WorldWideScience

Sample records for absorption leaves

  1. Absorption and metabolism of formaldehyde in solutions by detached banana leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhidong; Qi, Chuanjiao; Chen, Qi; Li, Kunzhi; Chen, Limei

    2014-05-01

    Detached banana leaves are one of the by-products of banana production. In this study, the absorption and metabolism of formaldehyde (HCHO) in solutions by detached banana leaves was investigated under submergence conditions. The results showed that banana leaves could effectively absorb HCHO in the treatment solutions, and the relationship between HCHO absorption and treatment time appeared to fit a radical root function model. (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance analysis was used to investigate the ability of detached banana leaves to metabolise H(13)CHO, and the results indicated that the H(13)CHO absorbed from the treatment solutions was converted into non-toxic compounds. High amounts of [U-(13)C]glucose, [U-(13)C]fructose, [3-(13)C]serine and [3-(13)C]citrate were produced as a result of H(13)CHO metabolism in banana leaves, and the production of a small amount of [2,4-(13)C]citrate and [2,3-(13)C]alanine was also observed. These results suggest that detached banana leaves can metabolise H(13)CHO and convert it to non-toxic compounds. The metabolic pathways that produce these intermediates in detached banana leaves are postulated based on our (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance data.

  2. [Fog water absorption by the leaves of epiphytes and non - epiphytes in Xishuangbanna].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yulong; Feng, Yulong

    2006-06-01

    Xishuangbanna is located at the northern margin of tropics. Its climate is different from that of typical tropics, but the rainforest there is not very different from that of the typical tropics in Southeast Asia. The main problems in Xishuangbanna are seasonal drought and low temperature. Fog may contribute to the development of rainforest here, but related studies are few. This study is aimed to know whether the leaves of epiphytes and non - epiphytes in Xishuangbanna can directly absorb fog water and contribute to their water status recovery, and whether epiphytes are more competent than non - epiphytes in their leaf fog water absorption. The study was conducted in dry season, and four species of epiphytes and six species of non - epiphytes were investigated. The effect of fog was imitated by spraying leaves with distilled water. For epiphytes and non - epiphytes, their leaf water potential (phi), relative water content (RWC), and amount of absorbed water increased gradually with the time of spraying, but the phi of epiphytes increased more quickly than that of non - epiphytes. The leaves of epiphytes Bolbitis scandens and Rhaphidophora decursiva could absorb fog water more quickly, and increase their RWC more greatly than those of non - epiphytes, indicating that these epiphytes were more competent than non - epiphytes in their leaf fog water absorption. The fog water absorption capacity of the leaves in epiphytic orchid Coelogyne occultata and Staurochilus dawsonianus was lower than that in Amischotolype hispida and Mananthus patentflora, but higher than that in other four non - epiphytes. The phi of epiphytes at early evening when no fog was formed was significantly lower than that at early morning, suggesting that fog water was absorbed by epiphytes at night to improve their leaf water status. Non - epiphytes did not need to absorb fog water directly through leaves, and they could recover their leaf water status through absorbing soil water by root system

  3. Visible light absorption and photo-sensitizing properties of spinach leaves and beetroot extracted natural dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, D.; Mondal, B.; Mukherjee, K.

    2015-09-01

    Herein, chlorophyll and betalain dyes are extracted from fresh spinach leaves and beetroots. Fourier transform infrared spectra are used to identify the characteristic peaks of the extracted dyes. UV-vis light absorption characteristics of the dyes and their mixed counterpart are investigated by varying their pH and temperature. These dyes are used as photo sensitizer for fabrication of zinc oxide photo-anode based dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The photo-voltaic characteristics of the developed DSSCs are measured under simulated solar light (power of incident light 100 mW cm-2 from Air Mass 1.5G). The solar to electric conversion efficiencies for the chlorophyll, betalain and mixed dye based solar cells are estimated as 0.148%, 0.197% and 0.294% respectively. The highest conversion efficiency for mixed dye based solar cell is attributed due to the absorption of wider range of solar spectrum.

  4. Changes in 14CO2 absorption rates by the successive leaves in buckwheat and white mustard plants of various ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gej

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The experiments with different-aged buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Mnch. and white mustard (Sinapis alba L. plants showed that the sub-apical and middle leaves, before they had reached their approximate final sizes, had the highest rates of 14CO2 absorption. The intensity of this process decreases in each leaf with age of the plant. White mustard leaves showed a little higher absorption rate of 14CO2 than analogous leaves of buckwheat plants. In the investigated leaves no close relationship between the intensity of 14CO2 assimilation and chlorophyll a and b concentration was observed. Some possible reasons for the higher intensity of photosynthesis in the sub-apical leaves are discussed.

  5. Do changes in the azimuthal distribution of maize leaves over time affect canopy light absorption?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In maize canopies, when modelling the architecture and light regime one usually assumes leaf azimuths are distributed uniformly. Once we had demonstrated azimuthal re-orientation of maize leaves during the vegetative phase, we tested the weight of this hypothesis on the light absorbed daily by the canopy. We thus modelled the three-dimensional (3D) geometry of maize canopies with various plant densities and at different developmental stages using plant digitizing under field conditions. We simulated radiative transfer using a volume-based approach within actual and hypothetical canopies, obtained by simply rearranging leaf azimuths. Simulations indicated that changes to horizontal heterogeneity have little effect on daily light absorption efficiency. It is concluded that changes in leaf azimuths do not have to be taken into account in crop-functioning models. (author)

  6. Spectral dependence of photosynthesis and light absorptance in single leaves and canopy in rose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paradiso, R.; Meinen, E.; Snel, J.F.H.; Visser, de P.H.B.; Ieperen, van W.; Hogewoning, S.W.; Marcelis, L.F.M.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of leaf pigmentation (related to leaf ontogeny), on the spectral dependence of photosynthesis and most observations have been limited so far to single leaves. This study aimed to investigate photosynthesis and the related optical properties of two types of rose leav

  7. Wettability, polarity, and water absorption of holm oak leaves: effect of leaf side and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Victoria; Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Guzmán, Paula; Peguero-Pina, José Javier; Gil, Luis; Karabourniotis, George; Khayet, Mohamed; Fasseas, Costas; Heredia-Guerrero, José Alejandro; Heredia, Antonio; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio

    2014-09-01

    Plant trichomes play important protective functions and may have a major influence on leaf surface wettability. With the aim of gaining insight into trichome structure, composition, and function in relation to water-plant surface interactions, we analyzed the adaxial and abaxial leaf surface of holm oak (Quercus ilex) as a model. By measuring the leaf water potential 24 h after the deposition of water drops onto abaxial and adaxial surfaces, evidence for water penetration through the upper leaf side was gained in young and mature leaves. The structure and chemical composition of the abaxial (always present) and adaxial (occurring only in young leaves) trichomes were analyzed by various microscopic and analytical procedures. The adaxial surfaces were wettable and had a high degree of water drop adhesion in contrast to the highly unwettable and water-repellent abaxial holm oak leaf sides. The surface free energy and solubility parameter decreased with leaf age, with higher values determined for the adaxial sides. All holm oak leaf trichomes were covered with a cuticle. The abaxial trichomes were composed of 8% soluble waxes, 49% cutin, and 43% polysaccharides. For the adaxial side, it is concluded that trichomes and the scars after trichome shedding contribute to water uptake, while the abaxial leaf side is highly hydrophobic due to its high degree of pubescence and different trichome structure, composition, and density. Results are interpreted in terms of water-plant surface interactions, plant surface physical chemistry, and plant ecophysiology.

  8. Do changes in the azimuthal distribution of maize leaves over time affect canopy light absorption?

    OpenAIRE

    Drouet, J.L.; Moulia, B.; Bonhomme, R

    1999-01-01

    Pour les couverts de maïs, les modèles d’architecture des plantes et de transferts radiatifs utilisent classiquement l’hypothèse d’une répartition aléatoire des feuilles en azimut. Ayant précédemment mis en évidence des ré-orientations azimutales des feuilles de maïs au cours de la phase végétative, nous avons testé le poids de cette hypothèse sur l’absorption journalière de lumière par le couvert. Pour cela, nous avons modélisé la géométrie en trois dimensions (3D) de couverts de maïs de den...

  9. Effect of changes in chlorophyll concentration on photosynthetic properties I. Fluorescence and absorption of greening bean leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedheer, J.C.

    1961-01-01

    In order to obtain new information about the way of functioning of chlorophyll in vivo a study was made of optical properties and photosynthesis under condition of a low chlorophyll content in the leave. It was found that the fluorescence yeild of greening bean leaves decreased from a value approxim

  10. 厚朴植物叶中金属元素的含量测定%Determination of Metal Elements in the Leaves of Magnolia officinalis by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国章; 李光锋

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To determine the content of six metal elements like Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn in M. Officinalis leaves. [Method] Digested with HNO3-HClO4 mixed acid ( 5:1 ,V/V) , the content of Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn in M. Officinalis leaves was determined by flame atomic absorption speetrometry ( FA AS). [ Result] The content of Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn in M. Officinalis leaves was 580. 57, 278.63, 177.21, 16.70, 1.02 and 8.25 mg/kg, respectively. [Conclusion] The FAAS method is simple, rapid and accurate to determine the content of six metal elements in M. Officinalis leaves. The study can provide useful data for exploring the relationship between the content of metal elements and pharmacological actions in M. Officinalis leaves.%[目的]测定厚朴叶中Ca、Mg、Fe、Zn、Cu和Mn 6种金属元素含量.[方法]采用浓硝酸-高氯酸(5∶1,V/V)溶解消化处理样品,火焰原子吸收光谱法测定厚朴叶中Ca、Mg、Fe、Zn、Cu和Mn6种金属元素含量.[结果]厚朴花中Ca、Mg、Fe、Zn、Cu和Mn6种微量元素含量分别为580.57、278.63、177.21、16.7、1.02和8.25 mg/kg.[结论]采用原子吸收光谱法测定厚朴花中金属元素含量,操作简便、快速,结果准确,为探讨厚朴叶中金属元素含量与药理关系提供了有用的数据.

  11. 吸附树脂提取分离银杏叶提取物的研究进展%Studys on Enriching and Refining the Extract of Ginkgo Biloba Leaves with Absorption Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢锦花; 胡小玲; 岳红

    2001-01-01

    银杏叶中含有具有药理作用的黄酮类化合物和银杏内酯类化合物。吸附树脂是提取分离银杏叶提取物(GBE)银杏黄酮化合物和银杏内酯化合物的有效试剂。本文综述了树脂提取分离GBE的机理,比较了用不同树脂提取分离GBE的分离效果,并总结了影响吸附树脂分离提取GBE的多种因素,为树脂提取分离银杏黄酮提供了较为全面的科学信息。%Flavone and Ginkgolides are rich in Ginkgo biloba leaves.Enriching and refining the extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves with absorption resin are effective methods.The mechanism of enriching and refining GBE,product quality and various influential factors are discussed in this paper,which provide a full information for the application of absorption resin in flavonoids.

  12. Taking Leave?

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    Planning a holiday? Then if you're a member of the personnel, you'll need to use the Laboratory's new leave system that will be put in place on 1 October. Leave allocations don't change - you are entitled to just as much holiday as before - but instead of being credited annually, your leave will be credited on a monthly basis, and this information will be communicated on your salary slip. The reason for the change is that with the various new leave schemes such as Recruitment by Saved Leave (RSL) and the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP), a streamlined procedure was required for dealing with all kinds of leave. In the new system, each member of the personnel will have leave accounts to which leave will be credited monthly from the payroll and debited each time an absence is registered in the CERN Electronic Document Handling system (EDH). Leave balances will appear on monthly pay slips, and full details of leave transactions and balances will be available through EDH at all times. As the leave will be c...

  13. Absorption and translocation of {sup 65} Zn applied to the leaves of bean plants; Absorcao e translocacao de {sup 65} Zn aplicado nas folhas do feijoeiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boaretto, Antonio E.; Muraoka, Takashi [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, Mauro W. de [Vicosa Univ., MG (Brazil); Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F. do [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz

    1997-12-01

    Isotope technique has been of great utility in plant nutrition studies. The objective of the research was to determine the fraction of Zn (as sulfate, chloride and EDTA) applied to the leaves which is taken up and undergo translocation in bean plants. The objective was also to verify the effect of addition, into the spray solution, of urea, potassium chloride and sucrose on the Zn uptake. Different solutions containing Zn (0.06%), urea (0.50%), potassium chloride (0.25%) and sucrose (0.50%) were prepared.When {sup 65} Zn was used, the activity applied in each trifoliate was 55.5 KBq. The plants were harvested 7 days after Zn application and the trifoliate which received the solution was sepereted from the rest of the plant tops and roots, for total Zn and {sup 65} Zn analysis. The Zn sulfate and chloride were more efficient than the Zn-EDTA to increase the foliar Zn content, but the amount of translocated Zn was 5% of that absorved for all the sources studied. There was no effect of the aditives to the Zn uptakes. (author). 8 refs., 5 tabs.

  14. Leaving Iraq?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    It has been three years since the war in Iraq began, but the situation in the country, especially the security, has not improved much. Meanwhile, the world is wondering when U.S. troops will leave, and the American public appears to be getting impatient with the seemingly endless casualty reports. Some groups have held

  15. Effects of Foliar Spraying of Magnesium-potassium Sulfate Fertilizer on Absorption of Magnesium, Potassium and Calcium in Different-position Tobacco Leaves%叶面喷施硫酸钾镁肥对不同部位烟叶镁、钾、钙吸收的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周敏; 周绍松; 郑波; 鲁耀; 段宗颜; 王建新; 张忠武; 杨景华

    2014-01-01

    [目的]在云南省曲靖市植烟土壤交换性钙镁比超过20的缺镁烟区,通过土壤镁肥施用和叶面喷施进行钙镁比调控,了解其对烤烟钾、钙、镁吸收的影响,为曲靖市缺镁烟区烤烟的平衡施肥技术提供理论依据和生产指导。[方法]通过田间小区试验,采用完全随机区组设计,以不施镁肥作为对照,分别设3个叶面喷施硫酸钾镁肥处理和2个根层施镁+叶面喷施处理。采集根、茎、上部叶、中部叶和下部叶5个部位进行烘干称重,并且粉碎制样,测定钾、钙、镁含量;每个小区从初烤烟叶中选取上部(B2F)、中部(C3F)下部(X2F)样品,分析烟叶全钾、钙、镁含量。[结果]从不同部位来看,叶面喷施及土壤施用和叶面喷施配合调控钙镁比提高了中、下部烟叶对镁、钾的吸收以及下部烟叶对钙的吸收,但降低了上部烟叶对镁、钾、钙的吸收以及中部烟叶对钙的吸收。烟叶不同部位镁、钾、钙的累积分配量比较表现为中部叶>下部叶>上部叶;从不同部位来看,中、上部烟叶钙镁比、钾镁比降低,下部烟叶钙镁比增加,而下部烟叶钾镁比处理之间没有差异。[结论]叶面喷施及土壤施用和叶面喷施配合调控对烟叶钙镁比、钾镁比的影响,主要是通过影响镁的吸收。%Objective] ln the Mg-deficient (exchangeable Ca/Mg ratio > 20) tobacco-growing areas in Qujing City of Yunnan Province, the ratio of Ca/Mg was adjusted by applying Mg fertilizer in soil and spraying Mg fertilizer on tobacco leaves. ln ad-dition, the effects of Mg fertilization on the absorption of K, Ca and Mg in flue-cured tobacco leaves were investigated, providing theoretical basis and production guidance for the balanced fertilization technology in the Mg-deficient flue-cured to-bacco-growing areas in Qujing City of Yunnan Province. [Method] The field plot test and randomized complete block

  16. To leave or not to leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchan, James

    2016-06-22

    Lies, damned lies and Brexit statistics. It's not been a good month for anyone espousing evidence-based policy and politics after the chair of the Commons health committee switched from Leave to Remain, citing misuse of data by the Leave campaign. PMID:27332589

  17. Leaving home in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rikke Skovgaard

    2015-01-01

    The paper focuses on ethnic differences in the timing and patterns of leaving the parental home. Leaving home is a key transition in the life course of the individual, and extensive research has been conducted on the timing and patterns of leaving it. However, ethnic differences in these patterns...

  18. Negative leave balances

    CERN Document Server

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1Â September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply. Â Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30Â September and/or 31Â December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates i...

  19. Negative leave balances

    CERN Document Server

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1 September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply.  Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30 September and/or 31 December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates in or...

  20. Men on Parental Leave

    OpenAIRE

    Trutnovská, Aneta

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is based on the scientific literature related to the topic, and interviews with specific men on parental leave to point out, in particular, on the grounds that affect men, to the decision to become a full-time father, find out how these families work, and also to point out responses or opinions around which these men often encounter. The theoretical part is devoted to male parental leave in terms of its relation to the children, the themes taking on parental leave, the ...

  1. Falling for Clay Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernan, Christine

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art project that integrated science and art education. Explains that students create ceramic bowls by using real leaves. Discusses the process of creating the ceramic bowls, including how to glaze the bowls. Includes a list of materials. (CMK)

  2. TRAVEL AND HOME LEAVE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    Administrative procedures for : Travel to the home station and home leave (hl) Additional travel to the home station (at) Travel to the home station and home leave for family reasons (hlf) As part of the process of simplifying administrative procedures, HR and AS Divisions have devised a new, virtually automatic procedure for payment of travel expenses to the home station. The changes are aimed at rationalising administrative procedures and not at reducing benefits. The conditions of eligibility are unchanged. The new procedure, which will be operational with effect from 1st June 2002, will greatly simplify the administrative processing of claims for travel expenses and the recording of home leaves. Currently, requests for payment are introduced manually into the Advances and Claims system (AVCL) by divisional secretariats. All travel to the home station starting prior to 1st June 2002 will be processed according to the existing system whereas that starting on 1st June and after will be processed accordi...

  3. Does Leave Work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heleen van Luijn; Saskia Keuzenkamp

    2004-01-01

    More and more people have to combine work and care responsibilities, and work part-time or use daycare and after-school care facilities to help them do so. The Work and Care Act, which came into force on 1 December 2001, combined all the existing schemes - such as parental and maternity leave - and

  4. Leaves: Nature's Solar Collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isabelle, Aaron D.; de Groot, Cornelis

    2009-01-01

    One of the most captivating things about plants is the way they capture the Sun's energy, but this can be a difficult topic to cover with elementary students. Therefore, to help students to make a concrete connection to this abstract concept, this series of solar-energy lessons focuses on leaves and how they act as "solar collectors." As students…

  5. REMINDER: Saved Leave Scheme (SLS)

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Transfer of leave to saved leave accounts Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'* annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No 22B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). We remind you that unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave year accounts is transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. Therefore, staff members have no administrative steps to take. In addition, the transfer, which eliminates the risk of omitting to request leave transfers and rules out calculation errors in transfer requests, will be clearly shown in the list of leave transactions that can be consulted in EDH from October 2003 onwards. Furthermore, this automatic leave transfer optimizes staff members' chances of benefiting from a saved leave bonus provided that they ar...

  6. Extraction of radioactive cesium from tea leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive contamination of foodstuffs attributed to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster has become a social problem. This study investigated the extraction of radioactive cesium from the contaminated leaves to the tea. The green tea was brewed twice reusing the same leaves to study the difference in extraction of cesium between the first and second brew. Moreover, the extraction of cesium was studied in correlation to brewing time. The concentration of radioactive cesium was determined with gamma spectrometry, and the concentration of caffeine was determined with absorption spectrometry. About 40% of cesium was extracted from leaves in the first brew, and about 80% was extracted in the second brew. The extraction of cesium increased over time, and it reached about 80% after 10 minutes brew. The ratio of radioactive cesium to caffeine decreased linearly over time. This study revealed that the extraction of cesium was higher for the second brew, and a rapid increase in extraction was seen as the tea was brewed for 6 minutes and more. Therefore, the first brew of green tea, which was brewed within 5 minutes, contained the least extraction of radioactive cesium from the contaminated leaves. (author)

  7. Mangrove leaves (Rhizophora mangle) as environmental contamination biomonitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sometimes, plants growing in contaminated sediments by trace metals can not avoid absorption of these metals, but only to limit its translocation, so that the accumulated metals in their tissues will have different levels of concentrations. Some trace metals (copper, zinc, manganese, among others) are essential for plants, although they are toxic at high concentrations, damaging its growth, production or quality. The aim of this work from is to verify the presence of metals such as copper, manganese and iron in mangrove leaves (Rhizophora mangle) collected in some beaches of the Northeast of Brazil (such as: Maceio, Sao Jose da Coroa Grande, Japaratinga, Croa do Gore, Ponta das Pedras). Leaves' metals content (extracted by adding acids) were determined by a fast sequential atomic absorption spectrometer (SpectrAA-220FS/VARIAN). The results showed that there are more Fe and Mn in mangrove leaves than in other metals comparing with all study areas (Fe > Mn > Co > Zn > Cu). (author)

  8. Mangrove leaves (Rhizophora mangle) as environmental contamination biomonitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Vivianne L.B. de; Santos, Suzana O.; Fonseca, Cassia K.L.; Paiva, Ana Claudia de; Silva, Waldecy A. da, E-mail: vlsouza@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: suzirecifeusa@hotmail.com, E-mail: cassia.kellen@hotmail.com, E-mail: acpaiva@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: waldecy@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Sometimes, plants growing in contaminated sediments by trace metals can not avoid absorption of these metals, but only to limit its translocation, so that the accumulated metals in their tissues will have different levels of concentrations. Some trace metals (copper, zinc, manganese, among others) are essential for plants, although they are toxic at high concentrations, damaging its growth, production or quality. The aim of this work from is to verify the presence of metals such as copper, manganese and iron in mangrove leaves (Rhizophora mangle) collected in some beaches of the Northeast of Brazil (such as: Maceio, Sao Jose da Coroa Grande, Japaratinga, Croa do Gore, Ponta das Pedras). Leaves' metals content (extracted by adding acids) were determined by a fast sequential atomic absorption spectrometer (SpectrAA-220FS/VARIAN). The results showed that there are more Fe and Mn in mangrove leaves than in other metals comparing with all study areas (Fe > Mn > Co > Zn > Cu). (author)

  9. Negotiating leave in the workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte

    2014-01-01

    In Denmark leave entitlement is not only regulated by law but is also part of the various collective agreements established in the respective occupational sectors and at the local workplace level. Consequently, Danish fathers have very different leave entitlements, depending on the sector, branch...... men’s negotiations of parental leave at work place level and secondly, to explore and discuss how Danish fathers construct leave practices – and individual male identities – in the workplace....

  10. Saved Leave Scheme (SLS) : Simplified procedure for the transfer of leave to saved leave accounts

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2001-01-01

    As part of the process of streamlining procedures, the HR and AS Divisions have jointly developed a system whereby annual and compensatory leave will henceforth be automatically transferred1) to saved leave accounts. Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'2) annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No. 22 B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). Previously, every person taking part in the scheme has been individually issued with a form for the purposes of requesting the transfer of leave to the leave account and the transfer has then had to be done manually by HR Division. To streamline the procedure, unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of of the leave-year accounts will henceforth be transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. This simplification is in the ...

  11. REMINDER Saved Leave Scheme (SLS) : Transfer of leave to saved leave accounts

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2002-01-01

    Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'*) annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No. 22B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). We remind you that, since last year, unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave-year accounts is transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. Therefore, staff members have no administrative steps to take. In addition, the transfer, which eliminates the risk of omitting to request leave transfers and rules out calculation errors in transfer requests, will be clearly shown in the list of leave transactions that can be consulted in EDH from October 2002 onwards. Furthermore, this automatic leave transfer optimizes staff members' chances of benefiting from a saved leave bonus provided that they are still participants in the schem...

  12. Determination Of Natural Boron Concentration In Coffee Leaves, Using de Autobiography by Neutron Capture Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determination of natural boron concentration in coffee leaves, using the autoradiography, by neutron capture technique. The boron absorption coefficient in young coffee leaves was measured using autoradiography by neutron capture. In two experiments carried out in April and November, 1996, it was found that the coefficient varies between 0.9 and 5.3 nmol/h. the concentration of natural boron in coffee leaves in regard to age, symptoms and treatment received was also studied, using the same technique. (Author)

  13. Fluorescence intensities ratio F685/F740 for maple leaves during seasonal color changes and with fungal infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharcheva, Anastasia V.

    2014-01-01

    The work is devoted to the spectral measurements of maple leaves. Fresh green leaves of maple were investigated in spring and summer, healthy leaves and leaves affected by fungal diseases - during the fall color change. F685/F740 parameter values for healthy and diseased maple leaves were found, as well as the change of this parameter during the growing season. The concentration of chlorophylls a and b and carotenoids in ethanol extracts of maple leaves with different pigmentation were calculated by absorption spectroscopy and the ratio of Chl a / Chl b was found.

  14. Negotiating leave in the workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte

    In Denmark leave entitlement is not only regulated by law but is also part of the various collective agreements established in the respective occupational sectors and at the local workplace level. Consequently, Danish fathers have very different leave entitlements, depending on the sector, branch...... and workplace in which they are employed. The paper focuses on fathers’ negotiations of parental leave in three large Danish work places, offering men different opportunities for leave. With a focus on the differences in the work place contexts/opportunities for leave, the aim of the paper is firstly to explore...... men’s negotiations of parental leave at work place level and secondly, to explore and discuss how Danish fathers construct leave practices – and individual male identities – in the workplace....

  15. Freezing injury in potato leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, N P; Weiser, C J

    1972-11-01

    Time-temperature profiles of freezing leaves from frost-resistant (Solanum acaule Bitt.) and frost-susceptible (Solanum tuberosum L. subsp. tuberosum Hawkes) types of potatoes did not reveal any major differences. The pattern of change in resistance of leaves to low voltage, low frequency current during freezing was different in the frost-resistant and susceptible leaves. In tissue sections from both types of leaves, cells freeze extracellularly at cooling velocities lower than 5 C per minute. Cells from leaves of resistant plants showed a higher osmotic pressure but not a higher water permeability than those from susceptible plants. The extent of injury caused by even very slow freezing was greater than that caused by equivalent isopiestic desiccation, particularly in susceptible leaves. The higher osmotic pressure in cells of leaves from resistant plants can account for the greater desiccation resistance but not for the frost resistance observed. PMID:16658217

  16. Spatially resolved sulfur K-edge XANES spectroscopy of wheat leaves infected by Puccinia triticina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, H.; Prange, A.; Steiner, U.; Oerke, E.-C.; Hormes, J.

    2009-11-01

    In this study, wheat leaves infected with brown rust, a plant disease of serious economic concern caused by the fungus Puccinia triticina, were investigated using spatially resolved XANES (X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure) spectroscopy at the sulfur K-absorption edge.

  17. Water isotopologues in leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuntz, M.; Ogée, J.; Farquhar, G. D.; Cernusak, L. A.; Peylin, P.; Bariac, T.

    2007-12-01

    Leaf water isotope enrichment is a cornerstone of a variety of isotopic applications. It imprints on different substances such as atmospheric CO2, O2, and plant organic matter. But different applications use enrichment in different parts of the leaf and weighted by different fluxes. For example, leaf organic matter is determined by the assimilation-weighted average bulk water enrichment. Atmospheric CO2 and O2 are determined by the enrichment near the evaporating sites, either weighted by the one-way CO2 flux from the stomata to the atmosphere or by electron transport, resp. These applications of leaf water enrichment are used from the leaf level up to global scales. It is therefore essential to understand the time course of leaf water enrichment at both the evaporating sites and in the mesophyll but also to asses the suitability of simple models such as the Craig & Gordon (1965) steady-state prediction or the Dongmann et al. (1974) non-steady-state model. We describe here advection and diffusion of water isotopologues in leaves in the non-steady state. We first show how this relates to earlier non-steady state bulk leaf water enrichment models. The adv.-diff. model compares very well with observations of bulk mesophyll water during the whole diel cycle. It compares well with the enrichment at the evaporative sites during the day but shows some deviations at night. It is clear that night-time stomatal conductance should be measured in the future. However, varying mesophyll water volume did not seem critical for a good prediction. In addition, observations of single diurnal cycles do not constrain the effective length in the mesophyll. Finally, we show when simpler models of leaf water enrichment are suitable for applications of leaf water isotopes once weighted with the appropriate gas exchange flux. We then present a two-dimensional adv.-diff. description of leaf water enrichment along monocot leaves. The model reproduces well all published measurements along

  18. Starch metabolism in leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzechowski, Sławomir

    2008-01-01

    Starch is the most abundant storage carbohydrate produced in plants. The initiation of transitory starch synthesis and degradation in plastids depends mainly on diurnal cycle, post-translational regulation of enzyme activity and starch phosphorylation. For the proper structure of starch granule the activities of all starch synthase isoenzymes, branching enzymes and debranching enzymes are needed. The intensity of starch biosynthesis depends mainly on the activity of AGPase (adenosine 5'-diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase). The key enzymes in starch degradation are beta-amylase, isoamylase 3 and disproportionating enzyme. However, it should be underlined that there are some crucial differences in starch metabolism between heterotrophic and autotrophic tissues, e.g. is the ability to build multiprotein complexes responsible for biosynthesis and degradation of starch granules in chloroplasts. The observed huge progress in understanding of starch metabolism was possible mainly due to analyses of the complete Arabidopsis and rice genomes and of numerous mutants with altered starch metabolism in leaves. The aim of this paper is to review current knowledge on transient starch metabolism in higher plants. PMID:18787712

  19. REMINDER Saved Leave Scheme (SLS) : Simplified procedure for the transfer of leave to saved leave accounts

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2001-01-01

    As part of the process of streamlining procedures, the HR and AS Divisions have jointly developed a system whereby annual and compensatory leave will henceforth be automatically transferred1) to saved leave accounts. Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'2)Previously, every person taking part in the scheme has been individually issued with a form for the purposes of requesting the transfer of leave to the leave account and the transfer has then had to be done manually by HR Division. To streamline the procedure, unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave-year accounts will henceforth be transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. This simplification is in the interest of all parties concerned. This automatic transfer procedure has a number of advantages for participants in the SLS scheme. First, staff members will no longer have to take any administrative steps. Secondly, the new proced...

  20. FTIR Spectroscopic Study of Broad Bean 3iseased Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to indentify diseased leaves of broad bean by vibra- tional spectroscopy. [Method] In this paper, broad bean rust, fusarium rhizome rot, broad bean zonate spot, yellow leaf curl virus and normal leaves were studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometrics. [Result] The spectra of the samples were similar, only with minor differences in absorption inten- sity of several peaks. Second derivative analyses show that the significant difference of all samples was in the range of 1 200-700 cm2. The data in the range of 1 200- 700 cm' were selected to evaluate correlation coefficients, hierarchical cluster analy- sis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA). Results showed that the correla- tion coefficients are larger than 0.928 not only between the healthy leaves, but also between the same diseased leaves. The values between healthy and diseased leaves, and among diseased leaves, are all declined. HCA and PCA yielded about 73.3% and 82.2% accuracy, respectively. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that FTIR techniques might be used to detect crop diseases.

  1. Green leaves as indicator for air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green leaves of Ficus (Ficus penegalensis) and Neem (Azadirachta indica) were analyzed for their trace metals (Pb, Zn and Cd) contents. The samples were collected and washed according to metal analysis standardization. Solutions of the samples for analysis were obtained by wet-digestion method using nitric perchloric acid mixture. The trace elements lead, zinc and cadmium were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopic technique (AAS) for the 18 samples collected from Khartoum (Sharia elneel), Omdurman (Ombadda) and Khartoum North (Kadaro) as heavy-traffic, low-traffic areas and distal area, respectively. The species Ficus and Neem samples were collected each randomly from such areas. The samples were taken from the tips, mids and bottoms of each tree. (Author)

  2. D-xylose absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003606.htm D-xylose absorption To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. D-xylose absorption is a laboratory test to determine ...

  3. Key Obama officials leave administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-01-01

    Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar is one of the latest members of the Obama administration to announce that he is leaving his position near the start of President Obama's second term in office. Salazar, who has served as interior secretary since January 2009, intends to leave the department by the end of March, the department noted on 16 January. Salazar joins a number of other key officials who are planning to leave the administration. They include Environmental Protection Agency administrator Lisa Jackson, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration administrator Jane Lubchenco, and U.S. Geological Survey director Marcia McNutt.

  4. New statement of leave format

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Following the communication of the Standing Concertation Committee published in Weekly Bulletin No. 18-19 of 27 April 2009, the current statement of leave on monthly pay slips has been replaced with the EDH Leave Transactions report that displays the up-to-date situation of individual leave balances at all times. The report is available on EDH. Additionally, the layout of the pay slip has been modernised. The new version of the pay slip will be send out from September 2009 onwards. Finance and Purchasing Department, Personnel Accounting Human Resources Department, Organisation and Procedures General Infrastructure Services Department, Administrative Information Services

  5. 46 CFR 310.8 - Leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (7) days. (3) Annual leave shall not exceed thirty (30) days. (4) Christmas and Easter leave shall..., as authorized by the school, not to exceed four (4) months. (2) Christmas and Easter leave and...

  6. Calcium absorption and achlorhydria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defective absorption of calcium has been thought to exist in patients with achlorhydria. The author compared absorption of calcium in its carbonate form with that in a pH-adjusted citrate form in a group of 11 fasting patients with achlorhydria and in 9 fasting normal subjects. Fractional calcium absorption was measured by a modified double-isotope procedure with 0.25 g of calcium used as the carrier. Mean calcium absorption (+/- S.D.) in the patients with achlorhydria was 0.452 +/- 0.125 for citrate and 0.042 +/- 0.021 for carbonate (P less than 0.0001). Fractional calcium absorption in the normal subjects was 0.243 +/- 0.049 for citrate and 0.225 +/- 0.108 for carbonate (not significant). Absorption of calcium from carbonate in patients with achlorhydria was significantly lower than in the normal subjects and was lower than absorption from citrate in either group; absorption from citrate in those with achlorhydria was significantly higher than in the normal subjects, as well as higher than absorption from carbonate in either group. Administration of calcium carbonate as part of a normal breakfast resulted in completely normal absorption in the achlorhydric subjects. These results indicate that calcium absorption from carbonate is impaired in achlorhydria under fasting conditions. Since achlorhydria is common in older persons, calcium carbonate may not be the ideal dietary supplement

  7. Variability of calcium absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variability in calcium absorption was estimated in three groups of normal subjects in whom Ca absorption was measured by standard isotopic-tracer methods at interstudy intervals ranging from 1 to 4 mo. Fifty absorption tests were performed in 22 subjects. Each was done in the morning after an overnight fast with an identical standard breakfast containing a Ca load of approximately 250 mg. Individual fractional absorption values were normalized to permit pooling of the data. The coefficient of variation (CVs) for absorption for the three groups ranged from 10.57 to 12.79% with the size of the CV increasing with interstudy duration. One other published study presenting replicate absorption values was analyzed in a similar fashion and was found to have a CV of absorption of 9.78%. From these data we estimate that when the standard double-isotope method is used to measure Ca absorption there is approximately 10% variability around any given absorption value within an individual human subject and that roughly two-thirds of this represents real biological variability in absorption

  8. Comparative studies of elemental composition in leaves and flowers of Catharanthus roseus growing in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Shahin Aziz; Koushik Saha; Nasim Sultana; Husna Parvin Nur; Md. Aminul Ahsan; Shamim Ahmed; Md Kamal Hossain

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the elemental composition of the leaves and flowers of Catharanthus roseus (C. roseus) due to the plant's wide application in the indigenous medicinal system and its chemical constituents' importance. Methods: The atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used for quantitative analysis of various elements. Results: Total 13 important elements were analyzed in leaves and flowers of C. roseus. Results indicated the presence of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cr, Fe, Zn, Al, Cu, Ni,...

  9. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF NERIUM OLEANDER LEAVES AND MOMORDICA CHARANTIA LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhi R

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The developing countries mostly rely on traditional medicines. The traditional medicine involves the use of different plant extracts or the bioactive constituents. This type of study provides the health application at affordable cost. This study such as ethnomedicine keenly represents one of the best avenues in searching new economic plants for medicine. In keeping this view in mind the present investigation is carried out in Nerium oleander and Momordica charantia leaves. Qualitative phytochemical analysis of these two plants confirms the presence of various phytochemicals like carbohydrates, cholesterol, protein, amino acid, alkaloid, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids, and phlobatinins in their aqueous leaf extracts leaves followed by ethanol, ethyl acetate, diethyl ether and chloroform. The results suggest that the phytochemical properties of the leaves for curing various ailments and possess potential antioxidant properties.

  10. NPK fertilization effects on concentration of nutrients in Valencia orange leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basso, C. (Empresa Catarinense de Pesquisa Agropecuaria S/A (Brazil)); Mielniczuk, J.; Bohnen, H. (Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre (Brazil). Faculdade de Agronomia)

    1983-01-01

    The effects of NPK fertilization on the nutrient concentration in the leaves was evaluated in a field experiment of Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) growing in a sandy acid soil, with 4N, 3P and 4K fertilizer levels. N and Cu contents in the leaves were high, while P and Zn levels were low, in all treatments. Increasing the levels of N, P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ and K/sub 2/O fertilization resulted in an increase of the N, P and K concentration in the leaves, respectively. Crescent levels of N fertilization raised Mn and decreased Ca concentration in the leaves. P and K contents in the leaves correlated positively. With a great availability and absorption of K, reduction on the foliar contents of Mg and Ca ocurred.

  11. Effect Of Oleanolic Acid Isolated From Garlic Leaves On Carbohydrate Metabolizing Enzymes, In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    G.A. Meshram; S. S. Khamkar

    2014-01-01

    Post-prandial hyperglycemia can be controlled by retarding the absorption of glucose through inhibition of the two main enzymes, α-amylase and glucoamylase. This action delays carbohydrate digestion causing reduction in the rate of glucose absorption and degradation of glycogen during starvation. Allium sativum (Garlic) is a medicinal plant used worldwide for flavoring as well as medicinal purpose. However, chemical examination and biological activity of compounds present in the leaves are le...

  12. Ion competition effects on the selective absorption of radionuclides by komatsuna (Brassica rapa var. perviridis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The selective absorption coefficient, which is a parameter of an uptake model of radionuclides by plants, was determined for various radionuclides by a multitracer technique. Komatsuna, Brassica rapa var. perviridis, was hydroponically cultivated in a nutrient solution containing a multitracer for 1 day. Nutrient concentration dependence of the selective absorption coefficient of various elements from Be to Re was obtained separately for leaves and roots. The selective absorption coefficients of these elements were, in general, found to decrease with an increase in the concentration of nutrient solutions. Regression equations of the power function for the selective absorption coefficients and the concentration of nutrient solutions were obtained for the leaves and roots. The effects of photon flux and growth stage of plants on the selective absorption coefficients were also studied. It was found that the photon flux influenced the accumulation of radionuclides in the roots but had no significant effect on the selective absorption coefficients for the leaves in 1-day cultivation with the multitracer. The selective absorption coefficients of Mn and Zn in the leaves of the plants at the development stage were higher than those at the maturation stage. For the other elements, no significant effects of the growth stage on the selective absorption coefficients were observed. (author)

  13. Nutrition and magnesium absorption.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, E.J.

    1992-01-01

    The influence of various nutrients present in dairy products and soybean-based products on absorption of magnesium has been investigated. The studies demonstrate that soybean protein versus casein lowers apparent magnesium absorption in rats through its phytate component. However, true magnesium abs

  14. Watch out for the leaves!

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2013-01-01

    Now that autumn is here, dead leaves falling from the trees form a colourful carpet that is pleasing to the eye. However, the reality is less pleasant for pedestrians, since these leaves increase the risk of slipping and falling, especially when the ground is wet.   These conditions are also hazardous for two- and four-wheeled vehicles, whose grip on the ground can be severely reduced, thereby increasing the risk of them skidding out of control. Cyclists are among the most vulnerable road users when faced with these hazards. It is therefore essential to be alert to the dangers, which can be lessened by taking a few simple precautions such as moderating your speed and wearing suitable shoes. We also invite you to notify the Service Desk if you notice a road or pavement where there is a high concentration of dead leaves. The CERN Roads and Drainage Service will then ensure that the leaves are cleared in order to reduce the risk of accidents in the area.

  15. How to leave your job.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurden, Dean

    2016-08-10

    'Leaving a job is never a decision you should take lightly,' says Nick Simpson, CEO of health recruitment agency MSI Group. 'Every nursing professional has things about their job they find frustrating and daily tasks they may not necessarily enjoy doing, but it's important to consider the positive aspects of your current role before you make a decision.' PMID:27507390

  16. Thermal Degradation of Flavonol Glycosides in Noni Leaves During Roasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shixin Deng

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Noni leaves have been used for a variety of health benefits for thousands of years. Noni leaf tea, a commercial product made by a roasting process, is attracting more attention due to its potential health benefits. Flavonoids appear to be some of the predominant constituents in noni leaves. As flavonoids exist mostly in the forms of glycosides or polymers, degradation to corresponding metabolites is usually needed for bio-absorption. This study investigates the effects of thermal treatment (non-aqueous roasting on flavonoids in noni leaves. Rutin and kaempferol glycoside contents decreased dramatically as roasting time and/or temperature increased, while quercetin and kaempferol aglycones were produced. A quantitative comparison demonstrated that quercetin and kaempferol concentrations were 3.74 and 6.28 times greater in noni leaf tea than in raw noni leaves, respectively. These findings indicate that the roasting process for the noni leaf tea could induce the degradation of flavonol glycosides, and produce their aglycone metabolites, which in turn, may lead to more beneficial bioactivities and bioavailability.

  17. Analyzing lead absorption by the sycamore tree species in the industrial park of Rasht, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Seyed Armin; FallahChay, Mir Mozaffar; Tarighi, Fattaneh

    2015-07-01

    In this study, the subject of heavy metal concentration in soil, rock, sediment, surface water and groundwater, which can be caused by natural or man-posed pollution, was analyzed in the industrial park of Rasht. These concentrations were compared with the standard range of environmental data. Heavy metals are important environmental pollutants that can cause health hazards to humans, plants and microorganisms by entering food chain. This study aimed to investigate the absorption of lead by the leaves of sycamore tree species in the industrial park of Rasht. For this purpose, a sample of 32 sycamore tree species were randomly selected at a specified time, and the concentration of lead were measured using an atomic absorption device. Results showed that the amount of lead absorption by sycamore leaves is remarkable. The highest amount of lead absorption by sycamore leaves was detected at station 1 (Khazar Steel) and the lowest amount at station 2 (control station).

  18. Fluorescence action spectra of algae and bean leaves at room and at liquid nitrogen temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedheer, J.C.

    1965-01-01

    Fluorescence action spectra were determined, both at room temperature and at liquid nitrogen temperature, with various blue-green, red and green algae, and greening bean leaves. The action spectra of algae were established with samples of low light absorption as well as dense samples. Fluorescence

  19. Optical parameters of leaves of seven weed species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gausman, H. W.; Menges, R. M.; Richardson, A. J.; Walter, H.; Rodriguez, R. R.; Tamez, S. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The absorption coefficient (k), infinite reflectance (R), and scattering coefficient (s) were tabulated for five wavelengths and analyzed for statistical differences for seven weed species. The wavelengths were: 0.55-micrometer, 0.65-micrometers, 0.85-micrometer, 1.65-micrometers, and 2.20-micrometer. The R of common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.), Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.), and annual sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus L.) leaves at the 0.85-micrometer wavelength were significantly (p=0.05) higher than for sunflower (Heliantus annus L.), ragweed parthenium (Parthenium hysterophorus L.), or London rocket (Sisymbrium irio L.). Annual sowthistle had the largest k value, and Plamer amaranth (Amaranthus palmer S. Wats.) had the smallest k value at the 0.65 approximately chlorophyll absorption wavelength. In general, john-songress, ragweed parthenium, or London rocket had the largest s values among the five wavelengths, wereas annual sowthistle and plamar amaranth were usually lowest.

  20. Some microbiological, histopathological and biochemical changes in the broiler chicken fed carrot leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninety 21 day old Arbor Acres chicks arranged into 6 equal groups were used in the present study to evaluate the effect of substitution of 10% yellow corn (YC) with berseem, green carrot leaves without and with digestive enzymatic mixture, untreated dry carrot leaves and treated ones with Aspergillus niger on the intestinal microflora, histopathology of liver and intestine in addition to some biochemical parameters. Replacement of (YC) with green carrot leaves, untreated and treated carrot leaves caused significant (P<0.05) increase in total bacterial count and significant (P<0.05) decrease in Lactobacilli, while the addition of enzyme to the green carrot leaves led to decrease in total bacterial count and increase in Lactobacillus count. The histopathological changes of both intestine and liver were restricted only to both groups of dried carrot leaves. Similarly untreated and treated dry carrot leaves groups were also associated with significant increase in triglyceride, ALT and significant (P<0.05) decrease in cholesterol in serum. From the above mentioned results, it could be concluded that dried carrot leaves, untreated or treated with Aspergillus niger, were unsuitable for broiler chicken feeding since they directly affected bird's gut health causing change in nutrient absorption and considerable decrease in the beneficial bacterial count

  1. Revisiting Absorptive Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Araújo, Ana Luiza Lara; Ulhøi, John Parm; Lettl, Christopher

    Absorptive capacity has mostly been perceived as a 'passive' outcome of R&D investments. Recently, however, a growing interest into its 'proactive' potentials has emerged. This paper taps into this development and proposes a dynamic model for conceptualizing the determinants of the complementary...... learning processes of absorptive capacity, which comprise combinative and adaptive capabilities. Drawing on survey data (n=169), the study concludes that combinative capabilities primarily enhance transformative and exploratory learning processes, while adaptive capabilities strengthen all three learning...

  2. Carnivorous leaves from Baltic amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, Eva-Maria; Seyfullah, Leyla J; Sadowski, Friederike; Fleischmann, Andreas; Behling, Hermann; Schmidt, Alexander R

    2015-01-01

    The fossil record of carnivorous plants is very scarce and macrofossil evidence has been restricted to seeds of the extant aquatic genus Aldrovanda of the Droseraceae family. No case of carnivorous plant traps has so far been reported from the fossil record. Here, we present two angiosperm leaves enclosed in a piece of Eocene Baltic amber that share relevant morphological features with extant Roridulaceae, a carnivorous plant family that is today endemic to the Cape flora of South Africa. Modern Roridula species are unique among carnivorous plants as they digest prey in a complex mutualistic association in which the prey-derived nutrient uptake depends on heteropteran insects. As in extant Roridula, the fossil leaves possess two types of plant trichomes, including unicellular hairs and five size classes of multicellular stalked glands (or tentacles) with an apical pore. The apices of the narrow and perfectly tapered fossil leaves end in a single tentacle, as in both modern Roridula species. The glandular hairs of the fossils are restricted to the leaf margins and to the abaxial lamina, as in extant Roridula gorgonias. Our discovery supports current molecular age estimates for Roridulaceae and suggests a wide Eocene distribution of roridulid plants. PMID:25453067

  3. Smoking Leaves Lasting Marks on DNA: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_161060.html Smoking Leaves Lasting Marks on DNA: Study Changes related to disease found in more ... cigarettes can leave a lasting imprint on human DNA, altering more than 7,000 genes in ways ...

  4. Seven-effect absorption refrigeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVault, Robert C.; Biermann, Wendell J.

    1989-01-01

    A seven-effect absorption refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three absorption circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium absorption circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high absorption circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high absorption circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low absorption circuit.

  5. Central cooling: absorptive chillers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, J.E.

    1977-08-01

    This technology evaluation covers commercially available single-effect, lithium-bromide absorption chillers ranging in nominal cooling capacities of 3 to 1,660 tons and double-effect lithium-bromide chillers from 385 to 1,060 tons. The nominal COP measured at operating conditions of 12 psig input steam for the single-effect machine, 85/sup 0/ entering condenser water, and 44/sup 0/F exiting chilled-water, ranges from 0.6 to 0.65. The nominal COP for the double-effect machine varies from 1.0 to 1.15 with 144 psig entering steam. Data are provided to estimate absorption-chiller performance at off-nominal operating conditions. The part-load performance curves along with cost estimating functions help the system design engineer select absorption equipment for a particular application based on life-cycle costs. Several suggestions are offered which may be useful for interfacing an absorption chiller with the remaining Integrated Community Energy System. The ammonia-water absorption chillers are not considered to be readily available technology for ICES application; therefore, performance and cost data on them are not included in this evaluation.

  6. Resource capture by single leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, S.P.

    1992-05-01

    Leaves show a variety of strategies for maximizing CO{sub 2} and light capture. These are more meaningfully explained if they are considered in the context of maximizing capture relative to the utilization of water, nutrients and carbohydrates reserves. There is considerable variation between crops in their efficiency of CO{sub 2} and light capture at the leaf level. Understanding of these mechanisms indicate some ways in which efficiency of resource capture could be level cannot be meaningfully considered without simultaneous understanding of implications at the canopy level. 36 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Percutaneous absorption from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Rosa Marie; Coman, Garrett; Blickenstaff, Nicholas R; Maibach, Howard I

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Some natural sites, as a result of contaminants emitted into the air and subsequently deposited in soil or accidental industrial release, have high levels of organic and non-organic chemicals in soil. In occupational and recreation settings, these could be potential sources of percutaneous exposure to humans. When investigating percutaneous absorption from soil - in vitro or vivo - soil load, particle size, layering, soil "age" time, along with the methods of performing the experiment and analyzing the results must be taken into consideration. Skin absorption from soil is generally reduced compared with uptake from water/acetone. However, the absorption of some compounds, e.g., pentachlorophenol, chlorodane and PCB 1254, are similar. Lipophilic compounds like dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, benzo[A]pyrene, and metals have the tendency to form reservoirs in skin. Thus, one should take caution in interpreting results directly from in vitro studies for risk assessment; in vivo validations are often required for the most relevant risk assessment. PMID:25205703

  8. Chemical Absorption Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kaj

    2011-01-01

    Chemical absorption materials that potentially can be used for post combustion carbon dioxide capture are discussed. They fall into five groups, alkanolamines, alkali carbonates, ammonia, amino acid salts, and ionic liquids. The chemistry of the materials is discussed and advantages and drawbacks...

  9. Absorption driven focus shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, N.; Wolf, S.; Maerten, O.; Dudek, K.; Ballach, S.; Kramer, R.

    2016-03-01

    Modern high brilliance near infrared lasers have seen a tremendous growth in applications throughout the world. Increased productivity has been achieved by higher laser power and increased brilliance of lasers. Positive impacts on the performance and costs of parts are opposed to threats on process stability and quality, namely shift of focus position over time. A high initial process quality will be reduced by contamination of optics, eventually leading to a focus shift or even destruction of the optics. Focus analysis at full power of multi-kilowatt high brilliance lasers is a very demanding task because of high power densities in the spot and the high power load on optical elements. With the newly developed high power projection optics, the High-Power Micro-Spot Monitor High Brilliance (HP-MSM-HB) is able to measure focus diameter as low as 20 μm at power levels up to 10 kW at very low internal focus shift. A main driving factor behind thermally induced focus shift is the absorption level of the optical element. A newly developed measuring system is designed to determine the relative absorption level in reference to a gold standard. Test results presented show a direct correlation between absorption levels and focus shift. The ability to determine the absorption level of optical elements as well as their performance at full processing power before they are put to use, enables a high level of quality assurance for optics manufacturers and processing head manufacturers alike.

