Sample records for absorption models linear

  1. Infrared absorption line intensities for U (5) model of linear triatomic molecules



    The symmetry of the rotation-vibration spectra for linear triatomic molecules is described by means of the group U(5). The rotation-vibration levels of linear triatomic molecules HCN and COS are calculated. The infrared absorption line intensities are calculated for the COS molecule. The results are in good agreement with the experimental values.

  2. Specific absorption rate calculations of magnetite, using a modified linear response model for applications in magnetic hyperthermia

    Hernández S, A., E-mail:, E-mail:; Cano, M. E., E-mail:, E-mail: [Centro Universitario de la Ciénega, Universidad de Guadalajara, Ocotlán, Jalisco (Mexico); Torres-Arenas, J., E-mail: [Division de Ciencias e Ingenierías, Universidad de Guanajuato, León, Guanajuato (Mexico)


    Currently the absorption of electromagnetic radiation by magnetic nanoparticles is studied for biomedical applications of cancer thermotherapy. Several experiments are conduced following the framework of the Rosensweig model, in order to estimate their specific absorption rate. Nevertheless, this linear approximation involves strong simplifications which constrain their accuracy and validity range. The main aim of this work is to incorporate the deviation of the sphericity assumption in particles shapes, to improve the determination of their specific absorption rate. The correction to the effective particles volume is computed as a measure of the apparent amount of magnetic material, interacting with the external AC magnetic field. Preliminary results using the physical properties of Fe3O4 nanoparticles, exhibit an important correction in their estimated specific absorption rate, as a function of the apparent mean particles radius. Indeed, we have observed using a small deviation (6% of the apparent radius), up to 40% of the predicted specific absorption rate by the Rosensweig linear approximation.

  3. Validity of the linear viscoelastic model for a polymer cylinder with ultrasonic hysteresis-type absorption in a nonviscous fluid

    Mitri, F G


    A necessary condition for the validity of the linear viscoelastic model for a (passive) polymeric cylinder with an ultrasonic hysteresis-type absorption submerged in a non-viscous fluid requires that the absorption efficiency is positive (Qabs > 0) satisfying the law of the conservation of energy. This condition imposes restrictions on the values attributed to the normalized absorption coefficients for the compressional and shear-wave wavenumbers for each partial-wave mode n. The forbidden values produce negative axial radiation force, absorption and extinction efficiencies, as well as an enhancement of the scattering efficiency, not in agreement with the conservation of energy law. Numerical results for the radiation force, extinction, absorption and scattering efficiencies are performed for three viscoelastic (VE) polymer cylinders immersed in a non-viscous host liquid (i.e. water) with particular emphasis on the shear-wave absorption coefficient of the cylinder, the dimensionless size parameter and the par...

  4. Generation and Active Absorption of 2- and 3-Dimensional Linear Water Waves in Physical Models

    Christensen, Morten

    Methods for mechanical generation of 2-dimensional (2-D) and 3-dimensional (3-D) linear water waves in physical models are presented. The results of a series of laboratory 3-D wave generation tests are presented and discussed. The tests preformed involve reproduction of wave fields characterised...... by different directional wave spectra. The wave generator displacement signals applied in the tests are generated by means of linear digital filtering of Gaussian white noise in the time domain. An absorbing wave generator for 2-D wave facilities (wave channels) is developed. The absorbing wave generator...

  5. Linear Models

    Searle, Shayle R


    This 1971 classic on linear models is once again available--as a Wiley Classics Library Edition. It features material that can be understood by any statistician who understands matrix algebra and basic statistical methods.

  6. A two-dimensional mathematical model of non-linear dual-sorption of percutaneous drug absorption

    George K


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Certain drugs, for example scopolamine and timolol, show non-linear kinetic behavior during permeation process. This non-linear kinetic behavior is due to two mechanisms; the first mechanism being a simple dissolution producing mobile and freely diffusible molecules and the second being an adsorption process producing non-mobile molecules that do not participate in the diffusion process. When such a drug is applied on the skin surface, the concentration of the drug accumulated in the skin and the amount of the drug eliminated into the blood vessel depend on the value of a parameter, C, the donor concentration. The present paper studies the effect of the parameter value, C, when the region of the contact of the skin with drug, is a line segment on the skin surface. To confirm that dual-sorption process gives an explanation to non-linear kinetic behavior, the characteristic features that are used in one-dimensional models are (1 prolongation of half-life if the plot of flux versus time are straight lines soon after the vehicle removal, (2 the decrease in half-life with increase in donor concentration. This paper introduces another feature as a characteristic to confirm that dual-sorption model gives an explanation to the non-linear kinetic behavior of the drug. This new feature is "the prolongation of half-life is not a necessary feature if the plots of drug flux versus time is a non-linear curve, soon after the vehicle removal". Methods From biological point of view, a drug absorption model is said to be nonlinear if the sorption isotherm is non-linear. When a model is non-linear the relationship between lag-time and donor concentration is non-linear and the lag time decreases with increase in donor concentration. A two-dimensional dual-sorption model is developed for percutaneous absorption of a drug, which shows non-linear kinetic behavior in the permeation process. This model may be used when the diffusion of the drug in

  7. Non-linear absorption for concentrated solar energy transport

    Jaramillo, O. A; Del Rio, J.A; Huelsz, G [Centro de Investigacion de Energia, UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)


    In order to determine the maximum solar energy that can be transported using SiO{sub 2} optical fibers, analysis of non-linear absorption is required. In this work, we model the interaction between solar radiation and the SiO{sub 2} optical fiber core to determine the dependence of the absorption of the radioactive intensity. Using Maxwell's equations we obtain the relation between the refractive index and the electric susceptibility up to second order in terms of the electric field intensity. This is not enough to obtain an explicit expression for the non-linear absorption. Thus, to obtain the non-linear optical response, we develop a microscopic model of an harmonic driven oscillators with damp ing, based on the Drude-Lorentz theory. We solve this model using experimental information for the SiO{sub 2} optical fiber, and we determine the frequency-dependence of the non-linear absorption and the non-linear extinction of SiO{sub 2} optical fibers. Our results estimate that the average value over the solar spectrum for the non-linear extinction coefficient for SiO{sub 2} is k{sub 2}=10{sup -}29m{sup 2}V{sup -}2. With this result we conclude that the non-linear part of the absorption coefficient of SiO{sub 2} optical fibers during the transport of concentrated solar energy achieved by a circular concentrator is negligible, and therefore the use of optical fibers for solar applications is an actual option. [Spanish] Con el objeto de determinar la maxima energia solar que puede transportarse usando fibras opticas de SiO{sub 2} se requiere el analisis de absorcion no linear. En este trabajo modelamos la interaccion entre la radiacion solar y el nucleo de la fibra optica de SiO{sub 2} para determinar la dependencia de la absorcion de la intensidad radioactiva. Mediante el uso de las ecuaciones de Maxwell obtenemos la relacion entre el indice de refraccion y la susceptibilidad electrica hasta el segundo orden en terminos de intensidad del campo electrico. Esto no es

  8. Correlated theory of linear optical absorption of octacene and nonacene

    Chakraborty, Himanshu; Shukla, Alok


    The technological importance of higher acenes has led to resurgence of interest in synthesizing higher acenes such as octacene, nonacene etc. Recently, Tönshoff and Bettinger [2010 Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 49 4125] have synthesized octacene and nonacene. Motivated by their work, we have performed large-scale calculations of linear optical absorption of octacene and nonacene. Methodology adopted in our work is based upon Pariser-Parr-Pople model (PPP) Hamiltonian, along with large-scale multi-reference singles-doubles configuration interaction (MRSDCI) approach.

  9. Linear models with R

    Faraway, Julian J


    A Hands-On Way to Learning Data AnalysisPart of the core of statistics, linear models are used to make predictions and explain the relationship between the response and the predictors. Understanding linear models is crucial to a broader competence in the practice of statistics. Linear Models with R, Second Edition explains how to use linear models in physical science, engineering, social science, and business applications. The book incorporates several improvements that reflect how the world of R has greatly expanded since the publication of the first edition.New to the Second EditionReorganiz

  10. Effect of coupling between linear absorption and nonlinear absorption on Z-scan measurements

    Zang Wei-Ping; Tian Jian-Guo; Liu Zhi-Bo; Zhou Wen-Yuan; Song Feng; Zhang Chun-Ping


    The contribution of multiphoton absorption to open-aperture Z-scan measurements is analysed by coordinate transformation.The approximate closed-form solution is obtained, which is suitable for application in higher-optical power nad example, the coupling between linear absorption and two-photon absorption is discussed in detail.

  11. Foundations of linear and generalized linear models

    Agresti, Alan


    A valuable overview of the most important ideas and results in statistical analysis Written by a highly-experienced author, Foundations of Linear and Generalized Linear Models is a clear and comprehensive guide to the key concepts and results of linear statistical models. The book presents a broad, in-depth overview of the most commonly used statistical models by discussing the theory underlying the models, R software applications, and examples with crafted models to elucidate key ideas and promote practical model building. The book begins by illustrating the fundamentals of linear models,

  12. Absorption in dielectric models

    Churchill, R J


    We develop a classical microscopic model of a dielectric. The model features nonlinear interaction terms between polarizable dipoles and lattice vibrations. The lattice vibrations are found to act as a pseudo-reservoir, giving broadband absorption of electromagnetic radiation without the addition of damping terms in the dynamics. The effective permittivity is calculated using a perturbative iteration method and is found to have the form associated with real dielectrics. Spatial dispersion is naturally included in the model and we also calculate the wavevector dependence of the permittivity.

  13. A new active absorption system and its performance to linear and non-linear waves

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Clavero, M.; Frigaard, Peter Bak;


    Highlights •An active absorption system for wavemakers has been developed. •The theory for flush mounted gauges has been extended to cover also small gaps. •The new system has been validated in a wave flume with wavemakers in both ends. •A generation and absorption procedure for highly non-linear...

  14. Non-linear absorption of 1.3-μm wavelength femtosecond laser pulses focused inside semiconductors: Finite difference time domain-two temperature model combined computational study

    Bogatyrev, I. B.; Grojo, D.; Delaporte, P.; Leyder, S.; Sentis, M.; Marine, W.; Itina, T. E.


    We present a theoretical model, which describes local energy deposition inside IR-transparent silicon and gallium arsenide with focused 1.3-μm wavelength femtosecond laser pulses. Our work relies on the ionization rate equation and two temperature model (TTM), as we simulate the non-linear propagation of focused femtosecond light pulses by using a 3D finite difference time domain method. We find a strong absorption dependence on the initial free electron density (doping concentration) that evidences the role of avalanche ionization. Despite an influence of Kerr-type self-focusing at intensity required for non-linear absorption, we show the laser energy deposition remains confined when the focus position is moved down to 1-mm below the surface. Our simulation results are in agreement with the degree of control observed in a simple model experiment.

  15. Silver Nanoparticles with Broad Multiband Linear Optical Absorption

    Bakr, Osman M.


    A simple one-pot method produces silver nanoparticles coated with aryl thiols that show intense, broad nonplasmonic optical properties. The synthesis works with many aryl-thiol capping ligands, including water-soluble 4-mercaptobenzoic acid. The nanoparticles produced show linear absorption that is broader, stronger, and more structured than most conventional organic and inorganic dyes.

  16. Dimension of linear models

    Høskuldsson, Agnar


    of these criteria are widely used ones, while the remaining four are ones derived from the H-principle of mathematical modeling. Many examples from practice show that the criteria derived from the H-principle function better than the known and popular criteria for the number of components. We shall briefly review...... the basic problems in determining the dimension of linear models. Then each of the eight measures are treated. The results are illustrated by examples....

  17. A primer on linear models

    Monahan, John F


    Preface Examples of the General Linear Model Introduction One-Sample Problem Simple Linear Regression Multiple Regression One-Way ANOVA First Discussion The Two-Way Nested Model Two-Way Crossed Model Analysis of Covariance Autoregression Discussion The Linear Least Squares Problem The Normal Equations The Geometry of Least Squares Reparameterization Gram-Schmidt Orthonormalization Estimability and Least Squares Estimators Assumptions for the Linear Mean Model Confounding, Identifiability, and Estimability Estimability and Least Squares Estimators F

  18. A new model for quasar absorption clouds

    Doroshkevich, A.G. (Academy of Sciences of USSR, Moscow (USSR). Inst. of Applied Mathematics); Muecket, J.P.; Mueller, V. (Academy of Sciences of GDR, Potsdam (German Democratic Republic). Central Inst. for Astrophysics)


    A local model for intervening absorption clouds in quasar spectra is discussed. At the boundary of cold clouds in the hot intergalactic gas a non-linear temperature profile results from electron heat conductivity and radiative energy losses both depending on ionization rates. This transition region causes the excitation of a wide range of ionization levels in the heavy elements of the gas. The predicted column densities along the line-of-sight are comparable with data from identified metal absorption systems at high redshifts. (author).

  19. Dynamic Linear Models with R

    Campagnoli, Patrizia; Petris, Giovanni


    State space models have gained tremendous popularity in as disparate fields as engineering, economics, genetics and ecology. Introducing general state space models, this book focuses on dynamic linear models, emphasizing their Bayesian analysis. It illustrates the fundamental steps needed to use dynamic linear models in practice, using R package.

  20. Explorative methods in linear models

    Høskuldsson, Agnar


    The author has developed the H-method of mathematical modeling that builds up the model by parts, where each part is optimized with respect to prediction. Besides providing with better predictions than traditional methods, these methods provide with graphic procedures for analyzing different...... features in data. These graphic methods extend the well-known methods and results of Principal Component Analysis to any linear model. Here the graphic procedures are applied to linear regression and Ridge Regression....

  1. Generalized, Linear, and Mixed Models

    McCulloch, Charles E; Neuhaus, John M


    An accessible and self-contained introduction to statistical models-now in a modernized new editionGeneralized, Linear, and Mixed Models, Second Edition provides an up-to-date treatment of the essential techniques for developing and applying a wide variety of statistical models. The book presents thorough and unified coverage of the theory behind generalized, linear, and mixed models and highlights their similarities and differences in various construction, application, and computational aspects.A clear introduction to the basic ideas of fixed effects models, random effects models, and mixed m

  2. Sparse Linear Identifiable Multivariate Modeling

    Henao, Ricardo; Winther, Ole


    In this paper we consider sparse and identifiable linear latent variable (factor) and linear Bayesian network models for parsimonious analysis of multivariate data. We propose a computationally efficient method for joint parameter and model inference, and model comparison. It consists of a fully...... Bayesian hierarchy for sparse models using slab and spike priors (two-component δ-function and continuous mixtures), non-Gaussian latent factors and a stochastic search over the ordering of the variables. The framework, which we call SLIM (Sparse Linear Identifiable Multivariate modeling), is validated...... and bench-marked on artificial and real biological data sets. SLIM is closest in spirit to LiNGAM (Shimizu et al., 2006), but differs substantially in inference, Bayesian network structure learning and model comparison. Experimentally, SLIM performs equally well or better than LiNGAM with comparable...

  3. Decomposable log-linear models

    Eriksen, Poul Svante

    can be characterized by a structured set of conditional independencies between some variables given some other variables. We term the new model class decomposable log-linear models, which is illustrated to be a much richer class than decomposable graphical models.It covers a wide range of non...

  4. Non-linear and transient absorption spectroscopy of magnesium(II)-tetrabenzoporphyrin in solution

    Stiel, H.; Volkmer, A.; Rückmann, I.; Zeug, A.; Ehrenberg, B.; Röder, B.


    The excited state properties of magnesium(II)-tetrabenzoporphyrin (Mg-TBP) were studied by using intensity dependent transmission (non-linear absorption), ps-transient absorption and time resolved luminescence spectroscopy. It was found that there is a strong excited absorption in the region around 500 nm. Because there is no or little ground state absorption in this region the dye is suitable as an optical limiter.

  5. Inferential Models for Linear Regression

    Zuoyi Zhang


    Full Text Available Linear regression is arguably one of the most widely used statistical methods in applications.  However, important problems, especially variable selection, remain a challenge for classical modes of inference.  This paper develops a recently proposed framework of inferential models (IMs in the linear regression context.  In general, an IM is able to produce meaningful probabilistic summaries of the statistical evidence for and against assertions about the unknown parameter of interest and, moreover, these summaries are shown to be properly calibrated in a frequentist sense.  Here we demonstrate, using simple examples, that the IM framework is promising for linear regression analysis --- including model checking, variable selection, and prediction --- and for uncertain inference in general.

  6. Linearized Bekenstein Varying Alpha Models

    Pina-Avelino, P; Oliveira, J C


    We study the simplest class of Bekenstein-type, varying $\\alpha$ models, in which the two available free functions (potential and gauge kinetic function) are Taylor-expanded up to linear order. Any realistic model of this type reduces to a model in this class for a certain time interval around the present day. Nevertheless, we show that no such model is consistent with all existing observational results. We discuss possible implications of these findings, and in particular clarify the ambiguous statement (often found in the literature) that ``the Webb results are inconsistent with Oklo''.

  7. Linearized Bekenstein varying α models

    Avelino, P. P.; Martins, C. J.; Oliveira, J. C.


    We study the simplest class of Bekenstein-type, varying α models, in which the two available free functions (potential and gauge kinetic function) are Taylor-expanded up to linear order. Any realistic model of this type reduces to a model in this class for a certain time interval around the present day. Nevertheless, we show that no such model is consistent with all existing observational results. We discuss possible implications of these findings, and, in particular, clarify the ambiguous statement (often found in the literature) that “the Webb results are inconsistent with Oklo.”

  8. Multicollinearity in hierarchical linear models.

    Yu, Han; Jiang, Shanhe; Land, Kenneth C


    This study investigates an ill-posed problem (multicollinearity) in Hierarchical Linear Models from both the data and the model perspectives. We propose an intuitive, effective approach to diagnosing the presence of multicollinearity and its remedies in this class of models. A simulation study demonstrates the impacts of multicollinearity on coefficient estimates, associated standard errors, and variance components at various levels of multicollinearity for finite sample sizes typical in social science studies. We further investigate the role multicollinearity plays at each level for estimation of coefficient parameters in terms of shrinkage. Based on these analyses, we recommend a top-down method for assessing multicollinearity in HLMs that first examines the contextual predictors (Level-2 in a two-level model) and then the individual predictors (Level-1) and uses the results for data collection, research problem redefinition, model re-specification, variable selection and estimation of a final model.

  9. Influence of food matrix on absorption of flavour compounds by linear low-density polyethylene: oil and real food products

    Willige, van R.W.G.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Voragen, A.G.J.


    The influence of oil and food components in real food products on the absorption of four flavour compounds (limonene, decanal, linalool and ethyl 2-methyl butyrate) into linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) was studied using a large volume injection GC in vial extraction method. Model food system

  10. Influence of food matrix on absorption of flavour compounds by linear low-density polyethylene: proteins and carbohydrates

    Willige, van R.W.G.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Voragen, A.G.J.


    The influence of oil and food components in real food products on the absorption of four flavour compounds (limonene, decanal, linalool and ethyl 2-methyl butyrate) into linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) was studied using a large volume injection GC in vial extraction method. Model food system

  11. Linear Absorption and Two-Dimensional Infrared Spectra of N-Methylacetamide in Chloroform Revisited : Polarizability and Multipole Effects

    Jansen, Thomas L. C.


    The effect of solvent polarizability and multipole effects on the amide I vibrational spectra of a peptide unit is investigated. Four molecular dynamics force fields of increasing complexity for the solvent are used to model both the linear absorption and two-dimensional infrared spectra. It is obse

  12. Matrix algebra for linear models

    Gruber, Marvin H J


    Matrix methods have evolved from a tool for expressing statistical problems to an indispensable part of the development, understanding, and use of various types of complex statistical analyses. This evolution has made matrix methods a vital part of statistical education. Traditionally, matrix methods are taught in courses on everything from regression analysis to stochastic processes, thus creating a fractured view of the topic. Matrix Algebra for Linear Models offers readers a unique, unified view of matrix analysis theory (where and when necessary), methods, and their applications. Written f

  13. Effects of Electron-Phonon Interaction on Linear and Nonlinear Optical Absorption in Cylindrical Quantum Wires

    YU You-Bin


    The electron-phonon interaction influences on linear and nonlinear optical absorption in cylindrical quantum wires (CQW) with an infinite confining potential are investigated. The optical absorption coefficients are obtained by using the compact-density-matrix approach and iterative method, and the numerical results are presented for GaAs CQW. The results show that the electron-phonon interaction makes a distinct influence on optical absorption in CQW. The electron-phonon interaction on the wave functions of electron dominates the values of absorption coefficients and the correction of the electron-phonon effect on the energies of the electron makes the absorption peaks blue shift and become wider. Moreover, the electron-phonon interaction influence on optical absorption with an infinite confining potential is different from that with a finite confining potential.

  14. Linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients of two-electron spherical quantum dot with parabolic potential

    Çakır, Bekir; Yakar, Yusuf; Özmen, Ayhan


    Linear and nonlinear absorption coefficients of two-electron spherical quantum dot (QD) with parabolic potential are investigated in this paper. Wave functions and energy eigenvalues of the 1s2, 1s1p, 1s1d and 1s1f electronic states have been computed by using an optimization approach, which is a combination of Quantum Genetic Algorithm (QGA) and Hartree-Fock Roothaan (HFR) method. It is found that the strength of S→P transition is stronger than P→D and D→F transitions. Also the peak positions and amplitudes of the absorption coefficients are sensitive to the electron spin. It should be noted that the peak positions and amplitudes of absorption coefficients are strongly dependent on the parabolic potential. Additionally, dot radius, impurity charge, incident optical intensity and relaxation time have a great influence on the linear and nonlinear absorption coefficients.

  15. Linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients of two-electron spherical quantum dot with parabolic potential

    Çakır, Bekir, E-mail: [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Selcuk University, Campus 42075, Konya (Turkey); Yakar, Yusuf, E-mail: [Physics Department, Faculty of Arts and Science, Aksaray University, Campus 68100, Aksaray (Turkey); Özmen, Ayhan [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Selcuk University, Campus 42075, Konya (Turkey)


    Linear and nonlinear absorption coefficients of two-electron spherical quantum dot (QD) with parabolic potential are investigated in this paper. Wave functions and energy eigenvalues of the 1s{sup 2}, 1s1p, 1s1d and 1s1f electronic states have been computed by using an optimization approach, which is a combination of Quantum Genetic Algorithm (QGA) and Hartree–Fock Roothaan (HFR) method. It is found that the strength of S→P transition is stronger than P→D and D→F transitions. Also the peak positions and amplitudes of the absorption coefficients are sensitive to the electron spin. It should be noted that the peak positions and amplitudes of absorption coefficients are strongly dependent on the parabolic potential. Additionally, dot radius, impurity charge, incident optical intensity and relaxation time have a great influence on the linear and nonlinear absorption coefficients.

  16. Absorption spectroscopy of EBT model GAFCHROMIC film.

    Devic, Slobodan; Tomic, Nada; Pang, Zhiyu; Seuntjens, Jan; Podgorsak, Ervin B; Soares, Christopher G


    The introduction of radiochromic films has solved some of the problems associated with conventional 2D radiation detectors. Their high spatial resolution, low energy dependence, and near-tissue equivalence make them ideal for measurement of dose distributions in radiation fields with high dose gradients. Precise knowledge of the absorption spectra of these detectors can help to develop more suitable optical densitometers and potentially extend the use of these films to other areas such as the measurement of the radiation beam spectral information. The goal of this study is to present results of absorption spectra measurements for the new GAFCHROMIC film, EBT type, exposed to 6 MV photon beam in the dose range from 0 to 6 Gy. Spectroscopic analysis reveals that in addition to the two main absorption peaks, centered at around 583 and 635 nm, the absorption spectrum in the spectral range from 350 to 800 nm contains six more absorption bands. Comparison of the absorption spectra reveals that previous HD-810, MD-55, as well as HS GAFCHROMIC film models, have nearly the same sensitive layer base material, whereas the new EBT model, GAFCHROMIC film has a different composition of its sensitive layer. We have found that the two most prominent absorption bands in EBT model radiochromic film do not change their central wavelength position with change in a dose deposited to the film samples.

  17. Linear and non-linear perturbations in dark energy models

    Escamilla-Rivera, Celia; Fabris, Julio C; Alcaniz, Jailson S


    In this work we discuss observational aspects of three time-dependent parameterisations of the dark energy equation of state $w(z)$. In order to determine the dynamics associated with these models, we calculate their background evolution and perturbations in a scalar field representation. After performing a complete treatment of linear perturbations, we also show that the non-linear contribution of the selected $w(z)$ parameterisations to the matter power spectra is almost the same for all scales, with no significant difference from the predictions of the standard $\\Lambda$CDM model.

  18. Linear Logistic Test Modeling with R

    Baghaei, Purya; Kubinger, Klaus D.


    The present paper gives a general introduction to the linear logistic test model (Fischer, 1973), an extension of the Rasch model with linear constraints on item parameters, along with eRm (an R package to estimate different types of Rasch models; Mair, Hatzinger, & Mair, 2014) functions to estimate the model and interpret its parameters. The…

  19. Quantification and parametrization of non-linearity effects by higher-order sensitivity terms in scattered light differential optical absorption spectroscopy

    Puķīte, Jānis; Wagner, Thomas


    We address the application of differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) of scattered light observations in the presence of strong absorbers (in particular ozone), for which the absorption optical depth is a non-linear function of the trace gas concentration. This is the case because Beer-Lambert law generally does not hold for scattered light measurements due to many light paths contributing to the measurement. While in many cases linear approximation can be made, for scenarios with strong absorptions non-linear effects cannot always be neglected. This is especially the case for observation geometries, for which the light contributing to the measurement is crossing the atmosphere under spatially well-separated paths differing strongly in length and location, like in limb geometry. In these cases, often full retrieval algorithms are applied to address the non-linearities, requiring iterative forward modelling of absorption spectra involving time-consuming wavelength-by-wavelength radiative transfer modelling. In this study, we propose to describe the non-linear effects by additional sensitivity parameters that can be used e.g. to build up a lookup table. Together with widely used box air mass factors (effective light paths) describing the linear response to the increase in the trace gas amount, the higher-order sensitivity parameters eliminate the need for repeating the radiative transfer modelling when modifying the absorption scenario even in the presence of a strong absorption background. While the higher-order absorption structures can be described as separate fit parameters in the spectral analysis (so-called DOAS fit), in practice their quantitative evaluation requires good measurement quality (typically better than that available from current measurements). Therefore, we introduce an iterative retrieval algorithm correcting for the higher-order absorption structures not yet considered in the DOAS fit as well as the absorption dependence on

  20. Efficient Algorithms for Estimating the Absorption Spectrum within Linear Response TDDFT

    Brabec, Jiri; Lin, Lin; Shao, Meiyue; Govind, Niranjan; Yang, Chao; Saad, Yousef; Ng, Esmond


    We present two iterative algorithms for approximating the absorption spectrum of molecules within linear response of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) framework. These methods do not attempt to compute eigenvalues or eigenvectors of the linear response matrix. They are designed to approximate the absorption spectrum as a function directly. They take advantage of the special structure of the linear response matrix. Neither method requires the linear response matrix to be constructed explicitly. They only require a procedure that performs the multiplication of the linear response matrix with a vector. These methods can also be easily modified to efficiently estimate the density of states (DOS) of the linear response matrix without computing the eigenvalues of this matrix. We show by computational experiments that the methods proposed in this paper can be much more efficient than methods that are based on the exact diagonalization of the linear response matrix. We show that they can also be more efficient than real-time TDDFT simulations. We compare the pros and cons of these methods in terms of their accuracy as well as their computational and storage cost.

  1. Processing Approach of Non-linear Adjustment Models in the Space of Non-linear Models

    LI Chaokui; ZHU Qing; SONG Chengfang


    This paper investigates the mathematic features of non-linear models and discusses the processing way of non-linear factors which contributes to the non-linearity of a nonlinear model. On the basis of the error definition, this paper puts forward a new adjustment criterion, SGPE.Last, this paper investigates the solution of a non-linear regression model in the non-linear model space and makes the comparison between the estimated values in non-linear model space and those in linear model space.

  2. Composite Linear Models | Division of Cancer Prevention

    By Stuart G. Baker The composite linear models software is a matrix approach to compute maximum likelihood estimates and asymptotic standard errors for models for incomplete multinomial data. It implements the method described in Baker SG. Composite linear models for incomplete multinomial data. Statistics in Medicine 1994;13:609-622. The software includes a library of thirty examples from the literature. |

  3. Comparing linear probability model coefficients across groups

    Holm, Anders; Ejrnæs, Mette; Karlson, Kristian Bernt


    This article offers a formal identification analysis of the problem in comparing coefficients from linear probability models between groups. We show that differences in coefficients from these models can result not only from genuine differences in effects, but also from differences in one or more...... these limitations, and we suggest a restricted approach to using linear probability model coefficients in group comparisons....

  4. Optimization of absorption placement using geometrical acoustic models and least squares.

    Saksela, Kai; Botts, Jonathan; Savioja, Lauri


    Given a geometrical model of a space, the problem of optimally placing absorption in a space to match a desired impulse response is in general nonlinear. This has led some to use costly optimization procedures. This letter reformulates absorption assignment as a constrained linear least-squares problem. Regularized solutions result in direct distribution of absorption in the room and can accommodate multiple frequency bands, multiple sources and receivers, and constraints on geometrical placement of absorption. The method is demonstrated using a beam tracing model, resulting in the optimal absorption placement on the walls and ceiling of a classroom.

  5. On the Inhibition of Linear Absorption in Opaque Materials Using Phase-Locked Harmonic Generation

    Centini, Marco; Fazio, Eugenio; Pettazzi, Federico; Sibilia, Concita; Haus, Joseph W; Foreman, John V; Akozbek, Neset; Bloemer, Mark J; Scalora, Michael


    We theoretically predict and experimentally demonstrate inhibition of linear absorption for phase and group velocity mismatched second and third harmonic generation in strongly absorbing materials, GaAs in particular, at frequencies above the absorption edge. A 100-fs pump pulse tuned to 1300nm generates 650nm and 435nm second and third harmonic pulses that propagate across a 450 micron-thick GaAs substrate without being absorbed. We attribute this to a phase-locking mechanism that causes the pump to trap the harmonics and to impress them with its dispersive properties.

  6. Bayes linear covariance matrix adjustment for multivariate dynamic linear models

    Wilkinson, Darren J


    A methodology is developed for the adjustment of the covariance matrices underlying a multivariate constant time series dynamic linear model. The covariance matrices are embedded in a distribution-free inner-product space of matrix objects which facilitates such adjustment. This approach helps to make the analysis simple, tractable and robust. To illustrate the methods, a simple model is developed for a time series representing sales of certain brands of a product from a cash-and-carry depot. The covariance structure underlying the model is revised, and the benefits of this revision on first order inferences are then examined.

  7. Comparing linear probability model coefficients across groups

    Holm, Anders; Ejrnæs, Mette; Karlson, Kristian Bernt


    This article offers a formal identification analysis of the problem in comparing coefficients from linear probability models between groups. We show that differences in coefficients from these models can result not only from genuine differences in effects, but also from differences in one or more...... of the following three components: outcome truncation, scale parameters and distributional shape of the predictor variable. These results point to limitations in using linear probability model coefficients for group comparisons. We also provide Monte Carlo simulations and real examples to illustrate...... these limitations, and we suggest a restricted approach to using linear probability model coefficients in group comparisons....

  8. Mathematical Modeling of Intestinal Iron Absorption Using Genetic Programming

    Colins, Andrea; Gerdtzen, Ziomara P.; Nuñez, Marco T.; Salgado, J. Cristian


    Iron is a trace metal, key for the development of living organisms. Its absorption process is complex and highly regulated at the transcriptional, translational and systemic levels. Recently, the internalization of the DMT1 transporter has been proposed as an additional regulatory mechanism at the intestinal level, associated to the mucosal block phenomenon. The short-term effect of iron exposure in apical uptake and initial absorption rates was studied in Caco-2 cells at different apical iron concentrations, using both an experimental approach and a mathematical modeling framework. This is the first report of short-term studies for this system. A non-linear behavior in the apical uptake dynamics was observed, which does not follow the classic saturation dynamics of traditional biochemical models. We propose a method for developing mathematical models for complex systems, based on a genetic programming algorithm. The algorithm is aimed at obtaining models with a high predictive capacity, and considers an additional parameter fitting stage and an additional Jackknife stage for estimating the generalization error. We developed a model for the iron uptake system with a higher predictive capacity than classic biochemical models. This was observed both with the apical uptake dataset used for generating the model and with an independent initial rates dataset used to test the predictive capacity of the model. The model obtained is a function of time and the initial apical iron concentration, with a linear component that captures the global tendency of the system, and a non-linear component that can be associated to the movement of DMT1 transporters. The model presented in this paper allows the detailed analysis, interpretation of experimental data, and identification of key relevant components for this complex biological process. This general method holds great potential for application to the elucidation of biological mechanisms and their key components in other complex

  9. Generalized Quadratic Linearization of Machine Models

    Parvathy Ayalur Krishnamoorthy; Kamaraj Vijayarajan; Devanathan Rajagopalan


    In the exact linearization of involutive nonlinear system models, the issue of singularity needs to be addressed in practical applications. The approximate linearization technique due to Krener, based on Taylor series expansion, apart from being applicable to noninvolutive systems, allows the singularity issue to be circumvented. But approximate linearization, while removing terms up to certain order, also introduces terms of higher order than those removed into the system. To overcome th...

  10. Non-linear finite element modeling

    Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard

    The note is written for courses in "Non-linear finite element method". The note has been used by the author teaching non-linear finite element modeling at Civil Engineering at Aalborg University, Computational Mechanics at Aalborg University Esbjerg, Structural Engineering at the University...... on the governing equations and methods of implementing....

  11. Correlations and Non-Linear Probability Models

    Breen, Richard; Holm, Anders; Karlson, Kristian Bernt


    the dependent variable of the latent variable model and its predictor variables. We show how this correlation can be derived from the parameters of non-linear probability models, develop tests for the statistical significance of the derived correlation, and illustrate its usefulness in two applications. Under......Although the parameters of logit and probit and other non-linear probability models are often explained and interpreted in relation to the regression coefficients of an underlying linear latent variable model, we argue that they may also be usefully interpreted in terms of the correlations between...... certain circumstances, which we explain, the derived correlation provides a way of overcoming the problems inherent in cross-sample comparisons of the parameters of non-linear probability models....

  12. Linear Logistic Test Modeling with R

    Purya Baghaei


    Full Text Available The present paper gives a general introduction to the linear logistic test model (Fischer, 1973, an extension of the Rasch model with linear constraints on item parameters, along with eRm (an R package to estimate different types of Rasch models; Mair, Hatzinger, & Mair, 2014 functions to estimate the model and interpret its parameters. The applications of the model in test validation, hypothesis testing, cross-cultural studies of test bias, rule-based item generation, and investigating construct irrelevant factors which contribute to item difficulty are explained. The model is applied to an English as a foreign language reading comprehension test and the results are discussed.

  13. Linear mixed models for longitudinal data

    Molenberghs, Geert


    This paperback edition is a reprint of the 2000 edition. This book provides a comprehensive treatment of linear mixed models for continuous longitudinal data. Next to model formulation, this edition puts major emphasis on exploratory data analysis for all aspects of the model, such as the marginal model, subject-specific profiles, and residual covariance structure. Further, model diagnostics and missing data receive extensive treatment. Sensitivity analysis for incomplete data is given a prominent place. Several variations to the conventional linear mixed model are discussed (a heterogeity model, conditional linear mixed models). This book will be of interest to applied statisticians and biomedical researchers in industry, public health organizations, contract research organizations, and academia. The book is explanatory rather than mathematically rigorous. Most analyses were done with the MIXED procedure of the SAS software package, and many of its features are clearly elucidated. However, some other commerc...

  14. Linear mixed models in sensometrics

    Kuznetsova, Alexandra

    Today’s companies and researchers gather large amounts of data of different kind. In consumer studies the objective is the collection of the data to better understand consumer acceptance of products. In such studies a number of persons (generally not trained) are selected in order to score products...... in terms of preferences. In sensory studies the aim is the collection of the data to better describe products and differences of the products according to a number of sensory attributes. Here trained persons, so-called assessors, score the products in terms of different characteristics such as smell, taste......). Mixed effects models have been used extensively in analysis of both consumer and sensory studies. However frequently too simplistic models are considered, important effects are not accounted for and as a consequence important information is not gained or analysis leads to improper conclusions. The focus...

  15. Linear causal modeling with structural equations

    Mulaik, Stanley A


    Emphasizing causation as a functional relationship between variables that describe objects, Linear Causal Modeling with Structural Equations integrates a general philosophical theory of causation with structural equation modeling (SEM) that concerns the special case of linear causal relations. In addition to describing how the functional relation concept may be generalized to treat probabilistic causation, the book reviews historical treatments of causation and explores recent developments in experimental psychology on studies of the perception of causation. It looks at how to perceive causal

  16. Statistical Tests for Mixed Linear Models

    Khuri, André I; Sinha, Bimal K


    An advanced discussion of linear models with mixed or random effects. In recent years a breakthrough has occurred in our ability to draw inferences from exact and optimum tests of variance component models, generating much research activity that relies on linear models with mixed and random effects. This volume covers the most important research of the past decade as well as the latest developments in hypothesis testing. It compiles all currently available results in the area of exact and optimum tests for variance component models and offers the only comprehensive treatment for these models a

  17. Matrix Tricks for Linear Statistical Models

    Puntanen, Simo; Styan, George PH


    In teaching linear statistical models to first-year graduate students or to final-year undergraduate students there is no way to proceed smoothly without matrices and related concepts of linear algebra; their use is really essential. Our experience is that making some particular matrix tricks very familiar to students can substantially increase their insight into linear statistical models (and also multivariate statistical analysis). In matrix algebra, there are handy, sometimes even very simple "tricks" which simplify and clarify the treatment of a problem - both for the student and

  18. Some new progress on the light absorption properties of linear alkyl benzene solvent

    Yu, Guang-You; Huang, Ai-Zhong; Yu, Lei; Loh, Chang-Wei; Wang, Wen-Wen; Qian, Zhi-Qiang; Yang, Hai-Bo; Huang, Huang; Xu, Zong-Qiang; Zhu, Xue-Yuan; Xu, Bin; Qi, Ming


    Linear alkyl benzene (LAB) will be used as the solvent of a liquid scintillator mixture for the JUNO antineutrino experiment in the near future. Its light absorption property should therefore be understood prior to its effective use in the experiment. Attenuation length measurements at a light wavelength of 430 nm have been performed on samples of LAB prepared for the purpose of the JUNO experiment. Inorganic impurities in LAB have also been studied for their possibilities of light absorption in our wavelength of interest. In view of a tentative plan by the JUNO collaboration to utilize neutron capture with hydrogen in the detector, we have also presented in this work, a study on the carbon-hydrogen ratio and the relationship thereof with the attenuation length of the samples.

  19. Absorption Cycle Heat Pump Model for Control Design

    Vinther, Kasper; Just Nielsen, Rene; Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard


    Heat pumps have recently received increasing interest due to green energy initiatives and increasing energy prices. In this paper, a nonlinear dynamic model of a single-effect LiBr-water absorption cycle heat pump is derived for simulation and control design purposes. The model is based...... on an actual heat pump located at a larger district heating plant. The model is implemented in Modelica and is based on energy and mass balances, together with thermodynamic property functions for LiBr and water and staggered grid representations for heat exchangers. Model parameters have been fitted...... to operational data and different scenarios are simulated to investigate the operational stability of the heat pump. Finally, this paper provides suggestions and examples of derivation of lower order linear models for control design. © Copyright IEEE - All rights reserved....

  20. Exact Solutions in Nonlocal Linear Models

    Vernov, S. Yu.


    A general class of cosmological models driven by a nonlocal scalar field inspired by the string field theory is studied. Using the fact that the considering linear nonlocal model is equivalent to an infinite number of local models we have found an exact special solution of the nonlocal Friedmann equations. This solution describes a monotonically increasing Universe with the phantom dark energy.

  1. Testing linearity against nonlinear moving average models

    de Gooijer, J.G.; Brännäs, K.; Teräsvirta, T.


    Lagrange multiplier (LM) test statistics are derived for testing a linear moving average model against an additive smooth transition moving average model. The latter model is introduced in the paper. The small sample performance of the proposed tests are evaluated in a Monte Carlo study and compared

  2. Linear absorption coefficient of in-plane graphene on a silicon microring resonator

    Cai, Heng; Zhang, He; Huang, Qingzhong; Xia, Jinsong; Barille, Regis; Wang, Yi


    We demonstrate that linear absorption coefficient (LAC) of a graphene-silicon hybrid waveguide (GSHW) is determined by the optical transmission spectra of a graphene coated symmetrically coupled add-drop silicon microring resonator (SC-ADSMR), of which the value is around 0.23 dB/um. In contrast to the traditional cut-back method, the measured results are not dependent on the coupling efficiency of the fiber tip and the waveguide. Moreover, precision evaluation of graphene coated silicon microring resonator (SMR) is crucial for the optoelectronic devices targeting for compact footprint and low power consumption.

  3. Global identifiability of linear structural equation models

    Drton, Mathias; Sullivant, Seth


    Structural equation models are multivariate statistical models that are defined by specifying noisy functional relationships among random variables. We consider the classical case of linear relationships and additive Gaussian noise terms. We give a necessary and sufficient condition for global identifiability of the model in terms of a mixed graph encoding the linear structural equations and the correlation structure of the error terms. Global identifiability is understood to mean injectivity of the parametrization of the model and is fundamental in particular for applicability of standard statistical methodology.

  4. Modeling digital switching circuits with linear algebra

    Thornton, Mitchell A


    Modeling Digital Switching Circuits with Linear Algebra describes an approach for modeling digital information and circuitry that is an alternative to Boolean algebra. While the Boolean algebraic model has been wildly successful and is responsible for many advances in modern information technology, the approach described in this book offers new insight and different ways of solving problems. Modeling the bit as a vector instead of a scalar value in the set {0, 1} allows digital circuits to be characterized with transfer functions in the form of a linear transformation matrix. The use of transf

  5. Identification and Modelling of Linear Dynamic Systems

    Stanislav Kocur


    Full Text Available System identification and modelling are very important parts of system control theory. System control is only as good as good is created model of system. So this article deals with identification and modelling problems. There are simple classification and evolution of identification methods, and then the modelling problem is described. Rest of paper is devoted to two most known and used models of linear dynamic systems.

  6. Disc instantons in linear sigma models

    Govindarajan, Suresh E-mail:; Jayaraman, T. E-mail:; Sarkar, Tapobrata E-mail:


    We construct a linear sigma model for open-strings ending on special Lagrangian cycles of a Calabi-Yau manifold. We illustrate the construction for the cases considered by Aganagic and Vafa (AV). This leads naturally to concrete models for the moduli space of open-string instantons. These instanton moduli spaces can be seen to be intimately related to certain auxiliary boundary toric varieties. By considering the relevant Gelfand-Kapranov-Zelevinsky (GKZ) differential equations of the boundary toric variety, we obtain the contributions to the world volume superpotential on the A-branes from open-string instantons. By using an ansatz due to Aganagic, Klemm and Vafa (AKV), we obtain the relevant change of variables from the linear sigma model to the non-linear sigma model variables--the open-string mirror map. Using this mirror map, we obtain results in agreement with those of AV and AKV for the counting of holomorphic disc instantons.

  7. Extending the linear model with R generalized linear, mixed effects and nonparametric regression models

    Faraway, Julian J


    Linear models are central to the practice of statistics and form the foundation of a vast range of statistical methodologies. Julian J. Faraway''s critically acclaimed Linear Models with R examined regression and analysis of variance, demonstrated the different methods available, and showed in which situations each one applies. Following in those footsteps, Extending the Linear Model with R surveys the techniques that grow from the regression model, presenting three extensions to that framework: generalized linear models (GLMs), mixed effect models, and nonparametric regression models. The author''s treatment is thoroughly modern and covers topics that include GLM diagnostics, generalized linear mixed models, trees, and even the use of neural networks in statistics. To demonstrate the interplay of theory and practice, throughout the book the author weaves the use of the R software environment to analyze the data of real examples, providing all of the R commands necessary to reproduce the analyses. All of the ...

  8. A two-dimensional mathematical model of percutaneous drug absorption

    Kubota K


    Full Text Available Abstract Background When a drug is applied on the skin surface, the concentration of the drug accumulated in the skin and the amount of the drug eliminated into the blood vessel depend on the value of a parameter, r. The values of r depend on the amount of diffusion and the normalized skin-capillary clearence. It is defined as the ratio of the steady-state drug concentration at the skin-capillary boundary to that at the skin-surface in one-dimensional models. The present paper studies the effect of the parameter values, when the region of contact of the skin with the drug, is a line segment on the skin surface. Methods Though a simple one-dimensional model is often useful to describe percutaneous drug absorption, it may be better represented by multi-dimensional models. A two-dimensional mathematical model is developed for percutaneous absorption of a drug, which may be used when the diffusion of the drug in the direction parallel to the skin surface must be examined, as well as in the direction into the skin, examined in one-dimensional models. This model consists of a linear second-order parabolic equation with appropriate initial conditions and boundary conditions. These boundary conditions are of Dirichlet type, Neumann type or Robin type. A finite-difference method which maintains second-order accuracy in space along the boundary, is developed to solve the parabolic equation. Extrapolation in time is applied to improve the accuracy in time. Solution of the parabolic equation gives the concentration of the drug in the skin at a given time. Results Simulation of the numerical methods described is carried out with various values of the parameter r. The illustrations are given in the form of figures. Conclusion Based on the values of r, conclusions are drawn about (1 the flow rate of the drug, (2 the flux and the cumulative amount of drug eliminated into the receptor cell, (3 the steady-state value of the flux, (4 the time to reach the steady

  9. An R companion to linear statistical models

    Hay-Jahans, Christopher


    Focusing on user-developed programming, An R Companion to Linear Statistical Models serves two audiences: those who are familiar with the theory and applications of linear statistical models and wish to learn or enhance their skills in R; and those who are enrolled in an R-based course on regression and analysis of variance. For those who have never used R, the book begins with a self-contained introduction to R that lays the foundation for later chapters.This book includes extensive and carefully explained examples of how to write programs using the R programming language. These examples cove

  10. Estimation for the simple linear Boolean model


    We consider the simple linear Boolean model, a fundamental coverage process also known as the Markov/General/infinity queue. In the model, line segments of independent and identically distributed length are located at the points of a Poisson process. The segments may overlap, resulting in a pattern of "clumps"-regions of the line that are covered by one or more segments-alternating with uncovered regions or "spacings". Study and application of the model have been impeded by the difficult...

  11. Are all Linear Paired Comparison Models Equivalent


    Previous authors (Jackson and Fleckenstein 1957, Mosteller 1958, Noether 1960) have found that different models of paired comparisons data lead to simi...ponential distribution with a location parameter (Mosteller 1958, Noether 1960). Formal statements describing the limiting behavior of the gamma...that are not convolu- tion type linear models (the uniform model considered by Smith (1956), Mosteller (1958), Noether (1960)) and other convolution

  12. Ruin Probability in Linear Time Series Model

    ZHANG Lihong


    This paper analyzes a continuous time risk model with a linear model used to model the claim process. The time is discretized stochastically using the times when claims occur, using Doob's stopping time theorem and martingale inequalities to obtain expressions for the ruin probability as well as both exponential and non-exponential upper bounds for the ruin probability for an infinite time horizon. Numerical results are included to illustrate the accuracy of the non-exponential bound.

