WorldWideScience

Sample records for absorption electronic resource

  1. ELECTRONIC HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. M. Panneerselvam

    2017-01-01

    Electronic Human Resource Management is an essence the revolution of human resource functions to management and employees. These functions are typically used via intranet and web technology. This helps the organization to improve their standards where they can able to review and forward. All those documents can be viewed within a fraction of second with help of client and server links. The phenomenon of E- HRM deserves closer and more fundamental roots to HR activity. The E-HRM develops and b...

  2. Electronic absorption spectra of antiviral aminophenol derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkov, M. V.; Ksendzova, G. A.; Raichyonok, T. F.; Skornyakov, I. V.; Sorokin, V. L.; Tolstorozhev, G. B.; Shadyro, O. I.

    2011-03-01

    Electronic absorption spectra of aminophenol derivatives in solutions have been studied. A general property of the absorption spectra of these compounds, the dependence of the maximum of a long-wavelength absorption band on the solvent polarity, is revealed. As a rule, the absorption band maximum of compounds possessing pharmacological properties shows a greater shift to short wavelength with an increase in the medium polarity than that of inactive compounds. Absorption measurements of solutions of aminophenol derivatives can be used for a tentative estimation of their antiviral activity.

  3. Electronic Resource Management and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Kimberly R.

    2015-01-01

    We have now reached a tipping point at which electronic resources comprise more than half of academic library budgets. Because of the increasing work associated with the ever-increasing number of e-resources, there is a trend to distribute work throughout the library even in the presence of an electronic resources department. In 2013, the author…

  4. Overview of Resources for Geothermal Absorption Cooling for Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaobing [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gluesenkamp, Kyle R [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mehdizadeh Momen, Ayyoub [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of a literature review in three areas: available low-temperature/coproduced geothermal resources in the United States, energy use for space conditioning in commercial buildings, and state of the art of geothermal absorption cooling.

  5. Molecular shock response of explosives: electronic absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mcgrne, Shawn D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Moore, David S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whitley, Von H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bolme, Cindy A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Eakins, Daniel E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Electronic absorption spectroscopy in the range 400-800 nm was coupled to ultrafast laser generated shocks to begin addressing the question of the extent to which electronic excitations are involved in shock induced reactions. Data are presented on shocked polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) thin films and single crystal pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN). Shocked PMMA exhibited thin film interference effects from the shock front. Shocked PETN exhibited interference from the shock front as well as broadband increased absorption. Relation to shock initiation hypotheses and the need for time dependent absorption data (future experiments) is briefly discussed.

  6. Ultrafast transient-absorption of the solvated electron in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Y.; Alfano, J.C.; Walhout, P.K.; Barbara, P.F.

    1994-01-01

    Ultrafast near infrared (NIR)-pump/variable wavelength probe transient-absorption spectroscopy has been performed on the aqueous solvated electron. The photodynamics of the solvated electron excited to its p-state are qualitatively similar to previous measurements of the dynamics of photoinjected electrons at high energy. This result confirms the previous interpretation of photoinjected electron dynamics as having a rate-limiting bottleneck at low energies presumably involving the p-state

  7. Managing electronic resources a LITA guide

    CERN Document Server

    Weir, Ryan O

    2012-01-01

    Informative, useful, current, Managing Electronic Resources: A LITA Guide shows how to successfully manage time, resources, and relationships with vendors and staff to ensure personal, professional, and institutional success.

  8. Absorption of resonant electromagnetic radiation in electron-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslanbekov, T.U.; Pazdzerskii, V.A.; Usachenko, V.I.

    1986-01-01

    Nonrelativistic quantum theory is used to study the possibility of amplification of electromagnetic radiation in forced braking scattering of an electron beam on atoms. The interaction of the atom with the electromagnetic field is considered in the resonant approximation. Cases of large and small detuning from resonance are considered. It is shown that for any orientation of the electron beam relative to the field polarization vector, absorption of radiation occurs, with the major contribution being produced by atomic electrons

  9. Implementing CORAL: An Electronic Resource Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    A 2010 electronic resource management survey conducted by Maria Collins of North Carolina State University and Jill E. Grogg of University of Alabama Libraries found that the top six electronic resources management priorities included workflow management, communications management, license management, statistics management, administrative…

  10. Electronic Resources Management Project Presentation 2012

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2012-11-05

    This presentation describes the electronic resources management project undertaken by the KAUST library. The objectives of this project is to migrate information from MS Sharepoint to Millennium ERM module. One of the advantages of this migration is to consolidate all electronic resources into a single and centralized location. This would allow for better information sharing among library staff.

  11. Absorption distances in the dynamical theory of electron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiya, Yoshihiko; Goto, Toshiaki.

    1982-01-01

    The contrast effect of the electron microscopic image at crystal defects is characterized by two parameters; extincion distance and absorption distance. Both quantities are orginally defined for the elastic scattering. Since the inelastic scattering contributes to the electron microscopic image, parameters used for the interpretation of the images are not the same as those for the elastic scattering. It is shown that the difference of absorption distance beteen the theoretical estimation and that used for interpretation is due to the contrst effect of the small angle inelastic scattering. (author)

  12. Absorptive form factors for high-energy electron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, D.M.; King, Q.A.

    1990-01-01

    The thermal diffuse scattering contribution to the absorptive potential in high-energy electron diffraction is calculated in the form of an absorptive contribution to the atomic form factor. To do this, the Einstein model of lattice vibrations is used, with isotropic Debye-Waller factors. The absorptive form factors are calculated as a function of scattering vector s and temperature factor M on a grid which enables polynomial interpolation of the results to be accurate to better than 2% for much of the ranges 0≤Ms 2 ≤6 and 0≤M≤2 A 2 . The computed values, together with an interpolation routine, have been incorporated into a Fortran subroutine which calculates both the real and absorptive form factors for 54 atomic species. (orig.)

  13. Stochasticity of the energy absorption in the electron cyclotron resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez T, C.; Hernandez A, O.

    1998-01-01

    The energy absorption mechanism in cyclotron resonance of the electrons is a present problem, since it could be considered from the stochastic point of view or this related with a non-homogeneous but periodical of plasma spatial structure. In this work using the Bogoliubov average method for a multi periodical system in presence of resonances, the drift equations were obtained in presence of a RF field for the case of electron cyclotron resonance until first order terms with respect to inverse of its cyclotron frequency. The absorbed energy equation is obtained on part of electrons in a simple model and by drift method. It is showed the stochastic character of the energy absorption. (Author)

  14. Microwave absorption of electrons bound to films of helium

    OpenAIRE

    Lehndorff, Beate; Dransfeld, Klauss

    1989-01-01

    We have measured the microwave absorption of a two dimensional electron gas on a film of superfluid helium at temperatures below 1.75 K and at a fixed frequency of 9 GHz. The electrons are attracted to the surface by image forces and in addition by a variable dc-electric field directed normally to the film. Due to the formation of dimples in the helium surface the electrons are also localized in the lateral direction. For the microwave field oriented parallel to the film and for temperatures ...

  15. Electronic Resources Management System: Recommendation Report 2017

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-01

    This recommendation report provides an overview of the selection process for the new Electronic Resources Management System. The library has decided to move away from Innovative Interfaces Millennium ERM module. The library reviewed 3 system as potential replacements namely: Proquest 360 Resource Manager, Ex Libris Alma and Open Source CORAL ERMS. After comparing and trialling the systems, it was decided to go for Proquest 360 Resource Manager.

  16. Robust parameterization of elastic and absorptive electron atomic scattering factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, L.M.; Ren, G.; Dudarev, S.L.; Whelan, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    A robust algorithm and computer program have been developed for the parameterization of elastic and absorptive electron atomic scattering factors. The algorithm is based on a combined modified simulated-annealing and least-squares method, and the computer program works well for fitting both elastic and absorptive atomic scattering factors with five Gaussians. As an application of this program, the elastic electron atomic scattering factors have been parameterized for all neutral atoms and for s up to 6 A -1 . Error analysis shows that the present results are considerably more accurate than the previous analytical fits in terms of the mean square value of the deviation between the numerical and fitted scattering factors. Parameterization for absorptive atomic scattering factors has been made for 17 important materials with the zinc blende structure over the temperature range 1 to 1000 K, where appropriate, and for temperature ranges for which accurate Debye-Waller factors are available. For other materials, the parameterization of the absorptive electron atomic scattering factors can be made using the program by supplying the atomic number of the element, the Debye-Waller factor and the acceleration voltage. For ions or when more accurate numerical results for neutral atoms are available, the program can read in the numerical values of the elastic scattering factors and return the parameters for both the elastic and absorptive scattering factors. The computer routines developed have been tested both on computer workstations and desktop PC computers, and will be made freely available via electronic mail or on floppy disk upon request. (orig.)

  17. CHALLENGES OF ELECTRONIC INFORMATION RESOURCES IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the role of policy for proper and efficient library services in the electronic era. It points out ... New approaches in acquisition, accessing, selection, preservation and choices on whether to operate digital, or combine traditional print and digital resources in the library have to be worked out and adopted.

  18. 2015 Utilization of Electronic Information Resources in Ramat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    electronic resources, electronic books, electronic learning, electronic journals, as well as electronic archive among others is intensely powerful and has permeated all segments and sectors of the society. Electronic information resources (EIRS) as reported by Meitz (2004), are "Library materials produced in electronic format.

  19. Acoustic absorption by the electron-hole liquid in germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, A.D.A.

    1977-11-01

    The absorption of ultrasonic acoustic waves by the electron-hole liquid that may be created in germanium at liquid helium temperatures by intense optical excitation was studied. This is a degenerate compensated Fermi liquid that exhibits the behavior of both classical dynamics in a force field, and quantum phenomena in a magnetic field. Results of theoretical and experimental studies of the interaction of the mobile liquid with a travelling acoustic wave force field, the attenuation of the wave due to energy-dissipative processes coupling the liquid to the crystal lattice, and the effect of a moderately strong magnetic field on the dynamic behavior of the system are presented. In unstrained germanium the electron-hole liquid (EHL) is known to be condensed into small droplets of radius approx. 5 μm; the creation of an EHL energy well by the application of an inhomogeneous stress causes the liquid to be aggregated into a macroscopically large volume

  20. Acoustic absorption by the electron-hole liquid in germanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, A.D.A.

    1977-11-01

    The absorption of ultrasonic acoustic waves by the electron-hole liquid that may be created in germanium at liquid helium temperatures by intense optical excitation was studied. This is a degenerate compensated Fermi liquid that exhibits the behavior of both classical dynamics in a force field, and quantum phenomena in a magnetic field. Results of theoretical and experimental studies of the interaction of the mobile liquid with a travelling acoustic wave force field, the attenuation of the wave due to energy-dissipative processes coupling the liquid to the crystal lattice, and the effect of a moderately strong magnetic field on the dynamic behavior of the system are presented. In unstrained germanium the electron-hole liquid (EHL) is known to be condensed into small droplets of radius approx. 5 ..mu..m; the creation of an EHL energy well by the application of an inhomogeneous stress causes the liquid to be aggregated into a macroscopically large volume.

  1. Electronic absorption spectra and geometry of organic molecules an application of molecular orbital theory

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Hiroshi

    1967-01-01

    Electronic Absorption Spectra and Geometry of Organic Molecules: An Application of Molecular Orbital Theory focuses on electronic absorption spectra of organic compounds and molecules. The book begins with the discussions on molecular spectra, electronic absorption spectra of organic compounds, and practical measures of absorption intensity. The text also focuses on molecular orbital theory and group theory. Molecular state functions; fundamental postulates of quantum theory; representation of symmetry groups; and symmetry operations and symmetry groups are described. The book also dis

  2. The calculating rating of electronic resources

    OpenAIRE

    MUMINOV BAHODIR.BOLTAYEICH

    2016-01-01

    The rating of electron resources is devoted to count by theories, directions in this work. The calculating model of rating of ER by entering and exiting directions on bases of used widely PageRank is produced for calculating the rating of web pages in Google searching system. The rating of ER is taken into account for calculating the ratings of entering direction and the calculating exiting direction is accomplished by equitable distribution of ER. And also the calculating rating ER among kin...

  3. Making sense of the electronic resource marketplace: trends in health-related electronic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blansit, B D; Connor, E

    1999-07-01

    Changes in the practice of medicine and technological developments offer librarians unprecedented opportunities to select and organize electronic resources, use the Web to deliver content throughout the organization, and improve knowledge at the point of need. The confusing array of available products, access routes, and pricing plans makes it difficult to anticipate the needs of users, identify the top resources, budget effectively, make sound collection management decisions, and organize the resources effectively and seamlessly. The electronic resource marketplace requires much vigilance, considerable patience, and continuous evaluation. There are several strategies that librarians can employ to stay ahead of the electronic resource curve, including taking advantage of free trials from publishers; marketing free trials and involving users in evaluating new products; watching and testing products marketed to the clientele; agreeing to beta test new products and services; working with aggregators or republishers; joining vendor advisory boards; benchmarking institutional resources against five to eight competitors; and forming or joining a consortium for group negotiating and purchasing. This article provides a brief snapshot of leading biomedical resources; showcases several libraries that have excelled in identifying, acquiring, and organizing electronic resources; and discusses strategies and trends of potential interest to biomedical librarians, especially those working in hospital settings.

  4. Electronic resource management systems a workflow approach

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Elsa K

    2014-01-01

    To get to the bottom of a successful approach to Electronic Resource Management (ERM), Anderson interviewed staff at 11 institutions about their ERM implementations. Among her conclusions, presented in this issue of Library Technology Reports, is that grasping the intricacies of your workflow-analyzing each step to reveal the gaps and problems-at the beginning is crucial to selecting and implementing an ERM. Whether the system will be used to fill a gap, aggregate critical data, or replace a tedious manual process, the best solution for your library depends on factors such as your current soft

  5. Utilization of electronic information resources in Ramat Library ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... printer, and audio-visuals are equally available. Student have unlimited accessibility in the utilization of electronic resources, students frequently utilized electronic information resources in Ramat Library. It is recommended, among others, that registered students should utilize and access electronic information resources ...

  6. A system to measure suprathermal electron distribution functions in toroidal plasmas by electron cyclotron wave absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, D.A.; Skiff, F.; Gulick, S.

    1997-01-01

    A two-chord, four-beam suprathermal electron diagnostic has been installed on TdeV (B>1.5 T, R=0.86 m, a=0.25 m). Resonant absorption of extraordinary mode electron cyclotron waves is measured to deduce the chordal averaged suprathermal electron distribution function amplitude at the resonant momentum. Simultaneously counterpropagating beams permit good refractive loss cancellation. A nonlinear frequency sweep leads to a concentration of appropriately propagating power in a narrow range of time of flight, thus increasing the signal-to-noise ratio and facilitating the rejection of spurious reflections. Numerous measurements of electron distribution functions have been obtained during lower-hybrid current-drive experiments. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  7. Electron cyclotron absorption in Tokamak plasmas in the presence of radial transport of particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, Paulo R. da S.; Ziebell, Luiz F.

    1998-01-01

    We use quasilinear theory to study effects of particle radial transport on the electron cyclotron absorption coefficient by a current carrying plasma, in a tokamak modelated as a plasma slab. Our numerical results indicate significant modification in the profile of the electron cyclotron absorption coefficient when transport is taken into account relative to the situation without transport. (author)

  8. Effect of transverse electron drift on absorption of surface acoustic waves in CdS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kmita, A.M.; Medved', A.V.; Fedorets, V.N.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of the transverse electron drift on acousto-electron interaction in CdS has been studied. It has been revealed that the free electron drift only in the direction normal to the plane of propagation of surface acoustic waves may change the sound electron absorption coefficient in a wide range. In the case of metallization of the active part of a crystal surface a decrease in sound absorption has been observed both on the electron drift to a working crystal surface and on the opposite direction. Whereas in the case of a free crystal surface the transverse electron drift directed to the working plate surface causes an increase in sound absorption, and with the opposite drift electron absorption of the Rayleigh ultrasound waves is almost not observed. An explanation of the effects observed is proposed

  9. Impact of electronic resources use on academic performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results indicated that use of electronic resources had a positive impact on students' academic performance. Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that more emphasis should be laid on the acquisition of electronic resources so as to give room for wider and multiple access to information resources in order to ...

  10. Use of Electronic Resources in a Private University in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined awareness and constraints in the use of electronic resources by lecturers and students of Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo, Nigeria. It aimed at justifying the resources expended in the provision of electronic resources in terms of awareness, patronage and factors that may be affecting awareness and use ...

  11. The Evolution of Selection Activities for Electronic Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Trisha L.

    1997-01-01

    Selection of electronic resources--CD-ROMs, dial access databases, electronic journals, and World Wide Web products--requires a more extensive set of criteria than do print resources. Discusses two factors influencing collection development of electronic products: technology options and licensing issues, and outlines how traditional selection…

  12. Electronic Resource Management System. Vernetzung von Lizenzinformationen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Selbach

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In den letzten zehn Jahren spielen elektronische Ressourcen im Bereich der Erwerbung eine zunehmend wichtige Rolle: Eindeutig lässt sich hier ein Wandel in den Bibliotheken (fort vom reinen Printbestand zu immer größeren E-Only-Beständen feststellen. Die stetig wachsende Menge an E-Ressourcen und deren Heterogenität stellt Bibliotheken vor die Herausforderung, die E-Ressourcen effizient zu verwalten. Nicht nur Bibliotheken, sondern auch verhandlungsführende Institutionen von Konsortial- und Allianzlizenzen benötigen ein geeignetes Instrument zur Verwaltung von Lizenzinformationen, welches den komplexen Anforderungen moderner E-Ressourcen gerecht wird. Die Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG unterstützt ein Projekt des Hochschulbibliothekszentrums des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen (hbz, der Universitätsbibliothek Freiburg, der Verbundzentrale des Gemeinsamen Bibliotheksverbundes (GBV und der Universitätsbibliothek Frankfurt, in dem ein bundesweit verfügbares Electronic Ressource Managementsystem (ERMS aufgebaut werden soll. Ein solches ERMS soll auf Basis einer zentralen Knowledge Base eine einheitliche Nutzung von Daten zur Lizenzverwaltung elektronischer Ressourcen auf lokaler, regionaler und nationaler Ebene ermöglichen. Statistische Auswertungen, Rechteverwaltung für alle angeschlossenen Bibliotheken, kooperative Datenpflege sowie ein über standardisierte Schnittstellen geführter Datenaustausch stehen bei der Erarbeitung der Anforderungen ebenso im Fokus wie die Entwicklung eines Daten- und Funktionsmodells. In the last few years the importance of electronic resources in library acquisitions has increased significantly. There has been a shift from mere print holdings to both e- and print combinations and even e-only subscriptions. This shift poses a double challenge for libraries: On the one hand they have to provide their e-resource collections to library users in an appealing way, on the other hand they have to manage these

  13. Electronic resources access and usage among the postgraduates of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electronic resources access and usage among the postgraduates of a Nigerian University of Technology. ... by postgraduates in using e-resources include takes too much time to find, e-resources are not always accessible, lack of supporting structures (connection, downloading, printing limits) and too many resources.

  14. Utilization of electronic information resources by academic staff at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the utilization of Electronic Information resources by the academic staff of Makerere University in Uganda. It examined the academic staff awareness of the resources available, the types of resources provided by the Makerere University Library, the factors affecting resource utilization. The study was ...

  15. Hot Electron Photoemission from Plasmonic Nanostructures: The Role of Surface Photoemission and Transition Absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Zhukovsky, Sergei; Ikhsanov, Renat Sh

    2015-01-01

    We study mechanisms of photoemission of hot electrons from plasmonic nanoparticles. We analyze the contribution of "transition absorption", i.e., loss of energy of electrons passing through the boundary between different materials, to the surface mechanism of photoemission. We calculate photoemis......We study mechanisms of photoemission of hot electrons from plasmonic nanoparticles. We analyze the contribution of "transition absorption", i.e., loss of energy of electrons passing through the boundary between different materials, to the surface mechanism of photoemission. We calculate...... photoemission rate and transition absorption for nanoparticles surrounded by various media with a broad range of permittivities and show that photoemission rate and transition absorption follow the same dependence on the permittivity. Thus, we conclude that transition absorption is responsible...

  16. Ortho effects on the change in electronic absorption spectrum of pyridinium salts of saturated bromohydrocarbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jin-Ling; Gong, Li-Ming; Feng, Shou-Ai; Zhao, Jiang-Hong; Zheng, Jian-Feng; Zhu, Zhen-Ping

    2009-12-01

    The quaterisation process of 1,2-dibromoethane and pyridine is in situ traced by electronic absorption spectrum. Two absorption peaks, induced by mono- and bis-pyridinium salt of 1,2-dibromoethane, appear at 429 nm and 313 nm, respectively. To explain the phenomena, several kinds of alkyl bromides with special structures were selected and compared by experimental measurement and theoretical calculation. The results indicate that for mono-pyridinium salt of 1,2-dibromoethane, the electron donor property of ortho-bromine group increases the electron cloud density of the carbon atom associated with pyridinium cation, which induces red-shift of absorption wavelength.

  17. The impact of electronic information resource use on research output

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the impact of the use of electronic information resources on research output in the universities in Tanzania. Research for this paper was conducted in five public universities in Tanzania with varied levels of access to electronic information resources. The selection of the sample universities was ...

  18. Using Electronic Resources to Support Problem-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chen-Chi; Jong, Ay; Huang, Fu-Chang

    2012-01-01

    Students acquire skills in problem solving and critical thinking through the process as well as team work on problem-based learning courses. Many courses have started to involve the online learning environment and integrate these courses with electronic resources. Teachers use electronic resources in their classes. To overcome the problem of the…

  19. impact of the use of electronic resources on research output

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    manda

    Abstract. This paper examines the impact of the use of electronic information resources on research output in the universities in Tanzania. Research for this paper was conducted in five public universities in Tanzania with varied levels of access to electronic information resources. The selection of the sample universities was ...

  20. The Role of the Acquisitions Librarian in Electronic Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Sarah B.

    2010-01-01

    With the ongoing shift to electronic formats for library resources, acquisitions librarians, like the rest of the profession, must adapt to the rapidly changing landscape of electronic resources by keeping up with trends and mastering new skills related to digital publishing, technology, and licensing. The author sought to know what roles…

  1. Use of electronic resources by undergraduates in two selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to know the extent of use of electronic resources and identify the type of electronic resources used by undergraduates in universities in Nigeria. Questionnaire was used for data collection. The study population includes all undergraduate students in the faculty of engineering in Niger Delta ...

  2. Optical absorption and electron spin resonance studies of Cu in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Na2O–50B2O3–10As2O3 glasses. In this paper, we report the ESR and optical absorption spectra of Cu2+ ions in xLi2O–(40 – x)Na2O–50B2O3–. 10As2O3 glasses. The values of x were adjusted so that the compositional parameter defined as ...

  3. Electronic resources preferred by pediatric hospitalists for clinical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Jimmy B; Tieder, Joel S

    2015-10-01

    There is little research on pediatric hospitalists' use of evidence-based resources. The aim of this study was to determine the electronic resources that pediatric hospitalists prefer. Using a web-based survey, the authors determined hospitalists' preferred electronic resources, as well as their attitudes toward lifelong learning, practice, and experience characteristics. One hundred sixteen hospitalists completed the survey. The most preferred resource for general information, patient handouts, and treatment was UpToDate. Online search engines were ranked second for general information and patient handouts. Pediatric hospitalists tend to utilize less rigorous electronic resources such as UpToDate and Google. These results can set a platform for discussing the quality of resources that pediatric hospitalists use.

  4. X-ray absorption in pillar shaped transmission electron microscopy specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, H., E-mail: hugo.bender@imec.be [Imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Seidel, F.; Favia, P.; Richard, O. [Imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Vandervorst, W. [Imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, KU Leuven, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Universal curves for X-ray absorption in pillar shaped TEM specimens are derived. • Absorption effects in pillars are a factor 3 less important than in planar specimens. • Medium absorbed X-rays require constant absorption correction across the pillar. • Major absorption for thin layers occurs in the surrounding materials. • Tabulated mass attenuation coefficients predict the absorption well. - Abstract: The dependence of the X-ray absorption on the position in a pillar shaped transmission electron microscopy specimen is modeled for X-ray analysis with single and multiple detector configurations and for different pillar orientations relative to the detectors. Universal curves, applicable to any pillar diameter, are derived for the relative intensities between weak and medium or strongly absorbed X-ray emission. For the configuration as used in 360° X-ray tomography, the absorption correction for weak and medium absorbed X-rays is shown to be nearly constant along the pillar diameter. Absorption effects in pillars are about a factor 3 less important than in planar specimens with thickness equal to the pillar diameter. A practical approach for the absorption correction in pillar shaped samples is proposed and its limitations discussed. The modeled absorption dependences are verified experimentally for pillars with HfO{sub 2} and SiGe stacks.

  5. Library training to promote electronic resource usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Tove Faber; Tibyampansha, Dativa; Ibrahim, Glory

    2017-01-01

    of implementing training programmes to encourage the use of the e-library. Findings: Training sessions increase the usage of library e-resources significantly; however, the effect seems to be short-lived and training sessions alone may not increase the overall long-term usage. Originality/value: The present paper...

  6. Electronic absorption spectra and nonlinear optical properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    These materials find numerous device applications, from lasers to optical switches and electronics. 1. So far, the organic π-conjugated molecules have been considered mostly for this pur- pose because of their easy functionalization to fine tune the desired properties and the ease of fabrica- tion and integration into devices.

  7. Diffraction and absorption of inelastically scattered electrons for K-shell ionization.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josefsson, T.W.; Allen, L.J.

    1995-09-22

    An expression for the nonlocal inelastic scattering cross section for fast electrons in a crystalline environment, which explicitly includes diffraction as well as absorption for the inelastically scattered electrons, is used to carry out realistic calculations of K-shell electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) analysis cross sections. The calculations demonstrate quantitatively why, in EDX spectroscopy, integration over the dynamical states of the inelastically scattered electron averages in such a way that an effective plane wave representation of the scattered electrons is a good approximation. This is only the case for large enough acceptance angles of the detector in an EELS experiment. For EELS with smaller detector apertures, explicit integration over the dynamical final states is necessary and inclusion of absorption for the scattered electrons is important, particularly for thicker crystals. 50 refs., 7 figs.

  8. Evidence for non-Markovian electron dynamics in the microwave absorption of a two-dimensional electron system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorozhkin, S. Â. I.; Kapustin, A. Â. A.; Dmitriev, I. Â. A.; Umansky, V.; von Klitzing, K.; Smet, J. H.

    2017-10-01

    We have studied the absorption of monochromatic microwave radiation in high-quality two-dimensional electron systems for the frequency span from 10 to 380 GHz using a bolometric method. For frequencies above 100 GHz the absorption exhibits an anomalous magnetic field dependence. Minima form at harmonics of the cyclotron resonance frequency. The results contrast previously reported data for other frequency ranges. Quasiclassical memory effects originating from the non-Markovian dynamics of electrons in a disorder potential containing short-range scatterers on top of a smooth potential background favorably account for the observed behavior.

  9. Integrating Electronic Resources into the Library Catalog: A Collaborative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Gail; Aldana, Lynda

    2001-01-01

    Describes a project at the University of Mississippi Libraries to catalog purchased electronic resources so that access to these resources is available only via the Web-based library catalog. Discusses collaboration between cataloging and systems personnel; and describes the MARC catalog record field that contains the information needed to locate…

  10. Utilisation of Electronic Information Resources By Lecturers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assesses the use of information resources, specifically, electronic databases by lecturers/teachers in Universities and Colleges of Education in South Western Nigeria. Information resources are central to teachers' education. It provides lecturers/teachers access to information that enhances research and ...

  11. Preservation and conservation of electronic information resources of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The major holdings of the broadcast libraries of the Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) are electronic information resources; therefore, providing safe places for general management of these resources have aroused interest in the industry in Nigeria for sometimes. The need to study the preservation and conservation of ...

  12. Using XML Technologies to Organize Electronic Reference Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Huser, Vojtech; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Rocha, Roberto A.

    2005-01-01

    Provision of access to reference electronic resources to clinicians is becoming increasingly important. We have created a framework for librarians to manage access to these resources at an enterprise level, rather than at the individual hospital libraries. We describe initial project requirements, implementation details, and some preliminary results.

  13. Euler European Libraries and Electronic Resources in Mathematical Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    The Euler Project. Karlsruhe

    The European Libraries and Electronic Resources (EULER) Project in Mathematical Sciences provides the EulerService site for searching out "mathematical resources such as books, pre-prints, web-pages, abstracts, proceedings, serials, technical reports preprints) and NetLab (for Internet resources), this outstanding engine is capable of simple, full, and refined searches. It also offers a browse option, which responds to entries in the author, keyword, and title fields. Further information about the Project is provided at the EULER homepage.