  10. ZINC ABSORPTION BY INFANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinc is a vital mineral in human nutrition, and rare cases of overt zinc deficiency are well described in term and preterm infants. A variety of methods have been developed to assess zinc absorption, retention, and balance in humans, either using mass (metabolic) balance or stable isotope-based METH...

  11. RECRUITMENT FINANCED BY SAVED LEAVE (RSL PROGRAMME)

    CERN Document Server

    Division du Personnel; Tel. 73903

    1999-01-01

    Transfer to the saved leave account and saved leave bonusStaff members participating in the RSL programme may opt to transfer up to 10 days of unused annual leave or unused compensatory leave into their saved leave account, at the end of the leave year, i.e. 30 September (as set out in the implementation procedure dated 27 August 1997).A leave transfer request form, which you should complete, sign and return, if you wish to use this possibility, has been addressed you. To allow the necessary time for the processing of your request, you should return it without delay.As foreseen in the implementation procedure, an additional day of saved leave will be granted for each full period of 20 days remaining in the saved leave account on 31 December 1999, for any staff member participating in the RSL programme until that date.For part-time staff members participating in the RSL programme, the above-mentioned days of leave (annual, compensatory and saved) are adjusted proportionally to their contractual working week as...

  12. Microstructures of superhydrophobic plant leaves - inspiration for efficient oil spill cleanup materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiger, Claudia; Rodrigues da Silva, Isabelle C; Mail, Matthias; Kavalenka, Maryna N; Barthlott, Wilhelm; Hölscher, Hendrik

    2016-08-16

    The cleanup of accidental oil spills in water is an enormous challenge; conventional oil sorbents absorb large amounts of water in addition to oil and other cleanup methods can cause secondary pollution. In contrast, fresh leaves of the aquatic ferns Salvinia are superhydrophobic and superoleophilic, and can selectively absorb oil while repelling water. These selective wetting properties are optimal for natural oil absorbent applications and bioinspired oil sorbent materials. In this paper we quantify the oil absorption capacity of four Salvinia species with different surface structures, water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes) and Lotus leaves (Nelumbo nucifera), and compare their absorption capacity to artificial oil sorbents. Interestingly, the oil absorption capacities of Salvinia molesta and Pistia stratiotes leaves are comparable to artificial oil sorbents. Therefore, these pantropical invasive plants, often considered pests, qualify as environmentally friendly materials for oil spill cleanup. Furthermore, we investigated the influence of oil density and viscosity on the oil absorption, and examine how the presence and morphology of trichomes affect the amount of oil absorbed by their surfaces. Specifically, the influence of hair length and shape is analyzed by comparing different hair types ranging from single trichomes of Salvinia cucullata to complex eggbeater-shaped trichomes of Salvinia molesta to establish a basis for improving artificial bioinspired oil absorbents.

  13. Microstructures of superhydrophobic plant leaves - inspiration for efficient oil spill cleanup materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiger, Claudia; Rodrigues da Silva, Isabelle C; Mail, Matthias; Kavalenka, Maryna N; Barthlott, Wilhelm; Hölscher, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    The cleanup of accidental oil spills in water is an enormous challenge; conventional oil sorbents absorb large amounts of water in addition to oil and other cleanup methods can cause secondary pollution. In contrast, fresh leaves of the aquatic ferns Salvinia are superhydrophobic and superoleophilic, and can selectively absorb oil while repelling water. These selective wetting properties are optimal for natural oil absorbent applications and bioinspired oil sorbent materials. In this paper we quantify the oil absorption capacity of four Salvinia species with different surface structures, water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes) and Lotus leaves (Nelumbo nucifera), and compare their absorption capacity to artificial oil sorbents. Interestingly, the oil absorption capacities of Salvinia molesta and Pistia stratiotes leaves are comparable to artificial oil sorbents. Therefore, these pantropical invasive plants, often considered pests, qualify as environmentally friendly materials for oil spill cleanup. Furthermore, we investigated the influence of oil density and viscosity on the oil absorption, and examine how the presence and morphology of trichomes affect the amount of oil absorbed by their surfaces. Specifically, the influence of hair length and shape is analyzed by comparing different hair types ranging from single trichomes of Salvinia cucullata to complex eggbeater-shaped trichomes of Salvinia molesta to establish a basis for improving artificial bioinspired oil absorbents. PMID:27529805

  14. Role of leaves in phototropism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, S L; Leopold, A C

    1966-05-01

    Experiments with green seedlings of sunflower (Helianthus annuns L.) indicate the existence of a phototropic mechanism which involves the leaves or cotyledons, and which can produce an asymmetry of auxin content without the involvement of lateral auxin transport, the classic explanation of phototropism in etiolated seedlings. The basic lines of evidence for the leaf-mediated tropism are: 1) darkening of one cotyledon will cause curvature of the stem toward the lighted cotyledon: 2) the darkened cotyledon sustains an enhanced growth rate in the stem below it: 3) conversely, light suppresses the growth-stimulating effects of a single cotyledon: and 4) more diffusible auxin is obtained from the stem below darkened cotyledons than below lighted ones.

  15. Chemical composition, rheological, quality characteristics and storage stability of buns enriched with coriander and curry leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Sudha, M. L.; Rajeswari, G.; Venkateswara Rao, G.

    2013-01-01

    Effect of addition of normal (NL) and dehydrated (DL) curry leaves (Murraya koeniggi) and coriander leaves (Corinadrum sativum) in the ratio of 1:1 to refined wheat flour (WF) or a blend of refined wheat flour-whole wheat flour (WF-WWF, 1:1) on the rheological, nutritional, storage and quality characteristics of the buns were studied. Water absorption increased on addition of increasing levels of DL from 0 to 7.5 % to WF-WWF when compared to WF. Dough weakening was greater when DL was added t...

  16. Sweet potato leaves for growing pigs

    OpenAIRE

    An, Le

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present studies was to evaluate the potential of using sweet potato leaves (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) as a protein source in diets for growing pigs. A number of sweet potato varieties were evaluated with respect to the biomass yield of the leaves, stems and tubers under different leaf harvesting intervals and defoliation techniques with the aim of selecting the best varieties for forage production. The biomass yields of leaves, stems and tubers were found to vary according to v...

  17. Absorptive Capacity and Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristinsson, Kári

    that contribute to the neo-Schumpeterian economics literature and hopefully inspires further research into this area. The main findings of the dissertation can be divided into four distinct parts. First, diversity of individuals within firms is associated with firm innovative performance. This is in line......One of the most influential contributions to neo-Schumpeterian economics is Cohen and Levinthal‘s papers on absorptive capacity. Since their publication in the late 1980s and early 1990s the concept absorptive capacity has had substantial impact on research in economics and management, including...... international business, organizational economics, strategic management, technology management and last but not least neo-Schumpeterian economics. The goal of this dissertation is to examine what many consider as neglected arguments from the work by Cohen and Levinthal and thereby illuminate an otherwise...

  18. Acoustic absorption by sunspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, D. C.; Labonte, B. J.; Duvall, T. L., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The paper presents the initial results of a series of observations designed to probe the nature of sunspots by detecting their influence on high-degree p-mode oscillations in the surrounding photosphere. The analysis decomposes the observed oscillations into radially propagating waves described by Hankel functions in a cylindrical coordinate system centered on the sunspot. From measurements of the differences in power between waves traveling outward and inward, it is demonstrated that sunspots appear to absorb as much as 50 percent of the incoming acoustic waves. It is found that for all three sunspots observed, the amount of absorption increases linearly with horizontal wavenumber. The effect is present in p-mode oscillations with wavelengths both significantly larger and smaller than the diameter of the sunspot umbrae. Actual absorption of acoustic energy of the magnitude observed may produce measurable decreases in the power and lifetimes of high-degree p-mode oscillations during periods of high solar activity.

  19. Acoustic absorption by sunspots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, D.C.; Labonte, B.J.; Duvall, T.L. Jr.

    1987-08-01

    The paper presents the initial results of a series of observations designed to probe the nature of sunspots by detecting their influence on high-degree p-mode oscillations in the surrounding photosphere. The analysis decomposes the observed oscillations into radially propagating waves described by Hankel functions in a cylindrical coordinate system centered on the sunspot. From measurements of the differences in power between waves traveling outward and inward, it is demonstrated that sunspots appear to absorb as much as 50 percent of the incoming acoustic waves. It is found that for all three sunspots observed, the amount of absorption increases linearly with horizontal wavenumber. The effect is present in p-mode oscillations with wavelengths both significantly larger and smaller than the diameter of the sunspot umbrae. Actual absorption of acoustic energy of the magnitude observed may produce measurable decreases in the power and lifetimes of high-degree p-mode oscillations during periods of high solar activity. 10 references.

  20. Fathers on Parental Leave in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinicke, Kenneth; Cybulski, Franz Wilhelm; Drews, Lea Vedel;

    2005-01-01

    In the article it is argued that contemporary fatherhood and masculinity differ increasingly from hegemonic masculinity according to which men are primarily responsible for ensuring the financial basis of the family. The article “Fathers on Parental Leave in Denmark”, based on interviews with 15 ......, parental leave and domestic affairs. The article also demonstrates that the issue of parental leave may cause a conflict of interest between an employer and en employee although the majority of employers in this study emphasize that parental leave is unproblematic for them....

  1. The carbon isotope ratios and contents of mineral elements in leaves of Chinese medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaf carbon isotope ratios and 13 kinds of mineral elements were measured on 36 species of common Chinese medicinal plants in a subtropical monsoon forest of Ding Hu Shan in Guangdong Province. The .delta.13C value were from -26.4 to -32.6%, indicating that all of the species belonged the photosynthetic C3 types. The relative lower value of δ13C was observed in the life form of shrubs. The contents of 7 elements (N, P, K, Ca, Na Mg, Si) were dependent upon the species, life form, medicinal function and medicinal part. Herb type medicine and the used medicinal part of leaves or whole plant showed higher levels of above elements than the others. Among the nine groups with different medicinal functions, it was found that more nitrogen was in the leaves of medicinal plants for hemophthisis, hypertension and stomachic troubles, more phosphorus and potassium were in the leaves for cancer and snake bite medicines, but more calcium and magnesium were in the leaves for curing rheumatics. Ferric, aluminium and manganese were the main composition of microelements in leaves. There were higher content of ferric in leaves for hemophthisis medicine, higher zinc in leaves for cold and hypertension medicine, and higher Cup in leaves of stomachic medicine. It was suggested that the pattern of mineral elements in leaves of Chinese medicinal plants reflected the different properties of absorption and accumulation. Some additional effect due to the high content of certain element might be associated with the main function of that medicine

  2. Fabrication of porous carbon composite material from leaves waste as lightweight expanded carbon aggregate (LECA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulhadi, Rosita, N.; Susanto, Nisa', K.; Wiguna, P. A.; Marwoto, P.; Aji, M. P.

    2016-04-01

    Leaves waste has been used as Lightweight Expanded Carbon Aggregates (LECA) because of its high carbon material. LECA can be used as a water storage media. LECA is low in density so thatits massis very light. Due to its use as a water storage medium, it is important to find out the absorption which occurs in LECA.The LECA's absorption and evaporation rate is affected by the pores. The pores serves to increase water storage ability from LECA. LECA with PEG (pore-forming agent) mass percent variation of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% is the focus of this study. LECA fabrication was conducted by mixing the carbon resulting from leaves waste pyrolysis and PEG and PVAc. The characterization of LECA was found out by calculating the porosity, the pore size distribution, absorption rate and evaporation rate. The result of the calculation shows that the higher PEG mass percentage, the higher LECA's porosity, the pore size distribution, absorption rate and evaporation rate. However, the porosity, the pore size distributionand absorption rate will be saturated by 25% PEG mass percent addition.

  3. Transfer characterization of sulfur from coal-burning emission to plant leaves by PIXE and XANES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, L.M.; Zhang, G.L.; Zhang, Y.X.; Li, Y.; Lin, J.; Liu, W.; Cao, Q.C.; Zhao, Y.D.; Ma, C.Y.; Han, Y. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China). Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics

    2009-11-15

    The impact of coal-burning emission on sulfur in camphor leaves was investigated using Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and synchrotron radiation technique X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The PIXE results show that the sulfur concentrations in the leaves collected at the polluted site are significantly higher than those in controls. The sulfur XANES spectra show the presence of organic (disulfides, thiols, thioethers, sulfonates and sulfoxides) and inorganic sulfur (sulfates) in the leaves. The inorganic sulfur in the leaves of camphor tree polluted by coal combustion is 15% more than that of the control site. The results suggest that the long-term coal-burning pollution resulted in an enhanced content of the total sulfur and sulfate in the leaves, and the uptake of sulfur by leaves had exceeded the metabolic requirement of plants and the excess of sulfur was stored as SO{sub 4}2{sup -}. It can monitor the sulfur pollution in atmosphere.

  4. A new class of non-leaves

    CERN Document Server

    Souza, Fábio S

    2011-01-01

    We give examples of open smooth manifolds that cannot be leaves of any Riemannian foliation of arbitrary codimension on a compact manifold. We also present a new class of non-leaves of C^0 codimension one foliations, simply connected manifolds of dimension at least 5 that are non-periodic in homotopy, namely in their 2-dimensional homotopy groups.

  5. When and Why Dropouts Leave High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, Elizabeth; Glennie, Elizabeth J.

    2006-01-01

    Teens may leave school because of academic failure, disciplinary problems, or employment opportunities. In this article, the authors test whether the reasons dropouts leave school differ by grade level and age. We compare dropout rates and reasons across grade levels and ages for all high school students, ethnic groups, and gender groups. Across…

  6. INTRODUCTION OF A NEW LEAVE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    CERN Document Server

    DIVISION HR

    2000-01-01

    The introduction of new leave rules (arising from the RSL, PRP and other programs) has made the present leave management system rather complicated and difficult to manage. It has therefore been decided to replace it with a more flexible and adaptable system, which will come into force on 1st October 2000. Henceforth, days of leave will be credited monthly instead of annually. Members of the personnel will have round-the-clock direct access to more detailed, confidential information regarding their various kinds of leave. They will also receive a personal monthly statement with their pay slips. The new system does not require any amendment of the regulations, except with respect to the frequency of leave calculations (monthly instead of annual). I. Main characteristics of the new leave system1. The main feature of the new system is the creation of accounts to which leave will be credited or debited as appropriate. Depending on their circumstances, members of the personnel may have up to four individual leave a...

  7. INTRODUCTION OF A NEW LEAVE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    CERN Multimedia

    DIVISION HR; TEL. 74474

    2000-01-01

    The introduction of new leave rules (arising from the RSL, PRP and other programmes) has made the present leave management system rather complicated and difficult to manage. It has therefore been decided to replace it with a more flexible and adaptable system, which will come into force on 1st October 2000. Henceforth, days of leave will be credited monthly instead of annually. Members of the personnel will have round-the-clock direct access to more detailed, confidential information regarding their various kinds of leave. They will also receive a personal monthly statement with their pay slips. The new system does not require any amendment of the regulations, except with respect to the frequency of leave calculations (monthly instead of annual). I. Main characteristics of the new leave system 1. The main feature of the new system is the creation of accounts to which leave will be credited or debited as appropriate. Depending on their circumstances, members of the personnel may have up to four individual leav...

  8. INTRODUCTION OF A NEW LEAVE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    CERN Document Server

    HR Division

    2000-01-01

    The introduction of new leave rules (arising from the RSL, PRP and other programmes) has made the present leave management system rather complicated and difficult to manage. It has therefore been decided to replace it with a more flexible and adaptable system, which will come into force on 1st October 2000. Henceforth, days of leave will be credited monthly instead of annually. Members of the personnel will have round-the-clock direct access to more detailed, confidential information regarding their various kinds of leave.They will also receive a personal monthly statement with their pay slips. The new system does not require any amendment of the regulations, except with respect to the frequency of leave calculations (monthly instead of annual). I. Main characteristics of the new leave system 1. The main feature of the new system is the creation of accounts to which leave will be credited or debited as appropriate. Depending on their circumstances, members of the personnel may have up to four individual leave...

  9. A Feminist Perspective on Parental Leave Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallee, Margaret W.

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the ways that three feminist theories--liberal feminism, cultural feminism, and feminist poststructuralism--might be used to craft parental leave policies. After examining each theory in detail, the article concludes by offering one example of an ideal parental leave policy that combines the best features of each theory to…

  10. 20 CFR 638.532 - Annual leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... regardless of the date of enrollment provided that the student was not AWOL or on administrative leave without pay from the date of enrollment. Accrual time shall begin on the day the student departs for a... only once per year of enrollment. (e) Students shall not be charged annual leave for travel time to...

  11. Pion absorption processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proton and deuteron production from low-energy pion absorption in light nuclei leading to discrete and continuum states were measured. The LEP beam line at LAMPF was used with a stack of 8 intrinsic germanium crystals. The proton energy spectra are in general characterized by a broad bump at an energy approximately corresponding to π+d → pp reaction kinematics, suggestive of pion absorption on 2 nucleons. The energy-integrated cross-section for production of deuterons has an angular distribution similar to that for production of protons. The dependence of the total pion absorption cross-section on A is explained using a semi-classical model for pion transport in nuclei. The (π+,p) as well as (π+,d) reactions generally favor transitions involving larger angular momentum transfer to the residual nucleus when states of similar nuclear structure are considered. The low-energy excitation spectra from the (π+,p) reaction are similar to the spectra from (p,d) reaction on 12C and 13C. However, a calculation of the (π+,p) cross-section using the measured (p,d) reaction with the formulation of Wilkin to relate the two reactions is in moderate disagreement with the measured (π+,p) cross-sections. The excitation spectra from the (π+,p) reaction indicte the importance of two-step processes for the reaction. The (π+,d) reaction leading to the ground state of -- residual nucleus has been seen for 7Li, 12C, and 13C targets. The measured cross section for the 12C(π+,d)10C reaction to the 2+ state is much higher than that for the ground state. For the case of 18O, no counts were seen for excitation energy of +,d) reaction

  12. Absorption heat pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhtinen, M.; Heikkilae, M.; Andersson, R.

    1987-03-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the technical and economic feasibility of absorption heat pumps in Finland. The work was done as a case study: the technical and economic analyses have been carried out for six different cases, where in each the suitable size and type of the heat pump plant and the auxiliary components and connections were specified. The study also detailed the costs concerning the procurement, installation and test runs of the machinery, as well as the savings in energy costs incurred by the introduction of the plant. Conclusions were drawn of the economic viability of the applications studied. The following cases were analyzed: heat recovery from flue gases and productin of district heat in plants using peat, natural gas, and municipal wastes as a fuel. Heat recovery in the pulp and paper industry for the upgrading of pressure of secondary steam and for the heating of white liquor and combustion and drying the air. Heat recovery in a peat-fulled heat and power plant from flue gases that have been used for the drying of peat. According to the study, the absorption heat pump suits best to the production of district heat, when the heat source is the primary energy is steam produced by the boiler. Included in the flue as condensing is the purification of flue gases. Accordingly, benefit is gained on two levels in thick applications. In heat and power plants the use of absorption heat pumps is less economical, due to the fact that the steam used by the pump reduces the production of electricity, which is rated clearly higher than heat.

  13. Scattering with absorptive interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassing, W.; Stingl, M.; Weiguny, A.

    1982-07-01

    The S matrix for a wide class of complex and nonlocal potentials is studied, with special attention given to the motion of singularities in the complex k plane as a function of the imaginary coupling strength. Modifications of Levinson's theorem are obtained and discussed. Analytic approximations to the S matrix in the vicinity of narrow resonances are exhibited and compared to numerical results of resonating-group calculations. The problem of defining resonances in the case of complex interactions is discussed, making contact with the usual analysis of scattering in terms of Argand diagrams. NUCLEAR REACTIONS Scattering theory, S matrix for absorptive potentials.

  14. Absorption in dielectric models

    CERN Document Server

    Churchill, R J

    2015-01-01

    We develop a classical microscopic model of a dielectric. The model features nonlinear interaction terms between polarizable dipoles and lattice vibrations. The lattice vibrations are found to act as a pseudo-reservoir, giving broadband absorption of electromagnetic radiation without the addition of damping terms in the dynamics. The effective permittivity is calculated using a perturbative iteration method and is found to have the form associated with real dielectrics. Spatial dispersion is naturally included in the model and we also calculate the wavevector dependence of the permittivity.

  15. Geospatial Absorption and Regional Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOAN MAC

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The geospatial absorptions are characterized by a specific complexity both in content and in their phenomenological and spatial manifestation fields. Such processes are differentiated according to their specificity to pre-absorption, absorption or post-absorption. The mechanisms that contribute to absorption are extremely numerous: aggregation, extension, diffusion, substitution, resistivity (resilience, stratification, borrowings, etc. Between these mechanisms frequent relations are established determining an amplification of the process and of its regional effects. The installation of the geographic osmosis phenomenon in a given territory (a place for example leads to a homogenization of the geospatial state and to the installation of the regional homogeneity.

  16. Chemical and physical reactions in SO/sub 2/ fumigated plants and leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, K.

    1971-01-01

    Intact plants of Brassica napus, Nicotiana tabacum, Vicia faba and Borago officinalis were subjected to continuous exposure to SO/sub 2/ and their leaves examined at different stages of damage for changes in certain vital substances. Even before there were any visible signs of damage to the leaves of Brassica napus the concentrations of thiamin, pantothenic acid and folic acid were found to be lower. In necrotic areas the amounts of niacin and biotin were also found to be reduced. The influence of SO/sub 2/ on the energy level of the leaves was confirmed by measurement of the ATP concentrations. After exposure to 4, 2 mg SO/sub 2//m/sup 3/ the leaves of Vicia faba partly showed a sizeable increase in the ATP level. A slight increase was also found in Nicotiana tabacum after exposure to 0, 8 mg SO/sub 2//m/sup 3/. When more concentrated SO/sub 2/ (4, 8 mg/m/sup 3/) was used, a reduction in the ATP concentrations was observed in Nicotiana tab. and Borago officinalis. The sensitivity of Vicia f. to SO/sub 2/ could be increased by prior treatment of the plants with kinetin. Measurement of the gas exchange in certain leaves, before, during and after exposure to SO/sub 2/ showed a strong dependence of the assimilation of CO/sub 2/ on the absorption of SO/sub 2/ and a correlation to transpiration. There would appear to be a certain feed-back between photosynthesis and absorption of SO/sub 2/ through the stomata which seems partly to express itself in a well-defined oscillation between photosynthesis, transpiration and absorption of SO/sub 2/.

  17. Absorption Spectra of Astaxanthin Aggregates

    CERN Document Server

    Olsina, Jan; Minofar, Babak; Polivka, Tomas; Mancal, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    Carotenoids in hydrated polar solvents form aggregates characterized by dramatic changes in their absorption spectra with respect to monomers. Here we analyze absorption spectra of aggregates of the carotenoid astaxanthin in hydrated dimethylsulfoxide. Depending on water content, two types of aggregates were produced: H-aggregates with absorption maximum around 390 nm, and J-aggregates with red-shifted absorption band peaking at wavelengths >550 nm. The large shifts with respect to absorption maximum of monomeric astaxanthin (470-495 nm depending on solvent) are caused by excitonic interaction between aggregated molecules. We applied molecular dynamics simulations to elucidate structure of astaxanthin dimer in water, and the resulting structure was used as a basis for calculations of absorption spectra. Absorption spectra of astaxanthin aggregates in hydrated dimethylsulfoxide were calculated using molecular exciton model with the resonance interaction energy between astaxanthin monomers constrained by semi-e...

  18. Electromagnetically-enhanced saturable absorption

    CERN Document Server

    Su, Chun-Hsu; Beausoleil, Raymond G; Hollenberg, Lloyd C L; Munro, William J; Nemoto, Kae; Spiller, Timothy P

    2009-01-01

    Electromagnetically-induced transparency (EIT) exploits quantum coherence to burn subnatural linewidth holes within a spectral line. It is typically discussed in the context of a pump-probe configuration in a three-level L system, where the pump is often significantly stronger than the probe. Here we remove such restrictions on the relative intensities of pump and probe fields, and furthermore show that the absorptive properties associated with EIT can be of benefit in absorptive nonlinear processes, especially saturable absorption. We show that in a three-level medium near the EIT condition, we can generate saturable absorption qualitatively similar to two-state saturable absorption. The difference is that we can explore saturable absorption against the ground-state dephasing, rather than spontaneous emission. This has the advantages of significantly more controllability, and more importantly, different intensity scalings in the absorption. Such effects could prove useful for signal regeneration at very low ...

  19. Inhibitory Activities of Cudrania tricuspidata Leaves on Pancreatic Lipase In Vitro and Lipolysis In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Sook Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To identify effective herb to treat obesity, we screened 115 herbal extracts for inhibition of porcine pancreatic lipase (triacylg-ycerol acylhydrolase, EC 3.1.1.3 activity in vitro. Of the extracts tested, Cudrania tricuspidata leaves exhibited the most pronounced inhibitory effect on lipase activity with an IC50 value of 9.91 μg/mL. Antilipid absorption effects of C. tricuspidata leaves were examined in rats after oral administration of lipid emulsions containing 50 or 250 mg  C. tricuspidata/kg body weight. Plasma triacylglycerol levels 2 h after the oral administration of emulsions containing C. tricuspidata were significantly reduced compared to the untreated group (P<0.05. These results suggest that C. tricuspidata leaves may be useful for the treatment of obesity.

  20. The HI absorption 'Zoo'

    CERN Document Server

    Gereb, K; Morganti, R; Oosterloo, T A

    2014-01-01

    We present an analysis of the HI absorption in a sample of 101 flux-selected radio AGN (S_1.4 GHz > 50 mJy) observed with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT). HI absorption is detected in 32 galaxies, showing a broad variety of widths, shapes and kinematical properties. We characterize the HI spectra of the individual detections using the busy function (Westmeier et al. 2014). With the goal of identifying different morphological structures of HI, we study the kinematical and radio source properties of the detections as function of their width. Narrow lines (FWHM = 500 km/s). These detections are good candidates for being HI outflows. The detection rate of HI outflows is 5 percent in the total radio AGN sample. This fraction represents a lower limit, however it could suggests that, if outflows are a characteristic phenomenon of all radio sources, they would have a short depletion timescale compared to the lifetime of the AGN. Blueshifted and broad/asymmetric lines are more often present among young...

  1. SESQUITERPENE LACTONES OF LEAVES AND FRUITS OF LAURUS NOBILIS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Konovalov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bay laurel (Laurus nobilis L. is common in the Mediterranean region, Europe and America. Widely cultivated in the countries of the Arabian Peninsula and North Africa. As the basic active substances in plants: essential oil components, sesquiterpene lactones, alkaloids, and phenolic compounds (flavonoids, phenolic acids and lignans are described.In the plant more than 30 sesquiterpene lactones are found. Structural types of these compounds include eudesmanolides, germacranolides, guaianolides.Sesquiterpene lactones isolated from the leaves and fruits of Laurus nobilis, possess antibacterial, antifungal, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective and cytotoxic activity. They inhibit the absorption of alcohol increases the activity of hepatic glutathione-S-transferase. Most of these types of activity of sesquiterpene lactones from laurel due to the presence within their structure of α-methylene--butyrolactone part.Thus, sesquiterpene lactones-containing leaves and fruits Laurus nobilis could have been an important source of raw materials for the creation of new medicines

  2. 5 CFR 630.308 - Scheduling of annual leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scheduling of annual leave. 630.308... AND LEAVE Annual Leave § 630.308 Scheduling of annual leave. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b... for advance scheduling of annual leave in paragraph (a) of this section shall not apply to an...

  3. Labour Supply Responses to Paid Parental Leave

    OpenAIRE

    Karimi, Arizo; Lindahl, Erica; Skogman Thoursie, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Women account for the majority of parental leave take-up, which is likely one of the major reasons for the gender gap in income and wages. Consequently, many countries exert effort to promote a more gender equal division of parental leave. Indeed, the last decades have seen an increase in fathers’ take-up of parental leave benefits, but the gender earnings gap has remained fairly constant. In this paper we re-evaluate the labour supply responses of both mothers and fathers to three major refo...

  4. Laser induced fluorescence of some plant leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) is successfully used as a technique for remote detection of spectral characteristics of some plants. A pulsed nitrogen laser at 337.1 nm is used to excite cotton, corn and rice leaves. The fluorescence spectrum is detected in the range from 340 nm to 820 nm. It is found that, these plant leaves have common fluorescence maxima at 440 nm, 685 nm and 740 nm. plant leaves are also found to be identifiable by the ratio of the fluorescence intensity at 440 nm to that at 685 nm. The present technique can be further used as a means of assessing, remotely, plant stresses. 5 fig

  5. Diffuse interstellar absorption bands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG FuYuan; LIANG ShunLin; LI AiGen

    2009-01-01

    The diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) are a large number of absorption bands that are superposed on the interstellar extinction curve and are of interstellar origin. Since the discovery of the first two DIBs in the 1920s, the exact nature of DIBs still remains unclear. This article reviews the history of the detec-tions of DIBs in the Milky Way and external galaxies, the major observational characteristics of DIBs, the correlations or anti-correlations among DIBs or between DIBs and other interstellar features (e.g. the prominent 2175 Angstrom extinction bump and the far-ultraviolet extinction rise), and the proposed candidate carriers. Whether they are also present in circumstellar environments is also discussed.

  6. Diffuse interstellar absorption bands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The diffuse interstellar bands(DIBs) are a large number of absorption bands that are superposed on the interstellar extinction curve and are of interstellar origin. Since the discovery of the first two DIBs in the 1920s,the exact nature of DIBs still remains unclear. This article reviews the history of the detections of DIBs in the Milky Way and external galaxies,the major observational characteristics of DIBs,the correlations or anti-correlations among DIBs or between DIBs and other interstellar features(e.g. the prominent 2175 Angstrom extinction bump and the far-ultraviolet extinction rise),and the proposed candidate carriers. Whether they are also present in circumstellar environments is also discussed.

  7. The HI absorption "Zoo"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geréb, K.; Maccagni, F. M.; Morganti, R.; Oosterloo, T. A.

    2015-03-01

    We present an analysis of the H I 21 cm absorption in a sample of 101 flux-selected radio AGN (S1.4 GHz> 50 mJy) observed with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT). We detect H I absorption in 32 objects (30% of the sample). In a previous paper, we performed a spectral stacking analysis on the radio sources, while here we characterize the absorption spectra of the individual detections using the recently presented busy function. The H I absorption spectra show a broad variety of widths, shapes, and kinematical properties. The full width half maximum (FWHM) of the busy function fits of the detected H I lines lies in the range 32 km s-1 200 km s-1). We study the kinematical and radio source properties of each group, with the goal of identifying different morphological structures of H I. Narrow lines mostly lie at the systemic velocity and are likely produced by regularly rotating H I disks or gas clouds. More H I disks can be present among galaxies with lines of intermediate widths; however, the H I in these sources is more unsettled. We study the asymmetry parameter and blueshift/redshift distribution of the lines as a function of their width. We find a trend for which narrow profiles are also symmetric, while broad lines are the most asymmetric. Among the broadest lines, more lines appear blueshifted than redshifted, similarly to what was found by previous studies. Interestingly, symmetric broad lines are absent from the sample. We argue that if a profile is broad, it is also asymmetric and shifted relative to the systemic velocity because it is tracing unsettled H I gas. In particular, besides three of the broadest (up to FW20 = 825 km s-1) detections, which are associated with gas-rich mergers, we find three new cases of profiles with blueshifted broad wings (with FW20 ≳ 500 km s-1) in high radio power AGN. These detections are good candidates for being HI outflows. Together with the known cases of outflows already included in the sample (3C 293 and

  8. Phytochemical and antifungal activities of Uvaria. chamae leaves and roots, Spondias mombin leaves and bark and Combretum racemosum leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwuosa, O M T B; Chukwura, E I; Chukwuma, G O; Okwuosa, C N; Enweani, I B; Agbakoba, N R; Chukwuma, C M; Manafa, P O; Umedum, C U

    2012-12-01

    The effects of crude and dilutions of aqueous, methanolic and n-hexane extracts of Uvaria chamae (roots and leaves), Spondias mombin (leaves and bark) and Combretum racemosum (Leaves), on pathogenic candida albicans and aspergillus niger was studied. The aim was to contribute to the search for a cheaper, conventional cure for both fungi. Phytochemical analysis revealed varying degrees of alkaloids, glycosides, saponin, lipid and oil, tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids and acids. Agar diffusion method was used for anti fungal assay. Minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) used was 10 mg/ml of extract and dilutions of the non polar solvents of 10 (-1) and 10(-2) was used. Results showed that none of the plant parts was active against aspergillus niger. Combretum racemosum had no antifungal effect on tested organisms as well as the different dilutions. However crude methanolic extract of uvaria (roots and leaves), spondias ( bark and leaves ), and n-hexane extracts of uvaria (leaves and roots), produced anti candidal effects with diameters in this order 14.67 +/- 0.72mm, 10.67 +/- 0.52 mm, 11.00 +/- 0.47 mm, 15.00 +/- 0.47 mm, and 14.67 +/- 0.72 mm respectively. Some of the plant parts especially uvaria had zones of inhibition at a confidence limit comparable with control drug which is ketoconazole and it had inhibitory effects at a diameter of 20.06 +/- 0.40 mm. PMID:23678643

  9. Temperature effects in the absorption spectra and exciton luminescence in ammonium halides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warm-up behavior of the first maximum exciton absorption bands in ammonium halides is explored. Under phase transition occurs offset of bands, bound both with changing a parameter of lattice, and efficient mass of exciton. Warm-up dependency of quantum leaving a luminescence of self-trapped excitons in ammonium halides is measured. (author)

  10. Absorption and Scattering Coefficients: A Biophysical-Chemistry Experiment Using Reflectance Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordon, Gabriela B.; Lagorio, M. Gabriela

    2007-01-01

    A biophysical-chemistry experiment, based on the reflectance spectroscopy for calculating the absorption and scattering coefficients of leaves is described. The results show that different plants species exhibit different values for both the coefficients because of their different pigment composition.

  11. Structure of the red absorption band of chlorophyll a in Aspidistra elatior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, J.B.

    1962-01-01

    The red absorption band of chlorophyll a in chloroplasts of Aspidistra elatior consists of a main maximum and a number of weak shoulders. This number may vary in chloroplast preparations from different leaves. At most, five shoulders were noticed. Heat treatment affects the shoulders in a mutually

  12. Early School Leaving: Reasons and Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika GYÖNÖS

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Early school leaving represents a loss of potential that has effects on both social and economic scale (reduced social cohesion, lower financial incomes, increase of social allocations. Early school leaving has various reasons that can be either social or economic. Due to the average statistics of the 27 countries of the European Union, in 2008 78,5% of the populations of these countries went to school regularly, whereas the same statistics applied for Romania showed an extent of 78,3%. The statistics of early school leaving showed some 14, 9% in the countries of the EU, whereas in Romania this index was higher (15, 9%. Sequel to some analyses we can state that there is a strong relationship between the variables named participation in education and early school leaving; more than that, there is a strong relationship between the extent of school studies completion and the rate of unemployment.

  13. Absorption intestinale des vitamines liposolubles

    OpenAIRE

    Reboul Emmanuelle

    2011-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms of fat-soluble vitamin intestinal absorption remain partly unknown, despite the fact that a better understanding of this process would certainly allow to improve their bioavailability. If their digestion-absorption process follows the fate of lipids globally, the recent discovery of membranes proteins involved in their absorption questioned the established dogmas. These new data should be taken into account to avoid dietary or drug interactions that may limit some fat...

  14. Intra-Household Allocation of Parental Leave

    OpenAIRE

    Gobbi, Paula Eugenia; Parys, Juliane; Schwerhoff, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    We introduce childcare sharing in a collective model of household behavior to investigate which factors make spouses increase or decrease their share of parental leave. The concern about future consumption motivates parents to invest in their human capital and to limit their leave duration. Using relative income and the age difference between spouses as distribution factors, we cannot reject Pareto efficiency in childcare sharing. Higher relative incomes and larger age differences shift the c...

  15. Acute Toxicity of Justicia gendarussa Burm. Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Juheini Amin; Berna Elya

    2010-01-01

    Acute Toxicity of Justicia gendarussa Burm. Leaves. Preminelary experiment showed that ethanolic extract ofgandarusa leaves (Justicia gendarussa Burm.) could decreased uric acid blood level on rats. The aim of this experimentwas to determine of the value LD50 and liver function based on activities of aminotransferase. Animals test which wereused in this experiment were 50 males and 50 females white mice. They were divided into 5 groups. Group 1 as controlgroup was given aquadest. Group 2-5 we...

  16. Morphology and anatomy of Justicia acuminatissima leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Christina S. Verdam; Débora T. Ohana; Maria Gracimar P. Araújo; Fernanda Guilhon-Simplicio; Maria Sílvia de Mendonça; Maria de M. Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Justicia acuminatissima (Miq.) Bremek., Acanthaceae, is a subshrub found in northern Brazil, where it is widely used by the population of this region as an anti-inflammatory medicine. Despite this popular use, there is no pharmacognostical data to support the correct identification of this species. We therefore performed a morpho-anatomical, histochemical and phytochemical analysis of the leaves of this species, using well-known methods. The leaves are simple, exstipulate, green on the surfac...

  17. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.

    2009-07-09

    This review gives a brief description of the theory and application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy, both X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), especially, pertaining to photosynthesis. The advantages and limitations of the methods are discussed. Recent advances in extended EXAFS and polarized EXAFS using oriented membranes and single crystals are explained. Developments in theory in understanding the XANES spectra are described. The application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy to the study of the Mn4Ca cluster in Photosystem II is presented.

  18. Short-Term Saved Leave Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    As announced at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) on 26 June 2007 and in http://Bulletin No. 28/2007, the existing Saved Leave Scheme will be discontinued as of 31 December 2007. Staff participating in the Scheme will shortly receive a contract amendment stipulating the end of financial contributions compensated by save leave. Leave already accumulated on saved leave accounts can continue to be taken in accordance with the rules applicable to the current scheme. A new system of saved leave will enter into force on 1 January 2008 and will be the subject of a new implementation procedure entitled "Short-term saved leave scheme" dated 1 January 2008. At its meeting on 4 December 2007, the SCC agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve this procedure, which can be consulted on the HR Department’s website at the following address: https://cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/sls_shortterm.asp All staff wishing to participate in the new scheme a...

  19. Short-Term Saved Leave Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    As announced at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) on 26 June 2007 and in http://Bulletin No. 28/2007, the existing Saved Leave Scheme will be discontinued as of 31 December 2007. Staff participating in the Scheme will shortly receive a contract amendment stipulating the end of financial contributions compensated by save leave. Leave already accumulated on saved leave accounts can continue to be taken in accordance with the rules applicable to the current scheme. A new system of saved leave will enter into force on 1 January 2008 and will be the subject of a new im-plementation procedure entitled "Short-term saved leave scheme" dated 1 January 2008. At its meeting on 4 December 2007, the SCC agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve this procedure, which can be consulted on the HR Department’s website at the following address: https://cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/sls_shortterm.asp All staff wishing to participate in the new scheme ...

  20. Comparative studies of elemental composition in leaves and flowers of Catharanthus roseus growing in Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shahin Aziz; Koushik Saha; Nasim Sultana; Husna Parvin Nur; Md Aminul Ahsan; Shamim Ahmed; Md Kamal Hossain

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the elemental composition of the leaves and flowers of Catharanthus roseus (C. roseus) due to the plant's wide application in the indigenous medicinal system and its chemical constituents' importance. Methods: The atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used for quantitative analysis of various elements. Results: Total 13 important elements were analyzed in leaves and flowers of C. roseus. Results indicated the presence of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cr, Fe, Zn, Al, Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd and Mn in both leaves and flowers. The most important finding of the work was that, leaves of C. roseus showed high concentration of all elements except K and Zn while flowers of C. roseus showed higher concentration of K and Zn. Conclusions: The elemental composition in both leaves and flowers of C. roseus were found to be different. Therefore, different parts of this medicinal plant are enriched in some micro and macro nutrients like Fe, Ca, Na, K, Zn, which are very important for biological metabolic system as well as human health.

  1. The anti-photooxidation of anthocyanins-rich leaves of a purple rice cultivar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG; Changlian; LIN; Guizhu; LIN; Zhifang; CHEN; Shaowei

    2006-01-01

    In the leaf of rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivar Yunnan purple rice, the anthocyanins with an obvious absorption peak at 530nm were distributed in the cells of upper and lower epidermis, bulliform tissue and bristle. The maximal photosynthetic oxygen evolution rate and chlorophyll content in flag leaves were 28% and 23%, respectively, more than the common green leaf rice cultivar Chijiaoruanzhan. Higher chlorophyll content is probably one of the physiological adaptations for enhancing light harvesting capacity of the antenna in photosystems in this cyanic leaves species. Upon the photooxidation of leaf segments mediated by methyl viologen in weak light for 3 days, the distinct bleaching of anthocyanins in purple rice was associated with the reduction of scavenging ability to DPPH· free radical ability and the increase in membrane leakage rate. But almost no changes in contents of flavonoids and total phenolics were observed. Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters Fv/Fo, qP and фPSII decreased with the increase in NPQ and DES of xanthophylls cycle after photooxidation treatment. Green rice leaves showed more decrease in DPPH· scavenging rate and more increase in cell membrane leakage rate but showed a trace of anthocyanins during photooxidation. It is suggested that anthocyanin may be a beneficial and primary antioxidant in sun cyanic rice leaves against oxidative stress induced by environmental adversity. And photooxidation could induce different changing patterns of anthocyanins between the tested purple and green rice leaves.

  2. Beta-carotene from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) leaves improves vitamin A status in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Egle Machado de Almeida; Arruda, Sandra Fernandes; de Vargas, Rodrigo Martins; de Souza, Elizabeth Maria Talá

    2007-01-01

    The bioavailability of beta-carotene from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) leaves was assayed in vitamin A deficient Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus). Rats were separated into three groups and fed with a modified AIN-93G--vitamin A deficient--diet. Deficient rat received this diet without any additional vitamin A source. Controls received the diet with 7200 microg of synthetic beta-carotene (control), while experimentals (test) received 19.5 g of cassava leaves powder per kg of diet. The cassava leaves with beta-carotene promotes similar growth and tissue weight in rats to the synthetic beta-carotene. The relative bioavailability, estimated as the Retinol Accumulation Factor (RAF), was 16.5 and 27.5 for control and test groups, respectively, indicating that control and test rats should have an intake of 16.5 microg or 27.5 microg of beta-carotene from synthetic form or cassava leaves powder for each 1 microg of hepatic retinol stored, respectively. The cassava leaves beta-carotene bioavailability was lower than the synthetic beta-carotene probably because the beta-carotene from the leaf matrix may be bounded to protein complex or inside organelles, which impair carotenoid absorption. Our findings showed that beside the hepatic retinol recovery, cassava leaf beta-carotene could maintain rat growth and avoid vitamin A deficient symptoms.

  3. Diversity of calcium speciation in leaves of Primulina species (Gesneriaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingwen Qi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Primulina is a genus containing typical “stone plants” or “cave plants” that show a high degree of edaphic specialization in the karst limestone regions of southwest China. Most species of the genus occur only on calcareous soils developed from carbonate bedrock, while a few species are found only on the red soil developed from the Danxia landform or acidic soil developed from sandshale bedrock. The aim of this study is to investigate the diversity and characteristics of calcium absorption and storage in Primulina from different soil substrates. Calcium in leaves was determined for plants sampled from 15 populations representing 11 Primulina species occurring on calcareous soil, red soil or acid soil. We analyzed the main types of calcium found in leaves, and compared the calcium content within and among species from different soil types. The results revealed a general high level of leaf calcium content in Primulina species compared with other plants from the karst regions of southwest China. However, we found a significant difference in calcium content among Primulina species from different soil types, with high average calcium content (2,285.6 mg/kg in Primulina from calcareous soil relative to low levels present in Primulina from both acid soil (1,379.3 mg/kg and Danxia red soil (1,329.1 mg/kg. The main form of calcium stored in most Primulina species (9 out of 11 was pectate calcium, which accounted for 31.6–64.2% of the total calcium in the leaves. In contrast, for two species, P. linearifolia and P. medica, which grow on soil with a pH > 8, the main calcium form was soluble calcium, which accounted for about 40% of the total calcium in plant leaves. In addition, differences in calcium amount and type were recorded within species from either the same or different soil types. These results suggest that there is variation in calcium speciation found in Primulina at both interspecific and intraspecific levels. Our findings provide a

  4. Absorption of volatile ruthenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phase equilibrium and mass transfer measurements for the absorption of ruthenium tetroxide (RuO4) in aqueous and nitric acid solutions have been completed. Low concentration phase equilibrium measurements confirm that the system obeys Henry's law across 4 orders of magnitude in concentration. Mass transfer measurements from turbulent gas flow indicate that the diffusivity of RuO4 in air may increase slightly as its concentration is reduced by 5-6 orders of magnitude. The reaction of RuO4 with nitrous acid and nitrites in solution results in precipitated or colloidal RuO2. Initial, immediate decomposition of ∼ 50% of the RuO4 occurs at RuO4: HNO2 mole ratios between 10:1 and 1:2, and does not vary systematically with mole ratio in this range. A mathematical model of the RuO4 decontamination performance of a packed bed scrubber has been developed, and validated experimentally with a laboratory QVF system. A survey of modelling approaches for predicting the ruthenium decontamination performance of off-gas condensers has been carried out. (author)

  5. Cadmium absorption inhibitors for soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitamura, S.

    1974-05-25

    Cadmium absorption by soil is one cause of soil pollution. Cadmium adsorption inhibitors were prepared by mixing alginic acid which contained brown algae (Ascophyllum nodosum) and an inorganic material, shell fossils. This mixture was highly effective in preventing cadmium absorption by the soil.

  6. Multifunctional hybrids for electromagnetic absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huynen, I. [Research Center in Micro and Nanoscopic Materials and Electronic Devices, CeRMiN, Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Information and Communications Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics (ICTEAM), Microwave Laboratory, Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Quievy, N. [Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences (IMCN), Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Bailly, C. [Research Center in Micro and Nanoscopic Materials and Electronic Devices, CeRMiN, Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences (IMCN), Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Institute of Mechanics, Materials and Civil Engineering (iMMC), Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Bollen, P. [Information and Communications Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics (ICTEAM), Microwave Laboratory, Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences (IMCN), Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Institute of Mechanics, Materials and Civil Engineering (iMMC), Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Detrembleur, C. [Center for Education and Research on Macromolecules (CERM), University of Liege, Sart-Tilman B6a, 4000 Liege (Belgium); Eggermont, S.; Molenberg, I. [Information and Communications Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics (ICTEAM), Microwave Laboratory, Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Thomassin, J.M.; Urbanczyk, L. [Center for Education and Research on Macromolecules (CERM), University of Liege, Sart-Tilman B6a, 4000 Liege (Belgium)

    2011-05-15

    Highlights: > EM absorption requires low dielectric constant and {approx}1 S/m electrical conductivity. > New hybrids were processed with CNT-filled polymer foam inserted in Al honeycomb. > The EM absorption in the GHz range is superior to any known material. > A closed form model is used to guide the design of the hybrid. > The architectured material is light with potential for thermal management. - Abstract: Electromagnetic (EM) interferences are ubiquitous in modern technologies and impact on the reliability of electronic devices and on living cells. Shielding by EM absorption, which is preferable over reflection in certain instances, requires combining a low dielectric constant with high electrical conductivity, which are antagonist properties in the world of materials. A novel class of hybrid materials for EM absorption in the gigahertz range has been developed based on a hierarchical architecture involving a metallic honeycomb filled with a carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer foam. The waveguide characteristics of the honeycomb combined with the performance of the foam lead to unexpectedly large EM power absorption over a wide frequency range, superior to any known material. The peak absorption frequency can be tuned by varying the shape of the honeycomb unit cell. A closed form model of the EM reflection and absorption provides a tool for the optimization of the hybrid. This designed material sets the stage for a new class of sandwich panels combining high EM absorption with mass efficiency, stiffness and thermal management.

  7. Multifunctional hybrids for electromagnetic absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → EM absorption requires low dielectric constant and ∼1 S/m electrical conductivity. → New hybrids were processed with CNT-filled polymer foam inserted in Al honeycomb. → The EM absorption in the GHz range is superior to any known material. → A closed form model is used to guide the design of the hybrid. → The architectured material is light with potential for thermal management. - Abstract: Electromagnetic (EM) interferences are ubiquitous in modern technologies and impact on the reliability of electronic devices and on living cells. Shielding by EM absorption, which is preferable over reflection in certain instances, requires combining a low dielectric constant with high electrical conductivity, which are antagonist properties in the world of materials. A novel class of hybrid materials for EM absorption in the gigahertz range has been developed based on a hierarchical architecture involving a metallic honeycomb filled with a carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer foam. The waveguide characteristics of the honeycomb combined with the performance of the foam lead to unexpectedly large EM power absorption over a wide frequency range, superior to any known material. The peak absorption frequency can be tuned by varying the shape of the honeycomb unit cell. A closed form model of the EM reflection and absorption provides a tool for the optimization of the hybrid. This designed material sets the stage for a new class of sandwich panels combining high EM absorption with mass efficiency, stiffness and thermal management.

  8. Cadmium accumulation in leaves of leafy vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldantoni, Daniela; Morra, Luigi; Zaccardelli, Massimo; Alfani, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Leafy vegetables have a relatively high potential for Cd uptake and translocation, and are thus considered Cd accumulators. For this reason, leaves and roots of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and endive (Cichorium endivia L.) plants, grown on different agricultural soils in Campania region (southern Italy), subjected to different fertilisation treatments (unfertilisation, compost amendment and mineral fertilisation), were analysed for Cd concentrations. Moreover, to clarify if the highest concentrations found are linked to older and inedible or to younger and edible leaves, external and internal endive leaves were separately analysed. All the leafy vegetables analysed showed on average 2-fold higher Cd concentrations in leaves than in roots. Leaf Cd concentrations in both lettuce and endive plants significantly differed among fertilisation treatments, with values highest in the plants grown on mineral fertilised soils. Apart from the soil fertilisation treatments, however, Cd leaf concentrations were often higher (up to 4-fold) than the threshold deduced by the EU 420/2011 Regulation, although the plants grew on unpolluted soils. Anyway, external leaves of endive plants showed significantly higher concentrations than internal leaves (in some cases the values were 3-fold higher), partly reassuring on the consumption of the younger leaves. Moreover, this study points out two major drawbacks in the Italian and European regulatory frameworks: (1) metal concentration (as total and/or available fraction) limits in agricultural soils are lacking; (2) metal concentration thresholds (currently existing only for Cd and Pb in crops) reported in the EU 420/2011 Regulation, expressed on the fresh weight basis rather than on the dry weight basis, appear not suitable.

