinen, P; Lauerma, A

    2016-05-01

    The cutaneous microbiome has been investigated broadly in recent years and some traditional perspectives are beginning to change. A diverse microbiome exists on human skin and has a potential to influence pathogenic microbes and modulate the course of skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis. In addition to the known dysfunctions in barrier function of the skin and immunologic disturbances, evidence is rising that frequent skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis, might be connected to a dysbiosis of the microbial community and changes in the skin microbiome. As a future perspective, examining the skin microbiome could be seen as a potential new diagnostic and therapeutic target in inflammatory skin disorders.

  12. OCT系统中皮肤组织对光的漫反射和光能量吸收研究%Light Diffuse Reflection and Photon Energy Absorption of Skin in OCT System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许世军; 贾潇

    2013-01-01

    According to the properties of light transmission in highly scattering medium ,radial diffuse reflection intensity of R(r) and longitudinal energy absorption intensity of A (z ) in the skin tissue are discussed .Stochastic motions of a bunch of photons in the highly scattering multi-layered skin were calculated and analyzed with Monte Carlo simulation based on the Matlab software .A series of R(r) and A (z) were obtained when the three typical kinds of parameters had different values by successively changing the parameters of the muscle layer .The calculation results show that ,with the rest of the parameters unchanged the larger the absorption coefficient μs is ,the greater the gradient of energy decay and the initial value of the A(z) in the muscle layer are and the smaller the R(r) is ,with the scattering coefficient μs increasing ,the initial value of A (z ) and the gradient of energy decay in the muscle layer become stronger ,and gradients of R(r) with different μs are almost the same .The greater the anisotropy factor g in the muscle layer is ,the smaller the initial value of A(z) is ,which means that the absorption of photons hardly happens ,and the smaller R(r) is .The influences of the three types of optical parameters on R(r) are similar and weak ,and every curve of R(r) presents similar and high gradient in the range with the radius being 0 .05 cm .%针对光在高散射介质中的传播特性,研究了皮肤组织中径向漫反射强度 R(r)和纵向能量吸收强度 A(z).利用Matlab对高散射随机皮肤组织中光子的随机运行进行蒙特卡罗模拟计算,依次改变肌肉层参数,得到三类典型参数在不同取值时的 R(r)与 A(z).模拟结果表明,在其余参数不变,当吸收系数μα越大时,肌肉层中的能量衰减梯度越大,能量吸收强度的初值也越大,同时漫反射强度越小;当散射系数μs 越大时,能量吸收强度的初值越大,衰减梯度也越

  13. Sagging Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turkey neck,” this occurs as skin loses its elasticity and in cases where individuals have lost a ... technique or procedure is appropriate for my skin type? Did the doctor show me before-and-after ...

  14. Skin Dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources Meet our partners Español Donate Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases Cosmetic treatments Dry / sweaty skin Eczema / dermatitis Hair and scalp ...

  15. Skin Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin condition cannot be diagnosed by the patient's history and what the physician finds on examination alone. Confirming a clinical diagnosis may also be necessary prior to starting therapy. Skin biopsy types are as follows: Shave biopsies Punch biopsies ...

  16. Skin tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranoski, S

    2001-08-01

    Skin tears are a serious, painful problem for older patients. Find out how your staff can recognize patients at risk, what they can do to prevent skin tears, and how to manage them effectively if they occur.

  17. Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States. The two most common types ... face, neck, hands, and arms. Another type of skin cancer, melanoma, is more dangerous but less common. Anyone ...

  18. SKIN CANCER

    OpenAIRE

    Made Putri Hendaria; AAGN Asmarajaya; Sri Maliawan

    2013-01-01

    Skin is an organ which protect the human body from the environment. It was build by milion cells. According to the changes in human lifestyle which tends to unhealthy life, increasing ultraviolet radiation, toxins, and genetics makes the cells who build the skin do the abnormal growth being cancer cells. Classification of skin cancer is according the most common three types, they are Basal Cell Carcinoma, Squamous Cell Carcinoma, and Malignant Melanoma. More than 3,5 milion skin cancer cases ...

  19. Skin Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your skin changes as you age. You might notice wrinkles, age spots and dryness. Your skin also becomes thinner and loses fat, making it ... heal, too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out ...

  20. Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Usually the cause is staphylococcal (staph), but sometimes streptococcus (strep) can cause it, too. It is most ... color or outline, or in any other way. Psoriasis © 2008 Logical Images, Inc. Psoriasis —A skin disease ...

  1. Curious Skin

    OpenAIRE

    Angel, G.

    2010-01-01

    Some of Henry Wellcome’s collection of tattoos on human skin will be on display in our forthcoming Skin exhibition. But how did the Parisian doctor from whom they were acquired come by his macabre collection of tattoos in the first place, and what did they mean to those whose skin they were on? It’s Gemma Angel‘s job to find out…

  2. Oily skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... keep your skin clean using warm water and soap, or a soapless cleanser. Clean your face with astringent pads if frequent face washing causes irritation. Use only water-based or oil-free cosmetics if you have oily skin. Your ...

  3. Porcine skin flow-through diffusion cell system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baynes, R E

    2001-11-01

    Porcine Skin Flow-Through Diffusion Cell System (Ronald E. Baynes, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina). Porcine skin can be used in a diffusion cell apparatus to study the rate and extent of absorption of topically applied chemicals through the skin. Although the skin of a number of animals can be used in this system, that of the pig most closely approximates human skin anatomically and physiologically.

  4. Dermal absorption and toxicological risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist, H.

    2016-01-01

    Absorption of toxic substances via the skin is an important phenomenon in the assessment of the risk of exposure to these substances. People are exposed to a variety of substances and products via the skin, either directly or indirectly, while at work, at home or in public space. Pesticides, organic

  5. Electrophysiological evidence for an ATP-gated ion channel in the principal cells of the frog skin epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodin, Birger; Nielsen, Robert

    2000-01-01

    P2X receptor, Na+ absorption, Short circuit current, Cell potential, Microelectrodes, Frog skin, Cytosolic Ca2+......P2X receptor, Na+ absorption, Short circuit current, Cell potential, Microelectrodes, Frog skin, Cytosolic Ca2+...

  6. Skin Cancer in Skin of Color

    OpenAIRE

    Bradford, Porcia T.

    2009-01-01

    Skin cancers in skin of color often present atypically or with advanced stage in comparison to Caucasian patients. Health care providers must maintain a high index of suspicion when examining skin lesions in skin of color.

  7. Skin abscess

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infection (often staphylococcus) A minor wound or injury Boils Folliculitis (infection in a hair follicle) A skin ... Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2009:chap 90. Read More Boils Endocarditis Folliculitis MRSA Osteomyelitis Update Date 11/12/ ...

  8. Skin graft

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... caused a large amount of skin loss Burns Cosmetic reasons or reconstructive surgeries where there has been ... Smoking increases your chance of problems such as slow healing. Ask your doctor or nurse for help ...

  9. Skin Pigment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This Article Medical Dictionary Also of Interest (Quiz) Vitiligo (Video) Hives Additional Content Medical News Overview of ... Version Pigment Disorders Overview of Skin Pigment Albinism Vitiligo Hyperpigmentation Melasma Melanin is the brown pigment that ...

  10. Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease in ...

  11. Metabolism of skin-absorbed resveratrol into its glucuronized form in mouse skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Itsuo; Chaleckis, Romanas; Pluskal, Tomáš; Ito, Ken; Hori, Kousuke; Ebe, Masahiro; Yanagida, Mitsuhiro; Kondoh, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Resveratrol (RESV) is a plant polyphenol, which is thought to have beneficial metabolic effects in laboratory animals as well as in humans. Following oral administration, RESV is immediately catabolized, resulting in low bioavailability. This study compared RESV metabolites and their tissue distribution after oral uptake and skin absorption. Metabolomic analysis of various mouse tissues revealed that RESV can be absorbed and metabolized through skin. We detected sulfated and glucuronidated RESV metabolites, as well as dihydroresveratrol. These metabolites are thought to have lower pharmacological activity than RESV. Similar quantities of most RESV metabolites were observed 4 h after oral or skin administration, except that glucuronidated RESV metabolites were more abundant in skin after topical RESV application than after oral administration. This result is consistent with our finding of glucuronidated RESV metabolites in cultured skin cells. RESV applied to mouse ears significantly suppressed inflammation in the TPA inflammation model. The skin absorption route could be a complementary, potent way to achieve therapeutic effects with RESV.

  12. Millimeter wave dosimetry of human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, S I; Radzievsky, A A; Logani, M K; Ziskin, M C

    2008-01-01

    To identify the mechanisms of biological effects of mm waves it is important to develop accurate methods for evaluating absorption and penetration depth of mm waves in the epidermis and dermis. The main characteristics of mm wave skin dosimetry were calculated using a homogeneous unilayer model and two multilayer models of skin. These characteristics included reflection, power density (PD), penetration depth (delta), and specific absorption rate (SAR). The parameters of the models were found from fitting the models to the experimental data obtained from measurements of mm wave reflection from human skin. The forearm and palm data were used to model the skin with thin and thick stratum corneum (SC), respectively. The thin SC produced little influence on the interaction of mm waves with skin. On the contrary, the thick SC in the palm played the role of a matching layer and significantly reduced reflection. In addition, the palmar skin manifested a broad peak in reflection within the 83-277 GHz range. The viable epidermis plus dermis, containing a large amount of free water, greatly attenuated mm wave energy. Therefore, the deeper fat layer had little effect on the PD and SAR profiles. We observed the appearance of a moderate SAR peak in the therapeutic frequency range (42-62 GHz) within the skin at a depth of 0.3-0.4 mm. Millimeter waves penetrate into the human skin deep enough (delta = 0.65 mm at 42 GHz) to affect most skin structures located in the epidermis and dermis.

  13. Skin Care and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Skin Care and Aging How Aging Affects Skin Your skin changes with age. It ... if they bother you. See additional resources on aging skin, including information on treatment options, specific conditions, ...

  14. Skin Cancer Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Host a Fundraising Event | About Us | Store The Skin Cancer Foundation The Skin Cancer Foundation is the ... A "Sunscreen Gene"? Skin Cancer Facts & Statistics The Skin Cancer Foundation's Champions for Change Gala 2016 Learn ...

  15. Skin Pigmentation Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigmentation means coloring. Skin pigmentation disorders affect the color of your skin. Your skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or ...

  16. Meloxicam transdermal delivery: effect of eutectic point on the rate and extent of skin permeation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soliman Mohammadi-Samani

    2014-02-01

    Conclusion: This study set out to determine that thymol plays as a skin permeation enhancer and increases the meloxicam skin absorption and this enhancement is significant at the eutectic point of drug-enhancer mixture.

  17. Skin Substitutes

    OpenAIRE

    Zavan, Barbara; Vindigni, Vincenzo; Cortivo, Roberta; Abatangelo, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    The many studies conducted so far reveal that Tissue Engineering of the skin is only at the beginning of its use in human applications. Burns patients were the first targets for such tissue substitutes, then chronic diseases, such as venous ulcers, have followed. The more experience is gained from the surgeon, the more feedback for the basic scientist to improve the product and to broaden clinical indications. Nowadays, progress in cell culture and biomedical material technologies have added ...

  18. Skin aging:

    OpenAIRE

    Puizina-Ivić, Neira

    2008-01-01

    There are two main processes that induce skin aging: intrinsic and extrinsic. A stochastic process that implies random cell damage as a result of mutations during metabolic processes due to the production of free radicals is also implicated. Extrinsic aging is caused by environmental factors such as sun exposure, air pollution, smoking, alcohol abuse, and poor nutrition. Intrinsicaging reflects the genetic background and depends on time. Various expressions of intrinsic aging include smooth, ...

  19. Cutaneous skin tag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin tag; Acrochordon; Fibroepithelial polyp ... have diabetes. They are thought to occur from skin rubbing against skin. ... The tag sticks out of the skin and may have a short, narrow stalk connecting it to the surface of the skin. Some skin tags are as long as ...

  20. 两种盐酸特比萘芬乳膏经离体小型猪皮渗透吸收的比较研究%The Comparative Studies on Percutaneous Absorption for Two Kind of Terbinafine Hydrochloride Cream by in vitro Tibet Minipig's Skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗荣; 周临; 陈卫

    2013-01-01

    目的 比较研究两家企业生产的盐酸特比萘芬乳膏对离体小型猪皮的透皮吸收性能.方法 采用改良的Franz扩散池,离体小型猪皮片涂药后不同时间采样,用高效液相色谱法测定接收液和皮片中盐酸特比萘芬的浓度.结果 盐酸特比萘芬乳膏透皮释放量很低,在80%乙醇生理盐水释放液中,某企业生产的乳膏产品和中美天津史克制药有限公司生产的乳膏产品在48h时累积透皮渗透量分别为55.23 mg/cm2和63.33 mg/cm2,48 h的累积透过率分别为:1.09%、1.19%.结论 两家企业生产的乳膏产品在相同渗透介质下,对于离体小型猪皮的透皮无显著性差别,二者透皮情况相当.盐酸特比萘芬乳膏主成分大部分滞留在皮肤上,只有极少数透过皮肤屏障,有利于其发挥局部治疗作用.%Objective To study the percutaneous absorption of terbinafine hydrochloride cream through in vitro Tibet minipig's skins, and compare the penetration absorption of domestic certain enterprise product with GlaxoSmithKline china product. Methods Using the modified Franz diffusion cell, samples were collected at different time after the drug was applied. The concentration of terbinafine hydrochloride in the samples was measured by HPLC. Results The penetration release quantities of terbinafine hydrochloride across Tibet minipig skins in 80% ethanol saline solution in 48h were very low, only 63.33 mg · cm2 for GlaxoSmithKline China product, and 55.23 mg · cm2 for certain enterprise product, and the percolation rate were 1.19% and 1.09%, respectively. Conclusion The percutaneous absorption of terbinafine hydrochloride cream was very low between two products without significant difference. The penetration absorbency through Tibet minipig skins of certain enterprise cream is similar to GlaxoSmithKline china product. The most of the main components of terbinafine hydrochloride cream remain in the surface of the skins, only a few through the

  1. Skin Keratins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengrong; Zieman, Abigail; Coulombe, Pierre A

    2016-01-01

    Keratins comprise the type I and type II intermediate filament-forming proteins and occur primarily in epithelial cells. They are encoded by 54 evolutionarily conserved genes (28 type I, 26 type II) and regulated in a pairwise and tissue type-, differentiation-, and context-dependent manner. Keratins serve multiple homeostatic and stress-enhanced mechanical and nonmechanical functions in epithelia, including the maintenance of cellular integrity, regulation of cell growth and migration, and protection from apoptosis. These functions are tightly regulated by posttranslational modifications as well as keratin-associated proteins. Genetically determined alterations in keratin-coding sequences underlie highly penetrant and rare disorders whose pathophysiology reflects cell fragility and/or altered tissue homeostasis. Moreover, keratin mutation or misregulation represents risk factors or genetic modifiers for several acute and chronic diseases. This chapter focuses on keratins that are expressed in skin epithelia, and details a number of basic protocols and assays that have proven useful for analyses being carried out in skin.

  2. [In vitro percutaneous absorption of silver nanoparticles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filon, F Larese; D'Agostin, F; Crosera, M; Adami, G; Rosani, R; Romano, C; Bovenzi, M; Maina, G

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the debate on nanoparticle safety for topical use. The benefits of nanoparticles have been shown in several scientific fields, but little is known about their potential to penetrate the skin lies. This study aims at evaluating in vitro silver nanoparticles skin penetration. Experiments were performed using the Franz diffusion cell method with intact and damaged human skin. Physiological solution was used as receiving phase and 70 microg/cm2 of silver nanoparticles dispersed in synthetic sweat were applied as donor phase to the outer surface of the skin for 24h. The receptor fluid measurements were performed by Electro Thermal Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (ETAAS). Silver concentration of 0.2 microg/L was found in the receiving solutions of two cells, in which damaged skin membranes were set up. In the other tests, we obtained a silver concentration below the limit of detection in the receiving cells. Our experimental data show that silver nanoparticles permeation through intact and damaged skin is negligible. These findings are consistent with previously published results. Further researches are necessary to explore skin absorption of silver nanoparticles.

  3. Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer Order the free Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer ... true that only people with light skin get skin cancer? No. Anyone can get skin cancer. It's more ...

  4. Learning about Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Why Deadly Skin Cancers Spread 2000 News Release Learning About Skin Cancer What are the most common ... skin surface. When a melanoma becomes thick and deep, the disease often spreads to other parts of ...

  5. Skin care and incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incontinence - skin care ... or bowels (called incontinence) are at risk of skin problems around the buttocks, hips, genitals, and the ... rectum (perineum). Excess moisture in these areas makes skin problems such as redness, peeling, irritation, and yeast ...

  6. Mass transport model through the skin by microencapsulation system

    OpenAIRE

    Carreras, Nuria; Alonso Merino, Cristina; Marti Gelabert, Meritxell; Lis Arias, Manuel José

    2015-01-01

    Skin drug delivery can be subdivided into topical and transdermal administration. Transdermal administration can take advantage of chemical and physical strategies that can improve skin permeability and allow drug penetration. In this study, the development of a skin penetration profile was carried out by an in vitro technique for a microencapsulated system of ibuprofen. Release experiments were performed using percutaneous absorption tests to determine the evolution of the principle present ...

  7. Antioxidant cosmeto-textiles: skin assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Cristina; Martí, Meritxell; Martínez, Vanessa; Rubio, Laia; Parra, José L; Coderch, Luisa

    2013-05-01

    Resveratrol, a natural product, has been reported to have antioxidant activities such as the scavenging of free radicals. This compound could be used in the dermocosmetic field to protect the skin from oxidative stress. In this work, the percutaneous profile of resveratrol in ethanol solutions through pig skin was determinated by an in vitro methodology. The percutaneous absorption of resveratrol was measured and compared with trolox, an analogous of Vitamin E. Both antioxidants were found in all skin sections (stratum corneum, epidermis, and dermis). Besides, the free radical scavenging activity of resveratrol and trolox has been evaluated using DPPH method. The effective dose (ED₅₀) of compounds and DPPH radical inhibition in each skin layer were evaluated. Under the conditions used for these experiments, it can be deduced that resveratrol is more efficient than trolox as an antioxidant, also in the inner skin layers. The cosmeto-textiles with an active substance incorporated into their structure are increasingly used in the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries. The action of several cosmeto-textiles on the skin was assessed by in vitro and in vivo methodologies. Samples of these cosmeto-textiles were prepared with resveratrol incorporated into cotton and polyamide fabrics. An in vitro percutaneous absorption was used to demonstrate the delivery of the resveratrol from the textile to the different skin layers (stratum corneum, epidermis, and dermis). Additionally, these cosmeto-textiles containing the antioxidant were applied onto the forearms of volunteers to evaluate the textiles' efficacy in skin penetration. The antioxidant's antiradical capacity was evaluated using the DPPH method. Results showed that resveratrol could be detected in the dermis, epidermis, and stratum corneum (SC) by an in vitro percutaneous absorption method and was also detected in the outermost layers of the SC by an in vivo method (stripping). A smaller amount of resveratrol was

  8. Expression of human solute carrier family transporters in skin: possible contributor to drug-induced skin disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Ryoichi Fujiwara; Saya Takenaka; Mitsuhiro Hashimoto; Tomoya Narawa; Tomoo Itoh

    2014-01-01

    Solute carrier (SLC) transporters play important roles in absorption and disposition of drugs in cells; however, the expression pattern of human SLC transporters in the skin has not been determined. In the present study, the expression patterns of 28 human SLC transporters were determined in the human skin. Most of the SLC transporter family members were either highly or moderately expressed in the liver, while their expression was limited in the skin and small intestine. Treatment of human k...

  9. Human skin penetration of silver nanoparticles through intact and damaged skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a growing interest on nanoparticle safety for topical use. The benefits of nanoparticles have been shown in several scientific fields, but little is known about their potential to penetrate the skin. This study aims at evaluating in vitro skin penetration of silver nanoparticles. Experiments were performed using the Franz diffusion cell method with intact and damaged human skin. Physiological solution was used as receiving phase and 70 μg/cm2 of silver nanoparticles coated with polyvinylpirrolidone dispersed in synthetic sweat were applied as donor phase to the outer surface of the skin for 24 h. The receptor fluid measurements were performed by electro thermal atomic absorption spectroscopy (ETAAS). Human skin penetration was also determined by using transmission electron microscope (TEM) to verify the location of silver nanoparticles in exposed membranes. Median silver concentrations of 0.46 ng cm-2 (range -2 (range 0.43-11.6) were found in the receiving solutions of cells where the nanoparticles solution was applied on intact skin (eight cells) and on damaged skin (eight cells), respectively. Twenty-four hours silver flux permeation in damaged skin was 0.62 ± 0.2 ng cm-2 with a lag time <1 h. Our experimental data showed that silver nanoparticles absorption through intact and damaged skin was very low but detectable, and that in case of damaged skin it was possible an increasing permeation of silver applied as nanoparticles. Moreover, silver nanoparticles could be detected in the stratum corneum and the outermost surface of the epidermis by electron microscopy. We demonstrated for the first time that silver applied as nanoparticles coated with polyvinylpirrolidone is able to permeate the damaged skin in an in vitro diffusion cell system

  10. Human skin penetration of silver nanoparticles through intact and damaged skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larese, Francesca Filon; D'Agostin, Flavia; Crosera, Matteo; Adami, Gianpiero; Renzi, Nadia; Bovenzi, Massimo; Maina, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    There is a growing interest on nanoparticle safety for topical use. The benefits of nanoparticles have been shown in several scientific fields, but little is known about their potential to penetrate the skin. This study aims at evaluating in vitro skin penetration of silver nanoparticles. Experiments were performed using the Franz diffusion cell method with intact and damaged human skin. Physiological solution was used as receiving phase and 70 microg/cm2 of silver nanoparticles coated with polyvinylpirrolidone dispersed in synthetic sweat were applied as donor phase to the outer surface of the skin for 24h. The receptor fluid measurements were performed by electro thermal atomic absorption spectroscopy (ETAAS). Human skin penetration was also determined by using transmission electron microscope (TEM) to verify the location of silver nanoparticles in exposed membranes. Median silver concentrations of 0.46 ng cm(-2) (range skin (eight cells) and on damaged skin (eight cells), respectively. Twenty-four hours silver flux permeation in damaged skin was 0.62+/-0.2 ng cm(-2) with a lag time <1h. Our experimental data showed that silver nanoparticles absorption through intact and damaged skin was very low but detectable, and that in case of damaged skin it was possible an increasing permeation of silver applied as nanoparticles. Moreover, silver nanoparticles could be detected in the stratum corneum and the outermost surface of the epidermis by electron microscopy. We demonstrated for the first time that silver applied as nanoparticles coated with polyvinylpirrolidone is able to permeate the damaged skin in an in vitro diffusion cell system.

  11. Human Skin Penetration of Cobalt Nanoparticles Through Intact and Damaged Skin

    OpenAIRE

    LARESE FILON Francesca; Crosera, Matteo; TIMEUS Elena; Adami, Gianpiero; Bovenzi, Massimo; Ponti, Jessica; Maina, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Cobalt nanoparticles (CoNPs) are produced for many applications but there is a lack of data on human absorption. The aim of our study was to evaluate the CoNPs skin absorption. Experiments were performed using Franz cells with human skin. Physiological solution was used as receiving phase and 1.0 mg cm-2 of CoNPs was applied as donor phase for 24 h. Mean Co content of 8.3 ± 1.5 ng cm-2 and 1.87 ± 0.86 ug cm-2 were found in the receiving solutions of cells where the CoNPs suspension was app...

  12. 17种生物碱类药物体外经皮渗透行为的实验研究%To Study in Vitro Percutaneous Absorption of 17 Alkaloidal Drugs with Mouse Skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许景峰

    2001-01-01

    目的研究生物碱类药物经皮吸收系数与药物油/水分配系数的关系。方法采用Ficks扩散装置测定17种生物碱类药物在小鼠皮的透皮速率,并与含2%促渗剂氮酮比较。结果生物碱类药物的经皮渗透系数(kp)与药物油/水分配系数(logk)的关系式为:logkp=7.35×10-2-3.079×10-2logk-8.11(logk)2;logkp(2%Azo)=8.32×10-2-2.68×10-2logk-5.27(logk)2;结论 17种药物的油/水分配系数平均最佳值为2.83,含2%氮酮后的其平均最佳值为3.17。%Aim To study the relationship between permeability coefficient and oil/water partition coefficient of 17 alkaloidal drugs.Methods The percutaneous absorption speed of 17 alkaloidal drugs were studied in mouse with improved Fick's diffusing device.Results The relationship between permeability coefficient (kp) and oil/water partition coefficient (logk) of 17 alkaloidal drugs or drugs containing 2% Azone can be described as following equations.logkp=7.35×10-2-3.079×10-2logk-8.11(logk)2;logkp(2%Azo)=8.32×10-2-2.68×10-2logk-5.27(logk)2,respectively.Conclusion ko/w and ko/w(2%Azo) was 2.83 and 3.17 respectively.

  13. Terahertz spectroscopy of human skin constituents in suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Cecil; Yaroslavsky, Anna; Al-Arashi, Munir; Gatesman, Andrew; Goyette, Thomas; Giles, Robert

    2008-03-01

    Continuous wave terahertz imaging has the potential to offer a non-invasive medical imaging modality for detecting different types of human cancers. The aim of this study was to identify frequencies of interest for continuous wave terahertz imaging of skin cancer. The absorption characteristics of water, collagen, and elastin were studied in the range between 20 and 100cm-1. In addition, we have recorded and analyzed the teraherz absorption spectra of several substances that are present in human skin (i.e. tryptophan, tyrosine, melanin, urocanic acid, keratin) and their water suspensions with the goal of using them as biomarkers for skin cancer detection.

  14. Effect of microplasma irradiation on skin barrier function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Kazuo; Tran, An N.; Blajan, Marius

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we introduce the feasibility of atmospheric-pressure argon microplasma irradiation (AAMI) to promote percutaneous absorption. A hairless Yucatan micropig skin was used for this ex vivo study. After AAMI, the disturbance in the stratum corneum (SC) lipids was observed using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Also, an increase in transepidermal water loss and no physical damage on pig skins were confirmed by microscopic observation. These results of AAMI were compared with those of a plasma jet irradiation (PJI) and a tape stripping test (TST) leading to the conclusion that AAMI reduces the barrier function of the skin and could also enhance the transdermal absorption of drugs.

  15. Effects of solvent on percutaneous absorption of nonvolatile lipophilic solute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intarakumhaeng, Rattikorn; Li, S Kevin

    2014-12-10

    Understanding the effects of solvents upon percutaneous absorption can improve drug delivery across skin and allow better risk assessment of toxic compound exposure. The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of solvents upon the deposition of a moderately lipophilic solute at a low dose in the stratum corneum (SC) that could influence skin absorption of the solute after topical application. Skin permeation experiments were performed using Franz diffusion cells and human epidermal membrane (HEM). Radiolabeled corticosterone ((3)H-CS) was the model permeant. The solvents used had different evaporation and skin penetration properties that were expected to impact skin deposition of CS and its absorption across skin. The results show no correlation between the rate of absorption of the permeant and the rate of solvent evaporation/penetration with ethanol, hexane, isopropanol, and butanol as the solvent; all of these solvents have fast evaporation rates (complete evaporation in water, propylene glycol, and polyethylene glycol 400, that a relationship between permeant absorption and the rate of solvent evaporation was observed. PMID:25261711

  16. An improved model for studies on transdermal drug absorption invivo in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VOLLMER, U; MULLER, BW; WILFFERT, B; Peters, Thies

    1993-01-01

    In rats, transdermal drug absorption can be studied under physiological conditions by cannulating the peripheral skin vein, draining the area of the skin which is used for drug application, and collecting the blood. This method leads to decreased blood volume, which causes a reduction in skin blood

  17. An improved model for studies on transdermal drug absorption in-vivo in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollmer, U.; Muller, B.W.; Wilffert, B.; Peters, Thies

    1993-01-01

    In rats, transdermal drug absorption can be studied under physiological conditions cannulating the peripheral skin vein, draining the area of the skin which is used for drug application, and collecting the blood. This method leads to decreased blood volume, which causes a reduction in skin blood flo

  18. Percutaneous absorption of triclocarban in rat and man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, D; Black, J G

    1976-06-01

    The route and rate of excretion by rats of the germicide (1 4 C) Triclocarban formerly called trichlorocarbanilide, given by parenteral injection has been investigated. Blood levels based on radioactivity and by chemical determination after parenteral injection have been compared with those obtained after topical application of (1 4 C) Triclocarban in soaps and in dimethylformamide (DMF) through occluded rat skin has been studied. Other soaps and a hand cleanser containing (1 4 C) Triclocarban have been applied to rat skin without occlusion and the effects of duration of contact, concentration and the use of a solubilizer have been investigated. In humans, absorption of Triclocarban through skin after bathing daily for 28 days has been investigated by chemical analysis of blood and urine. The data show that elimination by the rat is rapid and complete principally via the faeces. Blood levels after parenteral injection are low and comparison of the radioactivity and chemical determinations suggest rapid metabolism of the Triclocarban. After application to the skin, blood levels based on 1 4 C are very low. Absorption of (1 4 C) Triclocarban through occluded rat skin was greater from DMF than from soaps. With non-occluded rat skin, absorption from soaps was less and was dependent on concentration but independent of duration of contact. The use of a solubilizer did not increase absorption through skin. No measurable Triclocarban (less than 25 ppb) was present in blood and urine samples of volunteers during or shortly after a 28-day intensive bathing regimen. PMID:941165

  19. Dry Skin (Xerosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources Meet our partners Español Donate Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases ... Dry skin public SPOT Skin Cancer™ Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases ...

  20. Estrogens and aging skin

    OpenAIRE

    Thornton, M. Julie

    2013-01-01

    Estrogen deficiency following menopause results in atrophic skin changes and acceleration of skin aging. Estrogens significantly modulate skin physiology, targeting keratinocytes, fibroblasts, melanocytes, hair follicles and sebaceous glands, and improve angiogenesis, wound healing and immune responses. Estrogen insufficiency decreases defense against oxidative stress; skin becomes thinner with less collagen, decreased elasticity, increased wrinkling, increased dryness and reduced vascularity...

  1. Skin Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the lower part of the epidermis. They make melanin , the pigment that gives skin its natural color. When skin is exposed to the sun, melanocytes make more pigment, causing the skin to tan, or darken. The dermis contains blood and lymph vessels , hair follicles , and glands . Enlarge Anatomy of the skin, ...

  2. Stiff skin syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, S; Lei, X; Toyohara, J P; Zhan, P; Wang, J; Tan, S

    2006-07-01

    Stiff skin syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by pronounced skin induration, mild hypertrichosis and limited joint mobility, predominantly on the buttocks and thighs. Many heterogeneous cases have been reported under the name of stiff skin syndrome. We present a case of stiff skin syndrome from China, the diagnosis based on the patient's typical clinical and histopathological features. PMID:16836505

  3. Allergy testing - skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patch tests - allergy; Scratch tests - allergy; Skin tests - allergy; RAST test ... There are three common methods of allergy skin testing. The skin prick test involves: Placing a small amount of substances that may be causing your symptoms on the skin, most often ...

  4. Human skin penetration of cobalt nanoparticles through intact and damaged skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larese Filon, Francesca; Crosera, Matteo; Timeus, Elisa; Adami, Gianpiero; Bovenzi, Massimo; Ponti, Jessica; Maina, Giovanni

    2013-02-01

    Cobalt nanoparticles (CoNPs) are produced for several industrial and biomedical applications but there is a lack of data on human cutaneous absorption. Cobalt is also a skin sensitizer that can cause allergic contact dermatitis. Co applied as NPs, due to their small size and high surface, can penetrate into the skin in higher amount that bulk material. The aim of this study was to evaluate the absorption of Co applied as NPs in both intact and damaged skin. Experiments were performed using Franz cells and 1.0 mg cm(-2) of CoNPs was applied as donor phase for 24h. Mean Co content of 8.5 ± 1.2 ng cm(-2) and 1.87 ± 0.86 μg cm(-2) were found in the receiving solutions of Franz cells when the CoNPs suspension was applied on intact skin and on damaged skin, respectively. Twenty-four hours Co flux permeation was 76 ± 49 ng cm(-2)h(-1) in damaged skin with a lag time of 2.8 ± 2.1h. This study suggests that Co applied as NPs is able to penetrate the human skin in an in vitro diffusion cell system.

  5. Risks of Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease in ...

  6. [Sarcoidosis of the skin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suga, Y; Ogawa, H

    1994-06-01

    Sarcoidosis is characterized by formation of epithelioid-cell tubercules, without caseation, of the affected organ systems. The mediastinum, peripheral lymph nodes and eyes, in addition to the skin, are most frequently affected. Between 10% and 30% of patients with systemic sarcoidosis in Japan have skin lesions. Skin sarcoidosis is morphologically classified into three basic groups, erythema nodosum, scar sarcoidosis and skin sarcoid. Skin sarcoid is characterized by specific cutaneous lesions of sarcoidosis, and may take nodular, plaque, angiolupoid, subcutaneous and some other forms. Clinical manifestations of the cutaneous lesions are usually asymptomatic and polymorphous. Skin biopsy is, however, often highly useful for confirming a diagnosis of sarcoidosis.

  7. Relative absorption and dermal loading of chemical substances: Consequences for risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist, H.E.; Schaafsma, G.; Sandt, J.J.M. van de

    2009-01-01

    Quantification of skin absorption is an essential step in reducing the uncertainty of dermal risk assessment. Data from literature indicate that the relative dermal absorption of substances is dependent on dermal loading. Therefore, an internal exposure calculated with absorption data determined at

  8. Human skin penetration of gold nanoparticles through intact and damaged skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filon, Francesca Larese; Crosera, Matteo; Adami, Gianpiero; Bovenzi, Massimo; Rossi, Federica; Maina, Giovanni

    2011-12-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are produced for many applications but there is a lack of available data on their skin absorption. Experiments were performed using the Franz diffusion cell method with intact and damaged human skin. A physiological solution was used as receiving phase and 0.5 mL (1st exp) and 1.5 mL (2nd exp) of a solution containing 100 mg L⁻¹ of AuNPs (15 and 45 μg cm⁻², respectively) was applied as donor phase to the outer surface of the skin for 24 h. Skin absorption was dose dependent. Mean gold content of 214.0 ± 43.7 ng cm⁻² and 187.7 ± 50.2 ng cm⁻² were found in the receiving solutions of cells where the AuNPs solution was applied in higher concentration on intact skin (8 Franz cells) and on damaged skin (8 Franz cells), respectively. Twenty-four hours gold flux permeation was 7.8 ± 2.0 ng cm⁻² h⁻¹ and 7.1 ± 2.5 ng cm⁻² h⁻¹ in intact and damaged skin, respectively, with a lag time less than 1 hour. Transmission Electron Microscope analysis on skin samples and chemical analysis using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry demonstrated the presence of AuNPs into epidermis and dermis. This study showed that AuNPs are able to penetrate the human skin in an in vitro diffusion cell system.

  9. Metabolism of skin-absorbed resveratrol into its glucuronized form in mouse skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itsuo Murakami

    Full Text Available Resveratrol (RESV is a plant polyphenol, which is thought to have beneficial metabolic effects in laboratory animals as well as in humans. Following oral administration, RESV is immediately catabolized, resulting in low bioavailability. This study compared RESV metabolites and their tissue distribution after oral uptake and skin absorption. Metabolomic analysis of various mouse tissues revealed that RESV can be absorbed and metabolized through skin. We detected sulfated and glucuronidated RESV metabolites, as well as dihydroresveratrol. These metabolites are thought to have lower pharmacological activity than RESV. Similar quantities of most RESV metabolites were observed 4 h after oral or skin administration, except that glucuronidated RESV metabolites were more abundant in skin after topical RESV application than after oral administration. This result is consistent with our finding of glucuronidated RESV metabolites in cultured skin cells. RESV applied to mouse ears significantly suppressed inflammation in the TPA inflammation model. The skin absorption route could be a complementary, potent way to achieve therapeutic effects with RESV.

  10. Percutaneous absorption of an insect repellent p-menthane-3,8-DIOL: a model for human dermal absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifenrath, William G; Olson, James J; Vedula, Usha; Osimitz, Thomas G

    2009-01-01

    p-Menthane-3,8-diol(38DIOL) was recently introduced as a natural topical insect repellent in the commercial product "OFF! Botanicals" lotion. The objective of this study was to provide an estimate of the potential for 38DIOL systemic absorption in humans. Carbon-14-labeled 38DIOL formulated in the lotion and in an ethanol solution was applied to excised pig skin in an in vitro flow-through test system predictive of skin absorption in humans. Twenty-four hours after application, radiolabel recovered from the dermis and receptor fluid was summed to determine percent absorption. At a dose of approximately 80 microg/cm(2) of 38DIOL in the lotion, a value of 3.5 +/- 0.8% of applied dose was obtained with pig skin. The corresponding value for 38DIOL in ethanol (90 microg/cm(2)) was not significantly different (3.0 +/- 1.2%). Most of the applied dose of 38DIOL was found to evaporate from pig skin (77 +/- 8% for the lotion and 87 +/- 1% for ethanol solution), thus limiting percutaneous absorption values. For reference purposes, the pig skin absorptions of piperonyl butoxide (PBO) at 100 microg/cm(2) in isopropanol, N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) at 500 microg/cm(2) in ethanol, and neat isododecane at 650 microg/cm(2) (in order of increasing volatility) were 15 +/- 6%, 23 +/- 3%, and 0.09 +/- 0.05% of applied dose respectively. Isododecane was lost almost exclusively from the skin surface by evaporation. For additional reference, absorptions of PBO, DEET, and 38DIOL were found to be higher with excised rat skin. PMID:19557607

  11. Healthy Skin Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your health, talk to your doctor or a physical therapist to find out what kinds of activities are ... the treatment of diseases of the skin. Follicle (FALL-lick-el). The opening in the skin where ...

  12. Dry Skin Relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources Meet our partners Español Donate Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases Cosmetic treatments Dry / sweaty skin Eczema / dermatitis Hair and scalp ...

  13. CSD skin test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003385.htm CSD skin test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The cat scratch disease (CSD) skin test was once used to help ...

  14. Squamous cell skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... earliest form of squamous cell cancer is called Bowen disease (or squamous cell carcinoma in situ). This type ... cancer; Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin Images Bowen's disease on the hand Keratoacanthoma Keratoacanthoma Skin cancer, squamous ...

  15. Skin lesion KOH exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... KOH exam is a test to diagnose a fungal infection of the skin . How the Test is Performed ... Performed This test is done to diagnose a fungal infection of the skin. Normal Results No fungus is ...

  16. Stages of Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells than in normal cells. For skin cancer, laser light is shined onto the skin and the drug becomes active and kills the cancer cells. Photodynamic therapy causes little damage to healthy tissue. Biologic therapy ...

  17. Skin Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells than in normal cells. For skin cancer, laser light is shined onto the skin and the drug becomes active and kills the cancer cells. Photodynamic therapy causes little damage to healthy tissue. Biologic therapy ...

  18. Skin Cancer Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Skin Cancer Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Cervical Colorectal (Colon) Lung Ovarian Prostate Cancer Home Skin Cancer Trends Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ...

  19. Microbiome and skin diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeuwen, P.L.; Kleerebezem, M.; Timmerman, H.M.; Schalkwijk, J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review: This article reviews recent findings on the skin microbiome. It provides an update on the current understanding of the role of microbiota in healthy skin and in inflammatory and allergic skin diseases. Recent findings: Advances in computing and high-throughput sequencing technolog

  20. Microbiome and skin diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeuwen, P.L.J.M.; Kleerebezem, M.; Timmerman, H.M.; Schalkwijk, J.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews recent findings on the skin microbiome. It provides an update on the current understanding of the role of microbiota in healthy skin and in inflammatory and allergic skin diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in computing and high-throughput sequencing technolog

  1. Psychoneuroimmunology and the Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeyman, Juan F

    2016-08-23

    The nervous, immune, endocrine and integumentary systems are closely related and interact in a number of normal and pathological conditions. Nervous system mediators may bring about direct changes to the skin or may induce the release of immunological or hormonal mediators that cause pathological changes to the skin. This article reviews the psychological mechanisms involved in the development of skin diseases.

  2. Skin self-exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin cancer - self-exam; Melanoma - self-exam; Basal cell cancer - self-exam; Squamous cell - self-exam; Skin mole - self-exam ... Experts do not agree on whether or not skin self-exams should be performed. So there is ...

  3. Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    No matter if your skin is light, dark, or somewhere in between, everyone is at risk for skin cancer. Learn what skin cancer looks like, how to find it early, and how to lower the chance of skin cancer.

  4. What Is Melanoma Skin Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... statistics for melanoma skin cancer What is melanoma skin cancer? Cancer starts when cells in the body begin ... causing the skin to tan or darken. Melanoma skin cancers Melanoma is a cancer that begins in the ...

  5. Pursuing prosthetic electronic skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chortos, Alex; Liu, Jia; Bao, Zhenan

    2016-09-01

    Skin plays an important role in mediating our interactions with the world. Recreating the properties of skin using electronic devices could have profound implications for prosthetics and medicine. The pursuit of artificial skin has inspired innovations in materials to imitate skin's unique characteristics, including mechanical durability and stretchability, biodegradability, and the ability to measure a diversity of complex sensations over large areas. New materials and fabrication strategies are being developed to make mechanically compliant and multifunctional skin-like electronics, and improve brain/machine interfaces that enable transmission of the skin's signals into the body. This Review will cover materials and devices designed for mimicking the skin's ability to sense and generate biomimetic signals. PMID:27376685

  6. Pursuing prosthetic electronic skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chortos, Alex; Liu, Jia; Bao, Zhenan

    2016-09-01

    Skin plays an important role in mediating our interactions with the world. Recreating the properties of skin using electronic devices could have profound implications for prosthetics and medicine. The pursuit of artificial skin has inspired innovations in materials to imitate skin's unique characteristics, including mechanical durability and stretchability, biodegradability, and the ability to measure a diversity of complex sensations over large areas. New materials and fabrication strategies are being developed to make mechanically compliant and multifunctional skin-like electronics, and improve brain/machine interfaces that enable transmission of the skin's signals into the body. This Review will cover materials and devices designed for mimicking the skin's ability to sense and generate biomimetic signals.