  14. Extraordinary mode absorption at the electron cyclotron harmonic frequencies as a Tokamak plasma diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachtman, A.

    1986-09-01

    Measurements of Extraordinary mode absorption at the electron cyclotron harmonic frequencies are of unique value in high temperature, high density Tokamak plasma diagnostic applications. An experimental study of Extraordinary mode absorption at the semi-opaque second and third harmonics has been performed on the ALCATOR C Tokamak. A narrow beam of submillimeter laser radiation was used to illuminate the plasma in a horizontal plane, providing a continuous measurement of the one-pass, quasi-perpendicular transmission

  15. Building an electronic resource collection a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Stuart D

    2004-01-01

    This practical book guides information professionals step-by-step through building and managing an electronic resource collection. It outlines the range of electronic products currently available in abstracting and indexing, bibliographic, and other services and then describes how to effectively select, evaluate and purchase them.

  16. Organizational matters of competition in electronic educational resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Карловна Войтович

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the experience of the Udmurt State University in conducting competitions of educational publications and electronic resources. The purpose of such competitions is to provide methodological support to educational process. The main focus is on competition of electronic educational resources. The technology of such contests is discussed through detailed analysis of the main stages of the contest. It is noted that the main task of the preparatory stage of the competition is related to the development of regulations on competition and the definition of criteria for selection of the submitted works. The paper also proposes a system of evaluation criteria of electronic educational resources developed by members of the contest organizing committee and jury members. The article emphasizes the importance of not only the preparatory stages of the competition, but also measures for its completion, aimed at training teachers create quality e-learning resources.

  17. Ab initio calculation of the electronic absorption spectrum of liquid water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martiniano, Hugo F. M. C.; Galamba, Nuno [Grupo de Física Matemática da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Professor Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Cabral, Benedito J. Costa, E-mail: ben@cii.fc.ul.pt [Grupo de Física Matemática da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Professor Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Departamento de Química e Bioquímica, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto de Física da Universidade de São Paulo, CP 66318, 05314-970 São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-04-28

    The electronic absorption spectrum of liquid water was investigated by coupling a one-body energy decomposition scheme to configurations generated by classical and Born-Oppenheimer Molecular Dynamics (BOMD). A Frenkel exciton Hamiltonian formalism was adopted and the excitation energies in the liquid phase were calculated with the equation of motion coupled cluster with single and double excitations method. Molecular dynamics configurations were generated by different approaches. Classical MD were carried out with the TIP4P-Ew and AMOEBA force fields. The BLYP and BLYP-D3 exchange-correlation functionals were used in BOMD. Theoretical and experimental results for the electronic absorption spectrum of liquid water are in good agreement. Emphasis is placed on the relationship between the structure of liquid water predicted by the different models and the electronic absorption spectrum. The theoretical gas to liquid phase blue-shift of the peak positions of the electronic absorption spectrum is in good agreement with experiment. The overall shift is determined by a competition between the O–H stretching of the water monomer in liquid water that leads to a red-shift and polarization effects that induce a blue-shift. The results illustrate the importance of coupling many-body energy decomposition schemes to molecular dynamics configurations to carry out ab initio calculations of the electronic properties in liquid phase.

  18. Ab initio calculation of the electronic absorption spectrum of liquid water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martiniano, Hugo F. M. C.; Galamba, Nuno; Cabral, Benedito J. Costa

    2014-01-01

    The electronic absorption spectrum of liquid water was investigated by coupling a one-body energy decomposition scheme to configurations generated by classical and Born-Oppenheimer Molecular Dynamics (BOMD). A Frenkel exciton Hamiltonian formalism was adopted and the excitation energies in the liquid phase were calculated with the equation of motion coupled cluster with single and double excitations method. Molecular dynamics configurations were generated by different approaches. Classical MD were carried out with the TIP4P-Ew and AMOEBA force fields. The BLYP and BLYP-D3 exchange-correlation functionals were used in BOMD. Theoretical and experimental results for the electronic absorption spectrum of liquid water are in good agreement. Emphasis is placed on the relationship between the structure of liquid water predicted by the different models and the electronic absorption spectrum. The theoretical gas to liquid phase blue-shift of the peak positions of the electronic absorption spectrum is in good agreement with experiment. The overall shift is determined by a competition between the O–H stretching of the water monomer in liquid water that leads to a red-shift and polarization effects that induce a blue-shift. The results illustrate the importance of coupling many-body energy decomposition schemes to molecular dynamics configurations to carry out ab initio calculations of the electronic properties in liquid phase

  19. USE OF VIDEO IN MULTIMEDIA ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Denisenko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The widespread introduction of electronic educational resources in the educational process requires the development of a scientific basis for all aspects related to their creation and use. These modern means are designed not just to convey to learners the required course material, but also to create conditions for its most effective study. This is possible in conditions of reasonable approach to the presentation of educational material on the screen. The article is devoted to consideration of the problem of presenting educational material in electronic educational resources. Visuals are powerful didactic tool that enhances the perception and understanding of educational information. Particular attention is paid to the use of such a powerful medium like video. Investigated the role and importance of video in the learning process, their educational opportunities and benefits. Shows types of video and their use in electronic educational resources. Grounded requirements for training videos. The recommendations are given on the use of video in combination with other media in electronic educational resources. Adduced the example a real electronic multimedia educational resource and shows the possibility of using video.

  20. Elastic and absorption cross sections for electron-hydroxyl radical collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobrinho, A.M.C.; Lozano, N.B.H.; Lee, M.-T.

    2004-01-01

    In this work, we report a theoretical study on electron collisions with OH radicals in the low and intermediate energy ranges. Calculated elastic differential, integral, and momentum-transfer cross sections as well as grand-total (elastic + inelastic) and total absorption cross sections for electron-OH collisions are reported in the 1-500-eV range. A complex optical potential composed by static, exchange, correlation-polarization plus absorption contributions, derived from a fully molecular wave function, is used to describe the interaction dynamics. The Schwinger variational iterative method combined with the distorted-wave approximation is applied to calculate scattering amplitudes. Present calculated results are compared with the existing data for electron-OH scattering in the literature. Also, comparison made between our calculated cross sections for elastic scattering with the theoretical and experimental results for electron-H 2 O collisions has revealed remarkable similarity even at incident energies as low as 2 eV

  1. Electron temperature distribution measurement in Z pinch by the laser radiation absorption method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkisov, G.S.; Ehtlisher, B.

    1995-01-01

    The paper proposes a new method for measuring the temperature of internal region of Z-pinch; the method is based on laser probing of plasma and simultaneous measurements of absorption profiles and interferential run-on of probing radiation phase inside Z-pinch. It is shown that opaque pinch region which occurs laser probing experiments is related to the absorption of radiation. It is shown that laser radiation which has passed through Z-pinch features sufficiently high degree of coherence which enables interferometry of absorption region. The values of electron density and electron temperature were recovered in the experiments with Z-pinches (produced after an explosion of 20 μm aluminium wire by 50 ns pulse of current of about 250 kA for necking the pinch of ∼ 1.4 x 10 20 cm -3 and ∼ 530 eV, respectively. 11 refs., 4 figs

  2. Why and How to Measure the Use of Electronic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Bernon

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A complete overview of library activity implies a complete and reliable measurement of the use of both electronic resources and printed materials. This measurement is based on three sets of definitions: document types, use types and user types. There is a common model of definitions for printed materials, but a lot of questions and technical issues remain for electronic resources. In 2006 a French national working group studied these questions. It relied on the COUNTER standard, but found it insufficient and pointed out the need for local tools such as web markers and deep analysis of proxy logs. Within the French national consortium COUPERIN, a new working group is testing ERMS, SUSHI standards, Shibboleth authentication, along with COUNTER standards, to improve the counting of the electronic resources use. At this stage this counting is insufficient and its improvement will be a European challenge for the future.

  3. Electronic properties and optical absorption of graphene-polyvinylidene fluoride nanocomposites: A theoretical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopra, Siddheshwar, E-mail: schopra1@amity.edu

    2017-01-15

    Graphene/polyvinylidene fluoride (graphene/PVDF) nanocomposites were studied using Density functional theory (DFT)/Time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations. Five nanocomposite configurations were constructed. Electronic properties like binding energy, electronic gap and work function were calculated. The most stable structure was determined. The electronic gap of graphene shifts from semiconducting to conducting, on nanocomposite formation. Workfunction of the most stable nanocomposite was 4.34eV ± 0.05eV, close to that of the pristine graphene (4.33eV ± 0.05eV). Thermochemical analysis showed that the adsorption is spontaneous above ∼870 K, and endothermic in nature. TDDFT calculations were performed for B3LYP, LSDA, BHHLYP and PBE0 functionals. B3LYP and PBE0 are suitable in describing optical absorption. Optical gap of graphene shrinks, and light absorption gets enhanced on nanocomposite formation. - Highlights: • Various properties of graphene-PVDF nanocomposites were studied theoretically. • Electronic gap of graphene shifts to conducting nature, on composite formation. • Adsorption is spontaneous above ∼870 K, and endothermic in nature. • B3LYP and PBE0 functionals are suitable in describing absorption. • Optical absorption gets enhanced on nanocomposite formation.

  4. Electronic properties and optical absorption of graphene-polyvinylidene fluoride nanocomposites: A theoretical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, Siddheshwar

    2017-01-01

    Graphene/polyvinylidene fluoride (graphene/PVDF) nanocomposites were studied using Density functional theory (DFT)/Time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations. Five nanocomposite configurations were constructed. Electronic properties like binding energy, electronic gap and work function were calculated. The most stable structure was determined. The electronic gap of graphene shifts from semiconducting to conducting, on nanocomposite formation. Workfunction of the most stable nanocomposite was 4.34eV ± 0.05eV, close to that of the pristine graphene (4.33eV ± 0.05eV). Thermochemical analysis showed that the adsorption is spontaneous above ∼870 K, and endothermic in nature. TDDFT calculations were performed for B3LYP, LSDA, BHHLYP and PBE0 functionals. B3LYP and PBE0 are suitable in describing optical absorption. Optical gap of graphene shrinks, and light absorption gets enhanced on nanocomposite formation. - Highlights: • Various properties of graphene-PVDF nanocomposites were studied theoretically. • Electronic gap of graphene shifts to conducting nature, on composite formation. • Adsorption is spontaneous above ∼870 K, and endothermic in nature. • B3LYP and PBE0 functionals are suitable in describing absorption. • Optical absorption gets enhanced on nanocomposite formation.

  5. Complexes of uranyl with N-oxides of heterocyclic amines. Electron-vibrational absorption spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jezowska-Trzebiatowska, B.; Wieczorek, M.

    1977-01-01

    A number of coordination compounds formed by uranyl chloride and nitrate with N-oxides of heterocyclic amines have been prepared and characterized by spectral measurements in the absorption region 20000-50000 cm -1 . The electrons and vibronic transitions have been determined and discussed. (author)

  6. Modification of the Absorption Edge of GaAs Arising from Hot-Electron Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGroddy, J. C.; Christensen, Ove

    1973-01-01

    We have observed a large enhancement of the electric-field-induced optical absorption arising from hot-electron effects in n-type GaAs at 77 K. The magnitude and field dependence of the enhancement can be approximately accounted for by a theory attributing the effect to broadening of the final...

  7. Calculation of x-ray absorption in lead taking into account electron correlations in atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidovic, M.D.; Radojevic, V.

    2001-01-01

    The main characteristics of the theoretical model that enables one to take into account the influence of electron correlation in atoms of the shielding material on the efficiency of absorption of photons corresponding to x-ray radiation, are shortly described. Numerical results are presented for lead. The possibilities of the model are discussed (author)

  8. The Study of Analytical Model of Library Electronic Resources Usage-A Case of Medical Electronic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yen Yu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available With the advents of internet, the importance of electronic resources is growing. Due to the increasing expensiveness of electronic resources, university libraries normally received budgets from parent institutions annually. They necessarily applied effective and systematic methods for decision making in electronic resources purchase or re-subscription. However, there are some difficulties in practices: First of all, libraries are unable to receive user records; second, the COUNTER statistics does not include details about users and their affiliation. As a result, one cannot conduct advanced user analysis based on the usage of users, institutions, and departments. To overcome the difficulties, this study presents a feasible model to analyze electronic resource usage effectively and flexibly. We set up a proxy server to collect actual usage raw data. By analyzing items in internet browsing records, associated with original library automatic system, this study aims at exploring how to use effective ways to analyze big data of website log data. We also propose the process of how original data to be transformed, cleared, integrated, and demonstrated. This study adopted a medical university library and its subscription of medical electronic resources as a case. Our data analysis includes (1 year of subscription,(2 title of journal, (3 affiliation, (4 subjects, and (5 specific journal requirements, etc. The findings of the study are contributed to obtain further understanding in policy making and user behavior analysis. The integrated data provides multiple applications in informatics research, information behavior, bibliomining, presenting diverse views and extended issues for further discussion.

  9. Access to electronic resources by visually impaired people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Craven

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Research into access to electronic resources by visually impaired people undertaken by the Centre for Research in Library and Information Management has not only explored the accessibility of websites and levels of awareness in providing websites that adhere to design for all principles, but has sought to enhance understanding of information seeking behaviour of blind and visually impaired people when using digital resources.

  10. Practical guide to electronic resources in the humanities

    CERN Document Server

    Dubnjakovic, Ana

    2010-01-01

    From full-text article databases to digitized collections of primary source materials, newly emerging electronic resources have radically impacted how research in the humanities is conducted and discovered. This book, covering high-quality, up-to-date electronic resources for the humanities, is an easy-to-use annotated guide for the librarian, student, and scholar alike. It covers online databases, indexes, archives, and many other critical tools in key humanities disciplines including philosophy, religion, languages and literature, and performing and visual arts. Succinct overviews of key eme

  11. Optical Absorption and Electron Injection of 4-(Cyanomethylbenzoic Acid Based Dyes: A DFT Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuehua Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Density functional theory (DFT and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT calculations were carried out to study the ground state geometries, electronic structures, and absorption spectra of 4-(cyanomethylbenzoic acid based dyes (AG1 and AG2 used for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. The excited states properties and the thermodynamical parameters of electron injection were studied. The results showed that (a two dyes have uncoplanar structures along the donor unit and conjugated bridge space, (b two sensitizers exhibited intense absorption in the UV-Vis region, and (c the excited state oxidation potential was higher than the conduction band edge of TiO2 photoanode. As a result, a solar cell based on the 4-(cyanomethylbenzoic acid based dyes exhibited well photovoltaic performance. Furthermore, nine dyes were designed on the basis of AG1 and AG2 to improve optical response and electron injection.

  12. Electronic Commerce Resource Centers. An Industry--University Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulledge, Thomas R.; Sommer, Rainer; Tarimcilar, M. Murat

    1999-01-01

    Electronic Commerce Resource Centers focus on transferring emerging technologies to small businesses through university/industry partnerships. Successful implementation hinges on a strategic operating plan, creation of measurable value for customers, investment in customer-targeted training, and measurement of performance outputs. (SK)

  13. Printed And Electronic Resources Utilization By Agricultural Science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the use of printed and electronic resources by agricultural science students in three Nigerian universities. A two-part questionnaire was designed to elicit necessary information from the respondents selected for the study. One thousand three hundred (1300) respondents from faculties of Agriculture in ...

  14. Electronic information resource sharing among university libraries in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study explored the state of electronic information resource sharing among university libraries in Southern part of Nigeria, highlighting the prospects and the challenges. The study was an empirical research which adopted the descriptive survey as the design. The questionnaire was used to collect data from the ...

  15. Page 170 Use of Electronic Resources by Undergraduates in Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    undergraduate students use electronic resources such as NUC virtual library, HINARI, E- journals, CD-ROMs, AGORA, and ... to finance and geographical location. Furthermore, in developed countries like United Kingdom, students get access to .... databases, web sources and audio-video tapes. Furthermore, studies also ...

  16. Modern ICT Tools: Online Electronic Resources Sharing Using Web ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modern ICT Tools: Online Electronic Resources Sharing Using Web 2.0 and Its Implications For Library And Information Practice In Nigeria. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more ...

  17. Users satisfaction with electronic information resources and services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Users satisfaction with electronic information resources and services in A.B.U & UNIBEN MTN Net Libraries. ... Lastly, management of the MTN Net Libraries should conduct user studies annually in order to have feedback from users on how well the library is meeting their information needs. The results of the survey should ...

  18. ANALYTICAL REVIEW OF ELECTRONIC RESOURCES FOR THE STUDY OF LATIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Yu. Balalaieva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the current state of development of e-learning content in the Latin language. It is noted that the introduction of ICT in the educational space has expanded the possibility of studying Latin, opened access to digital libraries resources, made it possible to use scientific and educational potential and teaching Latin best practices of world's leading universities. A review of foreign and Ukrainian information resources and electronic editions for the study of Latin is given. Much attention was paid to the didactic potential of local and online multimedia courses of Latin, electronic textbooks, workbooks of interactive tests and exercises, various dictionaries and software translators, databases and digital libraries. Based on analysis of the world market of educational services and products the main trends in the development of information resources and electronic books are examined. It was found that multimedia courses with interactive exercises or workbooks with interactive tests, online dictionaries and translators are the most widely represented and demanded. The noticeable lagging of Ukrainian education and computer linguistics in quantitative and qualitative measures in this industry is established. The obvious drawback of existing Ukrainian resources and electronic editions for the study of Latin is their noninteractive nature. The prospects of e-learning content in Latin in Ukraine are outlined.

  19. Gender Analysis Of Electronic Information Resource Use: The Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article is based on an empirical study that examined the association between gender and the use of electronic information resources among postgraduate students at the University of Dar es salaam, Tanzania. The study was conducted in December 2005 and integrated both qualitative and quantitative research ...

  20. Use of electronic information resources among the undergraduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aimed at finding out the use of electronic information resources among undergraduate students in the Federal University of Technology, Akure. The study is based on descriptive survey design method and the population consists of 16,962 undergraduate students across different schools at the Federal University ...

  1. Adoption and use of electronic information resources by medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the adoption and use of electronic information resources by medical science students of the University of Benin. The descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study and 390 students provided the data. Data collected were analysed with descriptive Statistics(Simple percentage and ...

  2. Student Satisfaction with Electronic Library Resources at Wayne State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, Robert P.; Powell, Ronald R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey of student satisfaction with electronic library resources other than the online catalog at Wayne State University. Undertaken in Fall Term 2000 as a class project for a marketing course, a student team designed, administered, and analyzed a survey of a random sample of students. Almost 40% of the…

  3. Technical Communicator: A New Model for the Electronic Resources Librarian?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulseberg, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This article explores whether technical communicator is a useful model for electronic resources (ER) librarians. The fields of ER librarianship and technical communication (TC) originated and continue to develop in relation to evolving technologies. A review of the literature reveals four common themes for ER librarianship and TC. While the…

  4. Access to electronic information resources by students of federal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discusses access to electronic information resources by students of Federal Colleges of Education in Eha-Amufu and Umunze. Descriptive survey design was used to investigate sample of 526 students. Sampling technique used was a Multi sampling technique. Data for the study were generated using ...

  5. Study on new energy development planning and absorptive capability of Xinjiang in China considering resource characteristics and demand prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Hai; Miao, Xujuan; Liu, Jinpeng; Wu, Meng; Zhao, Xuehua

    2018-02-01

    Xinjiang, as the area where wind energy and solar energy resources are extremely rich, with good resource development characteristics, can provide a support for regional power development and supply protection. This paper systematically analyzes the new energy resource and development characteristics of Xinjiang and carries out the demand prediction and excavation of load characteristics of Xinjiang power market. Combing the development plan of new energy of Xinjiang and considering the construction of transmission channel, it analyzes the absorptive capability of new energy. It provides certain reference for the comprehensive planning of new energy development in Xinjiang and the improvement of absorptive capacity of new energy.

  6. Evaluating the appropriateness of electronic information resources for learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saparova, Dinara; Nolan, Nathanial S

    2016-01-01

    Current US medical students have begun to rely on electronic information repositories-such as UpToDate, AccessMedicine, and Wikipedia-for their pre-clerkship medical education. However, it is unclear whether these resources are appropriate for this level of learning due to factors involving information quality, level of evidence, and the requisite knowledgebase. This study evaluated appropriateness of electronic information resources from a novel perspective: amount of mental effort learners invest in interactions with these resources and effects of the experienced mental effort on learning. Eighteen first-year medical students read about three unstudied diseases in the above-mentioned resources (a total of fifty-four observations). Their eye movement characteristics (i.e., fixation duration, fixation count, visit duration, and task-evoked pupillary response) were recorded and used as psychophysiological indicators of the experienced mental effort. Post reading, students' learning was assessed with multiple-choice tests. Eye metrics and test results constituted quantitative data analyzed according to the repeated Latin square design. Students' perceptions of interacting with the information resources were also collected. Participants' feedback during semi-structured interviews constituted qualitative data and was reviewed, transcribed, and open coded for emergent themes. Compared to AccessMedicine and Wikipedia, UpToDate was associated with significantly higher values of eye metrics, suggesting learners experienced higher mental effort. No statistically significant difference between the amount of mental effort and learning outcomes was found. More so, descriptive statistical analysis of the knowledge test scores suggested similar levels of learning regardless of the information resource used. Judging by the learning outcomes, all three information resources were found appropriate for learning. UpToDate, however, when used alone, may be less appropriate for first

  7. X-ray absorption in pillar shaped transmission electron microscopy specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, H; Seidel, F; Favia, P; Richard, O; Vandervorst, W

    2017-06-01

    The dependence of the X-ray absorption on the position in a pillar shaped transmission electron microscopy specimen is modeled for X-ray analysis with single and multiple detector configurations and for different pillar orientations relative to the detectors. Universal curves, applicable to any pillar diameter, are derived for the relative intensities between weak and medium or strongly absorbed X-ray emission. For the configuration as used in 360° X-ray tomography, the absorption correction for weak and medium absorbed X-rays is shown to be nearly constant along the pillar diameter. Absorption effects in pillars are about a factor 3 less important than in planar specimens with thickness equal to the pillar diameter. A practical approach for the absorption correction in pillar shaped samples is proposed and its limitations discussed. The modeled absorption dependences are verified experimentally for pillars with HfO 2 and SiGe stacks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. UV-Vis absorption spectra and electronic structure of merocyanines in the gas phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishchenko, Alexander A.; Kulinich, Andrii V.; Bondarev, Stanislav L.; Raichenok, Tamara F.

    2018-02-01

    Gas-phase absorption spectra of a merocyanine vinylogous series have been studied for the first time. In vapour, their long-wavelength absorption bands were found to be considerably shifted hypsochromically, broader, more symmetrical, less intense, and their vinylene shift much smaller than even in low-polarity n-hexane. This indicates that in the gas phase their electronic structure closely approaches the nonpolar polyene limiting structure. The TDDFT calculations of the long-wavelength electronic transitions in the studied merocyanines in vacuo demonstrated good-to-excellent correlation - depending on the functional used - with the obtained experimental data. For comparison, the solvent effects was accounted for using the polarizable continuum model (PCM) with n-hexane and ethanol as low-polarity and high-polarity media, and compared with the UV-Vis spectral data in these solvents. In this case, the discrepancy between theory and experiment was much greater, increasing at that with the polymethine chain length.

  9. Photoelectron and UV absorption spectroscopy for determination of electronic configurations of negative molecular ions: Chlorophenols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseplin, E.E.; Tseplina, S.N.; Tuimedov, G.M.; Khvostenko, O.G.

    2009-01-01

    The photoelectron and UV absorption spectra of p-, m-, and o-chlorophenols in the gas phase have been obtained. On the basis of DFT B3LYP/6-311++G(d, p) calculations, the photoelectron bands have been assigned to occupied molecular orbitals. From the TDDFT B3LYP/6-311++G(d, p) calculation results, the UV absorption bands have been assigned to excited singlet states of the molecules under investigation. For each excited state a dominant transition was found. It has been shown that the energies of these singlet transitions correlate with the energy differences between the ground-state molecular orbitals participating in them. Using the UV spectra interpretation, the electronic states of molecular anions detected earlier for the same compounds by means of the resonant electron capture mass-spectrometry have been determined.

  10. The effect of electrons surface scattering on fine metal particle electromagnetic radiation absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Kuznetsova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The magnetic dipole absorption cross section of spherical shaped metal particle was calculated in terms of kinetic approach. The particle considered was placed in the field of plane electromagnetic wave. The model of boundary conditions taking into account the dependence of the reflectivity coefficient both on the surface roughness parameter and on the electrons incidence angle was investigated. The results obtained were compared with theoretical computation results for model of combined diffusion-specular boundary conditions of Fuchs.

  11. TO QUESTION OF QUALITY EXAMINATION OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES

    OpenAIRE

    Svitlana G. Lytvynova

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with the scientific and methodological approaches to the examination of quality of electronic educational resources (EER) for secondary schools. It was defined conceptual apparatus, described the object of examination, clarified certain aspects of the functions of examination, determined the basic tasks of expertise, summarized the principles of expertise (scientific, personalization, active involvement in the learning process), described the requirements to the participants...

  12. Neutron irradiation effects in quartz: optical absorption and electron paramagnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzzi, M.; Pio, F.; Spinolo, G.; Vedda, A.

    1992-01-01

    Optical absorption measurements in the 3-9 eV energy range and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) have been performed at 300 K and at 80 K on Sawyer PQ quartz. Both as-received and neutron-irradiated samples (neutron fluences up to 3 x 10 18 neutrons cm -2 ) have been studied. The absorption spectra have been analysed in terms of a sum of elementary Gaussian components. The effect of the neutron irradiation is to induce the presence of absorption bands at 7.6 eV (E band), at 7.1 eV (D band) and at 6 eV (E' region). The most intense peak of all the spectra is the E band (7.6 eV); its shape is complex and the existence of a double structure can be suggested. The D band is evidenced for the first time in neutron-irradiated synthetic quartz; our measurements show that this structure is correlated with the 6.0 eV band. The 'E'' region is complex; in fact, at the highest neutron fluence the optical absorption spectrum reveals the existence of four structures, at 4.7, 5.2, 5.6 and 6.0 eV, where the 4.7 eV band has the same characteristics as the D o band, which is present in amorphous silica. The comparison between the results of EPR measurements and the analysis of the complex structure of this absorption indicates that the correlation between optical absorption bands in this region and the EPR E' -centre signals suggested previously must be re-examined. (Author)

  13. Analysis of empty responses from electronic resources in infobutton managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jie; Hulse, Nathan C; Tao, Cui

    2015-01-01

    Infobuttons provide context-aware educational materials to both providers and patients and are becoming an important element in modern electronic health records (EHR) and patient health records (PHR). However, the content from different electronic resources (e-resource) as responses from infobutton manager has not been fully analyzed and evaluated. In this paper, we propose a method for automatically analyzing responses from infobutton manager. A tool is implemented to retrieve and analyze responses from infobutton manager. To test the tool, we extracted and sampled common and uncommon concepts from EHR usage data in Intermountain Healthcare's enterprise data warehouse. From the output of the tool, we evaluate infobutton performance by multiple categories, including against the most and less common used concepts, grouped by different modules in patient portal, by different e-resources, and by type of access (standardized Health Level Seven (HL7) vs not). Based on the results of our evaluation, we provide suggestions for further enhancements of infobuttons to the current implementation, including suggesting accessing priorities of e-resources and encouraging the use of the HL7 standard.

