WorldWideScience

Sample records for absorption leaves

  1. Absorption and translocation of phosphorus-32 in guava leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natale, William

    1997-01-01

    Phosphorus is easily absorbed by the leaves and translocated. The objective of this work was to evaluate the absorption and translocation of P by guava leaves, with time. When a solution containing 2% MAP and specific activity 0.15 μCi/ml was applied. MAP labelled with 32 P was applied in the 3 rd pair of leaves. These and other leaves, roots and stem were collected separately and analyzed accordingly. The results showed that 20 days after application 12% of the applied P was absorbed by the guava leaves. The translocation of P started immediately after its absorption reaching 20% 2fter 20 days. (author). 19 refs., 4 tabs

  2. Atomic absorption spectrometry of the leaves of Newbouldia Laevis (Bignoniaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, L.; Musa, A.; Isma'il, M. B.; Ahmed, Y. A.; Okunade, I.O.; Garba, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, fresh leaves samples of Newbouldia laevis, a medicinal plant, popularly known as African Border tree used traditionally for the treatment of a number of diseases, were collected in Dakace, (Lat. 11degree05'N Long. 7degree46'E) Zaria, Kaduna State, North-Central Nigeria, during the wet season (October to November) of 2008. The samples were digested using a tri-acid mixture (HNO 3 , HCIO 4 , and H 2 SO 4 ) in the ratio of 25:4:2 respectively. The concentrations of essential trace elements including magnesium, copper, iron, zinc, and cobalt in the samples were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). The results obtained showed that Fe has the highest mean concentration of 8.2481±3.689μg/g; whereas Co has the least mean concentration of 0.111±0.055μg/g. The study also revealed that the mean concentrations of Mg, Cu and Zn exceed the recommended limit set by FAO.

  3. Determination of five trace elements in leaves in Nanfang sweet orange by flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Fangqing

    2006-01-01

    The five trace elements of copper, zinc, manganese, iron and cobalt in leaves of Nanfang sweet orange are determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The technique is simple, precise and sensitive. The effect of the type of digesting solution (mixed acid), the ratio of mixed acid, the volume of digesting solution and the time of digesting are investigated in details. The results show that leaves of Nanfang sweet orange contain higher amount of iron and zinc. (authors)

  4. Starfruit Leaves as Glucose Absorption Inhibitor in Mice’s Small Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifqi Y Muhammad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Starfruit (Averrhoa carambola leaves contain flavone derivatives that exhibit anti-hyperglycemic effects. This study aims to determine the effect of starfruit leaves in reducing glucose absorption in intestinal epithelial cells of mice. Methods: This study was done by performing perfusion on the small intestines of mice. The mice that were used in this study were divided into four groups. The control group was given glucose solution without infused starfruit leaves whereas, the remaining 3 groups were given 3 mmol (540 mg/dL glucose solution with infused starfruit leaves of varying concentrations; 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg. Samples were collected at 0, 15th, 30th, 45th, and 60th minute. The sample was tested for glucose levels using spectrophotometry. Results: Test of significance showed a significant difference between the control group and the test group with p < 0.05. Conclusions: Starfruit leaves have a reduction effect towards glucose absorption in the small intestines in Wistar strains where the group using 600 mg/kg of infused starfruit leaves have the most significant effect as compared to other groups.

  5. 65 Zn absorption by orange leaves and their transport on the plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boaretto, Rodrigo Marcelli; Boaretto, Antonio Enedi; Muraoka, Takashi; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio Franco do; Mourao Filho, Francisco de Assis Alves

    2002-01-01

    Zinc deficiency is common in Brazilian citrus orchards. The objective of the experiment was to study the Zn absorption from different sources (ZnSO 4 , ZnCl 2 , Zn-EDTA and Zn-ligno sulfate) by orange leaves and transport of the leaf absorbed Zn to the other parts of the plant. Orange plants were grown in greenhouse and some of their leaves received solution with a Zn concentration of 0.07 %. The fertilizer solutions were labeled with 65 Zn (0,6 KBq g -1 ). After 3, 6, 12, 24 hours and 2, 5, 15, 30, 60, 120 days from Zn application to the leaves, the plants were harvested. The plants that received the Zn solution were separated in different parts. The 65 Zn activity of the samples were determined by monochannel gamma spectrometry. The results showed that the foliar fertilization increased the leaf Zn concentration, the chloride was more efficient Zn source than sulfate, but only a small portion (less than 5 μg in 30 days) of foliar applied 65 Zn was translocated to other plant parts, independent of the Zn source. (author)

  6. Do changes in the azimuthal distribution of maize leaves over time affect canopy light absorption?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drouet, J.L.; Moulia, B.; Bonhomme, R.

    1999-01-01

    In maize canopies, when modelling the architecture and light regime one usually assumes leaf azimuths are distributed uniformly. Once we had demonstrated azimuthal re-orientation of maize leaves during the vegetative phase, we tested the weight of this hypothesis on the light absorbed daily by the canopy. We thus modelled the three-dimensional (3D) geometry of maize canopies with various plant densities and at different developmental stages using plant digitizing under field conditions. We simulated radiative transfer using a volume-based approach within actual and hypothetical canopies, obtained by simply rearranging leaf azimuths. Simulations indicated that changes to horizontal heterogeneity have little effect on daily light absorption efficiency. It is concluded that changes in leaf azimuths do not have to be taken into account in crop-functioning models. (author) [fr

  7. Assessment of urinary cotinine as a marker of nicotine absorption from tobacco leaves: a study on tobacco farmers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuki, Mayumi; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Kimura, Kaoru; Sato, Hajime; Nordin, Rusli Bin; Naing, Lin; Morita, Yoko; Sakai, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Yasuki; Araki, Shunichi

    2003-05-01

    To assess dermal absorption of nicotine from tobacco leaves in relation to Green Tobacco Sickness (GTS), urinary cotinine concentrations were measured in 80 male tobacco-growing farmers and in 40 healthy males (controls) who did not handle wet tobacco leaves in Kelantan, Malaysia. Among non-smokers, urinary cotinine levels in farmers were significantly higher than those of controls; farmers with urinary cotinine of 50 ng/ml/m2 or above showed eye symptoms more frequently than those below this level (ptobacco farmers evidence a risk of nicotine poisoning from tobacco leaves, assessment including GTS together with effects of pesticides will be necessary.

  8. Importance of the green color, absorption gradient, and spectral absorption of chloroplasts for the radiative energy balance of leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, Atsushi

    2017-05-01

    Terrestrial green plants absorb photosynthetically active radiation (PAR; 400-700 nm) but do not absorb photons evenly across the PAR waveband. The spectral absorbance of photosystems and chloroplasts is lowest for green light, which occurs within the highest irradiance waveband of direct solar radiation. We demonstrate a close relationship between this phenomenon and the safe and efficient utilization of direct solar radiation in simple biophysiological models. The effects of spectral absorptance on the photon and irradiance absorption processes are evaluated using the spectra of direct and diffuse solar radiation. The radiation absorption of a leaf arises as a consequence of the absorption of chloroplasts. The photon absorption of chloroplasts is strongly dependent on the distribution of pigment concentrations and their absorbance spectra. While chloroplast movements in response to light are important mechanisms controlling PAR absorption, they are not effective for green light because chloroplasts have the lowest spectral absorptance in the waveband. With the development of palisade tissue, the incident photons per total palisade cell surface area and the absorbed photons per chloroplast decrease. The spectral absorbance of carotenoids is effective in eliminating shortwave PAR (solar radiation. However, most of the near infrared radiation is unabsorbed and heat stress is greatly reduced. The incident solar radiation is too strong to be utilized for photosynthesis under the current CO 2 concentration in the terrestrial environment. Therefore, the photon absorption of a whole leaf is efficiently regulated by photosynthetic pigments with low spectral absorptance in the highest irradiance waveband and through a combination of pigment density distribution and leaf anatomical structures.

  9. Absorption and translocation of phosphorus-32 in guava leaves; Absorcao e redistribuicao de fosforo (P-32) aplicado via foliar em mudas de goiabeira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natale, William [UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias; Boaretto, Antonio E.; Muraoka, Takashi [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    1997-12-01

    Phosphorus is easily absorbed by the leaves and translocated. The objective of this work was to evaluate the absorption and translocation of P by guava leaves, with time. When a solution containing 2% MAP and specific activity 0.15 {mu}Ci/ml was applied. MAP labelled with {sup 32} P was applied in the 3{sup rd} pair of leaves. These and other leaves, roots and stem were collected separately and analyzed accordingly. The results showed that 20 days after application 12% of the applied P was absorbed by the guava leaves. The translocation of P started immediately after its absorption reaching 20% 2fter 20 days. (author). 19 refs., 4 tabs.

  10. Inhibition of glucose intestinal absorption by kaempferol 3-O-α-rhamnoside purified from Bauhinia megalandra leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Patricia; González-Mujica, Freddy; Bermúdez, Jairo; Hasegawa, Masahisa

    2010-12-01

    Glucose intestinal absorption (GIA) is one of the factors that increase glycemia. Its reduction could be an important factor in decreasing hyperglycemia in diabetic patients. It has been shown that the aqueous extract of Bauhinia megalandra leaves inhibits GIA. In the present study we identified a compound present in the extract of B. megalandra responsible for the biological effect. The methanol extract of B. megalandra leaves was fractionated using different solvents, and high-speed counter-current chromatography yielding two pure compounds identified by (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR as kaempferol 3-O-α-rhamnoside and quercetin 3-O-α-rhamnoside. The first one increased the K(M) without changes in the V(MAX) of GIA. In addition it exerted an additive inhibitory effect, on GIA, when combined with phlorizin. We suggest that kaempferol 3-O-α-rhamnoside is a competitive inhibitor of intestinal SGLT1 cotransporter. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Genomic study of the absorption mechanism of p-coumaric acid and caffeic acid of extract of Ananas comosus L. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Yun-jie; Zhu, Chun-yan

    2015-03-01

    Cardiac disease has emerged as the leading cause of death worldwide, and food rich in phenolic acids has drawn much attention as sources of active substances of hypolipidemic drug. Ananas comosus L. (pineapple) is one of the most popular tropical and subtropical fruits. Isolated from pineapple leaves, EAL(Extract of Ananas Comosus L. Leaves) is rich in phenolic acids, such as p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, and other phenolics, highly relevant to the putative cardiovascular-protective effects, which suggests its potential to be a new plant medicine for treatment of cardiac disease, but little is known about absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of EAL in animals or human beings. In this study, we employed cDNA microarray, Caco-2 cell lines, and rat intestinal model to explore the absorption behavior of p-coumaric acid and caffeic acid in EAL. The permeation of 2 substances was concentration and time dependent. Results also indicated that monocarboxylic acid transporter was involved in the transepithelial transport of p-coumaric acid and caffeic acid. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. {sup 65} Zn absorption by orange leaves and their transport on the plant; Absorcao de {sup 65} Zn pelas folhas de laranjeira e sua translocacao na planta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boaretto, Rodrigo Marcelli; Boaretto, Antonio Enedi; Muraoka, Takashi; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio Franco do [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Nutricao Mineral de Plantas; Mourao Filho, Francisco de Assis Alves [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz. Dept. de Producao Vegetal

    2002-07-01

    Zinc deficiency is common in Brazilian citrus orchards. The objective of the experiment was to study the Zn absorption from different sources (ZnSO{sub 4}, ZnCl{sub 2}, Zn-EDTA and Zn-ligno sulfate) by orange leaves and transport of the leaf absorbed Zn to the other parts of the plant. Orange plants were grown in greenhouse and some of their leaves received solution with a Zn concentration of 0.07 %. The fertilizer solutions were labeled with 65 Zn (0,6 KBq g{sup -1}). After 3, 6, 12, 24 hours and 2, 5, 15, 30, 60, 120 days from Zn application to the leaves, the plants were harvested. The plants that received the Zn solution were separated in different parts. The {sup 65} Zn activity of the samples were determined by monochannel gamma spectrometry. The results showed that the foliar fertilization increased the leaf Zn concentration, the chloride was more efficient Zn source than sulfate, but only a small portion (less than 5 {mu}g in 30 days) of foliar applied {sup 65} Zn was translocated to other plant parts, independent of the Zn source. (author)

  13. Essential trace elements content in a sudanese meal of cooked Hibiscus Sp. leaves as determined by both X-ray florescence and atomic absorption spectroscopy techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, S.M; Taha, M.H.

    2003-01-01

    Essential trace elements content of a Sudanese meal of cooked Karkadi plant leaves (Hibiscus Sp)was determined and found to be several folds higher than the average trace element content of Sudanese food as determined in twenty nine daily consumed mixed diets. Therefore, this plant can act as a promising natural supplement in cases of deficiency provided it is grown in a trace element rich soil. (Author)

  14. Does a leaf absorb radiation in the near infrared (780-900 nm) region? A new approach to quantifying optical reflection, absorption and transmission of leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merzlyak, Mark N; Chivkunova, Olga B; Melø, T B; Naqvi, K Razi

    2002-01-01

    The following question is addressed here: do healthy leaves absorb, as the spectra published over the last 50 years indicate, some 5-20% of incident radiation in the 780-900 nm region? The answer is found to be negative, and previous findings result from incomplete collection of the transmitted light by the detection system (even when the leaf is placed next to, but outside, the entrance port of an integrating sphere). A simple remedy for this inherent flaw in the experimental arrangement is applied successfully to leaves (of 10 unrelated species) differing in thickness, age and pigment content. The study has shown that, from an optical standpoint, a leaf tissue is a highly scattering material, and the infinite reflectance of a leaf is exceedingly sensitive to trace amounts of absorbing components. It is shown that water contributes, in a thick leaf (Kalanchoe blossfeldiana), an easily detectable signal even in the 780-900 nm region. The practical benefits resulting from improved measurements of leaf spectra are pointed out.

  15. Monitoring content of cadmium, calcium, copper, iron, lead, magnesium and manganese in tea leaves by electrothermal and flame atomizer atomic absorption spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prkić Ante

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to the simplicity of tea preparation (pouring hot water onto different dried herbs and its high popularity as a beverage, monitoring and developing a screening methodology for detecting the metal content is very important. The concentrations of Cd, Ca, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mg and Mn in 11 different samples of sage (Salvia officinalis L., linden (Tilia L. and chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L. purchased at local herbal pharmacy were determined using electrothermal atomizer atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS and flame atomizer atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS. The concentrations determined were: Cd (0.012 – 0.470 mg kg−1, Ca (5209 – 16340 mg kg−1, Cu (22.01 – 33.05 mg kg−1, Fe (114.2 – 440.3 mg kg−1, Pb (0.545 – 2.538 mg kg−1, Mg (2649 – 4325 mg kg−1 and Mn (34.00 – 189.6 mg kg−1. Principal Component Analysis (PCA was applied to identify factors (soil and climate influencing the content of the measured elements in herbal samples. The proposed methodology developed in this work was successfully applied to the detection of metals in herbal samples. The analysis showed that the content of toxic metals in herbal teas was below the maximum dose recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO.

  16. In situ analysis of foliar zinc absorption and short-distance movement in fresh and hydrated leaves of tomato and citrus using synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yumei; Kopittke, Peter M.; Noller, Barry N.; James, Simon A.; Harris, Hugh H.; Xu, Zhi Ping; Li, Peng; Mulligan, David R.; Huang, Longbin

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Globally, zinc deficiency is one of the most important nutritional factors limiting crop yield and quality. Despite widespread use of foliar-applied zinc fertilizers, much remains unknown regarding the movement of zinc from the foliar surface into the vascular structure for translocation into other tissues and the key factors affecting this diffusion. Methods Using synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy (µ-XRF), absorption of foliar-applied zinc nitrate or zinc hydroxide nitrate was examined in fresh leaves of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and citrus (Citrus reticulatus). Key Results The foliar absorption of zinc increased concentrations in the underlying tissues by up to 600-fold in tomato but only up to 5-fold in citrus. The magnitude of this absorption was influenced by the form of zinc applied, the zinc status of the treated leaf and the leaf surface to which it was applied (abaxial or adaxial). Once the zinc had moved through the leaf surface it appeared to bind strongly, with limited further redistribution. Regardless of this, in these underlying tissues zinc moved into the lower-order veins, with concentrations 2- to 10-fold higher than in the adjacent tissues. However, even once in higher-order veins, the movement of zinc was still comparatively limited, with concentrations decreasing to levels similar to the background within 1–10 mm. Conclusions The results advance our understanding of the factors that influence the efficacy of foliar zinc fertilizers and demonstrate the merits of an innovative methodology for studying foliar zinc translocation mechanisms. PMID:25399024

  17. Taking Leave?

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Planning a holiday? Then if you're a member of the personnel, you'll need to use the Laboratory's new leave system that will be put in place on 1 October. Leave allocations don't change - you are entitled to just as much holiday as before - but instead of being credited annually, your leave will be credited on a monthly basis, and this information will be communicated on your salary slip. The reason for the change is that with the various new leave schemes such as Recruitment by Saved Leave (RSL) and the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP), a streamlined procedure was required for dealing with all kinds of leave. In the new system, each member of the personnel will have leave accounts to which leave will be credited monthly from the payroll and debited each time an absence is registered in the CERN Electronic Document Handling system (EDH). Leave balances will appear on monthly pay slips, and full details of leave transactions and balances will be available through EDH at all times. As the leave will be c...

  18. Japanese tea leaves: a possible biological standard reference material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuwa, Keiichiro; Notsu, Kenji; Tsunoda, Kin-ichi; Kato, Hideaki; Yamamoto, Yuko.

    1978-01-01

    Japanese Tea Leaves, prepared by pulverizing with an agate ball mill and sieving with a Saran fiber sieve (50 mesh) were assessed as a possible biological standard reference material for elemental analysis. The metal content of the tea leaves was determined independently at two laboratories using atomic absorption and flame emission spectrometry. Neutron activation analysis was also performed to determine the content (21 elements) of Tea Leaves. For some elements the result from the various methods were compared. The characteristics of Tea Leaves are discussed and the elemental composition is compared to that of Orchard Leaves (NBS SRM, 1571). The most significant characteristic of Tea Leaves was the high manganese content. (auth.)

  19. Calcium absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlmark, B.; Reizenstein, P.; Dudley, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    The methods most commonly used to measure the absorption and retention of orally administered calcium are reviewed. Nearly all make use of calcium radioisotopes. The magnitude of calcium absorption and retention depends upon the chemical form and amount of calcium administered, and the clinical and nutritional status of the subject; these influences are briefly surveyed. (author)

  20. Absorption studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganatra, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Absorption studies were once quite popular but hardly anyone does them these days. It is easier to estimate the blood level of the nutrient directly by radioimmunoassay (RIA). However, the information obtained by estimating the blood levels of the nutrients is not the same that can be obtained from the absorption studies. Absorption studies are primarily done to find out whether some of the essential nutrients are absorbed from the gut or not and if they are absorbed, to determine how much is being absorbed. In the advanced countries, these tests were mostly done to detect pernicious anaemia where vitamin B 12 is not absorbed because of the lack of the intrinsic factor in the stomach. In the tropical countries, ''malabsorption syndrome'' is quire common. In this condition, several nutrients like fat, folic acid and vitamin B 12 are not absorbed. It is possible to study absorption of these nutrients by radioisotopic absorption studies

  1. Folate absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, S.J.

    1976-01-01

    Folate is the generic term given to numerous compounds of pteroic acid with glutamic acid. Knowledge of absorption is limited because of the complexities introduced by the variety of compounds and because of the inadequacy of investigational methods. Two assay methods are in use, namely microbiological and radioactive. Techniques used to study absorption include measurement of urinary excretion, serum concentration, faecal excretion, intestinal perfusion, and haematological response. It is probably necessary to test absorption of both pteroylmonoglutamic acid and one or more polyglutamates, and such tests would be facilitated by availability of synthesized compounds labelled with radioactive tracers at specifically selected sites. (author)

  2. Parental Leave in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Tine; Christoffersen, Mogens; Weise, Hanne

    This artcle considders the political aims for different leave schemes and reviews studies af these schemes. The use of parental leave is sensitive to the financial loss involved in taking leave: a decrease in the benefit payments has had a significant influence on take-up, while, in general, fami......, families'' loss of income is less if leave is taken up by the mothers. Only few fathers participate in parental leave....

  3. Survey of content of cadmium, calcium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, mercury, sodium and zinc in chamomile and green tea leaves by electrothermal or flame atomizer atomic absorption spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prkić Ante

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the simplicity of tea preparation (pouring hot water onto different dried herbs and its high popularity as a beverage, monitoring and developing a screening methodology for detecting the metal content is very important. The concentrations of Cd, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mg, Mn, Hg, Na and Zn in 8 samples of green tea (Camellia sinesis and in 11 samples chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L. purchased both at local herbal pharmacies and supermarkets were determined using electrothermal atomizer atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS and flame atomizer atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS. The found concentrations in chamomile were: Cd (0.008 – 284 mg kg−1, Ca (2.42 – 6.29%, Cr (0.91 – 6.92 mg kg−1, Cu (6.27 – 11.39 mg kg−1, Fe (133.5 – 534 mg kg−1, Pb (0.561 – 1.277 mg kg−1, Mg (2.27 – 3.73%, Mn (62.2 – 165.6 mg kg−1, Hg (0.660 – 1.346 μg kg−1, Na (0.91 – 1.28% and Zn (63.37 – 108.5 mg kg−1, in green tea Cd (36.29 – 202.1 mg kg−1, Ca (2.77 – 6.40%, Cr (1.520 – 5.278 mg kg−1, Cu (9.354 – 22.56 mg kg−1, Fe (162.6 – 513.3 mg kg−1, Pb (1.808 – 4.770 mg kg−1, Mg (1.41 – 2.62 %, Mn (1.147 – 1.729 g kg−1, Hg (1.045 – 2.802 μg kg−1, Na (0.44 – 0.98% and Zn (30.65 – 115.6 mg kg−1, respectively. Principal Component Analysis (PCA was applied to identify factors (soil, climate and country of origin influencing the content of the measured elements in herbal samples. The proposed methodology developed in this work was successfully applied to the detection of metals in herbal samples. The analysis showed that the content of toxic metals in green tea samples was significantly higher and very close to the maximum dose recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO.

  4. Goodbye, Mandatory Maternity Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation's Schools, 1972

    1972-01-01

    In precedent-setting decrees, courts and federal and State authorities have branded compulsory maternity leaves either unconstitutional or illegal. School administrators are urged to prod boards of education to adopt more lenient maternity leave policies -- now. (Author)

  5. Leaving home in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rikke Skovgaard

    2015-01-01

    The paper focuses on ethnic differences in the timing and patterns of leaving the parental home. Leaving home is a key transition in the life course of the individual, and extensive research has been conducted on the timing and patterns of leaving it. However, ethnic differences in these patterns...... of leaving home. Results showed that while some differences disappeared when controlling for covariates, others persisted, thus indicating ethnic differences in home-leaving patterns. A strong link between leaving home and marriage was substantiated for Turks, but not for Somalis. The home-leaving patterns...... of Somalis were much more similar to those of Danes. Overall, Turkish descendants were similar to Turkish immigrants but with some differentiation. The analyses identified the existence of ethnic differences in home-leaving patterns but also found evidence of a shift towards less traditional patterns, i...

  6. Narrative absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narrative Absorption brings together research from the social sciences and Humanities to solve a number of mysteries: Most of us will have had those moments, of being totally absorbed in a book, a movie, or computer game. Typically we do not have any idea about how we ended up in such a state. No...

  7. Absorptive products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assarsson, P.G.; King, P.A.

    1976-01-01

    Applications for hydrophile gels produced by the radiation induced cross-linking in aqueous solution of polyethylene oxide and starch, as described in Norwegian patent 133501 (INIS RN 281494), such as sanitary napkins (diapers) and sanitary towels, are discussed. The process itself is also discussed and results, expressed as the percentage of insoluble gel and its absorptive capacity for saline solution as functions of the ratio of polyethylene oxide to starch and the radiation dose, are presented. (JIW)

  8. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1Â September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply. Â Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30Â September and/or 31Â December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates i...

  9. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1 September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply.  Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30 September and/or 31 December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates in or...

  10. The Temporary Leave Dilemma -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amilon, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Lone mothers have to take care of a sick child with little or no help from the child’s other parent and have to carry all costs connected to leave-taking. This paper empirically tests whether lone mothers take more temporary parental leave to care for sick children than partnered mothers...... and whether parental leave is associated with a signaling cost. The results from this study of Swedish mothers show that lone mothers use more temporary parental leave than partnered mothers. Further, within the group of lone mothers, those with higher socioeconomic status take less temporary parental leave...... than those with lower socioeconomic status, whereas no such differences are found within the group of partnered mothers. One possible interpretation is that signaling costs negatively influence the utilization of temporary parental leave for lone mothers....

  11. Absorption and translocation of arsenate arsenic by coffee plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, J F; Yamaguchi, S

    1964-01-01

    Studies on arsenate arsenic absorption and translocation in coffee plants were carried out using arsenic-77 applied either to leaves or to roots through the nutrient solution. The youngest leaves were unable to export arsenic and only an acropetal movement in the transpiration stream was observed. From the second pair of leaves, it moved into the growing leaves. From the fourth pair it moved downward through the stem and into the roots. Roots absorbed high amounts of arsenate once absorbed it moved via the xylem of the transpiration stream into the leaves. 7 references, 2 figures.

  12. Falling for Clay Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernan, Christine

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art project that integrated science and art education. Explains that students create ceramic bowls by using real leaves. Discusses the process of creating the ceramic bowls, including how to glaze the bowls. Includes a list of materials. (CMK)

  13. Maternity Leave Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Lucy; Broeks, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Over recent years many European Union countries have made changes to the design of the maternity leave provision. These policy developments reflect calls for greater gender equality in the workforce and more equal share of childcare responsibilities. However, while research shows that long period of leave can have negative effects on women's labour market attachment and career advancements, early return to work can be seen as a factor preventing exclusive breastfeeding, and therefore, potentially having negative health impacts for babies. Indeed, the World Health Organisation recommends exclusive breastfeeding up to 6 months of age to provide babies with the nutrition for healthy growth and brain development, protection from life-threatening ailments, obesity and non-communicable diseases such as asthma and diabetes. Therefore, labour market demands on women may be at odds with the health benefits for children gained by longer periods of maternity leave. The aim of this article is to examine the relationship between leave provision and health benefits for children. We examine maternity and parental leave provision across European countries and its potential impact on the breastfeeding of very young babies (up to 6-months of age). We also consider economic factors of potential extension of maternity leave provision to 6 months, such as costs to businesses, effects on the female labour market attachment, and wider consequences (benefits and costs) for individuals, families, employers and the wider society. PMID:28983432

  14. TRAVEL AND HOME LEAVE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    Administrative procedures for : Travel to the home station and home leave (hl) Additional travel to the home station (at) Travel to the home station and home leave for family reasons (hlf) As part of the process of simplifying administrative procedures, HR and AS Divisions have devised a new, virtually automatic procedure for payment of travel expenses to the home station. The changes are aimed at rationalising administrative procedures and not at reducing benefits. The conditions of eligibility are unchanged. The new procedure, which will be operational with effect from 1st June 2002, will greatly simplify the administrative processing of claims for travel expenses and the recording of home leaves. Currently, requests for payment are introduced manually into the Advances and Claims system (AVCL) by divisional secretariats. All travel to the home station starting prior to 1st June 2002 will be processed according to the existing system whereas that starting on 1st June and after will be processed accordi...

  15. Extraction of radioactive cesium from tea leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Yukiko; Kubo, M. Kenya; Higaki, Shogo; Hirota, Masahiro; Nomura, Kiyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive contamination of foodstuffs attributed to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster has become a social problem. This study investigated the extraction of radioactive cesium from the contaminated leaves to the tea. The green tea was brewed twice reusing the same leaves to study the difference in extraction of cesium between the first and second brew. Moreover, the extraction of cesium was studied in correlation to brewing time. The concentration of radioactive cesium was determined with gamma spectrometry, and the concentration of caffeine was determined with absorption spectrometry. About 40% of cesium was extracted from leaves in the first brew, and about 80% was extracted in the second brew. The extraction of cesium increased over time, and it reached about 80% after 10 minutes brew. The ratio of radioactive cesium to caffeine decreased linearly over time. This study revealed that the extraction of cesium was higher for the second brew, and a rapid increase in extraction was seen as the tea was brewed for 6 minutes and more. Therefore, the first brew of green tea, which was brewed within 5 minutes, contained the least extraction of radioactive cesium from the contaminated leaves. (author)

  16. Does Leave Work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heleen van Luijn; Saskia Keuzenkamp

    2004-01-01

    More and more people have to combine work and care responsibilities, and work part-time or use daycare and after-school care facilities to help them do so. The Work and Care Act, which came into force on 1 December 2001, combined all the existing schemes - such as parental and maternity leave -

  17. Maternity Leave in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

    2010-01-01

    Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk…

  18. REMINDER: Saved Leave Scheme (SLS)

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Transfer of leave to saved leave accounts Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'* annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No 22B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). We remind you that unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave year accounts is transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. Therefore, staff members have no administrative steps to take. In addition, the transfer, which eliminates the risk of omitting to request leave transfers and rules out calculation errors in transfer requests, will be clearly shown in the list of leave transactions that can be consulted in EDH from October 2003 onwards. Furthermore, this automatic leave transfer optimizes staff members' chances of benefiting from a saved leave bonus provided that they ar...

  19. Estimation of Heavy Metals in Neem Tree Leaves along Katsina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Widespread and growing use of medicinal plants has created public health challenges in terms of quality, safety and effectiveness. Using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS), concentrations of Ni, Zn, Mn, Cu, Cr and Pb, , were determined in samples of neem tree (Azadirachta indica) leaves obtained from Katsina, ...

  20. Mangrove leaves (Rhizophora mangle) as environmental contamination biomonitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Vivianne L.B. de; Santos, Suzana O.; Fonseca, Cassia K.L.; Paiva, Ana Claudia de; Silva, Waldecy A. da, E-mail: vlsouza@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: suzirecifeusa@hotmail.com, E-mail: cassia.kellen@hotmail.com, E-mail: acpaiva@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: waldecy@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Sometimes, plants growing in contaminated sediments by trace metals can not avoid absorption of these metals, but only to limit its translocation, so that the accumulated metals in their tissues will have different levels of concentrations. Some trace metals (copper, zinc, manganese, among others) are essential for plants, although they are toxic at high concentrations, damaging its growth, production or quality. The aim of this work from is to verify the presence of metals such as copper, manganese and iron in mangrove leaves (Rhizophora mangle) collected in some beaches of the Northeast of Brazil (such as: Maceio, Sao Jose da Coroa Grande, Japaratinga, Croa do Gore, Ponta das Pedras). Leaves' metals content (extracted by adding acids) were determined by a fast sequential atomic absorption spectrometer (SpectrAA-220FS/VARIAN). The results showed that there are more Fe and Mn in mangrove leaves than in other metals comparing with all study areas (Fe > Mn > Co > Zn > Cu). (author)

  1. Mangrove leaves (Rhizophora mangle) as environmental contamination biomonitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Vivianne L.B. de; Santos, Suzana O.; Fonseca, Cassia K.L.; Paiva, Ana Claudia de; Silva, Waldecy A. da

    2015-01-01

    Sometimes, plants growing in contaminated sediments by trace metals can not avoid absorption of these metals, but only to limit its translocation, so that the accumulated metals in their tissues will have different levels of concentrations. Some trace metals (copper, zinc, manganese, among others) are essential for plants, although they are toxic at high concentrations, damaging its growth, production or quality. The aim of this work from is to verify the presence of metals such as copper, manganese and iron in mangrove leaves (Rhizophora mangle) collected in some beaches of the Northeast of Brazil (such as: Maceio, Sao Jose da Coroa Grande, Japaratinga, Croa do Gore, Ponta das Pedras). Leaves' metals content (extracted by adding acids) were determined by a fast sequential atomic absorption spectrometer (SpectrAA-220FS/VARIAN). The results showed that there are more Fe and Mn in mangrove leaves than in other metals comparing with all study areas (Fe > Mn > Co > Zn > Cu). (author)

  2. The effect of volatility on percutaneous absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Nicole C; Maibach, Howard I

    2016-01-01

    Topically applied chemicals may volatilize, or evaporate, from skin leaving behind a chemical residue with new percutaneous absorptive capabilities. Understanding volatilization of topical medications, such as sunscreens, fragrances, insect repellants, cosmetics and other commonly applied topicals may have implications for their safety and efficacy. A systematic review of English language articles from 1979 to 2014 was performed using key search terms. Articles were evaluated to assess the relationship between volatility and percutaneous absorption. A total of 12 articles were selected and reviewed. Key findings were that absorption is enhanced when coupled with a volatile substance, occlusion prevents evaporation and increases absorption, high ventilation increases volatilization and reduces absorption, and pH of skin has an affect on a chemical's volatility. The articles also brought to light that different methods may have an affect on volatility: different body regions; in vivo vs. in vitro; human vs. Data suggest that volatility is crucial for determining safety and efficacy of cutaneous exposures and therapies. Few articles have been documented reporting evaporation in the context of percutaneous absorption, and of those published, great variability exists in methods. Further investigation of volatility is needed to properly evaluate its role in percutaneous absorption.

  3. Employer Provisions for Parental Leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisenheimer, Joseph R., II

    1989-01-01

    Slightly more than one-third of full-time employees in medium and large firms in private industry were covered by maternity- or paternity-leave policies; days off were usually leave without pay. (Author)

  4. Determination Of Natural Boron Concentration In Coffee Leaves, Using de Autobiography by Neutron Capture Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loria, L. G.; Jimenez, R.; Thellier, M.

    1999-01-01

    Determination of natural boron concentration in coffee leaves, using the autoradiography, by neutron capture technique. The boron absorption coefficient in young coffee leaves was measured using autoradiography by neutron capture. In two experiments carried out in April and November, 1996, it was found that the coefficient varies between 0.9 and 5.3 nmol/h. the concentration of natural boron in coffee leaves in regard to age, symptoms and treatment received was also studied, using the same technique. (Author) [es

  5. REMINDER Saved Leave Scheme (SLS) : Transfer of leave to saved leave accounts

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2002-01-01

    Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'*) annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No. 22B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). We remind you that, since last year, unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave-year accounts is transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. Therefore, staff members have no administrative steps to take. In addition, the transfer, which eliminates the risk of omitting to request leave transfers and rules out calculation errors in transfer requests, will be clearly shown in the list of leave transactions that can be consulted in EDH from October 2002 onwards. Furthermore, this automatic leave transfer optimizes staff members' chances of benefiting from a saved leave bonus provided that they are still participants in the schem...

  6. Saved Leave Scheme (SLS) : Simplified procedure for the transfer of leave to saved leave accounts

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2001-01-01

    As part of the process of streamlining procedures, the HR and AS Divisions have jointly developed a system whereby annual and compensatory leave will henceforth be automatically transferred1) to saved leave accounts. Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'2) annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No. 22 B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). Previously, every person taking part in the scheme has been individually issued with a form for the purposes of requesting the transfer of leave to the leave account and the transfer has then had to be done manually by HR Division. To streamline the procedure, unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of of the leave-year accounts will henceforth be transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. This simplification is in the ...

  7. Spatially resolved sulfur K-edge XANES spectroscopy of wheat leaves infected by Puccinia triticina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtenberg, H; Prange, A; Hormes, J; Steiner, U; Oerke, E-C

    2009-01-01

    In this study, wheat leaves infected with brown rust, a plant disease of serious economic concern caused by the fungus Puccinia triticina, were investigated using spatially resolved XANES (X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure) spectroscopy at the sulfur K-absorption edge.

  8. Spatially resolved sulfur K-edge XANES spectroscopy of wheat leaves infected by Puccinia triticina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichtenberg, H; Prange, A; Hormes, J [CAMD, Louisiana State University, 6980 Jefferson Hwy, Baton Rouge, LA 70806 (United States); Steiner, U; Oerke, E-C, E-mail: lichtenberg@lsu.ed [INRES-Phytomedicine, University of Bonn, Nussallee 9, 53115 Bonn (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    In this study, wheat leaves infected with brown rust, a plant disease of serious economic concern caused by the fungus Puccinia triticina, were investigated using spatially resolved XANES (X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure) spectroscopy at the sulfur K-absorption edge.

  9. D-xylose absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003606.htm D-xylose absorption To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. D-xylose absorption is a laboratory test to determine ...

  10. Parental leave and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhm, C J

    2000-11-01

    This study investigates whether rights to parental leave improve pediatric health. Aggregate data are used for 16 European countries over the 1969 through 1994 period. More generous paid leave is found to reduce deaths of infants and young children. The magnitudes of the estimated effects are substantial, especially where a causal effect of leave is most plausible. In particular, there is a much stronger negative relationship between leave durations and post-neonatal or child fatalities than for perinatal mortality, neonatal deaths, or low birth weight. The evidence further suggests that parental leave may be a cost-effective method of bettering child health.

  11. Absorption and excretion tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berberich, R.

    1988-01-01

    The absorption and excretion of radiopharmaceuticals is still of interest in diagnostic investigations of nuclear medicine. In this paper the most common methods of measuring absorption and excretion are described. The performance of the different tests and their standard values are discussed. More over the basic possibilities of measuring absorption and excretion including the needed measurement equipments are presented. (orig.) [de

  12. The prevalence of sick leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backhausen, Mette; Damm, Peter; Bendix, Jane

    2018-01-01

    of long-term sick leave. Method Data from 508 employed pregnant women seeking antenatal care was collected by questionnaires from August 2015 to March 2016. The questionnaires, which were filled in at 20 and 32 weeks of gestation, provided information on maternal characteristics, the number of days spent...... on sick leave and the associated reasons. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were applied. Results The prevalence of sick leave was 56% of employed pregnant women in the first 32 weeks of gestation and more than one in four reported long-term sick leave (>20 days, continuous...... was a negative predictor. Conclusions The prevalence of sick leave was 56% in the first 32 weeks of gestation and more than one in four women reported long-term sick leave. The majority of reasons for sick leave were pregnancy-related and low back pain was the most frequently given reason....

  13. The Effect of Temperature on Cr (VI) Removal by Using Guava Leaves as a Biosorbent

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana,; Mulana, Farid

    2013-01-01

    Preliminary research on Cr(IV) removal in a liquid waste using guava leaves (Psidium Guajava) as a bio-sorbent has been done. The experiments were conducted in a stirred batch reactor. The effect of temperature on efficiency and absorption capacity has been studied. Both the efficiency and absorptioncapacity are directly proportional to the temperature under the current experimental conditions. The results showed that optimum absorption capacity and absorption efficiency of Cr(VI) use of guav...

  14. Variation in light absorption properties of mentha aquatica L. as a function of leaf form: Implications for plant growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enriquez, Susana; Jensen, Kaj Sand

    2008-01-01

    To understand the association between leaf form and leaf optical properties, we examined light absorption variations in the leaves of Mentha aquatica L., an amphibious freshwater macrophyte. Specific absorption of leaves of M. aquatica showed a 7.5-fold variation, decreasing as pigment per unit...... area increased. This relationship indicates that dispersive samples, such as leaves, although efficient light traps, can also be affected by the "package effect." Mentha aquatica leaves, by expanding their biomass (increased specific leaf area [SLA]), improve their light absorption efficiency per unit...... of both pigment and leaf biomass. Changes in leaf biomass expansion were mainly a result of changes in leaf density, and as a consequence, leaf density appears to be a better descriptor of light absorption efficiency in M. aquatica leaves than does leaf thickness. Light absorption efficiency per unit...

  15. Paid Family Leave, Fathers' Leave-Taking, and Leave-Sharing in Dual-Earner Households

    OpenAIRE

    Bartel, Ann P.; Rossin-Slater, Maya; Ruhm, Christopher J.; Stearns, Jenna; Waldfogel, Jane

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides quasi-experimental evidence on the impact of paid leave legislation on fathers' leave-taking, as well as on the division of leave between mothers and fathers in dual-earner households. Using difference-in-difference and difference-in-difference-in-difference designs, we study California's Paid Family Leave (CA-PFL) program, which is the first source of government-provided paid parental leave available to fathers in the United States. Our results show that fathers in Califo...

  16. Calcium absorption and achlorhydria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recker, R.R.

    1985-01-01

    Defective absorption of calcium has been thought to exist in patients with achlorhydria. The author compared absorption of calcium in its carbonate form with that in a pH-adjusted citrate form in a group of 11 fasting patients with achlorhydria and in 9 fasting normal subjects. Fractional calcium absorption was measured by a modified double-isotope procedure with 0.25 g of calcium used as the carrier. Mean calcium absorption (+/- S.D.) in the patients with achlorhydria was 0.452 +/- 0.125 for citrate and 0.042 +/- 0.021 for carbonate (P less than 0.0001). Fractional calcium absorption in the normal subjects was 0.243 +/- 0.049 for citrate and 0.225 +/- 0.108 for carbonate (not significant). Absorption of calcium from carbonate in patients with achlorhydria was significantly lower than in the normal subjects and was lower than absorption from citrate in either group; absorption from citrate in those with achlorhydria was significantly higher than in the normal subjects, as well as higher than absorption from carbonate in either group. Administration of calcium carbonate as part of a normal breakfast resulted in completely normal absorption in the achlorhydric subjects. These results indicate that calcium absorption from carbonate is impaired in achlorhydria under fasting conditions. Since achlorhydria is common in older persons, calcium carbonate may not be the ideal dietary supplement

  17. Paid Family Leave, Fathers' Leave-Taking, and Leave-Sharing in Dual-Earner Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartel, Anne P; Rossin-Slater, Maya; Ruhm, Christopher J; Stearns, Jenna; Waldfogel, Jane

    Using difference-in-difference and difference-in-difference-in-difference designs, we study California's Paid Family Leave (CA-PFL) program, the first source of government-provided paid parental leave available to fathers in the Unites States. Relative to the pre-treatment mean, fathers of infants in California are 46 percent more likely to be on leave when CA-PFL is available. In households where both parents work, we find suggestive evidence that CA-PFL increases both father-only leave-taking (i.e., father on leave while mother is at work) and joint leave-taking (i.e., both parents on leave at the same time). Effects are larger for fathers of first-born children than for fathers of later-born children.

  18. [Study on lead absorption in pumpkin by atomic absorption spectrophotometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen-Xia; Sun, Yong-Dong; Chen, Bi-Hua; Li, Xin-Zheng

    2008-07-01

    A study was carried out on the characteristic of lead absorption in pumpkin via atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed that lead absorption amount in pumpkin increased with time, but the absorption rate decreased with time; And the lead absorption amount reached the peak in pH 7. Lead and cadmium have similar characteristic of absorption in pumpkin.

  19. [Precautionary maternity leave in Tirol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludescher, K; Baumgartner, E; Roner, A; Brezinka, C

    1998-01-01

    Under Austrian law, precautionary maternity leave is a decree issued by the district public health physician. It forbids a pregnant woman to work and mandates immediate maternity leave. Regular maternity leave for all women employed in all jobs begins at 32 weeks of gestation. Women who work in workplaces deemed dangerous and women with a history of obstetric problems such as premature or growth-retarded babies from previous pregnancies are regularly 'sent' into precautionary maternity leave. The public health physicians of Tirol's nine administrative districts were interviewed and supplied data on precautionary maternity leave from their districts. In 100 women who attended the clinic for pregnancies at risk of the Obstetrics/Gynecology Department of Innsbruck University Hospital and who had already obtained precautionary maternity leave, the medical/administrative procedure was studied in each case and correlated with pregnancy outcome. The town district of Innsbruck and the district that comprises the suburbs of the provincial capital had the highest rates of precautionary maternity leave. The town district of Innsbruck had a rate of 24.3% of all pregnant women (employed and not employed) in precautionary maternity leave in 1997, whereas the whole province of Tirol had 13.4%. More than 80% of decrees for precautionary maternity leave are issued by district public health physicians on the basis of written recommendations from gynecologists. One third of women who are sent into precautionary maternity leave are issued the decree prior to 12 weeks of gestation - mostly cases of multiple pregnancies and women with previous miscarriages. The present system of precautionary maternity leave appears to work in the sense that most working pregnant women with risk factors are correctly identified - with most errors on the side of caution. As the system also helps employers - the employee's pay is paid from the federal family support fund and state insurance once she is in

  20. Ability of phytoremediation for absorption of strontium and cesium from soils using Cannabis sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Seyed Hoseini

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Our findings suggest that strontium can be absorbed by Cannabis sativa, with the highest absorption by the roots, stems, and leaves. However, cesium does not reach the plant because of its single capacity and inactive complex formation.

  1. Parental Leave Policies and Parents' Employment and Leave-Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wen-Jui; Ruhm, Christopher; Waldfogel, Jane

    2009-01-01

    We describe trends in maternal employment and leave-taking after birth of a newborn and analyze the extent to which these behaviors are influenced by parental leave policies. Data are from the June Current Population Survey (CPS) Fertility Supplements, merged with other months of the CPS, and cover the period 1987 to 1994. This time span is one…

  2. Absorption heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formigoni, C.

    1998-01-01

    A brief description of the difference between a compression and an absorption heat pump is made, and the reasons why absorption systems have spread lately are given. Studies and projects recently started in the field of absorption heat pumps, as well as criteria usually followed in project development are described. An outline (performance targets, basic components) of a project on a water/air absorption heat pump, running on natural gas or LPG, is given. The project was developed by the Robur Group as an evolution of a water absorption refrigerator operating with a water/ammonia solution, which has been on the market for a long time and recently innovated. Finally, a list of the main energy and cost advantages deriving from the use of absorption heat pumps is made [it

  3. REMINDER Saved Leave Scheme (SLS) : Simplified procedure for the transfer of leave to saved leave accounts

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2001-01-01

    As part of the process of streamlining procedures, the HR and AS Divisions have jointly developed a system whereby annual and compensatory leave will henceforth be automatically transferred1) to saved leave accounts. Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'2)Previously, every person taking part in the scheme has been individually issued with a form for the purposes of requesting the transfer of leave to the leave account and the transfer has then had to be done manually by HR Division. To streamline the procedure, unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave-year accounts will henceforth be transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. This simplification is in the interest of all parties concerned. This automatic transfer procedure has a number of advantages for participants in the SLS scheme. First, staff members will no longer have to take any administrative steps. Secondly, the new proced...

  4. Green leaves as indicator for air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Alla, A. A. M.

    2004-02-01

    Green leaves of Ficus (Ficus penegalensis) and Neem (Azadirachta indica) were analyzed for their trace metals (Pb, Zn and Cd) contents. The samples were collected and washed according to metal analysis standardization. Solutions of the samples for analysis were obtained by wet-digestion method using nitric perchloric acid mixture. The trace elements lead, zinc and cadmium were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopic technique (AAS) for the 18 samples collected from Khartoum (Sharia elneel), Omdurman (Ombadda) and Khartoum North (Kadaro) as heavy-traffic, low-traffic areas and distal area, respectively. The species Ficus and Neem samples were collected each randomly from such areas. The samples were taken from the tips, mids and bottoms of each tree. (Author)

  5. Green leaves as indicator for air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd Alla, A. A. M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Juba, Khartoum (Sudan)

    2004-02-15

    Green leaves of Ficus (Ficus penegalensis) and Neem (Azadirachta indica) were analyzed for their trace metals (Pb, Zn and Cd) contents. The samples were collected and washed according to metal analysis standardization. Solutions of the samples for analysis were obtained by wet-digestion method using nitric perchloric acid mixture. The trace elements lead, zinc and cadmium were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopic technique (AAS) for the 18 samples collected from Khartoum (Sharia elneel), Omdurman (Ombadda) and Khartoum North (Kadaro) as heavy-traffic, low-traffic areas and distal area, respectively. The species Ficus and Neem samples were collected each randomly from such areas. The samples were taken from the tips, mids and bottoms of each tree. (Author)

  6. Negotiating leave in the workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte

    In Denmark leave entitlement is not only regulated by law but is also part of the various collective agreements established in the respective occupational sectors and at the local workplace level. Consequently, Danish fathers have very different leave entitlements, depending on the sector, branch...

  7. Negotiating leave in the workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte

    2014-01-01

    In Denmark leave entitlement is not only regulated by law but is also part of the various collective agreements established in the respective occupational sectors and at the local workplace level. Consequently, Danish fathers have very different leave entitlements, depending on the sector, branch...

  8. 5 CFR 630.1204 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... insurance, health benefits, retirement coverage, and leave accrual). (e) The agency shall determine the... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Family and Medical Leave § 630.1204 Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule... reduced leave schedule unless the employee and the agency agree to do so. (b) Leave under § 630.1203(a) (3...

  9. Solar absorption surface panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santala, Teuvo J.

    1978-01-01

    A composite metal of aluminum and nickel is used to form an economical solar absorption surface for a collector plate wherein an intermetallic compound of the aluminum and nickel provides a surface morphology with high absorptance and relatively low infrared emittance along with good durability.