  7. Photoreactivation in bacteria and in skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, B M

    1980-01-01

    In many procaryotic and eucaryotic cells, photoreactivating enzyme mediates light-dependent repair of uv-induced damage; the enzyme binds to a pyrimidine dimer in DNA, and, on absorption of a photon (300 to 600 nm), specifically monomerizes the dimer, thus repairing the DNA. Photoreactivating enzyme has been found in human tissues and human cells in culture can photoreactivate cellular dimers, and can mediate photoreactivation of Herpes (human fibroblasts) and Epstein-Barr virus (human leukocytes). Measurements of pyrimidine dimer formation and repair in human skin indicate that detectable numbers of dimers are formed at 1 minimal erythemal dose, that the dimiers are rapidly removed in skin kept in the absence of light, and they are more rapidly removed when the skin is exposed to visible light. Whether this apparent photorecovery is true, enzymatic photoreactivation is yet to be determined.

  8. [Assessment of ultraviolet radiation penetration into human skin. I. Theoretical analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cader, A; Jankowski, J

    1995-01-01

    This is one of the two articles under the same title "Assessment of ultraviolet radiation penetrating into human skin" which are aimed at presenting a part of broader studies in this area. They drive at identifying biophysical aspects of the effects of ultraviolet radiation on human skin. In order to characterise such parameters as UV reflectance from the skin surface of UV absorption and dispersion coefficients, it is necessary to develop appropriate methods. In Part I--"Theoretical analysis", theoretical principles for interpreting measurements of radiation dispersed in different geometrical configurations are presented. They can serve as a basis for estimating the values of UV linear absorption and dispersion coefficients in skin tissues.

  9. D-xylose absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003606.htm D-xylose absorption To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. D-xylose absorption is a laboratory test to determine ...

  10. Assessing the Impact of Mechanical Damage on Full-Thickness Porcine and Human Skin Using an In Vitro Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hinda Dabboue; Nicolas Builles; Éric Frouin; Dan Scott; Jeanne Ramos; Gilberte Marti-Mestres

    2015-01-01

    For most xenobiotics, the rates of percutaneous absorption are limited by diffusion through the horny layer of skin. However, percutaneous absorption of chemicals may seriously increase when the skin is damaged. The aim of this work was to develop an in vitro representative model of mechanically damaged skins. The epidermal barrier was examined following exposure to a razor, a rotating brush, and a microneedle system in comparison to tape-stripping which acted as a reference. Excised full-thi...

  11. Calcium absorption and achlorhydria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defective absorption of calcium has been thought to exist in patients with achlorhydria. The author compared absorption of calcium in its carbonate form with that in a pH-adjusted citrate form in a group of 11 fasting patients with achlorhydria and in 9 fasting normal subjects. Fractional calcium absorption was measured by a modified double-isotope procedure with 0.25 g of calcium used as the carrier. Mean calcium absorption (+/- S.D.) in the patients with achlorhydria was 0.452 +/- 0.125 for citrate and 0.042 +/- 0.021 for carbonate (P less than 0.0001). Fractional calcium absorption in the normal subjects was 0.243 +/- 0.049 for citrate and 0.225 +/- 0.108 for carbonate (not significant). Absorption of calcium from carbonate in patients with achlorhydria was significantly lower than in the normal subjects and was lower than absorption from citrate in either group; absorption from citrate in those with achlorhydria was significantly higher than in the normal subjects, as well as higher than absorption from carbonate in either group. Administration of calcium carbonate as part of a normal breakfast resulted in completely normal absorption in the achlorhydric subjects. These results indicate that calcium absorption from carbonate is impaired in achlorhydria under fasting conditions. Since achlorhydria is common in older persons, calcium carbonate may not be the ideal dietary supplement

  12. Archaea on human skin

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander J Probst; Auerbach, Anna K.; Christine Moissl-Eichinger

    2013-01-01

    The recent era of exploring the human microbiome has provided valuable information on microbial inhabitants, beneficials and pathogens. Screening efforts based on DNA sequencing identified thousands of bacterial lineages associated with human skin but provided only incomplete and crude information on Archaea. Here, we report for the first time the quantification and visualization of Archaea from human skin. Based on 16 S rRNA gene copies Archaea comprised up to 4.2% of the prokaryotic skin mi...

  13. Skin tribology: Science friction?

    OpenAIRE

    Heide, van der, M.; X. Zeng; Masen, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    The application of tribological knowledge is not just restricted to optimizing mechanical and chemical engineering problems. In fact, effective solutions to friction and wear related questions can be found in our everyday life. An important part is related to skin tribology, as the human skin is frequently one of the interacting surfaces in relative motion. People seem to solve these problems related to skin friction based upon a trial-and-error strategy and based upon on our sense for touch....

  14. Skin Images Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali E. Zaart

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Image segmentation is a fundamental step in many applications of image processing. Skin cancer has been the most common of all new cancers detected each year. At early stage detection of skin cancer, simple and economic treatment can cure it mostly. An accurate segmentation of skin images can help the diagnosis to define well the region of the cancer. The principal approach of segmentation is based on thresholding (classification that is lied to the problem of the thresholds estimation. Approach: The objective of this study is to develop a method to segment the skin images based on a mixture of Beta distributions. We assume that the data in skin images can be modeled by a mixture of Beta distributions. We used an unsupervised learning technique with Beta distribution to estimate the statistical parameters of the data in skin image and then estimate the thresholds for segmentation. Results: The proposed method of skin images segmentation was implemented and tested on different skin images. We obtained very good results in comparing with the same techniques with Gamma distribution. Conclusion: The experiment showed that the proposed method obtained very good results but it requires more testing on different types of skin images.

  15. Neuromodulators for Aging Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skin Rejuvenation Soft-tissue Fillers Combination: Soft-tissue Fillers and Neuromodulators Neuromodulators – wrinkle-relaxing injections of botulinum toxin commercially known as Botox, Dysport ...

  16. An elastic second skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Betty; Kang, Soo-Young; Akthakul, Ariya; Ramadurai, Nithin; Pilkenton, Morgan; Patel, Alpesh; Nashat, Amir; Anderson, Daniel G.; Sakamoto, Fernanda H.; Gilchrest, Barbara A.; Anderson, R. Rox; Langer, Robert

    2016-08-01

    We report the synthesis and application of an elastic, wearable crosslinked polymer layer (XPL) that mimics the properties of normal, youthful skin. XPL is made of a tunable polysiloxane-based material that can be engineered with specific elasticity, contractility, adhesion, tensile strength and occlusivity. XPL can be topically applied, rapidly curing at the skin interface without the need for heat- or light-mediated activation. In a pilot human study, we examined the performance of a prototype XPL that has a tensile modulus matching normal skin responses at low strain (skin barrier function, pharmaceutical delivery and wound dressings.

  17. 光动力疗法治疗鲜红斑痣的基础研究 ——血啉甲醚与血卟啉衍生物吸收特性的比较%Absorptive Characteristics of HMME and HpD in Chicken Comb Skin and Vascular Endothelial Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘凡光; 顾瑛; 富秋涛; 潘玉明; 李峻亨

    2001-01-01

    Objective Port wine stain (PWS) is a congenital vascular malformatio n of capillaries in the superficial layers of the skin. A new photosensitiz er, Hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether(HMME), has been used for photodynamic thera py of PWS. But the absorptive characteristics of HMME in vascular endothelial ce ll (EC) are still unknown. The purpose of this study is to provide a basis for p hotodynamic therapy using HMME. Methods 12 Leghorn chickens were divided into 2 groups and HMME or H pD were injected intravenously at a dose of 10 mg/kg. The blood and comb skin s ample were taken at 10 min intervals after injection. Human vascular endothelia l cells (EC) were cultured and HMME or HpD were added into culture medium in different concentration. Then, EC were incubated for different time. The content s of HMME or HpD in blood, comb skin and EC samples were measured by using spect rofluorophotometer. Results The blood clearance of HMME and HpD were rapid and similar. But the content of HMME in comb skin was significantly higher than that of HpD ( P<0.01), especially in 10, 20, 30 min after injection. HMME and HpD can be absorbed rapidly by EC and 89% of the uptake peak value were reached at 30 min after incubation. The uptake quantities of HMME and HpD w ere positively related with their incubating concentrations and the mean value o f HMME absorbed by EC was 155% higher than that of HpD (P <0.01). Conclusions HMME can be absorbed by EC of vascular network more rapidly and easely than HpD. This is advantageous to photodynamic therapy of PWS .%目的 观察新型光敏剂——血啉甲醚(HMME)在鸡冠皮肤组织和血管内皮细胞(EC )的吸收特点。 方法 莱亨鸡12只,分为HMME组和血卟啉衍生物(HpD)组,每组6只。分别静脉 注射HMME或HpD 10 mg/kg,每隔10 min取血2.5 ml 和鸡冠皮肤组织2.5 g。培养新生儿脐带EC,培养液中加入HMME或HpD,孵育浓度分 别为20、40、60、80和100 μg

  18. Variability of calcium absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variability in calcium absorption was estimated in three groups of normal subjects in whom Ca absorption was measured by standard isotopic-tracer methods at interstudy intervals ranging from 1 to 4 mo. Fifty absorption tests were performed in 22 subjects. Each was done in the morning after an overnight fast with an identical standard breakfast containing a Ca load of approximately 250 mg. Individual fractional absorption values were normalized to permit pooling of the data. The coefficient of variation (CVs) for absorption for the three groups ranged from 10.57 to 12.79% with the size of the CV increasing with interstudy duration. One other published study presenting replicate absorption values was analyzed in a similar fashion and was found to have a CV of absorption of 9.78%. From these data we estimate that when the standard double-isotope method is used to measure Ca absorption there is approximately 10% variability around any given absorption value within an individual human subject and that roughly two-thirds of this represents real biological variability in absorption

  19. Shark skin: function in locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, S A; Vosburgh, F; Hebrank, J H

    1978-11-17

    Hydrostatic pressure under the skin of sharks varies with swimming speed. Stress in the skin varies with the internal pressure, and the skin stress controls skin stiffness. Locomotory muscles attach to the skin which is thus a whole-body exotendon whose mechanical advantage in transmitting muscular contraction is greater than that of the endoskeleton. PMID:17807247

  20. Skin Diseases: Skin and Sun—Not a good mix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Skin and Sun —Not a good mix Past Issues / ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Good skin care begins with sun safety. Whether it is ...

  1. Deformable skinning on bones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bent Dalgaard; Petersen, Kim Steen; Jakobsen, Bjarke

    2001-01-01

    Applying skin to a model is a relatively simple task to implement. Nonetheless it seems that no good resource exists that describes both the concepts and math necessary to understand and implement skinning. The intention of this article is an attempt to give a thoroughly description of the theore...

  2. Cobalt Oxide Nanoparticles: Behavior towards Intact and Impaired Human Skin and Keratinocytes Toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Marcella Mauro; Matteo Crosera; Marco Pelin; Chiara Florio; Francesca Bellomo; Gianpiero Adami; Piero Apostoli; Giuseppe Palma; Massimo Bovenzi; Marco Campanini; Francesca Larese Filon

    2015-01-01

    Skin absorption and toxicity on keratinocytes of cobalt oxide nanoparticles (Co3O4NPs) have been investigated. Co3O4NPs are commonly used in industrial products and biomedicine. There is evidence that these nanoparticles can cause membrane damage and genotoxicity in vitro, but no data are available on their skin absorption and cytotoxicity on keratinocytes. Two independent 24 h in vitro experiments were performed using Franz diffusion cells, using intact (experiment 1) and needle-abraded huma...

  3. Percutaneous absorption of methimazole: an in vitro study of the absorption pharmacokinetics for two different vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, K E; Mills, P C; Jones, B R; Bolwell, C F; Aberdein, D; Chambers, J P

    2015-12-01

    The use of transdermal medications in cats has become popular in veterinary medicine due to the ease of administration compared to oral medication. However, the research to support systemic absorption of drugs applied to the pinna after transdermal administration in cats is limited. The aim of this study was to characterize the percutaneous absorption pharmacokinetics of methimazole in a lipophilic vehicle compared to methimazole in Pluronic(®) lecithin organogel (PLO) using a finite dose applied to feline ear skin in an in vitro Franz cell model. The two formulations of methimazole (10 mg) were applied to the inner stratum corneum of six pairs of feline ears. The receptor medium was sampled up to 30 h post-administration, and methimazole concentrations were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Histological examination of all ears was undertaken as small differences in the thickness of ear skin may have contributed to inter-individual differences in methimazole absorption between six cats. Methimazole was absorbed more completely across the pinnal skin when administered in the lipophilic vehicle compared to administration in the PLO gel (P < 0.001).

  4. Infrared spectroscopic measurement of skin hydration and sebum levels and comparison to corneometer and sebumeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezerskaia, Anna; Pereira, S. F.; Urbach, H. P.; Varghese, Babu

    2016-05-01

    Skin health characterized by a system of water and lipids in Stratum Corneum provide protection from harmful external elements and prevent trans-epidermal water loss. Skin hydration (moisture) and sebum (skin surface lipids) are considered to be important factors in skin health; a right balance between these components is an indication of skin health and plays a central role in protecting and preserving skin integrity. In this manuscript we present an infrared spectroscopic method for simultaneous and quantitative measurement of skin hydration and sebum levels utilizing differential detection with three wavelengths 1720, 1750, and 1770 nm, corresponding to the lipid vibrational bands that lie "in between" the prominent water absorption bands. The skin sebum and hydration values on the forehead under natural conditions and its variations to external stimuli were measured using our experimental set-up. The experimental results obtained with the optical set-up show good correlation with the results obtained with the commercially available instruments Corneometer and Sebumeter.

  5. Bionanomaterials for skin regeneration

    CERN Document Server

    Leonida, Mihaela D

    2016-01-01

    This book gives a concise overview of bionanomaterials with applications for skin regeneration. The advantages and challenges of nanoscale materials are covered in detail, giving a basic view of the skin structure and conditions that require transdermal or topical applications. Medical applications, such as wound healing, care for burns, skin disease, and cosmetic care, such as aging of the skin and photodamage, and how they benefit from bionanomaterials, are described in detail. A final chapter is devoted to the ethical and social issues related to the use of bionanomaterials for skin regeneration. This is an ideal book for researchers in materials science, medical scientists specialized in dermatology, and cosmetic chemists working in formulations. It can also serve as a reference for nanotechnologists, dermatologists, microbiologists, engineers, and polymer chemists, as well as students studying in these fields.

  6. Comparative in vitro-in vivo percutaneous absorption of the pesticide propoxur

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Meuling, W.J.A.; Elliott, G.R.; Cnubben, N.H.P.; Hakkert, B.C.

    2000-01-01

    In vitro and in vivo skin absorption of the pesticide propoxur (2-isopropoxyphenyl N-methyl carbamate, commercially Baygon(TM) and Unden(TM); log Po/w 1.56, MW 209.2) was investigated. In vivo studies were performed in rats and human volunteers, applying the test compound to the dorsal skin and the

  7. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... Photo: AP Photo/Herald-Mail, Kevin G. Gilbert Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common form of ...

  8. Effects of industrial detergents on the barrier function of human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, G D; Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Andersen, Klaus Ejner;

    2000-01-01

    Detergents are involved in the causation of contact dermatitis and in promoting percutaneous absorption of toxic chemicals, but limited information is available to allow an assessment of their relative effects on the skin barrier function. The effect of detergents on skin permeability to water an...

  9. Interactions of skin thickness and physicochemical properties of test compounds in percutaneous penetration studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkinson, S.C.; Maas, W.J.M.; Nielsen, J.B.; Greaves, L.C.; Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Williams, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the effect of skin thickness on the percutaneous penetration and distribution of test compounds with varying physicochemical properties using in vitro systems. Studies were carried out in accordance with OECD guidelines on skin absorption tests. Methods: Percutaneous penetra

  10. Skin and Psyche : Diversionary Symbiosis

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, YK; Sudarsanan, S.; Bhatnagar, A

    2005-01-01

    A significant proportion of patients with skin diseases have associated psychosocial factors. Not only does psychopathology manifest on the skin in absence of any real skin disease, primary skin disorders can also be exacerbated by emotional stress adversely influencing the homeostasis of immunological and inflammatory processes in deeper layers of the skin. Furthermore, many patients develop emotional problems as a result of having disfiguring skin diseases. In addition, some patients having...

  11. Skin delivery by block copolymer nanoparticles (block copolymer micelles).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laredj-Bourezg, Faiza; Bolzinger, Marie-Alexandrine; Pelletier, Jocelyne; Valour, Jean-Pierre; Rovère, Marie-Rose; Smatti, Batoule; Chevalier, Yves

    2015-12-30

    Block copolymer nanoparticles often referred to as "block copolymer micelles" have been assessed as carriers for skin delivery of hydrophobic drugs. Such carriers are based on organic biocompatible and biodegradable materials loaded with hydrophobic drugs: poly(lactide)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) copolymer (PLA-b-PEG) nanoparticles that have a solid hydrophobic core made of glassy poly(d,l-lactide), and poly(caprolactone)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) copolymer (PCL-b-PEG) nanoparticles having a liquid core of polycaprolactone. In vitro skin absorption of all-trans retinol showed a large accumulation of retinol in stratum corneum from both block copolymer nanoparticles, higher by a factor 20 than Polysorbate 80 surfactant micelles and by a factor 80 than oil solution. Additionally, skin absorption from PLA-b-PEG nanoparticles was higher by one order of magnitude than PCL-b-PEG, although their sizes (65nm) and external surface (water-swollen PEG layer) were identical as revealed by detailed structural characterizations. Fluorescence microscopy of histological skin sections provided a non-destructive picture of the storage of Nile Red inside stratum corneum, epidermis and dermis. Though particle cores had a different physical states (solid or liquid as measured by (1)H NMR), the ability of nanoparticles for solubilization of the drug assessed from their Hildebrand solubility parameters appeared the parameter of best relevance regarding skin absorption.

  12. Skin Picking Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Cetinay Aydin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Skin picking disorder is not a dermatological disorder and it is a table characterized with picking skin excessively and repetitively, leading to damage in skin tissue. Unlike normal picking behaviour, psychogenic skin picking is repetitive and it can lead to severe damage in the skin and even complications which constitute vital danger. While some patients define frequent but short lasting picking attacks, others define rarer attacks which last a few hours. Skin picking disorder, which is not included in the classification systems up to DSM-5 as a separate diagnosis category, is included as an independent diagnosis in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and Associated Disorders category in DSM-5. In case reports, open label studies and double blind studies selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are shown to be effective in the treatment of skin picking disorder. Mostly, cognitive-behaviourial techniques are used and have been proven to be useful in psychotherapy. Habit reversal is one of the behaviourial techniques which are frequently applied, give positive results in which well-being state can be maintained. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(4.000: 401-428

  13. Skin and antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljsak, Borut; Dahmane, Raja; Godic, Aleksandar

    2013-04-01

    It is estimated that total sun exposure occurs non-intentionally in three quarters of our lifetimes. Our skin is exposed to majority of UV radiation during outdoor activities, e.g. walking, practicing sports, running, hiking, etc. and not when we are intentionally exposed to the sun on the beach. We rarely use sunscreens during those activities, or at least not as much and as regular as we should and are commonly prone to acute and chronic sun damage of the skin. The only protection of our skin is endogenous (synthesis of melanin and enzymatic antioxidants) and exogenous (antioxidants, which we consume from the food, like vitamins A, C, E, etc.). UV-induced photoaging of the skin becomes clinically evident with age, when endogenous antioxidative mechanisms and repair processes are not effective any more and actinic damage to the skin prevails. At this point it would be reasonable to ingest additional antioxidants and/or to apply them on the skin in topical preparations. We review endogenous and exogenous skin protection with antioxidants.

  14. Archaea on human skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J Probst

    Full Text Available The recent era of exploring the human microbiome has provided valuable information on microbial inhabitants, beneficials and pathogens. Screening efforts based on DNA sequencing identified thousands of bacterial lineages associated with human skin but provided only incomplete and crude information on Archaea. Here, we report for the first time the quantification and visualization of Archaea from human skin. Based on 16 S rRNA gene copies Archaea comprised up to 4.2% of the prokaryotic skin microbiome. Most of the gene signatures analyzed belonged to the Thaumarchaeota, a group of Archaea we also found in hospitals and clean room facilities. The metabolic potential for ammonia oxidation of the skin-associated Archaea was supported by the successful detection of thaumarchaeal amoA genes in human skin samples. However, the activity and possible interaction with human epithelial cells of these associated Archaea remains an open question. Nevertheless, in this study we provide evidence that Archaea are part of the human skin microbiome and discuss their potential for ammonia turnover on human skin.

  15. Occupational skin cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawkrodger, D.J. [Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield (United Kingdom). Dept. of Dermatology

    2004-10-01

    Skin cancer due to occupation is more common than is generally recognized, although it is difficult to obtain an accurate estimate of its prevalence. Over the past two centuries, occupational skin cancers have particularly been due to industrial exposure of men (it seems more so than women) to chemical carcinogens such as polycyclic hydrocarbons (e.g. from coal tar products) or to arsenic. Industrial processes have improved in most Western countries to limit this type of exposure, but those with outdoor occupations are still exposed to solar ultraviolet irradiation without this being widely recognized as an industrial hazard. Ionizing radiation such as X-rays can also cause skin cancer. Occupational skin cancers often resemble skin tumours found in non-occupational subjects, e.g. basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma, but some pre-malignant lesions can be more specific and point to an occupational origin, e.g. tar keratoses or arsenical keratoses. An uncommon but well-recognized cause of occupational skin cancer is that which results from scar formation following an industrial burn. In the future it will be necessary to focus on preventative measures, e.g. for outdoor workers, the need to cover up in the sun and use sun protective creams and a campaign for earlier recognition of skin cancers, which are usually curable if treated in their early stages.

  16. Nutrition and magnesium absorption.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, E.J.

    1992-01-01

    The influence of various nutrients present in dairy products and soybean-based products on absorption of magnesium has been investigated. The studies demonstrate that soybean protein versus casein lowers apparent magnesium absorption in rats through its phytate component. However, true magnesium abs

  17. Ultrasound skin tightening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkis, Kira; Alam, Murad

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound skin tightening is a noninvasive, nonablative method that allows for energy deposition into the deep dermal and subcutaneous tissue while avoiding epidermal heating. Ultrasound coagulation is confined to arrays of 1-mm(3) zones that include the superficial musculoaponeurotic system and connective tissue. This technology gained approval from the Food and Drug Administration as the first energy-based skin "lifting" device, specifically for lifting lax tissue on the neck, submentum, and eyebrows. Ultrasound has the unique advantage of direct visualization of treated structures during treatment. Ultrasound is a safe and efficacious treatment for mild skin tightening and lifting.

  18. Skin strain and its influence on systemic exposure to a glycol ether in offset printing workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korinth, G; Göen, T; Lakemeyer, M; Broding, H C; Drexler, H

    2003-11-01

    Under workplace conditions, it is difficult to prove the influence of skin lesions on skin penetration by chemical substances. The aim of the present study was to show whether systemic exposure to glycol ether increases due to lesions of the skin in printing workers. 28 male printers, exposed to 2-(2-butoxyethoxy)ethanol (BEE), were interviewed about the workplace exposure by a standardized questionnaire. The systemic exposure in printers was determined by biological monitoring of the main metabolite of BEE butoxyethoxyacetic acid (BEAA) in urine. Furthermore, clinical examination of the skin, transepidermal water loss, capacitance and skin surface pH measurements were carried out. Erythema and scaliness were the most important factors showing an effect on dermal absorption. The mean urinary BEAA excretions for printers with skin lesions on the hands were higher (20.62 mg/l for scaliness and 14.40 mg/l for erythema) compared to that for printers without detectable skin lesions (12.08 mg/l for scaliness and 13.03 mg/l for erythema). Bioengineering measurements to predict skin strain and percutaneous absorption were only supportive. We were able to show that by using a multiple spectrum of methods an enhancement of percutaneous absorption of BEE could be demonstrated in workers with skin lesions.

  19. Probing skin interaction with hydrogen peroxide using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zonios, George [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Dimou, Aikaterini [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Galaris, Dimitrios [Laboratory of Biological Chemistry, School of Medicine, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece)

    2008-01-07

    Hydrogen peroxide is an important oxidizing agent in biological systems. In dermatology, it is frequently used as topical antiseptic, it has a haemostatic function, it can cause skin blanching, and it can facilitate skin tanning. In this work, we investigated skin interaction with hydrogen peroxide, non-invasively, using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. We observed transient changes in the oxyhaemoglobin and deoxyhaemoglobin concentrations as a result of topical application of dilute H{sub 2}O{sub 2} solutions to the skin, with changes in deoxyhaemoglobin concentration being more pronounced. Furthermore, we did not observe any appreciable changes in melanin absorption properties as well as in the skin scattering properties. We also found no evidence for production of oxidized haemoglobin forms. Our observations are consistent with an at least partial decomposition of hydrogen peroxide within the stratum corneum and epidermis, with the resulting oxygen and/or remaining hydrogen peroxide inducing vasoconstriction to dermal blood vessels and increasing haemoglobin oxygen saturation. An assessment of the effects of topical application of hydrogen peroxide to the skin may serve as the basis for the development of non-invasive techniques to measure skin antioxidant capacity and also may shed light onto skin related disorders such as vitiligo.

  20. Probing skin interaction with hydrogen peroxide using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonios, George; Dimou, Aikaterini; Galaris, Dimitrios

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide is an important oxidizing agent in biological systems. In dermatology, it is frequently used as topical antiseptic, it has a haemostatic function, it can cause skin blanching, and it can facilitate skin tanning. In this work, we investigated skin interaction with hydrogen peroxide, non-invasively, using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. We observed transient changes in the oxyhaemoglobin and deoxyhaemoglobin concentrations as a result of topical application of dilute H2O2 solutions to the skin, with changes in deoxyhaemoglobin concentration being more pronounced. Furthermore, we did not observe any appreciable changes in melanin absorption properties as well as in the skin scattering properties. We also found no evidence for production of oxidized haemoglobin forms. Our observations are consistent with an at least partial decomposition of hydrogen peroxide within the stratum corneum and epidermis, with the resulting oxygen and/or remaining hydrogen peroxide inducing vasoconstriction to dermal blood vessels and increasing haemoglobin oxygen saturation. An assessment of the effects of topical application of hydrogen peroxide to the skin may serve as the basis for the development of non-invasive techniques to measure skin antioxidant capacity and also may shed light onto skin related disorders such as vitiligo.

  1. Probing skin interaction with hydrogen peroxide using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen peroxide is an important oxidizing agent in biological systems. In dermatology, it is frequently used as topical antiseptic, it has a haemostatic function, it can cause skin blanching, and it can facilitate skin tanning. In this work, we investigated skin interaction with hydrogen peroxide, non-invasively, using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. We observed transient changes in the oxyhaemoglobin and deoxyhaemoglobin concentrations as a result of topical application of dilute H2O2 solutions to the skin, with changes in deoxyhaemoglobin concentration being more pronounced. Furthermore, we did not observe any appreciable changes in melanin absorption properties as well as in the skin scattering properties. We also found no evidence for production of oxidized haemoglobin forms. Our observations are consistent with an at least partial decomposition of hydrogen peroxide within the stratum corneum and epidermis, with the resulting oxygen and/or remaining hydrogen peroxide inducing vasoconstriction to dermal blood vessels and increasing haemoglobin oxygen saturation. An assessment of the effects of topical application of hydrogen peroxide to the skin may serve as the basis for the development of non-invasive techniques to measure skin antioxidant capacity and also may shed light onto skin related disorders such as vitiligo

  2. Spiritual and religious aspects of skin and skin disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenefelt PD

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Philip D Shenefelt,1 Debrah A Shenefelt2 1Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of South Florida, Tampa, 2Congregation Or Ahavah, Lutz, FL, USA Abstract: Skin and skin disorders have had spiritual aspects since ancient times. Skin, hair, and nails are visible to self and others, and touchable by self and others. The skin is a major sensory organ. Skin also expresses emotions detectable by others through pallor, coldness, "goose bumps", redness, warmth, or sweating. Spiritual and religious significances of skin are revealed through how much of the skin has been and continues to be covered with what types of coverings, scalp and beard hair cutting, shaving and styling, skin, nail, and hair coloring and decorating, tattooing, and intentional scarring of skin. Persons with visible skin disorders have often been stigmatized or even treated as outcasts. Shamans and other spiritual and religious healers have brought about healing of skin disorders through spiritual means. Spiritual and religious interactions with various skin disorders such as psoriasis, leprosy, and vitiligo are discussed. Religious aspects of skin and skin diseases are evaluated for several major religions, with a special focus on Judaism, both conventional and kabbalistic. Keywords: skin, skin disorders, spiritual, religious

  3. Skin Diseases: Cross-section of human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Cross-section of human skin Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Logical Images, Inc. I n the areas of skin health and skin diseases, the NIH's National Institute ...

  4. Skin Allergy Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Training Grants & Awards Program Directors Practice Resources ASTHMA IQ Consultation and Referral Guidelines Practice Financial Survey Practice ... Your local allergist can do a skin prick test or blood test to find out if you ...

  5. Laser Skin Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Skin Renewal, Laser A A A BEFORE: This patient wanted the appearance of his acne scars minimized by laser treatment. Procedure Overview Photorejuvenation, simply put, is the ...

  6. Aging changes in skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... areas. Changes in the connective tissue reduce the skin's strength and elasticity. This is known as elastosis. It is more ... chemicals Indoor heating Sunlight can cause: Loss of elasticity ... growths (keratoacanthomas) Pigment changes such as liver spots ...

  7. Skin or nail culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucosal culture; Culture - skin; Culture - mucosal; Nail culture; Culture - fingernail; Fingernail culture ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria, ...

  8. Skin color - patchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as from the sun) Exposure to heavy metals Changes in hormone levels Exposure to sun or ultraviolet (UV) light, especially after taking a medicine called psoralens, may increase skin color (pigmentation). Increased ...

  9. Layers of the Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Review Abstracting, Coding, & Staging ICD-O Site Codes Morphology & Grade Extent of Disease Evaluation Physical Exam Lab ... the majority of the structure of the skin, hair, and nails. The squamous cell layer is the ...

  10. Necrotizing Skin Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Treatment Medical Dictionary Also of Interest (Quiz) Vitiligo (Video) Hives Additional Content Medical News Necrotizing Skin ... Professional Version Also of Interest Test your knowledge Vitiligo is a loss of melanocytes (cells that produce ...

  11. Fungal Skin Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skin Infections Medical Dictionary Also of Interest (Quiz) Vitiligo (Video) Hives Additional Content Medical News Overview of ... Professional Version Also of Interest Test your knowledge Vitiligo is a loss of melanocytes (cells that produce ...

  12. Human Skin Fungal Diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Findley, Keisha; OH, JULIA; Yang, Joy; Conlan, Sean; Deming, Clayton; Meyer, Jennifer A.; Schoenfeld, Deborah; Nomicos, Effie; Park, Morgan; ,; Kong, Heidi H.; Segre, Julia A

    2013-01-01

    Traditional culture-based methods have incompletely defined the etiology of common recalcitrant human fungal skin diseases including athlete’s foot and toenail infections. Skin protects humans from invasion by pathogenic microorganisms, while providing a home for diverse commensal microbiota 1 . Bacterial genomic sequence data have generated novel hypotheses about species and community structures underlying human disorders 2,3,4 . However, microbial diversity is not limited to bacteria; micro...

  13. Nicotinamide and the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Andrew C; Damian, Diona L

    2014-08-01

    Nicotinamide, an amide form of vitamin B3, boosts cellular energy and regulates poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase 1, an enzyme with important roles in DNA repair and the expression of inflammatory cytokines. Nicotinamide shows promise for the treatment of a wide range of dermatological conditions, including autoimmune blistering disorders, acne, rosacea, ageing skin and atopic dermatitis. In particular, recent studies have also shown it to be a potential agent for reducing actinic keratoses and preventing skin cancers.

  14. Mantoux Tuberculin Skin Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-11-22

    Learn how to evaluate people for latent TB infection with the Mantoux tuberculin skin test. This podcast includes sections on administering and reading the Mantoux tuberculin skin test, the standard method for detecting latent TB infection since the 1930s.  Created: 11/22/2006 by National Center for HIV, STD and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 12/12/2006.

  15. Nicotinamide and the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Andrew C; Damian, Diona L

    2014-08-01

    Nicotinamide, an amide form of vitamin B3, boosts cellular energy and regulates poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase 1, an enzyme with important roles in DNA repair and the expression of inflammatory cytokines. Nicotinamide shows promise for the treatment of a wide range of dermatological conditions, including autoimmune blistering disorders, acne, rosacea, ageing skin and atopic dermatitis. In particular, recent studies have also shown it to be a potential agent for reducing actinic keratoses and preventing skin cancers. PMID:24635573

  16. Ultraflexible organic photonic skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Tomoyuki; Zalar, Peter; Kaltenbrunner, Martin; Jinno, Hiroaki; Matsuhisa, Naoji; Kitanosako, Hiroki; Tachibana, Yutaro; Yukita, Wakako; Koizumi, Mari; Someya, Takao

    2016-04-01

    Thin-film electronics intimately laminated onto the skin imperceptibly equip the human body with electronic components for health-monitoring and information technologies. When electronic devices are worn, the mechanical flexibility and/or stretchability of thin-film devices helps to minimize the stress and discomfort associated with wear because of their conformability and softness. For industrial applications, it is important to fabricate wearable devices using processing methods that maximize throughput and minimize cost. We demonstrate ultraflexible and conformable three-color, highly efficient polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) and organic photodetectors (OPDs) to realize optoelectronic skins (oe-skins) that introduce multiple electronic functionalities such as sensing and displays on the surface of human skin. The total thickness of the devices, including the substrate and encapsulation layer, is only 3 μm, which is one order of magnitude thinner than the epidermal layer of human skin. By integrating green and red PLEDs with OPDs, we fabricate an ultraflexible reflective pulse oximeter. The device unobtrusively measures the oxygen concentration of blood when laminated on a finger. On-skin seven-segment digital displays and color indicators can visualize data directly on the body.

  17. DOSHIC PHYSIOLOGY OF SKIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivprasad Chiplunkar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The balance of dosha  represents the healthy state and imbalance will cause various diseases. In normalcy doshas will be performing their own functions and individual doshas will be having their own specific sites. By telling the various sthana of each dosha, different function that is taken up by individual dosha in different sites has been highlighted.By mentioning ‘sparshanendriyam’ as one of the sthana of vata dosha the sensory functions of skin to vata dosha has been emphasised. By mentioning ‘sparshanam’ as one of the sthana of pittadosha, the function of colouring/pigmentation of skin, which is majorly carried out  by melanocytes by secreting melanin pigment has been highlighted. Meda is one among the sthanas of kapha dosha; this can be considered as the adipose tissue of skin/below skin. Since sweda is mala of meda it can be also considered as the secretions from the eccrine glands.With respect to skin, sensory functions, both tactile and thermal is carried out by vata dosha more specifically vyana vata, pigmentation to the skin carried out by meloncytes by secreting melanin, it is nothing but function of pitta dosha more specifically brajaka pitta with the help of udana vata and finally production of sweat in sweat glands is the function of kapha. So there is the need for further study and research regarding the sthanas of all three doshas in different structures/organs in the body and its physiology.

  18. Evaluation of skin colouring properties of curcuma longa extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Arct

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the skin colouring properties of curcuma extract in cosmetic formulations. Objective measurements of the skin colour changes were done by Chromameter using the CIE LFNx01aFNx01bFNx01 colour space parameters. These measurements were correlated with the results of the sensory analysis. The observations showed permanent, visible and statistically significant changing of bFNx01 component after one application of emulsions containing 12% and 25% of turmeric extract. The change of skin color remained also after removing the emulsion. Sensory analysis indicated that the tested emulsions with curcuma extract have a significant impact on skin smoothness, spreadability, cosmetic absorption and pillow effect.

  19. Skin aging and oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    Sayeeda Ahsanuddin; Minh Lam; Baron, Elma D.

    2016-01-01

    Skin aging occurs through two main pathways, intrinsic and extrinsic. These pathways have significant interaction in contributing to the aging phenotype, which includes skin laxity, wrinkling, pigmentation irregularities, and the appearance of neoplastic skin lesions. Here, we review the critical role that oxidative stress plays in skin aging, including its effects on signaling pathways involved in skin matrix formation and degradation, proteasome activity, as well as DNA structure. Furthermo...

  20. Revisiting Absorptive Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Araújo, Ana Luiza Lara; Ulhøi, John Parm; Lettl, Christopher

    Absorptive capacity has mostly been perceived as a 'passive' outcome of R&D investments. Recently, however, a growing interest into its 'proactive' potentials has emerged. This paper taps into this development and proposes a dynamic model for conceptualizing the determinants of the complementary...... learning processes of absorptive capacity, which comprise combinative and adaptive capabilities. Drawing on survey data (n=169), the study concludes that combinative capabilities primarily enhance transformative and exploratory learning processes, while adaptive capabilities strengthen all three learning...

  1. [Cutaneous absorption of chemicals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, J

    1986-09-01

    Chemicals have become indispensible for the maintenance of health in animals and man. The route of administration of each medicament is decided by factors such as site of desired action, chemistry of the active ingredient, age and species of the patient, and frequency of administration (or desired duration of activity). In situations where the oral and hypodermic routes, which are used most frequently, are inadequate or unsatisfactory, dermal application can provide a valuable alternative method to achieve systemic activity. Examples of formulations currently available for dermal application contain diverse chemicals and are intended for a variety of purposes, such as crufomate against cattle grubs, fenthion against cattle lice, levamisole against gastrointestinal nematodes, nitroglycerine for angina pectoris, and scopolamine for motion sickness. The skin acts as a barrier to penetration by chemicals and micro-organisms by virtue of its morphology and chemical composition. Chemicals which do penetrate, do not necessarily pass through the appendages (hair follicles and gland ducts), but mostly penetrate through the interjacent epidermis, either through the cells, or via the intracellular spaces. These spaces have recently been shown by electron microscopy to be filled by an amorphous substance which exudes on the skin surface in convex ridges. This substance has a lipid nature, but is not hydrophobic as is often accepted. For a chemical to be able to penetrate the skin, it must be partially water and lipid soluble, polar, and weakly ionizing. A variety of factors can possibly affect the permeability of skin for a chemical. These include species differences in morphology (skin thickness, tightness of intercellular junctions, density of hair follicles and other appendages), biochemistry, and physiology; seasonal and climatic variations; and differences between breeds and genders. Species differences in skin permeability are largely unpredictable and inconsistent. An

  2. Spiritual and religious aspects of skin and skin disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenefelt, Philip D; Shenefelt, Debrah A

    2014-01-01

    Skin and skin disorders have had spiritual aspects since ancient times. Skin, hair, and nails are visible to self and others, and touchable by self and others. The skin is a major sensory organ. Skin also expresses emotions detectable by others through pallor, coldness, “goose bumps”, redness, warmth, or sweating. Spiritual and religious significances of skin are revealed through how much of the skin has been and continues to be covered with what types of coverings, scalp and beard hair cutting, shaving and styling, skin, nail, and hair coloring and decorating, tattooing, and intentional scarring of skin. Persons with visible skin disorders have often been stigmatized or even treated as outcasts. Shamans and other spiritual and religious healers have brought about healing of skin disorders through spiritual means. Spiritual and religious interactions with various skin disorders such as psoriasis, leprosy, and vitiligo are discussed. Religious aspects of skin and skin diseases are evaluated for several major religions, with a special focus on Judaism, both conventional and kabbalistic. PMID:25120377

  3. Seven-effect absorption refrigeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVault, Robert C.; Biermann, Wendell J.

    1989-01-01

    A seven-effect absorption refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three absorption circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium absorption circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high absorption circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high absorption circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low absorption circuit.

  4. Novel biodegradable porous scaffold applied to skin regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Min Wang

    Full Text Available Skin wound healing is an important lifesaving issue for massive lesions. A novel porous scaffold with collagen, hyaluronic acid and gelatin was developed for skin wound repair. The swelling ratio of this developed scaffold was assayed by water absorption capacity and showed a value of over 20 g water/g dried scaffold. The scaffold was then degraded in time- and dose-dependent manners by three enzymes: lysozyme, hyaluronidase and collagenase I. The average pore diameter of the scaffold was 132.5±8.4 µm measured from SEM images. With human skin cells growing for 7 days, the SEM images showed surface fractures on the scaffold due to enzymatic digestion, indicating the biodegradable properties of this scaffold. To simulate skin distribution, the human epidermal keratinocytes, melanocytes and dermal fibroblasts were seeded on the porous scaffold and the cross-section immunofluorescent staining demonstrated normal human skin layer distributions. The collagen amount was also quantified after skin cells seeding and presented an amount 50% higher than those seeded on culture wells. The in vivo histological results showed that the scaffold ameliorated wound healing, including decreasing neutrophil infiltrates and thickening newly generated skin compared to the group without treatments.