  14. Evaluating increased resource use in fibromyalgia using electronic health records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margolis JM

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Jay M Margolis,1 Elizabeth T Masters,2 Joseph C Cappelleri,3 David M Smith,1 Steven Faulkner4 1Truven Health Analytics, Life Sciences, Outcomes Research, Bethesda, MD, 2Pfizer Inc, Outcomes & Evidence, New York, NY, 3Pfizer Inc, Statistics, Groton, CT, 4Pfizer Inc, North American Medical Affairs, Medical Outcomes Specialists, St Louis, MO, USA Objective: The management of fibromyalgia (FM, a chronic musculoskeletal disease, remains challenging, and patients with FM are often characterized by high health care resource utilization. This study sought to explore potential drivers of all-cause health care resource utilization and other factors associated with high resource use, using a large electronic health records (EHR database to explore data from patients diagnosed with FM. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of de-identified EHR data from the Humedica database. Adults (≥18 years with FM were identified based on ≥2 International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes for FM (729.1 ≥30 days apart between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2012 and were required to have evidence of ≥12 months continuous care pre- and post-index; first FM diagnosis was the index event; 12-month pre- and post-index reporting periods. Multivariable analysis evaluated relationships between variables and resource utilization. Results: Patients were predominantly female (81.4%, Caucasian (87.7%, with a mean (standard deviation age of 54.4 (14.8 years. The highest health care resource utilization was observed for the categories of “medication orders” and “physician office visits,” with 12-month post-index means of 21.2 (21.5 drug orders/patient and 15.1 (18.1 office visits/patient; the latter accounted for 73.3% of all health care visits. Opioids were the most common prescription medication, 44.3% of all patients. The chance of high resource use was significantly increased (P<0.001 26% among African-Americans vs Caucasians and for patients

  15. Depth-selective X-ray absorption spectroscopy by detection of energy-loss Auger electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isomura, Noritake; Soejima, Narumasa; Iwasaki, Shiro; Nomoto, Toyokazu; Murai, Takaaki; Kimoto, Yasuji

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A unique XAS method is proposed for depth profiling of chemical states. • PEY mode detecting energy-loss electrons enables a variation in the probe depth. • Si K-edge XAS spectra of the Si 3 N 4 /SiO 2 /Si multilayer films have been investigated. • Deeper information was obtained in the spectra measured at larger energy loss. • Probe depth could be changed by the selection of the energy of detected electrons. - Abstract: A unique X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) method is proposed for depth profiling of chemical states in material surfaces. Partial electron yield mode detecting energy-loss Auger electrons, called the inelastic electron yield (IEY) mode, enables a variation in the probe depth. As an example, Si K-edge XAS spectra for a well-defined multilayer sample (Si 3 N 4 /SiO 2 /Si) have been investigated using this method at various kinetic energies. We found that the peaks assigned to the layers from the top layer to the substrate appeared in the spectra in the order of increasing energy loss relative to the Auger electrons. Thus, the probe depth can be changed by the selection of the kinetic energy of the energy loss electrons in IEY-XAS.

  16. Electronic structure of barium strontium titanate by soft-x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uehara, Y. [Mitsubishi Electric Co., Hyogo (Japan); Underwood, J.H.; Gullikson, E.M.; Perera, R.C.C. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Perovskite-type titanates, such as Strontium Titanate (STO), Barium Titanate (BTO), and Lead Titanate (PTO) have been widely studied because they show good electric and optical properties. In recent years, thin films of Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) have been paid much attention as dielectrics of dynamic random access memory (DRAM) capacitors. BST is a better insulator with a higher dielectric constant than STO and can be controlled in a paraelectric phase with an appropriate ratio of Ba/Sr composition, however, few studies have been done on the electronic structure of the material. Studies of the electronic structure of such materials can be beneficial, both for fundamental physics research and for improving technological applications. BTO is a famous ferroelectric material with a tetragonal structure, in which Ti and Ba atoms are slightly displaced from the lattice points. On the other hand, BST keeps a paraelectric phase, which means that the atoms are still at the cubic lattice points. It should be of great interest to see how this difference of the local structure around Ti atoms between BTO and BST effects the electronic structure of these two materials. In this report, the authors present the Ti L{sub 2,3} absorption spectra of STO, BTO, and BST measured with very high accuracy in energy of the absorption features.

  17. End-of-life resource recovery from emerging electronic products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuly, Keshav; Habib, Komal; Cimpan, Ciprian

    2016-01-01

    Integrating product design with appropriate end-of-life (EoL) processing is widely recognized to have huge potentials in improving resource recovery from electronic products. In this study, we investigate both the product characteristics and EoL processing of robotic vacuum cleaner (RVC), as a case......-case scenario, only 47% of the total materials in RVCs are ultimately recycled. While this low material recovery is mainly due to the lower plastic recycling rate, other market realities and the complex material flows in the recycling chain also contribute to it. The study provides a robust methodological...... approach for assessing the EoL performance based on the knowledge of a product and its complex recycling chain. The lessons learned can be used to support both the design and EoL processing of products with similar features, which carry a high potential for resource recovery, especially at the initial...

  18. Wave propagation and absorption in the electron cyclotron frequency range for TCA and TCV machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardinali, A.

    1990-01-01

    The main theoretical aspects of the propagation and absorption of electron cyclotron frequency waves are reviewed and applied to TCA and TCV tokamak plasmas. In particular the electromagnetic cold dispersion relation is solved analytically and numerically in order to recall the basic properties of mode propagation and to calculate the ray-trajectories by means of geometric optics. A numerical code which integrates the coupled first order differential ray-equations, has been developed and applied to the cases of interest. (author) 4 figs., 23 refs

  19. Analysis of Human Resources Management Strategy in China Electronic Commerce Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Fang

    The paper discussed electronic-commerce's influence on enterprise human resources management, proposed and proved the human resources management strategy which electronic commerce enterprise should adopt from recruitment strategy to training strategy, keeping talent strategy and other ways.

  20. Electron Spin Resonance and optical absorption spectroscopic studies of manganese centers in aluminium lead borate glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SivaRamaiah, G; LakshmanaRao, J

    2012-12-01

    Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) and optical absorption studies of 5Al(2)O(3)+75H(3)BO(3)+(20-x)PbO+xMnSO(4) (where x=0.5, 1,1.5 and 2 mol% of MnSO(4)) glasses at room temperature have been studied. The ESR spectrum of all the glasses exhibits resonance signals with effective isotropic g values at ≈2.0, 3.3 and 4.3. The ESR resonance signal at isotropic g≈2.0 has been attributed to Mn(2+) centers in an octahedral symmetry. The ESR resonance signals at isotropic g≈3.3 and 4.3 have been attributed to the rhombic symmetry of the Mn(2+) ions. The zero-field splitting parameter (zfs) has been calculated from the intensities of the allowed hyperfine lines. The optical absorption spectrum exhibits an intense band in the visible region and it has been attributed to (5)E(g)→(5)T(2g) transition of Mn(3+)centers in an octahedral environment. The optical band gap and the Urbach energies have been calculated from the ultraviolet absorption edges. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of Electronic Information Resources Skills Training for Lecturers on Pedagogical Practices and Research Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhukuvhani, Crispen; Chiparausha, Blessing; Zuvalinyenga, Dorcas

    2012-01-01

    Lecturers use various electronic resources at different frequencies. The university library's information literacy skills workshops and seminars are the main sources of knowledge of accessing electronic resources. The use of electronic resources can be said to have positively affected lecturers' pedagogical practices and their work in general. The…

  2. Free-free absorption of infrared radiation in collisions of electrons with neutral rare-gas atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallcop, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    A relationship between the inverse bremsstrahlung absorption cross section and the electron neutral momentum transfer cross section has been utilized to determine the infrared free-free continuum absorption coefficient for the negative ions of helium, neon, argon, krypton, and xenon. The values of the momentum transfer cross section for this calculation have been obtained from experimental measurements. Analytical expressions for the absorption coefficient have also been developed. From the results of this calculation, it is possible to determine the absorption coefficient per unit electron density per neutral atom for temperatures in the range from 2500 to 25,000 K. The results are compared with those from tabulations of previous calculations and those computed from theoretical values of the phase shifts for the elastic scattering of electrons by neutral atoms.

  3. Electronic Document Management: A Human Resource Management Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Groenewald

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study serve as exemplar regarding what can go wrong with the implementation of an electronic document management system. Knowledge agility and knowledge as capital, is outlined against the backdrop of the information society and knowledge economy. The importance of electronic document management and control is sketched thereafter. The literature review is concluded with the impact of human resource management on knowledge agility, which includes references to the learning organisation and complexity theory. The intervention methodology, comprising three phases, follows next. The results of the three phases are presented thereafter. Partial success has been achieved with improving the human efficacy of electronic document management, however the client opted to discontinue the system in use. Opsomming Die gevalle studie dien as voorbeeld van wat kan verkeerd loop met die implementering van ’n elektroniese dokumentbestuur sisteem. Teen die agtergrond van die inligtingsgemeenskap en kennishuishouding word kennissoepelheid en kennis as kapitaal bespreek. Die literatuurstudie word afgesluit met die inpak van menslikehulpbronbestuur op kennissoepelheid, wat ook die verwysings na die leerorganisasie en kompleksietydsteorie insluit. Die metodologie van die intervensie, wat uit drie fases bestaan, volg daarna. Die resultate van die drie fases word vervolgens aangebied. Slegs gedeelte welslae is behaal met die verbetering van die menslike doeltreffendheid ten opsigte van elektroniese dokumentbestuur. Die klient besluit egter om nie voort te gaan om die huidige sisteem te gebruik nie.

  4. The electronic absorption spectra of some acyl azides. Molecular orbital treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Eittah, Rafie H.; Mohamed, Adel A.; Farag, A. M.; Al Omar, Ahmed M.

    2008-06-01

    The electronic absorption spectra of benzoyl azide and its derivatives: p-methyl, p-methoxy, p-chloro and p-nitrobenzoyl azide were investigated in different solvents. The observed spectra differ basically from the electronic spectra of aryl azides or alkyl azides. Four intense π-π * transitions were observed in the accessible UV region of the spectrum of each of the studied compounds. The contribution of charge transfer configurations to the observed transitions is rather weak. Shift of band maximum with solvent polarity is minute. On the other hand, band intensity is highly dependent on the solvent used. The observed transitions are delocalized rather than localized ones as in the case with aryl and alkyl azides. The attachment of the C dbnd O group to the azide group in acyl azides has a significant effect on the electronic structure of the molecule. The arrangements as well as energies of the molecular orbitals are different in acyl azides from those in aryl azides. The first electronic transition in phenyl azide is at 276 nm, whereas that of bezoyle azide is at 251 nm. Ab initio molecular orbital calculations using both RHF/6-311G* and B3LYP/6-31+G * levels were carried out on the ground states of the studied compounds. The wave functions of the excited states were calculated using the CIS and the AM1-CI procedures.

  5. TO QUESTION OF QUALITY EXAMINATION OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana G. Lytvynova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the scientific and methodological approaches to the examination of quality of electronic educational resources (EER for secondary schools. It was defined conceptual apparatus, described the object of examination, clarified certain aspects of the functions of examination, determined the basic tasks of expertise, summarized the principles of expertise (scientific, personalization, active involvement in the learning process, described the requirements to the participants of EER expertise, grounded EER accordance to didactic and methodological requirements, described an algorithm of preparation for  the examination object to determine compliance with the requirements of didactic. It is established that the assessment is aimed to the receipt from the experts of corresponding data and acceptance on their basis of competent decisions about expedience of the use in general educational establishments.

  6. Characterization of the Electronic Structure of Silicon Nanoparticles Using X-ray Absorption and Emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaverka, April Susan Montoya [Univ.of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Resolving open questions regarding transport in nanostructures can have a huge impact on a broad range of future technologies such as light harvesting for energy. Silicon has potential to be used in many of these applications. Understanding how the band edges of nanostructures move as a function of size, surface termination and assembly is of fundamental importance in understanding the transport properties of these materials. In this thesis work I have investigated the change in the electronic structure of silicon nanoparticle assemblies as the surface termination is changed. Nanoparticles are synthesized using a thermal evaporation technique and sizes are determined using atomic force microscopy (AFM). By passivating the particles with molecules containing alcohol groups we are able to modify the size dependent band edge shifts. Both the valence and conduction bands are measured using synchrotron based x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and soft x-ray fluorescence (SXF) techniques. Particles synthesized via recrystallization of amorphous silicon/SiO2 multilayers of thicknesses below 10 nm are also investigated using the synchrotron techniques. These samples also show quantum confinement effects but the electronic structure is different from those synthesized via evaporation methods. The total bandgap is determined for all samples measured. The origins of these differences in the electronic structures are discussed.

  7. The electronic absorption spectra of pyridine azides, solvent-solute interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Eittah, Rafie H.; Khedr, Mahmoud K.

    2009-01-01

    The electronic absorption spectra of: 2-, 3-, and 4-azidopyridines have been investigated in a wide variety of polar and non-polar solvents. According to Onsager model, the studied spectra indicate that the orientation polarization of solvent dipoles affects the electronic spectrum much stronger than the induction polarization of solvent dipoles. The effect of solvent dipole moment predominates that of solvent refractive index in determining the values of band maxima of an electronic spectrum. The spectra of azidopyridines differ basically from these of pyridine or mono-substituted pyridine. Results at hand indicate that the azide group perturbs the pyridine ring in the case of 3-azidopyridine much more than it does in the case of 2-azidopyridine. This result agrees with the predictions of the resonance theory. Although the equilibrium ⇌ azide tetrazole is well known, yet the observed spectra prove that such an equilibrium does not exist at the studied conditions. The spectra of the studied azidopyridines are characterized by the existence of overlapping transitions. Gaussian analysis is used to obtain nice, resolved spectra. All the observed bands correspond to π → π* transitions, n → π* may be overlapped with the stronger π → π* ones.

  8. Electronic structure of titania aerogels: Soft x-ray absorption study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucheyev, S.O.; Van Buuren, T.V.; Baumann, T.F.; Satcher, J.H.; Willey, T.M.; Muelenberg, R.W.; Felter, T.E.; Poco, J.E.; Gammon, S.A.; Terminello, L.J.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Titania aerogels - a somewhat extreme form of nanoporous TiO 2 - are open-cell solid foams derived from highly crosslinked gels by drying them under supercritical conditions. In this presentation, the unoccupied electronic states of TiO 2 aerogels are studied by soft x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. High-resolution O K-edge and Ti L 2,3 -edge XANES spectra of aerogels are compared with those of rutile, anatase, and unrelaxed amorphous phases of full- density TiO 2 . Results show that all the main spectroscopic features of aerogels, reflecting the element-specific partial density of empty electronic states and correlation effects, can be attributed to the absence of long-range order in stoichiometric amorphous TiO 2 . Based on these results, we discuss the effects of short- and long-range order on the electronic structure of TiO 2 . This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-48

  9. Electronic absorption spectra of rare earth (III) species in NaCl-2CsCl eutectic based melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkovich, V. A.; Ivanov, A. B.; Yakimov, S. M.; Tsarevskii, D. V.; Golovanova, O. A.; Sukhikh, V. V.; Griffiths, T. R.

    2016-09-01

    Electronic absorption spectra of ions of trivalent rare earth elements were measured in the melts based on NaCl-2CsCl eutectic in the wavelength ranges of 190-1350 and 1450-1700 nm. The measurements were performed at 550-850 °C. The EAS of Y, La, Ce and Lu containing melts have no absorption bands in the studied regions. For the remaining REEs (Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb) the absorption bands in the EAS were assigned to the corresponding f-f electron transitions. The Stark effect was observed for Yb(III) F5/2 excited state. Increasing temperature leads to decreasing intensity of the absorption bands, except for the bands resulting from hypersensitive transitions. Beer's law was confirmed up to 0.4 M solutions of REE.

  10. Novel opportunities for time-resolved absorption spectroscopy at the X-ray free electron laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, B D; Abela, R

    2010-06-07

    Time-dependent X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) measurements of chemical reaction dynamics have a time resolution which is limited by: (a) the speed and efficiency of the reaction initiation; (b) the duration of the X-ray pulses used for the measurement; and (c) the brightness of the X-ray source. X-Ray Free Electron Lasers (XFEL), which will deliver 20-100 fs pulses of X-rays, with a peak brightness which is 10(10) times that of a synchrotron, will alleviate limitations (b) and (c). Furthermore, by including a synchronized source of UV, visible, IR or THz pump radiation, the XFEL will contribute to the solution of limitation (a). The present article describes the XFEL operating principle and the generic design of an XFEL facility, emphasizing the features of particular interest to the XAS investigator.

  11. Partial deconvolution of the absorption spectrum of trapped electrons in 15M LiCl aqueous glasses at 77 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, T.Q.

    1979-01-01

    Evidence is presented for the composite nature of the solvated (or trapped) electron absorption band in LiCl aqueous glass at 77 K. It is shown that the overall visible absorption spectrum can be deconvoluted into a homogeneously-bleachable 'green' band and a heterogeneously-bleachable 'red' band, whose relative magnitude and absorption band maxima change with the concentration of electrolyte. From the combined results of time resolved and steady state photobleaching experiments, it is concluded that at least two unstable bands are formed during photobleaching (with smaller lifetimes for the band lying further towards the infrared) which then reconverted into the 'green' band with over 40 percent efficiency. (author)

  12. Optical Absorption of Impurities and Defects in Semiconducting Crystals Electronic Absorption of Deep Centres and Vibrational Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Pajot, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    This book outlines, with the help of several specific examples, the important role played by absorption spectroscopy in the investigation of deep-level centers introduced in semiconductors and insulators like diamond, silicon, germanium and gallium arsenide by high-energy irradiation, residual impurities, and defects produced during crystal growth. It also describes the crucial role played by vibrational spectroscopy to determine the atomic structure and symmetry of complexes associated with light impurities like hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen, and as a tool for quantitative analysis of these elements in the materials.

  13. PMSE strength during enhanced D region electron densities: Faraday rotation and absorption effects at VHF frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Jorge L.; Röttger, Jürgen; Rapp, Markus

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we study the effects of absorption and Faraday rotation on measurements of polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSE). We found that such effects can produce significant reduction of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) when the D region electron densities (Ne) are enhanced, and VHF radar systems with linearly polarized antennas are used. In particular we study the expected effects during the strong solar proton event (SPE) of July 2000, also known as the Bastille day flare event. During this event, a strong anti-correlation between the PMSE SNR and the D-region Ne was found over three VHF radar sites at high latitudes: Andøya, Kiruna, and Svalbard. This anti-correlation has been explained (a) in terms of transport effects due to strong electric fields associated to the SPE and (b) due to a limited amount of aerosol particles as compared to the amount of D-region electrons. Our calculations using the Ne profiles used by previous researchers explain most, if not all, of the observed SNR reduction in both time (around the SPE peak) and altitude. This systematic effect, particularly the Faraday rotation, should be recognized and tested, and possibly avoided (e.g., using circular polarization), in future observations during the incoming solar maximum period, to contribute to the understanding of PMSE during enhanced D region Ne.

  14. Electronic Safety Resource Tools -- Supporting Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Commercialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barilo, Nick F.

    2014-09-29

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hydrogen Safety Program conducted a planning session in Los Angeles, CA on April 1, 2014 to consider what electronic safety tools would benefit the next phase of hydrogen and fuel cell commercialization. A diverse, 20-person team led by an experienced facilitator considered the question as it applied to the eight most relevant user groups. The results and subsequent evaluation activities revealed several possible resource tools that could greatly benefit users. The tool identified as having the greatest potential for impact is a hydrogen safety portal, which can be the central location for integrating and disseminating safety information (including most of the tools identified in this report). Such a tool can provide credible and reliable information from a trustworthy source. Other impactful tools identified include a codes and standards wizard to guide users through a series of questions relating to application and specific features of the requirements; a scenario-based virtual reality training for first responders; peer networking tools to bring users from focused groups together to discuss and collaborate on hydrogen safety issues; and a focused tool for training inspectors. Table ES.1 provides results of the planning session, including proposed new tools and changes to existing tools.

  15. The effects of solvents and structure on the electronic absorption spectra of the isomeric pyridine carboxylic acid N-oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drmanić Saša Ž.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultraviolet absorption spectra of the carboxyl group of three isomeric pyridine carboxylic acids N-oxides (picolinic acid N-oxide, nicotinic acid N-oxide and isonicotinic acid N-oxide were determined in fourteen solvents in the wavelength range from 200 to 400 nm. The position of the absorption maxima (λmax of the examined acids showed that the ultraviolet absorption maximum wavelengths of picolinic acid N-oxide are the shortest, and those of isonicotinic acid N-oxide acid are the longest. In order to analyze the solvent effect on the obtained absorption spectra, the ultraviolet absorption frequencies of the electronic transitions in the carboxylic group of the examined acids were correlated using a total solvatochromic equation of the form max = v0 + sπ + aα+ bβ, where υmax is the absorption frequency (1/λmax, p is a measure of the solvent polarity, β represents the scale of solvent hydrogen bond acceptor basicities and α represent the scale of solvent hydrogen bond donor acidities. The correlation of the spectroscopic data was carried out by means of multiple linear regression analysis. The solvent effects on the ultraviolet absorption maximums of the examined acids were discussed.

  16. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2015-06-16

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes pre-determining an association of the restricted computer resource and computer-resource-proximal environmental information. Indicia of user-proximal environmental information are received from a user requesting access to the restricted computer resource. Received indicia of user-proximal environmental information are compared to associated computer-resource-proximal environmental information. User access to the restricted computer resource is selectively granted responsive to a favorable comparison in which the user-proximal environmental information is sufficiently similar to the computer-resource proximal environmental information. In at least some embodiments, the process further includes comparing user-supplied biometric measure and comparing it with a predetermined association of at least one biometric measure of an authorized user. Access to the restricted computer resource is granted in response to a favorable comparison.

  17. First principles electron-correlated calculations of optical absorption in magnesium clusters★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, Ravindra; Shukla, Alok

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we report large-scale configuration interaction (CI) calculations of linear optical absorption spectra of various isomers of magnesium clusters Mgn (n = 2-5), corresponding to valence transitions. Geometry optimization of several low-lying isomers of each cluster was carried out using coupled-cluster singles doubles (CCSD) approach, and these geometries were subsequently employed to perform ground and excited state calculations using either the full-CI (FCI) or the multi-reference singles-doubles configuration interaction (MRSDCI) approach, within the frozen-core approximation. Our calculated photoabsorption spectrum of magnesium dimer (Mg2) is in excellent agreement with the experiments both for peak positions, and intensities. Owing to the sufficiently inclusive electron-correlation effects, these results can serve as benchmarks against which future experiments, as well as calculations performed using other theoretical approaches, can be tested. Supplementary material in the form of one pdf fille available from the Journal web page at http://https://doi.org/10.1140/epjd/e2017-80356-6.

  18. Electronic absorption spectra and geometry of molecular ions generated from stilbene and related compounds, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Keiichiro; Shida, Tadamasa; Kira, Akira.

    1983-01-01

    The radical ions of (Z)-stilbene and its α,β-dialkyl derivatives were produced by γ-ray irradiation of the parent compounds in frozen matrices at 77 K, and their geometries were investigated by electronic absorption spectroscopy. While the relaxed geometries of the radical ions of (Z)-stilbene are probably similar to that of the neutral molecule, those of the radical ions of the α,β-dialkyl derivatives are appreciably different from those of the neutral molecules: The torsion angle of the central ethylenic bond is distinctly larger and that of each C-Ph bond is probably smaller in the radical ions than in the neutral molecules. On illumination the radical ions of (Z)-stilbene isomerize to the E isomers, but those of the α,β-dialkyl derivatives do not. A mechanism of the photoisomerization is proposed, and an interpretation of the difference in the photochemical behavior between the unsubstituted stilbene radical ions and the α,β-dialkyl derivatives is given. (author)

  19. Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Colon cancer - resources Cystic fibrosis - resources Depression - resources Diabetes - resources Digestive disease - resources Drug abuse - resources Eating disorders - resources Elder care - resources Epilepsy - resources Family ...

  20. The Internet School of Medicine: use of electronic resources by medical trainees and the reliability of those resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egle, Jonathan P; Smeenge, David M; Kassem, Kamal M; Mittal, Vijay K

    2015-01-01

    Electronic sources of medical information are plentiful, and numerous studies have demonstrated the use of the Internet by patients and the variable reliability of these sources. Studies have investigated neither the use of web-based resources by residents, nor the reliability of the information available on these websites. A web-based survey was distributed to surgical residents in Michigan and third- and fourth-year medical students at an American allopathic and osteopathic medical school and a Caribbean allopathic school regarding their preferred sources of medical information in various situations. A set of 254 queries simulating those faced by medical trainees on rounds, on a written examination, or during patient care was developed. The top 5 electronic resources cited by the trainees were evaluated for their ability to answer these questions accurately, using standard textbooks as the point of reference. The respondents reported a wide variety of overall preferred resources. Most of the 73 responding medical trainees favored textbooks or board review books for prolonged studying, but electronic resources are frequently used for quick studying, clinical decision-making questions, and medication queries. The most commonly used electronic resources were UpToDate, Google, Medscape, Wikipedia, and Epocrates. UpToDate and Epocrates had the highest percentage of correct answers (47%) and Wikipedia had the lowest (26%). Epocrates also had the highest percentage of wrong answers (30%), whereas Google had the lowest percentage (18%). All resources had a significant number of questions that they were unable to answer. Though hardcopy books have not been completely replaced by electronic resources, more than half of medical students and nearly half of residents prefer web-based sources of information. For quick questions and studying, both groups prefer Internet sources. However, the most commonly used electronic resources fail to answer clinical queries more than half

  1. Electronic structure of nanoscale Cu/Pt alloys: A combined X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xing; Chu Wangsheng; Cai Quan; Xia Dingguo; Wu Zhonghua; Wu Ziyu

    2006-01-01

    PVP-protected Cu/Pt clusters were prepared by glycol/water reduction method and characterized with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and absorption spectra. TEM and XRD analysis show that the Cu/Pt clusters with different molar ratio have fcc structure with particle size of about 4 nm, while the lattice parameters in these clusters reduce with increasing Cu concentration. From the X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) at Cu-K edge and Pt-L 2,3 edge, we demonstrate that the d-electronic states of Cu and Pt are affected by the local environment as a function of Cu/Pt molar ratio. With increasing Cu concentration, Pt loses a fraction of 5d electrons and the hybridization between p- and d-states at Cu sites is enhanced

  2. Electronic structure of nanoscale Cu/Pt alloys: A combined X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Xing [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, Beijing (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100864 Beijing (China); Chu Wangsheng [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, Beijing (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230036 (China); Cai Quan [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, Beijing (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100864 Beijing (China); Xia Dingguo [College of Environmental and Energy Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, 100022 Beijing (China); Wu Zhonghua [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, Beijing (China); Wu Ziyu [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, Beijing (China) and National Center for Nanoscience and Technology (China)]. E-mail: wuzy@ihep.ac.cn

    2006-11-15

    PVP-protected Cu/Pt clusters were prepared by glycol/water reduction method and characterized with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and absorption spectra. TEM and XRD analysis show that the Cu/Pt clusters with different molar ratio have fcc structure with particle size of about 4 nm, while the lattice parameters in these clusters reduce with increasing Cu concentration. From the X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) at Cu-K edge and Pt-L{sub 2,3} edge, we demonstrate that the d-electronic states of Cu and Pt are affected by the local environment as a function of Cu/Pt molar ratio. With increasing Cu concentration, Pt loses a fraction of 5d electrons and the hybridization between p- and d-states at Cu sites is enhanced.

  3. Study of electron transition energies between anions and cations in spinel ferrites using differential UV–vis absorption spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, L.C.; Wu, L.Q. [Hebei Advanced Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang City 050024 (China); Li, S.Q. [Hebei Advanced Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang City 050024 (China); School of Sciences, Hebei University of Science and Technology, Shijiazhuang City 050018 (China); Li, Z.Z. [Hebei Advanced Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang City 050024 (China); Tang, G.D., E-mail: tanggd@mail.hebtu.edu.cn [Hebei Advanced Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang City 050024 (China); Qi, W.H.; Ge, X.S.; Ding, L.L. [Hebei Advanced Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang City 050024 (China)

    2016-07-01

    It is very important to determine electron transition energies (E{sub tr}) between anions and different cations in order to understand the electrical transport and magnetic properties of a material. Many authors have analyzed UV–vis absorption spectra using the curve (αhν){sup 2} vs E, where α is the absorption coefficient and E(=hν) is the photon energy. Such an approach can give only two band gap energies for spinel ferrites. In this paper, using differential UV–vis absorption spectra, dα/dE vs E, we have obtained electron transition energies (E{sub tr}) between the anions and cations, Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} at the (A) and [B] sites and Ni{sup 2+} at the [B] sites for the (A)[B]{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel ferrite samples Co{sub x}Ni{sub 0.7−x}Fe{sub 2.3}O{sub 4} (0.0≤x≤0.3), Cr{sub x}Ni{sub 0.7}Fe{sub 2.3−x}O{sub 4} (0.0≤x≤0.3) and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. We suggest that the differential UV–vis absorption spectra should be accepted as a general analysis method for determining electron transition energies between anions and cations.

  4. Effect of interdiffusion and external magnetic field on electronic states and light absorption in Gaussian-shaped double quantum ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz-Aghchegala, V. L.; Mughnetsyan, V. N.; Kirakosyan, A. A.