  9. Responses of epidermal cell turgor pressure and photosynthetic activity of leaves of the atmospheric epiphyte Tillandsia usneoides (Bromeliaceae) after exposure to high humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Craig E; Rux, Guido; Herppich, Werner B

    2013-01-01

    It has been well-established that many epiphytic bromeliads of the atmospheric-type morphology, i.e., with leaf surfaces completely covered by large, overlapping, multicellular trichomes, are capable of absorbing water vapor from the atmosphere when air humidity increases. It is much less clear, however, whether this absorption of water vapor can hydrate the living cells of the leaves and, as a consequence, enhance physiological processes in such cells. The goal of this research was to determine if the absorption of atmospheric water vapor by the atmospheric epiphyte Tillandsia usneoides results in an increase in turgor pressure in leaf epidermal cells that subtend the large trichomes, and, by using chlorophyll fluorescence techniques, to determine if the absorption of atmospheric water vapor by leaves of this epiphyte results in increased photosynthetic activity. Results of measurements on living cells of attached leaves of this epiphytic bromeliad, using a pressure probe and of whole-shoot fluorescence imaging analyses clearly illustrated that the turgor pressure of leaf epidermal cells did not increase, and the photosynthetic activity of leaves did not increase, following exposure of the leaves to high humidity air. These results experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, that the absorption of water vapor following increases in atmospheric humidity in atmospheric epiphytic bromeliads is mostly likely a physical phenomenon resulting from hydration of non-living leaf structures, e.g., trichomes, and has no physiological significance for the plant's living tissues.

  10. Maize Leaves Turn Away from Neighbors1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddonni, Gustavo Angel; Otegui, María Elena; Andrieu, Bruno; Chelle, Michael; Casal, Jorge J.

    2002-01-01

    In commercial crops, maize (Zea mays) plants are typically grown at a larger distance between rows (70 cm) than within the same row (16–23 cm). This rectangular arrangement creates a heterogeneous environment in which the plants receive higher red light (R) to far-red light (FR) ratios from the interrow spaces. In field crops, the hybrid Dekalb 696 (DK696) showed an increased proportion of leaves toward interrow spaces, whereas the experimental hybrid 980 (Exp980) retained random leaf orientation. Mirrors reflecting FR were placed close to isolated plants to simulate the presence of neighbors in the field. In addition, localized FR was applied to target leaves in a growth chamber. During their expansion, the leaves of DK696 turned away from the low R to FR ratio signals, whereas Exp980 leaves remained unaffected. On the contrary, tillering was reduced and plant height was increased by low R to FR ratios in Exp980 but not in DK696. Isolated plants preconditioned with low R/FR-simulating neighbors in a North-South row showed reduced mutual shading among leaves when the plants were actually grouped in North-South rows. These observations contradict the current view that phytochrome-mediated responses to low R/FR are a relic from wild conditions, detrimental for crop yield. PMID:12427985

  11. The periodic wetting of leaves enhances water relations and growth of the long-lived conifer Araucaria angustifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassana, F F; Dillenburg, L R

    2013-01-01

    The importance of foliar absorption of water and atmospheric solutes in conifers was recognised in the 1970s, and the importance of fog as a water source in forest environments has been recently demonstrated. Araucaria angustifolia (Araucariaceae) is an emergent tree species that grows in montane forests of southern Brazil, where rainfall and fog are frequent events, leading to frequent wetting of the leaves. Despite anatomical evidence in favour of leaf water absorption, there is no information on the existence and physiological significance of a such process. In this study, we test the hypothesis that the use of atmospheric water by leaves takes place and is physiologically relevant for the species, by comparing growth, water relations and nutritional status between plants grown under two conditions of soil water (well-watered and water-stressed plants) and three types of leaf spraying (none, water and nutrient solution spray). Leaf spraying had a greater effect in improving plant water relations when plants were under water stress. Plant growth was more responsive to water available to the leaves than to the roots, and was equally increased by both types of leaf spraying, with no interaction with soil water status. Spraying leaves with nutrient solution increased shoot ramification and raised the concentrations of N, P, K, Zn, Cu and Fe in the roots. Our results provide strong indications that water and nutrients are indeed absorbed by leaves of A. angustifolia, and that this process might be as important as water uptake by its roots.

  12. Uptake of perfluoroalkyl acids in the leaves of coniferous and deciduous broad-leaved trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huanhuan; Liu, Wei; He, Xin; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Qian

    2015-07-01

    Analytical methods for determining perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in leaves were developed to quantify a suite of analytes in both coniferous and deciduous broad-leaved trees. Sodium hydroxide-methanol and solid-phase extraction was selected as the extracting and cleanup strategy for PFAA analysis. Ten perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) and 4 perfluorosulfonic acids (PFSAs) were monitored in 7 kinds of leaves grown in the urban areas of Dalian, China. The results show that coniferous tree leaves take up more PFAAs than broad-leaved tree leaves, with the highest amount of 150 ng/g in pine needles. Leaf PFCA levels were much higher than PFSAs level. Short carbon-chain PFCAs with 3 to 6 perfluorinated carbons account for approximately 40% to 80% of the total leaf PFAAs, where uptake decreased with increasing carbon chain length. Temporal observation of leaf PFAAs revealed no significant variation of concentrations in the leaves over a weekly interval and the absence of significant seasonal change in pine needles and sophora. The present study provides some evidence for the accumulation of PFAAs in leaves, which is valuable for understanding their environmental behavior and the development of alternative bioindicator.

  13. University Students Leaving Relationships (USLR): Scale Development and Gender Differences in Decisions to Leave Romantic Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendy, Helen M.; Can, S. Hakan; Joseph, Lauren J.; Scherer, Cory R.

    2013-01-01

    The University Students Leaving Relationships scale was developed to identify student concerns when contemplating dissolution of romantic relationships. Participants included 1,106 students who rated the importance of issues when deciding to leave relationships. Factor analysis produced three dimensions: Missing the Relationship, Social…

  14. Rendering Falling Leaves on Graphics Hardware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Balsa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in simulating natural phenomena in computer graphics applications. Animating natural scenes in real time is one of the most challenging problems due to the inherent complexity of their structure, formed by millions of geometric entities, and the interactions that happen within. An example of natural scenario that is needed for games or simulation programs are forests. Forests are difficult to render because the huge amount of geometric entities and the large amount of detail to be represented. Moreover, the interactions between the objects (grass, leaves and external forces such as wind are complex to model. In this paper we concentrate in the rendering of falling leaves at low cost. We present a technique that exploits graphics hardware in order to render thousands of leaves with different falling paths in real time and low memory requirements.

  15. Gastrointestinal citrate absorption in nephrolithiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fegan, J.; Khan, R.; Poindexter, J.; Pak, C. Y.

    1992-01-01

    Gastrointestinal absorption of citrate was measured in stone patients with idiopathic hypocitraturia to determine if citrate malabsorption could account for low urinary citrate. Citrate absorption was measured directly from recovery of orally administered potassium citrate (40 mEq.) in the intestinal lavage fluid, using an intestinal washout technique. In 7 stone patients citrate absorption, serum citrate levels, peak citrate concentration in serum and area under the curve were not significantly different from those of 7 normal subjects. Citrate absorption was rapid and efficient in both groups, with 96 to 98% absorbed within 3 hours. The absorption of citrate was less efficient from a tablet preparation of potassium citrate than from a liquid preparation, probably due to a delayed release of citrate from wax matrix. However, citrate absorption from solid potassium citrate was still high at 91%, compared to 98% for a liquid preparation. Thus, hypocitraturia is unlikely to be due to an impaired gastrointestinal absorption of citrate in stone patients without overt bowel disease.

  16. Causes and Consequences of a Father's Child Leave: Evidence from a Reform of Leave Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    Many OECD countries have implemented policies to induce couples to share parental leave. This paper investigates how responsive intra-household leave-sharing is to changes in economic incentives. To investigate this fundamental question, we are forced to look at one of the Nordic countries which...... are the most progressive when it comes to family-friendly policies. An extensive reform of child leave schemes in Denmark affected couples differently depending on whether the parents where employed in the same or in different parts of the public sector. Based on a difference-in-differences strategy......, I find that economic incentives are very important for intra-household leave-sharing. Increasing the couples' after tax income by $9 per day of leave which is transferred from the mother to the father is found to lead to a one day transfer. This corresponds to a supply elasticity close to unity....

  17. 38 CFR 21.342 - Leave accounting policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leave accounting policy. 21.342 Section 21.342 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS.... Chapter 31 Leaves of Absence § 21.342 Leave accounting policy. (a) Amount of leave. A veteran pursuing...

  18. Total light absorption in graphene

    CERN Document Server

    Thongrattanasiri, Sukosin; de Abajo, F Javier Garcia

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that 100% light absorption can take place in a single patterned sheet of doped graphene. General analysis shows that a planar array of small lossy particles exhibits full absorption under critical-coupling conditions provided the cross section of each individual particle is comparable to the area of the lattice unit-cell. Specifically, arrays of doped graphene nanodisks display full absorption when supported on a substrate under total internal reflection, and also when lying on a dielectric layer coating a metal. Our results are relevant for infrared light detectors and sources, which can be made tunable via electrostatic doping of graphene.

  19. IAEA inspectors to leave North Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: IAEA inspectors in Nyongbyon, DPRK, are making arrangements to leave the country. This is in response to DPRK officials confirming directly to the inspectors that they should leave the country immediately and that the DPRK has decided not to respond to the IAEA Director General's letter urging them to allow inspectors to remain at the Nyongbyon nuclear site. The inspectors are scheduled to depart the DPRK on 31 December. 'This is a country in defiance of its international obligations,' Dr. ElBaradei said, 'It sets a dangerous precedent for the integrity of the non-proliferation regime.' (IAEA)

  20. Studying chromium biosorption using arabica coffee leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carlos Florez García

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This work was aimed at providing an alternative for removing heavy metals such as chromium from waste water (effluent from the leather industry and galvanoplasty (coating with a thin layer of metal by electrochemical means, using coffee leaves as bio- mass. Using arabica coffee (Castle variety leaves led to 82% chromium removal efficiency for 1,000 mg/L synthetic dissolutions in 4 pH dissolution operating conditions, 0 rpm agitation, 0.149 mm diameter biomass particle size and 0.85 g/ml biomass / dissolution volume ratio.

  1. Bioindicator: A Comparative Study on Uptake and Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Some Plant`s Leaves of M.G. Road, Agra City, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Aslam

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to investigate the concentrations of some heavy metals (cobalt, cadmium, lead, nickel and chromium in the leaves of plants viz: neem (Azadirachta indica, kaner (Nerium oleander L., Ashok (Saraca indica L. and imli (Tamarindus indica around the polluted and non polluted sites near Agra region, India. Heavy metal concentrations in leaves were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS. According to our findings the order of heavy metals in plants leaves were found in as follows: Co>Pb>Ni>Cr>Cd. Correlation between heavy metals in different plants at different sites were calculated for each metal separately and a positive correlation is observed. The presence of these metal ions in plant leaves explain the fact that these plant leaves are good bioindicators and can be used in air pollution monitoring studies in industrial areas.

  2. Reproducibility of The Random Incidence Absorption Coefficient Converted From the Sabine Absorption Coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Chang, Ji-ho

    2015-01-01

    Absorption coefficients measured in reverberation chambers, Sabine absorption coefficients, suffer from two major problems. Firstly, they sometimes exceed unity. Secondly, the reproducibility of the Sabine absorption coefficients is quite poor, meaning that the Sabine absorption coefficients vary...

  3. OZONE ABSORPTION IN RAW WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LJILJANA TAKIĆ

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The ozone absorption in raw water entering the main ozonization step at the Belgrade drinking water supply plant was investigated in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR. A slow chemical reaction rate of dissolved ozone and pollutants present in raw water have been experimentally determined. The modified Hatta number was defined and calculated as a criterion which determines whether and to which extent the reactions of ozone and pollutants influence the rate of the pure physical ozone absorption.

  4. Incomplete intestinal absorption of fructose.

    OpenAIRE

    Kneepkens, C M; Vonk, R J; Fernandes, J.

    1984-01-01

    Intestinal D-fructose absorption in 31 children was investigated using measurements of breath hydrogen. Twenty five children had no abdominal symptoms and six had functional bowel disorders. After ingestion of fructose (2 g/kg bodyweight), 22 children (71%) showed a breath hydrogen increase of more than 10 ppm over basal values, indicating incomplete absorption: the increase averaged 53 ppm, range 12 to 250 ppm. Four of these children experienced abdominal symptoms. Three of the six children ...

  5. Absorption Of Dietary Lipid Components

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulkadir Hurşit

    2015-01-01

    Although the digestion and absorption of lipids that are necessary for the survival of living organisms are well known in general terms, nevertheless how different lipids to be digested, how it is distributed into the bloodstream, and how to be used by the cells, are unknown issues by most non specialist people. In recent years, knowledge of lipid digestion and absorption has expanded considerably. More insight has been gained in the mechanism of action of H + pump as a transport system in fa...

  6. Maternity leave duration and postpartum mental and physical health: implications for leave policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagher, Rada K; McGovern, Patricia M; Dowd, Bryan E

    2014-04-01

    This study examines the association of leave duration with depressive symptoms, mental health, physical health, and maternal symptoms in the first postpartum year, using a prospective cohort design. Eligible employed women, eighteen years or older, were interviewed in person at three Minnesota hospitals while hospitalized for childbirth in 2001. Telephone interviews were conducted at six weeks (N = 716), twelve weeks (N = 661), six months (N = 625), and twelve months (N = 575) after delivery. Depressive symptoms (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale), mental and physical health (SF-12 Health Survey), and maternal childbirth-related symptoms were measured at each time period. Two-stage least squares analysis showed that the relationship between leave duration and postpartum depressive symptoms is U-shaped, with a minimum at six months. In the first postpartum year, an increase in leave duration is associated with a decrease in depressive symptoms until six months postpartum. Moreover, ordinary least squares analysis showed a marginally significant linear positive association between leave duration and physical health. Taking leave from work provides time for mothers to rest and recover from pregnancy and childbirth. Findings indicate that the current leave duration provided by the Family and Medical Leave Act, twelve weeks, may not be sufficient for mothers at risk for or experiencing postpartum depression. PMID:24305845

  7. A Custom——Leaving a Tip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宗友

    2005-01-01

    Leaving a tip in a restaurant has become a custom in most countries. The word “tip” came from the Latin word “Gratis”, meaning free. Tips are defined as small gifts of money for service in addition to the payment due.

  8. Cardanols from leaves of Rhus thyrsiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, K; Masaoud, M; Schmidt, J

    2001-07-01

    A mixture of 3-substituted alkyl- and alkenylphenols including nine new compounds (cardanols) was isolated from leaves of the Yemenian plant Rhus thyrsiflora (Anacardiaceae) and identified by GC-MS. The position of the double bond in the compounds bearing a monolefinic side chain was determined by their typical MS fragmentation patterns after hydroxylation and trimethylsilylation. PMID:11488469

  9. Epicuticular waxes and glaucousness of Encephalartos leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osborne, R; Stevens, JF

    1996-01-01

    The epicuticular leaf waxes from four glaucous and four non-glaucous species of Encephalartos were examined by GC-mass spectrometry and SEM techniques. The four glaucous-leaved species, E. horridus, E. lehmannii, E. princeps and E. trispinosus, all occurring in xeric conditions in the Eastern Cape P

  10. Glycosides from the Leaves of Ilex latifolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG,Ming-An(欧阳明安); OUYANG,Ming-An

    2001-01-01

    Nine new triterpenoid saponins: lafifolosides I-Q and three known conpouds: Kudinoside A, cis-roseoside, and kaenmpferol-3-O-a-L-rhamnopyranosyl ( 1→6 )-O-β-D-glucopyanoside were isolated from the leaves of ;lex latifolia.Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical methods.

  11. Fungi colonizing dead leaves of herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kowalik

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The material was collected from the Botanical Garden and the Collegium Medicum Medicinal Plant Garden of the Jagiellonian University in Krakow. The investigated species were: lemon balm (Mellisa officinalis L., common lavender (Lavendula angustifolia Mill., horsemint (Mentha longifolia L., sage (Salvia officinalis L., sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L., and wild marjoram (Origanum vulgare L.. The aim of the investigation was to identify fungi causing the death of leaf tissues of herbs from the mint family Lamiaceae. In mycological investigations, 180 fragments of each plant leaves (1,080 dead leaf fragments in total were placed in a 2% PDA medium. Over 970 colonies of fungi belonging to 48 species were isolated from the dead leaf tissues of the six herb species. Alternaria alternata (toxin-producing, Epicoccum nigrum and Sordaria fimicola were the most frequently isolated. The largest numbers of colonies and species of fungi were isolated from horsemint, while the lowest numbers were from wild marjoram leaves. It was shown that the death of leaves of selected herb species from the Lamiaceae family was caused by various fungi. The results of the mycological analysis confirmed the diversity of species colonizing the leaves of the herbs.

  12. Sabbatical Leave: Who Gains and How Much?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Oranit B.; Eden, Dov; Westman, Mina; Cohen-Charash, Yochi; Hammer, Leslie B.; Kluger, Avraham N.; Krausz, Moshe; Maslach, Christina; O'Driscoll, Michael; Perrewe, Pamela L.; Quick, James Campbell; Rosenblatt, Zehava; Spector, Paul E.

    2010-01-01

    A rigorous quasi-experiment tested the ameliorative effects of a sabbatical leave, a special case of respite from routine work. We hypothesized that (a) respite increases resource level and well-being and (b) individual differences and respite features moderate respite effects. A sample of 129 faculty members on sabbatical and 129 matched controls…

  13. Early school leaving and lifelong guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plant, Peter; Oomen, Annemarie

    Early school leaving (ESL) is costly for the individual, for society and for the economy. Not just in economic terms, but also in terms of low self esteem, and the risk of social exclusion. More, and, in particular, better education can lead to positive outcomes, in relation to employment, level...

  14. Furanoheliangolides from leaves of Neurolaena macrocephala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passreiter, C M; Stöber, S; Ortega, A

    2000-01-01

    Six sesquiterpene lactones, two new (3 and 6) and four known (1, 2, 4 and 5) were isolated from the leaves of the Mexican Neurolaena macrocephala (Asteraceae). The furanoheliangolide 6, containing 4beta,5-dihydro-9alpha-hydroxy-atripliciolide as basic structure, was found for the first time in nature. The chemotaxonomic importance of this phytochemical work is discussed. PMID:11204181

  15. Talking Leaves, Vol 2. No. 2

    OpenAIRE

    Center for Research on Education, Diversity & Excellence

    1998-01-01

    Talking Leaves, Winter 1998 Articles: Language Learning and Academic Achievement Making the Transition from Spanish to English Instruction The Role of Language in the Classroom Newcomers Sociocultural Context of Hawaiian Language Revival and Learning Two-Way Immersion Effects of Sheltered Instruction on the Achievement of ELLs

  16. The Biology of Ageing in Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, John; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes laboratory procedures for observing the progressive change deciduous leaves undergo prior to abscission. Outlines the starch test, sugar test, extraction and chromatography of pigments, and experimental results. States that obtained results enable the events of leaf senescence to be correlated with the carbohydrate economy of a tree in…

  17. Ladybugs and Lettuce Leaves. Teachers' Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Tracy; And Others

    This is a guide for use with "Ladybugs and Lettuce Leaves" activity cards which are activities for elementary school students (grades 4 to 6) focusing on gardening. It includes educational objectives for each topic as well as lists of vocabulary words, comments, questions for discussion, additional activities, and resources. An interdisciplinary…

  18. Occupational exposures and sick leave during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Lausten; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Juhl, Mette;

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to investigate associations between work postures, lifting at work, shift work, work hours, and job strain and the risk of sick leave during pregnancy from 10–29 completed pregnancy weeks in a large cohort of Danish pregnant women. Methods Data from 51 874 pregnancies i...

  19. Leave no trace in the outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    The essential guide for enjoying the outdoors without harming the environment. - Details the seven core principles of Leave No Trace ethics and practices - Covers hiking, campfires, food storage, and personal hygiene - Endorsed by the USDI National Park Service, Bureau of Land Management, Fish & Wildlife Service, U.S. Geological Survey, and the USDA Forest Service

  20. Talking Leaves, Volume 3, No. 2

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Talking Leaves, Spring 1999 Articles: Significance of Everyday Language Sociocultural Perspectives on Professional Development Parents as Experts Sheltered Instruction Evaluation that Informs School Reform On the Threshhold of Language Revitalization Rural Children of Appalaichian Descent Leading for Diversity New Directions in American Indian and Alaskan Native Reseacrh

  1. Subgap Absorption in Conjugated Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, M.; Seager, C. H.; McBranch, D.; Heeger, A. J; Baker, G. L.

    1991-01-01

    Along with X{sup (3)}, the magnitude of the optical absorption in the transparent window below the principal absorption edge is an important parameter which will ultimately determine the utility of conjugated polymers in active integrated optical devices. With an absorptance sensitivity of conjugated polymers poly(1,4-phenylene-vinylene) (and derivitives) and polydiacetylene-4BCMU in the spectral region from 0.55 eV to 3 eV. Our spectra show that the shape of the absorption edge varies considerably from polymer to polymer, with polydiacetylene-4BCMU having the steepest absorption edge. The minimum absorption coefficients measured varied somewhat with sample age and quality, but were typically in the range 1 cm{sup {minus}1} to 10 cm{sup {minus}1}. In the region below 1 eV, overtones of C-H stretching modes were observed, indicating that further improvements in transparency in this spectral region might be achieved via deuteration of fluorination.

  2. Heavy Metal Accumulation in Leaves of Hydrocharis Morsus-Ranae L. and Biomonitoring Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polechońska Ludmiła

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In present study the concentrations of Hg, Mn, Zn, Fe and Cu in water, bottom sediments and leaves of Hydrocharis morsus-ranae from 11 oxbow lakes of the Odra River were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Trace metal concentration in water and bottom sediments were below the geochemical background, indicating no anthropogenic impact in the studied area. On average, the concentrations of metals in leaves of H. morsus ranae exceeded natural thresholds. A high bioaccumulation factors for metals were recorded. The significant positive correlations found between the content Zn, Fe and Hg of in water and in the H. morsus ranae indicate the potential use of the species in the biomonitoring of environmental contamination with these metals.

  3. Correlation between terbium and the other rare earth element contents in fern leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lanthanides (REEs) in 142 fern leaves collected from 9 sampling sites in Japan were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Between two REEs a strong positive correlation was found in the logarithmic scattering diagram with correlation and regression coefficients close to unity, suggesting neither selective accumulation by plants nor different availability from soil between the two elements. However, between Tb and the other REEs the relationship showed two lines with the same correlation coefficient. This suggested that there must be a difference in the availability of REEs or in their absorption characteristics by plants. Further analysis revealed that the splitting was due to some difference in the environmental factors where the fern grew. However, the amount of REE in the soil collected together with the corresponding fern did not reflect the REE concentration in the fern leaves. (author)

  4. Heavy Metal Accumulation in Leaves of Hydrocharis Morsus-Ranae L. and Biomonitoring Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polechońska, Ludmiła; Dambiec, Małgorzata

    2014-06-01

    In present study the concentrations of Hg, Mn, Zn, Fe and Cu in water, bottom sediments and leaves of Hydrocharis morsus-ranae from 11 oxbow lakes of the Odra River were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Trace metal concentration in water and bottom sediments were below the geochemical background, indicating no anthropogenic impact in the studied area. On average, the concentrations of metals in leaves of H. morsus ranae exceeded natural thresholds. A high bioaccumulation factors for metals were recorded. The significant positive correlations found between the content Zn, Fe and Hg of in water and in the H. morsus ranae indicate the potential use of the species in the biomonitoring of environmental contamination with these metals.

  5. Structural elucidation and antioxidant activities of proanthocyanidins from Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc. leaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Fu

    Full Text Available Proanthocyanidins in Chinese bayberry leaves (PCBLs were qualitatively analyzed. NMR data suggest that PCBLs are mostly composed of (epigallocatechin gallate units. Matrix-assisted laser desorption time-of-flight MS data indicate 95 possible prodelphinidin structures, ranging from dimers to tridecamers. Preparative normal-phase HPLC and further analysis by reverse-phase HPLC together with electrospray ionization MS enabled detection of 20 compounds, including seven newly identified compounds in Chinese bayberry leaves. The antioxidant capacity of PCBLs was evaluated by (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl, ferric-reducing antioxidant power, and oxygen radical absorption capacity assays. The EC50 of DPPH radical scavenging activities (as 50% decrease in the initial DPPH concentration were 7.60 µg. The FRAP and ORAC values were 8859.33 ± 978.39 and 12991.61 ± 1553.34 µmol Trolox equivalents per gram, respectively. The results indicate the high antioxidant potency of PCBLs.

  6. Don’t leave your baggage unattended

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    “Don’t leave your baggage unattended” is a familiar request to anyone who travels by air, but it’s good advice wherever you may be.    At CERN, if an unattended bag is found anywhere on the site, the Fire and Rescue service will be called to evacuate the area, maintain a security perimeter for as long as necessary, and attempt to identify the owner. If the owner cannot be found in a reasonable amount of time, there’s a very strong chance that the bag will be destroyed. You can take two simple steps to avoid this fate: Don’t leave your baggage unattended;   Make sure that your contact details are clearly visible on the bag or suitcase so that, should you find yourself separated from it, you can easily be reunited.

  7. On the Motion of Falling Leaves

    CERN Document Server

    Razavi, Pedram

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the motion of falling leaves through modeling using papers and the corresponding data collected from more than four thousands experiments. Two series of experiments were designed in order to study the relationship between different parameters which can affect different paths of motion in leaves. In the first series of experiments, the shapes of the potential paths that falling papers can take were investigated as a whole. A new classification scheme was derived from these experiments, categorizing the motion of falling sheets of paper based on the deviation from the original point of release and the shape of the path they take on their descending journey. We believe this new classification scheme can be very useful with potential applications in various fields such as biology, meteorology, etc.; it can also build a foundation for further experiments. The second set of experiments was focused on the dynamics and shape of the motion of the falling paper itself. It was observed from these...

  8. Texture and Wettability of Metallic Lotus Leaves

    CERN Document Server

    Frankiewicz, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces with the self-cleaning behavior of lotus leaves are sought for drag reduction and phase change heat transfer applications. These superrepellent surfaces have traditionally been fabricated by random or deterministic texturing of a hydrophobic material. Recently, superrepellent surfaces have also been made from hydrophilic materials, by deterministic texturing using photolithography, without low-surface energy coating. Here, we show that hydrophilic materials can also be made superrepellent to water by chemical texturing, a stochastic rather than deterministic process. These metallic surfaces are the first analog of lotus leaves, in terms of wettability, texture and repellency. A mechanistic model is also proposed to describe the influence of multiple tiers of roughness on wettability and repellency. This demonstrated ability to make hydrophilic materials superrepellent without deterministic structuring or additional coatings opens the way to large scale and robust manufacturing of sup...

  9. Morphology and anatomy of Justicia acuminatissima leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Christina S. Verdam

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Justicia acuminatissima (Miq. Bremek., Acanthaceae, is a subshrub found in northern Brazil, where it is widely used by the population of this region as an anti-inflammatory medicine. Despite this popular use, there is no pharmacognostical data to support the correct identification of this species. We therefore performed a morpho-anatomical, histochemical and phytochemical analysis of the leaves of this species, using well-known methods. The leaves are simple, exstipulate, green on the surfaces, and pubescent, with a lanceolate shape, crenate margin, pinnate venation and decussate phyllotaxy. The parenchyma is palisade and spongy, and its vascular system is bilateral. Glandular and non-glandular trichome and cystoliths were also detected. There are diacytic stomata on both the adaxial and abaxial surfaces of epidermis. Histochemical tests revealed the presence of phenolic compounds, amide and protein. Phytochemical tests showed the presence of coumarins, tannins, catechins, saponins and steroids.

  10. Controllable synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Neem leaves and their antimicrobial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparajita Verma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs were synthesized using aqueous extract of Neem (Azadirachta indica leaves and silver salt. XRD, SEM, FTIR, optical absorption and photoluminescence (PL were measured and analysed. The synthesized AgNPs exhibits lowest energy absorption band at 400 nm. The effects of various parameters i.e., extract concentration, reaction pH, reactants ratio, temperature and interaction time on the synthesis of AgNPs were studied. It was found that the formation of AgNPs enhanced with time at higher temperature and alkaline pH. The AgNPs formed were found to have enhanced antimicrobial properties and showed zone of inhibition against isolated bacteria (Escherichia coli from garden soil sample. Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that the resources obtained from plants can be efficiently used in the production of AgNPs and could be utilized in various fields such as biomedical, nanotechnology etc.

  11. Absorption characteristics of bacteriorhodopsin molecules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H K T Kumar; K Appaji Gowda

    2000-03-01

    The bacteriorhodopsin molecule absorbs light and undergoes a series of structural transformation following a well-defined photocycle. The complex photocycle is transformed to an equivalent level diagram by considering the lifetime of the intermediate states. Assuming that only and states are appreciably populated at any instant of time, the level diagram is further simplified to two-level system. Based on the rate equations for two-level system, an analytic expression for the absorption coefficient of bacteriorhodopsin molecule is derived. It is applied to study the behaviour of absorption coefficient of bacteriorhodopsin film in the visible wavelength region of 514 nm. The dependence of absorption coefficient of bacteriorhodopsin film on the thickness of the film, total number density of active molecules and initial number density of molecules in -state is presented in the graphical form.

  12. Photosynthetic carbon monoxide metabolism by sugarcane leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortschak, H.P.; Nickell, L.G.

    1973-01-01

    The photosynthetic carbon monoxide metabolism by sugarcane was studied to determine whether substantial quantities of CO are removed from the air by fields in Hawaii. Leaves metabolized low CO concentrations photosynthetically, with sucrose as an end product. Rates of uptake were of the order of 10/sup -4/ power mg/d sq m/hr. This was to low to be significant in removing CO from the atmosphere.

  13. Texture and wettability of metallic lotus leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankiewicz, C.; Attinger, D.

    2016-02-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces with the self-cleaning behavior of lotus leaves are sought for drag reduction and phase change heat transfer applications. These superrepellent surfaces have traditionally been fabricated by random or deterministic texturing of a hydrophobic material. Recently, superrepellent surfaces have also been made from hydrophilic materials, by deterministic texturing using photolithography, without low-surface energy coating. Here, we show that hydrophilic materials can also be made superrepellent to water by chemical texturing, a stochastic rather than deterministic process. These metallic surfaces are the first analog of lotus leaves, in terms of wettability, texture and repellency. A mechanistic model is also proposed to describe the influence of multiple tiers of roughness on wettability and repellency. This demonstrated ability to make hydrophilic materials superrepellent without deterministic structuring or additional coatings opens the way to large scale and robust manufacturing of superrepellent surfaces.Superhydrophobic surfaces with the self-cleaning behavior of lotus leaves are sought for drag reduction and phase change heat transfer applications. These superrepellent surfaces have traditionally been fabricated by random or deterministic texturing of a hydrophobic material. Recently, superrepellent surfaces have also been made from hydrophilic materials, by deterministic texturing using photolithography, without low-surface energy coating. Here, we show that hydrophilic materials can also be made superrepellent to water by chemical texturing, a stochastic rather than deterministic process. These metallic surfaces are the first analog of lotus leaves, in terms of wettability, texture and repellency. A mechanistic model is also proposed to describe the influence of multiple tiers of roughness on wettability and repellency. This demonstrated ability to make hydrophilic materials superrepellent without deterministic structuring or additional

  14. Academic Study Leave or Sabbatical: Contested Concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Sally Sambrook

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide clarification of the concepts of academic study leave and the sabbatical, which are somewhat contested in the increasingly complex, managerialist and performative higher education context. A critical review of academic literature is employed to help clarify our understanding of the concepts, but also to identify potential contradictions. In addition, examples are provided, drawn from university web pages. The analysis identifies similarities and differe...

  15. Norsesquiterpenoids from the leaves of Croton tiglium

    OpenAIRE

    Bu, Wei; Shi, Yan-Ni; Yan, Yong-Ming; Lu, Qing; Liu, Guang-Ming; Li, Yan; Cheng, Yong-Xian

    2012-01-01

    Two new compounds, badounoids A (1) and B (2), together with 13 known norsesquiterpenes, were isolated from the leaves of Croton tiglium L. The structures of the new compounds were established by means of spectroscopic methods. The absolute configuration of badounoid B was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. All the known compounds were isolated from Croton plants for the first time which added a new chemical facet for this genus. The selected compounds were evaluated for...

  16. [Polyphenolic glycosides from Cistus creticus L. leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetzos, C; Mitaku, S; Hotellier, F; Harvala, A

    1989-01-01

    Five flavonoids: kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-beta-D-rutinoside, myricetin 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside, myricetin 3-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside and one coumarin: esculin have been isolated from the leaves of Cistus creticus. Their structures have been elucidated on the basis of their spectral data mainly mass spectrometry (DCI) and 1H NMR. PMID:2637651

  17. PHYTOCHEMICALANALYSIS OF CINNAMOMUM TAMALA OF LEAVES EXTRACT

    OpenAIRE

    Prakash Solanki

    2014-01-01

    Cinnamomoum tamala is found in tropical and sub tropical Himalaya and in some other places. Phytochemical analysis of the plant extracts were done to screen their active constituents. Cinnamomum tamala is the member of Lauraceae family and its leaves are most popularly used as spice in Insian food. Along with spice, it is associates with many medicinal value such as antioxidant, antidiabetic, antifungal etc. The phytochemicals are important in human health this is because ...

  18. Studies on Photosynthetic Characteristics of Plum Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Many photosynthetic characteristics of three plum varieties were studied with a infrared CO2 analyzer. Results showed that plums belong to light-loving species,having a relative high light compensation point (75~ 80μmol · m-2 · s-1 ), In natural light range from none to 1400μmol · m-2s-1PAR,the light response curve of plum as a hyperbo and the net photosynthetic rate(Pn) in leavs increased with PA elevation. Pn of plum tree was 20 to 22.50mg CO2 · dm-1 · h-1 at 1380μmol · m-2 · s-1 PAR,indicating that plum was typi cal C3-type fruit tree. Diurnal change in Pn was a bimoal curve with the highest photosynthetic rate arising at about 10:00 a. m. indicated the clear“none-rest”characteristic in plum leaves. Among three varieties. SuiLi3 had the shortest“none-rest“time followed by JiLin6 and NuXinLi. Seasonal change in Pn was a bi modal curve with the first period of high Pn in late June and the second in late August. Pn in leaves decreased visibly in period of drought in Spring and Summer.

  19. Phytochemical analysis of Camellia sinensis Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq. A. L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants possess an important source of pharmacological effects that acts as new anti-infections, antioxidant and anti-cancer agents. The most important bioactive constituents of plants are steroids, terpenoids, carotenoids, flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins and glycosides which serve a valuable starting material for drug development. Tea (Camellia sinensis is consumed worldwide and is second only to water in its popularity as a beverage. It has ascribed many health benefits viz reduction of cholesterol, protection against cardio – vascular diseases and cancer. By concerning all these studies, we have traced out the presence of phytochemical in Camellia sinensis leave. The phytochemical analysis showed the presence alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids and tannins by changing the colour of medium when treated with respective reagents. One gram of Camellia sinensis leaves extract contained 0.7 grams of phenolic compounds. While flavonoid content was 14 mg/gram of Camellia sinensis leave extract. one gram of leaf extracts contained 0.11 gram of reducing power. The methanolic extract of Camellia sinensis showed the presence of various functional groups when run through Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy. The methanolic extract of Camellia sinensis showed the antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis, and Enterococcus sp. It reveals the highest zone of inhibition around the bacterial colonies when compared with standard antibiotics Erythromycin, Tetracycline and Ampicillin.

  20. Acute Toxicity of Justicia gendarussa Burm. Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juheini Amin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Acute Toxicity of Justicia gendarussa Burm. Leaves. Preminelary experiment showed that ethanolic extract ofgandarusa leaves (Justicia gendarussa Burm. could decreased uric acid blood level on rats. The aim of this experimentwas to determine of the value LD50 and liver function based on activities of aminotransferase. Animals test which wereused in this experiment were 50 males and 50 females white mice. They were divided into 5 groups. Group 1 as controlgroup was given aquadest. Group 2-5 were treated by ethanolic extract of gandarusa leaves with dosage 4, 8, 16, and 32g/kg bw. The LD50 value was determined by the amount of death in group during 24 hours after giving a single dose oftest substance. The result showed that the highest dose was practically non toxic with LD50 value of 31.99 g/kg bw(male groups and 27.85 g/kg bw (female groups. Measurement of aminotransferase activity was done by usingcolorimetric method. The result of ANOVA analysis for liver function showed that the giving test substance 4 g/kg bw–16 g/kg bw was not significantly different between treated groups and control group.

  1. Absorption of focused light by spherical plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For light focused on spherical plasmas, we obtain new results giving the power absorbed by inverse bremsstrahlung and resonance absorption as a function of the focusing scheme. For a given beam profile and lens, there is an optimum focus to maximize total absorption. Linearly polarized beams lead to asymmetric absorption. Good agreement with experimental absorption and scattered light data is obtained

  2. Diabetic lipohypertrophy delays insulin absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R J; Hannan, W J; Frier, B M; Steel, J M; Duncan, L J

    1984-01-01

    The effect of lipohypertrophy at injection sites on insulin absorption has been studied in 12 insulin-dependent diabetic patients. The clearance of 125I-insulin from sites with lipohypertrophy was significantly slower than from complementary nonhypertrophied sites (% clearance in 3 h, 43.8 +/- 3.5 +/- SEM) control; 35.3 +/- 3.9 lipohypertrophy, P less than 0.05). The degree of the effect was variable but sufficient in several patients to be of clinical importance. Injection-site lipohypertrophy is another factor that modifies the absorption of subcutaneously injected insulin.

  3. Solar powered absorption air conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardon, J. M.

    1980-04-01

    Artificial means of providing or removing heat from the building are discussed along with the problem of the appropriate building design and construction for a suitable heat climate inside the building. The use of a lithium bromide-water absorption chiller, powered by a hot water store heated by an array of stationary flat collectors, is analyzed. An iterative method of predicting the cooling output from a LiBr-water absorption refrigeration plant having variable heat input is described and a model allowing investigation of the performance of a solar collector and thermal storage system is developed.

  4. Quasistellar Objects Intervening Absorption Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Charlton, J C; Charlton, Jane C.; Churchill, Christopher W.

    2000-01-01

    We briefly review, at a level appropriate for graduate students and non-specialists, the field of quasar absorption lines (QALs). Emphasis is on the intervening absorbers. We present the anatomy of a quasar spectrum due to various classes of intervening absorption systems, and a brief historical review of each absorber class (Lyman-alpha forest and Lyman limit systems, and metal-line and damped Lyman-alpha absorbers). We also provide several heuristic examples on how the physical properties of both the intergalactic medium and the gaseous environments associated with earlier epoch galaxies can be inferred from QALs. The evolution of these environments from z=4 are discussed.

  5. Absorption Efficiency of Receiving Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Bach; Frandsen, Aksel

    2005-01-01

    A receiving antenna with a matched load will always scatter some power. This paper sets an upper and a lower bound on the absorption efficiency (absorbed power over sum of absorbed and scattered powers), which lies between 0 and 100% depending on the directivities of the antenna and scatter...... patterns. It can approach 100% as closely as desired, although in practice this may not be an attractive solution. An example with a small endfire array of dipoles shows an efficiency of 93%. Several examples of small conical horn antennas are also given, and they all have absorption efficiencies less than...

  6. Phytases for improved iron absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Veller Friis; Meyer, Anne S.

    2016-01-01

    Phytase enzymes present an alternative to iron supplements, because they have been shown to improve iron absorption by means of catalysing the degradation of a potent iron absorption inhibitor: phytic acid. Phytic acid is a hexaphosphate of inositol and is particularly prevalent in cereal grains......, where it serves as a storage molecule for phosphorous. Phytic acid is also associated with minerals. The minerals are bound by chelation to the negatively charged phosphate groups in phytic acid. Phytases catalyse the dephosphorylation of phytic acid, thus releasing bound minerals to make them available...

  7. Aerosol Absorption Measurements in MILAGRO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Arnott, W. P.; Paredes-Miranda, L.; Barnard, J. C.

    2007-12-01

    During the month of March 2006, a number of instruments were used to determine the absorption characteristics of aerosols found in the Mexico City Megacity and nearby Valley of Mexico. These measurements were taken as part of the Department of Energy's Megacity Aerosol Experiment - Mexico City (MAX-Mex) that was carried out in collaboration with the Megacity Interactions: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) campaign. MILAGRO was a joint effort between the DOE, NSF, NASA, and Mexican agencies aimed at understanding the impacts of a megacity on the urban and regional scale. A super-site was operated at the Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo in Mexico City (designated T-0) and at the Universidad Technologica de Tecamac (designated T-1) that was located about 35 km to the north east of the T-0 site in the State of Mexico. A third site was located at a private rancho in the State of Hidalgo approximately another 35 km to the northeast (designated T-2). Aerosol absorption measurements were taken in real time using a number of instruments at the T-0 and T-1 sites. These included a seven wavelength aethalometer, a multi-angle absorption photometer (MAAP), and a photo-acoustic spectrometer. Aerosol absorption was also derived from spectral radiometers including a multi-filter rotating band spectral radiometer (MFRSR). The results clearly indicate that there is significant aerosol absorption by the aerosols in the Mexico City megacity region. The absorption can lead to single scattering albedo reduction leading to values below 0.5 under some circumstances. The absorption is also found to deviate from that expected for a "well-behaved" soot anticipated from diesel engine emissions, i.e. from a simple 1/lambda wavelength dependence for absorption. Indeed, enhanced absorption is seen in the region of 300-450 nm in many cases, particularly in the afternoon periods indicating that secondary organic aerosols are contributing to the aerosol absorption. This is likely due

  8. The Length of Maternity Leave and Family Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beuchert-Pedersen, Louise Voldby; Humlum, Maria Knoth; Vejlin, Rune Majlund

    We study the relationship between the length of maternity leave and the physical and psychological health of the family. Using a reform of the parental leave scheme in Denmark that increased the number of weeks of leave with full benefit compensation, we estimate the effect of the lenght of mater......We study the relationship between the length of maternity leave and the physical and psychological health of the family. Using a reform of the parental leave scheme in Denmark that increased the number of weeks of leave with full benefit compensation, we estimate the effect of the lenght...... complement the existing evidence on maternity leave expansions that tends to find limited effects on children's later deveopmental, educational, and labor market outcomes. Our results suggest that any beneficial effects of increasing the lenght of maternity leave are greater for low-resource families....

  9. Causal effects of paternity leave on children and parents

    OpenAIRE

    Cools, Sara; Jon H. Fiva; Lars J. Kirkebøen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we use a parental leave reform directed towards fathers to identify the causal effects of paternity leave on children’s and parents’ outcomes. We document that paternity leave causes fathers to become more important for children’s cognitive skills. School performance at age 16 increases for children whose father is relatively higher educated than the mother. We find no evidence that fathers’ earnings and work hours are affected by paternity leave. Contrary to expectation, mother...

  10. Electromodulated absorption in smoky quartz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, W.E. van den; Volger, J.

    1974-01-01

    The optical absorption coefficient of “smoky” quartz (containing aluminium) can be modulated by applying an electric field. The effect saturates at high fields and low temperatures and reaches a maximum at 535 nm. The results are discussed in terms of a model consisting of a colour centre, dipolar i

  11. Exercise, Intestinal Absorption, and Rehydration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ KEYPOINTS 1. The proximal small intestine (duodenum & jejunum) is the primary site of fluid absorption. It absorbs about 50% to 60% of any given fluid load. The colon or large intestine absorbs approximately 80 to 90% of the fluid it receives, but accounts for only about 15% of the total fluid load.

  12. S matrix for absorptive Hamiltonians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The existence of a matrix S such that SS = 1 in the presence of absorption is demonstrated. In the limit a of hermitian Hamiltonian the unitarity conditions SS = 1 is recovered. A dispersion relation for forward scattering is derived and the properties of the reactance matrices K and K are obtained. It is shown that K = K

  13. QSO Absorption Lines from QSOs

    CERN Document Server

    Bowen, D V; Ménard, B; Chelouche, D; Inada, N; Oguri, M; Richards, G T; Strauss, M A; Vanden Berk, Daniel E; York, D G; Bowen, David V.; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Menard, Brice; Chelouche, Doron; Inada, Naohisa; Oguri, Masamune; Richards, Gordon T.; Strauss, Michael A.; Berk, Daniel E. Vanden; York, Donald G.

    2006-01-01

    We present the results of a search for metal absorption lines in the spectra of background QSOs whose sightlines pass close to foreground QSOs. We detect MgII(2796,2803) absorption in Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectra of four z>1.5 QSOs whose lines of sight pass within 26-98 kpc of lower redshift (z~0.5-1.5) QSOs. The 100% [4/4 pairs] detection of MgII in the background QSOs is clearly at odds with the incidence of associated (z_abs ~ z_em) systems -- absorbers which exist towards only a few percent of QSOs. Although the quality of our foreground QSO spectra is not as high as the SDSS data, absorption seen towards one of the background QSOs clearly does not show up at the same strength in the spectrum of the corresponding foreground QSO. This implies that the absorbing gas is distributed inhomogeneously around the QSO, presumably as a direct consequence of the anisotropic emission from the central AGN. We discuss possible origins for the MgII lines, including: absorption by gas from the foreground QSO h...

  14. Bent Electro-Absorption Modulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    components and the applied electric field in relation to the frequency of the modulated radiation, the bending losses (and possibly coupling losses) will provide extinction of light guided by the bent waveguide section. The refractive index contract may be modulated while keeping the absorption coefficient...... by bendng losses co-operates to provide more compact modulators with improved performance (extinction) and speed....

  15. Absorption of /sup 45/Ca during the immersion of the aerial organs of Salicornia stricta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langlois, J.; Vilquin, A.

    1971-04-01

    Immersion of the aerial organs of Salicornia stricta in a nutrient solution with added radioactive /sup 45/Ca resulted in the accumulation of /sup 45/Ca in the aerial organs. There was no accumulation when the roots were immersed in the nutrient solution. Absorption of minerals by the stems and leaves of Salicornia during periodic submersions in the brackish water surrounding the plants, is therefore possible. 17 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  16. Aerosol absorption and radiative forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Stier

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a comprehensive examination of aerosol absorption with a focus on evaluating the sensitivity of the global distribution of aerosol absorption to key uncertainties in the process representation. For this purpose we extended the comprehensive aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM by effective medium approximations for the calculation of aerosol effective refractive indices, updated black carbon refractive indices, new cloud radiative properties considering the effect of aerosol inclusions, as well as by modules for the calculation of long-wave aerosol radiative properties and instantaneous aerosol forcing. The evaluation of the simulated aerosol absorption optical depth with the AERONET sun-photometer network shows a good agreement in the large scale global patterns. On a regional basis it becomes evident that the update of the BC refractive indices to Bond and Bergstrom (2006 significantly improves the previous underestimation of the aerosol absorption optical depth. In the global annual-mean, absorption acts to reduce the short-wave anthropogenic aerosol top-of-atmosphere (TOA radiative forcing clear-sky from –0.79 to –0.53 W m−2 (33% and all-sky from –0.47 to –0.13 W m−2 (72%. Our results confirm that basic assumptions about the BC refractive index play a key role for aerosol absorption and radiative forcing. The effect of the usage of more accurate effective medium approximations is comparably small. We demonstrate that the diversity in the AeroCom land-surface albedo fields contributes to the uncertainty in the simulated anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcings: the usage of an upper versus lower bound of the AeroCom land albedos introduces a global annual-mean TOA forcing range of 0.19 W m−2 (36% clear-sky and of 0.12 W m−2 (92% all-sky. The consideration of black carbon inclusions on cloud radiative properties results in a small global annual-mean all-sky absorption of 0.05 W

  17. Absorptive capacity and smart companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Moro González

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The current competitive environment is substantially modifying the organizations’ learning processes due to a global increase of available information allowing this to be transformed into knowledge. This opportunity has been exploited since the nineties by the tools of “Business Analytics” and “Business Intelligence” but, nevertheless, being integrated in the study of new organizational capacities engaged in the process of creating intelligence inside organizations is still an outstanding task. The review of the concept of absorptive capacity and a detailed study from the perspective of this new reality will be the main objective of study of this paper.Design/methodology/approach: By comparing classical absorptive capacity and absorptive capacity from the point of view of information management tools in each one of the three stages of the organizational learning cycle, some gaps of the former are overcome/fulfilled. The academic/bibliographical references provided in this paper have been obtained from ISI web of knowledge, Scopus and Dialnet data bases, supporting the state of affairs on absorptive capacity and thereafter filtering by "Business Intelligence" and "Business Analytics". Specialized websites and Business Schools` Publications there have also been included, crowning the content on information management tools used that are currently used in the strategic consulting.Findings: Our contribution to the literature is the development of "smart absorptive capacity". This is a new capacity emerging from the reformulation of the classical concept of absorptive capacity wherein some aspects of its definition that might have been omitted are emphasized. The result of this new approach is the creation of a new Theoretical Model of Organizational Intelligence, which aims to explain, within the framework of the Resources and Capabilities Theory, the competitive advantage achieved by the so-called smart companies

  18. Determinants of sick-leave duration : A tool for managers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flach, P.A.; Krol, B.; Groothoff, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: To provide managers with tools to manage episodes of sick-leave of their employees, the influence of factors such as age, gender, duration of tenure, working full-time or part-time, cause and history of sick-leave, salary and education on sick-leave duration was studied. METHOD: In a cross-sec

  19. Why Band Directors Leave: From the Mouths of Maestros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheib, John W.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the results of a survey conducted by the author asking music teachers why they leave their jobs. The author compiled an e-mail survey and sent it to instrumental music teachers who were making plans to leave their jobs for new positions or to leave the music education profession entirely. In order to widen the pool of…

  20. Self-Funded Leave and Life Role Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furbish, Dale S.

    2009-01-01

    Self-funded leave is an employee benefit that provides a time resource to those who wish to develop interests and other life roles. Semistructured interviews were used for this qualitative study to explore the motivations for enrolling in the self-funded leave program, how the leave contributed to work-life balance through development of other…

  1. 29 CFR 825.207 - Substitution of paid leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substitution of paid leave. 825.207 Section 825.207 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY... FMLA leave. Employers may not discriminate against employees on FMLA leave in the administration...