  10. Nutrition and magnesium absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, E.J.

    1992-01-01

    The influence of various nutrients present in dairy products and soybean-based products on absorption of magnesium has been investigated. The studies demonstrate that soybean protein versus casein lowers apparent magnesium absorption in rats through its phytate component. However, true

  11. Zeeman atomic absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loos-Vollebregt, M.T.C. de.

    1980-01-01

    A new method of background correction in atomic absorption spectroscopy has recently been introduced, based on the Zeeman splitting of spectral lines in a magnetic field. A theoretical analysis of the background correction capability observed in such instruments is presented. A Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometer utilizing a 50 Hz sine wave modulated magnetic field is described. (Auth.)

  12. New statement of leave format

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Following the communication of the Standing Concertation Committee published in Weekly Bulletin No. 18-19 of 27 April 2009, the current statement of leave on monthly pay slips has been replaced with the EDH Leave Transactions report that displays the up-to-date situation of individual leave balances at all times. The report is available on EDH. Additionally, the layout of the pay slip has been modernised. The new version of the pay slip will be send out from September 2009 onwards. Finance and Purchasing Department, Personnel Accounting Human Resources Department, Organisation and Procedures General Infrastructure Services Department, Administrative Information Services

  13. Leaf absorption of 32P in the pumpkin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamel, Andre; Roux-Aubert, M.T.

    1964-04-01

    The author presents a method to study the influence of various factors of the absorption of 32 P applied under the form of phosphates by a plant cultivated in conditions ensuring a normal development. Experiments provided indications on leaf absorption and 32 P transport by pumpkin leaves: phosphor 32 is absorbed and then quickly transported into the different organs of the plant (24 hours after treatment, it is present in aerial and underground parts), the quantity of absorbed phosphor increases with phosphor concentration in the applied solution, atmosphere humidity is an important factor for phosphor penetration into the leaves, plants absorb phosphor in darkness as well as in light, and the absorption of phosphor is not modified when applied with low glucose concentrations [fr

  14. Leaves of Absence. School Law Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Education Association, Washington, DC. Research Div.

    This report contains State-by-State statutory summaries on three types of leaves of absence relating to teachers -- sick leave, maternity leave, and sabbatical leave. Only State laws that have specific reference to one of these three types of leaves of absence are included. Not included are those statutes granting boards of education the general…

  15. Quasar Absorption Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor); Elvis, Martin

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the proposal is to investigate the absorption properties of a sample of inter-mediate redshift quasars. The main goals of the project are: Measure the redshift and the column density of the X-ray absorbers; test the correlation between absorption and redshift suggested by ROSAT and ASCA data; constrain the absorber ionization status and metallicity; constrain the absorber dust content and composition through the comparison between the amount of X-ray absorption and optical dust extinction. Unanticipated low energy cut-offs where discovered in ROSAT spectra of quasars and confirmed by ASCA, BeppoSAX and Chandra. In most cases it was not possible to constrain adequately the redshift of the absorber from the X-ray data alone. Two possibilities remain open: a) absorption at the quasar redshift; and b) intervening absorption. The evidences in favour of intrinsic absorption are all indirect. Sensitive XMM observations can discriminate between these different scenarios. If the absorption is at the quasar redshift we can study whether the quasar environment evolves with the Cosmic time.

  16. Ion competition effects on the selective absorption of radionuclides by komatsuna (Brassica rapa var. perviridis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambe, S.; Shinonaga, T.; Ozaki, T.; Enomoto, S.; Yasuda, H.; Uchida, S.

    1999-01-01

    The selective absorption coefficient, which is a parameter of an uptake model of radionuclides by plants, was determined for various radionuclides by a multitracer technique. Komatsuna, Brassica rapa var. perviridis, was hydroponically cultivated in a nutrient solution containing a multitracer for 1 day. Nutrient concentration dependence of the selective absorption coefficient of various elements from Be to Re was obtained separately for leaves and roots. The selective absorption coefficients of these elements were, in general, found to decrease with an increase in the concentration of nutrient solutions. Regression equations of the power function for the selective absorption coefficients and the concentration of nutrient solutions were obtained for the leaves and roots. The effects of photon flux and growth stage of plants on the selective absorption coefficients were also studied. It was found that the photon flux influenced the accumulation of radionuclides in the roots but had no significant effect on the selective absorption coefficients for the leaves in 1-day cultivation with the multitracer. The selective absorption coefficients of Mn and Zn in the leaves of the plants at the development stage were higher than those at the maturation stage. For the other elements, no significant effects of the growth stage on the selective absorption coefficients were observed. (author)

  17. Uranium absorption study pile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raievski, V.; Sautiez, B.

    1959-01-01

    The report describes a pile designed to measure the absorption of fuel slugs. The pile is of graphite and comprises a central section composed of uranium rods in a regular lattice. RaBe sources and BF 3 counters are situated on either side of the center. A given uranium charge is compared with a specimen charge of about 560 kg, and the difference in absorption between the two noted. The sensitivity of the equipment will detect absorption variations of about a few ppm boron (10 -6 boron per gr. of uranium) or better. (author) [fr

  18. Total photon absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, P.

    1985-06-01

    The present discussion is limited to a presentation of the most recent total photonuclear absorption experiments performed with real photons at intermediate energy, and more precisely in the region of nucleon resonances. The main sources of real photons are briefly reviewed and the experimental procedures used for total photonuclear absorption cross section measurements. The main results obtained below 140 MeV photon energy as well as above 2 GeV are recalled. The experimental study of total photonuclear absorption in the nuclear resonance region (140 MeV< E<2 GeV) is still at its beginning and some results are presented

  19. Chitinase from phaseolus vulgaris leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boller, T.; Gehri, A.; Mauch, F.; Vogeli, V.

    1988-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of ethylene on chitinase activity in bean leaves. The authors have purified the enzyme in the course of their work. The purification method is detailed and the colorimetric and radiochemical assays are compared

  20. The Problems of Parental Leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Sean

    2017-10-01

    The United States is the only major industrialized country in the world to not require paid parental leave. Numerous studies have shown that allowing parents time with a newborn makes the child and the parents healthier, both physically and mentally. Many physicians, especially those who work in practices with five or fewer doctors, worry about how to pay for parental leave for themselves and their staff.

  1. Absorption heat pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, G.

    1982-06-16

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  2. Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadeishi, T.; McLaughlin, R.

    1978-08-01

    The design and development of a Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometer for trace element analysis are described. An instruction manual is included which details the operation, adjustment, and maintenance. Specifications and circuit diagrams are given

  3. Revisiting Absorptive Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Araújo, Ana Luiza Lara; Ulhøi, John Parm; Lettl, Christopher

    Absorptive capacity has mostly been perceived as a 'passive' outcome of R&D investments. Recently, however, a growing interest into its 'proactive' potentials has emerged. This paper taps into this development and proposes a dynamic model for conceptualizing the determinants of the complementary...... learning processes of absorptive capacity, which comprise combinative and adaptive capabilities. Drawing on survey data (n=169), the study concludes that combinative capabilities primarily enhance transformative and exploratory learning processes, while adaptive capabilities strengthen all three learning...

  4. Comment on resonant absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammerling, P.

    1977-01-01

    An average over angles of incidence of the usual resonant absorption function is presented. This form is appropriate under experimental conditions where the angles of incidence vary greatly and in an unknown manner. For comparison a lens-ellipsoidal mirror illumination system with a known longitudinal aberration is considered. In the latter example the angles of incidence are readily obtained and the resulting resonance absorption function evaluated. The associated fields are calculated in a similar fashion. (author)

  5. Optical absorption measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draggoo, V.G.; Morton, R.G.; Sawicki, R.H.; Bissinger, H.D.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes a non-intrusive method for measuring the temperature rise of optical elements under high laser power optical loading to determine the absorption coefficient. The method comprises irradiating the optical element with a high average power laser beam, viewing the optical element with an infrared camera to determine the temperature across the optical element and calculating the absorption of the optical element from the temperature

  6. UV laser long-path absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Hans-Peter; Brauers, Theo; Neuroth, Rudolf

    1994-01-01

    Long path Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) using a picosecond UV laser as a light source was developed in our institute. Tropospheric OH radicals are measured by their rotational absorption lines around 308 nm. The spectra are obtained using a high resolution spectrograph. The detection system has been improved over the formerly used optomechanical scanning device by application of a photodiode array which increased the observed spectral range by a factor of 6 and which utilizes the light much more effectively leading to a considerable reduction of the measurement time. This technique provides direct measurements of OH because the signal is given by the product of the absorption coefficient and the OH concentration along the light path according to Lambert-Beers law. No calibration is needed. Since the integrated absorption coefficient is well known the accuracy of the measurement essentially depends on the extent to which the OH absorption pattern can be detected in the spectra. No interference by self generated OH radicals in the detection lightpath has been observed. The large bandwidth (greater than 0.15 nm) and the high spectral resolution (1.5 pm) allows absolute determination of interferences by other trace gas absorptions. The measurement error is directly accessible from the absorption-signal to baseline-noise ratio in the spectra. The applicability of the method strongly depends on visibility. Elevated concentrations of aerosols lead to considerable attenuation of the laser light which reduces the S/N-ratio. In the moderately polluted air of Julich, where we performed a number of OH measurement spectra. In addition absorption features of unidentified species were frequently detected. A quantitative deconvolution even of the known species is not easy to achieve and can leave residual structures in the spectra. Thus interferences usually increase the noise and deteriorate the OH detection sensitivity. Using diode arrays for sensitive

  7. [Disability leave and sick leave in Spain. 2016 legislative update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Herrero, María Teófila; Terradillos-García, María Jesús; Capdevila-García, Luisa M; Ramírez-Íñiguez de la Torre, María Victoria; Aguilar-Jiménez, Encarna; Aguado-Benedí, María José; López-González, Angel Arturo; Torres-Alberich, José Ignacio

    2018-01-01

    In Spanish, the concepts of discapacidad (disability leave) and incapacidad (sick leave) jointly refer to the impairment of a person due to injuries, diseases or deficiencies that limit their activity in a social, personal or occupational field. However, this common link does not imply that both concepts are the same. Statistical data from INE (Instituto Nacional de Estadística: Statistic National Institute) show that Spain had in 2015 3.85 million persons with a disability (59.8% were women). Statistical data from 2015 from INSS (Instituto Nacional de Seguridad Social: Social Security National Institute) show high levels in the number of processes and in workers affected by temporary sick leave, with social costs to the social security system. Both concepts have been updated: about disability leave, Law 39/2006 adjusted terminology by avoiding the use of concepts with discriminating or pejorative connotation. Regarding sick leave, the Ley General de Seguridad Social (General Social Security Law)has been amended and came into effect in January, 2016. It is necessary to know and distinguish these aspects for a better administrative management, and a more oriented information to the affected patient.

  8. Why People Leave Their Jobs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis R. Domínguez A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to show the results of the review of literature of relevant studies of the causal elements of intention to leave in the last five years (2009-2013. The method used to evaluate the literature was based on the seven steps for research synthesis: problem formulation, literature search, obtaining information from studies, quality assessment studies, analysis and integration of results, interpretation of evidence and presentation of results. 48 studies from 15 different countries with a sample of 35804 employees of different companies were evaluated. The findings suggest the existence of 89 different variables influencing the intention to leave of employees in an organization. The results of this study will allow researchers to better understand the variables that can be studied to verify the impact of variables such as causal elements, but also see those that have a mediating effect between them for predicting intention to leave as an element of employee turnover. This study makes three important contributions to literature of turnover. First, in this study all the parameters associated with the intention to leave were checked. Second, this study categorizes and displays in proportion relevant interests to the scientific community whom studying employee turnover across the intention to leave. And thirdly provides clues organizations to improve some of its structural and contextual features to control turnover.

  9. Vitamin A absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, S.J.

    1976-01-01

    Investigation of the absorption of vitamin A and related substances is complicated by the multiplicity of forms in which they occur in the diet and by the possibility that they may be subject to different mechanisms of absorption. Present knowledge of these mechanisms is inadequate, especially in the case of carotenoids. Numerous tests of absorption have been developed. The most common has been the biochemical measurement of the rise in plasma vitamin A after an oral dose of retinol or retinyl ester, but standardization is inadequate. Radioisotope tests based upon assay of serum or faecal activity following oral administration of tritiated vitamin A derivaties hold considerable promise, but again standardization is inadequate. From investigations hitherto performed it is known that absorption of vitamin A is influenced by several diseases, although as yet the consistency of results and the correlation with other tests of intestinal function have often been poor. However, the test of vitamin A absorption is nevertheless of clinical importance as a specialized measure of intestinal function. (author)

  10. Parental leave: the impact of recent legislation on parents' leave taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wen-Jui; Waldfogel, Jane

    2003-02-01

    We use data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation to examine the impact of leave entitlements on unpaid leave usage by men and women after the birth of a child from 1991 to 1999. The results indicate that legislation providing the right to unpaid leave has not affected men's leave usage. The results for women are mixed: in some specifications, leave entitlements are associated with increased leave taking or longer leaves, but the results depend on how we define leave coverage. Our results point to the limited impact of unpaid leave policies and the potential importance of paid-leave policies.

  11. NPK fertilization effects on concentration of nutrients in Valencia orange leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basso, C.; Mielniczuk, J.; Bohnen, H.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of NPK fertilization on the nutrient concentration in the leaves was evaluated in a field experiment of Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) growing in a sandy acid soil, with 4N, 3P and 4K fertilizer levels. N and Cu contents in the leaves were high, while P and Zn levels were low, in all treatments. Increasing the levels of N, P 2 O 5 and K 2 O fertilization resulted in an increase of the N, P and K concentration in the leaves, respectively. Crescent levels of N fertilization raised Mn and decreased Ca concentration in the leaves. P and K contents in the leaves correlated positively. With a great availability and absorption of K, reduction on he foliar contents of Mg and Ca ocurred. (M.A.C.) [pt

  12. An Evaluation of Paid Leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten

    This paper analyzes a labor market program which enables workers to leave employment temporarily with a compensation financed by the taxpayers. The main aim of the program was to increase the chances of the unemployed finding a job. However, the empirical analysis reveals a clear negative...... relationship between the unemployment rate and transition rates from employment into the paid leave scheme. Program participation is low, precisely in those labor market states, where the scheme has a potential to perform as a remedy by increasing the transition rate from unemployment to employment. Several...

  13. Watch out for the leaves!

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2013-01-01

    Now that autumn is here, dead leaves falling from the trees form a colourful carpet that is pleasing to the eye. However, the reality is less pleasant for pedestrians, since these leaves increase the risk of slipping and falling, especially when the ground is wet.   These conditions are also hazardous for two- and four-wheeled vehicles, whose grip on the ground can be severely reduced, thereby increasing the risk of them skidding out of control. Cyclists are among the most vulnerable road users when faced with these hazards. It is therefore essential to be alert to the dangers, which can be lessened by taking a few simple precautions such as moderating your speed and wearing suitable shoes. We also invite you to notify the Service Desk if you notice a road or pavement where there is a high concentration of dead leaves. The CERN Roads and Drainage Service will then ensure that the leaves are cleared in order to reduce the risk of accidents in the area.

  14. Nutrient resorption from seagrass leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stapel, J.; Hemminga, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    The resorption of nutrients (C, N and P) from senescent leaves of six seagrass species from nine different locations in tropical (Indonesia and Kenya), Mediterranean (Spain) and temperate (The Netherlands) regions has been investigated. Resorption was quantitatively assessed by calculating the

  15. Neutron resonance absorption theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuss, P.

    1991-11-01

    After some recalls on the physics of neutron resonance absorption during their slowing down, this paper presents the main features of the theoretical developments performed by the french school of reactor physics: the effective reaction rate method so called Livolant-Jeanpierre theory, the generalizations carried out by the author, and the probability table method [fr

  16. Noble gas absorption process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    A method of removing a noble gas from air comprising the use of activated carbon filters in stages in which absorption and desorption steps in succession are conducted in order to increase the capacity of the filters is described. (U.S.)

  17. Total photon absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, P.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental methods using real photon beams for measurements of total photonuclear absorption cross section σ(Tot : E/sub γ/) are recalled. Most recent σ(Tot : E/sub γ/)results for complex nuclei and in the nucleon resonance region are presented

  18. Chemical Absorption Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kaj

    2011-01-01

    Chemical absorption materials that potentially can be used for post combustion carbon dioxide capture are discussed. They fall into five groups, alkanolamines, alkali carbonates, ammonia, amino acid salts, and ionic liquids. The chemistry of the materials is discussed and advantages and drawbacks...

  19. 29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... leave schedule is a leave schedule that reduces an employee's usual number of working hours per workweek, or hours per workday. A reduced leave schedule is a change in the employee's schedule for a period of... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule. 825.202...

  20. Optical parameters of leaves of seven weed species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gausman, H. W.; Menges, R. M.; Richardson, A. J.; Walter, H.; Rodriguez, R. R.; Tamez, S. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The absorption coefficient (k), infinite reflectance (R), and scattering coefficient (s) were tabulated for five wavelengths and analyzed for statistical differences for seven weed species. The wavelengths were: 0.55-micrometer, 0.65-micrometers, 0.85-micrometer, 1.65-micrometers, and 2.20-micrometer. The R of common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.), Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.), and annual sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus L.) leaves at the 0.85-micrometer wavelength were significantly (p=0.05) higher than for sunflower (Heliantus annus L.), ragweed parthenium (Parthenium hysterophorus L.), or London rocket (Sisymbrium irio L.). Annual sowthistle had the largest k value, and Plamer amaranth (Amaranthus palmer S. Wats.) had the smallest k value at the 0.65 approximately chlorophyll absorption wavelength. In general, john-songress, ragweed parthenium, or London rocket had the largest s values among the five wavelengths, wereas annual sowthistle and plamar amaranth were usually lowest.

  1. Absorption, transport, and chemical fate of plutonium in soybean plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garland, T.R.; Cataldo, D.A.; Wildung, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    Absorption of plutonium (Pu) by soybean plants (Glycine max cv. Williams) is limited by Pu solubility in soils. Changes in Pu concentration in different tissues with time to senescence indicate Pu is freely transported through the xylem during growth but not subject to remobilization on flowering. Studies in which the DTPA complex of 238 Pu was supplied to the plant suggest a change in chemical form following root absorption. Of the Pu in roots, stems, and leaves at senescence, 28, 54, and 67%, respectively, were soluble. The Pu in the solluble fraction was primarily associated with components of >10000 equivalent molecular weight in leaves and roots, whereas stems exhibited an equal distribution between components in the >10000 and <500 molecular weight fractions. Plutonium associated with mature seeds is concentrated in the seed hull (85%) and cotyledons (14%). The Pu associated with the cotyledon was primarily in the insoluble residues and soluble soy whey

  2. Linear absorptive dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tip, A.

    1998-06-01

    Starting from Maxwell's equations for a linear, nonconducting, absorptive, and dispersive medium, characterized by the constitutive equations D(x,t)=ɛ1(x)E(x,t)+∫t-∞dsχ(x,t-s)E(x,s) and H(x,t)=B(x,t), a unitary time evolution and canonical formalism is obtained. Given the complex, coordinate, and frequency-dependent, electric permeability ɛ(x,ω), no further assumptions are made. The procedure leads to a proper definition of band gaps in the periodic case and a new continuity equation for energy flow. An S-matrix formalism for scattering from lossy objects is presented in full detail. A quantized version of the formalism is derived and applied to the generation of Čerenkov and transition radiation as well as atomic decay. The last case suggests a useful generalization of the density of states to the absorptive situation.

  3. Some microbiological, histopathological and biochemical changes in the broiler chicken fed carrot leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Faramawy, A.A.; Soliman, S.M.; Fahmy, M.O.

    2005-01-01

    Ninety 21 day old Arbor Acres chicks arranged into 6 equal groups were used in the present study to evaluate the effect of substitution of 10% yellow corn (YC) with berseem, green carrot leaves without and with digestive enzymatic mixture, untreated dry carrot leaves and treated ones with Aspergillus niger on the intestinal microflora, histopathology of liver and intestine in addition to some biochemical parameters. Replacement of (YC) with green carrot leaves, untreated and treated carrot leaves caused significant (P<0.05) increase in total bacterial count and significant (P<0.05) decrease in Lactobacilli, while the addition of enzyme to the green carrot leaves led to decrease in total bacterial count and increase in Lactobacillus count. The histopathological changes of both intestine and liver were restricted only to both groups of dried carrot leaves. Similarly untreated and treated dry carrot leaves groups were also associated with significant increase in triglyceride, ALT and significant (P<0.05) decrease in cholesterol in serum. From the above mentioned results, it could be concluded that dried carrot leaves, untreated or treated with Aspergillus niger, were unsuitable for broiler chicken feeding since they directly affected bird's gut health causing change in nutrient absorption and considerable decrease in the beneficial bacterial count

  4. Iron absorption studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekenved, G.

    1976-01-01

    The main objective of the present work was to study iron absorption from different iron preparations in different types of subjects and under varying therapeutic conditions. The studies were performed with different radioiron isotope techniques and with a serum iron technique. The preparations used were solutions of ferrous sulphate and rapidly-disintegrating tablets containing ferrous sulphate, ferrous fumarate and ferrous carbonate and a slow-release ferrous sulphate tablet of an insoluble matrix type (Duroferon Durules). The serum iron method was evaluated and good correlation was found between the serum iron response and the total amount of iron absorbed after an oral dose of iron given in solution or in tablet form. New technique for studying the in-vivo release properties of tablets was presented. Iron tablets labelled with a radio-isotope were given to healthy subjects. The decline of the radioactivity in the tablets was followed by a profile scanning technique applied to different types of iron tablets. The release of iron from the two types of tablets was shown to be slower in vivo than in vitro. It was found that co-administration of antacids and iron tablets led to a marked reduction in the iron absorption and that these drugs should not be administered sumultaneously. A standardized meal markedly decreased the absorbability of iron from iron tablets. The influence of the meal was more marked with rapidly-disintegrating than with slow-release ferrous sulphate tablets. The absorption from rapidly-disintegrating and slow-release ferrous sulphate tablets was compared under practical clinical conditions during an extended treatment period. The studies were performed in healthy subjects, blood donors and patients with iron deficiency anaemia and it was found that the absorption of iron from the slow-release tablets was significantly better than from the rapidly-disintegrating tablets in all three groups of subjects. (author)

  5. Gamma absorption meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dincklage, R.D. von.

    1984-01-01

    The absorption meter consists of a radiation source, a trough for the absorbing liquid and a detector. It is characterized by the fact that there is a foil between the detector and the trough, made of a material whose binding energy of the K electrons is a little greater than the energy of the photons emitted by the radiation source. The source of radiation and foil are replaceable. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Total Absorption Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio, B.; Gelletly, W.

    2007-01-01

    The problem of determining the distribution of beta decay strength (B(GT)) as a function of excitation energy in the daughter nucleus is discussed. Total Absorption Spectroscopy is shown to provide a way of determining the B(GT) precisely. A brief history of such measurements and a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of this technique, is followed by examples of two recent studies using the technique. (authors)

  7. Leaving the hospital - your discharge plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patientinstructions/000867.htm Leaving the hospital - your discharge plan To use the sharing features on this page, ... once you leave. This is called a discharge plan. Your health care providers at the hospital will ...

  8. Childcare and the division of parental leave

    OpenAIRE

    Norén, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Despite several policies aimed at increasing fathers' participation in the caring of children, Swedish mothers still use the bulk of the paid parental leave which may have several negative consequences for the family e.g. in terms of weaker labor market attachment for the mother. Division of parental leave is likely affected by how parents value the costs associated with parental leave. I investigate whether a reduction in the care burden, or a decreased non-monetary cost, of parental leave t...

  9. The CCCTB Rules on Leaving a Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Streek, J.

    2012-01-01

    The consolidation system proposed in the draft of the CCCTB Directive puts relationships between Member States on edge. This is clearly apparent in the rules that apply when a company leaves a group. In this article the leaving rules are examined. Although the leaving rules are claimed to be

  10. Sugar beet leaves for functional ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamayo Tenorio, Angelica

    2017-01-01

    Plant leaves are recognised as a potential source for food applications based on their nutritional profile and interesting technological properties of leaf components, and based on the large availability of plant leaves in agricultural waste streams. Besides proteins, leaves have a rich

  11. Compassionate Care Leave & Benefits. CAUT Briefing Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Association of University Teachers, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Compassionate care leave and benefits were introduced in 2003/04 to help employees cope with this difficult work-life balance challenge. Employment Standards legislation and the Employment Insurance program (EI) were amended to provide leave without pay, with payment of EI benefits for compassionate care leave. Collective agreements have been…

  12. On the Sharing of Temporary Parental Leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amilon, Anna

    2007-01-01

    This paper views temporary parental leave (leave from work to take care of a sick child) as a household public good, produced with time inputs of the parents as the only input. Assuming equal productivities in the production of temporary parental leave and equal utility functions of the spouses...

  13. Optical absorption in dendrimers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supritz, C.; Engelmann, A.; Reineker, P.

    2004-01-01

    Dendrimers are highly branched molecules, which are expected to be useful, for example, as efficient artificial light harvesting systems in nano-technological applications. There are two different classes of dendrimers: compact dendrimers with constant distance between neighboring branching points throughout the macromolecule and extended dendrimers, where this distance increases from the system periphery to the center. We investigate the linear absorption spectra of these dendrimer types using the Frenkel exciton concept. The electron-phonon interaction is taken into account by introducing a heat bath that interacts with the exciton in a stochastic manner

  14. Rapidly variable relatvistic absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M.; Pinto, C.; Fabian, A.; Lohfink, A.; Buisson, D.; Alston, W.; Jiang, J.

    2017-10-01

    I will present results from the 1.5Ms XMM-Newton observing campaign on the most X-ray variable AGN, IRAS 13224-3809. We find a series of nine absorption lines with a velocity of 0.24c from an ultra-fast outflow. For the first time, we are able to see extremely rapid variability of the UFO features, and can link this to the X-ray variability from the inner accretion disk. We find a clear flux dependence of the outflow features, suggesting that the wind is ionized by increasing X-ray emission.

  15. Geospatial Absorption and Regional Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOAN MAC

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The geospatial absorptions are characterized by a specific complexity both in content and in their phenomenological and spatial manifestation fields. Such processes are differentiated according to their specificity to pre-absorption, absorption or post-absorption. The mechanisms that contribute to absorption are extremely numerous: aggregation, extension, diffusion, substitution, resistivity (resilience, stratification, borrowings, etc. Between these mechanisms frequent relations are established determining an amplification of the process and of its regional effects. The installation of the geographic osmosis phenomenon in a given territory (a place for example leads to a homogenization of the geospatial state and to the installation of the regional homogeneity.

  16. Resource capture by single leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, S.P.

    1992-05-01

    Leaves show a variety of strategies for maximizing CO{sub 2} and light capture. These are more meaningfully explained if they are considered in the context of maximizing capture relative to the utilization of water, nutrients and carbohydrates reserves. There is considerable variation between crops in their efficiency of CO{sub 2} and light capture at the leaf level. Understanding of these mechanisms indicate some ways in which efficiency of resource capture could be level cannot be meaningfully considered without simultaneous understanding of implications at the canopy level. 36 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Examining the Evolution of Paid Parental Leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladek, Carol

    While the United States continues to be the only developed nation without mandated paid maternity leave, U.S. employers are blazing their own trail for new parents. This article defines parental leave, explains what's driving the increased interest in paid parental leave among employers offering it and discusses how paid parental leave can benefit employers and employees alike. Finally, the author discusses why not all employers are offering these benefits as well as considerations for employers contemplating whether paid parental leave is right for them.

  18. 5 CFR 630.1015 - Movement between voluntary leave bank and leave transfer programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement between voluntary leave bank and leave transfer programs. 630.1015 Section 630.1015 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1015 Movement...

  19. 5 CFR 630.1104 - Donations from a leave bank to an emergency leave transfer program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Donations from a leave bank to an emergency leave transfer program. 630.1104 Section 630.1104 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1104 Donations...

  20. 29 CFR 825.205 - Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... intermittent leave or working a reduced leave schedule to commence or end work mid-way through a shift, such as... per week, but works only 20 hours a week under a reduced leave schedule, the employee's ten hours of... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced...

  1. Foliar absorption and translocation of 137cs in egyptian olive plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.A.; Maly, A.I.

    1999-01-01

    Foliar absorption and translocation of 137Cs by olive leaves were studied. Olive seedlings were transferred to the greenhouse in pots containing fine Nile silt.. Two seriies of pot experiments were conducted at the Nuclear Research Center site at Inshas. The treatments were conducted on leaves at the two middle nodes of the selected shoots. The lower surface of the olive leaf absorbed more 137Cs at the studied pH values as compared with the upper surface. The results show that changing the pH from 2 to 3 had no have any effect on the foliar absorption of 137Cs. Further increase of pH value caused the 137Cs foliar absorption to show a minimum at pH 5 then a maximum at pH 7. At pH 8 the foliar absorption of 137Cs started to decrease again. The concentration of translocated 137Cs was found to decrease gradually in the leaves above and below the treated ones. Absorption of 137Cs increased with time in the first 24 hours followed by lower absorption rates till the end of the experiment after 148 hours

  2. Atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haswell, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    Atomic absorption spectroscopy is now well established and widely used technique for the determination of trace and major elements in a wide range analyte types. There have been many advances in the atomic spectroscopy over the last decade and for this reason and to meet the demand, it was felt that there was a need for an updated book. Whilst interest in instrumental design has tended to dominate the minds of the spectrocopist, the analyst concerned with obtaining reliable and representative data, in diverse areas of application, has been diligently modifying and developing sample treatment and instrumental introduction techniques. Such methodology is de fundamental part of analysis and form the basis of the fourteen application chapters of this book. The text focuses in the main on AAS; however, the sample handling techniques described are in many cases equally applicable to ICP-OES and ICP-MS analysis. (author). refs.; figs.; tabs

  3. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockdale, T. J.

    1985-01-01

    In atomic absorption spectrophotometer, a reference path may be provided for radiation which excludes the flame. This radiation provides a signal from a detector which varies only with the instrumental drift produced by variations in the radiation source brightness and by variations in detector gain. The signal can be used to compensate for drift in other signals received through a sample path including the flame. In the present invention, radiation passes through the sample path continuously during measurement, and only through the reference path between sample measurements. Movable mirrors shift the radiation between the paths upon externally applied commands. Conveniently, the reference path measurement is made while the flame is stabilized during the change between samples. The reference path measurements are stored and used to correct for drift

  4. Analyzing Water's Optical Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A cooperative agreement between World Precision Instruments (WPI), Inc., and Stennis Space Center has led the UltraPath(TM) device, which provides a more efficient method for analyzing the optical absorption of water samples at sea. UltraPath is a unique, high-performance absorbance spectrophotometer with user-selectable light path lengths. It is an ideal tool for any study requiring precise and highly sensitive spectroscopic determination of analytes, either in the laboratory or the field. As a low-cost, rugged, and portable system capable of high- sensitivity measurements in widely divergent waters, UltraPath will help scientists examine the role that coastal ocean environments play in the global carbon cycle. UltraPath(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc. LWCC(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc.

  5. RECRUITMENT FINANCED BY SAVED LEAVE (RSL PROGRAMME)

    CERN Multimedia

    Division du Personnel; Tel. 73903

    1999-01-01

    Transfer to the saved leave account and saved leave bonusStaff members participating in the RSL programme may opt to transfer up to 10 days of unused annual leave or unused compensatory leave into their saved leave account, at the end of the leave year, i.e. 30 September (as set out in the implementation procedure dated 27 August 1997).A leave transfer request form, which you should complete, sign and return, if you wish to use this possibility, has been addressed you. To allow the necessary time for the processing of your request, you should return it without delay.As foreseen in the implementation procedure, an additional day of saved leave will be granted for each full period of 20 days remaining in the saved leave account on 31 December 1999, for any staff member participating in the RSL programme until that date.For part-time staff members participating in the RSL programme, the above-mentioned days of leave (annual, compensatory and saved) are adjusted proportionally to their contractual working week as...

  6. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soffiantini, V.

    1981-01-01

    Atomic absorption spectrophotometry is essentially an analytical technique used for quantitative trace metal analysis in a variety of materials. The speed and specificity of the technique is its greatest advantage over other analytical techniques. What atomic absorption spectrophotometry can and cannot do and its advantages and disadvantages are discussed, a summary of operating instructions are given, as well as a summary of analytical interferences. The applications of atomic absorption spectrophotometry are also shortly discussed

  7. Nonlinear effects in collective absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uenoyama, Takeshi; Mima, Kunioki; Watanabe, Tsuguhiro.

    1981-01-01

    The collective absorption of high intensity laser radiation is analyzed numerically. Density profile modification due to the ponderomotive force associating laser radiation and the excited electron plasma waves is self-consistently taken into account, and the intensity dependences of the absorption efficiency are obtained. In the high intensity regime, the absorption efficiency is found to be strongly enhanced in the plasma without flow, but reduced with supersonic flow. (author)

  8. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.

    2009-07-09

    This review gives a brief description of the theory and application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy, both X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), especially, pertaining to photosynthesis. The advantages and limitations of the methods are discussed. Recent advances in extended EXAFS and polarized EXAFS using oriented membranes and single crystals are explained. Developments in theory in understanding the XANES spectra are described. The application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy to the study of the Mn4Ca cluster in Photosystem II is presented.

  9. Paternity leave experiences of NHS doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Hannah; Szram, Joanna

    2013-10-01

    This study assesses NHS doctors' experiences of paternity leave and evaluates whether practices have changed since the introduction of additional paternity leave (APL) in April 2011. An anonymised online survey designed to discover experiences and uptake of APL and ordinary paternity leave (OPL) was distributed to all members of the London Deanery Synapse® network. In total, 364 fathers responded. Their seniority ranged from foundation trainees to consultants. Following the formal introduction of OPL in 2003, the number of fathers taking any paternity leave increased (from 50% to 95.6%). The majority of respondents (76.7%) felt well supported by their employer. Since the introduction of APL, 3% of respondents took additional leave. Reasons for the low uptake of APL included the impracticalities of the law, poor awareness and perceived attitudes and implications for training. Problems with OPL included the inadequate provision of cover and difficulties in timing the leave appropriately.

  10. Absorption of UV-B to blue light radiation by leaf cuticles of selected crop plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baur, P.; Stulle, K.; Schönherr, J.; Uhlig, B.

    1998-01-01

    Plants have protective pigments absorbing destructive shortwave radiation. These pigments have been found in the epidermis and mesophyll of leaves. We studied the absorption characteristics of the leaf cuticle, the outermost part of the epidermis that is directly exposed to radiation. Adaxial leaf cuticles of apple, pear, sour cherry, strawberry, cauliflower, sugarbeet, and 13 other plant species were tested. The UV-B absorption was highest in Citrus aurantium and Citrus maxima (<3 % transmittance) and lowest in sugarbeet and peach (>64 % transmittance). The absorption maxima are at wavelenghts below 320 nm. Significant absorption was also determined at 500 nm, which correlated with cuticle thickness of the plant species (r(2)=0.72). The absorption in the range of 250 to 350 nm is caused by pigments with a high extinction coefficient. This absorption is species dependent and the patterns were designated to three different types. The highest absorption was found in evergreen species. The extraction of cuticular waxes had little effect on absorption. The specific absorption of shortwave radiation by plant cuticles is probably caused by pigments covalently bound to cut in. It is known for some plant species that cuticles can contain the phenolics p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and vanillic acid. Mixtures of these phenolics had spectra similar to cuticles. For most species absorption of shortwave radiation by the cuticle alone does not give complete protection

  11. Galactic absorption line coronae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bregman, J.N.

    1981-01-01

    We have investigated whether gaseous coronae around galaxies rise to the absorption systems seen in quasar spectra. In our model, gas originally located in the disk is heated to the million degree range and rises to surround the galaxy; the gas remains bound to the galaxy. Optically thin radiative cooling drives a thermal instability in the hot gas which causes cool clouds (T 4 K) to condense out of the corona. These clouds, which follow ballistic trajectories back to the disk, are the absorption sites. A two-dimensional hydrodynamic code with radiative cooling was used to study the dynamics and thermodynamics of the corona as well as the position rate at which clouds form. Coupled to the code is a galaxy with two mass components, a disk (approx.10 11 M/sub sun/) and a dark halo (approx.10 12 M/sub sun/). In a model where the temperature at the base of the corona (in the disk) is 3 x 10 6 K, absorbing gas of column density NL> or approx. =10 18 cm 2 extends radially to 100 kpc (face-on orientation) and vertically to 60 Kpc (edge-on orientation). The total mass of gas required here (coronal plus cloud gas) is 1.4 x 10 10 M/sub sun/, while the minimum supernova heating rate is one supernova per 27 years. In two other models (base coronal temperatures of 0.50 x 10 6 K and 1 x 10 6 K), coronal gas rises from an extended gaseous disk (in the previous model, the gas comes from a typical gaseous disk approximately 15 kpc in extent). Here, column densities of 10 19 cm -2 out to a radius of 70 kpc (face-on orientation) are achieved with a total gas mass of 1.7 x 10 9 M/sub direct-product/ and 2.0 x 10 9 M/sub sun/ and minimum heating rates of approximately one supernova per 170 years and one supernova per 60 years

  12. The absorption and transportation of ferric-salt in apple trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Zhixun; Chen Meihong

    1994-01-01

    59 Fe tracer technique was used to study the ferric-salt absorption, utilization and transportation in apple trees. The results indicated that absorption and utilization rate of ferric salt was 0.056%∼0.110% for roots and 30% for leaves, and that Fe is not easily to be transferred from one part to another. Fulvic acid iron had a better effect than ferrous sulfate. Ferric-salt absorption, utilization and transference were different among the cultivars. Intensive injections of ferrous salt into the apple trunks seemed to be more effective for correcting of chlorosis

  13. Applications of isotopes in plants for the study of absorption and transportation of mineral elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jooste, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    The use of radioisotopes is illustrated by various experiments in plant nutrition. Firstly, the foliar uptake of Zn in fruit trees is discussed. Secondly, the foliar uptake of Fe is compared to the root absorption of a bean plant. Thirdly, there is a comparison of the absorption of the Cl-ion by the roots, leaves and flowers of the petunia. Na-absorption by the non-salt resistant bean plant as well as transportation rate in the bast and xylem are discussed shortly

  14. The carbon isotope ratios and contents of mineral elements in leaves of Chinese medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Zhifang; Sun Guchou; Wang Wei

    1989-01-01

    Leaf carbon isotope ratios and 13 kinds of mineral elements were measured on 36 species of common Chinese medicinal plants in a subtropical monsoon forest of Ding Hu Shan in Guangdong Province. The .delta.13C value were from -26.4 to -32.6%, indicating that all of the species belonged the photosynthetic C3 types. The relative lower value of δ13C was observed in the life form of shrubs. The contents of 7 elements (N, P, K, Ca, Na Mg, Si) were dependent upon the species, life form, medicinal function and medicinal part. Herb type medicine and the used medicinal part of leaves or whole plant showed higher levels of above elements than the others. Among the nine groups with different medicinal functions, it was found that more nitrogen was in the leaves of medicinal plants for hemophthisis, hypertension and stomachic troubles, more phosphorus and potassium were in the leaves for cancer and snake bite medicines, but more calcium and magnesium were in the leaves for curing rheumatics. Ferric, aluminium and manganese were the main composition of microelements in leaves. There were higher content of ferric in leaves for hemophthisis medicine, higher zinc in leaves for cold and hypertension medicine, and higher Cup in leaves of stomachic medicine. It was suggested that the pattern of mineral elements in leaves of Chinese medicinal plants reflected the different properties of absorption and accumulation. Some additional effect due to the high content of certain element might be associated with the main function of that medicine

  15. Paid Maternity Leave and Breastfeeding Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkovic, Kelsey R; Perrine, Cria G; Scanlon, Kelley S

    2016-09-01

    Despite the benefits of breastfeeding, rates in the United States are low. Shorter maternity leave is associated with lower initiation and shorter durations of breastfeeding; however, little is known about how paid maternity leave may influence breastfeeding rates. We used data from the 2006-2010 U.S. National Survey of Family Growth on the most recent birth to employed women who delivered a child within the previous 5 years. Separate multivariable logistic regression models were used to describe the associations between paid leave duration (0, 1-5, 6-11, ≥ 12 weeks, maternity leave not taken) and three outcomes: 1) breastfeeding initiation, 2) 6-month duration, and 3) 6-month duration among initiators. Twenty-eight percent of prenatally employed women received no paid leave. Women who received 12 or more weeks of paid leave were more likely to initiate breastfeeding compared to women with no paid leave (87.3% vs 66.7%, adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.83 [95% confidence interval {CI} 1.23-6.48]). Similarly, women with 12 or more weeks of paid leave were more likely to breastfeed at 6 months, compared to women with no paid leave (24.9% vs 50.1%, aOR 2.26 [95% CI 1.20-4.26]). Among women who initiated breastfeeding, having received 12 or more weeks' paid leave increased the odds of breastfeeding for 6 or more months; however, the association was not statistically significant in the adjusted model (aOR 1.81 [95% CI 0.93-3.52]). Employed women who received 12 or more weeks of paid maternity leave were more likely to initiate breastfeeding and be breastfeeding their child at 6 months than those without paid leave. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  16. [New cerebroside from leaves of pineapple].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Ping; Wang, Hong-Ying; Du, Li-Jun; Ding, Yi; Xing, Dong-Ming; Wang, Wei

    2007-03-01

    To study the chemical constituents of the leaves of pineapple. Chromatographic methods were used to isolate compounds from the leaves of pineapple and spectral methods were used to identify the structures of the isolated compounds. Compound 1 was isolated from the leaves of pineapple. It was identified as 1-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(2S, 3R, 4E, 11E)-2-[(2(R)-hydroxydocosanoyl) amido]-4, 11-hexadecanediene-1, 3-diol. Compound 1 was a new compound.

  17. Nurses' leaving intentions: antecedents and mediating factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takase, Miyuki; Yamashita, Noriko; Oba, Keiko

    2008-05-01

    This paper is a report of a study to investigate how nurses' work values, perceptions of environmental characteristics, and organizational commitment are related to their leaving intentions. Nurse leaving is a serious international problem as it contributes to the nursing shortage that threatens the welfare of society. The characteristics of nurses, the work environment and nurses' feelings towards their jobs (or organizations) have an impact on their leaving intentions. A convenience sample of 849 Registered Nurses was recruited from three public hospitals in the central-west region of Japan during 2006 and 319 completed questionnaires were returned (response rate 39%). Data were analysed using regression analysis. Nurses' work values and their perceptions of their workplace environment interacted to influence leaving intentions. When there was a match between the importance nurses placed on being able to challenge current clinical practices and the number of the actual opportunities to do so, leaving intentions were low. When there was a mismatch, intention to quit the job became stronger. In addition, organizational commitment intervened between nurses' perceptions of the match in clinical challenges and leaving intention. Nurses' leaving intentions, deserve extensive exploration of their causes. Such exploration should include attending to both nurses' needs and organizational characteristics, investigating how the match between them could affect nurses' leaving intention, and exploring factors that intervene between nurses' perceptions of the match and leaving intention.

  18. Effect of some factors on foliar absorption and mobility of Fe59 in plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, F.A.

    1990-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted under greenhouse conditions using Fe 59 and seedlings of guava and orange to study the effect of PH value (3-8), Fe SO 4 concentrations in combination with three values of PH on foliar absorption and mobility of Fe. In addition, a comparative study to evaluate some compounds of iron for foliar spray was achieved. Foliar absorption of Fe 59 by guava leaves and its mobility were considerably influenced by PH value of spray solution. Maximum absorption and translocation were observed at PH 6. However, most of the absorbed iron 'about 90%' was retained in the treated leaves and the portion 'about 10%' acropetally and basipetally translocated. Upward transport of iron was more pronounced than downward one. Total iron in plant derived from applied FeSO 4 was greatly increased, whereas utilization percent of it was reduced by increasing the rate of Fe in spray solution. Generally, FeSO 4 had a good efficiency which ranged from about 25-43%. Specific absorption of iron by orange leaves was higher than that of guava leaves. From plant nutritional point of view, efficiency of FeSo 4 , Fe-metalosate and multi mineral-metalosate as different sources of Fe through foliar application remarkably varied and FeSO 4 was highly efficient one in comparison with metalosate compounds

  19. Wave energy absorption by ducks

    OpenAIRE

    Kurniawan, Adi

    2017-01-01

    We study the absorption of wave energy by a single and multiple cam-shaped bodies referred to as ducks. Numerical models are developed under the assumptions of linear theory. We consider wave absorption by a single duck as well as by two lines of ducks meeting at an angle.

  20. Wave energy absorption by ducks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurniawan, Adi

    2018-01-01

    We study the absorption of wave energy by a single and multiple cam-shaped bodies referred to as ducks. Numerical models are developed under the assumptions of linear theory. We consider wave absorption by a single duck as well as by two lines of ducks meeting at an angle....

  1. Atomic absorption instrument functional description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bystroff, R.I.; Boyle, W.G. Jr.; Barton, G.W. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    This report describes a proposed system for automating atomic absorption analysis. The system consists of two atomic absorption instruments and an automatic sampler that can be attached to either instrument. A computer program controls the sampling and gathers data. The program then uses the data to perform bookkeeping, data processing, and report writing

  2. Sublinear absorption in OCS gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogani, F.; Querzoli, R.; Ernst, K.

    1988-01-01

    Sublinear absorption in OCS gas has been experimentally studied in detail by means of an optoacustic technique and transmission measurements. The best fit of the results is obtained by a phenomenological model, that considers the process as the sum of one-and two-photon absorptions

  3. Optical absorption of irradiated carbohydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supe, A.A.; Tiliks, Yu.E.

    1994-01-01

    The optical absorption spectra of γ-irradiated carbohydrates (glucose, lactose, sucrose, maltose, and starch) and their aqueous solutions were studied. The comparison of the data obtained with the determination of the concentrations of molecular and radical products of radiolysis allows the absorption bands with maxima at 250 and 310 nm to be assigned to the radicals trapped in the irradiated carbohydrates

  4. Water absorption in brick masonry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brocken, H.J.P.; Smolders, H.R.

    1996-01-01

    The water absorption in brick, mortar that was cured separately, and masonry samples was studied using NMR. Models of the moisture transport are usually formulated on the basis of a diffusion equation. In the case of water absorption in separate brick and mortar samples, the moisture diffusivity in

  5. Subgap absorption in conjugated polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, M.; Seager, C.H. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); McBranch, D.; Heeger, A.J. (California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (USA)); Baker, G.L. (Bell Communications Research, Inc., Red Bank, NJ (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Along with X{sup (3)}, the magnitude of the optical absorption in the transparent window below the principal absorption edge is an important parameter which will ultimately determine the utility of conjugated polymers in active integrated optical devices. With an absorptance sensitivity of < 10{sup {minus}5}, Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy (PDS) is ideal for determining the absorption coefficients of thin films of transparent'' materials. We have used PDS to measure the optical absorption spectra of the conjugated polymers poly(1,4-phenylene-vinylene) (and derivitives) and polydiacetylene-4BCMU in the spectral region from 0.55 eV to 3 eV. Our spectra show that the shape of the absorption edge varies considerably from polymer to polymer, with polydiacetylene-4BCMU having the steepest absorption edge. The minimum absorption coefficients measured varied somewhat with sample age and quality, but were typically in the range 1 cm{sup {minus}1} to 10 cm{sup {minus}1}. In the region below 1 eV, overtones of C-H stretching modes were observed, indicating that further improvements in transparency in this spectral region might be achieved via deuteration of fluorination. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Multifunctional hybrids for electromagnetic absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huynen, I.; Quievy, N.; Bailly, C.; Bollen, P.; Detrembleur, C.; Eggermont, S.; Molenberg, I.; Thomassin, J.M.; Urbanczyk, L.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → EM absorption requires low dielectric constant and ∼1 S/m electrical conductivity. → New hybrids were processed with CNT-filled polymer foam inserted in Al honeycomb. → The EM absorption in the GHz range is superior to any known material. → A closed form model is used to guide the design of the hybrid. → The architectured material is light with potential for thermal management. - Abstract: Electromagnetic (EM) interferences are ubiquitous in modern technologies and impact on the reliability of electronic devices and on living cells. Shielding by EM absorption, which is preferable over reflection in certain instances, requires combining a low dielectric constant with high electrical conductivity, which are antagonist properties in the world of materials. A novel class of hybrid materials for EM absorption in the gigahertz range has been developed based on a hierarchical architecture involving a metallic honeycomb filled with a carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer foam. The waveguide characteristics of the honeycomb combined with the performance of the foam lead to unexpectedly large EM power absorption over a wide frequency range, superior to any known material. The peak absorption frequency can be tuned by varying the shape of the honeycomb unit cell. A closed form model of the EM reflection and absorption provides a tool for the optimization of the hybrid. This designed material sets the stage for a new class of sandwich panels combining high EM absorption with mass efficiency, stiffness and thermal management.