    2018-02-01

    The effect of interdiffusion and magnetic field on confined states of electron and heavy hole as well as on interband absorption spectrum in a Ga1-xAlxAs/GaAs Gaussian-shaped double quantum ring are investigated. It is shown that both interdiffusion and magnetic field lead to the change of the charge carriers' quantum states arrangement by their energies. The oscillating behavior of the electron ground state energy as a function of magnetic field induction gradually disappears with the increase of diffusion parameter due to the enhanced tunneling of electron to the central region of the ring. For the heavy hole the ground state energy oscillations are not observable in the region of the values of magnetic field induction B = 0 - 10 T . For considered transitions both the magnetic field and the interdiffusion lead to a blue-shift of the absorption spectrum and to decreasing of the absorption intensity. The obtained results indicate on the opportunity of purposeful manipulation of energy states and absorption spectrum of a Gaussian-shaped double quantum ring by means of the post growth annealing and the external magnetic field.

  5. Developing Humanities Collections in the Digital Age: Exploring Humanities Faculty Engagement with Electronic and Print Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachaluba, Sarah Buck; Brady, Jessica Evans; Critten, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on quantitative and qualitative research examining humanities scholars' understandings of the advantages and disadvantages of print versus electronic information resources. It explores how humanities' faculty members at Florida State University (FSU) use print and electronic resources, as well as how they perceive these…

  6. Checklist Manifesto for Electronic Resources: Getting Ready for the Fiscal Year and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Lenore; Fu, Li; Miller, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Organization of electronic resources workflow is critical in the increasingly complicated and complex world of library management. A simple organizational tool that can be readily applied to electronic resources management (ERM) is the use of checklists. Based on the principles discussed in The Checklist Manifesto: How to Get Things Right, the…

  7. Resonant absorption of electromagnetic radiation in a quantum channel due to the scattering of electrons by impurities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpunin, V. V.; Margulis, V. A.

    2017-06-01

    We have found an analytical expression for the absorption coefficient of electromagnetic radiation in a quantum channel with a parabolic confinement potential. The calculation has been performed using the second-order perturbation theory taking into account the scattering of a quasi-one-dimensional electron gas by ionized impurities. We have analyzed the dependences of the absorption coefficient on the frequency of the electromagnetic radiation and the magnetic field. The appearance of additional resonant peaks, which are caused by scattering by impurities, has been found.

  8. Stochasticity of the energy absorption in the electron cyclotron resonance; Estocasticidad de la absorcion de energia en la resonancia electron-ciclotronica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez T, C. [Departamento de Fisica, ININ, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Hernandez A, O

    1998-07-01

    The energy absorption mechanism in cyclotron resonance of the electrons is a present problem, since it could be considered from the stochastic point of view or this related with a non-homogeneous but periodical of plasma spatial structure. In this work using the Bogoliubov average method for a multi periodical system in presence of resonances, the drift equations were obtained in presence of a RF field for the case of electron cyclotron resonance until first order terms with respect to inverse of its cyclotron frequency. The absorbed energy equation is obtained on part of electrons in a simple model and by drift method. It is showed the stochastic character of the energy absorption. (Author)

  9. Electronic resource management practical perspectives in a new technical services model

    CERN Document Server

    Elguindi, Anne

    2012-01-01

    A significant shift is taking place in libraries, with the purchase of e-resources accounting for the bulk of materials spending. Electronic Resource Management makes the case that technical services workflows need to make a corresponding shift toward e-centric models and highlights the increasing variety of e-formats that are forcing new developments in the field.Six chapters cover key topics, including: technical services models, both past and emerging; staffing and workflow in electronic resource management; implementation and transformation of electronic resource management systems; the ro

  10. Use of Internet and Electronic Resources amongst Postgraduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Findings indicate that the study group has regular access to the internet , and preferred using free online resources from Google and Wikipedia to institutionally subscribed academic online resources in databases such as HINARI, EBSCO Host, Questia , JSTOR and High Beam.This shows that technology alone cannot help ...

  11. Strategic Planning for Electronic Resources Management: A Case Study at Gustavus Adolphus College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulseberg, Anna; Monson, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Electronic resources, the tools we use to manage them, and the needs and expectations of our users are constantly evolving; at the same time, the roles, responsibilities, and workflow of the library staff who manage e-resources are also in flux. Recognizing a need to be more intentional and proactive about how we manage e-resources, the…

  12. Femtosecond X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy at a Hard X-ray Free Electron Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemke, Henrik T.; Bressler, Christian; Chen, Lin X.

    2013-01-01

    -quality X-ray absorption data and we report femtosecond time-resolved X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) measurements of a spin-crossover system, iron(II) tris(2,2'-bipyridine) in water. The data indicate that the low-spin to high-spin transition can be modeled by single-exponential kinetics...

  13. Enhanced carrier collection efficiency and reduced quantum state absorption by electron doping in self-assembled quantum dot solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tian, E-mail: tianlee@umd.edu, E-mail: dage@ece.umd.edu; Dagenais, Mario, E-mail: tianlee@umd.edu, E-mail: dage@ece.umd.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Lu, Haofeng; Fu, Lan; Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2015-02-02

    Reduced quantum dot (QD) absorption due to state filling effects and enhanced electron transport in doped QDs are demonstrated to play a key role in solar energy conversion. Reduced QD state absorption with increased n-doping is observed in the self-assembled In{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}As/GaAs QDs from high resolution below-bandgap external quantum efficiency (EQE) measurement, which is a direct consequence of the Pauli exclusion principle. We also show that besides partial filling of the quantum states, electron-doping produces negatively charged QDs that exert a repulsive Coulomb force on the mobile electrons, thus altering the electron trajectory and reducing the probability of electron capture, leading to an improved collection efficiency of photo-generated carriers, as indicated by an absolute above-bandgap EQE measurement. The resulting redistribution of the mobile electron in the planar direction is further validated by the observed photoluminescence intensity dependence on doping.

  14. Experimental and theoretical study of electronic structure of aluminum in extreme conditions with X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Festa, Floriane

    2013-01-01

    Matter in extreme conditions belongs to Warm Dense Matter regime which lays between dense plasma regime and condensed matter. This regime is still not well known, indeed it is very complex to generate such plasma in the laboratory to get experimental data and validate models. The goal of this thesis is to study electronic structure of aluminum in extreme conditions with X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Experimentally aluminum has reached high densities and high temperatures, up to now unexplored. An X-ray source has also been generated to probe highly compressed aluminum. Two spectrometers have recorded aluminum absorption spectra and aluminum density and temperature conditions have been deduced thanks to optical diagnostics. Experimental spectra have been compared to ab initio spectra, calculated in the same conditions. The theoretical goal was to validate the calculation method in high densities and high temperatures regime with the study of K-edge absorption modifications. We also used absorption spectra to study the metal-non metal transition which takes place at low density (density ≤ solid density). This transition could be study with electronic structure modifications of the system. (author) [fr

  15. Correlated single-crystal electronic absorption spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography at NSLS beamline X26-C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orville, A.M.; Buono, R.; Cowan, M.; Heroux, A.; Shea-McCarthy, G.; Schneider, D.K.; Skinner, J.M.; Skinner, M.J.; Stoner-Ma, D.; Sweet, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    The research philosophy and new capabilities installed at NSLS beamline X26-C to support electronic absorption and Raman spectroscopies coupled with X-ray diffraction are reviewed. This beamline is dedicated full time to multidisciplinary studies with goals that include revealing the relationship between the electronic and atomic structures in macromolecules. The beamline instrumentation has been fully integrated such that optical absorption spectra and X-ray diffraction images are interlaced. Therefore, optical changes induced by X-ray exposure can be correlated with X-ray diffraction data collection. The installation of Raman spectroscopy into the beamline is also briefly reviewed. Data are now routinely generated almost simultaneously from three complementary types of experiments from the same sample. The beamline is available now to the NSLS general user population.

  16. Preservation of and Permanent Access to Electronic Information Resources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hodge, Gail

    2004-01-01

    The rapid growth in the creation and dissemination of electronic information has emphasized the digital environment's speed and ease of dissemination with little regard for its long-term preservation and access...

  17. Inelastic electron scattering spectroscopy: a comparison of absorption and emission spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnatterly, S.E.

    1984-01-01

    The operation of a high energy inelastic scattering spectrometer is briefly described. Measured absorption and emission spectra are fit to parameters in recently described models for insulators. Implications for model validity are discussed

  18. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2017-08-22

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes obtaining an image from a communication device of a user. An individual and a landmark are identified within the image. Determinations are made that the individual is the user and that the landmark is a predetermined landmark. Access to a restricted computing resource is granted based on the determining that the individual is the user and that the landmark is the predetermined landmark. Other embodiments are disclosed.

  19. DFT and TD-DFT study on geometries, electronic structures and electronic absorption of some metal free dye sensitizers for dye sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, T; Aroulmoji, V; Ravindran, R Samson; Müller, M; Ranjitha, S; Rajarajan, G; Anbarasan, P M

    2015-01-25

    The geometries, electronic structures, polarizabilities and hyperpolarizabilities of 2-hydroxynaphthalene-1,4-dione (henna1), 3-(5-((1E)-2-(1,4-dihydro-1,4-dioxonaphthalen-3-yloxy) vinyl) thiophen-2-yl)-2-isocyanoacrylic acid (henna2) and anthocyanin dye sensitizers were studied based on density functional theory (DFT) using the hybrid functional B3LYP. The Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectrum was investigated by using a hybrid method which combines the properties and dynamics of many-body in the presence of time-dependent (TD) potentials, i.e. TDSCF-DFT (B3LYP). Features of the electronic absorption spectrum in the visible and near-UV regions were plotted and assigned based on TD-DFT calculations. Due to the absorption, bands of the metal-organic compound are n→π(*) present. The calculated results suggest that the three lowest energy excited states of the investigated dye sensitizers are due to photoinduced electron transfer processes. The interfacial electron transfer between semiconductor TiO2 electrode and dye sensitizer is owing to an electron injection process from excited dye to the semiconductor's conduction band. The role of linking the henna1 dye with a carboxylic acid via a thiophene bridge was analyzed. The results are that using a stronger π-conjugate bridge as well as a strong donator and acceptor group enhances the efficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. impact of the use of electronic resources on research output

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    manda

    reported using free Internet resources including the search engines, while only a small proportion uses scholarly databases. For example, 22% of researchers reported using the. African Journals Online (AJOL) while 7% use Gale databases (see Table 2 for details). Additionally, the frequency of use also varied significantly ...

  1. Challenges associated with cataloguing of electronic resources in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the paper is to identify challenges associated with the cataloguing of e resources in some selected university libraries in south –south Nigeria. The descriptive survey design involving the use of questionnaire as the research instrument was adopted. The population comprised of cataloguers in five selected ...

  2. ANALYSIS ABSORPTION CAPACITY OF EUROPEAN FUNDS UNDER THE OPERATIONAL PROGRAMME HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA FLORESCU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the main goals of the European Union is the economic progress. In the last 50 years, and especially beginning with the ‘80s, remarkable efforts have been made for removing the borders between the EU national economies and for creating a unique market where goods, persons, capital and services could move freely. Commercial interchanges between UE states have significantly grown and at the same time EU has become a global commercial force. EU’s goal is to become the most dynamic economy based on global recognition. This implies a significant investment in research, education and forming, which allows the population to have access to this new information. This research work displays diverse aspects concerning the Romania’s ability draw of irredeemable funds in period 2007 – 2013, focusing on human capital development activity. Today, the problem absorptions are no longer able to develop projects, that knowing a significant improvement but the stage of implementation and funding.

  3. Temperature and isotope effects on the shape of the optical absorption spectrum of solvated electrons in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jou, F.Y.; Freeman, G.R.

    1979-01-01

    The optical absorption spectra of solvated electrons in H 2 O and D 2 O have been measured at 274, 298, 340, and 380 K. All the spectra were fitted very well with the Gaussian and Lorentzian shape functions at the low- and high-energy sides of the absorption maximum, respectively, excluding the high-energy tail. The spectrum does not shift uniformly with temperature. The temperature coefficient of absorption decreases rapidly with increasing energy on the low-energy side of the absorption maximum, while it changes only slightly on the high-energy side. When the temperature increases the Lorentzian width remains constant, the Gaussian width varies proportionally to T/sup 1/2/, and the spectrum becomes more symmetrical. On going from H 2 O to D 2 O we found that the spectrum at a given A/A/sub max/ shows a shift of +0.05 eV in the low-energy wing. The shift decreases with increasing energy, reaching 0.03 eV at the absorption maximum. On the high-energy side of the band the shift becomes negative at hν > 2.2 eV. The shift on the low-energy side seems to be related to the difference of the zero-point energies of the inter- and intramolecular vibrations. The wavelength dependence of the temperature and isotope effects is consistent with the model that different types of excitation occur on the low- and high-energy sides of the absorption band. The temperature and isotopic dependence of the low-energy side are consistent with its width being due to phonon interactions

  4. Availability of Electronic Resources for Service Provision in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study also revealed that majority of the University libraries have adequate basic infrastructure for effective electronic information services. ... acquired by the library are put into maximal use by the library clientele, thereby ensuring the achievement of the library's objective which is satisfying the users, information needs.

  5. Growing an Electronic Library: Resources, Utility, Marketing and Politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugdale, David; Dugdale, Christine

    2000-01-01

    Describes the development of the ResIDe Electronic Library at the University of the West of England, Bristol. Analyzes potential of the system to increase economy, efficiency and effectiveness in library services and relates it to how the needs of sponsors and students can be met. (Author/LRW)

  6. MODELING OF QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR ELECTRONIC LEARNING RESOURCES: THE INTEGRATED AND DIFFERENTIATED APPROACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Kravtsov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Results on modeling of quality management system of electronic information resources on the basis of the analysis of its elements functioning with use of the integrated and differentiated approaches are presented. Application of such model is illustrated on an example of calculation and optimization of parameters of a quality management system at the organization of the co-ordinated work of services of monitoring, an estimation of quality and support of electronic learning resources.

  7. Experimental study of water absorption of electronic components and internal local temperature and humidity into electronic enclosure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conseil, Helene; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2014-01-01

    Corrosion reliability of electronic products is a key factor for electronics industry, and today there is a large demand for performance reliability in large spans of temperature and humidity during day and night shifts. Corrosion failures are still seen due to the effects of temperature, humidit...

  8. A Study on Developing Evaluation Criteria for Electronic Resources in Evaluation Indicators of Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Younghee

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to improve the current state of electronic resource evaluation in libraries. While the use of Web DB, e-book, e-journal, and other e-resources such as CD-ROM, DVD, and micro materials is increasing in libraries, their use is not comprehensively factored into the general evaluation of libraries and may diminish the reliability of…

  9. Managing Selection for Electronic Resources: Kent State University Develops a New System to Automate Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Kay

    2012-01-01

    Kent State University has developed a centralized system that manages the communication and work related to the review and selection of commercially available electronic resources. It is an automated system that tracks the review process, provides selectors with price and trial information, and compiles reviewers' feedback about the resource. It…

  10. Video Killed the Radio Star: Language Students' Use of Electronic Resources-Reading or Viewing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliçkaya, Ferit

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to investigate language students' use of print and electronic resources for their research papers required in research techniques class, focusing on which reading strategies they used while reading these resources. The participants of the study were 90 sophomore students enrolled in the research techniques class offered at…

  11. Optical absorption and electron spin resonance studies of Cu 2 in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B2O3–As2O3 glasses. N Srinivasa Rao Shashidhar ... K Siva Kumar Syed Rahman. Ceramics and Glasses Volume 28 Issue 6 October 2005 pp 589-592 ... Keywords. Glass transition temperature; ESR; optical absorption; bonding parameters.

  12. X-ray Emission and Absorption Studies of Silicides in Relation to their Electronic Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijs, P.J.W.; Wiech, G.; Zahorowski, W.; Speier, W.; Goedkoop, J.B.; Czyzyk, Marek; Acker, J.F. van; Leuken, E. van; Groot, R.A. de; Laan, G. van der; Sarma, D.D.; Kumar, L.; Buschow, K.H.J.; Fuggle, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The valence bands and conduction bands of about 30 transition metal silicides (of which we concentrate on 4 here) have been investigated by measurements of Si X-ray emission bandsspectra, X-ray absorption spectra near the Si K (1s) edge, photoemission spectra, and Bremsstrahlung Isochromat spectra.

  13. Grazing incidence reflectivity and total electron yield effects in soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alders, D; Hibma, T; Sawatzky, G.A; Cheung, K.C.; van Dorssen, G.E.; Roper, M.D.; Padmore, H.A.; van der Laan, G.; Vogel, J; Sacchi, M.

    1997-01-01

    We report on a study of grazing incidence absorption and reflection spectra of NiO in the region of the Ni 2p edge. The aim is to evaluate the distortion of the near edge spectrum by the critical angle behavior of individual components within the spectrum. This can be used to improve the separation

  14. Studies on structural coal characteristics. Part 2. Parameters of electron absorption by coal and their links with reflectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popov, V.K.; Rys' yanova, N.D.; Plastun, S.N.

    1984-01-01

    Problems associated with determining black coal rank on the basis of vitrinite reflectivity are discussed. Correlations between coal rank and vitrinite reflectivity are analyzed. Factors which disturb coal rank analyses are reviewed. A method for determining absorption spectra in ultraviolet spectra, visible spectra and infrared spectra using radiation which is diffused-dispersed by coal is evaluated. The method is used for investigations into nature of changes in parameters of electron spectra of vitrinites depending on coal rank, which is determined on the basis of vitrinite reflectivity. Method for coal sample preparation, measurements using the MPS-5000 system and evaluating measurement results are discussed. Investigation results are given in 3 schemes. Correlations between radiation absorption and coal microstructure are analyzed. Recommendations are made for use of the method in black coal rank determination.

  15. Where Do Electronic Books Fit in the College Research Arsenal of Resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Student use of electronic books has become an accepted supplement to traditional resources. Student use and satisfaction was monitored through an online course discussion board. Increased use of electronic books indicate this service is an accepted supplement to the print book collection.

  16. The electronic states of isoxazole studied by VUV absorption, electron energy-loss spectroscopies and ab initio multi-reference configuration interaction calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Isobel C.; Palmer, Michael H.; Delwiche, Jacques; Hoffmann, Soeren V.; Vieora, P. Limao; Mason, Nigel J.; Guest, Martyn F.; Hubin-Franskin, Marie-Jeanne; Heinesch, J.; Giuliani, A.

    2004-01-01

    The VUV absorption spectrum of isoxazole (5-10.8 eV, 250-115 nm) has been recorded for the first time. The molecule has also been probed using electron impact with electrons of different incident energies and the He(I) photoelectron spectrum has been re-measured. Electronic excitation energies for valence and Rydberg-type states have been computed using multi-reference multi-root CI methods. Calculated energies for Rydberg states are close to those expected, but the precision of the calculated 1 ππ* states is more variable, especially for the lowest members. More than 30 valence excited states having finite oscillator strengths are computed to lie between 6 and 12 eV, but most of the intensity in the VUV absorption spectrum is from excitation of states of 1 ππ* character. From the results of the calculations, it is concluded that the first two 1 ππ* states lie at about 6 and 7 eV, respectively, and are separated by a state of type 1 σπ*, where σ is nitrogen lone pair; dominant higher bands near 8 and 9 eV are also largely 1 ππ* in character. The lowest-lying triplet states, located by experiment at about 4.1 eV and 5.3 eV, are calculated to be 3 ππ*. Short-lived anionic states (electron-molecule resonances) have been detected in both inelastic scattering and dissociative electron attachment channels. Some one-electron properties derived from the ground state wavefunction of the molecule have also been computed for comparison with experiment

  17. Comparative analysis of the vibrational structure of the absorption spectra of acrolein in the excited ( S 1) electronic state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroleva, L. A.; Tyulin, V. I.; Matveev, V. K.; Pentin, Yu. A.

    2012-04-01

    The assignments of absorption bands of the vibrational structure of the UV spectrum are compared with the assignments of bands obtained by the CRDS method in a supersonic jet from the time of laser radiation damping for the trans isomer of acrolein in the excited ( S 1) electronic state. The ν00 trans = 25861 cm-1 values and fundamental frequencies, including torsional vibration frequency, obtained by the two methods were found to coincide in the excited electronic state ( S 1) for this isomer. The assignments of several absorption bands of the vibrational structure of the spectrum obtained by the CRDS method were changed. Changes in the assignment of (0-v') transition bands of the torsional vibration of the trans isomer in the Deslandres table from the ν00 trans trans origin allowed the table to be extended to high quantum numbers v'. The torsional vibration frequencies up to v' = 5 were found to be close to the frequencies found by analyzing the vibrational structure of the UV spectrum and calculated quantum-mechanically. The coincidence of the barrier to internal rotation (the cis-trans transition) in the one-dimensional model with that calculated quantum-mechanically using the two-dimensional model corresponds to a planar structure of the acrolein molecule in the excited ( S 1) electronic state.

  18. Electronic and oscillation absorption spectra of blood plamsa at surgical diseases of thyroid gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guminetskiy, S. G.; Motrich, A. V.; Poliansky, I. Y.; Hyrla, Ya. V.

    2012-01-01

    The results of investigating the absorption spectra of blood plasma in the visible and infrared parts of spectra obtained using the techniques of spherical photometer and spectrophotometric complex "Specord IR75" are presented. The possibility of using these spectra for diagnoses the cases of diffuse toxic goiter and nodular goiter and control of treatment process in postsurgical period in the cases of thyroid gland surgery is estimated.

  19. Ruthenium(II) chloro-bis(bipyridyl) complexes with substituted pyridine ligands: interpretation of their electronic absorption spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sizova, O.V.; Ershov, A.Yu.; Ivanova, N.V.; Shashko, A.D.; Kutejkina-Teplyakova, A.V.

    2003-01-01

    A number of complexes cis-[Ru(Bipy) 2 (L)(Cl)](BF 4 ), where Bipy-2,2'-bipyridine, L-pyridine, 4-aminopyridine, 4-picoline, nicotinamide, isonicotinamide, 3- and 4-cyanopyridine, 4,4'-bipyridine, trans-1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethylene, 4,4'-azopyridine, pyrazine, imidazole and NH 3 , were prepared. Using the CINDO-CI semiempirical method the energies and intensities of transition in electronic absorption spectra (EAS) of the complexes were calculated. It is shown that major differences in EAS of the compounds stem from position of transitions with charge transfer d π (Ru)→π*(L) [ru

  20. Electron paramagnetic resonance and optical absorption of uranium ions diluted in CdF2 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, J.J.C.R.

    1976-08-01

    The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) has been studied in conection with the optical absortion spectra of Uranium ions diluted in CdF 2 single crystals. Analyses of the EPR and optical absorption spectra obtained experimentally, and a comparison with known results in the isomorfic CaF 2 , SrF 2 and BaF 2 , allowed the identification of two paramagnetic centers associated with Uranium ions. These are the U(2+) ion in cubic symmetry having the triplet γ 5 as ground state, and the U(3+) ion in cubic symmetry having the dublet γ 6 as ground state. (Author) [pt

  1. Neutron irradiation effects in amorphous SiO2: optical absorption and electron paramagnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzzi, M.; Martini, M.; Paleari, A.; Pio, F.; Vedda, A.; Azzoni, C.B.

    1993-01-01

    Optical absorption spectra of as-grown and neutron-irradiated amorphous SiO 2 , both fused natural quartz and synthetic silica, have been analysed in the ultraviolet region below the fundamental edge. The description of the optical spectrum has been further clarified by a detailed study of the spectral components as a function of the neutron irradiation in different types of silica; we have verified known correlations between optical bands and between bands and paramagnetic centres. In 'as-grown' fused quartz samples, a previously unreported band at 6.2 eV has been detected. 'As-grown' synthetic silicas do not show any band, up to the intrinsic absorption edge. In the irradiated samples, the experimental results suggest a correlation between two bands at 5.8 and 7.1 eV, while previous attribution of the bands at 5.0 eV (B 2 band) and 7.6 eV (E band) to the same defect is discussed. The role of impurities in the optical absorption and in the radiation hardness is also considered. (author)

  2. Impact of radial transport on the quasilinear plateau formation due to electron cyclotron wave absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, A.G.; Westerhof, E.

    1996-01-01

    Numerical simulations using a three-dimensional Fokker-Planck code show that for small tokamaks the transport of electrons across the magnetic surfaces at a level consistent with anomalous transport has a large influence on the formation of the quasilinear plateau during electron cyclotron resonant

  3. Absorption and backscatter of internal conversion electrons in the measurements of surface contamination of 137Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yunoki, A.; Kawada, Y.; Yamada, T.; Unno, Y.; Sato, Y.; Hino, Y.

    2013-01-01

    We measured 4π and 2π counting efficiencies for internal conversion electrons (ICEs), gross β-particles and also β-rays alone with various source conditions regarding absorber and backing foil thickness using e-X coincidence technique. Dominant differences regarding the penetration, attenuation and backscattering properties among ICEs and β-rays were revealed. Although the abundance of internal conversion electrons of 137 Cs- 137 Ba is only 9.35%, 60% of gross counts may be attributed to ICEs in worse source conditions. This information will be useful for radionuclide metrology and for surface contamination monitoring. - Highlights: • Counting efficiencies for internal conversion electrons from 137 Cs were measured, and compared with those for β-rays. • Electron-X coincidence technique was employed. • A thin NaI(Tl) scintillation detector was used for X-ray detection. • Backscattering fractions of electrons and beta particles were studied by similar experiments

  4. Handbook of theoretical atomic physics data for photon absorption, electron scattering, and vacancies decay

    CERN Document Server

    Amusia, Miron Ya; Yarzhemsky, Victor

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this book is to present highly accurate and extensive theoretical Atomic data and to give a survey of selected calculational methods for atomic physics, used to obtain these data. The book presents the results of calculations of cross sections and probabilities of a broad variety of atomic processes with participation of photons and electrons, namely on photoabsorption, electron scattering and accompanying effects. Included are data for photoabsorption and electron scattering cross-sections and probabilities of vacancy decay formed for a large number of atoms and ions. Attention is also given to photoionization and vacancy decay in endohedrals and to positron-atom scattering. The book is richly illustrated. The methods used are one-electron Hartree-Fock and the technique of Feynman diagrams that permits to include many-electron correlations. This is done in the frames of the Random Phase approximation with exchange and the many-body perturbation theory. Newly obtained and previously collected atomi...

  5. Delayed electron relaxation in CdTe nanorods studied by spectral analysis of the ultrafast transient absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriegel, I., E-mail: ilka.kriegel@iit.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Scotognella, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); CNST of IIT@POLIMI, Via Pascoli 70/3, 20133 Milano (Italy); Soavi, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Brescia, R. [Department of Nanochemistry, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT), via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy); Rodríguez-Fernández, J.; Feldmann, J. [Photonics and Optoelectronics Group, Department of Physics and CeNS, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Amalienstr. 54, 80799 Munich (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), Schellingstr. 4, 80799 Munich (Germany); Lanzani, G., E-mail: guglielmo.lanzani@iit.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); CNST of IIT@POLIMI, Via Pascoli 70/3, 20133 Milano (Italy); Tassone, F. [CNST of IIT@POLIMI, Via Pascoli 70/3, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2016-06-01

    Highlights: • We study the photophysics of CdTe nanorods by ultrafast absorption spectroscopy. • We fit photobleaching and photoinduced absorption features at all time delays. • Dynamics are extracted from superpositions of bleaches (Gaussians) and derivatives. • Fast non-radiative recombination and slower hole trapping processes are extracted. • A potential approach to unveil ultrafast non-radiative recombination processes. - Abstract: In transient absorption (TA) spectra, the bleach features originating from state filling are overlapped by their energy-shifted derivatives, arising from excited state energy level shifts. This makes the direct extraction of carrier dynamics from a single-wavelength time-trace misleading. Fitting TA spectra in time, as Gaussian functions and their derivative-like shifted Gaussians, allows to individually extract the real dynamics of both photobleached transitions, and their energy shifts. In CdTe nanorods (NRs) we found a delayed heating of holes due to the release of the large excess energy in the electron relaxation process. The slow hole-trapping process is consistent with a high number of surface trap states in these model NRs. Our results show that only a correct disentanglement of bleaching and energy shift contributions provides a reliable framework to extract the underlying carrier relaxation dynamics, including trapping, non-radiative recombination, and eventually carrier multiplication.

  6. Electron spin resonance insight into broadband absorption of the Cu3Bi(SeO32O2Br metamagnet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zorko

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Metamagnets, which exhibit a transition from a low-magnetization to a high-magnetization state induced by the applied magnetic field, have recently been highlighted as promising materials for controllable broadband absorption. Here we show results of a multifrequency electron spin resonance (ESR investigation of the Cu3Bi(SeO32O2Br planar metamagnet on the kagome lattice. Its mixed antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic phase is stabilized in a finite range of applied fields around 0.8 T at low temperatures and is characterized by enhanced microwave absorption. The absorption signal is non-resonant and its boundaries correspond to two critical fields that determine the mixed phase. With decreasing temperature these increase like the sublattice magnetization of the antiferromagnetic phase and show no frequency dependence between 100 and 480 GHz. On the contrary, we find that the critical fields depend on the magnetic-field sweeping direction. In particular, the higher critical field, which corresponds to the transition from the mixed to the ferromagnetic phase, shows a pronounced hysteresis effect, while such a hysteresis is absent for the lower critical field. The observed hysteresis is enhanced at lower temperatures, which suggests that thermal fluctuations play an important role in destabilizing the highly absorbing mixed phase.