  2. STUDY OF ORGANIC ACIDS IN ALMOND LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenchyk L.V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Almond (Amygdalus communis is a stone fruit, from the Rosaceae family, closest to the peach. It is spread throughout the entire Mediterranean region and afterwards to the Southwestern USA, Northern Africa, Turkey, Iran, Australia and South Africa. It is sensitive to wet conditions, and therefore is not grown in wet climates. Iran is located in the semi-arid region of the world. Because of its special tolerance to water stress, almond is one of the main agricultural products in rainfed condition in Iran. Almond leaves have been investigated for their phenolic content and antioxidant activity. It was found that total antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds exhibited variations according to season, plant organ (leaf and stem and variety. Analysis of previous research on almonds focused on investigating compounds mostly in seeds and phenolic compounds in leaves, but organic acids in leaves have not been studied. Aim of this study was investigation of organic acids in leaves of almond variety which is distributed in Razavi Khorasan province of Iran. Materials and Methods. In August 2012 almond leaves were collected in Iran, dried and grinded. The study of qualitative composition and quantitative determination of carboxylic acids in almond leaves was carried out by gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. For determination organic acids content, to 50 mg of dried plant material in 2 ml vial internal standard (50 μg of tridecane in hexane was added and filled up with 1.0 ml of methylating agent (14 % BCl3 in methanol, Supelco 3-3033. The mixture was kept in a sealed vial during 8 hours at 65 °C. At this time fatty oil was fully extracted, and hydrolyzed into its constituent fatty acids and their methylation was done. At the same time free organic and phenolcarbonic acids were methylated too. The reaction mixture was poured from the plant material sediment and was diluted with 1 ml of distilled water. To extract methyl

  3. Estimation of chlorophyll contents in leaves and canopy of steppe vegetation using hyperspectral measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Dandan; Xiao, Chenchao; Zhang, Zhenhua; Wei, Hongyan; Shang, Kun

    2016-04-01

    determination coefficients of all methods are high for sampling zones with large quantity of samples. Vegetation indices and the absorption and reflection characteristic on narrow bands are also good choices for estimation of chlorophyll content of leaves. It is obviously wiser to use vegetation indices to estimate chlorophyll of leaves than canopy. The bands obtained by screening with the chlorophyll content of leaves which is estimated with vegetation indices on narrow bands are mainly on green light and red light bands, while the optimal bands for canopy are mainly red light and near infrared bands. The chlorophyll content of leaves and canopy can be well estimated with multiple regression method, especially partial least squares regression, both of which get high determination coefficient and small root-mean-square error. The bands obtained by screening with the leave chlorophyll content which is estimated by multiple stepwise linear regression are mainly on the position of 700nm, 760nm, etc., while the bands for canopy are mainly on the position of 450nm, 700nm, 1000nm and 1200nm, which accord with the absorption and reflection characteristic of chlorophyll. The estimation result and stability of the two methods with multivariate, namely partial least squares regression and multiple stepwise linear regression are better than the methods with univariate.

  4. Physical and chemical composition and in situ degradability of macauba palm cake and leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanda Patrícia Barros Ferreira

    2013-12-01

    associated with its lower ruminal degradability and lower effective degradation of fraction CP is a beneficial characteristic because associated with lower ruminal degradability could increase absorption in the duodenum of amino acids and peptides that were not incorporated by rumen microorganisms. Macauba cake is potentially useful in animal feed, the association of macauba palm cake and leaves can attend the requirements of some animals’ categories. Additional studies with animals should be conducted to better understand these results.

  5. Gender codes why women are leaving computing

    CERN Document Server

    Misa, Thomas J

    2010-01-01

    The computing profession is facing a serious gender crisis. Women are abandoning the computing field at an alarming rate. Fewer are entering the profession than anytime in the past twenty-five years, while too many are leaving the field in mid-career. With a maximum of insight and a minimum of jargon, Gender Codes explains the complex social and cultural processes at work in gender and computing today. Edited by Thomas Misa and featuring a Foreword by Linda Shafer, Chair of the IEEE Computer Society Press, this insightful collection of essays explores the persisting gender imbalance in computing and presents a clear course of action for turning things around.

  6. Flavonoids from leaves of Mauritia flexuosa

    OpenAIRE

    Djalma M. Oliveira; Ezequias P. Siqueira; Yule R. F. Nunes; Betania B Cota

    2013-01-01

    The chromatographic fractionation of the Mauritia flexuosa L. f., Arecaceae, leaves extract, a plant known by the name of buriti palm tree, resulted in the isolation of six flavonoids: tricin-7-O-rutinoside, apigenin-6-C-arabinoside, 8-C-glucoside (isoschaftoside), kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (nicotiflorine), quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (rutin), luteolin-8-C-glucoside (orientin) and luteolin-6-C-glucoside (isoorientin). The flavonoids were found out and previously reported as constituents of the ...

  7. Use of leaves for drinking water

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Cláudia

    2011-01-01

    The use of leaves for drinking water is a widespread tool-use behavior among chimpanzees. Although this tool-use behavior is widely described as the use of leaf sponges, it can actually be found in three different forms: leaf sponges, leaf-folding, and leaf spoons. Among the chimpanzee community of Bossou, we can observe all three forms, albeit in different frequencies. Here I describe the longitudinal record of manufacture and use of leaf tools for drinking water, highlighting the learning p...

  8. Take It, Leave It, Fold It

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elias, Camelia

    2008-01-01

    This introduction to the volume sets the tone for a reading experience of Federman's works. Since the early 60s, Raymond Federman has been one of the most important American writers. In his highly experimental fictions, in works that bear such titles as Take It or Leave It, Double or Nothing......, and The Twofold Vibrations, he has explored cultural and personal memory, invented intricate narrative strategies, and above all has given readers an experience that exceeds the ordinary. Creating situations that make one really think and really laugh is a tall order for any writer. But Federman did it. He is one...

  9. ANTIOXIDANT EFFECT OF MAJORANA HORTENSIS LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palaniswamy Radha

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals can be generated in the biological systems in the form of reactive oxygen species which are harmful and these are removed by the antioxidant system in the body. Antioxidants protect us from free radicals that cause tissue damage, neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. Plants are a rich source of antioxidants. In the present study, Majorana hortensis, commonly called majoram was chosen as the candidate plant to determine the antioxidant potential. The enzymic activity and non-enzymic levels of the fresh leaves was determined proving the plant to be a potent source of antioxidants.

  10. Terpenoid constituents from leaves of Guarea kunthiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcez, Fernanda R.; Garcez, Walmir S.; Bazzo, Rita de Cassia [Mato Grosso do Sul Univ., Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: frgarcez@nin.ufms.br; Silva, Ana Francisca G. da [Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul, Mundo Novo, MS (Brazil). Unidade Universitaria de Mundo Novo; Resende, Ubirazilda M. [Mato Grosso do Sul Univ., Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia

    2004-10-01

    From leaves of Guarea kunthiana one new kaurene diterpene (ent-kaur-16-en-2-one) was isolated along with eight known diterpenes (ent-kaur-16-ene, ent-3{alpha}- and 3{beta}-hydroxykaur-16-ene, kolavelool, kolavenol, kolavenal, ent-13-epi-manoyloxide and (-)-nephthenol), four sesquiterpenes (alismol, alismoxide, spathulenol and 4{beta},10{alpha}-aromadendranediol), polyprenol-12 and {alpha}- and {delta}-tocopherols. Kolavenal is reported for the first time as a natural product, as well as the occurrence of cembrane- and ent-kaurane-type diterpenes in the Meliaceae. (author)

  11. Evolutionary biology. Chewed leaves reveal ancient relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennisi, E

    2000-07-14

    On page 291, researchers describe a new beetle fossil based not on traces of the insect skeleton but on the distinctive gouges the beetles left when they munched on 11 ginger leaves many millions of years ago. The chew marks of the newly described Cephaloleichnites strongi prove that leaf beetles underwent rapid evolution and diversification more than 65 million years ago, possibly taking advantage of (and perhaps influencing) the rapid diversification among flowering plants occurring at the same time. What's more, C. strongi represents the earliest known rolled-leaf beetle species, hundreds of which today still prefer just one of the ginger- and heliconia-like plants in the Zingiberales order.

  12. Chemical constituents of Breynia glauca leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butsarakham Supudompol

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available From the leaves of Breynia glauca, eight compounds including friedelin (1, 3-oxo- 4,5-sitosterone (2, friedelan-3β-ol (3, β-sitosterol (4, kaempferol (5, arbutin (6, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (7 and quercetion-3-O-glucoside (8 were isolated. The presence of these compounds supports the traditional use of this plant as a detoxifying agent. In addition, all of these chemical constituents were tested for antiviral potential against herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, but were found to be inactive at 50 μg/ml.

  13. 29 CFR 825.310 - Certification for leave taken to care for a covered servicemember (military caregiver leave).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... may take leave to care for the covered servicemember in a continuous block of time or on an... is sufficient certification for an employee entitled to take FMLA leave to care for a covered... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certification for leave taken to care for a...

  14. Effect of the extraction process on yield and composition of selected extracts from maidenhair tree green and yellow leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kobus-Cisowska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of extraction process on the extraction efficiency and composition of selected extracts from the maidenhair tree (Ginkgo biloba L. green and yellow leaves. Taken three-step extraction, where water, solution of acetone and water and ethyl alcohol were used, effectiveness by evaluating the content of total polyphenols was estimated. In the next step yield of selected extraction processes was estimated, then UV spectra of the obtained extracts and their content of phenolic acids. The content of phenolic compounds in the following extracts showed high efficiency of the first extraction process. Analysis of UV spectra allowed to deduce the presence of phenolic compounds in all tested extracts. The absorption maxima were recorded at wavelengths between 290 nm and 350 nm. Analysed extracts showed high content of phenolic acids. The largest of the sum of phenolic acids was estimated in the acetone-water extract from green leaves and in water extract from yellow leaves. In green leaves extracts the predominant acid was protocatechuic, while in yellow leaves extracts the greatest amount of p-hydroxybenzoic acid was shown.

  15. Parental Leave and Children's Schooling Outcomes: Quasi-Experimental Evidence from a Large Parental Leave Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Danzer, Natalia; Lavy, Victor

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the question whether long-term human capital outcomes are affected by the duration of maternity leave, i.e. by the time mothers spend at home with their newborn before returning to work. Employing RD and difference-in-difference approaches, this paper exploits an unanticipated reform in Austria which extended the maximum duration of paid and job protected parental leave from 12 to 24 months for children born on July 1, 1990 or later. We use test scores from the Austria...

  16. Elemental contents in leaves and bark of neem (Azadirachta Indica) - a versatile medicinal plant by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Azadirachta Indica, commonly known as neem touches the daily life of every Indian as all of its parts are widely used. Neem leaves are used as insecticide and antiseptic whereas its extracts and oil are clinically effective in curing eczema and other skin diseases. Fresh leaves and bark of Neem (Azadirachta Indica) collected from different locations in Roorkee were analyzed for 7 minor (Al, Ca, CI, K, Mg, Na and P) and 15 trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hg, Mn, Rb, Sb, Sm, Th, V and Zn) elements by short (1 min) and long (7 h) neutron irradiation neutron followed by high resolution γ-ray spectrometry. Also Ni, Cu, Cd and Pb were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). P was determined by counting the β-activity from 32P using an end-window GM counter. Peach leaves (SRM 1547) from NIST, USA and Mixed Polish Herbs (MPH-2) from INCT, Poland were analyzed for data validation. Most elemental contents varied in a wide range. However, mean and median values in most cases are comparable. Elemental contents of V, Cr, Mn, Fe and Zn in leaves have been particularly attributed to its use in the treatment of diabetes. Linear correlations were observed between K and CI (r =0.96) and Rb and Cs (r = 0.97) in Neem leaves. Leaves were particularly enriched in K, Mg, Zn and Rb whereas bark was enriched in Ca, Mn and Fe. Petroleum ether extract of dried Neem leaves was analyzed for organic constituents; 1,1,2,3-tetramethyl cyclopropane, methyl phenyl sulfone, n-hexanedecanoic acid and 9,12,15-octadecatrienal in soluble fraction and bicyclo octa 1,3,5 triene 7-(3-butenyl) and 2-hydroxymethyl 1-methoxy 9,10 anthracenediene in insoluble fraction. Compounds were separated by column and thin layer chromatography and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)

  17. Laboratory and Airborne BRDF Analysis of Vegetation Leaves and Soil Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Georgi T.; Gatebe, Charles K.; Butler, James J.; King, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory-based Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) analysis of vegetation leaves, soil, and leaf litter samples is presented. The leaf litter and soil samples, numbered 1 and 2, were obtained from a site located in the savanna biome of South Africa (Skukuza: 25.0degS, 31.5degE). A third soil sample, number 3, was obtained from Etosha Pan, Namibia (19.20degS, 15.93degE, alt. 1100 m). In addition, BRDF of local fresh and dry leaves from tulip tree (Liriodendron tulipifera) and acacia tree (Acacia greggii) were studied. It is shown how the BRDF depends on the incident and scatter angles, sample size (i.e. crushed versus whole leaf,) soil samples fraction size, sample status (i.e. fresh versus dry leaves), vegetation species (poplar versus acacia), and vegetation s biochemical composition. As a demonstration of the application of the results of this study, airborne BRDF measurements acquired with NASA's Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) over the same general site where the soil and leaf litter samples were obtained are compared to the laboratory results. Good agreement between laboratory and airborne measured BRDF is reported.

  18. Morus nigra plant leaves as biomonitor for elemental air pollution monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daud, M.; Khalid, N.; Waheed, S.; Wasim, M.; Arif, M.; Zaidi, J.H. [Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan). Chemistry Div.

    2011-07-01

    The present paper deals with the determination of 36 elements in 120 leaf samples of Morus nigra plant to assess their potential as biomonitor for elemental air pollution monitoring. The elemental quantification was made by employing Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectrometric (AAS) techniques. The leaf samples were collected in spring, summer and winter seasons from various sites in Islamabad with different types of anthropogenic activities as well as from a reference site with minimum of such activities. Twenty four soil samples from the respective sites were also analyzed. The reliability of the adopted procedures was established by analyzing the certified reference materials, i.e., citrus leaves-1572 and soil-7, from NIST and IAEA, respectively, under identical experimental conditions and comparing the results obtained with the certified values which are in quite good agreement with each other. The enrichment values and Pollution Load Index (PLI) of the determined elements were computed and discussed accordingly. The elemental translocation from soil to roots, stem and leaves has also been studied by analyzing these parts of the same plant. The results indicated that the leaves of Morus nigra plant have promising potential to monitor the extent of air pollution in the vicinity of industrial as well as in high traffic areas. (orig.)

  19. Do thick leaves avoid thermal damage in critically low wind speeds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, A; Sevanto, S; Ball, M C; Close, J D; Ellsworth, D S; Knight, C A; Nicotra, A B; Vogel, S

    2012-04-01

    Transient lulls in air movement are rarely measured, but can cause leaf temperature to rise rapidly to critical levels. The high heat capacity of thick leaves can damp this rapid change in temperature. However, little is known about the extent to which increased leaf thickness can reduce thermal damage, or how thick leaves would need to be to have biological significance. We evaluated quantitatively the contribution of small increases in leaf thickness to the reduction in thermal damage during critically low wind speeds under desert conditions. We employed a numerical model to investigate the effect of thickness relative to transpiration, absorptance and leaf size on damage avoidance. We used measured traits and thermotolerance thresholds of real leaves to calculate the leaf temperature response to naturally occurring variable low wind speed. Our results demonstrated that an increase in thickness of only fractions of a millimetre can prevent excursions to damaging high temperatures. This damping effect of increased thickness was greatest when other means of reducing leaf temperature (transpiration, reflectance or reduced size) were lacking. For perennial desert flora, we propose that increased leaf thickness is important in decreasing the incidence of extreme heat stress and, in some species, in enhancing long-term survival. PMID:22296328

  20. Theory of graphene saturable absorption

    CERN Document Server

    Marini, A; de Abajo, F J Garcia

    2016-01-01

    Saturable absorption is a non-perturbative nonlinear optical phenomenon that plays a pivotal role in the generation of ultrafast light pulses. Here we show that this effect emerges in graphene at unprecedentedly low light intensities, thus opening avenues to new nonlinear physics and applications in optical technology. Specifically, we theoretically investigate saturable absorption in extended graphene by developing a non-perturbative single-particle approach, describing conduction-electron dynamics in the atomically-thin material using the two-dimensional Dirac equation for massless Dirac fermions, which is recast in the form of generalized Bloch equations. By solving the electron dynamics non-perturbatively, we account for both interband and intraband contributions to the intensity-dependent saturated conductivity and conclude that the former dominates regardless of the intrinsic doping state of the material. The results are in excellent agreement with atomistic quantum-mechanical simulations including high...

  1. The intestinal absorption of folates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visentin, Michele; Diop-Bove, Ndeye; Zhao, Rongbao; Goldman, I David

    2014-01-01

    The properties of intestinal folate absorption were documented decades ago. However, it was only recently that the proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT) was identified and its critical role in folate transport across the apical brush-border membrane of the proximal small intestine established by the loss-of-function mutations identified in the PCFT gene in subjects with hereditary folate malabsorption and, more recently, by the Pcft-null mouse. This article reviews the current understanding of the properties of PCFT-mediated transport and how they differ from those of the reduced folate carrier. Other processes that contribute to the transport of folates across the enterocyte, along with the contribution of the enterohepatic circulation, are considered. Important unresolved issues are addressed, including the mechanism of intestinal folate absorption in the absence of PCFT and regulation of PCFT gene expression. The impact of a variety of ions, organic molecules, and drugs on PCFT-mediated folate transport is described. PMID:24512081

  2. Biophotonic in situ sensor for plant leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conejo, Elian; Frangi, Jean-Pierre; Rosny, Gilles de

    2010-04-01

    Knowledge of the water concentration of plants can be helpful in several environmental and agricultural domains. There are many methods for the determination of water content in plant leaves; however, most of them give a relative moisture level or an analytical measure after a previous calibration procedure. Even for other biochemical compounds such as dry matter or chlorophyll, the measurement techniques could be destructive. For this reason, a nondestructive method has been developed to measure the biochemical compounds of a plant leaf, using an infrared spectroscopy technique. One important advantage is the simplicity of the device (RAdiometre portatif de Mesure In Situ, RAMIS) and its capability to perform measurements in situ. The prototype is a leaf-clip configuration and is made of LEDs at five wavelengths (656, 721, 843, 937, and 1550 nm), and a silicon/germanium photosensor. To compute the water content of vegetative leaves, the radiative transfer model PROSPECT was implemented. This model can accurately predict spectral transmittances in the 400 nm to 2500 nm spectral region as a function of the principal leaf biochemical contents: water, dry matter, and chlorophyll. Using the transmittance measured by RAMIS into an inversion procedure of PROSPECT: A Model of Leaf Optical Properties Spectra, we are able to compute the values of water contents that show an agreement with the water contents measured directly using dry weight procedures. This method is presented as a possibility to estimate other leaf biochemical compounds using appropriate wavelengths.

  3. [Chemical constituents of Sapium sebiferum leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Li; Tian, Hua; Lv, Pei-jun; Wang, Jia-ping; Wang, Yi-fen

    2015-04-01

    Chemical constituents of ethyl acetate extract of Sapium sebiferum leaves were isolated and purified by various chromatographic methods, including column chromatographies over silica gel, macroporous adsorption resin, and Sephadex LH-20, as well as preparative TLC and semi preparative HPLC. As a results, 15 compounds were separated from Sapium sebiferum leaves and their structures were examined by spectral analysis including NMR and MS data and identified as( + )-(7R,7'R,7"S,7'"S,8S,8'S,8"S,8'"S)-4", 4"'-dihydroxy-3,3',3",3',5,5'-hexamethoxy-7,9';7',9-diepoxy-4,8";4',8'"-bisoxy-8,8'-dineo-lignan-7",7"',9",9"'-tetraol(1) ,1-(4'- hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-2-[4"-(3-hydroxypropyl) -2", 6"-dimethoxyphenoxy] propane-1, 3-diol (2), Thero-2, 3-bis-(4-hydroxy-3- methoxypheyl)-3-methoxy-propanol(3) , threo-5-hydroxy-3,7-dimethoxyphenyl propane-8,9-diol (4), boropinol B (5), threo-8S-7-methoxysyringylglycerol(6), 5-hydroxymethylfurfural(7), 5-( methoxy-methyl)-1H-pyrrole-2-carbaldehyde (8), quercetin (9) , kaempferol (10), ethyl gallate(11), coniferaldehyde(12), vanillin(13), 7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-2H-1-henzopyran-2-one(14),and 1-heptacosanol (15). All compounds except for compounds 9-11,14 were separated from this plant for the first time. PMID:26281591

  4. Antipsychotic Potentials of Ocimum sanctum Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu Kadian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antipsychotic potential of Ocimum sanctum in experimental animal models. Male Wistar rats (180-220 g and albino mice (25-30 g were used for the study. The antipsychotic effect of the Ocimum sanctum was evaluated on haloperidol induced catalepsy, cooks pole climbing apparatus, locomotor activity on actophotometer, ketamine induced stereotype behavior. Different groups of rats were fed orally with a specially prepared diet containing various concentrations (2% w/w, 4% w/w and 8% w/w of Ocimum sanctum leaves paste (OCLP for 15 consecutive days. Further, the biochemical estimations were done by estimating brain dopamine levels. The OCLP produced significant dose dependent potentiation of haloperidol (1mg/kg, i.p. induced catalepsy in rats, significantly increased the time taken by the rat to climb the pole in dose dependent manner, significantly decreased the locomotor activity. The OCLP significantly decreased ketamine (50 mg/kg, i.p. induced stereotyped behavior in a dose dependent manner. Ocimum sanctum leaves paste (OCLP significantly decreased the brain dopamine levels. The results suggest that OCLP posse’s antipsychotic activity. Further neurochemical investigation can explore the mechanism of action of the plant drug with respect to anti-dopaminergic functions and help to establish the plant as an antipsychotic agent.

  5. Photodetector with enhanced light absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, James

    1985-01-01

    A photodetector including a light transmissive electrically conducting layer having a textured surface with a semiconductor body thereon. This layer traps incident light thereby enhancing the absorption of light by the semiconductor body. A photodetector comprising a textured light transmissive electrically conducting layer of SnO.sub.2 and a body of hydrogenated amorphous silicon has a conversion efficiency about fifty percent greater than that of comparative cells. The invention also includes a method of fabricating the photodetector of the invention.

  6. Chaos and multiple photon absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An anharmonic vibrational mode of a molecule, driven by an intense infrared laser and coupled to a quasi-continuum of background modes, is found to undergo chaotic oscillations. This chaos leads to predominantly fluence-dependent rather than intensity-dependent multiple-photon absorption, as is found experimentally. The loss of coherence is associated with the decay of temporal correlation of background-mode oscillations

  7. Maximum-likelihood absorption tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maximum-likelihood methods are applied to the problem of absorption tomography. The reconstruction is done with the help of an iterative algorithm. We show how the statistics of the illuminating beam can be incorporated into the reconstruction. The proposed reconstruction method can be considered as a useful alternative in the extreme cases where the standard ill-posed direct-inversion methods fail. (authors)

  8. QED-driven laser absorption

    CERN Document Server

    Levy, M C; Ratan, N; Sadler, J; Ridgers, C P; Kasim, M; Ceurvorst, L; Holloway, J; Baring, M G; Bell, A R; Glenzer, S H; Gregori, G; Ilderton, A; Marklund, M; Tabak, M; Wilks, S C; Norreys, P A

    2016-01-01

    Absorption covers the physical processes which convert intense photon flux into energetic particles when a high-power laser illuminates optically-thick matter. It underpins important petawatt-scale applications today, e.g., medical-quality proton beam production. However, development of ultra-high-field applications has been hindered since no study so far has described absorption throughout the entire transition from the classical to the quantum electrodynamical (QED) regime of plasma physics. Here we present a model of absorption that holds over an unprecedented six orders-of-magnitude in optical intensity and lays the groundwork for QED applications of laser-driven particle beams. We demonstrate 58% efficient \\gamma-ray production at $1.8\\times 10^{25}~\\mathrm{W~ cm^{-2}}$ and the creation of an anti-matter source achieving $4\\times 10^{24}\\ \\mathrm{positrons}\\ \\mathrm{cm^{-3}}$, $10^{6}~\\times$ denser than of any known photonic scheme. These results will find applications in scaled laboratory probes of bla...

  9. Identification of nonlinear resonance absorption in a laser driven deuterium cluster using molecular dynamics simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collisionless laser energy absorption in nanometer size atomic clusters may occur through linear and nonlinear resonance (NLR). During the linear resonance which typically requires long laser pulses > 100 fs, Mie-plasma frequency of the expanding cluster becomes equal to the laser frequency and electrons leave the cluster by absorbing good amount of laser energy. However, for very short infrared (800 nm wavelength) laser pulses of duration < 30 fs linear resonance processes do not contribute and laser energy absorption by cluster electrons mainly happen by NLR which occurs in the anharmonic potential of the spherical cluster when a driven electron's frequency meets the laser frequency. Earlier NLR absorption mechanism was studied by particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations and simple analytical model. But it is not rigorously verified so far by first principle methods e.g. molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. In this work, we identify NLR mechanism in a laser driven deuterium cluster by a newly developed three dimensional MD simulation code with soft-core Coulomb interaction among the charge particles. By following the trajectory of each individual electron and identifying its time-dependent frequency in the self-consistent anharmonic potential it is found that electron leaves the potential only when NLR condition is met. Thus we bridge the gap between PIC simulations, analytical model and first principle MD calculations and prove that NLR processes are a universal dominant mechanism of absorption in the short pulse regime or early time of longer pulses. (author)

  10. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaves of Stevia rebaudiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaves of Stevia Rebaudiana. → Spherical and polydispersed nanoparticles with diameters below 50 nm. → Interplay of nanoparticle formation and aggregation over time. → Capping reagents similar to those in gold synthesis via the same biomass. → Ketones to play active roles in the reduction of silver ions. - Abstract: The synthesis of silver nanoparticles employing a shadow-dried Stevia rebaudiana leaf extract in AgNO3 solution is reported. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction inspections indicate that nanoparticles are spherical and polydispersed with diameters ranging between 2 and 50 nm with a maximum at 15 nm. Ultraviolet-visible spectra recorded against the reaction time confirms the reduction of silver nanoparticles indicating that the formation and the aggregation of nanoparticles take place shortly after the mixing, as they persist concurrently with characteristic times of 48.5 min and 454.5 min, respectively. Aggregation is found to be the dominant mechanism after the first 73 min. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum of the silver nanoparticles reveals the existence of aliphatic, alcoholic and olefinic CH2 and CH3 groups, as well as some aromatic compounds but no sign of aldehydes or carboxylic acids. Infrared absorption of the silver nanoparticles suggests that the capping reagents of silver and gold nanoparticles reduced in plant extracts/broths are of the same chemical composition of different ratios. Ketones are shown to play a somehow active role for the formation of nanoparticles in plant extracts/broths.

  11. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaves of Stevia rebaudiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, M. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Bartin University, Bartin (Turkey); Turkdemir, H. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Uludag University, 16059 Goeruekle, Bursa (Turkey); Kilic, M. Akif [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Akdeniz University, Campus 07058, Antalya (Turkey); Bayram, E. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Akdeniz University, Campus 07058, Antalya (Turkey); Cicek, A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Mehmet Akif Ersoy University, 15100 Burdur (Turkey); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Akdeniz University, Campus 07058, Antalya (Turkey); Mete, A. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Inonu University, Malatya (Turkey); Ulug, B., E-mail: bulug@akdeniz.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Akdeniz University, Campus 07058, Antalya (Turkey)

    2011-11-01

    Highlights: {yields} Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaves of Stevia Rebaudiana. {yields} Spherical and polydispersed nanoparticles with diameters below 50 nm. {yields} Interplay of nanoparticle formation and aggregation over time. {yields} Capping reagents similar to those in gold synthesis via the same biomass. {yields} Ketones to play active roles in the reduction of silver ions. - Abstract: The synthesis of silver nanoparticles employing a shadow-dried Stevia rebaudiana leaf extract in AgNO{sub 3} solution is reported. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction inspections indicate that nanoparticles are spherical and polydispersed with diameters ranging between 2 and 50 nm with a maximum at 15 nm. Ultraviolet-visible spectra recorded against the reaction time confirms the reduction of silver nanoparticles indicating that the formation and the aggregation of nanoparticles take place shortly after the mixing, as they persist concurrently with characteristic times of 48.5 min and 454.5 min, respectively. Aggregation is found to be the dominant mechanism after the first 73 min. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum of the silver nanoparticles reveals the existence of aliphatic, alcoholic and olefinic CH{sub 2} and CH{sub 3} groups, as well as some aromatic compounds but no sign of aldehydes or carboxylic acids. Infrared absorption of the silver nanoparticles suggests that the capping reagents of silver and gold nanoparticles reduced in plant extracts/broths are of the same chemical composition of different ratios. Ketones are shown to play a somehow active role for the formation of nanoparticles in plant extracts/broths.

  12. Evolution of absorption machines; Evolution des machines a absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soide, I.; Klemsdal, E. [Gaz de France (GDF), 75 - Paris (France); Le Goff, P.; Hornut, J.M. [LSGC-ENSIC, 54 - Nancy (France)

    1997-12-31

    Most of todays absorption air-conditioning machineries use the lithium bromide-water pair. The most performing can operate at a 150-160 deg. C, the temperature being limited by the corrosion resistance of metals with respect to LiBr solutions. Also, there is a revival of interest for water-ammonia systems. These systems require the use of a rectification column which reduces the coefficient of performance. Higher thermal performances are reached with hydrocarbon pairs and ternary mixtures (water-methanol-LiBr etc..). This paper presents different schemes of refrigerating heat pumps based on these different systems. (J.S.)

  13. Resonant Optical Absorption in Semiconductor Quantum Wells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Li-Yuan; CAO Jun-Cheng

    2004-01-01

    @@ We have calculated the intraband photon absorption coefficients of hot two-dimensional electrons interacting with polar-optical phonon modes in quantum wells. The dependence of the photon absorption coefficients on the photon wavelength λ is obtained both by using the quantum mechanical theory and by the balance-equation theory. It is found that the photon absorption spectrum displays a local resonant maximum, corresponding to LO energy, and the absorption peak vanishes with increasing the electronic temperature.

  14. Environmental controls over methanol emission from leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Harley

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Methanol is found throughout the troposphere, with average concentrations second only to methane among atmospheric hydrocarbons. Proposed global methanol budgets are highly uncertain, but all agree that at least 60% of the total source arises from the terrestrial biosphere and primary emissions from plants. However, the magnitude of these emissions is also highly uncertain, and the environmental factors which control them require further elucidation.

    Using a temperature-controlled leaf enclosure, we measured methanol emissions from leaves of six plant species by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry, with simultaneous measurements of leaf evapotranspiration and stomatal conductance. Rates of emission at 30°C varied from 0.2 to 38 μg g (dry mass−1 h−1, with higher rates measured on young leaves, consistent with the production of methanol via pectin demethylation in expanding foliage. On average, emissions increased by a factor of 2.3 for each 10°C increase in leaf temperature. At constant temperature, emissions were also correlated with co-varying incident photosynthetic photon flux density and rates of stomatal conductance. The data were analyzed using the emission model developed by Niinemets and Reichstein (2003a, b, with the incorporation of a methanol production term that increased exponentially with temperature. It was concluded that control of emissions, during daytime, was shared by leaf temperature and stomatal conductance, although rates of production may also vary diurnally in response to variations in leaf growth rate in expanding leaves. The model, which generally provided reasonable simulations of the measured data during the day, significantly overestimated emissions on two sets of measurements made through the night, suggesting that production rates of methanol were reduced at night, perhaps because leaf growth was reduced or possibly through a direct effect of light on production

  15. Environmental controls over methanol emission from leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Harley

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Methanol is found throughout the troposphere, with average concentrations second only to methane among atmospheric hydrocarbons. Proposed global methanol budgets are highly uncertain, but all agree that at least 60% of the total source arises from the terrestrial biosphere and primary emissions from plants. However, the magnitude of these emissions is also highly uncertain, and the environmental factors which control them require further elucidation.

    Using a temperature-controlled leaf enclosure, we measured methanol emissions from leaves of six plant species by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry, with simultaneous measurements of leaf evapotranspiration and stomatal conductance. Rates of emission at 30°C varied from 0.3 to 38 μg g (dry mass−1 h−1, with higher rates measured on young leaves, consistent with the production of methanol via pectin demethylation in expanding foliage. On average, emissions increased by a factor of 2.4 for each 10°C increase in leaf temperature. At constant temperature, emissions were also correlated with co-varying incident photosynthetic photon flux density and rates of stomatal conductance. The data were analyzed using the emission model developed by Niinemets and Reichstein (2003a, b, with the incorporation of a methanol production term that increased exponentially with temperature. It was concluded that control of emissions, during daytime, was shared by leaf temperature and stomatal conductance, although rates of production may also vary diurnally in response to variations in leaf growth rate in expanding leaves. The model, which generally provided reasonable simulations of the measured data during the day, significantly overestimated emissions on two sets of measurements made through the night, suggesting that production rates of methanol were reduced at night, perhaps because leaf growth was reduced or possibly through a direct effect of light on production

  16. Structural sound absorption in liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present article is devoted to structural sound absorption in liquid metals. The study of sound absorption in liquid metals shown that in all studied objects the structural absorption of sound was observed. The mechanism of structural relaxation in molten metal was revealed.

  17. Lactulose stimulates calcium absorption in postmenopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, E.G.H.M. van den; Muijs, T.; Dokkum, W. van; Schaafsma, G.

    1999-01-01

    Animal studies have indicated that calcium absorption is increased by lactulose, a synthetic disaccharide. Therefore, the influence of lactulose on calcium absorption was measured in postmenopausal women who may benefit from the possible enhancing effect of lactulose on calcium absorption. Twelve po

  18. Optical properties of rhodoxanthin accumulated in Aloe arborescens Mill. leaves under high-light stress with special reference to its photoprotective function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merzlyak, Mark; Solovchenko, Alexei; Pogosyan, Sergei

    2005-04-01

    In Aloe arborescens Mill. leaves, strong sunlight or its combination with drought induces the accumulation of the red keto-carotenoid, rhodoxanthin. Simultaneously, the transformation of chloroplasts into chromoplasts accompanied by degradation of thylakoid membranes and formation of plastoglobuli, large in size and number, takes place. Depending on stress conditions the build up of rhodoxantin occurred along with the loss of chlorophyll or on the background of relatively high content of the pigment in the leaves. Microspectrophotometrical measurements showed the presence of chlorophyll-free plastids and retention of carotenoids during leaf adaptation to strong sunlight. The plastid spectra contained absorption bands of common for higher plants carotenoids together with those of rhodoxantin, with absorption maxima situated in the blue (440-480 nm) and the green ranges of the spectrum, respectively. The studies of whole-leaf optical properties revealed a broad band of rhodoxanthin absorption in the blue-green range peaking near 540-550 nm. Within this spectral band the accumulation of rhodoxanthin occurring, probably, in plastoglobuli considerably increased light absorption by stressed Aloe leaves. A possible photoprotective function of rhodoxanthin and other carotenoids as an internal light trap analogous to that accomplished by anthocyanins in other plant species is discussed. PMID:15803203

  19. Nonthermal neutrinos from supernovae leaving a magnetar

    CERN Document Server

    Horiuchi, Shunsaku; Takami, Hajime; Ando, Shin'ichiro; Sato, Katsuhiko

    2008-01-01

    Under the fossil field hypothesis of the origin of magnetar magnetic fields, the magnetar inherits its magnetic field from its progenitor. We show that during the supernova of such a progenitor, protons may be accelerated to \\lesssim 100 GeV at the supernova shock. Inelastic nuclear collisions of these protons produce a flash of high-energy neutrinos arriving a few hours after thermal (10 MeV) neutrinos. The neutrino flash is characterized by energies \\lesssim 1 GeV and durations \\lesssim a few hours, depending on the progenitor: those from smaller type Ibc progenitors are typically shorter in duration compared to those from larger type II progenitors. A Galactic core-collapse supernova leaving behind a magnetar remnant will yield up to \\sim 140 neutrino induced muon events in a Super-Kamiokande sized neutrino detector, providing a means of probing supernova models and the presence of strong magnetic fields in the stellar interior.

  20. Modeling Leaves Based on Real Image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAOYu-kun; LIYun-feng; ZHUQing-sheng; LIUYin-bin

    2004-01-01

    Plants have complex structures. The shape of a plant component is vital for capturing the characteristics of a species. One of the challenges in computer graphics is to create geometry of objects in an intuitive and direct way while allowing interactive manipulation of the resulting shapes. In this paper,an interactive method for modeling leaves based on real image is proposed using biological data for individual plants. The modeling process begins with a one-dimensional analogue of implicit surfaces,from which a 2D silhouette of a leaf is generated based on image segmentation. The silhouette skeleton is thus obtained. Feature parameters of the leaf are extracted based on biologically experimental data, and the obtained leaf structure is then modified by comparing the synthetic result with the real leaf so as to make the leaf structure more realistic. Finally, the leaf mesh is constructed by sweeps.

  1. Role of Leaves in Phototropism 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Shue-Lock; Leopold, A. C.

    1966-01-01

    Experiments with green seedlings of sunflower (Helianthus annuns L.) indicate the existence of a phototropic mechanism which involves the leaves or cotyledons, and which can produce an asymmetry of auxin content without the involvement of lateral auxin transport, the classic explanation of phototropism in etiolated seedlings. The basic lines of evidence for the leaf-mediated tropism are: 1) darkening of one cotyledon will cause curvature of the stem toward the lighted cotyledon: 2) the darkened cotyledon sustains an enhanced growth rate in the stem below it: 3) conversely, light suppresses the growth-stimulating effects of a single cotyledon: and 4) more diffusible auxin is obtained from the stem below darkened cotyledons than below lighted ones. PMID:16656329

  2. PHARMACOGNOSTICAL PROFILE OF PAEDERIA FOETIDA LINN. LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar Chellappan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of Paederia foetida Linn. (P. foetida are commonly known as skunk vine or Chinese fever vine, are used for various ailments medicinally throughout Asia and other tropical parts of the world by traditional healers. The plant is mainly used for arthritis and rheumatic disorders. The whole plant shows tonic, astringent and antiphlogistic actions and has been used in tenesmus. This present work presents a detailed pharmacognostical study of the leaf of the crude drug P. foetida. The samples were studied using procedures of light, confocal microscopy, WHO recommended physico-chemical determinations and authentic phytochemical procedures. The physico-chemical, morphological and histological parameters presented in this study may be proposed as parameters to establish the authenticity of P. foetida and may possibly help to differentiate the drug from its adulterants.

  3. Sabbatical leave: who gains and how much?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Oranit B; Eden, Dov; Westman, Mina; Cohen-Charash, Yochi; Hammer, Leslie B; Kluger, Avraham N; Krausz, Moshe; Maslach, Christina; O'Driscoll, Michael; Perrewé, Pamela L; Quick, James Campbell; Rosenblatt, Zehava; Spector, Paul E

    2010-09-01

    A rigorous quasi-experiment tested the ameliorative effects of a sabbatical leave, a special case of respite from routine work. We hypothesized that (a) respite increases resource level and well-being and (b) individual differences and respite features moderate respite effects. A sample of 129 faculty members on sabbatical and 129 matched controls completed measures of resource gain, resource loss, and well-being before, during, and after the sabbatical. Among the sabbatees, resource loss declined and resource gain and well-being rose during the sabbatical. The comparison group showed no change. Moderation analysis revealed that those who reported higher respite self-efficacy and greater control, were more detached, had a more positive sabbatical experience, and spent their sabbatical outside their home country enjoyed more enhanced well-being than others.

  4. Evolutionary biology. Chewed leaves reveal ancient relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennisi, E

    2000-07-14

    On page 291, researchers describe a new beetle fossil based not on traces of the insect skeleton but on the distinctive gouges the beetles left when they munched on 11 ginger leaves many millions of years ago. The chew marks of the newly described Cephaloleichnites strongi prove that leaf beetles underwent rapid evolution and diversification more than 65 million years ago, possibly taking advantage of (and perhaps influencing) the rapid diversification among flowering plants occurring at the same time. What's more, C. strongi represents the earliest known rolled-leaf beetle species, hundreds of which today still prefer just one of the ginger- and heliconia-like plants in the Zingiberales order. PMID:10917840

  5. Flavonoids from leaves of Mauritia flexuosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djalma M. de Oliveira

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The chromatographic fractionation of the Mauritia flexuosa L. f., Arecaceae, leaves extract, a plant known by the name of buriti palm tree, resulted in the isolation of six flavonoids: tricin-7-O-rutinoside, apigenin-6-C-arabinoside, 8-C-glucoside (isoschaftoside, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (nicotiflorine, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (rutin, luteolin-8-C-glucoside (orientin and luteolin-6-C-glucoside (isoorientin. The flavonoids were found out and previously reported as constituents of the Arecaceae family plants, but the occurrence of C-glucoside flavonoids, in the species being analyzed, is described for the first time on this study. The structural elucidations of all of the isolated compounds were performed by means of the comparison of their spectral data (¹H and 13C NMR, UV and ESI-MS with those ones of the literature.

  6. Anatomical structure of moss leaves and their photosynthetic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Krupa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The photosynthetic activity of the leaf area unit increases depending on the degree of differentiation of the anatomical structure of the leaves of six chosen moss species. There is a correlation between the leaf area and the degree of differentiation of the anatomical structure resulting in enlargement of the area of contact of the assimilating cells with air. The leaves of Catharinea undulata having a one-layer blade and provided with several lamellae show a higher photosynthesis per 1 cm2 of their surface than the one-layer leaves of Mniurnm or Funaria. Aloina leaves are the smallest in area among those of the moss species discussed, however, their photosynthetic rate is almost 4.5 times higher than in Funaria leaves. By analogy to the structure of leaves and their function in vascular, plants, these changes and correlations may be considered as attempts of primeval adaptation of mosses to terrestrial conditions of living.

  7. Carbon Dioxide Absorption Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A carbon dioxide absorption heat pump cycle is disclosed using a high pressure stage and a super-critical cooling stage to provide a non-toxic system. Using carbon dioxide gas as the working fluid in the system, the present invention desorbs the CO2 from an absorbent and cools the gas in the super-critical state to deliver heat thereby. The cooled CO2 gas is then expanded thereby providing cooling and is returned to an absorber for further cycling. Strategic use of heat exchangers can increase the efficiency and performance of the system.

  8. Phytases for Improved Iron Absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Veller Friis; Nyffenegger, Christian; Meyer, Anne S.

    2014-01-01

    Microbial phytases (EC 3.1.3.8) catalyse dephosphorylation of phytic acid, which is the primary storage compound for phosphorous in cereal kernels. The negatively charged phosphates in phytic acid chelate iron (Fe3+) and thus retards iron bioavailability in humans 1. Supplementation of microbial...... phytase can improve iron absorption from cereal-based diets 2. In order for phytase to catalyse iron release in vivo the phytase must be robust to low pH and proteolysis in the gastric ventricle. Our work has compared the robustness of five different microbial phytases, evaluating thermal stability...

  9. Water dimer absorption of visible light

    OpenAIRE

    Hargrove, J

    2007-01-01

    International audience Laboratory measurements of water vapor absorption using cavity ring-down spectroscopy revealed a broad absorption at 405 nm with a quadratic dependence on water monomer concentration, a similar absorption with a linear component at 532 nm, and only linear absorption at 570 nm in the vicinity of water monomer peaks. D2O absorption is weaker and linear at 405 nm. Van't Hoff plots constructed at 405.26 nm suggest that for dimerization, Keq=0.056±0.02 atm?1, ?H°301 K=?16...

  10. Determination of Antioxidants in Oil Palm Leaves (Elaeis guineensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Ng M. Han; Choo Y. May

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Previous findings on the occurrence of water soluble antioxidants in palm oil has brought to the question on whether these compounds is also present in other parts of the oil palm; namely its leaves. Approach: It is now believed that the water soluble antioxidants are also present in other biomass of the oil palm, namely, the leaves. This study reported on the determination of the water soluble antioxidants in oil palm leaves. Results: The results showed the analyses of the...

  11. Antimicrobial activity of extracts from Tamarindus indica L. leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Julio Cesar Escalona-Arranz; Renato Péres-Roses; Imilci Urdaneta-Laffita; Miladis Isabel Camacho-Pozo; Jesús Rodríguez-Amado; Irina Licea-Jiménez

    2010-01-01

    Tamarindus indica L. leaves are reported worldwide as antibacterial and antifungal agents; however, this observation is not completely accurate in the case of Cuba. In this article, decoctions from fresh and sun dried leaves, as well as fluid extracts prepared with 30 and 70% ethanol-water and the pure essential oil from tamarind leaves were microbiologically tested against Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomona ae...

  12. Chemical composition on cacao leaves infected by viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustafa, M.; Delilah, M.; Syafrul, L.; Suryadi

    1980-09-01

    Chemical analysis on cacao leaves that have chlorosis spots caused by cacao swollen shoot viruses were carried out. It can be shown that leaves with chlorosis spots contain less chlorophyl and lipides than those without, but both do not show any significant difference in the concentration of water, glucose, saccharides, amino acid and proteins. It can be concluded that transport systems in the infected leaves are good so that the water and saccharides distribution in them are not disturbed.

  13. Plant phenolics and absorption features in vegetation reflectance spectra near 1.66 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; Skidmore, Andrew K.

    2015-12-01

    Past laboratory and field studies have quantified phenolic substances in vegetative matter from reflectance measurements for understanding plant response to herbivores and insect predation. Past remote sensing studies on phenolics have evaluated crop quality and vegetation patterns caused by bedrock geology and associated variations in soil geochemistry. We examined spectra of pure phenolic compounds, common plant biochemical constituents, dry leaves, fresh leaves, and plant canopies for direct evidence of absorption features attributable to plant phenolics. Using spectral feature analysis with continuum removal, we observed that a narrow feature at 1.66 μm is persistent in spectra of manzanita, sumac, red maple, sugar maple, tea, and other species. This feature was consistent with absorption caused by aromatic Csbnd H bonds in the chemical structure of phenolic compounds and non-hydroxylated aromatics. Because of overlapping absorption by water, the feature was weaker in fresh leaf and canopy spectra compared to dry leaf measurements. Simple linear regressions of feature depth and feature area with polyphenol concentration in tea resulted in high correlations and low errors (% phenol by dry weight) at the dry leaf (r2 = 0.95, RMSE = 1.0%, n = 56), fresh leaf (r2 = 0.79, RMSE = 2.1%, n = 56), and canopy (r2 = 0.78, RMSE = 1.0%, n = 13) levels of measurement. Spectra of leaves, needles, and canopies of big sagebrush and evergreens exhibited a weak absorption feature centered near 1.63 μm, short ward of the phenolic compounds, possibly consistent with terpenes. This study demonstrates that subtle variation in vegetation spectra in the shortwave infrared can directly indicate biochemical constituents and be used to quantify them. Phenolics are of lesser abundance compared to the major plant constituents but, nonetheless, have important plant functions and ecological significance. Additional research is needed to advance our understanding of the spectral influences

  14. Variation in light absorption properties of mentha aquatica L. as a function of leaf form: Implications for plant growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enriquez, Susana; Jensen, Kaj Sand

    2008-01-01

    area increased. This relationship indicates that dispersive samples, such as leaves, although efficient light traps, can also be affected by the "package effect." Mentha aquatica leaves, by expanding their biomass (increased specific leaf area [SLA]), improve their light absorption efficiency per unit...... photon may result in a reduction in the specific plant growth rate (RGR). Understanding the association between leaf form and the ability of leaf biomass to absorb light provides a mechanistic explanation for the empirical relationship found repeatedly in the literature between RGR and SLA. Our results...

  15. Iron Absorption in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanis Missirlis

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The way in which Drosophila melanogaster acquires iron from the diet remains poorly understood despite iron absorption being of vital significance for larval growth. To describe the process of organismal iron absorption, consideration needs to be given to cellular iron import, storage, export and how intestinal epithelial cells sense and respond to iron availability. Here we review studies on the Divalent Metal Transporter-1 homolog Malvolio (iron import, the recent discovery that Multicopper Oxidase-1 has ferroxidase activity (iron export and the role of ferritin in the process of iron acquisition (iron storage. We also describe what is known about iron regulation in insect cells. We then draw upon knowledge from mammalian iron homeostasis to identify candidate genes in flies. Questions arise from the lack of conservation in Drosophila for key mammalian players, such as ferroportin, hepcidin and all the components of the hemochromatosis-related pathway. Drosophila and other insects also lack erythropoiesis. Thus, systemic iron regulation is likely to be conveyed by different signaling pathways and tissue requirements. The significance of regulating intestinal iron uptake is inferred from reports linking Drosophila developmental, immune, heat-shock and behavioral responses to iron sequestration.

  16. Iron Absorption in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandilaras, Konstantinos; Pathmanathan, Tharse; Missirlis, Fanis

    2013-01-01

    The way in which Drosophila melanogaster acquires iron from the diet remains poorly understood despite iron absorption being of vital significance for larval growth. To describe the process of organismal iron absorption, consideration needs to be given to cellular iron import, storage, export and how intestinal epithelial cells sense and respond to iron availability. Here we review studies on the Divalent Metal Transporter-1 homolog Malvolio (iron import), the recent discovery that Multicopper Oxidase-1 has ferroxidase activity (iron export) and the role of ferritin in the process of iron acquisition (iron storage). We also describe what is known about iron regulation in insect cells. We then draw upon knowledge from mammalian iron homeostasis to identify candidate genes in flies. Questions arise from the lack of conservation in Drosophila for key mammalian players, such as ferroportin, hepcidin and all the components of the hemochromatosis-related pathway. Drosophila and other insects also lack erythropoiesis. Thus, systemic iron regulation is likely to be conveyed by different signaling pathways and tissue requirements. The significance of regulating intestinal iron uptake is inferred from reports linking Drosophila developmental, immune, heat-shock and behavioral responses to iron sequestration. PMID:23686013

  17. Leaving street life : How can centres assist street children in leaving the street life?

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Linnea

    2015-01-01

    This is qualitative study about Kenyan street children. The aim of this study is to get a better understanding of the pull and push factors towards the street and towards rehabilitation centres. The question formulation is; How can rehabilitation centres assist street children in leaving the street life? 25 former street children have been interviewed in a combination of focus group and individual interviews. The theoretical framework that is used for the analysis is elucidation the perspecti...

  18. Hepatoprotective effect of feeding celery leaves mixed with chicory leaves and barley grains to hypercholesterolemic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Abd El-Mageed, Nehal M.

    2011-01-01

    Celery, chicory leaves, and barley grains are valuable in weight loss diets and regulate lipid metabolism. They may reduce risk of fatty liver. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of diet supplementation with celery, chicory, and barley powder on liver enzymes and blood lipids in rats fed with cholesterol-enriched diet. This study used four groups of rats fed with 3% cholesterol were supplemented diet to induce hypercholesterolemia and one group was fed on cholesterol-free basal...