  13. Linear and Nonlinear Optical Absorptions of a Hydrogenic Donor in a Quantum Dot Under a Magnetic Field

    XIE Wen-Fang


    The linear and nonlinear optical properties of a hydrogenic donor in a disc-like parabolic quantum dot in the presence of an external magnetic field are studied. The calculations were performed within the effective mass approximation, using the matrix diagonalization method and the compact density-matrix approach. The linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients between the ground (L = 0) and the first excited state (L = 1) have been examined based on the computed energies and wave functions. We find that the linear, nonlinear third-order, and total optical absorption coefficients are strongly affected by the confinement strength of QDs, the external magnetic field, and the incident optical intensity.

  14. Mathematical model of zinc absorption: effects of dietary calcium, protein and iron on zinc absorption.

    Miller, Leland V; Krebs, Nancy F; Hambidge, K Michael


    A previously described mathematical model of Zn absorption as a function of total daily dietary Zn and phytate was fitted to data from studies in which dietary Ca, Fe and protein were also measured. An analysis of regression residuals indicated statistically significant positive relationships between the residuals and Ca, Fe and protein, suggesting that the presence of any of these dietary components enhances Zn absorption. Based on the hypotheses that (1) Ca and Fe both promote Zn absorption by binding with phytate and thereby making it unavailable for binding Zn and (2) protein enhances the availability of Zn for transporter binding, the model was modified to incorporate these effects. The new model of Zn absorption as a function of dietary Zn, phytate, Ca, Fe and protein was then fitted to the data. The proportion of variation in absorbed Zn explained by the new model was 0·88, an increase from 0·82 with the original model. A reduced version of the model without Fe produced an equally good fit to the data and an improved value for the model selection criterion, demonstrating that when dietary Ca and protein are controlled for, there is no evidence that dietary Fe influences Zn absorption. Regression residuals and testing with additional data supported the validity of the new model. It was concluded that dietary Ca and protein modestly enhanced Zn absorption and Fe had no statistically discernable effect. Furthermore, the model provides a meaningful foundation for efforts to model nutrient interactions in mineral absorption.

  15. Managing Clustered Data Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling

    Warne, Russell T.; Li, Yan; McKyer, E. Lisako J.; Condie, Rachel; Diep, Cassandra S.; Murano, Peter S.


    Researchers in nutrition research often use cluster or multistage sampling to gather participants for their studies. These sampling methods often produce violations of the assumption of data independence that most traditional statistics share. Hierarchical linear modeling is a statistical method that can overcome violations of the independence…

  16. Model reduction of linear conservative mechanical systems

    Schaft, van der A.J.; Oeloff, J.E.


    An approach for model reduction of linear conservative or weakly damped mechanical systems is proposed. It is based on the balancing of an associated gradient system. It uses the joint knowledge of the system matrix and the input and output matrices of the Hamiltonian system. The key idea is to asso

  17. On Bayes linear unbiased estimation of estimable functions for the singular linear model

    ZHANG Weiping; WEI Laisheng


    The unique Bayes linear unbiased estimator (Bayes LUE) of estimable functions is derived for the singular linear model. The superiority of Bayes LUE over ordinary best linear unbiased estimator is investigated under mean square error matrix (MSEM)criterion.

  18. Self-Focusing/Defocusing of Chirped Gaussian Laser Beam in Collisional Plasma with Linear Absorption

    Wani, Manzoor Ahmad; Kant, Niti


    This paper presents an investigation on the self-focusing/defocusing of chirped Gaussian laser beam in collisional plasma with linear absorption. We have derived the differential equation for the beam width parameter by using WKB and paraxial approximations and solved it numerically. The effect of chirp and other laser plasma parameters is seen on the behavior of beam width parameter with dimensionless distance of propagation. The results are discussed and presented graphically. Our simulation results show that the amplitude of oscillations decreases with the distance of propagation. Due to collisional frequency, the laser beam shows fast divergence which can be minimized by the introduction of chirp parameter. The chirp decreases the effect of defocusing and increases the ability of self-focusing of laser beam in collisional plasma. Supported by a financial grant from CSIR, New Delhi, India, under Project No. 03(1277)/13/EMR-II

  19. Off-resonance energy absorption in a linear Paul trap due to mass selective resonant quenching

    Sivarajah, I.; Goodman, D. S.; Wells, J. E.; Smith, W. W. [Department of Physics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269 (United States); Narducci, F. A. [Naval Air Systems Command, EO Sensors Division, Bldg 2187, Suite 3190 Patuxent River, Maryland 20670 (United States)


    Linear Paul traps (LPT) are used in many experimental studies such as mass spectrometry, atom-ion collisions, and ion-molecule reactions. Mass selective resonant quenching (MSRQ) is implemented in LPT either to identify a charged particle's mass or to remove unwanted ions from a controlled experimental environment. In the latter case, MSRQ can introduce undesired heating to co-trapped ions of different mass, whose secular motion is off resonance with the quenching ac field, which we call off-resonance energy absorption (OREA). We present simulations and experimental evidence that show that the OREA increases exponentially with the number of ions loaded into the trap and with the amplitude of the off-resonance external ac field.

  20. Linear and nonlinear optical absorption characterization of natural laccaic acid dye

    Zongo, S.; Dhlamini, M. S.; Kerasidou, A. P.; Beukes, P.; Sahraoui, B.; Maaza, M.


    We report on the optical performances of laccaic acid dye in solution at different concentrations and dye-poly(methyl methacrylate) composite thin films. The linear spectral characteristics including optical constants, i.e. refractive index ( n) and extinction coefficient ( k), were carried out in a comprehensive way through absorbance, fluorescence and ellipsometric studies. The nonlinear optical parameters such as nonlinear absorption coefficient β eff (or β 2), the imaginary third-order susceptibility (Im[ χ (3)]) and the imaginary part of second-order hyperpolarizability ( γ) of the samples were evaluated using the open-aperture Z-scan technique with a laser pulse duration of 10 ns at 532 nm wavelength. The corresponding numerical values of these parameters were of 10-10, 10-11 and 10-32 order, respectively. Two-photon absorption was revealed to be the main driving physical mechanism in the nonlinear response. This suggests that laccaic acid dye can be a potential candidate for NLO materials application.

  1. Multivariate Generalized Linear Mixed Models Using R

    Berridge, Damon M


    To provide researchers with the ability to analyze large and complex data sets using robust models, this book presents a unified framework for a broad class of models that can be applied using a dedicated R package (Sabre). The first five chapters cover the analysis of multilevel models using univariate generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs). The next few chapters extend to multivariate GLMMs and the last chapters address more specialized topics, such as parallel computing for large-scale analyses. Each chapter includes many real-world examples implemented using Sabre as well as exercises and

  2. Linear Programming建模研讨%Modeling of Linear Programming

    宋占奎; 於全收; 范光; 燕嬿; 胡杰军


    研究用图解法、simplexmethod和匈牙利法建立Linear Programming的数学模型并求得了最优解.结果表明:对仅有两个变量的Linear Programming,既可通过图解法求得最优解;也可用单纯形表简便地求得最优解;而对任务和人数不等的assignment problem,则用匈牙利法求最优解.

  3. Neural Network for Combining Linear and Non-Linear Modelling of Dynamic Systems

    Madsen, Per Printz


    The purpose of this paper is to develop a method to combine linear models with MLP networks. In other words to find a method to make a non-linear and multivariable model that performs at least as good as a linear model, when the training data lacks information.......The purpose of this paper is to develop a method to combine linear models with MLP networks. In other words to find a method to make a non-linear and multivariable model that performs at least as good as a linear model, when the training data lacks information....

  4. Absorptive Capacity of Information Technology and Its Conceptual Model

    BI Xinhua; YU Cuiling


    In order to examine the problem of how to improve the use of information technology (IT) in enterprises, this paper makes an exploration from the perspective of organizational absorptive capacity. We propose the concept of IT absorptive capacity from an organizational level. A dynamic process model is developed to further analyze IT absorption. IT absorptive capacity of this process is embodied as six forms: identification, adoption, adaptation, acceptance, infusion, and knowledge management. By means of questionnaire surveys of 76 Chinese enterprises, the main factors that favor or disable the capacity of each stage are discovered. Using the method of system dynamics, a conceptual model of IT absorptive capacity is developed to analyze the action mechanism of the factors in detail. The model indicates that the critical factors are embodied in the aspect of management. Furthermore, it demonstrates that IT absorption is a spiral process, during which IT absorptive capacity evolves dynamically and, consequently, promotes IT use.

  5. An Inverse Modeling Approach to Estimating Phytoplankton Pigment Concentrations from Phytoplankton Absorption Spectra

    Moisan, John R.; Moisan, Tiffany A. H.; Linkswiler, Matthew A.


    Phytoplankton absorption spectra and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) pigment observations from the Eastern U.S. and global observations from NASA's SeaBASS archive are used in a linear inverse calculation to extract pigment-specific absorption spectra. Using these pigment-specific absorption spectra to reconstruct the phytoplankton absorption spectra results in high correlations at all visible wavelengths (r(sup 2) from 0.83 to 0.98), and linear regressions (slopes ranging from 0.8 to 1.1). Higher correlations (r(sup 2) from 0.75 to 1.00) are obtained in the visible portion of the spectra when the total phytoplankton absorption spectra are unpackaged by multiplying the entire spectra by a factor that sets the total absorption at 675 nm to that expected from absorption spectra reconstruction using measured pigment concentrations and laboratory-derived pigment-specific absorption spectra. The derived pigment-specific absorption spectra were further used with the total phytoplankton absorption spectra in a second linear inverse calculation to estimate the various phytoplankton HPLC pigments. A comparison between the estimated and measured pigment concentrations for the 18 pigment fields showed good correlations (r(sup 2) greater than 0.5) for 7 pigments and very good correlations (r(sup 2) greater than 0.7) for chlorophyll a and fucoxanthin. Higher correlations result when the analysis is carried out at more local geographic scales. The ability to estimate phytoplankton pigments using pigment-specific absorption spectra is critical for using hyperspectral inverse models to retrieve phytoplankton pigment concentrations and other Inherent Optical Properties (IOPs) from passive remote sensing observations.

  6. Testing Parametric versus Semiparametric Modelling in Generalized Linear Models

    Härdle, W.K.; Mammen, E.; Müller, M.D.


    We consider a generalized partially linear model E(Y|X,T) = G{X'b + m(T)} where G is a known function, b is an unknown parameter vector, and m is an unknown function.The paper introduces a test statistic which allows to decide between a parametric and a semiparametric model: (i) m is linear, i.e. m(

  7. Using R In Generalized Linear Models

    Mihaela Covrig


    Full Text Available This paper aims to approach the estimation of generalized linear models (GLM on the basis of the glm routine package in R. Particularly, regression models will be analyzed for those cases in which the explained variable follows a Poisson or a Negative Binomial distribution. The paper will briefly present the GLM methodology for count data, while the practical part will revolve around estimating and comparing models in which the response variable shows the number of claims in a portfolio of automobile insurance policies.

  8. [From clinical judgment to linear regression model.

    Palacios-Cruz, Lino; Pérez, Marcela; Rivas-Ruiz, Rodolfo; Talavera, Juan O


    When we think about mathematical models, such as linear regression model, we think that these terms are only used by those engaged in research, a notion that is far from the truth. Legendre described the first mathematical model in 1805, and Galton introduced the formal term in 1886. Linear regression is one of the most commonly used regression models in clinical practice. It is useful to predict or show the relationship between two or more variables as long as the dependent variable is quantitative and has normal distribution. Stated in another way, the regression is used to predict a measure based on the knowledge of at least one other variable. Linear regression has as it's first objective to determine the slope or inclination of the regression line: Y = a + bx, where "a" is the intercept or regression constant and it is equivalent to "Y" value when "X" equals 0 and "b" (also called slope) indicates the increase or decrease that occurs when the variable "x" increases or decreases in one unit. In the regression line, "b" is called regression coefficient. The coefficient of determination (R(2)) indicates the importance of independent variables in the outcome.

  9. Rethinking the Lintnerian Linear Valuation Model

    Shih-Cheng Lee


    Full Text Available This paper develops and tests a new valuation model. Callen and Morel (2000 apply the Lintner (1956 dividend model to the famous Ohlson (1995 valuation model and develop the Lintnerian linear accounting valuation model (henceforth, the CM model. However, Bauer and Bhattacharyya (2007 suggest that the Lintner dividend model does not fit firm dividend policy behaviour appropriately and decide to construct another dividend policy process. This study applies their dividend model to construct a new valuation model, which performs better than the original Ohlson and CM models empirically. Applying the Engle and Granger (1987 cointegration concepts, we examine the performance of the three models for the 1,564 firm-year panel data of US companies from 1973 to 2006. Our findings indicate that all tested variables are stationary after the first order difference process and that all three models exhibit long-run equilibrium relations among equity price and explanatory variables. However, our model has the highest cointegration ratio, which is almost 100 percent of sample firms. Hence, our model is more suitable to evaluate the equity value and provides improvement for the previous accounting valuation models.

  10. Absorption of acoustic waves by sunspots. II - Resonance absorption in axisymmetric fibril models

    Rosenthal, C. S.


    Analytical calculations of acoustic waves scattered by sunspots which concentrate on the absorption at the magnetohydrodynamic Alfven resonance are extended to the case of a flux-tube embedded in a uniform atmosphere. The model is based on a flux-tubes of varying radius that are highly structured, translationally invariant, and axisymmetric. The absorbed fractional energy is determined for different flux-densities and subphotospheric locations with attention given to the effects of twist. When the flux is highly concentrated into annuli efficient absorption is possible even when the mean magnetic flux density is low. The model demonstrates low absorption at low azimuthal orders even in the presence of twist which generally increases the range of wave numbers over which efficient absorption can occur. Resonance absorption is concluded to be an efficient mechanism in monolithic sunspots, fibril sunspots, and plage fields.

  11. Improved testing inference in mixed linear models

    Melo, Tatiane F N; Cribari-Neto, Francisco; 10.1016/j.csda.2008.12.007


    Mixed linear models are commonly used in repeated measures studies. They account for the dependence amongst observations obtained from the same experimental unit. Oftentimes, the number of observations is small, and it is thus important to use inference strategies that incorporate small sample corrections. In this paper, we develop modified versions of the likelihood ratio test for fixed effects inference in mixed linear models. In particular, we derive a Bartlett correction to such a test and also to a test obtained from a modified profile likelihood function. Our results generalize those in Zucker et al. (Journal of the Royal Statistical Society B, 2000, 62, 827-838) by allowing the parameter of interest to be vector-valued. Additionally, our Bartlett corrections allow for random effects nonlinear covariance matrix structure. We report numerical evidence which shows that the proposed tests display superior finite sample behavior relative to the standard likelihood ratio test. An application is also presente...

  12. Data perturbation analysis of a linear model


    The linear model features were carefully studied in the cases of data perturbation and mean shift perturbation.Some important features were also proved mathematically. The results show that the mean shift perturbation is equivalentto the data perturbation, that is, adding a parameter to an observation equation means that this set of data is deleted fromthe data set. The estimate of this parameter is its predicted residual in fact

  13. Decomposed Implicit Models of Piecewise - Linear Networks

    J. Brzobohaty


    Full Text Available The general matrix form of the implicit description of a piecewise-linear (PWL network and the symbolic block diagram of the corresponding circuit model are proposed. Their decomposed forms enable us to determine quite separately the existence of the individual breakpoints of the resultant PWL characteristic and their coordinates using independent network parameters. For the two-diode and three-diode cases all the attainable types of the PWL characteristic are introduced.

  14. From spiking neuron models to linear-nonlinear models.

    Srdjan Ostojic

    Full Text Available Neurons transform time-varying inputs into action potentials emitted stochastically at a time dependent rate. The mapping from current input to output firing rate is often represented with the help of phenomenological models such as the linear-nonlinear (LN cascade, in which the output firing rate is estimated by applying to the input successively a linear temporal filter and a static non-linear transformation. These simplified models leave out the biophysical details of action potential generation. It is not a priori clear to which extent the input-output mapping of biophysically more realistic, spiking neuron models can be reduced to a simple linear-nonlinear cascade. Here we investigate this question for the leaky integrate-and-fire (LIF, exponential integrate-and-fire (EIF and conductance-based Wang-Buzsáki models in presence of background synaptic activity. We exploit available analytic results for these models to determine the corresponding linear filter and static non-linearity in a parameter-free form. We show that the obtained functions are identical to the linear filter and static non-linearity determined using standard reverse correlation analysis. We then quantitatively compare the output of the corresponding linear-nonlinear cascade with numerical simulations of spiking neurons, systematically varying the parameters of input signal and background noise. We find that the LN cascade provides accurate estimates of the firing rates of spiking neurons in most of parameter space. For the EIF and Wang-Buzsáki models, we show that the LN cascade can be reduced to a firing rate model, the timescale of which we determine analytically. Finally we introduce an adaptive timescale rate model in which the timescale of the linear filter depends on the instantaneous firing rate. This model leads to highly accurate estimates of instantaneous firing rates.

  15. B-737 Linear Autoland Simulink Model

    Belcastro, Celeste (Technical Monitor); Hogge, Edward F.


    The Linear Autoland Simulink model was created to be a modular test environment for testing of control system components in commercial aircraft. The input variables, physical laws, and referenced frames used are summarized. The state space theory underlying the model is surveyed and the location of the control actuators described. The equations used to realize the Dryden gust model to simulate winds and gusts are derived. A description of the pseudo-random number generation method used in the wind gust model is included. The longitudinal autopilot, lateral autopilot, automatic throttle autopilot, engine model and automatic trim devices are considered as subsystems. The experience in converting the Airlabs FORTRAN aircraft control system simulation to a graphical simulation tool (Matlab/Simulink) is described.

  16. An Empirical Investigation into a Subsidiary Absorptive Capacity Process Model

    Schleimer, Stephanie; Pedersen, Torben


    and empirically test a process model of absorptive capacity. The setting of our empirical study is 213 subsidiaries of multinational enterprises and the focus is on the capacity of these subsidiaries to successfully absorb best practices in marketing strategy from their headquarters. This setting allows us...... to explore the process model in its entirety, including different drivers of subsidiary absorptive capacity (organizational mechanisms and contextual drivers), the three original dimensions of absorptive capacity (recognition, assimilation, application), and related outcomes (implementation...

  17. Stochastic linear programming models, theory, and computation

    Kall, Peter


    This new edition of Stochastic Linear Programming: Models, Theory and Computation has been brought completely up to date, either dealing with or at least referring to new material on models and methods, including DEA with stochastic outputs modeled via constraints on special risk functions (generalizing chance constraints, ICC’s and CVaR constraints), material on Sharpe-ratio, and Asset Liability Management models involving CVaR in a multi-stage setup. To facilitate use as a text, exercises are included throughout the book, and web access is provided to a student version of the authors’ SLP-IOR software. Additionally, the authors have updated the Guide to Available Software, and they have included newer algorithms and modeling systems for SLP. The book is thus suitable as a text for advanced courses in stochastic optimization, and as a reference to the field. From Reviews of the First Edition: "The book presents a comprehensive study of stochastic linear optimization problems and their applications. … T...

  18. Modelling polarization dependent absorption: The vectorial Lambert-Beer law

    Franssens, G.


    The scalar Lambert-Beer law, describing the absorption of unpolarized light travelling through a linear non-scattering medium, is simple, well-known, and mathematically trivial. However, when we take the polarization of light into account and consider a medium with polarization dependent absorption, we now need a Vectorial Lambert-Beer Law (VLBL) to quantify this interaction. Such a generalization of the scalar Lambert-Beer law appears not to be readily available. A careful study of this topic reveals that it is not a trivial problem. We will see that the VLBL is not and cannot be a straightforward vectorized version of its scalar counterpart. The aim of the work is to present the general form of the VLBL and to explain how it arises. A reasonable starting point to derive the VLBL is the Vectorial Radiative Transfer Equation (VRTE), which models the absorption and scattering of (partially) polarized light travelling through a linear medium. When we turn off scattering, the VRTE becomes an infinitesimal model for the VLBL holding in the medium. By integrating this equation, we expect to find the VLBL. Surprisingly, this is not the end of the story. It turns out that light propagation through a medium with polarization-dependent absorption is mathematically not that trivial. The trickiness behind the VLBL can be understood in the following terms. The matrix in the VLBL, relating any input Stokes vector to the corresponding output Stokes vector, must necessarily be a Mueller matrix. The subset of invertible Mueller matrices forms a Lie group. It is known that this Lie group contains the ortho-chronous Lorentz group as a subgroup. The group manifold of this subgroup has a (well-known) non-trivial topology. Consequently, the manifold of the Lie group of Mueller matrices also has (at least the same, but likely a more general) non-trivial topology (the full extent of which is not yet known). The type of non-trivial topology, possessed by the manifold of (invertible

  19. Semimechanistic model describing gastric emptying and glucose absorption in healthy subjects and patients with type 2 diabetes

    Alskär, Oskar; Bagger, Jonatan I; Røge, Rikke M;


    of small intestinal transit time, glucose inhibition of gastric emptying, and saturable absorption of glucose over the epithelium to improve the description of gastric emptying and glucose absorption in the IGI model. Duodenal glucose was found to inhibit gastric emptying. The performance of the saturable......The integrated glucose-insulin (IGI) model is a previously published semimechanistic model that describes plasma glucose and insulin concentrations after glucose challenges. The aim of this work was to use knowledge of physiology to improve the IGI model's description of glucose absorption...... glucose absorption was superior to linear absorption regardless of the gastric emptying model applied. The semiphysiological model developed performed better than previously published empirical models and allows better understanding of the mechanisms underlying glucose absorption. In conclusion, our new...

  20. The formation of linear aggregates in magnetic hyperthermia: implications on specific absorption rate and magnetic anisotropy.

    Saville, Steven L; Qi, Bin; Baker, Jonathon; Stone, Roland; Camley, Robert E; Livesey, Karen L; Ye, Longfei; Crawford, Thomas M; Mefford, O Thompson


    The design and application of magnetic nanoparticles for use as magnetic hyperthermia agents has garnered increasing interest over the past several years. When designing these systems, the fundamentals of particle design play a key role in the observed specific absorption rate (SAR). This includes the particle's core size, polymer brush length, and colloidal arrangement. While the role of particle core size on the observed SAR has been significantly reported, the role of the polymer brush length has not attracted as much attention. It has recently been reported that for some suspensions linear aggregates form in the presence of an applied external magnetic field, i.e. chains of magnetic particles. The formation of these chains may have the potential for a dramatic impact on the biomedical application of these materials, specifically the efficiency of the particles to transfer magnetic energy to the surrounding cells. In this study we demonstrate the dependence of SAR on magnetite nanoparticle core size and brush length as well as observe the formation of magnetically induced colloidal arrangements. Colloidally stable magnetic nanoparticles were demonstrated to form linear aggregates in an alternating magnetic field. The length and distribution of the aggregates were dependent upon the stabilizing polymer molecular weight. As the molecular weight of the stabilizing layer increased, the magnetic interparticle interactions decreased therefore limiting chain formation. In addition, theoretical calculations demonstrated that interparticle spacing has a significant impact on the magnetic behavior of these materials. This work has several implications for the design of nanoparticle and magnetic hyperthermia systems, while improving understanding of how colloidal arrangement affects SAR.

  1. Exact linear modeling using Ore algebras

    Schindelar, Kristina; Zerz, Eva


    Linear exact modeling is a problem coming from system identification: Given a set of observed trajectories, the goal is find a model (usually, a system of partial differential and/or difference equations) that explains the data as precisely as possible. The case of operators with constant coefficients is well studied and known in the systems theoretic literature, whereas the operators with varying coefficients were addressed only recently. This question can be tackled either using Gr\\"obner bases for modules over Ore algebras or by following the ideas from differential algebra and computing in commutative rings. In this paper, we present algorithmic methods to compute "most powerful unfalsified models" (MPUM) and their counterparts with variable coefficients (VMPUM) for polynomial and polynomial-exponential signals. We also study the structural properties of the resulting models, discuss computer algebraic techniques behind algorithms and provide several examples.

  2. Bayesian Discovery of Linear Acyclic Causal Models

    Hoyer, Patrik O


    Methods for automated discovery of causal relationships from non-interventional data have received much attention recently. A widely used and well understood model family is given by linear acyclic causal models (recursive structural equation models). For Gaussian data both constraint-based methods (Spirtes et al., 1993; Pearl, 2000) (which output a single equivalence class) and Bayesian score-based methods (Geiger and Heckerman, 1994) (which assign relative scores to the equivalence classes) are available. On the contrary, all current methods able to utilize non-Gaussianity in the data (Shimizu et al., 2006; Hoyer et al., 2008) always return only a single graph or a single equivalence class, and so are fundamentally unable to express the degree of certainty attached to that output. In this paper we develop a Bayesian score-based approach able to take advantage of non-Gaussianity when estimating linear acyclic causal models, and we empirically demonstrate that, at least on very modest size networks, its accur...

  3. Collision-induced absorption in mixtures of symmetrical linear and tetrahedral molecules - Methane-nitrogen

    Birnbaum, G.; Borysow, A.; Buechele, A.


    The far infrared absorption of a CH4-N2 mixture was measured at 297, 195, and 162 K from 30 to 650/cm. The spectral invariants gamma1 and alpha1, proportional, respectively, to the zeroth and first spectral moments, due to bimolecular collisions between CH4 and N2 were obtained from these data and compared with theoretical values. The theory for collision-induced dipoles between a tetrahedral and a diatomic or symmetrical linear molecule includes contributions not previously considered. Whereas the theoretical values of gamma1 are only somewhat greater than experiment at all temperatures, the theoretical values of alpha1 are significantly lower than the experimental values. From the theoretical spectral moments for the various induced dipole components, the parameters of the BC shape were computed, and theoretical spectra were constructed. Good agreement was obtained at the lower frequencies, but with increasing frequencies the theoretical spectra were increasingly less intense than the experimental spectra. Although the accuracy of the theoretical results may suffer from the lack of a reliable potential function, it does not appear that this high frequency discrepancy can be removed by any conceivable modification in the potential.

  4. F-theory and linear sigma models

    Bershadsky, M; Greene, Brian R; Johansen, A; Lazaroiu, C I


    We present an explicit method for translating between the linear sigma model and the spectral cover description of SU(r) stable bundles over an elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau manifold. We use this to investigate the 4-dimensional duality between (0,2) heterotic and F-theory compactifications. We indirectly find that much interesting heterotic information must be contained in the `spectral bundle' and in its dual description as a gauge theory on multiple F-theory 7-branes. A by-product of these efforts is a method for analyzing semistability and the splitting type of vector bundles over an elliptic curve given as the sheaf cohomology of a monad.

  5. CP Violation in the Linear Sigma Model

    Mizher, Ana Júlia


    Motivated by the possibility of the formation of CP-odd domains in heavy ion collisions, we investigate the effects of CP violation on the chiral transition within the linear sigma model with two flavors of quarks. We also study how the CP-odd system is affected by the presence of a strong magnetic field, that is presumably generated in a non-central heavy ion collision. We find that both ingredients play an important role, influencing drastically the nature of the phase transition and the critical temperature.

  6. CP Violation in the Linear Sigma Model

    Mizher, Ana Júlia; Fraga, Eduardo S.


    Motivated by the possibility of the formation of CP-odd domains in heavy ion collisions, we investigate the effects of CP violation on the chiral transition within the linear sigma model with two flavors of quarks. We also study how the CP-odd system is affected by the presence of a strong magnetic field, that is presumably generated in a non-central heavy ion collision. We find that both ingredients play an important role, influencing drastically the nature of the phase transition and the cr...

  7. CP Violation in the Linear Sigma Model

    Mizher, Ana Julia; Fraga, Eduardo S. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68528, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21941-972 (Brazil)


    Motivated by the possibility of the formation of CP-odd domains in heavy ion collisions, we investigate the effects of CP violation on the chiral transition within the linear sigma model with two flavors of quarks. We also study how the CP-odd system is affected by the presence of a strong magnetic field, that is presumably generated in a non-central heavy ion collision. We find that both ingredients play an important role, influencing drastically the nature of the phase transition and the critical temperature.

  8. Linear Amplifier Model for Optomechanical Systems

    Botter, Thierry; Brahms, Nathan; Schreppler, Sydney; Stamper-Kurn, Dan M


    We model optomechanical systems as linear optical amplifiers. This provides a unified treatment of diverse optomechanical phenomena. We emphasize, in particular, the relationship between ponderomotive squeezing and optomechanically induced transparency, two foci of current research. We characterize the amplifier response to quantum and deliberately applied fluctuations, both optical and mechanical. Further, we apply these results to establish quantum limits on external force sensing both on and off cavity resonance. We find that the maximum sensitivity attained on resonance constitutes an absolute upper limit, not surpassed when detuning off cavity resonance. The theory can be extended to a two-sided cavity with losses and limited detection efficiency.

  9. Ira Remsen, saccharin, and the linear model.

    Warner, Deborah J


    While working in the chemistry laboratory at Johns Hopkins University, Constantin Fahlberg oxidized the 'ortho-sulfamide of benzoic acid' and, by chance, found the result to be incredibly sweet. Several years later, now working on his own, he termed this stuff saccharin, developed methods of making it in quantity, obtained patents on these methods, and went into production. As the industrial and scientific value of saccharin became apparent, Ira Remsen pointed out that the initial work had been done in his laboratory and at his suggestion. The ensuing argument, carried out in the courts of law and public opinion, illustrates the importance of the linear model to scientists who staked their identities on the model of disinterested research but who also craved credit for important practical results.

  10. Modeling hierarchical structures - Hierarchical Linear Modeling using MPlus

    Jelonek, M


    The aim of this paper is to present the technique (and its linkage with physics) of overcoming problems connected to modeling social structures, which are typically hierarchical. Hierarchical Linear Models provide a conceptual and statistical mechanism for drawing conclusions regarding the influence of phenomena at different levels of analysis. In the social sciences it is used to analyze many problems such as educational, organizational or market dilemma. This paper introduces the logic of modeling hierarchical linear equations and estimation based on MPlus software. I present my own model to illustrate the impact of different factors on school acceptation level.

  11. Model systems for understanding absorption tuning by opsin proteins

    Nielsen, Mogens Brøndsted


    This tutorial review reports on model systems that have been synthesised and investigated for elucidating how opsin proteins tune the absorption of the protonated retinal Schiff base chromophore. In particular, the importance of the counteranion is highlighted. In addition, the review advocates...... is avoided, and it becomes clear that opsin proteins induce blueshifts in the chromophore absorption rather than redshifts....

  12. Modelling absorption and photoluminescence of TPD

    Vragovic, Igor [Dpto. de Fisica Aplicada and Inst. Universitario de Materiales de Alicante, Universidad de Alicante, E-03080 Alicante (Spain)], E-mail:; Calzado, Eva M.; Diaz Garcia, Maria A.; Himcinschi, C. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Mikrostrukturphysik, D-06120 Halle (Germany); Gisslen, L.; Scholz, R. [Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany)


    We analyse the optical spectra of N,N{sup '}-diphenyl-N,N{sup '}-bis(3-methyl-phenyl)-(1,1{sup '}-biphenyl)-4,4{sup '}-diamine (TPD) doped polystyrene films. The aim of the present paper is to give a microscopic interpretation of the significant Stokes shift between absorption and photoluminescence, which makes this material suitable for stimulated emission. The optimized geometric structures and energies of a neutral TPD monomer in ground and excited states are obtained by ab initio calculations using Hartree-Fock and density functional theory. The results indicate that the second distinct peak observed in absorption may arise either from a group of higher electronic transitions of the monomer or from the lowest optical transitions of a TPD dimer.

  13. Marginal linearization method in modeling on fuzzy control systems


    Marginal linearization method in modeling on fuzzy control systems is proposed, which is to deal with the nonlinear model with variable coefficients. The method can turn a nonlinear model with variable coefficients into a linear model with variable coefficients in the way that the membership functions of the fuzzy sets in fuzzy partitions of the universes are changed from triangle waves into rectangle waves. However, the linearization models are incomplete in their forms because of their lacking some items. For solving this problem, joint approximation by using linear models is introduced. The simulation results show that marginal linearization models are of higher approximation precision than their original nonlinear models.

  14. Compact characterization of liquid absorption and emission spectra using linear variable filters integrated with a CMOS imaging camera

    Wan, Yuhang; Carlson, John A.; Kesler, Benjamin A.; Peng, Wang; Su, Patrick; Al-Mulla, Saoud A.; Lim, Sung Jun; Smith, Andrew M.; Dallesasse, John M.; Cunningham, Brian T.


    A compact analysis platform for detecting liquid absorption and emission spectra using a set of optical linear variable filters atop a CMOS image sensor is presented. The working spectral range of the analysis platform can be extended without a reduction in spectral resolution by utilizing multiple linear variable filters with different wavelength ranges on the same CMOS sensor. With optical setup reconfiguration, its capability to measure both absorption and fluorescence emission is demonstrated. Quantitative detection of fluorescence emission down to 0.28 nM for quantum dot dispersions and 32 ng/mL for near-infrared dyes has been demonstrated on a single platform over a wide spectral range, as well as an absorption-based water quality test, showing the versatility of the system across liquid solutions for different emission and absorption bands. Comparison with a commercially available portable spectrometer and an optical spectrum analyzer shows our system has an improved signal-to-noise ratio and acceptable spectral resolution for discrimination of emission spectra, and characterization of colored liquid’s absorption characteristics generated by common biomolecular assays. This simple, compact, and versatile analysis platform demonstrates a path towards an integrated optical device that can be utilized for a wide variety of applications in point-of-use testing and point-of-care diagnostics.

  15. Linear models in the mathematics of uncertainty

    Mordeson, John N; Clark, Terry D; Pham, Alex; Redmond, Michael A


    The purpose of this book is to present new mathematical techniques for modeling global issues. These mathematical techniques are used to determine linear equations between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables in cases where standard techniques such as linear regression are not suitable. In this book, we examine cases where the number of data points is small (effects of nuclear warfare), where the experiment is not repeatable (the breakup of the former Soviet Union), and where the data is derived from expert opinion (how conservative is a political party). In all these cases the data  is difficult to measure and an assumption of randomness and/or statistical validity is questionable.  We apply our methods to real world issues in international relations such as  nuclear deterrence, smart power, and cooperative threat reduction. We next apply our methods to issues in comparative politics such as successful democratization, quality of life, economic freedom, political stability, and fail...

  16. Interacting Dark Energy Models -- Scalar Linear Perturbations

    Perico, E L D


    We extend the dark sector interacting models assuming the dark energy as the sum of independent contributions $\\rho_{\\Lambda} =\\sum_i\\rho_{\\Lambda i}$, associated with (and interacting with) each of the $i$ material species. We derive the linear scalar perturbations for two interacting dark energy scenarios, modeling its cosmic evolution and identifying their different imprints in the CMB and matter power spectrum. Our treatment was carried out for two phenomenological motivated expressions of the dark energy density, $\\rho_\\Lambda(H^2)$ and $\\rho_\\Lambda(R)$. The $\\rho_\\Lambda(H^2)$ description turned out to be a full interacting model, i.e., the dark energy interacts with everyone material species in the universe, whereas the $\\rho_\\Lambda(R)$ description only leads to interactions between dark energy and the non-relativistic matter components; which produces different imprints of the two models on the matter power spectrum. A comparison with the Planck 2015 data was made in order to constrain the free para...

  17. Non-Linear Sigma Model on Conifolds

    Parthasarathy, R


    Explicit solutions to the conifold equations with complex dimension $n=3,4$ in terms of {\\it{complex coordinates (fields)}} are employed to construct the Ricci-flat K\\"{a}hler metrics on these manifolds. The K\\"{a}hler 2-forms are found to be closed. The complex realization of these conifold metrics are used in the construction of 2-dimensional non-linear sigma model with the conifolds as target spaces. The action for the sigma model is shown to be bounded from below. By a suitable choice of the 'integration constants', arising in the solution of Ricci flatness requirement, the metric and the equations of motion are found to be {\\it{non-singular}}. As the target space is Ricci flat, the perturbative 1-loop counter terms being absent, the model becomes topological. The inherent U(1) fibre over the base of the conifolds is shown to correspond to a gauge connection in the sigma model. The same procedure is employed to construct the metric for the resolved conifold, in terms of complex coordinates and the action ...

  18. Proposing a model for absorption capacity of technology

    Hossein Gholizadeh


    Full Text Available Absorption capacity of knowledge is the concept which is been introduced in this situation. This phenomenon describes why some countries are in a better condition with a view to technology. Many countries believe that the power to stay in the battle and excel other competitors directly depends on their abilities in taking knowledge. Many countries have used their technological gap with developed countries as an accelerator for improving their absorption capacity. In this study, authors tried to produce a complete definition for absorption capacity through analyzing different research. Then with using expert opinions, a categorization for dimensions of absorption capacity will be prepared by using the structural equation modeling analysis, and finally a model for measuring absorption capacity is suggested. The results show effective dimensions in 5 different section. Studies depict that the most important one is keeping which could be a fundamental for long-term policies of 1404.

  19. Distributed static linear Gaussian models using consensus.

    Belanovic, Pavle; Valcarcel Macua, Sergio; Zazo, Santiago


    Algorithms for distributed agreement are a powerful means for formulating distributed versions of existing centralized algorithms. We present a toolkit for this task and show how it can be used systematically to design fully distributed algorithms for static linear Gaussian models, including principal component analysis, factor analysis, and probabilistic principal component analysis. These algorithms do not rely on a fusion center, require only low-volume local (1-hop neighborhood) communications, and are thus efficient, scalable, and robust. We show how they are also guaranteed to asymptotically converge to the same solution as the corresponding existing centralized algorithms. Finally, we illustrate the functioning of our algorithms on two examples, and examine the inherent cost-performance trade-off.

  20. F-theory and linear sigma models

    Bershadsky, M.; Johansen, A. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Lyman Lab. of Physics; Chiang, T.M. [Newman Laboratory of Nuclear Studies, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850 (United States); Greene, B.R.; Lazaroiu, C.I. [Departments of Physics and Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States)


    We present an explicit method for translating between the linear sigma model and the spectral cover description of SU(r) stable bundles over an elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau manifold. We use this to investigate the four-dimensional duality between (0,2) heterotic and F-theory compactifications. We indirectly find that much interesting heterotic information must be contained in the `spectral bundle` and in its dual description as a gauge theory on multiple F-theory 7-branes. A by-product of these efforts is a method for analyzing semistability and the splitting type of vector bundles over an elliptic curve given as the sheaf cohomology of a monad. (orig.) 24 refs.

  1. Testing Linear Models for Ability Parameters in Item Response Models

    Glas, Cees A.W.; Hendrawan, Irene


    Methods for testing hypotheses concerning the regression parameters in linear models for the latent person parameters in item response models are presented. Three tests are outlined: A likelihood ratio test, a Lagrange multiplier test and a Wald test. The tests are derived in a marginal maximum like

  2. The General Linear Model as Structural Equation Modeling

    Graham, James M.


    Statistical procedures based on the general linear model (GLM) share much in common with one another, both conceptually and practically. The use of structural equation modeling path diagrams as tools for teaching the GLM as a body of connected statistical procedures is presented. A heuristic data set is used to demonstrate a variety of univariate…

  3. Estimation of the Human Absorption Cross Section Via Reverberation Models

    Steinböck, Gerhard; Pedersen, Troels; Fleury, Bernard Henri;


    Since the presence of persons affects the reverberation time observed for in-room channels, the absorption cross section of a person can be estimated from measurements via Sabine's and Eyring's models for the reverberation time. We propose an estimator relying on the more accurate model by Eyring...... and compare the obtained results to those of Sabine's model. We find that the absorption by persons is large enough to be measured with a wideband channel sounder and that estimates of the human absorption cross section differ for the two models. The obtained values are comparable to values reported...... in the literature. We also suggest the use of controlled environments with low average absorption coefficients to obtain more reliable estimates. The obtained values can be used to predict the change of reverberation time with persons in the propagation environment. This allows prediction of channel characteristics...

  4. Thurstonian models for sensory discrimination tests as generalized linear models

    Brockhoff, Per B.; Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen


    Sensory discrimination tests such as the triangle, duo-trio, 2-AFC and 3-AFC tests produce binary data and the Thurstonian decision rule links the underlying sensory difference 6 to the observed number of correct responses. In this paper it is shown how each of these four situations can be viewed...... as a so-called generalized linear model. The underlying sensory difference 6 becomes directly a parameter of the statistical model and the estimate d' and it's standard error becomes the "usual" output of the statistical analysis. The d' for the monadic A-NOT A method is shown to appear as a standard...... linear contrast in a generalized linear model using the probit link function. All methods developed in the paper are implemented in our free R-package sensR ( This includes the basic power and sample size calculations for these four discrimination tests...

  5. Assessment of Linear and Non-Linear Two-Equation Turbulence Models for Aerothermal Turbomachinery Flows

    Pascale KULISA; Cédric DANO


    Three linear two-equation turbulence models k- ε, k- ω and k- 1 and a non-linear k- l model are used for aerodynamic and thermal turbine flow prediction. The pressure profile in the wake and the heat transfer coefficient on the blade are compared with experimental data. Good agreement is obtained with the linear k- l model. No significant modifications are observed with the non-linear model. The balance of transport equation terms in the blade wake is also presented. Linear and non-linear k- l models are evaluated to predict the threedimensional vortices characterising the turbine flows. The simulations show that the passage vortex is the main origin of the losses.

  6. High-resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry: Linearization of the calibration curves within a broad concentration range

    Katskov, Dmitri, E-mail: [Tshwane University of Technology, Chemistry Department, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Hlongwane, Miranda [Tshwane University of Technology, Chemistry Department, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Heitmann, Uwe [German Aerospace Center, Rose-Luxemburg Str. 2, 10178 Berlin (Germany); Florek, Stefan [ISAS-Leibniz-Institut fuer Analytische Wissenschaften e.V., Albert-Einstein-Str. 9,12489 Berlin (Germany)


    The calculation algorithm suggested provides linearization of the calibration curves in high-resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The algorithm is based on the modification of the function wavelength-integrated absorbance vs. concentration of analyte vapor in the absorption volume. According to the suggested approach, the absorption line is represented by a triangle for low and trapezium for high analyte vapor concentration in the absorption volume. The respective semi-empirical formulas include two linearization parameters, which depend on properties of the absorption line and characteristics of the atomizer and spectrometer. The parameters can be approximately evaluated from the theory and determined in practice from the original broad-range calibration curve. The parameters were found and the proposed calculation algorithm verified in the experiments on direct determination of Ag, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn and Pb in the solutions within a concentration ranges from 0.15 to 625 {mu}g{center_dot}L{sup -1} using tube, platform tube and filter furnace atomizers. The use of various atomizers, lines, elements and atomization temperatures made possible the simulation of various practical analytical conditions. It was found that the algorithm and optimal linearization parameters made it possible to obtain for each line and atomizer linear approximations of the calibration curves within 3-4 orders of magnitude with correlation coefficients close to 0.999. The algorithm makes possible to employ a single line for the direct element determination over a broad concentration range. The sources of errors and the possibility of a priori theoretical evaluation of the linearization parameters are discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New calculation algorithm for HR-CS ET AAS measurements was proposed and applied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The suggested formulas include two parameters to be determined experimentally. Black

  7. Hierarchical linear regression models for conditional quantiles

    TIAN Maozai; CHEN Gemai


    The quantile regression has several useful features and therefore is gradually developing into a comprehensive approach to the statistical analysis of linear and nonlinear response models,but it cannot deal effectively with the data with a hierarchical structure.In practice,the existence of such data hierarchies is neither accidental nor ignorable,it is a common phenomenon.To ignore this hierarchical data structure risks overlooking the importance of group effects,and may also render many of the traditional statistical analysis techniques used for studying data relationships invalid.On the other hand,the hierarchical models take a hierarchical data structure into account and have also many applications in statistics,ranging from overdispersion to constructing min-max estimators.However,the hierarchical models are virtually the mean regression,therefore,they cannot be used to characterize the entire conditional distribution of a dependent variable given high-dimensional covariates.Furthermore,the estimated coefficient vector (marginal effects)is sensitive to an outlier observation on the dependent variable.In this article,a new approach,which is based on the Gauss-Seidel iteration and taking a full advantage of the quantile regression and hierarchical models,is developed.On the theoretical front,we also consider the asymptotic properties of the new method,obtaining the simple conditions for an n1/2-convergence and an asymptotic normality.We also illustrate the use of the technique with the real educational data which is hierarchical and how the results can be explained.

  8. Non linear behaviour of cell tensegrity models

    Alippi, A.; Bettucci, A.; Biagioni, A.; Conclusio, D.; D'Orazio, A.; Germano, M.; Passeri, D.


    Tensegrity models for the cytoskeleton structure of living cells is largely used nowadays for interpreting the biochemical response of living tissues to mechanical stresses. Microtubules, microfilaments and filaments are the microscopic cell counterparts of struts (microtubules) and cables (microfilaments and filaments) in the macroscopic world: the formers oppose to compression, the latters to tension, thus yielding an overall structure, light and highly deformable. Specific cell surface receptors, such as integrins, act as the coupling elements that transmit the outside mechanical stress state into the cell body. Reversible finite deformations of tensegrity structures have been widely demonstrated experimentally and in a number of living cell simulations. In the present paper, the bistability behaviour of two general models, the linear bar oscillator and the icosahedron, is studied, as they are both obtained from mathematical simulation, the former, and from larger scale experiments, the latter. The discontinuity in the frequency response of the oscillation amplitude and the lateral bending of the resonance curves are put in evidence, as it grows larger as the driving amplitude increases, respectively.

  9. Examination of the relationship between riometer-derived absorption and the integral proton flux in the context of modeling polar cap absorption

    Fiori, R. A. D.; Danskin, D. W.


    Energetic protons can penetrate into the ionosphere increasing ionization in the D region causing polar cap absorption that may potentially block high-frequency radio communications for transpolar flights. The protons are guided by the geomagnetic field into the high-latitude polar cap region. Riometers monitor variations in ionospheric absorption by observing the level of background cosmic radio noise. Current polar cap absorption modeling techniques are based on the linear relationship between absorption and the square root of the integral proton flux, which has previously only been demonstrated using data from a single high-latitude polar station. The proportionality constant describing this relationship is evaluated for two different polar cap absorption events occurring 7-11 March 2012 and 23 January 2012 to 1 February 2012. Examination of the proportionality constant using data from riometers distributed between 60° and 90° magnetic latitude reveals a previously unreported latitudinal dependence for data at magnetic latitudes of ≤66.8° on the dayside and ≤70.8° on the nightside. Incorporating the latitudinal dependence into the current D Region Absorption Prediction absorption model improves the agreement between measurement-derived and modeled parameters by increasing the correlation coefficient between data sets, reducing the root-mean-square error, and reducing the bias.

  10. Characterization of Photon-Counting Detector Responsivity for Non-Linear Two-Photon Absorption Process

    Sburlan, S. E.; Farr, W. H.


    Sub-band absorption at 1550 nm has been demonstrated and characterized on silicon Geiger mode detectors which normally would be expected to have no response at this wavelength. We compare responsivity measurements to singlephoton absorption for wavelengths slightly above the bandgap wavelength of silicon (approx. 1100 microns). One application for this low efficiency sub-band absorption is in deep space optical communication systems where it is desirable to track a 1030 nm uplink beacon on the same flight terminal detector array that monitors a 1550 nm downlink signal for pointingcontrol. The currently observed absorption at 1550 nm provides 60-70 dB of isolation compared to the response at 1064 nm, which is desirable to avoid saturation of the detector by scattered light from the downlink laser.

  11. Axioms and Models of Linear Logic

    Hesselink, Wim H.