  7. Electronic Absorption Spectra of Tetrapyrrole-Based Pigments via TD-DFT: A Reduced Orbital Space Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Kushal; Virgil, Kyle A; Jakubikova, Elena

    2016-07-28

    Tetrapyrrole-based pigments play a crucial role in photosynthesis as principal light absorbers in light-harvesting chemical systems. As such, accurate theoretical descriptions of the electronic absorption spectra of these pigments will aid in the proper description and understanding of the overall photophysics of photosynthesis. In this work, time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) at the CAM-B3LYP/6-31G* level of theory is employed to produce the theoretical absorption spectra of several tetrapyrrole-based pigments. However, the application of TD-DFT to large systems with several hundreds of atoms can become computationally prohibitive. Therefore, in this study, TD-DFT calculations with reduced orbital spaces (ROSs) that exclude portions of occupied and virtual orbitals are pursued as a viable, computationally cost-effective alternative to conventional TD-DFT calculations. The effects of reducing orbital space size on theoretical spectra are qualitatively and quantitatively described, and both conventional and ROS results are benchmarked against experimental absorption spectra of various tetrapyrrole-based pigments. The orbital reduction approach is also applied to a large natural pigment assembly that comprises the principal light-absorbing component of the reaction center in purple bacteria. Overall, we find that TD-DFT calculations with proper and judicious orbital space reductions can adequately reproduce conventional, full orbital space, TD-DFT results of all pigments studied in this work.

  8. The National Site Licensing of Electronic Resources: An Institutional Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Zhu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available While academic libraries in most countries are struggling to negotiate with publishers and vendors individually or collaboratively via consortia, a few countries have experimented with a different model, national site licensing (NSL. Because NSL often involves government and large-scale collaboration, it has the potential to solve many problems in the complex licensing world. However, not many nations have adopted it. This study uses historical research approach and the comparative case study research method to explore the seemingly low level of adoption. The cases include the Canadian National Site Licensing Project (CNSLP, the United Kingdom’s National Electronic Site Licensing Initiative (NESLI, and the United States, which has not adopted NSL. The theoretical framework guiding the research design and data collection is W. Richard Scott’s institutional theory, which utilizes three supporting pillars—regulative, normative, and cultural-cognitive—to analyze institutional processes. In this study, the regulative pillar and the normative pillar of NSL adoption— an institutional construction and change—are examined. Data were collected from monographs, research articles, government documents, and relevant websites. Based on the analysis of these cases, a preliminary model is proposed for the adoption of NSL. The factors that support a country’s adoption of NSL include the need for new institutions, a centralized educational policy-making system and funding system, supportive political trends, and the tradition of cooperation. The factors that may prevent a country from adopting NSL include decentralized educational policy and funding, diversity and the large number of institutions, the concern for the “Big Deal,” and the concern for monopoly.

  9. Use of poisons information resources and satisfaction with electronic products by Victorian emergency department staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Stephen; Fountain, John S; Reith, David M; Braitberg, George; Cruickshank, Jaycen

    2014-10-01

    ED staff use a range of poisons information resources of varying type and quality. The present study aims to identify those resources utilised in the state of Victoria, Australia, and assess opinion of the most used electronic products. A previously validated self-administered survey was conducted in 15 EDs, with 10 questionnaires sent to each. The survey was then repeated following the provision of a 4-month period of access to Toxinz™, an Internet poisons information product novel to the region. The study was conducted from December 2010 to August 2011. There were 117 (78%) and 48 (32%) responses received from the first and second surveys, respectively, a 55% overall response rate. No statistically significant differences in professional group, numbers of poisoned patients seen or resource type accessed were identified between studies. The electronic resource most used in the first survey was Poisindex® (48.68%) and Toxinz™ (64.1%) in the second. There were statistically significant (P poisons information but would do so if a reputable product was available. The order of poisons information sources most utilised was: consultation with a colleague, in-house protocols and electronic resources. There was a significant difference in satisfaction with electronic poisons information resources and a movement away from existing sources when choice was provided. Interest in increased use of mobile solutions was identified. © 2014 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  10. Electronic absorption bands of HoCl3 and SmCl3 complexes in alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramesh Babu, V.; Buddhudu, S.; Rangarajan, V.N.

    1987-01-01

    The normal absorption and second derivative spectra of ten alcoholic complexes of HoCl 3 and SmCl 3 were recorded. From the observed bands, energies and intensity values were measured. To fit in these measured values with the theoretical values, a set of spectroscopic parameters namely, Judd-Ofelt (T 2 , T 4 , T 6 ), intensity (Ω 2 , Ω 4 , Ω 6 ) had been computed. A good fit of intensities was obtained between the experimental and theoretical data. The environmental influences on the intensities of the hypersensitive transitions of Sm(III) and Ho(III) ions were found to be noteworthy. (author). 7 tables, 20 refs

  11. Modification of the electronic, magnetic and structural properties of Nb/Fe(110) multilayers via hydrogen absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehm, Ch.; Fritzsche, H.; Maletta, H.; Klose, F.

    1999-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Hydrogen absorption in thin metal films may cause drastic changes of electronic, magnetic and structural properties. The effect of hydrogen loading from the gas phase on Nb/Fe multilayers was investigated (t Nb = 10 - 1000 A). The equilibrium hydrogen concentration in the Nb layers and the hydrogen-induced layer thickness expansion perpendicular to the film plane were determined as function of external hydrogen pressure by means of in-situ neutron reflectivity measurements. In-situ X-ray diffraction experiments performed on the same samples yielded the corresponding expansion of the out-of-plane Nb(110) interplanar spacing and the time-dependence of the charging and decharging process. It was found in all samples that the relative expansion of the Nb layers is considerably larger than the relative increase of the Nb(110) interplanar spacing. The magnetic properties were examined by means of in-situ neutron reflectivity, magnetoresistivity and SQUID measurements. We show that the magnetic exchange coupling between the Fe layers can reversibly be switched by hydrogen absorption/desorption due to changes in the electronic structure of the Nb spacer layers. (author)

  12. X-ray absorption spectroscopy using a self-seeded soft X-ray free-electron laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroll, Thomas; Kern, Jan; Kubin, Markus; Ratner, Daniel; Gul, Sheraz; Fuller, Franklin D.; Löchel, Heike; Krzywinski, Jacek; Lutman, Alberto; Ding, Yuantao; Dakovski, Georgi L.; Moeller, Stefan; Turner, Joshua J.; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Nordlund, Dennis L.; Rehanek, Jens; Weniger, Christian; Firsov, Alexander; Brzhezinskaya, Maria; Chatterjee, Ruchira; Lassalle-Kaiser, Benedikt; Sierra, Raymond G.; Laksmono, Hartawan; Hill, Ethan; Borovik, Andrew; Erko, Alexei; Föhlisch, Alexander; Mitzner, Rolf; Yachandra, Vittal K.; Yano, Junko; Wernet, Philippe; Bergmann, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    © 2016 Optical Society of America. X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) enable unprecedented new ways to study the electronic structure and dynamics of transition metal systems. L-edge absorption spectroscopy is a powerful technique for such studies and the feasibility of this method at XFELs for solutions and solids has been demonstrated. However, the required x-ray bandwidth is an order of magnitude narrower than that of self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE), and additional monochromatization is needed. Here we compare L-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) of a prototypical transition metal system based on monochromatizing the SASE radiation of the linac coherent light source (LCLS) with a new technique based on self-seeding of LCLS. We demonstrate how L-edge XAS can be performed using the self-seeding scheme without the need of an additional beam line monochromator. We show how the spectral shape and pulse energy depend on the undulator setup and how this affects the x-ray spectroscopy measurements.

  13. Estimation of electron temperature and density by de convolving the absorption part of the plasma dispersion function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez D, H.; Cabral P, A.; Melendez L, L.; Lopez C, R.; Colunga S, S.; Valencia A, R.; Cruz J, S.; Gaytan G, E.; Chavez A, E

    1992-04-15

    In this work a method to estimate the temperature and density of the electron (T{sub e}, n{sub e}), based on the deconvolution of the part of absorption of the dispersion function of the plasma is suggested. The absorptive part of this function, is proportional to the convolution of a Gauss distribution with a Lorentz function. The Gaussian represents to the Maxwell function of velocities distribution of the electrons of the plasma. The Lorentzian represents to the form of it lines of an linearized electrostatic wave that spreads with reduction in the plasma. The complex variable z of the plasma dispersion function is written as: z = u + ia, where u = 2 (w-w{sub 0}) {radical} Ln 2 /{gamma}{sub G} is the dimensionless frequency variable, a = {gamma}{sub L} {radical} Ln 2 /{gamma}{sub G} is the Posener parameter, {gamma}{sub G} = k {gamma}{sup '}{sub G} where k is the wave number of the oscillatory phenomenon, {gamma}{sup '}{sub G} is the FWHM of the Gaussian and {gamma}{sub L} = 2 {alpha}, {alpha} being the damping constant; i.e the imaginary part of the frequency {omega}. In this method, it will be assumed that a wave of frequency , and of amplitude small enough to avoid non-linear effects, propagates in the plasma and decays in such a way {alpha} is the Landau damping. With this assumption, the method is only valid in the interval k < < k{sub D}, where k{sub D} is the Debye wave number. Deconvolution of the detected absorption frequency spectrum of the signal, gives the values of {gamma}{sub G} and {gamma}{sub L} from which the values of n{sub e} and T{sub e} can be deduced. (Author)

  14. Handbook of theoretical atomic physics. Data for photon absorption, electron scattering, and vacancies decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amusia, Miron [Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel). Racah Inst. of Physics; Ioffe Physico-Technical Inst., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Chernysheva, Larissa [Ioffe Physico-Technical Inst., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Yarzhemsky, Victor [Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this book is to present highly accurate and extensive theoretical Atomic data and to give a survey of selected calculational methods for atomic physics, used to obtain these data. The book presents the results of calculations of cross sections and probabilities of a broad variety of atomic processes with participation of photons and electrons, namely on photoabsorption, electron scattering and accompanying effects. Included are data for photoabsorption and electron scattering cross-sections and probabilities of vacancy decay formed for a large number of atoms and ions. Attention is also given to photoionization and vacancy decay in endohedrals and to positron-atom scattering. The book is richly illustrated. The methods used are one-electron Hartree-Fock and the technique of Feynman diagrams that permits to include many-electron correlations. This is done in the frames of the Random Phase approximation with exchange and the many-body perturbation theory. Newly obtained and previously collected atomic data are presented. The atomic data are useful for investigating the electronic structure and physical processes in solids and liquids, molecules and clusters, astronomical objects, solar and planet atmospheres and atomic nucleus. Deep understanding of chemical reactions and processes is reached by deep and accurate knowledge of atomic structure and processes with participation of atoms. This book is useful for theorists performing research in different domains of contemporary physics, chemistry and biology, technologists working on production of new materials and for experimentalists performing research in the field of photon and electron interaction with atoms, molecules, solid bodies and liquids.

  15. Electron beam absorption in solid and in water phantoms: depth scaling and energy-range relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosswendt, B.; Roos, M.

    1989-01-01

    In electron dosimetry energy parameters are used with values evaluated from ranges in water. The electron ranges in water may be deduced from ranges measured in solid phantoms. Several procedures recommended by national and international organisations differ both in the scaling of the ranges and in the energy-range relations for water. Using the Monte Carlo method the application of different procedures for electron energies below 10 MeV is studied for different phantom materials. It is shown that deviations in the range scaling and in the energy-range relations for water may accumulate to give energy errors of several per cent. In consequence energy-range relations are deduced for several solid phantom materials which enable a single-step energy determination. (author)

  16. Improving access to information – defining core electronic resources for research and wellbeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristiina Hormia-Poutanen

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Research and innovation are listed as the key success factors for the future development of Finnish prosperity and the Finnish economy. The Finnish libraries have developed a scenario to support this vision. University, polytechnic and research institute libraries as well as public libraries have defined the core electronic resources necessary to improve access to information in Finland. The primary aim of this work has been to provide information and justification for central funding for electronic resources to support the national goals. The secondary aim is to help with the reallocation of existing central funds to better support access to information.

  17. Analytical Study of Usage of Electronic Information Resources at Pharmacopoeial Libraries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Tyagi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to know the rate and purpose of the use of e-resource by the scientists at pharmacopoeial libraries in India. Among other things, this study examined the preferences of the scientists toward printed books and journals, electronic information resources, and pattern of using e-resources. Non-probability sampling specially accidental and purposive technique was applied in the collection of primary data through administration of user questionnaire. The sample respondents chosen for the study consists of principle scientific officer, senior scientific officer, scientific officer, and scientific assistant of different division of the laboratories, namely, research and development, pharmaceutical chemistry, pharmacovigilance, pharmacology, pharmacogonosy, and microbiology. The findings of the study reveal the personal experiences and perceptions they have had on practice and research activity using e-resource. The major findings indicate that of the total anticipated participants, 78% indicated that they perceived the ability to use computer for electronic information resources. The data analysis shows that all the scientists belonging to the pharmacopoeial libraries used electronic information resources to address issues relating to drug indexes and compendia, monographs, drugs obtained through online databases, e-journals, and the Internet sources—especially polices by regulatory agencies, contacts, drug promotional literature, and standards.

  18. Eavesdropping on Electronic Guidebooks: Observing Learning Resources in Shared Listening Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Woodruff, Allison; Aoki, Paul M.; Grinter, Rebecca E.; Hurst, Amy; Szymanski, Margaret H.; Thornton, James D.

    2002-01-01

    We describe an electronic guidebook, Sotto Voce, that enables visitors to share audio information by eavesdropping on each other's guidebook activity. We have conducted three studies of visitors using electronic guidebooks in a historic house: one study with open air audio played through speakers and two studies with eavesdropped audio. An analysis of visitor interaction in these studies suggests that eavesdropped audio provides more social and interactive learning resources than open air aud...

  19. Elektronik Bilgi Kaynaklarının Seçimi / Selection of Electronic Information Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Al

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available For many years, library users have used only from the printed media in order to get the information that they have needed. Today with the widespread use of the Web and the addition of electronic information resources to library collections, the use of information in the electronic environment as well as in printed media is started to be used. In time, such types of information resources as, electronic journals, electronic books, electronic encyclopedias, electronic dictionaries and electronic theses have been added to library collections. In this study, selection criteria that can be used for electronic information resources are discussed and suggestions are provided for libraries that try to select electronic information resources for their collections.

  20. Molecular design of photovoltaic materials for polymer solar cells: toward suitable electronic energy levels and broad absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongfang

    2012-05-15

    Bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells (PSCs) sandwich a blend layer of conjugated polymer donor and fullerene derivative acceptor between a transparent ITO positive electrode and a low work function metal negative electrode. In comparison with traditional inorganic semiconductor solar cells, PSCs offer a simpler device structure, easier fabrication, lower cost, and lighter weight, and these structures can be fabricated into flexible devices. But currently the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the PSCs is not sufficient for future commercialization. The polymer donors and fullerene derivative acceptors are the key photovoltaic materials that will need to be optimized for high-performance PSCs. In this Account, I discuss the basic requirements and scientific issues in the molecular design of high efficiency photovoltaic molecules. I also summarize recent progress in electronic energy level engineering and absorption spectral broadening of the donor and acceptor photovoltaic materials by my research group and others. For high-efficiency conjugated polymer donors, key requirements are a narrower energy bandgap (E(g)) and broad absorption, relatively lower-lying HOMO (the highest occupied molecular orbital) level, and higher hole mobility. There are three strategies to meet these requirements: D-A copolymerization for narrower E(g) and lower-lying HOMO, substitution with electron-withdrawing groups for lower-lying HOMO, and two-dimensional conjugation for broad absorption and higher hole mobility. Moreover, better main chain planarity and less side chain steric hindrance could strengthen π-π stacking and increase hole mobility. Furthermore, the molecular weight of the polymers also influences their photovoltaic performance. To produce high efficiency photovoltaic polymers, researchers should attempt to increase molecular weight while maintaining solubility. High-efficiency D-A copolymers have been obtained by using benzodithiophene (BDT), dithienosilole

  1. Direct Measurement of the Electron Bernstein Wave Absorption and Current Drive at the WEGA Stellarator

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laqua, H.; Marsen, S.; Otte, M.; Podoba, Y.; Preinhaelter, Josef; Urban, Jakub

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 16 (2007), s. 280-280 ISSN 0003-0503. [Annual Meeting of the Division of Plasma Physics/49th./. Orlando , Florida, 12.11.2007-16.11.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Conversion * Emission * Tokamaks * Electron Bernstein waves * Simulation * NSTX Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://meetings.aps.org/Meeting/DPP07/Content/901

  2. Hot Electron Photoemission from Plasmonic Nanoparticles: Role of Transient Absorption in Surface Mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uskov, Alexander V.; Protsenko, Igor E.; Ikhsanov, Renat S.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze and compare surface- and vol ume-based internal photoelectric effects from spherical nanoparticles, obtaining analytical expression s for the photoemission rate in both cases. Similar to results for a flat metal surface, one can show that the surface mechanism preva ils, since it is un...... it is unaffected by detrimental hot electron collisions. Transient ab sorption results from dielectric permittivity discontinuity at the nanoparticle boundary and leads to a substantial (by ~5 times) increase of the photoelectron emission rate....

  3. Triplet excited electronic state switching induced by hydrogen bonding: A transient absorption spectroscopy and time-dependent DFT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravi Kumar, Venkatraman; Ariese, Freek; Umapathy, Siva, E-mail: umapathy@ipc.iisc.ernet.in [Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Department, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2016-03-21

    The solvent plays a decisive role in the photochemistry and photophysics of aromatic ketones. Xanthone (XT) is one such aromatic ketone and its triplet-triplet (T-T) absorption spectra show intriguing solvatochromic behavior. Also, the reactivity of XT towards H-atom abstraction shows an unprecedented decrease in protic solvents relative to aprotic solvents. Therefore, a comprehensive solvatochromic analysis of the triplet-triplet absorption spectra of XT was carried out in conjunction with time dependent density functional theory using the ad hoc explicit solvent model approach. A detailed solvatochromic analysis of the T-T absorption bands of XT suggests that the hydrogen bonding interactions are different in the corresponding triplet excited states. Furthermore, the contributions of non-specific and hydrogen bonding interactions towards differential solvation of the triplet states in protic solvents were found to be of equal magnitude. The frontier molecular orbital and electron density difference analysis of the T{sub 1} and T{sub 2} states of XT indicates that the charge redistribution in these states leads to intermolecular hydrogen bond strengthening and weakening, respectively, relative to the S{sub 0} state. This is further supported by the vertical excitation energy calculations of the XT-methanol supra-molecular complex. The intermolecular hydrogen bonding potential energy curves obtained for this complex in the S{sub 0}, T{sub 1}, and T{sub 2} states support the model. In summary, we propose that the different hydrogen bonding mechanisms exhibited by the two lowest triplet excited states of XT result in a decreasing role of the nπ{sup ∗} triplet state, and are thus responsible for its reduced reactivity towards H-atom abstraction in protic solvents.

  4. UV-Visible Absorption Spectroscopy Enhanced X-ray Crystallography at Synchrotron and X-ray Free Electron Laser Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Aina E; Doukov, Tzanko; Soltis, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    This review describes the use of single crystal UV-Visible Absorption micro-Spectrophotometry (UV-Vis AS) to enhance the design and execution of X-ray crystallography experiments for structural investigations of reaction intermediates of redox active and photosensitive proteins. Considerations for UV-Vis AS measurements at the synchrotron and associated instrumentation are described. UV-Vis AS is useful to verify the intermediate state of an enzyme and to monitor the progression of reactions within crystals. Radiation induced redox changes within protein crystals may be monitored to devise effective diffraction data collection strategies. An overview of the specific effects of radiation damage on macromolecular crystals is presented along with data collection strategies that minimize these effects by combining data from multiple crystals used at the synchrotron and with the X-ray free electron laser.

  5. Selective Two-Photon Absorptive Resonance Femtosecond-Laser Electronic-Excitation Tagging (STARFLEET) Velocimetry in Flow and Combustion Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Naibo; Halls, Benjamin R.; Stauffer, Hans U.; Roy, Sukesh; Danehy, Paul M.; Gord, James R.

    2016-01-01

    Selective Two-Photon Absorptive Resonance Femtosecond-Laser Electronic-Excitation Tagging (STARFLEET), a non-seeded ultrafast-laser-based velocimetry technique, is demonstrated in reactive and non-reactive flows. STARFLEET is pumped via a two-photon resonance in N2 using 202.25-nm 100-fs light. STARFLEET greatly reduces the per-pulse energy required (30 µJ/pulse) to generate the signature FLEET emission compared to the conventional FLEET technique (1.1 mJ/pulse). This reduction in laser energy results in less energy deposited in the flow, which allows for reduced flow perturbations (reactive and non-reactive), increased thermometric accuracy, and less severe damage to materials. Velocity measurements conducted in a free jet of N2 and in a premixed flame show good agreement with theoretical velocities and further demonstrate the significantly less-intrusive nature of STARFLEET.

  6. Theoretical study of Raman chirped adiabatic passage by X-ray absorption spectroscopy: Highly excited electronic states and rotational effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engin, Selma [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7614, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique Matière et Rayonnement, F-75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7614, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique Matière et Rayonnement, F-75005 Paris (France); Departamento de Química, Módulo 13, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Sisourat, Nicolas, E-mail: Nicolas.Sisourat@upmc.fr; Selles, Patricia; Taïeb, Richard; Carniato, Stéphane [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7614, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique Matière et Rayonnement, F-75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7614, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique Matière et Rayonnement, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2014-06-21

    Raman Chirped Adiabatic Passage (RCAP) is an efficient method to climb the vibrational ladder of molecules. It was shown on the example of fixed-in-space HCl molecule that selective vibrational excitation can thus be achieved by RCAP and that population transfer can be followed by X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy [S. Engin, N. Sisourat, P. Selles, R. Taïeb, and S. Carniato, Chem. Phys. Lett. 535, 192–195 (2012)]. Here, in a more detailed analysis of the process, we investigate the effects of highly excited electronic states and of molecular rotation on the efficiency of RCAP. Furthermore, we propose an alternative spectroscopic way to monitor the transfer by means of X-ray absorption spectra.

  7. The Acquisition and Management of Electronic Resources: Can Use Justify Cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehn, Shona L.; Hawamdeh, Suliman

    2010-01-01

    As library collections increasingly become digital, libraries are faced with many challenges regarding the acquisition and management of electronic resources. Some of these challenges include copyright and fair use, the first-sale doctrine, licensing versus ownership, digital preservation, long-term archiving, and, most important, the issue of…

  8. Awareness and use of electronic resources at a university campus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study looks into the use of electronic resources by the faculty members of College of Technology Education, Kumasi of the University of Education, Winneba, Ghana. Sixty-two copies of a questionnaire were sent to the entire faculty and 31 were returned which gave a response rate of 50%. The responses showed very ...

  9. REVIEW OF MOODLE PLUGINS FOR DESIGNING MULTIMEDIA ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES FROM LANGUAGE DISCIPLINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton M. Avramchuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Today the problem of designing multimedia electronic educational resources from language disciplines in Moodle is very important. This system has a lot of different, powerful resources, plugins to facilitate the learning of students with language disciplines. This article presents an overview and comparative analysis of the five Moodle plugins for designing multimedia electronic educational resources from language disciplines. There have been considered their key features and functionality in order to choose the best for studying language disciplines in the Moodle. Plugins are compared by a group of experts according to the criteria: efficiency, functionality and easy use. For a comparative analysis of the plugins it is used the analytic hierarchy process.

  10. Effects of the Use of Electronic Human Resource Management (EHRM Within Human Resource Management (HRM Functions at Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chux Gervase Iwu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study set out to examine the effect of e-hrm systems in assisting human resource practitioners to execute their duties and responsibilities. In comparison to developed economies of the world, information technology adoption in sub-Saharan Africa has not been without certain glitches. Some of the factors that are responsible for these include poor need identification, sustainable funding, and insufficient skills. Besides these factors, there is also the issue of change management and users sticking to what they already know. Although, the above factors seem negative, there is strong evidence that information systems such as electronic human resource management present benefits to an organization. To achieve this, a dual research approach was utilized. Literature assisted immensely in both the development of the conceptual framework upon which the study hinged as well as in the development of the questionnaire items. The study also made use of an interview checklist to guide the participants. The findings reveal a mix of responses that indicate that while there are gains in adopting e-hrm systems, it is wiser to consider supporting resources as well as articulate the needs of the university better before any investment is made.

  11. Backscattering and absorption coefficients for electrons: Solutions of invariant embedding transport equations using a method of convergence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa, C.; Brizuela, H.; Heluani, S. P.

    2014-01-01

    The backscattering coefficient is a magnitude whose measurement is fundamental for the characterization of materials with techniques that make use of particle beams and particularly when performing microanalysis. In this work, we report the results of an analytic method to calculate the backscattering and absorption coefficients of electrons in similar conditions to those of electron probe microanalysis. Starting on a five level states ladder model in 3D, we deduced a set of integro-differential coupled equations of the coefficients with a method know as invariant embedding. By means of a procedure proposed by authors, called method of convergence, two types of approximate solutions for the set of equations, namely complete and simple solutions, can be obtained. Although the simple solutions were initially proposed as auxiliary forms to solve higher rank equations, they turned out to be also useful for the estimation of the aforementioned coefficients. In previous reports, we have presented results obtained with the complete solutions. In this paper, we present results obtained with the simple solutions of the coefficients, which exhibit a good degree of fit with the experimental data. Both the model and the calculation method presented here can be generalized to other techniques that make use of different sorts of particle beams

  12. Localized holes and delocalized electrons in photoexcited inorganic perovskites: Watching each atomic actor by picosecond X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio G. Santomauro

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We report on an element-selective study of the fate of charge carriers in photoexcited inorganic CsPbBr3 and CsPb(ClBr3 perovskite nanocrystals in toluene solutions using time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy with 80 ps time resolution. Probing the Br K-edge, the Pb L3-edge, and the Cs L2-edge, we find that holes in the valence band are localized at Br atoms, forming small polarons, while electrons appear as delocalized in the conduction band. No signature of either electronic or structural changes is observed at the Cs L2-edge. The results at the Br and Pb edges suggest the existence of a weakly localized exciton, while the absence of signatures at the Cs edge indicates that the Cs+ cation plays no role in the charge transport, at least beyond 80 ps. This first, time-resolved element-specific study of perovskites helps understand the rather modest charge carrier mobilities in these materials.

  13. USE OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES WHEN TRAINING IN WORK WITH SPREADSHEETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Х А Гербеков

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Today the tools for maintaining training courses based on opportunities of information and communication technologies are developed. Practically in all directions of preparation and on all subject matters electronic textbook and self-instruction manuals are created. Nevertheless the industry of computer educational and methodical materials actively develops and gets more and more areas of development and introduction. In this regard more and more urgent is a problem of development of the electronic educational resources adequate to modern educational requirements. Creation and the organization of training courses with use of electronic educational resources in particular on the basis of Internet technologies remains a difficult methodical task.In article the questions connected with development of electronic educational resources for use when studying the substantial line “Information technologies” of a school course of informatics in particular for studying of spreadsheets are considered. Also the analysis of maintenance of a school course and the unified state examination from the point of view of representation of task in him corresponding to the substantial line of studying “Information technologies” on mastering technology of information processing in spreadsheets and the methods of visualization given by means of charts and schedules is carried out.

  14. Microwave absorption of a 2D electron system in spatially varying perpendicular magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magill, B. A.; Polyanskii, A. A.; Engel, L. W.; Lilly, M. P.; Simmons, J. A.; Reno, J. L.

    2010-03-01

    We report on microwave measurements of a two dimensional electron system (2DES) in a spatially varying magnetic field, Bz, provided by a ferromagnet in proximity to the sample in a homogenous external field, Bz0. Dy, permalloy, and neodymium iron boron ferromagnets are used in two configurations, rods and plates with holes in them. The radius, rm, of the rods or holes ranges from 0.125 mm to 0.5 mm. The microwave transmission of the 2DES exhibits a resonance which decreases in peak frequency as Bz0 is increased. We observe peak frequencies from ˜ 9.5 GHz to150 MHz for external magnetic fields in a range from .02 Telsa to 1.5 Tesla. We will interpret the data in terms of plasma excitations similar to edge magnetoplasmons [1] but confined along the magnetic field inhomogeneity by the large magnetic field gradients there. The interpretation of the data will utilize profiles of the spatially varying magnetic field obtained by magneto optical imaging using iron garnet indicator films with an in-plane magnetization.