  19. Leaving rates and reasons for leaving in an Engineering faculty in South Africa: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Pocock

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a case study undertaken at the Faculty of Engineering of the University of KwaZulu-Natal to determine the leaving rates from the faculty both by a cohort analysis (over the existence of the university from 2005 to 2010 and by a 1-year population balance over the whole faculty in 2009. Students who had left the faculty who could have continued were identified from the population balance and interviewed to determine the common reasons for leaving. The cohort analysis showed that from 2005 through to 2008, the leaving rate from first-year cohorts was reduced year on year (from over 22% to below 14%. This reduction coincided with stabilisation of the faculty after a merger process and increased academic support. In 2009, however, an increase in the proportion of first-year students who left (to over 17% was identified, which may be linked to the entry of students who had taken the new National Senior Certificate in South African high schools. The population balance over the year 2009 showed an academic exclusion rate of approximately 6% of the total undergraduate student body, and, more significantly, an academic leaving rate of about 14% of the total student body. The exclusion rate remained fairly static across three semesters whilst voluntary leavers increased over the same period. An analysis and interviews with a sample of the students who left showed that financial reasons played a significant role in these rates, with 49% of non-academically excluded students having financial difficulties, and that a significant proportion of students continue their studies at universities of technology. Although this is a case study within one institution, it is hoped that the findings can inform the current debate surrounding increasing throughput in Science and Engineering within the country.

  20. Five-Photon Absorption and Selective Enhancement of Multiphoton Absorption Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Friese, Daniel Henrik; Bast, Radovan; Ruud, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    We study one-, two-, three-, four-, and five-photon absorption of three centrosymmetric molecules using density functional theory. These calculations are the first ab initio calculations of five-photon absorption. Even- and odd-order absorption processes show different trends in the absorption cross sections. The behavior of all even- and odd-photon absorption properties shows a semiquantitative similarity, which can be explained using few-state models. This analysis shows that odd-photon abs...

  1. Work-family balance after childbirth: the association between employer-offered leave characteristics and maternity leave duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guendelman, Sylvia; Goodman, Julia; Kharrazi, Martin; Lahiff, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    Early return to work after childbirth has been increasing among working mothers in the US. We assessed the relationship between access to employer-offered maternity leave (EOML) (both paid and unpaid) and uptake and duration of maternity leave following childbirth in a socio-economically diverse sample of full-time working women. We focus on California, a state that has long provided more generous maternity leave benefits than those offered by federal maternity leave policies through the State Disability Insurance program. The sample included 691 mothers who gave birth in Southern California in 2002-2003. Using weighted logistic regression, we examined the EOML-maternity leave duration relationship, controlling for whether the leave was paid, as well as other occupational, personality and health-related covariates. Compared with mothers who were offered more than 12 weeks of maternity leave, mothers with <6 weeks of EOML and those offered 6-12 weeks had five times higher odds of returning to work within 12 weeks; those offered no leave had six times higher odds of an early return. These relationships were similar after controlling for whether the leave was paid and after controlling for other occupational and health characteristics. Access to and duration of employer-offered maternity leave significantly determine timing of return to work following childbirth, potentially affecting work-family balance. Policy makers should recognize the pivotal role of employers in offering job security during and after maternity leave and consider widening the eligibility criteria of the Family and Medical Leave Act. PMID:23504130

  2. Pharmacognostical analysis of Naringi crenulata leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subramanian Sampathkumar; N Ramakrishnan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the pharmacognostical characters of an important medicinal plant Naringi crenulataMethods: The Pharmacognostic studies were carried out in terms of organoleptic or morphological characters, macroscopic studies, physico-chemical evaluation, phytochemical screening and fluorescence analysis of powdered crude drug were carried out. Results: The phytochemical studies of the ethanolic extract showed the presence of tannins, phenols, flavonoids, saponin, quinine, protein, lipid and Triterpenoid, Alkaloids Anthraquinones were not detected. The physico-chemical analysis of the leaves revealed a composition of 19.46% total ash value, 15.24% alcohol soluble extractive value, 61.02% water soluble extractive value, 51.49% acid insoluble ash value and 56.69% crude fibre content. Conclusions:These studies provide referential information for correct identification and standardization ofNaringi crenulata. On the basis of various pharmacognostic parameters and the determination of these characters will aid future investigators in their pharmacological analysis of this species and the presence of phytocompounds, may be of use for developing plant based drugs for various ailments. (N. crenulata) (Roxb.) Nicols.

  3. ANTIDIARRHOEAL ACTIVITY OF LEAVES OF ACORUS CALAMUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayur D. Kapadia et al

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries, the majority of people living in rural areas almost exclusively use traditional medicines to treat all sorts of diseases including diarrhea. Many plants namely Andrographis paniculata, Acacia catechu, Acacia chandra, Terminalia chebula, Pterocarpus marsapium, Cassia auriculata etc. available in india are used in traditional folklore medicine for the treatment of diarrhea. Diarrhoea is a comman cause of illness resulting in high mortality in developing countries worldwide distribution of diarrhoea accounts for more than 5-8 millions deaths each year. It thus becomes important to identify and evaluate scientifically the antidiarrhoeal effects of leaves of Acorus calamus against castor oil induced dirrhoea. Methanolic Extract was studied for antidiarrhoeal potential using wistar rats and loperamide as a standard. Extracts were administered orally to test animals. Stools were collected upto 4 hrs in transparent plastic dishes of uniform weight. Urine was drained off by gravity every 15 mins. during the 4 hrs. diarrhoeal free period, acute diarrhoea and late diarrhoeal excretions were noted. Gastrointestinal motility test also performed. Methanolic extract showed promising antidiarrhoeal activity which valid its traditional claim. Methanolic extract (400mg/kg showed control wet feaces (0.98±0.35 and more diarrhoeal period.

  4. Nematicidal isochromane glycoside from Kigelia pinnata leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olubunmi ATOLANI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic nematicides such as oxamyl and carbofuran play significant roles in the management of plant-parasitic nematodes. However, their negative environmental impacts have it imperative to search for safer alternatives. As part of our contribution in the search for bio-nematicides, compounds from plant extract were screened for possible potent nematicidal agent. A new isochromane carboxylic acid glycoside, isolated from the leaves of Kigelia pinnata (Lam. Benth (Bignoniaceae was evaluated for its nematicidal activity. The structure of the proposed compound was characterized by various spectroscopic methods, which included UV, FTIR, 1D-, and 2D-NMR, FAB-MS, TOF-ESI-MS and TOF-ESI-MS/MS (TANDEM. The in vitro experiment conducted on the glycoside against Meloidogyne incognita juveniles and eggs indicated an induced mortality. Its activity can be compared favourably with oxamyl, when tested at 0.1 mg/mL concentration. At four hours of observation, no significant difference (P < 0.05 between oxamyl and the glycoside was observed. The present data sustains that natural glycoside is a promising oxamyl alternate for controlling nematode-induced plant root knots and may contribute to integrated pest management.

  5. Phytotoxins from the leaves of Ruta graveolens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Amber L; Meepagala, Kumudini M; Oliva, Anna; Aliotta, Giovanni; Duke, Stephen O

    2004-06-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract of Ruta graveolens (common rue) leaves led to the isolation of the furanocoumarins 5-methoxypsoralen (5-MOP), 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP), and the quinolone alkaloid graveoline as phytotoxic constituents. Graveoline and 8-MOP substantially inhibited growth of Lactuca sativa (lettuce) seedlings and reduced chlorophyll content at 100 microM; this effect was not due to a direct effect on chlorophyll synthesis. Radical growth of L. sativa was inhibited by 10 microM 8-MOP. Graveoline inhibited growth of Lemna paucicostata (duckweed) at 100 microM. This is the first report of the phytotoxic activity of graveoline. Growth of Agrostis stolonifera (bentgrass) was inhibited by 5-MOP at 30 microM. All three compounds substantially reduced cell division in Allium cepa (onion) at or below 100 microM. None of the compounds caused significant cellular leakage of Cucumis sativus (cucumber) cotyledon disks at 100 microM. All three compounds inhibit plant growth, at least partially through inhibition of cell division.

  6. Defensive Sesquiterpenoids from Leaves of Eupatorium adenophorum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石伟; 骆世洪; 黎胜红

    2012-01-01

    The invasive plant Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng has caused great economic loss in China, and is gravely threatening the native biodiversity and ecosystem. The plant has been phytochemically investigated for the defen- sive chemical substances in its leaves. Three active sesquiterpenoids were isolated and identified, which include a new sesquiterpenoid (1), and two known sesquiterpenoids (2, 3). Their structures were established by spectroscopic studies such as 1D- and 2D-NMR and MS analyses. Meanwhile, the antifeedant activities of these compounds against two generalist plant-feeding insects, Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera exigua, were carried out. Com- pound 1 showed significant antifeedant activity against S. exigua with ECs0 = 7.46 μg/cm^2, while compounds 2 and 3 were more active against H. armigera (EC50=2.57 and 3.04 μg/cm^2 respectively). These findings suggest a de- fensive role of sesquiterpenoids in E. adenophorum against herbivores.

  7. Antioxidant activity of Aquilaria malaccensis (thymelaeaceae leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.W.N Huda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical and antioxidant activity of Aquilaria malaccensis leaves were investigated. The sequential maceration extraction methods utilizing solvents with different polarities namely hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol yielded the corresponding crude extract. The extracts were subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening and revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavanoids, triterpenoids, steroids and saponins. The phytochemical screening suggests that flavanoids present in this species might provide a great value of antioxidant activity. Preliminary screenings of the free radical scavenging activity on the extracts of the plants with 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH were tested and showed positive result. Quarcetine was used as reference standard. The extracts exhibited strong antioxidant activity radical scavenging activity with IC 50 value of 8.0 Χ 10 2 μg/ml, 1.6 Χ 10 2 μg/ml, 1.4 Χ 10 2 μg/ml, 30.0 μg/ml and 3.33 μg/ ml for hexane, DCM, ethyl acetate, methanol and quarcetine respectively.

  8. Maltose Biochemistry and Transport in Plant Leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Andreas P.M.

    2008-04-25

    Transitory starch builds up in photosynthesizing leaves during the day and is then degraded each night. It has recently been shown through mutant analysis and genetically engineered plants that transitory starch is required for maximal rates of photosynthesis, especially in high carbon dioxide atmospheres. Understanding the pathway by which carbon is exported from chloroplasts at night is limited. Previous work has shown that starch conversion to sucrose at night involves maltose export from chloroplasts. This pathway for carbon export from chloroplasts normally does not occur during the day. The regulation of maltose formation, the transporters that allow export of maltose from the chloroplast, and the cytosolic reactions by which maltose is converted to sucrose remain obscure. Genomic and biochemical approaches are proposed here to address maltose metabolism and transport. The research will cover three areas (1) how are hydrolytic and phosphorylytic starch degradation regulated, (2) how is maltose exported from chloroplasts, and (3) how is maltose converted to sucrose in the cytosol? It is expected that this research will lead to new insights about photosynthesis at high carbon dioxide levels, how carbon is partitioned in plants, and how partitioning can be altered to adapt plants to human needs.

  9. Graphene intracavity spaser absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozovik, Yu. E.; Nechepurenko, I. A.; Dorofeenko, A. V.

    2016-09-01

    We propose an intracavity plasmon absorption spectroscopy method based on graphene active plasmonics. It is shown that the plasmonic cavity contribution to the sensitivity is proportional to the quality factor Q of the graphene plasmonic cavity and reaches two orders of magnitude. The addition of gain medium into the cavity increases the sensitivity of method. Maximum sensitivity is reached in the vicinity of the plasmon generation threshold. The gain contribution to the sensitivity is proportional to Q1/2. The giant amplification of sensitivity in the graphene plasmon generator is associated with a huge path length, limited only by the decoherence processes. An analytical estimation of the sensitivity to loss caused by analyzed particles (molecules, nanoparticles, etc.) normalized by the single pass plasmon scheme is derived. Usage of graphene nanoflakes as plasmonic cavity allows a high spatial resolution to be reached, in addition to high sensitivity.

  10. Quantum-enhanced absorption refrigerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Luis A; Palao, José P; Alonso, Daniel; Adesso, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamics is a branch of science blessed by an unparalleled combination of generality of scope and formal simplicity. Based on few natural assumptions together with the four laws, it sets the boundaries between possible and impossible in macroscopic aggregates of matter. This triggered groundbreaking achievements in physics, chemistry and engineering over the last two centuries. Close analogues of those fundamental laws are now being established at the level of individual quantum systems, thus placing limits on the operation of quantum-mechanical devices. Here we study quantum absorption refrigerators, which are driven by heat rather than external work. We establish thermodynamic performance bounds for these machines and investigate their quantum origin. We also show how those bounds may be pushed beyond what is classically achievable, by suitably tailoring the environmental fluctuations via quantum reservoir engineering techniques. Such superefficient quantum-enhanced cooling realises a promising step towards the technological exploitation of autonomous quantum refrigerators. PMID:24492860

  11. Multistage quantum absorption heat pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Luis A

    2014-04-01

    It is well known that heat pumps, while being all limited by the same basic thermodynamic laws, may find realization on systems as "small" and "quantum" as a three-level maser. In order to quantitatively assess how the performance of these devices scales with their size, we design generalized N-dimensional ideal heat pumps by merging N-2 elementary three-level stages. We set them to operate in the absorption chiller mode between given hot and cold baths and study their maximum achievable cooling power and the corresponding efficiency as a function of N. While the efficiency at maximum power is roughly size-independent, the power itself slightly increases with the dimension, quickly saturating to a constant. Thus, interestingly, scaling up autonomous quantum heat pumps does not render a significant enhancement beyond the optimal double-stage configuration.

  12. HI Absorption in Merger Remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Stacy H.; Veileux, Sylvain; Baker, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    It has been proposed that ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) pass through a luminous starburst phase, followed by a dust-enshrouded AGN phase, and finally evolve into optically bright "naked" quasars once they shed their gas/dust reservoirs through powerful wind events. We present the results of our recent 21- cm HI survey of 21 merger remnants with the Green Bank Telescope. These remnants were selected from the QUEST (Quasar/ULIRG Evolution Study) sample of ULIRGs and PG quasars; our targets are all bolometrically dominated by AGN and sample all phases of the proposed ULIRG -> IR-excess quasar -> optical quasar sequence. We explore whether there is an evolutionary connection between ULIRGs and quasars by looking for the occurrence of HI absorption tracing neutral gas outflows; our results will allow us to identify where along the sequence the majority of a merger's gas reservoir is expelled.

  13. 25 CFR 38.12 - Leave system for education personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leave system for education personnel. 38.12 Section 38.12 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION EDUCATION PERSONNEL § 38.12 Leave system for education personnel. (a) Full-time school-term employees. Employees on a full-time...

  14. Life-history strategies affect aphid preference for yellowing leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holopainen, Jarmo K; Semiz, Gürkan; Blande, James D

    2009-10-23

    According to the nutrient-translocation hypothesis, yellowing tree leaves are colonized by aphids at the end of the growing season owing to improved availability of nutrients in the phloem sap after chlorophyll degradation. We measured aphid densities on potted Betula pendula seedlings in a field site where a small proportion of foliage rapidly turned yellow before normal autumn coloration as a consequence of root anoxia. The number of adults and nymphs of the birch-feeding specialist aphids Euceraphis betulae, Betulaphis brevipilosa and Callipterinella tuberculata were counted from leaves on each of the 222 plants. Aphids were detected on 19 per cent of green leaves and on 41 per cent of yellow leaves. There was no indication of aphid avoidance of yellow leaves, and the number of winged (alate) viviparous E. betulae adults and their nymphs were significantly higher on yellow leaves than on green leaves, while the numbers of apterous B. brevipilosa and C. tuberculata did not differ between the leaf colour types. Our result suggests that only aphid species with alate generation during colour change can take advantage of yellowing leaves. This may explain the exceptional abundance of E. betulae compared with other aphid species on birches. PMID:19535364

  15. Identifying employees at risk for job loss during sick leave

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flach, Peter A.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Bultmann, Ute

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the associations between medical, work-related, organizational and sociodemographic factors and job loss during sick leave in a Dutch population of 4132 employees on sick leave. Methods: Data were assessed by occupational health physicians (OHPs) on sociodemographic, medical, wor

  16. Seasonal Variations of the Flavonoid Content from Ginkgo biloba Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobstein, A; Rietsch-Jako, L; Haag-Berrurier, M; Anton, R

    1991-10-01

    An HPLC method for the separation and the quantitative determination of flavonol glycosides, acylflavonol glycosides, and biflavones in crude leaf extracts from GINKGO BILOBA is described. The results, expressed in percentage of rutine, kaempferol P-coumaroyl glucorhamnoside, and bilobetin showed a higher amount of acylflavonol glycosides in buds, of flavonol glycosides in spring leaves, and of biflavones in autumn leaves.

  17. 20 CFR 416.215 - You leave the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false You leave the United States. 416.215 Section... Eligible § 416.215 You leave the United States. You lose your eligibility for SSI benefits for any month during all of which you are outside of the United States. If you are outside of the United States for...

  18. 5 CFR 630.605 - Computation of home leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 630.605 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE... table: Home Leave-Earning Table Months of service abroad Earning rate (days for each 12 months) 15 10 5... 10 5 (b) When an employee moves between different home leave-earning rates during a month of...

  19. Leaves as composites of latent developmental and evolutionary shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Across plants, leaves exhibit profound diversity in shape. As a single leaf expands, its shape is in constant flux. Additionally, plants may also produce leaves with different shapes at successive nodes. Because leaf shape can vary in many different ways, theoretically the effects of distinct proces...

  20. Chemical analysis of Ginkgo biloba leaves and extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van T.A.

    2002-01-01

    The chemical analysis and quality control of Ginkgo leaves and extracts is reviewed. Important constituents present in the medicinally used leaves are the terpene trilactones, i.e., ginkgolides A, B, C, J and bilobalide, many flavonol glycosides, biflavones, proanthocyanidins, alkylphenols, simple p

  1. Antioxidant Activity of Leaves and Fruits of Iranian Conifers

    OpenAIRE

    Emami, S.A.; J Asili; Mohagheghi, Z.; Hassanzadeh, M. K.

    2007-01-01

    Cupressus semipervirens var. horizontalis, Cupressus semipervirens var. semipervirens, Cupressus semipervirens cv. Cereifeormis, Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica, Juniperus excelsa subsp. excelsa, Juniperus excelsa subsp. polycarpos, Juniperus foetidissima, Juniperus oblonga, Juniperus sabina, Platycladus orientalis and Taxus baccata are Iranian conifers. The antioxidant activity of leaves and fruits of these 11 different taxons were evaluated. The leaves of both male and female, and f...

  2. Predicting Turnover: Validating the Intent to Leave Child Welfare Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Charles; Schudrich, Wendy Zeitlin; Lawrence, Catherine K.; Claiborne, Nancy; McGowan, Brenda G.

    2014-01-01

    A number of proxies have been used in child welfare workforce research to represent actual turnover; however, there have been no psychometric studies to validate a scale specifically designed for this purpose. The Intent to Leave Child Welfare Scale is a proxy for actual turnover that measures workers' intention to leave. This scale was…

  3. Infrared absorption modeling of VOx microbolometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggoun, Mehdi; Jiang, Jianliang; Khan, M. K.

    2015-08-01

    The absorption model plays an important role in the design of the microbolometer structure regarding the determination of the optimum thickness of the structure layers. Moreover, the infrared absorption depends on the wavelength of the radiation and the material properties. In this paper, we presented an Infrared absorption model with absorption coefficient of 96% at maximum absorption wavelength of 9.89μm which is very close to the expected value 10μm. This model was established by using MATLAB so that the simulation of the infrared absorption of the VOx microbolometer could be accomplished. In order to confirm the role of this modeling in the design of the device structure, comparison with other structures is also studied in this paper.

  4. Lyman-alpha Absorption from Heliosheath Neutrals

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, B E; Linsky, J L; Malama, Y G; Wood, Brian E.; Izmodenov, Vladislav V.; Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Malama, Yury G.

    2006-01-01

    We assess what information HST observations of stellar Ly-alpha lines can provide on the heliosheath, the region of the heliosphere between the termination shock and heliopause. To search for evidence of heliosheath absorption, we conduct a systematic inspection of stellar Ly-alpha lines reconstructed after correcting for ISM absorption (and heliospheric/astrospheric absorption, if present). Most of the stellar lines are well centered on the stellar radial velocity, as expected, but the three lines of sight with the most downwind orientations relative to the ISM flow (Chi1 Ori, HD 28205, and HD 28568) have significantly blueshifted Ly-alpha lines. Since it is in downwind directions where heliosheath absorption should be strongest, the blueshifts are almost certainly caused by previously undetected heliosheath absorption. We make an initial comparison between the heliosheath absorption and the predictions of a pair of heliospheric models. A model with a complex multi-component treatment of plasma within the he...

  5. Gravitropism in leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Eriko; Horiguchi, Gorou; Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2006-02-01

    In higher plants, stems and roots show negative and positive gravitropism, respectively. However, current knowledge on the graviresponse of leaves is lacking. In this study, we analyzed the positioning and movement of rosette leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana under light and dark conditions. We found that the radial positioning of rosette leaves was not affected by the direction of gravity under continuous white light. In contrast, when plants were shifted to darkness, the leaves moved upwards, suggesting negative gravitropism. Analysis of the phosphoglucomutase and shoot gravitropism 2-1 mutants revealed that the sedimenting amyloplasts in the leaf petiole are important for gravity perception, as is the case in stems and roots. In addition, our detailed physiological analyses revealed a unique feature of leaf movement after the shift to darkness, i.e. movement could be divided into negative gravitropism and nastic movement. The orientation of rosette leaves is ascribed to a combination of these movements.

  6. Determination of Antioxidants in Oil Palm Leaves (Elaeis guineensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ng M. Han

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Previous findings on the occurrence of water soluble antioxidants in palm oil has brought to the question on whether these compounds is also present in other parts of the oil palm; namely its leaves. Approach: It is now believed that the water soluble antioxidants are also present in other biomass of the oil palm, namely, the leaves. This study reported on the determination of the water soluble antioxidants in oil palm leaves. Results: The results showed the analyses of the antioxidants in oil palm leaves. Conclusion: This study is thus conducted to trace the availability of these antioxidants in the leaves of the oil palm of the Elaeis guineensis variety.

  7. PHARMACOGNOSTICAL EVALUATIONS OF THE LEAVES OF ZIZIPHUS MAURITIANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Kumar Singh et al.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Ziziphus mauritiana belongs to family Rhamnaceae and commonly known as Indian jujube or ber. The leaves are alternate and elliptic. Flowers are small and bisexual. The leaves are about 2.5 – 3.2 cm long. Commercially it is cultivated in China & India. Ziziphus mauritiana is small to medium sized spiny tree. The chemical compositions of the leaves are proteins & amino acids, flavonoids, alkaloids, glycosides, terpenoides, saponins, fibers, tannins and phenolic compounds. Leaves are used in the treatment of diarrhoea, gastric disorder, fever, liver damage and pulmonary disorders. The present work deals to summarize the Pharmacognostical studies like ash value, extractive value, moisture content, volatile matters, crude fibers, phytochemical test, fluorescence analysis and micro chemical test. The alcoholic and aqueous extract of Ziziphus mauritiana leave shows hepatoprotective, antioxidant and other important pharmacological activities. The results of above parameters show the clue for more medicinal properties of Ziziphus mauritiana.

  8. Influence of soil and agricultural technique in metal absorption by vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to verify the influence of soil and agricultural techniques in the metal absorption by the vegetables. Metal concentrations were evaluated in soil and vegetable samples from different regions and cultivated by different agricultural techniques. PIXE, 252Cf-PDMS and Radiochemical techniques were applied. Si, Zr, Ce, Th and Pb, identified in soil samples, were not biologically available. Ga, Ge, As and Br, identified in tubercles, show that spray pesticides used on the vegetable leaves were absorbed by them. 232Th and 238U, presented in the soil, were not absorbed by the vegetables. Airborne particles from anthropogenic sources (CFn, VCn) were absorbed by the vegetables. Compounds from mineral sources, presented in soil, (V+, VCO3, HPO4, Cr+, CrOH+ Mn+, FeH, Fe(OH)n) and bioorganic compounds (N+, Ca(CN)n +, CnH+) were identified in the vegetables. Metal absorbed by the vegetables is not dependent on metal concentration in soil. Different tubercles cultivated in the same soil show similar metal absorption. The exogenous contributions, such as the elements presented in water irrigation, pesticides, fertilizers and airborne particles deposited on leaves can be absorbed by the vegetables. Absorption by the roots depends on the chemical compound of the elements. Pesticide sprays and air pollution can cause more contamination in the vegetables than in the soil. The use of this methodology allows the identification of possible sources of metals in soils and in vegetables and metal speciation. (author)

  9. Absorptive capacity and regional patterns of innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Abreu, Maria; Grinevich, Vadim; Kitson, Michael; Savona, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Executive Summary This paper considers whether differences in absorptive capacity at the firm-level are determinants of regional variations in innovation performance. Differences in firms’ absorptive capacity are also due to sectoral and technological specificities. Both firms’ absorptive capacity and sectoral structure differ widely across regions: this analysis focuses on the former while controlling for the latter aspect in order to evaluate regional differences in firms’ propensity to...

  10. Absorption boundary conditions for geomertical acoustics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2012-01-01

    Defining accurate acoustical boundary conditions is of crucial importance for room acoustic simulations. In predicting sound fields using phased geometrical acoustics methods, the absorption coefficients or surface impedances of the boundary surfaces can be used, but no guideline has been developed...... solutions. Two rectangular rooms with uniform and non-uniform absorption distributions are tested. It is concluded that the impedance and random incidence absorption boundary conditions produce reasonable results with some exceptions at low frequencies for acoustically soft materials....

  11. Evaluation of the biological effect of the concentration of ''CMU''on the leaves plant breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of CMU (3-p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea on the photosynthetic activity of six species of higher plants and on chlorella pyrenoidosa was studied. In the higher plants the absorption of CMU was studied using 14C-CMU. The effect of different concentrations of this herbicide on the photosynthetic assimilation of CO2 by the plant's leaves has also been determined. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of the CMU on the Hill reaction of isolated chloroplasts has been studied. The results indicate that there is a correlation between the concentration of the herbicide and the degree of inhibition of photosynthesis for concentration between 10-8 M and 10-4 M. As a consequence of the results obtained, a biotest is proposed for the detection of residues of the photosynthesis inhibitors using the alga chlorella pyrenoidosa as the sensory element. (auth.)

  12. Determination of elements in citrus leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In many agricultural stations and farms most of the problems encountered generally reduce to questions of diminished yield. This may be due to a number of factors, including soil exhaustion and the application of fertilizers of unsuitable formula. The chemical impoverishment of the soil is due to the leaching-out phenomenon, i- e. the washing out of bases, and to the ''exportation'' of fertilizer elements in the form of crops in years when nothing has been returned to the soil. These losses have a particularly adverse effect if the parent rock does not contain sufficient mineral reserves to compensate for them by a slow alteration process. Such impoverishment is revealed by soil and foliar analyses. The authors have attempted to determine the content in citrus plants of the following elements: Mn, P, Cu, Cl and K (the latter on three samples only). After collection, the samples are treated by Bransolten's method (Rapport de Recherche TRICO № 15/1968), dried for at least 12 hours at 105°C, followed by pulverization of the leaves, after which the determination is carried out. The determination of Mn and Cl is very simple, as is that of Cu. The latter is determined by activation with slow neutrons in order to avoid Zn formation. The phosphorus content is determined by measuring the beta-radiation emitted by the radioactive elements. In this case particular precautions must be taken to ensure that the same layer is used for the samples and the standards, since beta-radiation is absorbed by these layers. For the K and Na determinations thermal neutrons are used for activation and a Ge(Li) detector for measurement of the gamma-spectra. Because of the high resolution of the detector, the two elements can be determined without separation. (author)

  13. Proteome analysis of muscadine grape leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh M Basha

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Sheikh M Basha1, Ramesh Katam1, Hemanth Vasanthaiah1, Frank Matta21Center for Viticulture and Small Fruit Research, Florida A and M University, Tallahassee, FL, USA; 2Plant and Soil Science Department, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS, USAAbstract: Muscadine grapes are native to the southeastern United States and are used for making wine and consumed as fresh fruit. Grape berries, as ‘sink organs,’ rely on the use of available carbohydrate resources produced by photosynthesis to support their development and composition. A high throughput two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE was conducted on muscadine (Vitis rotundifolia grape leaf proteins to document complexity in their composition and to determine protein identity and function for enhancing photosynthetic efficiency of muscadine grape. 2-DE resolved muscadine leaf proteins into >258 polypeptides with pIs between 3.5 and 8.0 and molecular weight between 12,000 to 15,0000 Daltons. The consistently expressed proteins were excised and subjected to sequencing. Homology search of protein sequences showed 84% identity with Viridi plantae database. Identity of some of these proteins included RuBisCO, glutamine synthetase, pathogenesis-related protein, glyoxisomal malate dehydrogenase, ribonucleoprotein, chloroplast precursor, oxygen evolving enhancer protein. Comparative analysis of 10 muscadine cultivars showed quantitative differences in expression of 39 polypeptides among these genotypes. The results suggested that the polypeptide composition of muscadine grape leaf is complex, and polypeptide number and amount vary widely among muscadine genotypes, and these variations may be responsible for differences in their physiology, berry and stress tolerance characteristics.Keywords: grapevine, leaves, muscadine, proteins, sequencing, 2-DE

  14. Neural regulation of intestinal nutrient absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, Fadi H; Saadé, Nayef E

    2011-10-01

    The nervous system and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract share several common features including reciprocal interconnections and several neurotransmitters and peptides known as gut peptides, neuropeptides or hormones. The processes of digestion, secretion of digestive enzymes and then absorption are regulated by the neuro-endocrine system. Luminal glucose enhances its own absorption through a neuronal reflex that involves capsaicin sensitive primary afferent (CSPA) fibres. Absorbed glucose stimulates insulin release that activates hepatoenteric neural pathways leading to an increase in the expression of glucose transporters. Adrenergic innervation increases glucose absorption through α1 and β receptors and decreases absorption through activation of α2 receptors. The vagus nerve plays an important role in the regulation of diurnal variation in transporter expression and in anticipation to food intake. Vagal CSPAs exert tonic inhibitory effects on amino acid absorption. It also plays an important role in the mediation of the inhibitory effect of intestinal amino acids on their own absorption at the level of proximal or distal segment. However, chronic extrinsic denervation leads to a decrease in intestinal amino acid absorption. Conversely, adrenergic agonists as well as activation of CSPA fibres enhance peptides uptake through the peptide transporter PEPT1. Finally, intestinal innervation plays a minimal role in the absorption of fat digestion products. Intestinal absorption of nutrients is a basic vital mechanism that depends essentially on the function of intestinal mucosa. However, intrinsic and extrinsic neural mechanisms that rely on several redundant loops are involved in immediate and long-term control of the outcome of intestinal function.

  15. Absorption events associated with solar flares

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    During the upward period of solar cycle 23, the imaging riometer at Zhongshan, Antarctica (geomag. lat. 74.5°S) was used to study the solar proton events and the X-ray solar flares which are associated with the absorption events. In our study, the relationship between the absorption intensity and X-ray flux is found in a power form which is consistent with the theoretical result. The imaging riometer absorption data at Ny-?lesund, Svalbard reconfirm the above relationship. We also argue that only M-class flares can generate a significant daytime absorption.

  16. Differential Photoacoustic Particle Absorption Monitor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We developed a highly sensitive and compact instrument to directly measure particulate matter (PM) optical absorption. This device is based on differential...

  17. Teaching about photosynthesis with simple equipment: analysis of light-induced changes in fluorescence and reflectance of plant leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björn, Lars Olof; Li, Shaoshan

    2013-10-01

    Solar energy absorbed by plants results in either reflection or absorption. The latter results in photosynthesis, fluorescence, or heat. Measurements of fluorescence changes have been used for monitoring processes associated with photosynthesis. A simple method to follow changes in leaf fluorescence and leaf reflectance associated with nonphotochemical quenching and light acclimation of leaves is described. The main equipment needed consists of a green-light emitting laser pointer, a digital camera, and a personal computer equipped with the camera acquisition software and the programs ImageJ and Excel. Otherwise, only commonly available cheap materials are required. PMID:23728512

  18. 0144 Sick leave patterns as predictors of disability pension or long-term sick leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stapelfeldt, Christina; Vinther Nielsen, Claus; Trolle Andersen, Niels;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The public health care sector is challenged by high sick leave rates among home-care personnel. This group also has a high probability of being granted a disability pension. We studied whether a workplace-registered frequent short-term sick leave spell pattern was an early indicator of...... future disability pension or future long-term sick leave among eldercare workers. METHOD: 2774 employees' sick leave days were categorised: 0-2 and 3-17 short (1-7 days) spells, 2-13 mixed short and long (8+ days) spells, and long spells only. Disability pension and long-term sick leave were subsequently...... pattern was not associated with a significantly increased RR compared with a non-frequent short-term pattern. The risk of long-term sick leave was significantly increased (1.35-1.64 (95% CI: 1.12-2.03) for all sick leave patterns beyond 0-2 short spells. CONCLUSIONS: Sick leave length was a better...

  19. A biochemical model of photosynthesis for mango leaves: evidence for the effect of fruit on photosynthetic capacity of nearby leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, L; Le Roux, X; Sinoquet, H; Jaffuel, S; Jannoyer, M

    2003-04-01

    Variations in leaf nitrogen concentration per unit mass (Nm) and per unit area (Na), mass-to-area ratio (Ma), total nonstructural carbohydrates (Ta), and photosynthetic capacity (maximum carboxylation rate, electron transport capacity, rate of phosphate release in triose phosphate utilization and dark respiration rate) were studied within the digitized crowns of two 3-year-old mango trees (Mangifera indica L.) on La Réunion Island. Additional measurements of Nm, Na, Ma, Ta and photosynthetic capacities were performed on young, fully expanded leaves of 11-year-old mango trees. Leaves of similar gap fractions were taken far from and close to developing fruits. Unlike Nm, both Na and Ta were linearly correlated to gap fraction. Similar relationships were found for all leaves whatever their age and origin, except for Ta, for which we found a significant tree effect. Photosynthetic capacity was nonlinearly correlated to Na, and a unique relationship was obtained for all types of leaves. Photosynthetic acclimation to light was mainly driven by changes in Ma, but allocation of total leaf N between the different photosynthetic functions also played a substantial role in acclimation to the lowest irradiances. Leaves close to developing fruits exhibited a higher photosynthetic capacity than other leaves, but similar Ta. Our data suggest that Ta does not control photosynthetic capacity in mango leaves. We used the data to parameterize a biochemically based model of photosynthesis and an empirical stomatal conductance model, allowing accurate predictions of net photosynthesis of leaves in field-grown mango trees.

  20. Paid Educational Leave and Self-Directed Learning: Implications for Legislation on the Learning Leave Scheme in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jeong Rok; Park, Cho Hyun; Jo, Sung Jun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this study are to explore paid educational leave (PEL), self-directed learning (SDL) and the relationship between them; and to identify the implications for legislation on the learning leave scheme in South Korea. Design/Methodology/Approach: The research method of the study is a literature review. Articles were identified…

  1. Nitrate Effect on Rice Growth and Nitrogen Absorption and Assimilation at Different Growth Stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Ying-Hua; ZHANG Ya-Li; SHEN Qi-Rong; WANG Song-Wei

    2006-01-01

    The effect of nitrate (NO3-) on rice (Oryza sativa L.) growth as well as N absorption and assimilation during different growth stages was examined using three typical rice cultivars. Dry weight, yield, N uptake, nitrate reductase activity(NRA) in leaves, and glutamine synthetase activity (GSA) in roots and leaves during their entire growth periods, as well as the kinetic parameters of ammonium (NH4+) uptake at the seedling stage, were measured with solution culture experiments. Results indicated that addition of NH4+-N and NO3--N at a ratio of 75:25 (NH4++NO3- treatment) whencompared with that of NH4+-N alone (NH4+ treatment) increased the dry weight of 'Nanguang' cultivar by 30% and treatment compared to the NH4+ treatment, NRA in the leaves increased by 2.09 folds, and GSA increased by 92% in the roots and 52% in the leaves of the three cultivars. NO3- supply increased the maximum uptake rate (Vmax) in the uptake rate of NH4+ by rice. There was no effect on the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) of the three cultivars.Thus, some replacement of NH4+ with NO3- could greatly improve the growth of rice plants, mainly on account of the increased uptake of NH4+ promoted by NO3-, and future studies should focus on the molecular mechanism of the increased uptake of NH4+ by NO3-.

  2. Use of Atomic Absorption Spectrometry in Assessment of Biomonitor Plants for Lead, Cadmium and Copper Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gokce Kaya; Mehmet Yaman

    2012-01-01

    Eleven plant species were collected from the vicinity of lead-battery plant in the city of Gaziantep,Turkey.Lead,cadmium and copper concentrations in the soil and leaves of plants were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry.Lead,Cd and Cu concentrations in the soil samples taken from battery area were found to be in the ranges of 304~602,0.4~0.44 and 31~37 mg · kg-1,respectively.Significantly increased lead concentration up to 2 750 mg · kg-1 was found in the leaves of Eleagnus angustifolia L.plant.The lead concentrations in the other plant leaves taken from 50 m around battery factory followed the order Ailanthus altissima >Morus sp.> Juglans regia L.> Ficus carica L.>Cydonia oblonga Miller> Prunus x domestica L.The plants,Populus nigra L.,Eleagnus angustifolia L.and Salix sp.were found useful for Cd,and the plant,Eleagnus angustifolia L.for Pb,to be considered as potential biomonitor.Especially,leaves of trees and plants taken from the distance of 50 m from battery plant have relatively higher Pb concentrations.Therefore,people who and animals which live in this area and benefit from these soil and plants have vital risks.

  3. Use of atomic absorption spectrometry in assessment of biomonitor plants for lead, cadmium and copper pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokce, Kaya; Mehmet, Yaman

    2012-01-01

    Eleven plant species were collected from the vicinity of lead-battery plant in the city of Gaziantep, Turkey. Lead, cadmium and copper concentrations in the soil and leaves of plants were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Lead, Cd and Cu concentrations in the soil samples taken from battery area were found to be in the ranges of 304-602, 0.4-0.44 and 31-37 mg x kg(-1), respectively. Significantly increased lead concentration up to 2 750 mg x kg(-1) was found in the leaves of Eleagnus angustifolia L. plant. The lead concentrations in the other plant leaves taken from 50 m around battery factory followed the order Ailanthus altissima > Morus sp. > Juglans regia L. > Ficus carica L. > Cydonia oblonga Miller > Prunus x domestica L. The plants, Populus nigra L. , Eleagnus angustifolia L. and Salix sp. were found useful for Cd, and the plant, Eleagnus angusti folia L. for Pb, to be considered as potential biomonitor. Especially, leaves of trees and plants taken from the distance of 50 m from battery plant have relatively higher Pb concentrations. Therefore, people who and animals which live in this area and benefit from these soil and plants have vital risks.

  4. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using extracts of Artocarpus Lakoocha fruit and its leaves, and Eriobotrya Japonica leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) synthesis is demonstrated successfully using fresh young leaves of Artocarpus Lakoocha (A. Lakoocha), fruit pulp of A. Lakoocha and loquat (Eriobotrya Japonica) leaves. We have also compared green synthesis with chemical assisted tri-n-octyl-phosphine (TOP) stabilized gold nanoparticles. Samples were characterized with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and UV-Visible spectroscopy. TEM images have shown that the average size of the particles is 15.06, 36.8 and 25.08 nm for A. Lakoocha fruits, A. Lakoocha leaves and loquat leaves assisted gold nanoparticles, respectively. Hydrogen tetrachloroaurate is reduced and AuNPs are stabilized by phenols, hydroxyls and carboxyls groups such as terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins etc, present in young leaves and fruit extracts. It was observed that green synthesis using botanical extracts is a cost effective and non- toxic way for nanoparticle preparation. (paper)

  5. HPLC determination of eight polyphenols in the leaves of Crataegus pinnatifida Bge. var. major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Xixiang; Wang, Rongxiang; Xu, Jing; Zhang, Wenjie; Li, Haibo; Zhang, Chaoshen; Li, Famei

    2009-03-01

    A simple high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) assay using the internal standard method is developed for the simultaneous determination of eight polyphenols. The analyzed compounds isolated from the leaves of Crataegus pinnatifida Bge. var. major include chlorogenic acid, vitexin-4"-O-glucoside, vitexin-2"-O-rhamnoside, vitexin, rutin, hyperoside, isoquercitrin, and quercetin. HPLC analysis is performed on a Diamonsil C18 analytical column (150 x 4.6 mm, i.d., 5-microm) using solvent (A) acetonitrile-tetrahydrofuran (95:5, v/v) and (B) 1% aqueous phosphoric acid as the mobile phase with UV absorption at 270 nm. The calibration curves of the eight polyphenols are linear (r(2) > 0.9992) over the concentration range of 0.0894-120.0 microg/mL. The mean recoveries are 95.4% to 98.1%. The results indicate that the HPLC method developed can easily be applied to the determination of eight polyphenols in the leaves of Crataegus pinnatifida Bge. var. major.

  6. Preliminary study of the digestive effects of Chenopodium ambrosioides Linn. (Chenopodiaceae leaves extracts in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daga Dadjo Florian,

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the crude aqueous extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides leaves on food intake and digestibility were evaluated with twelve Sahelian goats weighing about 25 kg. Three experimental groups, each consisting of three animals, were treated respectively with the dose of 1ml, 2ml and 4ml/kg of body weight. Treatment was daily and lasted three days. One control group, receiving the same diet as the experimental groups, was involved. The experiment revealed that the herbal extract induced a highly significant variation (p <0.01 in voluntary feed intake expressed in grams of dry matter (DM from 366.67 g ± 86 (control group to 631.67 g ± 106.37 (4ml/kg/BW treated group. Concerning digestibility, the results indicated an increase in the absorption of ash and fibre (39.65 % ± 2.65 to 51.38 % ± 4.91. But the digestibility of protein was only slightly influenced by the herbal extract. Animals treated with 4ml/kg/BW dosage had soft and pasty faeces. The aqueous extract of C. ambrosioides leaves would own interesting digestive effects in small ruminants in the fattening stage or those suffering from indigestion due to rumen stuffing. Further specialized studies may clarify those effects.

  7. Optical solar energy adaptations and radiative temperature control of green leaves and tree barks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henrion, Wolfgang; Tributsch, Helmut [Department of Si-Photovoltaik and Solare Energetik, Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin, 14109 Berlin (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    Trees have adapted to keep leaves and barks cool in sunshine and can serve as interesting bionic model systems for radiative cooling. Silicon solar cells, on the other hand, loose up to one third of their energy efficiency due to heating in intensive sunshine. It is shown that green leaves minimize absorption of useful radiation and allow efficient infrared thermal emission. Since elevated temperatures are detrimental for tensile water flow in the Xylem tissue below barks, the optical properties of barks should also have evolved so as to avoid excessive heating. This was tested by performing optical studies with tree bark samples from representative trees. It was found that tree barks have optimized their reflection of incoming sunlight between 0.7 and 2 {mu}m. This is approximately the optical window in which solar light is transmitted and reflected by green vegetation. Simultaneously, the tree bark is highly absorbing and thus radiation emitting between 6 and 10 {mu}m. These two properties, mainly provided by tannins, create optimal conditions for radiative temperature control. In addition, tannins seem to have adopted a function as mediators for excitation energy towards photo-antioxidative activity for control of radiation damage. The results obtained are used to discuss challenges for future solar cell optimization. (author)

  8. Proximate, mineral and phytochemical analysis of the leaves of H. myriantha and Urera trinervis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcel, Andzouana; Bievenu, Mombouli Jean

    2012-06-01

    The vegetal materials were bought on 20th October, 2010 at the local Total market from Bacongo, South-Brazzaville. The proximate and phytochemical compositions of the leaves of H. myriantha and Urera trinervis were investigated in accordance with standard procedures. Mineral concentrations were determined by using flame photometer, atomic absorption spectrophotometer and calorimetry. The proximate analysis revealed high moisture (62.90%), crude protein (24.18%) and energy content values (562.19 kJ/100 g) in U. trinervis leaves while the carbohydrate (06.07%), crude fat (1.32%) and ash content (5.54%) were low. Similarly H. myriantha showed a high content of crude protein (25.37%), energy (1508.32 kJ/100 g) and carbohydrate (60.02%) however, the moisture (6.93%), crude fat (1.54%) and ash content (6.14%) were low. The minerals present in both plant leaves were phosphorus (18.97 and 18.73% for H. myriantha and U. trinervis, respectively), followed by potassium (1.25 and 1.29%), calcium and magnesium, which were found in very low concentrations (0.21-0.29%). While sodium, iron and manganese were present as trace elements (0.02-0.09%), aluminum was not detected. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, triterpenoids and steroids. Flavonoids were absent solely in H. myriantha while saponins and anthraquinones were not detected in both samples. The study showed that these vegetables contained nutrients, mineral elements and phytochemicals that were nutritionally important for body health. Thus they could be recommended in Congolese nutrition with nutrient and non-nutrient supplementation to help in various protective and therapeutic actions for consumers.

  9. Phloem unloading in developing leaves of sugar beet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physiological and transport data support a symplastic pathway for phloem unloading in developing leaves of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. Klein E, multigerm). The sulfhydryl inhibitor parachloromercuribenzene sulfonic acid (PCMBS) inhibited uptake of [14C]-sucrose added to the free space of developing leaves, but did not affect import of [14C]-sucrose during steady-state 14CO2 labeling of a source leaf. The passively-transported xenobiotic sugar, [14C]-L-glucose did not readily enter mesophyll cells when supplied through the cut end of the petiole of a sink leaf as determined by whole leaf autoradiography. In contrast, [14C]-L-glucose translocated through the phloem from a mature leaf, rapidly entered mesophyll cells, and was evenly distributed between mesophyll and veins. Autoradiographs of developing leaves following a pulse of 14CO2 to a source leaf revealed rapid passage of phloem translocated into progressively higher order veins as the leaf developed. Entry into V order veins occurred during the last stage of import through the phloem. Import into developing leaves was inhibited by glyphosate (N-phosphomethylglycine), a herbicide which inhibits the aromatic amino acid pathway and hence protein synthesis. Glyphosate also stopped net starch accumulation in sprayed mature leaves, but did not affect export of carbon from treated leaves during the time period that import into developed leaves was inhibited

  10. Phytochemical, proximate and elemental analysis of acalypha wilkesiana leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Kingsley

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Acalypha wilkesiana,commonly called Irish petticoat, is native to the south pacific islands andbelongs to the family Euphorbiaceae. Apart from its use as a vegetable, theplant is also used in traditional medicine as a diuretic plant and is eaten inthe management of hypertension. In this study, three samples (ethanol extract,aqueous extract and dried powder of Acalypha wilkesiana leaves were analyzedfor the presence of phytochemicals according to standard methods. Apart fromflavonoids, steroids, anthraquinones and phytate, all the phytochemicals testedfor are present in the three samples. This qualitative analysis showed thepresence of flavonoids only in the ethanol extract and powdered leave, steroidsonly in the ethanol extract, anthraquinones and phytate in the aqueous extractand powdered leave only. Proximate analysis revealed the presence of ash [4.16%(aqueous extract,13.98% (ethanol extract and 13.65% (powdered leaves],moisture [66.0% (aqueous extract, 30.89% (ethanol extract and 12.0% (powderedleaves], total lipid [1.75% (aqueous extract, 4.25% (ethanol extract and2.20% (powdered leaves], as well as fiber, crude protein and energy, whileelemental analysis revealed the presence of sodium [0.0086% (aqueous extract,0.024% (ethanol extract and 0.015% (powdered leaves], potassium [0.49%(aqueous extract, 1.36% (ethanol extract and 1.44% (powdered leaves], aswell as chloride and calcium. The various phytochemical compounds detected areknown to have beneficial use in industries and medical sciences, and alsoexhibit physiological activity.

  11. An experimental study on drying kinetics of some herbal leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, Ahmet; Aydin, Orhan [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)

    2009-01-15

    In this study, thin-layer drying characteristics of some herbal leaves, mainly nettle and mint leaves, are investigated experimentally in a convective drier. Effects of the drying air parameters including temperature, velocity and relative humidity on the total drying time are determined. Initially, sorption isotherms of the dried leaves are determined for different temperatures and equilibrium relative humidity (e.r.h.). Experiments are conducted for air temperatures at 35, 45 and 55 C, velocities at 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 m/s and, relative humidity values at 40%, 55% and 70%. In the ranges that covered, the values of the moisture diffusivity D{sub eff} are obtained between 1.744 x 10{sup -9} and 4.992 x 10{sup -9} m{sup 2}/s for nettle leaves and 1.975 x 10{sup -9} and 6.172 x 10{sup -9} m{sup 2}/s for mint leaves from the Fick's diffusion model. Using D{sub eff}, the value of E{sub a} is determined assuming the Arrhenius-type temperature relationship, which varies from 79.873 to 109.003 kJ/mol for nettle leaves and 66.873 to 71.987 kJ/mol for mint leaves. (author)

  12. Infrared multiphoton absorption and decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discovery of infrared laser induced multiphoton absorption (IRMPA) and decomposition (IRMPD) by Isenor and Richardson in 1971 generated a great deal of interest in these phenomena. This interest was increased with the discovery by Ambartzumian, Letokhov, Ryadbov and Chekalin that isotopically selective IRMPD was possible. One of the first speculations about these phenomena was that it might be possible to excite a particular mode of a molecule with the intense infrared laser beam and cause decomposition or chemical reaction by channels which do not predominate thermally, thus providing new synthetic routes for complex chemicals. The potential applications to isotope separation and novel chemistry stimulated efforts to understand the underlying physics and chemistry of these processes. At ICOMP I, in 1977 and at ICOMP II in 1980, several authors reviewed the current understandings of IRMPA and IRMPD as well as the particular aspect of isotope separation. There continues to be a great deal of effort into understanding IRMPA and IRMPD and we will briefly review some aspects of these efforts with particular emphasis on progress since ICOMP II. 31 references

  13. Thermochemical characterization of banana leaves as a potential energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The chemical composition of semi-dried banana leaves are similar to the other biomass. • The semi-dried leaves present high release of energy under inert and oxidant atmosphere. • The energy released on pyrolysis and combustion can be used to dry the wet banana leaves. • The thermochemical conversion processes can reduce the waste volume significantly. • The banana leaves have potential to use as biomass through combustion and pyrolysis process. - Abstract: Wet and semi-dried banana leaves were characterized through elemental and proximate analyses, lignocellulosic fraction and thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and high heating value analysis to assess their use as biomass in generating energy through combustion; they were also assessed to determine the potential of obtaining value-added products through pyrolysis. The wet banana leaves had high moisture content of 74.7%. The semi-dried samples exhibited 8.3% moisture, 78.8% volatile solids, 43.5% carbon and a higher heating value of 19.8 MJ/kg. The nitrogen and sulfur contents in the banana leaves were very low. The semi-dried and wet leaves had hemicellulose and lignin contents close to other biomass fuels, and the semi-dried leaves had the lowest cellulose content, of 26.7%. The wet and semi-dried samples showed the same thermal events in oxidizing and inert atmospheres, but with distinctly different mass loss and energy release intensities. The chemical characteristics and the thermal behavior demonstrated by the semi-dried samples indicate their potential for use as biomass, with results similar to other agro-industrial wastes currently used

  14. Chemical form of technetium in corn (Zea mays) and the gastrointestinal absorption of plant-incorporated Tc by laboratory rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The food chain availability of technetium incorporated into plant tissue, its chemical form in corn leaves, and the potential for gastrointestinal absorption of plant-incorporated technetium was investigated. Technetium-95m was incorporated into corn leaves via root uptake. Chemical fractionation of the /sup 95m/Tc in leaves showed that 60% was extractable with boiling ethanol and weak mineral acids. The remainder was associated with cell walls and was extractable by harsh chemical treatment. Gel permeation chromatography of the cytosol, indicated that 50% of the /sup 95m/Tc co-chromatographed with anionic pertechnetate; however, it was impossible to distinguish if this pure pertechnetate or technetium complexed with organic molecules. Technetium-95m was administered to laboratory rats in a single dose as: (1) intravenous injection of pertechnetate, (2) pertechnetate mixed with standard laboratory food, and (3) a meal containing /sup 95m/Tc biologically incorporated into corn leaves. High concentrations of /sup 95m/Tc were found in the thyroids, hair, kidneys, and liver of rats. Technetium rapidly disappeared from the liver, kidneys, and other tissues, but remained in the thyroids and hair. Urinary excretion of technetium decreased, and fecal excretion increased when technetium was fed to rats as a /sup 95m/Tc incorporated into corn leaves. The percent of the administered dose absorbed into thyroid gland and the kidneys was less when technetium was biologically incorporated into corn leaves than when pertechnetate was mixed with food. Biological incorporation of technetium into plants appears to reduce its potential for food chain transfer by decreasing its availability for gastrointestinal absorption. 5 references, 4 figures, 3 tables

  15. Ultrafast THz Saturable Absorption in Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Hoffmann, Matthias C.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate THz saturable absorption in n-doped semiconductors GaAs, GaP, and Ge in a nonlinear THz time-domain spectroscopy experiment. Saturable absorption is caused by sample conductivity modulation due to electron heating and satellite valley scattering in the field of a strong THz pulse....