  5. In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickwell, E [Semiconductor Physics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge University, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Cole, B E [TeraView Ltd, Unit 302/4 Cambridge Science Park, Cambridge CB4 0WG (United Kingdom); Fitzgerald, A J [TeraView Ltd, Unit 302/4 Cambridge Science Park, Cambridge CB4 0WG (United Kingdom); Pepper, M [Semiconductor Physics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge University, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Wallace, V P [TeraView Ltd, Unit 302/4 Cambridge Science Park, Cambridge CB4 0WG (United Kingdom)

    2004-05-07

    Studies in terahertz (THz) imaging have revealed a significant difference between skin cancer (basal cell carcinoma) and healthy tissue. Since water has strong absorptions at THz frequencies and tumours tend to have different water content from normal tissue, a likely contrast mechanism is variation in water content. Thus, we have previously devised a finite difference time-domain (FDTD) model which is able to closely simulate the interaction of THz radiation with water. In this work we investigate the interaction of THz radiation with normal human skin on the forearm and palm of the hand in vivo. We conduct the first ever systematic in vivo study of the response of THz radiation to normal skin. We take in vivo reflection measurements of normal skin on the forearm and palm of the hand of 20 volunteers. We compare individual examples of THz responses with the mean response for the areas of skin under investigation. Using the in vivo data, we demonstrate that the FDTD model can be applied to biological tissue. In particular, we successfully simulate the interaction of THz radiation with the volar forearm. Understanding the interaction of THz radiation with normal skin will form a step towards developing improved imaging algorithms for diagnostic detection of skin cancer and other tissue disorders using THz radiation.

  6. Mass transport model through the skin by microencapsulation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreras, Núria; Alonso, Cristina; Martí, Meritxell; Lis, Manel J

    2015-01-01

    Skin drug delivery can be subdivided into topical and transdermal administration. Transdermal administration can take advantage of chemical and physical strategies that can improve skin permeability and allow drug penetration. In this study, the development of a skin penetration profile was carried out by an in vitro technique for a microencapsulated system of ibuprofen. Release experiments were performed using percutaneous absorption tests to determine the evolution of the principle present in each of the different skin compartments as a function of time. A general kinetic model for a microencapsulated structure as a mass transport system through the skin was applied: [Formula: see text] This model could predict the penetration profile of encapsulated substances through skin from biofunctional textiles as well as estimate the dosage profile of the active principle. The apparent diffusion coefficients found were 1.20 × 10(-7 )cm/s for the stratum corneum and higher for the rest of the skin 6.67 × 10(-6 )cm/s. PMID:26004367

  7. Transdermal nicotine absorption handling e-cigarette refill liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, Giovanni; Castagnoli, Carlotta; Passini, Valter; Crosera, Matteo; Adami, Gianpiero; Mauro, Marcella; Filon, Francesca Larese

    2016-02-01

    The concentrated nicotine in e-cigarette refill liquids can be toxic if inadvertently ingested or absorbed through the skin. Reports of poisonings due to accidental ingestion of nicotine on refill liquids are rapidly increasing, while the evaluation of nicotine dermally absorbed still lacks. For that reason we studied transdermal nicotine absorption after the skin contamination with e-liquid. Donor chambers of eight Franz diffusion cells were filled with 1 mL of 0.8 mg/mL nicotine e-liquid for 24 h. The concentration of nicotine in the receiving phase was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (LOD:0.1 μg/mL). Nicotine was detectable in receiving solution 2 h after the start of exposure and increased progressively. The medium flux calculated was 4.82 ± 1.05 μg/cm(2)/h with a lag time of 3.9 ± 0.1 h. After 24 h, the nicotine concentration in the receiving compartment was 101.02 ± 22.35 μg/cm(2) corresponding to 3.04 mg of absorbed nicotine after contamination of a skin surface of 100 cm(2). Skin contamination with e-liquid can cause nicotine skin absorption: caution must be paid when handling refill e-liquids.

  8. Extreme skin depth waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Jahani, Saman

    2014-01-01

    Recently, we introduced a paradigm shift in light confinement strategy and introduced a class of extreme skin depth (e-skid) photonic structures (S. Jahani and Z. Jacob, "Transparent sub-diffraction optics: nanoscale light confinement without metal," Optica 1, 96-100 (2014)). Here, we analytically establish that figures of merit related to light confinement in dielectric waveguides are fundamentally tied to the skin depth of waves in the cladding. We contrast the propagation characteristics of the fundamental mode of e-skid waveguides and conventional waveguides to show that the decay constant in the cladding is dramatically larger in e-skid waveguides, which is the origin of sub-diffraction confinement. Finally, we propose an approach to verify the reduced skin depth in experiment using the decrease in the Goos-H\\"anchen phase shift.

  9. Epidermal skin grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Hughes, Olivia B; Macquhae, Flor; Rakosi, Adele; Kirsner, Robert

    2016-09-01

    Autologous skin grafts, such as full- and split-thickness, have long been part of the reconstructive ladder as an option to close skin defects. Although they are effective in providing coverage, they require the need for a trained surgeon, use of anaesthesia and operating room and creation of a wound at the donor site. These drawbacks can be overcome with the use of epidermal skin grafts (ESGs), which can be harvested without the use of anaesthesia in an office setting and with minimal to no scarring at the donor site. ESGs consist only of the epidermal layer and have emerged as an appealing alternative to other autologous grafts for the treatment of acute and chronic wounds. In this article, we provide an overview of epidermal grafting and its role in wound management. PMID:27547964

  10. Thyroid and skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogra Alka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The association of thyroid disorders with skin manifestations is complex. Both hypothryoidism and hyperthyroidism are known to cause these changes. In order to study this association of skin changes in relation to hypothyroidism, a study was carried out in the outpatients department of Dermatology of Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, over a period of 3 months from Jan-March 2005. Thirty two patients were enrolled in the study and parameters were noted regarding history, general symptoms, cutaneous signs and associated diseases. We found gain in weight (71.85% and lethargy (65.62% to be the most common complaints. On cutaneous examination, dry, coarse texture of the skin (56%, pigmentary disorders (37.5% and telogen effluvium (40.62% were the most common findings. Other associated disorders were vitiligo, melasma, pemphigus, alopecia areata, xanthelasma palpebrarum, etc.

  11. Sprayed skin turbine component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, David B

    2013-06-04

    Fabricating a turbine component (50) by casting a core structure (30), forming an array of pits (24) in an outer surface (32) of the core structure, depositing a transient liquid phase (TLP) material (40) on the outer surface of the core structure, the TLP containing a melting-point depressant, depositing a skin (42) on the outer surface of the core structure over the TLP material, and heating the assembly, thus forming both a diffusion bond and a mechanical interlock between the skin and the core structure. The heating diffuses the melting-point depressant away from the interface. Subsurface cooling channels (35) may be formed by forming grooves (34) in the outer surface of the core structure, filling the grooves with a fugitive filler (36), depositing and bonding the skin (42), then removing the fugitive material.

  12. Limitations of skin protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schliemann, Sibylle

    2007-01-01

    Skin protection products and gloves are essential constituents of personal protective equipment at workplaces, which can be used in a complementary way, each offering particular benefits and disadvantages. In many workplace situations, both measures are being used either in an alternating or in a combined manner, typically in professions with exposures to mild irritants and a high wet-work load, such as hairdressers, healthcare workers or employees in the food-processing industry. Skin protection creams can be used to reduce unnecessarily long glove usage in order to reduce occlusion-related effects on the skin barrier. Whenever rotating machines are used, these products are the only option due to safety regulations. However, some particular requirements can be postulated for skin-protective products claimed especially to be used in combination with gloves. Reduction of glove-induced perspiration, of stratum corneum swelling, and postocclusive barrier impairment are intended attributes of such products, which have been already successfully implemented in some commercially available products. On the other hand it has to be proven that the ingredients do not interfere with the glove material, neither in the way of degrading the material, thus making it permeable for harmful substances, nor by enhancing the potential release of rubber allergens. Examples out of the literature are reviewed showing that skin products can exhibit unpredictable effects on the allergen release of rubber materials, if not thoroughly tested for this purpose beforehand. Some raw materials should be avoided in protection products, though they are of established value when used in afterwork emollients to accelerate barrier recovery. Usage of moisturizers, in contrast to special barrier products, at the workplace together or even under gloves is therefore judged critically, although selected products showed beneficial effects in particular experimental settings. Another future option is the

  13. Skin tears: prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wick, Jeannette Y; Zanni, Guido R

    2008-07-01

    While skin tears are common among the elderly in general, and residents of long-term care facilities in particular, there has been limited research into their treatment. Many facilities voluntarily track skin tears, and some states require facilities to report these events. Risk factors include age, xerosis (abnormal eye, skin, or mouth dryness), need for help in activities of daily living, presence of senile purpura, visual impairment, and poor nutrition. Plans to prevent skin tears that employ skin sleeves, padded side rails, gentle skin cleansers, moisturizing lotions, as well as staff education, can decrease by half the number of skin tears incurred in a long-term care facility. Although the treatment process seems simple, it is time consuming and can be painful for the patient. Residents with dementia or agitation often try to remove bulky dressings used to cover skin tears. Dressing changes may injure the fragile wound via skin stripping.

  14. Intelligent skin: Real virtual

    OpenAIRE

    Bühlmann, Vera

    2006-01-01

    What will it feel like to live in a city, where houses court each other in springtime? The 'intelligent-skin' project investigates the potential of media-façades in terms of corporate communication: what does it mean to build houses out of bricks of mediality? What does it imply to say that communication literally takes place? The virtualization of housing through large sized media skins will introduce medial milieus into our urban spheres to come – they might seize to function as add-ons...

  15. Central cooling: absorptive chillers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, J.E.

    1977-08-01

    This technology evaluation covers commercially available single-effect, lithium-bromide absorption chillers ranging in nominal cooling capacities of 3 to 1,660 tons and double-effect lithium-bromide chillers from 385 to 1,060 tons. The nominal COP measured at operating conditions of 12 psig input steam for the single-effect machine, 85/sup 0/ entering condenser water, and 44/sup 0/F exiting chilled-water, ranges from 0.6 to 0.65. The nominal COP for the double-effect machine varies from 1.0 to 1.15 with 144 psig entering steam. Data are provided to estimate absorption-chiller performance at off-nominal operating conditions. The part-load performance curves along with cost estimating functions help the system design engineer select absorption equipment for a particular application based on life-cycle costs. Several suggestions are offered which may be useful for interfacing an absorption chiller with the remaining Integrated Community Energy System. The ammonia-water absorption chillers are not considered to be readily available technology for ICES application; therefore, performance and cost data on them are not included in this evaluation.

  16. About Skin-to-Skin Care (Kangaroo Care)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Preemie > About Skin- ...

  17. How to improve skin notation. Position paper from a workshop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sartorelli, Pietro; Ahlers, Heinz W; Alanko, Kristiina;

    2007-01-01

    The ICOH Scientific Committee on Occupational and Environmental Dermatoses organized an International Workshop on "Dermal risk assessment at workplace" with the aim of focussing on the different ways of approaching the concept of skin notation (S) for chemicals. The Workshop participants presented...... their ideas on several aspects of S such as the problems related to the absorption through the compromised skin, the different approaches to S and models that can be used as alternatives to S. Participants agreed to produce a position paper with the goal of exploring the actions needed to improve the S system...

  18. Coumarin derivatives, but not coumarin itself, cause skin irritation via topical delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Tai-Long; Wang, Pei-Wen; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Leu, Yann-Lii; Hung, Yi-Yun; Fang, Jia-You

    2014-04-21

    Coumarin and its derivatives are widely employed as a fragrance in cosmetics and skin care products. The skin absorption level and possible disruption to the skin by topical application of coumarins were evaluated in this study. Percutaneous absorption of osthole, daphnoretin, coumarin, byakangelicin, and 7-hydroxycoumarin was assessed in vitro and in vivo. Skin physiology measurements and immunoblotting were utilized as methodologies for validating toxicity. The relationship between structures and permeation/toxicity of coumarins was elucidated. Both equimolar concentration and saturated solubility in 30% ethanol were used as the applied dose. Osthole with the most lipophilic characteristic demonstrated the greatest skin accumulation, followed by coumarin and 7-hydroxycoumarin. Coumarin was the permeant with the highest flux across the skin. The trend of in vivo deposition was consistent with that of the in vitro profiles. Skin uptake of osthole was 8-fold higher than that of coumarin. Hair follicles played a significant role as a pathway for transport of coumarin according to the examination of follicular accumulation. Osthole and 7-hydroxycoumarin slightly, but significantly, enhanced transepidermal water loss after a consecutive 5-day administration. The immunoblotting profiling verified the role of proliferation in skin damage induced by osthole, byakangelicin, and 7-hydroxycoumarin. The proliferation-related proteins examined in this work included glucose-regulated proteins, cytokeratin, and C-myc. Daphnoretin and coumarin showed a negligible alteration on protein biomarkers. The experimental results suggested that skin irritation caused by coumarins was mainly derived from the analogs but not from coumarin itself. PMID:24561300

  19. Coumarin derivatives, but not coumarin itself, cause skin irritation via topical delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Tai-Long; Wang, Pei-Wen; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Leu, Yann-Lii; Hung, Yi-Yun; Fang, Jia-You

    2014-04-21

    Coumarin and its derivatives are widely employed as a fragrance in cosmetics and skin care products. The skin absorption level and possible disruption to the skin by topical application of coumarins were evaluated in this study. Percutaneous absorption of osthole, daphnoretin, coumarin, byakangelicin, and 7-hydroxycoumarin was assessed in vitro and in vivo. Skin physiology measurements and immunoblotting were utilized as methodologies for validating toxicity. The relationship between structures and permeation/toxicity of coumarins was elucidated. Both equimolar concentration and saturated solubility in 30% ethanol were used as the applied dose. Osthole with the most lipophilic characteristic demonstrated the greatest skin accumulation, followed by coumarin and 7-hydroxycoumarin. Coumarin was the permeant with the highest flux across the skin. The trend of in vivo deposition was consistent with that of the in vitro profiles. Skin uptake of osthole was 8-fold higher than that of coumarin. Hair follicles played a significant role as a pathway for transport of coumarin according to the examination of follicular accumulation. Osthole and 7-hydroxycoumarin slightly, but significantly, enhanced transepidermal water loss after a consecutive 5-day administration. The immunoblotting profiling verified the role of proliferation in skin damage induced by osthole, byakangelicin, and 7-hydroxycoumarin. The proliferation-related proteins examined in this work included glucose-regulated proteins, cytokeratin, and C-myc. Daphnoretin and coumarin showed a negligible alteration on protein biomarkers. The experimental results suggested that skin irritation caused by coumarins was mainly derived from the analogs but not from coumarin itself.

  20. Immunity and skin cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, E.B.; Brysk, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    Observations in humans and animal studies support the theory that immunologic surveillance plays an important role in limiting the development of skin malignancies. These immune responses undergo progressive diminution with age. In addition, other factors, such as bereavement, poor nutrition, and acute and chronic exposure to ultraviolet light, can further diminish immune mechanisms.

  1. Preventing Skin Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-05-18

    A man and a woman talk about how they’ve learned to protect their skin from the sun over the years. .  Created: 5/18/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/18/2016.

  2. Skin Conditions during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... line that runs from the navel to the pubic hair • Stretch marks •Acne • Spider veins • Varicose veins • Changes ... Nigra: A line running from the navel to pubic hair that darkens during pregnancy. Melasma: A common skin ...

  3. Light and skin disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of the depletion of ozone in the stratosphere due to chlorofluorocarbons, the screening effect of this ozone layer on ultraviolet radiation (especially the so-called UV-B component) is reduced. This paper describes the impact of increased UV radiation on the human skin. Because of the 'ozone-hole', a distinct increase in the rate of skin cancer is to be expected which will affect all living beings but most of all man - an indirect consequence of the climate development. What makes the increased intensity of UV-B radiation so harmful is the fact that light-induced skin damage accumulates for the period of the life-time of the individual and cannot be reversed. A further thinning of stratospheric ozone would let through, in addition, the more short-waved ('harder') UV-C radiation. The latter, though clinically not significant currently, would then account for a further increase in the rate of malignant skin disease world-wide. (orig.)

  4. Slicing, skinning, and grafting

    OpenAIRE

    Dumas, David; Kent IV, Richard P.

    2007-01-01

    We prove that a Bers slice is never algebraic, meaning that its Zariski closure in the character variety has strictly larger dimension. A corollary is that skinning maps are never constant. The proof uses grafting and the theory of complex projective structures.

  5. Smoking and skin disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, S F; Sørensen, L T

    2010-01-01

    suggest that tobacco smoking is a contributing factor in systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, palmoplantar pustulosis, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, hidradenitis suppurativa, and genital warts. In contrast, smoking may confer some protective effects and mitigate other skin diseases, notably...... wounds. Most likely, alteration of inflammatory cell function and extracellular matrix turnover caused by smoking-induced oxidative stress are involved in the pathophysiologic mechanisms....

  6. Cytokines and the Skin Barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Malte Baron

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The skin is the largest organ of the human body and builds a barrier to protect us from the harmful environment and also from unregulated loss of water. Keratinocytes form the skin barrier by undergoing a highly complex differentiation process that involves changing their morphology and structural integrity, a process referred to as cornification. Alterations in the epidermal cornification process affect the formation of the skin barrier. Typically, this results in a disturbed barrier, which allows the entry of substances into the skin that are immunologically reactive. This contributes to and promotes inflammatory processes in the skin but also affects other organs. In many common skin diseases, including atopic dermatitis and psoriasis, a defect in the formation of the skin barrier is observed. In these diseases the cytokine composition within the skin is different compared to normal human skin. This is the result of resident skin cells that produce cytokines, but also because additional immune cells are recruited. Many of the cytokines found in defective skin are able to influence various processes of differentiation and cornification. Here we summarize the current knowledge on cytokines and their functions in healthy skin and their contributions to inflammatory skin diseases.

  7. Skin color independent assessment of aging using skin autofluorescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Koetsier; E. Nur; H. Chunmao; H.L. Lutgers; T.P. Links; A.J. Smit; G. Rakhorst; R. de Graaff

    2010-01-01

    Skin autofluorescence (AF) for the non-invasive assessment of the amount of accumulated tissue Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs) increases with aging. In subjects with darker skin colors, measurements typically result in lower AF values than in subjects with fair skin colors, e. g. due to select

  8. Vascular aspects of water uptake mechanisms in the toad skin: perfusion, diffusion, confusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willumsen, Niels; Viborg, Arne L; Hillyard, Stanley D

    2007-01-01

    Blood cell flow (BCF) in the water absorbing "seat patch" region of toad skin was measured with laser Doppler flow cytometry. BCF of dehydrated toads increased by a factor of 6-8 when water contact was made and declined gradually as toads rehydrated. Water absorption was initially stimulated...... and declined in parallel with BCF. Water absorption measured during the initial rehydration period did not correlate with BCF and hydrated toads injected with AVT increased water absorption without an increase in BCF indicating the lack of an obligate relation between blood flow and water absorption...... coupling explains the greater absorption from dilute salt solutions. Rehydration from 10 mM CaCl2 was stimulated above that of DI water by a similar degree as with 50 mM NaCl suggesting the anion might control water permeability of the skin....

  9. Microwave Absorption in Graphene Films: Theory and Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batrakov, K. G.; Paddubskaya, A. G.; Valynets, N. I.; Voronovich-Solonevich, S. P.; Kuzhir, P. P.; Maksimenko, S. A.; Kaplas, T.; Svirko, Yu.

    2016-09-01

    The interaction of Kα microwave radiation with ultrathin graphene films is studied. Although the thickness of these films is thousands of times smaller than the skin depth, they can absorb a significant fraction of the incident radiation. The possibility of controlling the amount of absorption and reflection of waves incident on graphene is demonstrated. In particular, by choosing the substrate parameters and the angle of incidence, it is possible to increase the absorption in graphene to >50%. For certain angles of incidence it is possible to have the TE-wave reflected, while the TM-wave is transmitted. These effects can be used to create ultrathin (atomic thicknesses) absorbers and polarizers.

  10. Mixture component effects on the in vitro dermal absorption of pentachlorophenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riviere, J.E.; Qiao, G.; Baynes, R.E.; Brooks, J.D. [Coll. of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Mumtaz, M. [Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2001-08-01

    Interactions between chemicals in a mixture and interactions of mixture components with the skin can significantly alter the rate and extent of percutaneous absorption, as well as the cutaneous disposition of a topically applied chemical. The predictive ability of dermal absorption models, and consequently the dermal risk assessment process, would be greatly improved by the elucidation and characterization of these interactions. Pentachlorophenol (PCP), a compound known to penetrate the skin readily, was used as a marker compound to examine mixture component effects using in vitro porcine skin models. PCP was administered in ethanol or in a 40% ethanol/60% water mixture or a 40% ethanol/60% water mixture containing either the rubefacient methyl nicotinate (MNA) or the surfactant sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), or both MNA and SLS. Experiments were also conducted with {sup 14}C-labelled 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCB) and 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB). Maximal PCP absorption was 14.12% of the applied dose from the mixture containing SLS, MNA, ethanol and water. However, when PCP was administered in ethanol only, absorption was only 1.12% of the applied dose. There were also qualitative differences among the absorption profiles for the different PCP mixtures. In contrast with the PCP results, absorption of TCB or PCB was negligible in perfused porcine skin, with only 0.14% of the applied TCB dose and 0.05% of the applied PCB dose being maximally absorbed. The low absorption levels for the PCB congeners precluded the identification of mixture component effects. These results suggest that dermal absorption estimates from a single chemical exposure may not reflect absorption seen after exposure as a chemical mixture and that absorption of both TCB and PCB are minimal in this model system. (orig.)

  11. Clinical skin imaging using color spatial frequency domain imaging (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Lesicko, John; Moy, Austin J.; Reichenberg, Jason; Tunnell, James W.

    2016-02-01

    Skin diseases are typically associated with underlying biochemical and structural changes compared with normal tissues, which alter the optical properties of the skin lesions, such as tissue absorption and scattering. Although widely used in dermatology clinics, conventional dermatoscopes don't have the ability to selectively image tissue absorption and scattering, which may limit its diagnostic power. Here we report a novel clinical skin imaging technique called color spatial frequency domain imaging (cSFDI) which enhances contrast by rendering color spatial frequency domain (SFD) image at high spatial frequency. Moreover, by tuning spatial frequency, we can obtain both absorption weighted and scattering weighted images. We developed a handheld imaging system specifically for clinical skin imaging. The flexible configuration of the system allows for better access to skin lesions in hard-to-reach regions. A total of 48 lesions from 31 patients were imaged under 470nm, 530nm and 655nm illumination at a spatial frequency of 0.6mm^(-1). The SFD reflectance images at 470nm, 530nm and 655nm were assigned to blue (B), green (G) and red (R) channels to render a color SFD image. Our results indicated that color SFD images at f=0.6mm-1 revealed properties that were not seen in standard color images. Structural features were enhanced and absorption features were reduced, which helped to identify the sources of the contrast. This imaging technique provides additional insights into skin lesions and may better assist clinical diagnosis.

  12. What is the discrepancy between drug permeation into/across intact and diseased skins? Atopic dermatitis as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yi-Ping; Yang, Sien-Hung; Lee, Chih-Hung; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Kao, Hsiao-Ching; Fang, Jia-You

    2016-01-30

    The discrepancy in drug absorption between healthy and diseased skins is an issue that needs to be elucidated. The present study attempted to explore the percutaneous absorption of drugs via lesional skin by using atopic dermatitis (AD) as a model. Tape-stripping and ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization induced AD-like skin. The lesions were evaluated by physiological parameters, histology, cytokines, and differentiation proteins. The permeants of tacrolimus, 8-methoxypsoralen, methotrexate, and dextran were used to examine in vitro and in vivo cutaneous permeation. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) increased from 5.2 to 27.4 g/m(2)/h by OVA treatment. AD-like lesions were characterized by hyperplasia, skin redness, desquamation, and infiltration of inflammatory cells. Repeated OVA challenge produced a T-helper 2 (Th2) hypersensitivity accompanied by downregulation of filaggrin, involucrin, and integrin β. Tacrolimus, the most lipophilic permeant, revealed an increase of cutaneous deposition by 2.7-fold in AD-like skin compared to intact skin. The transdermal flux of methotrexate and dextran, the hydrophilic permeants, across AD-like skin increased about 18 times compared to the control skin. Surprisingly, AD-like skin showed less skin deposition of 8-methoxypsoralen than intact skin. This may be because the deficient lipids in the atopic-affected stratum corneum (SC) diminished drug partitioning into the superficial skin layer. The fluorescence and confocal microscopic images demonstrated a broad and deep passage of small-molecular and macromolecular dyes into AD-like skin. The results obtained from this report were advantageous for showing how the lesional skin influenced percutaneous absorption. PMID:26657274

  13. Staining of skin with dihydroxyacetone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WITTGENSTEIN, E; BERRY, H K

    1960-09-30

    The reaction of skin with dihydroxyacetone to produce a brown "artificial tan" appears to proceed through combination with free amino groups in skin proteins, and particularly by combination of dihydroxyacetone with the free guanido group in arginine.

  14. Tips for Relieving Dry Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources Meet our partners Español Donate Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases Cosmetic treatments Dry / sweaty skin Eczema / dermatitis Hair and scalp ...

  15. Skin lesion removal-aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aftercare; Nevi - removal aftercare; Scissor excision aftercare; Skin tag removal aftercare; Mole removal aftercare; Skin cancer removal ... to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www.hon.ch). The information provided herein ...

  16. The management of skin tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuleneire, Frans

    During the ageing process the layers of the skin start to atrophy; the epidermis becomes thin and fragile, and dermal thickness decreases by 20 per cent (White et al, 1994). This makes skin tears a common problem among older people.

  17. Radiation Therapy for Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin cells called melanocytes that produce skin color ( melanin ). Radiation therapy is used mostly for melanomas that ... in addition to surgery, chemotherapy or biologic therapy. Hair Epidermis Dermis Subcutaneous Hair Follicle Vein Artery © ASTRO ...

  18. Skin - abnormally dark or light

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/article/003242.htm Skin - abnormally dark or light To use the sharing features on this page, ... the hands. The bronze color can range from light to dark (in fair-skinned people) with the ...

  19. SKIN DETECTION OF ANIMATION CHARACTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi Tanvir Ahmed Siddiqui

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing popularity of animes makes it vulnerable to unwanted usages like copyright violations and pornography. That’s why, we need to develop a method to detect and recognize animation characters. Skin detection is one of the most important steps in this way. Though there are some methods to detect human skin color, but those methods do not work properly for anime characters. Anime skin varies greatly from human skin in color, texture, tone and in different kinds of lighting. They also vary greatly among themselves. Moreover, many other things (for example leather, shirt, hair etc., which are not skin, can have color similar to skin. In this paper, we have proposed three methods that can identify an anime character’s skin more successfully as compared with Kovac, Swift, Saleh and Osman methods, which are primarily designed for human skin detection. Our methods are based on RGB values and their comparative relations.

  20. Drugs Approved for Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Skin Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for skin cancer, including drugs for basal cell carcinoma and melanoma. ...

  1. Percutaneous absorption of [14C]DDT and [14C]benzo[a]pyrene from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective was to determine percutaneous absorption of DDT and benzo[a]pyrene in vitro and in vivo from soil into and through skin. Soil (Yolo County 65-California-57-8; 26% sand, 26% clay, 48% silt) was passed through 10-, 20-, and 48-mesh sieves. Soil then retained by 80-mesh was mixed with [14C]-labeled chemical at 10 ppm. Acetone solutions at 10 ppm were prepared for comparative analysis. Human cadaver skin was dermatomed to 500 microns and used in glass diffusion cells with human plasma as the receptor fluid (3 ml/hr flow rate) for a 24-hr skin application time. With acetone vehicle, DDT (18.1 +/- 13.4%) readily penetrated into human skin. Significantly less DDT (1.0 +/- 0.7%) penetrated into human skin from soil. DDT would not partition from human skin into human plasma in the receptor phase (less than 0.1%). With acetone vehicle, benzo[a]pyrene (23.7 +/- 9.7%) readily penetrated into human skin. Significantly less benzo[a]pyrene (1.4 +/- 0.9%) penetrated into human skin from soil. Benzo[a]pyrene would not partition from human skin into human plasma in the receptor phase (less than 0.1%). Substantivity (skin retention) was investigated by applying 14C-labeled chemical to human skin in vitro for only 25 min. After soap and water wash, 16.7 +/- 13.2% of DDT applied in acetone remained absorbed to skin. With soil only 0.25 +/- 0.11% of DDT remained absorbed to skin. After soap and water wash 5.1 +/- 2.1% of benzo[a]pyrene applied in acetone remained absorbed to skin. With soil only 0.14 +/- 0.13% of benzo[a]pyrene remained absorbed to skin

  2. Charakterisierung humaner Hautmodelle - Stabilität und metabolische Kapazität sowie vergleichende Untersuchungen zur perkutanen Absorption

    OpenAIRE

    Schreiber, Sylvia

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, the demand for alternative test methods in safety assessment of cosmetics, risk assessment of chemicals, and testing of pharmaceuticals was increasingly included in the EU directives. Thereby, alternative test methods for the determination of percutaneous absorption should achieve a more reliable in vivo prediction of the response of human skin than animal skin. Even though freshly excised human skin is considered as a preferred test matrix its routine use is often difficult ...

  3. Tissue Engineered Human Skin Equivalents

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng Zhang; Michniak-Kohn, Bozena B.

    2012-01-01

    Human skin not only serves as an important barrier against the penetration of exogenous substances into the body, but also provides a potential avenue for the transport of functional active drugs/reagents/ingredients into the skin (topical delivery) and/or the body (transdermal delivery). In the past three decades, research and development in human skin equivalents have advanced in parallel with those in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The human skin equivalents are used commerc...

  4. A REVIEW ON SKIN CANCER

    OpenAIRE

    S. Ramya Silpa; Chidvila V

    2013-01-01

    Skin cancer can be of 2 types mainly. They are malignant melanoma and non-malignant melanoma. Skin cancer mainly occurs due to exposure of sunlight. Ozone depletion and chemical exposures are other factors involved in precipitating skin cancer. Mutations of p53 gene are involved in UV- induced carcinogenesis. P53 gene acts vital in development of SCC. So, prevention of skin cancer is the main criteria. Regular application of sunscreens could be one of the primary prevention. The purpose of pr...

  5. Chemical Absorption Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kaj

    2011-01-01

    Chemical absorption materials that potentially can be used for post combustion carbon dioxide capture are discussed. They fall into five groups, alkanolamines, alkali carbonates, ammonia, amino acid salts, and ionic liquids. The chemistry of the materials is discussed and advantages and drawbacks...

  6. Absorption driven focus shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, N.; Wolf, S.; Maerten, O.; Dudek, K.; Ballach, S.; Kramer, R.

    2016-03-01

    Modern high brilliance near infrared lasers have seen a tremendous growth in applications throughout the world. Increased productivity has been achieved by higher laser power and increased brilliance of lasers. Positive impacts on the performance and costs of parts are opposed to threats on process stability and quality, namely shift of focus position over time. A high initial process quality will be reduced by contamination of optics, eventually leading to a focus shift or even destruction of the optics. Focus analysis at full power of multi-kilowatt high brilliance lasers is a very demanding task because of high power densities in the spot and the high power load on optical elements. With the newly developed high power projection optics, the High-Power Micro-Spot Monitor High Brilliance (HP-MSM-HB) is able to measure focus diameter as low as 20 μm at power levels up to 10 kW at very low internal focus shift. A main driving factor behind thermally induced focus shift is the absorption level of the optical element. A newly developed measuring system is designed to determine the relative absorption level in reference to a gold standard. Test results presented show a direct correlation between absorption levels and focus shift. The ability to determine the absorption level of optical elements as well as their performance at full processing power before they are put to use, enables a high level of quality assurance for optics manufacturers and processing head manufacturers alike.

  7. ZINC ABSORPTION BY INFANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinc is a vital mineral in human nutrition, and rare cases of overt zinc deficiency are well described in term and preterm infants. A variety of methods have been developed to assess zinc absorption, retention, and balance in humans, either using mass (metabolic) balance or stable isotope-based METH...

  8. Thermal effects of X-band microwaves on skin tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kyo D.; Yoon, Hargsoon; Lee, Kunik; Kim, Jaehwan; Choi, Sang H.

    2012-04-01

    Microwave can be used as a power carrier to implanted medical devices wirelessly, which is regarded as one of the attractive features for medical applications. The loss mechanism of microwave transmission through lossy media often appears as a thermal effect due to the absorption of microwave. Such a thermal effect on human tissue has not rigorously studied yet. The thermal effect on living tissues was experimentally tested with animal skins to understand the absorption characteristics of microwave. In this paper, the frequency range of microwave used for the tests was from 6 GHz to 13 GHz.

  9. Comparison of atmospheric microplasma and plasma jet irradiation for increasing of skin permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, K.; Tran, N. A.; Hayashida, K.; Blajan, M.

    2016-08-01

    Atmospheric plasma is attracting interest for medical applications such as sterilization, treatment of cancer cells and blood coagulation. Application of atmospheric plasma in dermatology has potential as a novel tool for wound healing, skin rejuvenation and treatment of wrinkles. In this study, we investigated the enhancement of percutaneous absorption of dye as alternative agents of transdermal drugs. Hypodermic needles are often the only way to deliver large-molecule drugs into the dermis, although a safe transdermal drug delivery method that does not require needles would be desirable. We therefore explored the feasibility of using atmospheric microplasma irradiation to enhance percutaneous absorption of drugs, as an alternative delivery method to conventional hypodermic needles. Pig skin was used as a biological sample, exposed to atmospheric microplasma, and analyzed by attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. A tape stripping test, a representative method for evaluating skin barrier performance, was also conducted for comparison. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was measured and compared with and without atmospheric microplasma irradiation, to quantify water evaporation from the inner body through the skin barrier. The results show that the stratum corneum, the outermost skin layer, could be chemically and physically modified by atmospheric microplasma irradiation. Physical damage to the skin by microplasma irradiation and an atmospheric plasma jet was also assessed by observing the skin surface. The results suggest that atmospheric microplasma has the potential to enhance percutaneous absorption.

  10. Three-dimensional multispectral optoacoustic mesoscopy reveals melanin and blood oxygenation in human skin in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Mathias; Buehler, Andreas; Aguirre, Juan; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2016-01-01

    Optical imaging plays a major role in disease detection in dermatology. However, current optical methods are limited by lack of three-dimensional detection of pathophysiological parameters within skin. It was recently shown that single-wavelength optoacoustic (photoacoustic) mesoscopy resolves skin morphology, i.e. melanin and blood vessels within epidermis and dermis. In this work we employed illumination at multiple wavelengths for enabling three-dimensional multispectral optoacoustic mesoscopy (MSOM) of natural chromophores in human skin in vivo operating at 15-125 MHz. We employ a per-pulse tunable laser to inherently co-register spectral datasets, and reveal previously undisclosed insights of melanin, and blood oxygenation in human skin. We further reveal broadband absorption spectra of specific skin compartments. We discuss the potential of MSOM for label-free visualization of physiological biomarkers in skin in vivo.

  11. Skin Cancers of the Feet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin of the lower legs and feet. Skin cancers affecting the feet may have a very different appearance from those arising on the rest of the body. For this reason, a podiatrist's knowledge and clinical training is of ... and malignant skin tumors. Learn the ABCDs of melanoma. If you notice ...

  12. Skin Pedagogies and Abject Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenway, Jane; Bullen, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    How does the beauty industry "narrate the skin"? What does it teach women from different cultural groups about the female body? How does skin function as a site where female subjection and abjection are produced and reproduced? In this paper we examine the skin industry pointing to its extreme commodification of the female body and to the…

  13. Absorption of Hydrocortisone Acetate in Human Connective Tissue Using Phonophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Gurney, A. Burke; WASCHER, Daniel; Schenck, Robert; Tennison, Alexandria; Jaramillo, Bettina

    2011-01-01

    Background: Therapeutic ultrasound to drive medication (phonophoresis) has been a mainstay in physical therapy. The most common drug used in phonophoresis is hydrocortisone acetate (HA). A number of studies have been done examining phonophoresis in the delivery of HA through the skin to underlying tissues; however, a study has never been done examining the absorption of HA using phonophoresis on human connective tissue. Hypothesis: Phonophoresis will facilitate the transmission of HA in human...

  14. Skin contamination dosimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamby, David M.; Farsoni, Abdollah T.; Cazalas, Edward

    2011-06-21

    A technique and device provides absolute skin dosimetry in real time at multiple tissue depths simultaneously. The device uses a phoswich detector which has multiple scintillators embedded at different depths within a non-scintillating material. A digital pulse processor connected to the phoswich detector measures a differential distribution (dN/dH) of count rate N as function of pulse height H for signals from each of the multiple scintillators. A digital processor computes in real time from the differential count-rate distribution for each of multiple scintillators an estimate of an ionizing radiation dose delivered to each of multiple depths of skin tissue corresponding to the multiple scintillators embedded at multiple corresponding depths within the non-scintillating material.

  15. Skin barrier in rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addor, Flavia Alvim Sant'Anna

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies about the cutaneous barrier demonstrated consistent evidence that the stratum corneum is a metabolically active structure and also has adaptive functions, may play a regulatory role in the inflammatory response with activation of keratinocytes, angiogenesis and fibroplasia, whose intensity depends primarily on the intensity the stimulus. There are few studies investigating the abnormalities of the skin barrier in rosacea, but the existing data already show that there are changes resulting from inflammation, which can generate a vicious circle caused a prolongation of flare-ups and worsening of symptoms. This article aims to gather the most relevant literature data about the characteristics and effects of the state of the skin barrier in rosacea. PMID:26982780

  16. Serotonin in human skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianguo Huang; Qiying Gong; Guiming Li

    2005-01-01

    In this review the authors summarize data of a potential role for serotonin in human skin physiology and pathology. The uncovering of endogenous serotonin synthesis and its transformation to melatonin underlines a putative important role of this pathway in melanocyte physiology and pathology. Pathways of the biosynthesis and biodegradation of serotonin have been characterized in human beings and its major cellular populations. Moreover, receptors of serotonin are expressed on keratinocytes, melanocytes, and fibroblasts and these mediate phenotypic actions on cellular proliferation and differentiation. And the widespread expression of a cutaneous seorotoninergic system indicates considerable selectivity of action to facilitate intra-, auto-, or paracrine mechanisms that define and influence skin function in a highly compartmentalized manner. Melatonin, in turn, can also act as a hormone, neurotransmitter, cytokine, biological modifier and immunomodulator. Thus, Serotonin local synthesis and cellular localization could thus become of great importance in the diagnosis and management of cutaneous pathology.

  17. Skin metastases of lung cancer:

    OpenAIRE

    Kecelj, Peter; Košnik, Mitja; Požek, Igor; Triller Vadnal, Katja; Triller, Nadja

    2008-01-01

    Skin metastases of lung cancer are rare. In over a 3-year period we found only14 cases of skin metastases among 1,614 patients with lung cancer admittedto the University Clinic of Respiratory and Allergic Diseases in Golnik. The metastases are usually manifested on the skin of the chest. Skin metastases are symptoms of progressive disease, and usually a sign of a poor prognosis. The median survival time of lung cancer patients with skin metastases was 85 days from the time of detection of the...

  18. Development of human skin equivalents to unravel the impaired skin barrier in atopic dermatitis skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eweje, M.O.

    2016-01-01

    The studies in this thesis describes the barrier defects in Atopic Dermatitis (AD) skin and various techniques to develop AD Human Skin Equivalents (HSEs) which can be used to better understand the role of several factors in the pathogenesis of AD skin. The results described show that Inflammation p

  19. SKIN RADIATION IN PANORAMIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herry Irawan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dental panoramic radiograph in Indonesia has been widely used. Modern diagnostic imaging equipment with minimum radiation is still very limited. One of the conditions in nuclear safety law, UU 10/1997, is an optimization of all radiation sources with DRL through skin dose measurements. In Indonesia, the national DRL has not been established yet, and there were no reports on the study of panoramic skin dose in Indonesia. The aim of this preliminary study was to obtain a panoramic skin dose radiation as reference to establish DRL in Indonesia. Panoramic radiographs of sixteen female and fifteen male patients, aged 4 – 48 years, were taken using the standard conventional method, with TLD chips attached in location groups. The chips were then read with the detector and integrator of BATAN, in high and low temperature condition at the same time. It was revealed that behind the right and left ear were the regions with the highest radiation dose received, followed by the back of the neck, left jaw, right jaw, and chin. The result of this study has shown the importance of DRL in Indonesia since the use of modern diagnostic imaging equipement that limits radiation dose to the minimum level is still very limited.

  20. Skin-sparing mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Rache M; Adamovich, Tara L

    2003-08-01

    The cosmetic appearance of the reconstructed breast is largely dependent upon the quantity of breast skin which remains after mastectomy. Leaving behind as much skin as is possible significantly improves the natural appearance of the reconstruction and reduces procedures required on the contralateral breast to achieve symmetry. SSM with immediate reconstruction offers superior aesthetic results to NSSM, with similar LR rates. As most recurrences will occur in chest wall skin, the ability to detect local recurrence is not impaired. The incidence of local wound complications with SSM is comparable to NSSM. It has been demonstrated that sentinel lymph node biopsy and axillary dissection can be performed adequately in SSM. There is no contraindication to postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy. There are some groups of patients for whom SSM is not indicated, such as patients with inflammatory carcinoma. SSM should be considered for selected patients with breast cancer in conjunction with all types of immediate reconstruction. In conclusion, numerous studies support the use of SSM on selected patients as an oncologically acceptable procedure with superior cosmetic results when compared with traditional NSSM. PMID:12875600

  1. Skin delivery of caffeine contained in biofunctional textiles

    OpenAIRE

    Valldeperas Morell, José; Rubio, Laia; Alonso, Cristina; Coderch, Luisa; Parra, José Luis; Martí, Meritxell; Cebrián, Juan; Navarro Viciana, Juan Antonio; Lis Arias, Manuel José

    2010-01-01

    Biofunctional textiles are materials with new properties and added value. In this work, emphasis was placed on the release capacity of the active principle (caffeine) from the formulation or from the biofunctional textile. In addition, a new in vitro methodology of percutaneous absorption was designed to demonstrate the delivery of encapsulated caffeine from the biofunctional textile to the different skin layers. In the first step, permeation studies through a nylon membrane were performed an...