  7. Transfer characterization of sulfur from coal-burning emission to plant leaves by PIXE and XANES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, L.M.; Zhang, G.L.; Zhang, Y.X.; Li, Y.; Lin, J.; Liu, W.; Cao, Q.C.; Zhao, Y.D.; Ma, C.Y.; Han, Y. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China). Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics

    2009-11-15

    The impact of coal-burning emission on sulfur in camphor leaves was investigated using Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and synchrotron radiation technique X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The PIXE results show that the sulfur concentrations in the leaves collected at the polluted site are significantly higher than those in controls. The sulfur XANES spectra show the presence of organic (disulfides, thiols, thioethers, sulfonates and sulfoxides) and inorganic sulfur (sulfates) in the leaves. The inorganic sulfur in the leaves of camphor tree polluted by coal combustion is 15% more than that of the control site. The results suggest that the long-term coal-burning pollution resulted in an enhanced content of the total sulfur and sulfate in the leaves, and the uptake of sulfur by leaves had exceeded the metabolic requirement of plants and the excess of sulfur was stored as SO{sub 4}2{sup -}. It can monitor the sulfur pollution in atmosphere.

  8. Changes in ultraviolet-B and visible optical properties and absorbing pigment concentrations in pecan leaves during a growing season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadong Qi; Shuju Bai; Gordon M. Heisler

    2003-01-01

    UV-B (280-320 nm) and visible (400-760 nm) spectral reflectance, transmittance, and absorptance; chlorophyll content; UV-B absorbing compound concentration; and leaf thickness were measured for pecan (Carya illinoensis) leaves over a growing season (April-October). Leaf samples were collected monthly from a pecan plantation located on the Southern...

  9. Foliar absorption of 15N labeled urea by tea plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshina, Tsuguo; Kozai, Shuji; Ishigaki, Kozo

    1978-01-01

    The effect of foliar application on the nitrogen nutrient status of tea shoots has been studied using 15 N labelled urea. Furthermore, the difference in nitrogen utilization by tea plant between foliar applied and top dressed nitrogen was investigated using 15 N labelled urea and ammonium sulfate. The foliar application of urea increased the amount of chlorophyll and total nitrogen in the new shoot, and the foliar application was more effective under shading condition. The urea sprayed upon old leaves prior to the opening of new leaf translocated to the new shoots. However, the foliar application after the opening of new leaf was more effective on nitrogen absorption by new shoots than one prior to that, and rather than top dressing for new shoots. It could be recognized that the foliar application of urea raises the nitrogen nutrient status of tea leaves in summer. (author)

  10. INTRODUCTION OF A NEW LEAVE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    CERN Multimedia

    DIVISION HR

    2000-01-01

    The introduction of new leave rules (arising from the RSL, PRP and other programs) has made the present leave management system rather complicated and difficult to manage. It has therefore been decided to replace it with a more flexible and adaptable system, which will come into force on 1st October 2000. Henceforth, days of leave will be credited monthly instead of annually. Members of the personnel will have round-the-clock direct access to more detailed, confidential information regarding their various kinds of leave. They will also receive a personal monthly statement with their pay slips. The new system does not require any amendment of the regulations, except with respect to the frequency of leave calculations (monthly instead of annual). I. Main characteristics of the new leave system1. The main feature of the new system is the creation of accounts to which leave will be credited or debited as appropriate. Depending on their circumstances, members of the personnel may have up to four individual leave a...

  11. INTRODUCTION OF A NEW LEAVE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    CERN Document Server

    HR Division

    2000-01-01

    The introduction of new leave rules (arising from the RSL, PRP and other programmes) has made the present leave management system rather complicated and difficult to manage. It has therefore been decided to replace it with a more flexible and adaptable system, which will come into force on 1st October 2000. Henceforth, days of leave will be credited monthly instead of annually. Members of the personnel will have round-the-clock direct access to more detailed, confidential information regarding their various kinds of leave.They will also receive a personal monthly statement with their pay slips. The new system does not require any amendment of the regulations, except with respect to the frequency of leave calculations (monthly instead of annual). I. Main characteristics of the new leave system 1. The main feature of the new system is the creation of accounts to which leave will be credited or debited as appropriate. Depending on their circumstances, members of the personnel may have up to four individual leave...

  12. Antioxidant activity of Arbutus unedo leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabuçcuoğlu, A; Kivçak, B; Baş, M; Mert, T

    2003-09-01

    The ethanol and methanol extracts of Arbutus unedo leaves were screened for antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity was determined by an improved assay based on the decolorization of the radical monocation of [2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] (ABTS). The ethanol and methanol extract of A. unedo leaves displayed potent antioxidant activity.

  13. Grass leaves as potential hominin dietary resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, Oliver C C; Koppa, Abigale; Henry, Amanda G; Leichliter, Jennifer N; Codron, Daryl; Codron, Jacqueline; Lambert, Joanna E; Sponheimer, Matt

    2018-04-01

    Discussions about early hominin diets have generally excluded grass leaves as a staple food resource, despite their ubiquity in most early hominin habitats. In particular, stable carbon isotope studies have shown a prevalent C 4 component in the diets of most taxa, and grass leaves are the single most abundant C 4 resource in African savannas. Grass leaves are typically portrayed as having little nutritional value (e.g., low in protein and high in fiber) for hominins lacking specialized digestive systems. It has also been argued that they present mechanical challenges (i.e., high toughness) for hominins with bunodont dentition. Here, we compare the nutritional and mechanical properties of grass leaves with the plants growing alongside them in African savanna habitats. We also compare grass leaves to the leaves consumed by other hominoids and demonstrate that many, though by no means all, compare favorably with the nutritional and mechanical properties of known primate foods. Our data reveal that grass leaves exhibit tremendous variation and suggest that future reconstructions of hominin dietary ecology take a more nuanced approach when considering grass leaves as a potential hominin dietary resource. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. When and Why Dropouts Leave High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, Elizabeth; Glennie, Elizabeth J.

    2006-01-01

    Teens may leave school because of academic failure, disciplinary problems, or employment opportunities. In this article, the authors test whether the reasons dropouts leave school differ by grade level and age. We compare dropout rates and reasons across grade levels and ages for all high school students, ethnic groups, and gender groups. Across…

  15. [Beneficial effect of maternity leave on delivery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qian; Séguin, Louise; Goulet, Lise

    2002-01-01

    To identify the contribution of the duration of the prenatal maternity leave on term delivery. Characteristics of the prenatal maternity leave and delivery among 363 working women who had delivered a full-term infant at 1 of 4 hospitals in Montreal during 1996 were studied. The presence of an intervention or complication during delivery was observed in 68.9% of the participants. The average duration of the prenatal maternity leave was about 8 weeks (SD = 7). The adjusted risk of a difficult delivery decreased significantly with the duration of the prenatal maternity leave (OR = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.93-0.99). The duration of the maternity leave before delivery is associated with an easier term delivery for working women.

  16. Subgap Absorption in Conjugated Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, M.; Seager, C. H.; McBranch, D.; Heeger, A. J; Baker, G. L.

    1991-01-01

    Along with X{sup (3)}, the magnitude of the optical absorption in the transparent window below the principal absorption edge is an important parameter which will ultimately determine the utility of conjugated polymers in active integrated optical devices. With an absorptance sensitivity of materials. We have used PDS to measure the optical absorption spectra of the conjugated polymers poly(1,4-phenylene-vinylene) (and derivitives) and polydiacetylene-4BCMU in the spectral region from 0.55 eV to 3 eV. Our spectra show that the shape of the absorption edge varies considerably from polymer to polymer, with polydiacetylene-4BCMU having the steepest absorption edge. The minimum absorption coefficients measured varied somewhat with sample age and quality, but were typically in the range 1 cm{sup {minus}1} to 10 cm{sup {minus}1}. In the region below 1 eV, overtones of C-H stretching modes were observed, indicating that further improvements in transparency in this spectral region might be achieved via deuteration of fluorination.

  17. Sabine absorption coefficients to random incidence absorption coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2014-01-01

    into random incidence absorption coefficients for porous absorbers are investigated. Two optimization-based conversion methods are suggested: the surface impedance estimation for locally reacting absorbers and the flow resistivity estimation for extendedly reacting absorbers. The suggested conversion methods...

  18. Absorption factor for cylindrical samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sears, V.F.

    1984-01-01

    The absorption factor for the scattering of X-rays or neutrons in cylindrical samples is calculated by numerical integration for the case in which the absorption coefficients of the incident and scattered beams are not equal. An extensive table of values having an absolute accuracy of 10 -4 is given in a companion report [Sears (1983). Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Report No. AECL-8176]. In the present paper an asymptotic expression is derived for the absorption factor which can be used with an error of less than 10 -3 for most cases of interest in both neutron inelastic scattering and neutron diffraction in crystals. (Auth.)

  19. Use of UV absorption for identifying subspecies of Artemisia tridentata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spomer, G.G.; Henderson, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    Use of UV absorption spectra for identifying subspecies of Artemisia tridentata Nutt. was investigated by analyzing the relative optical densities of alcohol extracts from herbarium and fresh plant material at 240 nm, 250 nm, and 265 nm. In all but 1 comparison, mean relative optical densities were significantly different (p=0.95) between subspecies, but intraplant and intrasubspecies variation and overlap was found to be too large to permit use of UV absorbance alone for identifying individual specimens. These results held whether dry or fresh leaves were extracted, or whether methanol or ethanol was used as the extracting solvent. (author)

  20. Uptake and translocation of radiocesium in cedar leaves following the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikiori, Tatsuhiro; Watanabe, Mirai; Koshikawa, Masami K; Takamatsu, Takejiro; Ishii, Yumiko; Ito, Shoko; Takenaka, Akio; Watanabe, Keiji; Hayashi, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    Cryptomeria japonica trees in the area surrounding Fukushima, Japan, intercepted (137)Cs present in atmospheric deposits soon after the Fukushima nuclear accident in March 2011. To study the uptake and translocation of (137)Cs in C. japonica leaves, we analyzed activity concentrations of (137)Cs and the concentration ratios of (137)Cs to (133)Cs ((137)Cs/(133)Cs) in old and new leaves of C. japonica collected from a forest on Mount Tsukuba between 9 and 15 months after the accident. Both isotopes were also analyzed in throughfall, bulk precipitation and soil extracts. Water of atmospheric and soil origin were used as proxies for deciphering the absorption from leaf surfaces and root systems, respectively. Results indicate that 20-40% of foliar (137)Cs existed inside the leaf, while 60-80% adhered to the leaf surface. The (137)Cs/(133)Cs ratios inside leaves that had sprouted before the accident were considerably higher than that of the soil extract and lower than that of throughfall and bulk precipitation. Additionally, more than 80% of (137)Cs in throughfall and bulk precipitation was present in the dissolved form, which is available for foliar uptake, indicating that a portion of the (137)Cs inside old leaves was presumably absorbed from the leaf surface. New leaves that sprouted after the accident had similar (137)Cs/(133)Cs ratios to that of the old leaves, suggesting that internal (137)Cs was translocated from old to new leaves. For 17 species of woody plants other than C. japonica, new leaves that sprouted after the accident also contained (137)Cs, and their (137)Cs/(133)Cs ratios were equal to or higher than that of the soil extract. These results suggested that foliar uptake and further translocation of (137)Cs is an important vector of contamination in various tree species during or just after radioactive fallout. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. SESQUITERPENE LACTONES OF LEAVES AND FRUITS OF LAURUS NOBILIS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Konovalov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bay laurel (Laurus nobilis L. is common in the Mediterranean region, Europe and America. Widely cultivated in the countries of the Arabian Peninsula and North Africa. As the basic active substances in plants: essential oil components, sesquiterpene lactones, alkaloids, and phenolic compounds (flavonoids, phenolic acids and lignans are described.In the plant more than 30 sesquiterpene lactones are found. Structural types of these compounds include eudesmanolides, germacranolides, guaianolides.Sesquiterpene lactones isolated from the leaves and fruits of Laurus nobilis, possess antibacterial, antifungal, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective and cytotoxic activity. They inhibit the absorption of alcohol increases the activity of hepatic glutathione-S-transferase. Most of these types of activity of sesquiterpene lactones from laurel due to the presence within their structure of α-methylene--butyrolactone part.Thus, sesquiterpene lactones-containing leaves and fruits Laurus nobilis could have been an important source of raw materials for the creation of new medicines

  2. [Modeling polarimetric BRDF of leaves surfaces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dong-Hui; Wang, Pei-Juan; Zhu, Qi-Jiang; Zhou, Hong-Min

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to model a physical polarimetric bidirectional reflectance distribution function (pBRDF), which can character not only the non-Lambertian but also the polarized features in order that the pBRDF can be applied to analyze the relationship between the degree of polarization and the physiological and biochemical parameters of leaves quantitatively later. Firstly, the bidirectional polarized reflectance distributions from several leaves surfaces were measured by the polarized goniometer developed by Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The samples of leaves include two pieces of zea mays L. leaves (young leaf and mature leaf) and a piece of E. palcherrima wild leaf. Non-Lambertian characteristics of directional reflectance from the surfaces of these three leaves are obvious. A Cook-Torrance model was modified by coupling the polarized Fresnel equations to simulate the bidirectional polarized reflectance properties of leaves surfaces. The three parameters in the modified pBRDF model, such as diffuse reflectivity, refractive index and roughness of leaf surface were inversed with genetic algorithm (GA). It was found that the pBRDF model can fit with the measured data well. In addition, these parameters in the model are related with both the physiological and biochemical properties and the polarized characteristics of leaves, therefore it is possible to build the relationships between them later.

  3. OZONE ABSORPTION IN RAW WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LJILJANA TAKIĆ

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The ozone absorption in raw water entering the main ozonization step at the Belgrade drinking water supply plant was investigated in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR. A slow chemical reaction rate of dissolved ozone and pollutants present in raw water have been experimentally determined. The modified Hatta number was defined and calculated as a criterion which determines whether and to which extent the reactions of ozone and pollutants influence the rate of the pure physical ozone absorption.

  4. Microwaves absorption in superconducting materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biasi, R.S. de; Fernandes, A.A.R.; Pereira, R.F.R.

    1989-01-01

    Microwaves absorption measures in two superconductors ceramics systems, Y-Ba-Cu-O and Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O are compared with similars datas obtained in the same band of temperature by a conventional method, mutual inductance. The results suggest that the microwaves absorption can be used as single and non-destructive method for investigating the properties of ceramics superconductors. (C.G.C.) [pt

  5. Influence of maternity leave on exclusive breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Fernanda R; Buccini, Gabriela Dos S; Venâncio, Sônia I; da Costa, Teresa H M

    To describe the profile of women with children aged under 4 months living in the Brazilian state capitals and in the Federal District according to their working status and to analyze the influence of maternity leave on exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) among working women. This was a cross-sectional study with data extracted from the II National Maternal Breastfeeding Prevalence Survey carried out in 2008. Initially, a descriptive analysis of the profile of 12,794 women was performed, according to their working status and maternity leave and the frequency of maternity leave in the Brazilian regions and capitals. The study used a multiple model to identify the influence of maternity leave on EBF interruption, including 3766 women who declared they were working and were on maternity leave at the time of the interview. The outcome assessed in the study was the interruption of the EBF, classified by the WHO. Regarding the working status of the mothers, 63.4% did not work outside of their homes and among those who worked, 69.8% were on maternity leave. The largest prevalence among workers was of women older than 35 years of age, with more than 12 years of schooling, primiparous and from the Southeast and South regions. The lack of maternity leave increased by 23% the chance of EBF interruption. Maternity leave contributed to increase the prevalence of EBF in the Brazilian states capitals, supporting the importance of increasing the maternity leave period from four to six months. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of maternity leave on exclusive breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda R. Monteiro

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: To describe the profile of women with children aged under 4 months living in the Brazilian state capitals and in the Federal District according to their working status and to analyze the influence of maternity leave on exclusive breastfeeding (EBF among working women. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with data extracted from the II National Maternal Breastfeeding Prevalence Survey carried out in 2008. Initially, a descriptive analysis of the profile of 12,794 women was performed, according to their working status and maternity leave and the frequency of maternity leave in the Brazilian regions and capitals. The study used a multiple model to identify the influence of maternity leave on EBF interruption, including 3766 women who declared they were working and were on maternity leave at the time of the interview. The outcome assessed in the study was the interruption of the EBF, classified by the WHO. Results: Regarding the working status of the mothers, 63.4% did not work outside of their homes and among those who worked, 69.8% were on maternity leave. The largest prevalence among workers was of women older than 35 years of age, with more than 12 years of schooling, primiparous and from the Southeast and South regions. The lack of maternity leave increased by 23% the chance of EBF interruption. Conclusion: Maternity leave contributed to increase the prevalence of EBF in the Brazilian states capitals, supporting the importance of increasing the maternity leave period from four to six months.

  7. Ultrasonic absorption in solid specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siwabessy, P.J. W.; Stewart, G.A.

    1996-01-01

    As part of a project to measure the absorption of high frequency (50 - 500 kHz) sonar signals in warm sea-water, a laboratory apparatus has been constructed and tested against room temperature distilled water and various solutions of MgSO 4 (chemical relaxation of MgSO 4 is the major contribution to absorption below 200 kHz). The technique involves monitoring the decay of an acoustic signal for different sizes of vessels of water suspended in an evacuated chamber. So far, all containing vessels used have been spherical in shape. Extrapolation of the results to infinite volume yields the absorption due to the water alone. In order to accommodate variations in temperature and pressure, and to make the system more robust (e.g. for ship deck usage), it is desirable to employ stainless steel vessels. However, it was found that the quality of the data was greatly improved when pyrex glass spheres were used. The stainless steel spheres were manufactured by welding together mechanically spun hemispheres. The linear frequency dependence characteristic of acoustic absorption in solids was observed (in contrast to the quadratic frequency dependence of acoustic absorption in water), and the acoustic absorption was found to depend strongly on the thermal history of the steel

  8. Changes of chloroplast pigments of maize leaves after space flight in recoverable satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Sherong; Zhu Baoge; Liu Genqi

    2001-01-01

    Dried seeds of maize inbred lines were carried by recoverable satellite flying at an altitude of 175-253 km from sea level. The changes of absorption spectra of acetone extracts and chloroplast pigment contents of maize leaves were studied. It showed that the light-absorption characteristics of space-flight treatment (SP) were quite similar to those of the corresponding ground controls (CK) at the same time of sampling. However, the absorbance of the SP were less than CK at absorption peaks of chlorophyll a and b, respectively. The contents of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b of SP were significantly reduced, and the reduction of chlorophyll b far exceeded chlorophyll a. The contents of chlorophyll a + b were reduced so much that the total amount of their chloroplast pigments was lowered, but Ca/Cb ratio tended to be higher in comparison with CK

  9. Maternity and family leave policies in rural family practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainguy, S; Crouse, B J

    1998-09-01

    To help recruit and retain physicians, especially women, rural family practice groups need to establish policies regarding maternity and other family leaves. Also important are policies regarding paternity leave, adoptive leave, and leave to care for elderly parents. We surveyed members of the American Academy of Family Physicians in rural practice in 1995 to assess the prevalence of leave policies, the degree to which physicians are taking family leave, and the characteristics of ideal policies. Currently, both men and women physicians are taking family leaves of absence, which indicates a need for leave policies. Furthermore, a lack of family leave policies may deter women from entering rural practice.

  10. Labour Supply Responses to Paid Parental Leave

    OpenAIRE

    Karimi, Arizo; Lindahl, Erica; Skogman Thoursie, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Women account for the majority of parental leave take-up, which is likely one of the major reasons for the gender gap in income and wages. Consequently, many countries exert effort to promote a more gender equal division of parental leave. Indeed, the last decades have seen an increase in fathers' take-up of parental leave benefits, but the gender earnings gap has remained fairly constant. In this paper we re-evaluate the labour supply responses of both mothers and fathers to three major refo...

  11. Late adolescents' conceptualizations of home-leaving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D; Hotch, D F

    1981-02-01

    Separation from the family, a key developmental task, has received scant attention from developmentalists. In this study, college students' dissimilarity ratings and ratings on 22 bipolar adjective scales were obtained for a set of 20 definitions of home-leaving. Results of a cluster analysis revealed that conceptualizations of the definitions are organized in terms of eight clusters. Ratings on the 22 adjective scales provided an empirical means for interpreting the typological structure of the home-leaving definitions. Convergence the results of this inductive study of home-leaving and elements of ego development theory was noted.

  12. Laser induced fluorescence of some plant leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmi, M.S.; Mohamed, M.M.; Amer, R.; Elshazly, O.; Elraey, M.

    1992-01-01

    Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) is successfully used as a technique for remote detection of spectral characteristics of some plants. A pulsed nitrogen laser at 337.1 nm is used to excite cotton, corn and rice leaves. The fluorescence spectrum is detected in the range from 340 nm to 820 nm. It is found that, these plant leaves have common fluorescence maxima at 440 nm, 685 nm and 740 nm. plant leaves are also found to be identifiable by the ratio of the fluorescence intensity at 440 nm to that at 685 nm. The present technique can be further used as a means of assessing, remotely, plant stresses. 5 fig

  13. Fathers' Leave, Fathers' Involvement and Child Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    del Carmen Huerta, Maria; Lausten, Mette; Baxter, Jennifer

    involved’ perform better during the early years than their peers with less involved fathers. This paper analyses data of four OECD countries — Australia; Denmark; United Kingdom; United States — to describe how leave policies may influence father’s behaviours when children are young and whether...... their involvement translates into positive child cognitive and behavioural outcomes. This analysis shows that fathers’ leave, father’s involvement and child development are related. Fathers who take leave, especially those taking two weeks or more, are more likely to carry out childcare related activities when...

  14. 78 FR 8833 - The Family and Medical Leave Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... creates a new qualifying exigency leave category for parental care. In military caregiver leave, the Final... covered employers to take job- protected, unpaid leave, or to substitute appropriate accrued paid leave... CFR Part 825 The Family and Medical Leave Act; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No. 25...

  15. 5 CFR 630.906 - Transfer of annual leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... employing agency may not be sufficient to meet the needs of the leave recipient; or (3) In the judgment of... specified leave recipient. Except as provided in paragraph (f) of this section, annual leave may be transferred only to a leave recipient employed by the leave donor's employing agency. (b) Except as provided...

  16. Influence of agronomic variables on the macronutrient and micronutrient contents and thermal behavior of mate tea leaves (Ilex paraguariensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Rosângela A; Arruda, Eduardo J; de Oliveira, Lincoln C S; de Oliveira, Ana P; Dariva, Cláudio; de Oliveira, J Vladimir; Caramão, Elina B

    2007-09-05

    The influence of agronomic variables (light intensity, age of leaves, and fertilization type) on the content of macronutrients and micronutrients (potassium, calcium, sodium, magnesium, manganese, iron, zinc, and copper) of tea leaves was assessed by acid digestion, followed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The thermal behavior of mate tea leaves (Ilex paraguariensis) was also studied in this work. Samples of mate (Ilex paraguariensis) were collected in an experiment conducted under agronomic control at Erva-Mate Barão Commerce and Industry LTD (Brazil). The results showed that the mineral content in mate is affected by the agronomic variables investigated. In general, the content of mineral compounds analyzed is higher for younger leaves and for plants cultivated in shadow. Thermal analysis of samples indicated a similar behavior, with three typical steps of decomposition: loss of water, degradation of low-molecular weight compounds, and degradation of residual materials.

  17. Maternity leave, women's employment, and marital incompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, J S; Essex, M J; Clark, R; Klein, M H

    2001-09-01

    This research investigated the relationship between the length of women's maternity leave and marital incompatibility, in the context of other variables including the woman's employment, her dissatisfaction with the division of household labor, and her sense of role overload. Length of leave, work hours, and family salience were associated with several forms of dissatisfaction, which in turn predicted role overload. Role overload predicted increased marital incompatibility for experienced mothers but did not for first-time mothers, for whom discrepancies between preferred and actual child care were more important. Length of maternity leave showed significant interactions with other variables, supporting the hypothesis that a short leave is a risk factor that, when combined with another risk factor, contributes to personal and marital distress.

  18. Tomato leaves methanol extract possesses anti- inflammatory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... demonstrated, the anti-inflammatory effect of tomato leaves and its associated molecular mechanisms have not yet .... dissolved in 10% of culture-grade dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO; Sigma-. Aldrich .... In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol.

  19. Bioluminescence in a complex coastal environment: 1. Temporal dynamics of nighttime water-leaving radiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moline, Mark A.; Oliver, Matthew J.; Mobley, Curtis D.; Sundman, Lydia; Bensky, Thomas; Bergmann, Trisha; Bissett, W. Paul; Case, James; Raymond, Erika H.; Schofield, Oscar M. E.

    2007-11-01

    Nighttime water-leaving radiance is a function of the depth-dependent distribution of both the in situ bioluminescence emissions and the absorption and scattering properties of the water. The vertical distributions of these parameters were used as inputs for a modified one-dimensional radiative transfer model to solve for spectral bioluminescence water-leaving radiance from prescribed depths of the water column. Variation in the water-leaving radiance was consistent with local episodic physical forcing events, with tidal forcing, terrestrial runoff, particulate accumulation, and biological responses influencing the shorter timescale dynamics. There was a >90 nm shift in the peak water-leaving radiance from blue (˜474 nm) to green as light propagated to the surface. In addition to clues in ecosystem responses to physical forcing, the temporal dynamics in intensity and spectral quality of water-leaving radiance provide suitable ranges for assessing detection. This may provide the information needed to estimate the depth of internal light sources in the ocean, which is discussed in part 2 of this paper.

  20. 5 CFR 630.1111 - Limitation on the amount of donated annual leave received by an emergency leave recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... needs of individual emergency leave recipients, an employing agency may allow an employee to receive... annual leave received by an emergency leave recipient. 630.1111 Section 630.1111 Administrative Personnel... recipient. An emergency leave recipient may receive a maximum of 240 hours of donated annual leave at any...

  1. On the Motion of Falling Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Razavi, Pedram

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the motion of falling leaves through modeling using papers and the corresponding data collected from more than four thousands experiments. Two series of experiments were designed in order to study the relationship between different parameters which can affect different paths of motion in leaves. In the first series of experiments, the shapes of the potential paths that falling papers can take were investigated as a whole. A new classification scheme was derived from th...

  2. Do parents leave a smaller carbon footprint?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Leif Jonas; Shogren, Jason F.; Thunström, Linda

    Do parents leave a smaller carbon footprint? While becoming a parent is transformational as one focuses more on the future, the time constraints are more binding right now. Using a unique data set that allows us to compare CO2 emissions from Swedish two-adult households with and without children......, we find becoming a Swedish parent causes a person to leave a larger carbon ootprint—due to changes in transportation patterns and food consumption choices....

  3. Intra-Household Allocation of Parental Leave

    OpenAIRE

    Gobbi, Paula Eugenia; Parys, Juliane; Schwerhoff, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    We introduce childcare sharing in a collective model of household behavior to investigate which factors make spouses increase or decrease their share of parental leave. The concern about future consumption motivates parents to invest in their human capital and to limit their leave duration. Using relative income and the age difference between spouses as distribution factors, we cannot reject Pareto efficiency in childcare sharing. Higher relative incomes and larger age differences shift the c...

  4. Properties of leaves particleboard for sheathing application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuryawan, Arif; Rahmawaty

    2018-03-01

    Manufacturing particleboard (PB) made of leaves was carried out to make non-structural building components, such as insulation, partition, wall, and sheathing. Raw materials used dry leaves originated from plantation (palm oil leaves) and forest plantation (magahony leaves). The adhesive used was interior type thermosetting commercial resins, namely 10% urea-formaldehyde (UF) based on oven dry leaves. Hardener used for UF resin was 1% and 3% ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) 20% (w/w), respectively. Technically, the target density of PB was 0.8 g/cm3 with the dimension’s size of (250 x 250 x 10) mm3. The pressure, temperature, and time of pressing of the hot press were 25 kgf/cm2, 120C, and 10 minutes, respectively. After conditioning for one week, the PB then was evaluated their physical and mechanical properties according to Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS) A 5908 (2003). Results of this work showed: 1) Both types of PB (palm oil and mahagony leaves) were feasible to be produced for non-structural applications; 2) Addition of hardener enhanced the physical and mechanical properties of PB; 3) It was recommended to enhance the performance of the PB by manipulation of the raw materials and the design.

  5. Short-Term Saved Leave Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    As announced at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) on 26 June 2007 and in http://Bulletin No. 28/2007, the existing Saved Leave Scheme will be discontinued as of 31 December 2007. Staff participating in the Scheme will shortly receive a contract amendment stipulating the end of financial contributions compensated by save leave. Leave already accumulated on saved leave accounts can continue to be taken in accordance with the rules applicable to the current scheme. A new system of saved leave will enter into force on 1 January 2008 and will be the subject of a new implementation procedure entitled "Short-term saved leave scheme" dated 1 January 2008. At its meeting on 4 December 2007, the SCC agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve this procedure, which can be consulted on the HR Department’s website at the following address: https://cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/sls_shortterm.asp All staff wishing to participate in the new scheme a...

  6. Short-Term Saved Leave Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    As announced at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) on 26 June 2007 and in http://Bulletin No. 28/2007, the existing Saved Leave Scheme will be discontinued as of 31 December 2007. Staff participating in the Scheme will shortly receive a contract amendment stipulating the end of financial contributions compensated by save leave. Leave already accumulated on saved leave accounts can continue to be taken in accordance with the rules applicable to the current scheme. A new system of saved leave will enter into force on 1 January 2008 and will be the subject of a new im-plementation procedure entitled "Short-term saved leave scheme" dated 1 January 2008. At its meeting on 4 December 2007, the SCC agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve this procedure, which can be consulted on the HR Department’s website at the following address: https://cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/sls_shortterm.asp All staff wishing to participate in the new scheme ...

  7. Office design's impact on sick leave rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodin Danielsson, Christina; Chungkham, Holendro Singh; Wulff, Cornelia; Westerlund, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    The effect of office type on sickness absence among office employees was studied prospectively in 1852 employees working in (1) cell-offices; (2) shared-room offices; (3) small, (4) medium-sized and (5) large open-plan offices; (6) flex-offices and (7) combi-offices. Sick leaves were self-reported two years later as number of (a) short and (b) long (medically certified) sick leave spells as well as (c) total number of sick leave days. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used, with adjustment for background factors. A significant excess risk for sickness absence was found only in terms of short sick leave spells in the three open-plan offices. In the gender separate analysis, this remained for women, whereas men had a significantly increased risk in flex-offices. For long sick leave spells, a significantly higher risk was found among women in large open-plan offices and for total number of sick days among men in flex-offices. A prospective study of the office environment's effect on employees is motivated by the high rates of sick leaves in the workforce. The results indicate differences between office types, depending on the number of people sharing workspace and the opportunity to exert personal control as influenced by the features that define the office types.

  8. Absorption and Metabolism of Xanthophylls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiichi Kotake-Nara

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Dietary carotenoids, especially xanthophylls, have attracted significant attention because of their characteristic biological activities, including anti-allergic, anti-cancer, and anti-obese actions. Although no less than forty carotenoids are ingested under usual dietary habits, only six carotenoids and their metabolites have been found in human tissues, suggesting selectivity in the intestinal absorption of carotenoids. Recently, facilitated diffusion in addition to simple diffusion has been reported to mediate the intestinal absorption of carotenoids in mammals. The selective absorption of carotenoids may be caused by uptake to the intestinal epithelia by the facilitated diffusion and an unknown excretion to intestinal lumen. It is well known that β-carotene can be metabolized to vitamin A after intestinal absorption of carotenoids, but little is known about the metabolic transformation of non provitamin A xanthophylls. The enzymatic oxidation of the secondary hydroxyl group leading to keto-carotenoids would occur as a common pathway of xanthophyll metabolism in mammals. This paper reviews the absorption and metabolism of xanthophylls by introducing recent advances in this field.

  9. Absorption and metabolism of xanthophylls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotake-Nara, Eiichi; Nagao, Akihiko

    2011-01-01

    Dietary carotenoids, especially xanthophylls, have attracted significant attention because of their characteristic biological activities, including anti-allergic, anti-cancer, and anti-obese actions. Although no less than forty carotenoids are ingested under usual dietary habits, only six carotenoids and their metabolites have been found in human tissues, suggesting selectivity in the intestinal absorption of carotenoids. Recently, facilitated diffusion in addition to simple diffusion has been reported to mediate the intestinal absorption of carotenoids in mammals. The selective absorption of carotenoids may be caused by uptake to the intestinal epithelia by the facilitated diffusion and an unknown excretion to intestinal lumen. It is well known that β-carotene can be metabolized to vitamin A after intestinal absorption of carotenoids, but little is known about the metabolic transformation of non provitamin A xanthophylls. The enzymatic oxidation of the secondary hydroxyl group leading to keto-carotenoids would occur as a common pathway of xanthophyll metabolism in mammals. This paper reviews the absorption and metabolism of xanthophylls by introducing recent advances in this field.

  10. A MODELING METHOD OF FLUTTERING LEAVES BASED ON POINT CLOUD

    OpenAIRE

    J. Tang; Y. Wang; Y. Zhao; Y. Zhao; W. Hao; X. Ning; K. Lv; Z. Shi; M. Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Leaves falling gently or fluttering are common phenomenon in nature scenes. The authenticity of leaves falling plays an important part in the dynamic modeling of natural scenes. The leaves falling model has a widely applications in the field of animation and virtual reality. We propose a novel modeling method of fluttering leaves based on point cloud in this paper. According to the shape, the weight of leaves and the wind speed, three basic trajectories of leaves falling are defined, which ar...

  11. Responses of epidermal cell turgor pressure and photosynthetic activity of leaves of the atmospheric epiphyte Tillandsia usneoides (Bromeliaceae) after exposure to high humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Craig E; Rux, Guido; Herppich, Werner B

    2013-01-01

    It has been well-established that many epiphytic bromeliads of the atmospheric-type morphology, i.e., with leaf surfaces completely covered by large, overlapping, multicellular trichomes, are capable of absorbing water vapor from the atmosphere when air humidity increases. It is much less clear, however, whether this absorption of water vapor can hydrate the living cells of the leaves and, as a consequence, enhance physiological processes in such cells. The goal of this research was to determine if the absorption of atmospheric water vapor by the atmospheric epiphyte Tillandsia usneoides results in an increase in turgor pressure in leaf epidermal cells that subtend the large trichomes, and, by using chlorophyll fluorescence techniques, to determine if the absorption of atmospheric water vapor by leaves of this epiphyte results in increased photosynthetic activity. Results of measurements on living cells of attached leaves of this epiphytic bromeliad, using a pressure probe and of whole-shoot fluorescence imaging analyses clearly illustrated that the turgor pressure of leaf epidermal cells did not increase, and the photosynthetic activity of leaves did not increase, following exposure of the leaves to high humidity air. These results experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, that the absorption of water vapor following increases in atmospheric humidity in atmospheric epiphytic bromeliads is mostly likely a physical phenomenon resulting from hydration of non-living leaf structures, e.g., trichomes, and has no physiological significance for the plant's living tissues. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Excess Diffuse Light Absorption in Upper Mesophyll Limits CO2 Drawdown and Depresses Photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earles, J Mason; Théroux-Rancourt, Guillaume; Gilbert, Matthew E; McElrone, Andrew J; Brodersen, Craig R

    2017-06-01

    In agricultural and natural systems, diffuse light can enhance plant primary productivity due to deeper penetration into and greater irradiance of the entire canopy. However, for individual sun-grown leaves from three species, photosynthesis is actually less efficient under diffuse compared with direct light. Despite its potential impact on canopy-level productivity, the mechanism for this leaf-level diffuse light photosynthetic depression effect is unknown. Here, we investigate if the spatial distribution of light absorption relative to electron transport capacity in sun- and shade-grown sunflower ( Helianthus annuus ) leaves underlies its previously observed diffuse light photosynthetic depression. Using a new one-dimensional porous medium finite element gas-exchange model parameterized with light absorption profiles, we found that weaker penetration of diffuse versus direct light into the mesophyll of sun-grown sunflower leaves led to a more heterogenous saturation of electron transport capacity and lowered its CO 2 concentration drawdown capacity in the intercellular airspace and chloroplast stroma. This decoupling of light availability from photosynthetic capacity under diffuse light is sufficient to generate an 11% decline in photosynthesis in sun-grown but not shade-grown leaves, primarily because thin shade-grown leaves similarly distribute diffuse and direct light throughout the mesophyll. Finally, we illustrate how diffuse light photosynthetic depression could overcome enhancement in canopies with low light extinction coefficients and/or leaf area, pointing toward a novel direction for future research. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Foliar absorption and translocation of Zn-65 in balady orange plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, F.A.; Sharaf, A.N.M.

    1995-01-01

    Greenhouse experiment was designed using Zn So 4 as a single element or in a mixture of 'Zn SO 4 + Fe SO 4 ' at rates of 0.5 and 1.0% of these compounds. Different solutions were adjusted at PH 6.0 and Tween-20 at 0.5% (V/V) was added. The prepared solutions were labelled with carrier-free Zn-65. In a complete randomized design with three replicates orange seedlings two-year old were arranged. Labelled solution, in small droplets, were added onto upper surface of certain leaves (middle leaves) of seedling. Retained Zn-65 in the treated leaves with Zn SO 4 alone was significantly higher than in leaves sprayed with a mixture of Zn, Mn and Fe sulphates. Upward and downward translocation of Zn-65 was highly related to its absorption through treated leaves and the translocation rate of upward direction was more pronounced than downward. Total absorption of Zn-65 was higher with Zn SO 4 than with the mixture. Utilization percent of foliar application of Zn was significantly decreased as the rate of Zn SO 4 increased from 0.5 to 1.0% either alone or in combination with Fe and Mn sulphates. Moreover, it was also reduced due to the presence of and Mn with Zn the spray solution with Zn SO 4 . In particular, 0.5% in soy solution realized the highest utilization and was efficient for supplying for orange plants with Zn. 3 tabs

  14. Absorption properties of identical atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sancho, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Emission rates and other optical properties of multi-particle systems in collective and entangled states differ from those in product ones. We show the existence of similar effects in the absorption probabilities for (anti)symmetrized states of two identical atoms. The effects strongly depend on the overlapping between the atoms and differ for bosons and fermions. We propose a viable experimental verification of these ideas. -- Highlights: •The absorption rates of a pair of identical atoms in product and (anti)symmetrized states are different. •The modifications of the optical properties are essentially determined by the overlapping between the atoms. •The absorption properties differ, in some cases, for bosons and fermions

  15. Transdermic absorption of Melagenina II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Gonzalez, I.; Martinez Lopez, B.; Ruiz Pena, M.; Caso Pena, R.

    1997-01-01

    The transdermic absorption of Melagenina II (MII) was evaluated. MII was a labelled with 125I by the yodogen method and purified by column chromatography with Sephadex LH-20 in ethanol: water (7:3). In vitro absorption of ( 125I ) - MII thought human skin was carried out in Keshary-Chien modified diffusion cells. Tape stripping method was applied after 24 hours to evaluate the accumulated activity in dermis and epidermis. In vivo assays were performed in Sprague Dawley rats to analyze absorption of MII until 24 hours after a single application and for five days a low penetrability of the drug while in vivo there were not found blood levels significantly greater than zero , nevertheless and important amount of radioactivity was found in feces and urine. The activity was concentrated mainly in the application site in both models

  16. Architecture for Absorption Based Heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Saeed; Chugh, Devesh

    2018-04-24

    An absorption based heater is constructed on a fluid barrier heat exchanging plate such that it requires little space in a structure. The absorption based heater has a desorber, heat exchanger, and absorber sequentially placed on the fluid barrier heat exchanging plate. The vapor exchange faces of the desorber and the absorber are covered by a vapor permeable membrane that is permeable to a refrigerant vapor but impermeable to an absorbent. A process fluid flows on the side of the fluid barrier heat exchanging plate opposite the vapor exchange face through the absorber and subsequently through the heat exchanger. The absorption based heater can include a second plate with a condenser situated parallel to the fluid barrier heat exchanging plate and opposing the desorber for condensation of the refrigerant for additional heating of the process fluid.

  17. Mercury absorption in aqueous hypochlorite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, L.L.; Rochelle, G.T.

    1999-01-01

    The absorption of elemental Hg vapor into aqueous hypochlorite was measured in a stirred tank reactor at 25 and 55C. NaOCl strongly absorbs Hg even at high pH. Low pH, high Cl - and high-temperature favor mercury absorption. Aqueous free Cl 2 was the active species that reacted with mercury. However, chlorine desorption was evident at high Cl - and pH 15 M -1 s -1 at 25C and 1.4x10 17 M -1 s -1 at 55C. Gas-phase reaction was observed between Hg and Cl 2 on apparatus surfaces. Strong mercury absorption in water was also detected with Cl 2 present. Results indicate that the chlorine concentration, moisture, and surface area contribute positively to mercury removal. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  18. Phytases for improved iron absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Veller Friis; Meyer, Anne S.

    2016-01-01

    Phytase enzymes present an alternative to iron supplements, because they have been shown to improve iron absorption by means of catalysing the degradation of a potent iron absorption inhibitor: phytic acid. Phytic acid is a hexaphosphate of inositol and is particularly prevalent in cereal grains......, where it serves as a storage molecule for phosphorous. Phytic acid is also associated with minerals. The minerals are bound by chelation to the negatively charged phosphate groups in phytic acid. Phytases catalyse the dephosphorylation of phytic acid, thus releasing bound minerals to make them available...... for absorption. This article presents research on phytase catalysis in gastric conditions and considers potential benefits and drawbacks for using phytases as a food supplement....

  19. ["Paternity leave"? Retrospective view on a delayed reform of maternity leave in Austria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munz, R

    1984-01-01

    Only 1 of 3 Austrian fathers involves himself daily in child rearing, and the younger the children, the less likely he is to be involved. Austria is among those European countries with the greatest pregnancy benefits. New mothers may take up to 1 year of paid maternity leave without fear of losing their jobs. This article uses 1982 Institute of Demography survey data to determine support for similar paternity leave for fathers. In the last few years, both Social Democrat and Conservative women have worked for this leave, although the movement has also found opposition by women in trade unions, as well as from conservative groups. Survey results show that 46% of married Austrian women, under age 40, favor paternity leave; 1 or 4 women can imagine their husbands taking such leave. Among husbands, 34% favored the leave option, and 1 of 4 could imagine taking the leave for a least part of the baby's first year. The study attempts to identify those husbands most likely to take advantage of paternity leave. At present, most men will not choose to stay with their children at the expense of earnings reduction. Compensation reforms for both mothers and fathers must first occur before men and women in a position to make real decisions on maternity and paternity leave.

  20. Absorption-heat-pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, G.; Perez-Blanco, H.

    1983-06-16

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  1. Absorption Efficiency of Receiving Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Bach; Frandsen, Aksel

    2005-01-01

    A receiving antenna with a matched load will always scatter some power. This paper sets an upper and a lower bound on the absorption efficiency (absorbed power over sum of absorbed and scattered powers), which lies between 0 and 100% depending on the directivities of the antenna and scatter...... patterns. It can approach 100% as closely as desired, although in practice this may not be an attractive solution. An example with a small endfire array of dipoles shows an efficiency of 93%. Several examples of small conical horn antennas are also given, and they all have absorption efficiencies less than...

  2. Absorption of ammonium sulphate 15N by coffee plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenilli, Tatiele Anete Bergamo; Reichardt, Klaus; Bacchi, Osny Oliveira Santos; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze; Dourado Neto, Durval

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the absorption of ammonium sulphate 15 N by coffee plants. Treatments consisted of five sub-plots of 9 plants, of which the three central ones received 280 kg ha -1 of 15 N, applied at four times: 1/4 on 01 Set 03; 1/4 on 03 Nov 03; 1/4 on 15 Dec 03 and 1/4 on 30 Jan 04. The isotopic enrichment was 2,072 ± 0,001 atom % 15 N. The dry matter of the shoot was evaluated every 60 days, using one plant per replicate, collected outside the sub-plot. They were as similar as possible to the labeled plants, which were used only for isotopic and Total N analysis, after being dried at 65 deg C until constant weight. At harvest, plants had absorbed 42,88% of the fertilizer N. Leaves accumulated the largest amount of fertilizer N, and were also the compartments that received most N from other parts of the plant. The following partition of the fertilizer N was found at harvest: 23.01% in young leaves, 6.23% in old leaves, 4,46% in stem, 3.46% in fruits, 3.10% in young branches and 2.63% in old branches. (author)

  3. Uptake and translocation of radiocesium in cedar leaves following the Fukushima nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikiori, Tatsuhiro; Watanabe, Mirai; Koshikawa, Masami K.; Takamatsu, Takejiro; Ishii, Yumiko; Ito, Shoko; Takenaka, Akio; Watanabe, Keiji; Hayashi, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    Cryptomeria japonica trees in the area surrounding Fukushima, Japan, intercepted 137 Cs present in atmospheric deposits soon after the Fukushima nuclear accident in March 2011. To study the uptake and translocation of 137 Cs in C. japonica leaves, we analyzed activity concentrations of 137 Cs and the concentration ratios of 137 Cs to 133 Cs ( 137 Cs/ 133 Cs) in old and new leaves of C. japonica collected from a forest on Mount Tsukuba between 9 and 15 months after the accident. Both isotopes were also analyzed in throughfall, bulk precipitation and soil extracts. Water of atmospheric and soil origin were used as proxies for deciphering the absorption from leaf surfaces and root systems, respectively. Results indicate that 20–40% of foliar 137 Cs existed inside the leaf, while 60–80% adhered to the leaf surface. The 137 Cs/ 133 Cs ratios inside leaves that had sprouted before the accident were considerably higher than that of the soil extract and lower than that of throughfall and bulk precipitation. Additionally, more than 80% of 137 Cs in throughfall and bulk precipitation was present in the dissolved form, which is available for foliar uptake, indicating that a portion of the 137 Cs inside old leaves was presumably absorbed from the leaf surface. New leaves that sprouted after the accident had similar 137 Cs/ 133 Cs ratios to that of the old leaves, suggesting that internal 137 Cs was translocated from old to new leaves. For 17 species of woody plants other than C. japonica, new leaves that sprouted after the accident also contained 137 Cs, and their 137 Cs/ 133 Cs ratios were equal to or higher than that of the soil extract. These results suggested that foliar uptake and further translocation of 137 Cs is an important vector of contamination in various tree species during or just after radioactive fallout. - Highlights: • 137 Cs was absorbed into cedar leaves from the leaf surface. • 137 Cs in new leaves of cedar trees was mainly supplied by

  4. Uptake and translocation of radiocesium in cedar leaves following the Fukushima nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikiori, Tatsuhiro [Center for Regional Environment Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Watanabe, Mirai, E-mail: watanabe.mirai@nies.go.jp [Center for Regional Environment Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Koshikawa, Masami K.; Takamatsu, Takejiro; Ishii, Yumiko; Ito, Shoko [Center for Regional Environment Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Takenaka, Akio [Center for Environmental Biology and Ecosystem Studies, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Watanabe, Keiji [Center for Regional Environment Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Center for Environmental Science in Saitama, 914 Kamitanadare, Kazo, Saitama 347-0115 (Japan); Hayashi, Seiji [Center for Regional Environment Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan)

    2015-01-01

    Cryptomeria japonica trees in the area surrounding Fukushima, Japan, intercepted {sup 137}Cs present in atmospheric deposits soon after the Fukushima nuclear accident in March 2011. To study the uptake and translocation of {sup 137}Cs in C. japonica leaves, we analyzed activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs and the concentration ratios of {sup 137}Cs to {sup 133}Cs ({sup 137}Cs/{sup 133}Cs) in old and new leaves of C. japonica collected from a forest on Mount Tsukuba between 9 and 15 months after the accident. Both isotopes were also analyzed in throughfall, bulk precipitation and soil extracts. Water of atmospheric and soil origin were used as proxies for deciphering the absorption from leaf surfaces and root systems, respectively. Results indicate that 20–40% of foliar {sup 137}Cs existed inside the leaf, while 60–80% adhered to the leaf surface. The {sup 137}Cs/{sup 133}Cs ratios inside leaves that had sprouted before the accident were considerably higher than that of the soil extract and lower than that of throughfall and bulk precipitation. Additionally, more than 80% of {sup 137}Cs in throughfall and bulk precipitation was present in the dissolved form, which is available for foliar uptake, indicating that a portion of the {sup 137}Cs inside old leaves was presumably absorbed from the leaf surface. New leaves that sprouted after the accident had similar {sup 137}Cs/{sup 133}Cs ratios to that of the old leaves, suggesting that internal {sup 137}Cs was translocated from old to new leaves. For 17 species of woody plants other than C. japonica, new leaves that sprouted after the accident also contained {sup 137}Cs, and their {sup 137}Cs/{sup 133}Cs ratios were equal to or higher than that of the soil extract. These results suggested that foliar uptake and further translocation of {sup 137}Cs is an important vector of contamination in various tree species during or just after radioactive fallout. - Highlights: • {sup 137}Cs was absorbed into cedar leaves

  5. Aerosol Absorption Measurements in MILAGRO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Arnott, W. P.; Paredes-Miranda, L.; Barnard, J. C.