  16. On the absorption of alendronate in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J H; Chen, I W; deLuna, F A

    1994-12-01

    Alendronate is an antiosteolytic agent under investigation for the treatment of a number of bone disorders. Since the compound is a zwitterion with five pKa values and is completely ionized in the intestine at the physiological pH, absorption is poor; less than 1% of an oral dose is available systemically in rats. In the present studies, absorption was found to be predominantly in the upper part of the small intestine. Administration of buffered solutions of alendronate (pH 2-11) did not improve absorption. Whereas food markedly impaired the absorption of alendronate, EDTA enhanced absorption in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment of rats with ulcerogenic agents, mepirizole, acetylsalicylic acid, or indomethacin, resulted in a 3-7-fold increase in the oral absorption of alendronate. The absorption of phenol red, added as an indicator of intestinal tissue damage, was also increased in rats with experimental peptic ulcers. The enhanced absorption of alendronate observed in rats with experimental peptic ulcers was attributed to the alteration of the integrity of the intestinal membrane. PMID:7891304

  17. Iron absorption from intrinsically-labeled lentils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low iron (Fe) absorption from important staple foods may contribute to Fe deficiency in developing countries. To date, there are few studies examining the Fe bioavailability of pulse crops as commonly prepared and consumed by humans. The objectives of this study were to characterize the Fe absorpt...

  18. Absorption, bioavailability and metabolism of flavonoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollman, P.C.H.

    2004-01-01

    To unravel mechanisms of action of dietary flavonoids in their potential role in disease prevention, it is crucial to know the factors that determine their release from foods, their extent of absorption, and their fate in the organism. Research on absorption, metabolism, and bioavailability of flavo

  19. Determination of spectrophotometric absorptivity by analytical ultracentrifugation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Senthilraja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid determination of the absorptivity for a recombinant IgG monoclonal antibody using the Beckman equipped with both Raleigh interference and UV absorbance optical systems. The analytical ultracentrifuge data for determining spectrophotometric absorptivities is compared to experimental data from quantitative amino acid analysis and an enzymatic digestion method.

  20. VAPID: Voigt Absorption-Profile [Interstellar] Dabbler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, Ian D.

    2015-06-01

    VAPID (Voigt Absorption Profile [Interstellar] Dabbler) models interstellar absorption lines. It predicts profiles and optimizes model parameters by least-squares fitting to observed spectra. VAPID allows cloud parameters to be optimized with respect to several different data set simultaneously; those data sets may include observations of different transitions of a given species, and may have different S/N ratios and resolutions.

  1. Flue gas treatment with membrane gas absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, R.; Feron, P.H.M.; Jansen, A.E.

    1998-01-01

    Dutch researchers from the TN0 Institute have developed a technique to carry out gas-liquid contacting operations using hollow fibre membranes in combination with an absorption liquid. The method known as membrane gas absorption, aims to combine the advantages of membrane technology (compactness, fl

  2. Emission and Absorption Entropy Generation in Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reck, Kasper; Varpula, Aapo; Prunnila, Mika;

    2013-01-01

    While emission and absorption entropy generation is well known in black bodies, it has not previously been studied in semiconductors, even though semiconductors are widely used for solar light absorption in modern solar cells [1]. We present an analysis of the entropy generation in semiconductor ...

  3. Enriching Absorptive Capacity through Social Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hotho, Jasper J.; Becker-Ritterspach, Florian; Saka-Helmhout, Ayse

    2012-01-01

    Absorptive capacity is frequently highlighted as a key determinant of knowledge transfer within multinational enterprises. But how individual behaviour translates into absorptive capacity at the subsidiary level, and how this is contingent on subsidiaries' social context, remains under-addressed. Th

  4. Photosynthetic Characteristics and Antioxidative Metabolism of Flag Leaves in Responses to Nitrogen Application During Grain Filling of Field-Grown Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Rui-guo; WANG Zhen-lin; ZHANG Min; YIN Yan-ping; WANG Ping; ZHANG Ti-bin; GU Feng; DAI Zhong-min; LIANG Tai-bo; WU Yun-hai

    2008-01-01

    A two-factorial experiment was conducted with two wheat cultivars,SN1391(large spike and large grain)and GC8901(multiple spike and medium grain),and two nitrogen(N)application rates(12 and 24 g N m-2),to investigate the responses of photosynthetic characteristics and antioxidative metabolism to nitrogen rates in flag leaves of field-grown wheat during grain filling.The results showed that the content of N and chlorophyll(Chl)in wheat flag leaves decreased after anthesis and the net photosynthetic rate(Pn),effective quantum yield of PS II(ΦPS Ⅱ),efficiency of excitation capture by open PS H reaction centers(Fv'/Fm'),and photochemical quenching coefficient(qp)began to decrease at 14 days after anthesis.However,the maximal efficiency of PS II photochemistry(Fv/Fm)decreased slightly until the late period of senescence and the nonphotochemical quenching coefficient(NPQ)increased during flag leaves' senescence.As a result,a conflict came into being between absorption and utilization to light energy in flag leaves during senescence,which might accelerate the senescence of flag leaves.Compared with GC8901,the lower plant population of SN1391during grain filling was helpful to maintain the higher content of photosynthetic pigment,activity of PS U,and Pn in flag leaves during senescence.The delayed decrease in antioxidative enzyme activity and the lower degree of membrane lipid peroxidation in the senescing leaves of SN1391 were beneficial to protect the photosynthetic apparatus,which lead to the prolonged duration of CO2 assimilation.With the increase of N application,the Chl content of SN1391 flag leaves and the efficiency of excitation captured by open PS II centers increased.At the same time,the thermal dissipation in SN1391 flag leaves at high N(HN)treatment decreased and ?PsⅡimproved greatly,which were favorable to the increase of Pn.The SOD,POD,CAT and APX activities in the flag leaves of SN1391 increased markedly at HN treatment,indicating that these enzymes

  5. Structural modification induced by air pollutants in Plantago lanceolata leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Neta GOSTIN

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Some structural parameters of Plantago lanceolata leaves, which may be considered as biomarkers, were investigated, in order to establish what modifications occur under the pollutants action. The material was represented by leaves of different ages collected from sites with different pollution degrees of the Ceahlau Mountain.External symptoms such as necrotic areas were observed on plants leaves exposed to air pollution. The leaf structure of the analyzed species show some dark deposits in the assimilatory cells, especially from palisade parenchyma. The necrotic areas shows hypertrophied assimilatory cells with thick walls and tannin deposits. Solid deposits are present on both on upper and lower epidermis.

  6. [Improvement on microwave technology of extracting polysaccharide from yacon leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing-wei; Liu, Jian; Yang, Yong; Zheng, Ming-min; Rong, Ting-zhao

    2007-11-01

    According to the extraction ratio of polysaccharide in yacon leaves, the comparison between microwave extraction and traditional hot water extraction was conducted, and the two-factor and three-level experiment on the microwave extraction of polysaccharide from yacon leaves was investigated. The result showed that the extraction ratio of polysaccharide by using microwave extraction was better than that by using traditional hot water extraction. Moreover, according to the result of variance analysis and multiple comparison, the optimum conditions for extraction of polysaccharide by using microwave technology from yacon leaves were as follows: 280W microwave power for 2 times and 15 minutes at every time. PMID:18323219

  7. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF AGAVE SISALANA PERRINE LEAVES (WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mwandogo O. Chigodi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical properties of the methanolic, Ethyl acetate and Hexane extract of the Agave sisalana Perrine leaves were investigated to evaluate the chemical properties. The phytochemical screening revealed that Tannins, Cardiac glycosides, Reducing sugars, Saponins, Flavonoids, Phlobatannins, Steroids, Terpenoids, and Coumarins were present in the three extracts of A. sisalana Perrine leaves while, Alkaloids were present only in the methanolic and Ethyl acetate extracts. Anthraquinones and Emodins were present only in methanolic extract, while Anthocyanins were absent in all the three extracts. The study revealed that A. sisalana Perrine leave juice (waste has potential Phytochemical compounds which could be investigated for antimicrobial activities for treatment of pathogenic organisms

  8. Ozone injury increases infection of geranium leaves by Botrytis cinerea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, W.J.; Feder, W.A.; Perkins, I.

    1970-04-01

    Detached and attached, inoculated and noninoculated, ozone-injured and noninjured leaves from the lower, middle, and terminal regions of plants of geranium cultivars Enchantress and White Mountain were observed for infection by Botrytis cinerea. Previous exposure to ozone did not appreciably influence the susceptibility of leaves of either geranium cultivar to infection by B. cinerea, unless there was visible ozone injury. Ozone-injured, necrotic tissues on older attached and detached geranium leaves of both cultivars served as infection courts for B. cinerea. 14 references, 1 table.

  9. MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL RESEARCH OF LEAVES OF FEIJOA SELLOWIANA BERG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Vdovenko-Martynova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Feijoa leaves gathered from Feijoa sellowiana Berg. of Myrtaceae family on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus were the object of this research. Establishment of morphological and anatomical features for diagnosis of feijoa leaves was the purpose of this work. Using macro- and microscopic analysis methods we have determined external and microdiagnostic features which can be used for development of authenticity of the feijoa leaves active parts.

  10. Time dependent effects of two absorption enhancers on the nasal absorption of growth hormone in rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermehren, C.; Hansen, Harald S.; Thomsen, M.K.

    1996-01-01

    Enhancer-based drug preparations allow absorption of peptide drugs. We investigated the reversibility with time of nasal absorption of human growth hormone (hGH) induced by the absorption enhancers didecanoylphosphatidylcholine (DDPC) and a-cyclodextrin (a-CD). Rabbits were dosed intranasally wit...

  11. Time dependent effects of two absorption enhancers on the nasal absorption of growth hormone in rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermehren, Charlotte; Hansen, H.S.; Thomsen, M.K.

    1996-01-01

    Enhancer-based drug preparations allow absorption of peptid drugs. We investigated the reversibility with time of nasal absorption of human growth hormone (hGH) induced by the absorption enhancers didecanoylhposphatidylcholine (DDPC) and Ó-cyclodextrin (Ó-CD). Rabbits were dosed intranasally...

  12. Novel absorption detection techniques for capillary electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Y.

    1994-07-27

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) has emerged as one of the most versatile separation methods. However, efficient separation is not sufficient unless coupled to adequate detection. The narrow inner diameter (I.D.) of the capillary column raises a big challenge to detection methods. For UV-vis absorption detection, the concentration sensitivity is only at the {mu}M level. Most commercial CE instruments are equipped with incoherent UV-vis lamps. Low-brightness, instability and inefficient coupling of the light source with the capillary limit the further improvement of UV-vis absorption detection in CE. The goals of this research have been to show the utility of laser-based absorption detection. The approaches involve: on-column double-beam laser absorption detection and its application to the detection of small ions and proteins, and absorption detection with the bubble-shaped flow cell.

  13. [Effect of altitude on iron absorption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, F; Zavaleta, N; Hertrampf, E; Berlanga, R; Camborda, L; Olivares, M

    1998-03-01

    Iron bioavailability was evaluated in people living in high altitudes. Absorption was estimated from a reference dose of ferrous ascorbate and from a standard diet of wheat flour, using extrinsic tag radioisotope technique of 55Fe and 59Fe. Twenty four volunteers, healthy women, with ages ranging from 28 to 45 years, participated. Of those, eleven lived at 3450 meters above sea level (m.a.s.l.) in Huancayo city-Peru (study group), and 13 lived in Santiago de Chile at 630 m.a.s.l. (control group). Iron absorption from reference dose of ferrous ascorbate was 32.0% and 31.1% in the study and control groups respectively. The geometric mean of iron absorption from the standard diet, corrected to 40% of absorption of reference dose, was 9.0% and 6.9% in the study and control groups respectively (NS). The results suggest that altitude does not produce a high iron absorption in highlander residents.

  14. Dust Sensitivity of Absorption-Line Indices

    CERN Document Server

    MacArthur, L A

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the effects of dust extinction on integrated absorption-line indices that are widely used to derive constraints on the ages and metallicities of composite stellar systems. Typically, absorption-line studies have been performed on globular clusters or elliptical galaxies, which are mostly dust-free systems. However, many recent studies of integrated stellar populations have focused on spiral galaxies which may contain significant amounts of dust. It is almost universally assumed that the effects of dust extinction on absorption-line measurements are entirely negligible given the narrow baseline of the spectral features, but no rigorous study has yet been performed to verify this conjecture. In this analysis, we explore the sensitivity of the standard set of Lick absorption-line indices, the higher-order Balmer line indices, the 4000 A break, the near-IR calcium triplet indices, and the Rose indices to dust absorption according to population synthesis models that incorporate a multi-component mod...

  15. Creating semiconductor metafilms with designer absorption spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo Jin; Fan, Pengyu; Kang, Ju-Hyung; Brongersma, Mark L.

    2015-07-01

    The optical properties of semiconductors are typically considered intrinsic and fixed. Here we leverage the rapid developments in the field of optical metamaterials to create ultrathin semiconductor metafilms with designer absorption spectra. We show how such metafilms can be constructed by placing one or more types of high-index semiconductor antennas into a dense array with subwavelength spacings. It is argued that the large absorption cross-section of semiconductor antennas and their weak near-field coupling open a unique opportunity to create strongly absorbing metafilms whose spectral absorption properties directly reflect those of the individual antennas. Using experiments and simulations, we demonstrate that near-unity absorption at one or more target wavelengths of interest can be achieved in a sub-50-nm-thick metafilm using judiciously sized and spaced Ge nanobeams. The ability to create semiconductor metafilms with custom absorption spectra opens up new design strategies for planar optoelectronic devices and solar cells.

  16. Transcriptome phase distribution analysis reveals diurnal regulated biological processes and key pathways in rice flag leaves and seedling leaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenying Xu

    Full Text Available Plant diurnal oscillation is a 24-hour period based variation. The correlation between diurnal genes and biological pathways was widely revealed by microarray analysis in different species. Rice (Oryza sativa is the major food staple for about half of the world's population. The rice flag leaf is essential in providing photosynthates to the grain filling. However, there is still no comprehensive view about the diurnal transcriptome for rice leaves. In this study, we applied rice microarray to monitor the rhythmically expressed genes in rice seedling and flag leaves. We developed a new computational analysis approach and identified 6,266 (10.96% diurnal probe sets in seedling leaves, 13,773 (24.08% diurnal probe sets in flag leaves. About 65% of overall transcription factors were identified as flag leaf preferred. In seedling leaves, the peak of phase distribution was from 2:00am to 4:00am, whereas in flag leaves, the peak was from 8:00pm to 2:00am. The diurnal phase distribution analysis of gene ontology (GO and cis-element enrichment indicated that, some important processes were waken by the light, such as photosynthesis and abiotic stimulus, while some genes related to the nuclear and ribosome involved processes were active mostly during the switch time of light to dark. The starch and sucrose metabolism pathway genes also showed diurnal phase. We conducted comparison analysis between Arabidopsis and rice leaf transcriptome throughout the diurnal cycle. In summary, our analysis approach is feasible for relatively unbiased identification of diurnal transcripts, efficiently detecting some special periodic patterns with non-sinusoidal periodic patterns. Compared to the rice flag leaves, the gene transcription levels of seedling leaves were relatively limited to the diurnal rhythm. Our comprehensive microarray analysis of seedling and flag leaves of rice provided an overview of the rice diurnal transcriptome and indicated some diurnal regulated

  17. Monocot leaves are eaten less than dicot leaves in tropical lowland rain forests: correlations with toughness and leaf presentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grubb, P.J.; Jackson, R.V.; Barberis, I.M.;

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims: In tropical lowland rain forest (TLRF) the leaves of most monocots differ from those of most dicots in two ways that may reduce attack by herbivores. Firstly, they are tougher. Secondly, the immature leaves are tightly folded or rolled until 50-100 % of their final length. It...... leaves against herbivorous insects in tropical lowland rain forest, and that the relative importance varies widely with species. The difficulties of establishing unequivocally the roles of leaf toughness and leaf folding or rolling in a given case are discussed. Key words: anti-herbivore defences, dicots......, herbivory, leaf folding, leaf rolling, leaf toughness, monocots, palms, tropical rain forest...

  18. Palaeophytochemical Constituents of Cretaceous Ginkgo coriacea Florin Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You-Xing Zhao; Cheng-Sen Li; Xiao-Dong Luo; Yu-Fei Wang; Jun Zhou

    2006-01-01

    Chemical investigation of the organic solvent extract of Cretaceous Ginkgo coriacea Florin leaves by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), analogous to those from extant leaves of Ginkgo biloba L., led to the detection of a group of natural flavonoids and other volatiles. The similarity of the chemical constituents in these two species of Ginkgo suggest that the secondary metabolism of extant G. biloba is close to that of the Cretaceous species. The remaining natural products may be one explanation why the leaves of the Cretaceous G. coriacea have been preserved morphologically in fossilization. The detection of flavonoids suggests that the leaves of G. coriacea experienced a mild post-depositional environment during their fossilization. This appears to be the oldest occurrence of flavonoids in plant fossils.

  19. Anti-diabetes constituents in leaves of Smallanthus sonchifolius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Zheng; He, Fan; Kang, Ting-Guo; Dou, De-Qiang; Gai, Kuo; Shi, Yu-Yuan; Kim, Young-Ho; Dong, Feng

    2010-01-01

    The inhibitory effect of smallanthaditerpenic acids A, B, C and D previously isolated from leaves of Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon) on alpha-glucosidase were examined and their IC50 were determined to be 0.48 mg/mL, 0.59 mg/mL, 1.00 mg/mL, and 1.17 mg/mL respectively. In addition, a rapid, reliable RP-HPLC method for the analysis of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and smallanthaditerpenic acids A and C in yacon leaves was established, and the variation in their contents in leaves from plants cultivated in different places and collected at different times of the year were compared. The established analytical method for determining smallanthaditerpenic acids A and C, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid presented good results and could be used as a method for the quality control of S. sonchifolius leaves. PMID:20184030

  20. PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION ON LEAVES OF CASSIA OBTUSIFOLIA LINN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sufiyan Ahmad

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the macroscopical and microscopical studies on leaves of Cassia obtusifolia Linn. Some distinct and different characters were observed with section of young thin leaves. The anatomy of the leaves was studied by taking transverse section of midrib. The chloroplasts are much more concentrated in the palisade layer of the mesophyll. There is only one large vascular bundle in the midrib. The midrib was stained with toluidine blue. This helps to resolve the vascular tissues with greater certainty. The xylem and phloem were also observed. Powder microscopical examination showed the presence of parenchyma cells, xylem fibres and starch grain. Physiochemical parameter and preliminary phytochemical study of the leaves powder were also carried out.

  1. A new triterpene saponin from the leaves of Ilex kudincha

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Jian Zuo; Yi Mei Zeng; Yue Hu; He Meng; Zhen Hui Wang; Jin Hui Wang

    2009-01-01

    A new compound, kudinoside LZ_2 (1), was isolated from the leaves of Ilex kudincha. Its structure was elucidated by the combination of one- and two-dimensional NMR analysis, HR-ESI-MS, CD spectrum measurement and chemical evidences.

  2. A New Pregnane Glycoside from Fermented Leaves of Agave americana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A new minor pregnane glycoside was isolated from the fermented leaves of Agave americana. Its structure was elucidated as (20S)-5α-pregnane-3β, 20-diol 20-O-β-D-glucopyrano- side (1) by spectral methods.

  3. Variation of arbutin content in Bergenia sp. leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Galambosi, B.; Galambosi, Zs.; Siivari, J.; Siivari, K.; Sankelo, T.; Shikov, A.

    2007-01-01

    The common garden perennial, Bergenia, should be utilized as a special new crop for raw material production in the cosmetic industry, producing arbutin. Under open field and full sun conditions, the arbutin contents of Bergenia leaves have not changed significantly.

  4. Regenerative properties of Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl. Leaves cultured in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kukułczanka

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The regenerative properties of Saintpaulia ionantha leaves ware investigated in culture in vitro. The leaves acquire this ability after the end of growth. Restitution regeneration was found to be polar and the sequence in organogenesis of roots and buds was different than on a peat-sand substratum. NAA inhibits growth of isolated leaves and stimulates callus and root development. Kinetin abolishes the polarity of regeneration, stimulates leaf growth, initiates formation of numerous buds and inhibits rhizogenesis. The interaction of kinetin with NAA or IAA in dependence on the order in which these substances are applied stimulates in various extents the growth of isolated leaves and callus, and bud and root formation.

  5. 29 CFR 825.301 - Designation of FMLA leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...., if the employee is incapacitated, the employee's spouse, adult child, parent, doctor, etc., may... alternative caregiver for the seriously-ill son or daughter if the leave had been designated timely....

  6. Preparation and properties of waste tea leaves particleboard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Jin-shu; Li Jian-zhang; Fan Yong-ming; Ma Hong-xia

    2006-01-01

    Urea-formaldehyde (UF) adhesive is the main source of formaldehyde emission from UF-bonded boards. The components in waste tea leaves can react with formaldehyde to serve as a raw material in the production of low formaldehyde emission boards. In our study, waste tea leaves and UF adhesive were employed in the preparation of waste tea leaves particleboard (WTLB). An orthogonal experimental method was applied to investigate the effects of process parameters on formaldehyde emission and mechanical properties of WTLB. The results indicated that: 1) waste tea leaves had the ability to abate formaldehyde emission from boards; and 2) density of the WTLB was a significant factor affecting its modulus of rupture (MOR), modulus of elasticity (MOE) and internal bonding (IB).

  7. Nurse manager job satisfaction and intent to leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warshawsky, Nora E; Havens, Donna S

    2014-01-01

    An electronic survey was used to collect data from 291 nurse managers working in U.S. hospitals. Seventy percent were satisfied or very satisfied with their jobs and 68% were either likely or very likely to recommend nursing management as a career choice. Seventy-two percent of these nurse managers were also planning to leave their positions in the next 5 years. The four most common reasons reported for intent to leave included burnout, career change, retirement, and promotion. Burnout was the most common reason cited by the entire sample but the fourth most common reason for leaving cited by those nurse managers who were planning to leave and also satisfied or very satisfied with their positions. Recommendations for nursing leaders include evaluating the workload of nurse managers, providing career counseling, and developing succession plans. PMID:24689156

  8. Early risk assessment of long-term sick leave among patients in primary health care : risk factors, assessment tools, multidisciplinary intervention, and patients’ views on sick leave conclusion

    OpenAIRE

    von Celsing, Anna-Sophia

    2016-01-01

    Background. Long-term sick leave is one of the main risk factors for permanent exit out of the labour market. The longer the duration of sickness absence, the less likely sick leave conclusion. Objectives and Methods. The aims were to analyse possible determinants of sick leave conclusion and their relative impacts, to analyse the properties of two models for the assessment of sick leave conclusion, to study the impact of a multidisciplinary vocational intervention for sick leave conclusion i...

  9. Antioxidant properties of cell wall polysaccharides of Stevia rebaudiana leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Mediesse Kengne Francine; Woguia Alice Louise; Fogue Souopgui Pythagore; Atogho-Tiedeu Barbara; Simo Gustave; Thaddée Boudjeko

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the total phenolic and protein contents, and the antioxidant activities of cell wall polysaccharide fractions of Stevia rebaudiana leaves. Methods: Three different polysaccharide-enriched fractions, namely FPE (extract with 50 mmol/ L ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid), FPK (extract with 0.05 mol/L KOH) and FH (extract with 4 mol/L KOH) were extracted from Stevia rebaudiana leaves. The antioxidant activity of these fractions was evaluated based on thei...

  10. Maternal employment, breastfeeding, and health: Evidence from maternity leave mandates

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Baker; Kevin S. Milligan

    2007-01-01

    Public health agencies around the world have renewed efforts to increase the incidence and duration of breastfeeding. Maternity leave mandates present an economic policy that could help achieve these goals. We study their efficacy focusing on a significant increase in maternity leave mandates in Canada. We find very large increases in mothers' time away from work post-birth and in the attainment of critical breastfeeding duration thresholds. However, we find little impact on the self-reported...

  11. Pharmacognostical Standardisation and Antidiabetic activity of Artocarpus Heterophyllus Leaves Lam.

    OpenAIRE

    Nazli Shahin; Sanjar Alam; Mohammad Ali

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to focus on the hypoglycemic effect of the leaves of Artocarpus heterophyllus in normal and streptozocin induced diabetic rats. The Plant was subjected to pharmacognostic, physico-chemical and phytochemical evaluations which will assist in standardization for authenticity, quality and identification of the herbal products. Treatment with extract of the leaves at dose 250 mg/kg to diabetic rats resulted in significant reduction of serum glucose, total ...

  12. Antipyretic Activity of Peperomia pellucida Leaves in Rabbit

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Alam; RAHMAN, Moizur; Islam, Shariful

    2008-01-01

    Antipyretic effects of petroleum ether and ethyl acetate soluble fractions of ethanol extract of the leaves of Peperomia pellucida (Linn.) HBK (Fam. Piperaceae) were investigated. Intraperitoneal administration of boiled milk at a dose of 0.5 ml/kg body weight in albino rabbit leads to pyrexia. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of petroleum ether and ethyl acetate soluble fractions of ethanol extract of the leaves of P. pellucida at a dose of 80 mg/kg body weight significantly reduced the...

  13. Study of Antioxidant Activity of Juglans regia leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FARHAD HATAMJAFARI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the antioxidant activity for Juglans regia leaves. The Methanol extract from Iranian Juglans regia leaves that grow in Karaj and Tonekabon regions was examined. In addition, total amount of DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical scavenging activities and reductive power of crude extracted its different fractions were determined. The antioxidant activity data by DPPH has been compared in both regions.

  14. Secondary Metabolites from Leaves of Manilkara subsericea (Mart.) Dubard

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Borges de Almeida; Caio Pinho Fernandes; Wanderson Romao; Gabriela Vanini; Helber Barcelos Costa; Hildegardo Seibert França; Marcelo Guerra Santos; José Carlos Tavares Carvalho; Deborah Quintanilha Falcão; Leandro Rocha

    2015-01-01

    Background: Manilkara subsericea (Sapotaceae) is a species widely spread in the sandbanks of Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). It is commonly known as “maçaranduba”, “maçarandubinha” and “guracica”, being used in this locality as food, and timber. However, M. subsericea remains almost unexplored regarding its chemical constituents, including secondary metabolites from the leaves. Objective: Identify the chemical constituents from the leaves of M. subsericea. Mater...

  15. Phenolic Profile of Leaves and Drupes of Ten Olive Varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Georgios MITSOPOULOS; Papageorgiou, Vasiliki; Michael KOMAITIS; Marianna HAGIDIMITRIOU

    2016-01-01

    Leaves and drupes of the olive varieties "Koroneiki", "Lianolia Kerkyras", "Mastoidis", "Arbequina", "Adramytini", "Megaritiki", "Gaidourelia", "Kalamata", "Konservolia" and "Chalkidiki" were collected at different seasons during 2008 and 2009 and investigated by HPLC for their phenolic profile and the concentration of the phenolic compounds present. The phenolic compounds identified in 2008 new season leaves were, in declining concentration order, oleuropein, 7-O-glucoside of luteolin and ru...

  16. Diuretic activity of leaves of Garcinia cambogia in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew, Githa E.; B Mathew; Shaneeb, M M; B Nyanthara

    2011-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to establish the diuretic activity of ethanol and aqueous extract of dried leaves of Garcinia cambogia in rats. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of leaves were administered to experimental rats orally at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg and compared with furosemide (20 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) as the standard. The parameters measured for diuretic activity were total urine volume, urine concentration electrolytes such as sodium, potassium and chloride have been evaluate...

  17. Efficacy of leaves (drumstick, mint and curry leaves) powder as natural preservatives in restructured chicken block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najeeb, A P; Mandal, P K; Pal, U K

    2015-05-01

    The use of natural preservatives to increase the shelf-life of meat products is promising as they possess antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Earlier, a highly acceptable restructured chicken slice without the addition of extra fat was developed in the same laboratory which was acceptable up to 10th day of storage under refrigeration and spoilage was mainly due to oxidation. Hence, the present study was planned to determine the efficacy of certain plant leaves' (drumstick, mint and curry leaves) powder at 1 % level as natural preservatives to enhance the shelf life of restructured chicken slices under refrigerated storage. The quality attributes of the products containing different natural preservativs were compared with the control and reference products. The control product contained no preservative and the reference product contained BHT (200 ppm) only. Incorporation of the leaf powders at 1 % level did not show any significant differences for both cooking yield (99.5-99.6 %) and proximate composition (moisture 72.2-72.3 %, protein 19.2-19.4 %, fat 4.2-4.3 % and total ash 2.3-2.4 %) of the restructured chicken slices compared to both control and reference products during storage. All products containing leaf powders showed significantly (P BHT added products. Yeast and mould were not detected in any of the products throughout the storage period. Sensory evaluation scores showed that the restructured chicken slices incorporated with the leaf powders were as acceptable as the reference product and rated good to very good for appearance, flavor, juiciness and overall acceptability. Restructured chicken slices with the leaf powders could be safely stored without much loss in quality up to 20 days under refrigeration. PMID:25892820

  18. Features of a chemical composition of dry leaves of Steviavebaudiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Borisovna Krasina

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This work is dedicated to the study of a chemical composition of dry leaves of Stevia. Dry leaves of Stevia contain diterpene glycosides that contribute to their sweet taste, which makes possible the use of Stevia as a sugar substitute in a production of flour confectionery products. The evaluation of amino acid composition of dried leaves of Stevia showed that their composition includes 7 essential amino acids, among them the limiting amino acid is valine.During experimental researches it was established that they are containing in a sufficient quantity water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins in their composition. We have studied the effect of processing conditions on the degree of milling of dry leaves of Stevia. It was revealed that the pressure of 5 MPa in the contact zone of the working elements do not guarantee a product with a desired degree of milling. Milling of dried leaves of Stevia at a pressure equal to 10 MPa, allows achieving a high degree of size reduction with a simultaneous formation of the main physical and chemical characteristics of amilledproduct. It was established that granulometric composition of dry leaves of Stevia, obtained by milling in a rotor-roller disintegrator, presents the highest content of particles with a size from 5 to 30 μm, ensuring high consumer properties of the obtained biologically active additives (BAA.

  19. Fathers’ Experience of Shared Parental Leave in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Chronholm

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of the Swedish parental leave reform in 1974, fathers have had the same rights to use parental leave as mothers. Between 2000 and 2003, a research project at the Department of Sociology, University of Gothenburg, focused on fathers who had taken more than four months of paid parental leave. The approach of the study was mainly qualitative, based upon a combination of a survey and interviews. A majority of the fathers who answered the questionnaire had been the main caregivers for their children during their parental leave. During the interviews many of the men described their mothers as role models for their fatherhood. The men also described their own partner as both anxious to get back to her work after her own parental leave period and convinced of the importance of a nurturing father. An early decision to take part of the parental leave probably made it easier for the men to reach workplace agreements. Most of the men described themselves as both nurturing fathers and as sharing housework equally. They stressed the importance of being alone with their child during a long period, to be able to develop a deep relationship with their child.

  20. Detecting red blotch disease in grape leaves using hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrubeoglu, Mehrube; Orlebeck, Keith; Zemlan, Michael J.; Autran, Wesley

    2016-05-01

    Red blotch disease is a viral disease that affects grapevines. Symptoms appear as irregular blotches on grape leaves with pink and red veins on the underside of the leaves. Red blotch disease causes a reduction in the accumulation of sugar in grapevines affecting the quality of grapes and resulting in delayed harvest. Detecting and monitoring this disease early is important for grapevine management. This work focuses on the use of hyperspectral imaging for detection and mapping red blotch disease in grape leaves. Grape leaves with known red blotch disease have been imaged with a portable hyperspectral imaging system both on and off the vine to investigate the spectral signature of red blotch disease as well as to identify the diseased areas on the leaves. Modified reflectance calculated at spectral bands corresponding to 566 nm (green) and 628 nm (red), and modified reflectance ratios computed at two sets of bands (566 nm / 628 nm, 680 nm / 738 nm) were selected as effective features to differentiate red blotch from healthy-looking and dry leaf. These two modified reflectance and two ratios of modified reflectance values were then used to train the support vector machine classifier in a supervised learning scheme. Once the SVM classifier was defined, two-class classification was achieved for grape leaf hyperspectral images. Identification of the red blotch disease on grape leaves as well as mapping different stages of the disease using hyperspectral imaging are presented in this paper.

  1. Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on leaf solutes and root absorption areas of trifoliate orange seedlings under water stress conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Qiangsheng; XIA Renxue

    2006-01-01

    The effects of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM)fungus Glomus mosseae on plant growth,leaf solutes and root absorption area of trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.) seedlings were studied in potted culture under water stress conditions.Inoculation with G.mosseae increased plant height,stem diameter,leaf area,shoot dry weight,root dry weight and plant dry weight,when the soil water content was 20%,16% and 12%.AM inoculation also promoted the active and total absorption area of root system and absorption of phosphorus from the rhizosphere,enhanced the content of soluble sugar in leaves and roots,and reduced proline content in leaves.AM seedlings had higher plant water use efficiency and higher drought tolerance than non-AM seedlings.Effects of G.mosseae inoculation on trifoliate orange seedlings under 20% and 16% soil water content were more significant than under 12% soil water content.AM infection was severely restrained by 12% soil water content.Thus,effects of AM fungi on plants were probably positively related to the extent of root colonization by AM fungi.The mechanism of AM fungi in enhancing drought resistance of host plants ascribed to greater osmotic adjustment and greater absorption area of root system by AM colonization.

  2. Aerosol Angstrom Absorption Coefficient Comparisons during MILAGRO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, N. A.; Marchany-Rivera, A.; Kelley, K. L.; Mangu, A.; Gaffney, J. S.

    2007-12-01

    Measurements of aerosol absorption were obtained as part of the MAX-Mex component of the MILAGRO field campaign at site T0 (Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo in Mexico City) by using a 7-channel aethalometer (Thermo- Anderson) during the month of March, 2006. The absorption measurements obtained in the field at 370, 470, 520, 590, 660, 880, and 950 nm were used to determine the aerosol Angstrom absorption exponents by linear regression. Since, unlike other absorbing aerosol species (e.g. humic like substances, nitrated PAHs), black carbon absorption is relatively constant from the ultraviolet to the infrared with an Angstrom absorption exponent of -1 (1), a comparison of the Angstrom exponents can indicate the presence of aerosol components with an enhanced UV absorption over that expected from BC content alone. The Angstrom exponents determined from the aerosol absorption measurements obtained in the field varied from - 0.7 to - 1.3 during the study and was generally lower in the afternoon than the morning hours, indicating an increase in secondary aerosol formation and photochemically generated UV absorbing species in the afternoon. Twelve-hour integrated samples of fine atmospheric aerosols (MILAGRO. This research was supported by the Office of Science (BER), U.S. Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER64329. We also wish to thank Mexican Scientists and students for their assistance from the Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo (IMP) and CENICA.

  3. Water dimer absorption of visible light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hargrove

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory measurements of water vapor absorption using cavity ring-down spectroscopy revealed a broad absorption at 405 nm with a quadratic dependence on water monomer concentration, a similar absorption with a linear component at 532 nm, and only linear absorption at 570 nm in the vicinity of water monomer peaks. D2O absorption is weaker and linear at 405 nm. Van't Hoff plots constructed at 405.26 nm suggest that for dimerization, Keq=0.056±0.02 atm−1, ΔH°301 K=−16.6±2 kJ mol−1 and ΔS°301 K=−80±10 J mol−1 K−1. This transition peaks at 409.5 nm, could be attributed to the 8th overtone of water dimer and the 532 nm absorption to the 6th overtone. It is possible that some lower overtones previously searched for are less enhanced. These absorptions could increase water vapor feed back calculations leading to higher global temperature projections with currently projected greenhouse gas levels or greater cooling from greenhouse gas reductions.

  4. Absorption of light dark matter in semiconductors

    OpenAIRE

    Hochberg, Yonit; Lin, Tongyan; Zurek, Kathryn M.

    2016-01-01

    Semiconductors are by now well-established targets for direct detection of MeV to GeV dark matter via scattering off electrons. We show that semiconductor targets can also detect significantly lighter dark matter via an absorption process. When the dark matter mass is above the band gap of the semiconductor (around an eV), absorption proceeds by excitation of an electron into the conduction band. Below the band gap, multi-phonon excitations enable absorption of dark matter in the 0.01 eV to e...

  5. Extraordinary Absorption of Decorated Undoped Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauber, T.; Gómez-Santos, G.; de Abajo, F. Javier García

    2014-02-01

    We theoretically study absorption by an undoped graphene layer decorated with arrays of small particles. We discuss periodic and random arrays within a common formalism, which predicts a maximum absorption of 50% for suspended graphene in both cases. The limits of weak and strong scatterers are investigated, and an unusual dependence on particle-graphene separation is found and explained in terms of the effective number of contributing evanescent diffraction orders of the array. Our results can be important to boost absorption by single-layer graphene due to its simple setup with potential applications to light harvesting and photodetection based on energy (Förster) rather than charge transfer.

  6. A cylindrical furnace for absorption spectral studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Venkatasubramanian

    2001-06-01

    A cylindrical furnace with three heating zones, capable of providing a temperature of 1100°C, has been fabricated to enable recording of absorption spectra of high temperature species. The temperature of the furnace can be controlled to ± 1°C of the set temperature. The salient feature of this furnace is that the material being heated can be prevented from depositing on the windows of the absorption cell by maintaining a higher temperature at both the ends of the absorption cell.

  7. Optical absorption in irradiated natural beryl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three species of beryl irradiated with γ-rays of 60Co were studied by optical absorption. One became yellow and the other two Maxixe's blue. The effects of heat treatments were determined by the thermal isochronal decays of the optical absorption bands. Activation energies and frequency factor were obtained through the first order process kinetic model. Discussions lend us to assign for the UV band-edge the model of absorption by a hole center stabilized by a Fe2+ (substituting Al3+) ion in a neighbour oxygen. (Author)

  8. Gastrointestinal absorption of uranium in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method has been established for determining the fractional absorption of uranium directly in man. Measurements are made of the urinary excretion rates of uranium for individuals whose drinking water has a high 234U to 238U activity ratio and is the primary source of 234U in their diets. For two individuals, the values obtained for the fractional absorption of 234U were 0.004 and 0.006. The values obtained for the fractional absorption of 238U, using a literature value for the 238U intake from food, were 0.008 and 0.015. The present ICRP value is 0.20. 7 references, 1 table

  9. Nonlinear absorption in high reflector multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolz, C.J.; Sarginson, T.G.; Taylor, J.R.

    1993-11-04

    Low absorption coatings were examined using a high repetition rate copper vapor laser to study the surface temperature as a function power. Nonlinear absorption was observed in some of the coatings as a result of increased incident power. A variety of commercial coating vendors using common dielectric oxide material combinations were surveyed. Wavelength, coating material, and coating vendor were varied to study their affects on the linearity of the absorption. The films were deposited by electron beam or ion beam sputtering technologies. Changes in the film characteristics were observed after exposure to high incident power. The nature of these changes and their permanency were also examined.

  10. Electric modulation of optical absorption in nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakr, M. R.

    2016-11-01

    We have calculated the effect of an external electric field on the intersubband optical absorption of a nanowire subjected to a perpendicular magnetic field and Rashba effect. The absorption peaks due to optical transitions that are forbidden in the absence of the intersubband coupling experience strong amplitude modulation. This effect is quadratic in electric fields applied along the direction of quantum confinement or perpendicularly to tune the Rashba parameter. The electric field also induces frequency modulation in the associated spectrum. On the other hand, transitions that are normally allowed show, to a large extent, a parallel band effect, and accordingly they are responsible for strong optical absorption.

  11. The Driving Forces of Subsidiary Absorptive Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleimer, Stephanie C.; Pedersen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    The study investigates how a multinational corporation (MNC) can promote the absorptive capacity of its subsidiaries. The focus is on what drives the MNC subsidiary's ability to absorb marketing strategies that are initiated by the MNC parent, as well as how the subsidiary enacts on this absorptive...... as a purposeful response to this dual embeddedness. An analysis of marketing strategy absorptions undertaken by 213 subsidiaries reveals that MNCs can assist their subsidiaries to compete in competitive and dynamic focal markets by forming specific organizational mechanisms that are conducive to the development...

  12. Absorption of surface acoustic waves by graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Zhang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a theoretical study on interactions of electrons in graphene with surface acoustic waves (SAWs. We find that owing to momentum and energy conservation laws, the electronic transition accompanied by the SAW absorption cannot be achieved via inter-band transition channels in graphene. For graphene, strong absorption of SAWs can be observed in a wide frequency range up to terahertz at room temperature. The intensity of SAW absorption by graphene depends strongly on temperature and can be adjusted by changing the carrier density. This study is relevant to the exploration of the acoustic properties of graphene and to the application of graphene as frequency-tunable SAW devices.

  13. Sound Absorption of Locally Resonant Sonic Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hong-Gang; LIU Yao-Zong; WEN Ji-Hong; YU Dian-Long; WANG Gang; WEN Xi-Sen

    2006-01-01

    @@ The acoustic properties of locally resonant sonic materials with viscosity are theoretically investigated by using the multiple-scattering approach. We find that the absorption of a two-layer slab dominates the wave attenuation in the resonant frequency region under the condition of moderate or high viscous level. The fundamental mechanism operating in local resonance for absorption is investigated for the viability by the mode translation in the scattering process of a single scatterer. Finally the absorption performance in a multi-layer system is discussed.

  14. Gas treating absorption theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Eimer, Dag

    2014-01-01

    Gas Treating: Absorption Theory and Practice provides an introduction to the treatment of natural gas, synthesis gas and flue gas, addressing why it is necessary and the challenges involved.  The book concentrates in particular on the absorption-desorption process and mass transfer coupled with chemical reaction. Following a general introduction to gas treatment, the chemistry of CO2, H2S and amine systems is described, and selected topics from physical chemistry with relevance to gas treating are presented. Thereafter the absorption process is discussed in detail, column hardware is explain

  15. Coherent absorption of N00N states

    CERN Document Server

    Roger, Thomas; Lyons, Ashley; Giovannini, Daniel; Romero, Jacquiline; Jeffers, John; Padgett, Miles; Faccio, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Recent results in deeply subwavelength thickness films demonstrated coherent control and logical gate operations with both classical and single photon light sources. However, quantum processing and devices typically involve more than one photon and non-trivial input quantum states. Here we experimentally investigate two-photon N00N state coherent absorption in a multilayer graphene film. Depending on the N00N state input phase, it is possible to selectively choose between single or two photon absorption of the input state in the graphene film. These results demonstrate that coherent absorption in the quantum regime exhibits unique features opening up applications in multiphoton spectroscopy and imaging.

  16. Coherent Absorption of N00N States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, Thomas; Restuccia, Sara; Lyons, Ashley; Giovannini, Daniel; Romero, Jacquiline; Jeffers, John; Padgett, Miles; Faccio, Daniele

    2016-07-01

    Recent results in deeply subwavelength thickness films demonstrate coherent control and logical gate operations with both classical and single-photon light sources. However, quantum processing and devices typically involve more than one photon and nontrivial input quantum states. Here we experimentally investigate two-photon N00N state coherent absorption in a multilayer graphene film. Depending on the N00N state input phase, it is possible to selectively choose between single- or two-photon absorption of the input state in the graphene film. These results demonstrate that coherent absorption in the quantum regime exhibits unique features, opening up applications in multiphoton spectroscopy and imaging.

  17. [Determination of six mineral elements in roots, stems, leaves, flowers and seeds of Scutellaria baicalensis by FAAS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Ji-Ping; Chen, Hai-Rong; Shen, Lin

    2009-02-01

    A study was carried out on the contents of six trace elements, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn and K, in roots, stems, leaves, flowers and seeds of planted Scutellaria baicalensis, by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS). The results indicated that Scutellaria baicalensis was rich in trace elements, meaning that it has a relatively high nutritive value. In stems of Scutellaria baicalensis, the content sequence of the six trace elements was found to be Fe > Mn > Zn = Cu > K > Ca. In leaves, the content sequence of the six trace elements was Fe> Mn > Zn > Cu > K > Ca. In flowers and seeds it was Ca > Fe > Mn > Zn > Cu > K, and Ca > Fe > Zn > Mn > Cu >K, separately, and in roots it was Ca > Fe > Cu > Mn > Zn > K. The stems, leaves, flowers and seeds are rich in Fe, whose content is higher than that in pork liver, Mn and Zn, but lower in Ca. The flowers, seeds and roots are especially rich in Ca, whose content is higher than that in bone, indicating that different parts of Scutellaria baicalensis may accumulate different mineral element. This study, for the first time, researched into Ca, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn and K contents in different parts of Scutellaria baicalensis, which helps explain the multifunction of Scutellaria baicalensis and provides theoretical basis for further developing its medical and edible value. PMID:19445242

  18. Hazardous impact of toxic metals on tobacco leaves grown in contaminated soil by ultrasonic assisted pseudo-digestion: Multivariate study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobacco leaves (Nicotiana tabacum L.), agricultural soil and pollute irrigated lake water samples were collected during 2005-2006 and analyzed for Cd and Ni by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). A simple and efficient procedure was investigated for the complete decomposition of tobacco leaves using ultrasonic assisted acid pseudo-digestion method (UPDM). A Plackett-Burman experimental design was used as a multivariate strategy for the evaluation of seven factors/variables at once, while central composite were used to found optimum values of significant variables. The accuracy of the proposed methods was assessed by analyzing certified reference (CRM); Virginia tobacco leaves (CTA-VTL-2). The results being compared with those obtained by conventional wet acid digestion method. The result obtained by optimized method showed good agreement with the certified values and sufficiently high recovery 97.8 and 98.7% for Cd and Ni, respectively. Under optimal conditions, the detection limits (3σ) were evaluated to be 0.019 μg g-1 for Cd and 0.37 μg g-1 for Ni. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of Cd and Ni in raw, processed tobacco and different branded cigarettes samples

  19. ALUMINUM CONTENT OF TEA LEAVES AND FACTORS AFFECTING THE UPTAKE OF ALUMINUM FROM SOIL INTO TEA LEAVES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Numerous studies indicated that aluminum, the most abundant metallic element within the lithosphere, was considered to be related to some human diseases especially the Alzheimer's disease. Tea, economically an important beverage in the world, has been found to contain higher concentration of aluminum than many other drinks and foods. Therefore, tea would be a potentially important source of dietary aluminum. In order to understand the sources of aluminum in tea leaves and factors related with aluminum content of tea leaves, an experiment was designed to investigate the relationships of aluminum in tea leaves with leaf age, soil properties and forms of aluminum in soils. The results showed that there were great distinctions in the concentration of aluminum in tea leaves with different leaf age (Alold leaf> Almature leaf> Alyoung leaf). Moreover, soil pH was the major factor controlling the uptake of aluminum from soil into tea leaves. Furthermore, the content of aluminum in tea leaves was better predicated by the soluble aluminum extracted by 0. 02mol/L CaCl2.

  20. Study of sunscreen activity of aqueous, methanol and acetone extracts of leaves of Pongamia pinnata (L. pierre, fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenoy Priyank

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research work evaluates the photoabsorptive property of different extracts of the leaves of Pongamia pinnata (L. Pierre, Fabaceae, in the ultraviolet region (200-400 nm and its comparison with a well-established standard sunscreen drug, p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA. The shade-dried leaves of the plant were extracted in Soxhlet apparatus using three different solvents, i.e., water, methanol and acetone. The extracts were concentrated by evaporation of the solvent and finally dried to get dry extracts. Then, 20 mg of the dry extracts was dissolved in the respective solvents and their absorption spectra were measured using UV-visible spectrophotometer. Absorbance of different concentrations of the extracts, i.e., 5, 10, 15 and 20 mg/100 ml was read at their respective wavelengths (λmax of maximum absorption. The aqueous and methanol extracts were found to be highly effective in the UVB and moderately effective in the UVA region. Acetone extract was found to greatly absorb exclusively in the UVA region. The known standard drug PABA showed its protective action in the UVB and UVC regions with least effectiveness in the UVA region. The extracts of the leaves of the plant under study showed extremely good absorbance throughout the UV region including UVA region. The P. pinnata extract can be used to formulate highly effective sunscreen preparations as it will enhance and effectively contribute to the UV absorbing properties of a conventional sunscreen. It will also help in broadening the UV protection ability of the sunscreens along with the greatest advantage of avoiding the adverse and undesired effects of synthetic sunscreen compounds.

  1. High performance heat pump absorption cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzarin, R.; Longo, G.; Rossetto, L.

    1988-10-01

    Absorption heat pumps can provide high performances when operating in suitable cycles with multiple effects. This report describes some multistage cycles and evaluates the coefficient of performance realistically obtainable both in winter and summer working conditions.

  2. Absorption mapping for characterization of glass surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commandré, M; Roche, P; Borgogno, J P; Albrand, G

    1995-05-01

    The surface quality of bare substrates and preparation procedures take on an important role in optical coating performances. The most commonly used techniques of characterization generally give information about roughness and local defects. A photothermal deflection technique is used for mapping surface absorption of fused-silica and glass substrates. We show that absorption mapping gives specific information on surface contamination of bare substrates. We present experimental results concerning substrates prepared by different cleaning and polishing techniques. We show that highly polished surfaces lead to the lowest values of residual surface absorption. Moreover the cleaning behavior of surfaces of multicomponent glasses and their optical performance in terms of absorption are proved to be different from those of fused silica.