  2. Photothermal Radiometry for Skin Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry Xiao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Photothermal radiometry is an infrared remote sensing technique that has been used for skin and skin appendages research, in the areas of skin hydration, hydration gradient, skin hydration depth profiling, skin thickness measurements, skin pigmentation measurements, effect of topically applied substances, transdermal drug delivery, moisture content of bio-materials, membrane permeation, and nail and hair measurements. Compared with other technologies, photothermal radiometry has the advantages of non-contact, non-destructive, quick to make a measurement (a few seconds, and being spectroscopic in nature. It is also colour blind, and can work on any arbitrary sample surfaces. It has a unique depth profiling capability on a sample surface (typically the top 20 µm, which makes it particularly suitable for skin measurements. In this paper, we present a review of the photothermal radiometry work carried out in our research group. We will first introduce the theoretical background, then illustrate its applications with experimental results.

  3. Absorptive Capacity and Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristinsson, Kári

    that contribute to the neo-Schumpeterian economics literature and hopefully inspires further research into this area. The main findings of the dissertation can be divided into four distinct parts. First, diversity of individuals within firms is associated with firm innovative performance. This is in line......One of the most influential contributions to neo-Schumpeterian economics is Cohen and Levinthal‘s papers on absorptive capacity. Since their publication in the late 1980s and early 1990s the concept absorptive capacity has had substantial impact on research in economics and management, including...... international business, organizational economics, strategic management, technology management and last but not least neo-Schumpeterian economics. The goal of this dissertation is to examine what many consider as neglected arguments from the work by Cohen and Levinthal and thereby illuminate an otherwise...

  4. Acoustic absorption by sunspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, D. C.; Labonte, B. J.; Duvall, T. L., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The paper presents the initial results of a series of observations designed to probe the nature of sunspots by detecting their influence on high-degree p-mode oscillations in the surrounding photosphere. The analysis decomposes the observed oscillations into radially propagating waves described by Hankel functions in a cylindrical coordinate system centered on the sunspot. From measurements of the differences in power between waves traveling outward and inward, it is demonstrated that sunspots appear to absorb as much as 50 percent of the incoming acoustic waves. It is found that for all three sunspots observed, the amount of absorption increases linearly with horizontal wavenumber. The effect is present in p-mode oscillations with wavelengths both significantly larger and smaller than the diameter of the sunspot umbrae. Actual absorption of acoustic energy of the magnitude observed may produce measurable decreases in the power and lifetimes of high-degree p-mode oscillations during periods of high solar activity.

  5. Acoustic absorption by sunspots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, D.C.; Labonte, B.J.; Duvall, T.L. Jr.

    1987-08-01

    The paper presents the initial results of a series of observations designed to probe the nature of sunspots by detecting their influence on high-degree p-mode oscillations in the surrounding photosphere. The analysis decomposes the observed oscillations into radially propagating waves described by Hankel functions in a cylindrical coordinate system centered on the sunspot. From measurements of the differences in power between waves traveling outward and inward, it is demonstrated that sunspots appear to absorb as much as 50 percent of the incoming acoustic waves. It is found that for all three sunspots observed, the amount of absorption increases linearly with horizontal wavenumber. The effect is present in p-mode oscillations with wavelengths both significantly larger and smaller than the diameter of the sunspot umbrae. Actual absorption of acoustic energy of the magnitude observed may produce measurable decreases in the power and lifetimes of high-degree p-mode oscillations during periods of high solar activity. 10 references.

  6. Terapia fotodinâmica com ftalocianina de zinco tópica: avaliação da intensidade de fluorescência, absorção cutânea, alterações histológicas e imuno-histoquímicas na pele do modelo animal Topical photodynamic therapy with zinc phthalocyanine: evaluation of fluorescence intensity, skin absorption, skin histological and immunohistochemical changes in animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Vannuchi Tomazini

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS - Ftalocianinas são promissores agentes fotossensibilizadores na terapia fotodinâmica (TFD. OBJETIVOS - Avaliar intervalos, veículos e a incorporação de promotor de absorção na formulação tópica da ftalocianina de zinco (FC-Zn. Avaliar alterações macro e micromorfológicas e a expressão de Fas promovidas pela TFD com FC-Zn tópica no modelo murino. MÉTODOS - Por meio da espectrometria de fluorescência, foram avaliadas combinações de diferentes períodos de oclusão tópica das formulações gel ou emulsão de FC-Zn (1mg/dl, com ou sem monoleína 5%, no dorso do camundongo hairless. Após oito horas das diferentes formulações, os camundongos foram expostos ao laser de diodo de 670nm, dose de 50J/cm-². RESULTADOS - A fluorescência foi discretamente superior após oito horas e com a emulsão nos intervalos de uma, duas e quatro horas de oclusão. A intensidade do edema e da erosão correspondeu à necrose da epiderme e à imunoexpressão de Fas nos cortes histológicos de pele. CONCLUSÕES - Os achados indicam a ação fotodinâmica promovida pela interação entre FC-Zn e fonte de luz de 670nm. As alterações macro e micromorfológicas foram correspondentes e mais substanciais com a emulsão FC-Zn e monoleína, sugerindo a acentuação dos efeitos com essa formulação. A imunoexpressão de Fas e as alterações histológicas sugeriram a apoptose como mecanismo de morte celular na TFD com FC-Zn tópica.BACKGROUND - Phthalocyanines are promising photosensitizers used in photodynamic therapy (PDT. OBJECTIVES - To evaluate the following parameters: intervals, vehicles and enhancer using topical zinc-phthalocyanine (Zn-PC formulation. To examine macro and micromorphological changes and Fas expression induced by topical Zn-PC-PDT on murine skin. MATERIAL AND METHODS - Using fluorescence spectrometry, different intervals of topical occlusion employing Zn-PC gel or emulsion, with or without monolein 5% were studied

  7. Infrared irradiation of skin for the development of non-invasive health monitoring technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdussamad Abbas, Hisham; Triplett, Gregory

    2015-06-01

    Infrared radiation was employed to study the optical transmission properties of pigskin and the factors that influence transmission at room temperature. The skin samples from the forehead of piglets were irradiated using an infrared-pulsed source by varying the beam properties such as optical power, power density, duty cycle, as well as sample thickness. Because infrared radiation in select instances can penetrate through thick-fleshy skin more easily than visible radiation, temperature fluctuations observed within the skin samples stemming from exposure-dependent absorption revealed interesting transmission properties and the limits of optical exposure. Pigskin was selected for this study since its structure most closely resembles that of human skin. Furthermore, the pulsed beam technique compared to continuous operation offers more precise control of heat generation within the skin. Through this effort, the correlated pulsed-beam parameters that influence infrared transmission were identified and varied to minimize the internal absorption losses through the dermis layers. The two most significant parameters that reduce absorption losses were frequency and duty cycle of the pulsed beam. Using the Bouger-Beer-Lambert Law, the absorption coefficient from empirical data is approximated, while accepting that the absorption coefficient is neither uniform nor linear. Given that the optical source used in this study was single mode, the infrared spectra obtained from irradiated samples also reveal characteristics of the skin structure. Realization of appropriate sample conditions and exposure parameters that reduce light attenuation within the skin and sample degradation could give way to novel non-invasive measuring techniques for health monitoring purposes.

  8. Delivery of siRNA and other macromolecules into skin and cells using a peptide enhancer

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Tracy; Mitragotri, Samir

    2011-01-01

    Delivery of macromolecules into cells and tissues such as skin is a major challenge. This obstacle poses a particular challenge for the delivery of siRNA where cellular and tissue level transport barriers need to be overcome. siRNAs are potential therapeutics for various dermatological diseases including psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and cancer; however, their utility is limited by their low absorption across the stratum corneum (SC) and into viable cells of skin. Here, we address this challe...

  9. Influence of External Magnetic Field on Anomalous Skin Effects in Inductively Coupled Plasmas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Ming; WANG You-Nian

    2004-01-01

    @@ Using a one-dimensional slab model, we study the influence of the external static magnetic field on the anomalous skin effects in the inductively coupled plasma. The rf electromagnetic field in the plasma is determined by solving the linearized Boltzmann equation incorporating with the Maxwell equations. The numerical results show that,due to the existence of the external magnetic field, the anomalous skin effects are greatly enhanced and the number of regions with negative absorption is decreased.

  10. [Merkel cell skin carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejcí, K; Zadrazil, J; Tichý, T; Horák, P; Ciferská, H; Hodulová, M; Zezulová, M; Zlevorová, M

    2010-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare tumour of the skin. It affects predominantly elderly Caucasian males on sun-exposed areas of the skin. Distinctively more frequent and at significantly lower age, its incidence is higher in immunocompromised patients. In these patients we often observe the highly aggressive course of Merkel cell carcinoma and a fatal outcome. The incidence of Merkel cell carcinoma has been rising in recent years and is more dramatic than the increased incidence of cutaneous melanoma. More than one-third of Merkel cell carcinoma patients will die from this cancer, making it twice as lethal as melanoma. The malignant transformation of Merkel cells is currently thought to be related to an infection with Merkel cell polyomavirus. In the early stage the discreet clinical picture may be contrary to extensive microscopic invasion and this seemingly benign appearance can delay diagnosis or increase the risk of insufficient tumour excision. The diagnosis is definitely confirmed by histological evaluation and immunohistochemical tests. A typical feature is the tendency of Merkel cell carcinoma to frequent local recurrence and early metastasizing into regional lymph nodes with subsequent tumour generalization. The mainstay of therapy is radical excision of the tumour and adjuvant radiotherapy targeted at the site of primary incidence and local draining lymph nodes. The efficacy of different chemotherapy protocols in Merkel cell carcinoma is limited and the median survival rate is measured in months. In the future, prophylaxis with vaccination against Merkel cell polyomavirus will hopefully be possible in high-risk patients, as well as therapeutic usage of antisense oligonucleotides or microRNAs, eventually complete Merkel cell carcinoma elimination by affecting the tumour suppressor gene Atonal homolog 1 expression. The staging of the tumour at time of diagnosis is the most important prognostic factor. In this respect, the importance of preventative skin

  11. Epidemiology of skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Ulrike; Eigentler, Thomas; Garbe, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) are now the most common types of cancer in white populations. Both tumor entities show an increasing incidence rate worldwide but a stable or decreasing mortality rate. NMSC is the most common cancer in white-skinned individuals with a worldwide increasing incidence. NMSC is an increasing problem for health care services worldwide which causes significant morbidity. The rising incidence rates of NMSC are probably caused by a combination of increased exposure to ultraviolet (UV) or sun light, increased outdoor activities, changes in clothing style, increased longevity, ozone depletion, genetics and in some cases, immune suppression. An intensive UV exposure in childhood and adolescence was causative for the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) whereas for the etiology of SCC a chronic UV exposure in the earlier decades was accused. Cutaneous melanoma is the most rapidly increasing cancer in white populations, in the last 3 decades incidence rates have risen up to 5-fold. In 2008 melanoma was on place 5 in women and on place 8 in men of the most common solid tumor entities in Germany. The frequency of its occurrence is closely associated with the constitutive color of the skin, and the geographical zone. Changes in outdoor activities and exposure to sunlight during the past 50 years are an important factor for the increasing incidence of melanoma. Mortality rates of melanoma show a stabilization in the USA, Australia and also in European countries. In contrast to SCC, melanoma risk seems to be associated with an intermittent exposure to sunlight. Prevention campaigns aim on reducing incidence and achieving earlier diagnosis, which resulted in an ongoing trend toward thin melanoma since the last two decades. However, the impact of primary prevention measures on incidence rates of melanoma is unlikely to be seen in the near future, rather increasing incidence rates to 40-50/100,000 inhabitants/year should be expected in

  12. Annette Bunge: developing the principles in percutaneous absorption using chemical engineering principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchcomb, A L

    2013-01-01

    Annette Bunge and her research group have had the central theme of mathematically modeling the dermal absorption process. Most of the research focus has been on estimating dermal absorption for the purpose of risk assessment, for exposure scenarios in the environment and in the occupational setting. Her work is the basis for the United States Environmental Protection Agency's estimations for dermal absorption from contaminated water. It is also the basis of the dermal absorption estimates used in determining if chemicals should be assigned a 'skin notation' for potential systemic toxicity following occupational skin exposure. The work is truly translational in that it started with mathematical theory, is validated with preclinical and human experiments, and then is used in guidelines to protect human health. Her valued research has also extended into the topical drug bioavailability and bioequivalence assessment field. PMID:23921118

  13. Shedding skin and tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammlerschlag, Carl A

    2007-06-01

    I am a purported expert in change and personal growth; that's the work I do with patients, and what I lecture and write about. I say that growth has nothing to do with adding on; it's always about letting go. Alas, it's always easier to tell others how to welcome shedding their skins than it is for me to do it myself. Letting go of the old and familiar is a necessary prerequisite for growth, but it's hard to do because no matter how much we may know, we have to move on. It always makes us feel vulnerable, which can inspire fear.

  14. Determination of human skin optical properties in vivo from reflectance spectroscopic measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongqin Yang; Shusen Xie; Hui Li; Zukang Lu

    2007-01-01

    A novel approach has been proved to quickly and non-invasively determine the optical properties of human skin in vivo. It is based on the diffuse reflectance approximation model and subjected to the well established library of absorption spectra of water and hemoglobin. Under the nonlinear least-square algorithm, fitting the measured spectra in the range of 400-1000 nm to the diffusion approximation model, the reduced scattering coefficient and absorption coefficient of skin tissue can be quickly determined in vivo. The results show that this method is convenient and suitable for the real-time clinical application.

  15. Pion absorption processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proton and deuteron production from low-energy pion absorption in light nuclei leading to discrete and continuum states were measured. The LEP beam line at LAMPF was used with a stack of 8 intrinsic germanium crystals. The proton energy spectra are in general characterized by a broad bump at an energy approximately corresponding to π+d → pp reaction kinematics, suggestive of pion absorption on 2 nucleons. The energy-integrated cross-section for production of deuterons has an angular distribution similar to that for production of protons. The dependence of the total pion absorption cross-section on A is explained using a semi-classical model for pion transport in nuclei. The (π+,p) as well as (π+,d) reactions generally favor transitions involving larger angular momentum transfer to the residual nucleus when states of similar nuclear structure are considered. The low-energy excitation spectra from the (π+,p) reaction are similar to the spectra from (p,d) reaction on 12C and 13C. However, a calculation of the (π+,p) cross-section using the measured (p,d) reaction with the formulation of Wilkin to relate the two reactions is in moderate disagreement with the measured (π+,p) cross-sections. The excitation spectra from the (π+,p) reaction indicte the importance of two-step processes for the reaction. The (π+,d) reaction leading to the ground state of -- residual nucleus has been seen for 7Li, 12C, and 13C targets. The measured cross section for the 12C(π+,d)10C reaction to the 2+ state is much higher than that for the ground state. For the case of 18O, no counts were seen for excitation energy of +,d) reaction

  16. Absorption heat pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhtinen, M.; Heikkilae, M.; Andersson, R.

    1987-03-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the technical and economic feasibility of absorption heat pumps in Finland. The work was done as a case study: the technical and economic analyses have been carried out for six different cases, where in each the suitable size and type of the heat pump plant and the auxiliary components and connections were specified. The study also detailed the costs concerning the procurement, installation and test runs of the machinery, as well as the savings in energy costs incurred by the introduction of the plant. Conclusions were drawn of the economic viability of the applications studied. The following cases were analyzed: heat recovery from flue gases and productin of district heat in plants using peat, natural gas, and municipal wastes as a fuel. Heat recovery in the pulp and paper industry for the upgrading of pressure of secondary steam and for the heating of white liquor and combustion and drying the air. Heat recovery in a peat-fulled heat and power plant from flue gases that have been used for the drying of peat. According to the study, the absorption heat pump suits best to the production of district heat, when the heat source is the primary energy is steam produced by the boiler. Included in the flue as condensing is the purification of flue gases. Accordingly, benefit is gained on two levels in thick applications. In heat and power plants the use of absorption heat pumps is less economical, due to the fact that the steam used by the pump reduces the production of electricity, which is rated clearly higher than heat.

  17. Pathophysiological Study of Sensitive Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhé, Virginie; Vié, Katell; Guéré, Christelle; Natalizio, Audrey; Lhéritier, Céline; Le Gall-Ianotto, Christelle; Huet, Flavien; Talagas, Matthieu; Lebonvallet, Nicolas; Marcorelles, Pascale; Carré, Jean-Luc; Misery, Laurent

    2016-03-01

    Sensitive skin is a clinical syndrome characterized by the occurrence of unpleasant sensations, such as pruritus, burning or pain, in response to various factors, including skincare products, water, cold, heat, or other physical and/or chemical factors. Although these symptoms suggest inflammation and the activation of peripheral innervation, the pathophysiogeny of sensitive skin remains unknown. We systematically analysed cutaneous biopsies from 50 healthy women with non-sensitive or sensitive skin and demonstrated that the intraepidermal nerve fibre density, especially that of peptidergic C-fibres, was lower in the sensitive skin group. These fibres are involved in pain, itching and temperature perception, and their degeneration may promote allodynia and similar symptoms. These results suggest that the pathophysiology of skin sensitivity resembles that of neuropathic pruritus within the context of small fibre neuropathy, and that environmental factors may alter skin innervation.

  18. Pathophysiological Study of Sensitive Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhé, Virginie; Vié, Katell; Guéré, Christelle; Natalizio, Audrey; Lhéritier, Céline; Le Gall-Ianotto, Christelle; Huet, Flavien; Talagas, Matthieu; Lebonvallet, Nicolas; Marcorelles, Pascale; Carré, Jean-Luc; Misery, Laurent

    2016-03-01

    Sensitive skin is a clinical syndrome characterized by the occurrence of unpleasant sensations, such as pruritus, burning or pain, in response to various factors, including skincare products, water, cold, heat, or other physical and/or chemical factors. Although these symptoms suggest inflammation and the activation of peripheral innervation, the pathophysiogeny of sensitive skin remains unknown. We systematically analysed cutaneous biopsies from 50 healthy women with non-sensitive or sensitive skin and demonstrated that the intraepidermal nerve fibre density, especially that of peptidergic C-fibres, was lower in the sensitive skin group. These fibres are involved in pain, itching and temperature perception, and their degeneration may promote allodynia and similar symptoms. These results suggest that the pathophysiology of skin sensitivity resembles that of neuropathic pruritus within the context of small fibre neuropathy, and that environmental factors may alter skin innervation. PMID:26337000

  19. Scattering with absorptive interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassing, W.; Stingl, M.; Weiguny, A.

    1982-07-01

    The S matrix for a wide class of complex and nonlocal potentials is studied, with special attention given to the motion of singularities in the complex k plane as a function of the imaginary coupling strength. Modifications of Levinson's theorem are obtained and discussed. Analytic approximations to the S matrix in the vicinity of narrow resonances are exhibited and compared to numerical results of resonating-group calculations. The problem of defining resonances in the case of complex interactions is discussed, making contact with the usual analysis of scattering in terms of Argand diagrams. NUCLEAR REACTIONS Scattering theory, S matrix for absorptive potentials.

  20. Absorption in dielectric models

    CERN Document Server

    Churchill, R J

    2015-01-01

    We develop a classical microscopic model of a dielectric. The model features nonlinear interaction terms between polarizable dipoles and lattice vibrations. The lattice vibrations are found to act as a pseudo-reservoir, giving broadband absorption of electromagnetic radiation without the addition of damping terms in the dynamics. The effective permittivity is calculated using a perturbative iteration method and is found to have the form associated with real dielectrics. Spatial dispersion is naturally included in the model and we also calculate the wavevector dependence of the permittivity.

  1. Geospatial Absorption and Regional Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOAN MAC

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The geospatial absorptions are characterized by a specific complexity both in content and in their phenomenological and spatial manifestation fields. Such processes are differentiated according to their specificity to pre-absorption, absorption or post-absorption. The mechanisms that contribute to absorption are extremely numerous: aggregation, extension, diffusion, substitution, resistivity (resilience, stratification, borrowings, etc. Between these mechanisms frequent relations are established determining an amplification of the process and of its regional effects. The installation of the geographic osmosis phenomenon in a given territory (a place for example leads to a homogenization of the geospatial state and to the installation of the regional homogeneity.

  2. Effect of ointment bases on topical and transdermal delivery of salicylic acid in rats: evaluation by skin microdialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, T; Yoshioka, M; Okamoto, I; Yumoto, R; Higashi, Y; Okahara, K; Yata, N

    1998-01-01

    Microdialysis has been used to determine the concentration of salicylic acid in skin tissue and plasma periodically for 4 h to evaluate the effect of ointment bases on topical and transdermal delivery of salicylic acid. The ointment bases examined were solbase (water-soluble), poloid and white petrolatum (oleaginous), hydrophilic poloid (water in oil (w/o) type emulsion lacking water) and absorptive ointment (w/o-type emulsion containing water). The ointments (0.1 g) containing 25 micromol salicylic acid were applied for 2 h to the surface of rat skin (1 cm2) with (intact) or without the stratum corneum. For intact skin, the extent of topical delivery from different ointments, evaluated by the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of salicylic acid in the skin tissue (AUCskin), increased in the order solbase salicylic acid in plasma (AUCplasma, transdermal delivery) varied remarkably among the different bases, the greatest ratio being observed for absorptive ointment. When the ointments were applied to skin surface without stratum corneum, AUCskin for solbase was much higher (about 45 times that for intact skin), whereas only a small (two-fold) increase was observed for poloid and hydrophilic poloid and the increase was negligible for white petrolatum and absorptive ointment. For skin without the stratum corneum, the ratio AUCskin/AUCplasma for the different ointments was comparable, although the magnitudes of AUCskin and AUCplasma still varied substantially. The variance of AUC values arises as a result of the different rates of release of salicylic acid from the bases. These results indicate that: the topical and transdermal delivery of salicylic acid in intact skin varies substantially among different ointment bases, and the greatest topical delivery is observed for absorptive ointment; use of absorptive ointment increases the retention of salicylic acid in the stratum corneum; and the stratum corneum functions strongly as a penetration barrier for

  3. In vitro and in vivo percutaneous absorption of seleno-L-methionine, an antioxidant agent, and other selenium species

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Chih-Hung; Fang, Chia-Lang; Al-Suwayeh, Saleh A.; Yang, Shih-yun; Fang, Jia-you

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the in vitro and in vivo percutaneous absorption of seleno-L-methionine (Se-L-M), an ultraviolet (UV)-protecting agent, from aqueous solutions. Methods: Aqueous solutions of Se-L-M were prepared in pH 4, 8, and 10.8 buffers. The pH 8 buffer contained 30% glycerol, propylene glycol (PG) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400. The in vitro skin permeation of Se-L-M via porcine skin and nude mouse skin was measured and compared using Franz diffusion cells. The in vivo skin toleran...

  4. Neutron Skins and Neutron Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Piekarewicz, J

    2013-01-01

    The neutron-skin thickness of heavy nuclei provides a fundamental link to the equation of state of neutron-rich matter, and hence to the properties of neutron stars. The Lead Radius Experiment ("PREX") at Jefferson Laboratory has recently provided the first model-independence evidence on the existence of a neutron-rich skin in 208Pb. In this contribution we examine how the increased accuracy in the determination of neutron skins expected from the commissioning of intense polarized electron be...

  5. Skin Infections Due to Corynebacterium

    OpenAIRE

    Meltem Türkmen; Derya Aytimur

    2010-01-01

    Corynebacteria are Gram-positive, non-sporulated, non-capsulated, aerobic diphtheroid bacteria accounting for nearly 50%of the natural skin biocene. This bacterial family is responsible for various skin diseases such as cutaneous diphteria, cromhydrosis, bromhydrosis but the most common of them are pitted keratolysis, trichobacteriosis and erythrasma. A warm and moist environment and poor hygiene are the predisposition factors for these three diseases. Although this skin diseases are seen mor...

  6. Protecting the skin during thyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Bezerra Lira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this note we describe the standard technical maneuver used in our department to protect the skin during thyroidectomy in order to get the best aesthetic result. We use surgical gloves to protect the skin during these operations to reduce the negative impact of thermal trauma and mechanical retractors and energy delivery devices at the edges of the skin incised. This practice is effective, inexpensive, rapid, reproducible and showed no complication in our experience of over 2,500 thyroidectomies.

  7. [Radiotherapy of skin cancers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennequin, C; Rio, E; Mahé, M-A

    2016-09-01

    The indications of radiotherapy for skin cancers are not clearly defined because of the lack of randomised trials or prospective studies. For basal cell carcinomas, radiotherapy frequently offers a good local control, but a randomized trial showed that surgery is more efficient and less toxic. Indications of radiotherapy are contra-indications of surgery for patients older than 60, non-sclerodermiform histology and occurring in non-sensitive areas. Adjuvant radiotherapy could be proposed to squamous cell carcinomas, in case of poor prognostic factors. Dose of 60 to 70Gy are usually required, and must be modulated to the size of the lesions. Adjuvant radiotherapy seems beneficial for desmoplastic melanomas but not for the other histological types. Prophylactic nodal irradiation (45 to 50Gy), for locally advanced tumours (massive nodal involvement), decreases the locoregional failure rate but do not increase survival. Adjuvant radiotherapy (50 to 56Gy) for Merckel cell carcinomas increases also the local control rate, as demonstrated by meta-analysis and a large epidemiological study. Nodal areas must be included, if there is no surgical exploration (sentinel lymph node dissection). Kaposi sarcomas are radiosensitive and could be treated with relatively low doses (24 to 30Gy). Also, cutaneous lymphomas are good indications for radiotherapy: B lymphomas are electively treated with limited fields. The role of total skin electron therapy for T-lymphomas is still discussed; but palliative radiotherapy is very efficient in case of cutaneous nodules. PMID:27522189

  8. Absorption Spectra of Astaxanthin Aggregates

    CERN Document Server

    Olsina, Jan; Minofar, Babak; Polivka, Tomas; Mancal, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    Carotenoids in hydrated polar solvents form aggregates characterized by dramatic changes in their absorption spectra with respect to monomers. Here we analyze absorption spectra of aggregates of the carotenoid astaxanthin in hydrated dimethylsulfoxide. Depending on water content, two types of aggregates were produced: H-aggregates with absorption maximum around 390 nm, and J-aggregates with red-shifted absorption band peaking at wavelengths >550 nm. The large shifts with respect to absorption maximum of monomeric astaxanthin (470-495 nm depending on solvent) are caused by excitonic interaction between aggregated molecules. We applied molecular dynamics simulations to elucidate structure of astaxanthin dimer in water, and the resulting structure was used as a basis for calculations of absorption spectra. Absorption spectra of astaxanthin aggregates in hydrated dimethylsulfoxide were calculated using molecular exciton model with the resonance interaction energy between astaxanthin monomers constrained by semi-e...

  9. Electromagnetically-enhanced saturable absorption

    CERN Document Server

    Su, Chun-Hsu; Beausoleil, Raymond G; Hollenberg, Lloyd C L; Munro, William J; Nemoto, Kae; Spiller, Timothy P

    2009-01-01

    Electromagnetically-induced transparency (EIT) exploits quantum coherence to burn subnatural linewidth holes within a spectral line. It is typically discussed in the context of a pump-probe configuration in a three-level L system, where the pump is often significantly stronger than the probe. Here we remove such restrictions on the relative intensities of pump and probe fields, and furthermore show that the absorptive properties associated with EIT can be of benefit in absorptive nonlinear processes, especially saturable absorption. We show that in a three-level medium near the EIT condition, we can generate saturable absorption qualitatively similar to two-state saturable absorption. The difference is that we can explore saturable absorption against the ground-state dephasing, rather than spontaneous emission. This has the advantages of significantly more controllability, and more importantly, different intensity scalings in the absorption. Such effects could prove useful for signal regeneration at very low ...

  10. SKIN KINETICS AND DERMAL CLEARANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Shashi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Availability of several therapeutic and cosmetic formulations for topical application has made the research on skin kinetics as a topic of current interest. Topical formulations are typically meant for local effect although there is always a chance that the low molecular weight chemicals are easily transported across the skin layer and make it available in the systemic circulation. Thus there is a major concern about the transport of chemical moieties following the topical application of cosmetics and therapeutic formulations and the real time measurement of the molecules in the skin layer has become obligatory. It is well known that the properties of both drug and the excipients have identical role in determining the skin permeability of chemical moieties. In the last decade several investigations have been carried out in this filed using several in vitro and in vivo models. This review provides a brief account on the basics of skin kinetics, parameters assessed, various techniques and methods adapted in skin kinetic studies. Moreover, we have also discussed about the micro-environment inside the skin layer and the possible mechanism of drug depot formation, skin metabolism and clearance of molecules from the skin layers.

  11. Skin Infections Due to Corynebacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Türkmen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Corynebacteria are Gram-positive, non-sporulated, non-capsulated, aerobic diphtheroid bacteria accounting for nearly 50%of the natural skin biocene. This bacterial family is responsible for various skin diseases such as cutaneous diphteria, cromhydrosis, bromhydrosis but the most common of them are pitted keratolysis, trichobacteriosis and erythrasma. A warm and moist environment and poor hygiene are the predisposition factors for these three diseases. Although this skin diseases are seen more frequently, they usually mistaken for a mycotic infection by general practitioners, with subsequent antimycotic treatment. Here skin diseases compromised with Corynebacterium are presented with their demographic features and discussed on the basis of a literature review.

  12. The future of skin metagenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Alban; Vogel, Timothy M; Simonet, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Metagenomics, the direct exploitation of environmental microbial DNA, is complementary to traditional culture-based approaches for deciphering taxonomic and functional microbial diversity in a plethora of ecosystems, including those related to the human body such as the mouth, saliva, teeth, gut or skin. DNA extracted from human skin analyzed by sequencing the PCR-amplified rrs gene has already revealed the taxonomic diversity of microbial communities colonizing the human skin ("skin microbiome"). Each individual possesses his/her own skin microbial community structure, with marked taxonomic differences between different parts of the body and temporal evolution depending on physical and chemical conditions (sweat, washing etc.). However, technical limitations due to the low bacterial density at the surface of the human skin or contamination by human DNA still has inhibited extended use of the metagenomic approach for investigating the skin microbiome at a functional level. These difficulties have been overcome in part by the new generation of sequencing platforms that now provide sequences describing the genes and functions carried out by skin bacteria. These methodological advances should help us understand the mechanisms by which these microorganisms adapt to the specific chemical composition of each skin and thereby lead to a better understanding of bacteria/human host interdependence. This knowledge will pave the way for more systemic and individualized pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications.

  13. HOX genes in the skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Mei; LI Qing-feng; ZHANG Feng

    2010-01-01

    @@ Deep skin wounds heal by scar formation with a loss of its original appearance, structure and function.However, when the same damage occurs to the skin of an early gestational fetus, complete regeneration can be observed. Despite significant research in the field of skin regeneration, many mysteries remain, such as the loss of wound healing ability with maturity, the differences in healing at different parts of the body, and the presence of hypertrophic scars and keloids in some races but not in others. The finding of HOX genes in the skin provides new explanations to these conundrums.

  14. Infrared sensing based sensitive skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Zheng-cai; FU Yi-li; WANG Shu-guo; JIN Bao

    2006-01-01

    Developed robotics sensitive skin is a modularized, flexible, mini-type array of infrared sensors with data processing capabilities, which can be used to cover the body of a robot. Depending on the infrared sensors and periphery processing circuit, robotics sensitive skin can in real-time provide existence and distance information about obstacles for robots within sensory areas. The methodology of designing sensitive skin and the algorithm of a mass of IR data fusion are presented. The experimental results show that the multi-joint robot with this sensitive skin can work autonomously in an unknown environment.

  15. The HI absorption 'Zoo'

    CERN Document Server

    Gereb, K; Morganti, R; Oosterloo, T A

    2014-01-01

    We present an analysis of the HI absorption in a sample of 101 flux-selected radio AGN (S_1.4 GHz > 50 mJy) observed with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT). HI absorption is detected in 32 galaxies, showing a broad variety of widths, shapes and kinematical properties. We characterize the HI spectra of the individual detections using the busy function (Westmeier et al. 2014). With the goal of identifying different morphological structures of HI, we study the kinematical and radio source properties of the detections as function of their width. Narrow lines (FWHM = 500 km/s). These detections are good candidates for being HI outflows. The detection rate of HI outflows is 5 percent in the total radio AGN sample. This fraction represents a lower limit, however it could suggests that, if outflows are a characteristic phenomenon of all radio sources, they would have a short depletion timescale compared to the lifetime of the AGN. Blueshifted and broad/asymmetric lines are more often present among young...

  16. Species-specific cutaneous biotransformation of the pesticide propoxur during percutaneous absorption in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Sandt, J J; Rutten, A A; van Ommen, B

    1993-11-01

    Propoxur (2-isopropoxyphenyl N-methylcarbamate) is a pesticide with a wide spectrum of applications, including use in agriculture and greenhouses. Percutaneous absorption and concurrent cutaneous metabolism of propoxur were studied in a two-compartment organ culture model. Nontoxic concentrations of [14C]propoxur were applied topically to skin discs from human, rabbit, and porcine origin. Permeation rates were comparable in human and rabbit skin, while pig skin was found to be twice as permeable. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that skin tissue of all three species had the capacity to metabolize propoxur. Hydrolysis of propoxur yielded 2-isopropoxyphenol (IPP), followed by phase II conjugation reactions. Interestingly, the type of IPP conjugation appeared to be species specific. In porcine skin cultures, glucuronides and sulfates were detected in equal amounts, whereas in human skin only sulfate conjugation was observed. For rabbit skin, glucuronidation was the major route of conjugation, with minor amounts of the sulfate conjugate and an unidentified metabolite. The percentage of propoxur metabolism in rabbit skin was not influenced by the dose in the range of 25-200 micrograms/cm2; in contrast, human skin metabolism was virtually saturated at 100 micrograms/cm2.

  17. Effects of uranium compounds on skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following uranium compounds were topically applied to the dorsal skin of 35 day-old Wistar rats (60 g, male): uranium dioxide, uranyl nitrate, uranyl acetate, ammonium uranyl tricarbonate and ammonium diuranate. Percutaneous absorption was mediated with the aid of a vehicle and known quantities of various particle-sized batches of uranium compounds were directly implanted in the subcutaneous tissue. Animals were sacrificed 3, 6, 24 and 48 hours after implantation. Subcutaneous tissue and muscle underneath the implantation site were anlaysed by light and electron microscopy. A Cameca 322 X-ray microanalyzer was used to analyze uranium traces in calcified tissue (bones and teeth) and kidneys. A steady loss in body weight was observed in animals given high concentration of uranyl nitrate and ammonium uranyl tricarbonate. All animals died five days after the onset of the experiment due to renal failure. Slightly soluble compounds, ammonium diuranate and uranyl acetate, caused only a slight decrease in body weight. Uranium dioxide, the most insoluble compound used, induced only a transitory slight body weight decrease. Histopathological study revealed damages to the tissues of topicated skin, hair follicles and adnexal glands. High concentration of uranium was indicated in bone, teeth and kidneys by X-ray scanning

  18. Skin temperature during sunbathing--relevance for skin cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bibi; Philipsen, Peter Alshede; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2014-01-01

    volunteers over 6 days' sun holiday in Egypt. Temperatures were measured with an infrared thermometer gun at 8 skin sites on the volunteers while they were indoors in the morning and when sunbathing during the day. Skin temperatures were higher during sunbathing (33.5 °C ± 2.1 °C) (mean ± SD) than when...

  19. Microautoradiography of 14C-salicylic acid in the skin of guinea-pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of salicylic acid in guinea-pig skin was examined by microautoradiography. The retention of salicylic acid in the stratum corneum was observed. It was considered that the rate of transfer of the drug into the stratum corneum was small and that the stratum corneum became the barrier for permeability of the skin. The distribution of salicylic acid in other parts of the skin was uniform and no retention of the drug in any special parts was observed. The plasma level showed less percutaneous absorption of the drug when it was applied as liquid paraffin solution than when it was applied as an aqueous solution. The amount of salicylic acid absorbed from damaged skin was extremely large and, in this case, disappearance of the drug from the skin was fast. (author)

  20. Optical coherence tomography for imaging of skin and skin diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mette; Thrane, Lars; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini;

    2009-01-01

    , as have many diseases. The method can provide accurate measures of epidermal and nail changes in normal tissue. Skin cancer and other tumors, as well as inflammatory diseases, have been studied and good agreement found between OCT images and histopathological architecture. OCT also allows noninvasive......Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging imaging technology based on light reflection. It provides real-time images with up to 2-mm penetration into the skin and a resolution of approximately 10 μm. It is routinely used in ophthalmology. The normal skin and its appendages have been studied...... monitoring of morphologic changes in skin diseases and may have a particular role in the monitoring of medical treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer. The technology is however still evolving and continued technological development will necessitate an ongoing evaluation of its diagnostic accuracy. Several...

  1. Pygmies, Giants, and Skins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piekarewicz, J.

    2013-03-01

    Understanding the equation of state (EOS) of neutron-rich matter is a central goal of nuclear physics that cuts across a variety of disciplines. Indeed, the limits of nuclear existence, the collision of energetic heavy ions, the structure of neutron stars, and the dynamics of core-collapse supernova all depend critically on the nuclear-matter EOS. In this contribution I focus on the EOS of cold baryonic matter with special emphasis on its impact on the structure, dynamics, and composition of neutron stars. In particular, I discuss how laboratory experiments on neutron skins as well as on Pygmy and Giant resonances can help us elucidate the structure of these fascinating objects.

  2. Pygmies, Giants, and Skins

    CERN Document Server

    Piekarewicz, J

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the equation of state (EOS) of neutron-rich matter is a central goal of nuclear physics that cuts across a variety of disciplines. Indeed, the limits of nuclear existence, the collision of energetic heavy ions, the structure of neutron stars, and the dynamics of core-collapse supernova all depend critically on the nuclear-matter EOS. In this contribution I focus on the EOS of cold baryonic matter with special emphasis on its impact on the structure, dynamics, and composition of neutron stars. In particular, I discuss how laboratory experiments on neutron skins as well as on Pygmy and Giant resonances can help us elucidate the structure of these fascinating objects.

  3. Double-Skin Facade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena

    difficulties experienced by scientists when attempting to model DSF thermal and energy performance were examined. In addition, the lack of experimental studies and empirical validation of models was realized, many numerical models have not been empirically validated and most of them require an expert knowledge...... to perform the simulations. To fill in the gap of lacking experimental data a range of measurements was carried out in an outdoor, double-skin façade full-scale test facility ‘The Cube'. As a result, three complete sets of experimental data were composed. These are available for external air curtain......, transparent insulation and preheating operation modes of DSF cavity. The data sets include measurements of naturally induced air flow, temperature gradients, velocity profiles, climate data, etc. Two data sets were used for further empirical validation of building simulation software for DSF modelling within...

  4. Diffuse interstellar absorption bands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG FuYuan; LIANG ShunLin; LI AiGen

    2009-01-01

    The diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) are a large number of absorption bands that are superposed on the interstellar extinction curve and are of interstellar origin. Since the discovery of the first two DIBs in the 1920s, the exact nature of DIBs still remains unclear. This article reviews the history of the detec-tions of DIBs in the Milky Way and external galaxies, the major observational characteristics of DIBs, the correlations or anti-correlations among DIBs or between DIBs and other interstellar features (e.g. the prominent 2175 Angstrom extinction bump and the far-ultraviolet extinction rise), and the proposed candidate carriers. Whether they are also present in circumstellar environments is also discussed.

  5. Diffuse interstellar absorption bands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The diffuse interstellar bands(DIBs) are a large number of absorption bands that are superposed on the interstellar extinction curve and are of interstellar origin. Since the discovery of the first two DIBs in the 1920s,the exact nature of DIBs still remains unclear. This article reviews the history of the detections of DIBs in the Milky Way and external galaxies,the major observational characteristics of DIBs,the correlations or anti-correlations among DIBs or between DIBs and other interstellar features(e.g. the prominent 2175 Angstrom extinction bump and the far-ultraviolet extinction rise),and the proposed candidate carriers. Whether they are also present in circumstellar environments is also discussed.

  6. The HI absorption "Zoo"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geréb, K.; Maccagni, F. M.; Morganti, R.; Oosterloo, T. A.

    2015-03-01

    We present an analysis of the H I 21 cm absorption in a sample of 101 flux-selected radio AGN (S1.4 GHz> 50 mJy) observed with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT). We detect H I absorption in 32 objects (30% of the sample). In a previous paper, we performed a spectral stacking analysis on the radio sources, while here we characterize the absorption spectra of the individual detections using the recently presented busy function. The H I absorption spectra show a broad variety of widths, shapes, and kinematical properties. The full width half maximum (FWHM) of the busy function fits of the detected H I lines lies in the range 32 km s-1 200 km s-1). We study the kinematical and radio source properties of each group, with the goal of identifying different morphological structures of H I. Narrow lines mostly lie at the systemic velocity and are likely produced by regularly rotating H I disks or gas clouds. More H I disks can be present among galaxies with lines of intermediate widths; however, the H I in these sources is more unsettled. We study the asymmetry parameter and blueshift/redshift distribution of the lines as a function of their width. We find a trend for which narrow profiles are also symmetric, while broad lines are the most asymmetric. Among the broadest lines, more lines appear blueshifted than redshifted, similarly to what was found by previous studies. Interestingly, symmetric broad lines are absent from the sample. We argue that if a profile is broad, it is also asymmetric and shifted relative to the systemic velocity because it is tracing unsettled H I gas. In particular, besides three of the broadest (up to FW20 = 825 km s-1) detections, which are associated with gas-rich mergers, we find three new cases of profiles with blueshifted broad wings (with FW20 ≳ 500 km s-1) in high radio power AGN. These detections are good candidates for being HI outflows. Together with the known cases of outflows already included in the sample (3C 293 and

  7. Urostomy - stoma and skin care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your skin and kidneys. About your stoma Your stoma is made from the part of your small intestine called the ileum. Your ureter is attached to a small piece of your ileum and pulled through the skin of your abdomen. A stoma is very delicate. A healthy stoma is pinkish- ...