    2007-12-01

    During the month of March 2006, a number of instruments were used to determine the absorption characteristics of aerosols found in the Mexico City Megacity and nearby Valley of Mexico. These measurements were taken as part of the Department of Energy's Megacity Aerosol Experiment - Mexico City (MAX-Mex) that was carried out in collaboration with the Megacity Interactions: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) campaign. MILAGRO was a joint effort between the DOE, NSF, NASA, and Mexican agencies aimed at understanding the impacts of a megacity on the urban and regional scale. A super-site was operated at the Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo in Mexico City (designated T-0) and at the Universidad Technologica de Tecamac (designated T-1) that was located about 35 km to the north east of the T-0 site in the State of Mexico. A third site was located at a private rancho in the State of Hidalgo approximately another 35 km to the northeast (designated T-2). Aerosol absorption measurements were taken in real time using a number of instruments at the T-0 and T-1 sites. These included a seven wavelength aethalometer, a multi-angle absorption photometer (MAAP), and a photo-acoustic spectrometer. Aerosol absorption was also derived from spectral radiometers including a multi-filter rotating band spectral radiometer (MFRSR). The results clearly indicate that there is significant aerosol absorption by the aerosols in the Mexico City megacity region. The absorption can lead to single scattering albedo reduction leading to values below 0.5 under some circumstances. The absorption is also found to deviate from that expected for a "well-behaved" soot anticipated from diesel engine emissions, i.e. from a simple 1/lambda wavelength dependence for absorption. Indeed, enhanced absorption is seen in the region of 300-450 nm in many cases, particularly in the afternoon periods indicating that secondary organic aerosols are contributing to the aerosol absorption. This is likely due

  6. Konference Distillation and Absorption 2010

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bendová, Magdalena

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 10 (2009), s. 862 ISSN 0009-2770 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA320 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : conference * announcement * distillation and absorption Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  7. Gamm-ray absorption techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    In this chapter the principles of gamma-ray absorption are described and important applications in plant and process techniques such as measurement of thickness of deposits on pipes, checking for voids in concrete, metal corrosion, measurement of the density of materials inside vessels in industrial radiography are discussed. (U.K.)

  8. Emission and absorption of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetter, S.

    1992-01-01

    A full understanding of fissile-material detection requires a solid knowledge of nuclear physics, especially the emission and absorption of radiation. The purpose of this paper is therefore to give a brief explanation of these processes so that the reader can better understand the assumptions leading to the results in the main text

  9. Parameterization of light absorption by components of seawater in optically complex coastal waters of the Crimea Peninsula (Black Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, Egor V; Khomenko, Georges; Chami, Malik; Sokolov, Anton A; Churilova, Tatyana Y; Korotaev, Gennady K

    2009-03-01

    The absorption of sunlight by oceanic constituents significantly contributes to the spectral distribution of the water-leaving radiance. Here it is shown that current parameterizations of absorption coefficients do not apply to the optically complex waters of the Crimea Peninsula. Based on in situ measurements, parameterizations of phytoplankton, nonalgal, and total particulate absorption coefficients are proposed. Their performance is evaluated using a log-log regression combined with a low-pass filter and the nonlinear least-square method. Statistical significance of the estimated parameters is verified using the bootstrap method. The parameterizations are relevant for chlorophyll a concentrations ranging from 0.45 up to 2 mg/m(3).

  10. Absorptive capacity and smart companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Moro González

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The current competitive environment is substantially modifying the organizations’ learning processes due to a global increase of available information allowing this to be transformed into knowledge. This opportunity has been exploited since the nineties by the tools of “Business Analytics” and “Business Intelligence” but, nevertheless, being integrated in the study of new organizational capacities engaged in the process of creating intelligence inside organizations is still an outstanding task. The review of the concept of absorptive capacity and a detailed study from the perspective of this new reality will be the main objective of study of this paper.Design/methodology/approach: By comparing classical absorptive capacity and absorptive capacity from the point of view of information management tools in each one of the three stages of the organizational learning cycle, some gaps of the former are overcome/fulfilled. The academic/bibliographical references provided in this paper have been obtained from ISI web of knowledge, Scopus and Dialnet data bases, supporting the state of affairs on absorptive capacity and thereafter filtering by "Business Intelligence" and "Business Analytics". Specialized websites and Business Schools` Publications there have also been included, crowning the content on information management tools used that are currently used in the strategic consulting.Findings: Our contribution to the literature is the development of "smart absorptive capacity". This is a new capacity emerging from the reformulation of the classical concept of absorptive capacity wherein some aspects of its definition that might have been omitted are emphasized. The result of this new approach is the creation of a new Theoretical Model of Organizational Intelligence, which aims to explain, within the framework of the Resources and Capabilities Theory, the competitive advantage achieved by the so-called smart companies

  11. Studies on the absorption, distribution of rare earth elements and its effect on absorption of phosphorus and potassium in sugarcane (Saccharum officnarum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuang Yanhua; Liu Qiongying; Zheng Yuemei; Deng Zhouhuo; Xu Shengjie

    1991-01-01

    Study on the absorption, distribution and translocation of area earth elements (RE) and their effects on absorption of phosphorus and potassium ( 86 Rb as tracer) in sugarcane showed that the sugarcane could absorb soluble RE fast by its root or leaves. Within the 1-7 days after treatment, the absorption rate of 141 Ce in organs of the plant increased with the time. At the 7th day after treatment, the absorption rate of 141 Ce by sugarcane plant reached the maximum which was about 2-3 times of that at the 1st day and after that it gradually decreased. The utilization efficiency of 141 Ce by sugarcane plant was 0.836-3.24%. The absorption and distribution of RE in sugarcane plant varied with the treatment methods. It was shown that about 90% 141 Ce in nutrient solution was concentrated in the roots while only about 10% of them was transferred into the shoots. The distribution and accumulation of 141 Ce in suggarcene plant was in order of root>stem>leaf. If smeared on the leaf of sugarcane, the distribution and accumulation of 141 Ce in sugarcane plant was in order of leaf>stem>root. When treated with 300, 500 and 800 ppm R(NO 3 ) 3 ·4H 2 O, Ce, La, Sm, Pr, Nd and Y, the absorption and translocation rate of phosphorus and rubidium in sugarcane were increased

  12. University Students Leaving Relationships (USLR): Scale Development and Gender Differences in Decisions to Leave Romantic Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendy, Helen M.; Can, S. Hakan; Joseph, Lauren J.; Scherer, Cory R.

    2013-01-01

    The University Students Leaving Relationships scale was developed to identify student concerns when contemplating dissolution of romantic relationships. Participants included 1,106 students who rated the importance of issues when deciding to leave relationships. Factor analysis produced three dimensions: Missing the Relationship, Social…

  13. Occupational exposures and sick leave during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Lausten; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Juhl, Mette

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate associations between work postures, lifting at work, shift work, work hours, and job strain and the risk of sick leave during pregnancy from 10-29 completed pregnancy weeks in a large cohort of Danish pregnant women. METHODS: Data from 51 874 pregnancies...... in the Danish National Birth Cohort collected between 1996-2002 were linked to the Danish Register for Evaluation of Marginalization. Exposure information was based on telephone interviews. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated by Cox regression analysis, using time of first...... episode of sick leave as the primary outcome. RESULTS: We found statistically significant associations between all the predictors and risk of sick leave; for non-sitting work postures (HRrange 1.55-2.79), cumulative lifting HRtrend 1.29, 95% CI 1.26-1.31, shift work (HRevening 1.90, 95% CI 1...

  14. The dewetting properties of lotus leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jihua; Sheng, Xianliang; Jiang, Lei

    2009-02-03

    The high dewetting abilities of lotus leaves can be transited to a complete wetting state by soaking the leaves in water at a depth of 50 cm for 2 h. However, after being dried by N2 gas, the high dewetting behavior of lotus leaves may be mostly restored. This indicates that experimental procedure might considerably affect the dewetting abilities of lotus leaves. To discover the mechanism underlying this interesting dewetting phenomena, the dewetting force was used to characterize the dewetting abilities of surfaces, and model studies to mimic the papillae were done. Surface hydrophobicity, sizes, rise angles, and secondary structures of the models' sides affected their dewetting force with water. So we suggested that the dewetting states, Cassie or Wenzel's state, of lotus surfaces depend much on the depth of water, i.e., the hydraulic pressure. On the other hand, the primary structures of papillae in Cassie's state led to a high receding angle with respect to the plane of the leaf during the dewetting measurement. The secondary structures and micro/nano arrays of papillae increased the dewetting abilities of lotus leaves, since no water intruded between papillae. However, the structures of papillae in Wenzle's state significantly reduced the dewetting abilities of lotus leaves after being soaked at a depth of 50 cm for 2 h. Therefore, as for novel designs of microdevices floating on water, including the use of the high dewetting properties of suphydrophobic materials, surface (primary or secondary) microstructure and external pressure, such as static hydraulic pressure, must be taken into account.

  15. Maternal Employment Effects of Paid Parental Leave

    OpenAIRE

    Bergemann, Annette; Riphahn, Regina T.

    2015-01-01

    We study the short, medium, and longer run employment effects of a substantial change in the parental leave benefit program in Germany. In 2007, a means-tested parental leave transfer program that had paid benefits for up to two years was replaced by an earnings related transfer which paid benefits for up to one year. The reform generated winners and losers with heterogeneous response incentives. We find that the reform speeds up the labor market return of both groups of mothers after benefit...

  16. Does paternity leave affect mothers’ sickness absence

    OpenAIRE

    Bratberg, Espen; Naz, Ghazala

    2009-01-01

    Female labour force participation is high in Norway but sickness absence rates are higher for women than for men. This may be partly a result of unequal sharing of childcare in the family. In this paper, we consider the effect of paternity leave on sickness absence among women who have recently given birth. We draw on a six-year panel taken from full population data from administrative sources. We find that in the 6% of families where fathers take out leave more than the standard quota (gende...

  17. Preparing Apigenin from Leaves of Adinandra nitida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengxiang Ning

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaves of Adinandra nitida were used as raw material, and a new industrially significant method of preparing apigenin was established by hydrolyzing a water extract and recrystallizing it with ethanol in order to obtain a new source for the production of this flavone. A yield of about 2.5 % (dry mass was obtained with the purity of 93.05 %, determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Moreover, the main flavonoids in leaves of Adinandra nitida and the product after acid hydrolysis were identified as camellianin A and apigenin, respectively, by ultraviolet-visible spectrometry (UV/VIS and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS.

  18. Converting Sabine absorption coefficients to random incidence absorption coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2013-01-01

    are suggested: An optimization method for the surface impedances for locally reacting absorbers, the flow resistivity for extendedly reacting absorbers, and the flow resistance for fabrics. With four porous type absorbers, the conversion methods are validated. For absorbers backed by a rigid wall, the surface...... coefficients to random incidence absorption coefficients are proposed. The overestimations of the Sabine absorption coefficient are investigated theoretically based on Miki's model for porous absorbers backed by a rigid wall or an air cavity, resulting in conversion factors. Additionally, three optimizations...... impedance optimization produces the best results, while the flow resistivity optimization also yields reasonable results. The flow resistivity and flow resistance optimization for extendedly reacting absorbers are also found to be successful. However, the theoretical conversion factors based on Miki's model...

  19. 38 CFR 21.342 - Leave accounting policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leave accounting policy. 21.342 Section 21.342 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS.... Chapter 31 Leaves of Absence § 21.342 Leave accounting policy. (a) Amount of leave. A veteran pursuing one...

  20. 29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.120 Leave for... of a child as follows: (1) Both the mother and father are entitled to FMLA leave for the birth of...

  1. 77 FR 8959 - The Family and Medical Leave Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ...; and extends FMLA military caregiver leave to family members of certain veterans with serious injuries... Medical Leave Act of 1993, Final Rule on November 17, 2008 (2008 final rule). 73 FR 67934. A. What the... covered servicemember (referred to as ``military caregiver leave''). These two leave entitlements are...

  2. Paid maternity and paternity leave: rights and choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Claire

    2007-01-01

    From April 2007 onwards, maternity leave will be raised to nine months Paid maternity leave is associated with significant health benefits for babies, including reduced infant mortality The Government proposes to increase paid maternity leave to one year and introduce additional paternity leave by around 2009 The U.K's provision for maternity leave and child care is more generous than the U.S.A. or Australia but less than in the Scandinavian countries

  3. An Internatioal Comparison and Assessment of Maternity Leave Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Dorothea Alewell, Kerstin Pull

    2001-01-01

    Provisions for maternity leave are common among industrialized countries, but their institutional design varies distinctly from country to country. Developing our theory on the impact on maternity leave regulations on women's labor market situation, we argue that a woman on leave creates a re-organization problem for her employer. The costs of re-organization will not simply increase with the duration of maternity leave, but display a hump-shaped curvature which peeks at medium-leave duration...

  4. Absorption of /sup 45/Ca during the immersion of the aerial organs of Salicornia stricta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langlois, J.; Vilquin, A.

    1971-04-01

    Immersion of the aerial organs of Salicornia stricta in a nutrient solution with added radioactive /sup 45/Ca resulted in the accumulation of /sup 45/Ca in the aerial organs. There was no accumulation when the roots were immersed in the nutrient solution. Absorption of minerals by the stems and leaves of Salicornia during periodic submersions in the brackish water surrounding the plants, is therefore possible. 17 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  5. Foliar Absorption, Translocation and Utilization of Zn-65 by Mango Seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, F.A.; Sharaf, A.N.M.; Awad, S.M.; Abu EL Azm, S.K.

    2001-01-01

    Greenhouse experiment was designed using ZnSO 4 at rates of 0.125,0.25 and 0.50%. Solutions were adjusted to ph 6.0 and Tween-20 was added as a surfactant. The prepared solutions were labelled with carrier-free Zn-65. Six-month old mango seedlings were arranged in a complete block design to study the foliar absorption,translocation and percentage use of Zn-65 as influenced by soil application of phosphorus. The total absorption of Zn-65 by mango leaves was affected by spraying treatment of Zn-65 and soil application of phosphorus. In this respect increasing the rates of labelled Zn solution resulted in a great increment in the total absorption of in total absorption of Zn-65 by mango leaves was observed due to increasing P rates as a soil application from 0.0 up to 100 ppm. Translocation of the absorbed Zn-65 either in upward or downward direction was positively related to the absorbed amount. The percentage use of Zn-65 by mango leaves was reduced by increasing foliar Zn rates. On the contrary, it was slightly increased as a result of increasing soil application rate of P. Generally, the percentage use of Zn-65 mango leaves was ranged between 8.7 and 16.87 under the conditions of this experiment. Therefore, foliar application of ZnSO 4 could be recommended as a good source of Zn for mango nutrition in particular with addition of high rates of phosphorus as a soil application

  6. Absorption/desorption in sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naimpally, A.

    1987-01-01

    This survey paper shall seek to present the present state of knowledge concerning absorption and desorption in spray chambers. The first part of the paper presents the theories and formulas for the atomization and break-up of sprays in nozzles. Formulas for the average (sauter-mean) diameters are then presented. For the case of absorption processes, the formulas for the dimensionless mass transfer coefficients is in drops. The total; mass transfer is the total of the transfer in individual drops. For the case of desorption of sparingly soluble gases from liquids in a spray chamber, the mass transfer occurs in the spray just at the point of break-up of the jet. Formulas for the desorption of gases are presented

  7. Bent Electro-Absorption Modulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    by applying a variable electric or electronmagnetic field. The modulation of the complex refractive index results in a modulation of the refractive index contrast and the absorption coefficient for the waveguide at the frequency of the light. By carefully adjusting the composition of the semiconducting...... components and the applied electric field in relation to the frequency of the modulated radiation, the bending losses (and possibly coupling losses) will provide extinction of light guided by the bent waveguide section. The refractive index contract may be modulated while keeping the absorption coefficient......The present invention relates to a method and a device for modulating optical signals based on modulating bending losses in bend, quantum well semiconductor waveguide sections. The complex refractive index of the optical active semiconducting components of the waveguide section is modulated...

  8. (annonaceae) leaves-a potential antimalarial drug

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Xylopia species are widely available in West Africa. Xylopia parviflora (Benth) plant is used in folk medicine in the management of a number of ailments, one of these is the use of the leaves in the treatment of malaria fever for which a number of patients have reported its beneficial effects. This study was designed to ...

  9. leaves extract on mild steel in acid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    The volume of the cathodic hydrogen gas evolved was also plotted as a .... prevent the escape of hydrogen gas. The volume .... Clivia nobilis leaves extract on the flow of current ... behaviour of ethanol extract of Piper guinensis as a green ...

  10. Borneol from Leaves of Blumea balsamifera

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and organic solvent of low boiling-point extract. At present ... localized at 800 m altitude, 25° 04´ N and 106°. 28´ E. The ... In HDSE, leaves and water were used in similar amounts .... rate of (–)-borneol did not increase significantly. (p > 0.05) ...

  11. Thaumatococcus daniellii leaves: its chemical compositions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methanol extract of the plant exhibited low 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity with IC50 of 615.14 μg/ml. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) characterization of n-hexane, ethylacetate and methanol extracts of T. daniellii leaves identified , thirteen and fifteen compounds, with ...

  12. Fungi colonizing dead leaves of herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kowalik

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The material was collected from the Botanical Garden and the Collegium Medicum Medicinal Plant Garden of the Jagiellonian University in Krakow. The investigated species were: lemon balm (Mellisa officinalis L., common lavender (Lavendula angustifolia Mill., horsemint (Mentha longifolia L., sage (Salvia officinalis L., sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L., and wild marjoram (Origanum vulgare L.. The aim of the investigation was to identify fungi causing the death of leaf tissues of herbs from the mint family Lamiaceae. In mycological investigations, 180 fragments of each plant leaves (1,080 dead leaf fragments in total were placed in a 2% PDA medium. Over 970 colonies of fungi belonging to 48 species were isolated from the dead leaf tissues of the six herb species. Alternaria alternata (toxin-producing, Epicoccum nigrum and Sordaria fimicola were the most frequently isolated. The largest numbers of colonies and species of fungi were isolated from horsemint, while the lowest numbers were from wild marjoram leaves. It was shown that the death of leaves of selected herb species from the Lamiaceae family was caused by various fungi. The results of the mycological analysis confirmed the diversity of species colonizing the leaves of the herbs.

  13. Comparative morphology on leaves of Daphniphyllum (Daphniphyllaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, M.-S.; Yang, Y.-P.; Sheue, C.-R.

    2009-01-01

    A comparative anatomical study on the leaves of nine out of 29 species of the genus Daphniphyllum was performed to seek support for the present infrageneric classification. Daphniphyllum is composed of two sections, Lunata (with one subsection Lunata) and Daphniphyllum (with two subsections,

  14. Fathers on Parental Leave in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinicke, Kenneth; Cybulski, Franz Wilhelm; Drews, Lea Vedel

    2005-01-01

    In the article it is argued that contemporary fatherhood and masculinity differ increasingly from hegemonic masculinity according to which men are primarily responsible for ensuring the financial basis of the family. The article “Fathers on Parental Leave in Denmark”, based on interviews with 15...

  15. Ladybugs and Lettuce Leaves. Teachers' Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Tracy; And Others

    This is a guide for use with "Ladybugs and Lettuce Leaves" activity cards which are activities for elementary school students (grades 4 to 6) focusing on gardening. It includes educational objectives for each topic as well as lists of vocabulary words, comments, questions for discussion, additional activities, and resources. An interdisciplinary…

  16. Tomato leaves methanol extract possesses antiinflammatory activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recently, the leaves of tomato plant that contained several active compounds including alkaloid, steroid and flavanoid has been used for the treatment of variety of diseases and as anti-cancer, antioxidant and anti-gout. Although, a number of pharmacological properties have already been demonstrated, the ...

  17. Leave no trace in the outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    The essential guide for enjoying the outdoors without harming the environment. - Details the seven core principles of Leave No Trace ethics and practices - Covers hiking, campfires, food storage, and personal hygiene - Endorsed by the USDI National Park Service, Bureau of Land Management, Fish & Wildlife Service, U.S. Geological Survey, and the USDA Forest Service

  18. Isolation of chlorophyll a from spinach leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.D. Dikio

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available An efficient method for separating chlorophyll a from spinach leaves by column chromatography and solvent extraction techniques has been developed. The purity and identity of the chlorophyll a have been confirmed by UV-Vis, IR and mass spectrometry. Yields from 100 g of freeze-dried spinach were 23 – 24 mg of chlorophyll a.

  19. Why Nannies Leave Their Employing Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Glenn

    The position of nanny as a career option for child care/child development/early childhood education graduates is examined. This study surveyed nannies randomly selected from the 1991 International Nanny Association Directory to determine why nannies leave their employing families. Surveys were mailed to 160 nannies; 62 (39%) nannies responded.…

  20. Talking Leaves, Volume 4, No. 4

    OpenAIRE

    Center for Research on Education, Diversity & Excellence

    2000-01-01

    Talking Leaves, Spring 2000, Articles: Classroom and Schoolwide Observation Under the Microscope Observing School Restructuring in Multicultural, Multilingual Contexts From the Other Side of the Classroom Looking for Findings in all the Right Places The Classroom Observation Schedule and the Teacher Roles Observation Schedule The Standards Performance Continuum: Measuring CREDE's Standards for Effective Pedagogy The Kentu...

  1. Maternity leave duration and postpartum mental and physical health: implications for leave policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagher, Rada K; McGovern, Patricia M; Dowd, Bryan E

    2014-04-01

    This study examines the association of leave duration with depressive symptoms, mental health, physical health, and maternal symptoms in the first postpartum year, using a prospective cohort design. Eligible employed women, eighteen years or older, were interviewed in person at three Minnesota hospitals while hospitalized for childbirth in 2001. Telephone interviews were conducted at six weeks (N = 716), twelve weeks (N = 661), six months (N = 625), and twelve months (N = 575) after delivery. Depressive symptoms (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale), mental and physical health (SF-12 Health Survey), and maternal childbirth-related symptoms were measured at each time period. Two-stage least squares analysis showed that the relationship between leave duration and postpartum depressive symptoms is U-shaped, with a minimum at six months. In the first postpartum year, an increase in leave duration is associated with a decrease in depressive symptoms until six months postpartum. Moreover, ordinary least squares analysis showed a marginally significant linear positive association between leave duration and physical health. Taking leave from work provides time for mothers to rest and recover from pregnancy and childbirth. Findings indicate that the current leave duration provided by the Family and Medical Leave Act, twelve weeks, may not be sufficient for mothers at risk for or experiencing postpartum depression.

  2. Geometrical interpretation of optical absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monzon, J. J.; Barriuso, A. G.; Sanchez-Soto, L. L. [Departamento de Optica, Facultad de Fisica, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Montesinos-Amilibia, J. M. [Departamento de Geometria y Topologia, Facultad de Matematicas, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-08-15

    We reinterpret the transfer matrix for an absorbing system in very simple geometrical terms. In appropriate variables, the system appears as performing a Lorentz transformation in a (1 + 3)-dimensional space. Using homogeneous coordinates, we map that action on the unit sphere, which is at the realm of the Klein model of hyperbolic geometry. The effects of absorption appear then as a loxodromic transformation, that is, a rhumb line crossing all the meridians at the same angle.

  3. Modernization of Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasic, Visa; Milivojevic, Dragan; Karabasevic, Dejan

    2003-01-01

    In Copper Institute in Bor, connection has been made between absorption spectrophotometer and standard PC with the aim to make its operation more reliable and comfortable. Applied solution includes both software and hardware components. An I/O interface module has been installed in PC [1]. Software component consists of programs for measuring and interpretation of results. Paper presents details of this job realization.(Author)

  4. Turbulent effective absorptivity and refractivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rax, J.M.

    1984-09-01

    The problem of wave propagation in a turbulent magnetized plasma is investigated. Considering small scale, low frequency density fluctuations we solve the Maxwell equations and show that the eikonal approximation remains valid with an effective refractivity and an effective absorptivity taking into account the energy diffusion due to the turbulent motion. Then the result is applied to the problem of lower hybrid waves scattering by drift waves density fluctuations in tokamaks

  5. Slowing down with resonance absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura Neto, C. de; Nair, R.P.K.

    1979-08-01

    The presence of heavy nuclei in nuclear reactors, in significant concentrations, facilitates the appearance of absorption resonances. For the moderation in the presence of absorbers an exact solution of the integral equations is possible by numerical methods. Approximated solutions for separated resonances in function of the practical width, (NR and NRIM approximations) are discussed in this paper. The method is generalized, presenting the solution by an intermediate approximation, in the definition of the resonance integral. (Author) [pt

  6. Absorption and Metabolism of Xanthophylls

    OpenAIRE

    Kotake-Nara, Eiichi; Nagao, Akihiko

    2011-01-01

    Dietary carotenoids, especially xanthophylls, have attracted significant attention because of their characteristic biological activities, including anti-allergic, anti-cancer, and anti-obese actions. Although no less than forty carotenoids are ingested under usual dietary habits, only six carotenoids and their metabolites have been found in human tissues, suggesting selectivity in the intestinal absorption of carotenoids. Recently, facilitated diffusion in addition to simple diffusion has bee...

  7. Access to paid parental leave for academic surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itum, Dina S; Oltmann, Sarah C; Choti, Michael A; Piper, Hannah G

    2018-01-31

    Parental leave is linked to health benefits for both child and parent. It is unclear whether surgeons at academic centers have access to paid parental leave. The aim of this study was to determine parental leave policies at the top academic medical centers in the United States to identify trends among institutions. The top academic medical centers were identified (US News & World Report 2016). Institutional websites were reviewed, or human resource departments were contacted to determine parental leave policies. "Paid leave" was defined as leave without the mandated use of personal time off. Institutions were categorized based on geographical region, funding, and ranking to determine trends regarding availability and duration of paid parental leave. Among the top 91 ranked medical schools, 48 (53%) offer paid parental leave. Availability of a paid leave policy differed based on private versus public institutions (70% versus 38%, P leaves (>6 wk) than public institutions (67% versus 33%; P = 0.02). No difference in paid leave duration was noted based on region (P = 0.60) or rank (P = 0.81). Approximately, 50% of top academic medical centers offer paid parental leave. Private institutions are more likely to offer paid leave and leave of longer duration. There is considerable variability in access to paid parenteral leave for academic surgeons. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Absorption and transport of manganese of different labelled sources with 54b Mn applied via foliar in citrus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boaretto, Rodrigo Marcelli; Boaretto, Antonio Enedi; Muraoka, Takashi; Roque, Marcio Lucio

    2000-01-01

    Foliar fertilization is considered an efficient way to feed the plants, mainly with micronutrients. Studies on foliar absorption and transport of Mn have been necessary as well as on comparing different sources of this micronutrient solution applied on the leaves. The objective of the experiment was to study the Mn absorption from four sources by orange leaves and transport of the leaf absorbed Mn to the other parts of the plant. Orange plants were grown in greenhouse and some of their leaves received solution with a Mn concentration of 0.06% (MnSO 4 , MnCl 2 , lignin sulfonate-Mn and EDTA-Mn). The fertilizer solutions were labeled with 54 Mn. After 3, 6, 12, 24 hours and 2, 5, 15, 30, 60, 120 days from Mn application to the leaves, the plants were harvested. The leaves which received the Mn solution were separated from the other parts of the plants and washed in sequence with detergent solution (0.1%), distilled water, HCl solution (3%) and distilled water in order to remove the Mn remaining on the leaf surface. The 54 Mn activity of the samples was determined by monochannel gamma spectrometry. Chloride was the most efficient Mn source for foliar fertilization, followed by sulfate and lignin sulfonate; EDTA was the least efficient source. Only 10% of 54 Mn absorbed by the leaves was translocated to the other parts of the plant. (author)

  9. Organizational forms and knowledge absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Nikola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Managing the entire portion of knowledge in an organization is a challenging task. At the organizational level, there can be enormous quantities of unknown, poorly valued or inefficiently applied knowledge. This is normally followed with the underdeveloped potential or inability of organizations to absorb knowledge from external sources. Facilitation of the efficient internal flow of knowledge within the established communication network may positively affect organizational capacity to absorb or identify, share and subsequently apply knowledge to commercial ends. Based on the evidences that the adoption of different organizational forms affects knowledge flows within an organization, this research analyzed the relationship between common organizational forms and absorptive capacity of organizations. In this paper, we test the hypothesis stating that the organizational structure affects knowledge absorption and exploitation in the organization. The methodology included quantitative and qualitative research method based on a questionnaire, while the data has been statistically analyzed and the hypothesis has been tested with the use of cross-tabulation and chi-square tests. The findings suggest that the type of organizational form affects knowledge absorption capacity and that having a less formalized and more flexible structure in an organization increases absorbing and exploiting opportunities of potentially valuable knowledge.

  10. Causes and Consequences of a Father's Child Leave: Evidence from a Reform of Leave Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    are the most progressive when it comes to family-friendly policies. An extensive reform of child leave schemes in Denmark affected couples differently depending on whether the parents where employed in the same or in different parts of the public sector. Based on a difference-in-differences strategy, I find...... that economic incentives are very important for intra-household leave-sharing. Increasing the couples' after tax income by $9 per day of leave which is transferred from the mother to the father is found to lead to a one day transfer. This corresponds to a supply elasticity close to unity....

  11. Absorption, translocation and metabolism of polycarbamate, a dithiocarbamate fungicide, in kidney bean seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, H.; Kiyohara, C.; Komiyama, S.; Guo, Y.; Hirose, S.; Ichikawa, Y.; Endo, J.; Ikari, H.

    1991-01-01

    Absorption, translocation and metabolism of dizinc bis (dimethyldithiocarbamate)-ethylenebis (dithiocarbamate), bisdithane, were studied in kidney bean seedlings with its ethylene- 14 C-labeled [E- 14 C] and dimethyl- 14 C-labeled [D- 14 C] compounds. Most of the radioactivity remained at the application sites when labeled bisdithanes were applied on the surface of the first-trifoliate leaves of the plants. A small amount of the radioactivity was absorbed through the treated leaves. Translocation of the radioactivity from the leaves treated with the labeled bisdithanes to other parts of the plant was very small. These results were supported by the autoradiographic observations. The radioactive metabolites obtained from [E- 14 C] bisdithane were identified as ethylenethiourea and ethyleneurea. Tetramethylthiuram monosulfide, tetramethylthiuram disulfide, thiazolidine-2-thione-4-carboxylic acid and 1-(dimethylthiocarbamoylthio)-β-glucoside were identified when [D- 14 C] bisdithane was used. (author)

  12. Enriching Absorptive Capacity through Social Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hotho, Jasper J.; Becker-Ritterspach, Florian; Saka-Helmhout, Ayse

    Absorptive capacity is frequently highlighted as a key determinant of knowledge transfer within multinational enterprises. But how individual behaviour translates into absorptive capacity at the subsidiary level, and how this is contingent on subsidiaries' social context, remains under-addressed.

  13. Hopping absorption edge in silicon inversion layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostadinov, I.Z.

    1983-09-01

    The low frequency gap observed in the absorption spectrum of silicon inversion layers is related to the AC variable range hopping. The frequency dependence of the absorption coefficient is calculated. (author)

  14. Flavonoid Glycosides from Siparuna gigantotepala Leaves and Their Antioxidant Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Castañeda, Harlen Gerardo; Colmenares Dulcey, Ana Julia; Isaza Martínez, José Hipólito

    2016-01-01

    Two new flavonol glycosides were isolated from the leaves of Siparuna gigantotepala. Their structures were determined to be kaempferol 3-O-β-xylopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-arabinofuranoside (1) and kaempferol 3,7-di-O-methyl-4'-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-glucopyranoside (2). In addition, three known flavonol glycosides, rutin (3), kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside (4), and kaempferol 3,7-di-O-methyl-4'-O-rutinoside (5), and three flavonol aglycones, quercetin (6), kaempferol 3,7-dimethyl ether (7), and kaempferol 3,7,4'-trimethyl ether (8), were also isolated and are reported here for the first time in this species. The structures of compounds 1 and 2 were established on the basis of their LC-MS and one- and two-dimensional (1D)- and (2D)-NMR spectroscopic analyses, combined with acid methanolysis and silylation of sugar moieties for GC-MS. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity, conducted in the 96-well plate format, showed that the flavonoids isolated possess strong 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity and moderate oxygen radical absorption capacity.

  15. Evolution of absorption machines; Evolution des machines a absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soide, I; Klemsdal, E [Gaz de France (GDF), 75 - Paris (France); Le Goff, P; Hornut, J M [LSGC-ENSIC, 54 - Nancy (France)

    1998-12-31

    Most of todays absorption air-conditioning machineries use the lithium bromide-water pair. The most performing can operate at a 150-160 deg. C, the temperature being limited by the corrosion resistance of metals with respect to LiBr solutions. Also, there is a revival of interest for water-ammonia systems. These systems require the use of a rectification column which reduces the coefficient of performance. Higher thermal performances are reached with hydrocarbon pairs and ternary mixtures (water-methanol-LiBr etc..). This paper presents different schemes of refrigerating heat pumps based on these different systems. (J.S.)

  16. Evolution of absorption machines; Evolution des machines a absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soide, I.; Klemsdal, E. [Gaz de France (GDF), 75 - Paris (France); Le Goff, P.; Hornut, J.M. [LSGC-ENSIC, 54 - Nancy (France)

    1997-12-31

    Most of todays absorption air-conditioning machineries use the lithium bromide-water pair. The most performing can operate at a 150-160 deg. C, the temperature being limited by the corrosion resistance of metals with respect to LiBr solutions. Also, there is a revival of interest for water-ammonia systems. These systems require the use of a rectification column which reduces the coefficient of performance. Higher thermal performances are reached with hydrocarbon pairs and ternary mixtures (water-methanol-LiBr etc..). This paper presents different schemes of refrigerating heat pumps based on these different systems. (J.S.)

  17. Characteristics of water absorption of beans

    OpenAIRE

    上中, 登紀子; 森, 孝夫; 豊沢, 功; Tokiko, Uenaka; Takao, Mori; Isao, Toyosawa

    2001-01-01

    Characteristics of water absorption of soybean, azuki bean and kidney beans (cv. Toramame and Taishokintoki) were investigated. The way of water absorption of soybean was different from that of other beans, because soybeans absorbed water from whole surface of seed coat immediately after the immersion. Azuki beans absorbed extremely slowly water from only strophiole, and then the water absorption in other tissue was induced by a certain amount of water absorption playing a role of trigger. Th...

  18. Father's Rights to Paid Parental Leave in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Tine; Haas, L.

    2011-01-01

    to what extent government-provided, paid parental leave and quotas for fathers could bring about equality in the division of leave between men and women by focusing on the pioneers in the field, the Nordic countries – the first nations to offer fathers parental leave and introduce quotas. First, we......European Union policy encourages men and women to share parental leave to balance work and family life and promote gender equality in the labor market. A new directive extends parental leave to four months and introduces a quota, so one month is reserved for each parent. This article explores...... describe the extent to which parental leave policies have been established and implemented in a way that is likely to promote equal sharing of leave. Next, we evaluate the impact of particular configurations of gender equality incentives in present parental leave policies for the actual division of leave...

  19. Lactulose stimulates calcium absorption in postmenopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, E.G.H.M. van den; Muijs, T.; Dokkum, W. van; Schaafsma, G.

    1999-01-01

    Animal studies have indicated that calcium absorption is increased by lactulose, a synthetic disaccharide. Therefore, the influence of lactulose on calcium absorption was measured in postmenopausal women who may benefit from the possible enhancing effect of lactulose on calcium absorption. Twelve

  20. Uniform semiclassical approximation for absorptive scattering systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, M.S.; Pato, M.P.

    1987-07-01

    The uniform semiclassical approximation of the elastic scattering amplitude is generalized to absorptive systems. An integral equation is derived which connects the absorption modified amplitude to the absorption free one. Division of the amplitude into a diffractive and refractive components is then made possible. (Author) [pt

  1. Iron absorption in relation to iron status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnusson, B.; Bjoern-Rasmussen, E.; Hallberg, L.; Rossander, L.

    1981-01-01

    The absorption from a 3 mg dose of ferrous iron was measured in 250 male subjects. The absorption was related to the log concentration of serum ferritin in 186 subjects of whom 99 were regular blood donors (r= -0.76), and to bone marrow haemosiderin grading in 52 subjects with varying iron status. The purpose was to try and establish a percentage absorption from such a dose that is representative of subjects who are borderline iron deficient. This information is necessary for food iron absorption studies in order (1) to calculate the absorption of iron from the diet at a given iron status and (2) compare the absorption of iron from different meals studied in different groups of subjects by different investigarors. The results suggest that an absorption of about 40% of a 3 mg reference dose of ferrous iron is given in a fasting state, roughly corresponds to the absorption in borderline-iron-deficient subjects. The results indicate that this 40% absorption value corresponds to a serum ferritin level of 30 μg/l and that food iron absorption in a group of subjects should be expressed preferably as the absorption corresponding to a reference-dose absorption of 45%, or possibly a serum ferritin level of 30 μg/l. (author)

  2. Women's Reasons for Leaving the Engineering Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Nadya A; Chang, Wen-Hsin; Wan, Min; Singh, Romila

    2017-01-01

    Among the different Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math fields, engineering continues to have one of the highest rates of attrition (Hewlett et al., 2008). The turnover rate for women engineers from engineering fields is even higher than for men (Frehill, 2010). Despite increased efforts from researchers, there are still large gaps in our understanding of the reasons that women leave engineering. This study aims to address this gap by examining the reasons why women leave engineering. Specifically, we analyze the reasons for departure given by national sample of 1,464 women engineers who left the profession after having worked in the engineering field. We applied a person-environment fit theoretical lens, in particular, the Theory of Work Adjustment (TWA) (Dawis and Lofquist, 1984) to understand and categorize the reasons for leaving the engineering field. According to the TWA, occupations have different "reinforcer patterns," reflected in six occupational values, and a mismatch between the reinforcers provided by the work environment and individuals' needs may trigger departure from the environment. Given the paucity of literature in this area, we posed research questions to explore the reinforcer pattern of values implicated in women's decisions to leave the engineering field. We used qualitative analyses to understand, categorize, and code the 1,863 statements that offered a glimpse into the myriad reasons that women offered in describing their decisions to leave the engineering profession. Our results revealed the top three sets of reasons underlying women's decision to leave the jobs and engineering field were related to: first, poor and/or inequitable compensation, poor working conditions, inflexible and demanding work environment that made work-family balance difficult; second, unmet achievement needs that reflected a dissatisfaction with effective utilization of their math and science skills, and third, unmet needs with regard to lack of recognition

  3. [The percutaneous absorption of diclofenac].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riess, W; Schmid, K; Botta, L; Kobayashi, K; Moppert, J; Schneider, W; Sioufi, A; Strusberg, A; Tomasi, M

    1986-07-01

    The percutaneous absorption of diclofenac diethylammonium 1.16% (w/w) in a combination of emulsion cream and gel (Voltaren Emulgel) and of diclofenac sodium 1% (w/w) in a cream formulation (Voltaren cream) was investigated in guinea-pig, rabbit and man. The percutaneous absorption of diclofenac sodium in guinea-pig was 3 to 6% of the dose when the cream formulation in doses of 320, 100 or 40 mg was applied on 10 cm2 of occluded skin and left in place for 6 h. The transdermal delivery of 14C-labelled diclofenac yielded plateau plasma concentrations of radiotracer from 1.5 h after application until removal of the residual cream. Subsequently the steady state drug depots in the skin and muscle tissue were depleted promptly. During daily administration the steady state levels in the muscle tissue in proximity to the application site were about 3 times higher than in distant muscle tissue. By topical application on knee joints of rabbits diclofenac penetrated into the patellar ligament, the adipose corpus and the synovial fluid. In man the percutaneous absorption was 6% of the dose when the Emulgel formulation was spread by 5 mg/cm2 and left for 12 h on non-occluded skin. The pattern of metabolites of diclofenac in human urine was the same after topical and oral administration. In man, upon daily topical administration of 3 times 2.5 g cream formulation (10 mg/cm2) the diclofenac steady state plasma levels were 20 to 40 nmol/l.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. [Determination of sulfur in plant using a high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Li, Jia-xi

    2009-05-01

    A method for the analysis of sulfur (S) in plant by molecular absorption of carbon monosulfide (CS) using a high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometer (CS AAS) with a fuel-rich air/acetylene flame has been devised. The strong CS absorption band was found around 258 nm. The half-widths of some absorption bands were of the order of picometers, the same as the common atomic absorption lines. The experimental procedure in this study provided optimized instrumental conditions (the ratio of acetylene to air, the burner height) and parameters, and researched the spectral interferences and chemical interferences. The influence of the organic solvents on the CS absorption signals and the different digestion procedures for the determination of sulfur were also investigated. The limit of detection achieved for sulfur was 14 mg x L(-1), using the CS wavelength of 257. 961 nm and a measurement time of 3 s. The accuracy and precision were verified by analysis of two plant standard reference materials. The major applications of this method have been used for the determination of sulfur in plant materials, such as leaves. Compared to the others, this method for the analysis of sulfur is rapid, easy and simple for sulfur determination in plant.

  5. Absorption of ozone, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide by petunia plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkiey, T.; Ormrod, D.P.

    1981-01-01

    Petunia plants (Petunia hybrida Vilm.) of three varieties with differing air pollutant sensitivities were grown in controlled environments and the absorption rates of ozone (O/sub 3/), sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) and nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/) determined during single gas and mixed gas exposures. Additional experiments were conducted to evaluate effects of duration of exposure, leaf age, and plant growth stage on absorption of O/sub 3/. Absorption of all pollutants from single gases or the mixture was generally greater for the more sensitive varieties. Absorption from single gases was generally greater than from the mixed gases. Absorption rates tended to decrease gradually throughout the day and from day to day with continuous exposure. Absorption of O/sub 3/ was proportional to exposure concentration and decreased with time at differing rates for each variety. More O/sub 3/ was absorbed by older than younger leaves and by plants at the early vegetative stage compared with those in the prefloral stage.

  6. Don’t leave your baggage unattended

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    “Don’t leave your baggage unattended” is a familiar request to anyone who travels by air, but it’s good advice wherever you may be.    At CERN, if an unattended bag is found anywhere on the site, the Fire and Rescue service will be called to evacuate the area, maintain a security perimeter for as long as necessary, and attempt to identify the owner. If the owner cannot be found in a reasonable amount of time, there’s a very strong chance that the bag will be destroyed. You can take two simple steps to avoid this fate: Don’t leave your baggage unattended;   Make sure that your contact details are clearly visible on the bag or suitcase so that, should you find yourself separated from it, you can easily be reunited.

  7. Carbon Dioxide Absorption Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A carbon dioxide absorption heat pump cycle is disclosed using a high pressure stage and a super-critical cooling stage to provide a non-toxic system. Using carbon dioxide gas as the working fluid in the system, the present invention desorbs the CO2 from an absorbent and cools the gas in the super-critical state to deliver heat thereby. The cooled CO2 gas is then expanded thereby providing cooling and is returned to an absorber for further cycling. Strategic use of heat exchangers can increase the efficiency and performance of the system.

  8. Phytases for Improved Iron Absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Veller Friis; Nyffenegger, Christian; Meyer, Anne S.

    2014-01-01

    Microbial phytases (EC 3.1.3.8) catalyse dephosphorylation of phytic acid, which is the primary storage compound for phosphorous in cereal kernels. The negatively charged phosphates in phytic acid chelate iron (Fe3+) and thus retards iron bioavailability in humans 1. Supplementation of microbial...... phytase can improve iron absorption from cereal-based diets 2. In order for phytase to catalyse iron release in vivo the phytase must be robust to low pH and proteolysis in the gastric ventricle. Our work has compared the robustness of five different microbial phytases, evaluating thermal stability...

  9. Iodine Absorption Cells Purity Testing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrabina, Jan; Zucco, M.; Philippe, Ch.; Pham, Minh Tuan; Holá, Miroslava; Acef, O.; Lazar, Josef; Číp, Ondřej

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-13, č. článku 17010102. ISSN 1424-8220 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-18430S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : iodine cells * absorption spectroscopy * laser spectroscopy * laser standards * frequency stability Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics) Impact factor: 2.677, year: 2016

  10. Microwave Absorption Characteristics of Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuzhe; Hwang, Jiann-Yang; Peng, Zhiwei; Andriese, Matthew; Li, Bowen; Huang, Xiaodi; Wang, Xinli

    The recycling of waste tires has been a big environmental problem. About 280 million waste tires are produced annually in the United States and more than 2 billion tires are stockpiled, which cause fire hazards and health issues. Tire rubbers are insoluble elastic high polymer materials. They are not biodegradable and may take hundreds of years to decompose in the natural environment. Microwave irradiation can be a thermal processing method for the decomposition of tire rubbers. In this study, the microwave absorption properties of waste tire at various temperatures are characterized to determine the conditions favorable for the microwave heating of waste tires.

  11. ANTIANAPHYLACTIC ACTIVITY OF HELIOTROPIUM INDICUM LEAVES

    OpenAIRE

    M Shenoy Ashoka; C. Shastry Shashidhar

    2011-01-01

    The alcoholic extract of Heliotropium indicum leaves was evaluated using Wistar rats and Duncan Hartley guinea pigs. The antianaphylactic activity was investigated in rats using the active anaphylaxis model. The effect on mast cell stabilization was performed by ex vivo challenge of antigen in sensitized rat intestinal mesenteries. Antihistaminic activity was studied in guinea pigs using histamine-induced bronchospasm where preconvulsive dyspnea was used as an end point following exposure to ...

  12. Texture and wettability of metallic lotus leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankiewicz, C.; Attinger, D.

    2016-02-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces with the self-cleaning behavior of lotus leaves are sought for drag reduction and phase change heat transfer applications. These superrepellent surfaces have traditionally been fabricated by random or deterministic texturing of a hydrophobic material. Recently, superrepellent surfaces have also been made from hydrophilic materials, by deterministic texturing using photolithography, without low-surface energy coating. Here, we show that hydrophilic materials can also be made superrepellent to water by chemical texturing, a stochastic rather than deterministic process. These metallic surfaces are the first analog of lotus leaves, in terms of wettability, texture and repellency. A mechanistic model is also proposed to describe the influence of multiple tiers of roughness on wettability and repellency. This demonstrated ability to make hydrophilic materials superrepellent without deterministic structuring or additional coatings opens the way to large scale and robust manufacturing of superrepellent surfaces.Superhydrophobic surfaces with the self-cleaning behavior of lotus leaves are sought for drag reduction and phase change heat transfer applications. These superrepellent surfaces have traditionally been fabricated by random or deterministic texturing of a hydrophobic material. Recently, superrepellent surfaces have also been made from hydrophilic materials, by deterministic texturing using photolithography, without low-surface energy coating. Here, we show that hydrophilic materials can also be made superrepellent to water by chemical texturing, a stochastic rather than deterministic process. These metallic surfaces are the first analog of lotus leaves, in terms of wettability, texture and repellency. A mechanistic model is also proposed to describe the influence of multiple tiers of roughness on wettability and repellency. This demonstrated ability to make hydrophilic materials superrepellent without deterministic structuring or additional

  13. Sickness presence, sick leave and adjustment latitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Gerich

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Previous research on the association between adjustment latitude (defined as the opportunity to adjust work efforts in case of illness and sickness absence and sickness presence has produced inconsistent results. In particular, low adjustment latitude has been identified as both a risk factor and a deterrent of sick leave. The present study uses an alternative analytical strategy with the aim of joining these results together. Material and Methods: Using a cross-sectional design, a random sample of employees covered by the Upper Austrian Sickness Fund (N = 930 was analyzed. Logistic and ordinary least square (OLS regression models were used to examine the association between adjustment latitude and days of sickness absence, sickness presence, and an estimator for the individual sickness absence and sickness presence propensity. Results: A high level of adjustment latitude was found to be associated with a reduced number of days of sickness absence and sickness presence, but an elevated propensity for sickness absence. Conclusions: Employees with high adjustment latitude experience fewer days of health complaints associated with lower rates of sick leave and sickness presence compared to those with low adjustment latitude. In case of illness, however, high adjustment latitude is associated with a higher pro­bability of taking sick leave rather than sickness presence.

  14. Acute Toxicity of Justicia gendarussa Burm. Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juheini Amin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Acute Toxicity of Justicia gendarussa Burm. Leaves. Preminelary experiment showed that ethanolic extract ofgandarusa leaves (Justicia gendarussa Burm. could decreased uric acid blood level on rats. The aim of this experimentwas to determine of the value LD50 and liver function based on activities of aminotransferase. Animals test which wereused in this experiment were 50 males and 50 females white mice. They were divided into 5 groups. Group 1 as controlgroup was given aquadest. Group 2-5 were treated by ethanolic extract of gandarusa leaves with dosage 4, 8, 16, and 32g/kg bw. The LD50 value was determined by the amount of death in group during 24 hours after giving a single dose oftest substance. The result showed that the highest dose was practically non toxic with LD50 value of 31.99 g/kg bw(male groups and 27.85 g/kg bw (female groups. Measurement of aminotransferase activity was done by usingcolorimetric method. The result of ANOVA analysis for liver function showed that the giving test substance 4 g/kg bw–16 g/kg bw was not significantly different between treated groups and control group.