    Girard's recent system of linear logic is presented in a way that avoids the two-level structure of formulae and sequents, and that minimises the number of primitive function symbols. A deduction theorem is proved concerning the classical implication as embedded in linear logic. The Hilbert-style ax

  12. Misaligned Image Integration With Local Linear Model.

    Baba, Tatsuya; Matsuoka, Ryo; Shirai, Keiichiro; Okuda, Masahiro


    We present a new image integration technique for a flash and long-exposure image pair to capture a dark scene without incurring blurring or noisy artifacts. Most existing methods require well-aligned images for the integration, which is often a burdensome restriction in practical use. We address this issue by locally transferring the colors of the flash images using a small fraction of the corresponding pixels in the long-exposure images. We formulate the image integration as a convex optimization problem with the local linear model. The proposed method makes it possible to integrate the color of the long-exposure image with the detail of the flash image without causing any harmful effects to its contrast, where we do not need perfect alignment between the images by virtue of our new integration principle. We show that our method successfully outperforms the state of the art in the image integration and reference-based color transfer for challenging misaligned data sets.

  13. Linearized Functional Minimization for Inverse Modeling

    Wohlberg, Brendt [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tartakovsky, Daniel M. [University of California, San Diego; Dentz, Marco [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, Barcelona, Spain


    Heterogeneous aquifers typically consist of multiple lithofacies, whose spatial arrangement significantly affects flow and transport. The estimation of these lithofacies is complicated by the scarcity of data and by the lack of a clear correlation between identifiable geologic indicators and attributes. We introduce a new inverse-modeling approach to estimate both the spatial extent of hydrofacies and their properties from sparse measurements of hydraulic conductivity and hydraulic head. Our approach is to minimize a functional defined on the vectors of values of hydraulic conductivity and hydraulic head fields defined on regular grids at a user-determined resolution. This functional is constructed to (i) enforce the relationship between conductivity and heads provided by the groundwater flow equation, (ii) penalize deviations of the reconstructed fields from measurements where they are available, and (iii) penalize reconstructed fields that are not piece-wise smooth. We develop an iterative solver for this functional that exploits a local linearization of the mapping from conductivity to head. This approach provides a computationally efficient algorithm that rapidly converges to a solution. A series of numerical experiments demonstrates the robustness of our approach.

  14. A Non-linearized PLS Model Based on Multivariate Dominant Factor for Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Measurements

    Wang, Zhe; Li, Lizhi; Ni, Weidou; Li, Zheng


    A multivariate dominant factor based non-linearized PLS model is proposed. The intensities of different lines were taken to construct a multivariate dominant factor model, which describes the dominant concentration information of the measured species. In constructing such a multivariate model, non-linear transformation of multi characteristic line intensities according to the physical mechanisms of lased induced plasma spectrum were made, combined with linear-correlation-based PLS method, to model the nonlinear self-absorption and inter-element interference effects. This enables the linear PLS method to describe non-linear relationship more accurately and provides the statistics-based PLS method with physical backgrounds. Moreover, a secondary PLS is applied utilizing the whole spectra information to further correct the model results. Experiments were conducted using standard brass samples. Taylor expansion was applied to make the nonlinear transformation to describe the self-absorption effect of Cu. Then, li...

  15. Analysis of linear trade models and relation to scale economies.

    Gomory, R E; Baumol, W J


    We discuss linear Ricardo models with a range of parameters. We show that the exact boundary of the region of equilibria of these models is obtained by solving a simple integer programming problem. We show that there is also an exact correspondence between many of the equilibria resulting from families of linear models and the multiple equilibria of economies of scale models.

  16. Water Transport Models of Moisture Absorption and Sweat Discharge Yarns

    WANG Fa-ming; ZHOU Xiao-hong; WANG Shan-yuan


    An important property of moisture absorption and sweat discharge yams is their water transport property. In the paper, two water transport models of moisture absorption and sweat discharge yams were developed to investigate the influence factors on their wicking rate. In parallel Column Pores Model, wicking rate is determined by the equivalent capillary radius R and length of the capillary tube L. In Pellets Accumulation Model, wicking rate is decided by the capillary radius r and length of the fiber unit assemble L0.

  17. Model averaging for semiparametric additive partial linear models


    To improve the prediction accuracy of semiparametric additive partial linear models(APLM) and the coverage probability of confidence intervals of the parameters of interest,we explore a focused information criterion for model selection among ALPM after we estimate the nonparametric functions by the polynomial spline smoothing,and introduce a general model average estimator.The major advantage of the proposed procedures is that iterative backfitting implementation is avoided,which thus results in gains in computational simplicity.The resulting estimators are shown to be asymptotically normal.A simulation study and a real data analysis are presented for illustrations.

  18. Admissibilities of linear estimator in a class of linear models with a multivariate t error variable


    This paper discusses admissibilities of estimators in a class of linear models,which include the following common models:the univariate and multivariate linear models,the growth curve model,the extended growth curve model,the seemingly unrelated regression equations,the variance components model,and so on.It is proved that admissible estimators of functions of the regression coefficient β in the class of linear models with multivariate t error terms,called as Model II,are also ones in the case that error terms have multivariate normal distribution under a strictly convex loss function or a matrix loss function.It is also proved under Model II that the usual estimators of β are admissible for p 2 with a quadratic loss function,and are admissible for any p with a matrix loss function,where p is the dimension of β.

  19. Investigation of linear optical absorption coefficients in core-shell quantum dot (QD) luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs)

    Ebrahimipour, Bahareh Alsadat; Askari, Hassan Ranjbar; Ramezani, Ali Behjat


    The interlevel absorption coefficient of CdSe/ZnS and ZnS/CdSe core-shell Quantum Dot (QD) in luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) is reported. By considering the quantum confinement effects, the wave functions and eigenenergies of electrons in the nonperturebative system consists of a core-shell QD have been numerically calculated under the frame work of effective-mass approximation by solving a three-dimensional Schrӧdinger equation. And then the absorption coefficient is obtained under density matrix approximation considering in the polymer sheets of the concentrator including the core-shell QDs. The effect of the hetero-structure geometry upon the energy spectrum and absorption coefficient associated to interlevel transitions was also considered. The results show that the core-shell QDs can absorb the photons with higher energy in solar spectrum as compared to the inverted core-shell. And with a small shell layer diameter, the core-shell QDs produce larger linear absorption coefficients and consequently higher efficiency values, however it is inversed for inverted core-shell QDs. The work described here gives a detailed insight into the promise of QD-based LSCs and the optoelectronic devices applications.

  20. Linear Factor Models and the Estimation of Expected Returns

    Sarisoy, Cisil; de Goeij, Peter; Werker, Bas


    Linear factor models of asset pricing imply a linear relationship between expected returns of assets and exposures to one or more sources of risk. We show that exploiting this linear relationship leads to statistical gains of up to 31% in variances when estimating expected returns on individual asse

  1. Linear control theory for gene network modeling.

    Shin, Yong-Jun; Bleris, Leonidas


    Systems biology is an interdisciplinary field that aims at understanding complex interactions in cells. Here we demonstrate that linear control theory can provide valuable insight and practical tools for the characterization of complex biological networks. We provide the foundation for such analyses through the study of several case studies including cascade and parallel forms, feedback and feedforward loops. We reproduce experimental results and provide rational analysis of the observed behavior. We demonstrate that methods such as the transfer function (frequency domain) and linear state-space (time domain) can be used to predict reliably the properties and transient behavior of complex network topologies and point to specific design strategies for synthetic networks.

  2. Sub-bandgap linear-absorption-based photodetectors in avalanche mode in PN-diode-integrated silicon microring resonators.

    Li, Yu; Feng, Shaoqi; Zhang, Yu; Poon, Andrew W


    We report a sub-bandgap linear-absorption-based photodetector in avalanche mode at 1550 nm in a PN-diode-integrated silicon microring resonator. The photocurrent is primarily generated by the defect-state absorption introduced by the boron and phosphorous ion implantation during the PN diode formation. The responsivity is enhanced by both the cavity effect and the avalanche multiplication. We measure a responsivity of ~72.8 mA/W upon 8 V at cavity resonances in avalanche mode, corresponding to a gain of ~72 relative to the responsivity of ~1.0 mA/W upon 3 V at cavity resonances in normal mode. Our device exhibits a 3 dB bandwidth of ~7 GHz and an open eye diagram at 15 Gbit/s upon 8 V.

  3. Generalised linear models for correlated pseudo-observations, with applications to multi-state models

    Andersen, Per Kragh; Klein, John P.; Rosthøj, Susanne


    Generalised estimating equation; Generalised linear model; Jackknife pseudo-value; Logistic regression; Markov Model; Multi-state model......Generalised estimating equation; Generalised linear model; Jackknife pseudo-value; Logistic regression; Markov Model; Multi-state model...

  4. Models to predict intestinal absorption of therapeutic peptides and proteins.

    Antunes, Filipa; Andrade, Fernanda; Ferreira, Domingos; Nielsen, Hanne Morck; Sarmento, Bruno


    Prediction of human intestinal absorption is a major goal in the design, optimization, and selection of drugs intended for oral delivery, in particular proteins, which possess intrinsic poor transport across intestinal epithelium. There are various techniques currently employed to evaluate the extension of protein absorption in the different phases of drug discovery and development. Screening protocols to evaluate protein absorption include a range of preclinical methodologies like in silico, in vitro, in situ, ex vivo and in vivo. It is the careful and critical use of these techniques that can help to identify drug candidates, which most probably will be well absorbed from the human intestinal tract. It is well recognized that the human intestinal permeability cannot be accurately predicted based on a single preclinical method. However, the present social and scientific concerns about the animal well care as well as the pharmaceutical industries need for rapid, cheap and reliable models predicting bioavailability give reasons for using methods providing an appropriate correlation between results of in vivo and in vitro drug absorption. The aim of this review is to describe and compare in silico, in vitro, in situ, ex vivo and in vivo methods used to predict human intestinal absorption, giving a special attention to the intestinal absorption of therapeutic peptides and proteins.

  5. Error Control of Iterative Linear Solvers for Integrated Groundwater Models

    Dixon, Matthew; Brush, Charles; Chung, Francis; Dogrul, Emin; Kadir, Tariq


    An open problem that arises when using modern iterative linear solvers, such as the preconditioned conjugate gradient (PCG) method or Generalized Minimum RESidual method (GMRES) is how to choose the residual tolerance in the linear solver to be consistent with the tolerance on the solution error. This problem is especially acute for integrated groundwater models which are implicitly coupled to another model, such as surface water models, and resolve both multiple scales of flow and temporal interaction terms, giving rise to linear systems with variable scaling. This article uses the theory of 'forward error bound estimation' to show how rescaling the linear system affects the correspondence between the residual error in the preconditioned linear system and the solution error. Using examples of linear systems from models developed using the USGS GSFLOW package and the California State Department of Water Resources' Integrated Water Flow Model (IWFM), we observe that this error bound guides the choice of a prac...


    ZHAO Lincheng; ZHANG Hong


    In this paper, we propose an information-theoretic-criterion-based model selection procedure for log-linear model of contingency tables under multinomial sampling, and establish the strong consistency of the method under some mild conditions. An exponential bound of miss detection probability is also obtained. The selection procedure is modified so that it can be used in practice. Simulation shows that the modified method is valid. To avoid selecting the penalty coefficient in the information criteria, an alternative selection procedure is given.

  7. Estimation of non-linear growth models by linearization: a simulation study using a Gompertz function.

    Vuori, Kaarina; Strandén, Ismo; Sevón-Aimonen, Marja-Liisa; Mäntysaari, Esa A


    A method based on Taylor series expansion for estimation of location parameters and variance components of non-linear mixed effects models was considered. An attractive property of the method is the opportunity for an easily implemented algorithm. Estimation of non-linear mixed effects models can be done by common methods for linear mixed effects models, and thus existing programs can be used after small modifications. The applicability of this algorithm in animal breeding was studied with simulation using a Gompertz function growth model in pigs. Two growth data sets were analyzed: a full set containing observations from the entire growing period, and a truncated time trajectory set containing animals slaughtered prematurely, which is common in pig breeding. The results from the 50 simulation replicates with full data set indicate that the linearization approach was capable of estimating the original parameters satisfactorily. However, estimation of the parameters related to adult weight becomes unstable in the case of a truncated data set.

  8. A dynamic model of digestion and absorption in pigs

    Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Danfær, Allan Christian; Chwalibog, Andrzej


    The paper describes and evaluates the construction of a mathematical model to study the kinetics of digestion and absorption in growing pigs. The core of the model is based on a compartmental structure, which divides the gastro-intestinal tract into four anatomical segments: the stomach, two part......, starch, sugars and dietary fibre. Besides a chemical description of the feed, the model further requires information about daily dry matter intake and feeding frequency....

  9. An analytically linearized helicopter model with improved modeling accuracy

    Jensen, Patrick T.; Curtiss, H. C., Jr.; Mckillip, Robert M., Jr.


    An analytically linearized model for helicopter flight response including rotor blade dynamics and dynamic inflow, that was recently developed, was studied with the objective of increasing the understanding, the ease of use, and the accuracy of the model. The mathematical model is described along with a description of the UH-60A Black Hawk helicopter and flight test used to validate the model. To aid in utilization of the model for sensitivity analysis, a new, faster, and more efficient implementation of the model was developed. It is shown that several errors in the mathematical modeling of the system caused a reduction in accuracy. These errors in rotor force resolution, trim force and moment calculation, and rotor inertia terms were corrected along with improvements to the programming style and documentation. Use of a trim input file to drive the model is examined. Trim file errors in blade twist, control input phase angle, coning and lag angles, main and tail rotor pitch, and uniform induced velocity, were corrected. Finally, through direct comparison of the original and corrected model responses to flight test data, the effect of the corrections on overall model output is shown.

  10. 3D Object Recognition Based on Linear Lie Algebra Model

    LI Fang-xing; WU Ping-dong; SUN Hua-fei; PENG Lin-yu


    A surface model called the fibre bundle model and a 3D object model based on linear Lie algebra model are proposed.Then an algorithm of 3D object recognition using the linear Lie algebra models is presented.It is a convenient recognition method for the objects which are symmetric about some axis.By using the presented algorithm,the representation matrices of the fibre or the base curve from only finite points of the linear Lie algebra model can be obtained.At last some recognition results of practicalities are given.

  11. General linear matrix model, Minkowski spacetime and the Standard Model

    Belyea, Chris


    The Hermitian matrix model with general linear symmetry is argued to decouple into a finite unitary matrix model that contains metastable multidimensional lattice configurations and a fermion determinant. The simplest metastable state is a Hermitian Weyl kinetic operator of either handedness on a 3+1 D lattice with general nonlocal interactions. The Hermiticity produces 16 effective Weyl fermions by species doubling, 8 left- and 8 right-handed. These are identified with a Standard Model generation. Only local non-anomalous gauge fields within the soup of general fluctuations can survive at long distances, and the degrees of freedom for gauge fields of an $SU(8)_L X SU(8)_R$ GUT are present. Standard Model gauge symmetries associate with particular species symmetries, for example change of QCD color associates with permutation of doubling status amongst space directions. Vierbein gravity is probably also generated. While fundamental Higgs fields are not possible, low fermion current masses can arise from chira...

  12. Model Identification of Linear Parameter Varying Aircraft Systems

    Fujimore, Atsushi; Ljung, Lennart


    This article presents a parameter estimation of continuous-time polytopic models for a linear parameter varying (LPV) system. The prediction error method of linear time invariant (LTI) models is modified for polytopic models. The modified prediction error method is applied to an LPV aircraft system whose varying parameter is the flight velocity and model parameters are the stability and control derivatives (SCDs). In an identification simulation, the polytopic model is more suitable for expre...

  13. Quantification and parametrization of non-linearity effects by higher-order sensitivity terms in scattered light differential optical absorption spectroscopy

    J. Puķīte; T. Wagner


    We address the application of differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) of scattered light observations in the presence of strong absorbers (in particular ozone), for which the absorption optical depth is a non-linear function of the trace gas concentration. This is the case because Beer–Lambert law generally does not hold for scattered light measurements due to many light paths contributing to the measurement. While in many cases linear approximation can be made, ...

  14. A Note on the Identifiability of Generalized Linear Mixed Models

    Labouriau, Rodrigo


    I present here a simple proof that, under general regularity conditions, the standard parametrization of generalized linear mixed model is identifiable. The proof is based on the assumptions of generalized linear mixed models on the first and second order moments and some general mild regularity ...... conditions, and, therefore, is extensible to quasi-likelihood based generalized linear models. In particular, binomial and Poisson mixed models with dispersion parameter are identifiable when equipped with the standard parametrization......I present here a simple proof that, under general regularity conditions, the standard parametrization of generalized linear mixed model is identifiable. The proof is based on the assumptions of generalized linear mixed models on the first and second order moments and some general mild regularity...

  15. Model predicting impact of complexation with cyclodextrins on oral absorption.

    Gamsiz, Ece D; Thombre, Avinash G; Ahmed, Imran; Carrier, Rebecca L


    Significant effort and resource expenditure is dedicated to enabling low-solubility oral drug delivery using solubilization technologies. Cyclodextrins (CD) are cyclic oligosaccharides which form inclusion complexes with many drugs and are often used as solubilizing agents. It is not clear prior to developing a drug delivery device with CD what level of absorption enhancement might be achieved; modeling can provide useful guidance in formulation and minimize resource intensive iterative formulation development. A model was developed to enable quantitative, dynamic prediction of the influence of CD on oral absorption of low solubility drug administered as a pre-formed complex. The predominant effects of CD considered were enhancement of dissolution and slowing of precipitation kinetics, as well as binding of free drug in solution. Simulation results with different parameter values reflective of typical drug and CD properties indicate a potential positive (up to five times increase in drug absorption), negative (up to 50% decrease in absorption) or lack of effect of CD. Comparison of model predictions with in vitro and in vivo experimental results indicate that a systems-based dynamic model incorporating CD complexation and key process kinetics may enable quantitative prediction of impact of CD delivered as a pre-formed complex on drug bioavailability.

  16. Theoretical modeling of the absorption spectrum of aqueous riboflavin

    Zanetti-Polzi, Laura; Aschi, Massimiliano; Daidone, Isabella; Amadei, Andrea


    In this study we report the modeling of the absorption spectrum of riboflavin in water using a hybrid quantum/classical mechanical approach, the MD-PMM methodology. By means of MD-PMM calculations, with which the effect of riboflavin internal motions and of solvent interactions on the spectroscopic properties can be explicitly taken into account, we obtain an absorption spectrum in very good agreement with the experimental spectrum. In particular, the calculated peak maxima show a consistent improvement with respect to previous computational approaches. Moreover, the calculations show that the interaction with the environment may cause a relevant recombination of the gas-phase electronic states.

  17. Applications of the Linear Logistic Test Model in Psychometric Research

    Kubinger, Klaus D.


    The linear logistic test model (LLTM) breaks down the item parameter of the Rasch model as a linear combination of some hypothesized elementary parameters. Although the original purpose of applying the LLTM was primarily to generate test items with specified item difficulty, there are still many other potential applications, which may be of use…

  18. A linear model of population dynamics

    Lushnikov, A. A.; Kagan, A. I.


    The Malthus process of population growth is reformulated in terms of the probability w(n,t) to find exactly n individuals at time t assuming that both the birth and the death rates are linear functions of the population size. The master equation for w(n,t) is solved exactly. It is shown that w(n,t) strongly deviates from the Poisson distribution and is expressed in terms either of Laguerre’s polynomials or a modified Bessel function. The latter expression allows for considerable simplifications of the asymptotic analysis of w(n,t).

  19. Modelling point patterns with linear structures

    Møller, Jesper; Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl

    Many observed spatial point patterns contain points placed roughly on line segments. Point patterns exhibiting such structures can be found for example in archaeology (locations of bronze age graves in Denmark) and geography (locations of mountain tops). We consider a particular class of point...... processes whose realizations contain such linear structures. Such a point process is constructed sequentially by placing one point at a time. The points are placed in such a way that new points are often placed close to previously placed points, and the points form roughly line shaped structures. We...

  20. Modelling point patterns with linear structures

    Møller, Jesper; Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl


    Many observed spatial point patterns contain points placed roughly on line segments. Point patterns exhibiting such structures can be found for example in archaeology (locations of bronze age graves in Denmark) and geography (locations of mountain tops). We consider a particular class of point...... processes whose realizations contain such linear structures. Such a point process is constructed sequentially by placing one point at a time. The points are placed in such a way that new points are often placed close to previously placed points, and the points form roughly line shaped structures. We...

  1. Injecting Abstract Interpretations into Linear Cost Models

    David Cachera


    Full Text Available We present a semantics based framework for analysing the quantitative behaviour of programs with regard to resource usage. We start from an operational semantics equipped with costs. The dioid structure of the set of costs allows for defining the quantitative semantics as a linear operator. We then present an abstraction technique inspired from abstract interpretation in order to effectively compute global cost information from the program. Abstraction has to take two distinct notions of order into account: the order on costs and the order on states. We show that our abstraction technique provides a correct approximation of the concrete cost computations.

  2. Latent log-linear models for handwritten digit classification.

    Deselaers, Thomas; Gass, Tobias; Heigold, Georg; Ney, Hermann


    We present latent log-linear models, an extension of log-linear models incorporating latent variables, and we propose two applications thereof: log-linear mixture models and image deformation-aware log-linear models. The resulting models are fully discriminative, can be trained efficiently, and the model complexity can be controlled. Log-linear mixture models offer additional flexibility within the log-linear modeling framework. Unlike previous approaches, the image deformation-aware model directly considers image deformations and allows for a discriminative training of the deformation parameters. Both are trained using alternating optimization. For certain variants, convergence to a stationary point is guaranteed and, in practice, even variants without this guarantee converge and find models that perform well. We tune the methods on the USPS data set and evaluate on the MNIST data set, demonstrating the generalization capabilities of our proposed models. Our models, although using significantly fewer parameters, are able to obtain competitive results with models proposed in the literature.

  3. Multivariate statistical modelling based on generalized linear models

    Fahrmeir, Ludwig


    This book is concerned with the use of generalized linear models for univariate and multivariate regression analysis. Its emphasis is to provide a detailed introductory survey of the subject based on the analysis of real data drawn from a variety of subjects including the biological sciences, economics, and the social sciences. Where possible, technical details and proofs are deferred to an appendix in order to provide an accessible account for non-experts. Topics covered include: models for multi-categorical responses, model checking, time series and longitudinal data, random effects models, and state-space models. Throughout, the authors have taken great pains to discuss the underlying theoretical ideas in ways that relate well to the data at hand. As a result, numerous researchers whose work relies on the use of these models will find this an invaluable account to have on their desks. "The basic aim of the authors is to bring together and review a large part of recent advances in statistical modelling of m...

  4. A linear concentrating Fresnel collector driving a NH{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O absorption chiller

    Haeberle, A.; Luginsland, F.; Zahler, C.; Berger, M. [PSE GmbH, Freiburg (Germany); Rommel, M.; Henning, H.M. [Fraunhofer ISE, Freiburg (Germany); Guerra, M.; Paoli, F. De [Robur S.p.A., Verdellino/Zingonia (Italy); Motta, M.; Aprile, M. [Politecnico di Milano (Italy)


    With linear Fresnel collectors it is possible to provide process heat up to 200 C using a pressurized water circuit for heat transfer and therefore they are perfectly suited to power efficient absorption chillers. The tests and measurements at the solar cooling system in Bergamo show that this prototype of the PSE Fresnel collector can provide temperatures of 180 C with an efficiency of approx. 40% with respect to DNI. The system is working stable since one year. Enhancement potential has been identified at the receiver and the thermal capacities of the system. This year in October PSE will install a Fresnel collector with a primary mirror area of 352m{sup 3} and a length of 64 m on the roof of the faculty of engineering at the University of Seville, Spain. This collector with a thermal peak power of approx. 176 kW will drive a double effect H{sub 2}O/LiBr absorption chiller with a maximum cooling power of 174 kW which will be used for air-conditioning of this building. At this site the wet-cooling tower for heat rejection, which is usually necessary for H{sub 2}O/LiBr absorption chillers, will be substituted by a water heat exchanger fed by water out of the nearby river Guadalquivir. The double effect absorption chiller offers a high COP which makes this system a further attractive application of solar process heat for solar thermal cooling. PSE plans to offer its FRESNEL process heat collector in 2008 commercially for solar process heat applications. The development of the PSE Fresnel process heat collector war partially funded by Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt. (orig.)

  5. The Optimal Linear Combination of Multiple Predictors Under the Generalized Linear Models.

    Jin, Hua; Lu, Ying


    Multiple alternative diagnostic tests for one disease are commonly available to clinicians. It's important to use all the good diagnostic predictors simultaneously to establish a new predictor with higher statistical utility. Under the generalized linear model for binary outcomes, the linear combination of multiple predictors in the link function is proved optimal in the sense that the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of this combination is the largest among all possible linear combination. The result was applied to analysis of the data from the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF) with comparison to Su and Liu's approach.

  6. Compression-absorption (resorption) refrigerating machinery. Modeling of reactors; Machine frigorifique a compression-absorption (resorption). Modelisation des reacteurs

    Lottin, O.; Feidt, M.; Benelmir, R. [LEMTA-UHP Nancy-1, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)


    This paper is a series of transparencies presenting a comparative study of the thermal performances of different types of refrigerating machineries: di-thermal with vapor compression, tri-thermal with moto-compressor, with ejector, with free piston, adsorption-type, resorption-type, absorption-type, compression-absorption-type. A prototype of ammonia-water compression-absorption heat pump is presented and modeled. (J.S.)

  7. General expression for linear and nonlinear time series models

    Ren HUANG; Feiyun XU; Ruwen CHEN


    The typical time series models such as ARMA, AR, and MA are founded on the normality and stationarity of a system and expressed by a linear difference equation; therefore, they are strictly limited to the linear system. However, some nonlinear factors are within the practical system; thus, it is difficult to fit the model for real systems with the above models. This paper proposes a general expression for linear and nonlinear auto-regressive time series models (GNAR). With the gradient optimization method and modified AIC information criteria integrated with the prediction error, the parameter estimation and order determination are achieved. The model simulation and experiments show that the GNAR model can accurately approximate to the dynamic characteristics of the most nonlinear models applied in academics and engineering. The modeling and prediction accuracy of the GNAR model is superior to the classical time series models. The proposed GNAR model is flexible and effective.

  8. A Study of the Equivalence of the BLUEs between a Partitioned Singular Linear Model and Its Reduced Singular Linear Models

    Bao Xue ZHANG; Bai Sen LIU; Chang Yu LU


    Consider the partitioned linear regression model A = (y, X1β1 + X2β2, σ2V) and its four reduced linear models, where y is an n × 1 observable random vector with E(y) = Xβ and dispersion matrix Var(y) = σ2V, where σ2 is an unknown positive scalar, V is an n × n known symmetric nonnegative definite matrix, X = (X1: X2) is an n× (p+q) known design matrix with rank(X) = r ≤ (p+q),andβ = (β'1:β'2)' withβ1 andβ2 being p × 1 and q × 1 vectors of unknown parameters, respectively. In this article the formulae for the differences between the best linear unbiased estimators of M2X1β1under the model A and its best linear unbiased estimators under the reduced linear models of A are given,where M2 = I - X2X2+. Furthermore, the necessary and sufficient conditions for the equalities between the best linear unbiased estimators of M2X1β1 under the model A and those under its reduced linear models are established. Lastly, we also study the connections between the model A and its linear transformation model.

  9. Dynamic Model of Linear Induction Motor Considering the End Effects

    H. A. Hairik


    Full Text Available In this paper the dynamic behavior of linear induction motor is described by a mathematical model taking into account the end effects and the core losses. The need for such a model rises due to the complexity of linear induction motors electromagnetic field theory. The end affects by introducing speed dependent scale factor to the magnetizing inductance and series resistance in the d-axis equivalent circuit. Simulation results are presented to show the validity of the model during both no-load and sudden load change intervals. This model can also be used directly in simulation researches for linear induction motor vector control drive systems.

  10. Ray tracing and ECRH absorption modeling in the HSX stellarator

    Weir, G. M.; Likin, K. M.; Marushchenko, N. B.; Turkin, Y.


    To increase flexibility in ECRH experiments on the helically symmetric experiment (HSX), a second gyrotron and transmission line have been installed. The second antenna includes a steerable mirror for off-axis heating, and the launched power may be modulated for use in heat pulse propagation experiments. The extraordinary wave at the second harmonic of the electron gyrofrequency or the ordinary wave at the fundamental resonance are used for plasma start-up and heating on HSX. The tracing visualized ray tracing code (Marushchenko et al 2007 Plasma Fusion Res. 2 S1129) is used to estimate single-pass absorption and to model multi-pass wave damping in the three-dimensional HSX geometry. The single-pass absorption of the ordinary wave at the fundamental resonance is calculated to be as high as 30%, while measurements of the total absorption indicate that 45% of the launched power is absorbed. A multi-pass ray tracing model correctly predicts the experimental absorption and indicates that the launched power is absorbed within the plasma core (r/a≤slant 0.2 ).

  11. Computational Model of a Biomass Driven Absorption Refrigeration System

    Munyeowaji Mbikan


    Full Text Available The impact of vapour compression refrigeration is the main push for scientists to find an alternative sustainable technology. Vapour absorption is an ideal technology which makes use of waste heat or renewable heat, such as biomass, to drive absorption chillers from medium to large applications. In this paper, the aim was to investigate the feasibility of a biomass driven aqua-ammonia absorption system. An estimation of the solid biomass fuel quantity required to provide heat for the operation of a vapour absorption refrigeration cycle (VARC is presented; the quantity of biomass required depends on the fuel density and the efficiency of the combustion and heat transfer systems. A single-stage aqua-ammonia refrigeration system analysis routine was developed to evaluate the system performance and ascertain the rate of energy transfer required to operate the system, and hence, the biomass quantity needed. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the results of the performance of a computational model of an aqua-ammonia system under a range of parameters. The model showed good agreement with published experimental data.

  12. Linear Latent Force Models using Gaussian Processes

    Álvarez, Mauricio A; Lawrence, Neil D


    Purely data driven approaches for machine learning present difficulties when data is scarce relative to the complexity of the model or when the model is forced to extrapolate. On the other hand, purely mechanistic approaches need to identify and specify all the interactions in the problem at hand (which may not be feasible) and still leave the issue of how to parameterize the system. In this paper, we present a hybrid approach using Gaussian processes and differential equations to combine data driven modelling with a physical model of the system. We show how different, physically-inspired, kernel functions can be developed through sensible, simple, mechanistic assumptions about the underlying system. The versatility of our approach is illustrated with three case studies from motion capture, computational biology and geostatistics.

  13. Linear latent variable models: the lava-package

    Holst, Klaus Kähler; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben


    An R package for specifying and estimating linear latent variable models is presented. The philosophy of the implementation is to separate the model specification from the actual data, which leads to a dynamic and easy way of modeling complex hierarchical structures. Several advanced features...... are implemented including robust standard errors for clustered correlated data, multigroup analyses, non-linear parameter constraints, inference with incomplete data, maximum likelihood estimation with censored and binary observations, and instrumental variable estimators. In addition an extensive simulation...

  14. Generalized Linear Models with Applications in Engineering and the Sciences

    Myers, Raymond H; Vining, G Geoffrey; Robinson, Timothy J


    Praise for the First Edition "The obvious enthusiasm of Myers, Montgomery, and Vining and their reliance on their many examples as a major focus of their pedagogy make Generalized Linear Models a joy to read. Every statistician working in any area of applied science should buy it and experience the excitement of these new approaches to familiar activities."-Technometrics Generalized Linear Models: With Applications in Engineering and the Sciences, Second Edition continues to provide a clear introduction to the theoretical foundations and key applications of generalized linear models (GLMs). Ma

  15. Model Reduction by Moment Matching for Linear Switched Systems

    Bastug, Mert; Petreczky, Mihaly; Wisniewski, Rafal;


    A moment-matching method for the model reduction of linear switched systems (LSSs) is developed. The method is based based upon a partial realization theory of LSSs and it is similar to the Krylov subspace methods used for moment matching for linear systems. The results are illustrated by numeric...

  16. Linear Factor Models and the Estimation of Expected Returns

    Sarisoy, Cisil; de Goeij, Peter; Werker, Bas


    Estimating expected returns on individual assets or portfolios is one of the most fundamental problems of finance research. The standard approach, using historical averages,produces noisy estimates. Linear factor models of asset pricing imply a linear relationship between expected returns and exposu

  17. Linear and Nonlinear Thinking: A Multidimensional Model and Measure

    Groves, Kevin S.; Vance, Charles M.


    Building upon previously developed and more general dual-process models, this paper provides empirical support for a multidimensional thinking style construct comprised of linear thinking and multiple dimensions of nonlinear thinking. A self-report assessment instrument (Linear/Nonlinear Thinking Style Profile; LNTSP) is presented and…

  18. Transient Response Model of Standing Wave Piezoelectric Linear Ultrasonic Motor

    SHI Yunlai; CHEN Chao; ZHAO Chunsheng


    A transient response model for describing the starting and stopping characteristics of the standing wave piezoelectric linear ultrasonic motor was presented.Based on the contact dynamic model,the kinetic equation of the motor was derived.The starting and stopping characteristics of the standing wave piezoelectric linear ultrasonic motor according to different loads,contact stiffness and inertia mass were described and analyzed,respectively.To validate the transient response model,a standing wave piezoelectric linear ultrasonic motor based on in-plane modes was used to carry out the simulation and experimental study.The corresponding results showed that the simulation of the motor performances based on the proposed model agreed well with the experimental results.This model will helpful to improve the stepping characteristics and the control flexibility of the standing wave piezoelectric linear ultrasonic motor.

  19. Bayesian Subset Modeling for High-Dimensional Generalized Linear Models

    Liang, Faming


    This article presents a new prior setting for high-dimensional generalized linear models, which leads to a Bayesian subset regression (BSR) with the maximum a posteriori model approximately equivalent to the minimum extended Bayesian information criterion model. The consistency of the resulting posterior is established under mild conditions. Further, a variable screening procedure is proposed based on the marginal inclusion probability, which shares the same properties of sure screening and consistency with the existing sure independence screening (SIS) and iterative sure independence screening (ISIS) procedures. However, since the proposed procedure makes use of joint information from all predictors, it generally outperforms SIS and ISIS in real applications. This article also makes extensive comparisons of BSR with the popular penalized likelihood methods, including Lasso, elastic net, SIS, and ISIS. The numerical results indicate that BSR can generally outperform the penalized likelihood methods. The models selected by BSR tend to be sparser and, more importantly, of higher prediction ability. In addition, the performance of the penalized likelihood methods tends to deteriorate as the number of predictors increases, while this is not significant for BSR. Supplementary materials for this article are available online. © 2013 American Statistical Association.

  20. Extended Linear Models with Gaussian Priors

    Quinonero, Joaquin


    on the parameters. The Relevance Vector Machine, introduced by Tipping, is a particular case of such a model. I give the detailed derivations of the expectation-maximisation (EM) algorithm used in the training. These derivations are not found in the literature, and might be helpful for newcomers....

  1. Random effect selection in generalised linear models

    Denwood, Matt; Houe, Hans; Forkman, Björn;

    We analysed abattoir recordings of meat inspection codes with possible relevance to onfarm animal welfare in cattle. Random effects logistic regression models were used to describe individual-level data obtained from 461,406 cattle slaughtered in Denmark. Our results demonstrate that the largest...

  2. Remark on: the neutron spherical optical-model absorption.

    Smith, A. B.; Nuclear Engineering Division


    The energy-dependent behavior of the absorption term of the spherical neutron optical potential for doubly magic {sup 208}Pb and the neighboring {sup 209}Bi is examined. These considerations suggest a phenomenological model that results in an intuitively attractive energy dependence of the imaginary potential that provides a good description of the observed neutron cross sections and that is qualitatively consistent with theoretical concepts. At the same time it provides an alternative to some of the arbitrary assumptions involved in many conventional optical-model interpretations reported in the literature and reduces the number of the parameters of the model.

  3. Cascaded process model based control: packed absorption column application.

    Govindarajan, Anand; Jayaraman, Suresh Kumar; Sethuraman, Vijayalakshmi; Raul, Pramod R; Rhinehart, R Russell


    Nonlinear, adaptive, process-model based control is demonstrated in a cascaded single-input-single-output mode for pressure drop control in a pilot-scale packed absorption column. The process is shown to be nonlinear. Control is demonstrated in both servo and regulatory modes, for no wind-up in a constrained situation, and for bumpless transfer. Model adaptation is demonstrated and shown to provide process insight. The application procedure is revealed as a design guide to aid others in implementing process-model based control.

  4. Circular and linear modeling of female sexual desire and arousal.

    Hayes, Richard D


    There is debate in the scientific literature regarding which model most accurately represents the female sexual response. Traditionally, sex research has been conducted within the framework of the linear sexual response model proposed by Masters and Johnson, modified by Kaplan, then Robinson. Criticism of linear models prompted the development of a composite model of the female sexual response by Basson et al., which included linear and circular pathways. This review aims to systematically assess published studies to determine the extent to which circular and linear models or pathways reflect the female sexual response. Medline, EMBASE, and PsychINFO databases were searched for original data papers and review articles. Inclusion criteria were that articles were published since 1990, in English, and compared linear and circular sexual response models or addressed aspects of these models. Reviews were required to be systematic and include a meta-analysis. Of the 898 studies identified through the initial literature search, 13 original studies and one review met the inclusion criteria. Two studies directly compared models providing limited evidence that most women identify with linear sexual response pathways. However, there is increasing evidence that circular pathways may accurately reflect some aspects of the female sexual response. Further comparative studies are encouraged.

  5. Spectroscopic determination of leaf biochemistry using band-depth analysis of absorption features and stepwise multiple linear regression

    Kokaly, R.F.; Clark, R.N.


    We develop a new method for estimating the biochemistry of plant material using spectroscopy. Normalized band depths calculated from the continuum-removed reflectance spectra of dried and ground leaves were used to estimate their concentrations of nitrogen, lignin, and cellulose. Stepwise multiple linear regression was used to select wavelengths in the broad absorption features centered at 1.73 ??m, 2.10 ??m, and 2.30 ??m that were highly correlated with the chemistry of samples from eastern U.S. forests. Band depths of absorption features at these wavelengths were found to also be highly correlated with the chemistry of four other sites. A subset of data from the eastern U.S. forest sites was used to derive linear equations that were applied to the remaining data to successfully estimate their nitrogen, lignin, and cellulose concentrations. Correlations were highest for nitrogen (R2 from 0.75 to 0.94). The consistent results indicate the possibility of establishing a single equation capable of estimating the chemical concentrations in a wide variety of species from the reflectance spectra of dried leaves. The extension of this method to remote sensing was investigated. The effects of leaf water content, sensor signal-to-noise and bandpass, atmospheric effects, and background soil exposure were examined. Leaf water was found to be the greatest challenge to extending this empirical method to the analysis of fresh whole leaves and complete vegetation canopies. The influence of leaf water on reflectance spectra must be removed to within 10%. Other effects were reduced by continuum removal and normalization of band depths. If the effects of leaf water can be compensated for, it might be possible to extend this method to remote sensing data acquired by imaging spectrometers to give estimates of nitrogen, lignin, and cellulose concentrations over large areas for use in ecosystem studies.We develop a new method for estimating the biochemistry of plant material using

  6. Intergalactic Helium Absorption in Cold Dark Matter Models

    Croft, R A C; Katz, N; Hernquist, L E; Croft, Rupert A. C.; Weinberg, David H.; Katz, Neal; Hernquist, Lars


    Observations from the HST and the HUT have recently detected HeII absorption along the lines of sight to two high redshift quasars. We use cosmological simulations with gas dynamics to investigate HeII absorption in the cold dark matter (CDM) theory of structure formation. We consider two Omega=1 CDM models with different normalizations and one Omega_0=0.4 CDM model, all incorporating the photoionizing UV background spectrum computed by Haardt & Madau (1996). The simulated gas distribution, combined with the H&M spectral shape, accounts for the relative observed values of taubar_HI and taubar_HeII, the effective mean optical depths for HI and HeII absorption. If the background intensity is as high as H&M predict, then matching the absolute values of taubar_HI and taubar_HeII requires a baryon abundance larger (by factors between 1.5 and 3 for the various CDM models) than our assumed value of Omega_b h^2=0.0125. The simulations reproduce the evolution of taubar_heII over the observed redshift range...

  7. A Simple Disk Wind Model for Broad Absorption Line Quasars

    Higginbottom, N; Long, K S; Sim, S A; Matthews, J H


    Approximately 20% of quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) exhibit broad, blue-shifted absorption lines in their ultraviolet spectra. Such features provide clear evidence for significant outflows from these systems, most likely in the form of accretion disk winds. These winds may represent the "quasar" mode of feedback that is often invoked in galaxy formation/evolution models, and they are also key to unification scenarios for active galactic nuclei (AGN) and QSOs. To test these ideas, we construct a simple benchmark model of an equatorial, biconical accretion disk wind in a QSO and use a Monte Carlo ionization/radiative transfer code to calculate the ultraviolet spectra as a function of viewing angle. We find that for plausible outflow parameters, sightlines looking directly into the wind cone do produce broad, blue-shifted absorption features in the transitions typically seen in broad absorption line QSOs. However, our benchmark model is intrinsically X-ray weak in order to prevent overionization of the outflow, an...

  8. A linear algebra model for quasispecies

    García-Pelayo, Ricardo


    In the present work we present a simple model of the population genetics of quasispecies. We show that the error catastrophe arises because in Biology the mutation rates are almost zero and the mutations themselves are almost neutral. We obtain and discuss previously known results from the point of view of this model. New results are: the fitness of a sequence in terms of its abundance in the quasispecies, a formula for the stable distribution of a quasispecies in which the fitness depends only on the Hamming distance to the master sequence, the time it takes the master sequence to generate a stable quasispecies (such as in the infection by a virus) and the fitness of quasispecies.

  9. Modeling and optimization of ultrasonic linear motors

    Fernandez Lopez, José; Perriard, Yves


    Ultrasonic motors have received much attention these last years, in particular with regard to their modeling and their design principle. Their operating principle is based on piezoelectric ceramics that convert electrical energy into mechanical energy in the form of vibrations of an elastic body whose surface points perform an elliptic motion with a frequency in the ultrasonic range (≥ 20 kHz). The moving part, which is pressed against the vibrating body by a prestressing force, can move than...

  10. Modeling moisture absorption kinetics of barley grain using viscoelastic model and neural networks

    M Kamali


    Network (ANN as an important artificial intelligent method comparable to human brain capabilities is applied to train and store data in the form of weighted networks (Dayhoff, 1990. This method has superiority to many ordinary statistical and model making methods. In comparison to linear regression models, ANN does not require placing estimated values around mean values and for this reason it retains actual variations in the data being analyzed. Prediction by using trained ANN enables the researchers to decrease or increase input and output variables.Therefore, it is possible to produce a multivariate model with an output even more than the objectives deemed necessary (Heristev, 1998. The goal of this research was to predict instant moisture content of three barley varieties (Reyhan3, Fajr and MB862 during the soaking process under three temperature levels (10, 20 and 45 ◦C using two conventional ANN methods of multilayer perceptron (MLP and radial basis function (RBF in comparison with viscoelastic mathematical model and reporting the results. Materials and method: Barley varieties were collected from the Isfahan Province Agriculture Organization grain depository and were cleaned and the debris were separated before the experiments. The selected grains were sorted to three groups of small, medium and large grains sizes. To exclude the effect of grain size during moisture absorption, the medium size grains were used. The moisture content of the grains was determined based on the ASAE S352.2 DEC97 (ASAE, 1999 which were %8.23, %8.62 and %8.89 on a dry basis for Reyhan3, Fajr and MB862, respectively with no significant difference at %5 probability level (p>0.05. Experiments were conducted under three temperatures (10, 20 and 45 ◦C in the refrigerator, at room temperature and in the oven, respectively for each variety. In each experiment, 10 medium size grains were selected randomly and weighed with an AND laboratory scale model Gf-400 (made in Japan and placed in foam

  11. Linear Sigma Models With Strongly Coupled Phases -- One Parameter Models

    Hori, Kentaro


    We systematically construct a class of two-dimensional $(2,2)$ supersymmetric gauged linear sigma models with phases in which a continuous subgroup of the gauge group is totally unbroken. We study some of their properties by employing a recently developed technique. The focus of the present work is on models with one K\\"ahler parameter. The models include those corresponding to Calabi-Yau threefolds, extending three examples found earlier by a few more, as well as Calabi-Yau manifolds of other dimensions and non-Calabi-Yau manifolds. The construction leads to predictions of equivalences of D-brane categories, systematically extending earlier examples. There is another type of surprise. Two distinct superconformal field theories corresponding to Calabi-Yau threefolds with different Hodge numbers, $h^{2,1}=23$ versus $h^{2,1}=59$, have exactly the same quantum K\\"ahler moduli space. The strong-weak duality plays a crucial r\\^ole in confirming this, and also is useful in the actual computation of the metric on t...

  12. The linear model and hypothesis a general unifying theory

    Seber, George


    This book provides a concise and integrated overview of hypothesis testing in four important subject areas, namely linear and nonlinear models, multivariate analysis, and large sample theory. The approach used is a geometrical one based on the concept of projections and their associated idempotent matrices, thus largely avoiding the need to involve matrix ranks. It is shown that all the hypotheses encountered are either linear or asymptotically linear, and that all the underlying models used are either exactly or asymptotically linear normal models. This equivalence can be used, for example, to extend the concept of orthogonality in the analysis of variance to other models, and to show that the asymptotic equivalence of the likelihood ratio, Wald, and Score (Lagrange Multiplier) hypothesis tests generally applies.

  13. Linear Characteristic Graphical Models: Representation, Inference and Applications

    Bickson, Danny


    Heavy-tailed distributions naturally occur in many real life problems. Unfortunately, it is typically not possible to compute inference in closed-form in graphical models which involve such heavy-tailed distributions. In this work, we propose a novel simple linear graphical model for independent latent random variables, called linear characteristic model (LCM), defined in the characteristic function domain. Using stable distributions, a heavy-tailed family of distributions which is a generalization of Cauchy, L\\'evy and Gaussian distributions, we show for the first time, how to compute both exact and approximate inference in such a linear multivariate graphical model. LCMs are not limited to stable distributions, in fact LCMs are always defined for any random variables (discrete, continuous or a mixture of both). We provide a realistic problem from the field of computer networks to demonstrate the applicability of our construction. Other potential application is iterative decoding of linear channels with non-...

  14. Optimization for decision making linear and quadratic models

    Murty, Katta G


    While maintaining the rigorous linear programming instruction required, Murty's new book is unique in its focus on developing modeling skills to support valid decision-making for complex real world problems, and includes solutions to brand new algorithms.

  15. Estimation of non-linear growth models by linearization: a simulation study using a Gompertz function

    Mäntysaari Esa A


    Full Text Available Abstract A method based on Taylor series expansion for estimation of location parameters and variance components of non-linear mixed effects models was considered. An attractive property of the method is the opportunity for an easily implemented algorithm. Estimation of non-linear mixed effects models can be done by common methods for linear mixed effects models, and thus existing programs can be used after small modifications. The applicability of this algorithm in animal breeding was studied with simulation using a Gompertz function growth model in pigs. Two growth data sets were analyzed: a full set containing observations from the entire growing period, and a truncated time trajectory set containing animals slaughtered prematurely, which is common in pig breeding. The results from the 50 simulation replicates with full data set indicate that the linearization approach was capable of estimating the original parameters satisfactorily. However, estimation of the parameters related to adult weight becomes unstable in the case of a truncated data set.