  8. Aging Differences in Ethnic Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashi, Neelam A; de Castro Maymone, Mayra Buainain; Kundu, Roopal V

    2016-01-01

    Aging is an inevitable and complex process that can be described clinically as features of wrinkles, sunspots, uneven skin color, and sagging skin. These cutaneous effects are influenced by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors and often are varied based on ethnic origin given underlying structural and functional differences. The authors sought to provide updated information on facets of aging and how it relates to ethnic variation given innate differences in skin structure and function. Publications describing structural and functional principles of ethnic and aging skin were primarily found through a PubMed literature search and supplemented with a review of textbook chapters. The most common signs of skin aging despite skin type are dark spots, loss of elasticity, loss of volume, and rhytides. Skin of color has many characteristics that make its aging process unique. Those of Asian, Hispanic, and African American descent have distinct facial structures. Differences in the concentration of epidermal melanin makes darkly pigmented persons more vulnerable to dyspigmentation, while a thicker and more compact dermis makes facial lines less noticeable. Ethnic skin comprises a large portion of the world population. Therefore, it is important to understand the unique structural and functional differences among ethnicities to adequately treat the signs of aging. PMID:26962390

  9. Dry skin - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... scrubbing your skin. Shave right after bathing, when hair is soft. Wear soft, comfortable clothing next to your skin. Avoid rough fabrics like wool. Wash clothes with detergents that are free of dyes or fragrances. Drink plenty of water. Ease itchy ...

  10. Air Pollution and the skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni eDrakaki

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The increase of air pollution over the years has major effects on the human skin. The skin is exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UVR and environmental air pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, volatile organic compounds (VOCs, oxides, particulate matter (PM, ozone (O3 and cigarette smoke. Although human skin acts as a biological shield against pro-oxidative chemical and physical air pollutants, the prolonged or repetitive exposure to high levels of these pollutants may have profound negative effects on the skin. Exposure of the skin to air pollutants has been associated with skin aging and inflammatory or allergic skin conditions such as atopic dermatitis, eczema, psoriasis or acne, while skin cancer is among the most serious effects. On the other hand, some air pollutants (ie, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide and scattering particulates (clouds and soot in the troposphere reduce the effects of shorter wavelength UVR and significant reductions in UV irradiance have been observed in polluted urban areas.

  11. Pain-induced skin autoimmunity

    OpenAIRE

    Odoardi, Francesca; Neuhuber, Winfried; Flügel, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    A recent paper published in Nature reports sensory nerve fibers in the skin that give local immune cells important instructions for the organization of an immune response; in this particular case the cooperation between the nervous and immune systems had disastrous consequences, namely an auto-destruction of the skin.

  12. Co-drug strategy for promoting skin targeting and minimizing the transdermal diffusion of hydroquinone and tranexamic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Pei-Wen; Chen, Wei-Yu; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Chen, Chun-Che; Fang, Jia-You

    2013-01-01

    Hydroquinone and tranexamic acids (TXA) are skin-lightening agents with a hydrophilic nature and low skin absorption. A high dose is needed for clinical use, resulting in a high incidence of skin irritation. Co-drugs formed by conjugating hydroquinone and TXA were synthesized and their in vitro and in vivo skin absorption characteristics were evaluated. The two synthesized co-drugs were 4-hydroxyphenyl 4-(aminomethyl)cyclohexanecarboxylate (HAC) and 1,4- phenylene bis(aminomethyl)cyclohexanecarboxylate (BAC). The co-drugs were chemically stable in aqueous solution, but rapidly degraded to the respective parent drug in esterases and skin homogenates. Compared to hydroquinone application, 7.2- and 2.4-fold increments in the hydroquinone skin deposition were obtained with the in vitro application of HAC and BAC. HAC and BAC led to 3- and 2-fold enhancements of equivalent TXA deposition compared to TXA administration. The in vivo experiment showed a further enhancement of co-drugs compared to the in vitro setup. The transdermal penetration of co-drugs, especially BAC, was much lower than that of hydroquinone and TXA. This indicated high-level skin targeting by the co-drugs. HAC and BAC revealed strong affinities for the viable epidermis/dermis. Hair follicles are important reservoirs for co-drug delivery. Daily administration of co-drugs to the skin did not generate irritation for up to 7 days. Both co-drugs are superior candidates for treating skin hyperpigmentation.

  13. Co-drug strategy for promoting skin targeting and minimizing the transdermal diffusion of hydroquinone and tranexamic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Pei-Wen; Chen, Wei-Yu; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Chen, Chun-Che; Fang, Jia-You

    2013-01-01

    Hydroquinone and tranexamic acids (TXA) are skin-lightening agents with a hydrophilic nature and low skin absorption. A high dose is needed for clinical use, resulting in a high incidence of skin irritation. Co-drugs formed by conjugating hydroquinone and TXA were synthesized and their in vitro and in vivo skin absorption characteristics were evaluated. The two synthesized co-drugs were 4-hydroxyphenyl 4-(aminomethyl)cyclohexanecarboxylate (HAC) and 1,4- phenylene bis(aminomethyl)cyclohexanecarboxylate (BAC). The co-drugs were chemically stable in aqueous solution, but rapidly degraded to the respective parent drug in esterases and skin homogenates. Compared to hydroquinone application, 7.2- and 2.4-fold increments in the hydroquinone skin deposition were obtained with the in vitro application of HAC and BAC. HAC and BAC led to 3- and 2-fold enhancements of equivalent TXA deposition compared to TXA administration. The in vivo experiment showed a further enhancement of co-drugs compared to the in vitro setup. The transdermal penetration of co-drugs, especially BAC, was much lower than that of hydroquinone and TXA. This indicated high-level skin targeting by the co-drugs. HAC and BAC revealed strong affinities for the viable epidermis/dermis. Hair follicles are important reservoirs for co-drug delivery. Daily administration of co-drugs to the skin did not generate irritation for up to 7 days. Both co-drugs are superior candidates for treating skin hyperpigmentation. PMID:23931279

  14. Dermal absorption of a dilute aqueous solution of malathion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scharf John

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Malathion is an organophosphate pesticide commonly used on field crops, fruit trees, livestock, agriculture, and for mosquito and medfly control. Aerial applications can result in solubilized malathion in swimming pools and other recreational waters that may come into contact with human skin. To evaluate the human skin absorption of malathion for the assessment of risk associated with human exposures to aqueous solutions, human volunteers were selected and exposed to aqueous solutions of malathion. Participants submerged their arms and hands in twenty liters of dilute malathion solution in either a stagnant or stirred state. The "disappearance method" was applied by measuring malathion concentrations in the water before and after human exposure for various periods of time. No measurable skin absorption was detected in 42% of the participants; the remaining 58% of participants measured minimal absorbed doses of malathion. Analyzing these results through the Hazard Index model for recreational swimmer and bather exposure levels typically measured in contaminated swimming pools and surface waters after bait application indicated that these exposures are an order of magnitude less than a minimal dose known to result in a measurable change in acetylcholinesterase activity. It is concluded that exposure to aqueous malathion in recreational waters following aerial bait applications is not appreciably absorbed, does not result in an effective dose, and therefore is not a public health hazard.

  15. Absorption intestinale des vitamines liposolubles

    OpenAIRE

    Reboul Emmanuelle

    2011-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms of fat-soluble vitamin intestinal absorption remain partly unknown, despite the fact that a better understanding of this process would certainly allow to improve their bioavailability. If their digestion-absorption process follows the fate of lipids globally, the recent discovery of membranes proteins involved in their absorption questioned the established dogmas. These new data should be taken into account to avoid dietary or drug interactions that may limit some fat...

  16. LIQUID CRYSTAL AS ACCELERANT IN DRUG ABSORPTION FROM TOPICAL FORMULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trivedi Nirali

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Topical drug delivery has been one of the major research fields in the area of drug therapy for last few decades. However inspite of its large therapeutic potential market success has been limited. It provides the several advantages over the oral drug delivery. Percutaneous absorption involves the passage of the drug molecule from the skin surface into the stratum corneum under the influence of a concentration gradient and its subsequent diffusion through the stratum corneum and underlying epidermis, through the dermis, and into the blood circulation. Liquid crystal phase has emerged as a novel material for preparation of topical drug delivery systems. It fulfills the requirements for making drug loading and drug absorption faster from the site of application of topical formulations. Liquid crystal has got many phases in itself which can be further exploited to get a better and more efficient drug delivery system. Also a variety of areas in medical and electronics streamline can find its application. There is also a wide scope in respect to the methods by which these liquid crystals can be prepared. Different methods give rise to different kinds of liquid crystals. Topical formulations have emerged as a very useful drug delivery system as it bypasses the first pass metabolism. Also the absorption of drugs depends on the percutaneous absorption of drug from the area of application. Hence it’s required to choose such a vehicle which enhances the absorption of drug from the formulation.

  17. Skin decontamination of glyphosate from human skin in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, H; Chan, H P; Hui, X; Maibach, H I

    2008-06-01

    This study compared three model decontaminant solutions (tap water, isotonic saline, and hypertonic saline) for their ability to remove a model herbicide (glyphosate) from an in vitro human skin model. Human cadaver skin was dosed (approximately 375microg) of [14C]-glyphosate on 3cm2 per skin. After each exposure time (1, 3, and 30min post-dosing, respectively), the surface skin was washed three times (4ml per time) with each solution. After washing, the skin was stripped twice with tape discs. Lastly, the wash solutions, strippings, receptor fluid, and remainder of skin were liquid scintillation analyzer counted to determine the amount of glyphosate. There were no statistical differences among these groups at any time points. The total mass balance recovery at three time exposure points was between 94.8% and 102.4%. The wash off rates (glyphosate in wash solutions) at three different exposure times is 79-101.2%. Thus the three tested decontaminants possess similar effectiveness in removing glyphosate from skin. This in vitro model is not only economic and rapid, but also provides quantitative data that may aid screening for optimal decontaminants. PMID:18407393

  18. Periostin in Skin Tissue Skin-Related Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukie Yamaguchi

    2014-01-01

    Recently, periostin—a matricellular protein—has been highlighted for its pivotal functions in the skin. Analysis of periostin null mice has revealed that periostin contributes to collagen fibrillogenesis, collagen cross-linking, and the formation of ECM meshwork via interactions with other ECM components. Periostin expression is enhanced by mechanical stress or skin injury; this is indicative of the physiologically protective functions of periostin, which promotes wound repair by acting on keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Along with its physiological functions, periostin plays pathogenic roles in skin fibrosis and chronic allergic inflammation. In systemic sclerosis (SSc patients, periostin levels reflect the severity of skin fibrosis. Periostin null mice have shown reduced skin fibrosis in a bleomycin-induced SSc mouse model, indicating a key role of periostin in fibrosis. Moreover, in atopic dermatitis (AD, attenuated AD phenotype has been observed in periostin null mice in a house dust mite extract-induced AD mouse model. Th2 cytokine-induced periostin acts on keratinocytes to produce inflammatory cytokines that further enhance the Th2 response, thereby sustaining and amplifying chronic allergic inflammation. Thus, periostin is deeply involved in the pathogenesis of AD and other inflammation-related disorders affecting the skin. Understanding the dynamic actions of periostin would be key to dissecting pathogenesis of skin-related diseases and to developing novel therapeutic strategies.

  19. Dosimetry for Total Skin Electron Beam Therapy in Skin Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Sung Sil; Loh, John J. K.; Kim, Gwi Eon [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-06-15

    Increasing frequency of skin cancer, mycosis fungoides, Kaposi sarcoma etc, it need to treatment dose planning for total skin electron beam (TSEB) therapy. Appropriate treatment planning for TSEB therapy is needed to give homogeneous dose distribution throughout the entire skin surface. The energy of 6 MeV electron from the 18 MeV medical linear accelerator was adapted for superficial total skin electron beam therapy. The energy of the electron beam was reduced to 4.2 MeV by a 0.5cmx90cmx180cm acryl screen placed in a feet front of the patient. Six dual field beam was adapted for total skin irradiation to encompass the entire body surface from head to toe simultaneously. The patients were treated behind the acryl screen plate acted as a beam scatterer and contained a parallel-plate shallow ion chamber for dosimetry and beam monitoring. During treatment, the patient was placed in six different positions due to be homogeneous dose distribution for whole skin around the body. One treatment session delivered 400 cGy to the entire skin surface and patients were treated twice a week for eight consecutive weeks, which is equivalent to TDF value 57. Instrumentation and techniques developed in determining the depth dose, dose distribution and bremsstrahlung dose are discussed.

  20. Noninvasive evaluation of collagen and hemoglobin contents and scattering property of in vivo keloid scars and normal skin using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Sheng-Hao; Hsu, Chao-Kai; Yu-Yun Lee, Julia; Tzeng, Shih-Yu; Chen, Wan-Rung; Liaw, Yu-Kai

    2012-07-01

    Collagen is a rich component in skin that provides skin structure integrity; however, its contribution to the absorption and scattering properties of various types of skin has not been extensively studied. We considered the contribution of the collagen to the absorption spectrum of in vivo normal skin and keloids of 12 subjects derived from our diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) system in the wavelength range from 550 to 860 nm. It was found that the collagen concentration, the hemoglobin oxygen saturation, and the reduced scattering coefficient of keloids were remarkably different from that of normal skin. Our results suggest that our DRS system could assist clinicians in understanding the functional and structural condition of keloid scars. In the future, we will evaluate the accuracy of our system in the keloid diagnosis and investigate the applicability of our system for other skin-collagen-related studies.

  1. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.

    2009-07-09

    This review gives a brief description of the theory and application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy, both X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), especially, pertaining to photosynthesis. The advantages and limitations of the methods are discussed. Recent advances in extended EXAFS and polarized EXAFS using oriented membranes and single crystals are explained. Developments in theory in understanding the XANES spectra are described. The application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy to the study of the Mn4Ca cluster in Photosystem II is presented.

  2. The effects of sulfur mustard exposure and freezing on transdermal penetration of tritiated water through ex vivo pig skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, O J; Graham, S J; Dalton, C H; Spencer, P M; Mansson, R; Jenner, J; Azeke, J; Braue, E

    2013-02-01

    The percutaneous absorption of tritiated water ((3)H(2)O) through sulfur mustard (SM) exposed abdominal pig skin was measured using in vitro Franz-type static diffusion cells. The barrier function to water permeation following exposure to liquid SM for 8 min and excision 3h later did not change significantly. A small, but statistically significant difference (P<0.05) in steady state penetration (Jss), permeability coefficient (Kp) and lag time (t(L)) of (3)H(2)O was observed between fresh skin and skin stored frozen (-20 °C) for up to two weeks. Steady-state penetration and Kp values were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in skin stored frozen compared with fresh skin. Fresh naïve skin had an average Kp of 1.65 × 10(-3) cm h(-1), whereas frozen naïve skin was 2.04 × 10(-3) cm h(-1). Fresh SM exposed skin had a mean Kp of 1.72 × 10(-3) cm h(-1), whereas frozen SM exposed skin was 2.31 × 10(-3) cm h(-1). Lag times were also shorter (P<0.05) in skin that had been stored frozen. Frozen, SM-exposed porcine abdominal skin may be used for in vitro penetration studies, but effects of treatment and storage on the barrier layer should be taken into account. PMID:23041075

  3. Usefulness of rat skin as a substitute for human skin in the in vitro skin permeation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hiroyuki; Mano, Yoko; Terasaka, Shuichi; Sakurai, Takanobu; Furuya, Atsushi; Urano, Hidetoshi; Sugibayashi, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats are broadly used in preclinical studies for drug development, so a lot of information for the rats can be obtained especially from pharmacokinetic, pharmacological and toxicological studies. The purpose of this study was to clarify whether SD rat skin can be used to predict human skin permeability. In vitro permeation studies of the three model drugs, nicorandil, isosorbide dinitrate, and flurbiprofen, through human skin and SD rat skin were performed using Franz-type diffusion cells. The permeation rates of the three model drugs through human skin and SD rat skin were determined, and their variations were evaluated. The inter-individual variations in SD rat skin permeability of the three model drugs were much lower than that in human skin permeability, although the permeation rates of the three model drugs through the SD rat skin were about twice those through human skin. In addition, no difference in the skin permeability coefficients of the three model drugs was obtained between fresh SD rat skin and frozen SD rat skin. The markedly smaller variation in the permeability through SD rat skin compared with that through human skin indicated that in vitro permeation studies using SD rat skin would be especially useful for evaluating differences in the skin permeability of the three model drugs as well as for predicting human skin permeability.

  4. Two-photon absorption and transient photothermal imaging of pigments in tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Tong; Fu, Dan; Matthews, Thomas E.; Hong, Lian; Simon, John D.; Warren, Warren S.

    2008-02-01

    As a main pigment in skin tissues, melanin plays an important role in photo-protecting skin from UV radiation. However, melanogenesis may be altered due to disease or environmental factors; for example, sun exposure may cause damage and mutation of melanocytes and induce melanoma. Imaging pigmentation changes may provide invaluable information to catch the malignant transformation in its early stage and in turn improve the prognosis of patients. We have demonstrated previously that transmission mode, two-photon, one- or two-color absorption microscopy could provide remarkable contrast in imaging melanin in skin. In this report we demonstrate significantly improved sensitivity, so that we are now able to image in epi-mode (or back reflection) in two-photon absorption. This improvement makes possible for us to characterize the different types of pigmentation on the skin in vivo at virtually any location. Another finding is that we can also image transient photothermal dynamics due to the light absorption of melanin. By carefully choosing excitation and probe wavelengths, we might be able to image melanin in different structures under different micro-environments in skin, which could provide useful photochemical and photophysical insights in understanding how pigments are involved in photoprotection and photodamage of cells.

  5. Sun’s effect on skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    The skin uses sunlight to help manufacture vitamin D, which is important for normal bone formation. But sometimes its ultraviolet light can be ... the pigment melanin. Melanin protects skin from the sun's ultraviolet rays, which can burn the skin, and ...

  6. Itchy, Scaly Skin? Living with Psoriasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exit disclaimer . Subscribe Itchy, Scaly Skin? Living With Psoriasis The thick, red, scaly skin of psoriasis can ... Diet Itchy, Scaly Skin? Wise Choices Links Treating Psoriasis Doctors often use a trial-and-error approach ...

  7. DNA adducts in skin biopsies and 1-hydroxypyrene in urine of psoriasis patients and healthy volunteers following treatment with coal tar.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendricksen-Roelofzen, J.H.J.; Valk, P.G.M. van der; Godschalk, R.; Dettbarn, G.; Seidel, A.; Golsteijn, L.; Anzion, R.B.; Aben, K.K.H.; Schooten, F.J.L. van; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Scheepers, P.T.J.

    2012-01-01

    Coal tar ointments (CTO) are frequently used in the treatment of psoriasis and eczema, but CTO contain carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). PAH are absorbed and metabolized in the skin. In psoriasis, the skin barrier is altered and therefore, absorption and metabolism of PAH may diff

  8. Provesicular Niosomes Gel: A Novel Absorption Modulator for Transdermal Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THOMAS LITHA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Skin has become an impressive and idealistic platform for the delivery of drugs compared to other routes. However, the stratum corneum “dead, impermeable barrier devoid of biological activity” to skin had challenged the development of transdermal product, which delivers the drugs directly to the systemic circulation at a controlled rate[1]. Several approaches put forward to enhance the penetration of drug through skin for transdermal drug delivery and one among them are provesicular niosomes (proniosomes, which ideally possess the sole property of reversibly reducing the barrier resistance of the horny layer, allowing the drug to reach the living tissues at a greater rate. The provesicular niosomes (non-ionic surfactant based vesicles; colloid carrier is still in its infancy and need to exploit more in field of drug delivery. These vesicles are formed from the self-assembly of non-ionic amphiphiles in aqueous medium results in closed bilayer structure which can entraps both lipophilic and hydrophilic drugs[2]. They are non-toxic and non-immunogenic bilayer that be converted to niosomes when applied to skin by in-situ absorption of water and interacts with the strong hydrogen bond of stratum corneum and loosens it, thereby allowing the diffusion of drug into the skin. It also possesses enhanced stability compared to other vesicular carrier. This review is an insight into the exploitation of the various properties of drug to encapsulated, preparation, mechanism of penetration and application in transdermal drug delivery. The factor affecting the entrapment and penetration of drug through the skin also reviewed.

  9. Color Constancy For Improving Skin Detection

    OpenAIRE

    A. Nadian-Ghomsheh

    2014-01-01

    Skin detection is a preliminary step in many human related recognition systems. Most skin detection systems suffer from high false detection rate, resulting from low variance between the skin and non-skin color distributions. This paper proposes the use of simple color correction algorithms with low computation complexity to obtain a corrected version of the skin color distribution, which could lead to more accurate skin detection. White patch retinex, Grey world assumption and several improv...

  10. Ultraviolet Light and Skin Cancer in Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Shannon C.; Bergfeld, Wilma F.

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers is increasing worldwide. Ultraviolet light exposure is the most important risk factor for cutaneous melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. Nonmelanoma skin cancer includes basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Constitutive skin color and genetic factors, as well as immunological factors, play a role in the development of skin cancer. Ultraviolet light also causes sunburn and photoaging damage to the skin.

  11. Sun protection factor persistence on human skin during a day without physical activity or ultraviolet exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyer, Ditte Maria; Faurschou, Annesofie; Philipsen, Peter Alshede;

    2010-01-01

    Recently, we showed that the sun protection factor (SPF) decreases by a constant factor to reach 55% during a day with activities. Organic sunscreens but not inorganic ones are absorbed through the skin. We wished to determine the SPF decrease caused by absorption by investigating the difference...

  12. Sun protection factor persistence on human skin during a day without physical activity or ultraviolet exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyer, Ditte Maria; Faurschou, Annesofie; Philipsen, Peter Alshede;

    2010-01-01

    Recently, we showed that the sun protection factor (SPF) decreases by a constant factor to reach 55% during a day with activities. Organic sunscreens but not inorganic ones are absorbed through the skin. We wished to determine the SPF decrease caused by absorption by investigating the difference in...

  13. Age-related skin changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božanić Snežana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related skin changes can be induced by chronological ageing, manifested in subcutaneous fat reduction, and photo-ageing eliciting increased elastotic substance in the upper dermis, destruction of its fibrilar structure, augmented intercellular substance and moderate inflammatory infiltrate. Forty-five biopsy skin samples of the sun-exposed and sun-protected skin were analyzed. The patients were both males and females, aged from 17 to 81 years. The thickness of the epidermal layers and the number of cellular living layers is greater in younger skin. The amount of keratohyaline granules is enlarged in older skin. Dermoepidermal junction is flattened and the presence of elastotic material in the dermis is pronounced with age. The amount of inflammatory infiltrate is increased, the fibrous trabeculae are thickened in older skin and the atrophy of the hypodermis is observed. Chronological ageing alters the fibroblasts metabolism by reducing their life span, capacity to divide and produce collagen. During ageing, the enlargement of collagen fibrils diminishes the skin elasticity.

  14. Biothermomechanical behavior of skin tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F.Xu; T.J.Lu; K.A.Seffen

    2008-01-01

    Advances in laser,microwave and similar tech nologies have led to recent developments of thermal treatments involving skin tissue.The effectiveness of these treatments is governed by the coupled thermal,mechanical,biological and neural responses of the affected tissue:a favorable interaction results in a procedure with relatively little pain and no lasting side effects.Currently,even though each behavioral facet is to a certain extent established and understood,none exists to date in the interdisciplinarv area.A highly interdisciplinary approach is required for studying the biothermomechanical behavior of skin,involving bioheat transfer.biomechanics and physiology.A comprehensive literature review penrtinent to the subject is presented in this paper,covering four subject areas:(a)skin structure,(b)skin bioheat transfer and thermal damage,(c)skin biomechanics,and(d)skin biothermomechanics.The major problems,issues,and topics for further studies are also outlined.This review finds that significant advances in each of these aspects have been achieved in recent years.Although focus is placed upon the biothermomechanical behavior of skin tissue,the fundamental concepts and methodologies reviewed in this paper may also be applicable for studying other soft tissues.

  15. Autoradiographic study on percutaneous absorption of several oils useful for cosmetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percutaneous absorption of five 14C-labelled oils, n-octadecane, decanoxy decane, 2-hexyldecanoxy octane, isopropyl myristate and glyceryl tri-(oleate), commonly used is cosmetics were studied from the point of view of their safety. In whole body autoradiography of hairless mice, there was no visible penetration into the skin and organs, whereas microautoradiography of guinea pigs showed local penetration. Isopropyl myristate penetrated to the greatest extent, whereas 2-hexyldecanoxy octane was hardly absorbed. Percutaneous absorption of these two oils, therefore, was examined in Angora rabbits by microautoradiography simultaneously with skin irritation potential by a histological method, from the following aspects, (1) patterns of penetration and irritation in relation to application time and (2) fate within the skin and pattern of irritation after application. In addition, intradermal metabolic fate was studied in vivo. (author)

  16. Absorption of volatile ruthenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phase equilibrium and mass transfer measurements for the absorption of ruthenium tetroxide (RuO4) in aqueous and nitric acid solutions have been completed. Low concentration phase equilibrium measurements confirm that the system obeys Henry's law across 4 orders of magnitude in concentration. Mass transfer measurements from turbulent gas flow indicate that the diffusivity of RuO4 in air may increase slightly as its concentration is reduced by 5-6 orders of magnitude. The reaction of RuO4 with nitrous acid and nitrites in solution results in precipitated or colloidal RuO2. Initial, immediate decomposition of ∼ 50% of the RuO4 occurs at RuO4: HNO2 mole ratios between 10:1 and 1:2, and does not vary systematically with mole ratio in this range. A mathematical model of the RuO4 decontamination performance of a packed bed scrubber has been developed, and validated experimentally with a laboratory QVF system. A survey of modelling approaches for predicting the ruthenium decontamination performance of off-gas condensers has been carried out. (author)

  17. Lyme borreliosis and skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Biju; Chatterjee, Manas

    2013-05-01

    Lyme disease is a multisystem illness which is caused by the strains of spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and transmitted by the tick, Ixodes. Though very commonly reported from the temperate regions of the world, the incidence has increased worldwide due to increasing travel and changing habitats of the vector. Few cases have been reported from the Indian subcontinent too. Skin manifestations are the earliest to occur, and diagnosing these lesions followed by appropriate treatment, can prevent complications of the disease, which are mainly neurological. The three main dermatological manifestations are erythema chronicum migrans, borrelial lymphocytoma and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans. Many other dermatological conditions including morphea, lichen sclerosus and lately B cell lymphoma, have been attributed to the disease. Immunofluorescence and polymerase reaction tests have been developed to overcome the problems for diagnosis. Culture methods are also used for diagnosis. Treatment with Doxycycline is the mainstay of management, though prevention is of utmost importance. Vaccines against the condition are still not very successful. Hence, the importance of recognising the cutaneous manifestations early, to prevent systemic complications which can occur if left untreated, can be understood. This review highlights the cutaneous manifestations of Lyme borreliosis and its management. PMID:23723463

  18. Lyme borreliosis and skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biju Vasudevan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lyme disease is a multisystem illness which is caused by the strains of spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and transmitted by the tick, Ixodes. Though very commonly reported from the temperate regions of the world, the incidence has increased worldwide due to increasing travel and changing habitats of the vector. Few cases have been reported from the Indian subcontinent too. Skin manifestations are the earliest to occur, and diagnosing these lesions followed by appropriate treatment, can prevent complications of the disease, which are mainly neurological. The three main dermatological manifestations are erythema chronicum migrans, borrelial lymphocytoma and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans. Many other dermatological conditions including morphea, lichen sclerosus and lately B cell lymphoma, have been attributed to the disease. Immunofluorescence and polymerase reaction tests have been developed to overcome the problems for diagnosis. Culture methods are also used for diagnosis. Treatment with Doxycycline is the mainstay of management, though prevention is of utmost importance. Vaccines against the condition are still not very successful. Hence, the importance of recognising the cutaneous manifestations early, to prevent systemic complications which can occur if left untreated, can be understood. This review highlights the cutaneous manifestations of Lyme borreliosis and its management.

  19. NOTE: Spectra from 2.5-15 µm of tissue phantom materials, optical clearing agents and ex vivo human skin: implications for depth profiling of human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viator, John A.; Choi, Bernard; Peavy, George M.; Kimel, Sol; Nelson, J. Stuart

    2003-01-01

    Infrared measurements have been used to profile or image biological tissue, including human skin. Usually, analysis of such measurements has assumed that infrared absorption is due to water and collagen. Such an assumption may be reasonable for soft tissue, but introduction of exogenous agents into skin or the measurement of tissue phantoms has raised the question of their infrared absorption spectrum. We used Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in attenuated total reflection mode to measure the infrared absorption spectra, in the range of 2-15 µm, of water, polyacrylamide, Intralipid, collagen gels, four hyperosmotic clearing agents (glycerol, 1,3-butylene glycol, trimethylolpropane, TopicareTM), and ex vivo human stratum corneum and dermis. The absorption spectra of the phantom materials were similar to that of water, although additional structure was noted in the range of 6-10 µm. The absorption spectra of the clearing agents were more complex, with molecular absorption bands dominating between 6 and 12 µm. Dermis was similar to water, with collagen structure evident in the 6-10 µm range. Stratum corneum had a significantly lower absorption than dermis due to a lower content of water. These results suggest that the assumption of water-dominated absorption in the 2.5-6 µm range is valid. At longer wavelengths, clearing agent absorption spectra differ significantly from the water spectrum. This spectral information can be used in pulsed photothermal radiometry or utilized in the interpretation of reconstructions in which a constant μir is used. In such cases, overestimating μir will underestimate chromophore depth and vice versa, although the effect is dependent on actual chromophore depth.

  20. Spectra from 2.5-15 μm of tissue phantom materials, optical clearing agents and ex vivo human skin: implications for depth profiling of human skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infrared measurements have been used to profile or image biological tissue, including human skin. Usually, analysis of such measurements has assumed that infrared absorption is due to water and collagen. Such an assumption may be reasonable for soft tissue, but introduction of exogenous agents into skin or the measurement of tissue phantoms has raised the question of their infrared absorption spectrum. We used Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in attenuated total reflection mode to measure the infrared absorption spectra, in the range of 2-15 μm, of water, polyacrylamide, Intralipid, collagen gels, four hyperosmotic clearing agents (glycerol, 1,3-butylene glycol, trimethylolpropane, TopicareTM), and ex vivo human stratum corneum and dermis. The absorption spectra of the phantom materials were similar to that of water, although additional structure was noted in the range of 6-10 μm. The absorption spectra of the clearing agents were more complex, with molecular absorption bands dominating between 6 and 12 μm. Dermis was similar to water, with collagen structure evident in the 6-10 μm range. Stratum corneum had a significantly lower absorption than dermis due to a lower content of water. These results suggest that the assumption of water-dominated absorption in the 2.5-6 μm range is valid. At longer wavelengths, clearing agent absorption spectra differ significantly from the water spectrum. This spectral information can be used in pulsed photothermal radiometry or utilized in the interpretation of reconstructions in which a constant μir is used. In such cases, overestimating μir will underestimate chromophore depth and vice versa, although the effect is dependent on actual chromophore depth. (note)

  1. Skin-inspired electronic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Chortos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Electronic devices that mimic the properties of skin have potential important applications in advanced robotics, prosthetics, and health monitoring technologies. Methods for measuring tactile and temperature signals have progressed rapidly due to innovations in materials and processing methods. Imparting skin-like stretchability to electronic devices can be accomplished by patterning traditional electronic materials or developing new materials that are intrinsically stretchable. The incorporation of sensing methods with transistors facilitates large-area sensor arrays. While sensor arrays have surpassed the properties of human skin in terms of sensitivity, time response, and device density, many opportunities remain for future development.

  2. Cadmium absorption inhibitors for soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitamura, S.

    1974-05-25

    Cadmium absorption by soil is one cause of soil pollution. Cadmium adsorption inhibitors were prepared by mixing alginic acid which contained brown algae (Ascophyllum nodosum) and an inorganic material, shell fossils. This mixture was highly effective in preventing cadmium absorption by the soil.

  3. Multifunctional hybrids for electromagnetic absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huynen, I. [Research Center in Micro and Nanoscopic Materials and Electronic Devices, CeRMiN, Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Information and Communications Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics (ICTEAM), Microwave Laboratory, Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Quievy, N. [Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences (IMCN), Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Bailly, C. [Research Center in Micro and Nanoscopic Materials and Electronic Devices, CeRMiN, Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences (IMCN), Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Institute of Mechanics, Materials and Civil Engineering (iMMC), Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Bollen, P. [Information and Communications Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics (ICTEAM), Microwave Laboratory, Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences (IMCN), Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Institute of Mechanics, Materials and Civil Engineering (iMMC), Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Detrembleur, C. [Center for Education and Research on Macromolecules (CERM), University of Liege, Sart-Tilman B6a, 4000 Liege (Belgium); Eggermont, S.; Molenberg, I. [Information and Communications Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics (ICTEAM), Microwave Laboratory, Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Thomassin, J.M.; Urbanczyk, L. [Center for Education and Research on Macromolecules (CERM), University of Liege, Sart-Tilman B6a, 4000 Liege (Belgium)

    2011-05-15

    Highlights: > EM absorption requires low dielectric constant and {approx}1 S/m electrical conductivity. > New hybrids were processed with CNT-filled polymer foam inserted in Al honeycomb. > The EM absorption in the GHz range is superior to any known material. > A closed form model is used to guide the design of the hybrid. > The architectured material is light with potential for thermal management. - Abstract: Electromagnetic (EM) interferences are ubiquitous in modern technologies and impact on the reliability of electronic devices and on living cells. Shielding by EM absorption, which is preferable over reflection in certain instances, requires combining a low dielectric constant with high electrical conductivity, which are antagonist properties in the world of materials. A novel class of hybrid materials for EM absorption in the gigahertz range has been developed based on a hierarchical architecture involving a metallic honeycomb filled with a carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer foam. The waveguide characteristics of the honeycomb combined with the performance of the foam lead to unexpectedly large EM power absorption over a wide frequency range, superior to any known material. The peak absorption frequency can be tuned by varying the shape of the honeycomb unit cell. A closed form model of the EM reflection and absorption provides a tool for the optimization of the hybrid. This designed material sets the stage for a new class of sandwich panels combining high EM absorption with mass efficiency, stiffness and thermal management.

  4. Multifunctional hybrids for electromagnetic absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → EM absorption requires low dielectric constant and ∼1 S/m electrical conductivity. → New hybrids were processed with CNT-filled polymer foam inserted in Al honeycomb. → The EM absorption in the GHz range is superior to any known material. → A closed form model is used to guide the design of the hybrid. → The architectured material is light with potential for thermal management. - Abstract: Electromagnetic (EM) interferences are ubiquitous in modern technologies and impact on the reliability of electronic devices and on living cells. Shielding by EM absorption, which is preferable over reflection in certain instances, requires combining a low dielectric constant with high electrical conductivity, which are antagonist properties in the world of materials. A novel class of hybrid materials for EM absorption in the gigahertz range has been developed based on a hierarchical architecture involving a metallic honeycomb filled with a carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer foam. The waveguide characteristics of the honeycomb combined with the performance of the foam lead to unexpectedly large EM power absorption over a wide frequency range, superior to any known material. The peak absorption frequency can be tuned by varying the shape of the honeycomb unit cell. A closed form model of the EM reflection and absorption provides a tool for the optimization of the hybrid. This designed material sets the stage for a new class of sandwich panels combining high EM absorption with mass efficiency, stiffness and thermal management.

  5. Skin nonpenetrating sunscreens for cosmetic and pharmaceutical formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touitou, Elka; Godin, Biana

    2008-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) solar radiation produces harmful effects on the skin including sunburn, local immunosuppression, skin photoaging, and cutaneous malignancies. Although application of sunscreens is the "gold standard" for protecting the skin from UV radiation, studies have shown that currently used sunscreens can cause adverse skin and systemic reactions, owing to their penetration into the viable cutaneous strata and to transdermal absorption. This paper presents new nonpermeating sunscreens (NPSUN) suitable for use in cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. The basic idea behind the design of the new photoprotectors was to immobilize UV-absorbing moieties in the Jojoba oil chemical backbone. The physicochemical characteristics of NPSUNs allow these derivatives to remain confined to the upper stratum corneum where the sunscreen molecule acts, with no further clearance to deeper dermal strata or systemic circulation. As an example, no permeation across the skin of methoxycinnamate-NPSUN was observed during 24-hour in vitro experiments, after topical application of either unformulated substances or of methoxycinnamate-NPSUNs formulated in oil-in-water cream, in water-in-oil cream, or in Jojoba oil. Another approach to increase the photoprotective effect against the UV radiation is targeting the delivery of alpha tocopherol into the deeper skin layers and across the cell membranes. This is necessary for optimal photoprotection and prevention of malignant processes. For this purpose, ethosomal vitamin E compositions were designed, characterized, and tested. Efficient intracellular and dermal accumulation of vitamin E from ethosomes was demonstrated. A good clinical strategy could be the use of NPSUNs during direct UV exposure followed by the application of alpha-tocopherol compositions after short- or long-term solar radiation.

  6. Skin nonpenetrating sunscreens for cosmetic and pharmaceutical formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touitou, Elka; Godin, Biana

    2008-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) solar radiation produces harmful effects on the skin including sunburn, local immunosuppression, skin photoaging, and cutaneous malignancies. Although application of sunscreens is the "gold standard" for protecting the skin from UV radiation, studies have shown that currently used sunscreens can cause adverse skin and systemic reactions, owing to their penetration into the viable cutaneous strata and to transdermal absorption. This paper presents new nonpermeating sunscreens (NPSUN) suitable for use in cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. The basic idea behind the design of the new photoprotectors was to immobilize UV-absorbing moieties in the Jojoba oil chemical backbone. The physicochemical characteristics of NPSUNs allow these derivatives to remain confined to the upper stratum corneum where the sunscreen molecule acts, with no further clearance to deeper dermal strata or systemic circulation. As an example, no permeation across the skin of methoxycinnamate-NPSUN was observed during 24-hour in vitro experiments, after topical application of either unformulated substances or of methoxycinnamate-NPSUNs formulated in oil-in-water cream, in water-in-oil cream, or in Jojoba oil. Another approach to increase the photoprotective effect against the UV radiation is targeting the delivery of alpha tocopherol into the deeper skin layers and across the cell membranes. This is necessary for optimal photoprotection and prevention of malignant processes. For this purpose, ethosomal vitamin E compositions were designed, characterized, and tested. Efficient intracellular and dermal accumulation of vitamin E from ethosomes was demonstrated. A good clinical strategy could be the use of NPSUNs during direct UV exposure followed by the application of alpha-tocopherol compositions after short- or long-term solar radiation. PMID:18691518

  7. Chronological age affects the permeation of fentanyl through human skin in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgaard, R; Benfeldt, E; Sorensen, J A;

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To study the influence of chronological age on fentanyl permeation through human skin in vitro using static diffusion cells. Elderly individuals are known to be more sensitive to opioids and obtain higher plasma concentrations following dermal application of fentanyl compared to younger...... individuals. The influence of age - as an isolated pharmacokinetic term - on the absorption of fentanyl has not been previously studied. METHOD: Human skin from 30 female donors was mounted in static diffusion cells, and samples were collected during 48 h. Donors were divided into three age groups: ... and old age groups: 5,922 and 4,050 ng, respectively). Furthermore, the lag time and absorption rate were different between the three groups, with a significantly higher rate in the young participants versus the oldest participants. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate that fentanyl permeates the skin of young...