  15. Iodine Absorption Cells Purity Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hrabina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the evaluation of the chemical purity of iodine-filled absorption cells and the optical frequency references used for the frequency locking of laser standards. We summarize the recent trends and progress in absorption cell technology and we focus on methods for iodine cell purity testing. We compare two independent experimental systems based on the laser-induced fluorescence method, showing an improvement of measurement uncertainty by introducing a compensation system reducing unwanted influences. We show the advantages of this technique, which is relatively simple and does not require extensive hardware equipment. As an alternative to the traditionally used methods we propose an approach of hyperfine transitions’ spectral linewidth measurement. The key characteristic of this method is demonstrated on a set of testing iodine cells. The relationship between laser-induced fluorescence and transition linewidth methods will be presented as well as a summary of the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed technique (in comparison with traditional measurement approaches.

  16. Distribution, synthesis, and absorption of kynurenic acid in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turski, Michal P; Turska, Monika; Zgrajka, Wojciech; Bartnik, Magdalena; Kocki, Tomasz; Turski, Waldemar A

    2011-05-01

    Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an endogenous antagonist of the ionotropic glutamate receptors and the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor as well as an agonist of the G-protein-coupled receptor GPR35. In this study, KYNA distribution and synthesis in plants as well as its absorption was researched. KYNA level was determined by means of the high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. KYNA was found in leaves, flowers, and roots of tested medicinal herbs: dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), common nettle (Urtica dioica), and greater celandine (Chelidoniummajus). The highest concentration of this compound was detected in leaves of dandelion--a mean value of 0.49 µg/g wet weight. It was shown that KYNA can be synthesized enzymatically in plants from its precursor, L-kynurenine, or absorbed by plants from the soil. Finally, the content of KYNA was investigated in 21 herbal tablets, herbal tea, herbs in sachets, and single herbs in bags. The highest content of KYNA in a maximum daily dose of herbal medicines appeared in St. John's wort--33.75 µg (tablets) or 32.60 µg (sachets). The pharmacological properties of KYNA and its presence in high concentrations in medicinal herbs may suggest that it possesses therapeutic potential, especially in the digestive system and should be considered a new valuable dietary supplement. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Turning palm leaves into wood: Opportunities for Egypt's rural ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-27

    Apr 27, 2016 ... Bedouin women weave handmade baskets, hats, and lamps using dried palm leaves. ... palm tree leaves into hardwood and high-quality wooden products, ... of wood and open doors to job opportunities for rural communities.

  18. The Length of Maternity Leave and Family Health

    OpenAIRE

    Beuchert, Louise Voldby; Humlum, Maria Knoth; Vejlin, Rune Majlund

    2014-01-01

    We study the relationship between the length of maternity leave and the physical and psychological health of the family. Using a reform of the parental leave scheme in Denmark that increased the number of weeks of leave with full benefit compensation,we estimate the effect of the length of maternity leave on a range of health indicators including the number of hospital admissions for both mother and child and the probability of the mother receiving antidepressants. The reform led to an increa...

  19. Absorption of atmospheric NO2 by plants and soils, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumaru, Tsuneo; Shiratori, Koji; Yoneyama, Tadakatsu; Totsuka, Tsumugu.

    1979-01-01

    Tomato, sunflower and corn plants were grown in culture solution containing three different concentrations of 15 N-labelled KNO 3 (260 ppm N, 105 ppm N, and 26 ppm N) as a nitrogen nutrient, and fumigated with 0.3 ppm NO 2 for 2 weeks during their vegetative stages. The amount of NO 2 nitrogen absorbed into the plants was estimated by ''difference method'' and '' 15 N method.'' '' 15 N method'' was found to give more probable values than ''difference method.'' According to '' 15 N method,'' the nitrogen derived from NO 2 was about 16% (tomato), 22% (sunflower), and 14% (corn) of the increased amount of total nitrogen in the whole plants in the 105 ppm N plot, and these percentages increased in the 26 ppm N plot. Difference in nitrogen concentration of the culture solution resulted in big change in the dry-weight increase of the tomato and sunflower plants, but the absorption rate of NO 2 nitrogen based on the dry weight changed slightly. The absorption rate of NO 2 nitrogen was around 0.8 mg (gDW) -1 day -1 in tomato and sunflower plants, and 0.3 mg (gDW) -1 day -1 in corn plant. Leaves were found to be an active sink of NO 2 and the nitrogen of NO 2 seemed to be rapidly transformed into compounds of high molecules in the leaf cells. (author)

  20. Absorption behavior of technetium and rhenium through plant roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagami, K.; Uchida, S.

    2004-01-01

    The absorption behavior of technetium (Tc) and rhenium (Re) through plant roots was studied using nutrient solution culture. Radish samples, grown in culture solutions for 20-30 days in a green house, were transferred into plastic vessels containing nutrient solutions contaminated with multi-tracer solutions including Tc-95m and Re-183. The plant samples were grown individually for 1-7 days under laboratory conditions. The activities of radionuclides in nutrient solutions and oven-dried plant parts (roots, fleshy roots and leaves) were measured with Ge detecting systems. The concentrations of Tc-95m and Re-183 in the nutrient solutions after harvesting the plants were almost the same as those in the initial solution. Possibly, the radionuclides were taken up with water through plant roots. The distributions of Tc and Re in the plants showed no differences, thus, soluble Tc and Re absorption by plant samples were the same. It is suggested that Re could be used as a geochemical tracer of Tc in the soil environment. (author)

  1. Absorption, distribution, and fate of neptunium in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cataldo, D.A.; Garland, T.R.; Wildung, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    Soil-plant concentration ratios (CR) for neptunium (Np) in bushbean, measured over the range of 5.2 /times/ 10/sup /minus/7/ to 4.1 mg of Np/g of soil, are approximately 2 at soil concentrations below 4 /times/ 10/sup /minus/4/ mg/g and increase to 12 at higher soil levels. The CR values determined for soybean, bushbean, barley, and alfalfa range from 0.5 to 4 at a soil concentration of 2.6 /times/ 10/sup /minus/6/ mg/g. Root absorption by soybean seedlings of Np from solutions containing 7 /times/ 10/sup /minus/7/ to 473 mg of Np(V)/mL is generally proportional to concentration but exhibits some saturation in root absorption at higher concentrations. Seed concentrations in bushbean and wheat are a factor of 10 lower than vegetative tissues. Neptunium is transported within the plant in organic complexes containing one or more organic acid residues. Fractionation of plant tissues indicates that Np is substantially more soluble than plutonium, especially in seeds, with approximately 50% of the soluble Np in roots and leaves associated with plant ligands of less than 5000 molecular weight

  2. Acoustically sticky topographic metasurfaces for underwater sound absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hunki; Jung, Myungki; Kim, Minsoo; Shin, Ryung; Kang, Shinill; Ohm, Won-Suk; Kim, Yong Tae

    2018-03-01

    A class of metasurfaces for underwater sound absorption, based on a design principle that maximizes thermoviscous loss, is presented. When a sound meets a solid surface, it leaves a footprint in the form of thermoviscous boundary layers in which energy loss takes place. Considered to be a nuisance, this acoustic to vorticity/entropy mode conversion and the subsequent loss are often ignored in the existing designs of acoustic metamaterials and metasurfaces. The metasurface created is made of a series of topographic meta-atoms, i.e., intaglios and reliefs engraved directly on the solid object to be concealed. The metasurface is acoustically sticky in that it rather facilitates the conversion of the incident sound to vorticity and entropy modes, hence the thermoviscous loss, leading to the desired anechoic property. A prototype metasurface machined on a brass object is tested for its anechoicity, and shows a multitude of absorption peaks as large as unity in the 2-5 MHz range. Computations also indicate that a topographic metasurface is robust to hydrostatic pressure variation, a quality much sought-after in underwater applications.

  3. Influence of maternity leave on exclusive breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda R. Monteiro

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To describe the profile of women with children aged under 4 months living in the Brazilian state capitals and in the Federal District according to their working status and to analyze the influence of maternity leave on exclusive breastfeeding (EBF among working women. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with data extracted from the II National Maternal Breastfeeding Prevalence Survey carried out in 2008. Initially, a descriptive analysis of the profile of 12,794 women was performed, according to their working status and maternity leave and the frequency of maternity leave in the Brazilian regions and capitals. The study used a multiple model to identify the influence of maternity leave on EBF interruption, including 3766 women who declared they were working and were on maternity leave at the time of the interview. The outcome assessed in the study was the interruption of the EBF, classified by the WHO. Results: Regarding the working status of the mothers, 63.4% did not work outside of their homes and among those who worked, 69.8% were on maternity leave. The largest prevalence among workers was of women older than 35 years of age, with more than 12 years of schooling, primiparous and from the Southeast and South regions. The lack of maternity leave increased by 23% the chance of EBF interruption. Conclusion: Maternity leave contributed to increase the prevalence of EBF in the Brazilian states capitals, supporting the importance of increasing the maternity leave period from four to six months. Resumo: Objetivos: Descrever perfil das mulheres com filhos menores de 4 meses residentes nas capitais brasileiras e no Distrito Federal segundo situação de trabalho e analisar a influência da licença-maternidade sobre o aleitamento materno exclusivo entre as mulheres trabalhadoras. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo transversal com dados extraídos da II Pesquisa Nacional de Prevalência do Aleitamento Materno realizada em 2008

  4. STUDY OF ORGANIC ACIDS IN ALMOND LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenchyk L.V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Almond (Amygdalus communis is a stone fruit, from the Rosaceae family, closest to the peach. It is spread throughout the entire Mediterranean region and afterwards to the Southwestern USA, Northern Africa, Turkey, Iran, Australia and South Africa. It is sensitive to wet conditions, and therefore is not grown in wet climates. Iran is located in the semi-arid region of the world. Because of its special tolerance to water stress, almond is one of the main agricultural products in rainfed condition in Iran. Almond leaves have been investigated for their phenolic content and antioxidant activity. It was found that total antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds exhibited variations according to season, plant organ (leaf and stem and variety. Analysis of previous research on almonds focused on investigating compounds mostly in seeds and phenolic compounds in leaves, but organic acids in leaves have not been studied. Aim of this study was investigation of organic acids in leaves of almond variety which is distributed in Razavi Khorasan province of Iran. Materials and Methods. In August 2012 almond leaves were collected in Iran, dried and grinded. The study of qualitative composition and quantitative determination of carboxylic acids in almond leaves was carried out by gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. For determination organic acids content, to 50 mg of dried plant material in 2 ml vial internal standard (50 μg of tridecane in hexane was added and filled up with 1.0 ml of methylating agent (14 % BCl3 in methanol, Supelco 3-3033. The mixture was kept in a sealed vial during 8 hours at 65 °C. At this time fatty oil was fully extracted, and hydrolyzed into its constituent fatty acids and their methylation was done. At the same time free organic and phenolcarbonic acids were methylated too. The reaction mixture was poured from the plant material sediment and was diluted with 1 ml of distilled water. To extract methyl

  5. 5 CFR 630.1206 - Notice of leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... medical treatment, the employee shall provide notice to the agency of his or her intention to take leave... placement or planned medical treatment requires leave to begin within 30 calendar days, the employee shall... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of leave. 630.1206 Section 630...

  6. 48 CFR 752.7031 - Leave and holidays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... States (less language training) and the actual days overseas beginning on the date of departure from the.... (e) Military leave. Military leave of not more than 15 calendar days in any calendar year may be... such military leave has been approved in advance by the cognizant Mission Director or Assistant...

  7. Determinants of sick-leave duration : A tool for managers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flach, P.A.; Krol, B.; Groothoff, J.W.

    AIMS: To provide managers with tools to manage episodes of sick-leave of their employees, the influence of factors such as age, gender, duration of tenure, working full-time or part-time, cause and history of sick-leave, salary and education on sick-leave duration was studied. METHOD: In a

  8. 77 FR 22519 - The Family and Medical Leave Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... Family and Medical Leave Act AGENCY: Wage and Hour Division, Department of Labor. ACTION: Extension of... on the proposed revisions to certain regulations of the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA... Family and Medical Act (FMLA) regulations to implement amendments to the military leave provisions of the...

  9. Self-Funded Leave and Life Role Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furbish, Dale S.

    2009-01-01

    Self-funded leave is an employee benefit that provides a time resource to those who wish to develop interests and other life roles. Semistructured interviews were used for this qualitative study to explore the motivations for enrolling in the self-funded leave program, how the leave contributed to work-life balance through development of other…

  10. Konference Fathers and Paternity Leave: Men Do It

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maříková, Hana

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 14 (2006), s. 833-835 ISSN 0038-0288. [Fathers and Paternity Leave: Men Do It] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA700280504 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : parental leave * paternity leave * fathering Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 0.128, year: 2006

  11. Maternity Leave Provisions for Classroom Teachers in Larger School Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educational Research Service Circular, 1966

    1966-01-01

    Maternity leave provisions for classroom teachers in 129 school systems having enrollments of 25,000 or more are reported for 1965-66 in this national survey. Tables contain information on compulsory absence prior to anticipated date of birth and earliest permissible return from maternity leaves. Brief descriptions of maternity leave practices are…

  12. Application of Moldavian dragonhead (Dracocephalum moldavica L.) leaves addition as a functional component of nutritionally valuable corn snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójtowicz, Agnieszka; Oniszczuk, Anna; Oniszczuk, Tomasz; Kocira, Sławomir; Wojtunik, Karolina; Mitrus, Marcin; Kocira, Anna; Widelski, Jarosław; Skalicka-Woźniak, Krystyna

    2017-09-01

    Application of Moldavian dragonhead ( Dracocephalum moldavica L.) leaves in extruded snacks was evaluated. Directly expanded corn snacks (crisps) were supplemented with 5-20% of dragonhead leaves. The supplemented snacks were characterized to have improved nutritional value and were a good source of dietary fibre. The presence of phenolic compounds, especially rosmarinic acid, showed a high antioxidant potential and a radical scavenging activity of tested snacks, especially if a high content of additive was used. The increasing amount of additive also had an impact on the physical properties of extrudates lowering the expansion ratio, water absorption and solubility, yet increasing bulk density, cutting force and the breaking index of the enriched snacks. The highest viscosity was observed at 5 and 10% addition level. The increasing amount of dragonhead leaves lowered the brightness of snacks and increased the greenness tint significantly. A sensory evaluation showed good acceptability of snacks enriched with up to 15% of dragonhead dried leaves. Dried leaves of the Moldavian dragonhead seem to be a prospective functional additive for extruded crisps with a high nutritional value, especially because of dietary fibre and rosmarinic acid content, a strong antioxidant potential and acceptable sensory properties.

  13. Phosphorus absorption in drip irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guennelon, R.; Habib, R.

    1979-01-01

    Introducing the use of solute phosphate with drip irrigation may be an unsatisfying practice on account of the very weak mobility of PO 4 anion. Nevertheless P can move down to 30-40 cm depth by following the saturated flux along earth-worms holes or crakes, or by displacement in very narrow structural porosity, even in heavy soils. In this case roots cannot easily absorb PO 4 from soil solution, as soon as the soil is quite saturated. On the other hand, it seems that P absorption occurs very quickly and easily when the implantation of 32 P tagged solution is carried out at the border of zone which is concerned by the irrigation effects [fr

  14. HI Absorption in Merger Remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Stacy H.; Veileux, Sylvain; Baker, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    It has been proposed that ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) pass through a luminous starburst phase, followed by a dust-enshrouded AGN phase, and finally evolve into optically bright "naked" quasars once they shed their gas/dust reservoirs through powerful wind events. We present the results of our recent 21- cm HI survey of 21 merger remnants with the Green Bank Telescope. These remnants were selected from the QUEST (Quasar/ULIRG Evolution Study) sample of ULIRGs and PG quasars; our targets are all bolometrically dominated by AGN and sample all phases of the proposed ULIRG -> IR-excess quasar -> optical quasar sequence. We explore whether there is an evolutionary connection between ULIRGs and quasars by looking for the occurrence of HI absorption tracing neutral gas outflows; our results will allow us to identify where along the sequence the majority of a merger's gas reservoir is expelled.

  15. Multistage quantum absorption heat pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Luis A

    2014-04-01

    It is well known that heat pumps, while being all limited by the same basic thermodynamic laws, may find realization on systems as "small" and "quantum" as a three-level maser. In order to quantitatively assess how the performance of these devices scales with their size, we design generalized N-dimensional ideal heat pumps by merging N-2 elementary three-level stages. We set them to operate in the absorption chiller mode between given hot and cold baths and study their maximum achievable cooling power and the corresponding efficiency as a function of N. While the efficiency at maximum power is roughly size-independent, the power itself slightly increases with the dimension, quickly saturating to a constant. Thus, interestingly, scaling up autonomous quantum heat pumps does not render a significant enhancement beyond the optimal double-stage configuration.

  16. Sound absorption with green materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trematerra, Amelia; Lombardi, Ilaria

    2017-07-01

    Green materials are a valid alternative to traditional materials that are by-products of processing oil. At the end of their useful life, green materials can be disposed of without polluting the environment. They are now being used in the construction and automotive industries. While, studies are currently being carried out in the aviation sector on the use of green materials for non-structural components of airplanes. Green materials can be used to improve the acoustic comfort inside buildings as well as mitigate reverberation, echoes effects and reduce the transmission of noise between rooms. In this paper, the acoustic measurements of the properties of green materials are reported. The absorption coefficient of samples of the materials were measured in the frequency range from 200 Hz to 2,000 Hz with an impedance tube, with the flow resistance being measured.

  17. Mixture for plugging absorption zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitinkov, G V; Kovalenko, N G; Makarov, L V; Zinnatulchin, Ts Kh

    1981-01-17

    A mixture is proposed for plugging absorption zones. The mixture contains synthetic polymer and a solvent. So as to increase the penetrability of the mixture through a reduction in its viscosity and an increase in insulation properties, the compound contains either Capron or Neilon as the synthetic polyamide resin polmyer, and concentrated chloride as the solvent. The mixture is prepared in a special AzINMASh-30 unit (acid cart). After the mixture has been produced, it is injected into the borehole by means of an acid cart pump. So as to prevent coaggulation at the point when the mixture in injected into the stratum through tubes, the mixture is placed betwen chemically inert fluids, for example, a clay mortar. The inert and compressed fluids are injected by means of a cementing unit. The entire process of production and application of the mixture is simple and fully automated through the use of well-known equipment.

  18. Physical and chemical composition and in situ degradability of macauba palm cake and leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanda Patrícia Barros Ferreira

    2013-12-01

    associated with its lower ruminal degradability and lower effective degradation of fraction CP is a beneficial characteristic because associated with lower ruminal degradability could increase absorption in the duodenum of amino acids and peptides that were not incorporated by rumen microorganisms. Macauba cake is potentially useful in animal feed, the association of macauba palm cake and leaves can attend the requirements of some animals’ categories. Additional studies with animals should be conducted to better understand these results.

  19. Determination of tin in biological reference materials by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, M.; Iyengar, V.; Gills, T.

    1991-01-01

    Because of a lack of reliable analytical techniques for the determination of tin in biological materials, there have been no reference materials certified for this element. However, the authors' experience has shown that it is feasible to use both atomic absorption and nuclear activation techniques at least for selected matrices. Therefore, an investigation was undertaken to determine tin in several biological materials such as non-fat milk powder (NBS-SRM-1549), citrus leaves (NBS-SRM-1572), total diet (NIST-SRM-1548), mixed diet (NBS-RM-8431), and USDIET-I by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) and neutron activation analysis (NAA). AAS-ashed samples were extracted with MIBK and assayed using a Perkin Elmer model 5000 apparatus. NAA was carried out by irradiating the samples at the NIST reactor in the RT-4 facility and counting with the help of a Ge(Li) detector connected to a multichannel analyzer. The concentration of tin measured by both AAS and NAA agree well for USDIET-I, total diet, citrus leaves and non-fat milk powder (the concentration ranges for tin in these matrices were from 0.0025 to 3.8 micro g/g). However, in the case of mixed diet (RM-8431), the mean values found were 47 ± 5.6 (n = 19) by AAS and 55.5 ± 2.5 (n = 6) by INAA. Since RM-8431 is not certified it is difficult to draw conclusions. For apple and peach leaves, a distillation step was required. The results were apple leaves 0.085 ± 0.015 (n = 10) by AAS and < 0.2 (n = 3) by RNAA; for peach leaves 0.077 ± 0.02 (n = 9) by AAS and < 0.1 (n = 3) by RNAA. All concentrations are expressed in micro g/g dry weight

  20. Foliar absorption and translocation of Zn-65 in balady orange plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, F A; Sharaf, A N.M. [Agric. Dept. for Soil and Water, NRC, AEA, Cairo (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    Greenhouse experiment was designed using Zn So{sub 4} as a single element or in a mixture of `Zn SO{sub 4} + Fe SO{sub 4}` at rates of 0.5 and 1.0% of these compounds. Different solutions were adjusted at PH 6.0 and Tween-20 at 0.5% (V/V) was added. The prepared solutions were labelled with carrier-free Zn-65. In a complete randomized design with three replicates orange seedlings two-year old were arranged. Labelled solution, in small droplets, were added onto upper surface of certain leaves (middle leaves) of seedling. Retained Zn-65 in the treated leaves with Zn SO{sub 4} alone was significantly higher than in leaves sprayed with a mixture of Zn, Mn and Fe sulphates. Upward and downward translocation of Zn-65 was highly related to its absorption through treated leaves and the translocation rate of upward direction was more pronounced than downward. Total absorption of Zn-65 was higher with Zn SO{sub 4} than with the mixture. Utilization percent of foliar application of Zn was significantly decreased as the rate of Zn SO{sub 4} increased from 0.5 to 1.0% either alone or in combination with Fe and Mn sulphates. Moreover, it was also reduced due to the presence of and Mn with Zn the spray solution with Zn SO{sub 4}. In particular, 0.5% in soy solution realized the highest utilization and was efficient for supplying for orange plants with Zn. 3 tabs.

  1. Early school leaving and lifelong guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plant, Peter; Oomen, Annemarie

    Early school leaving (ESL) is costly for the individual, for society and for the economy. Not just in economic terms, but also in terms of low self esteem, and the risk of social exclusion. More, and, in particular, better education can lead to positive outcomes, in relation to employment, level...... of salaries, better health, less crime, higher social cohesion, lower public and social costs and higher productivity. This is why ESL is a policy focal point. In these terms, lifelong guidance has a key role to play in terms of both prevention, intervention, and of compensation strategies....

  2. Impact of Ozone Gradient on Grapevine Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alebic-Juretic, Ana; Bokan-Vucelic, Itana; Mifka, Boris; Zatezalo, Marija; Zubak, Velimir

    2017-04-01

    Due to complex orography and air mass circulation, the Rijeka Bay area is characterized by O3 gradient, with concentrations risen with the altitude (1). Therefore AOT40 values were often exceeded and should result in harmful effects on vegetation. Based on previous controlled experiments (2), we examined the possible effect of atmospheric ozone on grape leaves under natural O3 gradient. Grapevine leaves (2-5) were collected from May to September 2016 at two sampling points in the proximity of two AQM stations: Site 1 in the city centre (20m asl) and Site 2 (186m asl) in the suburban settlement. Subsequent to weighing and determination of surface area, the leaves (0,5 g) were extracted in 95% ethanol and analysed on chlorophyl a (Chla), chlorophyl b (Chlb) and carotene (Car) content by UV-VIS spectrometry on 3 wavelengths (664, 649, 470 nm) (3) In summer 2016 O3 gradient was not that pronounced as usual (1), but stil the concentrations differed by approx. 20%, exceeding national AOT40 value at both sites (22.360 and 28.061 μg m-3 h, respectively, at Sites 1 and 2). The concentrations of other pollutants were bellow limit values (LV). The Cha and Chb in a sample leaves collected at the end of May at Site 2 are equal to that with filtered O3 in control experiment (2), i.e. without damage caused by ozone, while the Car content is lower approx. 50% and is kept at the same level. The con-centrations of pigments obtained in July prooved the possible damage by O3, while in subsequent months could speed up natural ageing. This is the first evidence of O3 damage on plants in the Rijeka Bay area, in spite of weaker O3 gradient and lacking visible signs of damage. Preliminary results indicate the need for more frequent sampling, particularly in the period included in AOT40 (May-July). References: 1. Alebić-Juretić A (2012) Int J Remote Sensing, 33(2): 335-345 2. Britvec M, Reichenauer T, Soja G., Ljubešić N, Pećina M (2001) Biologia (Bratislava),56/4: 417-424 3. Sumanata

  3. Gender codes why women are leaving computing

    CERN Document Server

    Misa, Thomas J

    2010-01-01

    The computing profession is facing a serious gender crisis. Women are abandoning the computing field at an alarming rate. Fewer are entering the profession than anytime in the past twenty-five years, while too many are leaving the field in mid-career. With a maximum of insight and a minimum of jargon, Gender Codes explains the complex social and cultural processes at work in gender and computing today. Edited by Thomas Misa and featuring a Foreword by Linda Shafer, Chair of the IEEE Computer Society Press, this insightful collection of essays explores the persisting gender imbalance in computing and presents a clear course of action for turning things around.

  4. Take It, Leave It, Fold It

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elias, Camelia

    2008-01-01

    This introduction to the volume sets the tone for a reading experience of Federman's works. Since the early 60s, Raymond Federman has been one of the most important American writers. In his highly experimental fictions, in works that bear such titles as Take It or Leave It, Double or Nothing......, and The Twofold Vibrations, he has explored cultural and personal memory, invented intricate narrative strategies, and above all has given readers an experience that exceeds the ordinary. Creating situations that make one really think and really laugh is a tall order for any writer. But Federman did it. He is one...

  5. Flavonoids from the Leaves of Impatiens bicolor

    OpenAIRE

    TAHIR, Aurangzeb HASAN and Muhammad Nawaz

    2005-01-01

    Three new flavanone glycosides, naringenin 4'-O-b-D-glucuronopyranoside, naringenin 4'-O-a-L rham\\-nopyranoside and naringenin 4'-O-b-D-xylopyranoside, were characterized from the leaves of Impatiens bicolor, together with 6 known glycosides: naringenin 4'-O-b-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol 7-O-b-D-glucuronopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-b-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol 5-O-b-D-xylopyranoside, kaempferol 3-O-b-D-galactopyranoside and kaempferol 7-O-b-D-xylopyranoside. The...

  6. Flavonoids from the Leaves of Impatiens bicolor

    OpenAIRE

    TAHIR, Aurangzeb HASAN and Muhammad Nawaz; HASAN, Aurangzeb

    2014-01-01

    Three new flavanone glycosides, naringenin 4'-O-b-D-glucuronopyranoside, naringenin 4'-O-a-L rham\\-nopyranoside and naringenin 4'-O-b-D-xylopyranoside, were characterized from the leaves of Impatiens bicolor, together with 6 known glycosides: naringenin 4'-O-b-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol 7-O-b-D-glucuronopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-b-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol 5-O-b-D-xylopyranoside, kaempferol 3-O-b-D-galactopyranoside and kaempferol 7-O-b-D-xylo...

  7. Terpenoid constituents from leaves of Guarea kunthiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcez, Fernanda R.; Garcez, Walmir S.; Bazzo, Rita de Cassia; Silva, Ana Francisca G. da; Resende, Ubirazilda M.

    2004-01-01

    From leaves of Guarea kunthiana one new kaurene diterpene (ent-kaur-16-en-2-one) was isolated along with eight known diterpenes (ent-kaur-16-ene, ent-3α- and 3β-hydroxykaur-16-ene, kolavelool, kolavenol, kolavenal, ent-13-epi-manoyloxide and (-)-nephthenol), four sesquiterpenes (alismol, alismoxide, spathulenol and 4β,10α-aromadendranediol), polyprenol-12 and α- and δ-tocopherols. Kolavenal is reported for the first time as a natural product, as well as the occurrence of cembrane- and ent-kaurane-type diterpenes in the Meliaceae. (author)

  8. Flavones from the leaves of Ficus gomelleira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaral Daniel F.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new flavones, 5 -hydroxy -7,5' -dimethoxy -3',4' -methylenedioxyflavone and 5 -hydroxy -7,3',5' -trimethoxy -4' -(3,3 -dimethylallyloxy flavone, as well as three known flavones: 5,6,7,3',4',5' -hexamethoxyflavone, 5 -hydroxy -8,3',4' -trimethoxy -2'',2'' -dimethylpyrano (5",6":6,7 -flavone and 5 -hydroxy -8,3',4',5' -tetramethoxy -2'',2'' -dimethylpyrano (5",6":6,7 -flavone were isolated from the leaves of Ficus gomelleira. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and comparison with literature data.

  9. Antidiabetic activities of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Piper betle leaves in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arambewela, L S R; Arawwawala, L D A M; Ratnasooriya, W D

    2005-11-14

    Leaves of Piper betle (Piperaceae) possess several bioactivities and are used in traditional medicinal systems. However, its antidiabetic activity has not been scientifically investigated so far. The aim of this study therefore, was to investigate the antidiabetic activity of Piper betle leaves. This was tested in normoglycaemic and strepozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats using oral administration of hot water extract (HWE) and cold ethanolic extract (CEE). In normoglycaemic rats, both HWE and CEE significantly lowered the blood glucose level in a dose-dependent manner. In glucose tolerance test, both extracts markedly reduced the external glucose load. The antidiabetic activity of HWE is comparable to that of CEE. Moreover, HWE failed to inhibit the glucose absorption from the small intestine of rats. Both extracts were found to be non-toxic and well tolerated after following chronic oral administration (no overt signs of toxicity, hepatotoxicity or renotoxicity). However, the weight of the spleen had increased in treated groups possibly indicating lymphoproliferative activity. It is concluded that HWE and CEE of Piper betle leaves possess safe and strong antidiabetic activity.

  10. Effect of xanthophyll composition on the chlorophyll excited state lifetime in plant leaves and isolated LHCII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Matthew P.; Zia, Ahmad; Horton, Peter; Ruban, Alexander V.

    2010-01-01

    Xanthophyll excited states have been implicated by transient absorption and two-photon excitation studies in playing a key role in the regulation of photosynthetic light harvesting via photoprotective energy dissipation. For any proposed quenching mechanism to be effective it must reduce the chlorophyll excited state lifetime from 2 ns to ∼0.5-0.4 ns. In the presented study the effect of xanthophyll composition on the chlorophyll excited state lifetime in Arabidopsis leaves in the light harvesting (F m ) and photoprotective (NPQ) states was determined. The data was compared to the chlorophyll excited state lifetime of native isolated LHCII and CP26 in detergent micelles with varying xanthophyll composition. It was found that although the differences in xanthophyll composition between LHC complexes from various Arabidopsis mutants were sufficient to explain the varying F m lifetime (and varying PSII efficiency), they were not of a sufficient scale to fully explain the observed differences in the NPQ lifetimes. Only when the LHC complexes were exposed to a low detergent/low pH media, a condition known to mimic the conformational state of LHCII associated with NPQ in vivo, were variations in excited state lifetime large enough to explain the differences observed in leaves. Furthermore, the data reveal that the replacement of lutein by either zeaxanthin or violaxanthin in the internal xanthophyll binding sites of LHCII and CP26 reduces the efficiency of energy dissipation in the photoprotective state in leaves and isolated complexes.

  11. Effect of Light Quality on Stomatal Opening in Leaves of Xanthium strumarium L. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Thomas D.; Raschke, Klaus

    1981-01-01

    Flux response curves were determined at 16 wavelengths of light for the conductance for water vapor of the lower epidermis of detached leaves of Xanthium strumarium L. An action spectrum of stomatal opening resulted in which blue light (wavelengths between 430 and 460 nanometers) was nearly ten times more effective than red light (wavelengths between 630 and 680 nanometers) in producing a conductance of 15 centimoles per square meter per second. Stomata responded only slightly to green light. An action spectrum of stomatal responses to red light corresponded to that of CO2 assimilation; the inhibitors of photosynthetic electron transport, cyanazine (2-chloro-4[1-cyano-1-methylethylamino]-6-ethylamino-s-triazine) and 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea, eliminated the response to red light. This indicates that light absorption by chlorophyll is the cause of stomatal sensitivity to red light. Determination of flux response curves on leaves in the normal position (upper epidermis facing the light) or in the inverted position (lower epidermis facing the light) led to the conclusion that the photoreceptors for blue as well as for red light are located on or near the surfaces of the leaves; presumably they are in the guard cells themselves. PMID:16662069

  12. Effect of Light Quality on Stomatal Opening in Leaves of Xanthium strumarium L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, T D; Raschke, K

    1981-11-01

    Flux response curves were determined at 16 wavelengths of light for the conductance for water vapor of the lower epidermis of detached leaves of Xanthium strumarium L. An action spectrum of stomatal opening resulted in which blue light (wavelengths between 430 and 460 nanometers) was nearly ten times more effective than red light (wavelengths between 630 and 680 nanometers) in producing a conductance of 15 centimoles per square meter per second. Stomata responded only slightly to green light. An action spectrum of stomatal responses to red light corresponded to that of CO(2) assimilation; the inhibitors of photosynthetic electron transport, cyanazine (2-chloro-4[1-cyano-1-methylethylamino]-6-ethylamino-s-triazine) and 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea, eliminated the response to red light. This indicates that light absorption by chlorophyll is the cause of stomatal sensitivity to red light. Determination of flux response curves on leaves in the normal position (upper epidermis facing the light) or in the inverted position (lower epidermis facing the light) led to the conclusion that the photoreceptors for blue as well as for red light are located on or near the surfaces of the leaves; presumably they are in the guard cells themselves.

  13. Assessment of atmospheric pollution level using Asclepias procera leaves as biomonitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daud, M.; Khalid, N.; Ahmad, S. [Pakistan Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan). Nuclear Chemistry Div.; Iqbal, J. [University of the Punjab, Lahore (Pakistan). Inst. of Chemistry

    2007-07-01

    The potential of Asclepias procera plant leaves as biomonitor for air pollution monitoring has been explored by analyzing 36 elements in the leaf samples employing Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectrometric (AAS) techniques. The leaf samples were collected in summer and winter seasons from urban areas of Islamabad with different anthropogenic activities as well as from a rural area as a reference site. The soil samples of the respective sites were also analyzed. The reliability of the methods used was established by analyzing the certified reference materials under identical experimental conditions and comparing the results obtained with the certified values, which are in quite good agreement with each other. Pollution Load Index (PLI) of the determined elements was computed and is discussed accordingly. The uptake of metals from soil to roots, stem and leaves has also been investigated by analyzing these parts of the same plant. The results suggest that the leaves of Asclepias procera plant have a good potential to indicate the air pollution levels both in the vicinity of industrial as well as near roadside areas. (orig.)

  14. Assessment of atmospheric pollution level using Asclepias procera leaves as biomonitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daud, M.; Khalid, N.; Ahmad, S.; Iqbal, J.

    2007-01-01

    The potential of Asclepias procera plant leaves as biomonitor for air pollution monitoring has been explored by analyzing 36 elements in the leaf samples employing Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectrometric (AAS) techniques. The leaf samples were collected in summer and winter seasons from urban areas of Islamabad with different anthropogenic activities as well as from a rural area as a reference site. The soil samples of the respective sites were also analyzed. The reliability of the methods used was established by analyzing the certified reference materials under identical experimental conditions and comparing the results obtained with the certified values, which are in quite good agreement with each other. Pollution Load Index (PLI) of the determined elements was computed and is discussed accordingly. The uptake of metals from soil to roots, stem and leaves has also been investigated by analyzing these parts of the same plant. The results suggest that the leaves of Asclepias procera plant have a good potential to indicate the air pollution levels both in the vicinity of industrial as well as near roadside areas. (orig.)

  15. Morus nigra plant leaves as biomonitor for elemental air pollution monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daud, M.; Khalid, N.; Waheed, S.; Wasim, M.; Arif, M.; Zaidi, J.H. [Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan). Chemistry Div.

    2011-07-01

    The present paper deals with the determination of 36 elements in 120 leaf samples of Morus nigra plant to assess their potential as biomonitor for elemental air pollution monitoring. The elemental quantification was made by employing Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectrometric (AAS) techniques. The leaf samples were collected in spring, summer and winter seasons from various sites in Islamabad with different types of anthropogenic activities as well as from a reference site with minimum of such activities. Twenty four soil samples from the respective sites were also analyzed. The reliability of the adopted procedures was established by analyzing the certified reference materials, i.e., citrus leaves-1572 and soil-7, from NIST and IAEA, respectively, under identical experimental conditions and comparing the results obtained with the certified values which are in quite good agreement with each other. The enrichment values and Pollution Load Index (PLI) of the determined elements were computed and discussed accordingly. The elemental translocation from soil to roots, stem and leaves has also been studied by analyzing these parts of the same plant. The results indicated that the leaves of Morus nigra plant have promising potential to monitor the extent of air pollution in the vicinity of industrial as well as in high traffic areas. (orig.)

  16. HPLC determination of phenolic acids, flavonoids and juglone in walnut leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, Violeta; Trandafir, Ion; Cosmulescu, Sina

    2013-10-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method with gradient elution and diode-array detection was developed to quantify free phenolic acids (gallic, vanillic, chlorogenic, caffeic, syringic, p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapic, salycilic, elagic and trans-cinnamic), flavonoids (catechin, epicatechin, rutin, myricetin and quercetin) and juglone in walnut leaves. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Hypersil Gold C18 column (5 µm particle size, 250 × 4.6 mm) and detection was conducted at three different wavelengths (254, 278 and 300 nm) according to the absorption maxima of the analyzed compounds. Validation procedures were conducted and the method was proven to be precise, accurate and sensitive. The developed method has been applied to analyze walnut leaves samples from nine different cultivars, with the same agricultural, geographical and climatic conditions. The experimental results revealed high concentrations of myricetin, catechin hydrate and rutin, and low concentrations of quercetin and epicatechin aglycones. Ellagic acid was established as the dominating phenolic acid of walnut leaves, followed by trans-cinnamic, chlorogenic and caffeic acids. Juglone content varied between 44.55 and 205.12 mg/100 g fresh weight. Significant differences were detected among cultivars for the concentration levels of phenolics.

  17. Laboratory and Airborne BRDF Analysis of Vegetation Leaves and Soil Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Georgi T.; Gatebe, Charles K.; Butler, James J.; King, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory-based Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) analysis of vegetation leaves, soil, and leaf litter samples is presented. The leaf litter and soil samples, numbered 1 and 2, were obtained from a site located in the savanna biome of South Africa (Skukuza: 25.0degS, 31.5degE). A third soil sample, number 3, was obtained from Etosha Pan, Namibia (19.20degS, 15.93degE, alt. 1100 m). In addition, BRDF of local fresh and dry leaves from tulip tree (Liriodendron tulipifera) and acacia tree (Acacia greggii) were studied. It is shown how the BRDF depends on the incident and scatter angles, sample size (i.e. crushed versus whole leaf,) soil samples fraction size, sample status (i.e. fresh versus dry leaves), vegetation species (poplar versus acacia), and vegetation s biochemical composition. As a demonstration of the application of the results of this study, airborne BRDF measurements acquired with NASA's Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) over the same general site where the soil and leaf litter samples were obtained are compared to the laboratory results. Good agreement between laboratory and airborne measured BRDF is reported.

  18. Sick Leave and Factors Influencing Sick Leave in Adult Patients with Atopic Dermatitis : A Cross-Sectional Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Os-Medendorp, Harmieke; Appelman-Noordermeer, Simone; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla A.F.M.; de Bruin-Weller, MS

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the prevalence of sick leave due to atopic dermatitis (AD). The current literature on factors influencing sick leave is mostly derived from other chronic inflammatory diseases. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sick leave due to AD and to identify

  19. Work-family balance after childbirth: the association between employer-offered leave characteristics and maternity leave duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guendelman, Sylvia; Goodman, Julia; Kharrazi, Martin; Lahiff, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    Early return to work after childbirth has been increasing among working mothers in the US. We assessed the relationship between access to employer-offered maternity leave (EOML) (both paid and unpaid) and uptake and duration of maternity leave following childbirth in a socio-economically diverse sample of full-time working women. We focus on California, a state that has long provided more generous maternity leave benefits than those offered by federal maternity leave policies through the State Disability Insurance program. The sample included 691 mothers who gave birth in Southern California in 2002-2003. Using weighted logistic regression, we examined the EOML-maternity leave duration relationship, controlling for whether the leave was paid, as well as other occupational, personality and health-related covariates. Compared with mothers who were offered more than 12 weeks of maternity leave, mothers with leave had six times higher odds of an early return. These relationships were similar after controlling for whether the leave was paid and after controlling for other occupational and health characteristics. Access to and duration of employer-offered maternity leave significantly determine timing of return to work following childbirth, potentially affecting work-family balance. Policy makers should recognize the pivotal role of employers in offering job security during and after maternity leave and consider widening the eligibility criteria of the Family and Medical Leave Act.

  20. Parental Leave and Children's Schooling Outcomes: Quasi-Experimental Evidence from a Large Parental Leave Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Danzer; Victor Lavy

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the question whether long-term human capital outcomes are affected by the duration of maternity leave, i.e. by the time mothers spend at home with their newborn before returning to work. Employing RD and difference-in-difference approaches, this paper exploits an unanticipated reform in Austria which extended the maximum duration of paid and job protected parental leave from 12 to 24 months for children born on July 1, 1990 or later. We use test scores from the Austria...

  1. Elemental contents in leaves and bark of neem (Azadirachta Indica) - a versatile medicinal plant by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, A.N.; Verma, Kavita; Choudhury, R.P.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Azadirachta Indica, commonly known as neem touches the daily life of every Indian as all of its parts are widely used. Neem leaves are used as insecticide and antiseptic whereas its extracts and oil are clinically effective in curing eczema and other skin diseases. Fresh leaves and bark of Neem (Azadirachta Indica) collected from different locations in Roorkee were analyzed for 7 minor (Al, Ca, CI, K, Mg, Na and P) and 15 trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hg, Mn, Rb, Sb, Sm, Th, V and Zn) elements by short (1 min) and long (7 h) neutron irradiation neutron followed by high resolution γ-ray spectrometry. Also Ni, Cu, Cd and Pb were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). P was determined by counting the β-activity from 32 P using an end-window GM counter. Peach leaves (SRM 1547) from NIST, USA and Mixed Polish Herbs (MPH-2) from INCT, Poland were analyzed for data validation. Most elemental contents varied in a wide range. However, mean and median values in most cases are comparable. Elemental contents of V, Cr, Mn, Fe and Zn in leaves have been particularly attributed to its use in the treatment of diabetes. Linear correlations were observed between K and CI (r =0.96) and Rb and Cs (r = 0.97) in Neem leaves. Leaves were particularly enriched in K, Mg, Zn and Rb whereas bark was enriched in Ca, Mn and Fe. Petroleum ether extract of dried Neem leaves was analyzed for organic constituents; 1,1,2,3-tetramethyl cyclopropane, methyl phenyl sulfone, n-hexanedecanoic acid and 9,12,15-octadecatrienal in soluble fraction and bicyclo octa 1,3,5 triene 7-(3-butenyl) and 2-hydroxymethyl 1-methoxy 9,10 anthracenediene in insoluble fraction. Compounds were separated by column and thin layer chromatography and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)

  2. Ozone injury and infection of potato leaves by Botrytis cinerea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, W.J.; Feder, W.A.; Perkins, I.; Glickman, M.

    1969-09-01

    Symptoms of ozone injury were observed on older leaves of potato cultivars Norland and Katahdin under experimental conditions. This symptom expression closely resembled flecks observed on potato leaves also blighted by Botrytis cinerea in the field. Inoculation of ozone-injured and noninjured potato leaves with B. cinerea showed that infection was more rapid and disease development more severe on ozone-injured leaves. Infection was frequently observed to originate in ozone-injured leaf areas. Ozone injury, under experimental conditions, appeared to increase the susceptibility of potato leaves to infection by B. cinerea. 6 references.

  3. Maternity leave policies in academic and private radiology practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spirt, B.A.; Rauth, V.; Price, A.P.F.; Pagani, A.H.

    1988-01-01

    In 1987, the American Association of Women Radiologists surveyed both academic and private radiology departments regarding pregnancy and maternity leave policies. One hundred academic institutions (70% response), 30 radiotherapy departments (38% response), and 31 private practices responded. Details were obtained regarding maternity leave policy for residents and attending physicians; availability of paternity leave; policies regarding on-call time, fluoroscopy time and intracavitary/interstitial applications during pregnancy; and problems that occurred during resident or attending physician pregnancies. There was a wide range of responses regarding paid leave time, availability of additional time, and the use of vacation time during maternity leave

  4. Phytosterol glycosides reduce cholesterol absorption in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Xiaobo; Ma, Lina; Racette, Susan B.; Anderson Spearie, Catherine L.; Ostlund, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    Dietary phytosterols inhibit intestinal cholesterol absorption and regulate whole body cholesterol excretion and balance. However, they are biochemically heterogeneous and a portion is glycosylated in some foods with unknown effects on biological activity. We tested the hypothesis that phytosterol glycosides reduce cholesterol absorption in humans. Phytosterol glycosides were extracted and purified from soy lecithin in a novel two-step process. Cholesterol absorption was measured in a series ...

  5. Vitamin B12 absorption from eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doscherholmen, A; McMahon, J; Ripley, D

    1975-09-01

    The assimilation of 57Co B12 from in vivo labeled eggs was much inferior to that of a comparable amount of crystalline 57Co B12. Furthermore, the absorption varied with the form in which the eggs were served. Judged by the urinary excretion test and the plasma absorption of radioactivity the average absorption from boiled and fried eggs was more than twice that from scrambled whole eggs, but less than half that absorbed from crystalline 57Co B12.

  6. Flame emission, atomic absorption and fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horlick, G.

    1980-01-01

    Six hundred and thirty references are cited in this review. The information in the review is divided into 12 major areas: books, reviews, and bibliographies; fundamental studies in flames; developments in instrumentation; measurement techniques and procedure; flame emission spectrometry; flame atomic absorption spectrometry; flame molecular absorption spectrometry; electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectroscopy; hydride generation techniques; graphite furnace atomic emission spectrometry; atomic fluorescence spectrometry; and analytical comparisons

  7. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaves of Stevia rebaudiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, M.; Turkdemir, H.; Kilic, M. Akif; Bayram, E.; Cicek, A.; Mete, A.; Ulug, B.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaves of Stevia Rebaudiana. → Spherical and polydispersed nanoparticles with diameters below 50 nm. → Interplay of nanoparticle formation and aggregation over time. → Capping reagents similar to those in gold synthesis via the same biomass. → Ketones to play active roles in the reduction of silver ions. - Abstract: The synthesis of silver nanoparticles employing a shadow-dried Stevia rebaudiana leaf extract in AgNO 3 solution is reported. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction inspections indicate that nanoparticles are spherical and polydispersed with diameters ranging between 2 and 50 nm with a maximum at 15 nm. Ultraviolet-visible spectra recorded against the reaction time confirms the reduction of silver nanoparticles indicating that the formation and the aggregation of nanoparticles take place shortly after the mixing, as they persist concurrently with characteristic times of 48.5 min and 454.5 min, respectively. Aggregation is found to be the dominant mechanism after the first 73 min. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum of the silver nanoparticles reveals the existence of aliphatic, alcoholic and olefinic CH 2 and CH 3 groups, as well as some aromatic compounds but no sign of aldehydes or carboxylic acids. Infrared absorption of the silver nanoparticles suggests that the capping reagents of silver and gold nanoparticles reduced in plant extracts/broths are of the same chemical composition of different ratios. Ketones are shown to play a somehow active role for the formation of nanoparticles in plant extracts/broths.