  3. Absorption chillers: Part of the solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acid rain, ozone depletion, global warming, and implementation economics are considered as they relate to the advisability of expanding the application of absorption chillers. Introductory and background information are provided to put the discussion in the proper context. Then all four issues are discussed separately as they relate to absorption chillers. Acid rain and ozone depletion concerns, and implementation economics, are found to support the expanded use of absorption chillers. The global warming concern is found to be more of a gray area, but the areas of benefit correspond well with the conditions of greatest economic advantage. All things considered, absorption chillers are believed to be part of the environmental and economic solution. It is further believed that integrated resource planning (IRP) processes that consider electric and gas technologies on an equal footing would come to the same conclusion for many regions of the United States. 9 refs., 3 tabs

  4. Enriching Absorptive Capacity Through Social Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hotho, Jasper Jaap; Becker-Ritterspach, Florian; Saka-Helmhout, Ayse

    Absorptive capacity is frequently highlighted as a key determinant of knowledge transfer within MNEs. But how individual behaviour translates to absorptive capacity at the subsidiary level, and exactly how this is contingent on subsidiaries’ social context, remains under-addressed. This not only...... their organization’s capacity to put new knowledge to use. To address this shortcoming we conduct an in-depth comparative case study of a headquarters-initiated knowledge transfer initiative at two subsidiaries of the same MNE. The findings demonstrate that social interaction is a key requirement for subsidiary...... absorptive capacity as it enables employees to participate in the transformation of new knowledge to the local context. Second, the findings illustrate how organizational conditions at the subsidiary level can impact subsidiary absorptive capacity by enabling or constraining local interaction patterns...

  5. Molecular absorption in transition region spectral lines

    CERN Document Server

    Schmit, Donald; Ayres, Thomas; Peter, Hardi; Curdt, Werner; Jaeggli, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Aims: We present observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) of absorption features from a multitude of cool atomic and molecular lines within the profiles of Si IV transition region lines. Many of these spectral lines have not previously been detected in solar spectra. Methods: We examined spectra taken from deep exposures of plage on 12 October 2013. We observed unique absorption spectra over a magnetic element which is bright in transition region line emission and the ultraviolet continuum. We compared the absorption spectra with emission spectra that is likely related to fluorescence. Results: The absorption features require a population of sub-5000 K plasma to exist above the transition region. This peculiar stratification is an extreme deviation from the canonical structure of the chromosphere-corona boundary . The cool material is not associated with a filament or discernible coronal rain. This suggests that molecules may form in the upper solar atmosphere on small spatial scales...

  6. Iron absorption from typical Latin American diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, A; Amar, M; Cornbluth-Szarfarc, S C; Dillman, E; Fosil, M; Biachi, R G; Grebe, G; Hertrampf, E; Kremenchuzky, S; Layrisse, M

    1984-06-01

    The availability and daily absorption of iron was determined by the extrinsic label method in typical lower middle to lower class diets consumed in regions of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Peru, and Venezuela. Differences in iron absorption from meals up to 7-fold, could be attributed to the varying contents of absorption enhancers, eg, in meat, and of inhibitors in tea, vegetables, and wheat or maize bread. The total iron available in the diets from four countries did not meet the physiological requirements for normal subjects but deficient subjects fulfilled their requirements absorbing from 1.0 to 2.1 mg/day. In five diets heme iron (6 to 24% of the total) provided 34 to 73% of the iron absorbed. These data suggest that such absorption and utilization studies may be used to correlate the prevalence of iron deficiency in a population with certain diets and to guide fortification programs.

  7. Differential Photoacoustic Particle Absorption Monitor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a highly sensitive and compact monitor to measure light absorption from particulate matters. The fundamental of the proposed device is based...

  8. Absorption of light dark matter in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Hochberg, Yonit; Zurek, Kathryn M

    2016-01-01

    Semiconductors are by now well-established targets for direct detection of MeV to GeV dark matter via scattering off electrons. We show that semiconductor targets can also detect significantly lighter dark matter via an absorption process. When the dark matter mass is above the band gap of the semiconductor (around an eV), absorption proceeds by excitation of an electron into the conduction band. Below the band gap, multi-phonon excitations enable absorption of dark matter in the 0.01 eV to eV mass range. Energetic dark matter particles emitted from the sun can also be probed for masses below an eV. We show that the reach for absorption of a relic kinetically mixed dark photon or pseudoscalar in semiconductors such as germanium or silicon can exceed current astrophysical and terrestrial constraints, with only a moderate exposure.

  9. Sulfur K-edge absorption spectroscopy on selected biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulfur is an essential element in organisms. In this thesis investigations of sulfur compounds in selected biological systems by XANES (X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure) spectroscopy are reported. XANES spectroscopy at the sulfur K-edge provides an excellent tool to gain information about the local environments of sulfur atoms in intact biological samples - no extraction processes are required. Spatially resolved measurements using a Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror focusing system were carried out to investigate the infection of wheat leaves by rust fungi. The results give information about changes in the sulfur metabolism of the host induced by the parasite and about the extension of the infection into visibly uninfected plant tissue. Furthermore, XANES spectra of microbial mats from sulfidic caves were measured. These mats are dominated by microbial groups involved in cycling sulfur. Additionally, the influence of sulfate deprivation and H2S exposure on sulfur compounds in onion was investigated. To gain an insight into the thermal degradation of organic material the influence of roasting of sulfur compounds in coffee beans was studied. (orig.)

  10. Ultrafast THz Saturable Absorption in Doped Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Hoffmann, Matthias C.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate ultrafast THz saturable absorption in n-doped semiconductors by nonlinear THz time-domain spectroscopy. This effect is caused by the semiconductor conductivity modulation due to electron heating and satellite-valley scattering in strong THz fields.......We demonstrate ultrafast THz saturable absorption in n-doped semiconductors by nonlinear THz time-domain spectroscopy. This effect is caused by the semiconductor conductivity modulation due to electron heating and satellite-valley scattering in strong THz fields....

  11. Systemic Absorption of Nanomaterials by Oral Exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, Mona-Lise; Bredsdorff, Lea; Beltoft, Vibe Meister;

    This report and accompanying database systematically evaluates the reliability and relevance of the existing scientific literature regarding systemic absorption of nanomaterials by oral exposure and makes specific recommendations for future testing approaches.......This report and accompanying database systematically evaluates the reliability and relevance of the existing scientific literature regarding systemic absorption of nanomaterials by oral exposure and makes specific recommendations for future testing approaches....

  12. Percutaneous absorption in diseased skin: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Audris; Tudela, Emilie; Maibach, Howard I

    2012-08-01

    The stratum corneum's (SC) functions include protection from external hazardous environments, prevention of water loss and regulation of body temperature. While intact skin absorption studies are abundant, studies on compromised skin permeability are less common, although products are often used to treat affected skin. We reviewed literature on percutaneous absorption through abnormal skin models. Tape stripping is used to disrupt water barrier function. Studies demonstrated that physicochemical properties influence the stripping effect: water-soluble drugs are more affected. Abrasion did not affect absorption as much. Freezing is commonly used to preserve skin. It does not seem to modify water absorption, but still increases the penetration of compounds. Comparatively, heating the skin consistently increased percutaneous absorption. Removing SC lipids may increase percutaneous absorption of drugs. Many organic solvents are employed to delipidize. Delipidization with chloroform-methanol increased hydrophilic compound permeability, but not lipophilic. Acetone pre-treatment enhanced hydrophilic compound penetration. More data is needed to determine influence on highly lipophilic compound penetration. Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) induces irritant dermatitis and is frequently used as a model. Studies revealed that SLS increases hydrophilic compound absorption, but not lipophilic. However, skin irritation with other chemicals increases lipophilic penetration as much as hydrophilic. Animal studies show that UV exposure increases percutaneous absorption whereas human studies do not. Human studies show increased penetration in psoriatic and atopic dermatitis skin. The data summarized here begin to characterize flux alteration associated with damaged skin. Understanding the degree of alteration requires interpretation of involved conditions and the enlarging of our database to a more complete physicochemical spectrum. PMID:22912973

  13. Fluctuation sound absorption in quark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Kerbikov, B O

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the sound absorption in quark matter due to the interaction of the sound wave with the precritical fluctuations of the diquark-pair field above $T_c$. The soft collective mode of the pair field is derived using the time dependent Ginzburg-Landau functional with random Langevin forces. The strong absorption near the phase transition line may be viewed as a manifestation of the Mandelshtam-Leontovich slow relaxation time theory.

  14. Broadband absorption engineering of hyperbolic metafilm patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Dengxin; Song, Haomin; Zeng, Xie; Hu, Haifeng; Liu, Kai; Zhang, Nan; Gan, Qiaoqiang

    2014-01-01

    Perfect absorbers are important optical/thermal components required by a variety of applications, including photon/thermal-harvesting, thermal energy recycling, and vacuum heat liberation. While there is great interest in achieving highly absorptive materials exhibiting large broadband absorption using optically thick, micro-structured materials, it is still challenging to realize ultra-compact subwavelength absorber for on-chip optical/thermal energy applications. Here we report the experime...

  15. Enriching Absorptive Capacity through Social Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hotho, Jasper J.; Saka-Helmhout, Ayse; Becker-Ritterspach, Florian

    2012-01-01

    Absorptive capacity is frequently highlighted as a key determinant of knowledge transfer within multinational enterprises. But how individual behaviour translates into absorptive capacity at the subsidiary level, and how this is contingent on subsidiaries' social context, remains under-addressed.......Absorptive capacity is frequently highlighted as a key determinant of knowledge transfer within multinational enterprises. But how individual behaviour translates into absorptive capacity at the subsidiary level, and how this is contingent on subsidiaries' social context, remains under...... their organization's capacity to put new knowledge to use. To address this shortcoming we conduct an in-depth comparative case study of a headquarters-initiated knowledge transfer at two subsidiaries of the same multinational enterprise. The findings demonstrate that social interaction is a prerequisite...... for subsidiary absorptive capacity as it enables employees to participate in the transformation of new knowledge to the local context and the development of local applications. The findings also illustrate how organizational conditions at the subsidiary level can impact subsidiary absorptive capacity by enabling...

  16. Spectral Absorption Properties of Atmospheric Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstrom, R. W.; Pilewskie, P.; Russell, P. B.; Redemann, J.; Bond, T. C.; Quinn, P. K.; Sierau, B.

    2007-01-01

    We have determined the solar spectral absorption optical depth of atmospheric aerosols for specific case studies during several field programs (three cases have been reported previously; two are new results). We combined airborne measurements of the solar net radiant flux density and the aerosol optical depth with a detailed radiative transfer model for all but one of the cases. The field programs (SAFARI 2000, ACE Asia, PRIDE, TARFOX, INTEX-A) contained aerosols representing the major absorbing aerosol types: pollution, biomass burning, desert dust and mixtures. In all cases the spectral absorption optical depth decreases with wavelength and can be approximated with a power-law wavelength dependence (Absorption Angstrom Exponent or AAE). We compare our results with other recent spectral absorption measurements and attempt to briefly summarize the state of knowledge of aerosol absorption spectra in the atmosphere. We discuss the limitations in using the AAE for calculating the solar absorption. We also discuss the resulting spectral single scattering albedo for these cases.

  17. Abscisic acid biosynthesis in leaves and roots of Xanthium strumarium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creelman, R.A.; Gage, D.A.; Stults, J.T.; Zeevaart, J.A.D.

    1987-11-01

    Research on the biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA) has focused primarily on two pathways: (a) the direct pathway from farnesyl pyrophosphate, and (b) the indirect pathway involving a carotenoid precursor. The authors have investigated which biosynthetic pathway is operating in turgid and stressed Xanthium leaves, and in stressed Xanthium roots using long-term incubations in /sup 18/O/sub 2/. It was found that in stressed leaves three atoms of /sup 18/O from /sup 18/O/sub 2/ are incorporated into the ABA molecule, and that the amount of /sup 18/O incorporated increases with time. One /sup 18/O atom is incorporated rapidly into the carboxyl group of ABA, whereas the other two atoms are very slowly incorporated into the ring oxygens. The fourth oxygen atom in the carboxyl group of ABA is derived from water. ABA from stressed roots of Xanthium incubated in /sup 18/O/sub 2/ shows a labeling pattern similar to that of ABA in stressed leaves, but with incorporation of more /sup 18/O into the tertiary hydroxyl group at C-1' after 6 and 12 hours than found in ABA from stressed leaves. It is proposed that the precursors to stress-induced ABA are xanthophylls, and that a xanthophyll lacking an oxygen function at C-6 plays a crucial role in ABA biosynthesis in Xanthium roots. In turgid Xanthium leaves, /sup 18/O is incorporated into ABA to a much lesser extent that it is in stressed leaves, whereas exogenously applied /sup 14/C-ABA is completely catabolized within 48 hours. This suggests that ABA in turgid leaves is either (a) made via a biosynthetic pathway which is different from the one in stressed leaves, or (b) has a half-life on the order of days as compared with a half-life of 15.5 hours in water-stressed Xanthium leaves. Phaseic acid showed a labeling pattern similar to that of ABA, but with an additional /sup 18/O incorporated during 8'-hydroxylation of ABA to phaseic acid.

  18. X-ray absorption Studies of Zinc species in Centella asiatica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehipawala, Sunil; Cheung, Tak; Hogan, Clayton; Agoudavi, Yao; Dehipawala, Sumudu

    2013-03-01

    Zinc is a very important mineral present in a variety of vegetables. It is an essential element in cellular metabolism and several bodily functions. We used X-ray fluorescence, and X-ray Absorption near Edge structure(XANES) to study the amount of zinc present in several leafy vegetables as well as its chemical environment within the plant. Main absorption edge position of XANES is sensitive to the oxidation state of zinc and is useful when comparing the type of zinc present in different vegetables to the standard zinc present in supplements. Normalized main edge height is proportional to the amount of zinc present in the sample. Several leafy greens were used in this study, such as Spinacia oleracea, Basella alba, Brassica oleracea, Cardiospermum halicacabumand Centella asiatica. All of these plant leaves contained approximately the same amount of zinc in the leaf portion of the plant and a slightly lower amount in the stems, except Centella asiatica. Both leaves and stems of the plant Centella asiatica contained nearly two times the zinc compared to other plants. Further investigation of zinc's chemical environment within Centella asiatica could lead to a much more efficient dietary consumption of zinc. Use of the National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory, was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886

  19. Spectral interferometric microscopy reveals absorption by individual optical nanoantennas from extinction phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennaro, Sylvain D; Sonnefraud, Yannick; Verellen, Niels; Van Dorpe, Pol; Moshchalkov, Victor V; Maier, Stefan A; Oulton, Rupert F

    2014-04-30

    Optical antennas transform light from freely propagating waves into highly localized excitations that interact strongly with matter. Unlike their radio frequency counterparts, optical antennas are nanoscopic and high frequency, making amplitude and phase measurements challenging and leaving some information hidden. Here we report a novel spectral interferometric microscopy technique to expose the amplitude and phase response of individual optical antennas across an octave of the visible to near-infrared spectrum. Although it is a far-field technique, we show that knowledge of the extinction phase allows quantitative estimation of nanoantenna absorption, which is a near-field quantity. To verify our method we characterize gold ring-disk dimers exhibiting Fano interference. Our results reveal that Fano interference only cancels a bright mode's scattering, leaving residual extinction dominated by absorption. Spectral interference microscopy has the potential for real-time and single-shot phase and amplitude investigations of isolated quantum and classical antennas with applications across the physical and life sciences.

  20. Spectral interferometric microscopy reveals absorption by individual optical nanoantennas from extinction phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennaro, Sylvain D; Sonnefraud, Yannick; Verellen, Niels; Van Dorpe, Pol; Moshchalkov, Victor V; Maier, Stefan A; Oulton, Rupert F

    2014-01-01

    Optical antennas transform light from freely propagating waves into highly localized excitations that interact strongly with matter. Unlike their radio frequency counterparts, optical antennas are nanoscopic and high frequency, making amplitude and phase measurements challenging and leaving some information hidden. Here we report a novel spectral interferometric microscopy technique to expose the amplitude and phase response of individual optical antennas across an octave of the visible to near-infrared spectrum. Although it is a far-field technique, we show that knowledge of the extinction phase allows quantitative estimation of nanoantenna absorption, which is a near-field quantity. To verify our method we characterize gold ring-disk dimers exhibiting Fano interference. Our results reveal that Fano interference only cancels a bright mode's scattering, leaving residual extinction dominated by absorption. Spectral interference microscopy has the potential for real-time and single-shot phase and amplitude investigations of isolated quantum and classical antennas with applications across the physical and life sciences. PMID:24781663

  1. Discrimination of Five Citrus Diseased Leaves by FTIR Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xingxiang; ZHAO; Gang; LIU; Weixing; LI; Xiaohua; Wang; Jianming; HAO; Xiangping; ZHOU

    2014-01-01

    In this paper,citrus brown spot,huanglongbing,canker,fuliginous,Cercospora sp. and healthy leaves were studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy( FTIR) combined with statistical analysis. The results showed that the spectra of the samples were similar,whereas there were obvious differences in the second derivatives of infrared spectra in the range of 1 500- 700 cm- 1. The correlative analysis were evaluated,results showed that the correlation coefficients were larger than 0. 918 between healthy leaves,and between the same diseased leaves. However,the values were all decreased between healthy and diseased leaves,and among different diseased leaves. The preprocessed original,first derivative and second derivative spectra in the range of 1 200- 700 cm- 1were chosen to evaluated principal component analysis( PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis( HCA),respectively. The performance of the overall accuracy of PCA was 92.5%,which were better than original dataset and first derivative dataset. HCA by selecting second derivative dataset yield about 90% accuracy. This study proved that FTIR spectroscopy could be detected citrus diseases quickly and accurately.

  2. Diversity of fungi colonizing leaves of Rhododendron (Rhododendron L. cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Kierpiec-Baran

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Rhododendrons (Rhododendron L. are shrubs whose attractiveness is determined by their multi-coloured flowers and evergreen leaves. Necroses visible on the leaves of rhododendron cuttings diminish the suitability of nursery material for marketing. These symptoms are most frequently caused by fungi. The investigations were conducted in 2010–2011 in an ornamental shrub nursery to identify fungi colonizing the phyllosphere of rhododendron cuttings and causing leaf necroses. The material for analysis consisted of leaves of 11 rhododendron cultivars. 550 leaves were collected from 110 half-year-old cuttings for mycological analysis. Over 350 fungal colonies belonging to 15 species were isolated from the leaves of rhododendron cuttings. The dominants included: Pestalotiopsis sydowiana, Trichoderma koningii and Alternaria alternata. The influents included: Aspergillus brasiliensis, Mucor hiemalis f. hiemalis, Epicoccum nigrum, Sordaria fimicola and Umbelopsis isabellina. A large majority of the fungi preferred the phyllosphere environment of Yakushima rhododendron (R. yakushimanum cultivars ‘Sneezy’ and ‘Golden Torch’ as well as of the large-flowered cultivars ‘Flautando’, ‘Dominik’, and ‘Simona’. The phyllosphere of the large-flowered cultivars ‘Bernstein’, ‘Nova Zembla’, and ‘Goldbuckett’ was a reservoir for many fungal colonies and fungi species. The cultivars less susceptible to colonization by fungi and the most promising for planting in green areas and home gardens are the large-flowered cultivars ‘Bernstein’, ‘Nova Zembla’, ‘Goldbuckett’, ‘Rasputin’, and ‘Roseum Elegans’.

  3. Drying kinetics of dill leaves in a convective dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motevali, A.; Younji, S.; Chayjan, R. Amiri; Aghilinategh, N.; Banakar, A.

    2013-01-01

    Thin layer drying characteristics of dill leaves under fixed, semi-fluidized, and fluidized bed conditions were studied at air temperatures of 30, 40, 50, and 60°C. In order to find a suitable drying curve, 12 thin layer-drying models were fitted to the experimental data of the moisture ratio. Among the applied mathematical models, the Midilli et al. model was the best for drying behavior prediction in thin layer drying of dill leaves. To obtain the optimum network for drying of dill leaves, various numbers of multilayer feed-forward neural networks were made and tested with different numbers of hidden layers and neurons. The best neural network feed-forward back-propagation topology for the prediction of drying of dill leaves (moisture ratio and drying rate) was the 3-45-2 structure with the training algorithm trainlm and threshold functions logsig and purelin. The coefficient of determination for this topology for training, validation, and testing patterns was 0.9998, 0.9981, and 0.9990, respectively. Effective moisture diffusivity of dill leaves during the drying process in different bed types was found to be in the range from 7.10 10-12 to 1.62 10-10 m2 s-1. Also, the values of activation energy were determined to be between 75.435 and 80.118 kJ mol-1

  4. Antioxidant Activity of Leaves and Fruits of Iranian Conifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Emami

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cupressus semipervirens var. horizontalis, Cupressus semipervirens var. semipervirens, Cupressus semipervirens cv. Cereifeormis, Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica, Juniperus excelsa subsp. excelsa, Juniperus excelsa subsp. polycarpos, Juniperus foetidissima, Juniperus oblonga, Juniperus sabina, Platycladus orientalis and Taxus baccata are Iranian conifers. The antioxidant activity of leaves and fruits of these 11 different taxons were evaluated. The leaves of both male and female, and fruits of these plants were collected from different areas of the country. Methanol extract of leaves and fruits of these taxons were prepared. Antioxidant activity of each extracts was measured using two different tests of the ferric thiocyanate method and thiobarbituric acid. Results indicated that the methanol extracts of leaves, of male and female, and fruits of all these species (27 samples possessed antioxidant activity when tested with both methods. The antioxidant activity was then compared with those of α-tocopherol (a natural antioxidant and butylated hydroxytoluene (a synthetic antioxidant. Methanol extract of fruits of C. semipervirens cv. Cereifeormis showed the highest antioxidant activity while the methanol extract of leaves of C. semipervirens var. semipervirens possessed the lowest antioxidant activity. However, our finding showed that most of the tested extracts were showing strong antioxidant activity even higher than α-tocopherol.

  5. Further advancement of differential optical absorption spectroscopy: theory of orthogonal optical absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liudchik, Alexander M

    2014-08-10

    A modified version of the differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) method is presented. The technique is called orthogonal optical absorption spectroscopy (OOAS). A widespread variant of DOAS with smoothing of the registered spectrum and absorption cross sections being made employing a polynomial regression is a particular case of OOAS. The concept of OOAS provides a variety of new possibilities for constructing computational schemes and analyzing the influence of different error sources on calculated concentrations. PMID:25320931

  6. Two-wavelength absorption modulation spectroscopy of bandtail absorption in GaAs quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have discovered that below-band-gap photoexcitation produces large bleaching of the exciton absorption in GaAs quantum well heterostructures. We have used this effect to perform the first investigation of room-temperature bandtail absorption in these structures. We find that the below-band-gap absorption follows a spectral Urbach's rule. In addition, proton-bombarded samples show an Urbach energy correlated with bombardment-induced defects. This sensitive technique has enabled us to study samples as thin as 1 μm at energies where the absorption coefficient is approx.10 cm-1

  7. Differential absorption optical coherence tomography with strong absorption contrast agents of gold nanorods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming WEI; Jun QIAN; Qiuqiang ZHAN; Fuhong CAI; Arash GHARIBI; Sailing HE

    2009-01-01

    Plasmon-resonant gold nanorods (GNRs) are demonstrated as strong absorption contrast agents for optical coherence tomography (OCT). OCT imaging of tissue phantoms doped with GNRs of different resonant wavelengths and concentrations is studied. To utilize the high absorption property of GNRs, a differential absorp-tion OCT imaging is introduced to retrieve the absorption information of GNRs from conventional backscattered signals. It is shown that the contrast of the OCT image can be enhanced significantly when the plasmon resonant wavelength of the GNRs matches the central wavelength of the OCT source.

  8. In vitro cytotoxicity of Nicotiana gossei leaves, used in the Australian Aboriginal smokeless tobacco known as pituri or mingkulpa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghbel, Nahid; Ryu, BoMi; Cabot, Peter J; Steadman, Kathryn J

    2016-07-01

    The Aboriginal population of Central Australia use endemic Nicotiana species to make a smokeless tobacco product known usually as pituri or mingkulpa. Nicotiana leaves are masticated with wood ash into a 'quid' that is chewed/sucked for absorption of nicotine. In addition to nicotine, smokeless tobacco products contain a spectrum of biologically active compounds that may contribute to effects on health. The objective of this study was to quantify nicotine, and related alkaloids and tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), in Nicotiana leaves used in pituri, and compare in vitro toxicity of pure nicotine with Nicotiana leaf extract at the same concentration of nicotine. An aqueous extract of dry leaves of Nicotiana gossei and a reference smokeless tobacco (CORESTA CRP2) were quantified for major pyridine alkaloids and TSNAs using HPLC-UV and LC-MS/MS. A range of extract concentrations and corresponding concentrations of nicotine standard were tested using an MTS assay to measure human lung epithelium cell (A549) survival. Cells treated for 24h with the maximum concentration of 1.5mg/ml of nicotine resulted in 77% viability. In contrast, extracts from N. gossei leaves and CRP2 containing a similar concentration of nicotine (1.3mg/ml) resulted in remarkably lower viability of 1.5 and 6%, respectively. Comparison of cytotoxicity of pure nicotine with that of the extracts revealed that nicotine was not the source of their cytotoxicity. Other biologically active compounds such as the known carcinogens NNK and NNN, derived from nicotine and nornicotine and found to be present in the smokeless tobacco extracts, may be responsible. PMID:27178269

  9. Absorption, distribution and utilization of radioactive phosphorus in healthy and root (wilt) diseased coconut palms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive KH2P32O4 was fed to coconut leaves and palms under laboratory and field conditions. In healthy palms the absorption of phosphorus by roots and its accumulation in spindle and first fully opened leaves was found to be significantly higher till 9th hr as compared to that of diseased palms, but at later stages the reverse pattern was observed. The time required for 32P to reach the spindle (top-most leaf) situated at 9.5 m height in both diseased and healthy palm was found to be 3 hr only. In contrast to the leaves, the activity of 32P differed insignificantly in stem and roots of healthy and diseased palms and also the native P remained higher in the stem and roots of former palms as compared to latter. The analysis of total different fractions of phosphorus and entry of 32P in the different forms of organic phosphorus indicated that although total P was more in the case of diseased palms but the organic phosphorus especially the nucleic acid P was significantly less as compared to healthy ones. This revealed less utilization of absorbed P in the synthesis of P-constituted organic substances in diseased palms. (auth.)

  10. GPs' negotiation strategies regarding sick leave for subjective health complaints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsen, Stein Tore; Malterud, Kirsti; Werner, Erik L.;

    2015-01-01

    GPs (31 men, 17 women; age 32–65), participating in a course dealing with diagnostic practice and assessment of sickness certifi cates related to patients with subjective health complaints. Results: TheGPs identified some specific strategies that they claimed to apply when dealing with the question......Objectives: To explore general practitioners ’(GPs’) specific negotiation strategies regarding sick-leave issues with patientssuffering from subjective health complaints. Design: Focus-group study. Setting: Nine focus-group interviews in three citiesin different regions of Norway. Participants: 48...... of sick leave for patientswith subjective health complaints. The first step would be to build an alliance with the patient by complying with the wish for sick leave, and at the same time searching for information to acquire the patient’s perspective. This position would become the basis for the main goal...

  11. Antimicrobial activity of extracts from Tamarindus indica L. leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Escalona-Arranz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tamarindus indica L. leaves are reported worldwide as antibacterial and antifungal agents; however, this observation is not completely accurate in the case of Cuba. In this article, decoctions from fresh and sun dried leaves, as well as fluid extracts prepared with 30 and 70% ethanol-water and the pure essential oil from tamarind leaves were microbiologically tested against Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomona aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Aqueous and fluid extracts were previously characterized by spectrophotometric determination of their total phenols and flavonoids, while the essential oil was chemically evaluated by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS. Experimental data suggest phenols as active compounds against B. subtilis cultures, but not against other microorganisms. On the other hand, the essential oil exhibited a good antimicrobial spectrum when pure, but its relative low concentrations in common folk preparations do not allow for any good activity in these extracts.

  12. Antimicrobial activity of extracts from Tamarindus indica L. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalona-Arranz, Julio César; Péres-Roses, Renato; Urdaneta-Laffita, Imilci; Camacho-Pozo, Miladis Isabel; Rodríguez-Amado, Jesús; Licea-Jiménez, Irina

    2010-07-01

    Tamarindus indica L. leaves are reported worldwide as antibacterial and antifungal agents; however, this observation is not completely accurate in the case of Cuba. In this article, decoctions from fresh and sun dried leaves, as well as fluid extracts prepared with 30 and 70% ethanol-water and the pure essential oil from tamarind leaves were microbiologically tested against Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomona aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Aqueous and fluid extracts were previously characterized by spectrophotometric determination of their total phenols and flavonoids, while the essential oil was chemically evaluated by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Experimental data suggest phenols as active compounds against B. subtilis cultures, but not against other microorganisms. On the other hand, the essential oil exhibited a good antimicrobial spectrum when pure, but its relative low concentrations in common folk preparations do not allow for any good activity in these extracts.

  13. Pharmacognostical studies on the leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour Spreng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaliappan Nirmala

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour Spreng belonging to the family Lamiaceae commonly known as Karpuravalli, Omavalli in Tamil, Patta ajavayin, Patharcur in Hindi, Country borage in English is a large succulent aromatic perennial herb. It is highly aromatic pubescent herb with distinctive smelling leaves. The plant is distributed throughout in India, cultivated in the gardens. The leaves of this plant have been used in malarial fever, hepatopathy, renal and vesical calculi, cough, chronic asthma, hiccough, bronchitis, anthelmintic, colic and convulsions. This paper deals with the micro morphological studies carried out on the leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus one of the WHO accepted parameter for identification of medicinal plants. For the better understanding of structural details Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM also employed.

  14. Genetic variation in alkaloid accumulation in leaves of Nicotiana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo SUN; Fen ZHANG; Guo-jun ZHOU; Guo-hai CHU; Fang-fang HUANG; Qiao-mei WANG; Li-feng JIN; Fu-cheng LIN; Jun YANG

    2013-01-01

    Alkaloids are plant secondary metabolites that are widely distributed in Nicotiana species and contribute greatly to the quality of tobacco leaves. Some alkaloids, such as nornicotine and myosmine, have adverse effects on human health. To reduce the content of harmful alkaloids in tobacco leaves through conventional breeding, a genetic study of the alkaloid variation among different genotypes is required. In this study, alkaloid profiles in leaves of five Nicotiana tabacum cultivars and Nicotiana tomentosiformis were investigated. Six alkaloids were identified from al six genotypes via gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Significant differences in alkaloid content were ob-served both among different leaf positions and among cultivars. The contents of nornicotine and myosmine were positively and significantly correlated (R2=0.881), and were also separated from those of other alkaloids by clustering. Thus, the genotype plays a major role in alkaloid accumulation, indicating a high potential for manipulation of alkaloid content through traditional breeding.

  15. Photosynthesis rate in moss leaves of various anatomical structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Krupa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of measurements of the rate of gas exchange in the leaves of mosses the value of the compensation and of the light saturation of photosynthesis points was determined. These points differentiate mosses into photo- and sciophilous ones.Moss species such as: Mnium punctatum, Catherinea undulata, Polytrichum juniperinum, Funaria hygrometrica, Polytrichum piliferum, Aloina rigida were also classified according to differences in the anatomical structure of their leaves. The morphological characters of the anatomical structure of leaves and their chlorophyll content are connected with photosynthetic activity. There is a correlation between the leaf surface and the degree of differentiation of the anatomical structure. This results in an enlargement of the contact surface of the cells assimilating from the air, and this in turn is associated with an increase in the photosynthetic activity per leaf surface area unit.

  16. Antimicrobial activity of extracts from Tamarindus indica L. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalona-Arranz, Julio César; Péres-Roses, Renato; Urdaneta-Laffita, Imilci; Camacho-Pozo, Miladis Isabel; Rodríguez-Amado, Jesús; Licea-Jiménez, Irina

    2010-07-01

    Tamarindus indica L. leaves are reported worldwide as antibacterial and antifungal agents; however, this observation is not completely accurate in the case of Cuba. In this article, decoctions from fresh and sun dried leaves, as well as fluid extracts prepared with 30 and 70% ethanol-water and the pure essential oil from tamarind leaves were microbiologically tested against Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomona aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Aqueous and fluid extracts were previously characterized by spectrophotometric determination of their total phenols and flavonoids, while the essential oil was chemically evaluated by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Experimental data suggest phenols as active compounds against B. subtilis cultures, but not against other microorganisms. On the other hand, the essential oil exhibited a good antimicrobial spectrum when pure, but its relative low concentrations in common folk preparations do not allow for any good activity in these extracts. PMID:20931087

  17. Antimicrobial activity of extracts from Tamarindus indica L. leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalona-Arranz, Julio César; Péres-Roses, Renato; Urdaneta-Laffita, Imilci; Camacho-Pozo, Miladis Isabel; Rodríguez-Amado, Jesús; Licea-Jiménez, Irina

    2010-01-01

    Tamarindus indica L. leaves are reported worldwide as antibacterial and antifungal agents; however, this observation is not completely accurate in the case of Cuba. In this article, decoctions from fresh and sun dried leaves, as well as fluid extracts prepared with 30 and 70% ethanol-water and the pure essential oil from tamarind leaves were microbiologically tested against Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomona aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Aqueous and fluid extracts were previously characterized by spectrophotometric determination of their total phenols and flavonoids, while the essential oil was chemically evaluated by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Experimental data suggest phenols as active compounds against B. subtilis cultures, but not against other microorganisms. On the other hand, the essential oil exhibited a good antimicrobial spectrum when pure, but its relative low concentrations in common folk preparations do not allow for any good activity in these extracts. PMID:20931087

  18. Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical Investigation on Leaves of Ficus microcarpa Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravichandra V D

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Ficus microcarpa Linn. (Syn: Ficus nitidas; Family: Moraceae grows in Tropical and Subtropical regions of India, used for variety of purpose in traditional medicine. The usefulness of this plant is described in many folk books including Ayurveda and different biologically active phytoconstituents were isolated from plant. But no reports are available on morph anatomy, and phytochemical studies, hence present attempt was undertaken to investigate the microscopically and preliminary phytochemical and Physico-chemical studies on the leaves of Ficus microcarpa. The study reveals the leaves are variable, coriaceous, oblong, elliptic to broadly elliptic or obovate. The transverse section of the leaves shows presence of epidermis, sponge parenchyma, bicollateral vascular bundles, nonglandular, glandular trichome and spiral vessels. The powder microscopy revealed the presence of anomocytic stomata, glandular trichome, covering trichome and prismatic calcium oxalate crystals. Physicochemical parameters like ash value, extractive value and phytochemical screening with different reagents showed the presence of fluorescence compounds, steroids, triterpenoids, phenols, tannins and flavonoids.

  19. Computational Approach to Seasonal Changes of Living Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Tang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a computational approach to seasonal changes of living leaves by combining the geometric deformations and textural color changes. The geometric model of a leaf is generated by triangulating the scanned image of a leaf using an optimized mesh. The triangular mesh of the leaf is deformed by the improved mass-spring model, while the deformation is controlled by setting different mass values for the vertices on the leaf model. In order to adaptively control the deformation of different regions in the leaf, the mass values of vertices are set to be in proportion to the pixels' intensities of the corresponding user-specified grayscale mask map. The geometric deformations as well as the textural color changes of a leaf are used to simulate the seasonal changing process of leaves based on Markov chain model with different environmental parameters including temperature, humidness, and time. Experimental results show that the method successfully simulates the seasonal changes of leaves.

  20. An event history analysis of union joining and leaving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttigieg, Donna M; Deery, Stephen J; Iverson, Roderick D

    2007-05-01

    This article examines parallel models of union joining and leaving using individual-level longitudinal panel data collected over a 5-year period. The authors utilized objective measures of joining and leaving collected from union and organizational records and took into account time by using event history analysis. The results indicated that union joining was negatively related to procedural justice and higher performance appraisals and positively related to partner socialization and extrinsic union instrumentality. Conversely, members were most likely to leave the union when they perceived lower procedural justice, where there was no union representative present in the workplace, and where they had individualistic orientations. The authors discuss the implications of these findings for theory and practice for trade unions. PMID:17484562

  1. Nutritional Composition of Water Spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.) Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, K. J.; Hassan, L. G.; Dangoggo, S. M.; Ladan, M. J.

    Analyses of the nutritional composition of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) Forsk leaves were carried out using standard methods of food analysis. The proximate composition as well as mineral elements were determined. The leaves were found on dry weight basis to have high moisture (72.83±0.29%), ash (10.83±0.80%), crude lipid (11.00±0.50%), crude fibre (17.67±0.35%) and available carbohydrate (54.20±0.68%), but low in crude protein content (6.30±0.27%). The leaves also have energy value (300.94±5.31 kcal/100 g) that is within the range reported in some Nigerian leafy vegetables. The mineral element contents were high with remarkable concentration of K (5,458.33±954.70 mg/100 g) and Fe (210.30±2.47 mg/100 g). Also the leaves content moderate concentrations of Na (135.00±2.50 mg/100 g), calcium (416.70±5.77 mg/100 g), Magnesium (301.64±12.69 mg/100 g) and P (109.29±0.55 mg/100 g), with low Cu (0.36±0.01 mg/100 g), Mn (2.14±0.22 mg/100 g) and Zn (2.47±0.27 mg/100 g) contents. Comparing the mineral content with recommended dietary allowance, it was showed that the plant leaves is good sources of K, Mn and Fe for all categories of people, while Mg is adequate enough for adult female and children. From the result, Ipomoea aquatica Forsk leaves could be used for nutritional purposes, due to the amount and diversity of nutrients it contains.

  2. Funding child rearing: child allowance and parental leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J R

    1996-01-01

    This article proposes two financing plans to address what the author identifies as the two primary concerns in the child care field: (1) a child allowance for poor and near-poor households to address the child care problems of low-income families, and (2) a program of voluntary parental leave, available to all parents at child birth or adoption, to ensure the adequacy of infant care. The child allowance plan would cover the first three children in families up to 175% of the poverty level (more than 22 million children) at an annual cost of $45 billion. The author suggests that the allowance could be financed by redirecting funds from existing income support (for example, Aid to Families with Dependent Children), tax credit, and tax deduction programs. Financing the parental leave program would require new revenues, generated by an employee-paid increase in payroll tax totaling 3.5%. Each employee's contributions would create a parental leave account (PLA). Families could use the funds in these accounts to cover the cost of a one-year leave from work after the birth or adoption of a child. If families did not have enough dollars in their accounts to cover the cost of the leave, the federal government would extend a low-interest loan to them, which they would have to pay back. The amount individuals receive through Social Security would be adjusted upward or downward according to the balances in their parental leave accounts at retirement. The author suggests that both proposals would help parents balance work and family obligations and protect parental freedom of choice over the care and upbringing of their children.

  3. Characterization of untreated and treated male and female date palm leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Sheshi female and male date palm leaves were treated with NaOH concentrations. ► Male leaves have lower mechanical properties and improved when treated by NaOH 2%. ► Female leaves have higher thermal stability. ► There are different properties for different types of date leaves. ► Leaves can be used as reinforcements for thermoplastic materials. -- Abstract: This paper describes the characterization of male and female date palm leaves from two different cultivars, Sheshi female and unknown male leaves. Characterization was done for both untreated and NaOH treated date palm leaves by infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopic techniques. To our knowledge, the difference in specious reaction to the treatment type of date palm fiber has not been investigated earlier. These leaves were treated with different concentrations of NaOH, 0.5%, 1%, 2% and 5% (w/w). The results from this investigation indicate that female leaves have better tensile properties which deteriorate with the increase of the alkali. The male leaves have lower tensile properties than female leaves and their mechanical properties are improved slightly by NaOH treatment. Female leaves have more pores than male leaves, this was proved and calculated by image analysis. Untreated female leaves have higher thermal stability (353 °C) than male leaves (343 °C). Both can be used as reinforcements in thermoplastic matrix materials whose processing temperatures are below 300 °C.

  4. Isolation of Astilbin from Leaves of Cratoxylum Arborescens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phytochemicals studies was conducted on the leaves of Cratoxylum arborescens that has been collected from Post Brooke, Gua Musang, Kelantan, Malaysia. Traditionally, latex of the stem bark of C. arborescens is being used for the treatment of wound. Extraction of leaves of C. arborescens using organic solvents followed by purification using standard procedure of purification yielded known compound, astilbin. This compound was identified by NMR spectral data using various 2D-techniques and comparison with the literature data. Reports showed that this compound has a unique immunosuppressive activity, a selective inhibition against activated T lymphocytes. This characteristic of astilbin is beneficial for the treatment of human immune diseases. (author)

  5. Aroma transition from rosemary leaves during aromatization of olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Yılmazer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aroma profile of aromatized olive oil was determined in this study. The primary objective was to investigate the transition of major aroma compounds from rosemary and olive fruit during the kneading step of olive oil production by response surface methodology. For this purpose, temperature, time, and amount of rosemary leaves were determined as independent variables. The results indicated that temperature and time did not affect the transition of target compounds, but rosemary leaves addition had a strong influence on transition, especially for characteristic aroma compounds of this herb. Adequacies of developed models were found to be high enough to predict each aromatic component of interest.

  6. Cassava leaves as protein source for pigs in Central Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to evaluate the use of cassava leaves as protein sources for pigs when used at high levels in the diet, either in fresh form or with simplified methods of processing. In twenty cassava varieties taken from the upper part of the plant at the root harvesting, the crude protein varied from 23.7 to 29.5 % in DM and the HCN from 610 to 1840 mg/kg DM. Chopping, washing and wilting the leaves are simple ways to process the. There was a 58% reductio...

  7. Flavonol Glycosides from the Leaves of Allium macrostemon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakane, Risa; Iwashina, Tsukasa

    2015-08-01

    Twelve flavonoids were isolated from Allium macrostemon leaves. Five compounds were identified as kaempferol 3,7-di-O-glucoside (1), kaempferol 3,4'-di-O-glucoside (2), quercetin 3-O-glucoside (3), kaempferol 3-0-glucoside (4) and isorhamnetin 3-O-glucoside (5) by UV spectra, LC-MS, acid hydrolysis and HPLC comparisons with authentic standards. Other flavonoids were characterized as kaempferol glycosides (6-8, 10 and 11) and quercetin glycosides (9 and 12). Other compounds, such as steroidal saponins, have been already found from the bulbs of A. macrostemon. However, flavonoids were reported for the first time from the leaves. PMID:26434122

  8. Family and Medical Leave Act; Definition of Spouse. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) is revising the definition of spouse in its regulations on the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) as a result of the decision by the United States Supreme Court holding section 3 of the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) unconstitutional. The new definition replaces the existing definition, which contains language from DOMA that refers to "a legal union between one man and one woman.'' The new definition permits Federal employees with same-sex spouses to use FMLA leave in the same manner as Federal employees with opposite-sex spouses. PMID:27066615

  9. Bioethanol production from Ficus religiosa leaves using microwave irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Miri; Griess, Ofir; Pulidindi, Indra Neel; Perkas, Nina; Gedanken, Aharon

    2016-07-15

    A microwave assisted feasible process for the production of bioethanol from Ficus religiosa leaves was developed. Under the process conditions (8 min. microwave irradiation, 1 M HCl), 10.1 wt% glucose yield was obtained from the leaves. Microwave based hydrolysis process yielded higher glucose content (10.1 wt%) compared to the conventional hydrothermal process (4.1 wt%). Upon fermentation of the hydrolysate using Baker's yeast, 3 wt% (dry wt. basis) of bioethanol was produced. PMID:27064733

  10. Analysis of ayurvedic medicinal leaves by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of 15 elements were determined in medicinally important ayurvedic medicinal leaves. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was employed for the determination of the elements viz. Na, K, Br, Sm, Cr, Zn, Th, Rb, Sr, Fe, La, Co, Ce, Cs and Eu. The samples were neutron irradiated at 100 kW TRIGA -Mainz nuclear reactor and the induced activities were measured by gamma ray spectrometry using an efficiency calibrated high resolution high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The concentrations of these elements in the medicinal leaves and their medicinal importance are discussed. (author)

  11. Fungal diversity on fallen leaves of Ficus in northern Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-kai WANG; Kevin D. HYDE; Kasem SOYTONG; Fu-cheng LIN

    2008-01-01

    Fallen leaves of Ficus altissima, F. virens, F. benjamina, F. fistulosa and F. semicordata, were collected in Chiang Mai Province in northern Thailand and examined for fungi. Eighty taxa were identified, comprising 56 anamorphic taxa, 23 ascomycetes and 1 basidiomycete. Common fungal species occurring on five host species with high frequency of occurrence were Beltraniella nilgirica, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Ophioceras leptosporum, Periconia byssoides and Septonema harknessi. Colletotrichum and Stachybotrys were also common genera. The leaves of different Ficus species supported diverse fungal taxa, and the fungal assemblages on the different hosts showed varying overlap. The fungal diversity of saprobes at the host species level is discussed.

  12. Fungal diversity on fallen leaves of Ficus in northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Kai; Hyde, Kevin D; Soytong, Kasem; Lin, Fu-Cheng

    2008-10-01

    Fallen leaves of Ficus altissima, F. virens, F. benjamina, F. fistulosa and F. semicordata, were collected in Chiang Mai Province in northern Thailand and examined for fungi. Eighty taxa were identified, comprising 56 anamorphic taxa, 23 ascomycetes and 1 basidiomycete. Common fungal species occurring on five host species with high frequency of occurrence were Beltraniella nilgirica, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Ophioceras leptosporum, Periconia byssoides and Septonema harknessi. Colletotrichum and Stachybotrys were also common genera. The leaves of different Ficus species supported diverse fungal taxa, and the fungal assemblages on the different hosts showed varying overlap. The fungal diversity of saprobes at the host species level is discussed. PMID:18837113

  13. Absorption effects in diffusing wave spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento-Gomez, Erick; Morales-Cruzado, Beatriz; Castillo, Rolando

    2014-07-20

    The effect of absorption in diffusing wave spectroscopy (DWS) was studied using an absorption-dependent diffusive equation for describing the light propagation within a turbid liquid where dielectric microspheres have been embedded. Here, we propose an expression for the time-averaged light intensity autocorrelation function that correctly describes the time fluctuations for the scattered light, in the regime where the diffusion approximation accurately describes the light propagation. This correction was suspected previously, but it was not formally derived from a light diffusive equation. As in the case of no absorption, we obtained that time fluctuations of the scattered light can be related to the mean square displacement of the embedded particles. However, if a correction for absorption is not taken into account, the colloidal dynamics can be misinterpreted. Experimental results show that this new formulation correctly describes the time fluctuations of scattered light. This new procedure extends the applicability of DWS, and it opens the possibility of doing microrheology with this optical method in systems where absorption cannot be avoided. PMID:25090203

  14. Molecular hydrogen absorption systems in SDSS

    CERN Document Server

    Balashev, S A; Ivanchik, A V; Varshalovich, D A; Petitjean, P; Noterdaeme, P

    2014-01-01

    We present a systematic search for molecular hydrogen absorption systems at high redshift in quasar spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) II Data Release 7 and SDSS-III Data Release 9. We have selected candidates using a modified profile fitting technique taking into account that the Ly$\\alpha$ forest can effectively mimic H$_2$ absorption systems at the resolution of SDSS data. To estimate the confidence level of the detections, we use two methods: a Monte-Carlo sampling and an analysis of control samples. The analysis of control samples allows us to define regions of the spectral quality parameter space where H$_2$ absorption systems can be confidently identified. We find that H$_2$ absorption systems with column densities $\\log {\\rm N_{H_2}} > 19$ can be detected in only less than 3% of SDSS quasar spectra. We estimate the upper limit on the detection rate of saturated H$_2$ absorption systems ($\\log {\\rm N_{H_2}} > 19$) in Damped Ly-$\\alpha$ (DLA) systems to be about 7%. We provide a sample of ...

  15. Iron absorption from adequate Filipinos meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iron absorption from adequate Filipino meals representing the three major island groups of the Philippines (Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao) was studied using double isotope extrinsic tag method. Mean iron absorption of the one-day meal for Metro Manila was 6.6 +- 1.26%. Central Visayas, 6.3 +- 1.15% and Southern Mindanao, 6.4 +- 1.19%. Comparison between meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner) for each region as well as one-day meal for the three regions showed no significant differences (P>0.01). Correlation tests done between iron absorption and the following iron enhancers: ascorbic acid, amount of fish, meat or poultry; and inhibitors: phytic acid and tannic acid, did not give significant results. The overall average of 6.4 +- 1.20% may be used as the iron absorption level from an adequate Filipino meal. This value can be considered as one of the bases for arriving at recommended dietary allowances for iron among Filipinos instead of the 10% iron absorption assumed in 1976. (Auth.). 21 refs.; 3 tabs.; 3 annexes

  16. Iron absorption from adequate Filipino meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iron absorption from adequate Filipino meals representing the three major island groups of the Philippines (Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao) was studied using double isotope extrinsic tag method. Mean iron absorption of the one-day meal for Metro Manila was 6.6 ± 1.26%, Central Visayas, 6.3 ± 1.15% and Southern Mindanao, 6.4 ± 1.19%. Comparison between meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner) for each region as well as one-day meal for the three regions showed no significant differences (P > .01). Correlation tests done between iron absorption and the following iron enhancers: ascorbic acid, amount of fish, meat or poultry and inhibitors: phytic acid and tannic acid did not give significant results. The overall bar x of 6.4 ± 1.20% may be used as the non-heme iron absorption level from an adequate Filipino meal. This value can be considered as one of the bases for arriving at recommended dietary allowances for iron among Filipinos instead of the 10% iron absorption assumed in 1976

  17. [Intestinal absorption kinetics of flurbiprofen in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jun-Jie; Lin, Cong-Cong; Li, Jiang; Zhu, Zhi-Hong; Yang, Xing-Gang; Pan, Wei-San

    2013-03-01

    To study the in situ intestinal absorption kinetics of flrubiprofen in rats, the absorption of flurbiprofen in small intestine (duodenum, jejunum and ileum) and colon of rats was investigated using in situ single-pass perfusion method and the drug content was measured by HPLC. The effects of drug concentration on the intestinal absorption were investigated. The K(a) and P(app) values of flurbiprofen in the small intestine and colon had no significant difference (P > 0.05). Drug concentration (4.0, 10.0 and 16.0 mg x L(-1)) had no significant influence on the K(a) values (P > 0.05). However, when concentration was 4.0 mg x L(-1) and 10.0 mg x L(-1), significant effect on the P(app) values (P 0.05). The K(a) and P(app) values of flurbiprofen on the perfusion flow rate had significant difference (P Flurbiprofen could be absorbed at all segments of the intestine in rats and had no special absorption window. The absorption of flurbiprofen complies with the facilitated diffusion in the general intestinal segments, and accompany with the cytopsistransport mechanism probably. The perfusion flow rate had significant effect on the K(a) and P(app).