  8. A comparison of skin delivery of ferulic acid and its derivatives: evaluation of their efficacy and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Wen; Al-Suwayeh, Saleh A; Hsieh, Pei-Wen; Fang, Jia-You

    2010-10-31

    Ferulic acid (FA) can be used as an antioxidant to prevent damage from ultraviolet (UV) radiation and skin carcinogenesis. To this end, the feasibility of the skin absorption of FA and its derivatives was evaluated in the present study. The percutaneous absorption of five compounds into/across porcine skin was measured and compared using Franz diffusion cells. The skin delivery from pH 6 and 9.9 buffers was the highest for ferulic acid ethyl ether (FAEE), followed by coniferyl aldehyde (CD), coniferyl alcohol (CA), FA, and 3-hydroxy-4-methoxycinnamic acid (HMA). The skin deposition and flux of FAEE with a pH 6 buffer were 136 nmol/g and 26 nmol/cm(2)/h, respectively. No significant difference in permeation profiles was observed between the two pH buffers. According to permeation via the skin with different treatments (delipidization, ethanol, and oleic acid treatments), it was determined that the lipid bilayers in the stratum corneum (SC) comprised the predominant barrier for FA permeation. On the other hand, FAEE could easily partition into and penetrate across the skin through intercellular pathways. Nude mouse was used as an in vivo animal model to examine the amount of permeants remaining in the skin. The in vivo skin deposition was generally correlated with the in vitro results. The in vivo skin deposition of FAEE (145 nmol/g) was comparable to that of CD (150 nmol/g). The safety study which examined transepidermal water loss (TEWL), erythema, and the skin pH value demonstrated that the topical application of FA and related compounds for up to 24h did not cause skin irritation. It can be concluded that topical delivery may serve as an efficient and safe route for FA and its derivatives against photodamage. PMID:20692328

  9. Skin microbiome and skin disease: the example of rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picardo, Mauro; Ottaviani, Monica

    2014-01-01

    The imbalance and/or the perturbation of the microbial populations that colonize the skin and that contribute to its defense may represent one of the causes of the development of noninfectious skin diseases. Atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, acne, and rosacea can be listed among these kinds of pathologies. In particular, considering that microbes have been long addressed as having a role in rosacea, this common dermatosis can be an interesting model to evaluate the correlation between microbiome alterations and the occurrence of clinical manifestations. Different microorganisms have been suggested to have a role in rosacea, but no direct correlation with the incidence of the pathology has been clearly defined. Skin microbiome composition is crucial for the correct skin immune functions and recent findings indicate an abnormal activation of innate immune system associated with the rosacea. The enhanced expression of toll-like receptor 2 in the epidermis of rosacea patients can represent a possible explanation for the amplified inflammatory response to external stimuli observed during the disease. In addition, significantly higher small intestinal bacterial overgrowth prevalence in rosacea subjects has been found and its eradication has been associated with a regression of the skin lesions. In conclusion, both skin and gut microbiome seem to have a role, even if synergistic with other factors, in the pathogenesis of rosacea. A deeper knowledge of human microbiome composition and microbe-host interactions will contribute to clarify the mechanism of development of rosacea and possibly will provide innovative therapeutic approaches.

  10. Skin temperature during sunbathing--relevance for skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Bibi; Philipsen, Peter Alshede; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2014-08-01

    It has been found that exposure to heat and infrared radiation (IR) can be carcinogenic, and that a combination of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and IR possibly amplifies carcinogenesis. To investigate how the skin temperature is affected by sunbathing, we measured the skin temperature on 20 healthy volunteers over 6 days' sun holiday in Egypt. Temperatures were measured with an infrared thermometer gun at 8 skin sites on the volunteers while they were indoors in the morning and when sunbathing during the day. Skin temperatures were higher during sunbathing (33.5 °C ± 2.1 °C) (mean ± SD) than when indoors in the morning (32.6 °C ± 1.4 °C) (mean ± SD) (P < 0.0001). The average skin temperature for men was higher than for women by 0.40 °C in the morning (P = 0.02) and by 0.44 °C during sunbathing (P < 0.0001). Our results show that sunbathing has an impact on skin temperature, which possibly by activation of the heat shock response, is likely to contribute to the immediate and delayed effects of UV in a way that has to be found out in future studies.

  11. Contribution to the study of external contamination by radioactive products: skin contamination by radioactive cobalt in soluble form and decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work was to characterize the behavior of the radioactive cobalt isotopes, which are present in reactor coolant systems of a pressurized water reactor (PWR), in the case of occupational skin exposure, and to study different therapies. Our experimental approach stems from standardized methods in skin pharmacology. In a first step, a physico-chemical study of a primary coolant water was carried out to characterize the soluble fraction of radio-cobalt and its skin affinity. The second step consisted in quantifying the diffusion through the skin, in vivo and in vitro in rats, and in vitro in human. Parallel experiments were carried out to study biokinetics of cobalt in rats, after intravenous, intramuscular and subcutaneous injection. Whatever the route of administration, cobalt diffuses easily in the organism. On the contrary, its skin absorption is very limited. In a fourth step, the influence of the skin injuries on absorption was estimated in vivo on rat skin. Several skin models were developed to standardize different injuries: excoriation, heat burns (convection, conduction) and chemical burns (acid or alkaline). Biokinetics study over 24 hours and histological study have shown a relation between skin absorption and stratum corneum alteration. In the latest step of this work, we compared the efficacy of various decontaminating agents administered under different galenic forms. Per (3, 6- anhydro, 2-O-carboxy-methyl)-α-cyclo-dextrin exhibited a significant efficacy for cobalt decontamination of skin. This macromolecule was tested in aqueous solution, in agarose gel and loaded on 'functionalized' fibers intended for development of new decontaminating tissues. (author)

  12. Uncovering of melanin fluorescence in human skin tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Matthias; Stankovic, Goran; Seewald, Gunter; Leupold, Dieter

    2007-07-01

    Due to its extremely low fluorescence quantum yield, in the conventionally (one-photon) excited autofluorescence of skin tissue, melanin fluorescence is masked by several other endogenous and possibly also exogenous fluorophores (e.g. NADH, FAD, Porphyrins). A first step to enhance the melanin contribution had been realized by two-photon fs-pulse excitation in the red/near IR, based on the fact that melanin can be excited by stepwise two-photon absorption, whereas all other fluorophores in this spectral region allow only simultaneous two-photon excitation. Now, the next and decisive step has been realized: Using an extremely sensitive detection system, for the first time twophoton fluorescence of skin tissue excited with pulses in the ns-range could be measured. The motivation for this step was based on the fact that the population density of the fluorescent level resulting from a stepwise excitation has a different dependence of the pulse duration than that from a simultaneous excitation (Δt2 vs. Δt). Due to this strong discrimination between the fluorophores, practically pure melanin fluorescence can be obtained. Examples for in-vivo, ex-vivo as well as paraffin embedded skin tissue will be shown. The content of information with respect to early diagnosis of skin deseases will be discussed.

  13. Skin Rashes and Other Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... painful red bumps? Yes This could be a BOIL. A cluster of boils is called a CARBUNCLE. These occur due to infection under the skin. Gently compress the boil with a warm cloth. Use antibiotic ointments if ...

  14. Pygmy Resonances and Neutron Skins

    CERN Document Server

    Piekarewicz, J

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by a recent experiment, the distribution of electric dipole strength in the neutron-rich 68Ni isotope was computed using a relativistic random phase approximation with a set of effective interactions that - although well calibrated - predict significantly different values for the neutron-skin thickness in 208Pb. The emergence of low-energy "Pygmy" strength that exhausts about 5-8% of the energy weighted sum rule (EWSR) is clearly identified. In addition to the EWSR, special emphasis is placed on the dipole polarizability. In particular, our results suggest a strong correlation between the dipole polarizability of 68Ni and the neutron-skin thickness of 208Pb. Yet we find a correlation just as strong and an even larger sensitivity between the neutron-skin thickness of 208Pb and the fraction of the dipole polarizability exhausted by the Pygmy resonance. These findings suggest that the dipole polarizability may be used as a proxy for the neutron skin.

  15. Discovery – Preventing Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer research includes stopping cancer before it spreads. NCI funded the development of the Melanoma Risk Assessment Tool and the ABC method. Both help to diagnose high-risk patients and prevent melanoma earlier in the fight against skin cancer.

  16. The skin-blanching assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, P; Neumann, H A M; Thio, H B

    2012-10-01

    The skin-blanching assay is used for the determination and bioequivalence of dermatologic glucocorticoids (GCs). The exact mechanism of the production of blanching is not fully understood, but it is considered that local vasoconstriction of the skin microvasculature and the consequent blood-flow reduction cause this phenomenon. Several factors influence skin blanching, including drug concentration, duration of application, nature of vehicle, occlusion, posture and location. The intensity of vasoconstriction can be measured in several ways: visual or quantitative methods, such as reflectance spectroscopy, thermography, laser Doppler velocimetry and chromametry. In literature, contradicting results in the correlation of the skin-blanching assay with different tests to determine GC sensitivity have been reported, limiting its clinical usefulness.

  17. Taking Care of Your Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... using the product whenever redness or irritation happens. Screening Your Skin From Damage There is one product ... of your parents about whether to use an antibiotic (say: an-tie-bye-AH-tik) cream or ...

  18. Candida infection of the skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000880.htm Candida infection of the skin To use the sharing features ... of the warm, moist conditions inside the diaper. Candida infection is particularly common in people with diabetes and ...

  19. Drugs Approved for Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for skin cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  20. Mosquito repellents in frog skin

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, C. R.; Smith, B.P.C; Best, S.M.; Tyler, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    The search for novel insect repellents has been driven by health concerns over established synthetic compounds such as diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET). Given the diversity of compounds known from frog skin and records of mosquito bite and ectoparasite infestation, the presence of mosquito repellents in frogs seemed plausible. We investigated frog skin secretions to confirm the existence of mosquito repellent properties. Litoria caerulea secretions were assessed for mosquito repellency by topical a...

  1. [Environmentally induced (extrinsic) skin aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutmann, J; Schikowski, T; Hüls, A; Vierkötter, A; Grether-Beck, S

    2016-02-01

    Chronic exposure to ultraviolet light, particularly as a component of natural sunlight, is a major cause of environmentally induced aging of the skin. In addition, other environmental factors for premature skin aging include longer wavelength radiation in the visible light region and in particular in the shortwave infrared radiation region. Furthermore, particulate and gaseous components of air pollution significantly contribute to the aging process. PMID:26769311

  2. Clinical utility of skin karyotype

    OpenAIRE

    Luiza E. Dorfman; Agnes F. R. P. Silva; Giorgio A. Paskulin; Rafael F. M. Rosa; Paulo R. G. Zen

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTWe report the case of a patient with Patau syndrome, diagnosed by skin karyotype, emphasizing the applications and importance of this test. The pregnancy morphology ultrasound showed face defects and of central nervous system and heart chambers asymmetry. In the postnatal evaluation it was identified microcephaly, single central nostril, and other malformations. We performed skin karyotype that resulted in full trisomy 13. Our report highlights the possibility of performing karyotype ...

  3. SKIN KINETICS AND DERMAL CLEARANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Prakash Shashi; Nair Anroop; Saini Vipin; Sahu Neelam

    2012-01-01

    Availability of several therapeutic and cosmetic formulations for topical application has made the research on skin kinetics as a topic of current interest. Topical formulations are typically meant for local effect although there is always a chance that the low molecular weight chemicals are easily transported across the skin layer and make it available in the systemic circulation. Thus there is a major concern about the transport of chemical moieties following the topical application of cosm...

  4. Neutron skin in Osmium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here we have made an attempt to calculate neutron skin thickness in rare earth even-even osmium isotopes. The selected isotopes ranges from 2-p to 2-n drip line. Neutron skin is an important feature of neutron rich nuclei. The ground state proton and neutron rms radii have been calculated using HFB approximation. A comparison of calculated radii have been done by using two different Skyrme parameterizations and two different basis

  5. Skin signs in anorexia nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Strumia, Renata

    2009-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among adolescent females and young women. AN is associated with severe medical and psychological consequences, including death, osteoporosis, growth delay, and developmental delay. Skin signs are almost always detectable in severe AN and awareness of them may help in the early diagnosis of hidden AN. Skin signs are the expression of the medical consequences of starvation, vomiting, abuse of drugs, such as laxatives and di...

  6. Systemic antioxidants and skin health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Gloria; Torres, Abel

    2012-09-01

    Most dermatologists agree that antioxidants help fight free radical damage and can help maintain healthy skin. They do so by affecting intracellular signaling pathways involved in skin damage and protecting against photodamage, as well as preventing wrinkles and inflammation. In today's modern world of the rising nutraceutical industry, many people, in addition to applying topical skin care products, turn to supplementation of the nutrients missing in their diets by taking multivitamins or isolated, man-made nutraceuticals, in what is known as the Inside-Out approach to skin care. However, ingestion of large quantities of isolated, fragmented nutrients can be harmful and is a poor representation of the kind of nutrition that can be obtained from whole food sources. In this comprehensive review, it was found that few studies on oral antioxidants benefiting the skin have been done using whole foods, and that the vast majority of current research is focused on the study of compounds in isolation. However, the public stands to benefit greatly if more research were to be devoted toward the impact that physiologic doses of antioxidants (obtained from fruits, vegetables, and whole grains) can have on skin health, and on health in general.

  7. [New views about the skin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimberteau, J-C; Delage, J-P; Wong, J

    2010-08-01

    As the follow up article to "Introduction to the knowledge of subcutaneous sliding system in humans" published in the "Annales de chirurgie plastique" we further investigate the architecture of the skin and comment on the subcutaneous multifibrillar and microvacuolar arrangements that provide form, mobility, adaptability and resistance to force of gravity. The study aimed to highlight the direct link between the skin and subcutaneous environment in dynamic living tissue. Through high resolution endoscopic observations made during live surgery it is revealed how microvacuoles and microspaces can provide dynamic structure and form during movement between the epidermis, dermis and hypodermis. The study reveals intriguing morphodynamics which are necessary to maintain mobility and continuity to neighboring tissues. The polyhedric design of the skin surface directly relates to multifibrillar pillars beneath the skin which dictate their patterning and movement. The concept of tissue continuity is realised by the chaotic and fractal organisation of multifibrils interlaced with cellular components which characteristics alter depending on the state of hydration. Understanding the integral arrangement that provides continuity of all the structures below the skin provides an appreciation to how skin behaves in relation to movement of the rest of the body.

  8. UV Radiation and the Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Scott

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available UV radiation (UV is classified as a “complete carcinogen” because it is both a mutagen and a non-specific damaging agent and has properties of both a tumor initiator and a tumor promoter. In environmental abundance, UV is the most important modifiable risk factor for skin cancer and many other environmentally-influenced skin disorders. However, UV also benefits human health by mediating natural synthesis of vitamin D and endorphins in the skin, therefore UV has complex and mixed effects on human health. Nonetheless, excessive exposure to UV carries profound health risks, including atrophy, pigmentary changes, wrinkling and malignancy. UV is epidemiologically and molecularly linked to the three most common types of skin cancer, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma, which together affect more than a million Americans annually. Genetic factors also influence risk of UV-mediated skin disease. Polymorphisms of the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R gene, in particular, correlate with fairness of skin, UV sensitivity, and enhanced cancer risk. We are interested in developing UV-protective approaches based on a detailed understanding of molecular events that occur after UV exposure, focusing particularly on epidermal melanization and the role of the MC1R in genome maintenance.

  9. UV-induced skin damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar radiation induces acute and chronic reactions in human and animal skin. Chronic repeated exposures are the primary cause of benign and malignant skin tumors, including malignant melanoma. Among types of solar radiation, ultraviolet B (290-320 nm) radiation is highly mutagenic and carcinogenic in animal experiments compared to ultraviolet A (320-400 nm) radiation. Epidemiological studies suggest that solar UV radiation is responsible for skin tumor development via gene mutations and immunosuppression, and possibly for photoaging. In this review, recent understanding of DNA damage caused by direct UV radiation and by indirect stress via reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DNA repair mechanisms, particularly nucleotide excision repair of human cells, are discussed. In addition, mutations induced by solar UV radiation in p53, ras and patched genes of non-melanoma skin cancer cells, and the role of ROS as both a promoter in UV-carcinogenesis and an inducer of UV-apoptosis, are described based primarily on the findings reported during the last decade. Furthermore, the effect of UV on immunological reaction in the skin is discussed. Finally, possible prevention of UV-induced skin cancer by feeding or topical use of antioxidants, such as polyphenols, vitamin C, and vitamin E, is discussed

  10. Pickering emulsions for skin decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Alicia; Bolzinger, Marie-Alexandrine; Rolland, Pauline; Chevalier, Yves; Josse, Denis; Briançon, Stéphanie

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed at developing innovative systems for skin decontamination. Pickering emulsions, i.e. solid-stabilized emulsions, containing silica (S-PE) or Fuller's earth (FE-PE) were formulated. Their efficiency for skin decontamination was evaluated, in vitro, 45min after an exposure to VX, one of the most highly toxic chemical warfare agents. Pickering emulsions were compared to FE (FE-W) and silica (S-W) aqueous suspensions. PE containing an oil with a similar hydrophobicity to VX should promote its extraction. All the formulations reduced significantly the amount of VX quantified on and into the skin compared to the control. Wiping the skin surface with a pad already allowed removing more than half of VX. FE-W was the less efficient (85% of VX removed). The other formulations (FE-PE, S-PE and S-W) resulted in more than 90% of the quantity of VX removed. The charge of particles was the most influential factor. The low pH of formulations containing silica favored electrostatic interactions of VX with particles explaining the better elimination from the skin surface. Formulations containing FE had basic pH, and weak interactions with VX did not improve the skin decontamination. However, these low interactions between VX and FE promote the transfer of VX into the oil droplets in the FE-PE. PMID:27021875

  11. Gastrointestinal citrate absorption in nephrolithiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fegan, J.; Khan, R.; Poindexter, J.; Pak, C. Y.

    1992-01-01

    Gastrointestinal absorption of citrate was measured in stone patients with idiopathic hypocitraturia to determine if citrate malabsorption could account for low urinary citrate. Citrate absorption was measured directly from recovery of orally administered potassium citrate (40 mEq.) in the intestinal lavage fluid, using an intestinal washout technique. In 7 stone patients citrate absorption, serum citrate levels, peak citrate concentration in serum and area under the curve were not significantly different from those of 7 normal subjects. Citrate absorption was rapid and efficient in both groups, with 96 to 98% absorbed within 3 hours. The absorption of citrate was less efficient from a tablet preparation of potassium citrate than from a liquid preparation, probably due to a delayed release of citrate from wax matrix. However, citrate absorption from solid potassium citrate was still high at 91%, compared to 98% for a liquid preparation. Thus, hypocitraturia is unlikely to be due to an impaired gastrointestinal absorption of citrate in stone patients without overt bowel disease.

  12. Dietary Hyaluronic Acid Migrates into the Skin of Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mariko Oe; Koichi Mitsugi; Wataru Odanaka; Hideto Yoshida; Ryosuke Matsuoka; Satoshi Seino; Tomoyuki Kanemitsu; Yasunobu Masuda

    2014-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid is a constituent of the skin and helps to maintain hydration. The oral intake of hyaluronic acid increases water in the horny layer as demonstrated by human trials, but in vivo kinetics has not been shown. This study confirmed the absorption, migration, and excretion of 14C-labeled hyaluronic acid (14C-hyaluronic acid). 14C-hyaluronic acid was orally or intravenously administered to male SD rats aged 7 to 8 weeks. Plasma radioactivity after oral administration showed the highe...

  13. Total light absorption in graphene

    CERN Document Server

    Thongrattanasiri, Sukosin; de Abajo, F Javier Garcia

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that 100% light absorption can take place in a single patterned sheet of doped graphene. General analysis shows that a planar array of small lossy particles exhibits full absorption under critical-coupling conditions provided the cross section of each individual particle is comparable to the area of the lattice unit-cell. Specifically, arrays of doped graphene nanodisks display full absorption when supported on a substrate under total internal reflection, and also when lying on a dielectric layer coating a metal. Our results are relevant for infrared light detectors and sources, which can be made tunable via electrostatic doping of graphene.

  14. Autoimmune Skin Diseases in the Dog

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, W M

    1981-01-01

    Diagnoses of autoimmune skin diseases require very careful observation of the skin lesions, and selection of an intact vesicle for histopathological examination. If available, immunofluorescent studies can be very useful in confirming the diagnosis of autoimmune skin disease. Seven autoimmune skin diseases are briefly reviewed. Therapy must be aggressive and owner warned of the guarded prognosis.

  15. Quiz: Test Your Skin Cancer IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Quiz: Test Your Skin Cancer IQ Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table of Contents 1. ... to Results / Skin and Sun – Safety First / Quiz: Test Your Skin Cancer IQ Summer 2013 Issue: Volume 8 Number 2 Page ...

  16. In-vitro and in-vivo study of dye diffusion into the human skin and hair follicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genina, Elina A.; Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Sinichkin, Yurii P.; Kochubey, Vyacheslav I.; Lakodina, Nina A.; Perpelitzina, Olga A.; Altshuler, Gregory B.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2000-11-01

    We present experimental results on in vitro and in vivo investigation of dye diffusion into the human skin and hair follicles. It was shown that dyeing as a method of enhancement of the absorption coefficient of hair follicle tissue components can be used for selective photodestruction of hair follicle and surrounding tissues. Strength and depth of hair follicle dyeing inside the skin were determined for various dyes.

  17. Enhanced microwave-to-terahertz absorption in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batrakov, K.; Kuzhir, P.; Maksimenko, S.; Volynets, N.; Voronovich, S.; Paddubskaya, A.; Valusis, G.; Kaplas, T.; Svirko, Yu.; Lambin, Ph.

    2016-03-01

    Fresnel equations predict that an ultrathin free standing conductive film, thousands times thinner than skin depth, is capable to absorb up to 50% of incident electromagnetic radiations. In the microwave range, the same holds true for a free standing graphene sheet. We demonstrate theoretically and prove experimentally that microwave absorptance of graphene can be enhanced considerably by depositing graphene on a dielectric substrate. On the experimental side, we obtain 80% and 65% absorptance at 30 GHz and 1 THz, respectively. Theory predicts that higher absorptance can be achieved with a suitable choice of the dielectric permittivity and the thickness of the substrate. Absorption can also be maximized by choosing the optimum incidence angle for s-polarized waves in free space or by working in the vicinity of the cut-off frequency of the transverse electric mode in waveguide configuration. The polarization sensitivity of the transmittance and reflectance of graphene layers can be used to tune the polarization state of the transmitted and reflected radiations.

  18. In Vitro Skin Permeation of Osthol from Hydro-Alcohofic Gel Formulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUANZhen-ting; DINGPing-tian; LuBo; CHENDa-wei

    2004-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the in vitro percutaneous absorption behavior of osthol from a series of hydro-alcoholic gel formulations containing three penetration enhancers through excised human skin (stratum cormeum and epidermis,SCE). Methods Excised human skin was mounted in Franz-type diffusion cells. The samples withdrawn from the receptor cell were analyzed for osthol content by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results The enhancers azone, menthol and chenopodium increased the osthol percutaneous steady-state fluxes 3.12, 2.00 and 1.25 times those of the enhancer-free formulations (controls), separately. Conclusions The main enhancement mechanism of the skin penetration enhancers azone, menthol and chenopodium is to destroy the barrier fimction of stratum corneum, reducing the resistance of drug transport through the skin and increasing the diffusion coefficients of osthol.

  19. Validation model for Raman based skin carotenoid detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakov, Igor V; Gellermann, Werner

    2010-12-01

    Raman spectroscopy holds promise as a rapid objective non-invasive optical method for the detection of carotenoid compounds in human tissue in vivo. Carotenoids are of interest due to their functions as antioxidants and/or optical absorbers of phototoxic light at deep blue and near UV wavelengths. In the macular region of the human retina, carotenoids may prevent or delay the onset of age-related tissue degeneration. In human skin, they may help prevent premature skin aging, and are possibly involved in the prevention of certain skin cancers. Furthermore, since carotenoids exist in high concentrations in a wide variety of fruits and vegetables, and are routinely taken up by the human body through the diet, skin carotenoid levels may serve as an objective biomarker for fruit and vegetable intake. Before the Raman method can be accepted as a widespread optical alternative for carotenoid measurements, direct validation studies are needed to compare it with the gold standard of high performance liquid chromatography. This is because the tissue Raman response is in general accompanied by a host of other optical processes which have to be taken into account. In skin, the most prominent is strongly diffusive, non-Raman scattering, leading to relatively shallow light penetration of the blue/green excitation light required for resonant Raman detection of carotenoids. Also, sizable light attenuation exists due to the combined absorption from collagen, porphyrin, hemoglobin, and melanin chromophores, and additional fluorescence is generated by collagen and porphyrins. In this study, we investigate for the first time the direct correlation of in vivo skin tissue carotenoid Raman measurements with subsequent chromatography derived carotenoid concentrations. As tissue site we use heel skin, in which the stratum corneum layer thickness exceeds the light penetration depth, which is free of optically confounding chromophores, which can be easily optically accessed for in vivo RRS

  20. Validation model for Raman based skin carotenoid detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakov, Igor V; Gellermann, Werner

    2010-12-01

    Raman spectroscopy holds promise as a rapid objective non-invasive optical method for the detection of carotenoid compounds in human tissue in vivo. Carotenoids are of interest due to their functions as antioxidants and/or optical absorbers of phototoxic light at deep blue and near UV wavelengths. In the macular region of the human retina, carotenoids may prevent or delay the onset of age-related tissue degeneration. In human skin, they may help prevent premature skin aging, and are possibly involved in the prevention of certain skin cancers. Furthermore, since carotenoids exist in high concentrations in a wide variety of fruits and vegetables, and are routinely taken up by the human body through the diet, skin carotenoid levels may serve as an objective biomarker for fruit and vegetable intake. Before the Raman method can be accepted as a widespread optical alternative for carotenoid measurements, direct validation studies are needed to compare it with the gold standard of high performance liquid chromatography. This is because the tissue Raman response is in general accompanied by a host of other optical processes which have to be taken into account. In skin, the most prominent is strongly diffusive, non-Raman scattering, leading to relatively shallow light penetration of the blue/green excitation light required for resonant Raman detection of carotenoids. Also, sizable light attenuation exists due to the combined absorption from collagen, porphyrin, hemoglobin, and melanin chromophores, and additional fluorescence is generated by collagen and porphyrins. In this study, we investigate for the first time the direct correlation of in vivo skin tissue carotenoid Raman measurements with subsequent chromatography derived carotenoid concentrations. As tissue site we use heel skin, in which the stratum corneum layer thickness exceeds the light penetration depth, which is free of optically confounding chromophores, which can be easily optically accessed for in vivo RRS

  1. Skin Cancer and UV Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarbuk Anita

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of skin cancer is increasing by epidemic proportions. Basal cell cancer remains the most common skin neoplasm, and simple excision is generally curative. On the other hand, aggressive local growth and metastasis are common features of malignant melanoma, which accounts for 75% of all deaths associated with skin cancer. The primary cause of skin cancer is long exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UV-R crossed with the amount of skin pigmentation and family genetics. It is believed that in childhood and adolescence, 80% of UV-R gets absorbed while in the remaining, 20 % gets absorbed later in the lifetime. This suggests that proper and early photoprotection may reduce the risk of subsequent occurrence of skin cancer. Reducing the exposure time to sunlight, using sunscreens and protective textiles are the three ways of UV protection. Most people think that all the clothing will protect them, but it does not provide full sun screening properties. Literature sources claim that only 1/3 of the spring and summer collections tested give off proper UV protection. This is very important during the summer months, when UV index is the highest. Fabric UV protection ability highly depends on large number of factors such as type of fiber, fabric surface, construction, porosity, density, moisture content, type and concentration of dyestuff, fluorescent whitening agents, UV-B protective agents (UV absorbers, as well as nanoparticles, if applied. For all of these reasons, in the present paper, the results of UV protecting ability according to AS/NZS 4399:1996 will be discussed to show that standard clothing materials are not always adequate to prevent effect of UV-R to the human skin; and to suggest the possibilities for its improvement for this purpose enhancing light conversion and scattering. Additionally, the discrepancy in UV protection was investigated in distilled water as well as Adriatic Sea water.

  2. Predicting chemically-induced skin reactions. Part II: QSAR models of skin permeability and the relationships between skin permeability and skin sensitization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skin permeability is widely considered to be mechanistically implicated in chemically-induced skin sensitization. Although many chemicals have been identified as skin sensitizers, there have been very few reports analyzing the relationships between molecular structure and skin permeability of sensitizers and non-sensitizers. The goals of this study were to: (i) compile, curate, and integrate the largest publicly available dataset of chemicals studied for their skin permeability; (ii) develop and rigorously validate QSAR models to predict skin permeability; and (iii) explore the complex relationships between skin sensitization and skin permeability. Based on the largest publicly available dataset compiled in this study, we found no overall correlation between skin permeability and skin sensitization. In addition, cross-species correlation coefficient between human and rodent permeability data was found to be as low as R2 = 0.44. Human skin permeability models based on the random forest method have been developed and validated using OECD-compliant QSAR modeling workflow. Their external accuracy was high (Q2ext = 0.73 for 63% of external compounds inside the applicability domain). The extended analysis using both experimentally-measured and QSAR-imputed data still confirmed the absence of any overall concordance between skin permeability and skin sensitization. This observation suggests that chemical modifications that affect skin permeability should not be presumed a priori to modulate the sensitization potential of chemicals. The models reported herein as well as those developed in the companion paper on skin sensitization suggest that it may be possible to rationally design compounds with the desired high skin permeability but low sensitization potential. - Highlights: • It was compiled the largest publicly-available skin permeability dataset. • Predictive QSAR models were developed for skin permeability. • No concordance between skin sensitization and skin

  3. Predicting chemically-induced skin reactions. Part II: QSAR models of skin permeability and the relationships between skin permeability and skin sensitization

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Vinicius M.; Muratov, Eugene; Fourches, Denis; Strickland, Judy; Kleinstreuer, Nicole; Carolina H. Andrade; Tropsha, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Skin permeability is widely considered to be mechanistically implicated in chemically-induced skin sensitization. Although many chemicals have been identified as skin sensitizers, there have been very few reports analyzing the relationships between molecular structure and skin permeability of sensitizers and non-sensitizers. The goals of this study were to: (i) compile, curate, and integrate the largest publicly available dataset of chemicals studied for their skin permeability; (ii) develop ...

  4. Comparison between human fetal and adult skin

    OpenAIRE

    Coolen, N.A.; Schouten, K.C.; Middelkoop, E.; Ulrich, M.

    2009-01-01

    Healing of early-gestation fetal wounds results in scarless healing. Since the capacity for regeneration is probably inherent to the fetal skin itself, knowledge of the fetal skin composition may contribute to the understanding of fetal wound healing. The aim of this study was to analyze the expression profiles of different epidermal and dermal components in the human fetal and adult skin. In the human fetal skin (ranging from 13 to 22 weeks’ gestation) and adult skin biopsies, the expression...

  5. Penetration of Chlorhexidine into Human Skin

    OpenAIRE

    Karpanen, T. J.; Worthington, T.; Conway, Barbara R; Hilton, A. C.; Elliott, T. S. J.; Lambert, P A

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated a model of skin permeation to determine the depth of delivery of chlorhexidine into full-thickness excised human skin following topical application of 2% (wt/vol) aqueous chlorhexidine digluconate. Skin permeation studies were performed on full-thickness human skin using Franz diffusion cells with exposure to chlorhexidine for 2 min, 30 min, and 24 h. The concentration of chlorhexidine extracted from skin sections was determined to a depth of 1,500 µm following serial sec...

  6. The current management of skin tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoti; Lau, Kwan; Taira, Breena R; Singer, Adam J

    2009-07-01

    Each year, there are more than 1 million skin tears among the elderly and disabled. Because of their fragile nature, management of skin tears can be very challenging. Methods of wound closure should minimize additional trauma to the skin and promote an optimal wound healing environment while minimizing the risk of infection. The current article reviews the etiology, risk factors, classification, and therapeutic options for treating skin tears. We also review preventive measures to help reduce the incidence of skin tears.

  7. Predicting chemically-induced skin reactions. Part II: QSAR models of skin permeability and the relationships between skin permeability and skin sensitization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Vinicius M. [Laboratory of Molecular Modeling and Design, Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, GO 74605-220 (Brazil); Laboratory for Molecular Modeling, Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Muratov, Eugene [Laboratory for Molecular Modeling, Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Laboratory of Theoretical Chemistry, A.V. Bogatsky Physical–Chemical Institute NAS of Ukraine, Odessa 65080 (Ukraine); Fourches, Denis [Laboratory for Molecular Modeling, Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Strickland, Judy; Kleinstreuer, Nicole [ILS/Contractor supporting the NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM), P.O. Box 13501, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Andrade, Carolina H. [Laboratory of Molecular Modeling and Design, Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, GO 74605-220 (Brazil); Tropsha, Alexander, E-mail: alex_tropsha@unc.edu [Laboratory for Molecular Modeling, Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Skin permeability is widely considered to be mechanistically implicated in chemically-induced skin sensitization. Although many chemicals have been identified as skin sensitizers, there have been very few reports analyzing the relationships between molecular structure and skin permeability of sensitizers and non-sensitizers. The goals of this study were to: (i) compile, curate, and integrate the largest publicly available dataset of chemicals studied for their skin permeability; (ii) develop and rigorously validate QSAR models to predict skin permeability; and (iii) explore the complex relationships between skin sensitization and skin permeability. Based on the largest publicly available dataset compiled in this study, we found no overall correlation between skin permeability and skin sensitization. In addition, cross-species correlation coefficient between human and rodent permeability data was found to be as low as R{sup 2} = 0.44. Human skin permeability models based on the random forest method have been developed and validated using OECD-compliant QSAR modeling workflow. Their external accuracy was high (Q{sup 2}{sub ext} = 0.73 for 63% of external compounds inside the applicability domain). The extended analysis using both experimentally-measured and QSAR-imputed data still confirmed the absence of any overall concordance between skin permeability and skin sensitization. This observation suggests that chemical modifications that affect skin permeability should not be presumed a priori to modulate the sensitization potential of chemicals. The models reported herein as well as those developed in the companion paper on skin sensitization suggest that it may be possible to rationally design compounds with the desired high skin permeability but low sensitization potential. - Highlights: • It was compiled the largest publicly-available skin permeability dataset. • Predictive QSAR models were developed for skin permeability. • No concordance between skin

  8. Reproducibility of The Random Incidence Absorption Coefficient Converted From the Sabine Absorption Coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Chang, Ji-ho

    2015-01-01

    Absorption coefficients measured in reverberation chambers, Sabine absorption coefficients, suffer from two major problems. Firstly, they sometimes exceed unity. Secondly, the reproducibility of the Sabine absorption coefficients is quite poor, meaning that the Sabine absorption coefficients vary...

  9. OZONE ABSORPTION IN RAW WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LJILJANA TAKIĆ

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The ozone absorption in raw water entering the main ozonization step at the Belgrade drinking water supply plant was investigated in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR. A slow chemical reaction rate of dissolved ozone and pollutants present in raw water have been experimentally determined. The modified Hatta number was defined and calculated as a criterion which determines whether and to which extent the reactions of ozone and pollutants influence the rate of the pure physical ozone absorption.

  10. Incomplete intestinal absorption of fructose.

    OpenAIRE

    Kneepkens, C M; Vonk, R J; Fernandes, J.

    1984-01-01

    Intestinal D-fructose absorption in 31 children was investigated using measurements of breath hydrogen. Twenty five children had no abdominal symptoms and six had functional bowel disorders. After ingestion of fructose (2 g/kg bodyweight), 22 children (71%) showed a breath hydrogen increase of more than 10 ppm over basal values, indicating incomplete absorption: the increase averaged 53 ppm, range 12 to 250 ppm. Four of these children experienced abdominal symptoms. Three of the six children ...

  11. Absorption Of Dietary Lipid Components

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulkadir Hurşit

    2015-01-01

    Although the digestion and absorption of lipids that are necessary for the survival of living organisms are well known in general terms, nevertheless how different lipids to be digested, how it is distributed into the bloodstream, and how to be used by the cells, are unknown issues by most non specialist people. In recent years, knowledge of lipid digestion and absorption has expanded considerably. More insight has been gained in the mechanism of action of H + pump as a transport system in fa...

  12. Assessing the Impact of Mechanical Damage on Full-Thickness Porcine and Human Skin Using an In Vitro Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabboue, Hinda; Builles, Nicolas; Frouin, Éric; Scott, Dan; Ramos, Jeanne; Marti-Mestres, Gilberte

    2015-01-01

    For most xenobiotics, the rates of percutaneous absorption are limited by diffusion through the horny layer of skin. However, percutaneous absorption of chemicals may seriously increase when the skin is damaged. The aim of this work was to develop an in vitro representative model of mechanically damaged skins. The epidermal barrier was examined following exposure to a razor, a rotating brush, and a microneedle system in comparison to tape-stripping which acted as a reference. Excised full-thickness skins were mounted on a diffusion chamber in order to evaluate the effect of injuries and to mimic physiological conditions. The transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was greatly increased when the barrier function was compromised. Measurements were made for all the damaged biopsies and observed histologically by microscopy. On human and porcine skins, the tape-stripping application (0 to 40 times) showed a proportional increase in TEWL which highlights the destruction of the stratum corneum. Similar results were obtained for all cosmetic instruments. This is reflected in our study by the nonsignificant difference of the mean TEWL scores between 30 strips and mechanical damage. For a specific appreciation, damaged skins were then selected to qualitatively evaluate the absorption of a chlorogenic acid solution using fluorescence microscopy. PMID:26247021

  13. Assessing the Impact of Mechanical Damage on Full-Thickness Porcine and Human Skin Using an In Vitro Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinda Dabboue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For most xenobiotics, the rates of percutaneous absorption are limited by diffusion through the horny layer of skin. However, percutaneous absorption of chemicals may seriously increase when the skin is damaged. The aim of this work was to develop an in vitro representative model of mechanically damaged skins. The epidermal barrier was examined following exposure to a razor, a rotating brush, and a microneedle system in comparison to tape-stripping which acted as a reference. Excised full-thickness skins were mounted on a diffusion chamber in order to evaluate the effect of injuries and to mimic physiological conditions. The transepidermal water loss (TEWL was greatly increased when the barrier function was compromised. Measurements were made for all the damaged biopsies and observed histologically by microscopy. On human and porcine skins, the tape-stripping application (0 to 40 times showed a proportional increase in TEWL which highlights the destruction of the stratum corneum. Similar results were obtained for all cosmetic instruments. This is reflected in our study by the nonsignificant difference of the mean TEWL scores between 30 strips and mechanical damage. For a specific appreciation, damaged skins were then selected to qualitatively evaluate the absorption of a chlorogenic acid solution using fluorescence microscopy.

  14. Palladium nanoparticles exposure: Evaluation of permeation through damaged and intact human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larese Filon, Francesca; Crosera, Matteo; Mauro, Marcella; Baracchini, Elena; Bovenzi, Massimo; Montini, Tiziano; Fornasiero, Paolo; Adami, Gianpiero

    2016-07-01

    The intensified use of palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) in many chemical reactions, jewellery, electronic devices, in car catalytic converters and in biomedical applications lead to a significant increase in palladium exposure. Pd can cause allergic contact dermatitis when in contact with the skin. However, there is still a lack of toxicological data related to nano-structured palladium and information on human cutaneous absorption. In fact, PdNPs, can be absorbed through the skin in higher amounts than bulk Pd because NPs can release more ions. In our study, we evaluated the absorption of PdNPs, with a size of 10.7 ± 2.8 nm, using intact and damaged human skin in Franz cells. 0.60 mg cm(-2) of PdNPs were applied on skin surface for 24 h. Pd concentrations in the receiving solutions at the end of experiments were 0.098 ± 0.067 μg cm(-2) and 1.06 ± 0.44 μg cm(-2) in intact skin and damaged skin, respectively. Pd flux permeation after 24 h was 0.005 ± 0.003 μg cm(-2) h(-1) and 0.057 ± 0.030 μg cm(-2) h(-1) and lag time 4.8 ± 1.7 and 4.2 ± 3.6 h, for intact and damaged skin respectively. This study indicates that Pd can penetrate human skin.

  15. Ultrasound biomicroscopy measurement of skin thickness change induced by cosmetic treatment with ultrasound stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Tak-Man; Huang, Yan-Ping; Wang, Li-Ke; Zheng, Yong-Ping

    2014-07-01

    Moisturizing creams and lotions are commonly used in daily life for beauty and treatment of different skin conditions such as dryness and wrinkling, and ultrasound stimulation has been used to enhance the delivery of ingredients into skin. However, there is a lack of convenient methods to study the effect of ultrasound stimulation on lotion absorption by skin in vivo. Ultrasound biomicroscopy was adopted as a viable tool in this study to investigate the effectiveness of ultrasound stimulation on the enhancement of lotion delivery into skin. The forearm skin of 10 male and 10 female young subjects was tested at three different sites, including two lotion treatment sites with (Ultrasound Equipment - UE ON) and without (UE OFF) ultrasound stimulation and a control site without any lotion treatment. 1 MHz ultrasound with a duty cycle of 1.7%, a spatial peak temporal peak pressure of 195 kPa and an average power of 0.43 W was used for the stimulation. The skin thickness before, immediately after (0 min), and 15 and 30 min after the treatment was measured by an ultrasound biomicroscopic system (55 MHz). It was found that the skin thickness significantly increased immediately after the lotion treatment for both UE ON (from 1.379 ± 0.187 mm to 1.466 ± 0.182 mm, pultrasound stimulation was more effective for the female subjects than the male subjects (7.6 ± 2.3% vs. 5.4 ± 2.0% immediately after treatment, p=0.017). In conclusion, this study demonstrated that ultrasound biomicroscopy was a feasible method for studying the effectiveness of lotion treatment in vivo, and ultrasound stimulation was effective to enhance the rate of lotion absorption into skin.

  16. Subgap Absorption in Conjugated Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, M.; Seager, C. H.; McBranch, D.; Heeger, A. J; Baker, G. L.

    1991-01-01

    Along with X{sup (3)}, the magnitude of the optical absorption in the transparent window below the principal absorption edge is an important parameter which will ultimately determine the utility of conjugated polymers in active integrated optical devices. With an absorptance sensitivity of conjugated polymers poly(1,4-phenylene-vinylene) (and derivitives) and polydiacetylene-4BCMU in the spectral region from 0.55 eV to 3 eV. Our spectra show that the shape of the absorption edge varies considerably from polymer to polymer, with polydiacetylene-4BCMU having the steepest absorption edge. The minimum absorption coefficients measured varied somewhat with sample age and quality, but were typically in the range 1 cm{sup {minus}1} to 10 cm{sup {minus}1}. In the region below 1 eV, overtones of C-H stretching modes were observed, indicating that further improvements in transparency in this spectral region might be achieved via deuteration of fluorination.