  15. Observation of soft x-ray radiation from Heliotron E plasmas by the absorption method for the measurement of electron temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, H.; Tohda, T.; Iiyoshi, A.

    1989-01-01

    An absorption method of soft x ray is applied to Heliotron E plasmas for measurement of the electron temperature. Nitrogen gas is used as an absorber for convenience, owing to its accurate, uniform, and easily controllable density. The general feature of the absorption method for measurement of the electron temperature is discussed using a model with two parameters: the generalized thickness of the absorber and the electron temperature. The energy resolution of this method is not sufficient as a general method for spectral analysis. Hence, it is necessary to assume in advance such a model spectrum as consists of bremsstrahlung, recombination radiation, and impurity line radiation. Since the spectrum is always assumed before the analysis, we should try to find the origins of deformation of the energy spectrum and to correct the contribution. The effect of line emission from impurity ions to the estimated electron temperature is evaluated as a function of the electron temperature and the energy of the line relative to the generalized absorber thickness used in the measurement. An actual spectrum is measured by a pulse-height analysis (PHA) of the soft x ray. The one clear line, from chlorine, is not significant in the present determination of the electron temperature by the absorption method. Another possible line from iron at energy less than 1 keV is included in the analysis. Using a convenient method for determination of local emissivity from a chord-integrated emissivity, the electron temperature is determined from the local emissivity. The observed broad electron-temperature profile might be an artifact due to recombination radiation of the highly ionized ion diffused out of the hot core of the plasma. It is confirmed that the absorption method gives absolute measurement of the electron temperature at the plasma center, when additional information on impurity lines are given by PHA

  16. Directions of use of electronic resources at training to computer science of students of a teacher training college

    OpenAIRE

    Светлана Анатольева Баженова

    2009-01-01

    Article is devoted questions of use of electronic resources at training to computer science in a teacher training college, principles of pedagogical expediency of use of electronic resources at training are specified computer science and positive aspects of such use for different forms of work of the student and the teacher are allocated.

  17. Availability, Level of Use and Constraints to Use of Electronic Resources by Law Lecturers in Public Universities in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amusa, Oyintola Isiaka; Atinmo, Morayo

    2016-01-01

    (Purpose) This study surveyed the level of availability, use and constraints to use of electronic resources among law lecturers in Nigeria. (Methodology) Five hundred and fifty-two law lecturers were surveyed and four hundred and forty-two responded. (Results) Data analysis revealed that the level of availability of electronic resources for the…

  18. Characterization by time-resolved UV/Vis and infrared absorption spectroscopy of an intramolecular charge-transfer state in an organic electron-donor-bridge-acceptor system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hviid, L.; Verhoeven, J.W.; Brouwer, A.M.; Paddon-Row, M.N.; Yang, J.

    2004-01-01

    A long-lived intramolecular charge-separated state in an electron-donor-acceptor molecule is characterized by time-resolved visible and infrared absorption spectroscopy. Bands that can be assigned to the negatively charged acceptor chromophore can be clearly observed in the time-resolved IR

  19. Structure of Rhodium/Titania in the Normal and the SMSI State as Determined by Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koningsberger, D.C.; Martens, H.A.; Prins, R.

    1988-01-01

    Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) have been used to study the structure of a Rh/Ti02 catalyst. After reduction in H, at 473 K (when the catalyst is in the normal state) the metal particles contain on the average five rhodium

  20. The three-electron bond =Siabsorption center of pre-darkened ytterbium-doped silica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Kent Erik

    2013-01-01

    The formation and bleaching of color centers during annealing of pre-darkened ytterbium-doped silica fibers is modeled by three-electron bond (TEB) = Si... and 1½ bond order. Experimentally observed in- and decrease in absorption during ramp and isothermal annealing of pre-darkened ytterbium co-doped silica fibers are hereby matched by a set of = Si

  1. A systematic review of portable electronic technology for health education in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, Megan S; Fischer, Lydia J; Chun, Yeona; Vreeman, Rachel C

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study is to conduct a systematic review of the literature of how portable electronic technologies with offline functionality are perceived and used to provide health education in resource-limited settings. Three reviewers evaluated articles and performed a bibliography search to identify studies describing health education delivered by portable electronic device with offline functionality in low- or middle-income countries. Data extracted included: study population; study design and type of analysis; type of technology used; method of use; setting of technology use; impact on caregivers, patients, or overall health outcomes; and reported limitations. Searches yielded 5514 unique titles. Out of 75 critically reviewed full-text articles, 10 met inclusion criteria. Study locations included Botswana, Peru, Kenya, Thailand, Nigeria, India, Ghana, and Tanzania. Topics addressed included: development of healthcare worker training modules, clinical decision support tools, patient education tools, perceptions and usability of portable electronic technology, and comparisons of technologies and/or mobile applications. Studies primarily looked at the assessment of developed educational modules on trainee health knowledge, perceptions and usability of technology, and comparisons of technologies. Overall, studies reported positive results for portable electronic device-based health education, frequently reporting increased provider/patient knowledge, improved patient outcomes in both quality of care and management, increased provider comfort level with technology, and an environment characterized by increased levels of technology-based, informal learning situations. Negative assessments included high investment costs, lack of technical support, and fear of device theft. While the research is limited, portable electronic educational resources present promising avenues to increase access to effective health education in resource-limited settings, contingent

  2. Light absorption, electron paramagnetic resonance and resonance Raman characteristics of nitridochromium(V) protoporphyrin-IX and its reconstituted hemoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, H; Tsubaki, M; Yu, N T; Yonetani, T

    1991-04-29

    A surprisingly stable complex of the photolyzed product of azidochromium(III)protoporphyrin-IX was prepared and examined by light absorption, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and resonance Raman spectroscopies. The characteristic EPR spectrum for this complex was consistent with a nitridochromium(V)-porphyrin complex which was two oxidation equivalents above the resting Cr(III) complex. The Cr(V)-N stretching mode was observed at 1010 cm-1 by resonance Raman spectroscopy. A simple diatomic harmonic oscillation model gave a force constant of 6.7 mdyn/A for the Cr(V)-N bond, in the region characteristic for the metal-nitrogen triple bond. Nitridochromium(V) protoporphyrin-IX reconstituted myoglobin and cytochrome c peroxidase were prepared for the first time. The nitridochromium(V)-porphyrins in these apo-proteins were unstable in contrast with the protein-free chromium(V)porphyrin. Upon irradiation of the azide complexes of the chromium(III) protoporphyrin-IX reconstituted myoglobin and cytochrome c peroxidase with ultraviolet light aerobically at room temperature, the characteristic optical and EPR spectra for nitridochromium(V) derivatives were observed. The optical spectra of these photo-induced products were different from those of the nitridochromium(V) protoporphyrin-IX reconstituted hemoproteins. The electrochemical structures of the unusual metalloporphyrin seemed to be modulated by the heme surrounding amino acid residues.

  3. Model of e-learning with electronic educational resources of new generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Loban

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: improving of scientific and methodical base of the theory of the е-learning of variability. Methods used: conceptual and logical modeling of the е-learning of variability process with electronic educational resource of new generation and system analysis of the interconnection of the studied subject area, methods, didactics approaches and information and communication technologies means. Results: the formalization complex model of the е-learning of variability with electronic educational resource of new generation is developed, conditionally decomposed into three basic components: the formalization model of the course in the form of the thesaurusclassifier (“Author of e-resource”, the model of learning as management (“Coordination. Consultation. Control”, the learning model with the thesaurus-classifier (“Student”. Model “Author of e-resource” allows the student to achieve completeness, high degree of didactic elaboration and structuring of the studied material in triples of variants: modules of education information, practical task and control tasks; the result of the student’s (author’s of e-resource activity is the thesaurus-classifier. Model of learning as management is based on the principle of personal orientation of learning in computer environment and determines the logic of interaction between the lecturer and the student when determining the triple of variants individually for each student; organization of a dialogue between the lecturer and the student for consulting purposes; personal control of the student’s success (report generation and iterative search for the concept of the class assignment in the thesaurus-classifier before acquiring the required level of training. Model “Student” makes it possible to concretize the learning tasks in relation to the personality of the student and to the training level achieved; the assumption of the lecturer about the level of training of a

  4. X-ray absorption and infrared spectra of water and ice: A first-principles electronic structure study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei

    Water is of essential importance for chemistry and biology, yet the physics concerning many of its distinctive properties is not well known. In this thesis we present a theoretical study of the x-ray absorption (XA) and infrared (IR) spectra of water in liquid and solid phase. Our theoretical tools are the density functional theory (DFT), Car-Parrinello (CP) molecular dynamics (MD), and the so-called GW method. Since a systematic review of these ab initio methods is not the task of this thesis, we only briefly recall the main concepts of these methods as needed in the course of our exposition. The focus is, instead, an investigation of what is the important physics necessary for a better description of these excitation processes, in particular, core electron excitations (in XA) that reveal the local electronic structure, and vibrational excitations (in IR) associated to the molecular dynamics. The most interesting question we are trying to answer is: as we include better approximations and more complete physical descriptions of these processes, how do the aforementioned spectra reflect the underlying hydrogen-bonding network of water? The first part of this thesis consists of the first four chapters, which focus on the study of core level excitation of water and ice. The x-ray absorption spectra of water and ice are calculated with a many-body approach for electron-hole excitations. The experimental features, even the small effects of a temperature change in the liquid, are reproduced with quantitative detail using molecular configurations generated by ab initio molecular dynamics. We find that the spectral shape is controlled by two major modifications of the short range order that mark the transition from ice to water. One is associated to dynamic breaking of the hydrogen bonds which leads to a strong enhancement of the pre-edge intensity in the liquid. The other is due to densification, which follows the partial collapse of the hydrogen bond network and is

  5. Review of material recovery from used electric and electronic equipment-alternative options for resource conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friege, Henning

    2012-09-01

    For waste from electric and electronic equipment, the WEEE Directive stipulates the separate collection of electric and electronic waste. As to new electric and electronic devices, the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive bans the use of certain chemicals dangerous for man and environment. From the implementation of the WEEE directive, many unsolved problems have been documented: poor collection success, emission of dangerous substances during collection and recycling, irretrievable loss of valuable metals among others. As to RoHS, data from the literature show a satisfying success. The problems identified in the process can be reduced to some basic dilemmas at the borders between waste management, product policy and chemical safety. The objectives of the WEEE Directive and the specific targets for use and recycling of appliances are not consistent. There is no focus on scarce resources. Extended producer responsibility is not sufficient to guarantee sustainable waste management. Waste management reaches its limits due to problems of implementation but also due to physical laws. A holistic approach is necessary looking at all branch points and sinks in the stream of used products and waste from electric and electronic equipment. This may be done with respect to the general rules for sustainable management of material streams covering the three dimensions of sustainable policy. The relationships between the players in the field of electric and electronic devices have to be taken into account. Most of the problems identified in the implementation process will not be solved by the current amendment of the WEEE Directive.

  6. [Use of internet and electronic resources among Spanish intensivist physicians. First national survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Tello, V; Latour-Pérez, J; Añón Elizalde, J M; Palencia-Herrejón, E; Díaz-Alersi, R; De Lucas-García, N

    2006-01-01

    Estimate knowledge and use habits of different electronic resources in a sample of Spanish intensivists: Internet, E-mail, distribution lists, and use of portable electronic devices. Self-applied questionnaire. A 50-question questionnaire was distributed among Spanish intensivists through the hospital marketing delegates of a pharmaceutical company and of electronic forums. A total of 682 questionnaires were analyzed (participation: 74%). Ninety six percent of those surveyed used Internet individually: 67% admitted training gap. Internet was the second source of clinical consultations most used (61%), slightly behind consultation to colleagues (65%). The pages consulted most were bibliographic databases (65%) and electronic professional journals (63%), with limited use of Evidence Based Medicine pages (19%). Ninety percent of those surveyed used e-mail regularly in the practice of their profession, although 25% admitted that were not aware of its possibilities. The use of E-mail decreased significantly with increase in age. A total of 62% of the intensivists used distribution lists. Of the rest, 42% were not aware of its existence and 32% admitted they had insufficient training to handle them. Twenty percent of those surveyed had portable electronic devices and 64% considered it useful, basically due to its rapid consultation at bedside. Female gender was a negative predictive factor of its use (OR 0.35; 95% CI 0.2-0.63; p=0.0002). A large majority of the Spanish intensivists use Internet and E-mail. E-mail lists and use of portable devices are still underused resources. There are important gaps in training and infrequent use of essential pages. There are specific groups that require directed educational policies.

  7. Understanding the Electronic Structures and Absorption Properties of Porphyrin Sensitizers YD2 and YD2-o-C8 for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Li-Heng; Zhang, Cai-Rong; Zhe, Jian-Wu; Jin, Neng-Zhi; Shen, Yu-Lin; Wang, Wei; Gong, Ji-Jun; Chen, Yu-Hong; Liu, Zi-Jiang

    2013-01-01

    The electronic structures and excitation properties of dye sensitizers determine the photon-to-current conversion efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In order to understand the different performance of porphyrin dye sensitizers YD2 and YD2-o-C8 in DSSC, their geometries and electronic structures have been studied using density functional theory (DFT), and the electronic absorption properties have been investigated via time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) with polarizable continuum model for solvent effects. The geometrical parameters indicate that YD2 and YD2-o-C8 have similar conjugate length and charge transfer (CT) distance. According to the experimental spectra, the HSE06 functional in TDDFT is the most suitable functional for describing the Q and B absorption bands of porphyrins. The transition configurations and molecular orbital analysis suggest that the diarylamino groups are major chromophores for effective CT excitations (ECTE), and therefore act as electron donor in photon-induced electron injection in DSSCs. The analysis of excited states properties and the free energy changes for electron injection support that the better performance of YD2-o-C8 in DSSCs result from the more excited states with ECTE character and the larger absolute value of free energy change for electron injection. PMID:24152435

  8. Understanding the Electronic Structures and Absorption Properties of Porphyrin Sensitizers YD2 and YD2-o-C8 for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi-Jiang Liu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The electronic structures and excitation properties of dye sensitizers determine the photon-to-current conversion efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. In order to understand the different performance of porphyrin dye sensitizers YD2 and YD2-o-C8 in DSSC, their geometries and electronic structures have been studied using density functional theory (DFT, and the electronic absorption properties have been investigated via time-dependent DFT (TDDFT with polarizable continuum model for solvent effects. The geometrical parameters indicate that YD2 and YD2-o-C8 have similar conjugate length and charge transfer (CT distance. According to the experimental spectra, the HSE06 functional in TDDFT is the most suitable functional for describing the Q and B absorption bands of porphyrins. The transition configurations and molecular orbital analysis suggest that the diarylamino groups are major chromophores for effective CT excitations (ECTE, and therefore act as electron donor in photon-induced electron injection in DSSCs. The analysis of excited states properties and the free energy changes for electron injection support that the better performance of YD2-o-C8 in DSSCs result from the more excited states with ECTE character and the larger absolute value of free energy change for electron injection.

  9. Photoinduced electron transfer between 2-methylanthraquinone and triethylamine in an ionic liquid: Time-resolved EPR and transient absorption spectroscopy study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guanglai; Wang, Yu; Fu, Haiying; Xu, Xinsheng; Cui, Zhifeng; Ji, Xuehan; Wu, Guozhong

    2015-02-01

    Photoinduced electron transfer between 2-methylanthraquinone (MeAQ) and triethylamine (TEA) in a room-temperature ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim][PF6]), was investigated by comparing the time-resolved electron paramagnetic resonance (TR-EPR) spectroscopy and the transient absorption spectroscopy. The results of TR-EPR spectroscopy, in which MeAQ was 8 mmol L-1 and TEA was 150 mmol L-1, indicated that the transient radical would exist longer time in [bmim][PF6] than in acetonitrile. At the delay time of 8 μs after laser excitation, the TR-EPR signal transformed from an emissive peak into an absorptive peak when the experiment was performed in [bmim][PF6]. The results of the transient absorption spectroscopy, in which MeAQ was 0.1 mmol L-1 and TEA was 2.2 mmol L-1, showed that the efficiency and the rate of the photoinduced electron transfer reaction in [bmim][PF6] were obviously lower than that in acetonitrile. It was concluded that various factors, such as concentration, viscosity and local structural transformation of the solution, have an influence on the process of photoinduced electron transfer in [bmim][PF6].

  10. Comparing Electronic Human Resource Management Systems Efficiency In Production Organization amp Service Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hadian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Today the organizations used information technology in performing human resource department affairs and this is called as electronic human resource management EHRM. In fact as the competitive complexity increases the need for implementing EHRM in production and service businesses increases too. This paper is written in order to specify the importance of implementing EHRM in production and service organizations and also to evaluate efficiency rate and the importance degree in these two ones. In this paper first the topics literature and the most important aspects of implementing these systems will be reviewed and after categorizing these views the hierarchal model will be proposed by applying AHP method. The result of analyzing this model by EXPERT CHOICE software shows that implementing EHRM in both kinds of organizations has the same importance however there is a large difference between them in implementing aspects.

  11. Effects of pre-irradiation annealing at high temperature on optical absorption and electron paramagnetic resonance of natural pumpellyite mineral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javier-Ccallata, Henry, E-mail: henrysjc@gmail.com [Escuela de Ingeniería Electrónica y Telecomunicaciones, Universidad Alas Peruanas Filial Arequipa, Urb. D. A. Carrión G-14, J. L. Bustamante y Rivero, Arequipa (Peru); Laboratório de Sistemas Nanoestruturados, Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Filho, Luiz Tomaz [Departamento de Física Nuclear, Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão, travessa R, 187, CEP 05508-900 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Faculdade de Tecnologia e Ciências Exatas, Universidade São Judas Tadeu, Rua Taquari 546, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sartorelli, Maria L. [Laboratório de Sistemas Nanoestruturados, Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Watanabe, Shigueo [Departamento de Física Nuclear, Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão, travessa R, 187, CEP 05508-900 São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •Natural pumpellyite mineral presents superposition bands around 900 and 1060 nm due Fe{sup 2+}and Fe{sup 3+}. •High temperature annealing influences the EPR and OA spectra. •The behavior of EPR line for 800 and 900 °C can be attributed to forbidden dd transitions due the Fe{sup 3+}. -- Abstract: Natural silicate mineral of pumpellyite, Ca{sub 2}MgAl{sub 2}(SiO{sub 4})(Si{sub 2}O{sub 7})(OH){sub 2}·(H{sub 2}O), point group A2/m, has been studied concerning high temperature annealing and γ-radiation effects on Optical Absorption (OA) and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) properties. Chemical analysis revealed that besides Si, Al, Ca and Mg, other oxides i.e., Fe, Mn, Na, K, Ti and P are present in the structure as impurities. OA measurements of natural and annealed pumpellyite revealed several bands in the visible region due to spin forbidden transitions of Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}. The behaviour of bands around 900 and 1060 nm, with pre-annealing and γ radiation dose, indicating a transition Fe{sup 2+} → e{sup −} + Fe{sup 3+}. On the other hand, EPR measurements reveal six lines of Mn{sup 2+}, and satellites due to hyperfine interaction, superimposed on the signal of Fe{sup 3+} around of g = 2. For heat treatment from 800 °C the signal grows significantly and for 900 °C a strong signal of Fe{sup 3+} hides all Mn{sup 2+} lines. The strong growth of this signal indicates that the transitions are due to Fe{sup 3+} dipole–dipole interactions.

  12. Effects of pre-irradiation annealing at high temperature on optical absorption and electron paramagnetic resonance of natural pumpellyite mineral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javier-Ccallata, Henry; Filho, Luiz Tomaz; Sartorelli, Maria L.; Watanabe, Shigueo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Natural pumpellyite mineral presents superposition bands around 900 and 1060 nm due Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ . •High temperature annealing influences the EPR and OA spectra. •The behavior of EPR line for 800 and 900 °C can be attributed to forbidden dd transitions due the Fe 3+ . -- Abstract: Natural silicate mineral of pumpellyite, Ca 2 MgAl 2 (SiO 4 )(Si 2 O 7 )(OH) 2 ·(H 2 O), point group A2/m, has been studied concerning high temperature annealing and γ-radiation effects on Optical Absorption (OA) and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) properties. Chemical analysis revealed that besides Si, Al, Ca and Mg, other oxides i.e., Fe, Mn, Na, K, Ti and P are present in the structure as impurities. OA measurements of natural and annealed pumpellyite revealed several bands in the visible region due to spin forbidden transitions of Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ . The behaviour of bands around 900 and 1060 nm, with pre-annealing and γ radiation dose, indicating a transition Fe 2+ → e − + Fe 3+ . On the other hand, EPR measurements reveal six lines of Mn 2+ , and satellites due to hyperfine interaction, superimposed on the signal of Fe 3+ around of g = 2. For heat treatment from 800 °C the signal grows significantly and for 900 °C a strong signal of Fe 3+ hides all Mn 2+ lines. The strong growth of this signal indicates that the transitions are due to Fe 3+ dipole–dipole interactions

  13. The Synthesis of the Hierarchical Structure of Information Resources for Management of Electronic Commerce Entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krutova Anzhelika S.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to develop the theoretical bases for the classification and coding of economic information and the scientific justification of the content of information resources of an electronic commerce enterprise. The essence of information resources for management of electronic business entities is investigated. It is proved that the organization of accounting in e-commerce systems is advisable to be built on the basis of two circuits: accounting for financial flows and accounting associated with transformation of business factors in products and services as a result of production activities. There presented a sequence of accounting organization that allows to combine the both circuits in a single information system, which provides a possibility for the integrated replenishment and distributed simultaneous use of the e-commerce system by all groups of users. It is proved that the guarantee of efficient activity of the information management system of electronic commerce entities is a proper systematization of the aggregate of information resources on economic facts and operations of an enterprise in accordance with the management tasks by building the hierarchy of accounting nomenclatures. It is suggested to understand nomenclature as an objective, primary information aggregate concerning a certain fact of the economic activity of an enterprise, which is characterized by minimum requisites, is entered into the database of the information system and is to be reflected in the accounting system. It is proposed to build a database of e-commerce systems as a part of directories (constants, personnel, goods / products, suppliers, buyers and the hierarchy of accounting nomenclatures. The package of documents regulating the organization of accounting at an enterprise should include: the provision on the accounting services, the order on the accounting policy, the job descriptions, the schedules of information exchange, the report card and

  14. THE MODEL OF LINGUISTIC TEACHERS’ COMPETENCY DEVELOPMENT ON DESIGNING MULTIMEDIA ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES IN THE MOODLE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton M. Avramchuk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of developing the competency of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system. The concept of "the competence of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system" is justified and defined. Identified and characterized the components by which the levels of the competency development of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system should be assessed. Developed a model for the development of the competency of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system, which is based on the main scientific approaches, used in adult education, and consists of five blocks: target, informative, technological, diagnostic and effective.

  15. Open-Source Electronic Health Record Systems for Low-Resource Settings: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syzdykova, Assel; Malta, André; Zolfo, Maria; Diro, Ermias; Oliveira, José Luis

    2017-11-13

    Despite the great impact of information and communication technologies on clinical practice and on the quality of health services, this trend has been almost exclusive to developed countries, whereas countries with poor resources suffer from many economic and social issues that have hindered the real benefits of electronic health (eHealth) tools. As a component of eHealth systems, electronic health records (EHRs) play a fundamental role in patient management and effective medical care services. Thus, the adoption of EHRs in regions with a lack of infrastructure, untrained staff, and ill-equipped health care providers is an important task. However, the main barrier to adopting EHR software in low- and middle-income countries is the cost of its purchase and maintenance, which highlights the open-source approach as a good solution for these underserved areas. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of open-source EHR systems based on the requirements and limitations of low-resource settings. First, we reviewed existing literature on the comparison of available open-source solutions. In close collaboration with the University of Gondar Hospital, Ethiopia, we identified common limitations in poor resource environments and also the main requirements that EHRs should support. Then, we extensively evaluated the current open-source EHR solutions, discussing their strengths and weaknesses, and their appropriateness to fulfill a predefined set of features relevant for low-resource settings. The evaluation methodology allowed assessment of several key aspects of available solutions that are as follows: (1) integrated applications, (2) configurable reports, (3) custom reports, (4) custom forms, (5) interoperability, (6) coding systems, (7) authentication methods, (8) patient portal, (9) access control model, (10) cryptographic features, (11) flexible data model, (12) offline support, (13) native client, (14) Web client,(15) other clients, (16) code

  16. A preliminary categorization of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment as secondary metal resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguchi, Masahiro; Murakami, Shinsuke; Sakanakura, Hirofumi; Kida, Akiko; Kameya, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) as secondary metal resources. → The content and the total amount of metals in specific equipment are both important. → We categorized 21 EEE types from contents and total amounts of various metals. → Important equipment types as secondary resources were listed for each metal kind. → Collectability and possible collection systems of various EEE types were discussed. - Abstract: End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) has recently received attention as a secondary source of metals. This study examined characteristics of end-of-life EEE as secondary metal resources to consider efficient collection and metal recovery systems according to the specific metals and types of EEE. We constructed an analogy between natural resource development and metal recovery from end-of-life EEE and found that metal content and total annual amount of metal contained in each type of end-of-life EEE should be considered in secondary resource development, as well as the collectability of the end-of-life products. We then categorized 21 EEE types into five groups and discussed their potential as secondary metal resources. Refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners, and CRT TVs were evaluated as the most important sources of common metals, and personal computers, mobile phones, and video games were evaluated as the most important sources of precious metals. Several types of small digital equipment were also identified as important sources of precious metals; however, mid-size information and communication technology (ICT) equipment (e.g., printers and fax machines) and audio/video equipment were shown to be more important as a source of a variety of less common metals. The physical collectability of each type of EEE was roughly characterized by unit size and number of end-of-life products generated annually. Current collection systems in Japan were examined and potentially appropriate collection

  17. Probing autoionizing states of molecular oxygen with XUV transient absorption: Electronic-symmetry-dependent line shapes and laser-induced modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chen-Ting; Li, Xuan; Haxton, Daniel J.; Rescigno, Thomas N.; Lucchese, Robert R.; McCurdy, C. William; Sandhu, Arvinder

    2017-04-01

    We used extreme ultraviolet (XUV) transient absorption spectroscopy to study the autoionizing Rydberg states of oxygen in an electronically- and vibrationally-resolved fashion. XUV pulse initiates molecular polarization and near-infrared pulse perturbs its evolution. Transient absorption spectra show positive optical-density (OD) change in the case of n s σg and n d πg autoionizing states of oxygen and negative OD change for n d σg states. Multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree-Fock (MCTDHF) calculations are used to simulate the transient absorption and the resulting spectra and temporal evolution agree with experimental observations. We model the effect of near-infrared perturbation on molecular polarization and find that the laser-induced phase-shift model agrees with the experimental and MCTDHF results, while the laser-induced attenuation model does not. We relate the electronic-state-symmetry-dependent sign of the OD change to the Fano parameters of the static absorption line shapes.

  18. Determining the level of awareness of the physicians in using the variety of electronic information resources and the effecting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papi, Ahmad; Ghazavi, Roghayeh; Moradi, Salimeh

    2015-01-01

    Understanding of the medical society's from the types of information resources for quick and easy access to information is an imperative task in medical researches and management of the treatment. The present study was aimed to determine the level of awareness of the physicians in using various electronic information resources and the factors affecting it. This study was a descriptive survey. The data collection tool was a researcher-made questionnaire. The study population included all the physicians and specialty physicians of the teaching hospitals affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and numbered 350. The sample size based on Morgan's formula was set at 180. The content validity of the tool was confirmed by the library and information professionals and the reliability was 95%. Descriptive statistics were used including the SPSS software version 19. On reviewing the need of the physicians to obtain the information on several occasions, the need for information in conducting the researches was reported by the maximum number of physicians (91.9%) and the usage of information resources, especially the electronic resources, formed 65.4% as the highest rate with regard to meeting the information needs of the physicians. Among the electronic information databases, the maximum awareness was related to Medline with 86.5%. Among the various electronic information resources, the highest awareness (43.3%) was related to the E-journals. The highest usage (36%) was also from the same source. The studied physicians considered the most effective deterrent in the use of electronic information resources as being too busy and lack of time. Despite the importance of electronic information resources for the physician's community, there was no comprehensive knowledge of these resources. This can lead to less usage of these resources. Therefore, careful planning is necessary in the hospital libraries in order to introduce the facilities and full capabilities of the

  19. The effect of threading dislocations on optical absorption and electron scattering in strongly mismatched heteroepitaxial III-V compound semiconductors on silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Peiner, E; Wehmann, H H

    2002-01-01

    The effect of threading dislocations on the optical and electrical properties of InP and GaAs heteroepitaxial layers on (001) silicon was investigated. Charged deep states act as scattering centres for electrons, thus affecting the electron mobility at low temperatures. The electric field arising from charged dislocations causes enhanced optical absorption at wavelengths near the fundamental absorption edge. The mean charge of the threading dislocations in GaAs/Si was found to be considerably higher than that for InP/Si. A model is described relating this effect to a regular arrangement of alpha-type 60 deg. dislocations at extended twin defects which were observed in InP/Si but were absent in GaAs/Si.