  16. Mathematical Model of Natural Gas Desulfurization Based on Membrane Absorption

    Wang Shuli; Ma Jun; Wang Ganyu; Zhou Heng


    Models of mass transfer kinetics combined with mass transfer differential equation and mass transfer resistance equation were established on the basis of double-iflm theory. Mass transfer process of H2S absorption by means of polypro-pylene hydrophobic microporous hollow ifber membrane contactor was simulated using MDEA (N-methyldiethanolamine) as the absorption liquid and corresponding experiments of natural gas desulfurization were performed. The simulation re-sults indicated that the removal rate of hydrogen sulifde showed positive dependence on the absorption liquid concentration and gas pressure. However, the desulfurization rate showed negative dependence on gas lfow. The simulated values were in good agreement with the experimental results. The in-tube concentration of hydrogen sulifde at the same point increased with increase in the gas velocity. Axial concentration of hydrogen sulifde decreased rapidly at the beginning, and the de-crease saw a slowdown during the latter half period. Hydrogen sulifde concentration dropped quickly in the radial direction, and the reduction in the radial direction was weakened with the increase of axial length due to the gradual reduction of hy-drogen sulifde concentration along the tube. The desulfurization rate under given operating conditions can be predicted by this model, and the theoretical basis for membrane module design can also be provided.

  17. Generalized linear mixed models modern concepts, methods and applications

    Stroup, Walter W


    PART I The Big PictureModeling BasicsWhat Is a Model?Two Model Forms: Model Equation and Probability DistributionTypes of Model EffectsWriting Models in Matrix FormSummary: Essential Elements for a Complete Statement of the ModelDesign MattersIntroductory Ideas for Translating Design and Objectives into ModelsDescribing ""Data Architecture"" to Facilitate Model SpecificationFrom Plot Plan to Linear PredictorDistribution MattersMore Complex Example: Multiple Factors with Different Units of ReplicationSetting the StageGoals for Inference with Models: OverviewBasic Tools of InferenceIssue I: Data

  18. Scaling and linear response in the GOY model

    Kadanoff, Leo; Lohse, Detlef; Schörghofer, Norbert


    The GOY model is a model for turbulence in which two conserved quantities cascade up and down a linear array of shells. When the viscosity parameter, small nu, Greek, is small the model has a qualitative behavior which is similar to the Kolmogorov theories of turbulence. Here a static solution to th




    The behavioral approach to system theory provides a parameter-free framework for the study of the general problem of linear exact modeling and recursive modeling. The main contribution of this paper is the solution of the (continuous-time) polynomial-exponential time series modeling problem. Both re

  20. Modelling Nonlinear Sequence Generators in terms of Linear Cellular Automata

    Fúster-Sabater, Amparo; 10.1016/j.apm.2005.08.013


    In this work, a wide family of LFSR-based sequence generators, the so-called Clock-Controlled Shrinking Generators (CCSGs), has been analyzed and identified with a subset of linear Cellular Automata (CA). In fact, a pair of linear models describing the behavior of the CCSGs can be derived. The algorithm that converts a given CCSG into a CA-based linear model is very simple and can be applied to CCSGs in a range of practical interest. The linearity of these cellular models can be advantageously used in two different ways: (a) for the analysis and/or cryptanalysis of the CCSGs and (b) for the reconstruction of the output sequence obtained from this kind of generators.

  1. Linearized models for a new magnetic control in MAST

    Artaserse, G., E-mail: [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, Via Enrico Fermi 45, I-00044 Frascati (RM) (Italy); Maviglia, F.; Albanese, R. [Associazione Euratom-ENEA-CREATE sulla Fusione, Via Claudio 21, I-80125 Napoli (Italy); McArdle, G.J.; Pangione, L. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)


    Highlights: ► We applied linearized models for a new magnetic control on MAST tokamak. ► A suite of procedures, conceived to be machine independent, have been used. ► We carried out model-based simulations, taking into account eddy currents effects. ► Comparison with the EFIT flux maps and the experimental magnetic signals are shown. ► A current driven model for the dynamic simulations of the experimental data have been performed. -- Abstract: The aim of this work is to provide reliable linearized models for the design and assessment of a new magnetic control system for MAST (Mega Ampère Spherical Tokamak) using rtEFIT, which can easily be exported to MAST Upgrade. Linearized models for magnetic control have been obtained using the 2D axisymmetric finite element code CREATE L. MAST linearized models include equivalent 2D axisymmetric schematization of poloidal field (PF) coils, vacuum vessel, and other conducting structures. A plasmaless and a double null configuration have been chosen as benchmark cases for the comparison with experimental data and EFIT reconstructions. Good agreement has been found with the EFIT flux map and the experimental signals coming from magnetic probes with only few mismatches probably due to broken sensors. A suite of procedures (equipped with a user friendly interface to be run even remotely) to provide linearized models for magnetic control is now available on the MAST linux machines. A new current driven model has been used to obtain a state space model having the PF coil currents as inputs. Dynamic simulations of experimental data have been carried out using linearized models, including modelling of the effects of the passive structures, showing a fair agreement. The modelling activity has been useful also to reproduce accurately the interaction between plasma current and radial position control loops.

  2. Non-linear Growth Models in Mplus and SAS.

    Grimm, Kevin J; Ram, Nilam


    Non-linear growth curves or growth curves that follow a specified non-linear function in time enable researchers to model complex developmental patterns with parameters that are easily interpretable. In this paper we describe how a variety of sigmoid curves can be fit using the Mplus structural modeling program and the non-linear mixed-effects modeling procedure NLMIXED in SAS. Using longitudinal achievement data collected as part of a study examining the effects of preschool instruction on academic gain we illustrate the procedures for fitting growth models of logistic, Gompertz, and Richards functions. Brief notes regarding the practical benefits, limitations, and choices faced in the fitting and estimation of such models are included.

  3. A quasi-linear gyrokinetic transport model for tokamak plasmas

    Casati, Alessandro


    The development of a quasi-linear gyrokinetic transport model for tokamak plasmas, ultimately designed to provide physically comprehensive predictions of the time evolution of the thermodynamic relevant quantities, is a task that requires tight links among theoretical, experimental and numerical studies. The framework of the model here proposed, which operates a reduction of complexity on the nonlinear self-organizing plasma dynamics, allows in fact multiple validations of the current understanding of the tokamak micro-turbulence. The main outcomes of this work stem from the fundamental steps involved by the formulation of such a reduced transport model, namely: (1) the verification of the quasi-linear plasma response against the nonlinearly computed solution, (2) the improvement of the turbulent saturation model through an accurate validation of the nonlinear codes against the turbulence measurements, (3) the integration of the quasi-linear model within an integrated transport solver.

  4. Linear approximation model network and its formation via evolutionary computation

    Yun Li; Kay Chen Tan


    To overcome the deficiency of `local model network' (LMN) techniques, an alternative `linear approximation model' (LAM) network approach is proposed. Such a network models a nonlinear or practical system with multiple linear models fitted along operating trajectories, where individual models are simply networked through output or parameter interpolation. The linear models are valid for the entire operating trajectory and hence overcome the local validity of LMN models, which impose the predetermination of a scheduling variable that predicts characteristic changes of the nonlinear system. LAMs can be evolved fromsampled step response data directly, eliminating the need forlocal linearisation upon a pre-model using derivatives of the nonlinear system. The structural difference between a LAM network and an LMN isthat the overall model of the latteris a parameter-varying system and hence nonlinear,while the formerremains linear time-invariant (LTI). Hence, existing LTI and transfer function theory applies to a LAM network, which is therefore easy to use for control system design. Validation results show that the proposed method offers a simple, transparent and accurate multivariable modelling technique for nonlinear systems.

  5. Phylogenetic mixtures and linear invariants for equal input models.

    Casanellas, Marta; Steel, Mike


    The reconstruction of phylogenetic trees from molecular sequence data relies on modelling site substitutions by a Markov process, or a mixture of such processes. In general, allowing mixed processes can result in different tree topologies becoming indistinguishable from the data, even for infinitely long sequences. However, when the underlying Markov process supports linear phylogenetic invariants, then provided these are sufficiently informative, the identifiability of the tree topology can be restored. In this paper, we investigate a class of processes that support linear invariants once the stationary distribution is fixed, the 'equal input model'. This model generalizes the 'Felsenstein 1981' model (and thereby the Jukes-Cantor model) from four states to an arbitrary number of states (finite or infinite), and it can also be described by a 'random cluster' process. We describe the structure and dimension of the vector spaces of phylogenetic mixtures and of linear invariants for any fixed phylogenetic tree (and for all trees-the so called 'model invariants'), on any number n of leaves. We also provide a precise description of the space of mixtures and linear invariants for the special case of [Formula: see text] leaves. By combining techniques from discrete random processes and (multi-) linear algebra, our results build on a classic result that was first established by James Lake (Mol Biol Evol 4:167-191, 1987).

  6. A Linearization Approach for Rational Nonlinear Models in Mathematical Physics

    Robert A. Van Gorder


    In this paper, a novel method for linearization of rational second order nonlinear models is discussed. In particular, we discuss an application of the 5 expansion method (created to deal with problems in Quantum Field Theory) which will enable both the linearization and perturbation expansion of such equations. Such a method allows for one to quickly obtain the order zero perturbation theory in terms of certain special functions which are governed by linear equations. Higher order perturbation theories can then be obtained in terms of such special functions. One benefit to such a method is that it may be applied even to models without small physical parameters, as the perturbation is given in terms of the degree of nonlinearity, rather than any physical parameter. As an application, we discuss a method of linearizing the six Painlev~ equations by an application of the method. In addition to highlighting the benefits of the method, we discuss certain shortcomings of the method.

  7. Estimation and variable selection for generalized additive partial linear models

    Wang, Li


    We study generalized additive partial linear models, proposing the use of polynomial spline smoothing for estimation of nonparametric functions, and deriving quasi-likelihood based estimators for the linear parameters. We establish asymptotic normality for the estimators of the parametric components. The procedure avoids solving large systems of equations as in kernel-based procedures and thus results in gains in computational simplicity. We further develop a class of variable selection procedures for the linear parameters by employing a nonconcave penalized quasi-likelihood, which is shown to have an asymptotic oracle property. Monte Carlo simulations and an empirical example are presented for illustration. © Institute of Mathematical Statistics, 2011.

  8. Linear Modeling of Multiple Sclerosis and Its Subgroubs

    Yeliz Karaca


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In this study,120 patients diagnosed with clinical multiple sclerosis (MS of relapsing remitting type (RRMS, secondary progressive type (SPMS and primary progressive type (PPMS were examined, as well as 19 healthy subjects. All subjects were between the ages of 20 and 55. Disability levels of MS symptoms were determined using Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS. We focused on three regions in the brain, brain stem, periventricular corpus callosum, and upper cervical regions EDSS scores and number of lesions in these three regions are considered as the parameters of the linear mathematical model to determine the subgroups of the disease. METHODS: Initially, the distinction between healthy subjects and patients was made. Then, if the subject was determined to have MS, the distinction of type, i.e. RRMS, SPMS/PPMS, and later, RRMS/SPMS distinction was made. In all determinations linear models were used and number of lesions in the specified three regions and EDSS scores were assumed as the parameters of the model. The coefficients of the models were obtained by least squares method. RESULTS: In the linear model attached to MR parameters, there was 100% success for distinction of patients and healthy subjects. Success for distinction of RRMS and SPMS/PPMS patients and RRMS/SPMS patients was 94% and 78.94%, respectively is attained. Based on EDSS scores, linear model provides 99% success in the distinction between patients and healthy subjects. In the models created for the distinction between groups, success rate was 94% was for RRMS-SPMS/PPMS and 64% for RRMS/SPMS. CONCLUSION: The correlation of MS diagnosis using various features obtained from MR images and EDSS scores with subgroups of the disease and the possibility of developing a linear model were determined. Using the features having the highest correlation rate, various linear models were developed and high success was achieved.

  9. A simple disc wind model for broad absorption line quasars

    Higginbottom, N.; Knigge, C.; Long, K. S.; Sim, S. A.; Matthews, J. H.


    Approximately 20 per cent of quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) exhibit broad, blue-shifted absorption lines in their ultraviolet spectra. Such features provide clear evidence for significant outflows from these systems, most likely in the form of accretion disc winds. These winds may represent the `quasar' mode of feedback that is often invoked in galaxy formation/evolution models, and they are also key to unification scenarios for active galactic nuclei (AGN) and QSOs. To test these ideas, we construct a simple benchmark model of an equatorial, biconical accretion disc wind in a QSO and use a Monte Carlo ionization/radiative transfer code to calculate the ultraviolet spectra as a function of viewing angle. We find that for plausible outflow parameters, sightlines looking directly into the wind cone do produce broad, blue-shifted absorption features in the transitions typically seen in broad absorption line (BAL) QSOs. However, our benchmark model is intrinsically X-ray weak in order to prevent overionization of the outflow, and the wind does not yet produce collisionally excited line emission at the level observed in non-BAL QSOs. As a first step towards addressing these shortcomings, we discuss the sensitivity of our results to changes in the assumed X-ray luminosity and mass-loss rate, Ṁwind. In the context of our adopted geometry, Ṁwind ˜ Ṁacc is required in order to produce significant BAL features. The kinetic luminosity and momentum carried by such outflows would be sufficient to provide significant feedback.

  10. Performance modeling and prediction for linear algebra algorithms

    Iakymchuk, Roman


    This dissertation incorporates two research projects: performance modeling and prediction for dense linear algebra algorithms, and high-performance computing on clouds. The first project is focused on dense matrix computations, which are often used as computational kernels for numerous scientific applications. To solve a particular mathematical operation, linear algebra libraries provide a variety of algorithms. The algorithm of choice depends, obviously, on its performance. Performance of su...

  11. Vaccination strategies for SEIR models using feedback linearization. Preliminary results

    De la Sen, M; Alonso-Quesada, S


    A linearization-based feedback-control strategy for a SEIR epidemic model is discussed. The vaccination objective is the asymptotically tracking of the removed-by-immunity population to the total population while achieving simultaneously the remaining population (i.e. susceptible plus infected plus infectious) to asymptotically tend to zero. The disease controlpolicy is designed based on a feedback linearization technique which provides a general method to generate families of vaccination policies with sound technical background.

  12. Confirming the Lanchestrian linear-logarithmic model of attrition

    Hartley, D.S. III.


    This paper is the fourth in a series of reports on the breakthrough research in historical validation of attrition in conflict. Significant defense policy decisions, including weapons acquisition and arms reduction, are based in part on models of conflict. Most of these models are driven by their attrition algorithms, usually forms of the Lanchester square and linear laws. None of these algorithms have been validated. The results of this paper confirm the results of earlier papers, using a large database of historical results. The homogeneous linear-logarithmic Lanchestrian attrition model is validated to the extent possible with current initial and final force size data and is consistent with the Iwo Jima data. A particular differential linear-logarithmic model is described that fits the data very well. A version of Helmbold's victory predicting parameter is also confirmed, with an associated probability function. 37 refs., 73 figs., 68 tabs.

  13. Linear mixed models a practical guide using statistical software

    West, Brady T; Galecki, Andrzej T


    Simplifying the often confusing array of software programs for fitting linear mixed models (LMMs), Linear Mixed Models: A Practical Guide Using Statistical Software provides a basic introduction to primary concepts, notation, software implementation, model interpretation, and visualization of clustered and longitudinal data. This easy-to-navigate reference details the use of procedures for fitting LMMs in five popular statistical software packages: SAS, SPSS, Stata, R/S-plus, and HLM. The authors introduce basic theoretical concepts, present a heuristic approach to fitting LMMs based on bo




    Full Text Available In this paper we present a new novel approach for the speed control of an IM using Linear Active Disturbance Rejection Controller [LADRC]. The field oriented control of IM needs the accuratemathematical model of IM, but it is very difficult to develop an accurate mathematical model. The LADRC does depend on the mathematical model so it is very robust to changes in plant parameters. This controller can also estimate and compensate the general disturbances which include the unknown internal dynamics and external disturbances by using the Extended State Observer, which can reduce the system to a linear one.

  15. A Comprehensive X-Ray Absorption Model for Atomic Oxygen

    Gorczyca, T. W.; Bautista, M. A.; Hasoglu, M. F.; Garcia, J.; Gatuzz, E.; Kaastra, J. S.; Kallman, T. R.; Manson, S. T.; Mendoza, C.; Raassen, A. J. J.; de Vries, C. P.; Zatsarinny, O.


    An analytical formula is developed to accurately represent the photoabsorption cross section of atomic Oxygen for all energies of interest in X-ray spectral modeling. In the vicinity of the K edge, a Rydberg series expression is used to fit R-matrix results, including important orbital relaxation effects, that accurately predict the absorption oscillator strengths below threshold and merge consistently and continuously to the above-threshold cross section. Further, minor adjustments are made to the threshold energies in order to reliably align the atomic Rydberg resonances after consideration of both experimental and observed line positions. At energies far below or above the K-edge region, the formulation is based on both outer- and inner-shell direct photoionization, including significant shake-up and shake-off processes that result in photoionization-excitation and double-photoionization contributions to the total cross section. The ultimate purpose for developing a definitive model for oxygen absorption is to resolve standing discrepancies between the astronomically observed and laboratory-measured line positions, and between the inferred atomic and molecular oxygen abundances in the interstellar medium from XSTAR and SPEX spectral models.

  16. Intelligent non-linear modelling of an industrial winding process using recurrent local linear neuro-fuzzy networks



    This study deals with the neuro-fuzzy (NF) modelling of a real industrial winding process in which the acquired NF model can be exploited to improve control performance and achieve a robust fault-tolerant system.A new simulator model is proposed for a winding process using non-linear identification based on a recurrent local linear neuro-fuzzy (RLLNF) network trained by local linear model tree (LOLIMOT),which is an incremental tree-based learning algorithm.The proposed NF models are compared with other known intelligent identifiers,namely multilayer perceptron (MLP) and radial basis function (RBF).Comparison of our proposed non-linear models and associated models obtained through the least square error (LSE) technique (the optimal modelling method for linear systems) confirms that the winding process is a non-linear system.Experimental results show the effectiveness of our proposed NF modelling approach.

  17. A random effects generalized linear model for reliability compositive evaluation

    ZHAO Hui; YU Dan


    This paper first proposes a random effects generalized linear model to evaluate the storage life of one kind of high reliable and small sample-sized products by combining multi-sources information of products coming from the same population but stored at different environments.The relevant algorithms are also provided.Simulation results manifest the soundness and effectiveness of the proposed model.

  18. Applying the General Linear Model to Repeated Measures Problems.

    Pohlmann, John T.; McShane, Michael G.

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the use of the general linear model (GLM) in problems with repeated measures on a dependent variable. Such problems include pretest-posttest designs, multitrial designs, and groups by trials designs. For each of these designs, a GLM analysis is demonstrated wherein full models are formed and restrictions…


    Oana CHIVU


    Full Text Available The present paper is concerned with the main modeling elements as produced by means of thefinite element method of linear ultrasonic motors. Hence, first the model is designed and then a modaland harmonic analysis are carried out in view of outlining the main outcomes

  20. Inverse Modelling Problems in Linear Algebra Undergraduate Courses

    Martinez-Luaces, Victor E.


    This paper will offer an analysis from a theoretical point of view of mathematical modelling, applications and inverse problems of both causation and specification types. Inverse modelling problems give the opportunity to establish connections between theory and practice and to show this fact, a simple linear algebra example in two different…

  1. Optical linear algebra processors - Noise and error-source modeling

    Casasent, D.; Ghosh, A.


    The modeling of system and component noise and error sources in optical linear algebra processors (OLAPs) are considered, with attention to the frequency-multiplexed OLAP. General expressions are obtained for the output produced as a function of various component errors and noise. A digital simulator for this model is discussed.

  2. Optical linear algebra processors: noise and error-source modeling.

    Casasent, D; Ghosh, A


    The modeling of system and component noise and error sources in optical linear algebra processors (OLAP's) are considered, with attention to the frequency-multiplexed OLAP. General expressions are obtained for the output produced as a function of various component errors and noise. A digital simulator for this model is discussed.

  3. A random effects generalized linear model for reliability compositive evaluation


    This paper first proposes a random effects generalized linear model to evaluate the storage life of one kind of high reliable and small sample-sized products by combining multi-sources information of products coming from the same population but stored at different environments. The relevant algorithms are also provided. Simulation results manifest the soundness and effectiveness of the proposed model.

  4. Locally supersymmetric D=3 non-linear sigma models

    Wit, B. de; Tollsten, A. K.; Nicolai, H.


    We study non-linear sigma models with N local supersymmetries in three space-time dimensions. For N=1 and 2 the target space of these models is Riemannian or Kahler, respectively. All N>2 theories are associated with Einstein spaces. For N=3 the target space is quaternionic, while for N=4 it general


    Liu Jixue; Chen Xiru


    Consistency of LS estimate of simple linear EV model is studied. It is shown that under some common assumptions of the model, both weak and strong consistency of the estimate are equivalent but it is not so for quadratic-mean consistency.

  6. Logical consistency and sum-constrained linear models

    van Perlo -ten Kleij, Frederieke; Steerneman, A.G.M.; Koning, Ruud H.


    A topic that has received quite some attention in the seventies and eighties is logical consistency of sum-constrained linear models. Loosely defined, a sum-constrained model is logically consistent if the restrictions on the parameters and explanatory variables are such that the sum constraint is a

  7. Defining a Family of Cognitive Diagnosis Models Using Log-Linear Models with Latent Variables

    Henson, Robert A.; Templin, Jonathan L.; Willse, John T.


    This paper uses log-linear models with latent variables (Hagenaars, in "Loglinear Models with Latent Variables," 1993) to define a family of cognitive diagnosis models. In doing so, the relationship between many common models is explicitly defined and discussed. In addition, because the log-linear model with latent variables is a general model for…

  8. Enabling linear model for the IMGC-02 absolute gravimeter

    Nagornyi, V D; Svitlov, S


    Measurement procedures of most rise-and-fall absolute gravimeters has to resolve singularity at the apex of the trajectory caused by the discrete fringe counting in the Michelson-type interferometers. Traditionally the singularity is addressed by implementing non-linear models of the trajectory, but they introduce problems of their own, such as biasness, non-uniqueness, and instability of the gravity estimates. Using IMGC-02 gravimeter as example, we show that the measurement procedure of the rise-and-fall gravimeters can be based on the linear models which successfully resolve the singularity and provide rigorous estimates of the gravity value. The linear models also facilitate further enhancements of the instrument, such as accounting for new types of disturbances and active compensation for the vibrations.

  9. Effects of temperature dependent conductivity and absorptive/generative heat transfer on MHD three dimensional flow of Williamson fluid due to bidirectional non-linear stretching surface

    Bilal, S.; Khalil-ur-Rehman; Malik, M. Y.; Hussain, Arif; Khan, Mair

    Present work is communicated to identify characteristics of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) three dimensional boundary layer flow of Williamson fluid confined by a bidirectional stretched surface. Conductivity of working fluid is assumed to be temperature dependent. Generative/absorptive heat transfer is also taken into account. Mathematical model is formulated in the form of partial expressions and then transmuted into ordinary differential equations with the help of newfangled set of similarity transformations. The resulting non-linear differential system of equations is solved numerically with the aid of Runge-Kutta algorithm supported by shooting method. Flow features are exemplified quantitatively through graphs. Scintillating results for friction factor and convective heat transfer are computed and scrutinized tabularly. Furthermore, the accuracy of present results is tested with existing literature and we found an excellent agreement. It is inferred that velocity along x-direction mounts whereas along y-direction depreciates for incrementing values of stretching ratio parameter. Moreover, it is also elucidated that non-linearity index tends to decrement the velocity and thermal distributions of fluid flow.

  10. Effect of size and indium-composition on linear and nonlinear optical absorption of InGaN/GaN lens-shaped quantum dot

    Ahmed, S. Jbara; Zulkafli, Othaman; M, A. Saeed


    Based on the Schrödinger equation for envelope function in the effective mass approximation, linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients in a multi-subband lens quantum dot are investigated. The effects of quantum dot size on the interband and intraband transitions energy are also analyzed. The finite element method is used to calculate the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions. Strain and In-mole-fraction effects are also studied, and the results reveal that with the decrease of the In-mole fraction, the amplitudes of linear and nonlinear absorption coefficients increase. The present computed results show that the absorption coefficients of transitions between the first excited states are stronger than those of the ground states. In addition, it has been found that the quantum dot size affects the amplitudes and peak positions of linear and nonlinear absorption coefficients while the incident optical intensity strongly affects the nonlinear absorption coefficients. Project supported by the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research in Iraq, Ibnu Sina Institute and Physics Department of Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM RUG Vote No. 06-H14).

  11. The minimal linear sigma model for the Goldstone Higgs

    Feruglio, Ferruccio; Kanshin, Kirill; Machado, Pedro Accioly Nogueira; Rigolin, Stefano; Saa, Sara


    In the context of the minimal SO(5) linear {\\sigma}-model, a complete renormalizable Lagrangian -including gauge bosons and fermions- is considered, with the symmetry softly broken to SO(4). The scalar sector describes both the electroweak Higgs doublet and the singlet {\\sigma}. Varying the {\\sigma} mass would allow to sweep from the regime of perturbative ultraviolet completion to the non-linear one assumed in models in which the Higgs particle is a low-energy remnant of some strong dynamics. We analyze the phenomenological implications and constraints from precision observables and LHC data. Furthermore, we derive the d <= 6 effective Lagrangian in the limit of heavy exotic fermions.

  12. Regularization Paths for Generalized Linear Models via Coordinate Descent

    Jerome Friedman


    Full Text Available We develop fast algorithms for estimation of generalized linear models with convex penalties. The models include linear regression, two-class logistic regression, and multi- nomial regression problems while the penalties include ℓ1 (the lasso, ℓ2 (ridge regression and mixtures of the two (the elastic net. The algorithms use cyclical coordinate descent, computed along a regularization path. The methods can handle large problems and can also deal efficiently with sparse features. In comparative timings we find that the new algorithms are considerably faster than competing methods.

  13. A Mathematical Theory of the Gauged Linear Sigma Model

    Fan, Huijun; Ruan, Yongbin


    We construct a rigorous mathematical theory of Witten's Gauged Linear Sigma Model (GLSM). Our theory applies to a wide range of examples, including many cases with non-Abelian gauge group. Both the Gromov-Witten theory of a Calabi-Yau complete intersection X and the Landau-Ginzburg dual (FJRW-theory) of X can be expressed as gauged linear sigma models. Furthermore, the Landau-Ginzburg/Calabi-Yau correspondence can be interpreted as a variation of the moment map or a deformation of GIT in the GLSM. This paper focuses primarily on the algebraic theory, while a companion article will treat the analytic theory.

  14. A new estimate of the parameters in linear mixed models

    王松桂; 尹素菊


    In linear mixed models, there are two kinds of unknown parameters: one is the fixed effect, theother is the variance component. In this paper, new estimates of these parameters, called the spectral decom-position estimates, are proposed, Some important statistical properties of the new estimates are established,in particular the linearity of the estimates of the fixed effects with many statistical optimalities. A new methodis applied to two important models which are used in economics, finance, and mechanical fields. All estimatesobtained have good statistical and practical meaning.

  15. Precise Asymptotics of Error Variance Estimator in Partially Linear Models

    Shao-jun Guo; Min Chen; Feng Liu


    In this paper, we focus our attention on the precise asymptoties of error variance estimator in partially linear regression models, yi = xTi β + g(ti) +εi, 1 ≤i≤n, {εi,i = 1,... ,n } are i.i.d random errors with mean 0 and positive finite variance q2. Following the ideas of Allan Gut and Aurel Spataru[7,8] and Zhang[21],on precise asymptotics in the Baum-Katz and Davis laws of large numbers and precise rate in laws of the iterated logarithm, respectively, and subject to some regular conditions, we obtain the corresponding results in partially linear regression models.

  16. Oral absorption of ginsenoside Rb1 using in vitro and in vivo models.

    Han, Min; Sha, Xianyi; Wu, Yunjuan; Fang, Xiaoling


    This research attempts to clarify the cause for poor oral absorption of ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1), one main ingredient of the well known Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) for curing hemorrhage. Caco-2 cell monolayers were used as an in vitro model to reveal the transport mechanism of Rb1 across the intestinal mucosa. Moreover, the serum concentration-time profiles of Rb1 after tail venous (IV), portal venous (PV), intraduodenal (ID) and peroral (PO) administration to rats were compared to evaluate the first-pass effects of stomach, intestine and liver. In vitro experiments showed that uptake by Caco-2 cell monolayers was temperature dependent, but was not influenced by cyclosporine A and ketoconazole. The change in the apical pH showed no obvious effects on the uptake of Rb1. The uptake and transport were non-saturable, and flux from the apical compartment to the basolateral compartment (A-B) increased linearly with increasing concentration, which indicated a passive transport. Meanwhile, an apparent permeability coefficient of (5.90 +/- 1.02) x 10(-8) cm/s (C0 = 1 mg/mL) predicted an incomplete absorption. The investigation on the pharmacokinetic behavior of Rb1 after different routes of administration to rats showed a significant difference between PO (F(PO) was 0.64%), ID (F(ID) was 2.46%) and PV (F(PV) was 59.49%) administration, and the first-pass effect of the intestine is more significant than that of the stomach and liver in the absorption process. In summary, elimination in the stomach, large intestine and liver contributed to the poor absorption of Rb1, but the low membrane permeability might be a more important factor dominating the extent of absorption.

  17. Thermodynamic modeling of hydrogen sulfide absorption by aqueous N-methyldiethanolamine using the Extended UNIQUAC model

    Sadegh, Negar; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Thomsen, Kaj


    system. The Extended UNIQUAC model is used to represent the system behavior. The model is created based on models for the constituent binary subsystems. The developed model provides accurate representation of VLE and heat of absorption for the studied system and subsystem in the temperature range of 0...

  18. Modeling of light absorption in tissue during infrared neural stimulation.

    Thompson, Alexander C; Wade, Scott A; Brown, William G A; Stoddart, Paul R


    A Monte Carlo model has been developed to simulate light transport and absorption in neural tissue during infrared neural stimulation (INS). A range of fiber core sizes and numerical apertures are compared illustrating the advantages of using simulations when designing a light delivery system. A range of wavelengths, commonly used for INS, are also compared for stimulation of nerves in the cochlea, in terms of both the energy absorbed and the change in temperature due to a laser pulse. Modeling suggests that a fiber with core diameter of 200 μm and NA=0.22 is optimal for optical stimulation in the geometry used and that temperature rises in the spiral ganglion neurons are as low as 0.1°C. The results show a need for more careful experimentation to allow different proposed mechanisms of INS to be distinguished.

  19. Analytic Formulation for the Sound Absorption of a Panel Absorber under the Effects of Microperforation, Air Pumping, Linear Vibration and Nonlinear Vibration

    Y. Y. Lee


    Full Text Available This study includes the first work about the absorption of a panel absorber under the effects of microperforation, air pumping, and linear and nonlinear vibrations. In practice, thin perforated panel absorber is backed by a flexible wall to enhance the acoustic performance within the room. The panel is easily excited to vibrate nonlinearly and the wall can vibrate linearly. However, the assumptions of linear panel vibration and no wall vibration are adopted in many research works. The development of the absorption formula is based on the classical approach and the electroacoustic analogy, in which the impedances of microperforation, air pumping, and linear and nonlinear vibrations are in parallel and connected to that of the air cavity in series. Unlike those finite element, numerical integration, and multiscale solution methods and so forth, the analytic formula to calculate the absorption of a panel absorber does not require heavy computation effort and is suitable for engineering calculation purpose. The theoretical result obtained from the proposed method shows reasonable agreement with that from a previous numerical integration method. It can be concluded that the overall absorption bandwidth of a panel absorber with an appropriate configuration can be optimized and widened by making use of the positive effects of microperforation, air pumping, and panel vibration.

  20. Managing Creativity for Absorptive Capacity: The NIH Syndrome and the Implementation of Open Innovation Business Model

    Cokpekin, Özge

    The benefits of the open innovation business model and the absorptive capacity necessary to acquire and utilize external knowledge have been discussed extensively. An emerging literature stream has identified certain intra-organizational antecedents of absorptive capacity. However how firms...

  1. Piecewise linear and Boolean models of chemical reaction networks.

    Veliz-Cuba, Alan; Kumar, Ajit; Josić, Krešimir


    Models of biochemical networks are frequently complex and high-dimensional. Reduction methods that preserve important dynamical properties are therefore essential for their study. Interactions in biochemical networks are frequently modeled using Hill functions ([Formula: see text]). Reduced ODEs and Boolean approximations of such model networks have been studied extensively when the exponent [Formula: see text] is large. However, while the case of small constant [Formula: see text] appears in practice, it is not well understood. We provide a mathematical analysis of this limit and show that a reduction to a set of piecewise linear ODEs and Boolean networks can be mathematically justified. The piecewise linear systems have closed-form solutions that closely track those of the fully nonlinear model. The simpler, Boolean network can be used to study the qualitative behavior of the original system. We justify the reduction using geometric singular perturbation theory and compact convergence, and illustrate the results in network models of a toggle switch and an oscillator.

  2. Piecewise linear and Boolean models of chemical reaction networks

    Veliz-Cuba, Alan; Kumar, Ajit; Josić, Krešimir


    Models of biochemical networks are frequently complex and high-dimensional. Reduction methods that preserve important dynamical properties are therefore essential for their study. Interactions in biochemical networks are frequently modeled using Hill functions (xn/(Jn + xn)). Reduced ODEs and Boolean approximations of such model networks have been studied extensively when the exponent n is large. However, while the case of small constant J appears in practice, it is not well understood. We provide a mathematical analysis of this limit, and show that a reduction to a set of piecewise linear ODEs and Boolean networks can be mathematically justified. The piecewise linear systems have closed form solutions that closely track those of the fully nonlinear model. The simpler, Boolean network can be used to study the qualitative behavior of the original system. We justify the reduction using geometric singular perturbation theory and compact convergence, and illustrate the results in network models of a toggle switch and an oscillator. PMID:25412739

  3. Magnetospheres of hot Jupiters: hydrodynamic models & ultraviolet absorption

    Alexander, R D; Mohammed, H; Nichols, J D; Ercolano, B


    We present hydrodynamic simulations of stellar wind-magnetosphere interactions in hot Jupiters such as WASP-12b. For fiducial stellar wind rates we find that a planetary magnetic field of a few G produces a large magnetospheric cavity, which is typically 6-9 planetary radii in size. A bow shock invariably forms ahead of the magnetosphere, but the pre-shock gas is only mildly supersonic (with typical Mach numbers of $\\simeq$1.6-1.8) so the shock is weak. This results in a characteristic signature in the ultraviolet light curve: a broad absorption feature that leads the optical transit by 10-20% in orbital phase. The shapes of our synthetic light-curves are consistent with existing observations of WASP-12b, but the required near-UV optical depth ($\\tau \\sim 0.1$) can only be achieved if the shocked gas cools rapidly. We further show that radiative cooling is inefficient, so we deem it unlikely that a magnetospheric bow shock is responsible for the observed near-UV absorption. Finally, we apply our model to two ...

  4. Non-linear calibration models for near infrared spectroscopy.

    Ni, Wangdong; Nørgaard, Lars; Mørup, Morten


    Different calibration techniques are available for spectroscopic applications that show nonlinear behavior. This comprehensive comparative study presents a comparison of different nonlinear calibration techniques: kernel PLS (KPLS), support vector machines (SVM), least-squares SVM (LS-SVM), relevance vector machines (RVM), Gaussian process regression (GPR), artificial neural network (ANN), and Bayesian ANN (BANN). In this comparison, partial least squares (PLS) regression is used as a linear benchmark, while the relationship of the methods is considered in terms of traditional calibration by ridge regression (RR). The performance of the different methods is demonstrated by their practical applications using three real-life near infrared (NIR) data sets. Different aspects of the various approaches including computational time, model interpretability, potential over-fitting using the non-linear models on linear problems, robustness to small or medium sample sets, and robustness to pre-processing, are discussed. The results suggest that GPR and BANN are powerful and promising methods for handling linear as well as nonlinear systems, even when the data sets are moderately small. The LS-SVM is also attractive due to its good predictive performance for both linear and nonlinear calibrations.

  5. Tableaux and Systemes : Early French Contributions to Linear Production Models

    Steenge, Albertus; van den Berg, Richard


    Properly speaking the history of linear production modelling begins in the second half of the 18th century. A comparison between Francois Quesnay's Tableaux economiques and Achilles-Nicolas Isnard’s systèmes des richesses provides insights into the various possible directions within this nascent bra

  6. A least squares estimation method for the linear learning model

    B. Wierenga (Berend)


    textabstractThe author presents a new method for estimating the parameters of the linear learning model. The procedure, essentially a least squares method, is easy to carry out and avoids certain difficulties of earlier estimation procedures. Applications to three different data sets are reported, a

  7. Tests of risk premia in linear factor models

    Kleibergen, F.


    We show that statistical inference on the risk premia in linear factor models that is based on the Fama-MacBeth (FM) and generalized least squares (GLS) two-pass risk premia estimators is misleading when the β’s are small and/or the number of assets is large. We propose novel statistics, that are ba

  8. Tests of risk premia in linear factor models

    Kleibergen, F.R.


    We show that inference on risk premia in linear factor models that is based on the Fama-MacBeth and GLS risk premia estimators is misleading when the ß’s are small and/or the number of assets is large. We propose some novel statistics that remain trustworthy in these cases. The inadequacy of Fama-Ma

  9. Mathematical modelling and linear stability analysis of laser fusion cutting

    Hermanns, Torsten; Schulz, Wolfgang; Vossen, Georg; Thombansen, Ulrich


    A model for laser fusion cutting is presented and investigated by linear stability analysis in order to study the tendency for dynamic behavior and subsequent ripple formation. The result is a so called stability function that describes the correlation of the setting values of the process and the process' amount of dynamic behavior.

  10. Combined forecasts from linear and nonlinear time series models

    N. Terui (Nobuhiko); H.K. van Dijk (Herman)


    textabstractCombined forecasts from a linear and a nonlinear model are investigated for time series with possibly nonlinear characteristics. The forecasts are combined by a constant coefficient regression method as well as a time varying method. The time varying method allows for a locally (non)line


    QinYongsong; JiangBo; LiYufang


    In this paper,the empirical likelihood confidence regions for the regression coefficient in a linear model are constructed under m-dependent errors. It is shown that the blockwise empirical likelihood is a good way to deal with dependent samples.

  12. The Moduli Space in the Gauged Linear Sigma Model

    Fan, Huijun; Ruan, Yongbin


    This is a survey article for the mathematical theory of Witten's Gauged Linear Sigma Model, as developed recently by the authors. Instead of developing the theory in the most general setting, in this paper we focus on the description of the moduli.

  13. Plane answers to complex questions the theory of linear models

    Christensen, Ronald


    This book was written to rigorously illustrate the practical application of the projective approach to linear models. To some, this may seem contradictory. I contend that it is possible to be both rigorous and illustrative and that it is possible to use the projective approach in practical applications. Therefore, unlike many other books on linear models, the use of projections and sub­ spaces does not stop after the general theory. They are used wherever I could figure out how to do it. Solving normal equations and using calculus (outside of maximum likelihood theory) are anathema to me. This is because I do not believe that they contribute to the understanding of linear models. I have similar feelings about the use of side conditions. Such topics are mentioned when appropriate and thenceforward avoided like the plague. On the other side of the coin, I just as strenuously reject teaching linear models with a coordinate free approach. Although Joe Eaton assures me that the issues in complicated problems freq...

  14. Dynamic Response of Linear Mechanical Systems Modeling, Analysis and Simulation

    Angeles, Jorge


    Dynamic Response of Linear Mechanical Systems: Modeling, Analysis and Simulation can be utilized for a variety of courses, including junior and senior-level vibration and linear mechanical analysis courses. The author connects, by means of a rigorous, yet intuitive approach, the theory of vibration with the more general theory of systems. The book features: A seven-step modeling technique that helps structure the rather unstructured process of mechanical-system modeling A system-theoretic approach to deriving the time response of the linear mathematical models of mechanical systems The modal analysis and the time response of two-degree-of-freedom systems—the first step on the long way to the more elaborate study of multi-degree-of-freedom systems—using the Mohr circle Simple, yet powerful simulation algorithms that exploit the linearity of the system for both single- and multi-degree-of-freedom systems Examples and exercises that rely on modern computational toolboxes for both numerical and symbolic compu...

  15. Intuitionistic Fuzzy Weighted Linear Regression Model with Fuzzy Entropy under Linear Restrictions.

    Kumar, Gaurav; Bajaj, Rakesh Kumar


    In fuzzy set theory, it is well known that a triangular fuzzy number can be uniquely determined through its position and entropies. In the present communication, we extend this concept on triangular intuitionistic fuzzy number for its one-to-one correspondence with its position and entropies. Using the concept of fuzzy entropy the estimators of the intuitionistic fuzzy regression coefficients have been estimated in the unrestricted regression model. An intuitionistic fuzzy weighted linear regression (IFWLR) model with some restrictions in the form of prior information has been considered. Further, the estimators of regression coefficients have been obtained with the help of fuzzy entropy for the restricted/unrestricted IFWLR model by assigning some weights in the distance function.

  16. Deterministic operations research models and methods in linear optimization

    Rader, David J


    Uniquely blends mathematical theory and algorithm design for understanding and modeling real-world problems Optimization modeling and algorithms are key components to problem-solving across various fields of research, from operations research and mathematics to computer science and engineering. Addressing the importance of the algorithm design process. Deterministic Operations Research focuses on the design of solution methods for both continuous and discrete linear optimization problems. The result is a clear-cut resource for understanding three cornerstones of deterministic operations resear

  17. Prediction of Typhoon Tracks Using Dynamic Linear Models

    Keon-Tae SOHN; H. Joe KWON; Ae-Sook SUH


    This paper presents a study on the statistical forecasts of typhoon tracks. Numerical models havetheir own systematic errors, like a bias. In order to improve the accuracy of track forecasting, a statisticalmodel called DLM (dynamic linear model) is applied to remove the systematic error. In the analysis oftyphoons occurring over the western North Pacific in 1997 and 2000, DLM is useful as an adaptive modelfor the prediction of typhoon tracks.

  18. Estimation linear model using block generalized inverse of a matrix

    Jasińska, Elżbieta; Preweda, Edward


    The work shows the principle of generalized linear model, point estimation, which can be used as a basis for determining the status of movements and deformations of engineering objects. The structural model can be put on any boundary conditions, for example, to ensure the continuity of the deformations. Estimation by the method of least squares was carried out taking into account the terms and conditions of the Gauss- Markov for quadratic forms stored using Lagrange function. The original sol...

  19. New simulation model of absorption pump with internal storage

    San Juan, Cristina; Soutullo, Silvia; Enriquez, Ricardo; Ferrer, Jose Antonio; Heras, M Rosario [Energy Efficiency in Buildings R and D Unit. CIEMAT., Avenida Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid, (Spain)], email:


    In hot climates, such as in Spain, conditioning systems are used to provide a good level of thermal comfort during summer. Systems are usually composed of one liquid absorption pump and external storage in a water tank. The aim of this study is to present a new technology whereby energy is stored in crystallized salts through the use of 4 heat pumps. A case study was carried out in the Plataforma Solar de Almeria, Spain, where the performance of both conventional and new cooling systems were analyzed through the use of a dynamic model in TRNSYS. Results showed that for the new system, adaptability increases with the number of independent blocks and its performance is influenced by the control strategy. In addition it was found that 15m3 of external storage are required in conventional systems to achieve the same performance as the new system. This study showed that the new system requires less storage room than conventional systems.

  20. General Linear Models: An Integrated Approach to Statistics

    Andrew Faulkner


    Full Text Available Generally, in psychology, the various statistical analyses are taught independently from each other. As a consequence, students struggle to learn new statistical analyses, in contexts that differ from their textbooks. This paper gives a short introduction to the general linear model (GLM, in which it is showed that ANOVA (one-way, factorial, repeated measure and analysis of covariance is simply a multiple correlation/regression analysis (MCRA. Generalizations to other cases, such as multivariate and nonlinear analysis, are also discussed. It can easily be shown that every popular linear analysis can be derived from understanding MCRA.

  1. Boolean Variables in Economic Models Solved by Linear Programming

    Lixandroiu D.


    Full Text Available The article analyses the use of logical variables in economic models solved by linear programming. Focus is given to the presentation of the way logical constraints are obtained and of the definition rules based on predicate logic. Emphasis is also put on the possibility to use logical variables in constructing a linear objective function on intervals. Such functions are encountered when costs or unitary receipts are different on disjunct intervals of production volumes achieved or sold. Other uses of Boolean variables are connected to constraint systems with conditions and the case of a variable which takes values from a finite set of integers.

  2. Solving linear integer programming problems by a novel neural model.

    Cavalieri, S


    The paper deals with integer linear programming problems. As is well known, these are extremely complex problems, even when the number of integer variables is quite low. Literature provides examples of various methods to solve such problems, some of which are of a heuristic nature. This paper proposes an alternative strategy based on the Hopfield neural network. The advantage of the strategy essentially lies in the fact that hardware implementation of the neural model allows for the time required to obtain a solution so as not depend on the size of the problem to be solved. The paper presents a particular class of integer linear programming problems, including well-known problems such as the Travelling Salesman Problem and the Set Covering Problem. After a brief description of this class of problems, it is demonstrated that the original Hopfield model is incapable of supplying valid solutions. This is attributed to the presence of constant bias currents in the dynamic of the neural model. A demonstration of this is given and then a novel neural model is presented which continues to be based on the same architecture as the Hopfield model, but introduces modifications thanks to which the integer linear programming problems presented can be solved. Some numerical examples and concluding remarks highlight the solving capacity of the novel neural model.

  3. Finite element modeling of nanotube structures linear and non-linear models

    Awang, Mokhtar; Muhammad, Ibrahim Dauda


    This book presents a new approach to modeling carbon structures such as graphene and carbon nanotubes using finite element methods, and addresses the latest advances in numerical studies for these materials. Based on the available findings, the book develops an effective finite element approach for modeling the structure and the deformation of grapheme-based materials. Further, modeling processing for single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes is demonstrated in detail.

  4. Jam-absorption driving with a car-following model

    Taniguchi, Yohei; Nishi, Ryosuke; Ezaki, Takahiro; Nishinari, Katsuhiro


    Jam-absorption driving (JAD) refers to the action performed by a single car to dynamically change its headway to remove a traffic jam. Because of its irregular motion, a car performing JAD perturbs other cars following it, and these perturbations may grow to become the so-called secondary traffic jams. A basic theory for JAD (Nishi et al. 2013) does not consider accelerations of cars or the stability of traffic flow. In this paper, by introducing car-following behaviors, we implement these elements in JAD. Numerous previous studies on the instability of traffic flow showed that even in a region whose density is below a critical density, perturbation may grow if its initial magnitude is large. According to these previous studies, we expect that the perturbations caused by JAD, if they are sufficiently small, do not grow to become secondary traffic jams. Using a microscopic car-following model, we numerically confirmed that the stability of a flow obeying the model depends on the magnitude of JAD perturbations. On the basis of this knowledge, numerical results indicate that parameter regions exist where JAD allows traffic jams to be removed without causing secondary traffic jams. Moreover, JAD is robust against a parameter of acceleration in the model, as well as the choice of car-following models.

  5. Models of ionospheric VLF absorption of powerful ground based transmitters

    Cohen, M. B.; Lehtinen, N. G.; Inan, U. S.


    Ground based Very Low Frequency (VLF, 3-30 kHz) radio transmitters play a role in precipitation of energetic Van Allen electrons. Initial analyses of the contribution of VLF transmitters to radiation belt losses were based on early models of trans-ionospheric propagation known as the Helliwell absorption curves, but some recent studies have found that the model overestimates (by 20-100 dB) the VLF energy reaching the magnetosphere. It was subsequently suggested that conversion of wave energy into electrostatic modes may be responsible for the error. We utilize a newly available extensive record of VLF transmitter energy reaching the magnetosphere, taken from the DEMETER satellite, and perform a direct comparison with a sophisticated full wave model of trans-ionospheric propagation. Although the model does not include the effect of ionospheric irregularities, it correctly predicts the average total power injected into the magnetosphere within several dB. The results, particularly at nighttime, appear to be robust against the variability of the ionospheric electron density. We conclude that the global effect of irregularity scattering on whistler mode conversion to quasi-electrostatic may be no larger than 6 dB.