  8. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaves of Stevia rebaudiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, M. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Bartin University, Bartin (Turkey); Turkdemir, H. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Uludag University, 16059 Goeruekle, Bursa (Turkey); Kilic, M. Akif [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Akdeniz University, Campus 07058, Antalya (Turkey); Bayram, E. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Akdeniz University, Campus 07058, Antalya (Turkey); Cicek, A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Mehmet Akif Ersoy University, 15100 Burdur (Turkey); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Akdeniz University, Campus 07058, Antalya (Turkey); Mete, A. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Inonu University, Malatya (Turkey); Ulug, B., E-mail: bulug@akdeniz.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Akdeniz University, Campus 07058, Antalya (Turkey)

    2011-11-01

    Highlights: {yields} Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaves of Stevia Rebaudiana. {yields} Spherical and polydispersed nanoparticles with diameters below 50 nm. {yields} Interplay of nanoparticle formation and aggregation over time. {yields} Capping reagents similar to those in gold synthesis via the same biomass. {yields} Ketones to play active roles in the reduction of silver ions. - Abstract: The synthesis of silver nanoparticles employing a shadow-dried Stevia rebaudiana leaf extract in AgNO{sub 3} solution is reported. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction inspections indicate that nanoparticles are spherical and polydispersed with diameters ranging between 2 and 50 nm with a maximum at 15 nm. Ultraviolet-visible spectra recorded against the reaction time confirms the reduction of silver nanoparticles indicating that the formation and the aggregation of nanoparticles take place shortly after the mixing, as they persist concurrently with characteristic times of 48.5 min and 454.5 min, respectively. Aggregation is found to be the dominant mechanism after the first 73 min. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum of the silver nanoparticles reveals the existence of aliphatic, alcoholic and olefinic CH{sub 2} and CH{sub 3} groups, as well as some aromatic compounds but no sign of aldehydes or carboxylic acids. Infrared absorption of the silver nanoparticles suggests that the capping reagents of silver and gold nanoparticles reduced in plant extracts/broths are of the same chemical composition of different ratios. Ketones are shown to play a somehow active role for the formation of nanoparticles in plant extracts/broths.

  9. Emission and Absorption Entropy Generation in Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reck, Kasper; Varpula, Aapo; Prunnila, Mika

    2013-01-01

    While emission and absorption entropy generation is well known in black bodies, it has not previously been studied in semiconductors, even though semiconductors are widely used for solar light absorption in modern solar cells [1]. We present an analysis of the entropy generation in semiconductor...... materials due to emission and absorption of electromagnetic radiation. It is shown that the emission and absorption entropy generation reduces the fundamental limit on the efficiency of any semiconductor solar cell even further than the Landsberg limit. The results are derived from purely thermodynamical...

  10. X-ray absorption in atomic potassium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomilsek, Jana Padeznik; Kodre, Alojz; Arcon, Iztok; Nemanic, Vincenc

    2008-01-01

    A new high-temperature absorption cell for potassium vapor is described. X-ray absorption coefficient of atomic potassium is determined in the energy interval of 600 eV above the K edge where thresholds for simultaneous excitations of 1s and outer electrons, down to [1s2p] excitation, appear. The result represents also the atomic absorption background for XAFS (X-ray absorption fine structure) structure analysis. The K ionization energy in the potassium vapor is determined and compared with theoretical data and with the value for the metal

  11. Research of photoinduced potentials of pepper leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Chernetchenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioelectrical potentials of the plants during photostimulation with various intensity values and wave lengths are studied. Suchstimulation provides light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis. The universal scheme of registration of bioelectric potentials, which allowsto carry out the experimental study of light stimuli effect on the plant is proposed. All registrations of potentials are observed on the pepper leaves. Photoinduced stimuli are different with intensity changed from 150 to 450 lux and different spectrums of white light and red light with wave length 690 nm. Different parameters of stimuli drive to different types of biopotentials of the plant, quantitative and qualitative relationships of this process are obtained. It is also found that bioelectrical reaction of the leaves is quantitatively different in various spectral ranges of light, but the quality remains the same for all cases, as shown in the study of bioelectric responses during exposure to the light in red spectrum range. The explanation of the additional depolarization phase that occurs during the running of dark reparative process of photosynthesis is given. Light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis are accompanied by significant changes in the electrical potential of chloroplasts’ membrane. Besides, the dependence of bioelectrical reaction of the plant on different spectra of light is found. By this way, biophysical relation of plant potentials to the intracellular biophysical mechanisms during photo stimulation is obtained.

  12. Enhancing Water Evaporation with Floating Synthetic Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boreyko, Jonathan; Vieitez, Joshua; Berrier, Austin; Roseveare, Matthew; Shi, Weiwei

    2017-11-01

    When a wetted nanoporous medium is exposed to a subsaturated ambient environment, the water menisci assume a concave curvature to achieve a negative pressure. This negative water pressure is required to balance the mismatch in water activity across the water-air interface to achieve local equilibrium. Here, we show that the diffusive evaporation rate of water can be greatly modulated by floating a nanoporous synthetic leaf at the water's free interface. For high ambient humidities, adding the leaf serves to enhance the evaporation rate, presumably by virtue of the menisci enhancing the effective liquid-vapor surface area. For low humidities, the menisci cannot achieve a local equilibrium and retreat partway into the leaf, which increases the local humidity directly above the menisci. In light of these two effects, we find the surprising result that leaves exposed to an ambient humidity of 90 percent can evaporate water at the same rate as leaves exposed to only 50 percent humidity. These findings have implications for using synthetic trees to enhance steam generation or water harvesting. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation (CBET-1653631).

  13. The Length of Maternity Leave and Family Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beuchert-Pedersen, Louise Voldby; Humlum, Maria Knoth; Vejlin, Rune Majlund

    We study the relationship between the length of maternity leave and the physical and psychological health of the family. Using a reform of the parental leave scheme in Denmark that increased the number of weeks of leave with full benefit compensation, we estimate the effect of the lenght...... of maternity leave on a range of health indicators including the number of hospital admissions for both mother and child and the probability of the mother receiving antidepressants. The reform led to an increase in average post-birth maternity leave matters for child or maternal health outcomes and thus we...... complement the existing evidence on maternity leave expansions that tends to find limited effects on children's later deveopmental, educational, and labor market outcomes. Our results suggest that any beneficial effects of increasing the lenght of maternity leave are greater for low-resource families....

  14. Particulate absorption properties in the Red Sea from hyperspectral particulate absorption spectra

    KAUST Repository

    Tiwari, Surya Prakash; Zarokanellos, Nikolaos; Kheireddine, Malika; Shanmugam, Palanisamy; Jones, Burton

    2018-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the variability of particulate absorption properties using a unique hyperspectral dataset collected in the Red Sea as part of the TARA Oceans expedition. The absorption contributions by phytoplankton (aph) and non

  15. Influence of soil and agricultural technique in metal absorption by vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, K. Dias da; Cazicava, J.; Coelho, M.; Dalia, K.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work is to verify the influence of soil and agricultural techniques in the metal absorption by the vegetables. Metal concentrations were evaluated in soil and vegetable samples from different regions and cultivated by different agricultural techniques. PIXE, 252 Cf-PDMS and Radiochemical techniques were applied. Si, Zr, Ce, Th and Pb, identified in soil samples, were not biologically available. Ga, Ge, As and Br, identified in tubercles, show that spray pesticides used on the vegetable leaves were absorbed by them. 232 Th and 238 U, presented in the soil, were not absorbed by the vegetables. Airborne particles from anthropogenic sources (CFn, VCn) were absorbed by the vegetables. Compounds from mineral sources, presented in soil, (V + , VCO 3 , HPO 4 , Cr + , CrOH + Mn + , FeH, Fe(OH) n ) and bioorganic compounds (N + , Ca(CN) n +, CnH + ) were identified in the vegetables. Metal absorbed by the vegetables is not dependent on metal concentration in soil. Different tubercles cultivated in the same soil show similar metal absorption. The exogenous contributions, such as the elements presented in water irrigation, pesticides, fertilizers and airborne particles deposited on leaves can be absorbed by the vegetables. Absorption by the roots depends on the chemical compound of the elements. Pesticide sprays and air pollution can cause more contamination in the vegetables than in the soil. The use of this methodology allows the identification of possible sources of metals in soils and in vegetables and metal speciation. (author)

  16. Infrared multiphoton absorption and decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.K.; McAlpine, R.D.

    1984-01-01

    The discovery of infrared laser induced multiphoton absorption (IRMPA) and decomposition (IRMPD) by Isenor and Richardson in 1971 generated a great deal of interest in these phenomena. This interest was increased with the discovery by Ambartzumian, Letokhov, Ryadbov and Chekalin that isotopically selective IRMPD was possible. One of the first speculations about these phenomena was that it might be possible to excite a particular mode of a molecule with the intense infrared laser beam and cause decomposition or chemical reaction by channels which do not predominate thermally, thus providing new synthetic routes for complex chemicals. The potential applications to isotope separation and novel chemistry stimulated efforts to understand the underlying physics and chemistry of these processes. At ICOMP I, in 1977 and at ICOMP II in 1980, several authors reviewed the current understandings of IRMPA and IRMPD as well as the particular aspect of isotope separation. There continues to be a great deal of effort into understanding IRMPA and IRMPD and we will briefly review some aspects of these efforts with particular emphasis on progress since ICOMP II. 31 references

  17. Influenza in workplaces: transmission, workers' adherence to sick leave advice and European sick leave recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Christina Hansen; Tomba, Gianpaolo Scalia; de Blasio, Birgitte Freiesleben

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge about influenza transmission in the workplace and whether staying home from work when experiencing influenza-like illness can reduce the spread of influenza is crucial for the design of efficient public health initiatives. This review synthesizes current literature on sickness presenteeism and influenza transmission in the workplace and provides an overview of sick leave recommendations in Europe for influenza. A search was performed on Medline, Embase, PsychINFO, Cinahl, Web of Science, Scopus and SweMed to identify studies related to workplace contacts, -transmission, -interventions and compliance with recommendations to take sick leave. A web-based survey on national recommendations and policies for sick leave during influenza was issued to 31 European countries. Twenty-two articles (9 surveys; 13 modelling articles) were eligible for this review. Results from social mixing studies suggest that 20-25% of weekly contacts are made in the workplace, while modelling studies suggest that on average 16% (range 9-33%) of influenza transmission occurs in the workplace. The effectiveness of interventions to reduce workplace presenteeism is largely unknown. Finally, estimates from studies reporting expected compliance with sick leave recommendations ranged from 71 to 95%. Overall, 18 countries participated in the survey of which nine (50%) had issued recommendations encouraging sick employees to stay at home during the 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic, while only one country had official recommendations for seasonal influenza. During the 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic, many European countries recommended ill employees to take sick leave. Further research is warranted to quantify the effect of reduced presenteeism during influenza illness. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  18. Influenza in workplaces: transmission, workers’ adherence to sick leave advice and European sick leave recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomba, Gianpaolo Scalia; de Blasio, Birgitte Freiesleben

    2016-01-01

    Background: Knowledge about influenza transmission in the workplace and whether staying home from work when experiencing influenza-like illness can reduce the spread of influenza is crucial for the design of efficient public health initiatives. Aim: This review synthesizes current literature on sickness presenteeism and influenza transmission in the workplace and provides an overview of sick leave recommendations in Europe for influenza. Methods: A search was performed on Medline, Embase, PsychINFO, Cinahl, Web of Science, Scopus and SweMed to identify studies related to workplace contacts, -transmission, -interventions and compliance with recommendations to take sick leave. A web-based survey on national recommendations and policies for sick leave during influenza was issued to 31 European countries. Results: Twenty-two articles (9 surveys; 13 modelling articles) were eligible for this review. Results from social mixing studies suggest that 20–25% of weekly contacts are made in the workplace, while modelling studies suggest that on average 16% (range 9–33%) of influenza transmission occurs in the workplace. The effectiveness of interventions to reduce workplace presenteeism is largely unknown. Finally, estimates from studies reporting expected compliance with sick leave recommendations ranged from 71 to 95%. Overall, 18 countries participated in the survey of which nine (50%) had issued recommendations encouraging sick employees to stay at home during the 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic, while only one country had official recommendations for seasonal influenza. Conclusions: During the 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic, many European countries recommended ill employees to take sick leave. Further research is warranted to quantify the effect of reduced presenteeism during influenza illness. PMID:27060594

  19. A Low-Cost Quantitative Absorption Spectrophotometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Daniel R.; Todt, Michael A.; Davis, H. Floyd

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to make absorption spectrophotometry available to high school chemistry and physics classes, we have designed an inexpensive visible light absorption spectrophotometer. The spectrophotometer was constructed using LEGO blocks, a light emitting diode, optical elements (including a lens), a slide-mounted diffraction grating, and a…

  20. Spectral interferences in atomic absorption spectrometry, (5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daidoji, Hidehiro

    1979-01-01

    Spectral interferences were observed in trace element analysis of concentrated solutions by atomic absorption spectrometry. Molecular absorption and emission spectra for strontium chloride and nitrate, barium chloride and nitrate containing 12 mg/ml of metal ion in airacetylene flame were measured in the wavelength range from 200 to 700 nm. The absorption and emission spectra of SrO were centered near 364.6 nm. The absorption spectra of SrOH around 606.0, 671.0 and 682.0 nm were very strong. And, emission spectrum of BaOH in the wavelength range from 480 to 550 nm was stronger. But, the absorption of this band spectrum was very weak. In the wavelength range from 200 to 400 nm, some unknown bands of absorption were observed for strontium and barium. Absorption spectra of SrCl and BaCl were observed in the argon-hydrogen flame. Also, in the carbon tube atomizer, the absorption spectra of SrCl and BaCl were detected clearly in the wavelength range from 185 to 400 nm. (author)

  1. Process for neptunium analysis by absorption spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    An aqueous solution of a neptunium compounds is treated by a reagent, preferentially a vanadyl sulfate oxidized by cerium IV ions, to obtain neptunium V by oxidation of neptunium IV and reduction of neptunium VI. The reagent is chosen for a negligible absorption at the wavelength used for neptunium V absorption spectrophotometry for instance 981 nm [fr

  2. Photoelectric absorption cross sections with variable abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balucinska-Church, Monika; Mccammon, Dan

    1992-01-01

    Polynomial fit coefficients have been obtained for the energy dependences of the photoelectric absorption cross sections of 17 astrophysically important elements. These results allow the calculation of X-ray absorption in the energy range 0.03-10 keV in material with noncosmic abundances.

  3. Anomalous infrared absorption in granular superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, G.L.; Garland, J.C.; Tanner, D.B.

    1983-01-01

    Granular superconductors are shown to have a far-infrared absorption that is larger when the samples are superconducting than when they are normal. By constrast, theoretical models for these materials predict that when the samples become superconducting, the absorption should decrease

  4. Cimetidine absorption in humans during sucralfate coadministration.

    OpenAIRE

    D'Angio, R; Mayersohn, M; Conrad, K A; Bliss, M

    1986-01-01

    Cimetidine absorption after a single 300 mg oral dose was evaluated in six normal subjects in the absence or presence of sucralfate. Sucralfate was ingested four times a day for 2 days prior to and for two additional doses on the day of cimetidine ingestion. Sucralfate coadministration had no statistically significant influence on the rate or extent of cimetidine absorption.

  5. Ultrafast THz Saturable Absorption in Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Hoffmann, Matthias C.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate THz saturable absorption in n-doped semiconductors GaAs, GaP, and Ge in a nonlinear THz time-domain spectroscopy experiment. Saturable absorption is caused by sample conductivity modulation due to electron heating and satellite valley scattering in the field of a strong THz pulse....

  6. Unveiling the Microfoundations of Absorptive Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Distel, Andreas Philipp

    2017-01-01

    to absorptive capacity at the organizational level and that this relationship is mediated through a microlevel process. The findings reveal that knowledge workers’ cognitive process of perspective taking and their creative behavior are important microfoundations of absorptive capacity. Moreover, the results...... emphasize the critical role of key employees in explaining firm-level heterogeneity in building organizational capabilities....

  7. Oligofructose stimulates calcium absorption in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, E.G.H.M. van den; Muys, T.; Dokkum, W. van; Schaafsma, G.

    1999-01-01

    Background: In rats, nondigestible oligosaccharides stimulate calcium absorption. Recently, this effect was also found in human subjects. Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate whether consumption of 15 g oligofructose/d stimulates calcium absorption in male adolescents. Design:

  8. A transient absorption study of allophycocyanin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Transient dynamics of allophycocyanin trimers and monomers are observed by using the pump-probe, transient absorption technique. The origin of spectral components of the transient absorption spectra is discussed in terms of both kinetics and spectroscopy. We find that the energy gap between the ground and excited ...

  9. Maternity leave: existing policies in obstetrics and gynecology residency programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J L; Baillie, S; Hodgson, C S; Vontver, L; Platt, L D

    2001-12-01

    To survey program directors in obstetrics and gynecology regarding maternity leave and to determine how programs are dealing with maternity leave coverage. Questionnaires regarding impact and policy on maternity leave were mailed to accredited obstetrics and gynecology residency programs. A total of 188 of 274 (69%) questionnaires were returned completed. Respectively, 80% and 69% of respondents indicated that they have a formal maternity (maximum mean 8.7 weeks) and paternity (mean 5.27 days) leave policy. Approximately 75% of programs require residents to make up time if their leave exceeds 8 weeks during the first 3 years. Eighty-five percent of programs require residents to make up time if their leave exceeds 6 weeks during the fourth year. Ninety-three percent of programs require residents to make up time if their leave exceeds 20 weeks over the 4 years. Seventy-seven percent of respondents have other residents in their program cover for the absent resident. Thirty-seven percent of programs have schedules flexible enough to allow rearrangement so that some rotations go uncovered. Eighty-three percent of programs surveyed stated that maternity leave has a somewhat to very significant impact on the residents' schedules. Most residency programs have written maternity/paternity leave policies. A more flexible curriculum may help to accommodate the residents on leave without overburdening the residents who are left to cover.

  10. Flavonoids from leaves of Mauritia flexuosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djalma M. de Oliveira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The chromatographic fractionation of the Mauritia flexuosa L. f., Arecaceae, leaves extract, a plant known by the name of buriti palm tree, resulted in the isolation of six flavonoids: tricin-7-O-rutinoside, apigenin-6-C-arabinoside, 8-C-glucoside (isoschaftoside, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (nicotiflorine, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (rutin, luteolin-8-C-glucoside (orientin and luteolin-6-C-glucoside (isoorientin. The flavonoids were found out and previously reported as constituents of the Arecaceae family plants, but the occurrence of C-glucoside flavonoids, in the species being analyzed, is described for the first time on this study. The structural elucidations of all of the isolated compounds were performed by means of the comparison of their spectral data (¹H and 13C NMR, UV and ESI-MS with those ones of the literature.

  11. Absorption of controlled-release iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.D.; Lipschitz, D.A.; Skikne, B.S.

    1982-01-01

    A multiple-dose double radioiron technic was used to compare absorption of iron administered as a controlled release (CR) capsule and as an elixir; both formulations contained 50 mg elemental iron as ferrous sulfate. When taken by normal subjects in the fasting state, mean absorption from the elixir and CR capsule averaged 4.92% and 4.38%, which gave a CR capsule:elixir ratio of 0.89. This difference was not significant, but when taken with meals that inhibit absorption of dietary iron by different degrees, absorption of the CR formulation was superior. CR capsule:elixir absorption ratios averaged 1.70 from a meal that is mildly inhibitory and 3.13 from a meal that causes more marked inhibition. It is concluded that CR iron formulations may offer a therapeutic advantage to patients who take oral iron with meals to avoid gastrointestinal side effects

  12. Effects of Kaolin Application on Light Absorption and Distribution, Radiation Use Efficiency and Photosynthesis of Almond and Walnut Canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Adolfo; Metcalf, Samuel G.; Buchner, Richard P.; Fulton, Allan E.; Lampinen, Bruce D.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Kaolin applied as a suspension to plant canopies forms a film on leaves that increases reflection and reduces absorption of light. Photosynthesis of individual leaves is decreased while the photosynthesis of the whole canopy remains unaffected or even increases. This may result from a better distribution of light within the canopy following kaolin application, but this explanation has not been tested. The objective of this work was to study the effects of kaolin application on light distribution and absorption within tree canopies and, ultimately, on canopy photosynthesis and radiation use efficiency. Methods Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) incident on individual leaves within the canopy of almond (Prunus dulcis) and walnut (Juglans regia) trees was measured before and after kaolin application in order to study PAR distribution within the canopy. The PAR incident on, and reflected and transmitted by, the canopy was measured on the same day for kaolin-sprayed and control trees in order to calculate canopy PAR absorption. These data were then used to model canopy photosynthesis and radiation use efficiency by a simple method proposed in previous work, based on the photosynthetic response to incident PAR of a top-canopy leaf. Key Results Kaolin increased incident PAR on surfaces of inner-canopy leaves, although there was an estimated 20 % loss in PAR reaching the photosynthetic apparatus, due to increased reflection. Assuming a 20 % loss of PAR, modelled photosynthesis and photosynthetic radiation use efficiency (PRUE) of kaolin-coated leaves decreased by only 6·3 %. This was due to (1) more beneficial PAR distribution within the kaolin-sprayed canopy, and (2) with decreasing PAR, leaf photosynthesis decreases less than proportionally, due to the curvature of the photosynthesis response-curve to PAR. The relatively small loss in canopy PRUE (per unit of incident PAR), coupled with the increased incident PAR on the leaf surface on

  13. a Modeling Method of Fluttering Leaves Based on Point Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, J.; Wang, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Hao, W.; Ning, X.; Lv, K.; Shi, Z.; Zhao, M.

    2017-09-01

    Leaves falling gently or fluttering are common phenomenon in nature scenes. The authenticity of leaves falling plays an important part in the dynamic modeling of natural scenes. The leaves falling model has a widely applications in the field of animation and virtual reality. We propose a novel modeling method of fluttering leaves based on point cloud in this paper. According to the shape, the weight of leaves and the wind speed, three basic trajectories of leaves falling are defined, which are the rotation falling, the roll falling and the screw roll falling. At the same time, a parallel algorithm based on OpenMP is implemented to satisfy the needs of real-time in practical applications. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is amenable to the incorporation of a variety of desirable effects.

  14. A MODELING METHOD OF FLUTTERING LEAVES BASED ON POINT CLOUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Leaves falling gently or fluttering are common phenomenon in nature scenes. The authenticity of leaves falling plays an important part in the dynamic modeling of natural scenes. The leaves falling model has a widely applications in the field of animation and virtual reality. We propose a novel modeling method of fluttering leaves based on point cloud in this paper. According to the shape, the weight of leaves and the wind speed, three basic trajectories of leaves falling are defined, which are the rotation falling, the roll falling and the screw roll falling. At the same time, a parallel algorithm based on OpenMP is implemented to satisfy the needs of real-time in practical applications. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is amenable to the incorporation of a variety of desirable effects.

  15. Environmental samples analysis by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, I.V.; Iordan, M.; Stihi, C.; Bancuta, A.; Busuioc, G.; Dima, G.; Ciupina, V.; Belc, M.; Vlaicu, Gh.; Marian, R.

    2002-01-01

    Biological samples are interesting from many aspects of environmental monitoring. By analyzing tree leaves conclusions can be drown regarding the metal loading in the growth medium. So that, starting from assumption that the pollution factors from environmental medium can modify the normal concentration of elements, we decided to control the presence of toxic elements and the deviation from normal state of elements in leaves of different trees from areas situated at different distances of pollution source. The aim of this work is to determine the elemental composition of tree leaves using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) method and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) method. Using AAS spectrophotometer SHIMADZU we identified and determined the concentration of: Cd, Co, Cu, Zn, Mn, Cr, Fe, Se, Pb with an instrumental error less than 1% for most of the elements analyzed. The same samples were analyzed by ICP-OES spectrometer, BAIRD ICP2070-Sequential Plasma spectrometer. We identified and determined in leaves of different trees the concentration of Mg, Ca, and Sr with a precision less than 6%. (authors)

  16. Use of atomic absorption spectrometry in assessment of biomonitor plants for lead, cadmium and copper pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokce, Kaya; Mehmet, Yaman

    2012-01-01

    Eleven plant species were collected from the vicinity of lead-battery plant in the city of Gaziantep, Turkey. Lead, cadmium and copper concentrations in the soil and leaves of plants were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Lead, Cd and Cu concentrations in the soil samples taken from battery area were found to be in the ranges of 304-602, 0.4-0.44 and 31-37 mg x kg(-1), respectively. Significantly increased lead concentration up to 2 750 mg x kg(-1) was found in the leaves of Eleagnus angustifolia L. plant. The lead concentrations in the other plant leaves taken from 50 m around battery factory followed the order Ailanthus altissima > Morus sp. > Juglans regia L. > Ficus carica L. > Cydonia oblonga Miller > Prunus x domestica L. The plants, Populus nigra L. , Eleagnus angustifolia L. and Salix sp. were found useful for Cd, and the plant, Eleagnus angusti folia L. for Pb, to be considered as potential biomonitor. Especially, leaves of trees and plants taken from the distance of 50 m from battery plant have relatively higher Pb concentrations. Therefore, people who and animals which live in this area and benefit from these soil and plants have vital risks.

  17. Levels of trace elements in different varieties of wheat determined by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, A.E.; Taha, G.M.

    2003-01-01

    Trace elements Ag, Au, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn were determined in six wheat samples purchased from the open market in different localities (Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Oman, Dubai and Australia). The dried powdered samples were decomposed in HNO3-HClO4 acids mixtures and elements were determined using recording atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results were within the safety baseline of all the assayed elements. Certified biological standards, Brown's Kale (BK), Orchard Leaves (OL) and tomato leaves (TOML) were used to assure the accuracy of results. However, Co, Pb and Sr were absent from samples except the Egyptian samples. The obtained databases were statistically treated. Several significant and strong positive correlation coefficients (r=0.506-1.00) between the groups of elements were observed. On the other hand, strong negative correlations (r=0.492-0.873) between another group of elements were also shown. (author)

  18. Preliminary Study on Kinetic Solid-Liquid Extraction and Bio-Active Components Analysis of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiful Irwan Zubairi; Haizulizam Suradi; Syazwan Aizad Abdul Mutalib; Zetty Shafiqa Othman; Norshahida Bustaman; Wan Ros Maryana Wan Musa

    2014-01-01

    Hibiscus rosa-sinensis or commonly known as 'Hibiscus' is a kind of decorative flowers which often grown in a subtropical countries. This plant is often used in the preparation of traditional medicine because of its pharmacological properties that are capable of treating number of health problems. The plant contains several essential bio-active substances and nutrients especially in its flowers and leaves. One of the bioactive substances is β-sitosterol which is abundant in the leaf crude extract. Hibiscus leaves water extract yielded mucilage which is widely used in lowering high body temperature due to fever (antipyretic). Therefore, the main objective of this paper was to determine the maximum concentration of mucilage and time of exhaustive extraction from fresh and dried leaves using a Peleq's mathematical model. Moreover, several analyses were conducted such as qualitative analysis to determine the presence of bioactive substances using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and determination of functional groups by means of fourier transform infrared method (FTIR). Physical properties of the extracts were evaluated to determine its acidity and viscosity of the mucilage with respect to different shear stress. The result show that the extract of dried Hibiscus leaves exhibited high in its concentrations even though the achieved exhaustive extraction was relatively slow as compared to fresh leaves (p < 0.05). Based on the HPLC analysis, the main bio-active substances of β-sitosterol was only existed in fresh leaves samples. The absence of β-sitosterol in dried leaves extract was caused by the loss of other important bio-active substances which possess surfactant capability, due to thermal degradation of drying process or the component itself was deteriorated during the pre-preparation drying process. Furthermore, the FTIR analysis shows that the same composition of the absorption peaks for both extracts with the highest absorption of O-H bonds was

  19. Is part-time sick leave helping the unemployed?

    OpenAIRE

    Andrén, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    Using a discrete choice one-factor model, we estimate mean treatment parameters and distributional treatment parameters to analyze the effects of degree of sick leave on the probability of full recovery of lost work capacity for employed and unemployed individuals, respectively. Our results indicate that one year after the sick leave spell started, the average potential impact of part-time sick listing on an individual randomly chosen from the population on sick leave was positive for both gr...

  20. Chemical composition on cacao leaves infected by viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, M.; Delilah, M.; Syafrul, L.; Suryadi.

    1980-01-01

    Chemical analysis on cacao leaves that have chlorosis spots caused by cocoa swollen shoot viruses were carried out. It can be shown that leaves with chlorosis spots contain less chlorophyl and lipides than those without, but both do not show any significant difference in the concentration of water, glucose, saccharides, amino acid and proteins. It can be concluded that transport systems in the infected leaves are good so that the water and saccharides distribution in them are not disturbed. (author tr.)

  1. Abscisic acid protects bean leaves from ozone-induced phytotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, R.A.; Adedipe, N.O.; Ormrod, D.P.

    1972-01-01

    Abscisic acid treatment of primary bean leaves caused a partial closure of stomates and thus considerably reduced the phytotoxicity of ozone. The symptoms of ozone-induced phytotoxicity in the water-treated leaves are a marked decrease in chlorophyll and slight decreases in the levels of protein and RNA. The evidence indicates that ozone injury to leaves is not metabolically related to normal leaf senescence.

  2. The Duration of Paid Parental Leave and Children's Scholastic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Qian; Nordström Skans, Oskar

    2009-01-01

    We study how the duration of paid parental leave affects the accumulation of cognitive skills among children. We use a reform which extended parental leave benefits from 12 to 15 months for Swedish children born after August 1988 to evaluate the effects of prolonged parental leave on children's test scores and grades at age 16. We show that, on average, the reform had no effect on children's scholastic performance. However, we do find positive effects for children of well-educated mothers, a ...

  3. Simulated Digestion of Dried Leaves of Artemisia annua Consumed as a Treatment (pACT) for Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weathers, Pamela J.; Jordan, Nikole; Lasin, Praphapan; Towler, Melissa J.

    2014-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological Relevance Artemisinin (AN) is produced by Artemisia annua, a medicinal herb long used as a tea infusion in traditional Chinese medicine to treat fever; it is also the key ingredient in current artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) effective in treating malaria. Recently we showed that dried leaves from the whole plant A. annua that produces artemisinin and contains artemisinin-synergistic flavonoids seems to be more effective and less costly than ACT oral malaria therapy; however little is known about how digestion affects release of artemisinin and flavonoids from dried leaves. Material and Methods In the current study we used a simulated digestion system to determine how artemisinin and flavonoids are released prior to absorption into the bloodstream. Various delivery methods and staple foods were combined with dried leaves for digestion in order to investigate their impact on the bioavailability of artemisinin and flavonoids. Digestate was recovered at the end of the oral, gastric, and intestinal stages, separated into solid and liquid fractions, and extracted for measurement of artemisinin and total flavonoids. Results Compared to unencapsulated digested dried leaves, addition of sucrose, various cooking oils, and rice did not reduce the amount of artemisinin released in the intestinal liquid fraction, but the amount of released flavonoids nearly doubled. When dried leaves were encapsulated into either hydroxymethylcellulose or gelatin capsules, there was >50% decrease in released artemisinin but no change in released flavonoids. In the presence of millet or corn meal, the amount of released artemisinin declined, but there was no change in released flavonoids. Use of a mutant A. annua lacking artemisinin showed that the plant matrix is critical in determining how artemisinin is affected during the digestion process. Conclusions This study provides evidence showing how both artemisinin and flavonoids are affected by digestion and

  4. Threshold nonlinear absorption in Zeeman transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanan, Andal; Hazra, Abheera; Sandhya, S N

    2010-01-01

    We experimentally study the absorption spectroscopy from a collection of gaseous 87 Rb atoms at room temperature irradiated with three fields. Two of these fields are in a pump-probe saturation absorption configuration. The third field co-propagates with the pump field. The three fields address Zeeman degenerate transitions between hyperfine levels 5S 1/2 , F = 1 and 5P 3/2 , F = 0, F = 1 around the D2 line. We find a sub-natural absorption resonance in the counter-propagating probe field for equal detunings of all three fields. This absorption arises in conjunction with the appearance of increased transmission due to electro-magnetically induced transparency in the co-propagating fields. The novel feature of this absorption is its onset only for the blue of 5P 3/2 , F = 0, as the laser frequency is scanned through the excited states 5P 3/2 , F = 0, F = 1 and F = 2. The absorption rapidly rises to near maximum values within a narrow band of frequency near 5P 3/2 , F = 0. Our experimental results are compared with a dressed atom model. We find the threshold absorption to be a result of coherent interaction between the dressed states of our system.

  5. Gastrointestinal absorption of Np in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirth, R.; Volf, V.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of Np mass and the acidity of the administered Np solutions as well as the age, sex and nutritional status of the animals injected or gavaged with 239Np or 237Np were determined. The latter factor proved to be dominant for absorption of Np from the gut. Thus in fasting weanling and young adult male rats, the absorption of 239Np was sixfold higher (0.18% and 0.12%, respectively) than in fed ones (0.03% and 0.02%, respectively). Absorption by fasted adult females was 0.05% of the administered 239Np, about half of that of adult males. Raising the Np-mass gavaged to fasted female rats to 1 and 10 mg 237Np/kg resulted in an absorption of 0.23% and 0.26%, respectively. Thus, an increased absorption of Np in adult rats seems to be expected only if a large mass is ingested. No dependence of the absorption of Np on nitric acid concentration was found. The data obtained after oral administration of 238Pu and 239Np to adult rats suggest that the f1 factor recommended by the ICRP for fractional absorption of soluble Np compounds from the gut should be decreased, whereas the f1 factor for soluble Pu compounds should be raised

  6. Aerosol Angstrom Absorption Coefficient Comparisons during MILAGRO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, N. A.; Marchany-Rivera, A.; Kelley, K. L.; Mangu, A.; Gaffney, J. S.

    2007-12-01

    Measurements of aerosol absorption were obtained as part of the MAX-Mex component of the MILAGRO field campaign at site T0 (Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo in Mexico City) by using a 7-channel aethalometer (Thermo- Anderson) during the month of March, 2006. The absorption measurements obtained in the field at 370, 470, 520, 590, 660, 880, and 950 nm were used to determine the aerosol Angstrom absorption exponents by linear regression. Since, unlike other absorbing aerosol species (e.g. humic like substances, nitrated PAHs), black carbon absorption is relatively constant from the ultraviolet to the infrared with an Angstrom absorption exponent of -1 (1), a comparison of the Angstrom exponents can indicate the presence of aerosol components with an enhanced UV absorption over that expected from BC content alone. The Angstrom exponents determined from the aerosol absorption measurements obtained in the field varied from - 0.7 to - 1.3 during the study and was generally lower in the afternoon than the morning hours, indicating an increase in secondary aerosol formation and photochemically generated UV absorbing species in the afternoon. Twelve-hour integrated samples of fine atmospheric aerosols (Petroleo (IMP) and CENICA.

  7. Part-Time Sick Leave as a Treatment Method?

    OpenAIRE

    Andrén D; Andrén T

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of being on part-time sick leave compared to full-time sick leave on the probability of recovering (i.e., returning to work with full recovery of lost work capacity). Using a discrete choice one-factor model, we estimate mean treatment parameters and distributional treatment parameters from a common set of structural parameters. Our results show that part-time sick leave increases the likelihood of recovering and dominates full-time sick leave for sickness spel...

  8. Parental Leave Policies and Pediatric Trainees in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Avika; Feldman-Winter, Lori; Szucs, Kinga A

    2015-08-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) states that each residency program should have a clearly delineated, written policy for parental leave. Parental leave has important implications for trainees' ability to achieve their breastfeeding goals. This study aimed to measure the knowledge and awareness among members of the AAP Section on Medical Students, Residents, and Fellowship Trainees (SOMSRFT) regarding parental leave. An online survey was emailed to SOMSRFT members in June 2013. Quantitative data are presented as percentage of respondents. Awareness of leave policies was analyzed based on having children and the sex of respondents. Nine hundred twenty-seven members responded to the survey. Among those with children, 40% needed to extend the duration of their training in order to have longer maternity leave, 44% of whom did so in order to breastfeed longer. Thirty percent of respondents did not know if their program had a written, accessible policy for parental leave. Trainees without children and men were more unaware of specific aspects of parental leave such as eligibility for the Family Medical Leave Act as compared to women and those with children. Despite the fact that United States national policies support parental leave during pediatrics training, and a majority of programs comply, trainees' awareness regarding these policies needs improvement. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Responce of leaves of three plant species to aluminium stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Konarska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Water culture experiments were undertaken for 14 days to examine the effect of increasing aluminum level (0, 10, 20 40 mg·dm-3 AlCl3·6 H2O on growth of sunflower, red pepper and radish leaves. The early stage of Al toxicity was characterized by curling or rolling of young leaves, marginal and veinal chlorosis, dark green leaves as soon as purpling of margins and veins of leaves. Reduction of leaf size and increased stomata density were observed with increasing Al concentration. Additionally, length of stomata cells decreased after Al-treatment.

  10. Family medical leave as a resilience resource for family caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanke, Jayme; Zeman, Laura Dreuth

    2009-01-01

    Case managers mobilize family networks to care for patients. Family medical leave can be a resource for case managers who seek to enhance resilience among family caregivers. The Family Medical Leave Act, passed in 1993, was the first U.S. policy to regulate employee leaves from work for family care purposes (29 CFR 825.102). This policy offers family caregivers increased flexibility and equality. Current and emerging policies also can reduce financial strain. The discussion examines how case managers can integrate family medical leave into best-practice models to support patients and family caregivers.

  11. Proton Induced X-Rays Emission (PIXE) and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) applied in the environmental sample analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, Ion V.; Iordan, M.; Stihi, C.; Bancuta, A.; Dima, G.; Busuioc, G.; Ciupina, V.; Belc, M.; Badica, T.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work is to determine the elemental composition of tree leaves using Proton-Induced X-Rays Emission (PIXE) and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) methods. By PIXE Spectrometry we identified and determined the concentration of S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu Zn, As, Br, Sr and by AAS method the concentration of elements: Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Se, Cd. Pb was identified in only 2 samples from 29. For tree leave samples collected at a large distance to the polluting source the Sr concentration decreased and the Mg, Ca, Se, Zn and Fe concentrations increased. Also, we can observe a small affinity of these leaves for the environmental Pb which was detected for two samples at a small distance to polluting source. (authors)

  12. Glucose absorption in acute peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podel, J; Hodelin-Wetzel, R; Saha, D C; Burns, G

    2000-04-01

    During acute peritoneal dialysis (APD), it is known that glucose found in the dialysate solution contributes to the provision of significant calories. It has been well documented in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) that glucose absorption occurs. In APD, however, it remains unclear how much glucose absorption actually does occur. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether it is appropriate to use the formula used to calculate glucose absorption in CAPD (Grodstein et al) among patients undergoing APD. Actual measurements of glucose absorption (Method I) were calculated in 9 patients undergoing APD treatment for >24 hours who were admitted to the intensive care unit. Glucose absorption using the Grodstein et al formula (Method II) was also determined and compared with the results of actual measurements. The data was then further analyzed based on the factors that influence glucose absorption, specifically dwell time and concentration. The mean total amount of glucose absorbed was 43% +/- 15%. However, when dwell time and concentration were further examined, significant differences were noted. Method I showed a cumulative increase over time. Method II showed that absorption was fixed. This suggests that with the variation in dwell time commonly seen in the acute care setting, the use of Method II may not be accurate. In each of the 2 methods, a significant difference in glucose absorption was noted when comparing the use of 1.5% and 4.25% dialysate concentrations. The established formula designed for CAPD should not be used for calculating glucose absorption in patients receiving APD because variation in dwell time and concentration should be taken into account. Because of the time constraints and staffing required to calculate each exchange individually, combined with the results of the study, we recommend the use of the percentage estimate of 40% to 50%.

  13. Modulation of intestinal absorption of calcium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, P; Dupuis, Y [Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, 75 - Paris (France); Paris-11 Univ., 92 - Chatenay-Malabry (France))

    1975-01-01

    Absorption of ingested calcium (2ml of a 10mM CaCl/sub 2/ solution + /sup 45/Ca) by the adult rat was shown to be facilitated by the simultaneous ingestion of an active carbohydrate, L-arabinose. As the carbohydrate concentration is increased from 10 to 200mM, the absorption of calcium is maximised at a level corresponding to about twice the control absorption level. A similar doubling of calcium absorption is obtained when a 100mM concentration of any one of a number of other carbohydrates is ingested simultaneously with a 10mM CaCl/sub 2/ solution. Conversely, the simultaneous ingestion of increasing doses (10 to 100mM) of phosphate (NaH/sub 2/PO/sub 4/) with a 10mM CaCl/sub 2/ solution results in decreased /sup 45/Ca absorption and retention by the adult rat. The maximum inhibition of calcium absorption by phosphate is independent of the concentration of the ingested calcium solution (from 5 to 50mM CaCl/sub 2/). The simultaneous ingestion of CaCl/sub 2/ (10mM) with lactose and sodium phosphate (50 and 10mM respectively) shows that the activation effect of lactose upon /sup 45/Ca absorption may be partly dissimulated by the presence of phosphate. These various observations indicate that, within a large concentration range (2 to 50mM CaCl/sub 2/) calcium absorption appears to be a precisely modulated diffusion process. Calcium absorption varies (between minimum and maximum levels) as a function of the state of saturation by the activators (carbohydrates) and inhibitors (phosphate) of the calcium transport system.

  14. Effect of oils on drug absorption

    OpenAIRE

    Palin, K.J.

    1981-01-01

    Oil and emulsion vehicles have been shown to alter the oral absorption of many drugs. This may be due to enhanced lymph flow and/or altered gastro-intestinal motility in the presence of the oils. The oral absorption of a model compound (DOT) in the presence of three chemically different oils, arachis oil, Miglyol 812 and liquid paraffin was investigated in rats, the influence of lymphatic absorption and gastro-intestinal motility being determined. The findings were applied to the for.mulation...

  15. Absorption spectrum of Iodine around 5915 A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The iodine absorption spectrum around 5915 A is of interest for many authors especially the hyperfine structure of the iodine line. Lodine absorption spectrum was obtained due to the interaction of iodine vapour with dye laser [(R6G) (0.5A) scanning range around 5915 A] which is pumped by(Ar + )laser absorption spectrum. The decrease in the peak of the transmission line around 5915 A shows the signal futher decreased by heating the iodine cell. This analysis has been done using a monochromator

  16. Absorption of proteins and amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeejeebhoy, K.N.

    1976-01-01

    Although the absorption of proteins and amino acids is an important issue in nutrition, its measurement is not common because of the methodological difficulties. Complications are attributable in particular to the magnitude of endogenous protein secretion and to the diversity of absorption mechanisms for amino acids either as individual units or as peptides. Methods for studying absorption include balance techniques, tolerance tests, tracer techniques using proteins or amino acids labelled with 131 I, 3 H, or 15 N, intestinal perfusion studies, and others; they must be selected according to the nature of the information sought. Improvements over the current methods would be useful. (author)

  17. Evidence for pion absorption on four nucleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rzehorz, B.; Backenstoss, G.; Dzemidzic, M.; Zagreb Univ.; Furic, M.; Zagreb Univ.; Hoffart, A.; Petkovic, T.; Zagreb Univ.; Ullrich, H.; Weyer, H.J.; Weiser, D.; Wildi, M.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental spectra from the coincident detection of three nucleons after the pion absorption in 4 He are displayed. The presence of a mechanism with four nucleons participating in the absorption process is made obvious. The total cross-sections for this absorption mode are: σ 4NA abs =(1.0±0.2)mb at T π =120 MeV and σ 4NA abs =(2.18± 0.65) mb at T π =210 MeV. (orig.)

  18. Gastrointestinal absorption of uranium in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, R.P.; Orlandini, K.A.

    1984-01-01

    A method has been established for determining the fractional absorption of uranium directly in man. Measurements are made of the urinary excretion rates of uranium for individuals whose drinking water has a high 234 U to 238 U activity ratio and is the primary source of 234 U in their diets. For two individuals, the values obtained for the fractional absorption of 234 U were 0.004 and 0.006. The values obtained for the fractional absorption of 238 U, using a literature value for the 238 U intake from food, were 0.008 and 0.015. The present ICRP value is 0.20. 7 references, 1 table

  19. Optical absorption in a thin nickel wire

    OpenAIRE

    INAGAKI, Takashi; Goudonnet, J.P.; ARAKAWA, E.T.

    1986-01-01

    Absorption of a 633-nm phonton in a cylindrical nickel wire with diameter 13 m was measured by a photoacoustic method as a function of angle of phonton incidence . A good photoacoustic signal was obtained with a 6-m W He-Ne laser as a light source without employing focusing optics. The absorption measured for p-polarized phontons was found to be in good agreement with geometrical optics calculation. For s-polarized light, however, significant excess absorption was found for >35.

  20. Optical absorption in a thin nickel wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, T.; Goudonnet, J.P.; Arakawa, E.T.

    1986-01-01

    Absorption of a 633-nm photon in a cylindrical nickel wire with diameter 13 μm was measured by a photoacoustic method as a function of angle of photon incidence theta. A good photoacoustic signal was obtained with a 6-mW He-Ne laser as a light source without employing focusing optics. The absorption measured for p-polarized photons was found to be in good agreement with geometrical optics calculation. For s-polarized light, however, significant excess absorption was found for theta > 35 0

  1. Total absorption by degenerate critical coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piper, Jessica R., E-mail: jrylan@stanford.edu; Liu, Victor; Fan, Shanhui, E-mail: shanhui@stanford.edu [Ginzton Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2014-06-23

    We consider a mirror-symmetric resonator with two ports. We show that, when excited from a single port, complete absorption can be achieved through critical coupling to degenerate resonances with opposite symmetry. Moreover, any time two resonances with opposite symmetry are degenerate in frequency and absorption is always significantly enhanced. In contrast, when two resonances with the same symmetry are nearly degenerate, there is no absorption enhancement. We numerically demonstrate these effects using a graphene monolayer on top of a photonic crystal slab, illuminated from a single side in the near-infrared.

  2. Gas treating absorption theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Eimer, Dag

    2014-01-01

    Gas Treating: Absorption Theory and Practice provides an introduction to the treatment of natural gas, synthesis gas and flue gas, addressing why it is necessary and the challenges involved.  The book concentrates in particular on the absorption-desorption process and mass transfer coupled with chemical reaction. Following a general introduction to gas treatment, the chemistry of CO2, H2S and amine systems is described, and selected topics from physical chemistry with relevance to gas treating are presented. Thereafter the absorption process is discussed in detail, column hardware is explain

  3. The Driving Forces of Subsidiary Absorptive Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleimer, Stephanie C.; Pedersen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    The study investigates how a multinational corporation (MNC) can promote the absorptive capacity of its subsidiaries. The focus is on what drives the MNC subsidiary's ability to absorb marketing strategies that are initiated by the MNC parent, as well as how the subsidiary enacts on this absorptive...... as a purposeful response to this dual embeddedness. An analysis of marketing strategy absorptions undertaken by 213 subsidiaries reveals that MNCs can assist their subsidiaries to compete in competitive and dynamic focal markets by forming specific organizational mechanisms that are conducive to the development...

  4. Saturable absorption in detonation nanodiamond dispersions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanyukov, Viatcheslav; Mikheev, Gennady; Mogileva, Tatyana; Puzyr, Alexey; Bondar, Vladimir; Lyashenko, Dmitry; Chuvilin, Andrey

    2017-07-01

    We report on a saturable absorption in aqueous dispersions of nanodiamonds with femtosecond laser pulse excitation at a wavelength of 795 nm. The open aperture Z-scan experiments reveal that in a wide range of nanodiamond particle sizes and concentrations, a light-induced increase of transmittance occurs. The transmittance increase originates from the saturation of light absorption and is associated with a light absorption at 1.5 eV by graphite and dimer chains (Pandey dimer chains). The obtained key nonlinear parameters of nanodiamond dispersions are compared with those of graphene and carbon nanotubes, which are widely used for the mode-locking.

  5. Absorption of technetium by plants in relation to soil type contamination level and time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousny, J.M.; Myttenaere, C. (Louvain Univ. (Belgium). Lab. de Physiologie Vegetale)

    1981-01-01

    Plants of Pisum sativum (var. Merveille de Kelvedon) were grown on seven typical european soils contaminated with different levels of /sup 99/Tc(0.17; 1.7 and 17 ..mu..Ci/kg). Added initially as pertechnetate, the technetium absorption has been studied for three successive cultures. The translocation of technetium from soil to plant leaves is high, but its transfer is reduced in soils rich in organic matter (Fen) or poorly drained (Braunerde). Aging reduces the technetium transfer and modify its relative distribution in plant (relatively more technetium is found in fruits); these results let suppose some modification of the technetium chemical form in soils with time.

  6. Surface extended x-ray absorption fine structure of low-Z absorbates using fluorescence detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoehr, J.; Kollin, E.B.; Fischer, D.A.; Hastings, J.B.; Zaera, F.; Sette, F.

    1985-05-01

    Comparison of x-ray fluorescence yield (FY) and electron yield surface extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectra above the S K-edge for c(2 x 2) S on Ni(100) reveals an order of magnitude higher sensitivity of the FY technique. Using FY detection, thiophene (C 4 H 4 S) chemisorption on Ni(100) is studied with S coverages down to 0.08 monolayer. The molecule dissociates at temperatures as low as 100K by interaction with fourfold hollow Ni sites. Blocking of these sites by oxygen leaves the molecule intact

  7. Retrieval of aerosol properties and water-leaving reflectance from multi-angular polarimetric measurements over coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Meng; Zhai, Peng-Wang; Franz, Bryan; Hu, Yongxiang; Knobelspiesse, Kirk; Werdell, P Jeremy; Ibrahim, Amir; Xu, Feng; Cairns, Brian

    2018-04-02

    Ocean color remote sensing is an important tool to monitor water quality and biogeochemical conditions of ocean. Atmospheric correction, which obtains water-leaving radiance from the total radiance measured by satellite-borne or airborne sensors, remains a challenging task for coastal waters due to the complex optical properties of aerosols and ocean waters. In this paper, we report a research algorithm on aerosol and ocean color retrieval with emphasis on coastal waters, which uses coupled atmosphere and ocean radiative transfer model to fit polarized radiance measurements at multiple viewing angles and multiple wavelengths. Ocean optical properties are characterized by a generalized bio-optical model with direct accounting for the absorption and scattering of phytoplankton, colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and non-algal particles (NAP). Our retrieval algorithm can accurately determine the water-leaving radiance and aerosol properties for coastal waters, and may be used to improve the atmospheric correction when apply to a hyperspectral ocean color instrument.