  20. Optical Absorption Spectra and Electronic Properties of Symmetric and Asymmetric Squaraine Dyes for Use in DSSC Solar Cells: DFT and TD-DFT Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda M. El-Shishtawy

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The electronic absorption spectra, ground-state geometries and electronic structures of symmetric and asymmetric squaraine dyes (SQD1–SQD4 were investigated using density functional theory (DFT and time-dependent (TD-DFT density functional theory at the B3LYP/6-311++G** level. The calculated ground-state geometries reveal pronounced conjugation in these dyes. Long-range corrected time dependent density functionals Perdew, Burke and Ernzerhof (PBE, PBE1PBE (PBE0, and the exchange functional of Tao, Perdew, Staroverov, and Scuseria (TPSSh with 6-311++G** basis set were employed to examine optical absorption properties. In an extensive comparison between the optical data and DFT benchmark calculations, the BEP functional with 6-311++G** basis set was found to be the most appropriate in describing the electronic absorption spectra. The calculated energy values of lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (LUMO were 3.41, 3.19, 3.38 and 3.23 eV for SQD1, SQD2, SQD3, and SQD4, respectively. These values lie above the LUMO energy (−4.26 eV of the conduction band of TiO2 nanoparticles indicating possible electron injection from the excited dyes to the conduction band of the TiO2 in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. Also, aromaticity computation for these dyes are in good agreement with the data obtained optically and geometrically with SQD4 as the highest aromatic structure. Based on the optimized molecular geometries, relative positions of the frontier orbitals, and the absorption maxima, we propose that these dyes are suitable components of photovoltaic DSSC devices.

  1. Electron delocalization in cyanide-bridged coordination polymer electrodes for Li-ion batteries studied by soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asakura, Daisuke; Okubo, Masashi; Mizuno, Yoshifumi; Kudo, Tetsuichi; Zhou, Haoshen; Amemiya, Kenta; de Groot, Frank M. F.; Chen, Jeng-Lung; Wang, Wei-Cheng; Glans, Per-Anders; Chang, Chinglin; Guo, Jinghua; Honma, Itaru

    2011-01-01

    The electronic structure change during the reversible Li-ion storage reaction in a bimetallic MnFe-Prussian blue analogue (Li(x)K(0.14)Mn(1.43)[Fe(CN)(6)] center dot 6H(2)O) was investigated by soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The Mn L(2,3)-edgespectra revealed the unchanged Mn(2+) high-spin

  2. Optical Absorption Spectra and Electronic Properties of Symmetric and Asymmetric Squaraine Dyes for Use in DSSC Solar Cells: DFT and TD-DFT Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shishtawy, Reda M; Elroby, Shaaban A; Asiri, Abdullah M; Müllen, Klaus

    2016-04-01

    The electronic absorption spectra, ground-state geometries and electronic structures of symmetric and asymmetric squaraine dyes (SQD1-SQD4) were investigated using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent (TD-DFT) density functional theory at the B3LYP/6-311++G** level. The calculated ground-state geometries reveal pronounced conjugation in these dyes. Long-range corrected time dependent density functionals Perdew, Burke and Ernzerhof (PBE, PBE1PBE (PBE0)), and the exchange functional of Tao, Perdew, Staroverov, and Scuseria (TPSSh) with 6-311++G** basis set were employed to examine optical absorption properties. In an extensive comparison between the optical data and DFT benchmark calculations, the BEP functional with 6-311++G** basis set was found to be the most appropriate in describing the electronic absorption spectra. The calculated energy values of lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (LUMO) were 3.41, 3.19, 3.38 and 3.23 eV for SQD1, SQD2, SQD3, and SQD4, respectively. These values lie above the LUMO energy (-4.26 eV) of the conduction band of TiO₂ nanoparticles indicating possible electron injection from the excited dyes to the conduction band of the TiO₂ in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Also, aromaticity computation for these dyes are in good agreement with the data obtained optically and geometrically with SQD4 as the highest aromatic structure. Based on the optimized molecular geometries, relative positions of the frontier orbitals, and the absorption maxima, we propose that these dyes are suitable components of photovoltaic DSSC devices.

  3. Innovative direct energy conversion systems using electronic adiabatic processes of electron fluid in solid conductors: new plants of electrical power and hydrogen gas resources without environmental pollutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondoh, Y.; Kondo, M.; Shimoda, K.; Takahashi, T.

    2001-07-01

    It is shown that using a novel recycling process of the environmental thermal energy, innovative permanent auto-working direct energy converter systems (PA-DEC systems) from the environmental thermal to electrical and/or chemical potential (TE/CP) energies, abbreviated as PA-TE/CP-DEC systems, can be used for new auto-working electrical power plants and the plants of the compressible and conveyable hydrogen gas resources at various regions in the whole world, with contributions to the world peace and the economical development in the south part of the world. It is shown that the same physical mechanism by free electrons and electrical potential determined by temperature in conductors, which include semiconductors, leads to the Peltier effect and the Seebeck one. It is experimentally clarified that the long distance separation between two π type elements of the heat absorption (HAS) and the production one (HPS) of the Peltier effect circuit system or between the higher temperature side (HTS) and the lower one (LTS) of the Seebeck effect circuit one does not change in the whole for the both effects. By using present systems, we do not need to use petrified fuels such as coals, oils, and natural gases in order to decrease the greenhouse effect by the CO 2 surrounding the earth. Furthermore, we do not need plats of nuclear fissions that left radiating wastes, i.e., with no environmental pollutions. The PA-TE/CP-DEC systems can be applicable for several km scale systems to the micro ones, such as the plants of the electrical power, the compact transportable hydrogen gas resources, a large heat energy container, which can be settled at far place from thermal energy absorbing area, the refrigerators, the air conditioners, home electrical apparatuses, and further the computer elements. It is shown that the simplest PA-TE/CP-DEC system can be established by using only the Seebeck effect components and the resolving water ones. It is clarified that the externally applied

  4. Resource conservation approached with an appropriate collection and upgrade-remanufacturing for used electronic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlamparet, Gabriel I; Tan, Quanyin; Stevels, A B; Li, Jinhui

    2018-03-01

    This comparative research represents an example for a better conservation of resources by reducing the amount of waste (kg) and providing it more value under the umbrella of remanufacturing. The three discussed cases will expose three issues already addressed separately in the literature. The generation of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) interacts with the environmental depletion. In this article, we gave the examples of addressed issues under the concept of remanufacturing. Online collection opportunity eliminating classical collection, a business to business (B2B) implementation for remanufactured servers and medical devices. The material reuse (recycling), component sustainability, reuse (part harvesting), product reuse (after repair/remanufacturing) indicates the recovery potential using remanufacturing tool for a better conservation of resources adding more value to the products. Our findings can provide an overview of new system organization for the general collection, market potential and the technological advantages using remanufacturing instead of recycling of WEEE or used electrical and electronic equipment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Use of Electronic Resources by M.Sc. Chemistry Students at Arts Science and Commerce College Chopda Dist-Jalgaon

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.Paithankar Rajeev; R., Mr.Kamble V.R.

    2017-01-01

    The libraries and information services has been changed due to the development of information and communication technology. Electronics resources role is very important as information repositories are use of information for various purposes like academic, research, teaching and learning process. E-resources gives solutions of the traditional libraries as like all data storage in digital format, users can access library without boundaries through internet so e-resources popularity is very cont...

  6. Making the Right Connections: Perceptions of Human Resource/Personnel Directors Concerning Electronic Job-Search Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Joan C.; North, Alexa B.; Arjomand, H. Lari

    1997-01-01

    Examines methods used to search for entry-level managerial positions and assesses how human resource and personnel directors in Georgia perceive these methods. Findings indicate that few of the directors use electronic technology to fill such positions, but they view positively those applicants who use electronic job searching methods. (RJM)

  7. From Millennium ERM to Proquest 360 Resource Manager: Implementing a new Electronic Resources Management System ERMS in an International Graduate Research University in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-17

    An overview of the Recommendation Study and the subsequent Implementation of a new Electronic Resources Management system ERMS in an international graduate research university in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It covers the timeline, deliverables and challenges as well as lessons learnt by the Project Team.

  8. Dependency of magnetic microwave absorption on surface architecture of Co20Ni80 hierarchical structures studied by electron holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qinghe; Xu, Xianhui; Xia, Weixing; Che, Renchao; Chen, Chen; Cao, Qi; He, Jingang

    2015-02-07

    To design and fabricate rational surface architecture of individual particles is one of the key factors that affect their magnetic properties and microwave absorption capability, which is still a great challenge. Herein, a series of Co20Ni80 hierarchical structures with different surface morphologies, including flower-, urchin-, ball-, and chain-like morphologies, were obtained using structure-directing templates via a facile one-step solvothermal treatment. The microwave reflection loss (RL) of urchin-like Co20Ni80 hierarchical structures reaches as high as -33.5 dB at 3 GHz, with almost twice the RL intensity of the ball- and chain-like structures, and the absorption bandwidth (structures might become an effective path to achieve high-performance microwave absorption for electromagnetic shielding and stealth camouflage applications.

  9. Chemometric analysis of correlations between electronic absorption characteristics and structural and/or physicochemical parameters for ampholytic substances of biological and pharmaceutical relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judycka-Proma, U.; Bober, L.; Gajewicz, A.; Puzyn, T.; Błażejowski, J.

    2015-03-01

    Forty ampholytic compounds of biological and pharmaceutical relevance were subjected to chemometric analysis based on unsupervised and supervised learning algorithms. This enabled relations to be found between empirical spectral characteristics derived from electronic absorption data and structural and physicochemical parameters predicted by quantum chemistry methods or phenomenological relationships based on additivity rules. It was found that the energies of long wavelength absorption bands are correlated through multiparametric linear relationships with parameters reflecting the bulkiness features of the absorbing molecules as well as their nucleophilicity and electrophilicity. These dependences enable the quantitative analysis of spectral features of the compounds, as well as a comparison of their similarities and certain pharmaceutical and biological features. Three QSPR models to predict the energies of long-wavelength absorption in buffers with pH = 2.5 and pH = 7.0, as well as in methanol, were developed and validated in this study. These models can be further used to predict the long-wavelength absorption energies of untested substances (if they are structurally similar to the training compounds).

  10. Amorphization-induced strong localization of electronic states in CsPbBr3 and CsPbCl3 studied by optical absorption measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, S.; Sakai, T.; Tanaka, H.; Saito, T.

    1998-11-01

    Optical absorption spectra of amorphous CsPbX3 films (X=Br,Cl) are characterized by two Gaussian bands near the fundamental edge, with the optical energy gap largely blueshifted and the absorption intensity strongly reduced as compared with the crystalline films. The peak energies of the bands are close to those of the A and C bands of Pb-doped alkali halides. The spectral features are discussed in terms of a molecular orbital theory based on a quasicomplex Pb2+(X-)6 model similar to the complex model for the doped alkali halides. It is shown that not only Pb2+ 6s and 6p extended states near the band edges but also X- p states contributing to upper valence bands are localized by amorphization. The transitions from the localized Pb2+ 6s to 6p states produce the spin-orbit allowed 3P1 and dipole allowed 1P1 states responsible for the two Gaussians. The localized X- p states lie deeper in energy than the localized Pb2+ 6s state and only contribute to higher-energy absorption above the Gaussian bands, giving the reason for the reduced absorption near the fundamental edge. The blueshift of the optical energy gap is attributed to the disappearance of k dispersions for these one-electron states.

  11. First-principles calculation of optical absorption spectra in conjugated polymers: Role of electron-hole interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohlfing, Michael; Tiago, M.L.; Louie, Steven G.

    2000-03-20

    Experimental and theoretical studies have shown that excitonic effects play an important role in the optical properties of conjugated polymers. The optical absorption spectrum of trans-polyacetylene, for example, can be understood as completely dominated by the formation of exciton bound states. We review a recently developed first-principles method for computing the excitonic effects and optical spectrum, with no adjustable parameters. This theory is used to study the absorption spectrum of two conjugated polymers: trans-polyacetylene and poly-phenylene-vinylene(PPV).

  12. Electronic tracking of human resource skills and knowledge, just in time training, manageable due diligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolodziej, M.A. [Quick Test International Inc., (Canada). Canadian Technology Human Resource Board; Baker, O. [KeySpan Energy Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-06-01

    KeySpan Energy Canada is in the process of obtaining recognition of various occupational profiles including pipeline operators, inspectors, and field and plant operators from various certifying organizations. The process of allowing individuals to obtain certification is recognized by Canadian Technology Human Resources Board as a step towards national standards for technologists and technicians. Proven competency is a must for workers in todays oil industry in response to increasingly stringent government safety regulations, environmental concerns and high public scrutiny. Quick Test international Inc. has developed a management tool in collaboration with end users at KeySpan Energy Canada. It is an electronic, Internet based competency tool for tracking personal competencies and maintaining continued competency. Response to the tool has been favourable. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  13. DEVELOPMENT AND USAGE OF THE ELECTRONIC VIDEO RESOURCES FOR EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroslav M. Hlynsky

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the theoretical foundation, the creation and implementation of the electronic educational video resources (EEVR in the example of the development and the usage of the collection of video tutorials in event-driven programming theme, which is studied in the framework of the subject "Informatics" by students of many specialties. It offers some development of the existing conceptual and categorical apparatus concerning EEVR development. It is alleged that the video tutorials allow you to automate the process of learning, redistribute instructional time for the benefit of students' independent work, to provide classroom release time for the teaching of the theoretical issues of the course that is aimed at improving the fundamental nature of training. Practical recommendations for the development of the effective EEVR, which may be useful for the authors of e-learning courses for students of different forms of training are proposed.

  14. On the spatio-temporal and energy-dependent response of riometer absorption to electron precipitation: drift-time and conjunction analyses in realistic electric and magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellerman, Adam; Shprits, Yuri; Makarevich, Roman; Donovan, Eric; Zhu, Hui

    2017-04-01

    Riometers are low-cost passive radiowave instruments located in both northern and southern hemispheres that capable of operating during quiet and disturbed conditions. Many instruments have been operating continuously for multiple solar cycles, making them a useful tool for long-term statistical studies and for real-time analysis and forecasting of space weather. Here we present recent and new analyses of the relationship between the riometer-measured cosmic noise absorption and electron precipitation into the D-region and lower E-region ionosphere. We utilize two techniques: a drift-time analysis in realistic electric and magnetic field models, where a particle is traced from one location to another, and the energy determined by the time delay between similar observations; and a conjunction analysis, where we directly compare precipitated fluxes from THEMIS and Van Allen Probes with the riometer absorption. In both cases we present a statistical analysis of the response of riometer absorption to electron precipitation as a function of MLAT, MLT, and geomagnetic conditions.

  15. Availability, Use and Constraints to Use of Electronic Information Resources by Postgraduates Students at the University of Ibadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dare Samuel Adeleke

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Availability, awareness and use of electronic resources provide access to authoritative, reliable, accurate and timely access to information. The use of electronic information resources (EIRs can enable innovation in teaching and increase timeliness in research of postgraduate students which will eventual result into encouragement of the expected research-led enquiry in this digital age. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. Samples of 300 of postgraduate students within seven out 13 Faculties were randomly selected. Data were collected using questionnaire designed to elicit response from respondents and data were analyzed using descriptive statistics methods percentages, mean, and standard deviation. Results indicated that internet was ranked most available and used in the university. Low level of usage of electronic resources, in particular, full texts data bases is linked to a number of constraints: Interrupted power supply was ranked highest among other factors as speed and capacity of computers, retrieval of records with high recall and low precision, retrieving records relevant to information need, lack of knowledge of search techniques to retrieve information effectively, non possession of requisite IT skills and problems accessing the internet. The study recommended that usage of electronic resources be made compulsory, intensifying awareness campaigns concerning the availability, training on use of electronic resources and the problem of power outage be addressed.

  16. Genetic-algorithm-based optimization of a fuzzy logic resource manager for electronic attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James F., III; Rhyne, Robert D., II

    2000-04-01

    A fuzzy logic based expert system has been developed that automatically allocates electronic attack (EA) resources in real-time over many dissimilar platforms. The platforms can be very general, e.g., ships, planes, robots, land based facilities, etc. Potential foes the platforms deal with can also be general. This paper describes data mining activities related to development of the resource manager with a focus on genetic algorithm based optimization. A genetic algorithm requires the construction of a fitness function, a function that must be maximized to give optimal or near optimal results. The fitness functions are in general non- differentiable at many points and highly non-linear, neither property providing difficulty for a genetic algorithm. The fitness functions are constructed using insights from geometry, physics, engineering, and military doctrine. Examples are given as to how fitness functions are constructed including how the fitness function is averaged over a database of military scenarios. The use of a database of scenarios prevents the algorithm from having too narrow a range of behaviors, i.e., it creates a more robust solution.

  17. Factors Influencing Students' Use of Electronic Resources and their Opinions About this Use: The Case of Students at An-Najah National University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wajeeh M. Daher

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Electronic resources are becoming an integral part of the modern life and of the educational scene, especially the high education scene. In this research we wanted to verify what influences first degree university students' use of electronic resources and their opinions regarding this use. Collecting data from 202 students and analyzing it using SPSS, we found that more than one half of the participants had high level of electronic media use and more than one third had moderate level of electronic media use. These levels of use indicate the students' awareness of the role and benefits of electronic media use. Regarding the factors that influence the students' se of electronic resources we found that the student's use of electronic resources had significant strong positive relationships with the provision of electronic resources by the academic institution. It had significant moderate positive relationships with the resources characteristics and the course requirement, and had significant weak relationships with the instructor's support and the student's characteristics. We explained these relationships as resulting from the influence of the surrounding community. Regarding the students' opinions about the use of electronic resources, we found that the student's opinion of electronic resources has significant strong positive relationships with student's use of electronic resources, level of this use, the academic institution available facilities, student's characteristics and resources characteristics. It does not have significant relationships with the instructor's support or the course requirement. We explained these relationships depending on activity theory and its integration with ecological psychology.

  18. The electronic encapsulation of knowledge in hydraulics, hydrology and water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Michael B.

    The rapidly developing practice of encapsulating knowledge in electronic media is shown to lead necessarily to the restructuring of the knowledge itself. The consequences of this for hydraulics, hydrology and more general water-resources management are investigated in particular relation to current process-simulation, real-time control and advice-serving systems. The generic properties of the electronic knowledge encapsulator are described, and attention is drawn to the manner in which knowledge 'goes into hiding' through encapsulation. This property is traced in the simple situations of pure mathesis and in the more complex situations of taxinomia using one example each from hydraulics and hydrology. The consequences for systems architectures are explained, pointing to the need for multi-agent architectures for ecological modelling and for more general hydroinformatics systems also. The relevance of these developments is indicated by reference to ongoing projects in which they are currently being realised. In conclusion, some more general epistemological aspects are considered within the same context. As this contribution is so much concerned with the processes of signification and communication, it has been partly shaped by the theory of semiotics, as popularised by Eco ( A Theory of Semiotics, Indiana University, Bloomington, 1977).

  19. Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    English in Australia, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Contains seven short resources''--units, lessons, and activities on the power of observation, man and his earth, snakes, group discussion, colloquial and slang, the continuous story, and retelling a story. (DD)

  20. THE FACTOR-CRITERIA MODEL OF ASSESSMENT OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL GAME RESOURCES IN MATHEMATICS FOR PRIMARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana M. Melnyk

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article proves the need for a comprehensive assessment of electronic educational game resources in mathematics for the primary school students; gives the definition of “the factor-criteria model of the electronic educational game resources (EEGR”. It also describes the created model, which consists of requirements for the content, methodological and program parts of the electronic resources for primary school; identifies the factors and the criteria to each of them. It was proposed to assess the ratios within the group of factors and each group of criteria according to the arithmetic progression. The presented model can be a convenient tool both for primary school teachers and EEGR developers. It can also be a basis for a unified state comprehensive system of assessment of the EEGR.

  1. 3rd harmonic electron cyclotron resonant heating absorption enhancement by 2nd harmonic heating at the same frequency in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnesin, S; Coda, S; Goodman, T P; Decker, J; Peysson, Y; Mazon, D

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental mechanisms responsible for the interplay and synergy between the absorption dynamics of extraordinary-mode electron cyclotron waves at two different harmonic resonances (the 2nd and 3rd) are investigated in the TCV tokamak. An enhanced 3rd harmonic absorption in the presence of suprathermal electrons generated by 2nd harmonic heating is predicted by Fokker–Planck simulations, subject to complex alignment requirements in both physical space and momentum space. The experimental signature for the 2nd/3rd harmonic synergy is sought through the suprathermal bremsstrahlung emission in the hard x-ray range of photon energy. Using a synthetic diagnostic, the emission variation due to synergy is calculated as a function of the injected power and of the radial transport of suprathermal electrons. It is concluded that in the present experimental setup a synergy signature has not been unambiguously detected. The detectability of the synergy is then discussed with respect to variations and uncertainties in the plasma density and effective charge in view of future optimized experiments. (paper)

  2. SAGES: a suite of freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri L Lewis

    Full Text Available Public health surveillance is undergoing a revolution driven by advances in the field of information technology. Many countries have experienced vast improvements in the collection, ingestion, analysis, visualization, and dissemination of public health data. Resource-limited countries have lagged behind due to challenges in information technology infrastructure, public health resources, and the costs of proprietary software. The Suite for Automated Global Electronic bioSurveillance (SAGES is a collection of modular, flexible, freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings. One or more SAGES tools may be used in concert with existing surveillance applications or the SAGES tools may be used en masse for an end-to-end biosurveillance capability. This flexibility allows for the development of an inexpensive, customized, and sustainable disease surveillance system. The ability to rapidly assess anomalous disease activity may lead to more efficient use of limited resources and better compliance with World Health Organization International Health Regulations.

  3. Optical absorption of carbon nanotube diodes: Strength of the electronic transitions and sensitivity to the electric field polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mencarelli, Davide; Pierantoni, Luca; Rozzi, Tullio

    2008-03-01

    Aim of this work is to model electrostatically doped carbon nanotubes (CNT), which have recently proved to perform as ideal PN diodes, also showing photovoltaic properties. The new model is able to predict the optical absorption of semiconducting CNT as function of size and chirality. We justify theoretically, for the first time, the experimentally observed capability of CNTs to detect and select not only a well defined set of frequencies, as resulting from their discrete band structure, but also the polarization of the incident radiation. The analysis develops from an approach proposed in a recent contribution. The periodic structure of CNTs is formally modeled as a photonic crystal, that is characterized by means of numerical simulators. Longitudinal and transverse components of the electric field are shown to excite distinct interband transitions between well defined energy levels. Equivalently, for a given energy of the incident radiation, absorption may show polarization ratios strongly exceeding unity.

  4. Calculation of Vibrational and Electronic Excited-State Absorption Spectra of Arsenic-Water Complexes Using Density Functional Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-03

    of Arsenic-Water Complexes Using Density Functional Theory June 3, 2016 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. L. Huang S.g... Density Functional Theory L. Huang, S.G. Lambrakos, A. Shabaev,1 and L. Massa2 Naval Research Laboratory, Code 6394 4555 Overlook Avenue, SW...absorption spectra for As-H2O complexes using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT). DFT and TD-DFT can

  5. Investigation of structural characteristics of coals. Two parameters of the electron absorption of coals and their connection with reflectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popov, V.K.; Rys' yanova, N.D.; Plastun, S.N.

    1984-01-01

    A method was developed for obtaining reflectance spectra of coals in the ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared regions utilising diffuse scattering of light. This enabled the determination of electron spectra to be considerably simplified. The method was used to evaluate changes in electron spectra of vitrinites with rank, using reflectance measurement as the determinant.

  6. Electron spin resonance insight into broadband absorption of the Cu{sub 3}Bi(SeO{sub 3}){sub 2}O{sub 2}Br metamagnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorko, A., E-mail: andrej.zorko@ijs.si; Gomilšek, M.; Pregelj, M. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova c. 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Ozerov, M.; Zvyagin, S. A. [Dresden High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Ozarowski, A. [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32310 (United States); Tsurkan, V. [Experimental Physics V, Center for Electronic Correlations and Magnetism, Institute of Physics, University of Augsburg, D-86135 Augsburg (Germany); Institute of Applied Physics, Academy of Science of Moldova, MD-2028 Chisinau, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Loidl, A. [Experimental Physics V, Center for Electronic Correlations and Magnetism, Institute of Physics, University of Augsburg, D-86135 Augsburg (Germany); Zaharko, O. [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering and Imaging, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2016-05-15

    Metamagnets, which exhibit a transition from a low-magnetization to a high-magnetization state induced by the applied magnetic field, have recently been highlighted as promising materials for controllable broadband absorption. Here we show results of a multifrequency electron spin resonance (ESR) investigation of the Cu{sub 3}Bi(SeO{sub 3}){sub 2}O{sub 2}Br planar metamagnet on the kagome lattice. Its mixed antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic phase is stabilized in a finite range of applied fields around 0.8 T at low temperatures and is characterized by enhanced microwave absorption. The absorption signal is non-resonant and its boundaries correspond to two critical fields that determine the mixed phase. With decreasing temperature these increase like the sublattice magnetization of the antiferromagnetic phase and show no frequency dependence between 100 and 480 GHz. On the contrary, we find that the critical fields depend on the magnetic-field sweeping direction. In particular, the higher critical field, which corresponds to the transition from the mixed to the ferromagnetic phase, shows a pronounced hysteresis effect, while such a hysteresis is absent for the lower critical field. The observed hysteresis is enhanced at lower temperatures, which suggests that thermal fluctuations play an important role in destabilizing the highly absorbing mixed phase.

  7. Soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy of metalloproteins and high-valent metal-complexes at room temperature using free-electron lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Kubin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the L-edge of 3d transition metals provides unique information on the local metal charge and spin states by directly probing 3d-derived molecular orbitals through 2p-3d transitions. However, this soft x-ray technique has been rarely used at synchrotron facilities for mechanistic studies of metalloenzymes due to the difficulties of x-ray-induced sample damage and strong background signals from light elements that can dominate the low metal signal. Here, we combine femtosecond soft x-ray pulses from a free-electron laser with a novel x-ray fluorescence-yield spectrometer to overcome these difficulties. We present L-edge absorption spectra of inorganic high-valent Mn complexes (Mn ∼ 6–15 mmol/l with no visible effects of radiation damage. We also present the first L-edge absorption spectra of the oxygen evolving complex (Mn4CaO5 in Photosystem II (Mn < 1 mmol/l at room temperature, measured under similar conditions. Our approach opens new ways to study metalloenzymes under functional conditions.

  8. Electron spin resonance insight into broadband absorption of the Cu3Bi(SeO3)2O2Br metamagnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorko, A.; Gomilšek, M.; Pregelj, M.; Ozerov, M.; Zvyagin, S. A.; Ozarowski, A.; Tsurkan, V.; Loidl, A.; Zaharko, O.

    2016-05-01

    Metamagnets, which exhibit a transition from a low-magnetization to a high-magnetization state induced by the applied magnetic field, have recently been highlighted as promising materials for controllable broadband absorption. Here we show results of a multifrequency electron spin resonance (ESR) investigation of the Cu3Bi(SeO3)2O2Br planar metamagnet on the kagome lattice. Its mixed antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic phase is stabilized in a finite range of applied fields around 0.8 T at low temperatures and is characterized by enhanced microwave absorption. The absorption signal is non-resonant and its boundaries correspond to two critical fields that determine the mixed phase. With decreasing temperature these increase like the sublattice magnetization of the antiferromagnetic phase and show no frequency dependence between 100 and 480 GHz. On the contrary, we find that the critical fields depend on the magnetic-field sweeping direction. In particular, the higher critical field, which corresponds to the transition from the mixed to the ferromagnetic phase, shows a pronounced hysteresis effect, while such a hysteresis is absent for the lower critical field. The observed hysteresis is enhanced at lower temperatures, which suggests that thermal fluctuations play an important role in destabilizing the highly absorbing mixed phase.