  18. Uranium GI absorption coefficients for young children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium is ubiquitously found in drinking water and food. The absorption fraction (f1) is an important parameter in risk assessment of uranium burdens from ingestion. Although absorption of uranium from the gastrointestinal tract (GI) has been studied extensively in both animals and humans in the past, human data among young children are rare. In a previous study based on measurements of uranium concentration in only 11 bone-ash samples collected by Health Canada, the GI absorption coefficient for uranium ingestion by infants, about 3 months of age were determined. The result was 0.256 which was much higher than the ICRP recommended f1 values of 0.04 for infants and 0.02 for anyone more than 1 year of age. To extend the study, a total of 73 bone-ash samples were selected for children ranging in age from 0 to 7 years. The estimated absorption coefficients were 0.093±0.113 for infants, and 0.050±0.032 for 1 - 7 years of age. This study provides human absorption coefficients of ingested uranium for young children of two age groups. (author)

  19. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of metalloproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Jesse; Ollmann, Emily; Maxey, Evan; Finney, Lydia A

    2014-01-01

    Metalloproteins are enormously important in biology. While a variety of techniques exist for studying metals in biology, X-ray absorption spectroscopy is particularly useful in that it can determine the local electronic and physical structure around the metal center, and is one of the few avenues for studying "spectroscopically silent" metal ions like Zn(II) and Cu(I) that have completely filled valence bands. While X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) are useful for studying metalloprotein structure, they suffer the limitation that the detected signal is an average of all the various metal centers in the sample, which limits its usefulness for studying metal centers in situ or in cell lysates. It would be desirable to be able to separate the various proteins in a mixture prior to performing X-ray absorption studies, so that the derived signal is from one species only. Here we describe a method for performing X-ray absorption spectroscopy on protein bands following electrophoretic separation and western blotting.

  20. Zinc absorption in inflammatory bowel disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valberg, L.S.; Flanagan, P.R.; Kertesz, A.; Bondy, D.C.

    1986-07-01

    Zinc absorption was measured in 29 patients with inflammatory bowel disease and a wide spectrum of disease activity to determine its relationship to disease activity, general nutritional state, and zinc status. Patients with severe disease requiring either supplementary oral or parenteral nutrition were excluded. The mean 65ZnCl2 absorption, in the patients, determined using a 65Zn and 51Cr stool-counting test, 45 +/- 17% (SD), was significantly lower than the values, 54 +/- 16%, in 30 healthy controls, P less than 0.05. Low 65ZnCl2 absorption was related to undernutrition, but not to disease activity in the absence of undernutrition or to zinc status estimated by leukocyte zinc measurements. Mean plasma zinc or leukocyte zinc concentrations in patients did not differ significantly from controls, and only two patients with moderate disease had leukocyte zinc values below the 5th percentile of normal. In another group of nine patients with inflammatory bowel disease of mild-to-moderate severity and minimal nutritional impairment, 65Zn absorption from an extrinsically labeled turkey test meal was 31 +/- 10% compared to 33 +/- 7% in 17 healthy controls, P greater than 0.1. Thus, impairment in 65ZnCl2 absorption in the patients selected for this study was only evident in undernourished persons with moderate or severe disease activity, but biochemical evidence of zinc deficiency was uncommon, and clinical features of zinc depletion were not encountered.

  1. Foliar or root exposures to smelter particles: consequences for lead compartmentalization and speciation in plant leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreck, Eva; Dappe, Vincent; Sarret, Géraldine; Sobanska, Sophie; Nowak, Dorota; Nowak, Jakub; Stefaniak, Elżbieta Anna; Magnin, Valérie; Ranieri, Vincent; Dumat, Camille

    2014-04-01

    In urban areas with high fallout of airborne particles, metal uptake by plants mainly occurs by foliar pathways and can strongly impact crop quality. However, there is a lack of knowledge on metal localization and speciation in plants after pollution exposure, especially in the case of foliar uptake. In this study, two contrasting crops, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and rye-grass (Lolium perenne L.), were exposed to Pb-rich particles emitted by a Pb-recycling factory via either atmospheric or soil application. Pb accumulation in plant leaves was observed for both ways of exposure. The mechanisms involved in Pb uptake were investigated using a combination of microscopic and spectroscopic techniques (electron microscopy, laser ablation, Raman microspectroscopy, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy). The results show that Pb localization and speciation are strongly influenced by the type of exposure (root or shoot pathway) and the plant species. Foliar exposure is the main pathway of uptake, involving the highest concentrations in plant tissues. Under atmospheric fallouts, Pb-rich particles were strongly adsorbed on the leaf surface of both plant species. In lettuce, stomata contained Pb-rich particles in their apertures, with some deformations of guard cells. In addition to PbO and PbSO4, chemical forms that were also observed in pristine particles, new species were identified: organic compounds (minimum 20%) and hexagonal platy crystals of PbCO3. In rye-grass, the changes in Pb speciation were even more egregious: Pb-cell wall and Pb-organic acid complexes were the major species observed. For root exposure, identified here as a minor pathway of Pb transfer compared to foliar uptake, another secondary species, pyromorphite, was identified in rye-grass leaves. Finally, combining bulk and spatially resolved spectroscopic techniques permitted both the overall speciation and the minor but possibly highly reactive lead species to be determined in order to better assess the

  2. Genotoxicity and acute and subchronic toxicity studies of a standardized methanolic extract of Ficus deltoidea leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Farsi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Ficus deltoidea leaves have been used in traditional medicine in Southeast Asia to treat diabetes, inflammation, diarrhea, and infections. The present study was conducted to assess the genotoxicity and acute and subchronic toxicity of a standardized methanol extract of F. deltoidea leaves. METHODS: Sprague Dawley rats were orally treated with five different single doses of the extract and screened for signs of toxicity for two weeks after administration. In the subchronic study, three different doses of the extract were administered for 28 days. Mortality, clinical signs, body weight changes, hematological and biochemical parameters, gross findings, organ weights, and histological parameters were monitored during the study. Genotoxicity was assessed using the Ames test with the TA98 and TA100 Salmonella typhimurium strains. Phytochemical standardization was performed using a colorimeter and high-performance liquid chromatography. Heavy metal detection was performed using an atomic absorption spectrometer. RESULTS: The acute toxicity study showed that the LD50 of the extract was greater than 5000 mg/kg. In the subchronic toxicity study, there were no significant adverse effects on food consumption, body weight, organ weights, mortality, clinical chemistry, hematology, gross pathology, or histopathology. However, a dose-dependent increase in the serum urea level was observed. The Ames test revealed that the extract did not have any potential to induce gene mutations in S. typhimurium, either in the presence or absence of S9 activation. Phytochemical analysis of the extract revealed high contents of phenolics, flavonoids, and tannins. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed high levels of vitexin and isovitexin in the extract, and the levels of heavy metals were below the toxic levels. CONCLUSION: The no-observed adverse effect level of F. deltoidea in rats was determined to be 2500 mg/kg.

  3. Administrative circular n°3 (Rev. 2) – Home leave, travel to home station and assimilated leave and travel

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Administrative Circular No. 3 (Rev. 2) entitled “Home leave, travel to the home station and assimilated leave and travel”, approved by the Director-General following discussion at the Standing Concertation Committee meeting of 11 October 2012 and entering into force on 1 January 2013, is available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department.   This circular is applicable to employed members of the personnel. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 3 (Rev. 1) entitled “Travel to the home station and home leave” of June 2002. The circular was revised in order to take into account the new status of Associate Member State and the fact that henceforth, home stations may be situated on territory outside of Europe. It is proposed to introduce a new system of determination of the benefits (Travel expenses, travel time and distance indemnity) granted in the context of home leave and supplementary journeys to the home station.  For t...

  4. Absorption and metabolism of the absorption enhancer didecanoylphosphatidylcholine in rabbit nasal epithelium in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermehren, C.; Johansen, P.B.; Hansen, Harald S.

    1997-01-01

    The absorption enhancer, didecanoylphosphatidylcholine (DDPC), improves the nasal absorption of human growth hormone in rabbits. We elucidated the uptake and the metabolism of 1,2-di[1-C]decanoyl-L-3-phosphatidylcholine and 1,2-didecanoyl-L-3-phosphatidyl[N-methyl-H]choline in rabbit nasal mucosa...

  5. Improving Tenderness of Spent Layer Hens Meat Using Papaya Leaves (Carica papaya)

    OpenAIRE

    H. O. Abdalla, N. N. A. Ali, F. S. Siddig and S. A. M. Ali*

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments were performed to study the use of papaya leaves as a meat tenderizer. The first experiment was to evaluate the effect of papaya dry leaves added to hen’s diet before slaughter. Spent hens (n=48) were used, half of them were fed a concentrate ration containing10% dried papaya leaves powder (DPLP) while others received layer ration (Control), for 10 days. The second experiment involved a comparison between papaya leaves juice (PLJ), fresh papaya leaves (FPL) and vinegar soluti...

  6. Absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy on a smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md. Arafat; Canning, John; Cook, Kevin; Ast, Sandra; Rutledge, Peter J.; Jamalipour, Abbas

    2015-07-01

    A self-powered smartphone-based field-portable "dual" spectrometer has been developed for both absorption and fluorescence measurements. The smartphone's existing flash LED has sufficient optical irradiance to undertake absorption measurements within a 3D-printed case containing a low cost nano-imprinted polymer diffraction grating. A UV (λex ~ 370 nm) and VIS (λex ~ 450 nm) LED are wired into the circuit of the flash LED to provide an excitation source for fluorescence measurements. Using a customized app on the smartphone, measurements of absorption and fluorescence spectra are demonstrated using pH-sensitive and Zn2+-responsive probes. Detection over a 300 nm span with 0.42 nm/pixel spectral resolution is demonstrated. Despite the low cost and small size of the portable spectrometer, the results compare well with bench top instruments.

  7. Absorption spectra of AA-stacked graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, C W; Lee, S H; Chen, S C; Lin, M F [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan (China); Shyu, F L, E-mail: fl.shyu@msa.hinet.ne, E-mail: mflin@mail.ncku.edu.t [Department of Physics, ROC Military Academy, 830 Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2010-08-15

    AA-stacked graphite shows strong anisotropy in geometric structures and velocity matrix elements. However, the absorption spectra are isotropic for the polarization vector on the graphene plane. The spectra exhibit one prominent plateau at middle energy and one shoulder structure at lower energy. These structures directly reflect the unique geometric and band structures and provide sufficient information for experimental fitting of the intralayer and interlayer atomic interactions. On the other hand, monolayer graphene shows a sharp absorption peak but no shoulder structure; AA-stacked bilayer graphene has two absorption peaks at middle energy and abruptly vanishes at lower energy. Furthermore, the isotropic features are expected to exist in other graphene-related systems. The calculated results and the predicted atomic interactions could be verified by optical measurements.

  8. Use of solar assisted absorption heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzarin, R.

    An absorption system can be used for both ambient cooling and heating by solar energy. Heating by an absorption heat pump can represent an interesting alternative, especially in the countries where electric power is not always easily available. Some machines available on the market have been tested. The COP behavior and heating capacity have been examined as a function of the cold source temperature and with regard to different thermal levels. The COP has reached 1.7. Some simulations have been carried out - with two different climatic conditions - to compare the performances of various ''conventional'' solar installation types with solar assisted absorption heat pumps. The series system has shown better performances, 25% to 75%, in comparison with the simpler solar installation. 16 refs.

  9. Absorption of Soluble Gases by Atmospheric Nanoaerosols

    CERN Document Server

    Elperin, Tov; Krasovitov, Boris; Lushnikov, Alexey

    2012-01-01

    We investigate mass transfer during absorption of atmospheric trace soluble gases by a single droplet whose size is comparable to the molecular mean free path in air at normal conditions. It is assumed that the trace reactant diffuses to the droplet surface and then reacts with the substances inside the droplet according to the first order rate law. Our analysis applies a flux-matching theory of transport processes in gases and assumes constant thermophysical properties of the gases and liquids. We derive an integral equation of Volterra type for the transient molecular flux density to a liquid droplet and solve it numerically. Numerical calculations are performed for absorption of sulfur dioxide (SO2), dinitrogen trioxide (N2O3) and chlorine (Cl2) by liquid nanoaerosols accompanied by chemical dissociation reaction. It is shown that during gas absorption by nanoaerosols the kinetic effects play significant role, and neglecting kinetic effects leads to significant overestimation of the soluble gas flux into a...

  10. Super-Resonant Intracavity Coherent Absorption

    CERN Document Server

    Malara, P; Giorgini, A; Avino, S; De Natale, P; Gagliardi, G

    2016-01-01

    The capability of optical resonators to extend the effective radiation-matter interaction length originates from a multipass effect, hence is intrinsically limited by the resonator quality factor. Here, we show that this constraint can be overcome by combining the concepts of resonant interaction and coherent perfect absorption. We demonstrate and investigate super-resonant coherent absorption in a coupled Fabry-Perot-ring cavity structure. At the FP resonant wavelengths, the described phenomenon gives rise to split modes with a nearly-transparent peak and a peak whose transmission is exceptionally sensitive to the intracavity loss. For small losses, the effective interaction pathlength of these modes is proportional respectively to the ratio and the product of the individual finesse coefficients of the two resonators. The results presented extend the conventional definition of resonant absorption and point to a way of circumventing the technological limitations of ultrahigh-quality resonators in spectroscopy...

  11. Super-Resonant Intracavity Coherent Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malara, P.; Campanella, C. E.; Giorgini, A.; Avino, S.; de Natale, P.; Gagliardi, G.

    2016-07-01

    The capability of optical resonators to extend the effective radiation-matter interaction length originates from a multipass effect, hence is intrinsically limited by the resonator’s quality factor. Here, we show that this constraint can be overcome by combining the concepts of resonant interaction and coherent perfect absorption (CPA). We demonstrate and investigate super-resonant coherent absorption in a coupled Fabry-Perot (FP)/ring cavity structure. At the FP resonant wavelengths, the described phenomenon gives rise to split modes with a nearly-transparent peak and a peak whose transmission is exceptionally sensitive to the intracavity loss. For small losses, the effective interaction pathlength of these modes is proportional respectively to the ratio and the product of the individual finesse coefficients of the two resonators. The results presented extend the conventional definition of resonant absorption and point to a way of circumventing the technological limitations of ultrahigh-quality resonators in spectroscopy and optical sensing schemes.

  12. Selective gas absorption by ionic liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shunmugavel, Saravanamurugan; Kegnæs, Søren; Due-Hansen, Johannes;

    2010-01-01

    Reversible absorption performance for the flue gas components CO 2, NO and SO2 has been tested for several different ionic liquids (ILs) at different temperatures and flue gas compositions. Furthermore, different porous, high surface area carriers have been applied as supports for the ionic liquids...... to obtain Supported Ionic Liquid-Phase (SILP) absorber materials. The use of solid SILP absorbers with selected ILs were found to significantly improve the absorption capacity and sorption dynamics at low flue gas concentration, thus making the applicability of ILs viable in technical, continuous flow...... processes for flue gas cleaning. The results show that CO 2, NO and SO2 can be reversible and selective absorbed using different ILs and that Supported Ionic Liquid-Phase (SILP) absorbers are promising materials for industrial flue gas cleaning. Absorption/desorption dynamics can be tuned by temperatures...

  13. Demonstration of differential backscatter absorption gas imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backscatter absorption gas imaging (BAGI) is a technique that uses infrared active imaging to generate real-time video imagery of gas plumes. We describe a method that employs imaging at two wavelengths (absorbed and not absorbed by the gas to be detected) to allow wavelength-differential BAGI. From the frames collected at each wavelength, an absorbance image is created that displays the differential absorbance of the atmosphere between the imager and the backscatter surface. This is analogous to a two-dimensional topographic differential absorption lidar or differential optical absorption spectroscopy measurement. Gas plumes are displayed, but the topographic scene image is removed. This allows a more effective display of the plume image, thus ensuring detection under a wide variety of conditions. The instrument used to generate differential BAGI is described. Data generated by the instrument are presented and analyzed to estimate sensitivity. (c) 2000 Optical Society of America

  14. Broadband absorption engineering of hyperbolic metafilm patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Dengxin; Song, Haomin; Zeng, Xie; Hu, Haifeng; Liu, Kai; Zhang, Nan; Gan, Qiaoqiang

    2014-03-01

    Perfect absorbers are important optical/thermal components required by a variety of applications, including photon/thermal-harvesting, thermal energy recycling, and vacuum heat liberation. While there is great interest in achieving highly absorptive materials exhibiting large broadband absorption using optically thick, micro-structured materials, it is still challenging to realize ultra-compact subwavelength absorber for on-chip optical/thermal energy applications. Here we report the experimental realization of an on-chip broadband super absorber structure based on hyperbolic metamaterial waveguide taper array with strong and tunable absorption profile from near-infrared to mid-infrared spectral region. The ability to efficiently produce broadband, highly confined and localized optical fields on a chip is expected to create new regimes of optical/thermal physics, which holds promise for impacting a broad range of energy technologies ranging from photovoltaics, to thin-film thermal absorbers/emitters, to optical-chemical energy harvesting.

  15. Terahertz Saturable Absorption in Superconducting Metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Keiser, George R; Zhao, Xiaoguang; Zhang, Xin; Averitt, Richard D

    2016-01-01

    We present a superconducting metamaterial saturable absorber at terahertz frequencies. The absorber consists of an array of split ring resonators (SRRs) etched from a 100nm YBaCu3O7 (YBCO) film. A polyimide spacer layer and gold ground plane are deposited above the SRRs, creating a reflecting perfect absorber. Increasing either the temperature or incident electric field (E) decreases the superconducting condensate density and corresponding kinetic inductance of the SRRs. This alters the impedance matching in the metamaterial, reducing the peak absorption. At low electric fields, the absorption was optimized near 80% at T=10K and decreased to 20% at T=70K. For E=40kV/cm and T=10K, the peak absorption was 70% decreasing to 40% at 200kV/cm, corresponding to a modulation of 43%.

  16. Gold analysis by the gamma absorption technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtoglu, Arzu; Tugrul, A Beril

    2003-01-01

    Gold (Au) analyses are generally performed using destructive techniques. In this study, the Gamma Absorption Technique has been employed for gold analysis. A series of different gold alloys of known gold content were analysed and a calibration curve was obtained. This curve was then used for the analysis of unknown samples. Gold analyses can be made non-destructively, easily and quickly by the gamma absorption technique. The mass attenuation coefficients of the alloys were measured around the K-shell absorption edge of Au. Theoretical mass attenuation coefficient values were obtained using the WinXCom program and comparison of the experimental results with the theoretical values showed generally good and acceptable agreement. PMID:12485656

  17. Anomalous water absorption in porous materials

    CERN Document Server

    Lockington, D A

    2003-01-01

    The absorption of fluid by unsaturated, rigid porous materials may be characterized by the sorptivity. This is a simple parameter to determine and is increasingly being used as a measure of a material's resistance to exposure to fluids (especially moisture and reactive solutes) in aggressive environments. The complete isothermal absorption process is described by a nonlinear diffusion equation, with the hydraulic diffusivity being a strongly nonlinear function of the degree of saturation of the material. This diffusivity can be estimated from the sorptivity test. In a typical test the cumulative absorption is proportional to the square root of time. However, a number of researchers have observed deviation from this behaviour when the infiltrating fluid is water and there is some potential for chemo-mechanical interaction with the material. In that case the current interpretation of the test and estimation of the hydraulic diffusivity is no longer appropriate. Kuentz and Lavallee (2001) discuss the anomalous b...

  18. EMPLOYMENT ABSORPTION IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY: YOGYAKARTA CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Indra Putri

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Unemployment has been a main problem in economic development, especially in developing countries. Unemployment stems from the inability of the economy to absorb the growing labor force. This paper investigates factors influencing absorbtion of labor in Yogyakarta manufacturing industries. Variables hypothesized to affect the absorbtion are wage, labor productivity, non-wage spending, and output of production. It collects data from Indonesia Centre Bureau of Statistics, and uses panel data regression, namely common effect approach, to estimate the model. Employing Eviews software package, it finds that wage, labor productivity, and output production significantly influence labor absorption. However, non-wage spending does not significantly influence the absorption.Keywords: Labor absorption, wage, labor productivity, non-wage spendingJEL classification numbers: J01, J23, J24

  19. Investigation of two-photon absorption induced excited state absorption in a fluorenyl-based chromophore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changwei; Yang, Kun; Feng, Yan; Su, Xinyan; Yang, Junyi; Jin, Xiao; Shui, Min; Wang, Yuxiao; Zhang, Xueru; Song, Yinglin; Xu, Hongyao

    2009-12-01

    Two-photon absorption induced excited state absorption in the solution of a new fluorenyl-based chromophore is investigated by a time-resolved pump-probe technique using femtosecond pulses. With the help of an additional femtosecond open-aperture Z-scan technique, numerical simulations based on a three-energy level model are used to interpret the experimental results, and we determine the nonlinear optical parameters of this new chromophore uniquely. Large two-photon absorption cross section and excited state absorption cross section for singlet excited state are obtained, indicating a good candidate for optical limiting devices. Moreover, the influence of two-beam coupling induced energy transfer in neat N,N'-dimethylformamide solvent is also considered, although this effect is strongly restrained by the instantaneous two-photon absorption. PMID:19894682

  20. Estimation of molar absorptivities and pigment sizes for eumelanin and pheomelanin using femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piletic, Ivan R.; Matthews, Thomas E.; Warren, Warren S.

    2009-11-01

    Fundamental optical and structural properties of melanins are not well understood due to their poor solubility characteristics and the chemical disorder present during biomolecular synthesis. We apply nonlinear transient absorption spectroscopy to quantify molar absorptivities for eumelanin and pheomelanin and thereby get an estimate for their average pigment sizes. We determine that pheomelanin exhibits a larger molar absorptivity at near IR wavelengths (750nm), which may be extended to shorter wavelengths. Using the molar absorptivities, we estimate that melanin pigments contain ˜46 and 28 monomer units for eumelanin and pheomelanin, respectively. This is considerably larger than the oligomeric species that have been recently proposed to account for the absorption spectrum of eumelanin and illustrates that larger pigments comprise a significant fraction of the pigment distribution.

  1. Review on absorption technology with emphasis on small capacity absorption machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labus Jerko M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review the past achievements in the field of absorption systems, their potential and possible directions for future development. Various types of absorption systems and research on working fluids are discussed in detail. Among various applications, solar cooling and combined cooling, heating and power (CCHP are identified as two most promising applications for further development of absorption machines. Under the same framework, special attention is given to the small capacity absorption machines and their current status at the market. Although this technology looks promising, it is still in development and many issues are open. With respect to that fact, this paper covers all the relevant aspects for further development of small capacity absorption machines.

  2. Potassium emission absorption system. Topical report 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauman, L.E.

    1995-04-01

    The Potassium Emission Absorption System is one of the advanced optical diagnostics developed at Mississippi State University to provide support for the demonstration of prototype-scale coal-fired combustion magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) electrical power generation. Intended for application in the upstream of an MHD flow, the system directly measures gas temperature and neutral potassium atom number density through spectroscopic emission absorption techniques. From these measurements the electron density can be inferred from a statistical equilibrium calculation and the electron conductivity in the MHD channel found by use of an electron mobility model. The instrument has been utilized for field test measurements on MHD facilities for almost a decade and has been proven to provide useful measurements as designed for MHD nozzle, channel, and diffuser test sections. The theory of the measurements, a system description, its capabilities, and field test measurement results are reported here. During the development and application of the instrument several technical issues arose which when addressed advanced the state of the art in emission absorption measurement. Studies of these issues are also reported here and include: two-wavelength measurements for particle-laden flows, potassium D-line far wing absorption coefficient, bias in emission absorption measurements arising from dirty windows and misalignments, non-coincident multiwavelength emission absorption sampling errors, and lineshape fitting for boundary layer flow profile information. Although developed for NLHD application, the instrument could be applied to any high temperature flow with a resonance line in the 300 to 800 nm range, for instance other types of flames, rocket plumes or low temperature plasmas.

  3. Foliar or root exposures to smelter particles: Consequences for lead compartmentalization and speciation in plant leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreck, Eva [Université de Toulouse, INP, UPS, EcoLab (Laboratoire Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Environnement), ENSAT, Avenue de l' Agrobiopole, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); CNRS, EcoLab, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); Géosciences Environnement Toulouse (GET), Observatoire Midi Pyrénées, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, IRD, 14 Avenue E. Belin, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Dappe, Vincent [LASIR (UMR CNRS 8516), Université de Lille 1, Bât. C5, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Sarret, Géraldine [ISTerre, UMR 5275, Université Grenoble I, CNRS, F-38041 Grenoble (France); Sobanska, Sophie [LASIR (UMR CNRS 8516), Université de Lille 1, Bât. C5, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Nowak, Dorota; Nowak, Jakub; Stefaniak, Elżbieta Anna [Department of Chemistry, John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Al. Kraśnicka 102, 20-718 Lublin (Poland); Magnin, Valérie [ISTerre, UMR 5275, Université Grenoble I, CNRS, F-38041 Grenoble (France); Ranieri, Vincent [CEA-INAC, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Dumat, Camille, E-mail: camille.dumat@ensat.fr [Université de Toulouse, INP, UPS, EcoLab (Laboratoire Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Environnement), ENSAT, Avenue de l' Agrobiopole, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); CNRS, EcoLab, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France)

    2014-04-01

    In urban areas with high fallout of airborne particles, metal uptake by plants mainly occurs by foliar pathways and can strongly impact crop quality. However, there is a lack of knowledge on metal localization and speciation in plants after pollution exposure, especially in the case of foliar uptake. In this study, two contrasting crops, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and rye-grass (Lolium perenne L.), were exposed to Pb-rich particles emitted by a Pb-recycling factory via either atmospheric or soil application. Pb accumulation in plant leaves was observed for both ways of exposure. The mechanisms involved in Pb uptake were investigated using a combination of microscopic and spectroscopic techniques (electron microscopy, laser ablation, Raman microspectroscopy, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy). The results show that Pb localization and speciation are strongly influenced by the type of exposure (root or shoot pathway) and the plant species. Foliar exposure is the main pathway of uptake, involving the highest concentrations in plant tissues. Under atmospheric fallouts, Pb-rich particles were strongly adsorbed on the leaf surface of both plant species. In lettuce, stomata contained Pb-rich particles in their apertures, with some deformations of guard cells. In addition to PbO and PbSO{sub 4}, chemical forms that were also observed in pristine particles, new species were identified: organic compounds (minimum 20%) and hexagonal platy crystals of PbCO{sub 3}. In rye-grass, the changes in Pb speciation were even more egregious: Pb–cell wall and Pb–organic acid complexes were the major species observed. For root exposure, identified here as a minor pathway of Pb transfer compared to foliar uptake, another secondary species, pyromorphite, was identified in rye-grass leaves. Finally, combining bulk and spatially resolved spectroscopic techniques permitted both the overall speciation and the minor but possibly highly reactive lead species to be determined in order to

  4. Foliar or root exposures to smelter particles: Consequences for lead compartmentalization and speciation in plant leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In urban areas with high fallout of airborne particles, metal uptake by plants mainly occurs by foliar pathways and can strongly impact crop quality. However, there is a lack of knowledge on metal localization and speciation in plants after pollution exposure, especially in the case of foliar uptake. In this study, two contrasting crops, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and rye-grass (Lolium perenne L.), were exposed to Pb-rich particles emitted by a Pb-recycling factory via either atmospheric or soil application. Pb accumulation in plant leaves was observed for both ways of exposure. The mechanisms involved in Pb uptake were investigated using a combination of microscopic and spectroscopic techniques (electron microscopy, laser ablation, Raman microspectroscopy, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy). The results show that Pb localization and speciation are strongly influenced by the type of exposure (root or shoot pathway) and the plant species. Foliar exposure is the main pathway of uptake, involving the highest concentrations in plant tissues. Under atmospheric fallouts, Pb-rich particles were strongly adsorbed on the leaf surface of both plant species. In lettuce, stomata contained Pb-rich particles in their apertures, with some deformations of guard cells. In addition to PbO and PbSO4, chemical forms that were also observed in pristine particles, new species were identified: organic compounds (minimum 20%) and hexagonal platy crystals of PbCO3. In rye-grass, the changes in Pb speciation were even more egregious: Pb–cell wall and Pb–organic acid complexes were the major species observed. For root exposure, identified here as a minor pathway of Pb transfer compared to foliar uptake, another secondary species, pyromorphite, was identified in rye-grass leaves. Finally, combining bulk and spatially resolved spectroscopic techniques permitted both the overall speciation and the minor but possibly highly reactive lead species to be determined in order to better assess

  5. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LEAVES

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasa U; Amrutia Jay N; Katharotiya Reena; Moses Semuel Rajan

    2011-01-01

    Petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts of leaves of Moringa oleifera were screened for various bioactive constituents like glycosides, carbohydrates, tannins, flavonoids, triterpenoids and alkaloids. The chloroform and methanol extracts were evaluated for anthelmintic activity on adult Indian earthworms Pheritima postuma using Piperazine citrate and Rajah Pravartani Vati (Ayurvedic preparation) as a reference standards. The results obtained indicated that the chloroform ex...

  6. "Hello, Goodbye": Exploring the Phenomenon of Leaving Teaching Early

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Aubrey Scheopner

    2012-01-01

    High teacher attrition rates hinder schools in their ability to provide quality instruction. This study seeks to understand why teachers leave early in their careers (within the first 5 years) using a mixed methods approach that combined 50 in-depth interviews with 15 public and 10 Catholic school teachers in the United States who left early with…

  7. Chromatographic profiles of Ginkgo biloba leaves and selected products

    Science.gov (United States)

    An LC-DAD-ESI/MS method was developed to obtain chromatographic profiles for the flavonoids and terpene lactones of Ginkgo biloba leaves and selected G. biloba products. The method was used to identify 46 glycosylated flavonols and flavones, 3 free flavonol aglycones, catechin, 10 biflavones, a dihy...

  8. Dose-response relation between physical activity and sick leave

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proper, K.I.; Heuvel, S.G. van den; Vroome, E.M. de; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Beek, A.J. van der

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the dose-response relation between moderate and vigorous physical activity and sick leave in a working population. Methods: Data were used from three large Dutch databases: two continuous, cross sectional surveys among a representative sample of the Dutch population and one

  9. Methyl carnosate, an antibacterial diterpene isolated from Salvia officinalis leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climati, Elisa; Mastrogiovanni, Fabio; Valeri, Maria; Salvini, Laura; Bonechi, Claudia; Mamadalieva, Nilufar Zokirzhonovna; Egamberdieva, Dilfuza; Taddei, Anna Rita; Tiezzi, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Ethanolic extracts of Salvia officinalis leaves demonstrated antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus. Fractionation of the extracts led to the isolation of the most active antibacterial compound, which, from spectroscopic and LC-MS evidence, was proved to be the diterpene, methyl carnosate.

  10. Leave or Stay? Battered Women's Decision after Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinseok; Gray, Karen A.

    2008-01-01

    Battered women's reasons for staying with or leaving their male partners are varied and complex. Using data from the Domestic Violence Experience in Omaha, Nebraska, a discrete-time hazard model was employed to examine a woman's decision based on four factors: financial independence, witness of parental violence, psychological factors, and the…

  11. Dengue fever treatment with Carica papaya leaves extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nisar Ahmad; Hina Fazal; Muhammad Ayaz; Bilal Haider Abbasi; Ijaz Mohammad; Lubna Fazal

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the current study is to investigate the potential of Carica papaya leaves extracts against Dengue fever in 45 year old patient bitten by carrier mosquitoes. For the treatment of Dengue fever the extract was prepared in water. 25 mL of aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves was administered to patient infected with Dengue fever twice daily i.e. morning and evening for five consecutive days. Before the extract administration the blood samples from patient were analyzed. Platelets count (PLT), White Blood Cells (WBC) and Neutrophils (NEUT) decreased from 176×103/μL, 8.10×10 3/μL, 84.0% to 55×10 3/μL, 3.7×10 3/μL and 46.0%. Subsequently, the blood samples were rechecked after the administration of leaves extract. It was observed that the PLT count increased from 55×103/μL to 168×10 3/μL, WBC from 3.7×10 3/μL to 7.7×10 3/μL and NEUT from 46.0% to 78.3%. From the patient feelings and blood reports it showed that Caricapapaya leaves aqueous extract exhibited potential activity against Dengue fever. Furthermore, the different parts of this valuable specie can be further used as a strong natural candidate against viral diseases.

  12. McCallen Professional Research and Teaching Leave Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCallen, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-16

    This end of assignment report for a Professional Research and Teaching (PRT) Leave award includes the attached assessment of success by the host organization, University of California Davis (UCD). The following summarizes the accomplishments and attached are a selection of documented items.

  13. Toxicological Studies of Hydromethanolic Leaves Extract of Grewia crenata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AN Ukwuani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The acute and sub-chronic oral toxicity studies of hydro-methanolic extracts of Grewia crenata leaves were evaluated in rats. The extract at a single dose of 5000 mg/kg did not produce treatment related signs of toxicity or mortality in any of the animals tested during 14 days observation period. Therefore, LD 50 of this plant was estimated to be more than 5000 mg/kg. Phytochemical screening of the leaves extract revealed the plant to contain saponins, steroids, flavonoids, anthraquinones and glycosides. In the repeated dose 28days oral toxicity study, administration of 900, 1800, 2700 and 3600 mg/kg of body weight G. crenata leaves extracts revealed no significantly difference (p<0.05 in the hematological parameter except for reduced platelet and increased differential blood count shown in some of the treated groups. Analysis of serum liver enzymes, uric acid, total protein, albumin, cholesterol, electrolytes and creatinine revealed no significant (P<0.05 changes in the extract treated groups compared to control group. However, significant differences (P<0.05 were seen in glucose, urea and bilirubin of the treated groups when compared to the control group. These results suggest that the sub-chronic administration of hydro-methanolic leaves extracts of Grewia crenata has no marked acute and sub-chronic toxic effect in rats.

  14. 48 CFR 752.7031 - Leave and holidays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Leave and holidays. 752.7031 Section 752.7031 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT... States (less language training) and the actual days overseas beginning on the date of departure from...

  15. Kaempferol and quercetin glycosides from Rubus idaeus L. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudej, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Quercetin 3-0-beta-D-glucoside (I), quercetin and kaempferol 3-0-beta-D-galactosides (II, III), kaempferol 3-0-beta-L-arabinopyranoside (IV), kaempferol 3-0-beta-D-(6''-E-p-coumaroyl)-glucoside (tiliroside) (V) and methyl gallate (VI) were isolated from Rubus idaeus L. subspecies culture of Norna leaves and fully characterized.

  16. Antioxidant Potential and Oil Composition of Callistemon viminalis Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zubair

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant potential and oil composition of Callistemon viminalis leaves. GC-MS analysis of the n-hexane extract revealed the presence of 40 compounds. Leaves contained appreciable levels of total phenolic contents (0.27–0.85 GAE mg/g and total flavonoid contents (2.25–7.96 CE mg/g. DPPH radical scavenging IC50 and % inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation were found to be in the ranges of 28.4–56.2 μg/ml and 40.1–70.2%, respectively. The haemolytic effect of the plant leaves was found in the range of 1.79–4.95%. The antioxidant activity of extracts was also studied using sunflower oil as an oxidative substrate and found that it stabilized the oil. The correlation between the results of different antioxidant assays and oxidation parameters of oil indicated that leaves' methanolic extract, exhibiting higher TPC and TFC and scavenging power, was also more potent for enhancing the oxidative stability of sunflower oil.

  17. Physiological responses of plant leaves to atmospheric ammonia and ammonium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, J.; Soares, A.

    Misting of leaves of several plant species with 3 mM aqueous NH +4 at pH 5, or fumigation with 3000 μg m -3 gaseous NH 3 for 1 h, elicits similar biochemical and physiological changes in the species tested. The enzyme glutamine synthetase (GS) was shown to increase its activity in all species, while that of nitrate reductase (NR) was inhibited, at least in those species which possessed the ability to induce foliar NR. At the same time there were marked changes in organic anion concentrations, with malate and citrate in particular being reduced in concentration, following either NH +4 or NH 3 application to leaves. The changes in organic anions are also discussed in the light of pH regulation by the cell. A stimulation of photosynthesis was also evident when leaves were treated with either NH 3 or NH +4. It is argued that, because of the differences in solution chemistry of the two ammonia forms, the aqueous form applied at pH 5 and the gaseous form being an alkali in solution, these changes can only have occurred through the ability of the leaves to readily assimilate both forms of the ammonia. The biochemical changes might have potential as markers for the onset of physiological perturbation by atmospheric ammonia pollution, particularly changes in organic acid concentration; their use in an index of pollution stress is briefly discussed.

  18. Bad Behavior : Delinquency, Arrest and Early School Leaving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ward, Shannon; Williams, J.; van Ours, Jan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the effects of delinquency and arrest on school leaving using information on males from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997. We use a multivariate mixed proportional hazard framework in order to account for common unobserved confounders and reverse causality.

  19. Einstein's Tea Leaves and Pressure Systems in the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Amit; Marshall, John

    2010-01-01

    Tea leaves gather in the center of the cup when the tea is stirred. In 1926 Einstein explained the phenomenon in terms of a secondary, rim-to-center circulation caused by the fluid rubbing against the bottom of the cup. This explanation can be connected to air movement in atmospheric pressure systems to explore, for example, why low-pressure…

  20. Predicting stay/leave behavior among volleyball referees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, N.W.

    1998-01-01

    This study aimed to predict stay/leave behavior among volleyball referees. The predictor variables reflect commitment aspects from the literature: attraction, perceived lack of alternatives, personal investments, and feelings of obligation to remain. Intent to quit was assumed to mediate the link be

  1. Physical Education, Liberal Education and the Leaving Certificate Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, D. G.

    2012-01-01

    This article considers the conceptualization of physical education as a Leaving Certificate Examination subject and the place of physical education in a liberal education. Special attention is given to the conceptual evolution of physical education and its intrinsic educational values and to the developments in the idea of a liberal education over…

  2. "Who Leaves?" Teacher Attrition and Student Achievement. Working Paper 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Donald; Grossman, Pamela; Lankford, Hamilton; Loeb, Susanna; Wyckoff, James

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes attrition patterns among teachers in New York City public elementary and middle schools and explores whether teachers who transfer among schools, or leave teaching entirely, are more or less effective than those who remain. We find that the first-year teachers who are less effective in improving student math scores have higher…

  3. 42 CFR 31.6 - Personnel absent without leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Personnel absent without leave. 31.6 Section 31.6 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS MEDICAL CARE FOR CERTAIN PERSONNEL OF THE COAST GUARD, NATIONAL OCEAN SURVEY, PUBLIC...

  4. Cassava leaves as protein source for pigs in Central Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to evaluate the use of cassava leaves as protein sources for pigs when used at high levels in the diet, either in fresh form or with simplified methods of processing. In twenty cassava varieties taken from the upper part of the plant at the root

  5. Dengue fever treatment with Carica papaya leaves extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nisar; Fazal, Hina; Ayaz, Muhammad; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Mohammad, Ijaz; Fazal, Lubna

    2011-08-01

    The main objective of the current study is to investigate the potential of Carica papaya leaves extracts against Dengue fever in 45 year old patient bitten by carrier mosquitoes. For the treatment of Dengue fever the extract was prepared in water. 25 mL of aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves was administered to patient infected with Dengue fever twice daily i.e. morning and evening for five consecutive days. Before the extract administration the blood samples from patient were analyzed. Platelets count (PLT), White Blood Cells (WBC) and Neutrophils (NEUT) decreased from 176×10(3)/µL, 8.10×10(3)/µL, 84.0% to 55×10(3)/µL, 3.7×10(3)/µL and 46.0%. Subsequently, the blood samples were rechecked after the administration of leaves extract. It was observed that the PLT count increased from 55×10(3)/µL to 168×10(3)/µL, WBC from 3.7×10(3)/µL to 7.7×10(3)/µL and NEUT from 46.0% to 78.3%. From the patient feelings and blood reports it showed that Carica papaya leaves aqueous extract exhibited potential activity against Dengue fever. Furthermore, the different parts of this valuable specie can be further used as a strong natural candidate against viral diseases.

  6. Three new megastigmanes from the leaves of Annona muricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushige, Ayano; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi; Kotake, Yaichiro; Otsuka, Hideaki; Ohta, Shigeru

    2012-04-01

    Three new megastigmanes (1-3), named annoionols A and B (1, 2) and annoionoside (3), were isolated from the leaves of Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae) together with 14 known compounds (4-17). Among the known compounds, annoionol C (4) was isolated from a natural source for the first time. The structures of all compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical analyses.

  7. Pharmacognostical Investigation and Physicochemical Analysis of Celastrus paniculatus Willd. Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kalaskar Mohan G.; Saner Sachin Y.; Pawar Manohar V.; Rokade Dipak L; Surana Sanjay J

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Celastrus paniculatus Willd. is an important Indian medicinal plant and widely used in the treatment of the verity of disease and well explored scientifically for their pharmacological properties. The current study was therefore carried out to provide requisite pharmacognostic details about the plant. Methods: Pharmacognostic investigation of the fresh, powdered and anatomical sections of the leaves of Celastrus paniculatus Willd. was carried out to determine its morphological, anatomical, and phytochemical diagnostic features. Quantitative diagnostic characteristics, physicochemical properties and quantitative phytochemical measures were established. Results: The morphology of leave reveled, leaves are alternate, acute, acuminate or obtuse, rounded with cuncate base,; margin is finely crenate, venation is reticulate. The microscopy reveals the dorsiventral type of leave, with anomocytic stomata, covering (lower epidermis) and glandular (upper epidermis) trichomes. The collateral vascular bundle crowned with sclerenchymatous fiber, ideoblast of calcium oxalate. The Quantitative diagnostic characteristics such as leaf constant were measured. Physicochemical properties such as ash, extractive values and fluorescence analysis were established. Quantitative phytochemical revealed presence of carbohydrates, fixed oil, glycosides, cumarines, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, steroids and triterpenoids. Conclusion: The results of the study could be useful in setting some diagnostic indices for the identification and preparation of a monograph of the plant.

  8. Phenolic Profile of Leaves and Drupes of Ten Olive Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios MITSOPOULOS

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Leaves and drupes of the olive varieties "Koroneiki", "Lianolia Kerkyras", "Mastoidis", "Arbequina", "Adramytini", "Megaritiki", "Gaidourelia", "Kalamata", "Konservolia" and "Chalkidiki" were collected at different seasons during 2008 and 2009 and investigated by HPLC for their phenolic profile and the concentration of the phenolic compounds present. The phenolic compounds identified in 2008 new season leaves were, in declining concentration order, oleuropein, 7-O-glucoside of luteolin and rutin whereas for those collected in 2009 the main phenolic compounds were oleuropein, rutin, 4-O-glucoside of luteolin and 7-O-glucoside of apigenin. In September - December 2009 collected leaves, oleuropein presented the higher concentration followed by 7-O-glucoside of luteolin, 4-O-glucoside of luteolin and rutin. Regarding green and black drupes for both years, the main phenolic compounds were oleuropein, verbascoside and rutin. Verbascoside was only found in drupes whereas the 7-O-glucoside of apigenin only in leaves. Εach tissue, for both years, had a similar phenolic profile in all varieties.

  9. Phospholipid signaling responses in salt-stressed rice leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Darwish; C. Testerink; M. Khalil; O. El-Shihy; T. Munnik

    2009-01-01

    Salinity is one of the major environmental factors limiting growth and productivity of rice plants. In this study, the effect of salt stress on phospholipid signaling responses in rice leaves was investigated. Leaf cuts were radiolabeled with 32 P-orthophosphate and the lipids extracted and analyzed

  10. Caregiver Leave-Taking in Spain: Rate, Motivations, and Barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogero-García, Jesús; García-Sainz, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to (1) determine the rate of (full- and part-time) caregiver leave-taking in Spain, (2) identify the reasons conducive to a more intense use of this resource, and (3) ascertain the main obstacles to its use, as perceived by caregivers. All 896 people covered by the sample were engaging in paid work and had cared for dependent adults in the last 12 years. This resource, in particular the full-time alternative, was found to be a minority option. The data showed that legal, work-related, and family and gender norm issues are the four types of factors that determine the decision to take such leaves. The most significant obstacles to their use are the forfeiture of income and the risk of losing one's job. Our results suggest that income replacement during a leave would increase the take-up of these resources. Moreover, enlargement of public care services would promote the use of leave as a free choice of caregivers. PMID:26808617

  11. Gender Inequality and the Family and Medical Leave Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prohaska, Ariane; Zipp, John F.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we use feminist theories of the state to examine why the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) has had relatively little impact on increasing men's caregiving after the birth or adoption of a child. An analysis of witness testimonies and of the language of the proposed bill at three different stages of its development revealed that…

  12. Photosynthesis in Plants with Non-Green Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartak, Rehka

    2006-01-01

    Enquiry based learning is an important tool in science teaching. Students of Class XI (16-17 years old) were asked to hypothesise on the role of different pigments found in plants with non-green leaves. The majority hypothesised that these plants were devoid of chlorophylls and some other pigments performed the function of photosynthesis. Their…

  13. Antimicrobial Activity of UV-Induced Phenylamides from Rice Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Lin Park

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Rice produces a wide array of phytoalexins in response to pathogen attacks and UV-irradiation. Except for the flavonoid sakuranetin, most phytoalexins identified in rice are diterpenoid compounds. Analysis of phenolic-enriched fractions from UV-treated rice leaves showed that several phenolic compounds in addition to sakuranetin accumulated remarkably in rice leaves. We isolated two compounds from UV-treated rice leaves using silica gel column chromatography and preparative HPLC. The isolated phenolic compounds were identified as phenylamide compounds: N-trans-cinnamoyltryptamine and N-p-coumaroylserotonin. Expression analysis of biosynthetic genes demonstrated that genes for arylamine biosynthesis were upregulated by UV irradiation. This result suggested that phenylamide biosynthetic pathways are activated in rice leaves by UV treatment. To unravel the role of UV-induced phenylamides as phytoalexins, we examined their antimicrobial activity against rice fungal and bacterial pathogens. N-trans-Cinnamoyltryptamine inhibited the growth of rice brown spot fungus (Bipolaris oryzae. In addition to the known antifungal activity to the blast fungus, sakuranetin had antimicrobial activity toward B. oryzae and Rhizoctonia solani (rice sheath blight fungus. UV-induced phenylamides and sakuranetin also had antimicrobial activity against rice bacterial pathogens for grain rot (Burkholderia glumae, blight (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and leaf streak (X. oryzae pv. oryzicola diseases. These findings suggested that the UV-induced phenylamides in rice are phytoalexins against a diverse array of pathogens.

  14. Porosity and liquid absorption of cement paste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krus, M.; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Kunzel, H. M.

    1997-01-01

    be a slowing-down effect which is related to water because the absorption of organic liquids, such as hexane, is quite normal. Measurements of the porosity of hardened cement paste determined by helium pycnometry and water saturation show that water molecules can enter spaces in the microstructure which...... are not accessible to the smaller helium atoms. Considering the results of dilatation tests both before and after water and hexane saturation, it seems possible that a contraction of capillary pores due to moisture-related swelling of the cement gel leads to the non-linear water absorption over the square root...

  15. An open cycle absorption heat pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzarin, R.M.; Longo, G.A. (Padua Univ. (Italy)); Piccininni, F. (Politecnico di Bari (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Tecnica)

    1992-09-01

    By using absorption dehumidification it is possible to obtain an open cycle absorption heat pump fed by a natural gas burner. The machine couples great simplicity with very good thermodynamic performance. The main feature is the recovery of the latent heat of the air flow. The open cycle heat pump is applied here to building heating, internal temperature 20[sup o]C, relative humidity 50%, with forced ventilation. The system has essentially a packed tower bed for dehumidification, a regenerator fed by a natural gas burner, connected to a condenser, and some heat exchangers. (author).

  16. Intestinal absorption of specific structured triacylglycerols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2001-01-01

    To clarify the intestinal absorption pathway of medium-chain fatty acids from MMM-type structured triaclyglycerols containing both medium- and long-chain fatty acids, we studied the lymphatic transport of 1,3-dioctanoyl-2-linoleoyl-sn- glycerol (8:0/18:2/8:0), 1,3-didecanoyl-2-linoleoyl...... activated into CoA, and reacylated into triacylglycerols in the enterocyte, The hydrolysis of MLM-type STAG is predominantly partial hydrolysis, whereas part of the STAG can also be hydrolyzed to free glycerol and free fatty acids. - Mu, H., and CE. Hoy. Intestinal absorption of specific structured...

  17. No absorption in de Sitter space

    CERN Document Server

    Myung, Y S

    2003-01-01

    We study the wave equation for a minimally coupled massive scalar in D-dimensional de Sitter space. We compute the absorption cross section to investigate its cosmological horizon in the southern diamond. By analogy of the quantum mechanics, it is found that there is no absorption in de Sitter space. This means that de Sitter space is usually in thermal equilibrium, like the black hole in anti de Sitter space. It confirms that the cosmological horizon not only emits radiation but also absorbs that previously emitted by itself at the same rate, keeping the curvature radius of de Sitter space fixed.

  18. Triplet absorption spectroscopy and electromagnetically induced transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafoor, F.; Nazmitdinov, R. G.

    2016-09-01

    Coherence phenomena in a four-level atomic system, cyclically driven by three coherent fields, are investigated thoroughly at zero and weak magnetic fields. Each strongly interacting atomic state is converted to a triplet due to a dynamical Stark effect. Two dark lines with a Fano-like profile arise in the triplet absorption spectrum with anomalous dispersions. We provide conditions to control the widths of the transparency windows by means of the relative phase of the driving fields and the intensity of the microwave field, which closes the optical system loop. The effect of Doppler broadening on the results of the triplet absorption spectroscopy is analysed in detail.

  19. Achromatic THz absorption of conductive nanofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Yin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available According to the theory, an ultrathin conductive film can achromatically dissipate electromagnetic waves with frequency ranging from radio to terahertz. A moderate absorption effect, which gives rise to a maximal absorbance of 50%, can be found if an impedance matching condition is satisfied. We have experimentally demonstrated the frequency-irrelevant, maximal absorption by employing a conductive nanofilm and launching terahertz waves at Brewster angle when the sheet (square resistance of the film meets the impedance matching condition. In the entire terahertz spectral range covered by our experiments, the frequency-independent optical properties were consistent with the theoretical calculations.

  20. Pion absorption in flight on 3He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pion absorption in flight on 3He has been measured in a kinematically complete manner. The experiment was done in the πE1-channel at the Swiss Institute for Nuclear Research, SIN, using π+- and π--beams of 120 and 165 MeV kinetic energy. Two of the emitted particles were measured in coincidence and identified by their time-of-flight/pulseheight relation. The obtained two-dimensional energy representation enabled a separation of the different kinematical regions and exhibited a clear enhancement in the region of quasifree absorption, QFA. (orig./WL)