  17. Smart skin patterns protect springtails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbig, Ralf; Nickerl, Julia; Neinhuis, Christoph; Werner, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Springtails, arthropods who live in soil, in decaying material, and on plants, have adapted to demanding conditions by evolving extremely effective and robust anti-adhesive skin patterns. However, details of these unique properties and their structural basis are still unknown. Here we demonstrate that collembolan skin can resist wetting by many organic liquids and at elevated pressures. We show that the combination of bristles and a comb-like hexagonal or rhombic mesh of interconnected nanoscopic granules distinguish the skin of springtails from anti-adhesive plant surfaces. Furthermore, the negative overhang in the profile of the ridges and granules were revealed to be a highly effective, but as yet neglected, design principle of collembolan skin. We suggest an explanation for the non-wetting characteristics of surfaces consisting of such profiles irrespective of the chemical composition. Many valuable opportunities arise from the translation of the described comb-like patterns and overhanging profiles of collembolan skin into man-made surfaces that combine stability against wear and friction with superior non-wetting and anti-adhesive characteristics. PMID:21980383

  18. Smart skin patterns protect springtails.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Helbig

    Full Text Available Springtails, arthropods who live in soil, in decaying material, and on plants, have adapted to demanding conditions by evolving extremely effective and robust anti-adhesive skin patterns. However, details of these unique properties and their structural basis are still unknown. Here we demonstrate that collembolan skin can resist wetting by many organic liquids and at elevated pressures. We show that the combination of bristles and a comb-like hexagonal or rhombic mesh of interconnected nanoscopic granules distinguish the skin of springtails from anti-adhesive plant surfaces. Furthermore, the negative overhang in the profile of the ridges and granules were revealed to be a highly effective, but as yet neglected, design principle of collembolan skin. We suggest an explanation for the non-wetting characteristics of surfaces consisting of such profiles irrespective of the chemical composition. Many valuable opportunities arise from the translation of the described comb-like patterns and overhanging profiles of collembolan skin into man-made surfaces that combine stability against wear and friction with superior non-wetting and anti-adhesive characteristics.

  19. Hyperspectral imaging of bruised skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randeberg, Lise L.; Baarstad, Ivar; Løke, Trond; Kaspersen, Peter; Svaasand, Lars O.

    2006-02-01

    Bruises can be important evidence in legal medicine, for example in cases of child abuse. Optical techniques can be used to discriminate and quantify the chromophores present in bruised skin, and thereby aid dating of an injury. However, spectroscopic techniques provide only average chromophore concentrations for the sampled volume, and contain little information about the spatial chromophore distribution in the bruise. Hyperspectral imaging combines the power of imaging and spectroscopy, and can provide both spectroscopic and spatial information. In this study a hyperspectral imaging system developed by Norsk Elektro Optikk AS was used to measure the temporal development of bruised skin in a human volunteer. The bruises were inflicted by paintball bullets. The wavelength ranges used were 400 - 1000 nm (VNIR) and 900 - 1700 nm (SWIR), and the spectral sampling intervals were 3.7 and 5 nm, respectively. Preliminary results show good spatial discrimination of the bruised areas compared to normal skin. Development of a white spot can be seen in the central zone of the bruises. This central white zone was found to resemble the shape of the object hitting the skin, and is believed to develop in areas where the impact caused vessel damage. These results show that hyperspectral imaging is a promising technique to evaluate the temporal and spatial development of bruises on human skin.

  20. Malassezia skin diseases in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Difonzo, E M; Faggi, E; Bassi, A; Campisi, E; Arunachalam, M; Pini, G; Scarfì, F; Galeone, M

    2013-12-01

    Although Malassezia yeasts are a part of the normal microflora, under certain conditions they can cause superficial skin infection, such as pityriasis versicolor (PV) and Malassezia folliculitis. Moreover the yeasts of the genus Malassezia have been associated with seborrheic dermatitis and dandruff, atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, and, less commonly, with confluent and reticulated papillomatosis, onychomycosis, and transient acantholytic dermatosis. The study of the clinical role of Malassezia species has been surrounded by controversy due to the relative difficulty in isolation, cultivation, and identification. This review focuses on the clinical, mycologic, and immunologic aspects of the various skin diseases associated with Malassezia. Moreover, since there exists little information about the epidemiology and ecology of Malassezia species in the Italian population and the clinical significance of these species is not fully distinguished, we will report data about a study we carried out. The aim of our study was the isolation and the identification of Malassezia species in PV-affected skin and non-affected skin in patients with PV and in clinically healthy individuals without any Malassezia associated skin disease. PMID:24442041

  1. Garenoxacin in skin & skin structure infections complicated by bear bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pukar M, Hajare A, Krishnaprasad K, Bhargava A

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Animal bites have always been a common problem to humans. The incidence of resistant organisms is also increasing in the community. Garenoxacin a novel oral des-fluoroquinolone with potent antimicrobial activity against common pathogens causing skin and soft tissue infections, including resistant strains offers the benefit of broad spectrum of coverage including gram positive, gram negative and anaerobic organisms. The result of the case study indicates that garenoxacin is very effective in treating skin and soft tissue infections caused by animal bites.

  2. Femtosecond pulsed laser ablation to enhance drug delivery across the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvie-Cook, Hazel; Stone, James M; Yu, Fei; Guy, Richard H; Gordeev, Sergey N

    2016-01-01

    Laser poration of the skin locally removes its outermost, barrier layer, and thereby provides a route for the diffusion of topically applied drugs. Ideally, no thermal damage would surround the pores created in the skin, as tissue coagulation would be expected to limit drug diffusion. Here, a femtosecond pulsed fiber laser is used to porate mammalian skin ex vivo. This first application of a hollow core negative curvature fiber (HC-NCF) to convey a femtosecond pulsed, visible laser beam results in reproducible skin poration. The effect of applying ink to the skin surface, prior to ultra-short pulsed ablation, has been examined and Raman spectroscopy reveals that the least, collateral thermal damage occurs in inked skin. Pre-application of ink reduces the laser power threshold for poration, an effect attributed to the initiation of plasma formation by thermionic electron emission from the dye in the ink. Poration under these conditions significantly increases the percutaneous permeation of caffeine in vitro. Dye-enhanced, plasma-mediated ablation of the skin is therefore a potentially advantageous approach to enhance topical/transdermal drug absorption. The combination of a fiber laser and a HC-NCF, capable of emitting and delivering femtosecond pulsed, visible light, may permit a compact poration device to be developed.

  3. The optical properties of mouse skin in the visible and near infrared spectral regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino, Caetano P; Deana, Alessandro M; Yoshimura, Tania M; da Silva, Daniela F T; França, Cristiane M; Hamblin, Michael R; Ribeiro, Martha S

    2016-07-01

    Visible and near-infrared radiation is now widely employed in health science and technology. Pre-clinical trials are still essential to allow appropriate translation of optical methods into clinical practice. Our results stress the importance of considering the mouse strain and gender when planning pre-clinical experiments that depend on light-skin interactions. Here, we evaluated the optical properties of depilated albino and pigmented mouse skin using reproducible methods to determine parameters that have wide applicability in biomedical optics. Light penetration depth (δ), absorption (μa), reduced scattering (μ's) and reduced attenuation (μ't) coefficients were calculated using the Kubelka-Munk model of photon transport and spectrophotometric measurements. Within a broad wavelength coverage (400-1400nm), the main optical tissue interactions of visible and near infrared radiation could be inferred. Histological analysis was performed to correlate the findings with tissue composition and structure. Disperse melanin granules present in depilated pigmented mouse skin were shown to be irrelevant for light absorption. Gender mostly affected optical properties in the visible range due to variations in blood and abundance of dense connective tissue. On the other hand, mouse strains could produce more variations in the hydration level of skin, leading to changes in absorption in the infrared spectral region. A spectral region of minimal light attenuation, commonly referred as the "optical window", was observed between 600 and 1350nm.

  4. The optical properties of mouse skin in the visible and near infrared spectral regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino, Caetano P; Deana, Alessandro M; Yoshimura, Tania M; da Silva, Daniela F T; França, Cristiane M; Hamblin, Michael R; Ribeiro, Martha S

    2016-07-01

    Visible and near-infrared radiation is now widely employed in health science and technology. Pre-clinical trials are still essential to allow appropriate translation of optical methods into clinical practice. Our results stress the importance of considering the mouse strain and gender when planning pre-clinical experiments that depend on light-skin interactions. Here, we evaluated the optical properties of depilated albino and pigmented mouse skin using reproducible methods to determine parameters that have wide applicability in biomedical optics. Light penetration depth (δ), absorption (μa), reduced scattering (μ's) and reduced attenuation (μ't) coefficients were calculated using the Kubelka-Munk model of photon transport and spectrophotometric measurements. Within a broad wavelength coverage (400-1400nm), the main optical tissue interactions of visible and near infrared radiation could be inferred. Histological analysis was performed to correlate the findings with tissue composition and structure. Disperse melanin granules present in depilated pigmented mouse skin were shown to be irrelevant for light absorption. Gender mostly affected optical properties in the visible range due to variations in blood and abundance of dense connective tissue. On the other hand, mouse strains could produce more variations in the hydration level of skin, leading to changes in absorption in the infrared spectral region. A spectral region of minimal light attenuation, commonly referred as the "optical window", was observed between 600 and 1350nm. PMID:27101274

  5. Enhancement of percutaneous absorption of finasteride by cosolvents, cosurfactant and surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadzadeh, Yousef; Shokri, Javad; Hallaj-Nezhadi, Somayeh; Hamishehkar, Hamed; Nokhodchi, Ali

    2010-12-01

    The enhancing effects of routinely used co-solvents, propylene glycol and 2-propanol, anionic and cationic surfactants and a co-surfactant with different concentrations were evaluated on the skin permeation of Finasteride. In vitro permeation experiments with rat skin revealed that the solvent mixture is a very important factor in the penetration of Finasteride through the skin. Unexpectedly, cationic and anionic surfactants in various concentrations did not show any enhancement effect on drug transdermal absorption but co-surfactant Transcutol P increased skin penetration of Finastride significantly. Transcutol P with 0.25% and 1% showed the best enhancement in the initial and final sampling time, respectively. Transcutol P in a concentration of 0.25% increased skin absorption of the drug nearly 3.6 times in the first 15 min. The highest enhancement ratio (ER) was gained in the presence of 1% Transcutol P (ER = 5.98). In this study, among the different topical Finastride formulations, Transcutol P 1% in combination with water, propylene glycol and 2-propanol (30, 10, and 60) showed the highest enhancement ratio. PMID:19929166

  6. Development of an in vivo animal model for skin penetration in hairless rats assessed by mass balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Lene; Petersen, Mads B; Benfeldt, Eva;

    2002-01-01

    acid and (14)C-butyl salicylate were topically applied. Rapid and differentiated percutaneous absorption of both compounds were shown by urinary excretion data. For (14)C-salicylic acid the amount on the skin surface, in the stratum corneum and in the viable skin was determined. Total mass balance...... rat and free mobility throughout the test period. By consecutive tape stripping, monitored by measurements of transepidermal water loss and confirmed by histological examination of skin biopsies, 10 tape strippings were found to remove the stratum corneum completely. For assessment of the model, (14)C-salicylic...

  7. Percutaneous absorption of several chemicals, some pesticides included, in the red-winged blackbird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, J.G.; Cagan, R.H.; Kare, M.R.

    1974-01-01

    Percutaneous absorption in vivo through the skin of the feet of the red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) has been investigated. Absorption after 18-24 hours exposure to 0.01 M solutions of salicylic acid, caffeine, urea, 2,4-D, dieldrin, diethylstilbesterol, and DDT was measured. Of these, only DDT and diethylstilbesterol were not absorbed to a measurable degree. The solvents ethanol, dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), and vegetable oil were compared with water in their effects on the absorption ofcaffeine, urea, and salicylic acid. Ethanol, DMSO,and oil each decreased percutaneous absorption of salicylic acid. DMSO increased absorption of caffeine, and ethanol had no effect on it. Neither DMSO nor ethanol affected penetration of urea. Partition coefficients (K) (epidermis/water) were determined for all seven penetrants. Compounds with higher values of K showed lower percutaneous absorption. These findings suggest that K may be useful to predict percutaneous absorption in vivo. It appears unlikely that percutaneous absorption contributes greatly to the body burden of 2,4-D and dieldrin in A. phoeniceus.

  8. Surgical skin-marking techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granick, M S; Heckler, F R; Jones, E W

    1987-04-01

    Surgical skin-marking inks and dyes are in everyday use for designing and planning incisions in plastic and reconstructive surgery. We have traced the historical development of surgical skin-marking techniques from ancient times to the present. The biochemical characteristics of the commonly used marking agents are discussed. A three-part experiment utilizing a pig model was carried out to test the tissue inflammatory response to the various dyes and inks when used intradermally as tattoos, the persistence of such tattoos, and the ease of skin erasure for each of eight stains. Methylene blue and gentian violet are recommended as the best all-purpose marking agents. The use of proprietary inks is discouraged.

  9. Ectodermal Dysplasia Skin Fragility Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayça Alan Atalay

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ectodermal dysplasia-skin fragility syndrome (EDSFS is a rare autosomal recessive genodermatosis first described in 1997 by Mc Grath. EDSFS results from loss of function mutations in plakophilin-1 (PKP1. PKP1 is a structural component of desmosomes, cellcell adhesion complexes. It is also found as a nuclear protein in several cell types that are lack of desmosomes. In skin, however, PKP1 expression is confined mainly to suprabasal keratinocytes and the outer root sheath of hair follicules. Loss of function mutation in PKP1 leads to extensive skin fragility, bullae and erosions following minor trauma, focal keratoderma with painful fissures, alopecia, and nail dystrophy. In some patients hypohidrosis may also be seen. EDSFS is now considered as a specific suprabasal form of epidermolysis bullosa simplex. In this report we describe a 20 year old EDSFS case.

  10. Animal models of skin regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawronska-Kozak, Barbara; Grabowska, Anna; Kopcewicz, Marta; Kur, Anna

    2014-03-01

    Cutaneous injury in the majority of vertebrate animals results in the formation of a scar in the post-injured area. Scar tissues, although beneficial for maintaining integrity of the post-wounded region often interferes with full recovery of injured tissues. The goal of wound-healing studies is to identify mechanisms to redirect reparative pathways from debilitating scar formation to regenerative pathways that lead to normal functionality. To perform such studies models of regeneration, which are rare in mammals, are required. In this review we discussed skin regenerative capabilities present in lower vertebrates and in models of skin scar-free healing in mammals, e.g. mammalian fetuses. However, we especially focused on the attributes of two unusual models of skin scar-free healing capabilities that occur in adult mammals, that is, those associated with nude, FOXN1-deficient mice and in wild-type African spiny mice.

  11. Management of Acute Skin Trauma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joel W. Beam

    2010-01-01

    @@ Acute skin trauma (ie, abrasions, avulsions, blisters, incisions, lacerations, and punctures) is common among individuals involved in work, recreational, and athletic activities. Appropriate management of these wounds is important to promote healing and lessen the risk of cross-contamination and infection. Wound management techniques have undergone significant changes in the past 40 years but many clinicians continue to manage acute skin trauma with long-established, traditional techniques (ie, use of hydrogen peroxide, adhesive strips/patches, sterile gauze, or no dressing) that can delay healing and increase the risk of infection. The purpose of this review is to discuss evidence-based cleansing, debridement, and dressing techniques for the management of acute skin trauma.

  12. Surgical skin-marking techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granick, M S; Heckler, F R; Jones, E W

    1987-04-01

    Surgical skin-marking inks and dyes are in everyday use for designing and planning incisions in plastic and reconstructive surgery. We have traced the historical development of surgical skin-marking techniques from ancient times to the present. The biochemical characteristics of the commonly used marking agents are discussed. A three-part experiment utilizing a pig model was carried out to test the tissue inflammatory response to the various dyes and inks when used intradermally as tattoos, the persistence of such tattoos, and the ease of skin erasure for each of eight stains. Methylene blue and gentian violet are recommended as the best all-purpose marking agents. The use of proprietary inks is discouraged. PMID:2434965

  13. Biopolymeric agents for skin wrinkle treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourith, Nattaya; Kanlayavattanakul, Mayuree

    2016-10-01

    Skin aging is caused by several factors capable of deteriorating dermal matrix and is visibly noticed in skin color and skin contour deformities. In addition to the prevention of skin aging by application of antioxidants and sunscreens, treatment of skin wrinkles with those of dermal fillers is also recommended. Dermal filler products with enhanced injectability and longer duration are being developed continuously. Biodegradable polymers such as skin elastic fibers and dermal matrix mimetic used for treatment of skin wrinkle are summarized in this article. Additionally, the importance of amino acids, enzymes, and proteins in aesthetic of skin is addressed. Thus, elective agents are proposed for the dermatologists, cosmetic formulators, and the individuals facing skin aging problems. The candidate natural peptides from marine sources are additionally presented for widening the choice of actives application for treating aging. PMID:26963365

  14. Influence of Clothing Fabrics on Skin Microcirculation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Ling; PAN Ning; ZHAO Lian-ying; HUAUNG Gu

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of clothing fabric on human skin microcirculation. Once skin is covered with a clothing fabric, human sensations, namely, coolness, warmth, softness, and roughness, are amused immediately, and the cutaneous micrecireulation may be changed consequently. Since the complex relationships of the human skin, the environment, and the clothing, there is few publication focusing on the physiological responses of the skin to the fabrics. In this paper, a Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF) was used to test the dynamic responses of the skin blood flow when the fabric was placed on the skin. Effects of different fabrics on the skin blood flux were investigated. The results show that cold stimulation of fabric has remarkable influences on the skin blood flux, and the surface properties of fabric are of importance to affect the human skin blood flow.

  15. Sexual hormones in human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouboulis, C C; Chen, W-C; Thornton, M J; Qin, K; Rosenfield, R

    2007-02-01

    The skin locally synthesizes significant amounts of sexual hormones with intracrine or paracrine actions. The local level of each sexual steroid depends upon the expression of each of the androgen- and estrogen-synthesizing enzymes in each cell type, with sebaceous glands and sweat glands being the major contributors. Sebocytes express very little of the key enzyme, cytochrome P450c17, necessary for synthesis of the androgenic prohormones dehydroepiandrosterone and androstenedione, however, these prohormones can be converted by sebocytes and sweat glands, and probably also by dermal papilla cells, into more potent androgens like testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. Five major enzymes are involved in the activation and deactivation of androgens in skin. Androgens affect several functions of human skin, such as sebaceous gland growth and differentiation, hair growth, epidermal barrier homeostasis and wound healing. Their effects are mediated by binding to the nuclear androgen receptor. Changes of isoenzyme and/or androgen receptor levels may have important implications in the development of hyperandrogenism and the associated skin diseases such as acne, seborrhoea, hirsutism and androgenetic alopecia. On the other hand, estrogens have been implicated in skin aging, pigmentation, hair growth, sebum production and skin cancer. Estrogens exert their actions through intracellular receptors or via cell surface receptors, which activate specific second messenger signaling pathways. Recent studies suggest specific site-related distribution of ERalpha and ERbeta in human skin. In contrast, progestins play no role in the pathogenesis of skin disorders. However, they play a major role in the treatment of hirsutism and acne vulgaris, where they are prescribed as components of estrogen-progestin combination pills and as anti-androgens. These combinations enhance gonadotropin suppression of ovarian androgen production. Estrogen-progestin treatment can reduce the need for shaving

  16. Rare emerging malignant skin tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongioletti, F; Ferreli, C; Pinna, A L; Atzori, L

    2015-08-01

    As clinical skills improve and innovative diagnostic techniques become available in the field of dermatology and dermatopathology, new types or additional variants of malignant skin tumors are described. This article reviews the current nomenclature, clinico-pathological features, differential diagnosis, prognostic and therapeutic implications of some new dermato(patho)logical rare emerging skin tumors, including epithelial tumors (squamous cell carcinoma with mucinous metaplasia), adnexal tumors (endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma), soft tissue tumors of vascular differentiation (pseudolymphomatous cutaneous angiosarcoma, pseudomyogenic hemangioendothelioma), hematopoietic tumors (blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm) and mixed epithelial/melanocytic tumor (squamomelanocytic tumor). PMID:26086411

  17. Myeloid Sarcoma of the Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruksan Elal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Myeloid sarcoma (MS (granulocytic sarcoma, extramedullary myeloid tumor, chloroma is a rare malignant extramedullary neoplasms of myeloid precursor cells. Skin is one of the most common localization of MS. The tumor may be isolated or associated with acute myeloid leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, primary myelofibrosis, hypereosinophilic syndrome and polycythemia vera. MS is a disease that is rare and difficult to diagnose. Perhaps the most important factor in the diagnosis is suggestion of MS. In this article, clinicopathological features of skin localized MS case are presented.

  18. Clinical utility of skin karyotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza E. Dorfman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTWe report the case of a patient with Patau syndrome, diagnosed by skin karyotype, emphasizing the applications and importance of this test. The pregnancy morphology ultrasound showed face defects and of central nervous system and heart chambers asymmetry. In the postnatal evaluation it was identified microcephaly, single central nostril, and other malformations. We performed skin karyotype that resulted in full trisomy 13. Our report highlights the possibility of performing karyotype examination in cases when it is no longer possible to obtain a blood sample, thus providing the correct diagnosis and genetic counseling for the family.

  19. Skin anti-aging strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Ganceviciene, Ruta; Liakou, Aikaterini I.; Theodoridis, Athanasios; Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Zouboulis, Christos C.

    2012-01-01

    Skin aging is a complex biological process influenced by a combination of endogenous or intrinsic and exogenous or extrinsic factors. Because of the fact that skin health and beauty is considered one of the principal factors representing overall “well-being” and the perception of “health” in humans, several anti-aging strategies have been developed during the last years. It is the intention of this article to review the most important anti-aging strategies that dermatologists have nowadays in...

  20. Skin scoring in systemic sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariae, Hugh; Bjerring, Peter; Halkier-Sørensen, Lars;

    1994-01-01

    Forty-one patients with systemic sclerosis were investigated with a new and simple skin score method measuring the degree of thickening and pliability in seven regions together with area involvement in each region. The highest values were, as expected, found in diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis...... (type III SS) and the lowest in limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis (type I SS) with no lesions extending above wrists and ancles. A positive correlation was found to the aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen, a serological marker for synthesis of type III collagen. The skin score...

  1. Preparation of Inactivated Human Skin Using High Hydrostatic Pressurization for Full-Thickness Skin Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Pham Hieu Liem; Naoki Morimoto; Atsushi Mahara; Chizuru Jinno; Koji Shima; Shuichi Ogino; Michiharu Sakamoto; Natsuko Kakudo; Masukazu Inoie; Kenji Kusumoto; Toshia Fujisato; Shigehiko Suzuki; Tetsuji Yamaoka

    2015-01-01

    We have reported that high-hydrostatic-pressure (HHP) technology is safe and useful for producing various kinds of decellularized tissue. However, the preparation of decellularized or inactivated skin using HHP has not been reported. The objective of this study was thus to prepare inactivated skin from human skin using HHP, and to explore the appropriate conditions of pressurization to inactivate skin that can be used for skin reconstruction. Human skin samples of 8 mm in diameter were packed...

  2. Novel perspectives in the tuberculosis treatment: Administration of isoniazid through the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caon, Thiago; Campos, Carlos Eduardo Maduro; Simões, Cláudia Maria Oliveira; Silva, Marcos Antônio Segatto

    2015-10-15

    Despite its high efficacy in anti-tuberculosis therapy, the oral administration of isoniazid (INH) may lead to poor patient compliance due to hepatotoxicity events. In this context, the transdermal administration of INH was evaluated, for the first time, since this route avoids hepatic first pass effect. INH was applied to porcine skin in Franz diffusion chambers alone and with 5% menthol, limonene or Transcutol(®). Infrared and DSC analyses were selected for mechanistic studies. The transdermal absorption of INH was sufficient to ensure a systemic therapeutic effect. Menthol was not able to improve the absorption of INH, but it increased the drug accumulation in skin compared to the control (1.4-fold). Transcutol(®) reduced permeation flux of INH (2.2-fold) and also increased the amount of drug retained in skin (1.7-fold). Limonene was the most effective excipient since it increased permeation flux of INH (1.5-fold) and lag time was greatly shortened (2.8-fold). DSC and FTIR analyses of limonene-treated skin suggest higher degree of disorder in lipid bilayers. Transdermal delivery of INH was positively correlated with logP of chemical enhancers. INH can be efficiently delivered by skin route and specific excipients may be selected depending on intended use. PMID:26319631

  3. Investigation into the absorptivity change in metals with increased laser power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blidegn, Kristian; Olsen, Flemmming Ove

    1996-01-01

    At a first glance the low absorptivity of metals in the infrared (IR) makes the use of YAG and CO2 lasers in metal processing very inefficient. However industrial inert gas cutting abilities demonstrates that the absorptivity can reach significantly higher levels during the high power laser...... interaction. An increase which can not be explained by the increase in temperature only. The interaction between laser light and metals is a major physical phenomena in laser material processing. The Drude free electron model or simplifications like the Hagen-Rubens relation has often been used to model...... the processes.This paper discuss the need to extend the Drude mode taking into account interband transitions and anormal skin effect in order to describe in increase in absorptivity seen at high intensities. The absorption model will be used in a cut front simulation and results are compared with cutting...

  4. Investigation into the absorptivity change in Metals with increased laser Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blidegn, Kristian; Olsen, Flemmming Ove

    1996-01-01

    At a first glance the low absorptivity of metals in the infrared (IR) makes the use of YAG and CO2 lasers in metal processing very inefficient. However industrial inert gas cutting abilities demonstrates that the absorptivity can reach significantly higher levels during the high power laser...... interaction. An increase which can not be explained by the increase in temperature only. The interaction between laser light and metals is a major physical phenomena in laser material processing. The Drude free electron model or simplifications like the Hagen-Rubens relation has often been used to model...... the processes.This paper discuss the need to extend the Drude model taking into account interband transitions and anormal skin effect in order to describe in increase in absorptivity seen at high intensities. The absorption model will be used in a cut front simulation and results are compared with cutting...

  5. [Occupational skin diseases in medical personnel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Occupational skin diseases develop mostly in certain occupational groups at risk. The authors studied features of occupational skin diseases in medical personnel examined over 2003-2007. During this time, occupational skin disease was diagnosed in 118 individuals out of which 24 (20.3%) were medical staffers. All 24 examinees suffered from occupational allergic skin conditions. Most common causes of these were medicines, latex, desinfectants. Nurses are most prone to skin conditions (91.67%). Special risk group covers surgeons, psychiatrists and dentists. As medical staffers are occupational risk group for occupational skin conditions, diagnosed allergic dermatoses in them should be considered as having possible occupational occupational origin.

  6. Absorption characteristics of bacteriorhodopsin molecules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H K T Kumar; K Appaji Gowda

    2000-03-01

    The bacteriorhodopsin molecule absorbs light and undergoes a series of structural transformation following a well-defined photocycle. The complex photocycle is transformed to an equivalent level diagram by considering the lifetime of the intermediate states. Assuming that only and states are appreciably populated at any instant of time, the level diagram is further simplified to two-level system. Based on the rate equations for two-level system, an analytic expression for the absorption coefficient of bacteriorhodopsin molecule is derived. It is applied to study the behaviour of absorption coefficient of bacteriorhodopsin film in the visible wavelength region of 514 nm. The dependence of absorption coefficient of bacteriorhodopsin film on the thickness of the film, total number density of active molecules and initial number density of molecules in -state is presented in the graphical form.

  7. A disappearing neonatal skin lesion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hawkes, Colin Patrick

    2012-01-31

    A preterm baby girl was noted at birth to have a firm, raised, non-tender skin lesion located over her right hip. She developed three similar smaller lesions on her ear, buttock and right knee. All lesions had resolved by 2 months of age.

  8. Climate change and skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Leun, Jan C; de Gruijl, Frank R

    2002-05-01

    Depletion of the ozone layer and climate change by the increasing greenhouse effect are distinctly different processes. It is becoming quite clear, however, that the two global environmental problems are interlinked in several ways [D. L. Albritton, P. J Aucamp, G. Mégie, R. T. Watson, Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion, 1998, World Meteorological Organization, Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project, Report No. 44 (WMO, Geneva, 1998)]. In the present analysis we deal with the possibility of such an interlinkage within one effect on human health, namely, skin cancer. The increase in the incidence of skin cancer is one of the most extensively studied effects of increasing ultraviolet radiation by ozone depletion (F. R. de Gruijl, Skin cancer and solar radiation, Eur. J Cancer, 1999, 35, 2003-2009). We wondered if this impact could also be influenced by increasing environmental temperatures. Here we show that it is likely that such an influence will occur. For the same reason, it is likely that the baseline incidence of skin cancer will be augmented by rising temperatures, which may become significant in magnitude. PMID:12653470

  9. Reference Values of Skin Autofluorescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetsier, M.; Lutgers, H. L.; de Jonge, C.; Links, T. P.; Smit, A. J.; Graaff, R.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Skin autofluorescence (AF) as measured with the AGE Reader (DiagnOptics Technologies, Groningen, The Netherlands) is a noninvasive prognostic marker in diabetes mellitus and other diseases with increased cardiovascular risk. This study provides reference values of healthy Caucasian contr

  10. Breast skin and nipple changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... WITH LARGE PORES This is called peau d'orange because the skin looks like an orange peel. An infection in the breast or inflammatory ... provider will talk to you about your medical history and recent changes you have noticed in your ...

  11. Breastfeeding - skin and nipple changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with large pores . This is called peau d'orange because the skin looks like an orange peel. This can be caused by an infection ... provider will talk to you about your medical history and the recent changes you have noticed in ...

  12. Enhanced chlorhexidine skin penetration with eucalyptus oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worthington Tony

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG is a widely used skin antiseptic, however it poorly penetrates the skin, limiting its efficacy against microorganisms residing beneath the surface layers of skin. The aim of the current study was to improve the delivery of chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG when used as a skin antiseptic. Method Chlorhexidine was applied to the surface of donor skin and its penetration and retention under different conditions was evaluated. Skin penetration studies were performed on full-thickness donor human skin using a Franz diffusion cell system. Skin was exposed to 2% (w/v CHG in various concentrations of eucalyptus oil (EO and 70% (v/v isopropyl alcohol (IPA. The concentration of CHG (μg/mg of skin was determined to a skin depth of 1500 μm by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Results The 2% (w/v CHG penetration into the lower layers of skin was significantly enhanced in the presence of EO. Ten percent (v/v EO in combination with 2% (w/v CHG in 70% (v/v IPA significantly increased the amount of CHG which penetrated into the skin within 2 min. Conclusion The delivery of CHG into the epidermis and dermis can be enhanced by combination with EO, which in turn may improve biocide contact with additional microorganisms present in the skin, thereby enhancing antisepsis.

  13. The Microbiota of the Human Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egert, Markus; Simmering, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to sum up important progress in the field of human skin microbiota research that was achieved over the last years.The human skin is one of the largest and most versatile organs of the human body. Owing to its function as a protective interface between the largely sterile interior of the human body and the highly microbially contaminated outer environment, it is densely colonized with a diverse and active microbiota. This skin microbiota is of high importance for human health and well-being. It is implicated in several severe skin diseases and plays a major role in wound infections. Many less severe, but negatively perceived cosmetic skin phenomena are linked with skin microbes, too. In addition, skin microorganisms, in particular on the human hands, are crucial for the field of hygiene research. Notably, apart from being only a potential source of disease and contamination, the skin microbiota also contributes to the protective functions of the human skin in many ways. Finally, the analysis of structure and function of the human skin microbiota is interesting from a basic, evolutionary perspective on human microbe interactions.Key questions in the field of skin microbiota research deal with (a) a deeper understanding of the structure (species inventory) and function (physiology) of the healthy human skin microbiota in space and time, (b) the distinction of resident and transient skin microbiota members,

  14. Cleansing Formulations That Respect Skin Barrier Integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russel M. Walters

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Surfactants in skin cleansers interact with the skin in several manners. In addition to the desired benefit of providing skin hygiene, surfactants also extract skin components during cleansing and remain in the stratum corneum (SC after rinsing. These side effects disrupt SC structure and degrade its barrier properties. Recent applications of vibrational spectroscopy and two-photon microscopy in skin research have provided molecular-level information to facilitate our understanding of the interaction between skin and surfactant. In the arena of commercial skin cleansers, technologies have been developed to produce cleansers that both cleanse and respect skin barrier. The main approach is to minimize surfactant interaction with skin through altering its solution properties. Recently, hydrophobically modified polymers (HMPs have been introduced to create skin compatible cleansing systems. At the presence of HMP, surfactants assemble into larger, more stable structures. These structures are less likely to penetrate the skin, thereby resulting in less aggressive cleansers and the integrity of the skin barrier is maintained. In this paper, we reviewed our recent findings on surfactant and SC interactions at molecular level and provided an overview of the HM technology for developing cleansers that respect skin barrier.

  15. Mercury Levels in Locally Manufactured Mexican Skin-Lightening Creams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz O. Leal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is considered one of the most toxic elements for plants and animals. Nevertheless, in the Middle East, Asia and Latin America, whitening creams containing mercury are being manufactured and purchased, despite their obvious health risks. Due to the mass distribution of these products, this can be considered a global public health issue. In Mexico, these products are widely available in pharmacies, beauty aid and health stores. They are used for their skin lightening effects. The aim of this work was to analyze the mercury content in some cosmetic whitening creams using the cold vapor technique coupled with atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS. A total of 16 skin-lightening creams from the local market were investigated. No warning information was noted on the packaging. In 10 of the samples, no mercury was detected. The mercury content in six of the samples varied between 878 and 36,000 ppm, despite the fact that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA has determined that the limit for mercury in creams should be less than 1 ppm. Skin creams containing mercury are still available and commonly used in Mexico and many developing countries, and their contents are poorly controlled.

  16. Dietary Hyaluronic Acid Migrates into the Skin of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariko Oe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyaluronic acid is a constituent of the skin and helps to maintain hydration. The oral intake of hyaluronic acid increases water in the horny layer as demonstrated by human trials, but in vivo kinetics has not been shown. This study confirmed the absorption, migration, and excretion of 14C-labeled hyaluronic acid (14C-hyaluronic acid. 14C-hyaluronic acid was orally or intravenously administered to male SD rats aged 7 to 8 weeks. Plasma radioactivity after oral administration showed the highest level 8 hours after administration, and orally administered 14C-hyaluronic acid was found in the blood. Approximately 90% of 14C-hyaluronic acid was absorbed from the digestive tract and used as an energy source or a structural constituent of tissues based on tests of the urine, feces, expired air, and cadaver up to 168 hours (one week after administration. The autoradiographic results suggested that radioactivity was distributed systematically and then reduced over time. The radioactivity was higher in the skin than in the blood at 24 and 96 hours after administration. The results show the possibility that orally administered hyaluronic acid migrated into the skin. No excessive accumulation was observed and more than 90% of the hyaluronic acid was excreted in expired air or urine.

  17. Absorption of focused light by spherical plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For light focused on spherical plasmas, we obtain new results giving the power absorbed by inverse bremsstrahlung and resonance absorption as a function of the focusing scheme. For a given beam profile and lens, there is an optimum focus to maximize total absorption. Linearly polarized beams lead to asymmetric absorption. Good agreement with experimental absorption and scattered light data is obtained

  18. Diabetic lipohypertrophy delays insulin absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R J; Hannan, W J; Frier, B M; Steel, J M; Duncan, L J

    1984-01-01

    The effect of lipohypertrophy at injection sites on insulin absorption has been studied in 12 insulin-dependent diabetic patients. The clearance of 125I-insulin from sites with lipohypertrophy was significantly slower than from complementary nonhypertrophied sites (% clearance in 3 h, 43.8 +/- 3.5 +/- SEM) control; 35.3 +/- 3.9 lipohypertrophy, P less than 0.05). The degree of the effect was variable but sufficient in several patients to be of clinical importance. Injection-site lipohypertrophy is another factor that modifies the absorption of subcutaneously injected insulin.

  19. Solar powered absorption air conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardon, J. M.

    1980-04-01

    Artificial means of providing or removing heat from the building are discussed along with the problem of the appropriate building design and construction for a suitable heat climate inside the building. The use of a lithium bromide-water absorption chiller, powered by a hot water store heated by an array of stationary flat collectors, is analyzed. An iterative method of predicting the cooling output from a LiBr-water absorption refrigeration plant having variable heat input is described and a model allowing investigation of the performance of a solar collector and thermal storage system is developed.

  20. Quasistellar Objects Intervening Absorption Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Charlton, J C; Charlton, Jane C.; Churchill, Christopher W.

    2000-01-01

    We briefly review, at a level appropriate for graduate students and non-specialists, the field of quasar absorption lines (QALs). Emphasis is on the intervening absorbers. We present the anatomy of a quasar spectrum due to various classes of intervening absorption systems, and a brief historical review of each absorber class (Lyman-alpha forest and Lyman limit systems, and metal-line and damped Lyman-alpha absorbers). We also provide several heuristic examples on how the physical properties of both the intergalactic medium and the gaseous environments associated with earlier epoch galaxies can be inferred from QALs. The evolution of these environments from z=4 are discussed.

  1. Absorption Efficiency of Receiving Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Bach; Frandsen, Aksel

    2005-01-01

    A receiving antenna with a matched load will always scatter some power. This paper sets an upper and a lower bound on the absorption efficiency (absorbed power over sum of absorbed and scattered powers), which lies between 0 and 100% depending on the directivities of the antenna and scatter...... patterns. It can approach 100% as closely as desired, although in practice this may not be an attractive solution. An example with a small endfire array of dipoles shows an efficiency of 93%. Several examples of small conical horn antennas are also given, and they all have absorption efficiencies less than...

  2. Phytases for improved iron absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Veller Friis; Meyer, Anne S.

    2016-01-01

    Phytase enzymes present an alternative to iron supplements, because they have been shown to improve iron absorption by means of catalysing the degradation of a potent iron absorption inhibitor: phytic acid. Phytic acid is a hexaphosphate of inositol and is particularly prevalent in cereal grains......, where it serves as a storage molecule for phosphorous. Phytic acid is also associated with minerals. The minerals are bound by chelation to the negatively charged phosphate groups in phytic acid. Phytases catalyse the dephosphorylation of phytic acid, thus releasing bound minerals to make them available...

  3. Aerosol Absorption Measurements in MILAGRO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Arnott, W. P.; Paredes-Miranda, L.; Barnard, J. C.

    2007-12-01

    During the month of March 2006, a number of instruments were used to determine the absorption characteristics of aerosols found in the Mexico City Megacity and nearby Valley of Mexico. These measurements were taken as part of the Department of Energy's Megacity Aerosol Experiment - Mexico City (MAX-Mex) that was carried out in collaboration with the Megacity Interactions: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) campaign. MILAGRO was a joint effort between the DOE, NSF, NASA, and Mexican agencies aimed at understanding the impacts of a megacity on the urban and regional scale. A super-site was operated at the Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo in Mexico City (designated T-0) and at the Universidad Technologica de Tecamac (designated T-1) that was located about 35 km to the north east of the T-0 site in the State of Mexico. A third site was located at a private rancho in the State of Hidalgo approximately another 35 km to the northeast (designated T-2). Aerosol absorption measurements were taken in real time using a number of instruments at the T-0 and T-1 sites. These included a seven wavelength aethalometer, a multi-angle absorption photometer (MAAP), and a photo-acoustic spectrometer. Aerosol absorption was also derived from spectral radiometers including a multi-filter rotating band spectral radiometer (MFRSR). The results clearly indicate that there is significant aerosol absorption by the aerosols in the Mexico City megacity region. The absorption can lead to single scattering albedo reduction leading to values below 0.5 under some circumstances. The absorption is also found to deviate from that expected for a "well-behaved" soot anticipated from diesel engine emissions, i.e. from a simple 1/lambda wavelength dependence for absorption. Indeed, enhanced absorption is seen in the region of 300-450 nm in many cases, particularly in the afternoon periods indicating that secondary organic aerosols are contributing to the aerosol absorption. This is likely due

  4. What Causes Our Skin to Age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care Younger skin Causes of aging skin Creating anti-aging plan Fillers giving patients better, longer-lasting results Maximizing anti-aging products Selecting anti-aging products Sun damage Wrinkle ...

  5. How to Prevent Skin Conditions in Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources Meet our partners Español Donate Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases Cosmetic treatments Dry / sweaty skin Eczema / dermatitis Hair and scalp ...

  6. About Skin: Your Body's Largest Organ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources Meet our partners Español Donate Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases Cosmetic treatments Dry / sweaty skin Eczema / dermatitis Hair and scalp ...

  7. Skin Segmentation Based on Graph Cuts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zhilan; WANG Guijin; LIN Xinggang; YAN Hong

    2009-01-01

    Skin segmentation is widely used in many computer vision tasks to improve automated visualiza-tion. This paper presents a graph cuts algorithm to segment arbitrary skin regions from images. The detected face is used to determine the foreground skin seeds and the background non-skin seeds with the color probability distributions for the foreground represented by a single Gaussian model and for the background by a Gaussian mixture model. The probability distribution of the image is used for noise suppression to alle-viate the influence of the background regions having skin-like colors. Finally, the skin is segmented by graph cuts, with the regional parameter y optimally selected to adapt to different images. Tests of the algorithm on many real wodd photographs show that the scheme accurately segments skin regions and is robust against illumination variations, individual skin variations, and cluttered backgrounds.

  8. Treatment Options for Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells than in normal cells. For skin cancer, laser light is shined onto the skin and the drug becomes active and kills the cancer cells. Photodynamic therapy causes little damage to healthy tissue. Biologic therapy ...

  9. 'Sunscreen' Gene May Guard Against Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158935.html 'Sunscreen' Gene May Guard Against Skin Cancer Researchers hope their ... say they've identified a so-called "sunscreen" gene that may help protect against skin cancer. They ...

  10. Skin Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Skin Cancer Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... HPV-Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Uterine Cancer Home Skin Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity Language: English Español ( ...