  6. Modeling and analysis of linear hyperbolic systems of balance laws

    Bartecki, Krzysztof


    This monograph focuses on the mathematical modeling of distributed parameter systems in which mass/energy transport or wave propagation phenomena occur and which are described by partial differential equations of hyperbolic type. The case of linear (or linearized) 2 x 2 hyperbolic systems of balance laws is considered, i.e., systems described by two coupled linear partial differential equations with two variables representing physical quantities, depending on both time and one-dimensional spatial variable. Based on practical examples of a double-pipe heat exchanger and a transportation pipeline, two typical configurations of boundary input signals are analyzed: collocated, wherein both signals affect the system at the same spatial point, and anti-collocated, in which the input signals are applied to the two different end points of the system. The results of this book emerge from the practical experience of the author gained during his studies conducted in the experimental installation of a heat exchange cente...

  7. Robust linear parameter varying induction motor control with polytopic models

    Dalila Khamari


    Full Text Available This paper deals with a robust controller for an induction motor which is represented as a linear parameter varying systems. To do so linear matrix inequality (LMI based approach and robust Lyapunov feedback controller are associated. This new approach is related to the fact that the synthesis of a linear parameter varying (LPV feedback controller for the inner loop take into account rotor resistance and mechanical speed as varying parameter. An LPV flux observer is also synthesized to estimate rotor flux providing reference to cited above regulator. The induction motor is described as a polytopic model because of speed and rotor resistance affine dependence their values can be estimated on line during systems operations. The simulation results are presented to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed approach where robustness stability and high performances have been achieved over the entire operating range of the induction motor.

  8. Comparison of linear modes in kinetic plasma models

    Camporeale, Enrico


    We compare, in an extensive and systematic way, linear theory results obtained with the hybrid (ion-kinetic and electron-fluid), the gyrokinetic and the fully-kinetic plasma models. We present a test case with parameters that are relevant for solar wind turbulence at small scales, which is a topic now recognized to need a kinetic treatment, to a certain extent. We comment on the comparison of low-frequency single modes (Alfv\\'{e}n/ion-cyclotron, ion-acoustic, and fast modes) for a wide range of propagation angles, and on the overall spectral properties of the linear operators, for quasi-perpendicular propagation. The methodology and the results presented in this paper will be valuable when choosing which model should be used in regimes where the assumptions of each model are not trivially satisfied.

  9. Contact Analysis and Modeling of Standing Wave Linear Ultrasonic Motor

    SHI Yunlai; ZHAO Chunsheng; ZHANG Jianhui


    A contact model for describing the contact mechanics between the stator and slider of the standing wave linear ultrasonic motor was presented.The proposed model starts from the assumption that the vibration characteristics of the stator is not affected by the contact process.A modified friction models was used to analyze the contact problems.Firstly,the dynamic normal contact force,interface friction force,and steady-state characteristics were analyzed.Secondly,the influences of the contact layer material,the dynamic characteristics of the stator,and the pre-load on motor performance were simulated.Finally,to validate the contact model,a linear ultrasonic motor based on in-plane modes was used as an example.The corresponding results show that a set of simulation of motor performances based on the proposed contact mechanism is in good agreement with experimental results.This model is helpful to understanding the operation principle of the standing wave linear motor and thus contributes to the design of these tvpes of motor.

  10. Nonrigid Registration of Monomodal MRI Using Linear Viscoelastic Model

    Jian Yang


    Full Text Available This paper describes a method for nonrigid registration of monomodal MRI based on physical laws. The proposed method assumes that the properties of image deformations are like those of viscoelastic matter, which exhibits the properties of both an elastic solid and a viscous fluid. Therefore, the deformation fields of the deformed image are constrained by both sets of properties. After global registration, the local shape variations are assumed to have the properties of the Maxwell model of linear viscoelasticity, and the deformation fields are constrained by the corresponding partial differential equations. To speed up the registration, an adaptive force is introduced according to the maximum displacement of each iteration. Both synthetic datasets and real datasets are used to evaluate the proposed method. We compare the results of the linear viscoelastic model with those of the fluid model on the basis of both the standard and adaptive forces. The results demonstrate that the adaptive force increases in both models and that the linear viscoelastic model improves the registration accuracy.

  11. Robust Linear Models for Cis-eQTL Analysis.

    Mattias Rantalainen

    Full Text Available Expression Quantitative Trait Loci (eQTL analysis enables characterisation of functional genetic variation influencing expression levels of individual genes. In outbread populations, including humans, eQTLs are commonly analysed using the conventional linear model, adjusting for relevant covariates, assuming an allelic dosage model and a Gaussian error term. However, gene expression data generally have noise that induces heavy-tailed errors relative to the Gaussian distribution and often include atypical observations, or outliers. Such departures from modelling assumptions can lead to an increased rate of type II errors (false negatives, and to some extent also type I errors (false positives. Careful model checking can reduce the risk of type-I errors but often not type II errors, since it is generally too time-consuming to carefully check all models with a non-significant effect in large-scale and genome-wide studies. Here we propose the application of a robust linear model for eQTL analysis to reduce adverse effects of deviations from the assumption of Gaussian residuals. We present results from a simulation study as well as results from the analysis of real eQTL data sets. Our findings suggest that in many situations robust models have the potential to provide more reliable eQTL results compared to conventional linear models, particularly in respect to reducing type II errors due to non-Gaussian noise. Post-genomic data, such as that generated in genome-wide eQTL studies, are often noisy and frequently contain atypical observations. Robust statistical models have the potential to provide more reliable results and increased statistical power under non-Gaussian conditions. The results presented here suggest that robust models should be considered routinely alongside other commonly used methodologies for eQTL analysis.

  12. Modelling Alkali Line Absorption and Molecular Bands in Cool DAZs

    Homeier, D; Allard, F; Hauschildt, P H; Schweitzer, A; Stancil, P C; Weck, P F; Homeier, Derek; Allard, Nicole F.; Allard, France; Hauschildt, Peter H.; Schweitzer, Andreas; Stancil, Phillip C.; Weck, Philippe F.


    Two peculiar stars showing an apparent extremely broadened and strong NaI D absorption have been discovered in surveys for cool white dwarfs by Oppenheimer et al. (2001) and Harris et al. (SDSS, 2003). We discuss the nature of these objects using PHOENIX atmosphere models for metal-poor brown dwarfs/very low mass stars, and new white dwarf LTE and NLTE models for hydrogen- and helium-dominated atmospheres with metals. These include complete molecular formation in chemical equilibrium and a model for the alkali resonance line broadening based on the damping profiles of Allard et al. (2003), as well as new molecular line opacities for metal hydrides. First results of our calculations indicate good agreement with a hydrogen-dominated WD atmosphere with a Na abundance roughly consistent with a state of high accretion. We analyse deviations of the abundances of Na, K, Mg and Ca from the cosmic pattern and comment on implications of these results for standard accretion scenarios.

  13. Linear models for joint association and linkage QTL mapping

    Fernando Rohan L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Populational linkage disequilibrium and within-family linkage are commonly used for QTL mapping and marker assisted selection. The combination of both results in more robust and accurate locations of the QTL, but models proposed so far have been either single marker, complex in practice or well fit to a particular family structure. Results We herein present linear model theory to come up with additive effects of the QTL alleles in any member of a general pedigree, conditional to observed markers and pedigree, accounting for possible linkage disequilibrium among QTLs and markers. The model is based on association analysis in the founders; further, the additive effect of the QTLs transmitted to the descendants is a weighted (by the probabilities of transmission average of the substitution effects of founders' haplotypes. The model allows for non-complete linkage disequilibrium QTL-markers in the founders. Two submodels are presented: a simple and easy to implement Haley-Knott type regression for half-sib families, and a general mixed (variance component model for general pedigrees. The model can use information from all markers. The performance of the regression method is compared by simulation with a more complex IBD method by Meuwissen and Goddard. Numerical examples are provided. Conclusion The linear model theory provides a useful framework for QTL mapping with dense marker maps. Results show similar accuracies but a bias of the IBD method towards the center of the region. Computations for the linear regression model are extremely simple, in contrast with IBD methods. Extensions of the model to genomic selection and multi-QTL mapping are straightforward.

  14. Difference in oral absorption of ginsenoside Rg1 between in vitro and in vivo models

    Min HAN; Xiao-ling FANG


    Aim:To clarify the cause of poor oral absorption of ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) ,the active ingredient in Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) used for treating hemorrhage.Methods:Caco-2 cell monolayers were used as an in vitro model to study the transport mechanism of Rg1 across the intestinal mucosa.Moreover,the serum concentration-time profiles after peroral (po) ,intraduodenal (id) ,portal venous (pv) and tail venous (iv) administration of Rg1 in rats were compared to evaluate the first-pass effects in the stomach.intestine,and liver.Results:Uptake of Rg1 by Caco-2 cell monolayers was temperature-dependent,but was not influenced by cyclosporin A.The change in the apical pH produced no obvious effect on the uptake of Rg1.The uptake and transport of Rg1 was non-saturable;whereas the flux from the apical compartment to the basolateral compartment (A-B) increased in a linear manner with the increase in concentration,indicating passive transport.An apparent permeability coefficient of (2.59±0.17)×10-7 cm/s (C0=1mg/mL) predicted incomplete absorption.A significant difference was observed between the po (Fpo was 3.29% at a dose of 1500 mg/kg) ,id (Fid was 6.60% at a dose of 1200 mg/kg) and pv (Fpv was 50.56%) administration methods,and the barrier function of the intestine was more significant than those of the stomach and liver in the absorption process.Conclusion:Elimination in the stomach.large intestine and liver contributed to the low oral bioavailability of Rg,but low membrane permeability might be a more important factor in determining the extent of absorption.

  15. On linear models and parameter identifiability in experimental biological systems.

    Lamberton, Timothy O; Condon, Nicholas D; Stow, Jennifer L; Hamilton, Nicholas A


    A key problem in the biological sciences is to be able to reliably estimate model parameters from experimental data. This is the well-known problem of parameter identifiability. Here, methods are developed for biologists and other modelers to design optimal experiments to ensure parameter identifiability at a structural level. The main results of the paper are to provide a general methodology for extracting parameters of linear models from an experimentally measured scalar function - the transfer function - and a framework for the identifiability analysis of complex model structures using linked models. Linked models are composed by letting the output of one model become the input to another model which is then experimentally measured. The linked model framework is shown to be applicable to designing experiments to identify the measured sub-model and recover the input from the unmeasured sub-model, even in cases that the unmeasured sub-model is not identifiable. Applications for a set of common model features are demonstrated, and the results combined in an example application to a real-world experimental system. These applications emphasize the insight into answering "where to measure" and "which experimental scheme" questions provided by both the parameter extraction methodology and the linked model framework. The aim is to demonstrate the tools' usefulness in guiding experimental design to maximize parameter information obtained, based on the model structure.

  16. Category-theoretic models of linear Abadi & Plotkin Logic

    Birkedal, Lars; Møgelberg, Rasmus Ejlers; Lerchedahl Petersen, Rasmus


    This paper presents a sound and complete category-theoretic notion of models for Linear Abadi & Plotkin Logic [Birkedal et al., 2006], a logic suitable for reasoning about parametricity in combination with recursion. A subclass of these called parametric LAPL structures can be seen as an axiomati......This paper presents a sound and complete category-theoretic notion of models for Linear Abadi & Plotkin Logic [Birkedal et al., 2006], a logic suitable for reasoning about parametricity in combination with recursion. A subclass of these called parametric LAPL structures can be seen...... as an axiomatization of domain theoretic models of parametric polymorphism, and we show how to solve general (nested) recursive domain equations in these. parametric LAPL structures constitute a general notion of model of parametricity in a setting with recursion. In future papers we will demonstrate this by showing...... how many different models of parametricity and recursion give rise to parametric LAPL structures, including Simpson and Rosolini’s set theoretic models [Rosolini and Simpson, 2004], a syntactic model based on Lily [Pitts, 2000, Bierman et al., 2000] and a model based on admissible pers over...

  17. Residuals analysis of the generalized linear models for longitudinal data.

    Chang, Y C


    The generalized estimation equation (GEE) method, one of the generalized linear models for longitudinal data, has been used widely in medical research. However, the related sensitivity analysis problem has not been explored intensively. One of the possible reasons for this was due to the correlated structure within the same subject. We showed that the conventional residuals plots for model diagnosis in longitudinal data could mislead a researcher into trusting the fitted model. A non-parametric method, named the Wald-Wolfowitz run test, was proposed to check the residuals plots both quantitatively and graphically. The rationale proposedin this paper is well illustrated with two real clinical studies in Taiwan.

  18. Linear chaos for the Quick-Thinking-Driver model

    Conejero, J. A.; Arcila, M. Murillo; Seoane-Sepúlveda, J. B.


    In recent years, the topic of car-following has experimented an increased importance in traffic engineering and safety research. This has become a very interesting topic because of the development of driverless cars \\cite{google_driverless_cars}. Driving models which describe the interaction between adjacent vehicles in the same lane have a big interest in simulation modeling, such as the Quick-Thinking-Driver model. A non-linear version of it can be given using the logistic map, and then cha...

  19. Estimation in partial linear EV models with replicated observations

    CUI; Hengjian


    The aim of this work is to construct the parameter estimators in the partial linear errors-in-variables (EV) models and explore their asymptotic properties. Unlike other related References, the assumption of known error covariance matrix is removed when the sample can be repeatedly drawn at each designed point from the model. The estimators of interested regression parameters, and the model error variance, as well as the nonparametric function, are constructed. Under some regular conditions, all of the estimators prove strongly consistent. Meanwhile, the asymptotic normality for the estimator of regression parameter is also presented. A simulation study is reported to illustrate our asymptotic results.

  20. A Graphical User Interface to Generalized Linear Models in MATLAB

    Peter Dunn


    Full Text Available Generalized linear models unite a wide variety of statistical models in a common theoretical framework. This paper discusses GLMLAB-software that enables such models to be fitted in the popular mathematical package MATLAB. It provides a graphical user interface to the powerful MATLAB computational engine to produce a program that is easy to use but with many features, including offsets, prior weights and user-defined distributions and link functions. MATLAB's graphical capacities are also utilized in providing a number of simple residual diagnostic plots.

  1. Forecasting the EMU inflation rate: Linear econometric vs. non-linear computational models using genetic neural fuzzy systems

    Kooths, Stefan; Mitze, Timo Friedel; Ringhut, Eric


    This paper compares the predictive power of linear econometric and non-linear computational models for forecasting the inflation rate in the European Monetary Union (EMU). Various models of both types are developed using different monetary and real activity indicators. They are compared according...


    Hasan YILDIZ


    Full Text Available Deep drawing process is one of the main procedures used in different branches of industry. Finding numerical solutions for determination of the mechanical behaviour of this process will save time and money. In die surfaces, which have complex geometries, it is hard to determine the effects of parameters of sheet metal forming. Some of these parameters are wrinkling, tearing, and determination of the flow of the thin sheet metal in the die and thickness change. However, the most difficult one is determination of material properties during plastic deformation. In this study, the effects of all these parameters are analyzed before producing the dies. The explicit non-linear finite element method is chosen to be used in the analysis. The numerical results obtained for non-linear material and contact models are also compared with the experiments. A good agreement between the numerical and the experimental results is obtained. The results obtained for the models are given in detail.

  3. A non-linear model of economic production processes

    Ponzi, A.; Yasutomi, A.; Kaneko, K.


    We present a new two phase model of economic production processes which is a non-linear dynamical version of von Neumann's neoclassical model of production, including a market price-setting phase as well as a production phase. The rate of an economic production process is observed, for the first time, to depend on the minimum of its input supplies. This creates highly non-linear supply and demand dynamics. By numerical simulation, production networks are shown to become unstable when the ratio of different products to total processes increases. This provides some insight into observed stability of competitive capitalist economies in comparison to monopolistic economies. Capitalist economies are also shown to have low unemployment.

  4. Confidence Intervals of Variance Functions in Generalized Linear Model

    Yong Zhou; Dao-ji Li


    In this paper we introduce an appealing nonparametric method for estimating variance and conditional variance functions in generalized linear models (GLMs), when designs are fixed points and random variables respectively. Bias-corrected confidence bands are proposed for the (conditional) variance by local linear smoothers. Nonparametric techniques are developed in deriving the bias-corrected confidence intervals of the (conditional) variance. The asymptotic distribution of the proposed estimator is established and show that the bias-corrected confidence bands asymptotically have the correct coverage properties. A small simulation is performed when unknown regression parameter is estimated by nonparametric quasi-likelihood. The results are also applicable to nonparametric autoregressive times series model with heteroscedastic conditional variance.

  5. A Non-Gaussian Spatial Generalized Linear Latent Variable Model

    Irincheeva, Irina


    We consider a spatial generalized linear latent variable model with and without normality distributional assumption on the latent variables. When the latent variables are assumed to be multivariate normal, we apply a Laplace approximation. To relax the assumption of marginal normality in favor of a mixture of normals, we construct a multivariate density with Gaussian spatial dependence and given multivariate margins. We use the pairwise likelihood to estimate the corresponding spatial generalized linear latent variable model. The properties of the resulting estimators are explored by simulations. In the analysis of an air pollution data set the proposed methodology uncovers weather conditions to be a more important source of variability than air pollution in explaining all the causes of non-accidental mortality excluding accidents. © 2012 International Biometric Society.

  6. The Optimal Selection for Restricted Linear Models with Average Estimator

    Qichang Xie


    Full Text Available The essential task of risk investment is to select an optimal tracking portfolio among various portfolios. Statistically, this process can be achieved by choosing an optimal restricted linear model. This paper develops a statistical procedure to do this, based on selecting appropriate weights for averaging approximately restricted models. The method of weighted average least squares is adopted to estimate the approximately restricted models under dependent error setting. The optimal weights are selected by minimizing a k-class generalized information criterion (k-GIC, which is an estimate of the average squared error from the model average fit. This model selection procedure is shown to be asymptotically optimal in the sense of obtaining the lowest possible average squared error. Monte Carlo simulations illustrate that the suggested method has comparable efficiency to some alternative model selection techniques.

  7. Order reduction of large-scale linear oscillatory system models

    Trudnowksi, D.J. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))


    Eigen analysis and signal analysis techniques of deriving representations of power system oscillatory dynamics result in very high-order linear models. In order to apply many modern control design methods, the models must be reduced to a more manageable order while preserving essential characteristics. Presented in this paper is a model reduction method well suited for large-scale power systems. The method searches for the optimal subset of the high-order model that best represents the system. An Akaike information criterion is used to define the optimal reduced model. The method is first presented, and then examples of applying it to Prony analysis and eigenanalysis models of power systems are given.

  8. American petroleum industry: an application of linear rational expectations modeling

    Dimelis, S.P.


    Objectives of this study are to account for the storable and exhaustible nature of crude petroleum as well as the dynamic interaction of agents operating within the stochastic environment of the mutually interrelated markets of crude petroleum and refined petroleum products. To this end, the linear rational expectations modeling is employed, that give estimable functional forms that avoid the common objections to fixed and ad hoc distributed lag modeling addressed by Nerlove (1972) and Lucas (1976), respectively. The formulation and the econometric specification of the model are documented with a statistical and vector autoregression analysis of the stylized facts pertaining to the actual data during the post World War II period. Most of the important features characterizing behavior in the crude petroleum and refined petroleum products markets such as exhaustible resource extraction costs and inventory holding costs are captured in the model. The foreign and domestic demand and supplies are specified. The model is then solved simultaneously to derive the rational expectations equilibrium laws of motion in these markets. An estimable form of the model is generated which is linear in the variables but highly nonlinear in the parameters. The model is tested empirically using annual data over the period 1047 to 1984.

  9. State Predictive Model Following Control System for Linear Time Delays

    Da-Zhong Wang; Shu-Jing Wu; Shigenori Okubo


    In this paper, we propose a new state predictive model following control system (MFCS). The considered system has linear time delays. With the MFCS method, we obtain a simple input control law. The bounded property of the internal states for the control is given and the utility of this control design is guaranteed. Finally, an example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  10. General Linear Models: An Integrated Approach to Statistics

    Andrew Faulkner; Sylvain Chartier


    Generally, in psychology, the various statistical analyses are taught independently from each other. As a consequence, students struggle to learn new statistical analyses, in contexts that differ from their textbooks. This paper gives a short introduction to the general linear model (GLM), in which it is showed that ANOVA (one-way, factorial, repeated measure and analysis of covariance) is simply a multiple correlation/regression analysis (MCRA). Generalizations to other cases, such as multiv...

  11. Numerical modeling of linear friction welding:a literature review

    李文亚; 郭嘉; 马铁军; A.Vairis


    Linear friction welding (LFW)is a solid state process for joining metals together.While this process was developed originally for titanium alloys (e.g.blisks),over the past decade a number ofmaterials were found to be weldable with LFW. In this review,the current status ofunderstanding and development ofLFW are presented.Particular emphasis has been given to the modeling ofthe LFW process.Finally,opportunities for further research and development ofLFW are identified.

  12. Conditional likelihood inference in generalized linear mixed models.

    Sartori, Nicola; Severini , T.A


    Consider a generalized linear model with a canonical link function, containing both fixed and random effects. In this paper, we consider inference about the fixed effects based on a conditional likelihood function. It is shown that this conditional likelihood function is valid for any distribution of the random effects and, hence, the resulting inferences about the fixed effects are insensitive to misspecification of the random effects distribution. Inferences based on the conditional likelih...

  13. Credibility analysis of risk classes by generalized linear model

    Erdemir, Ovgucan Karadag; Sucu, Meral


    In this paper generalized linear model (GLM) and credibility theory which are frequently used in nonlife insurance pricing are combined for reliability analysis. Using full credibility standard, GLM is associated with limited fluctuation credibility approach. Comparison criteria such as asymptotic variance and credibility probability are used to analyze the credibility of risk classes. An application is performed by using one-year claim frequency data of a Turkish insurance company and results of credible risk classes are interpreted.

  14. Information inefficiency in a random linear economy model

    Jerico, Joao Pedro


    We study the effects of introducing information inefficiency in a model for a random linear economy with a representative consumer. This is done by considering statistical, instead of classical, economic general equilibria. Employing two different approaches we show that inefficiency increases the consumption set of a consumer but decreases her expected utility. In this scenario economic activity grows while welfare shrinks, that is the opposite of the behavior obtained by considering a rational consumer.

  15. Holographic transports and stability in anisotropic linear axion model

    Ge, Xian-Hui; Niu, Chao; Sin, Sang-Jin


    We study thermoelectric conductivities and shear viscosities in a holographically anisotropic model. Momentum relaxation is realized through perturbing the linear axion field. AC conductivity exhibits a conherent/incoherent metal transition. The longitudinal shear viscosity for prolate anisotropy violates the bound conjectured by Kovtun-Son-Starinets. We also find that thermodynamic and dynamical instabilities are not always equivalent, which provides a counter example of the Gubser-Mitra conjecture.

  16. Comparison of Linear Prediction Models for Audio Signals

    van Waterschoot Toon


    Full Text Available While linear prediction (LP has become immensely popular in speech modeling, it does not seem to provide a good approach for modeling audio signals. This is somewhat surprising, since a tonal signal consisting of a number of sinusoids can be perfectly predicted based on an (all-pole LP model with a model order that is twice the number of sinusoids. We provide an explanation why this result cannot simply be extrapolated to LP of audio signals. If noise is taken into account in the tonal signal model, a low-order all-pole model appears to be only appropriate when the tonal components are uniformly distributed in the Nyquist interval. Based on this observation, different alternatives to the conventional LP model can be suggested. Either the model should be changed to a pole-zero, a high-order all-pole, or a pitch prediction model, or the conventional LP model should be preceded by an appropriate frequency transform, such as a frequency warping or downsampling. By comparing these alternative LP models to the conventional LP model in terms of frequency estimation accuracy, residual spectral flatness, and perceptual frequency resolution, we obtain several new and promising approaches to LP-based audio modeling.

  17. Comparison of Linear Prediction Models for Audio Signals


    Full Text Available While linear prediction (LP has become immensely popular in speech modeling, it does not seem to provide a good approach for modeling audio signals. This is somewhat surprising, since a tonal signal consisting of a number of sinusoids can be perfectly predicted based on an (all-pole LP model with a model order that is twice the number of sinusoids. We provide an explanation why this result cannot simply be extrapolated to LP of audio signals. If noise is taken into account in the tonal signal model, a low-order all-pole model appears to be only appropriate when the tonal components are uniformly distributed in the Nyquist interval. Based on this observation, different alternatives to the conventional LP model can be suggested. Either the model should be changed to a pole-zero, a high-order all-pole, or a pitch prediction model, or the conventional LP model should be preceded by an appropriate frequency transform, such as a frequency warping or downsampling. By comparing these alternative LP models to the conventional LP model in terms of frequency estimation accuracy, residual spectral flatness, and perceptual frequency resolution, we obtain several new and promising approaches to LP-based audio modeling.

  18. Linear and nonlinear intra-conduction band optical absorption in (In,Ga)N/GaN spherical QD under hydrostatic pressure

    El Ghazi, Haddou; Jorio, Anouar; Zorkani, Izeddine


    Linear, third-order nonlinear and total optical absorption coefficients of intra-conduction band 1s-1p transition with hydrogenic shallow-donor impurity in wurtzite (In,Ga)N/GaN spherical quantum dot are reported. Hydrostatic pressure effect is investigated within the framework of single band effective-mass approximation using a combination of Quantum Genetic Algorithm (QGA) and Hartree-Fock-Roothaan (HFR) method. The results show that the pressure has a great influence on optical absorption coefficients of QDs. A blue-shift of the resonant peak is observed while the maximum of the amplitude of optical absorption coefficients decreases under hydrostatic pressure effect. A good agreement is shown compared with results of the finding.

  19. Modelling millimetre wave propagation and absorption in a high resolution skin model: the effect of sweat glands

    Shafirstein, Gal [Department of Otolaryngology, College of Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4301 W. Markham, 543, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Moros, Eduardo G, E-mail: [Division of Radiation Physics and Informatics, Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4301 W. Markham, 771, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States)


    The aim of this work was to investigate the potential effect of sweat gland ducts (SGD) on specific absorption rate (SAR) and temperature distributions during mm-wave irradiation. High resolution electromagnetic and bio-heat transfer models of human skin with SGD were developed using a commercially available simulation software package (SEMCAD X(TM)). The skin model consisted of a 30 {mu}m stratum corneum, 350 {mu}m epidermis and papillary dermis (EPD) and 1000 {mu}m dermis. Five SGD of 60 {mu}m radius and 300 {mu}m height were embedded linearly with 370 {mu}m separation. A WR-10 waveguide positioned 20 {mu}m from the skin surface and delivering 94 GHz electromagnetic radiation was included in the model. Saline conductivity was assigned inside SGD. SAR and temperatures were computed with and without SGD. Despite their small scale, SAR was significantly higher within SGD than in the EPD without SGD. Without SGD, SAR and temperature maxima were in the dermis near EPD. With SGD, SAR maximum was inside SGD while temperature maximum moved to the EPD/stratum-corneum junction. Since the EPD participates actively in perception, the effect of SGD should be taken into account in nociceptive studies involving mm-waves. This research represents a significant step towards higher spatial resolution numerical modelling of the skin and shows that microstructures can play a significant role in mm-wave absorption and induced temperature distributions.

  20. Modelling millimetre wave propagation and absorption in a high resolution skin model: the effect of sweat glands

    Shafirstein, Gal; Moros, Eduardo G.


    The aim of this work was to investigate the potential effect of sweat gland ducts (SGD) on specific absorption rate (SAR) and temperature distributions during mm-wave irradiation. High resolution electromagnetic and bio-heat transfer models of human skin with SGD were developed using a commercially available simulation software package (SEMCAD X™). The skin model consisted of a 30 µm stratum corneum, 350 µm epidermis and papillary dermis (EPD) and 1000 µm dermis. Five SGD of 60 µm radius and 300 µm height were embedded linearly with 370 µm separation. A WR-10 waveguide positioned 20 µm from the skin surface and delivering 94 GHz electromagnetic radiation was included in the model. Saline conductivity was assigned inside SGD. SAR and temperatures were computed with and without SGD. Despite their small scale, SAR was significantly higher within SGD than in the EPD without SGD. Without SGD, SAR and temperature maxima were in the dermis near EPD. With SGD, SAR maximum was inside SGD while temperature maximum moved to the EPD/stratum-corneum junction. Since the EPD participates actively in perception, the effect of SGD should be taken into account in nociceptive studies involving mm-waves. This research represents a significant step towards higher spatial resolution numerical modelling of the skin and shows that microstructures can play a significant role in mm-wave absorption and induced temperature distributions.

  1. A linear model for the dynamics of fish larvae

    Noureddine Ghouali


    Full Text Available We consider a linear model for the growth and the dispersion of fish larvae of certain species. Dispersion is modeled as entailed by the combination of transport and vertical diffusion. We generalize the work of Boushaba, Arino and Boussouar [5,6] in the sense that horizontal velocities are uniform throughout the water column; but we deal with vertical component velocity and vertical diffusion depending on the space variables and on time, which was not the case in [5,6]. This new vision leads us to non-autonomous problems, the aim of this work is to show the existence, uniqueness, and positivity of solutions.

  2. Jet propagation within a Linearized Boltzmann Transport model

    Luo, Tan; He, Yayun [Key Laboratory of Quark and Lepton Physics (MOE) and Institute of Particle Physics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Wang, Xin-Nian [Key Laboratory of Quark and Lepton Physics (MOE) and Institute of Particle Physics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Nuclear Science Division, Mailstop 70R0319, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94740 (United States); Zhu, Yan [Departamento de Física de Partículas and IGFAE, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15706 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain)


    A Linearized Boltzmann Transport (LBT) model has been developed for the study of parton propagation inside quark–gluon plasma. Both leading and thermal recoiled partons are tracked in order to include the effect of jet-induced medium excitation. In this talk, we present a study within the LBT model in which we implement the complete set of elastic parton scattering processes. We investigate elastic parton energy loss and their energy and length dependence. We further investigate energy loss and transverse shape of reconstructed jets. Contributions from the recoiled thermal partons and jet-induced medium excitations are found to have significant influences on the jet energy loss and transverse profile.

  3. On the Chiral Phase Transition in the Linear Sigma Model

    Phat, T H; Hoa, L V; Phat, Tran Huu; Anh, Nguyen Tuan; Hoa, Le Viet


    The Cornwall-Jackiw-Tomboulis (CJT) effective action for composite operators at finite temperature is used to investigate the chiral phase transition within the framework of the linear sigma model as the low-energy effective model of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). A new renormalization prescription for the CJT effective action in the Hartree-Fock (HF) approximation is proposed. A numerical study, which incorporates both thermal and quantum effect, shows that in this approximation the phase transition is of first order. However, taking into account the higher-loop diagrams contribution the order of phase transition is unchanged.

  4. Richly parameterized linear models additive, time series, and spatial models using random effects

    Hodges, James S


    A First Step toward a Unified Theory of Richly Parameterized Linear ModelsUsing mixed linear models to analyze data often leads to results that are mysterious, inconvenient, or wrong. Further compounding the problem, statisticians lack a cohesive resource to acquire a systematic, theory-based understanding of models with random effects.Richly Parameterized Linear Models: Additive, Time Series, and Spatial Models Using Random Effects takes a first step in developing a full theory of richly parameterized models, which would allow statisticians to better understand their analysis results. The aut

  5. Non-linear model for compression tests on articular cartilage.

    Grillo, Alfio; Guaily, Amr; Giverso, Chiara; Federico, Salvatore


    Hydrated soft tissues, such as articular cartilage, are often modeled as biphasic systems with individually incompressible solid and fluid phases, and biphasic models are employed to fit experimental data in order to determine the mechanical and hydraulic properties of the tissues. Two of the most common experimental setups are confined and unconfined compression. Analytical solutions exist for the unconfined case with the linear, isotropic, homogeneous model of articular cartilage, and for the confined case with the non-linear, isotropic, homogeneous model. The aim of this contribution is to provide an easily implementable numerical tool to determine a solution to the governing differential equations of (homogeneous and isotropic) unconfined and (inhomogeneous and isotropic) confined compression under large deformations. The large-deformation governing equations are reduced to equivalent diffusive equations, which are then solved by means of finite difference (FD) methods. The solution strategy proposed here could be used to generate benchmark tests for validating complex user-defined material models within finite element (FE) implementations, and for determining the tissue's mechanical and hydraulic properties from experimental data.

  6. Wavefront sensing for WFIRST with a linear optical model

    Jurling, Alden S.; Content, David A.


    In this paper we develop methods to use a linear optical model to capture the field dependence of wavefront aberrations in a nonlinear optimization-based phase retrieval algorithm for image-based wavefront sensing. The linear optical model is generated from a ray trace model of the system and allows the system state to be described in terms of mechanical alignment parameters rather than wavefront coefficients. This approach allows joint optimization over images taken at different field points and does not require separate convergence of phase retrieval at individual field points. Because the algorithm exploits field diversity, multiple defocused images per field point are not required for robustness. Furthermore, because it is possible to simultaneously fit images of many stars over the field, it is not necessary to use a fixed defocus to achieve adequate signal-to-noise ratio despite having images with high dynamic range. This allows high performance wavefront sensing using in-focus science data. We applied this technique in a simulation model based on the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) Intermediate Design Reference Mission (IDRM) imager using a linear optical model with 25 field points. We demonstrate sub-thousandth-wave wavefront sensing accuracy in the presence of noise and moderate undersampling for both monochromatic and polychromatic images using 25 high-SNR target stars. Using these high-quality wavefront sensing results, we are able to generate upsampled point-spread functions (PSFs) and use them to determine PSF ellipticity to high accuracy in order to reduce the systematic impact of aberrations on the accuracy of galactic ellipticity determination for weak-lensing science.

  7. Comparison of linear and non-linear soft tissue models with post-operative CT scan in maxillofacial surgery

    Chabanas, M; Marecaux, C; Swider, P; Boutault, F; Chabanas, Matthieu; Payan, Yohan; Marecaux, Christophe; Swider, Pascal; Boutault, Franck


    A Finite Element model of the face soft tissue is proposed to simulate the morphological outcomes of maxillofacial surgery. Three modelling options are implemented: a linear elastic model with small and large deformation hypothesis, and an hyperelastic Mooney-Rivlin model. An evaluation procedure based on a qualitative and quantitative comparison of the simulations with a post-operative CT scan is detailed. It is then applied to one clinical case to evaluate the differences between the three models, and with the actual patient morphology. First results shows in particular that for a "simple" clinical procedure where stress is less than 20%, a linear model seams sufficient for a correct modelling.

  8. Non-linear rheology in a model biological tissue

    Matoz-Fernandez, D A; Barrat, Jean-Louis; Bertin, Eric; Martens, Kirsten


    Mechanical signaling plays a key role in biological processes like embryo development and cancer growth. One prominent way to probe mechanical properties of tissues is to study their response to externally applied forces. Using a particle-based model featuring random apoptosis and environment-dependent division rates, we evidence a crossover from linear flow to a shear-thinning regime with increasing shear rate. To rationalize this non-linear flow we derive a theoretical mean-field scenario that accounts for the interplay of mechanical and active noise in local stresses. These noises are respectively generated by the elastic response of the cell matrix to cell rearrangements and by the internal activity.

  9. A linearized dispersion relation for orthorhombic pseudo-acoustic modeling

    Song, Xiaolei


    Wavefield extrapolation in acoustic orthorhombic anisotropic media suffers from wave-mode coupling and stability limitations in the parameter range. We introduce a linearized form of the dispersion relation for acoustic orthorhombic media to model acoustic wavefields. We apply the lowrank approximation approach to handle the corresponding space-wavenumber mixed-domain operator. Numerical experiments show that the proposed wavefield extrapolator is accurate and practically free of dispersions. Further, there is no coupling of qSv and qP waves, because we use the analytical dispersion relation. No constraints on Thomsen\\'s parameters are required for stability. The linearized expression may provide useful application for parameter estimation in orthorhombic media.

  10. Repopulation Kinetics and the Linear-Quadratic Model

    O'Rourke, S. F. C.; McAneney, H.; Starrett, C.; O'Sullivan, J. M.


    The standard Linear-Quadratic (LQ) survival model for radiotherapy is used to investigate different schedules of radiation treatment planning for advanced head and neck cancer. We explore how these treament protocols may be affected by different tumour repopulation kinetics between treatments. The laws for tumour cell repopulation include the logistic and Gompertz models and this extends the work of Wheldon et al. [1], which was concerned with the case of exponential repopulation between treatments. Treatment schedules investigated include standarized and accelerated fractionation. Calculations based on the present work show, that even with growth laws scaled to ensure that the repopulation kinetics for advanced head and neck cancer are comparable, considerable variation in the survival fraction to orders of magnitude emerged. Calculations show that application of the Gompertz model results in a significantly poorer prognosis for tumour eradication. Gaps in treatment also highlight the differences in the LQ model with the effect of repopulation kinetics included.



  12. Measurements of the Absorption by Auditorium SEATING—A Model Study



    One of several problems with seat absorption is that only small numbers of seats can be tested in standard reverberation chambers. One method proposed for reverberation chamber measurements involves extrapolation when the absorption coefficient results are applied to actual auditoria. Model seat measurements in an effectively large model reverberation chamber have allowed the validity of this extrapolation to be checked. The alternative barrier method for reverberation chamber measurements was also tested and the two methods were compared. The effect on the absorption of row-row spacing as well as absorption by small numbers of seating rows was also investigated with model seats.

  13. Simulation Model for Dynamic Operation of Double-Effect Absorption Chillers

    Ahmed Mojahid Sid Ahmed Mohammed Salih; Gilani Syed Ihtsham Ul-Haq


    The development in the field of refrigeration and air conditioning systems driven by absorption cycles acquired a considerable importance recently. For commercial absorption chillers, an essential challenge for creating chiller model certainly is the shortage of components technical specifications. These kinds of specifications are usually proprietary for chillers producers. In this paper, a double-effect parallel-flow-type steam absorption chiller model based on thermodynamic and energy equa...

  14. Linear mixed models a practical guide using statistical software

    West, Brady T; Galecki, Andrzej T


    Highly recommended by JASA, Technometrics, and other journals, the first edition of this bestseller showed how to easily perform complex linear mixed model (LMM) analyses via a variety of software programs. Linear Mixed Models: A Practical Guide Using Statistical Software, Second Edition continues to lead readers step by step through the process of fitting LMMs. This second edition covers additional topics on the application of LMMs that are valuable for data analysts in all fields. It also updates the case studies using the latest versions of the software procedures and provides up-to-date information on the options and features of the software procedures available for fitting LMMs in SAS, SPSS, Stata, R/S-plus, and HLM.New to the Second Edition A new chapter on models with crossed random effects that uses a case study to illustrate software procedures capable of fitting these models Power analysis methods for longitudinal and clustered study designs, including software options for power analyses and suggest...

  15. Linear models for multivariate, time series, and spatial data

    Christensen, Ronald


    This is a companion volume to Plane Answers to Complex Questions: The Theory 0/ Linear Models. It consists of six additional chapters written in the same spirit as the last six chapters of the earlier book. Brief introductions are given to topics related to linear model theory. No attempt is made to give a comprehensive treatment of the topics. Such an effort would be futile. Each chapter is on a topic so broad that an in depth discussion would require a book-Iength treatment. People need to impose structure on the world in order to understand it. There is a limit to the number of unrelated facts that anyone can remem­ ber. If ideas can be put within a broad, sophisticatedly simple structure, not only are they easier to remember but often new insights become avail­ able. In fact, sophisticatedly simple models of the world may be the only ones that work. I have often heard Arnold Zellner say that, to the best of his knowledge, this is true in econometrics. The process of modeling is fundamental to understand...

  16. Linear and Non-linear Modeling of Cement-bonded Moulding Sand System Using Conventional Statistical Regression Analysis

    Parappagoudar, Mahesh B.; Pratihar, Dilip K.; Datta, Gouranga L.


    A cement-bonded moulding sand system takes a fairly long time to attain the required strength. Hence, the moulds prepared with cement as a bonding material will have to wait a long time for the metal to be poured. In this work, an accelerator was used to accelerate the process of developing the bonding strength. Regression analysis was carried out on the experimental data collected as per statistical design of experiments (DOE) to establish input-output relationships of the process. The experiments were conducted to measure compression strength and hardness (output parameters) by varying the input variables, namely amount of cement, amount of accelerator, water in the form of cement-to-water ratio, and testing time. A two-level full-factorial design was used for linear regression model, whereas a three-level central composite design (CCD) had been utilized to develop non-linear regression model. Surface plots and main effects plots were used to study the effects of amount of cement, amount of accelerator, water and testing time on compression strength, and mould hardness. It was observed from both the linear as well as non-linear models that amount of cement, accelerator, and testing time have some positive contributions, whereas cement-to-water ratio has negative contribution to both the above responses. Compression strength was found to have linear relationship with the amount of cement and accelerator, and non-linear relationship with the remaining process parameters. Mould hardness was seen to vary linearly with testing time and non-linearly with the other parameters. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to test statistical adequacy of the models. Twenty random test cases were considered to test and compare their performances. Non-linear regression models were found to perform better than the linear models for both the responses. An attempt was also made to express compression strength of the moulding sand system as a function of mould hardness.

  17. Linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes associated with intersubband transitions in a quantum disk with flat cylindrical geometry

    Gambhir, Monica, E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Kumar, Manoj [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Jha, P.K. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Deen Dayal Upadhyaya College, University of Delhi, Delhi 110015 (India); Mohan, Man [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India)


    The linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients and changes in the refractive index in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum disk in the form of a flat cylinder are investigated theoretically in the presence of a static magnetic and a laser field within the framework of the compact-density matrix approach. It is found that the absorption coefficients and the refractive index changes depend not only on the optical wave intensity but also on the strength of the static magnetic field. The intersubband relaxation time, also, has an important influence on the linear and nonlinear optical properties of a quantum disk. -- Highlights: • The study is carried out in a quantum disk having quantum dot geometry. • The linear and non-linear optical properties are studied using density matrix approach. • The study is carried out in the presence of a laser field and a magnetic field. • Influence of incident photon energy and static magnetic field is analyzed. • The optical properties are found to be greatly influenced by the relaxation time.

  18. A mechanism-based approach for absorption modeling: the Gastro-Intestinal Transit Time (GITT) model.

    Hénin, Emilie; Bergstrand, Martin; Standing, Joseph F; Karlsson, Mats O


    Absorption models used in the estimation of pharmacokinetic drug characteristics from plasma concentration data are generally empirical and simple, utilizing no prior information on gastro-intestinal (GI) transit patterns. Our aim was to develop and evaluate an estimation strategy based on a mechanism-based model for drug absorption, which takes into account the tablet movement through the GI transit. This work is an extension of a previous model utilizing tablet movement characteristics derived from magnetic marker monitoring (MMM) and pharmacokinetic data. The new approach, which replaces MMM data with a GI transit model, was evaluated in data sets where MMM data were available (felodipine) or not available (diclofenac). Pharmacokinetic profiles in both datasets were well described by the model according to goodness-of-fit plots. Visual predictive checks showed the model to give superior simulation properties compared with a standard empirical approach (first-order absorption rate + lag-time). This model represents a step towards an integrated mechanism-based NLME model, where the use of physiological knowledge and in vitro–in vivo correlation helps fully characterize PK and generate hypotheses for new formulations or specific populations.

  19. New holographic dark energy model with non-linear interaction

    Oliveros, A


    In this paper the cosmological evolution of a holographic dark energy model with a non-linear interaction between the dark energy and dark matter components in a FRW type flat universe is analysed. In this context, the deceleration parameter $q$ and the equation state $w_{\\Lambda}$ are obtained. We found that, as the square of the speed of sound remains positive, the model is stable under perturbations since early times; it also shows that the evolution of the matter and dark energy densities are of the same order for a long period of time, avoiding the so--called coincidence problem. We have also made the correspondence of the model with the dark energy densities and pressures for the quintessence and tachyon fields. From this correspondence we have reconstructed the potential of scalar fields and their dynamics.

  20. Linear system identification via backward-time observer models

    Juang, Jer-Nan; Phan, Minh


    This paper presents an algorithm to identify a state-space model of a linear system using a backward-time approach. The procedure consists of three basic steps. First, the Markov parameters of a backward-time observer are computed from experimental input-output data. Second, the backward-time observer Markov parameters are decomposed to obtain the backward-time system Markov parameters (backward-time pulse response samples) from which a backward-time state-space model is realized using the Eigensystem Realization Algorithm. Third, the obtained backward-time state space model is converted to the usual forward-time representation. Stochastic properties of this approach will be discussed. Experimental results are given to illustrate when and to what extent this concept works.

  1. Vibrational absorption spectra from vibrational coupled cluster damped linear response functions calculated using an asymmetric Lanczos algorithm

    Thomsen, Bo; Hansen, Mikkel Bo; Seidler, Peter


    We report the theory and implementation of vibrational coupled cluster (VCC) damped response functions. From the imaginary part of the damped VCC response function the absorption as function of frequency can be obtained, requiring formally the solution of the now complex VCC response equations....... The absorption spectrum can in this formulation be seen as a matrix function of the characteristic VCC Jacobian response matrix. The asymmetric matrix version of the Lanczos method is used to generate a tridiagonal representation of the VCC response Jacobian. Solving the complex response equations...... in the relevant Lanczos space provides a method for calculating the VCC damped response functions and thereby subsequently the absorption spectra. The convergence behaviour of the algorithm is discussed theoretically and tested for different levels of completeness of the VCC expansion. Comparison is made...

  2. Model Based Adaptive Piecewise Linear Controller for Complicated Control Systems

    Tain-Sou Tsay


    Full Text Available A model based adaptive piecewise linear control scheme for industry processes with specifications on peak overshoots and rise times is proposed. It is a gain stabilized control technique. Large gain is used for large tracking error to get fast response. Small gain is used between large and small tracking error for good performance. Large gain is used again for small tracking error to cope with large disturbance. Parameters of the three-segment piecewise linear controller are found by an automatic regulating time series which is function of output characteristics of the plant and reference model. The time series will be converged to steady values after the time response of the considered system matching that of the reference model. The proposed control scheme is applied to four numerical examples which have been compensated by PID controllers. Parameters of PID controllers are found by optimization method. It gives an almost command independent response and gives significant improvements for response time and performance.

  3. Modeling Pan Evaporation for Kuwait by Multiple Linear Regression

    Jaber Almedeij


    Full Text Available Evaporation is an important parameter for many projects related to hydrology and water resources systems. This paper constitutes the first study conducted in Kuwait to obtain empirical relations for the estimation of daily and monthly pan evaporation as functions of available meteorological data of temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed. The data used here for the modeling are daily measurements of substantial continuity coverage, within a period of 17 years between January 1993 and December 2009, which can be considered representative of the desert climate of the urban zone of the country. Multiple linear regression technique is used with a procedure of variable selection for fitting the best model forms. The correlations of evaporation with temperature and relative humidity are also transformed in order to linearize the existing curvilinear patterns of the data by using power and exponential functions, respectively. The evaporation models suggested with the best variable combinations were shown to produce results that are in a reasonable agreement with observation values.

  4. Wannier-Stark ladder in the linear absorption of a random system with scale-free disorder

    Diaz, E.; Dominguez-Adame, F.; Kosevich, Yu. A.; Malyshev, V.A.


    We study numerically the linear optical response of a quasiparticle moving on a one-dimensional disordered lattice in the presence of a linear bias. The random site potential is assumed to be long-range correlated with a power-law spectral density S(k)similar to 1/k(alpha), alpha > 0. This type of c

  5. Non-linear DSGE Models and The Optimized Particle Filter

    Andreasen, Martin Møller

    This paper improves the accuracy and speed of particle filtering for non-linear DSGE models with potentially non-normal shocks. This is done by introducing a new proposal distribution which i) incorporates information from new observables and ii) has a small optimization step that minimizes...... the distance to the optimal proposal distribution. A particle filter with this proposal distribution is shown to deliver a high level of accuracy even with relatively few particles, and this filter is therefore much more efficient than the standard particle filter....