  8. Chemical form of technetium in corn (Zea mays) and the gastrointestinal absorption of plant-incorporated Tc by laboratory rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garten, C.T. Jr.; Myttenaere, C.; Vandecasteele, C.M.; Kirchmann, R.; Van Bruwaene, R.

    1984-01-01

    The food chain availability of technetium incorporated into plant tissue, its chemical form in corn leaves, and the potential for gastrointestinal absorption of plant-incorporated technetium was investigated. Technetium-95m was incorporated into corn leaves via root uptake. Chemical fractionation of the /sup 95m/Tc in leaves showed that 60% was extractable with boiling ethanol and weak mineral acids. The remainder was associated with cell walls and was extractable by harsh chemical treatment. Gel permeation chromatography of the cytosol, indicated that 50% of the /sup 95m/Tc co-chromatographed with anionic pertechnetate; however, it was impossible to distinguish if this pure pertechnetate or technetium complexed with organic molecules. Technetium-95m was administered to laboratory rats in a single dose as: (1) intravenous injection of pertechnetate, (2) pertechnetate mixed with standard laboratory food, and (3) a meal containing /sup 95m/Tc biologically incorporated into corn leaves. High concentrations of /sup 95m/Tc were found in the thyroids, hair, kidneys, and liver of rats. Technetium rapidly disappeared from the liver, kidneys, and other tissues, but remained in the thyroids and hair. Urinary excretion of technetium decreased, and fecal excretion increased when technetium was fed to rats as a /sup 95m/Tc incorporated into corn leaves. The percent of the administered dose absorbed into thyroid gland and the kidneys was less when technetium was biologically incorporated into corn leaves than when pertechnetate was mixed with food. Biological incorporation of technetium into plants appears to reduce its potential for food chain transfer by decreasing its availability for gastrointestinal absorption. 5 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  9. Chemical form of technetium in corn (Zea mays) and the gastrointestinal absorption of plant-incorporated Tc by laboratory rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garten, C.T. Jr.; Myttenaere, C.; Vandecasteele, C.M.; Kirchmann, R.; Van Bruwaene, R.

    1984-01-01

    The food chain availability of technetium incorporated into plant tissue, its chemical form in corn leaves, and the potential for gastrointestinal absorption of plant-incorporated technetium was investigated. Technetium-95m was incorporated into corn leaves via root uptake. Chemical fractionation of the /sup 95m/Tc in leaves showed that 60% was extractable with boiling ethanol and weak mineral acids. The remainder was associated with cell walls and was extractable by harsh chemical treatment. Gel permeation chromatography of the cytosol, indicated that 50% of the /sup 95m/Tc co-chromatographed with anionic pertechnetate; however, it was impossible to distinguish if this pure pertechnetate or technetium complexed with organic molecules. Technetium-95m was administered to laboratory rats in a single dose as: (1) intravenous injection of pertechnetate, (2) pertechnetate mixed with standard laboratory food, and (3) a meal containing /sup 95m/Tc biologically incorporated into corn leaves. High concentrations of /sup 95m/Tc were found in the thyroids, hair, kidneys, and liver of rats. Technetium rapidly disappeared from the liver, kidneys, and other tissues, but remained in the thyroids and hair. Urinary excretion of technetium decreased, and fecal excretion increased when technetium was fed to rats as a /sup 95m/Tc incorporated into corn leaves. The percent of the administered dose absorbed into thyroid gland and the kidneys was less when technetium was biologically incorporated into corn leaves than when pertechnetate was mixed with food. Biological incorporation of technetium into plants appears to reduce its potential for food chain transfer by decreasing its availability for gastrointestinal absorption. 5 references, 4 figures, 3 tables

  10. Ultraviolet-B (280-320 nm) absorbing pigments in the leaves of Silene vulgaris: their role in UV-B tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staaij, J.W.M. van de; Ernst, W. H.O.; Hakvoort, H. W.J.; Rozema, J. [Vrije Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1995-07-01

    The UV-B radiation tolerant perennial herb Silene vulgaris was tested on the influence of incident UV-B fluxes during growth on the synthesis of UV-B absorbing pigments in the leaves. Analysis of methanolic leaf extracts showed a stimulating effect of UV-B on the absorbing ability of leaf extracts. HPLC analysis made clear that UV-B radiation stimulated extractable flavonoid concentrations in leaves, but that UV-B absorption could only be partly attributed to these flavonoids. The contribution of flavonoids to UV-B absorption diminishes if plants mature. Other possible functions of flavonoids in plants growing under elevated UV-B conditions are discussed. (author)

  11. Ultraviolet-B (280-320 nm) absorbing pigments in the leaves of Silene vulgaris: their role in UV-B tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staaij, J.W.M. van de; Ernst, W.H.O.; Hakvoort, H.W.J.; Rozema, J.

    1995-01-01

    The UV-B radiation tolerant perennial herb Silene vulgaris was tested on the influence of incident UV-B fluxes during growth on the synthesis of UV-B absorbing pigments in the leaves. Analysis of methanolic leaf extracts showed a stimulating effect of UV-B on the absorbing ability of leaf extracts. HPLC analysis made clear that UV-B radiation stimulated extractable flavonoid concentrations in leaves, but that UV-B absorption could only be partly attributed to these flavonoids. The contribution of flavonoids to UV-B absorption diminishes if plants mature. Other possible functions of flavonoids in plants growing under elevated UV-B conditions are discussed. (author)

  12. Sick Leave and Factors Influencing Sick Leave in Adult Patients with Atopic Dermatitis: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmieke van Os-Medendorp

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Little is known about the prevalence of sick leave due to atopic dermatitis (AD. The current literature on factors influencing sick leave is mostly derived from other chronic inflammatory diseases. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sick leave due to AD and to identify influencing factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in adult patients with AD. Outcome measures: sick leave during the two-week and one-year periods, socio-demographic characteristics, disease severity, quality of life and socio-occupational factors. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine influencing factors on sick leave over the two-week period. Results: In total, 253 patients were included; 12% of the patients had to take sick leave in the last two weeks due to AD and 42% in the past year. A higher level of symptom interference (OR 1.26; 95% CI 1.13–1.40 or perfectionism/diligence (OR 0.90; 95% CI 0.83–0.96 may respectively increase or decrease the number of sick leave days. Conclusion: Sick leave in patients with AD is a common problem and symptom interference and perfectionism/diligence appeared to influence it. Novel approaches are needed to deal with symptoms at work or school to reduce the amount of sick leave due to AD.

  13. Sick Leave and Factors Influencing Sick Leave in Adult Patients with Atopic Dermatitis: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Os-Medendorp, Harmieke; Appelman-Noordermeer, Simone; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla; de Bruin-Weller, Marjolein

    2015-03-27

    Little is known about the prevalence of sick leave due to atopic dermatitis (AD). The current literature on factors influencing sick leave is mostly derived from other chronic inflammatory diseases. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sick leave due to AD and to identify influencing factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out in adult patients with AD. sick leave during the two-week and one-year periods, socio-demographic characteristics, disease severity, quality of life and socio-occupational factors. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine influencing factors on sick leave over the two-week period. In total, 253 patients were included; 12% of the patients had to take sick leave in the last two weeks due to AD and 42% in the past year. A higher level of symptom interference (OR 1.26; 95% CI 1.13-1.40) or perfectionism/diligence (OR 0.90; 95% CI 0.83-0.96) may respectively increase or decrease the number of sick leave days. Sick leave in patients with AD is a common problem and symptom interference and perfectionism/diligence appeared to influence it. Novel approaches are needed to deal with symptoms at work or school to reduce the amount of sick leave due to AD.

  14. THE EFFECT OF HARVESTING TIME AND DEGREE OF LEAVES MATURATION ON VITEKSIKARPIN LEVEL IN LEGUNDI LEAVES (Vitex trifolia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosi Bayu Murti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Legundi (Vitex trifolia L. is one of Indonesia’s traditional crops that have not been studied and developed into fitofarmaka. Legundi leaves can be used for therapy in asthmatics with optimum level. Therefore it is necessary for optimization of harvesting Legundi leaves which includes time and degree of maturation of the leaves. Harvesting time optimization by means of harvesting the leaves at the different times i.e. morning, noon, and evening, while the leaf maturation level optimization by way of harvesting leaves numbered one through five of the youngest end, then the time of harvesting and leaves that provide optimum levels of viteksikarpin were assigned. Measurements of viteksikarpin assigned using TLCdensitometry then analyzed using Wincats software and Microsoft Office Excel 2007. The highest viteksikarpin levels in Legundi leaves harvested in the afternoon, then during the day, and the lowest in the morning. The highest viteksikarpin levels of Legundi leaves were on second leaf, first leaf, third leaf, fourth leaf, and the lowest on fifth leaf. Optimum levels of viteksikarpin in Legundi leaves was harvested in the afternoon by picking the first until the third leaf.

  15. Positive and negative consequences of sick leave for the individual, with special focus on part-time sick leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieurin, Leif; Josephson, Malin; Vingård, Eva

    2009-01-01

    To describe the consequences of long-term sick leave (>28 days) on working situation, health and lifestyle among employees from the public sector in Sweden. Employees in four county councils and two municipalities on long term sick leave on 1 November 2005 (n = 1,128) answered a questionnaire in February 2006. The response rate was 71.7%. Eighty seven per cent were still on sick leave when the questionnaire was answered: 54% part time and 33% full time. Reporting positive consequences was rare but reporting negative consequences, such as effects on the development of salary, the possibilities of pursuing a career or to change to another job were common. Sick leave seemed to lead to a considerable loss of zest for work, even if the respondents were back in work full time. Regardless of the negative consequences at work, 92% of those on part-time sick leave believed that the part-time sick leave was good for them even if many thought it had negative consequences for employer and colleagues. Long-term sick leave has negative consequences for the individual in work situations, even for those back at work full time. The development of salary and career seem to be most affected. The attitude towards part-time sick leave was positive and this result indicates that there is a potential for an increased degree of partial return to work in the group of people on long-term sick leave.

  16. Parental leave for residents and pediatric training programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) is committed to the development of rational, equitable, and effective parental leave policies that are sensitive to the needs of pediatric residents, families, and developing infants and that enable parents to spend adequate and good-quality time with their young children. It is important for each residency program to have a policy for parental leave that is written, that is accessible to residents, and that clearly delineates program practices regarding parental leave. At a minimum, a parental leave policy for residents and fellows should conform legally with the Family Medical Leave Act as well as with respective state laws and should meet institutional requirements of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education for accredited programs. Policies should be well formulated and communicated in a culturally sensitive manner. The AAP advocates for extension of benefits consistent with the Family Medical Leave Act to all residents and interns beginning at the time that pediatric residency training begins. The AAP recommends that regardless of gender, residents who become parents should be guaranteed 6 to 8 weeks, at a minimum, of parental leave with pay after the infant's birth. In addition, in conformance with federal law, the resident should be allowed to extend the leave time when necessary by using paid vacation time or leave without pay. Coparenting, adopting, or fostering of a child should entitle the resident, regardless of gender, to the same amount of paid leave (6-8 weeks) as a person who takes maternity/paternity leave. Flexibility, creativity, and advanced planning are necessary to arrange schedules that optimize resident education and experience, cultivate equity in sharing workloads, and protect pregnant residents from overly strenuous work experiences at critical times of their pregnancies.

  17. Uranium: do leave it in the ground!

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunyard, P.

    1990-01-01

    A previous author has argued that it would be best in the long run to consume uranium as much as possible in reactors rather than leave it in the ground in order to save the earth and generations into the far distant future from the evils of radiation. The argument is based on a comparison between the radioactive decay processes of fissioned uranium and uranium left in the earth to decay in its own time. It can be shown that from 300 days after reactor shut down onwards, the spent fuel will generate barely 1% of the radioactive energy that it would were it left untouched in the ground. Counter arguments are presented based largely on the risks to human health and life presented by uranium mining and disasters at nuclear plants such as that at Chernobyl. Illustrations are given of the suffering of people living near uranium mines arising from soil contamination by uranium tailings; the widespread radioactive contamination of the surrounding area and increased cancer mortality rates due to the Chernobyl accident are described. Finally, it is pointed out that uranium serves as a radioactive heat source in the gigantic recycling of rocks and the regeneration of the planet. All these arguments lead to the conclusion that uranium is best left in the earth. (UK)

  18. Anticorrosion Coating using Olea sp. Leaves Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikhmal, W. M. K. W. M.; Yasmin, M. Y. N.; Fazira, M. F. M.; Rafizah, W. A. W.; Nik, W. B. Wan; Sabri, M. G. M.

    2018-04-01

    Olive leaves extract (OLE) was evaluated as green corrosion inhibitor for stainless steel grade 316L (SS316L) in several media using scanning electron microscope (SEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization techniques. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy results reveals several active compound indicated by O-H stretch, C=O stretch, C-OH stretch and C-N stretch which can be attributed to oleuropein and hydroxtyrosol acting as the main inhibiting sources for corrosion. The results obtained also show the inhibition efficiency of OLE increase with the increase of OLE concentration. Through its inhibitive action elucidate from the electrochemical analysis, the extract was found to act as a mixed type inhibitor. Micrographs by SEM showed that the surface of steel which has been coated with 0% and 20% of OLE coating extract possess a lot of pin holes or pores while the steel with 10% of OLE coating extract shows the surface has multiple cracks. This study clearly shows the efficiency of OLE as anticorrosion coating for control of stainless steel in marine application.

  19. The anticancer effect of Ocimum tenuiflorum leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam, S.N.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths among females in Malaysia. Ocimum tenuiflorum L., (O. tenuiflorum commonly known as ruku in Malaysia, is usually cultivated as a garden ornamental plant because of its small purplish and some yellowish flower. The specific objective of this research is to investigate the anticancer of O. tenuiflorum against human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 and human fibroblast cell line (HS-27. In addition, another objective is to determine the mineral and heavy metal determination of O. tenuiflorum. O. tenuiflorum exhibited anticancer activity against MCF-7 (a hormone-dependent breast cancer cell line. The viability of MCF-7 cells decreased significantly after treatment with various concentrations of methanolic plant extracts (25 and 100 μg/mL, as shown via 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. The crude extracts show the lower IC50 (less than 100 μg/mL value against the cancer cell lines and show no effect on HS-27. The high content of calcium in the leaves of O. tenuiflorum may play a role in decreasing the risk of certain cancer. The concentrations of heavy metals (Pb and As detected in O. tenuiflorum are safe for consumption.

  20. The energetic characterization of pineapple crown leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, R M; Queiroga, T S; Calixto, G Q; Almeida, H N; Melo, D M A; Melo, M A F; Freitas, J C O; Curbelo, F D S

    2015-12-01

    Energetic characterization of biomass allows for assessing its energy potential for application in different conversion processes into energy. The objective of this study is to physicochemically characterize pineapple crown leaves (PC) for their application in energy conversion processes. PC was characterized according to ASTM E871-82, E1755-01, and E873-82 for determination of moisture, ash, and volatile matter, respectively; the fixed carbon was calculated by difference. Higher heating value was determined by ASTM E711-87 and ash chemical composition was determined by XRF. The thermogravimetric and FTIR analyses were performed to evaluate the thermal decomposition and identify the main functional groups of biomass. PC has potential for application in thermochemical processes, showing high volatile matter (89.5%), bulk density (420.8 kg/m(3)), and higher heating value (18.9 MJ/kg). The results show its energy potential justifying application of this agricultural waste into energy conversion processes, implementing sustainability in the production, and reducing the environmental liabilities caused by its disposal.

  1. Gintonin absorption in intestinal model systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Hwan Lee

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: The present study shows that gintonin could be absorbed in the intestine through transcellular and paracellular diffusion, and active transport. In addition, the lipid component of gintonin might play a key role in its intestinal absorption.

  2. On pair-absorption in intrinsic vapours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotop, R.; Niemax, K.; Schlueter, D.

    1982-01-01

    The bound-state pair-absorption bands Cs(6 2 S 1 sub(/) 2 ) + Cs(6 2 S 1 sub(/) 2 ) + hν → Cs(5 2 D 5 sub(/) 2 sub(,) 3 sub(/) 2 ) + Cs(6 2 P 1 sub(/) 2 ) and the K-K continuum-state pair-absorptions in the wavelength region 2.350 <= lambda <= 2.850 Angstroem have been investigated experimentally. In the case of the bound-state pair-absorption bands a theoretical approach for the absorption cross section at the band centre is given which is in good agreement with the experimental observation. Differences between our and the theoretical formulas given by the Stanford group are discussed. (orig.)

  3. evaluation of atomic absorption spectrophotometry (ashing, non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cistvr

    1Department of Agricultural and Food Science and 2Department of ... used techniques, namely atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS-Ashing and ..... fact that more preparation steps were involved in the Ashing procedure and thus.

  4. Radiant absorption characteristics of corrugated curved tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Milan Lj.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of modern paraboloidal concentrators for conversion of solar radiation into heat energy requires the development and implementation of compact and efficient heat absorbers. Accurate estimation of geometry influence on absorption characteristics of receiver tubes is an important step in this process. This paper deals with absorption characteristics of heat absorber made of spirally coiled tubes with transverse circular corrugations. Detailed 3-D surface-to-surface Hemicube method was applied to compare radiation performances of corrugated and smooth curved tubes. The numerical results were obtained by varying the tube curvature ratio and incident radiant heat flux intensity. The details of absorption efficiency of corrugated tubes and the effect of curvature on absorption properties for both corrugated and smooth tubes were presented. The results may have significance to further analysis of highly efficient heat absorbers exposed to concentrated radiant heating. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 42006

  5. Enriching Absorptive Capacity Through Social Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hotho, Jasper Jaap; Becker-Ritterspach, Florian; Saka-Helmhout, Ayse

    their organization’s capacity to put new knowledge to use. To address this shortcoming we conduct an in-depth comparative case study of a headquarters-initiated knowledge transfer initiative at two subsidiaries of the same MNE. The findings demonstrate that social interaction is a key requirement for subsidiary....... These insights contribute to the absorptive capacity literature by demonstrating the scale and scope of social interaction as the key link between individual- and organizational-level absorptive capacity.......Absorptive capacity is frequently highlighted as a key determinant of knowledge transfer within MNEs. But how individual behaviour translates to absorptive capacity at the subsidiary level, and exactly how this is contingent on subsidiaries’ social context, remains under-addressed. This not only...

  6. Enriching Absorptive Capacity through Social Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hotho, Jasper J.; Saka-Helmhout, Ayse; Becker-Ritterspach, Florian

    2012-01-01

    their organization's capacity to put new knowledge to use. To address this shortcoming we conduct an in-depth comparative case study of a headquarters-initiated knowledge transfer at two subsidiaries of the same multinational enterprise. The findings demonstrate that social interaction is a prerequisite...... or constraining local interaction patterns. These insights contribute to the absorptive capacity literature by demonstrating the scale and scope of social interaction as a key link between individual- and organizational-level absorptive capacity.......Absorptive capacity is frequently highlighted as a key determinant of knowledge transfer within multinational enterprises. But how individual behaviour translates into absorptive capacity at the subsidiary level, and how this is contingent on subsidiaries' social context, remains under...

  7. Absorption chillers: Part of the solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Occhionero, A.J.; Hughes, P.J.; Reid, E.A.

    1991-01-01

    Acid rain, ozone depletion, global warming, and implementation economics are considered as they relate to the advisability of expanding the application of absorption chillers. Introductory and background information are provided to put the discussion in the proper context. Then all four issues are discussed separately as they relate to absorption chillers. Acid rain and ozone depletion concerns, and implementation economics, are found to support the expanded use of absorption chillers. The global warming concern is found to be more of a gray area, but the areas of benefit correspond well with the conditions of greatest economic advantage. All things considered, absorption chillers are believed to be part of the environmental and economic solution. It is further believed that integrated resource planning (IRP) processes that consider electric and gas technologies on an equal footing would come to the same conclusion for many regions of the United States. 9 refs., 3 tabs

  8. Electromagnetically induced absorption via incoherent collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xihua; Sheng Jiteng; Xiao Min

    2011-01-01

    We conduct theoretical studies on electromagnetically induced absorption via incoherent collisions in an inhomogeneously broadened ladder-type three-level system with the density-matrix approach. The effects of the collision-induced coherence decay rates as well as the probe laser field intensity on the probe field absorption are examined. It is shown that with the increase of the collisional decay rates in a moderate range, a narrow dip due to electromagnetically induced transparency superimposed on the Doppler-broadened absorption background can be turned into a narrow peak under the conditions that the probe field intensity is not very weak as compared to the pump field, which results from the enhancement of constructive interference and suppression of destructive interference between one-photon and multiphoton transition pathways. The physical origin of the collision-assisted electromagnetically induced absorption is analyzed with a power-series solution of the density-matrix equations.

  9. (EXAFS) X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craievich, A.F.

    1983-01-01

    The technique EXAFS (Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure) is presented and its applications using the synchrotron radiation as an incidente beam in Science of Materials and Biophysics are shown. (L.C.) [pt

  10. Extending Organizational Antecedents Of Absorptive Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Ana Luiza de Araújo; Lettl, Christopher; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2015-01-01

    on organizational characteristics that encourage experimentation. Specifically, we argue that characteristics such as slack resources, tolerance for failure, willingness to cannibalize and external openness are important organizational antecedents for knowledge absorption activities as they prevent inertia. Drawing...

  11. The origin of electromagnetically induced absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Dae; Hwang, Sung Tae; Lee, Ho Seong; Park, Sung Jong; Cho, Hyuck; Choi, Won Sik

    2000-01-01

    Recently, there have been a lot of interests in the coherence superposition of atomic states which are formed by laser fields. Coherent population trapping(CTP), electromagnetically induced transparency(EIT), enhancement of the refractive index without absorption, lasing without inversion(LWI), and electromagnetically induced absorption(EIA) are the examples where coherence effects are important. Previously, the spontaneous transfer of the light-induced coherence from the excited level to the ground one was emphasized for the essential ingredient for electromagnetically induced absorption. In this paper, we have considered a case where linearly polarized coupling laser and probe laser are applied to the same degenerated ground and excited levels. We have solved the master equations for density matrix using time varying Hamiltonian and studied the absorption spectra at various conditions. We demonstrate that EIA can be observed without spontaneous transfer of the light-induced coherence in F g = 1 -> F e = 2 D2 transitions of Hydrogen atoms

  12. investigating water absorption and thickness swelling tendencies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    In addition, G30E (30% reinforced glass fibre in the epoxy composite) was more resilient to moisture ... determine its suitability as per its water absorption and thickness ... lower thermal conductivity and low density as outlined in the Tables.

  13. Insulin analogues with improved absorption characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brange, J; Hansen, J F; Langkjaer, L; Markussen, J; Ribel, U; Sørensen, A R

    1992-01-01

    The insulin preparations available today are not ideal for therapy as s.c. injection does not provide a physiological insulin profile. With the aim to improve the absorption properties recombinant DNA technology has been utilized to design novel insulin molecules with changed physico-chemical characteristics and hence altered subcutaneous absorption kinetics. Soluble, long-acting human insulin analogues in which the isoelectric point has been increased from 5.4 to approx. 7 are absorbed very slowly, providing a more constant basal insulin delivery with lower day-to-day variation than present protracted preparations. In addition they have better storage stability. Rapid-acting human insulin analogues with largely reduced self-association are absorbed substantially faster from subcutaneous tissue than current regular insulin and thus are better suited for bolus injection. The absorption kinetics of these analogues have been able to explain the mechanism behind the dose effect on insulin absorption rate.

  14. Attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy of molecular hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martín, Fernando; González-Castrillo, Alberto; Palacios, Alicia; Argenti, Luca; Cheng, Yan; Chini, Michael; Wang, Xiaowei; Chang, Zenghu

    2015-01-01

    We extend attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy (ATAS) to the study of hydrogen molecules, demonstrating the potential of the technique to resolve – simultaneously and with state resolution – both the electronic and nuclear dynamics. (paper)

  15. Evaluation of the biological effect of the concentration of ''CMU''on the leaves plant breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revilla Pedreira, R.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of CMU (3-p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea on the photosynthetic activity of six species of higher plants and on chlorella pyrenoidosa was studied. In the higher plants the absorption of CMU was studied using 14 C-CMU. The effect of different concentrations of this herbicide on the photosynthetic assimilation of CO 2 by the plant's leaves has also been determined. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of the CMU on the Hill reaction of isolated chloroplasts has been studied. The results indicate that there is a correlation between the concentration of the herbicide and the degree of inhibition of photosynthesis for concentration between 10 -8 M and 10 -4 M. As a consequence of the results obtained, a biotest is proposed for the detection of residues of the photosynthesis inhibitors using the alga chlorella pyrenoidosa as the sensory element. (auth.)

  16. Multitracer study on absorption of radionuclides in atmosphere-plant system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambe, Shizuko; Shinonaga, Taeko; Watanabe, Tadakazu; Yamaguchi, Isamu

    1996-01-01

    Direct absorption of atmospheric radionuclides by soybean plants was studied using a radioactive multitracer consisting of radionuclides of Sc, Mn, Co, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Y, Eu, Gd, Yb, Hf, Re, and Ir. Soybean seedlings were cultivated at 23degC in a box where multitracer-adsorbed cellulose powders were floating in air. After 28-49 day-cultivation, the plants were harvested and divided into beans (seeds and pods), leaves, stems (inside and outside), and roots. Beans or leaves originating from the same node were collected together. After washing with dilute HCl solution and distilled water, they were dried and then subjected to γ-ray measurement. It was estimated that about 0.2 % of the multitracer was absorbed by the soybean plant, of which 80 % was found in the leaves, and 10 % each in beans and stems. The relative amounts of elements in the beans, leaves, and stems markedly differed depending on the element. Among the elements, Se * was greatly accumulated in the beans, leaves, and stems. Cobalt * , Se * , and Rb * were dominant in the beans, especially in the edible part of seeds. Relative amounts of Mn * , As * , Sr * , and Re * in the seeds were very small. It is noticeable that these nuclides were found in the seeds, though they were not physically exposed to the multitracer-adsorbed cellulose powders during growth. The radioactivities of Sc * , Mn * , Co * , As * , Se * , Rb * , Sr * , Y * , Eu * , Gd * , Yb * , Hf * , Re * , and Ir * were observed for the leaves. Brown leaves accumulated greater amounts of radionuclides than green ones. Main nuclides found in the stem were Sc * , Co * , Se * , Y * , Eu * , Gd * , Yb * , Hf * , and Ir * , a larger part of them on the outside. Trace amounts of Co * , Se * , and Rb * were detected in the roots. Little leakage of the multitracer into the soil was observed. These results indicate that various radionuclides in the atmosphere were directly absorbed through soybean leaves and then transported to the edible part

  17. Ultrafast THz Saturable Absorption in Doped Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Hoffmann, Matthias C.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate ultrafast THz saturable absorption in n-doped semiconductors by nonlinear THz time-domain spectroscopy. This effect is caused by the semiconductor conductivity modulation due to electron heating and satellite-valley scattering in strong THz fields.......We demonstrate ultrafast THz saturable absorption in n-doped semiconductors by nonlinear THz time-domain spectroscopy. This effect is caused by the semiconductor conductivity modulation due to electron heating and satellite-valley scattering in strong THz fields....

  18. Seasonal Solar Thermal Absorption Energy Storage Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daguenet-Frick, Xavier; Gantenbein, Paul; Rommel, Mathias; Fumey, Benjamin; Weber, Robert; Gooneseker, Kanishka; Williamson, Tommy

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a thermochemical seasonal storage with emphasis on the development of a reaction zone for an absorption/desorption unit. The heat and mass exchanges are modelled and the design of a suitable reaction zone is explained. A tube bundle concept is retained for the heat and mass exchangers and the units are manufactured and commissioned. Furthermore, experimental results of both absorption and desorption processes are presented and the exchanged power is compared to the results of the simulations.

  19. Determination of hafnium by atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Isao; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Ueno, Keihei.

    1977-01-01

    Optimum conditions for atomic absorption spectrophotometric determination of hafnium were investigated by use of a Jarrel-Ash AA-1 instrument which was equipped with a premixed gas burner slotted 50 mm in length and 0.4 mm in width. Absorption of hafnium, which was atomized in an nitrous oxide-acetylene flame, was measured on a resonance line at 307.29 nm. The absorption due to hafnium was enhanced in the presence of ammonium fluoride and iron(III) ion, as shown in Figs. 2 and 3, depending on their concentration. The highest absorption was attained by the addition of (0.15 -- 0.3)M ammonium fluoride, 0.07 M of iron(III) ion and 0.05 M of hydrochloric acid. An excess of the additives decreased the absorption. The presence of zirconium, which caused a significant interference in the ordinary analytical methods, did not affect the absorption due to hafnium, if the zirconium concentration is less than 0.2 M. A standard procedure was proposed; A sample containing a few mg of hafnium was dissolved in a 25-ml volumetric flask, and ammonium fluoride, ferric nitrate and hydrochloric acid were added so that the final concentrations were 0.3, 0.07 and 0.05 M, respectively. Atomic absorption was measured on the aqueous solution in a nitrous oxide-acetylene flame and the hafnium content was calculated from the absorbance. Sensitivity was as high as 12.5 μg of Hf/ml/l% absorption. The present method is especially recommendable to the direct determination of hafnium in samples containing zirconium. (auth.)

  20. Systemic Absorption of Nanomaterials by Oral Exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, Mona-Lise; Bredsdorff, Lea; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    This report and accompanying database systematically evaluates the reliability and relevance of the existing scientific literature regarding systemic absorption of nanomaterials by oral exposure and makes specific recommendations for future testing approaches.......This report and accompanying database systematically evaluates the reliability and relevance of the existing scientific literature regarding systemic absorption of nanomaterials by oral exposure and makes specific recommendations for future testing approaches....

  1. Femtosecond pump probe spectroscopy for the study of energy transfer of light-harvesting complexes from extractions of spinach leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. van Rensburg

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of ultrafast transient processes, of temporal durations in the picosecond and femtosecond regime, are made possible by femtosecond pump probe transient absorption spectroscopy. Such an ultrafast pump probe transient absorption setup has been implemented at the CSIR National Laser Centre and has been applied to investigate energy transfer processes in different parts of photosynthetic systems. In this paper we report on our first results obtained with Malachite green as a benchmark. Malachite green was chosen because the lifetime of its excited state is well known. We also present experimental results of the ultrafast energy transfer of light-harvesting complexes in samples prepared from spinach leaves. Various pump wavelengths in the range 600–680 nm were used; the probe was a white light continuum spanning 420–700 nm. The experimental setup is described in detail in this paper. Results obtained with these samples are consistent with those expected and achieved by other researchers in this field.

  2. Variations in the spectral values of specific absorption of phytoplankton

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sathyendranath, S.; Lazzara, L.; Prieur, L.

    Absorption spectra of laboratory cultures of eight species of phytoplankton were studied. These spectra, normalized per unit of chlorophyll a concentration (specific absorption) show variability in magnitude and spectral form. Specific absorption...

  3. [Fat soluble constituents of the leaves of Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, P; Liu, J; Li, J

    1997-07-01

    Four compounds were isolated from the fat soluble fraction of the leaves of Vaccinium bracteatum and identified as friedelin (I), epifriedelinol (II), beta-sitosterol(III) and ursolic acid(IV) by IR, NMR and MS. Compound III and IV are isolated from the leaves of this plant for the first time.

  4. 25 CFR 38.12 - Leave system for education personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leave system for education personnel. 38.12 Section 38.12 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION EDUCATION PERSONNEL § 38.12 Leave system for education personnel. (a) Full-time school-term employees. Employees on a full-time school-term...

  5. Sick leave analysis among self-employed Dutch farmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, E.; Oude Vrielink, H.H.E.; Huirne, R.B.M.; Metz, J.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    Background Agriculture is one of the most physically demanding and risky industries. Aim The objective of this study was to provide baseline data on the diagnoses, occurrence and duration of sick leave of self-employed Dutch farmers. Method A database of 22807 sick leave claims of 12627 farmers

  6. Metabolic changes associated with ozone injury of bean leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craker, L.E.; Starbuck, J.S.

    1972-07-01

    Metabolic processes in primary leaves of bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris) were altered by ozone stress. Decreases in levels of ribonucleic acid (RNA) and protein, and increases in ribonuclease (RNase) and free amine groups were associated with visible oxidant injury to the leaves. It appears that some air pollution injury to plants may result from changes in metabolic processes. 23 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  7. Hypoglycaemic activity of the leaves extracts of Bersama engleriana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypoglycaemic activity of the leaves extracts of Bersama engleriana in rats. Georgette Nyah Njike, Pierre Watcho, Télesphore Benoît Nguelefack, Albert Kamanyi. Abstract. The hypoglycaemic properties of the aqueous and methanol extracts of the leaves of Bersama engleriana were evaluated in normoglycaemic rats in ...

  8. Effects of different levels of supplementation with cassava leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of different levels of supplementation with cassava leaves ( Manihot esculenta ) on growth, parasite load and some characteristics of blood in the dwarf goat ... Also, supplementations with fresh cassava leaves do not affect red blood cells, white blood cells, haematocrite and sedimentation speed of the blood of Dwarf ...

  9. The impact of paternity leave on fathers' future earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rege, Mari; Solli, Ingeborg F

    2013-12-01

    Using Norwegian registry data, we investigate the effect of paternity leave on fathers' long-term earnings. If the paternity leave increased long-term father involvement, then we should expect a reduction in fathers' long-term earnings as they shift time and effort from market to home production. For identification, we use the Norwegian introduction of a paternity-leave quota in 1993, reserving four weeks of the total of 42 weeks of paid parental leave exclusively for the father. The introduction of the paternity-leave quota led to a sharp increase in rates of leave-taking for fathers. We estimate a difference-in-differences model that exploits differences in fathers' exposure to the paternity-leave quota by the child's age and year of observation. Our analysis suggests that four weeks of paternity leave during the child's first year decreases fathers' future earnings, an effect that persists through our last point of observation, when the child is 5 years old. A battery of robustness tests supports our results.

  10. Fathers' use of parental leave. What do we know?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhelyazkova, N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the the literature on fathers' use of parental leave. Parental leave is a work-life reconciliation instrument with great potential to bring about a more equal distribution of paid and unpaid work between men and women. However, policy evaluation studies reveal that simply making

  11. 20 CFR 416.215 - You leave the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false You leave the United States. 416.215 Section... Eligible § 416.215 You leave the United States. You lose your eligibility for SSI benefits for any month during all of which you are outside of the United States. If you are outside of the United States for 30...

  12. Identification of phytochemical compounds in Calophyllum inophyllum leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Febrilliant Susanto

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: C. inophyllum leaves may be used as a good source of fiber. It was found that C. inophyllum leaves have the potential as herbal drugs due to their phytochemical content. The separation, isolation, and purification of bioactive compounds from this methanolic crude extract and their biological activity are under further investigation.

  13. Identifying employees at risk for job loss during sick leave

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flach, Peter A.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Bultmann, Ute

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the associations between medical, work-related, organizational and sociodemographic factors and job loss during sick leave in a Dutch population of 4132 employees on sick leave. Methods: Data were assessed by occupational health physicians (OHPs) on sociodemographic, medical,

  14. Phytotoxic activity of the methanol leaves extract of Paullinia pinnata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The activity of the extract against the growth of Lemna minor was used to investigate the phytotoxic activity. The activity of the methanol extract of P. pinnata leaves against Lemna minor increased in a dose- dependent manner and was significant at 1000 μg/ml. Therefore, the methanol leaves extract of P. pinnata exhibited ...

  15. Sensory evaluation of different preparations of cassava leaves from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava leaves are largely consumed in Africa and are among the top three African indigenous vegetables rich in nutrients. Leaves from bitter (Manihot utilissima), sweet (Manihot dulcis) and wild (Manihot glaziovii) species of cassava were cooked by boiling in salted (sodium bicarbonate and table salt) water with the ...

  16. Evaluation of nutrient contents of Gmelina arborea leaves as animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An evaluation of chemical and mineral composition different forms of Gmelina arborea (GA) leaves was investigated. Experiment 1 involve the determination of the chemical composition, mineral and anti-nutrient of green, yellow and brown leaves of GA. In experiment 2, a free choice intake study was carried out using fifteen ...

  17. Organizational Justice and Social Workers' Intentions to Leave Agency Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Kuen; Solomon, Phyllis; Jang, Cinjae

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated the impact of organizational justice on social workers' intention to leave Korean social service agencies. Specifically, this study concentrated on the moderating effect of organizational justice on the relationship between burnout and intention to leave. The authors surveyed 218 front-line social workers from 51 social…

  18. Determination of Heavy Metals in Leaves of Mangifera Indica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER PC

    ABSTRACT. Concentrations of cadmium, chromium and zinc in leaves of Mangifera indica (Mango), Psidium ... alarm, in some cases, trace heavy metals may accumulate to an ... leaves when released can lead to serious ... shown that it can interact with different hormonal .... 17, 2012. Cadmium Exposure and Bone Mineral.

  19. Leaves as composites of latent developmental and evolutionary shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Across plants, leaves exhibit profound diversity in shape. As a single leaf expands, its shape is in constant flux. Additionally, plants may also produce leaves with different shapes at successive nodes. Because leaf shape can vary in many different ways, theoretically the effects of distinct proces...

  20. Nutritional and chemical value of Amaranthus hybridus L. leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nutritional and chemical value of Amaranthus hybridus were investigated using standard analytical methods in order to assess the numerous potential of the plant leaves. The Proximate analysis showed the percentage moisture content, ash content, crude protein, crude lipid, crude fibre and carbohydrate of the leaves ...

  1. Genotoxicity of Nicotiana tabacum leaves on Helix aspersa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Fernanda R; Erdtmann, Bernardo; Dalpiaz, Tiago; Nunes, Emilene; Ferraz, Alexandre; Martins, Tales L C; Dias, Johny F; da Rosa, Darlan P; Porawskie, Marilene; Bona, Silvia; da Silva, Juliana

    2013-07-01

    Tobacco farmers are routinely exposed to complex mixtures of inorganic and organic chemicals present in tobacco leaves. In this study, we examined the genotoxicity of tobacco leaves in the snail Helix aspersa as a measure of the risk to human health. DNA damage was evaluated using the micronucleus test and the Comet assay and the concentration of cytochrome P450 enzymes was estimated. Two groups of snails were studied: one fed on tobacco leaves and one fed on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L) leaves (control group). All of the snails received leaves (tobacco and lettuce leaves were the only food provided) and water ad libitum. Hemolymph cells were collected after 0, 24, 48 and 72 h. The Comet assay and micronucleus test showed that exposure to tobacco leaves for different periods of time caused significant DNA damage. Inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes occurred only in the tobacco group. Chemical analysis indicated the presence of the alkaloid nicotine, coumarins, saponins, flavonoids and various metals. These results show that tobacco leaves are genotoxic in H. aspersa and inhibit cytochrome P450 activity, probably through the action of the complex chemical mixture present in the plant.

  2. Genotoxicity of Nicotiana tabacum leaves on Helix aspersa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda R. da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco farmers are routinely exposed to complex mixtures of inorganic and organic chemicals present in tobacco leaves. In this study, we examined the genotoxicity of tobacco leaves in the snail Helix aspersa as a measure of the risk to human health. DNA damage was evaluated using the micronucleus test and the Comet assay and the concentration of cytochrome P450 enzymes was estimated. Two groups of snails were studied: one fed on tobacco leaves and one fed on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L leaves (control group. All of the snails received leaves (tobacco and lettuce leaves were the only food provided and water ad libitum. Hemolymph cells were collected after 0, 24, 48 and 72 h. The Comet assay and micronucleus test showed that exposure to tobacco leaves for different periods of time caused significant DNA damage. Inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes occurred only in the tobacco group. Chemical analysis indicated the presence of the alkaloid nicotine, coumarins, saponins, flavonoids and various metals. These results show that tobacco leaves are genotoxic in H. aspersa and inhibit cytochrome P450 activity, probably through the action of the complex chemical mixture present in the plant.

  3. Perceptions of the use of indigenous leaves as packaging materials ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although alternative food packaging materials are available, Ghanaians still use leaves to package some ready-to-eat cornmeal products. This study examines the perceptions of a representative community sample of 70 producers, 40 sellers and 120 consumers of ready-to-eat leaves-packaged cornmeal products in ...

  4. Pharmacognostic Investigation of the Leaves and Stems of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Some pharmacognostical investigations were carried out on the leaves and stems of Viburnum erubescens Wall.ex DC to record parameters for identifying and differentiating various species of Viburnum. Methods: The research specimens were authenticated and preserved both in fresh and dry forms. The leaves ...

  5. The relationship between restraints of trade and garden leave ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship between restraints of trade and garden leave. ... Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal/Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad ... The purpose of the article is to examine the relationship between a so-called "garden leave" clause and a post-termination restraint of trade clause in employment contracts, ...

  6. Summer survival of Phytophthora ramorum in California bay laurel leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth J. Fichtner; David M. Rizzo; Shannon C. Lynch; Jennifer Davidson; Gerri Buckles; Jennifer Parker

    2008-01-01

    Sudden oak death manifests as non-lethal foliar lesions on bay laurel (Umbellularia californica), which support sporulation and survival of Phytophthora ramorum in forest ecosystems. Infected bay laurel leaves are more likely to abscise than uninfected leaves, resulting in an accumulation of inoculum at the forest floor. The pathogen survives the dry...

  7. Challenging Sex Discrimination Through the Courts: Maternity Leave Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottker, Janice

    This study attempted to determine the extent to which school districts had brought their maternity leave policies into compliance with the latest Supreme Court ruling. The study also analyzed the maternity leave requirements of the Equal Employment Opportunities Commission (EEOC), and sought to determine which variables were associated with…

  8. Wisconsin Maternity Leave and Fringe Benefits: Policies, Practices and Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerner, Jennifer

    The study examines the economic implications in Wisconsin of the 1972 Equal Employment Opportunity Commission guideline which requires employers to treat maternity leave as a temporary disability. First, the static cost of the maternity leave guideline to employers is estimated for the State of Wisconsin. Second, some examination of the economic…

  9. Extraction and application of dyestuffs from the leaves of guinea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research work is aimed at assessing the dyeing and colouring potentials of ethanol extracts from the leaves of guinea corn and the skin of onion. It is intended to apply the purified dye extracts on textile, drink and food. The leaves of guinea corn (Sorghum bicolor) and the skin of onion (Allium cepa) were collected, ...

  10. Evaluation of the Danish Leave Schemes. Summary of a Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Dines; Appeldorn, Alice; Weise, Hanne

    An evaluation examined how the Danish leave schemes, an offer to employed and unemployed persons who qualify for unemployment benefits, were functioning and to what extent the objectives have been achieved. It was found that 60 percent of those taking leave had previously been unemployed; women accounted for two-thirds of those joining the scheme;…

  11. Assessment of Annona reticulata Linn. leaves fractions for invitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since from long time the plant, Annona reticulata Linn. is known for its beneficial effects. Leaves of A. reticulata were screened for phytochemicals and in vitro antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activity. The shade dried leaves were extracted with methanol and aqueous methanolic extract was partitioned successively ...

  12. High temperature measurement of water vapor absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, Dennis; Lewis, J. W. L.; Eskridge, Richard

    1985-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to measure the absorption coefficient, at a wavelength of 10.6 microns, for mixtures of water vapor and a diluent gas at high temperature and pressure. The experimental concept was to create the desired conditions of temperature and pressure in a laser absorption wave, similar to that which would be created in a laser propulsion system. A simplified numerical model was developed to predict the characteristics of the absorption wave and to estimate the laser intensity threshold for initiation. A non-intrusive method for temperature measurement utilizing optical laser-beam deflection (OLD) and optical spark breakdown produced by an excimer laser, was thoroughly investigated and found suitable for the non-equilibrium conditions expected in the wave. Experiments were performed to verify the temperature measurement technique, to screen possible materials for surface initiation of the laser absorption wave and to attempt to initiate an absorption wave using the 1.5 kW carbon dioxide laser. The OLD technique was proven for air and for argon, but spark breakdown could not be produced in helium. It was not possible to initiate a laser absorption wave in mixtures of water and helium or water and argon using the 1.5 kW laser, a result which was consistent with the model prediction.

  13. Absorption Spectra of Gold Nanoparticle Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anan'eva, M. V.; Nurmukhametov, D. R.; Zverev, A. S.; Nelyubina, N. V.; Zvekov, A. A.; Russakov, D. M.; Kalenskii, A. V.; Eremenko, A. N.

    2018-02-01

    Three gold nanoparticle suspensions are obtained, and mean radii in distributions - (6.1 ± 0.2), (11.9 ± 0.3), and (17.3 ± 0.7) nm - are determined by the transmission electron microscopy method. The optical absorption spectra of suspensions are obtained and studied. Calculation of spectral dependences of the absorption index of suspensions at values of the gold complex refractive index taken from the literature showed a significant deviation of experimental and calculated data in the region of 450-800 nm. Spectral dependences of the absorption of suspensions are simulated within the framework of the Mie-Drude theory taking into account the interband absorption in the form of an additional term in the imaginary part of the dielectric permittivity of the Gaussian type. It is shown that to quantify the spectral dependences in the region of the plasmon absorption band of nanoparticles, correction of the parameters of the interband absorption is necessary in addition to the increase of the relaxation parameter of the Drude theory. Spectral dependences of the dielectric permittivity of gold in nanodimensional state are refined from the solution of the inverse problem. The results of the present work are important for predicting the special features of operation of photonic devices and optical detonators based on gold nanoparticles.

  14. The accumulation and elimination of 89Sr in tea leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yongxi; Wang Shouxiang; Chen Chuanqun; Sun Zhiming; Hu Bingmin; Huang Dan

    1995-01-01

    The 89 Sr was added to the tea tree-soil system by different ways. The 89 Sr in the system through the over-ground part of tea tree, was much more than that through soil. The 89 Sr concentration in older leaves was higher than in shoot for a definite treatment. The accumulation elimination law of 89 Sr in leaves varied with the treatments. For the treatment through the over-ground part, the 89 Sr concentration in older leaves and shoot was monotonously decreased with time increasing. But for the treatment through soil the 89 Sr concentration in shoot was increased to reach a peak value, and then decreased slowly; while the 89 Sr concentration in older leaves increased quickly in a period, then increased slowly to attain a saturated value. In addition, the concentration factor of 89 Sr in older leaves and shoot were determined

  15. [Chemical components from essential oil of Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Kai; Ge, Fa-Huan

    2014-04-01

    To analyze the chemical compositions of Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves essential oil extracted by steam distillation. The essential oil of Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrum, and the relative content of each component was determined by area normalization method. 128 peaks were separated and 95 compounds were identified, which weighed 97.75%. The main chemical components of the essential oil were phytol (42.15%), squalene (16.81%), what's more pentadecanal (6.17%), pentadecanoic acid (4.49%), 3, 7, 11, 15-tetramethyl-2-hexadecen-1-ol (3.83%), phytone (2.05%) and the other 74 chemical compositions were firstly identified from the essential oil of Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves. The chemical compositions of Pandanu samaryllifolius leaves essential oil was systematically, deeply isolated and identified for the first time. This experiment has provided scientific foundation for further utilization of Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves.