  11. For Better Skin Cancer Checks, Partner Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159632.html For Better Skin Cancer Checks, Partner Up Melanoma survivors benefited when they ... out: Getting a partner trained to spot potential skin cancers can be a lifesaver for melanoma survivors, a ...

  12. Automated screening of pigmentary skin neoplasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudrin, Konstantin G.; Matorin, Oleg V.; Reshetov, Igor V.

    2015-01-01

    We have analysed the clinical symptoms and the malignization signs of pigmented skin neoplasms. We have estimated the complex of clinical parameters which could be measured for the purpose of skin screening diagnostic via digital image processing. Allowable errors of clinical parameter characterization have been calculated, and the origin of these errors has been discussed. Proposed technique for automated screening of pigmentary skin neoplasms should become an effective tool for early skin diagnostics.

  13. Facial skin care products and cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2014-01-01

    Facial skin care products and cosmetics can both aid or incite facial dermatoses. Properly selected skin care can create an environment for barrier repair aiding in the re-establishment of a healing biofilm and diminution of facial redness; however, skin care products that aggressively remove intercellular lipids or cause irritation must be eliminated before the red face will resolve. Cosmetics are an additive variable either aiding or challenging facial skin health.

  14. Skin Colour Analysis of Iraqi Kurdish Population

    OpenAIRE

    Zardawi, Faraedon M; Xiao, Kaida; Yates, Julian M

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Skin colour measurement and analysis was performed for Iraqi Kurdish population in sulaimani city. The purpose of this study was to produce a dedicated skin shade guide for precise colour reproduction and colour matching of maxillofacial prostheses with the patient’s original skin colour. Methodology: A skin colour measurement was undertaken for 140 subjects (73 female and 67 male). A method of capturing their (L* a* b*) colour values from nine body parts was pe...

  15. Occupational skin cancer may be underreported

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carøe, Tanja Korfitsen; Ebbehøj, Niels Erik; Wulf, Hans Christian;

    2013-01-01

    Skin cancer may, in some cases, be caused by occupational exposures. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of and exposures leading to occupationally induced skin cancers in Denmark during a ten-year period.......Skin cancer may, in some cases, be caused by occupational exposures. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of and exposures leading to occupationally induced skin cancers in Denmark during a ten-year period....

  16. Nanocarriers for skin delivery of cosmetic antioxidants

    OpenAIRE

    Lucia Montenegro

    2014-01-01

    The demand of natural skin care products is steadily growing since consumers perceive them as safe. Currently, cosmetic manufacturers are focusing their efforts on developing innovative natural products to address skin-aging signs, thus meeting consumers’ needs of healthy appearance and well-being. To prevent or treat skin aging, topical supplementation with antioxidant is regarded as one of the most promising strategies. However, most antioxidants presently used in skin care formulations sho...

  17. Skin Cancer of the Head and Neck

    OpenAIRE

    Ouyang, Yun-Hsuan

    2010-01-01

    The majority of skin cancers of the head and neck are nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSC). Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are the most frequent types of NMSC. Malignant melanoma is an aggressive neoplasm of skin, and the ideal adjuvant therapy has not yet been found, although various options for treatment of skin cancer are available to the patient and physician, allowing high cure rate and excellent functional and cosmetic outcomes. Sunscreen protection and early evaluation of ...

  18. WOVEN HYBRID COMPOSITES: WATER ABSORPTION AND THICKNESS SWELLING BEHAVIOURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. P. S. Abdul Khalil

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB/woven jute fibres (Jw reinforced epoxy hybrid composites were prepared by hand lay-up technique by keeping the EFB/ woven jute fibre weight ratios constant, i.e. 4:1. By combining oil palm EFB and woven jute fibre, it is possible to take advantage of both fibres while at the same time suppressing their less desirable qualities. These hybrids provide a new type of sandwich structure with a good skin-core adhesion and the potential for their applications as cost-effective sandwich construction. The effect of the layering pattern on the water absorption and thickness swelling of the hybrid composites was studied. It was observed that water diffusion occurred in the composites, depending on the fibre type as well as the layering pattern. EFB fibre composites exhibited maximum water absorption during the whole duration of immersion. The hybridization of oil palm EFB composites with woven jute fibre showed beneficial effects on both the water absorption and thickness swelling by improving fibre/matrix bonding.

  19. Whole-skin electron treatment: patient skin dose distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraass, B.A.; Roberson, P.L.; Glatstein, E.

    1983-03-01

    Low-energy electron irradiation of the whole skin is used to treat skin diseases such as mycosis fungoides. The literature on the related dosimetry concentrates almost exclusively on idealized conditions, such as the ''in-air'' distribution of radiation and the dose received by body-shaped phantoms. The results of a detailed study of dose to five patients, using measurements from thermoluminescent dosimeters, are reported. The dose to different points on the trunk was fairly uniform, while there were significant deviations from uniformity for the arms, legs, and head. The data show that in-air measurements are of limited value as a measure of the uniformity of the dose received by the patient.

  20. In vitro and in vivo percutaneous absorption of seleno-L-methionine, an antioxidant agent, and other selenium species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chih-hung LIN; Chia-lang FANG; Saleh A AL-SUWAYEH; Shih-yun YANG; Jia-you FANG

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the in vitro and in vivo percutaneous absorption of seleno-L-methionine (Se-L-M),an ultraviolet (UV)-protecting agent,from aqueous solutions.Methods:Aqueous solutions of Se-L-M were prepared in pH 4,8,and 10.8 buffers.The pH 8 buffer contained 30% glycerol,propylene glycol (PG) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400.The in vitro skin permeation of Se-L-M via porcine skin and nude mouse skin was measured and compared using Franz diffusion cells.The in vivo skin tolerance study was performed,which examined transepidermal water loss (TEWL),skin pH and erythema.Results:In the excised porcine skin,the flux was 0.1,11.4 and 8.2 μg·cm-2·h-1 for the pH 4,8,and 10.8 buffers,respectively.A linear correlation between the flux and skin deposition was determined.According to permeation across skin with different treatments (stripping,delipidation,and ethanol treatments),it was determined that the intracellular route comprised the predominant pathway for Se-L-M permeation from pH 8 buffer.Aqueous solutions of seleno-DL-methionine (Se-DL-M),selenium sulfide and selenium-containing quantum dot nanoparticles were also used as donor systems.The DL form showed a lower flux (7.0 vs 11.4 μg·cm2·h-1) and skin uptake (23.4 vs 47.3 μg/g) as compared to the L form,indicating stereoselective permeation of this compound.There was no or only negligible permeation of selenium sulfide and quantum dots into and across the skin.With in vivo topical application for 4 and 8 h,the skin deposition of Se-L-M was about 7 μg/g,and values were comparable to each other.The topical application of Se-L-M for up to 5 d did not caused apparent skin irritation.However,slight inflammation of the dermis was noted according to the histopathological examination.Conclusion:Se-L-M was readily absorbed by the skin in both the in vitro and in vivo experiments.The established profiles of Se-L-M skin absorption will be helpful in developing topical products of this compound.

  1. Electromodulated absorption in smoky quartz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, W.E. van den; Volger, J.

    1974-01-01

    The optical absorption coefficient of “smoky” quartz (containing aluminium) can be modulated by applying an electric field. The effect saturates at high fields and low temperatures and reaches a maximum at 535 nm. The results are discussed in terms of a model consisting of a colour centre, dipolar i

  2. Exercise, Intestinal Absorption, and Rehydration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ KEYPOINTS 1. The proximal small intestine (duodenum & jejunum) is the primary site of fluid absorption. It absorbs about 50% to 60% of any given fluid load. The colon or large intestine absorbs approximately 80 to 90% of the fluid it receives, but accounts for only about 15% of the total fluid load.

  3. S matrix for absorptive Hamiltonians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The existence of a matrix S such that SS = 1 in the presence of absorption is demonstrated. In the limit a of hermitian Hamiltonian the unitarity conditions SS = 1 is recovered. A dispersion relation for forward scattering is derived and the properties of the reactance matrices K and K are obtained. It is shown that K = K

  4. QSO Absorption Lines from QSOs

    CERN Document Server

    Bowen, D V; Ménard, B; Chelouche, D; Inada, N; Oguri, M; Richards, G T; Strauss, M A; Vanden Berk, Daniel E; York, D G; Bowen, David V.; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Menard, Brice; Chelouche, Doron; Inada, Naohisa; Oguri, Masamune; Richards, Gordon T.; Strauss, Michael A.; Berk, Daniel E. Vanden; York, Donald G.

    2006-01-01

    We present the results of a search for metal absorption lines in the spectra of background QSOs whose sightlines pass close to foreground QSOs. We detect MgII(2796,2803) absorption in Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectra of four z>1.5 QSOs whose lines of sight pass within 26-98 kpc of lower redshift (z~0.5-1.5) QSOs. The 100% [4/4 pairs] detection of MgII in the background QSOs is clearly at odds with the incidence of associated (z_abs ~ z_em) systems -- absorbers which exist towards only a few percent of QSOs. Although the quality of our foreground QSO spectra is not as high as the SDSS data, absorption seen towards one of the background QSOs clearly does not show up at the same strength in the spectrum of the corresponding foreground QSO. This implies that the absorbing gas is distributed inhomogeneously around the QSO, presumably as a direct consequence of the anisotropic emission from the central AGN. We discuss possible origins for the MgII lines, including: absorption by gas from the foreground QSO h...

  5. Bent Electro-Absorption Modulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    components and the applied electric field in relation to the frequency of the modulated radiation, the bending losses (and possibly coupling losses) will provide extinction of light guided by the bent waveguide section. The refractive index contract may be modulated while keeping the absorption coefficient...... by bendng losses co-operates to provide more compact modulators with improved performance (extinction) and speed....

  6. Electrochemical Skin Conductance Correlates with Skin Nerve Fiber Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Novak

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Electrochemical skin conductance (ESC using reverse iontophoresis and chronoamperometry has been used to evaluate abnormal function of small fibers. How ESC correlates with loss of small fibers in skin is unclear.Methods: This was a prospective, blinded study. The primary outcome measure was the correlation between ESC at the feet and results of skin biopsies including epidermal nerve fiber density (ENFD and sweat gland nerve fiber density (SGNFD at the distal leg. ESC, ENFD and SGNFD data were normalized by adjusting for weight. The secondary outcome measures were the correlation between ESC and the following variables: quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test (QSART and symptom scales (neuropathy, pain and autonomic.Results: 81 patients ((mean±sd: age=53.3±17.3, men/women=25/56 were enrolled in the study. ESC was reduced in subjects with abnormally low ENFD (ENFD normal/abnormal, ESC = 1.17±0.27/0.87±0.34 µSiemens/kg, p<0.0008 and abnormally low SGNFD (SGNFD normal/abnormal ESC=1.09±0.34/,0.78±0.3 µSiemens/kg,p<0.0003. ESC correlated with ENFD (ρ=0.73, p=0.0001 and SGNFD (ρ=0.64, p=0.0001. ESC did not correlate with symptom scales. Conclusion: ESC is diminished in subjects who have a reduced number of small fibers in the skin and the ESC reduction is proportional to ENFD and SGNFD. ESC can be useful in detecting loss of small nerve fibers.

  7. Electrochemical Skin Conductance Correlates with Skin Nerve Fiber Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Electrochemical skin conductance (ESC) using reverse iontophoresis and chronoamperometry has been used to evaluate abnormal function of small fibers. How ESC correlates with loss of small fibers in skin is unclear. Methods: This was a prospective, blinded study. The primary outcome measure was the correlation between ESC at the feet and results of skin biopsies including epidermal nerve fiber density (ENFD) and sweat gland nerve fiber density (SGNFD) at the distal leg. ESC, ENFD, and SGNFD data were normalized by adjusting for weight. The secondary outcome measures were the correlation between ESC and the following variables: quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test (QSART) and symptom scales (neuropathy, pain and autonomic). Results: Eighty-one patients (mean ± sd): age = 53.3 ± 17.3, men/women = 25/56 were enrolled in the study. ESC was reduced in subjects with abnormally low ENFD (ENFD normal/abnormal, ESC = 1.17 ± 0.27/0.87 ± 0.34 μSiemens/kg, p < 0.0008) and abnormally low SGNFD (SGNFD normal/abnormal ESC = 1.09 ± 0.34/0.78 ± 0.3 μSiemens/kg, p < 0.0003). ESC correlated with ENFD (ρ = 0.73, p = 0.0001) and SGNFD (ρ = 0.64, p = 0.0001). ESC did not correlate with symptom scales. Conclusion: ESC is diminished in subjects who have a reduced number of small fibers in the skin and the ESC reduction is proportional to ENFD and SGNFD. ESC can be useful in detecting loss of small nerve fibers. PMID:27605912

  8. Aerosol absorption and radiative forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Stier

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a comprehensive examination of aerosol absorption with a focus on evaluating the sensitivity of the global distribution of aerosol absorption to key uncertainties in the process representation. For this purpose we extended the comprehensive aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM by effective medium approximations for the calculation of aerosol effective refractive indices, updated black carbon refractive indices, new cloud radiative properties considering the effect of aerosol inclusions, as well as by modules for the calculation of long-wave aerosol radiative properties and instantaneous aerosol forcing. The evaluation of the simulated aerosol absorption optical depth with the AERONET sun-photometer network shows a good agreement in the large scale global patterns. On a regional basis it becomes evident that the update of the BC refractive indices to Bond and Bergstrom (2006 significantly improves the previous underestimation of the aerosol absorption optical depth. In the global annual-mean, absorption acts to reduce the short-wave anthropogenic aerosol top-of-atmosphere (TOA radiative forcing clear-sky from –0.79 to –0.53 W m−2 (33% and all-sky from –0.47 to –0.13 W m−2 (72%. Our results confirm that basic assumptions about the BC refractive index play a key role for aerosol absorption and radiative forcing. The effect of the usage of more accurate effective medium approximations is comparably small. We demonstrate that the diversity in the AeroCom land-surface albedo fields contributes to the uncertainty in the simulated anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcings: the usage of an upper versus lower bound of the AeroCom land albedos introduces a global annual-mean TOA forcing range of 0.19 W m−2 (36% clear-sky and of 0.12 W m−2 (92% all-sky. The consideration of black carbon inclusions on cloud radiative properties results in a small global annual-mean all-sky absorption of 0.05 W

  9. Absorptive capacity and smart companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Moro González

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The current competitive environment is substantially modifying the organizations’ learning processes due to a global increase of available information allowing this to be transformed into knowledge. This opportunity has been exploited since the nineties by the tools of “Business Analytics” and “Business Intelligence” but, nevertheless, being integrated in the study of new organizational capacities engaged in the process of creating intelligence inside organizations is still an outstanding task. The review of the concept of absorptive capacity and a detailed study from the perspective of this new reality will be the main objective of study of this paper.Design/methodology/approach: By comparing classical absorptive capacity and absorptive capacity from the point of view of information management tools in each one of the three stages of the organizational learning cycle, some gaps of the former are overcome/fulfilled. The academic/bibliographical references provided in this paper have been obtained from ISI web of knowledge, Scopus and Dialnet data bases, supporting the state of affairs on absorptive capacity and thereafter filtering by "Business Intelligence" and "Business Analytics". Specialized websites and Business Schools` Publications there have also been included, crowning the content on information management tools used that are currently used in the strategic consulting.Findings: Our contribution to the literature is the development of "smart absorptive capacity". This is a new capacity emerging from the reformulation of the classical concept of absorptive capacity wherein some aspects of its definition that might have been omitted are emphasized. The result of this new approach is the creation of a new Theoretical Model of Organizational Intelligence, which aims to explain, within the framework of the Resources and Capabilities Theory, the competitive advantage achieved by the so-called smart companies

  10. Black and white human skin differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Maibach, H I

    1979-01-01

    This review of black and white human skin differences emphasizes the alleged importance of factors other than the obvious, i.e., skin color. Physicochemical differences and differences in susceptibility to irritants and allergens suggest a more resistant black than white skin. Differences appear...

  11. Models to assess perfume diffusion from skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzenbach, R; Bertschi, L

    2001-04-01

    Temperature, fragrance concentration on the skin and power of ventilation have been determined as crucial parameters in fragrance diffusion from skin. A tool has been developed to simulate perfume diffusion from skin over time, allowing headspace analysis and fragrance profile assessments in a highly reproducible way. PMID:18498453

  12. Sun’s effect on skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    The skin uses sunlight to help manufacture vitamin D, which is important for normal bone formation. But sometimes its ultraviolet light can be ... the pigment melanin. Melanin protects skin from the sun’s ultraviolet rays, which can burn the skin, and ...

  13. Pig skin apposite dehydrated by lyophilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taking like base a work carried out in 2001 in the Radio sterilized Tissue Bank (BTR) in which lyophilized apposite of pig skin were obtained at laboratory scale, this work is presented that had as purpose to process pig skin to produce temporary covers of skin (apposite) dehydrated by lyophilization to commercial scale. (Author)

  14. An increase in [Ca2+]i activates basolateral chloride channels and inhibits apical sodium channels in frog skin epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodin, Birger; Rytved, K A; Nielsen, R

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which increases in free cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+]i) cause a decrease in macroscopic sodium absorption across principal cells of the frog skin epithelium. [Ca2+]i was measured with fura-2 in an epifluorescence microscope set-up, sodium...

  15. Xenobiotic metabolism in human skin and 3D human skin reconstructs: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gibbs, S.; Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Merk, H.F.; Lockley, D.J.; Pendlington, R.U.; Pease, C.K.

    2007-01-01

    In this review, we discuss and compare studies of xenobiotic metabolism in both human skin and 3D human skin reconstructs. In comparison to the liver, the skin is a less studied organ in terms of characterising metabolic capability. While the skin forms the major protective barrier to environmental

  16. Photoacoustic evaluation of the penetration of piroxicam gel applied with phonophoresis into human skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photoacoustic (PA) technique has been increasingly employed in biomedical studies, allowing in vivo skin measurements not easily performed with other techniques. It is possible to use PA measurements to evaluate transdermal delivery of products topically applied through manual massage or phonophoresis, that is the utilization of ultrasound waves to enhance drug absorption. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of the period of phonophoresis application in the transdermal penetration of piroxicam gel. In vivo PA measurements employed a tungsten lamp as light source and a thin aluminum foil closing the PA chamber. The PA signals of the arm (i) clean; and (ii) after phonophoresis were utilized to estimate the concentration of piroxicam into skin. For all (4) volunteers, drug concentration in skin after phonophoresis application was the same for the different application times employed; in this way, phonophoresis for one minute seemed to be sufficient to enhance piroxicam penetration into skin. The actual amount of drug delivered into tissue depends on the person, suggesting a dependency with the skin type, which affects the PA signal level [2]. We conclude that drug delivery depends not only on the application method, but also on the specific skin type.

  17. Influence of anatomical site and topical formulation on skin penetration of sunscreens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Heather Ae; Sarveiya, Vikram; Risk, Stacey; Roberts, Michael S

    2005-09-01

    Sunscreen products are widely used to protect the skin from sun-related damage. Previous studies have shown that some sunscreen chemicals are absorbed across the skin to the systemic circulation. The current study shows that absorption into the skin of sunscreen chemicals applied to the face is up to four times greater than that of the same product applied to the back. This has implications for the way sunscreen products are formulated and may allow the use of less potent products on the face compared with the rest of the body. The effect of formulation vehicles on the release and skin penetration of the common sunscreen agent benzophenone-3 (common name oxybenzone) was also assessed. Penetration of benzophenone-3 across excised human epidermis and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) membrane was measured using in vitro Franz-type diffusion cells. Penetration and epidermal retention was measured following application of infinite and finite (epidermis only) doses of benzophenone-3 in five vehicles: liquid paraffin, coconut oil, 50:50 ethanol:coconut oil, aqueous cream BP, and oily cream BP. Highest benzophenone-3 skin retention was observed for the ethanol:coconut oil combination. Maximal and minimal benzophenone-3 fluxes were observed from liquid paraffin and coconut oil, respectively. The alcohol-based vehicle exhibited low benzophenone-3 release from the vehicle but high skin penetration and retention.

  18. Computed effects of sweat gland ducts on the propagation of 94 GHz waves in skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafirstein, Gal; Moros, Eduardo G.

    2011-03-01

    The effects of sweat gland ducts (SGD) on specific absorption rate and temperatures during millimeter wave irradiation of skin were investigated with a high resolution finite differences time domain model consisting of a 30 μm stratum corneum (SC), a 350 μm epidermis, 1000 μm dermis and five SGD (60 μm radius, 300 μm height, 370 μm separation). The source was a WR-10 waveguide irradiating at 94 GHz. Without SGD, specific absorption rate (SAR) and temperature maximum were in the dermis near epidermis. With SGD, a higher SAR maximum was inside SGD in the epidermis while temperature maximum moved to the epidermis/stratumcorneum junction. SGD significantly affected how GHz waves were absorbed in the skin. Implications of these finding in nociceptive research will be discussed as well as other potential medical applications.

  19. How to Create an Anti-Aging Skin Care Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... library Find a dermatologist How to create an anti-aging skin care plan Skin care in your 40s ... Years of research supports each of these recommendations. Anti-aging skin care tips Protect your skin from the ...

  20. Preferred Skin Color Enhancement of Digital Photographic Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanzhao Zeng

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Reproducing skin colors pleasingly is essential for photographic color reproduction. Moving skin colors toward their preferred skin color center improves the skin color preference. Two main factors to successfully enhance skin colors are: a method to detect skin colors effectively and a method to morph skin colors toward a preferred skin color region properly. This paper starts with introducing a method to enhance skin colors using a static skin color detection model. It significantly improves the color preference for skin colors that are not far off from regular skin tones. To enhance a greater range of skin tones effectively, another method that automatically adapts the skin color detection model to the skin tone of each individual image is proposed. It not only enhances skin colors effectively, but also adjusts the overall image colors to produce more accurate white balance on the image.

  1. The percutaneous permeation of a combination of 0.1% octenidine dihydrochloride and 2% 2-phenoxyethanol (octenisept® through skin of different species in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kietzmann Manfred

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A water based combination of 0.1% octenidine dihydrochloride and 2% 2 - phenoxyethanol is registered in many European countries as an antiseptic solution (octenisept® for topical treatment with high antimicrobial activity for human use, but octenidine based products have not been registered for veterinary use yet. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether octenidine dihydrochloride or 2 -phenoxyethanol, the two main components of this disinfectant, permeate through animal skin in vitro. Therefore, permeation studies were conducted using Franz-type diffusion cells. 2 ml of the test compound were applied onto 1.77 cm2 split skin of cats, dogs, cows and horses. To simulate wounded skin, cattle skin was treated with adhesive tapes 100 times, as well. Up to an incubation time of 28 hours samples of the acceptor chamber were taken and were analysed by UV-HPLC. Using the method of the external standard, the apparent permeability coefficient, the flux Jmax, and the recovery were calculated. Furthermore, the residues of both components in the skin samples were determined after completion of the diffusion experiment. Results After 28 hours no octenidine dihydrochloride was found in the receptor chamber of intact skin samples, while 2.7% of the topical applied octenidine dihydrochloride permeated through barrier disrupted cattle skin. 2 - phenoxyethanol permeated through all skin samples with the highest permeability in equine, followed by bovine, canine to feline skin. Furthermore, both components were found in the stratum corneum and the dermis of all split skin samples with different amounts in the examined species. Conclusion For 2-phenoxyethanol the systemic impact of the high absorption rate and a potential toxicological risk have to be investigated in further studies. Due to its low absorption rates through the skin, octenidine dihydrochloride is suitable for superficial skin treatment in the examined species.

  2. Skin Barrier Function and Allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engebretsen, Kristiane Aasen; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan

    2016-01-01

    (CS) and allergy following increased penetration of potential allergens. However, the relationship between common dermatoses such as psoriasis, atopic dermatitis (AD) and irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) and the development of contact allergy (CA) is complex, and depends on immunologic responses...... and skin barrier status. Psoriasis has traditionally been regarded a Th1-dominated disease, but the discovery of Th17 cells and IL-17 provides new and interesting information regarding the pathogenesis of the disease. Research suggests an inverse relationship between psoriasis and CA, possibly due......) and Th2 (AD) have been proposed as an explanation. Finally, there is convincing evidence that exposure to irritants increases the risk of CS, and patients with ICD are, therefore, at great risk of developing CA. Skin irritation leads to the release of IL-1 and TNF-α, which affects the function of antigen...

  3. Mycologic disorders of the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outerbridge, Catherine A

    2006-08-01

    Cutaneous tissue can become infected when fungal organisms contaminate or colonize the epidermal surface or hair follicles. The skin can be a portal of entry for fungal infection when the epithelial barrier is breached or it can be a site for disseminated, systemic fungal disease. The two most common cutaneous fungal infections in small animals are dermatophytosis and Malassezia dermatitis. Dermatophytosis is a superficial cutaneous infection with one or more of the fungal species in the keratinophilic genera Microsporum, Trichophyton, or Epidermophyton. Malassezia pachydermatis is a nonlipid dependent fungal species that is a normal commensal inhabitant of the skin and external ear canal in dogs and cats. Malassezia pachydermatis is the most common cause of Malassezia dermatitis. The diagnosis and treatment of these cutaneous fungal infections will be discussed. PMID:16933479

  4. Skin Immunity to Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashem, Sakeen W; Kaplan, Daniel H

    2016-07-01

    Candida albicans is a dimorphic commensal fungus that colonizes healthy human skin, mucosa, and the reproductive tract. C. albicans is also a predominantly opportunistic fungal pathogen, leading to disease manifestations such as disseminated candidiasis and chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC). The differing host susceptibilities for the sites of C. albicans infection have revealed tissue compartmentalization with tailoring of immune responses based on the site of infection. Furthermore, extensive studies of host genetics in rare cases of CMC have identified conserved genetic pathways involved in immune recognition and the response to the extracellular pathogen. We focus here on human and mouse skin as a site of C. albicans infection, and we review established and newly discovered insights into the cellular pathways that promote cutaneous antifungal immunity. PMID:27178391

  5. Phototherapy for sclerosing skin conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teske, Noelle M; Jacobe, Heidi T

    2016-01-01

    Phototherapy is an effective treatment strategy for a variety of sclerosing skin conditions. There are a number of phototherapeutic modalities used for the treatment of sclerosing skin conditions, including ultraviolet (UV)A1, broadband UVA, psoralen plus UVA, and narrowband UVB phototherapy. As controlled trials with validated outcome measures are lacking for these therapies, existing evidence is largely level II for morphea and is even more minimal for scleroderma and other sclerosing disorders (scleroderma, lichen sclerosus, and chronic graft-versus-host disease, among others). Studies do suggest that phototherapy may be effective for many of these disorders, including those that have been unresponsive to other therapies. Phototherapy remains an attractive therapeutic option for patients due to its efficacy and favorable risk-versus-benefit profile. Phototherapy also offers a therapeutic alternative to systemic immunosuppressives for patients who cannot tolerate these medications. PMID:27638441

  6. Study of the vitamins A, E and C esters penetration into the skin by confocal Raman spectroscopy in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogilevych, Borys; Isensee, Debora; Rangel, Joao L.; Dal Pizzol, Carine; Martinello, Valeska C. A.; Dieamant, Gustavo C.; Martin, Airton A.

    2015-06-01

    Vitamins A, E and C play important role in skin homeostasis and protection. Hence, they are extensively used in many cosmetic and cosmeceutic products. However, their molecules are unstable, and do not easily penetrate into the skin, which drastically decreases its efficiency in topical formulations. Liposoluble derivative of the vitamin A - retinyl palmitate, vitamin E - tocopheryl acetate, and vitamin C - tetraisopalmitoyl ascorbic acid, are more stable, and are frequently used as an active ingredient in cosmetic products. Moreover, increased hydrophobicity of these molecules could lead to a higher skin penetration. The aim of this work is to track and compare the absorption of the liposoluble derivatives of the vitamins and their encapsulated form, into the healthy human skin in vivo. We used Confocal Raman Spectroscopy (CRS) that is proven to be helpful in label-free non-destructive investigation of the biochemical composition and molecular conformational analysis of the biological samples. The measurements were performed in the volar forearm of the 10 healthy volunteers. Skin was treated with both products, and Raman spectra were obtained after 15 min, 3 hours, and 6 hours after applying the formulation. 3510 Skin Composition Analyzer (River Diagnostics, The Netherlands) with 785 nm laser excitation was used to acquire information in the fingerprint region. Significant difference in permeation of the products was observed. Whereas only free form of retinyl palmitate penetrate the skin within first 15 minutes, all three vitamin derivatives were present under the skin surface in case of nanoparticulated form.

  7. You are what you eat: within-subject increases in fruit and vegetable consumption confer beneficial skin-color changes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross D Whitehead

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fruit and vegetable consumption and ingestion of carotenoids have been found to be associated with human skin-color (yellowness in a recent cross-sectional study. This carotenoid-based coloration contributes beneficially to the appearance of health in humans and is held to be a sexually selected cue of condition in other species. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we investigate the effects of fruit and vegetable consumption on skin-color longitudinally to determine the magnitude and duration of diet change required to change skin-color perceptibly. Diet and skin-color were recorded at baseline and after three and six weeks, in a group of 35 individuals who were without makeup, self-tanning agents and/or recent intensive UV exposure. Six-week changes in fruit and vegetable consumption were significantly correlated with changes in skin redness and yellowness over this period, and diet-linked skin reflectance changes were significantly associated with the spectral absorption of carotenoids and not melanin. We also used psychophysical methods to investigate the minimum color change required to confer perceptibly healthier and more attractive skin-coloration. Modest dietary changes are required to enhance apparent health (2.91 portions per day and attractiveness (3.30 portions. CONCLUSIONS: Increased fruit and vegetable consumption confers measurable and perceptibly beneficial effects on Caucasian skin appearance within six weeks. This effect could potentially be used as a motivational tool in dietary intervention.

  8. Acne: more than skin deep

    OpenAIRE

    Ayer, J; Burrows, N

    2006-01-01

    Acne is one of the most prevalent skin conditions affecting teenagers. It is a disease of the pilosebaceous unit. Blockage of sebaceous glands and colonisation with Proionobacterium acnes leads to acne. Grading the severity of acne helps to determine the appropriate treatment. Treatment of acne should be started as early as possible to minimise the risk of scarring and adverse psychological effects. It should be tailored to the individual patient, the type of acne, its severity, the patient's...

  9. Skin manifestations of child abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Ermertcan Aylin; Ertan Pelin

    2010-01-01

    Child abuse is a major public health problem all over the world. There are four major types of abuse: physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse and neglect. The most common manifestations of child abuse are cutaneous and their recognition; and differential diagnosis is of great importance. Clinicians, especially dermatologists, should be alert about the skin lesions of child abuse. In the diagnosis and management of child abuse, a multidisciplinary approach with ethical and legal procedur...

  10. Vehicle effects on in vitro transdermal absorption of sevoflurane in the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardente, Amanda J; Barlow, Beth M; Burns, Patrick; Goldman, Rebecca; Baynes, Ronald E

    2008-05-01

    The experimental objectives were to identify a vehicle which produces a homogenous formulation when combined with the anesthetic solution sevoflurane and understand the dermal absorption of sevoflurane in silastic membranes and amphibian skin in vitro utilizing a flow-through diffusion system. Seven vehicles were evaluated in varying ratios with 5 formulations resulting in the desired homogenous consistency for practical application. Sevoflurane diffusion across silastic membranes was influenced by pluronic/lecithin organogel (PLO), pluronic F 127 20% gel, and sterile lube. Flux and permeability across silastic membranes were significantly greater in sterile lube than in the other formulations. While no significant vehicle effects were observed in bullfrog skin, the flux-time profiles suggest that sevoflurane diffusion in bullfrog skin may be positively influenced by PLO. Future in vivo studies are required to assess sevoflurane retention after removal of these formulations to more accurately control the plane of anesthesia in amphibians.

  11. Predicting dermal absorption of gas-phase chemicals: transient model development, evaluation, and application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, M.; Zhang, Y.; Weschler, Charles J.

    2014-01-01

    for scenarios in which (A) a previously unexposed occupant encounters gas-phase phthalates in three different environments over a single 24-h period; (B) the same as 'A', but the pattern is repeated for seven consecutive days. In the 24-h scenario, the transient model predicts more phthalate absorbed into skin......A transient model is developed to predict dermal absorption of gas-phase chemicals via direct air-to-skin-to-blood transport under non-steady-state conditions. It differs from published models in that it considers convective mass-transfer resistance in the boundary layer of air adjacent to the skin...... and less absorbed into blood than would a steady-state model. In the 7-day scenario, results calculated by the transient and steady-state models converge over a time period that varies between 3 and 4days for all but the largest phthalate (DEHP). Dermal intake is comparable to or larger than inhalation...

  12. Nuclear symmetry energy and neutron skin thickness

    CERN Document Server

    Warda, M; Viñas, X; Roca-Maza, X

    2012-01-01

    The relation between the slope of the nuclear symmetry energy at saturation density and the neutron skin thickness is investigated. Constraints on the slope of the symmetry energy are deduced from the neutron skin data obtained in experiments with antiprotonic atoms. Two types of neutron skin are distinguished: the "surface" and the "bulk". A combination of both types forms neutron skin in most of nuclei. A prescription to calculate neutron skin thickness and the slope of symmetry energy parameter $L$ from the parity violating asymmetry measured in the PREX experiment is proposed.

  13. Quantification of thermal damage in skin tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Feng; Wen Ting; Lu Tianjian; Seffen Keith

    2008-01-01

    Skin thermal damage or skin burns are the most commonly encountered type of trauma in civilian and military communities. Besides, advances in laser, microwave and similar technologies have led to recent developments of thermal treatments for disease and damage involving skin tissue, where the objective is to induce thermal damage precisely within targeted tissue structures but without affecting the surrounding, healthy tissue. Further, extended pain sensation induced by thermal damage has also brought great problem for burn patients. Thus, it is of great importance to quantify the thermal damage in skin tissue. In this paper, the available models and experimental methods for quantification of thermal damage in skin tissue are discussed.

  14. Sulfate transport in toad skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Simonsen, K

    1988-01-01

    -circuited preparations resulted in a significant stimulation of the passive Cl- and SO2(-4) permeabilities. 6. It is suggested that SO2(-4) and Cl- ions are transported along the same pathway of the m.r. cells. Depending on the transport mode of the apical Cl- transport system, electro-diffusion, active transport......1. In short-circuited toad skin preparations exposed bilaterally to NaCl-Ringer's containing 1 mM SO2(-4), influx of sulfate was larger than efflux showing that the skin is capable of transporting sulfate actively in an inward direction. 2. This active transport was not abolished by substituting...... apical Na+ for K+. 3. Following voltage activation of the passive Cl- permeability of the mitochondria-rich (m.r.) cells sulfate flux-ratio increased to a value predicted from the Ussing flux-ratio equation for a monovalent anion. 4. In such skins, which were shown to exhibit vanishingly small leakage...

  15. Neutron Skins and Halo Orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Bonnard, J; Zuker, A P

    2016-01-01

    The strong dependence of Coulomb energies on nuclear radii makes it possible to extract the latter from calculations of the former. The resulting estimates of neutron skins indicate that two mechanisms are involved. The first one---isovector monopole polarizability---amounts to noting that when a particle is added to a system it drives the radii of neutrons and protons in different directions, tending to equalize the radii of both fluids independently of the neutron excess. This mechanism is well understood and the Duflo-Zuker (small) neutron skin values derived 14 years ago are consistent with recent measures and estimates. The alternative mechanism involves halo orbits whose huge sizes tend to make the neutron skins larger and have a subtle influence on the radial behavior of $sd$ and $pf$ shell nuclei. In particular, they account for the sudden rise in the isotope shifts of nuclei beyond $N=28$ and the near constancy of radii in the $A=40-56$ region. This mechanism, detected here for the first time, is not...

  16. Spectrum of pediatric skin biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace D′costa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Skin diseases are common in childhood and they are common reasons for pediatric visits to the hospital. In spite of this high occurrence, there are very few prospective studies addressing this issue. Aims: The present study was directed at determining the spectrum of dermato-pathological lesions encountered in a large general tertiary care hospital, over a two-year period. Materials and Methods: 107 cases formed the total sample studied, in a part prospective and part retrospective study. A detailed clinical history was recorded on a proforma prepared for the purpose and gross photographs were taken wherever possible. Results: Skin biopsies accounted for 7.29% of the total surgical pathology load, 55.44% of the total pediatric biopsies and 10.82% of the total number of skin biopsies. The age and sex distribution pattern revealed that the maximum number of biopsies (62.61% were of older children, with a male preponderance (57.94%. The anatomic distribution pattern indicated predominant involvement of the limbs (59.82%. The maximum numbers of cases were of infectious nature (24.29%; the most frequently encountered being borderline tuberculoid Hansen′s disease (8.4%. A positive correlation with the clinical diagnosis was obtained in 56.07% cases. Conclusions: Histopathology contributed to the diagnosis in a significant number of (82.23% cases, indicating its importance and utility.

  17. Human percutaneous absorption of a direct hair dye comparing in vitro and in vivo results: implications for safety assessment and animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lademann, J; Richter, H; Jacobi, U; Patzelt, A; Hueber-Becker, F; Ribaud, C; Benech-Kieffer, F; Dufour, E K; Sterry, W; Schaefer, H; Leclaire, J; Toutain, H; Nohynek, G J

    2008-06-01

    Although in vitro skin absorption studies often detect small residues of applied test material in the epidermis/dermis, it is uncertain whether the residue is within the living skin. We studied the dermal absorption of a hair dye hydroxyanthraquinone-aminopropyl methyl morpholinium methosulphate (HAM) in human skin in vivo and in vitro. In vivo, skin (back and scalp) received 0.5% HAM in a commercial formulation at 20microg/cm2 After 0.5 or 48h, skin was tape stripped, followed by cyanoacrylate biopsies (CAB). Sebum from scalp sites was collected for 48h. In vitro, skin was treated with 20mg/cm2 dye for 0.5h, penetration determined after 24h. In vivo, at 0.5h, total recovery (back) was 0.67microg/cm2 (tape strips+CAB). Fluorescence microscopy showed HAM in the hair follicle openings (HFO). At 0.5h, scalp tape strips contained 1.80microg/cm2, HFO 0.82microg/cm2. At 48h, HFO contained 0.21microg/cm2, sebum 0.80microg/cm2. In vivo, skin residues were in the non-living skin and eliminated via desquamation and sebum secretion. In vitro, the SC contained 1.50microg/cm2, epidermis/dermis 0.86microg/cm2, receptor fluidunnecessary in vivo toxicity studies on substances that produce no significant human systemic exposure. PMID:18417263

  18. Evaluation of the intake of radon through skin from thermal water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakoda, Akihiro; Ishimori, Yuu; Tschiersch, Jochen

    2016-07-01

    The biokinetics of radon in the body has previously been studied with the assumption that its absorption through the skin is negligibly small. This assumption would be acceptable except in specific situations, such as bathing in a radon hot spring where the radon concentration in thermal water is far higher than that in air. The present study focused on such a situation in order to better understand the biokinetics of radon. To mathematically express the entry of radon through the skin into the body, we first modified the latest sophisticated biokinetic model for noble gases. Values of an important parameter for the model-the skin permeability coefficient K (m s(-1))-were derived using data from previous human studies. The analysis of such empirical data, which corresponded to radon concentrations in the air exhaled by subjects during and following bathing in radon-rich thermal water, revealed that the estimated K values had a log-normal distribution. The validity of the K values and the characteristics of the present model are then discussed. Furthermore, the impact of the intake of radon or its progeny via inhalation or skin absorption on radiation dose was also assessed for possible exposure scenarios in a radon hot spring. It was concluded that, depending on the radon concentration in thermal water, there might be situations in which the dose contribution resulting from skin absorption of radon is comparable to that resulting from inhalation of radon and its progeny. This conclusion can also apply to other therapeutic situations (e.g. staying in the pool for a longer period). PMID:26983980

  19. Evaluation of the intake of radon through skin from thermal water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakoda, Akihiro; Ishimori, Yuu; Tschiersch, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    The biokinetics of radon in the body has previously been studied with the assumption that its absorption through the skin is negligibly small. This assumption would be acceptable except in specific situations, such as bathing in a radon hot spring where the radon concentration in thermal water is far higher than that in air. The present study focused on such a situation in order to better understand the biokinetics of radon. To mathematically express the entry of radon through the skin into the body, we first modified the latest sophisticated biokinetic model for noble gases. Values of an important parameter for the model—the skin permeability coefficient K (m s−1)—were derived using data from previous human studies. The analysis of such empirical data, which corresponded to radon concentrations in the air exhaled by subjects during and following bathing in radon-rich thermal water, revealed that the estimated K values had a log-normal distribution. The validity of the K values and the characteristics of the present model are then discussed. Furthermore, the impact of the intake of radon or its progeny via inhalation or skin absorption on radiation dose was also assessed for possible exposure scenarios in a radon hot spring. It was concluded that, depending on the radon concentration in thermal water, there might be situations in which the dose contribution resulting from skin absorption of radon is comparable to that resulting from inhalation of radon and its progeny. This conclusion can also apply to other therapeutic situations (e.g. staying in the pool for a longer period). PMID:26983980

  20. The optical properties and spectral features of malignant skin melanocytes in the terahertz frequency range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goryachuk, A. A.; Begaeva, V. A.; Khodzitsky, M. K.; Truloff, A. S.

    2016-08-01

    The samples of cells of mice's melanocytes have been investigated. Their optical properties and spectral features were investigated by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (TDS) in transmission mode. It was found that the optical properties of oncological melanocytes and normal cells are different and oncological cells have spectral features of absorption coefficient so it can be concluded that it is easy to discriminate mice's oncological skin melanocytes by using THz TDS.