  6. Diffusion and wave behaviour in linear Voigt model

    De Angelis, Monica


    A boundary value problem related to a third- order parabolic equation with a small parameter is analized. This equation models the one-dimensional evolution of many dissipative media as viscoelastic fluids or solids, viscous gases, superconducting materials, incompressible and electrically conducting fluids. Moreover, the third-order parabolic operator regularizes various non linear second order wave equations. In this paper, the hyperbolic and parabolic behaviour of the solution is estimated by means of slow time and fast time. As consequence, a rigorous asymptotic approximation for the solution is established.

  7. A linear model for flow over complex terrain

    Frank, H.P. [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)


    A linear flow model similar to WA{sup s}P or LINCOM has been developed. Major differences are an isentropic temperature equation which allows internal gravity waves, and vertical advection of the shear of the mean flow. The importance of these effects are illustrated by examples. Resource maps are calculated from a distribution of geostrophic winds and stratification for Pyhaetunturi Fell in northern Finland and Acqua Spruzza in Italy. Stratification becomes important if the inverse Froude number formulated with the width of the hill becomes of order one or greater. (au) EU-JOULE-3. 16 refs.

  8. S-AMP for non-linear observation models

    Cakmak, Burak; Winther, Ole; Fleury, Bernard H.


    Recently we presented the S-AMP approach, an extension of approximate message passing (AMP), to be able to handle general invariant matrix ensembles. In this contribution we extend S-AMP to non-linear observation models. We obtain generalized AMP (GAMP) as the special case when the measurement...... matrix has zero-mean iid Gaussian entries. Our derivation is based upon 1) deriving expectation-propagation-(EP)-like equations from the stationary-points equations of the Gibbs free energy under first- and second-moment constraints and 2) applying additive free convolution in free probability theory...

  9. Investigation of $\\eta'N$ system using linear sigma model

    Sakai, Shuntaro


    In this paper, we investigate the $\\eta'N$ system using the three-flavor linear sigma model including the effect of the flavor SU(3) symmetry breaking. The $\\eta'N$ bound state is found also in the case including the flavor symmetry braking and the coupling with the $\\eta N$ and $\\pi N$ channels. The $\\eta'N$ interaction becomes more attractive with the inclusion of the flavor symmetry breaking which causes the mixing between the singlet and octet scalar mesons. The existence of such a bound state would have some impact on the $\\eta'$-nucleus system, which is of interest from the theoretical and experimental viewpoint.


    Qin Guoyou; Zhu Zhongyi


    In this article, robust generalized estimating equation for the analysis of par- tial linear mixed model for longitudinal data is used. The authors approximate the non- parametric function by a regression spline. Under some regular conditions, the asymptotic properties of the estimators are obtained. To avoid the computation of high-dimensional integral, a robust Monte Carlo Newton-Raphson algorithm is used. Some simulations are carried out to study the performance of the proposed robust estimators. In addition, the authors also study the robustness and the efficiency of the proposed estimators by simulation. Finally, two real longitudinal data sets are analyzed.

  11. Adaptive quasi-likelihood estimate in generalized linear models

    CHEN Xia; CHEN Xiru


    This paper gives a thorough theoretical treatment on the adaptive quasilikelihood estimate of the parameters in the generalized linear models. The unknown covariance matrix of the response variable is estimated by the sample. It is shown that the adaptive estimator defined in this paper is asymptotically most efficient in the sense that it is asymptotic normal, and the covariance matrix of the limit distribution coincides with the one for the quasi-likelihood estimator for the case that the covariance matrix of the response variable is completely known.

  12. A diffusive virus infection dynamic model with nonlinear functional response, absorption effect and chemotaxis

    Wang, Wei; Ma, Wanbiao; Lai, Xiulan


    From a biological perspective, a diffusive virus infection dynamic model with nonlinear functional response, absorption effect and chemotaxis is proposed. In the model, the diffusion of virus consists of two parts, the random diffusion and the chemotactic movement. The chemotaxis flux of virus depends not only on their own density, but also on the density of infected cells, and the density gradient of infected cells. The well posedness of the proposed model is deeply investigated. For the proposed model, the linear stabilities of the infection-free steady state E0 and the infection steady state E* are extensively performed. We show that the threshold dynamics can be expressed by the basic reproduction number R0 of the model without chemotaxis. That is, the infection-free steady state E0 is globally asymptotically stable if R0 virus is uniformly persistent if R0 > 1. In addition, we use the cross iteration method and the Schauder's fixed point theorem to prove the existence of travelling wave solutions connecting the infection-free steady state E0 and the infection steady state E* by constructing a pair of upper-lower solutions. At last, numerical simulations are presented to confirm theoretical findings.

  13. Max-plus-linear model-based predictive control for constrained hybrid systems:linear programming solution

    Yuanyuan ZOU; Shaoyuan LI


    In this paper,a linear programming method is proposed to solve model predictive control for a class of hybrid systems.Firstly,using the(max,+)algebra,a typical subclass of hybrid systems called max-plus-linear(MPL)systems is obtained.And then,model predictive control(MPC)framework is extended to MPL systems.In general,the nonlinear optimization approach or extended linear complementarity problem(ELCP)were applied to solve the MPL-MPC optimization problem.A new optimization method based on canonical forms for max-min-plus-scaling(MMPS)functions (using the operations maximization,minimization,addition and scalar multiplication)with linear constraints on the inputs is presented.The proposed approach consists in solving several linear programming problems and is more efficient than nonlinear optimization.The validity of the algorithm is illustrated by an example.

  14. Filtering nonlinear dynamical systems with linear stochastic models

    Harlim, J.; Majda, A. J.


    An important emerging scientific issue is the real time filtering through observations of noisy signals for nonlinear dynamical systems as well as the statistical accuracy of spatio-temporal discretizations for filtering such systems. From the practical standpoint, the demand for operationally practical filtering methods escalates as the model resolution is significantly increased. For example, in numerical weather forecasting the current generation of global circulation models with resolution of 35 km has a total of billions of state variables. Numerous ensemble based Kalman filters (Evensen 2003 Ocean Dyn. 53 343-67 Bishop et al 2001 Mon. Weather Rev. 129 420-36 Anderson 2001 Mon. Weather Rev. 129 2884-903 Szunyogh et al 2005 Tellus A 57 528-45 Hunt et al 2007 Physica D 230 112-26) show promising results in addressing this issue; however, all these methods are very sensitive to model resolution, observation frequency, and the nature of the turbulent signals when a practical limited ensemble size (typically less than 100) is used. In this paper, we implement a radical filtering approach to a relatively low (40) dimensional toy model, the L-96 model (Lorenz 1996 Proc. on Predictability (ECMWF, 4-8 September 1995) pp 1-18) in various chaotic regimes in order to address the 'curse of ensemble size' for complex nonlinear systems. Practically, our approach has several desirable features such as extremely high computational efficiency, filter robustness towards variations of ensemble size (we found that the filter is reasonably stable even with a single realization) which makes it feasible for high dimensional problems, and it is independent of any tunable parameters such as the variance inflation coefficient in an ensemble Kalman filter. This radical filtering strategy decouples the problem of filtering a spatially extended nonlinear deterministic system to filtering a Fourier diagonal system of parametrized linear stochastic differential equations (Majda and Grote

  15. Phenomenology of non-minimal supersymmetric models at linear colliders

    Porto, Stefano


    The focus of this thesis is on the phenomenology of several non-minimal supersymmetric models in the context of future linear colliders (LCs). Extensions of the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) may accommodate the observed Higgs boson mass at about 125 GeV in a more natural way than the MSSM, with a richer phenomenology. We consider both F-term extensions of the MSSM, as for instance the non-minimal supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM), as well as D-terms extensions arising at low energies from gauge extended supersymmetric models. The NMSSM offers a solution to the μ-problem with an additional gauge singlet supermultiplet. The enlarged neutralino sector of the NMSSM can be accurately studied at a LC and used to distinguish the model from the MSSM. We show that exploiting the power of the polarised beams of a LC can be used to reconstruct the neutralino and chargino sector and eventually distinguish the NMSSM even considering challenging scenarios that resemble the MSSM. Non-decoupling D-terms extensions of the MSSM can raise the tree-level Higgs mass with respect to the MSSM. This is done through additional contributions to the Higgs quartic potential, effectively generated by an extended gauge group. We study how this can happen and we show how these additional non-decoupling D-terms affect the SM-like Higgs boson couplings to fermions and gauge bosons. We estimate how the deviations from the SM couplings can be spotted at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and at the International Linear Collider (ILC), showing how the ILC would be suitable for the model identication. Since our results prove that a linear collider is a fundamental machine for studying supersymmetry phenomenology at a high level of precision, we argue that also a thorough comprehension of the physics at the interaction point (IP) of a LC is needed. Therefore, we finally consider the possibility of observing intense electromagnetic field effects and nonlinear quantum electrodynamics

  16. Wave scattering through classically chaotic cavities in the presence of absorption: A maximum-entropy model

    Pier A Mello; Eugene Kogan


    We present a maximum-entropy model for the transport of waves through a classically chaotic cavity in the presence of absorption. The entropy of the -matrix statistical distribution is maximized, with the constraint $\\langle {\\rm Tr}SS^{\\dagger}\\rangle = n: n$ is the dimensionality of , and 0 ≤ ≤ 1. For = 1 the -matrix distribution concentrates on the unitarity sphere and we have no absorption; for = 0 the distribution becomes a delta function at the origin and we have complete absorption. For strong absorption our result agrees with a number of analytical calculations already given in the literature. In that limit, the distribution of the individual (angular) transmission and reflection coefficients becomes exponential – Rayleigh statistics – even for = 1. For ≫ 1 Rayleigh statistics is attained even with no absorption; here we extend the study to < 1. The model is compared with random-matrix-theory numerical simulations: it describes the problem very well for strong absorption, but fails for moderate and weak absorptions. The success of the model for strong absorption is understood in the light of a central-limit theorem. For weak absorption, some important physical constraint is missing in the construction of the model.

  17. Acoustic FMRI noise: linear time-invariant system model.

    Rizzo Sierra, Carlos V; Versluis, Maarten J; Hoogduin, Johannes M; Duifhuis, Hendrikus Diek


    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) enables sites of brain activation to be localized in human subjects. For auditory system studies, however, the acoustic noise generated by the scanner tends to interfere with the assessments of this activation. Understanding and modeling fMRI acoustic noise is a useful step to its reduction. To study acoustic noise, the MR scanner is modeled as a linear electroacoustical system generating sound pressure signals proportional to the time derivative of the input gradient currents. The transfer function of one MR scanner is determined for two different input specifications: 1) by using the gradient waveform calculated by the scanner software and 2) by using a recording of the gradient current. Up to 4 kHz, the first method is shown as reliable as the second one, and its use is encouraged when direct measurements of gradient currents are not possible. Additionally, the linear order and average damping properties of the gradient coil system are determined by impulse response analysis. Since fMRI is often based on echo planar imaging (EPI) sequences, a useful validation of the transfer function prediction ability can be obtained by calculating the acoustic output for the EPI sequence. We found a predicted sound pressure level (SPL) for the EPI sequence of 104 dB SPL compared to a measured value of 102 dB SPL. As yet, the predicted EPI pressure waveform shows similarity as well as some differences with the directly measured EPI pressure waveform.

  18. Low-energy limit of the extended Linear Sigma Model

    Divotgey, Florian; Giacosa, Francesco; Rischke, Dirk H


    The extended Linear Sigma Model (eLSM) is an effective hadronic model based on the linear realization of chiral symmetry $SU(N_f)_L \\times SU(N_f)_R$, with (pseudo)scalar and (axial-)vector mesons as degrees of freedom. In this paper, we study the low-energy limit of the eLSM for $N_f=2$ flavors by integrating out all fields except for the pions, the (pseudo-)Nambu--Goldstone bosons of chiral symmetry breaking. We only keep terms entering at tree level and up to fourth order in powers of derivatives of the pion fields. Up to this order, there are four low-energy coupling constants in the resulting low-energy effective action. We show that the latter is formally identical to Chiral Perturbation Theory (ChPT), after choosing a representative for the coset space generated by chiral symmetry breaking and expanding up to fourth order in powers of derivatives of the pion fields. Two of the low-energy coupling constants of the eLSM are uniquely determined by a fit to hadron masses and decay widths. We find that thei...

  19. Linearization models for parabolic dynamical systems via Abel's functional equation

    Elin, Mark; Reich, Simeon; Shoikhet, David


    We study linearization models for continuous one-parameter semigroups of parabolic type. In particular, we introduce new limit schemes to obtain solutions of Abel's functional equation and to study asymptotic behavior of such semigroups. The crucial point is that these solutions are univalent functions convex in one direction. In a parallel direction, we find analytic conditions which determine certain geometric properties of those functions, such as the location of their images in either a half-plane or a strip, and their containing either a half-plane or a strip. In the context of semigroup theory these geometric questions may be interpreted as follows: is a given one-parameter continuous semigroup either an outer or an inner conjugate of a group of automorphisms? In other words, the problem is finding a fractional linear model of the semigroup which is defined by a group of automorphisms of the open unit disk. Our results enable us to establish some new important analytic and geometric characteristics of t...

  20. Linear versus quadratic portfolio optimization model with transaction cost

    Razak, Norhidayah Bt Ab; Kamil, Karmila Hanim; Elias, Siti Masitah


    Optimization model is introduced to become one of the decision making tools in investment. Hence, it is always a big challenge for investors to select the best model that could fulfill their goal in investment with respect to risk and return. In this paper we aims to discuss and compare the portfolio allocation and performance generated by quadratic and linear portfolio optimization models namely of Markowitz and Maximin model respectively. The application of these models has been proven to be significant and popular among others. However transaction cost has been debated as one of the important aspects that should be considered for portfolio reallocation as portfolio return could be significantly reduced when transaction cost is taken into consideration. Therefore, recognizing the importance to consider transaction cost value when calculating portfolio' return, we formulate this paper by using data from Shariah compliant securities listed in Bursa Malaysia. It is expected that, results from this paper will effectively justify the advantage of one model to another and shed some lights in quest to find the best decision making tools in investment for individual investors.

  1. Some generalisations of linear-graph modelling for dynamic systems

    de Silva, Clarence W.; Pourazadi, Shahram


    Proper modelling of a dynamic system can benefit analysis, simulation, design, evaluation and control of the system. The linear-graph (LG) approach is suitable for modelling lumped-parameter dynamic systems. By using the concepts of graph trees, it provides a graphical representation of the system, with a direct correspondence to the physical component topology. This paper systematically extends the application of LGs to multi-domain (mixed-domain or multi-physics) dynamic systems by presenting a unified way to represent different domains - mechanical, electrical, thermal and fluid. Preservation of the structural correspondence across domains is a particular advantage of LGs when modelling mixed-domain systems. The generalisation of Thevenin and Norton equivalent circuits to mixed-domain systems, using LGs, is presented. The structure of an LG model may follow a specific pattern. Vector LGs are introduced to take advantage of such patterns, giving a general LG representation for them. Through these vector LGs, the model representation becomes simpler and rather compact, both topologically and parametrically. A new single LG element is defined to facilitate the modelling of distributed-parameter (DP) systems. Examples are presented using multi-domain systems (a motion-control system and a flow-controlled pump), a multi-body mechanical system (robot manipulator) and DP systems (structural rods) to illustrate the application and advantages of the methodologies developed in the paper.

  2. Explicit estimating equations for semiparametric generalized linear latent variable models

    Ma, Yanyuan


    We study generalized linear latent variable models without requiring a distributional assumption of the latent variables. Using a geometric approach, we derive consistent semiparametric estimators. We demonstrate that these models have a property which is similar to that of a sufficient complete statistic, which enables us to simplify the estimating procedure and explicitly to formulate the semiparametric estimating equations. We further show that the explicit estimators have the usual root n consistency and asymptotic normality. We explain the computational implementation of our method and illustrate the numerical performance of the estimators in finite sample situations via extensive simulation studies. The advantage of our estimators over the existing likelihood approach is also shown via numerical comparison. We employ the method to analyse a real data example from economics. © 2010 Royal Statistical Society.

  3. Relating Cohesive Zone Model to Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics

    Wang, John T.


    The conditions required for a cohesive zone model (CZM) to predict a failure load of a cracked structure similar to that obtained by a linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) analysis are investigated in this paper. This study clarifies why many different phenomenological cohesive laws can produce similar fracture predictions. Analytical results for five cohesive zone models are obtained, using five different cohesive laws that have the same cohesive work rate (CWR-area under the traction-separation curve) but different maximum tractions. The effect of the maximum traction on the predicted cohesive zone length and the remote applied load at fracture is presented. Similar to the small scale yielding condition for an LEFM analysis to be valid. the cohesive zone length also needs to be much smaller than the crack length. This is a necessary condition for a CZM to obtain a fracture prediction equivalent to an LEFM result.

  4. Synthetic Domain Theory and Models of Linear Abadi & Plotkin Logic

    Møgelberg, Rasmus Ejlers; Birkedal, Lars; Rosolini, Guiseppe


    Plotkin suggested using a polymorphic dual intuitionistic/linear type theory (PILLY) as a metalanguage for parametric polymorphism and recursion. In recent work the first two authors and R.L. Petersen have defined a notion of parametric LAPL-structure, which are models of PILLY, in which one can...... reason using parametricity and, for example, solve a large class of domain equations, as suggested by Plotkin.In this paper, we show how an interpretation of a strict version of Bierman, Pitts and Russo's language Lily into synthetic domain theory presented by Simpson and Rosolini gives rise...... to a parametric LAPL-structure. This adds to the evidence that the notion of LAPL-structure is a general notion, suitable for treating many different parametric models, and it provides formal proofs of consequences of parametricity expected to hold for the interpretation. Finally, we show how these results...

  5. Electromagnetically Induced Transparency and Absorption in Metamaterials: The Radiating Two-Oscillator Model and Experimental Confirmation

    Tassin, Philippe; Zhao, Rongkuo; Jain, Aditya; Koschny, Thomas; Soukoulis, Costas M


    Several classical analogues of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in metamaterials have been demonstrated. A simple two-resonator model can describe their absorption spectrum qualitatively, but fails to provide information about the scattering properties-e.g., transmission and group delay. Here we develop an alternative model that rigourously includes the coupling of the radiative resonator to the external electromagnetic fields. This radiating two-oscillator model can describe both the absorption spectrum and the scattering parameters quantitatively. The model also predicts metamaterials with a narrow spectral feature in the absorption larger than the background absorption of the radiative element. This classical analogue of electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) is shown to occur when both the dissipative loss of the radiative resonator and the coupling strength are small. These predictions are subsequently demonstrated in experiments.

  6. On the unnecessary ubiquity of hierarchical linear modeling.

    McNeish, Daniel; Stapleton, Laura M; Silverman, Rebecca D


    In psychology and the behavioral sciences generally, the use of the hierarchical linear model (HLM) and its extensions for discrete outcomes are popular methods for modeling clustered data. HLM and its discrete outcome extensions, however, are certainly not the only methods available to model clustered data. Although other methods exist and are widely implemented in other disciplines, it seems that psychologists have yet to consider these methods in substantive studies. This article compares and contrasts HLM with alternative methods including generalized estimating equations and cluster-robust standard errors. These alternative methods do not model random effects and thus make a smaller number of assumptions and are interpreted identically to single-level methods with the benefit that estimates are adjusted to reflect clustering of observations. Situations where these alternative methods may be advantageous are discussed including research questions where random effects are and are not required, when random effects can change the interpretation of regression coefficients, challenges of modeling with random effects with discrete outcomes, and examples of published psychology articles that use HLM that may have benefitted from using alternative methods. Illustrative examples are provided and discussed to demonstrate the advantages of the alternative methods and also when HLM would be the preferred method. (PsycINFO Database Record

  7. Electroweak Corrections and Unitarity in Linear Moose Models

    Chivukula, R S; Kurachi, M; Simmons, E H; Tanabashi, M; He, Hong-Jian; Kurachi, Masafumi; Simmons, Elizabeth H.; Tanabashi, Masaharu


    We calculate the form of the corrections to the electroweak interactions in the class of Higgsless models which can be "deconstructed'' to a chain of SU(2) gauge groups adjacent to a chain of U(1) gauge groups, and with the fermions coupled to any single SU(2) group and to any single U(1) group along the chain. The primary advantage of our technique is that the size of corrections to electroweak processes can be directly related to the spectrum of vector bosons ("KK modes"). In Higgsless models, this spectrum is constrained by unitarity. Our methods also allow for arbitrary background 5-D geometry, spatially dependent gauge-couplings, and brane kinetic energy terms. We find that, due to the size of corrections to electroweak processes in any unitary theory, Higgsless models with localized fermions are disfavored by precision electroweak data. Although we stress our results as they apply to continuum Higgsless 5-D models, they apply to any linear moose model including those with only a few extra vector bosons....

  8. Generalized linear models with coarsened covariates: a practical Bayesian approach.

    Johnson, Timothy R; Wiest, Michelle M


    Coarsened covariates are a common and sometimes unavoidable phenomenon encountered in statistical modeling. Covariates are coarsened when their values or categories have been grouped. This may be done to protect privacy or to simplify data collection or analysis when researchers are not aware of their drawbacks. Analyses with coarsened covariates based on ad hoc methods can compromise the validity of inferences. One valid method for accounting for a coarsened covariate is to use a marginal likelihood derived by summing or integrating over the unknown realizations of the covariate. However, algorithms for estimation based on this approach can be tedious to program and can be computationally expensive. These are significant obstacles to their use in practice. To overcome these limitations, we show that when expressed as a Bayesian probability model, a generalized linear model with a coarsened covariate can be posed as a tractable missing data problem where the missing data are due to censoring. We also show that this model is amenable to widely available general-purpose software for simulation-based inference for Bayesian probability models, providing researchers a very practical approach for dealing with coarsened covariates.

  9. Non-linear scaling of a musculoskeletal model of the lower limb using statistical shape models.

    Nolte, Daniel; Tsang, Chui Kit; Zhang, Kai Yu; Ding, Ziyun; Kedgley, Angela E; Bull, Anthony M J


    Accurate muscle geometry for musculoskeletal models is important to enable accurate subject-specific simulations. Commonly, linear scaling is used to obtain individualised muscle geometry. More advanced methods include non-linear scaling using segmented bone surfaces and manual or semi-automatic digitisation of muscle paths from medical images. In this study, a new scaling method combining non-linear scaling with reconstructions of bone surfaces using statistical shape modelling is presented. Statistical Shape Models (SSMs) of femur and tibia/fibula were used to reconstruct bone surfaces of nine subjects. Reference models were created by morphing manually digitised muscle paths to mean shapes of the SSMs using non-linear transformations and inter-subject variability was calculated. Subject-specific models of muscle attachment and via points were created from three reference models. The accuracy was evaluated by calculating the differences between the scaled and manually digitised models. The points defining the muscle paths showed large inter-subject variability at the thigh and shank - up to 26mm; this was found to limit the accuracy of all studied scaling methods. Errors for the subject-specific muscle point reconstructions of the thigh could be decreased by 9% to 20% by using the non-linear scaling compared to a typical linear scaling method. We conclude that the proposed non-linear scaling method is more accurate than linear scaling methods. Thus, when combined with the ability to reconstruct bone surfaces from incomplete or scattered geometry data using statistical shape models our proposed method is an alternative to linear scaling methods.

  10. Selection between Linear Factor Models and Latent Profile Models Using Conditional Covariances

    Halpin, Peter F.; Maraun, Michael D.


    A method for selecting between K-dimensional linear factor models and (K + 1)-class latent profile models is proposed. In particular, it is shown that the conditional covariances of observed variables are constant under factor models but nonlinear functions of the conditioning variable under latent profile models. The performance of a convenient…

  11. Conscious and anaesthetised Göttingen mini-pigs as an in-vivo model for buccal absorption - pH-dependent absorption of metoprolol from bioadhesive tablets

    Meng-Lund, Emil; Jacobsen, Jette; Andersen, Morten B;


    Abstract The potential of buccal mucosa as a site for systemic absorption has attracted increased attention in recent years creating a need for new predictive in-vivo models. The aim of this study was to evaluate anaesthetised and conscious Göttingen mini-pigs as a model for buccal drug absorption...

  12. Linear model applied to the evaluation of pharmaceutical stability data

    Renato Cesar Souza


    Full Text Available The expiry date on the packaging of a product gives the consumer the confidence that the product will retain its identity, content, quality and purity throughout the period of validity of the drug. The definition of this term in the pharmaceutical industry is based on stability data obtained during the product registration. By the above, this work aims to apply the linear regression according to the guideline ICH Q1E, 2003, to evaluate some aspects of a product undergoing in a registration phase in Brazil. With this propose, the evaluation was realized with the development center of a multinational company in Brazil, with samples of three different batches composed by two active principal ingredients in two different packages. Based on the preliminary results obtained, it was possible to observe the difference of degradation tendency of the product in two different packages and the relationship between the variables studied, added knowledge so new models of linear equations can be applied and developed for other products.

  13. Direction of Effects in Multiple Linear Regression Models.

    Wiedermann, Wolfgang; von Eye, Alexander


    Previous studies analyzed asymmetric properties of the Pearson correlation coefficient using higher than second order moments. These asymmetric properties can be used to determine the direction of dependence in a linear regression setting (i.e., establish which of two variables is more likely to be on the outcome side) within the framework of cross-sectional observational data. Extant approaches are restricted to the bivariate regression case. The present contribution extends the direction of dependence methodology to a multiple linear regression setting by analyzing distributional properties of residuals of competing multiple regression models. It is shown that, under certain conditions, the third central moments of estimated regression residuals can be used to decide upon direction of effects. In addition, three different approaches for statistical inference are discussed: a combined D'Agostino normality test, a skewness difference test, and a bootstrap difference test. Type I error and power of the procedures are assessed using Monte Carlo simulations, and an empirical example is provided for illustrative purposes. In the discussion, issues concerning the quality of psychological data, possible extensions of the proposed methods to the fourth central moment of regression residuals, and potential applications are addressed.

  14. Feedbacks, climate sensitivity, and the limits of linear models

    Rugenstein, M.; Knutti, R.


    The term "feedback" is used ubiquitously in climate research, but implies varied meanings in different contexts. From a specific process that locally affects a quantity, to a formal framework that attempts to determine a global response to a forcing, researchers use this term to separate, simplify, and quantify parts of the complex Earth system. We combine large (>120 member) ensemble GCM and EMIC step forcing simulations over a broad range of forcing levels with a historical and educational perspective to organize existing ideas around feedbacks and linear forcing-feedback models. With a new method overcoming internal variability and initial condition problems we quantify the non-constancy of the climate feedback parameter. Our results suggest a strong state- and forcing-dependency of feedbacks, which is not considered appropriately in many studies. A non-constant feedback factor likely explains some of the differences in estimates of equilibrium climate sensitivity from different methods and types of data. We discuss implications for the definition of the forcing term and its various adjustments. Clarifying the value and applicability of the linear forcing feedback framework and a better quantification of feedbacks on various timescales and spatial scales remains a high priority in order to better understand past and predict future changes in the climate system.

  15. Absorption of beta-carotene and other carotenoids in humans and animal models : a review

    Vliet, T. van


    Objective: To review available information on absorption and further metabolism of different carotenoids in man and to discuss animal models and approaches in the study of carotenoid absorption and metabolism in man. Conclusions: Humans appear to absorb various carotenoids in a relatively non-specif

  16. Predicting laser-induced bulk damage and conditioning for deuterated potassium di-hydrogen phosphate crystals using ADM (absorption distribution model)

    Liao, Z M; Spaeth, M L; Manes, K; Adams, J J; Carr, C W


    We present an empirical model that describes the experimentally observed laser-induced bulk damage and conditioning behavior in deuterated Potassium dihydrogen Phosphate (DKDP) crystals in a self-consistent way. The model expands on an existing nanoabsorber precursor model and the multi-step absorption mechanism to include two populations of absorbing defects, one with linear absorption and another with nonlinear absorption. We show that this model connects previously uncorrelated small-beam damage initiation probability data to large-beam damage density measurements over a range of ns pulse widths relevant to ICF lasers such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF). In addition, this work predicts the damage behavior of laser-conditioned DKDP and explains the upper limit to the laser conditioning effect. The ADM model has been successfully used during the commissioning and early operation of the NIF.

  17. Analysis of water absorption of bean and chickpea during soaking using Peleg model

    S.M. Shafaei


    Full Text Available Peleg model was used to determine the instance moisture content of three varieties of bean (Talash, Sadri and Mahali Khomein and three varieties of chickpea (Desi, small Kabuli and large Kabuli during soaking. The experiments were carried out at three different temperatures (5, 25 and 45 °C in triplicate using distilled water. The moisture content versus time curves were plotted at different experimental temperatures, for six varieties. The results indicated that water absorption increased as the temperature increased. The obtained Peleg model constants were investigated relative to temperature. Activation and free activation energy, as well as entropy and enthalpy changes for the three studied varieties of both chickpea and bean were calculated at three temperatures using Peleg model constants and regression analysis. In the case of bean, the results showed a linear decrease in the coefficients k1 and k2. Furthermore for chickpea, the coefficient of k1 decreased linearly and the effect of temperature on the coefficient k2 was partial and decreasing. Likewise, the results indicated that the seeds enthalpy enhanced significantly as soaking temperature increased from 5 to 45 °C, the raising trend in entropy and released energy was not significant, however (P < 0.05. Maximum and minimum free activation energy in soaking process were observed in chickpea variety of Chico (301.28 kJ mol−1 and bean variety of Mahali Khomein (86.77 kJ mol−1, respectively. In addition, negative values of enthalpy changes of varieties demonstrated that the changes in moisture content during soaking process were associated with exothermic and energetically favorable transformation.

  18. Statistical Inference for Partially Linear Regression Models with Measurement Errors

    Jinhong YOU; Qinfeng XU; Bin ZHOU


    In this paper, the authors investigate three aspects of statistical inference for the partially linear regression models where some covariates are measured with errors. Firstly,a bandwidth selection procedure is proposed, which is a combination of the difference-based technique and GCV method. Secondly, a goodness-of-fit test procedure is proposed,which is an extension of the generalized likelihood technique. Thirdly, a variable selection procedure for the parametric part is provided based on the nonconcave penalization and corrected profile least squares. Same as "Variable selection via nonconcave penalized like-lihood and its oracle properties" (J. Amer. Statist. Assoc., 96, 2001, 1348-1360), it is shown that the resulting estimator has an oracle property with a proper choice of regu-larization parameters and penalty function. Simulation studies are conducted to illustrate the finite sample performances of the proposed procedures.

  19. Distributing Correlation Coefficients of Linear Structure-Activity/Property Models

    Sorana D. BOLBOACA


    Full Text Available Quantitative structure-activity/property relationships are mathematical relationships linking chemical structure and activity/property in a quantitative manner. These in silico approaches are frequently used to reduce animal testing and risk-assessment, as well as to increase time- and cost-effectiveness in characterization and identification of active compounds. The aim of our study was to investigate the pattern of correlation coefficients distribution associated to simple linear relationships linking the compounds structure with their activities. A set of the most common ordnance compounds found at naval facilities with a limited data set with a range of toxicities on aquatic ecosystem and a set of seven properties was studied. Statistically significant models were selected and investigated. The probability density function of the correlation coefficients was investigated using a series of possible continuous distribution laws. Almost 48% of the correlation coefficients proved fit Beta distribution, 40% fit Generalized Pareto distribution, and 12% fit Pert distribution.

  20. Modeling and Analysis of Linearized Wheel-Rail Contact Dynamics

    Zulfiqar Ali Soomro


    Full Text Available The dynamics of the railway vehicles are nonlinear and depend upon several factors including vehicle speed, normal load and adhesion level. The presence of contaminants on the railway track makes them unpredictable too. Therefore in order to develop an effective control strategy it is important to analyze the effect of each factor on dynamic response thoroughly. In this paper a linearized model of a railway wheel-set is developed and is later analyzed by varying the speed and adhesion level by keeping the normal load constant. A wheel-set is the wheel-axle assembly of a railroad car. Patch contact is the study of the deformation of solids that touch each other at one or more points

  1. dglars: An R Package to Estimate Sparse Generalized Linear Models

    Luigi Augugliaro


    Full Text Available dglars is a publicly available R package that implements the method proposed in Augugliaro, Mineo, and Wit (2013, developed to study the sparse structure of a generalized linear model. This method, called dgLARS, is based on a differential geometrical extension of the least angle regression method proposed in Efron, Hastie, Johnstone, and Tibshirani (2004. The core of the dglars package consists of two algorithms implemented in Fortran 90 to efficiently compute the solution curve: a predictor-corrector algorithm, proposed in Augugliaro et al. (2013, and a cyclic coordinate descent algorithm, proposed in Augugliaro, Mineo, and Wit (2012. The latter algorithm, as shown here, is significantly faster than the predictor-corrector algorithm. For comparison purposes, we have implemented both algorithms.

  2. Effects of the Tsallis distribution in the linear sigma model

    Ishihara, Masamichi


    The effects of the Tsallis distribution which has a parameter $q$ on physical quantities are studied using the linear sigma model in chiral phase transitions. The temperature dependences of the condensate and mass for various $q$ are shown, where the Tsallis distribution approaches the Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution as $q$ approaches $1$. The critical temperature and energy density are described with digamma function, and the $q$ dependences of these quantities and the extension of Stefan-Boltzmann limit of the energy density are shown. The following facts are clarified. The chiral symmetry restoration for $q>1$ occurs at low temperature, compared with the restoration for $q=1$. The sigma mass and pion mass reflect the restoration. The critical temperature decreases monotonically as $q$ increases. The small deviation from the Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution results in the large deviations of physical quantities, especially the energy density. It is displayed from the energetic point of view that the small deviatio...

  3. Adaptive Unified Biased Estimators of Parameters in Linear Model

    Hu Yang; Li-xing Zhu


    To tackle multi collinearity or ill-conditioned design matrices in linear models,adaptive biased estimators such as the time-honored Stein estimator,the ridge and the principal component estimators have been studied intensively.To study when a biased estimator uniformly outperforms the least squares estimator,some suficient conditions are proposed in the literature.In this paper,we propose a unified framework to formulate a class of adaptive biased estimators.This class includes all existing biased estimators and some new ones.A suficient condition for outperforming the least squares estimator is proposed.In terms of selecting parameters in the condition,we can obtain all double-type conditions in the literature.

  4. Linear $\\Sigma$ Model in the Gaussian Functional Approximation

    Nakamura, I


    We apply a self-consistent relativistic mean-field variational ``Gaussian functional'' (or Hartree) approximation to the linear $\\sigma$ model with spontaneously and explicitly broken chiral O(4) symmetry. We set up the self-consistency, or ``gap'' and the Bethe-Salpeter equations. We check and confirm the chiral Ward-Takahashi identities, among them the Nambu-Goldstone theorem and the (partial) axial current conservation [CAC], both in and away from the chiral limit. With explicit chiral symmetry breaking we confirm the Dashen relation for the pion mass and partial CAC. We solve numerically the gap and Bethe-Salpeter equations, discuss the solutions' properties and the particle content of the theory.

  5. Extended UNIQUAC model for thermodynamic modeling of CO2 absorption in aqueous alkanolamine solutions

    Faramarzi, Leila; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Thomsen, Kaj


    The extended UNIQUAC model [K. Thomsen, R Rasmussen, Chem. Eng. Sci. 54 (1999) 1787-1802] was applied to the thermodynamic representation of carbon dioxide absorption in aqueous monoethanolamine (MEA), methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and varied strength mixtures of the two alkanolamines (MEA-MDEA). F......The extended UNIQUAC model [K. Thomsen, R Rasmussen, Chem. Eng. Sci. 54 (1999) 1787-1802] was applied to the thermodynamic representation of carbon dioxide absorption in aqueous monoethanolamine (MEA), methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and varied strength mixtures of the two alkanolamines (MEA......) are included in the parameter estimation process. The previously unavailable standard state properties of the alkanolamine ions appearing in this work, i.e. MEA protonate, MEA carbamate and MDEA protonate are determined. The concentration of the species in both MEA and MDEA solutions containing CO2...

  6. K factor estimation in distribution transformers using linear regression models

    Juan Miguel Astorga Gómez


    Full Text Available Background: Due to massive incorporation of electronic equipment to distribution systems, distribution transformers are subject to operation conditions other than the design ones, because of the circulation of harmonic currents. It is necessary to quantify the effect produced by these harmonic currents to determine the capacity of the transformer to withstand these new operating conditions. The K-factor is an indicator that estimates the ability of a transformer to withstand the thermal effects caused by harmonic currents. This article presents a linear regression model to estimate the value of the K-factor, from total current harmonic content obtained with low-cost equipment.Method: Two distribution transformers that feed different loads are studied variables, current total harmonic distortion factor K are recorded, and the regression model that best fits the data field is determined. To select the regression model the coefficient of determination R2 and the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC are used. With the selected model, the K-factor is estimated to actual operating conditions.Results: Once determined the model it was found that for both agricultural cargo and industrial mining, present harmonic content (THDi exceeds the values that these transformers can drive (average of 12.54% and minimum 8,90% in the case of agriculture and average value of 18.53% and a minimum of 6.80%, for industrial mining case.Conclusions: When estimating the K factor using polynomial models it was determined that studied transformers can not withstand the current total harmonic distortion of their current loads. The appropriate K factor for studied transformer should be 4; this allows transformers support the current total harmonic distortion of their respective loads.

  7. Bayesian inference for generalized linear models for spiking neurons

    Sebastian Gerwinn


    Full Text Available Generalized Linear Models (GLMs are commonly used statistical methods for modelling the relationship between neural population activity and presented stimuli. When the dimension of the parameter space is large, strong regularization has to be used in order to fit GLMs to datasets of realistic size without overfitting. By imposing properly chosen priors over parameters, Bayesian inference provides an effective and principled approach for achieving regularization. Here we show how the posterior distribution over model parameters of GLMs can be approximated by a Gaussian using the Expectation Propagation algorithm. In this way, we obtain an estimate of the posterior mean and posterior covariance, allowing us to calculate Bayesian confidence intervals that characterize the uncertainty about the optimal solution. From the posterior we also obtain a different point estimate, namely the posterior mean as opposed to the commonly used maximum a posteriori estimate. We systematically compare the different inference techniques on simulated as well as on multi-electrode recordings of retinal ganglion cells, and explore the effects of the chosen prior and the performance measure used. We find that good performance can be achieved by choosing an Laplace prior together with the posterior mean estimate.

  8. Linear and nonlinear viscoelastic arterial wall models: application on animals

    Ghigo, Arthur; Armentano, Ricardo; Lagrée, Pierre-Yves; Fullana, Jose-Maria


    This work deals with the viscoelasticity of the arterial wall and its influence on the pulse waves. We describe the viscoelasticity by a non-linear Kelvin-Voigt model in which the coefficients are fitted using experimental time series of pressure and radius measured on a sheep's arterial network. We obtained a good agreement between the results of the nonlinear Kelvin-Voigt model and the experimental measurements. We found that the viscoelastic relaxation time-defined by the ratio between the viscoelastic coefficient and the Young's modulus-is nearly constant throughout the network. Therefore, as it is well known that smaller arteries are stiffer, the viscoelastic coefficient rises when approaching the peripheral sites to compensate the rise of the Young's modulus, resulting in a higher damping effect. We incorporated the fitted viscoelastic coefficients in a nonlinear 1D fluid model to compute the pulse waves in the network. The damping effect of viscoelasticity on the high frequency waves is clear especiall...

  9. Non-linear Constitutive Model for the Oligocarbonate Polyurethane Material

    Marek Pawlikowski


    The polyurethane,which was the subject of the constitutive research presented in the paper,was based on oligocarbonate diols Desmophen C2100 produced by Bayer@.The constitutive modelling was performed with a view to applying the material as the inlay of intervertebral disc prostheses.The polyurethane was assumed to be non-linearly viscohyperelastic,isotropic and incompressible.The constitutive equation was derived from the postulated strain energy function.The elastic and rheological constants were identified on the basis of experimental tests,i.e.relaxation tests and monotonic uniaxial tests at two different strain rates,i.e.λ =0.1 min-1 and λ =1.0 min-1.The stiffness tensor was derived and introduced to Abaqus@finite element (FE) software in order to numerically validate the constitutive model.The results of the constants identification and numerical implementation show that the derived constitutive equation is fully adequate to model stress-strain behavior of the polyurethane material.

  10. a Linear Model for Meandering Rivers with Arbitrarily Varying Width

    Frascati, A.; Lanzoni, S.


    Alluvial rivers usually exhibit quite complex planforms, characterized by a wide variety of alternating bends, that have attracted the interest of a large number of researchers. Much less attention has been paid to another striking feature observed in alluvial rivers, namely the relatively regular spatial variations attained by the channel width. Actively meandering channels, in fact, generally undergo spatial oscillations systematically correlated with channel curvature, with cross sections wider at bends than at crossings. Some other streams have been observed to exhibit irregular width variations. Conversely, rivers flowing in highly vegetated flood plains, i.e. canaliform rivers, may exhibit an opposite behavior, owing to the combined effects of bank erodibility and floodplain depositional processes which, in turn, are strictly linked to vegetation cover. Similarly to streamline curvatures induced by bends, the presence of along channel width variations may have remarkable effects on the flow field and sediment dynamics and, thereby, on the equilibrium river bed configuration. In particular, spatial distribution of channel curvature typically determines the formation of a rhythmic bar-pool pattern in the channel bed strictly associated with the development of river meanders. Channel width variations are on the contrary characterized by a sequence of narrowing, yielding a central scour, alternated to the downstream development of a widening associated with the formation of a central bar. Here we present a morphodynamic model that predict at a linear level the spatial distribution of the flow field and the equilibrium bed configuration of an alluvial river characterized by arbitrary along channel distributions of both the channel axis curvature and the channel width. The mathematical model is averaged over the depth and describes the steady, non-uniform flow and sediment transport in sinuous channels with a noncohesive bed. The governing two-dimensional equations

  11. Optimizing Biorefinery Design and Operations via Linear Programming Models

    Talmadge, Michael; Batan, Liaw; Lamers, Patrick; Hartley, Damon; Biddy, Mary; Tao, Ling; Tan, Eric


    The ability to assess and optimize economics of biomass resource utilization for the production of fuels, chemicals and power is essential for the ultimate success of a bioenergy industry. The team of authors, consisting of members from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), has developed simple biorefinery linear programming (LP) models to enable the optimization of theoretical or existing biorefineries. The goal of this analysis is to demonstrate how such models can benefit the developing biorefining industry. It focuses on a theoretical multi-pathway, thermochemical biorefinery configuration and demonstrates how the biorefinery can use LP models for operations planning and optimization in comparable ways to the petroleum refining industry. Using LP modeling tools developed under U.S. Department of Energy's Bioenergy Technologies Office (DOE-BETO) funded efforts, the authors investigate optimization challenges for the theoretical biorefineries such as (1) optimal feedstock slate based on available biomass and prices, (2) breakeven price analysis for available feedstocks, (3) impact analysis for changes in feedstock costs and product prices, (4) optimal biorefinery operations during unit shutdowns / turnarounds, and (5) incentives for increased processing capacity. These biorefinery examples are comparable to crude oil purchasing and operational optimization studies that petroleum refiners perform routinely using LPs and other optimization models. It is important to note that the analyses presented in this article are strictly theoretical and they are not based on current energy market prices. The pricing structure assigned for this demonstrative analysis is consistent with $4 per gallon gasoline, which clearly assumes an economic environment that would favor the construction and operation of biorefineries. The analysis approach and examples provide valuable insights into the usefulness of analysis tools for

  12. Comparison of linear, mixed integer and non-linear programming methods in energy system dispatch modelling

    Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix; Elmegaard, Brian


    of selected units by 23%, while for a non-linear approach the increase can be higher than 39%. The results indicate a higher coherence between the two latter approaches, and that the MLP (mixed integer programming) optimisation is most appropriate from a viewpoint of accuracy and runtime. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd...

  13. Quasi-linear modeling of lower hybrid current drive in ITER and DEMO

    Cardinali, A., E-mail:; Cesario, R.; Panaccione, L.; Santini, F.; Amicucci, L.; Castaldo, C.; Ceccuzzi, S.; Mirizzi, F.; Tuccillo, A. A. [ENEA, Unità Tecnica Fusione, Via E Fermi 45 Rome (Italy)


    First pass absorption of the Lower Hybrid waves in thermonuclear devices like ITER and DEMO is modeled by coupling the ray tracing equations with the quasi-linear evolution of the electron distribution function in 2D velocity space. As usually assumed, the Lower Hybrid Current Drive is not effective in a plasma of a tokamak fusion reactor, owing to the accessibility condition which, depending on the density, restricts the parallel wavenumber to values greater than n{sub ∥crit} and, at the same time, to the high electron temperature that would enhance the wave absorption and then restricts the RF power deposition to the very periphery of the plasma column (near the separatrix). In this work, by extensively using the “ray{sup star}” code, a parametric study of the propagation and absorption of the LH wave as function of the coupled wave spectrum (as its width, and peak value), has been performed very accurately. Such a careful investigation aims at controlling the power deposition layer possibly in the external half radius of the plasma, thus providing a valuable aid to the solution of how to control the plasma current profile in a toroidal magnetic configuration, and how to help the suppression of MHD mode that can develop in the outer part of the plasma. This analysis is useful not only for exploring the possibility of profile control of a pulsed operation reactor as well as the tearing mode stabilization, but also in order to reconsider the feasibility of steady state regime for DEMO.

  14. Linear models for sound from supersonic reacting mixing layers

    Chary, P. Shivakanth; Samanta, Arnab


    We perform a linearized reduced-order modeling of the aeroacoustic sound sources in supersonic reacting mixing layers to explore their sensitivities to some of the flow parameters in radiating sound. Specifically, we investigate the role of outer modes as the effective flow compressibility is raised, when some of these are expected to dominate over the traditional Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) -type central mode. Although the outer modes are known to be of lesser importance in the near-field mixing, how these radiate to the far-field is uncertain, on which we focus. On keeping the flow compressibility fixed, the outer modes are realized via biasing the respective mean densities of the fast (oxidizer) or slow (fuel) side. Here the mean flows are laminar solutions of two-dimensional compressible boundary layers with an imposed composite (turbulent) spreading rate, which we show to significantly alter the growth of instability waves by saturating them earlier, similar to in nonlinear calculations, achieved here via solving the linear parabolized stability equations. As the flow parameters are varied, instability of the slow modes is shown to be more sensitive to heat release, potentially exceeding equivalent central modes, as these modes yield relatively compact sound sources with lesser spreading of the mixing layer, when compared to the corresponding fast modes. In contrast, the radiated sound seems to be relatively unaffected when the mixture equivalence ratio is varied, except for a lean mixture which is shown to yield a pronounced effect on the slow mode radiation by reducing its modal growth.

  15. Donor impurity-related linear and nonlinear intraband optical absorption coefficients in quantum ring: effects of applied electric field and hydrostatic pressure.

    Barseghyan, Manuk G; Restrepo, Ricardo L; Mora-Ramos, Miguel E; Kirakosyan, Albert A; Duque, Carlos A


    : The linear and nonlinear intraband optical absorption coefficients in GaAs three-dimensional single quantum rings are investigated. Taking into account the combined effects of hydrostatic pressure and electric field, applied along the growth direction of the heterostructure, the energies of the ground and first excited states of a donor impurity have been found using the effective mass approximation and a variational method. The energies of these states are examined as functions of the dimensions of the structure, electric field, and hydrostatic pressure. We have also investigated the dependencies of the linear, nonlinear, and total optical absorption coefficients as a function of incident photon energy for several configurations of the system. It is found that the variation of distinct sizes of the structure leads to either a redshift and/or a blueshift of the resonant peaks of the intraband optical spectrum. In addition, we have found that the application of an electric field leads to a redshift, whereas the influence of hydrostatic pressure leads to a blueshift (in the case of on-ring-center donor impurity position) of the resonant peaks of the intraband optical spectrum.