  16. Proteome analysis of muscadine grape leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh M Basha

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Sheikh M Basha1, Ramesh Katam1, Hemanth Vasanthaiah1, Frank Matta21Center for Viticulture and Small Fruit Research, Florida A and M University, Tallahassee, FL, USA; 2Plant and Soil Science Department, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS, USAAbstract: Muscadine grapes are native to the southeastern United States and are used for making wine and consumed as fresh fruit. Grape berries, as ‘sink organs,’ rely on the use of available carbohydrate resources produced by photosynthesis to support their development and composition. A high throughput two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE was conducted on muscadine (Vitis rotundifolia grape leaf proteins to document complexity in their composition and to determine protein identity and function for enhancing photosynthetic efficiency of muscadine grape. 2-DE resolved muscadine leaf proteins into >258 polypeptides with pIs between 3.5 and 8.0 and molecular weight between 12,000 to 15,0000 Daltons. The consistently expressed proteins were excised and subjected to sequencing. Homology search of protein sequences showed 84% identity with Viridi plantae database. Identity of some of these proteins included RuBisCO, glutamine synthetase, pathogenesis-related protein, glyoxisomal malate dehydrogenase, ribonucleoprotein, chloroplast precursor, oxygen evolving enhancer protein. Comparative analysis of 10 muscadine cultivars showed quantitative differences in expression of 39 polypeptides among these genotypes. The results suggested that the polypeptide composition of muscadine grape leaf is complex, and polypeptide number and amount vary widely among muscadine genotypes, and these variations may be responsible for differences in their physiology, berry and stress tolerance characteristics.Keywords: grapevine, leaves, muscadine, proteins, sequencing, 2-DE

  17. Exploring the Link between Maternity Leave and Postpartum Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornfeind, Katelin R; Sipsma, Heather L

    2018-05-02

    Postpartum depression affects a substantial proportion of new mothers in the United States. Although most employed women return to paid work after birth, the association between duration of maternity leave and postpartum depression is unclear. We therefore aimed to explore this relationship among mothers in the United States. Data included 177 mothers from a national survey who had returned to work full time after having a baby. Multivariable logistic regression was used to explore the independent association between duration of maternity leave and experiencing of postpartum depressive symptoms in the 2 weeks preceding the postpartum survey completion. Overall, duration of maternity leave was not significantly associated with experiencing postpartum depression symptoms (odds ratio [OR], 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80-1.01). This effect, however, varied by duration of maternity leave. Among women who took maternity leaves of 12 weeks or less, every additional week of leave was associated with a lesser odds of experiencing postpartum depressive symptoms (OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.40-0.84). Among women who took maternity leaves longer than 12 weeks, leave duration was not associated with postpartum depression symptoms (OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.73-1.29). Maternity leaves equaling 12 weeks or less may contribute additional risk for postpartum depressive symptoms, possibly because mothers are juggling employment alongside of important physical and emotional changes during this period. This association underscores the importance of ensuring that mothers have at least 12 weeks of leave from full-time employment after the birth of a baby. Copyright © 2018 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Polarization control of intermediate state absorption in resonance-mediated multi-photon absorption process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Shuwu; Yao, Yunhua; Jia, Tianqing; Ding, Jingxin; Zhang, Shian; Sun, Zhenrong; Huang, Yunxia

    2015-01-01

    We theoretically and experimentally demonstrate the control of the intermediate state absorption in an (n + m) resonance-mediated multi-photon absorption process by the polarization-modulated femtosecond laser pulse. An analytical solution of the intermediate state absorption in a resonance-mediated multi-photon absorption process is obtained based on the time-dependent perturbation theory. Our theoretical results show that the control efficiency of the intermediate state absorption by the polarization modulation is independent of the laser intensity when the transition from the intermediate state to the final state is coupled by the single-photon absorption, but will be affected by the laser intensity when this transition is coupled by the non-resonant multi-photon absorption. These theoretical results are experimentally confirmed via a two-photon fluorescence control in (2 + 1) resonance-mediated three-photon absorption of Coumarin 480 dye and a single-photon fluorescence control in (1 + 2) resonance-mediated three-photon absorption of IR 125 dye. (paper)

  19. Sulfur K-edge absorption spectroscopy on selected biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtenberg, Henning

    2008-07-01

    Sulfur is an essential element in organisms. In this thesis investigations of sulfur compounds in selected biological systems by XANES (X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure) spectroscopy are reported. XANES spectroscopy at the sulfur K-edge provides an excellent tool to gain information about the local environments of sulfur atoms in intact biological samples - no extraction processes are required. Spatially resolved measurements using a Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror focusing system were carried out to investigate the infection of wheat leaves by rust fungi. The results give information about changes in the sulfur metabolism of the host induced by the parasite and about the extension of the infection into visibly uninfected plant tissue. Furthermore, XANES spectra of microbial mats from sulfidic caves were measured. These mats are dominated by microbial groups involved in cycling sulfur. Additionally, the influence of sulfate deprivation and H 2 S exposure on sulfur compounds in onion was investigated. To gain an insight into the thermal degradation of organic material the influence of roasting of sulfur compounds in coffee beans was studied. (orig.)

  20. Effects of gold nanoparticles on the photophysical and photosynthetic parameters of leaves and chloroplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Rocio; Diz, Virginia E; Lagorio, M Gabriela

    2018-04-18

    Effects of gold nanoparticles (average diameter: 10-14 nm) on leaves and chloroplasts have been studied. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) quenched significantly chlorophyll fluorescence when introduced both in intact leaves and isolated chloroplasts. Additionally, the fluorescence spectra corrected for light re-absorption processes showed a net decrease in the fluorescence ratio calculated as the quotient between the maximum fluorescence at 680 and 735 nm. This fact gave evidence for a reduction in the fluorescence emission of the PSII relative to that of the PSI. Strikingly, the photosynthetic parameters derived from the analysis of the slow phase of Kautsky's kinetics, the rate of oxygen evolution and the rate of photo-reduction of 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol were increased in the presence of AuNPs indicating an apparent greater photosynthetic capacity. The observed results were consistent with an electron transfer process from the excited PSII, which was thermodynamically possible, and which competed with both the electron transport process that initiated photosynthesis and the deactivation of the excited PSII by fluorescence emission. Additionally, it is here explained, in terms of a completely rational kinetic scheme and their corresponding algebraic expressions, why the photosynthetic parameters and the variable and non-variable fluorescence of chlorophyll are modified in a photosynthetic tissue containing gold nanoparticles.

  1. Optical solar energy adaptations and radiative temperature control of green leaves and tree barks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henrion, Wolfgang; Tributsch, Helmut [Department of Si-Photovoltaik and Solare Energetik, Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin, 14109 Berlin (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    Trees have adapted to keep leaves and barks cool in sunshine and can serve as interesting bionic model systems for radiative cooling. Silicon solar cells, on the other hand, loose up to one third of their energy efficiency due to heating in intensive sunshine. It is shown that green leaves minimize absorption of useful radiation and allow efficient infrared thermal emission. Since elevated temperatures are detrimental for tensile water flow in the Xylem tissue below barks, the optical properties of barks should also have evolved so as to avoid excessive heating. This was tested by performing optical studies with tree bark samples from representative trees. It was found that tree barks have optimized their reflection of incoming sunlight between 0.7 and 2 {mu}m. This is approximately the optical window in which solar light is transmitted and reflected by green vegetation. Simultaneously, the tree bark is highly absorbing and thus radiation emitting between 6 and 10 {mu}m. These two properties, mainly provided by tannins, create optimal conditions for radiative temperature control. In addition, tannins seem to have adopted a function as mediators for excitation energy towards photo-antioxidative activity for control of radiation damage. The results obtained are used to discuss challenges for future solar cell optimization. (author)

  2. Paid Educational Leave and Self-Directed Learning: Implications for Legislation on the Learning Leave Scheme in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jeong Rok; Park, Cho Hyun; Jo, Sung Jun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this study are to explore paid educational leave (PEL), self-directed learning (SDL) and the relationship between them; and to identify the implications for legislation on the learning leave scheme in South Korea. Design/Methodology/Approach: The research method of the study is a literature review. Articles were identified…

  3. Absorption of ultraviolet radiation by antarctic phytoplankton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vernet, M.; Mitchell, B.G. (Univ. of California-San Diego, La Jolla (United States))

    1990-01-09

    Antarctic phytoplankton contain UV-absorbing compounds that may block damaging radiation. Compounds that absorb from 320-340 nm were observed in spectral absorption of both particulates and in methanol extracts of the particulates. The decrease in the total concentration of these UV compounds with respect to chlorophyll a, as measured by the ratio of in vitro absorption at 335 nm to absorption at 665 nm is variable and decreases with depth. We observed up to 5-fold decrease in this ratio for samples within the physically mixes surface layer. The absorption of UV radiation in methanol extracts, which peaks from 320 to 340 nm, may be composed of several compounds. Shifts in peak absorption with depth (for example, from 331 nm at surface to 321 nm at 75 m), may be interpreted as a change in composition. Ratios of protective yellow xanthophylls (diadinoxanthin + diatoxanthin) to photosynthetic fucoxanthin-like pigments have highest values in surface waters. As these pigments also absorb in the near UV, their function might extend to protection as well as utilization of UV radiation for photosynthesis. We document strong absorption in the UV from 320-330 nm for Antarctic marine particulates. Below this region of the solar energy spectrum, absolute energy levels of incident radiation drop off dramatically. Only wavelengths shorter than about 320 nm will be significantly enhanced due to ozone depletion. If the absorption we observed serves a protective role for phytoplankton photosynthesis, it appears the peak band is in the region where solar energy increases rapidly, and not in the region where depletion would cause significant variations in absolute flux.

  4. Thermodynamic performance optimization of the absorption-generation process in an absorption refrigeration cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yi; Han, Wei; Jin, Hongguang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper proposes a new thermal compressor model with boost pressure ratio. • The proposed model is an effective way to optimize the absorption-generation process. • Boost pressure ratio is a key parameter in the proposed thermal compressor model. • The optimum boost pressure ratios for two typical refrigeration systems are obtained. - Abstract: The absorption refrigeration cycle is a basic cycle that establishes the systems for utilizing mid-low temperature heat sources. A new thermal compressor model with a key parameter of boost pressure ratio is proposed to optimize the absorption-generation process. The ultimate generation pressure and boost pressure ratio are used to represent the potential and operating conditions of the thermal compressor, respectively. Using the proposed thermal compressor model, the operation mechanism and requirements of the absorption refrigeration system and absorption-compression refrigeration system are elucidated. Furthermore, the two typical heat conversion systems are optimized based on the thermal compressor model. The optimum boost pressure ratios of the absorption refrigeration system and the absorption-compression refrigeration system are 0.5 and 0.75, respectively. For the absorption refrigeration system, the optimum generation temperature is 125.31 °C at the cooling water temperature of 30 °C, which is obtained by simple thermodynamic calculation. The optimized thermodynamic performance of the absorption-compression refrigeration system is 16.7% higher than that of the conventional absorption refrigeration system when the generation temperature is 100 °C. The thermal compressor model proposed in this paper is an effective method for simplifying the optimization of the thermodynamic systems involving an absorption-generation process.

  5. Iron absorption after antrectomy with gastroduodenostomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnusson, B.E.O.

    1976-01-01

    Haematological values were studied in 177 unselected patients 3-6 years after antrectomy with gastroduodenostomy. The majority (76%) had been operated upon for duodenal ulcer, 20% for gastric ulcer and the remaining patients had had both a duodenal and a gastric ulcer before the operation. In 65 patients a vagotomy had been added to the resection. 10% of the males and 15% of the females had a haemoglobin concentration below 13.0 or 12.0 g/100 ml, respectively. The corresponding frequencies for iron defifiency, defined as absence or only traces of haemosiderin in bone marrow smears, were 7% and 15%. The absorption of a small test dose of inorganic iron (0.56 mg Fe ++ as ferrous ascorbate) was studied in all the antrectomized patients. The absorption was also investigated in normal men and in patients who had had a Billroth II partial gastrectomy. No malabsorption of inorganic iron could be found in any of the groups. An inverse relationship between iron absorption and the grading of haemosiderin in bone marrow smears was found in normal subjects as well as in operated patients. Thus, an adequate increase of the absorption of ferrous iron was found even in operated patients with iron deficiency. Gastric acid secretion, measured as the peak acid output (PAO) after stimulation, was determined in all antrectomized patients. In patients having the same grading of haemosiderin (grade II) a slight but significant positive correlation was found between PAO and the absorption from the test dose (Fe ++ ). The absorption of food iron from a composite meal and the absorption from an iron salt (3.0 mg Fe ++ as ferrous ascorbate) was studied in 4 different groups: 1) normal males, 2) non-operated patients with peptic ulcer, 3) antrectomized patients with gastroduodenostomy and 4) patients operated upon with Billroth II partial gastrectomy. The range and mean absorption values from the test dose of inorganic iron were about the same in all groups. The absorption of food iron

  6. Parental leave: comparing children's hospitals with Fortune 500 companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, A H; Gordon, E J; O'Connor, M E

    1998-07-01

    To identify parental leave policies and availability of support systems for new parents employed by children's hospitals and compare these benefits with those offered by Fortune 500 companies. Telephone or facsimile survey of all (n=118) children's hospitals and pediatric medical centers in the National Association of Children's Hospitals and Related Institutions 1995 Directory of Members, and 118 geographically matched Fortune 500 companies. Policies for maternity and paternity leave, adoption benefits, and support services for new parents were compared. Ninety-four children's hospitals (80%) and 82 Fortune 500 companies (69%) responded to the survey. No difference in duration of maternity (P>.30) or paternity (P=.12) leave was found. Sixty-two companies (77%) classified maternity leave as short-term disability while 47 hospitals (50%) classified it as sick time (Pleave as short-term disability generally gives better benefits to employees with short duration of service, whereas classifying maternity leave as sick time usually favors employees with longer employment. Companies provided more financial support for adoption expenses (Ppaid or unpaid leave for adoption (P=.14). Hospitals provided more on-site day care (69% vs 42%; Pparental leave benefits than Fortune 500 companies; however, they offer better support systems for parents returning to work after the birth of a child.

  7. Phloem unloading in developing leaves of sugar beet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmalstig, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    Physiological and transport data support a symplastic pathway for phloem unloading in developing leaves of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. Klein E, multigerm). The sulfhydryl inhibitor parachloromercuribenzene sulfonic acid (PCMBS) inhibited uptake of [ 14 C]-sucrose added to the free space of developing leaves, but did not affect import of [ 14 C]-sucrose during steady-state 14 CO 2 labeling of a source leaf. The passively-transported xenobiotic sugar, [ 14 C]-L-glucose did not readily enter mesophyll cells when supplied through the cut end of the petiole of a sink leaf as determined by whole leaf autoradiography. In contrast, [ 14 C]-L-glucose translocated through the phloem from a mature leaf, rapidly entered mesophyll cells, and was evenly distributed between mesophyll and veins. Autoradiographs of developing leaves following a pulse of 14 CO 2 to a source leaf revealed rapid passage of phloem translocated into progressively higher order veins as the leaf developed. Entry into V order veins occurred during the last stage of import through the phloem. Import into developing leaves was inhibited by glyphosate (N-phosphomethylglycine), a herbicide which inhibits the aromatic amino acid pathway and hence protein synthesis. Glyphosate also stopped net starch accumulation in sprayed mature leaves, but did not affect export of carbon from treated leaves during the time period that import into developed leaves was inhibited

  8. RNs and LPNs: emotional exhaustion and intention to leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havaei, Farinaz; MacPhee, Maura; Dahinten, V Susan

    2016-04-01

    To describe and compare registered nurse (RN) and licensed practical nurse (LPN) emotional exhaustion, intention to leave and reasons for leaving. Different skill mix/care delivery models are being used to address nurse shortages and rising health-care costs. Skill mix may include RNs and LPNs. More LPNs are being employed in areas, such as acute care, that have been previously staffed by all RNs. Little is known about nurse outcomes since the introduction of LPNs to acute care settings. This study was a cross-sectional correlational design. A stratified, random sample of acute care nurses completed surveys via Fluidsurveys. The survey was modelled after the RN4CAST nursing workforce survey. For both groups of nurses higher levels of emotional exhaustion were associated with intention to leave and workload was the most frequent reason cited for intention to leave. More RNs than LPNs cited career advancement as a reason to leave, and more LPNs than RNs identified poor salary as a reason to leave. Emotional exhaustion is linked to intention to leave health care. Nurse managers should address work environment factors associated with turnover intentions, such as professional development opportunities and shared decision-making. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. An experimental study on drying kinetics of some herbal leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaya, Ahmet; Aydin, Orhan

    2009-01-01

    In this study, thin-layer drying characteristics of some herbal leaves, mainly nettle and mint leaves, are investigated experimentally in a convective drier. Effects of the drying air parameters including temperature, velocity and relative humidity on the total drying time are determined. Initially, sorption isotherms of the dried leaves are determined for different temperatures and equilibrium relative humidity (e.r.h.). Experiments are conducted for air temperatures at 35, 45 and 55 deg. C, velocities at 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 m/s and, relative humidity values at 40%, 55% and 70%. In the ranges that covered, the values of the moisture diffusivity D eff are obtained between 1.744 x 10 -9 and 4.992 x 10 -9 m 2 /s for nettle leaves and 1.975 x 10 -9 and 6.172 x 10 -9 m 2 /s for mint leaves from the Fick's diffusion model. Using D eff , the value of E a is determined assuming the Arrhenius-type temperature relationship, which varies from 79.873 to 109.003 kJ/mol for nettle leaves and 66.873 to 71.987 kJ/mol for mint leaves

  10. An experimental study on drying kinetics of some herbal leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, Ahmet; Aydin, Orhan [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)

    2009-01-15

    In this study, thin-layer drying characteristics of some herbal leaves, mainly nettle and mint leaves, are investigated experimentally in a convective drier. Effects of the drying air parameters including temperature, velocity and relative humidity on the total drying time are determined. Initially, sorption isotherms of the dried leaves are determined for different temperatures and equilibrium relative humidity (e.r.h.). Experiments are conducted for air temperatures at 35, 45 and 55 C, velocities at 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 m/s and, relative humidity values at 40%, 55% and 70%. In the ranges that covered, the values of the moisture diffusivity D{sub eff} are obtained between 1.744 x 10{sup -9} and 4.992 x 10{sup -9} m{sup 2}/s for nettle leaves and 1.975 x 10{sup -9} and 6.172 x 10{sup -9} m{sup 2}/s for mint leaves from the Fick's diffusion model. Using D{sub eff}, the value of E{sub a} is determined assuming the Arrhenius-type temperature relationship, which varies from 79.873 to 109.003 kJ/mol for nettle leaves and 66.873 to 71.987 kJ/mol for mint leaves. (author)

  11. 51Cr-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid absorption test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aabakken, L.

    1989-01-01

    The 51 Cr-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) absorption test was evaluated in 83 healthy, male volunteers. Base-line 24 h excretion after peroral administration ranged from 0.88% to 7.96%, with a higher median absorption than reported by most authors (2.45%). However, the reproducibility and stability of the method and the reproducibility of the results were satisfactory. Urinary excretion after intraduodenal installation (n=18) was comparable to that seen after peroral test dose administration, indicating a limited significance of gastric 51 Cr-EDTA absorption under normal conditions. In 16 subjects a single intake of alcohol immediately before the test gave a modest and short-lasting increase in 51 Cr-EDTA absorption. No correlation was seen to body mass index, creatinine clearance, urinary volume, or small-bowel transit time, possibly reducing the number of confounding factors in the evaluation of absorption data. A small but significant negative correlation was, however, found to body surface area and age

  12. Absorption of radionuclide through wounded skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusama, Tomoko; Ogaki, Kazushi; Yoshizawa, Yasuo

    1982-01-01

    The translocation and absorption of 58 Co(CoCl 2 ) through a wound was investigated experimentally with mice. Physical and chemical skin damages became the objects of the investigation. Abrasion, puncture and incision were made for types of the physical damage. The chemical damage included both acid and alkaline burns. The absorptions of the radionuclide through the contaminated wounds were measured with both a 2 inches NaI(Tl) scintillation detector and an auto well gamma counter at 15,30 and 60 min after the contamination. The radionuclide was hardly absorbed through an undamaged skin. After 30 min, 20 to 40% of the radionuclide applied on the physically damaged skin was absorbed, but was not absorbed through the chemically damaged skin. The absorption rate through the physically damaged skin reached a maximum at 15 to 60 min after the contamination. The velocity of the absorption through the physically damaged skin was 100 times as much as the chemically damaged skin. The absorption rates through the physically and the chemically damaged skins were expressed by the following formulas: A=a(1-e sup(-bt)) and A=a(e sup(bt)-1), where a and b is constant, respectively. (author)

  13. Phytosterol glycosides reduce cholesterol absorption in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaobo; Ma, Lina; Racette, Susan B.; Anderson Spearie, Catherine L.; Ostlund, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    Dietary phytosterols inhibit intestinal cholesterol absorption and regulate whole body cholesterol excretion and balance. However, they are biochemically heterogeneous and a portion is glycosylated in some foods with unknown effects on biological activity. We tested the hypothesis that phytosterol glycosides reduce cholesterol absorption in humans. Phytosterol glycosides were extracted and purified from soy lecithin in a novel two-step process. Cholesterol absorption was measured in a series of three single-meal tests given at intervals of 2 wk to each of 11 healthy subjects. In a randomized crossover design, participants received ∼300 mg of added phytosterols in the form of phytosterol glycosides or phytosterol esters, or placebo in a test breakfast also containing 30 mg cholesterol-d7. Cholesterol absorption was estimated by mass spectrometry of plasma cholesterol-d7 enrichment 4–5 days after each test. Compared with the placebo test, phytosterol glycosides reduced cholesterol absorption by 37.6 ± 4.8% (P lecithin are bioactive in humans and should be included in methods of phytosterol analysis and tables of food phytosterol content. PMID:19246636

  14. Identifying the perfect absorption of metamaterial absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, G.; Schalch, J.; Zhao, X.; Zhang, J.; Averitt, R. D.; Zhang, X.

    2018-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the conditions that result in unity absorption in metamaterial absorbers to guide the design and optimization of this important class of functional electromagnetic composites. Multilayer absorbers consisting of a metamaterial layer, dielectric spacer, and ground plane are specifically considered. Using interference theory, the dielectric spacer thickness and resonant frequency for unity absorption can be numerically determined from the functional dependence of the relative phase shift of the total reflection. Further, using transmission line theory in combination with interference theory we obtain analytical expressions for the unity absorption resonance frequency and corresponding spacer layer thickness in terms of the bare resonant frequency of the metamaterial layer and metallic and dielectric losses within the absorber structure. These simple expressions reveal a redshift of the unity absorption frequency with increasing loss that, in turn, necessitates an increase in the thickness of the dielectric spacer. The results of our analysis are experimentally confirmed by performing reflection-based terahertz time-domain spectroscopy on fabricated absorber structures covering a range of dielectric spacer thicknesses with careful control of the loss accomplished through water absorption in a semiporous polyimide dielectric spacer. Our findings can be widely applied to guide the design and optimization of the metamaterial absorbers and sensors.

  15. Phytosterol glycosides reduce cholesterol absorption in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaobo; Ma, Lina; Racette, Susan B; Anderson Spearie, Catherine L; Ostlund, Richard E

    2009-04-01

    Dietary phytosterols inhibit intestinal cholesterol absorption and regulate whole body cholesterol excretion and balance. However, they are biochemically heterogeneous and a portion is glycosylated in some foods with unknown effects on biological activity. We tested the hypothesis that phytosterol glycosides reduce cholesterol absorption in humans. Phytosterol glycosides were extracted and purified from soy lecithin in a novel two-step process. Cholesterol absorption was measured in a series of three single-meal tests given at intervals of 2 wk to each of 11 healthy subjects. In a randomized crossover design, participants received approximately 300 mg of added phytosterols in the form of phytosterol glycosides or phytosterol esters, or placebo in a test breakfast also containing 30 mg cholesterol-d7. Cholesterol absorption was estimated by mass spectrometry of plasma cholesterol-d7 enrichment 4-5 days after each test. Compared with the placebo test, phytosterol glycosides reduced cholesterol absorption by 37.6+/-4.8% (Pphytosterol esters 30.6+/-3.9% (P=0.0001). These results suggest that natural phytosterol glycosides purified from lecithin are bioactive in humans and should be included in methods of phytosterol analysis and tables of food phytosterol content.

  16. Dynamics of water absorption through superabsorbent polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sooyoung; Kim, Wonjung

    2017-11-01

    Superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) consist of hydrophilic cross-linked polymer networks that can absorb and retain a great amount of water relative to their own mass, so that they are widely used for disposable diapers and holding soil moisture in agriculture. SAPs are typically available in the form of submillimeter-sized particles, and the water absorption is driven by capillary flows between particles as well as diffusion that entail swelling. Although the control of water absorption of SAPs is important in engineering applications, but the dynamics of water absorption in SAP particles has not been fully understood. We examine the dynamics of the water absorption of sodium polyacrylate, one of the most common SAP. We experimentally measured the water absorption of sodium polyacrylate particles in one-dimensional confined channel. The water flows through the particles were analyzed by capillarity dominant at the early stage and by diffusion involving volume expansion critical at a later stage. The results provide a quantitative basis of the hydrodynamic analysis of the water flow through SAP particles from a macroscopic point of view, facilitating the prediction of water uptake of SAPs in hygienic and agricultural applications. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) Grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (No.2015R1A2A2A04006181).

  17. Absorption coefficients of silicon: A theoretical treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chin-Yi

    2018-05-01

    A theoretical model with explicit formulas for calculating the optical absorption and gain coefficients of silicon is presented. It incorporates direct and indirect interband transitions and considers the effects of occupied/unoccupied carrier states. The indirect interband transition is calculated from the second-order time-independent perturbation theory of quantum mechanics by incorporating all eight possible routes of absorption or emission of photons and phonons. Absorption coefficients of silicon are calculated from these formulas. The agreements and discrepancies among the calculated results, the Rajkanan-Singh-Shewchun (RSS) formula, and Green's data are investigated and discussed. For example, the RSS formula tends to overestimate the contributions of indirect transitions for cases with high photon energy. The results show that the state occupied/unoccupied effect is almost negligible for silicon absorption coefficients up to the onset of the optical gain condition where the energy separation of Quasi-Femi levels between electrons and holes is larger than the band-gap energy. The usefulness of using the physics-based formulas, rather than semi-empirical fitting ones, for absorption coefficients in theoretical studies of photovoltaic devices is also discussed.

  18. Biotin absorption by distal rat intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, B.B.; Rosenberg, I.H.

    1987-01-01

    We used the in vivo intestinal loop approach, with short (10-min) and long (3-h) incubations, to examine biotin absorption in proximal jejunum, distal ileum, cecum and proximal colon. In short-term studies, luminal biotin disappearance from rat ileum was about half that observed in the jejunum, whereas absorption by proximal colon was about 12% of that in the jejunum. In 3-h closed-loop studies, the absorption of 1.0 microM biotin varied regionally. Biotin absorption was nearly complete in the small intestine after 3 h; however, only about 15% of the dose had been absorbed in the cecum and 27% in the proximal colon after 3 h. Independent of site of administration, the major fraction of absorbed biotin was recovered in the liver; measurable amounts of radioactive biotin were also present in kidney and plasma. The results support the potential nutritional significance for the rat of biotin synthesized by bacteria in the distal intestine, by demonstrating directly an absorptive capability of mammalian large bowel for this vitamin

  19. Optical absorption in recycled waste plastic polyethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aji, M. P.; Rahmawati, I.; Priyanto, A.; Karunawan, J.; Wati, A. L.; Aryani, N. P.; Susanto; Wibowo, E.; Sulhadi

    2018-03-01

    We investigated the optical properties of UV spectrum absorption in recycled waste plastic from polyethylene polymer type. Waste plastic polyethylene showed an optical spectrum absorption after it’s recycling process. Spectrum absorption is determined using spectrophotometer UV-Nir Ocean Optics type USB 4000. Recycling method has been processed using heating treatment around the melting point temperature of the polyethylene polymer that are 200°C, 220°C, 240°C, 260°C, and 280°C. In addition, the recycling process was carried out with time variations as well, which are 1h, 1.5h, 2h, and 2.5h. The result of this experiment shows that recycled waste plastic polyethylene has a spectrum absorption in the ∼ 340-550 nm wavelength range. The absorbance spectrum obtained from UV light which is absorbed in the orbital n → π* and the orbital π → π*. This process indicates the existence of electron transition phenomena. This mechanism is affected by the temperature and the heating time where the intensity of absorption increases and widens with the increase of temperature and heating time. Furthermore this study resulted that the higher temperature affected the enhancement of the band gap energy of waste plastic polyethylene. These results show that recycled waste plastic polyethylene has a huge potential to be absorber materials for solar cell.

  20. Heavy nucleus resonance absorption in heterogeneous lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coste, M.; Tellier, H.; Brienne-Raepsaet, C.; Van Der Gucht, C.

    1992-01-01

    To compute easily the neutron reaction rates in the resonance energy range, the reactor physicists use the self-shielding formalism and the effective cross-section concept. Usually, for these calculations, and equivalence process is used, in such a way that the absorption rate is correctly computed for the whole fuel pin. This procedure does not allow to preserve the spatial absorption rate distribution inside the pin. It is an important handicap if we want to reproduce the plutonium distribution in a spent fuel. To avoid this inconvenience, new improvements of the self-shielding formalism have been recently introduced in the new assembly calculation code of the French Atomic Energy Commission, APOLLO 2. With this improved formalism, it is now possible to represent the spatial and energetic dependence of the heavy nucleus absorption inside the fuel pin and to use a fine energy dependent equivalence process. As it does not exist clean experimental results for the spatial and energetic dependence of the absorption, the authors used reference calculations to qualify the self-shielding formalism. For the strongly self-shielded nuclei of interest in reactor physics, U238, Pu240 and Th232, the agreement between the self-shielding calculation and the reference ones is fairly good for the spatial and energetic dependence of the absorption rate

  1. Zinc absorption in inflammatory bowel disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valberg, L.S.; Flanagan, P.R.; Kertesz, A.; Bondy, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    Zinc absorption was measured in 29 patients with inflammatory bowel disease and a wide spectrum of disease activity to determine its relationship to disease activity, general nutritional state, and zinc status. Patients with severe disease requiring either supplementary oral or parenteral nutrition were excluded. The mean 65ZnCl2 absorption, in the patients, determined using a 65Zn and 51Cr stool-counting test, 45 +/- 17% (SD), was significantly lower than the values, 54 +/- 16%, in 30 healthy controls, P less than 0.05. Low 65ZnCl2 absorption was related to undernutrition, but not to disease activity in the absence of undernutrition or to zinc status estimated by leukocyte zinc measurements. Mean plasma zinc or leukocyte zinc concentrations in patients did not differ significantly from controls, and only two patients with moderate disease had leukocyte zinc values below the 5th percentile of normal. In another group of nine patients with inflammatory bowel disease of mild-to-moderate severity and minimal nutritional impairment, 65Zn absorption from an extrinsically labeled turkey test meal was 31 +/- 10% compared to 33 +/- 7% in 17 healthy controls, P greater than 0.1. Thus, impairment in 65ZnCl2 absorption in the patients selected for this study was only evident in undernourished persons with moderate or severe disease activity, but biochemical evidence of zinc deficiency was uncommon, and clinical features of zinc depletion were not encountered

  2. Iron absorption from adequate Filipinos meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinidad, T.P.; Madriaga, J.R.; Valdez, D.H.; Cruz, E.M.; Mallillin, A.C.; Sison, C.C.; Kuizon, M.D.

    1989-01-01

    Iron absorption from adequate Filipino meals representing the three major island groups of the Philippines (Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao) was studied using double isotope extrinsic tag method. Mean iron absorption of the one-day meal for Metro Manila was 6.6 +- 1.26%. Central Visayas, 6.3 +- 1.15% and Southern Mindanao, 6.4 +- 1.19%. Comparison between meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner) for each region as well as one-day meal for the three regions showed no significant differences (P>0.01). Correlation tests done between iron absorption and the following iron enhancers: ascorbic acid, amount of fish, meat or poultry; and inhibitors: phytic acid and tannic acid, did not give significant results. The overall average of 6.4 +- 1.20% may be used as the iron absorption level from an adequate Filipino meal. This value can be considered as one of the bases for arriving at recommended dietary allowances for iron among Filipinos instead of the 10% iron absorption assumed in 1976. (Auth.). 21 refs.; 3 tabs.; 3 annexes

  3. Iron absorption from adequate Filipino meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinidad, T.P.; Madriaga, J.R.; Valdez, D.H.; Cruz, E.M.; Mallillin, A.C.; Sison, C.C.; Kuizon, M.D.

    1991-01-01

    Iron absorption from adequate Filipino meals representing the three major island groups of the Philippines (Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao) was studied using double isotope extrinsic tag method. Mean iron absorption of the one-day meal for Metro Manila was 6.6 ± 1.26%, Central Visayas, 6.3 ± 1.15% and Southern Mindanao, 6.4 ± 1.19%. Comparison between meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner) for each region as well as one-day meal for the three regions showed no significant differences (P > .01). Correlation tests done between iron absorption and the following iron enhancers: ascorbic acid, amount of fish, meat or poultry and inhibitors: phytic acid and tannic acid did not give significant results. The overall bar x of 6.4 ± 1.20% may be used as the non-heme iron absorption level from an adequate Filipino meal. This value can be considered as one of the bases for arriving at recommended dietary allowances for iron among Filipinos instead of the 10% iron absorption assumed in 1976

  4. Abscisic acid biosynthesis in leaves and roots of Xanthium strumarium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creelman, R.A.; Gage, D.A.; Stults, J.T.; Zeevaart, J.A.D.

    1987-01-01

    Research on the biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA) has focused primarily on two pathways: (a) the direct pathway from farnesyl pyrophosphate, and (b) the indirect pathway involving a carotenoid precursor. The authors have investigated which biosynthetic pathway is operating in turgid and stressed Xanthium leaves, and in stressed Xanthium roots using long-term incubations in 18 O 2 . It was found that in stressed leaves three atoms of 18 O from 18 O 2 are incorporated into the ABA molecule, and that the amount of 18 O incorporated increases with time. One 18 O atom is incorporated rapidly into the carboxyl group of ABA, whereas the other two atoms are very slowly incorporated into the ring oxygens. The fourth oxygen atom in the carboxyl group of ABA is derived from water. ABA from stressed roots of Xanthium incubated in 18 O 2 shows a labeling pattern similar to that of ABA in stressed leaves, but with incorporation of more 18 O into the tertiary hydroxyl group at C-1' after 6 and 12 hours than found in ABA from stressed leaves. It is proposed that the precursors to stress-induced ABA are xanthophylls, and that a xanthophyll lacking an oxygen function at C-6 plays a crucial role in ABA biosynthesis in Xanthium roots. In turgid Xanthium leaves, 18 O is incorporated into ABA to a much lesser extent that it is in stressed leaves, whereas exogenously applied 14 C-ABA is completely catabolized within 48 hours. This suggests that ABA in turgid leaves is either (a) made via a biosynthetic pathway which is different from the one in stressed leaves, or (b) has a half-life on the order of days as compared with a half-life of 15.5 hours in water-stressed Xanthium leaves. Phaseic acid showed a labeling pattern similar to that of ABA, but with an additional 18 O incorporated during 8'-hydroxylation of ABA to phaseic acid

  5. Resveratrols in grape berry skins and leaves in vitis germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijun; Xu, Man; Liu, Chunyan; Wang, Junfang; Xi, Huifen; Wu, Benhong; Loescher, Wayne; Duan, Wei; Fan, Peige; Li, Shaohua

    2013-01-01

    Resveratrol is an important stilbene that benefits human health. However, it is only distributed in a few species including grape and is very expensive. At present, grape has been an important source resveratrol. However, the details are scarce on resveratrol distribution in different Vitis species or cultivars. The composition and content of resveratrols were investigated by HPLC for assessing genotypic variation in berry skins and leaves of 75 grape cultivars, belonging to 3 species and 7 interspecific hybrids. Trans-resveratrol, cis-piceid and trans-piceid were detected in berry skins and leaves, but cis-resveratrol was not. Resveratrol content largely varied with genetic background as well as usage. In most cultivars, total resveratrol including the above three compounds was higher in berry skins than leaves. In berry skins of most cultivars and leaves of almost all cultivars, cis-piceid was the most abundant resveratrol; trans-resveratrol and trans-piceid were minor components. Some specific cultivars were found with extremely high levels of trans-resveratrol, cis- piceid, trans-piceid or total resveratrols in berry skins or leaves. In skins and leaves, rootstock cultivars had a higher content of total resveratrols, and the cultivated European type cultivars and their hybrids with V. labrusca had relatively low totals. There were no significant correlations of the amounts of total resveratrols or any individual resveratrol between berry skins and leaves. All 75 cultivars can be divided into four groups based on the composition of resveratrols and their concentration by principal component analysis. Resveratrol content of grape berries and leaves varied largely with their genetic background and usage. Rootstock cultivars had a higher content of total resveratrols than the other germplasm. Total resveratrols were lower in leaves than berry skins in most cultivars. Cis-piceid was the most abundant resveratrol in most cultivars, and trans-res and trans-pd were

  6. Abscisic Acid Biosynthesis in Leaves and Roots of Xanthium strumarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creelman, R A; Gage, D A; Stults, J T; Zeevaart, J A

    1987-11-01

    RESEARCH ON THE BIOSYNTHESIS OF ABSCISIC ACID (ABA) HAS FOCUSED PRIMARILY ON TWO PATHWAYS: (a) the direct pathway from farnesyl pyrophosphate, and (b) the indirect pathway involving a carotenoid precursor. We have investigated which biosynthetic pathway is operating in turgid and stressed Xanthium leaves, and in stressed Xanthium roots using long-term incubations in (18)O(2). It was found that in stressed leaves three atoms of (18)O from (18)O(2) are incorporated into the ABA molecule, and that the amount of (18)O incorporated increases with time. One (18)O atom is incorporated rapidly into the carboxyl group of ABA, whereas the other two atoms are very slowly incorporated into the ring oxygens. The fourth oxygen atom in the carboxyl group of ABA is derived from water. ABA from stressed roots of Xanthium incubated in (18)O(2) shows a labeling pattern similar to that of ABA in stressed leaves, but with incorporation of more (18)O into the tertiary hydroxyl group at C-1' after 6 and 12 hours than found in ABA from stressed leaves. It is proposed that the precursors to stress-induced ABA are xanthophylls, and that a xanthophyll lacking an oxygen function at C-6 (carotenoid numbering scheme) plays a crucial role in ABA biosynthesis in Xanthium roots. In turgid Xanthium leaves, (18)O is incorporated into ABA to a much lesser extent than it is in stressed leaves, whereas exogenously applied (14)C-ABA is completely catabolized within 48 hours. This suggests that ABA in turgid leaves is either (a) made via a biosynthetic pathway which is different from the one in stressed leaves, or (b) has a half-life on the order of days as compared with a half-life of 15.5 hours in water-stressed Xanthium leaves. Phaseic acid showed a labeling pattern similar to that of ABA, but with an additional (18)O incorporated during 8'-hydroxylation of ABA to phaseic acid.

  7. Mechanisms of copper stress alleviation in Citrus trees after metal uptake by leaves or roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippler, Franz Walter Rieger; Petená, Guilherme; Boaretto, Rodrigo Marcelli; Quaggio, José Antônio; Azevedo, Ricardo Antunes; Mattos-Jr, Dirceu

    2018-05-01

    Nutritional disorders caused by copper (Cu) have affected citrus orchards. Since Cu is foliar sprayed as a pesticide to control citrus diseases, this metal accumulates in the soil. Thereby, we evaluated the effects of Cu leaf absorption after spray of different metal sources, as well as roots absorption on growth, nutritional status, and oxidative stress of young sweet orange trees. Two experiments were carried out under greenhouse conditions. The first experiment was set up with varying Cu levels to the soil (nil Cu, 0.5, 2.0, 4.0 and 8.0 g of Cu per plant as CuSO 4 .5H 2 O), whereas the second experiment with Cu application via foliar sprays (0.5 and 2.0 g of Cu per plant) and comparing two metal sources (CuSO 4 .5H 2 O or Cu(OH) 2 ). Copper was mainly accumulated in roots with soil supply, but an increase of oxidative stress levels was observed in leaves. On the other hand, Cu concentrations were higher in leaves that received foliar sprays, mainly as Cu(OH) 2 . However, when sulfate was foliar sprayed, plants exhibited more symptoms of injuries in the canopy with decreased chlorophyll contents and increased hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation levels. Copper toxicity was characterized by sap leakage from the trunk and twigs, which is the first report of this specific Cu excess symptom in woody trees. Despite plants with 8.0 g of Cu soil-applied exhibiting the sap leakage, growth of new plant parts was more vigorous with lower oxidative stress levels and injuries compared to those with 4.0 g of Cu soil-applied (without sap leakage). With the highest level of Cu applied via foliar as sulfate, Cu was eliminated by plant roots, increasing the rhizospheric soil metal levels. Despite citrus likely exhibiting different mechanisms to reduce the damages caused by metal toxicity, such as responsive enzymatic antioxidant system, metal accumulation in the roots, and metal exclusion by roots, excess Cu resulted in damages on plant growth and metabolism when the

  8. [Teacher sick leave: Prevalence, duration, reasons and covariates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercambre-Jacquot, M-N; Gilbert, F; Billaudeau, N

    2018-02-01

    Absences from work have considerable social and economic impact. In the education sector, the phenomenon is particularly worrying since teacher sick leave has an impact on the overall performance of the education system. Yet, available data are scarce. In April-June 2013, 2653 teachers responded to a population-based postal survey on their quality of life (enquête Qualité de vie des enseignants, MGEN Foundation/Ministry of education, response rate 53 %). Besides questions on work environment and health, teachers were asked to describe their eventual sick leave(s) since the beginning of the school year: duration, type and medical reasons. Self-reported information was reinforced by administrative data from ministerial databases and weighted to be extrapolated to all French teachers. Tobit models adjusted for individual factors of a private nature were used to investigate different occupational risk factors of teacher sick leave, taking into account both the estimated effect on the probability of sick leave and the length of it. More than one in three teachers (36 %) reported having had at least one day of sick leave since the beginning of the school year. Respiratory/ENT diseases were the leading reason for sick leave (37 %). However, and because sick leave duration depended on the underlying health problem, such diseases came in third place among justifications of sick leave days (14 %), far behind musculoskeletal problems (27 %) and neurological and psychological disorders (25 %). Tobit models suggested that some occupational factors significantly associated with the risk of sick leave may represent promising preventive targets, including high psychological demand, workplace violence and unfavorable socio-environmental context. Our study provides objective evidence about the issue of sick leave among French teachers, highlighting the usefulness of implementing actions to minimize its weight. To this end, the study findings point-out the importance of

  9. Ozone injury increases infection of geranium leaves by Botrytis cinerea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, W.J.; Feder, W.A.; Perkins, I.

    1970-04-01

    Detached and attached, inoculated and noninoculated, ozone-injured and noninjured leaves from the lower, middle, and terminal regions of plants of geranium cultivars Enchantress and White Mountain were observed for infection by Botrytis cinerea. Previous exposure to ozone did not appreciably influence the susceptibility of leaves of either geranium cultivar to infection by B. cinerea, unless there was visible ozone injury. Ozone-injured, necrotic tissues on older attached and detached geranium leaves of both cultivars served as infection courts for B. cinerea. 14 references, 1 table.

  10. [Studies on phenolic constituents from leaves of pineapple (Ananas comosus)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Ding, Yi; Xing, Dong-ming; Wang, Jin-ping; Du, Li-jun

    2006-08-01

    To study the phenolic constituents of the leaves of pineapple. Chromatographic methods were used to isolate compounds from the leaves of pineapple and spectroscopic methods were used to identify the structures of the isolated compounds. 7 compounds, ananasate (1), 1-O-caffeoylglycerol (2), 1-O-p-coumaroylglycerol (3), caffeic acid (4), p-coumaric acid (5), beta-sitosterol (6) and daucosterol (7), were isolated from the leaves of pineapple. 1 was a new compound, and others were obtained from this plant for the first time.

  11. Leave-two-out stability of ontology learning algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jianzhang; Yu, Xiao; Zhu, Linli; Gao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Ontology is a semantic analysis and calculation model, which has been applied to many subjects. Ontology similarity calculation and ontology mapping are employed as machine learning approaches. The purpose of this paper is to study the leave-two-out stability of ontology learning algorithm. Several leave-two-out stabilities are defined in ontology learning setting and the relationship among these stabilities are presented. Furthermore, the results manifested reveal that leave-two-out stability is a sufficient and necessary condition for ontology learning algorithm.

  12. The absorption of carbon monoxide in COSORB solutions: absorption rate and capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogendoorn, Kees; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria; Versteeg, Geert

    1995-01-01

    Absorption rate experiments and equilibrium experiments were carried out for the COSORB reaction at 300 K. The equilibrium data at 300 K could reasonably well be described with the following relation: [...] Determination of the kinetics and mechanism of a chemical reaction by means of absorption

  13. Reproducibility of The Random Incidence Absorption Coefficient Converted From the Sabine Absorption Coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Chang, Ji-ho

    2015-01-01

    largely depending on the test room. Several conversion methods for porous absorbers from the Sabine absorption coefficient to the random incidence absorption coefficient were suggested by considering the finite size of a test specimen and non-uniformly incident energy onto the specimen, which turned out...... resistivity optimization outperforms the surface impedance optimization in terms of the reproducibility....

  14. Absorption lines, Faraday rotation, and magnetic field estimates for QSO absorption-line clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronberg, P.P.; Perry, J.J.

    1982-01-01

    We have estimated the extragalactic component of Faraday rotation for a sample of 37 QSOs for which there is good absorption line data, which we have also analyzed. Statistical evidence is presented which suggests that we have isolated a component of Faraday rotation which is occurring in the absorption clouds of some QSOs

  15. 29 CFR 825.203 - Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... leave intermittently or on a reduced leave schedule for planned medical treatment, then the employee... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave. 825... OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the...

  16. LEAVE OF ABSENCE PRACTICES IN SOUTH DAKOTA SCHOOLS--SCHOOL YEAR 1964-65.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Dakota Education Association, Pierre.

    IN ADDITION TO SCHOOL POLICIES RELATING TO TEACHER LEAVES OF ABSENCE IN SOUTH DAKOTA, STATE BY STATE SUMMARIES OF EDUCATIONAL LEGISLATION REGARDING SICK LEAVE, MATERNITY LEAVE, AND SABBATICAL LEAVE ARE PRESENTED IN THIS DOCUMENT. OF THE 228 RESPONDING SCHOOLS IN SOUTH DAKOTA, 215 REPORTED EXISTING SICK LEAVE POLICIES. THE MAJORITY OF RESPONDING…

  17. Analytic descriptions of ion cyclotron absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bers, A.; Francis, G.; Fuchs, V.; Lashmore-Davies, C.N.; Ram, A.K.

    1987-05-01

    Analysis of energy propagation and absorption in ion-cyclotron heating of tokamak plasmas has relied on numerical solutions of fourth (and sixth) order differential equations for slab models of the plasma (poloidal) cross section. Realistic two-dimensional and fully toroidal geometry analyses would become quite unwieldy. It is shown here that the analysis of the slab model can be simplified considerably. A first-order differential equation is shown to describe the transmission coefficient for the fast wave, and it is solved analytically. A second order differential equation is shown to adequately describe both transmission and reflection. Conditions for ion absorption or mode conversion are derived. Including toroidal effects in propagation, conditions for electron absorption on the mode-converted ion-Bernstein waves are also described analytically

  18. Anomalous water absorption in porous materials

    CERN Document Server

    Lockington, D A

    2003-01-01

    The absorption of fluid by unsaturated, rigid porous materials may be characterized by the sorptivity. This is a simple parameter to determine and is increasingly being used as a measure of a material's resistance to exposure to fluids (especially moisture and reactive solutes) in aggressive environments. The complete isothermal absorption process is described by a nonlinear diffusion equation, with the hydraulic diffusivity being a strongly nonlinear function of the degree of saturation of the material. This diffusivity can be estimated from the sorptivity test. In a typical test the cumulative absorption is proportional to the square root of time. However, a number of researchers have observed deviation from this behaviour when the infiltrating fluid is water and there is some potential for chemo-mechanical interaction with the material. In that case the current interpretation of the test and estimation of the hydraulic diffusivity is no longer appropriate. Kuentz and Lavallee (2001) discuss the anomalous b...

  19. Rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friese, Daniel H., E-mail: daniel.h.friese@uit.no; Beerepoot, Maarten T. P.; Ruud, Kenneth [Centre for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, University of Tromsø — The Arctic University of Norway, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway)

    2014-11-28

    Rotational averaging of tensors is a crucial step in the calculation of molecular properties in isotropic media. We present a scheme for the rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections. We extend existing literature on rotational averaging to even-rank tensors of arbitrary order and derive equations that require only the number of photons as input. In particular, we derive the first explicit expressions for the rotational average of five-, six-, and seven-photon absorption cross sections. This work is one of the required steps in making the calculation of these higher-order absorption properties possible. The results can be applied to any even-rank tensor provided linearly polarized light is used.

  20. Gold analysis by the gamma absorption technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtoglu, Arzu; Tugrul, A.B.

    2003-01-01

    Gold (Au) analyses are generally performed using destructive techniques. In this study, the Gamma Absorption Technique has been employed for gold analysis. A series of different gold alloys of known gold content were analysed and a calibration curve was obtained. This curve was then used for the analysis of unknown samples. Gold analyses can be made non-destructively, easily and quickly by the gamma absorption technique. The mass attenuation coefficients of the alloys were measured around the K-shell absorption edge of Au. Theoretical mass attenuation coefficient values were obtained using the WinXCom program and comparison of the experimental results with the theoretical values showed generally good and acceptable agreement