  16. Generalized Functional Linear Models With Semiparametric Single-Index Interactions

    Li, Yehua


    We introduce a new class of functional generalized linear models, where the response is a scalar and some of the covariates are functional. We assume that the response depends on multiple covariates, a finite number of latent features in the functional predictor, and interaction between the two. To achieve parsimony, the interaction between the multiple covariates and the functional predictor is modeled semiparametrically with a single-index structure. We propose a two step estimation procedure based on local estimating equations, and investigate two situations: (a) when the basis functions are pre-determined, e.g., Fourier or wavelet basis functions and the functional features of interest are known; and (b) when the basis functions are data driven, such as with functional principal components. Asymptotic properties are developed. Notably, we show that when the functional features are data driven, the parameter estimates have an increased asymptotic variance, due to the estimation error of the basis functions. Our methods are illustrated with a simulation study and applied to an empirical data set, where a previously unknown interaction is detected. Technical proofs of our theoretical results are provided in the online supplemental materials.

  17. Linear System Models for Ultrasonic Imaging: Application to Signal Statistics

    Zemp, Roger J.; Abbey, Craig K.; Insana, Michael F.


    Linear equations for modeling echo signals from shift-variant systems forming ultrasonic B-mode, Doppler, and strain images are analyzed and extended. The approach is based on a solution to the homogeneous wave equation for random inhomogeneous media. When the system is shift-variant, the spatial sensitivity function—defined as a spatial weighting function that determines the scattering volume for a fixed point of time—has advantages over the point-spread function traditionally used to analyze ultrasound systems. Spatial sensitivity functions are necessary for determining statistical moments in the context of rigorous image quality assessment, and they are time-reversed copies of point-spread functions for shift variant systems. A criterion is proposed to assess the validity of a local shift-invariance assumption. The analysis reveals realistic situations in which in-phase signals are correlated to the corresponding quadrature signals, which has strong implications for assessing lesion detectability. Also revealed is an opportunity to enhance near- and far-field spatial resolution by matched filtering unfocused beams. The analysis connects several well-known approaches to modeling ultrasonic echo signals. PMID:12839176

  18. Convergence results for a coarsening model using global linearization

    Gallay, T; Gallay, Th.


    We study a coarsening model describing the dynamics of interfaces in the one-dimensional Allen-Cahn equation. Given a partition of the real line into intervals of length greater than one, the model consists in constantly eliminating the shortest interval of the partition by merging it with its two neighbors. We show that the mean-field equation for the time-dependent distribution of interval lengths can be explicitly solved using a global linearization transformation. This allows us to derive rigorous results on the long-time asymptotics of the solutions. If the average length of the intervals is finite, we prove that all distributions approach a uniquely determined self-similar solution. We also obtain global stability results for the family of self-similar profiles which correspond to distributions with infinite expectation. eliminating the shortest interval of the partition by merging it with its two neighbors. We show that the mean-field equation for the time-dependent distribution of interval lengths can...

  19. Linear Programming Graphic Method Modelling%Linear Programming图解法建模研讨



    对仅有两个变量的Linear Programming,通过图解法求最优解.建立了数学模型并求得了最优解.从图解法可以直观地看出,仅有两个变量的Linear Programming的解有唯一最优解、无穷多个最优解、无界解和无可行解四种情况.若其有最优解,则必定会在其顶点上得到;若在多个顶点上得到最优解,则其有无穷多个最优解.

  20. Formal modeling and verification of fractional order linear systems.

    Zhao, Chunna; Shi, Likun; Guan, Yong; Li, Xiaojuan; Shi, Zhiping


    This paper presents a formalization of a fractional order linear system in a higher-order logic (HOL) theorem proving system. Based on the formalization of the Grünwald-Letnikov (GL) definition, we formally specify and verify the linear and superposition properties of fractional order systems. The proof provides a rigor and solid underpinnings for verifying concrete fractional order linear control systems. Our implementation in HOL demonstrates the effectiveness of our approach in practical applications.

  1. Predicting recycling behaviour: Comparison of a linear regression model and a fuzzy logic model.

    Vesely, Stepan; Klöckner, Christian A; Dohnal, Mirko


    In this paper we demonstrate that fuzzy logic can provide a better tool for predicting recycling behaviour than the customarily used linear regression. To show this, we take a set of empirical data on recycling behaviour (N=664), which we randomly divide into two halves. The first half is used to estimate a linear regression model of recycling behaviour, and to develop a fuzzy logic model of recycling behaviour. As the first comparison, the fit of both models to the data included in estimation of the models (N=332) is evaluated. As the second comparison, predictive accuracy of both models for "new" cases (hold-out data not included in building the models, N=332) is assessed. In both cases, the fuzzy logic model significantly outperforms the regression model in terms of fit. To conclude, when accurate predictions of recycling and possibly other environmental behaviours are needed, fuzzy logic modelling seems to be a promising technique.

  2. Highly Selective Hg (II Ion Detection Based on Linear Blue-Shift of the Maximum Absorption Wavelength of Silver Nanoparticles

    Li Ping Wu


    Full Text Available A new method of detecting Hg (II ion with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs is developed in this contribution. When Hg (II ions were added into AgNPs solution, the solution displayed rapid color change and blue shift of the maximum absorption wavelength (Δλ, which was in proportion to the Hg (II ion concentration over the range of 2.0 × 10−7–6.0 × 10−6 mol/L, with detection limit (3σ of 6.6 × 10−9 mol/L. Under the same experimental conditions, other metal ions did not interfere. Thus, we propose a rapid, simple and highly selective method for detecting Hg (II ion.

  3. Drug Absorption Modeling as a Tool to Define the Strategy in Clinical Formulation Development

    Kuentz, Martin


    The purpose of this mini review is to discuss the use of physiologically-based drug absorption modeling to guide the formulation development. Following an introduction to drug absorption modeling, this article focuses on the preclinical formulation development. Case studies are presented, where the emphasis is not only the prediction of absolute exposure values, but also their change with altered input values. Sensitivity analysis of technologically relevant parameters, like the drug’s partic...




    This document generates a supernatant hydroxide ion depletion model based on mechanistic principles. The carbon dioxide absorption mechanistic model is developed in this report. The report also benchmarks the model against historical tank supernatant hydroxide data and vapor space carbon dioxide data. A comparison of the newly generated mechanistic model with previously applied empirical hydroxide depletion equations is also performed.

  5. Study of Electromagnetic Radiation and Specific Absorption Rate of Mobile Phones with Fractional Human Head Models via Green's Functions

    Nookala S. Rao


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Electromagnetic Radiation from mobile hand set is identified as one of the side effects for increasing rate of brain tumor. Due to this reason, Mobile phone industries are attentive towards safety issues of human health. Specific Absorption Rate is one of the important parameter while modeling the radiation effect on human head. Brain material with homogeneity is treated as an equivalent model of human head. The radiation caused by antennas mounted on mobile set is assumed to be monopolar. Approach: Apart from the Specific Absorption Rate, period of exposure to radiation is an extremely important parameter while assessing the effects on brain tissue. Correlation between the amount of radiation versus spherical model of brain is a complex phenomena, addressed in various simulation models. In the present work the field distribution inside the head are modeled using Dyadic Greens Functions while describing the effect of radiation pattern. Multilayered homogeneous lossy spherical model is proposed as an equivalent to head. Results: In this paper we present the depth of penetration of radiation and its effect on brain tissue. In essence the amount of electromagnetic power absorbed by biological tissues for various exposure conditions and types of emitting sources, utilizing a detailed model of the human head. Conclusion: Bio-heat equation is used to predict heat distribution inside the brain when exposed to radiation. The medium is assumed to be homogeneous, isotropic, linear, non dispersive and stationary. A critical evaluation of the method is discussed.

  6. Photophysics and non-linear absorption of Au(I) and Pt(II) acetylide complexes of a thienyl-carbazole chromophore.

    Goswami, Subhadip; Wicks, Geoffrey; Rebane, Aleksander; Schanze, Kirk S


    In order to understand the photophysics and non-linear optical properties of carbazole containing π-conjugated oligomers of the type ET-Cbz-TE (E = ethynylene, T = 2,5-thienylene, Cbz = 3,6-carbazole), a detailed investigation was carried out on a series of oligomers that feature Au(i) or Pt(ii) acetylide "end groups", as well as a Pt(ii)-acetylide linked polymer (CBZ-Au-1 and CBZ-Pt-1, CBZ-Poly-Pt). These organometallic chromophores were characterized by UV-visible absorption and variable temperature photoluminescence spectroscopy, nanosecond transient absorption spectroscopy, open aperture nanosecond z-scan and two photon absorption (2PA) spectroscopy. The Au(i) and Pt(ii) oligomers and polymer exhibit weak fluorescence in fluid solution at room temperature. Efficient phosphorescence is observed from the Pt(ii) systems below 150 K in a solvent glass; however, the Au(i) oligomer exhibits only weak phosphorescence at 77 K. Taken together, the emission results indicate that the intersystem crossing efficiency for the Pt(ii) chromophores is greater than for the Au(i) oligomer. Nonetheless, nanosecond transient absorption indicates that direct excitation affords moderately long-lived triplet states for all of the chromophores. Open aperture z-scan measurement shows effective optical attenuation can be achieved by using these materials. The 2PA cross section in the degenerate S0→S1 transition region was in the range 10-100 GM, and increased monotonically toward shorter wavelengths, reaching 800-1000 GM at 550 nm.

  7. Application of Linear and Non-linear Programming Model to Assess the Sustainability of Water Resources in Agricultural Patterns

    Seyed Abolghasem Mortazavi


    Full Text Available Water resources sustainability is one of the major issues in the agricultural sustainability. In this study sustainability of water resources has been investigated by use of linear and non-linear models in six models based on optimal utilization of water resources in the north parts farms of Iran because of incorrect use of agricultural water resources, from 2011 to 2012. Also “gross margin per a unit of water consumption” and “employment per a unit of water consumption” are used as indicators for assessing the sustainability of cropping patterns. The results show that cropping pattern of fractional goal programming (FGP model has been near to current situation and has shown realistic conditions according to expertise and advantage of this area in cultivation of certain crops. So the FGP model has desirability in each of indicators than other five models.

  8. Asymmetric and common absorption of shocks in nonlinear autoregressive models

    Dijk, Dick van; Franses, Philip Hans; Boswijk, Peter


    textabstractA key feature of many nonlinear time series models is that they allow for the possibility that the model structure experiences changes, depending on for example the state of the economy or of the financial market. A common property of these models is that it generally is not possible to fully understand the structure of the model by considering the estimated values of the model parameters only. Put differently, it often is difficult to interpret a specific nonlinear model. To shed...

  9. Statistical Modelling of Cardiovascular Data. An Introduction to Linear Mixed Models

    Gonçalves, Paulo; Lenoir, Christophe; Heymes, Christophe; Swynghedauw, Bernard; Lavergne, Christian


    Most of statistical approaches in cardiovascular research were based on variance analysis (ANOVA). However, most of the time, the assumption that data are independent is violated since several measures are performed on the same subject (repeated measures). In addition, the presence of intra- and inter-observers variability can potentially obscure significant differences. The linear mixed model (LMM) is an extended multivariate linear regression method of analysis that accounts for both fixed ...

  10. Simulation Model for Dynamic Operation of Double-Effect Absorption Chillers

    Ahmed Mojahid Sid Ahmed Mohammed Salih


    Full Text Available The development in the field of refrigeration and air conditioning systems driven by absorption cycles acquired a considerable importance recently. For commercial absorption chillers, an essential challenge for creating chiller model certainly is the shortage of components technical specifications. These kinds of specifications are usually proprietary for chillers producers. In this paper, a double-effect parallel-flow-type steam absorption chiller model based on thermodynamic and energy equations is presented. The chiller studied is Lithium bromide-water with capacity of 1250 RT (Refrigeration Tons. The governing equations of the dynamic operation of the chiller are developed. From available design information, the values of the overall heat transfer coefficients multiplied by the surface area are computed. The dynamic operation of the absorption chiller is simulated to study the performance of the system. The model is able to provide essential details of the temperature, concentration, and flow rate at each state point in the chiller.

  11. A polar cap absorption model optimization based on the vertical ionograms analysis

    Zaalov, N. Y.; Moskaleva, E. V.


    Space weather events significantly affect the high frequency (HF) radio wave propagation. The now-casting and forecasting of HF radio wave absorption is important for the HF communication industries. This paper assimilates vertical sounding data into an absorption model to improve its performance as a now-casting tool. The approach is a modification of the algorithm elaborated by Sauer and Wilkinson, which is based on the riometer data. The optimization is focused on accounting for short timescale variation of the absorption. It should be noted that the expression of the frequency dependence of absorption induced by the energetic particle precipitation employed in Sauer and Wilkinson model is based on the riometer data at frequencies of 20, 30, and 50 MHz. The approach suggested in this paper provides an opportunity for expanding the frequency dependence of the absorption for frequencies below 10 MHz. The simulation of the vertical ionograms in the polar cap region uses a computational model designed to overcome the high frequency wave propagation problem in high latitude of the Earth. HF radio wave absorption induced by solar UV illumination, X-ray flares and energetic particles precipitation is taken into consideration in our model. The absorption caused by the energetic particle precipitation is emphasized, because the study is focused on HF wave propagation in polar cap region. A comparison of observed and simulated vertical ionograms enables the coefficients, which relate absorption (day-time and night-time) to integral proton flux to be refined. The values of these coefficients determined from evaluation of the data recorded by any reliable ionosonde are valid for absorption calculation in high-latitude region.

  12. Parameter estimation and hypothesis testing in linear models

    Koch, Karl-Rudolf


    The necessity to publish the second edition of this book arose when its third German edition had just been published. This second English edition is there­ fore a translation of the third German edition of Parameter Estimation and Hypothesis Testing in Linear Models, published in 1997. It differs from the first English edition by the addition of a new chapter on robust estimation of parameters and the deletion of the section on discriminant analysis, which has been more completely dealt with by the author in the book Bayesian In­ ference with Geodetic Applications, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg New York, 1990. Smaller additions and deletions have been incorporated, to im­ prove the text, to point out new developments or to eliminate errors which became apparent. A few examples have been also added. I thank Springer-Verlag for publishing this second edition and for the assistance in checking the translation, although the responsibility of errors remains with the author. I also want to express my thanks...

  13. Sampled-data models for linear and nonlinear systems

    Yuz, Juan I


    Sampled-data Models for Linear and Nonlinear Systems provides a fresh new look at a subject with which many researchers may think themselves familiar. Rather than emphasising the differences between sampled-data and continuous-time systems, the authors proceed from the premise that, with modern sampling rates being as high as they are, it is becoming more appropriate to emphasise connections and similarities. The text is driven by three motives: ·      the ubiquity of computers in modern control and signal-processing equipment means that sampling of systems that really evolve continuously is unavoidable; ·      although superficially straightforward, sampling can easily produce erroneous results when not treated properly; and ·      the need for a thorough understanding of many aspects of sampling among researchers and engineers dealing with applications to which they are central. The authors tackle many misconceptions which, although appearing reasonable at first sight, are in fact either p...

  14. Piecewise linear models for the quasiperiodic transition to chaos

    Campbell, D K; Tresser, C; Uherka, D J; Campbell, David K; Galeeva, Roza; Tresser, Charles; Uherka, David J


    We formulate and study analytically and computationally two families of piecewise linear degree one circle maps. These families offer the rare advantage of being non-trivial but essentially solvable models for the phenomenon of mode-locking and the quasi-periodic transition to chaos. For instance, for these families, we obtain complete solutions to several questions still largely unanswered for families of smooth circle maps. Our main results describe (1) the sets of maps in these families having some prescribed rotation interval; (2) the boundaries between zero and positive topological entropy and between zero length and non-zero length rotation interval; and (3) the structure and bifurcations of the attractors in one of these families. We discuss the interpretation of these maps as low-order spline approximations to the classic ``sine-circle'' map and examine more generally the implications of our results for the case of smooth circle maps. We also mention a possible connection to recent experiments on mode...

  15. Linear Growth of Structure in the Symmetron Model

    Brax, Philippe; Davis, Anne-Christine; Li, Baojiu; Schmauch, Benoit; Shaw, Douglas J


    In the symmetron mechanism, the fifth force mediated by a coupled scalar field (the symmetron) is suppressed in high-density regions due to the restoration of symmetry in the symmetron potential. In this paper we study the background cosmology and large scale structure formation in the linear perturbation regime of the symmetron model. Analytic solutions to the symmetron in the cosmological background are found, which agree well with numerical results. We discuss the effect of the symmetron perturbation on the growth of matter perturbation, in particular the implications of the brief period of tachyonic instability caused by the negative mass squared of the symmetron during symmetry breaking. Our analysis and numerical results show that this instability has only very small effects on the growth of structures on sub-horizon scales, and even at horizon scales its influence is not as drastic as naively expected. The symmetron fifth force in the non-tachyonic regime does affect the formation of structure in a non...

  16. Modelling and Inverse-Modelling: Experiences with O.D.E. Linear Systems in Engineering Courses

    Martinez-Luaces, Victor


    In engineering careers courses, differential equations are widely used to solve problems concerned with modelling. In particular, ordinary differential equations (O.D.E.) linear systems appear regularly in Chemical Engineering, Food Technology Engineering and Environmental Engineering courses, due to the usefulness in modelling chemical kinetics,…

  17. Asymmetric and common absorption of shocks in nonlinear autoregressive models

    D.J.C. van Dijk (Dick); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); H.P. Boswijk (Peter)


    textabstractA key feature of many nonlinear time series models is that they allow for the possibility that the model structure experiences changes, depending on for example the state of the economy or of the financial market. A common property of these models is that it generally is not possible to

  18. Four-State Model for Three-Branch Molecule's Two-Photon Absorption Properties

    SU Yan; WANG Pei-Ji; ZHAO Peng; RONG Zhen-Yu


    @@ We present a four-state model for calculating the two-photon absorption of multi-branched molecules by using the time-depended function method. The numerical results indicate that the two-photon absorption cross section has a strong enhancement for three-branch molecules compared to two-branch structures. The maximal two-photon-absorption cross section is 2.358 × 10-47 cm 4 s/photon. At the same time, the charge-transfer process for the charge-transfer states is visualized in order to explain mechanism about the maximal TPA cross section.

  19. Consensus hologram QSAR modeling for the prediction of human intestinal absorption.

    Moda, Tiago L; Andricopulo, Adriano D


    Consistent in silico models for ADME properties are useful tools in early drug discovery. Here, we report the hologram QSAR modeling of human intestinal absorption using a dataset of 638 compounds with experimental data associated. The final validated models are consistent and robust for the consensus prediction of this important pharmacokinetic property and are suitable for virtual screening applications.

  20. A log-linear multidimensional Rasch model for capture-recapture.

    Pelle, E; Hessen, D J; van der Heijden, P G M


    In this paper, a log-linear multidimensional Rasch model is proposed for capture-recapture analysis of registration data. In the model, heterogeneity of capture probabilities is taken into account, and registrations are viewed as dichotomously scored indicators of one or more latent variables that can account for correlations among registrations. It is shown how the probability of a generic capture profile is expressed under the log-linear multidimensional Rasch model and how the parameters of the traditional log-linear model are derived from those of the log-linear multidimensional Rasch model. Finally, an application of the model to neural tube defects data is presented.

  1. [Establishment and evaluation of a dynamic in vitro intestinal absorption model of lipid formulations].

    Liu, Ying; Yi, Tao; Di, Huan; Xiao, Lu; He, Ji-Kui


    A new dynamic in vitro intestinal absorption model for screening and evaluating lipid formulations was established by means of the characteristics of the intestinal digestion and absorption of the lipid formulations. This model was composed of two systems, including intestinal digestion and the intestinal tissue culture, which drew the evaluation method of intestinal absorption into the in vitro lipolysis model. The influence of several important model parameters such as Ca2+, D-glucose, K+ on the two systems of this model has been investigated. The results showed that increasing of Ca2+ concentration could be significantly conductive to intestinal digestion. The increasing of D-glucose concentration could stepped significantly down the decay of the intestinal activity. K+ was able to maintain intestinal activity, but the influence of different concentration levels on the decay of the intestinal activity was of no significant difference. Thus the model parameters were set up as follows: Ca2+ for 10 mmol x L(-1), D-glucose for 15 mmol x L(-1) and K+ for 5.5 mmol x L(-1). Type I lipid formulation was evaluated with this model, and there was a significant correlation between the absorption curve in vitro and absorption curve in vivo of rats (r = 0.995 6, P lipid formulations.

  2. Atomistic modeling of H absorption in Pd nanoparticles

    Ruda, M., E-mail: [Centro Atomico Bariloche, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina); Centro Regional Universitario Bariloche, U.N. Comahue (Argentina); Crespo, E.A., E-mail: [Depto. de Fisica, Fac. de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional del Comahue, Buenos Aires 1400, 8300 Neuquen (Argentina); Debiaggi, S. Ramos de, E-mail: [Depto. de Fisica, Fac. de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional del Comahue, Buenos Aires 1400, 8300 Neuquen (Argentina); CONICET (Argentina)


    Size affects the properties of absorption of H in Palladium nanoparticles. Because of their higher proportion of surface atoms compared to the bulk, the pressure-composition (P-C) isotherms of the nanoparticles are modified. We performed atomistic simulations for different-sized Pd nanoparticles and for the bulk at different H concentrations using the Monte Carlo technique in the TP{mu}N ensemble to calculate the P-C isotherms. The Pd-H interatomic potentials are of the Embedded Atom (EAM) type and have been recently developed by Zhou et al. . From the related van't Hoff equation we obtained |{Delta}H{sup o}| = (28 {+-} 7) kJ/0.5 mol of H{sub 2} and |{Delta}S{sup o}| = (71 {+-} 19) J/0.5 mol of H{sub 2}.K for the PdH formation in the bulk. For Pd nanoparticles previous simulations results based on a different set of EAM potentials showed that H was absorbed primarily in the surface before diffusing into the inside of small Pd clusters . Considering the better performance of Zhou's potentials for the bulk, in this work we analyzed the evolution of the equilibrium microstructure of Pd nanoparticles as a function of their size and H concentration. Our simulations predict enhanced hydrogen solubilities and vanishing plateaux when compared to the bulk and that H is absorbed in the subsurface of the nanoparticles.

  3. A Generalised Concept of Dominance in Linear Programming Models

    Drynan, Ross G.


    The notion of dominance most familiar to agricultural economists is perhaps the decision theoretic concept entailed in comparing one risky prospect to others. But dominance concepts are also relevant in the linear programming context, for example in identifying redundant constraints. In this note, the standard concept of dominance in linear programming is generalized by defining dominance with respect to differing levels of information about the programming problem.

  4. Absorption coefficient modeling of microcrystalline silicon thin film using Maxwell-Garnett effective medium theory.

    Chen, Sheng-Hui; Wang, Hsuan-Wen; Chang, Ting-Wei


    Considering the Mott-Davis density of state model and Rayleigh scattering effect, we present an approach to model the absorption profile of microcrystalline silicon thin films in this paper. Maxwell-Garnett effective medium theory was applied to analyze the absorption curves. To validate the model, several experimental profiles have been established and compared with those results from the model. With the assistance of the genetic algorithm, our results show that the absorption curves from the model are in good agreement with the experiments. Our findings also indicate that, as the crystal volume fraction increases, not only do the defects in amorphous silicon reduce, but the bulk scattering effect is gradually enhanced as well.

  5. Developing ontological model of computational linear algebra - preliminary considerations

    Wasielewska, K.; Ganzha, M.; Paprzycki, M.; Lirkov, I.


    The aim of this paper is to propose a method for application of ontologically represented domain knowledge to support Grid users. The work is presented in the context provided by the Agents in Grid system, which aims at development of an agent-semantic infrastructure for efficient resource management in the Grid. Decision support within the system should provide functionality beyond the existing Grid middleware, specifically, help the user to choose optimal algorithm and/or resource to solve a problem from a given domain. The system assists the user in at least two situations. First, for users without in-depth knowledge about the domain, it should help them to select the method and the resource that (together) would best fit the problem to be solved (and match the available resources). Second, if the user explicitly indicates the method and the resource configuration, it should "verify" if her choice is consistent with the expert recommendations (encapsulated in the knowledge base). Furthermore, one of the goals is to simplify the use of the selected resource to execute the job; i.e., provide a user-friendly method of submitting jobs, without required technical knowledge about the Grid middleware. To achieve the mentioned goals, an adaptable method of expert knowledge representation for the decision support system has to be implemented. The selected approach is to utilize ontologies and semantic data processing, supported by multicriterial decision making. As a starting point, an area of computational linear algebra was selected to be modeled, however, the paper presents a general approach that shall be easily extendable to other domains.

  6. Thermodynamic Modeling of an Ammonia-Water Absorption System Associated with a Microturbine

    Edson Bazzo; Janilson Arcangelo Rossa


    Thermodynamic modeling and Second Law analysis of a small-scale cogeneration system consisting of a 5 refrigerant ton absorption chiller connected by a thermosyphon heat exchanger to a 28 kWe natural gas microturbine are presented. The proposed configuration changes the heat source of the absorption chiller, replacing the original natural gas burning system. A computational algorithm was programmed to analyze the global efficiency of the combined cooling and power plant and the coefficient of...

  7. Determination of the quasi-TE mode (in-plane) graphene linear absorption coefficient via integration with silicon-on-insulator racetrack cavity resonators.

    Crowe, Iain F; Clark, Nicholas; Hussein, Siham; Towlson, Brian; Whittaker, Eric; Milosevic, Milan M; Gardes, Frederic Y; Mashanovich, Goran Z; Halsall, Matthew P; Vijayaraghaven, Aravind


    We examine the near-IR light-matter interaction for graphene integrated cavity ring resonators based on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) race-track waveguides. Fitting of the cavity resonances from quasi-TE mode transmission spectra reveal the real part of the effective refractive index for graphene, n(eff) = 2.23 ± 0.02 and linear absorption coefficient, α(gTE) = 0.11 ± 0.01dBμm(-1). The evanescent nature of the guided mode coupling to graphene at resonance depends strongly on the height of the graphene above the cavity, which places limits on the cavity length for optical sensing applications.

  8. Linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes in modulation-doped quantum wells: Effects of the magnetic field and hydrostatic pressure

    Nazari, M.; Karimi, M.J., E-mail:; Keshavarz, A.


    In this study, the linear, the third-order nonlinear and total optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes of a modulation-doped GaAs/Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}As quantum well are investigated numerically. In the effective-mass approximation, the electronic structure of modulation-doped quantum well is calculated by solving the Schrödinger and Poisson equations self-consistently. Optical properties are obtained using the compact density matrix approach. The effects of structure parameters, the applied magnetic field and the hydrostatic pressure on the optical properties of the modulation-doped quantum well are studied. Results show that the resonant peaks shift toward the higher (lower) energies with the increase in the magnetic field (pressure). The magnitude of the resonant peaks of the optical properties decreases with the increasing magnetic field or pressure.

  9. Feasibility of a 3D human airway epithelial model to study respiratory absorption.

    Reus, Astrid A; Maas, Wilfred J M; Jansen, Harm T; Constant, Samuel; Staal, Yvonne C M; van Triel, Jos J; Kuper, C Frieke


    The respiratory route is an important portal for human exposure to a large variety of substances. Consequently, there is an urgent need for realistic in vitro strategies for evaluation of the absorption of airborne substances with regard to safety and efficacy assessment. The present study investigated feasibility of a 3D human airway epithelial model to study respiratory absorption, in particular to differentiate between low and high absorption of substances. Bronchial epithelial models (MucilAir™), cultured at the air-liquid interface, were exposed to eight radiolabeled model substances via the apical epithelial surface. Absorption was evaluated by measuring radioactivity in the apical compartment, the epithelial cells and the basolateral culture medium. Antipyrine, caffeine, naproxen and propranolol were highly transported across the epithelial cell layer (>5%), whereas atenolol, mannitol, PEG-400 and insulin were limitedly transported (absorption. The intra-experimental reproducibility of the results was considered adequate based on an average coefficient of variation (CV) of 15%. The inter-experimental reproducibility of highly absorbed compounds was in a similar range (CV of 15%), but this value was considerably higher for those compounds that were limitedly absorbed. No statistical significant differences between different donors and experiments were observed. The present study provides a simple method transposable in any lab, which can be used to rank the absorption of chemicals and pharmaceuticals, and is ready for further validation with respect to reproducibility and capacity of the method to predict respiratory transport in humans.

  10. Evaluating model parameterizations of submicron aerosol scattering and absorption with in situ data from ARCTAS 2008

    Alvarado, Matthew J.; Lonsdale, Chantelle R.; Macintyre, Helen L.; Bian, Huisheng; Chin, Mian; Ridley, David A.; Heald, Colette L.; Thornhill, Kenneth L.; Anderson, Bruce E.; Cubison, Michael J.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Kondo, Yutaka; Sahu, Lokesh K.; Dibb, Jack E.; Wang, Chien


    Accurate modeling of the scattering and absorption of ultraviolet and visible radiation by aerosols is essential for accurate simulations of atmospheric chemistry and climate. Closure studies using in situ measurements of aerosol scattering and absorption can be used to evaluate and improve models of aerosol optical properties without interference from model errors in aerosol emissions, transport, chemistry, or deposition rates. Here we evaluate the ability of four externally mixed, fixed size distribution parameterizations used in global models to simulate submicron aerosol scattering and absorption at three wavelengths using in situ data gathered during the 2008 Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) campaign. The four models are the NASA Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) Combo model, GEOS-Chem v9-02, the baseline configuration of a version of GEOS-Chem with online radiative transfer calculations (called GC-RT), and the Optical Properties of Aerosol and Clouds (OPAC v3.1) package. We also use the ARCTAS data to perform the first evaluation of the ability of the Aerosol Simulation Program (ASP v2.1) to simulate submicron aerosol scattering and absorption when in situ data on the aerosol size distribution are used, and examine the impact of different mixing rules for black carbon (BC) on the results. We find that the GMI model tends to overestimate submicron scattering and absorption at shorter wavelengths by 10-23 %, and that GMI has smaller absolute mean biases for submicron absorption than OPAC v3.1, GEOS-Chem v9-02, or GC-RT. However, the changes to the density and refractive index of BC in GC-RT improve the simulation of submicron aerosol absorption at all wavelengths relative to GEOS-Chem v9-02. Adding a variable size distribution, as in ASP v2.1, improves model performance for scattering but not for absorption, likely due to the assumption in ASP v2.1 that BC is present at a constant mass fraction

  11. Model Checking for a General Linear Model with Nonignorable Missing Covariates

    Zhi-hua SUN; Wai-Cheung IP; Heung WONG


    In this paper,we investigate the model checking problem for a general linear model with nonignorable missing covariates.We show that,without any parametric model assumption for the response probability,the least squares method yields consistent estimators for the linear model even if only the complete data are applied.This makes it feasible to propose two testing procedures for the corresponding model checking problem:a score type lack-of-fit test and a test based on the empirical process.The asymptotic properties of the test statistics are investigated.Both tests are shown to have asymptotic power 1 for local alternatives converging to the null at the rate n-(r),0 ≤ (r) < 1/2.Simulation results show that both tests perform satisfactorily.

  12. Identification of an Equivalent Linear Model for a Non-Linear Time-Variant RC-Structure

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Andersen, P.; Brincker, Rune

    model with slowly varying stiffness properties, displaying the combined damage effects of the maximum displacement ductility of the structure during extreme plastic deformations and the stiffness deterioration in the elastic regime, also called final softening. In order to use the Maximum Softening...... are investigated and compared with ARMAX models used on a running window. The techniques are evaluated using simulated data generated by the non-linear finite element program SARCOF modeling a 10-storey 3-bay concrete structure subjected to amplitude modulated Gaussian white noise filtered through a Kanai...

  13. Dynamics of glass-forming liquids. XX. Third harmonic experiments of non-linear dielectric effects versus a phenomenological model

    Kim, Pyeongeun; Young-Gonzales, Amanda R.; Richert, Ranko


    We have re-measured the third harmonic non-linear dielectric response of supercooled glycerol using zero-bias sinusoidal electric fields, with the aim of comparing the resulting susceptibilities with a phenomenological model of non-linear dielectric responses. In the absence of known chemical effects in this liquid, the present model accounts for three sources of non-linear behavior: dielectric saturation, field induced entropy reduction, and energy absorption from the time dependent field. Using parameters obtained from static high field results, the present model reproduces the characteristic features observed in the third harmonic susceptibility spectra: a low frequency plateau originating from dielectric saturation and a peak positioned below the loss peak frequency whose amplitude increases with decreasing temperature. Semi-quantitative agreement is achieved between experiment and the present model, which does not involve spatial scales or dynamical correlations explicitly. By calculating the three contributions separately, the model reveals that the entropy effect is the main source of the "hump" feature of this third harmonic response.

  14. Surface modeling for optical fabrication with linear ion source

    Wu, Lixiang; Shao, Jianda


    We present a concept of surface decomposition extended from double Fourier series to nonnegative sinusoidal wave surfaces, on the basis of which linear ion sources apply to the ultra-precision fabrication of complex surfaces and diffractive optics. It is the first time that we have a surface descriptor for building a relationship between the fabrication process of optical surfaces and the surface characterization based on PSD analysis, which akin to Zernike polynomials used for mapping the relationship between surface errors and Seidel aberrations. Also, we demonstrate that the one-dimensional scanning of linear ion source is applicable to the removal of surface errors caused by small-tool polishing in raster scan mode as well as the fabrication of beam sampling grating of high diffractive uniformity without a post-processing procedure. The simulation results show that, in theory, optical fabrication with linear ion source is feasible and even of higher output efficiency compared with the conventional approac...

  15. Comparison of linear and non-linear blade model predictions in Bladed to measurement data from GE 6MW wind turbine

    Collier, W.; Milian Sanz, J.


    The length and flexibility of wind turbine blades are increasing over time. Typically, the dynamic response of the blades is analysed using linear models of blade deflection, enhanced by various ad-hoc non-linear correction models. For blades undergoing large deflections, the small deflection assumption inherent to linear models becomes less valid. It has previously been demonstrated that linear and nonlinear blade models can show significantly different blade response, particularly for blade torsional deflection, leading to load prediction differences. There is a need to evaluate how load predictions from these two approaches compare to measurement data from the field. In this paper, time domain simulations in turbulent wind are carried out using the aero-elastic code Bladed with linear and non-linear blade deflection models. The turbine blade load and deflection simulation results are compared to measurement data from an onshore prototype of the GE 6MW Haliade turbine, which features 73.5m long LM blades. Both linear and non-linear blade models show a good match to measurement turbine load and blade deflections. Only the blade loads differ significantly between the two models, with other turbine loads not strongly affected. The non-linear blade model gives a better match to the measured blade root flapwise damage equivalent load, suggesting that the flapwise dynamic behaviour is better captured by the non-linear blade model. Conversely, the linear blade model shows a better match to measurements in some areas such as blade edgewise damage equivalent load.

  16. Linear and logistic models with time dependent coefficients

    Youness Mir


    Full Text Available We sutdy the effects of some properties of the carrying capacity on the solution of the linear and logistic differential equations. We present results concerning the behaviour and the asymptotic behaviour of their solutions. Special attention is paid when the carrying capacity is an increasing or a decreasing positive function. For more general carrying capacity, we obtain bounds for the corresponding solution by constructing appropriate subsolution and supersolution. We also present a decomposition of the solution of the linear, and logistic, differential equation as a product of the carrying capacity and the solution to the corresponding differential equation with a constant carrying capacity.

  17. Effects of changing the amount of absorption in a computer model of Queen's Hall, Copenhagen, Denmark

    Vigeant, Michelle C.; Wang, Lily M.; Rindel, Jens Holger


    recording, and a final auralization is created by mixing all individual channel auralizations together. This study evaluates the objective and subjective effects of using four and thirteen channel IRs in an ODEON model of Queen’s Hall, a hall located in Copenhagen with variable absorption. Analyses...... of the results reveal great differences in the objective parameters of reverberation time (T30), clarity index (C50), sound pressure level (SPL) and lateral energy fraction (LF80) for each channel’s impulse response across the room absorption variations. Subjective studies were conducted to see the effect...... on auralizations of changing source orientation in various configurations of the room with different amounts of absorption. The results show that subjects could more easily identify source orientation with an increasing number of recording channels in the auralizations, but a significant effect with absorption...

  18. Experimental measurement and modeling of the rate of absorption of carbon dioxide by aqueous ammonia

    Darde, Victor Camille Alfred; van Well, Willy J.M.; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup


    In this work, the rate of absorption of carbon dioxide by aqueous ammonia solvent has been studied by applying a newly built wetted wall column. The absorption rate in aqueous ammonia was measured at temperatures from 279 to 304K for 1 to 10wt% aqueous ammonia with loadings varying from 0 to 0.8mol......CO2/molNH3. The absorption rate in 30wt% aqueous mono-ethanolamine (MEA) was measured at 294 and 314K with loadings varying from 0 to 0.4 as comparison.It was found that at 304K, the rate of absorption of carbon dioxide by 10wt% NH3 solvent was comparable to the rates for 30wt% MEA at 294 and 314K (a.......The rate of absorption decreases strongly with decreasing ammonia concentrations and increasing CO2 loadings.The rate of absorption of carbon dioxide by aqueous ammonia solvent was modeled using the measurements of the unloaded solutions and the zwitter-ion mechanism. The model could successfully predict...

  19. Piecewise-polynomial and cascade models of predistorter for linearization of power amplifier


    To combat non-linear signal distortions in a power amplifier we suggest using predistorter with cascade structure in which first and second nodes have piecewise-polynomial and polynomial models. On example of linearizing the Winner–Hammerstein amplifier model we demonstrate that cascade structure of predistorter improves precision of amplifier’s linearization. To simplify predistorter’s synthesis the degree of polynomial model used in first node should be moderate, while precision should be i...

  20. Pseudo-second order models for the adsorption of safranin onto activated carbon: comparison of linear and non-linear regression methods.

    Kumar, K Vasanth


    Kinetic experiments were carried out for the sorption of safranin onto activated carbon particles. The kinetic data were fitted to pseudo-second order model of Ho, Sobkowsk and Czerwinski, Blanchard et al. and Ritchie by linear and non-linear regression methods. Non-linear method was found to be a better way of obtaining the parameters involved in the second order rate kinetic expressions. Both linear and non-linear regression showed that the Sobkowsk and Czerwinski and Ritchie's pseudo-second order models were the same. Non-linear regression analysis showed that both Blanchard et al. and Ho have similar ideas on the pseudo-second order model but with different assumptions. The best fit of experimental data in Ho's pseudo-second order expression by linear and non-linear regression method showed that Ho pseudo-second order model was a better kinetic expression when compared to other pseudo-second order kinetic expressions.

  1. Enhancement Factors in Ozone Absorption Based on the Surface Renewal Model and its Application


    Based on the Danckwerts surface renewal model, a simple explicit expression of theenhancement factor in ozone absorption with a first order ozone self-decomposition and parallel secondorder ozonation reactions has been derived. The results are compared with our previous work based onthe film theory. The 2,4-dichlorophenol destruction rate by ozonation is predicted using the enhancementfactor model in this paper.

  2. Modelling of the Absorption and Desorption Process of Chemical Heat Pumps

    Gui-PingLin; Xiu-GanYuan


    A simple model for the desorption and absorption process of the chemical heat pump is presented in this paper .It is based on the assumption of a definite reaction front.The results from this model are compared with those obtained by finite difference method and it is observed that there is almost no difference between them.

  3. Effect of linear and non-linear blade modelling techniques on simulated fatigue and extreme loads using Bladed

    Beardsell, Alec; Collier, William; Han, Tao


    There is a trend in the wind industry towards ever larger and more flexible turbine blades. Blade tip deflections in modern blades now commonly exceed 10% of blade length. Historically, the dynamic response of wind turbine blades has been analysed using linear models of blade deflection which include the assumption of small deflections. For modern flexible blades, this assumption is becoming less valid. In order to continue to simulate dynamic turbine performance accurately, routine use of non-linear models of blade deflection may be required. This can be achieved by representing the blade as a connected series of individual flexible linear bodies - referred to in this paper as the multi-part approach. In this paper, Bladed is used to compare load predictions using single-part and multi-part blade models for several turbines. The study examines the impact on fatigue and extreme loads and blade deflection through reduced sets of load calculations based on IEC 61400-1 ed. 3. Damage equivalent load changes of up to 16% and extreme load changes of up to 29% are observed at some turbine load locations. It is found that there is no general pattern in the loading differences observed between single-part and multi-part blade models. Rather, changes in fatigue and extreme loads with a multi-part blade model depend on the characteristics of the individual turbine and blade. Key underlying causes of damage equivalent load change are identified as differences in edgewise- torsional coupling between the multi-part and single-part models, and increased edgewise rotor mode damping in the multi-part model. Similarly, a causal link is identified between torsional blade dynamics and changes in ultimate load results.

  4. Comparison of a Reaction Front Model and a Finite Difference Model for the Simulation of Solid Absorption Process

    ZikangWu; ArneJakobsen; 等


    The pupose of this paper is to investigate the validity of a lumped model,i.e.a reaction front model,for the simulation of solid absorption process.A distributed model is developed for solid absorption process,and a dimensionless RF number is suggested to predict the qualitative shape of reaction degree profile.The simulation results from the reaction front model are compared with those from the distributed model solved by a finite difference scheme,and it is shown that they are in good agreement in almost all matter whether there is reaction front or not.

  5. Model Reduction of Linear Switched Systems by Restricting Discrete Dynamics

    Bastug, Mert; Petreczky, Mihaly; Wisniewski, Rafal


    We present a procedure for reducing the number of continuous states of discrete-time linear switched systems, such that the reduced system has the same behavior as the original system for a subset of switching sequences. The proposed method is expected to be useful for abstraction based control s...

  6. Results and Comparison from the SAM Linear Fresnel Technology Performance Model: Preprint

    Wagner, M. J.


    This paper presents the new Linear Fresnel technology performance model in NREL's System Advisor Model. The model predicts the financial and technical performance of direct-steam-generation Linear Fresnel power plants, and can be used to analyze a range of system configurations. This paper presents a brief discussion of the model formulation and motivation, and provides extensive discussion of the model performance and financial results. The Linear Fresnel technology is also compared to other concentrating solar power technologies in both qualitative and quantitative measures. The Linear Fresnel model - developed in conjunction with the Electric Power Research Institute - provides users with the ability to model a variety of solar field layouts, fossil backup configurations, thermal receiver designs, and steam generation conditions. This flexibility aims to encompass current market solutions for the DSG Linear Fresnel technology, which is seeing increasing exposure in fossil plant augmentation and stand-alone power generation applications.

  7. Parallel LC circuit model for multi-band absorption and preliminary design of radiative cooling.

    Feng, Rui; Qiu, Jun; Liu, Linhua; Ding, Weiqiang; Chen, Lixue


    We perform a comprehensive analysis of multi-band absorption by exciting magnetic polaritons in the infrared region. According to the independent properties of the magnetic polaritons, we propose a parallel inductance and capacitance(PLC) circuit model to explain and predict the multi-band resonant absorption peaks, which is fully validated by using the multi-sized structure with identical dielectric spacing layer and the multilayer structure with the same strip width. More importantly, we present the application of the PLC circuit model to preliminarily design a radiative cooling structure realized by merging several close peaks together. This omnidirectional and polarization insensitive structure is a good candidate for radiative cooling application.

  8. Studies on Absorption and Tansport of Limoninoids from Fructus Evodiae in Caco-2 Cell Monolayer Model


    Objective To study the intestinal absorption and transepithelial transport of three limoninoids: evodol (EVO), limonin (LIM), and shihulimonin A (SHIA), isolated from Fructus Evodiae [the unripe fruit of Evodia rutaecarpa and Evodia rutaecarpa var. bodinieri] in the human intestine. Methods The in vitro cultured human colon carcinoma cell line, Caco-2 cell monolayer model, was applied to studying the absorption and transepithelial transport of the three limoninoids from apical (AP) to basolateral (BL) side and from BL to AP side. The three limoninoids were measured by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet absorption detector. Transport parameters and apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) were then calculated and compared with those of Propranolol as a control substance of high permeability and Atenolol as a control substance of poor permeability. Results The Papp value of EVO and LIM from AP to BL side for absorption and transport were 1.78 × 10-5 cm/s and 1.16 × 10-5 cm/s, respectively, which was comparable to that of Propranolol with Papp 2.18 × 10-5 cm/s. Conclusion The absorption and transport of both EVO and LIM are main passive diffusion as the dominating process in Caco-2 cell monolayer model, and they were estimated to be high absorbed compounds. SHIA in Caco-2 cell monolayer model may be involved in metabolism in the transport processes.

  9. Cheminformatics Modeling of Amine Solutions for Assessing their CO2 Absorption Properties.

    Kuenemann, Melaine A; Fourches, Denis


    As stricter regulations on CO2 emissions are adopted worldwide, identifying efficient chemical processes to capture and recycle CO2 is of critical importance for industry. The most common process known as amine scrubbing suffers from the lack of available amine solutions capable of capturing CO2 efficiently. Tertiary amines characterized by low heats of reaction are considered good candidates but their absorption properties can significantly differ from one analogue to another despite high structural similarity. Herein, after collecting and curating experimental data from the literature, we have built a modeling set of 41 amine structures with their absorption properties. Then we analyzed their chemical composition using molecular descriptors and non-supervised clustering. Furthermore, we developed a series of quantitative structure-property relationships (QSPR) to assess amines' CO2 absorption properties from their structural characteristics. These models afforded reasonable prediction performances (e. g., Q(2)LOO =0.63 for CO2 absorption amount) even though they are solely based on 2D chemical descriptors and individual machine learning techniques (random forest and neural network). Overall, we believe the chemical analysis and the series of QSPR models presented in this proof-of-concept study represent new knowledge and innovative tools that could be very useful for screening and prioritizing hypothetical amines to be synthesized and tested experimentally for their CO2 absorption properties.

  10. Photon absorption models in nanostructured semiconductor solar cells and devices

    Luque, Antonio


    This book is intended to be used by materials and device physicists and also solar cells researchers. It models the performance characteristics of nanostructured solar cells and resolves the dynamics of transitions between several levels of these devices. An outstanding insight into the physical behaviour of these devices is provided, which complements experimental work. This therefore allows a better understanding of the results, enabling the development of new experiments and optimization of new devices. It is intended to be accessible to researchers, but also to provide engineering tools w

  11. Photoacoustic clutter reduction by inversion of a linear scatter model using plane wave ultrasound measurements.

    Schwab, Hans-Martin; Beckmann, Martin F; Schmitz, Georg


    Photoacoustic imaging aims to visualize light absorption properties of biological tissue by receiving a sound wave that is generated inside the observed object as a result of the photoacoustic effect. In clinical applications, the strong light absorption in human skin is a major problem. When high amplitude photoacoustic waves that originate from skin absorption propagate into the tissue, they are reflected back by acoustical scatterers and the reflections contribute to the received signal. The artifacts associated with these reflected waves are referred to as clutter or skin echo and limit the applicability of photoacoustic imaging for medical applications severely. This study seeks to exploit the acoustic tissue information gained by plane wave ultrasound measurements with a linear array in order to correct for reflections in the photoacoustic image. By deriving a theory for clutter waves in k-space and a matching inversion approach, photoacoustic measurements compensated for clutter are shown to be recovered.

  12. Equivalent Models and Exact Linearization by the Optimal Control of Monod Kinetics Models

    Krassimira Ljakova


    Full Text Available The well-known global biotechnological models are non-linear and nonstationary. In addition the process variables are difficult to measure, the model parameters are time varying, the measurement noise and measurement delay increase the control problems, etc. One possible way to solve some of these problems is to determine the most simple and easy for use equivalent models. The differential geometric approach [DGA] and especially the exact linearization permit an easy application of the optimal control. The approach and its application in the control of the biotechnological process are discussed in the paper. The optimization technique is used for fed-batch and continuos biotechnological processes when the specific growth rate is described by the Monod kinetics.

  13. Non-linear calibration models for near infrared spectroscopy

    Ni, Wangdong; Nørgaard, Lars; Mørup, Morten


    Different calibration techniques are available for spectroscopic applications that show nonlinear behavior. This comprehensive comparative study presents a comparison of different nonlinear calibration techniques: kernel PLS (KPLS), support vector machines (SVM), least-squares SVM (LS......-SVM), relevance vector machines (RVM), Gaussian process regression (GPR), artificial neural network (ANN), and Bayesian ANN (BANN). In this comparison, partial least squares (PLS) regression is used as a linear benchmark, while the relationship of the methods is considered in terms of traditional calibration...


    CHEN Min; WU Guofu; Gemai Chen


    A nonparametric test for normality of linear autoregressive time series isproposed in this paper. The test is based on the best one-step forecast in mean squarewith time reverse. Some asymptotic theory is developed for the test, and it is shown thatthe test is easy to use and has good powers. The empirical percentage points to conductthe test in practice are provided and three examples using real data are included.


    Klumpp, A. R.


    This package extends the Ada programming language to include linear algebra capabilities similar to those of the HAL/S programming language. The package is designed for avionics applications such as Space Station flight software. In addition to the HAL/S built-in functions, the package incorporates the quaternion functions used in the Shuttle and Galileo projects, and routines from LINPAK that solve systems of equations involving general square matrices. Language conventions in this package follow those of HAL/S to the maximum extent practical and minimize the effort required for writing new avionics software and translating existent software into Ada. Valid numeric types in this package include scalar, vector, matrix, and quaternion declarations. (Quaternions are fourcomponent vectors used in representing motion between two coordinate frames). Single precision and double precision floating point arithmetic is available in addition to the standard double precision integer manipulation. Infix operators are used instead of function calls to define dot products, cross products, quaternion products, and mixed scalar-vector, scalar-matrix, and vector-matrix products. The package contains two generic programs: one for floating point, and one for integer. The actual component type is passed as a formal parameter to the generic linear algebra package. The procedures for solving systems of linear equations defined by general matrices include GEFA, GECO, GESL, and GIDI. The HAL/S functions include ABVAL, UNIT, TRACE, DET, INVERSE, TRANSPOSE, GET, PUT, FETCH, PLACE, and IDENTITY. This package is written in Ada (Version 1.2) for batch execution and is machine independent. The linear algebra software depends on nothing outside the Ada language except for a call to a square root function for floating point scalars (such as SQRT in the DEC VAX MATHLIB library). This program was developed in 1989, and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA.

  16. Generation companies decision-making modeling by linear control theory

    Gutierrez-Alcaraz, G. [Programa de Graduados e Investigacion en Ingenieria Electrica. Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica y Electronica, Instituto Tecnologico de Morelia. Av. Tecnologico 1500, Col. Lomas de Santiaguito 58120. Morelia, Mich. (Mexico); Sheble, Gerald B. [INESC Porto, Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade do Porto, Campus da FEUP, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)


    This paper proposes four decision-making procedures to be employed by electric generating companies as part of their bidding strategies when competing in an oligopolistic market: naive, forward, adaptive, and moving average expectations. Decision-making is formulated in a dynamic framework by using linear control theory. The results reveal that interactions among all GENCOs affect market dynamics. Several numerical examples are reported, and conclusions are presented. (author)

  17. Radial diffusion in Saturn's radiation belts - A modeling analysis assuming satellite and ring E absorption

    Hood, L. L.


    A modeling analysis is carried out of six experimental phase space density profiles for nearly equatorially mirroring protons using methods based on the approach of Thomsen et al. (1977). The form of the time-averaged radial diffusion coefficient D(L) that gives an optimal fit to the experimental profiles is determined under the assumption that simple satellite plus Ring E absorption of inwardly diffusing particles and steady-state radial diffusion are the dominant physical processes affecting the proton data in the L range that is modeled. An extension of the single-satellite model employed by Thomsen et al. to a model that includes multisatellite and ring absorption is described, and the procedures adopted for estimating characteristic satellite and ring absorption times are defined. The results obtained in applying three representative solid-body absorption models to evaluate D(L) in the range where L is between 4 and 16 are reported, and a study is made of the sensitivity of the preferred amplitude and L dependence for D(L) to the assumed model parameters. The inferred form of D(L) is then compared with that which would be predicted if various proposed physical mechanisms for driving magnetospheric radial diffusion are operative at Saturn.

  18. A Non-linear Stochastic Model for an Office Building with Air Infiltration

    Thavlov, Anders; Madsen, Henrik


    This paper presents a non-linear heat dynamic model for a multi-room office building with air infiltration. Several linear and non-linear models, with and without air infiltration, are investigated and compared. The models are formulated using stochastic differential equations and the model...... parameters are estimated using a maximum likelihood technique. Based on the maximum likelihood value, the different models are statistically compared to each other using Wilk's likelihood ratio test. The model showing the best performance is finally verified in both the time domain and the frequency domain...

  19. A Comparison of Alternative Estimators of Linearly Aggregated Macro Models

    Fikri Akdeniz


    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false TR X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-ansi-language:TR; mso-fareast-language:TR;} This paper deals with the linear aggregation problem. For the true underlying micro relations, which explain the micro behavior of the individuals, no restrictive rank conditions are assumed. Thus the analysis is presented in a framework utilizing generalized inverses of singular matrices. We investigate several estimators for certain linear transformations of the systematic part of the corresponding macro relations. Homogeneity of micro parameters is discussed. Best linear unbiased estimation for micro parameters is described.

  20. Hydrolysis-dependent absorption of disaccharides in the rat small intestine (chronic experiments and mathematical modeling).

    Gromova, L V; Gruzdkov, A A


    In order to throw light on the mechanisms responsible for the enzyme-dependent absorption of disaccharides membrane hydrolysis of maltose and trehalose and the absorption of glucose (free and that derived from disaccharides) were studied in isolated loops (20 cm) of the rat small intestine in chronic experiments. The rates of glucose absorption were 0.26-0.81 micromol x min(-1) x cm(-1) when the loop was perfused with a 12.5 to 75.0 mmol/l free glucose solution, which is only insignificantly higher than the rates observed during perfusion with equivalent maltose solutions. The coupling coefficient (the ratio of glucose absorption rate to the rate of disaccharide hydrolysis) decreased from 0.90 to 0.60 with the increasing maltose concentrations in the infusate from 6.25 to 37.5 mmol/l, but remained unchanged (approximately 0.95) within the same range of trehalose concentrations. The permeability of the pre-epithelial barrier was equivalent to that of unstirred water layer of less than 40 microm thickness. Fluid absorption was within the range of 0.73-2.55 microl x min(-1) x cm(-1), and it showed a correlation with the rates of glucose absorption. The results agree with a model developed on the assumption that free glucose and that released from disaccharides share the same membrane transporters. It could be concluded that a close coupling of disaccharide hydrolysis with derived glucose absorption in chronic experiments is achieved mainly due to a high activity of glucose transporters, which are presumably not associated with membrane disaccharidases. The transcellular active transport is a predominant mechanism of disaccharide-derived glucose absorption under conditions close to physiological.

  1. MCMC for non-linear state space models using ensembles of latent sequences


    Non-linear state space models are a widely-used class of models for biological, economic, and physical processes. Fitting these models to observed data is a difficult inference problem that has no straightforward solution. We take a Bayesian approach to the inference of unknown parameters of a non-linear state model; this, in turn, requires the availability of efficient Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling methods for the latent (hidden) variables and model parameters. Using the ensemble ...

  2. A note on fractional linear pure birth and pure death processes in epidemic models

    Garra, Roberto; 10.1016/j.physa.2011.06.005


    In this note we highlight the role of fractional linear birth and linear death processes recently studied in \\citet{sakhno} and \\citet{pol}, in relation to epidemic models with empirical power law distribution of the events. Taking inspiration from a formal analogy between the equation of self consistency of the epidemic type aftershock sequences (ETAS) model, and the fractional differential equation describing the mean value of fractional linear growth processes, we show some interesting applications of fractional modelling to study \\textit{ab initio} epidemic processes without the assumption of any empirical distribution. We also show that, in the frame of fractional modelling, subcritical regimes can be linked to linear fractional death processes and supercritical regimes to linear fractional birth processes. Moreover we discuss a simple toy model to underline the possible application of these stochastic growth models to more general epidemic phenomena such as tumoral growth.

  3. The Fast Linear Accelerator Modeling Engine for FRIB Online Model Service

    He, Z; Davidsaver, M; Fukushima, K; Shen, G; Ikegami, M


    Commissioning of a large accelerator facility like FRIB needs support from an online beam dynamics model. Considering the new physics challenges of FRIB such as modeling of non-axisymmetric superconducting RF cavities and multi-charge state acceleration, there is no readily available online beam tuning code. The design code of FRIB super-conducting linac, IMPACT-Z, is not suitable for online tuning because of its code design and running speed. Therefore, the Fast Linear Accelerator Modeling Engine (FLAME), specifically designed to fulfill FRIB's online modeling challenges, is proposed. The physics model of FLAME, especially its novel way of modeling non-axisymmetric superconducting RF cavities using a multipole expansion based thin-lens kick model, is discussed in detail, and the benchmark results against FRIB design code is presented, after which the software design strategy of FLAME and its execution speed is presented.

  4. Linear and Non-linear Multi-Input Multi-Output Model Predictive Control of Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor

    Muayad Al-Qaisy


    Full Text Available In this article, multi-input multi-output (MIMO linear model predictive controller (LMPC based on state space model and nonlinear model predictive controller based on neural network (NNMPC are applied on a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR. The idea is to have a good control system that will be able to give optimal performance, reject high load disturbance, and track set point change. In order to study the performance of the two model predictive controllers, MIMO Proportional-Integral-Derivative controller (PID strategy is used as benchmark. The LMPC, NNMPC, and PID strategies are used for controlling the residual concentration (CA and reactor temperature (T. NNMPC control shows a superior performance over the LMPC and PID controllers by presenting a smaller overshoot and shorter settling time.

  5. Models of Five Absorption Line Systems Along the Line of Sight Toward PG0117+213

    Masiero, J R; Ding, J; Churchill, C W; Kacprzak, G G


    We present our investigation into the physical conditions of the gas in five intervening quasar absorption line systems along the line of sight toward the quasar PG 0117+213, with redshifts of z=0.57, z=0.72, z=1.04, z=1.32 and z=1.34. Photoionization modeling of HST, Keck I, and Palomar data, using the code Cloudy, is employed to derive densities and metallicities of the multiple phases of gas required to fit the absorption profile for each system. We discuss the implications of these models for galaxy evolution, including the interpretation of ``CIV deficiency'' and damped Lyman alpha absorbers (DLAs), and the relationships between galaxy morphology, galaxy luminosity, and absorption signature.

  6. Modeling thermal sensation in a Mediterranean climate—a comparison of linear and ordinal models

    Pantavou, Katerina; Lykoudis, Spyridon


    A simple thermo-physiological model of outdoor thermal sensation adjusted with psychological factors is developed aiming to predict thermal sensation in Mediterranean climates. Microclimatic measurements simultaneously with interviews on personal and psychological conditions were carried out in a square, a street canyon and a coastal location of the greater urban area of Athens, Greece. Multiple linear and ordinal regression were applied in order to estimate thermal sensation making allowance for all the recorded parameters or specific, empirically selected, subsets producing so-called extensive and empirical models, respectively. Meteorological, thermo-physiological and overall models - considering psychological factors as well - were developed. Predictions were improved when personal and psychological factors were taken into account as compared to meteorological models. The model based on ordinal regression reproduced extreme values of thermal sensation vote more adequately than the linear regression one, while the empirical model produced satisfactory results in relation to the extensive model. The effects of adaptation and expectation on thermal sensation vote were introduced in the models by means of the exposure time, season and preference related to air temperature and irradiation. The assessment of thermal sensation could be a useful criterion in decision making regarding public health, outdoor spaces planning and tourism.

  7. A Non-linear Stochastic Model for an Office Building with Air Infiltration

    Thavlov, Anders; Madsen, Henrik


    This paper presents a non-linear heat dynamic model for a multi-room office building with air infiltration. Several linear and non-linear models, with and without air infiltration, are investigated and compared. The models are formulated using stochastic differential equations and the model param...... heat load reduction during peak load hours, control of indoor air temperature and for generating forecasts of power consumption from space heating.......This paper presents a non-linear heat dynamic model for a multi-room office building with air infiltration. Several linear and non-linear models, with and without air infiltration, are investigated and compared. The models are formulated using stochastic differential equations and the model...... using the auto-correlation function and cumulated periodogram. The proposed model which includes air-infiltration shows a significant improvement compared to previously proposed linear models. The model has subsequently been used in applications for provision of power system services, e.g. by providing...

  8. Frequency Response of Synthetic Vocal Fold Models with Linear and Nonlinear Material Properties

    Shaw, Stephanie M.; Thomson, Scott L.; Dromey, Christopher; Smith, Simeon


    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to create synthetic vocal fold models with nonlinear stress-strain properties and to investigate the effect of linear versus nonlinear material properties on fundamental frequency (F[subscript 0]) during anterior-posterior stretching. Method: Three materially linear and 3 materially nonlinear models were…

  9. An I(2) cointegration model with piecewise linear trends

    Kurita, Takamitsu; Bohn Nielsen, Heino; Rahbæk, Anders


    This paper presents likelihood analysis of the I(2) cointegrated vector autoregression which allows for piecewise linear deterministic terms. Limiting behaviour of the maximum likelihood estimators are derived, which is used to further derive the limiting distribution of the likelihood ratio...... statistic for the cointegration ranks, extending Nielsen and Rahbek. The provided asymptotic theory extends also the results in Johansen et al. where asymptotic inference is discussed in detail for one of the cointegration parameters. An empirical analysis of US consumption, income and wealth, 1965...

  10. Numerical modelling of wave energy absorption by a floating point absorber system

    Backer, G. De; Banasiak, R.; Beels, C. [Ghent University Civil Engineering Department, Zwijnaarde (Belgium); J. De Rouck, J. De


    Point absorbers are wave energy converters (WECs) consisting of small (floating) bodies oscillating with either one or more degrees of freedom. They can either move with respect to a fixed reference, or with respect to a floating reference. Different buoy geometries are evaluated to obtain the ideal values of size, shape and draft with regard to power absorption for a given moderate wave climate. In this paper, the performance of a heaving point absorber in a floating platform is analysed in a linear way.

  11. Linear moose model with pairs of degenerate gauge boson triplets

    Casalbuoni, Roberto; Coradeschi, Francesco; de Curtis, Stefania; Dominici, Daniele


    The possibility of a strongly interacting electroweak symmetry breaking sector, as opposed to the weakly interacting light Higgs of the standard model, is not yet ruled out by experiments. In this paper we make an extensive study of a deconstructed model (or “moose” model) providing an effective description of such a strong symmetry breaking sector, and show its compatibility with experimental data for a wide portion of the model parameter space. The model is a direct generalization of the previously proposed D-BESS model.

  12. Littlest Higgs model and pair production at international linear collider

    P Poulose


    Among the viable alternatives to the standard Higgs mechanism is the recently proposed Little Higgs model. The advantage here is that the model has an elementary light neutral scalar particle, which arises dynamically as against its ad hoc introduction in the standard model. The model also avoids hierarchy problem. We have investigated the pair production at ILC to study the littlest Higgs model using different observables. Specifically, polarization fraction of boson is expected to be measured very accurately at ILC. We use this to put limit on the scale parameter, , in the model.

  13. Output feedback model matching in linear impulsive systems with control feedthrough: a structural approach

    Zattoni, Elena


    This paper investigates the problem of structural model matching by output feedback in linear impulsive systems with control feedthrough. Namely, given a linear impulsive plant, possibly featuring an algebraic link from the control input to the output, and given a linear impulsive model, the problem consists in finding a linear impulsive regulator that achieves exact matching between the respective forced responses of the linear impulsive plant and of the linear impulsive model, for all the admissible input functions and all the admissible sequences of jump times, by means of a dynamic feedback of the plant output. The problem solvability is characterized by a necessary and sufficient condition. The regulator synthesis is outlined through the proof of sufficiency, which is constructive.

  14. The linear-quadratic model is inappropriate to model high dose per fraction effects in radiosurgery.

    Kirkpatrick, John P; Meyer, Jeffrey J; Marks, Lawrence B


    The linear-quadratic (LQ) model is widely used to model the effect of total dose and dose per fraction in conventionally fractionated radiotherapy. Much of the data used to generate the model are obtained in vitro at doses well below those used in radiosurgery. Clinically, the LQ model often underestimates tumor control observed at radiosurgical doses. The underlying mechanisms implied by the LQ model do not reflect the vascular and stromal damage produced at the high doses per fraction encountered in radiosurgery and ignore the impact of radioresistant subpopulations of cells. The appropriate modeling of both tumor control and normal tissue toxicity in radiosurgery requires the application of emerging understanding of molecular-, cellular-, and tissue-level effects of high-dose/fraction-ionizing radiation and the role of cancer stem cells.

  15. Strong absorption model and radial parameters of medium-weight nuclei

    Kuterbekov, K A


    The results of analysis of the angular distributions of differential cross sections for elastic scattering in the medium-weight nuclei in the framework strong absorption model are given. There are presented the A-relations of interaction radius, the data of radial parameters of even isotopes with mass number A=64-124 are obtained. (author)

  16. Particle-in-a-Box Model of Exciton Absorption and Electroabsorption in Conjugated Polymers

    Pedersen, Thomas Garm


    The recently proposed particle-in-a-box model of one-dimensional excitons in conjugated polymers is applied in calculations of optical absorption and electroabsorption spectra. It is demonstrated that for polymers of long conjugation length a superposition of single exciton resonances produces...

  17. Phenolic Acids from Wheat Show Different Absorption Profiles in Plasma: A Model Experiment with Catheterized Pigs

    Nørskov, Natalja; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Theil, Peter Kappel;


    The concentration and absorption of the nine phenolic acids of wheat were measured in a model experiment with catheterized pigs fed whole grain wheat and wheat aleurone diets. Six pigs in a repeated crossover design were fitted with catheters in the portal vein and mesenteric artery to study the ...

  18. Experimental and modeling studies on the absorption of NO in aqueous ferrous EDTA solutions

    Gambardella, F; Alberts, MS; Winkelman, JGM; Heeres, EJ; Alberts, Michel S.; Heeres, H.J.


    This work describes an experimental and modeling study on an industrial relevant process (i.e., the absorption of NO in aqueous Fell(EDTA) solutions) to accurately determine the equilibrium constant of the reaction in the temperature range of 299-329 K. The experiments were carried out in a stirred

  19. H∞ /H2 model reduction through dilated linear matrix inequalities

    Adegas, Fabiano Daher; Stoustrup, Jakob


    {N}$. Arbitrary order of the reduced model can be enforced by including states in the original system with negligible input-to-output system norms. The use of dilated LMI conditions facilitates model reduction of parameter-dependent systems. When a reduced model determined by the sufficient LMI conditions does...

  20. Linear programming model of a meat processing plant

    Shah, S.A.; Okos, M.R.; Reklaitis, G.V.


    A multi-period and multi-product production-planning model of an operational meat processing plant is presented. The model input is the time-varying customer demand and the output is the optimum product mix. The model results are interpreted and compared with actual data. Various production strategies are evaluated.

  1. Comparison between linear and non-parametric regression models for genome-enabled prediction in wheat.

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Paulino; Gianola, Daniel; González-Camacho, Juan Manuel; Crossa, José; Manès, Yann; Dreisigacker, Susanne


    In genome-enabled prediction, parametric, semi-parametric, and non-parametric regression models have been used. This study assessed the predictive ability of linear and non-linear models using dense molecular markers. The linear models were linear on marker effects and included the Bayesian LASSO, Bayesian ridge regression, Bayes A, and Bayes B. The non-linear models (this refers to non-linearity on markers) were reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) regression, Bayesian regularized neural networks (BRNN), and radial basis function neural networks (RBFNN). These statistical models were compared using 306 elite wheat lines from CIMMYT genotyped with 1717 diversity array technology (DArT) markers and two traits, days to heading (DTH) and grain yield (GY), measured in each of 12 environments. It was found that the three non-linear models had better overall prediction accuracy than the linear regression specification. Results showed a consistent superiority of RKHS and RBFNN over the Bayesian LASSO, Bayesian ridge regression, Bayes A, and Bayes B models.

  2. Multivariable Linear Regression Model for Promotional Forecasting:The Coca Cola - Morrisons Case

    Zheng, Yiwei/Y


    This paper describes a promotional forecasting model, built by linear regression module in Microsoft Excel. It intends to provide quick and reliable forecasts with a moderate credit and to assist the CPFR between the Coca Cola Enterprises (CCE) and the Morrisons. The model is derived from previous researches and literature review on CPFR, promotion, forecasting and modelling. It is designed as a multivariable linear regression model, which involves several promotional mix as variables includi...

  3. Excited state absorption in glasses activated with rare earth ions: Experiment and modeling

    Piatkowski, Dawid; Mackowski, Sebastian


    We present semiempirical approach based on the Judd-Ofelt theory and apply it for modeling the spectral properties of fluoride glasses activated with the rare earth (RE) ions. This method provide a powerful tool for simulating both ground state absorption (GSA) and excited state absorption (ESA) spectra of RE ions, e.g. Nd3+, Ho3+, Er3+ and Tm3+ in the ZBLAN glass matrix. The results of theoretical calculations correspond to the experimentally measured data. We also demonstrate that the spectra obtained using the presented approach are applicable in the analysis of up-conversion excitation schemes in these optoelectronically relevant materials.

  4. Modeling of a Von Platen-Munters diffusion absorption refrigeration cycle

    Agostini, Bruno; Agostini, Francesco; Habert, Mathieu


    This article presents a thermodynamical model of a Von-Platen diffusion absorption refrigeration cycle for power electronics applications. It is first validated by comparison with data available in the literature for the classical water-ammonia-helium cycle for commercial absorption fridges. Then new operating conditions corresponding to specific ABB applications, namely high ambient temperature and new organic fluids combinations compatible with aluminium are simulated and discussed. The target application is to cool power electronics converters in harsh environments with high ambient temperature by providing refrigeration without compressor, for passive components losses of about 500 W, with a compact and low cost solution.

  5. Two- and three-dimensional models for analysis of optical absorption in tungsten disulphide single crystals

    Dhairya A Dholakia; G K Solanki; S G Patel; M K Agarwal


    The optical energy gaps of WS2 single crystal were determined from the analysis of the absorption spectrum near the fundamental absorption edge at room temperature using light parallel to -axis incident normally on the basal plane. On the basis of two- and three-dimensional models it was found that both direct and indirect band transitions took place in WS2 and the indirect transition was of the allowed type. The optical energy gaps corresponding to both transitions were determined and the phonon energies associated with the indirect transitions estimated. The implications of the results have been discussed.

  6. Interactions of hypericin with a model mutagen - Acridine orange analyzed by light absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy

    Pietrzak, Monika; Szabelski, Mariusz; Kasparek, Adam; Wieczorek, Zbigniew


    The present study was designed to estimate the ability of hypericin to interact with a model mutagen - acridine orange. The hetero-association of hypericin and acridine orange was investigated with absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy methods in aqueous solution of DMSO. The data indicate that hypericin forms complexes with acridine orange and that the association constants are relatively high and depend on DMSO concentration. The absorption spectra of the hypericin - acridine orange complexes were examined as well. Owing to its ability to interact with flat aromatic compounds, hypericin may potentially be used as an interceptor molecule.

  7. Microgrid Reliability Modeling and Battery Scheduling Using Stochastic Linear Programming

    Cardoso, Goncalo; Stadler, Michael; Siddiqui, Afzal; Marnay, Chris; DeForest, Nicholas; Barbosa-Povoa, Ana; Ferrao, Paulo


    This paper describes the introduction of stochastic linear programming into Operations DER-CAM, a tool used to obtain optimal operating schedules for a given microgrid under local economic and environmental conditions. This application follows previous work on optimal scheduling of a lithium-iron-phosphate battery given the output uncertainty of a 1 MW molten carbonate fuel cell. Both are in the Santa Rita Jail microgrid, located in Dublin, California. This fuel cell has proven unreliable, partially justifying the consideration of storage options. Several stochastic DER-CAM runs are executed to compare different scenarios to values obtained by a deterministic approach. Results indicate that using a stochastic approach provides a conservative yet more lucrative battery schedule. Lower expected energy bills result, given fuel cell outages, in potential savings exceeding 6percent.

  8. Computational models of signalling networks for non-linear control.

    Fuente, Luis A; Lones, Michael A; Turner, Alexander P; Stepney, Susan; Caves, Leo S; Tyrrell, Andy M


    Artificial signalling networks (ASNs) are a computational approach inspired by the signalling processes inside cells that decode outside environmental information. Using evolutionary algorithms to induce complex behaviours, we show how chaotic dynamics in a conservative dynamical system can be controlled. Such dynamics are of particular interest as they mimic the inherent complexity of non-linear physical systems in the real world. Considering the main biological interpretations of cellular signalling, in which complex behaviours and robust cellular responses emerge from the interaction of multiple pathways, we introduce two ASN representations: a stand-alone ASN and a coupled ASN. In particular we note how sophisticated cellular communication mechanisms can lead to effective controllers, where complicated problems can be divided into smaller and independent tasks.

  9. Analysis of Power Model for Linear Plasma Device

    Zhang, Weiwei; Deng, Baiquan; Zuo, Haoyi; Zheng, Xianjun; Cao, Xiaogang; Xue, Xiaoyan; Ou, Wei; Cao, Zhi; Gou, Fujun


    A single cathode linear plasma device has been designed and constructed to investigate the interactions between plasma and materials at the Sichuan University. In order to further investigate the Ohmic power of the device, the output heat load on the specimen and electric potential difference (between cathode and anode) have been tested under different discharge currents. This special power distribution in the radial direction of the plasma discharge channel has also been discussed and described by some improved integral equations in this paper; it can be further simplified as P ∝ α-2 in one-parameter. Besides, we have measured the power loss of the channel under different discharge currents by the calorimetric method, calculated the effective power of the device and evaluated the performances of the plasma device through the power efficiency analysis. supported by International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Program (No. 2013GB114003) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11275135 and 11475122)

  10. Continuous-Discrete Time Prediction-Error Identification Relevant for Linear Model Predictive Control

    Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Jørgensen, Sten Bay


    model is realized from a continuous-discrete-time linear stochastic system specified using transfer functions with time-delays. It is argued that the prediction-error criterion should be selected such that it is compatible with the objective function of the predictive controller in which the model......A Prediction-error-method tailored for model based predictive control is presented. The prediction-error method studied are based on predictions using the Kalman filter and Kalman predictors for a linear discrete-time stochastic state space model. The linear discrete-time stochastic state space...

  11. Application of Absorption Modeling in Rational Design of Drug Product Under Quality-by-Design Paradigm.

    Kesisoglou, Filippos; Mitra, Amitava


    Physiologically based absorption models can be an important tool in understanding product performance and hence implementation of Quality by Design (QbD) in drug product development. In this report, we show several case studies to demonstrate the potential application of absorption modeling in rational design of drug product under the QbD paradigm. The examples include application of absorption modeling—(1) prior to first-in-human studies to guide development of a formulation with minimal sensitivity to higher gastric pH and hence reduced interaction when co-administered with PPIs and/or H2RAs, (2) design of a controlled release formulation with optimal release rate to meet trough plasma concentrations and enable QD dosing, (3) understanding the impact of API particle size distribution on tablet bioavailability and guide formulation design in late-stage development, (4) assess impact of API phase change on product performance to guide specification setting, and (5) investigate the effect of dissolution rate changes on formulation bioperformance and enable appropriate specification setting. These case studies are meant to highlight the utility of physiologically based absorption modeling in gaining a thorough understanding of the product performance and the critical factors impacting performance to drive design of a robust drug product that would deliver the optimal benefit to the patients.

  12. Diet models with linear goal programming: impact of achievement functions

    Gerdessen, J.C.; Vries, de J.H.M.


    Background/Objectives: Diet models based on goal programming (GP) are valuable tools in designing diets that comply with nutritional, palatability and cost constraints. Results derived from GP models are usually very sensitive to the type of achievement function that is chosen. This paper aims to pr

  13. Reflection in variational models for linear water waves

    Klopman, Gert; Dingemans, Maarten W.


    The reflection characteristics are analysed for a series of Hamiltonian water-wave models. These variational models have been derived by applying a Boussinesq-like approach to the vertical flow-structure. Both parabolic and hyperbolic-cosine approximations to the vertical structure are considered. M

  14. A linearized and incompressible constitutive model for arteries.

    Liu, Y; Zhang, W; Wang, C; Kassab, G S


    In many biomechanical studies, blood vessels can be modeled as pseudoelastic orthotropic materials that are incompressible (volume-preserving) under physiological loading. To use a minimum number of elastic constants to describe the constitutive behavior of arteries, we adopt a generalized Hooke's law for the co-rotational Cauchy stress and a recently proposed logarithmic-exponential strain. This strain tensor absorbs the material nonlinearity and its trace is zero for volume-preserving deformations. Thus, the relationships between model parameters due to the incompressibility constraint are easy to analyze and interpret. In particular, the number of independent elastic constants reduces from ten to seven in the orthotropic model. As an illustratory study, we fit this model to measured data of porcine coronary arteries in inflation-stretch tests. Four parameters, n (material nonlinearity), Young's moduli E₁ (circumferential), E₂ (axial), and E₃ (radial) are necessary to fit the data. The advantages and limitations of this model are discussed.

  15. Microwave Absorption and Response Modeling of Nanocomposites Embedded SiC Nanoparticles

    LU Ran; FANG Xiao-Yong; KANG Yu-Qing; YUAN Jie; CAO Mao-Sheng


    @@ We study the mechanism of microwave response properties of SiCp/paraffin nanocomposites and propose a mi-crowave absorption model of nanocomposites based on the conservation law of energy and the theory of electro-magnetic scattering. Using the model we calculate the reflectivity of SiCp/paraffin nanocomposites ranging from 2 CHz to 18 GHz. The calculated results are very consistent with the experimental data in the frequency range investigated.

  16. Enhancement Factors in Ozone Absorption Based on the Surface Renewal Model and its Application

    程江; 杨卓如; 陈焕钦; C.H.Kuo; M.E.Zappi


    Based on the Danckwerts surface renewal model, a simple explicit expression of the enhancement factor in ozone absorption with a first order ozone self-decomposition and parallel second order ozonation reactions has been derived. The results are compared with our previous work based on the film theory. The 2,4-dichlorophenol destruction rate by ozonation is predicted using the enhancement factor model in this paper.

  17. Molecular modeling of C 60:cobaltocene and nickelocene complexes, comparison with IR absorption

    Byszewski, P.; Antonova, K.; Kowalska, E.; Radomska, J.; Baran, J.


    C 60 was reacted with cobaltocene and nickelocene. The samples of the composition C 60(Cocp 2) 3 and C 60Nicp 2 were obtained in the reaction. Their thermal stability was measured by Thermogravimetry and Differential Scanning Calorimetry and the vibrational spectrum was investigated by infrared absorption. Hydrocarbon groups may be evacuated from the reaction products by annealing, while metal atoms remain dispersed between fullerenes. The experiments are compared with the molecular modeling results obtained by applying the PM3 model.

  18. Mathematical Model of Fiber Optic Temperature Sensor Based on Optic Absorption and Experiment Testing


    On the basis of analysis on the temperature monitoring methods for high voltage devices, a new type of fiber optic sensor structure with reference channel is given. And the operation principle of fiber optic sensor is analysed at large based on the absorption of semiconductor chip. The mathematical model of both devices and the whole system are also given. It is proved by the experiment that this mathematical model is reliable.

  19. SCI Identification (SCIDNT) program user's guide. [maximum likelihood method for linear rotorcraft models


    The computer program Linear SCIDNT which evaluates rotorcraft stability and control coefficients from flight or wind tunnel test data is described. It implements the maximum likelihood method to maximize the likelihood function of the parameters based on measured input/output time histories. Linear SCIDNT may be applied to systems modeled by linear constant-coefficient differential equations. This restriction in scope allows the application of several analytical results which simplify the computation and improve its efficiency over the general nonlinear case.

  20. Linear summation of outputs in a balanced network model of motor cortex.

    Capaday, Charles; van Vreeswijk, Carl


    Given the non-linearities of the neural circuitry's elements, we would expect cortical circuits to respond non-linearly when activated. Surprisingly, when two points in the motor cortex are activated simultaneously, the EMG responses are the linear sum of the responses evoked by each of the points activated separately. Additionally, the corticospinal transfer function is close to linear, implying that the synaptic interactions in motor cortex must be effectively linear. To account for this, here we develop a model of motor cortex composed of multiple interconnected points, each comprised of reciprocally connected excitatory and inhibitory neurons. We show how non-linearities in neuronal transfer functions are eschewed by strong synaptic interactions within each point. Consequently, the simultaneous activation of multiple points results in a linear summation of their respective outputs. We also consider the effects of reduction of inhibition at a cortical point when one or more surrounding points are active. The network response in this condition is linear over an approximately two- to three-fold decrease of inhibitory feedback strength. This result supports the idea that focal disinhibition allows linear coupling of motor cortical points to generate movement related muscle activation patterns; albeit with a limitation on gain control. The model also explains why neural activity does not spread as far out as the axonal connectivity allows, whilst also explaining why distant cortical points can be, nonetheless, functionally coupled by focal disinhibition. Finally, we discuss the advantages that linear interactions at the cortical level afford to motor command synthesis.

  1. Partially linear varying coefficient models stratified by a functional covariate

    Maity, Arnab


    We consider the problem of estimation in semiparametric varying coefficient models where the covariate modifying the varying coefficients is functional and is modeled nonparametrically. We develop a kernel-based estimator of the nonparametric component and a profiling estimator of the parametric component of the model and derive their asymptotic properties. Specifically, we show the consistency of the nonparametric functional estimates and derive the asymptotic expansion of the estimates of the parametric component. We illustrate the performance of our methodology using a simulation study and a real data application.

  2. Partially Linear Varying Coefficient Models Stratified by a Functional Covariate.

    Maity, Arnab; Huang, Jianhua Z


    We consider the problem of estimation in semiparametric varying coefficient models where the covariate modifying the varying coefficients is functional and is modeled nonparametrically. We develop a kernel-based estimator of the nonparametric component and a profiling estimator of the parametric component of the model and derive their asymptotic properties. Specifically, we show the consistency of the nonparametric functional estimates and derive the asymptotic expansion of the estimates of the parametric component. We illustrate the performance of our methodology using a simulation study and a real data application.

  3. Direct-Steam Linear Fresnel Performance Model for NREL's System Advisor Model

    Wagner, M. J.; Zhu, G.


    This paper presents the technical formulation and demonstrated model performance results of a new direct-steam-generation (DSG) model in NREL's System Advisor Model (SAM). The model predicts the annual electricity production of a wide range of system configurations within the DSG Linear Fresnel technology by modeling hourly performance of the plant in detail. The quasi-steady-state formulation allows users to investigate energy and mass flows, operating temperatures, and pressure drops for geometries and solar field configurations of interest. The model includes tools for heat loss calculation using either empirical polynomial heat loss curves as a function of steam temperature, ambient temperature, and wind velocity, or a detailed evacuated tube receiver heat loss model. Thermal losses are evaluated using a computationally efficient nodal approach, where the solar field and headers are discretized into multiple nodes where heat losses, thermal inertia, steam conditions (including pressure, temperature, enthalpy, etc.) are individually evaluated during each time step of the simulation. This paper discusses the mathematical formulation for the solar field model and describes how the solar field is integrated with the other subsystem models, including the power cycle and optional auxiliary fossil system. Model results are also presented to demonstrate plant behavior in the various operating modes.

  4. Item Response Theory Using Hierarchical Generalized Linear Models

    Hamdollah Ravand


    Full Text Available Multilevel models (MLMs are flexible in that they can be employed to obtain item and person parameters, test for differential item functioning (DIF and capture both local item and person dependence. Papers on the MLM analysis of item response data have focused mostly on theoretical issues where applications have been add-ons to simulation studies with a methodological focus. Although the methodological direction was necessary as a first step to show how MLMs can be utilized and extended to model item response data, the emphasis needs to be shifted towards providing evidence on how applications of MLMs in educational testing can provide the benefits that have been promised. The present study uses foreign language reading comprehension data to illustrate application of hierarchical generalized models to estimate person and item parameters, differential item functioning (DIF, and local person dependence in a three-level model.

  5. Non-linear modeling of active biohybrid materials

    Paetsch, C.


    Recent advances in engineered muscle tissue attached to a synthetic substrate motivate the development of appropriate constitutive and numerical models. Applications of active materials can be expanded by using robust, non-mammalian muscle cells, such as those of Manduca sexta. In this study, we propose a model to assist in the analysis of biohybrid constructs by generalizing a recently proposed constitutive law for Manduca muscle tissue. The continuum model accounts (i) for the stimulation of muscle fibers by introducing multiple stress-free reference configurations for the active and passive states and (ii) for the hysteretic response by specifying a pseudo-elastic energy function. A simple example representing uniaxial loading-unloading is used to validate and verify the characteristics of the model. Then, based on experimental data of muscular thin films, a more complex case shows the qualitative potential of Manduca muscle tissue in active biohybrid constructs. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Non-linear models: coal combustion efficiency and emissions control

    Bulsari, A.; Wemberg, A.; Anttila, A.; Multas, A. [Nonlinear Solutions Oy, Turku (Finland)


    Today's power plants feel the pressure to limit their NOx emissions and improve their production economics. The article describes how nonlinear models are effective for process guidance of various kinds of processes, including coal fired boilers. These models were developed for the Naantati 2 boiler at the electricity and heat generating coal-fired plant in Naantali, near Turku, Finland. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  7. Forecasting the Polish zloty with non-linear models

    Michal Rubaszek; Pawel Skrzypczynski; Grzegorz Koloch


    The literature on exchange rate forecasting is vast. Many researchers have tested whether implications of theoretical economic models or the use of advanced econometric techniques can help explain future movements in exchange rates. The results of the empirical studies for major world currencies show that forecasts from a naive random walk tend to be comparable or even better than forecasts from more sophisticated models. In the case of the Polish zloty, the discussion in the literature on ex...

  8. Efficent Estimation of the Non-linear Volatility and Growth Model


    Ramey and Ramey (1995) introduced a non-linear model relating volatility to growth. The solution of this model by generalised computer algorithms for non-linear maximum likelihood estimation encounters the usual difficulties and is, at best, tedious. We propose an algebraic solution for the model that provides fully efficient estimators and is elementary to implement as a standard ordinary least squares procedure. This eliminates issues such as the ‘guesstimation’ of initial values and mul...

  9. Genetic algorithm-based multi-objective model for scheduling of linear construction projects

    Senouci, Ahmed B.; Al-Derham, H.R.


    This paper presents a genetic algorithm-based multi-objective optimization model for the scheduling of linear construction projects. The model allows construction planners to generate and evaluate optimal/near-optimal construction scheduling plans that minimize both project time and cost. The computations in the present model are organized in three major modules. A scheduling module that develops practical schedules for linear construction projects. A cost module that computes the project's c...

  10. Mathematical modelling in engineering: A proposal to introduce linear algebra concepts

    Andrea Dorila Cárcamo; Joan Vicenç Gómez; Josep María Fortuny


    The modern dynamic world requires that basic science courses for engineering, including linear algebra, emphasize the development of mathematical abilities primarily associated with modelling and interpreting, which aren´t limited only to calculus abilities. Considering this, an instructional design was elaborated based on mathematic modelling and emerging heuristic models for the construction of specific linear algebra concepts:  span and spanning set. This was applied to first year e...

  11. Mathematical modelling in engineering: a proposal to introduce linear algebra concepts

    Cárcamo Bahamonde, Andrea Dorila; Gómez Urgellés, Joan Vicenç; Fortuny Aymeni, José María


    The modern dynamic world requires that basic science courses for engineering, including linear algebra, emphasize the development of mathematical abilities primarily associated with modelling and interpreting, which aren´t limited only to calculus abilities. Considering this, an instructional design was elaborated based on mathematic modelling and emerging heuristic models for the construction of specific linear algebra concepts: span and spanning set. This was applied to first year engineeri...

  12. Mathematical modelling in engineering: a proposal to introduce linear algebra concepts

    Cárcamo Bahamonde, Andrea; Gómez Urgellés, Joan Vicenç; Fortuny Aymemi, Josep Maria


    The modern dynamic world requires that basic science courses for engineering, including linear algebra, emphasize the development of mathematical abilities primarily associated with modelling and interpreting, which aren´t limited only to calculus abilities. Considering this, an instructional design was elaborated based on mathematic modelling and emerging heuristic models for the construction of specific linear algebra concepts: span and spanning set. This was applied to first year engineer...

  13. State-space models' dirty little secrets: even simple linear Gaussian models can have estimation problems.

    Auger-Méthé, Marie; Field, Chris; Albertsen, Christoffer M; Derocher, Andrew E; Lewis, Mark A; Jonsen, Ian D; Mills Flemming, Joanna


    State-space models (SSMs) are increasingly used in ecology to model time-series such as animal movement paths and population dynamics. This type of hierarchical model is often structured to account for two levels of variability: biological stochasticity and measurement error. SSMs are flexible. They can model linear and nonlinear processes using a variety of statistical distributions. Recent ecological SSMs are often complex, with a large number of parameters to estimate. Through a simulation study, we show that even simple linear Gaussian SSMs can suffer from parameter- and state-estimation problems. We demonstrate that these problems occur primarily when measurement error is larger than biological stochasticity, the condition that often drives ecologists to use SSMs. Using an animal movement example, we show how these estimation problems can affect ecological inference. Biased parameter estimates of a SSM describing the movement of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) result in overestimating their energy expenditure. We suggest potential solutions, but show that it often remains difficult to estimate parameters. While SSMs are powerful tools, they can give misleading results and we urge ecologists to assess whether the parameters can be estimated accurately before drawing ecological conclusions from their results.

  14. Multiscale modeling of light absorption in tissues: limitations of classical homogenization approach.

    Mottin, Stephane; Panasenko, Grigory; Ganesh, S Sivaji


    In biophotonics, the light absorption in a tissue is usually modeled by the Helmholtz equation with two constant parameters, the scattering coefficient and the absorption coefficient. This classic approximation of "haemoglobin diluted everywhere" (constant absorption coefficient) corresponds to the classical homogenization approach. The paper discusses the limitations of this approach. The scattering coefficient is supposed to be constant (equal to one) while the absorption coefficient is equal to zero everywhere except for a periodic set of thin parallel strips simulating the blood vessels, where it is a large parameter ω. The problem contains two other parameters which are small: ε, the ratio of the distance between the axes of vessels to the characteristic macroscopic size, and δ, the ratio of the thickness of thin vessels and the period. We construct asymptotic expansion in two cases: ε --> 0, ω --> ∞, δ --> 0, ωδ --> ∞, ε2ωδ --> 0 and ε --> 0, ω --> ∞, δ --> 0, ε2ωδ --> ∞, and and prove that in the first case the classical homogenization (averaging) of the differential equation is true while in the second case it is wrong. This result may be applied in the biomedical optics, for instance, in the modeling of the skin and cosmetics.

  15. An analytical solution for the model of drug distribution and absorption in small intestine

    Mingyu, Xu


    According to the physiological and anatomical characteristics of small intestine, neglecting the effect of its motility on the distribution and absorption of drug and nutrient, Y. Miyamoto et al.[1] proposed a model of two-dimensional laminar flow in a circular porous tube with permeable wall and calculated the concentration profile of drug by numerical analysis. In this paper, we give a steady state analytical solution of the above model including deactivation term. The obtained results are in agreement with the results of their numerical analysis. Moreover the analytical solution presented in this paper reveals the relation among the physiological parameters of the model and describes the basic absorption rule of drug and nutrient through the intestinal wall and hence provides a theoretical basis for determining the permeability and reflection coefficient through in situ experiments.

  16. An accurate halo model for fitting non-linear cosmological power spectra and baryonic feedback models

    Mead, Alexander; Heymans, Catherine; Joudaki, Shahab; Heavens, Alan


    We present an optimised variant of the halo model, designed to produce accurate matter power spectra well into the non-linear regime for a wide range of cosmological models. To do this, we introduce physically-motivated free parameters into the halo-model formalism and fit these to data from high-resolution N-body simulations. For a variety of $\\Lambda$CDM and $w$CDM models the halo-model power is accurate to $\\simeq 5$ per cent for $k\\leq 10h\\,\\mathrm{Mpc}^{-1}$ and $z\\leq 2$. We compare our results with recent revisions of the popular HALOFIT model and show that our predictions are more accurate. An advantage of our new halo model is that it can be adapted to account for the effects of baryonic feedback on the power spectrum. We demonstrate this by fitting the halo model to power spectra from the OWLS hydrodynamical simulation suite via parameters that govern halo internal structure. We are able to fit all feedback models investigated at the 5 per cent level using only two free parameters, and we place limi...

  17. Comparison between two models of absorption of matter waves by a thin time-dependent barrier

    Barbier, Maximilien; Beau, Mathieu; Goussev, Arseni


    We report a quantitative, analytical, and numerical comparison between two models of the interaction of a nonrelativistic quantum particle with a thin time-dependent absorbing barrier. The first model represents the barrier by a set of time-dependent discontinuous matching conditions, which are closely related to Kottler boundary conditions used in stationary-wave optics as a mathematical basis for Kirchhoff diffraction theory. The second model mimics the absorbing barrier with an off-diagonal δ potential with a time-dependent amplitude. We show that the two models of absorption agree in their predictions in a semiclassical regime, the regime readily accessible in modern experiments with ultracold atoms.

  18. Modelling of Rotational Capacity in Reinforced Linear Elements

    Hestbech, Lars; Hagsten, Lars German; Fisker, Jakob


    The Capacity Design Method forms the basis of several seismic design codes. This design philosophy allows plastic deformations in order to decrease seismic demands in structures. However, these plastic deformations must be localized in certain zones where ductility requirements can be documented ...... as the effect of shear cracking on the length of the plastic zone.......The Capacity Design Method forms the basis of several seismic design codes. This design philosophy allows plastic deformations in order to decrease seismic demands in structures. However, these plastic deformations must be localized in certain zones where ductility requirements can be documented...... reinforced concrete elements. The model is taking several important parameters into account. Empirical values is avoided which is considered an advantage compared to previous models. Furthermore, the model includes force variations in the reinforcement due to moment distributions and shear as well...

  19. Linear and nonlinear modeling of light propagation in hollow-core photonic crystal fiber

    Roberts, John; Lægsgaard, Jesper


    Hollow core photonic crystal fibers (HC-PCFs) find applications which include quantum and non-linear optics, gas detection and short high-intensity laser pulse delivery. Central to most applications is an understanding of the linear and nonlinear optical properties. These require careful modeling...

  20. Wireless Positioning Based on a Segment-Wise Linear Approach for Modeling the Target Trajectory

    Figueiras, Joao; Pedersen, Troels; Schwefel, Hans-Peter


    measurements and the user mobility patterns. One class of typical human being movement patterns is the segment-wise linear approach, which is studied in this paper. Current tracking solutions, such as the Constant Velocity model, hardly handle such segment-wise linear patterns. In this paper we propose...