  9. Artifact suppression in electron paramagnetic resonance imaging of 14N- and 15N-labeled nitroxyl radicals with asymmetric absorption spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Wataru; Miyake, Yusuke; Hirata, Hiroshi

    2014-10-01

    This article describes an improved method for suppressing image artifacts in the visualization of 14N- and 15N-labeled nitroxyl radicals in a single image scan using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The purpose of this work was to solve the problem of asymmetric EPR absorption spectra in spectral processing. A hybrid function of Gaussian and Lorentzian lineshapes was used to perform spectral line-fitting to successfully separate the two kinds of nitroxyl radicals. This approach can process the asymmetric EPR absorption spectra of the nitroxyl radicals being measured, and can suppress image artifacts due to spectral asymmetry. With this improved visualization method and a 750-MHz continuous-wave EPR imager, a temporal change in the distributions of a two-phase paraffin oil and water/glycerin solution system was visualized using lipophilic and hydrophilic nitroxyl radicals, i.e., 2-(14-carboxytetradecyl)-2-ethyl-4,4-dimethyl-3-oxazolidinyloxy (16-DOXYL stearic acid) and 4-hydroxyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-d17-1-15N-1-oxyl (TEMPOL-d17-15N). The results of the two-phase separation experiment verified that reasonable artifact suppression could be achieved by the present method that deals with asymmetric absorption spectra in the EPR imaging of 14N- and 15N-labeled nitroxyl radicals.

  10. Novel powder/solid composites possessing low Young’s modulus and tunable energy absorption capacity, fabricated by electron beam melting, for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeo, Naoko; Ishimoto, Takuya; Nakano, Takayoshi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We fabricated novel porous composites by electron beam melting. • The composites consist of necked powder and melted solid framework. • Unmelted powder that is usually discarded was mechanically functionalized by necking. • The composites possess controllably low Young’s modulus and excellent toughness. • The composites would be promising for utilization in biomedical applications. - Abstract: A novel, hierarchical, porous composite from a single material composed of necked powder and melted solid, with tunable mechanical properties, is fabricated by electron beam melting and subsequent heat treatment. The composite demonstrates low Young’s modulus (⩽31 GPa) and excellent energy absorption capacity, both of which are necessary for use in orthopedic applications. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the synthesis of a material combining controllably low Young’s modulus and excellent toughness

  11. Hydrogen-Mediated Electron Doping of Gold Clusters As Revealed by In Situ X-ray and UV-vis Absorption Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Ryo; Hayashi, Shun; Yamazoe, Seiji; Kato, Kazuo; Tsukuda, Tatsuya

    2017-06-01

    We previously reported that small (∼1.2 nm) gold clusters stabilized by poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (Au:PVP) exhibited a localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) band at ∼520 nm in the presence of NaBH 4 . To reveal the mechanism of this phenomenon, the electronic structure of Au:PVP during the reaction with NaBH 4 in air was examined by means of in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy at Au L 3 -edge and UV-vis spectroscopy. These measurements indicated that the appearance of the LSPR band is not associated with the growth in size but is ascribed to electron doping to the Au sp band by the adsorbed H atoms.

  12. On the Electronic Structure of Cu Chlorophyllin and Its Breakdown Products: A Carbon K-Edge X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Katharina; Mantouvalou, Ioanna; Sánchez-de-Armas, Rocío; Lokstein, Heiko; Lebendig-Kuhla, Janina; Jonas, Adrian; Roth, Friedrich; Kanngießer, Birgit; Stiel, Holger

    2018-02-15

    Using near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy, the carbon backbone of sodium copper chlorophyllin (SCC), a widely used chlorophyll derivative, and its breakdown products are analyzed to elucidate their electronic structure and physicochemical properties. Using various sample preparation methods and complementary spectroscopic methods (including UV/Vis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy), a comprehensive insight into the SCC breakdown process is presented. The experimental results are supported by density functional theory calculations, allowing a detailed assignment of characteristic NEXAFS features to specific C bonds. SCC can be seen as a model system for the large group of porphyrins; thus, this work provides a novel and detailed description of the electronic structure of the carbon backbone of those molecules and their breakdown products. The achieved results also promise prospective optical pump/X-ray probe investigations of dynamic processes in chlorophyll-containing photosynthetic complexes to be analyzed more precisely.

  13. Realization of a Cascaded Quantum System: Heralded Absorption of a Single Photon Qubit by a Single-Electron Charged Quantum Dot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delteil, Aymeric; Sun, Zhe; Fält, Stefan; Imamoğlu, Atac

    2017-04-28

    Photonic losses pose a major limitation for the implementation of a quantum state transfer between nodes of a quantum network. A measurement that heralds a successful transfer without revealing any information about the qubit may alleviate this limitation. Here, we demonstrate the heralded absorption of a single photonic qubit, generated by a single neutral quantum dot, by a single-electron charged quantum dot that is located 5 m away. The transfer of quantum information to the spin degree of freedom takes place upon the emission of a photon; for a properly chosen or prepared quantum dot, the detection of this photon yields no information about the qubit. We show that this process can be combined with local operations optically performed on the destination node by measuring classical correlations between the absorbed photon color and the final state of the electron spin. Our work suggests alternative avenues for the realization of quantum information protocols based on cascaded quantum systems.

  14. Electronic structure of Cr doped Fe3O4 thin films by X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chi-Liang; Dong, Chung-Li; Asokan, Kandasami; Chern, G.; Chang, C. L.

    2018-04-01

    Present study reports the electronic structures of Cr doped Fe3O4 (Fe3-xCrxO4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 3) grown on MgO (100) substrates in the form of thin films fabricated by a plasma-oxygen assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE). X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra at Cr & Fe L-, and O K-edges were used to understand the electronic structure: changes in the bonding nature, valence states, and site occupancies. Cr doping in Fe3O4 results in the change of charge transfer, crystal structure, and selective occupation of ions in octahedral and tetrahedral sites. Such change modifies the electrical and magnetic properties due to the covalency of Cr ions. The physical and chemical properties of ferrites are strongly dependent on the lattice site, ion size of dopant, and magnetic nature present at different structural symmetry of the spinel structure.

  15. Balancing particle absorption with structural support of the muon beam stop in muons-to-electrons experimental chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majewski, Ryan [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The Mu2e experiment at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory is seeking a full conversion from muon to electron. The design for Mu2e is based off MECO, another proposed experiment that sought a full conversion from muon to electron at Brookhaven National Laboratory in the 1990s. Mu2e will provide sensitivity that is four times the sensitivity of the previous experiment, SINDRUM II. Discovering muon to electron conversions could help explain physics beyond the standard model of the particle physics.

  16. DFT calculation of geometrical structure and electronic absorption spectra for neutral, mono-, and diprotonated forms of Risperidone (Risperdal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alparone, A.

    2012-09-01

    Vertical electronic transitions to singlet valence states of an antipsychotic drug, Risperidone (Risperdal), in its neutral, mono-, and diprotonated forms have been calculated within the time-dependent density functional theory using the PBE0 hybrid functional with the 6-31+G* basis set. The results of the computations show that the lowest-energy allowed π-π* electronic excitation is affected by protonation effects, the spectral shifts of this transition being potentially useful to individuate the different forms of risperidone

  17. DFT study of electron absorption and emission spectra of pyramidal LnPc(OAc) complexes of some lanthanide ions in the solid state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanuza, J.; Godlewska, P.; Lisiecki, R.; Ryba-Romanowski, W.; Kadłubański, P.; Lorenc, J.; Łukowiak, A.; Macalik, L.; Gerasymchuk, Yu.; Legendziewicz, J.

    2018-05-01

    The electron absorption and emission spectra were measured for the pyramidal LnPc(OAc) complexes in the solid state and co-doped in silica glass, where Ln = Er, Eu and Ho. The theoretical electron spectra were determined from the quantum chemical DFT calculation using four approximations CAM-B3LYP/LANL2DZ, CAM-B3LYP/CC-PVDZ, B3LYP/LANL2DZ and B3LYP/CC-PVDZ. It was shown that the best agreement between the calculated and experimental structural parameters and spectroscopic data was reached for the CAM-B3LYP/LANL2DZ model. The emission spectra were measured using the excitations both in the ligand and lanthanide absorption ranges. The possibility of energy transfer between the phthalocyanine ligand and excited states of lanthanide ions was discussed. It was shown that the back energy transfer from metal states to phthalocyanine state is responsible for the observed emission of the studied complexes both in the polycrystalline state and silica glass.

  18. DFT study of electron absorption and emission spectra of pyramidal LnPc(OAc) complexes of some lanthanide ions in the solid state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanuza, J; Godlewska, P; Lisiecki, R; Ryba-Romanowski, W; Kadłubański, P; Lorenc, J; Łukowiak, A; Macalik, L; Gerasymchuk, Yu; Legendziewicz, J

    2018-05-05

    The electron absorption and emission spectra were measured for the pyramidal LnPc(OAc) complexes in the solid state and co-doped in silica glass, where Ln=Er, Eu and Ho. The theoretical electron spectra were determined from the quantum chemical DFT calculation using four approximations CAM-B3LYP/LANL2DZ, CAM-B3LYP/CC-PVDZ, B3LYP/LANL2DZ and B3LYP/CC-PVDZ. It was shown that the best agreement between the calculated and experimental structural parameters and spectroscopic data was reached for the CAM-B3LYP/LANL2DZ model. The emission spectra were measured using the excitations both in the ligand and lanthanide absorption ranges. The possibility of energy transfer between the phthalocyanine ligand and excited states of lanthanide ions was discussed. It was shown that the back energy transfer from metal states to phthalocyanine state is responsible for the observed emission of the studied complexes both in the polycrystalline state and silica glass. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Utilization of Electronic Information Resources by Undergraduate Students of University of Ibadan: A Case Study of Social Sciences and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, Sola; Idowu, Oluwafemi A.; Okocha, Foluke; Ogundare, Atinuke Omotayo

    2016-01-01

    The study evaluated utilization of electronic information resources by undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan. The study adopted a descriptive survey design with a study population of 1872 undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan, from which a…

  20. Impact of Electronic Resources and Usage in Academic Libraries in Ghana: Evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akussah, Maxwell; Asante, Edward; Adu-Sarkodee, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the relationship between impact of electronic resources and its usage in academic libraries in Ghana: evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana. The study was a quantitative approach using questionnaire to gather data and information. A valid response rate of 58.5% was assumed. SPSS…

  1. Spectroscopic and DFT study of solvent effects on the electronic absorption spectra of sulfamethoxazole in neat and binary solvent mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almandoz, M C; Sancho, M I; Blanco, S E

    2014-01-24

    The solvatochromic behavior of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) was investigated using UV-vis spectroscopy and DFT methods in neat and binary solvent mixtures. The spectral shifts of this solute were correlated with the Kamlet and Taft parameters (α, β and π(*)). Multiple lineal regression analysis indicates that both specific hydrogen-bond interaction and non specific dipolar interaction play an important role in the position of the absorption maxima in neat solvents. The simulated absorption spectra using TD-DFT methods were in good agreement with the experimental ones. Binary mixtures consist of cyclohexane (Cy)-ethanol (EtOH), acetonitrile (ACN)-dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), ACN-dimethylformamide (DMF), and aqueous mixtures containing as co-solvents DMSO, ACN, EtOH and MeOH. Index of preferential solvation was calculated as a function of solvent composition and non-ideal characteristics are observed in all binary mixtures. In ACN-DMSO and ACN-DMF mixtures, the results show that the solvents with higher polarity and hydrogen bond donor ability interact preferentially with the solute. In binary mixtures containing water, the SMX molecules are solvated by the organic co-solvent (DMSO or EtOH) over the whole composition range. Synergistic effect is observed in the case of ACN-H2O and MeOH-H2O, indicating that at certain concentrations solvents interact to form association complexes, which should be more polar than the individual solvents of the mixture. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Excited S 1 state dipole moments of nitrobenzene and p-nitroaniline from thermochromic effect on electronic absorption spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawski, A.; Kukliński, B.; Bojarski, P.

    2006-11-01

    The effect of temperature on the absorption spectra of nitrobenzene (NB) and p-nitroaniline (NA) in 1,2-dichloroethane was studied for temperature ranging from 295 K to 378 K and from 296 K to 408 K, respectively. With temperature increase the absorption bands of both compounds are blue shifted, which is caused by the decrease of permittivity ɛ and refractive index n. From the band shifts and by using the Bilot and Kawski theory [ L. Bilot, A. Kawski, Z. Naturforsch. 17a (1962) 621] the dipole moments in the excited singlet state μe = 6.59 D of NB and μe = 13.35 D of NA were determined. The influence of polarizability α, the Onsager cavity radius a and dipole moment in the ground state μg on the determined values of μe are discussed. A comparison of the obtained μe values with those of other authors is given. In the case of p-NA a strong intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) was confirmed.

  3. Systematic review of electronic surveillance of infectious diseases with emphasis on antimicrobial resistance surveillance in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanaumpawan, Pinyo; Boonyasiri, Adhiratha; Vong, Sirenda; Thamlikitkul, Visanu

    2018-02-01

    Electronic surveillance of infectious diseases involves rapidly collecting, collating, and analyzing vast amounts of data from interrelated multiple databases. Although many developed countries have invested in electronic surveillance for infectious diseases, the system still presents a challenge for resource-limited health care settings. We conducted a systematic review by performing a comprehensive literature search on MEDLINE (January 2000-December 2015) to identify studies relevant to electronic surveillance of infectious diseases. Study characteristics and results were extracted and systematically reviewed by 3 infectious disease physicians. A total of 110 studies were included. Most surveillance systems were developed and implemented in high-income countries; less than one-quarter were conducted in low-or middle-income countries. Information technologies can be used to facilitate the process of obtaining laboratory, clinical, and pharmacologic data for the surveillance of infectious diseases, including antimicrobial resistance (AMR) infections. These novel systems require greater resources; however, we found that using electronic surveillance systems could result in shorter times to detect targeted infectious diseases and improvement of data collection. This study highlights a lack of resources in areas where an effective, rapid surveillance system is most needed. The availability of information technology for the electronic surveillance of infectious diseases, including AMR infections, will facilitate the prevention and containment of such emerging infectious diseases. Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Electron and hadron separation by the system consisting of active converter, scintillation counter and total absorption spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astvatsaturov, R.G.; Arkhipov, V.V.; Vasil'ev, S.E.

    1988-01-01

    Hadron suppression is investigated, using 2 GeV/c momentum π - -meson beam, which contains 6% electrons, by means of detection system, including lead glass active counter, lead glass Cherenkov γ-spectrometers, 1 m length scintillation counter scanned by two photomultipliers from the ends. Selection of events by means of scintillation counter has allowed to reduce hadron contribution by one order at ≥ 90% efficiency of electron detection. Accuracy of determination of electromagnetic shower axis coordinate by time difference of light signal propagation in scintillation converter practically does not depend on converter thickness within 2-6 rad. un. thickness range and equals to 2.1 cm

  5. The Use of Electronic Resources by Academic Staff at the University of Ilorin, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tella, Adeyinka; Orim, Faith; Ibrahim, Dauda Morenikeji; Memudu, Suleiman Ajala

    2018-01-01

    The use of e-resources is now commonplace among academics in tertiary educational institutions the world over. Many academics including those in the universities are exploring the opportunities of e-resources to facilitate teaching and research. As the use of e-resources is increasing particularly among academics at the University of Ilorin,…

  6. Photon absorption and photocurrent in solar cells below semiconductor bandgap due to electron photoemission from plasmonic nanoantennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novitsky, Andrey; Uskov, Alexander; Gritti, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    We model the electron photoemission frommetal nanoparticles into a semiconductor in a Schottky diode with a conductive oxide electrode hosting the nanoparticles. We show that plasmonic effects in the nanoparticles lead to a substantial enhancement in photoemission compared with devices with conti....... Such structure can form the dais of the development of plasmonic photoemission enhanced solar cells....

  7. Use and Cost of Electronic Resources in Central Library of Ferdowsi University Based on E-metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Davarpanah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the usage of electronic journals in Ferdowsi University, Iran based on e-metrics. The paper also aimed to emphasize the analysis of cost-benefit and the correlation between the journal impact factors and the usage data. In this study experiences of Ferdowsi University library on licensing and usage of electronic resources was evaluated by providing a cost-benefit analysis based on the cost and usage statistics of electronic resources. Vendor-provided data were also compared with local usage data. The usage data were collected by tracking web-based access locally, and by collecting vender-provided usage data. The data sources were one-year of vendor-supplied e-resource usage data such as Ebsco, Elsevier, Proquest, Emerald, Oxford and Springer and local usage data collected from the Ferdowsi university web server. The study found that actual usage values differ for vendor-provided data and local usage data. Elsevier has got the highest usage degree in searches, sessions and downloads. Statistics also showed that a small number of journals satisfy significant amount of use while the majority of journals were used less frequent and some were never used at all. The users preferred the PDF rather than HTML format. The data in subject profile suggested that the provided e-resources were best suited to certain subjects. There was no correlation between IF and electronic journal use. Monitoring the usage of e-resources gained increasing importance for acquisition policy and budget decisions. The article provided information about local metrics for the six surveyed vendors/publishers, e.g. usage trends, requests per package, cost per use as related to the scientific specialty of the university.

  8. Saturable absorption of an X-ray free-electron-laser heated solid-density aluminum plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rackstraw, D.S.; Ciricosta, O.; Vinko, S.M.; Barbrel, B.; Burian, Tomáš; Chalupský, Jaromír; Cho, B.I.; Chung, H.-K.; Dakovski, G.L.; Engelhorn, K.; Hájková, Věra; Heimann, P.; Holmes, M.; Juha, Libor; Krzywinski, J.; Lee, R. W.; Toleikis, S.; Turner, J.J.; Zastrau, U.; Wark, J. S.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 114, č. 1 (2015), "015003-1"-"015003-5" ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-29772S; GA MŠk(CZ) LG13029 Grant - others:AVČR(CZ) M100101221 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : free electron laser * x-ray * ionization of plasmas Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 7.645, year: 2015

  9. Pyran-Squaraine as Photosensitizers for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: DFT/TDDFT Study of the Electronic Structures and Absorption Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda M. El-Shishtawy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to provide, assess, and evaluate a theoretical approach which enables designing efficient donor-acceptor dye systems, the electronic structure and optical properties of pyran-squaraine as donor-acceptor dyes used in dye-sensitized solar cells were investigated. Ground state properties have been computed at the B3LYP/6-31+G** level of theory. The long-range corrected density functionals CAM-B3LYP, PBEPBE, PBE1PBE (PBE0, and TPSSH with 6-311++G** were employed to examine absorption properties of the studied dyes. In an extensive comparison between experimental results and ab initio benchmark calculations, the TPSSH functional with 6-311++G** basis set was found to be the most appropriate in describing the electronic properties for the studied pyran and squaraine dyes. Natural transition orbitals (NTO, frontier molecular orbitals (FMO, LUMO, HOMO, and energy gaps, of these dyes, have been analyzed to show their effect on the process of electron injection and dye regeneration. Interaction between HOMO and LUMO of pyran and squaraine dyes was investigated to understand the recombination process and charge-transfer process involving these dyes. Additionally, we performed natural bond orbital (NBO analysis to investigate the role of charge delocalization and hyperconjugative interactions in the stability of the molecule.

  10. Effect of ligand nature and geometry of its surrounding on electron absorption spectra of NpO22+ and PuO22+ compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, E.I.; Tebelev, L.G.; Melkaya, R.F.; Rykov, A.G.

    1981-01-01

    Electron absorption spectra of actinide compounds with the symmetry of the nearest surrounding of actinyl-ions as follows: Dsub(2h)-AnO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 xnH 2 O, AnO 2 (CH 3 COO) 2 x2H 2 O; Dsub(3h)-MAnO 2 (NO 3 ) 3 (M-K, Rb, Cs), NaAnO 2 (CH 3 COO) 3 , (NH 4 ) 4 AnO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 ; Dsub(4h)-Cs 2 AnO 2 Cl 4 , where An-U, Np, Pb, are measured at room temperature. It is established that position, intensity and form of absorption bands in neptunyl compound spectra are sensible equally to geometry of coordination sphere and to ligand nature. The character of the change of plutonyl compound spectra is the same as of neptunyl ones: it is determined both by surrounding geometry and chemical nature of ligands. It is shown that in the near infrared region ligand effect on plutonyl compound spectra with the symmetry of anion complex Dsub(3h) is weaker than in the visible region

  11. Charge-transfer electronic absorption spectra of 1-ethylpyridinium cation and halogen anion pairs in dichloromethane and as neat ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Takahiro; Akai, Nobuyuki; Shibuya, Kazuhiko; Kawai, Akio

    2013-07-18

    The charge-transfer (CT) absorption bands of ion pairs composed of 1-ethylpyridinium (Epy(+)) and halogen anions (X(-): Cl, Br, or I) were measured in dichloromethane solutions of EpyX. The CT band of the Epy(+)I(-) ion pair shows clear splitting because of spin-orbit interaction in the excited state. The CT transition energy of an Epy(+)X(-) ion pair in a dichloromethane solution is related to electron affinity of X, which is in accordance with the Mulliken theory for CT bands. Extinction coefficients for the CT bands of the Epy(+)X(-) ion pairs in dichloromethane were determined using the measured absorbance, and the ion-pair concentration was estimated on the basis of electroconductivity. Structures of Epy(+)X(-) ion pairs were also evaluated on the basis of both quantum-chemical calculations and NMR spectroscopy. In addition, in the absorption spectrum measured for neat EpyI liquid, a broad band appeared at a longer wavelength side of the S1(ππ*) band. This new band has been assigned to the CT band of the Epy(+)I(-) ion pair formed in neat EpyI liquid.

  12. Signature of ferro–paraelectric transition in biferroic LuCrO3 from electron paramagnetic resonance and non-resonant microwave absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, G.; Montiel, H.; Durán, A.; Conde-Gallardo, A.; Zamorano, R.

    2014-01-01

    An electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study in the polycrystalline biferroic LuCrO 3 is carried out at X-band (8.8–9.8 GHz) in the 295–510 K temperature range. For all the temperatures, the EPR spectra show a single broad line attributable to Cr 3+ (S = 3/2) ions. The onset of a ferro–paraelectric transition has been determined from the temperature dependence of the parameters deduced from EPR spectra: the peak-to-peak linewidth (ΔH pp ), the g-factor and the integral intensity (I EPR ). Magnetically modulated microwave absorption spectroscopy (MAMMAS) and low-field microwave absorption (LFMA) are used to give further information on this material, where these techniques give also evidence of the ferro–paraelectric transition; indicating a behavior in agreement with a diffuse phase transition. - Highlights: • LuCrO 3 powders are obtained via auto-ignition synthesis. • EPR is employed to study the onset of the ferro–paraelectric transition. • MAMMAS and LFMA techniques are used to give further information on this material

  13. X-ray absorption spectroscopy by full-field X-ray microscopy of a thin graphite flake: Imaging and electronic structure via the carbon K-edge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Bittencourt

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate that near-edge X-ray-absorption fine-structure spectra combined with full-field transmission X-ray microscopy can be used to study the electronic structure of graphite flakes consisting of a few graphene layers. The flake was produced by exfoliation using sodium cholate and then isolated by means of density-gradient ultracentrifugation. An image sequence around the carbon K-edge, analyzed by using reference spectra for the in-plane and out-of-plane regions of the sample, is used to map and spectrally characterize the flat and folded regions of the flake. Additional spectral features in both π and σ regions are observed, which may be related to the presence of topological defects. Doping by metal impurities that were present in the original exfoliated graphite is indicated by the presence of a pre-edge signal at 284.2 eV.

  14. Challenges for international students in using electronic resources in the Learning Centre : a case study of Oslo University College

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Md. Anisur

    2011-01-01

    Joint Master Degree in Digital Library Learning (DILL) The purpose of this study is to find out the challenges facing by international students in using electronic resources in the OUC learning center. This research has used a qualitative approach and purposive, a non-probability techniques used for sampling of this study. A semi-structured face-to-face interviews method is used for the collection of data. The interview questions were open ended and the discourse analysis metho...

  15. Simulating Ru L3-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy with time-dependent density functional theory: model complexes and electron localization in mixed-valence metal dimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kuiken, Benjamin E; Valiev, Marat; Daifuku, Stephanie L; Bannan, Caitlin; Strader, Matthew L; Cho, Hana; Huse, Nils; Schoenlein, Robert W; Govind, Niranjan; Khalil, Munira

    2013-05-30

    Ruthenium L3-edge X-ray absorption (XA) spectroscopy probes unoccupied 4d orbitals of the metal atom and is increasingly being used to investigate the local electronic structure in ground and excited electronic states of Ru complexes. The simultaneous development of computational tools for simulating Ru L3-edge spectra is crucial for interpreting the spectral features at a molecular level. This study demonstrates that time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is a viable and predictive tool for simulating ruthenium L3-edge XA spectroscopy. We systematically investigate the effects of exchange correlation functional and implicit and explicit solvent interactions on a series of Ru(II) and Ru(III) complexes in their ground and electronic excited states. The TDDFT simulations reproduce all of the experimentally observed features in Ru L3-edge XA spectra within the experimental resolution (0.4 eV). Our simulations identify ligand-specific charge transfer features in complicated Ru L3-edge spectra of [Ru(CN)6](4-) and Ru(II) polypyridyl complexes illustrating the advantage of using TDDFT in complex systems. We conclude that the B3LYP functional most accurately predicts the transition energies of charge transfer features in these systems. We use our TDDFT approach to simulate experimental Ru L3-edge XA spectra of transition metal mixed-valence dimers of the form [(NC)5M(II)-CN-Ru(III)(NH3)5](-) (where M = Fe or Ru) dissolved in water. Our study determines the spectral signatures of electron delocalization in Ru L3-edge XA spectra. We find that the inclusion of explicit solvent molecules is necessary for reproducing the spectral features and the experimentally determined valencies in these mixed-valence complexes. This study validates the use of TDDFT for simulating Ru 2p excitations using popular quantum chemistry codes and providing a powerful interpretive tool for equilibrium and ultrafast Ru L3-edge XA spectroscopy.

  16. RESEARCH OF INFLUENCE OF QUALITY OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES ON QUALITY OF TRAINING WITH USE OF DISTANCE TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Kravtsov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Communication improving of educational processes requires today new approaches to the management arrangements and forming of educational policy in the field of distance learning, which is based on the use of modern information and communication technologies. An important step in this process is the continuous monitoring of the development and implementation of information technology and, in particular, the distance learning systems in higher educational establishments. The main objective of the monitoring is the impact assessment on the development of distance learning following the state educational standards, curricula, methodical and technical equipment and other factors; factors revelation that influence the implementation and outcomes of distance learning; results comparison of educational institution functioning and distance education systems in order to determine the most efficient ways of its development. The paper presents the analysis results of the dependence of the quality of educational services on the electronic educational resources. Trends in educational services development was studied by comparing the quality influence of electronic educational resources on the quality of educational services of higher pedagogical educational institutions of Ukraine as of 2009-2010 and 2012-2013. Generally, the analysis of the survey results allows evaluating quality of the modern education services as satisfactory and it can be said that almost 70% of the success of their future development depends on the quality of the used electronic educational resources and distance learning systems in particular.

  17. Ultrasonic absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    The paper reviews studies of ultrasonic absorption in liquid alkali metals. The experimental methods to measure the absorption coefficients are briefly described. Experimental results reported for the liquid metals: sodium, potassium, rubidium and caesium, at medium temperatures, are presented, as well as data for liquid alloys. Absorption losses due to the presence of an external magnetic field, and the effects of viscosity on the absorption in metals, are both discussed. (U.K.)

  18. Tracking the Flow of Resources in Electronic Waste - The Case of End-of-Life Computer Hard Disk Drives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Komal; Parajuly, Keshav; Wenzel, Henrik

    2015-10-20

    Recovery of resources, in particular, metals, from waste flows is widely seen as a prioritized option to reduce their potential supply constraints in the future. The current waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment system is more focused on bulk metals, where the recycling rate of specialty metals, such as rare earths, is negligible compared to their increasing use in modern products, such as electronics. This study investigates the challenges in recovering these resources in the existing WEEE treatment system. It is illustrated by following the material flows of resources in a conventional WEEE treatment plant in Denmark. Computer hard disk drives (HDDs) containing neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets were selected as the case product for this experiment. The resulting output fractions were tracked until their final treatment in order to estimate the recovery potential of rare earth elements (REEs) and other resources contained in HDDs. The results further show that out of the 244 kg of HDDs treated, 212 kg comprising mainly of aluminum and steel can be finally recovered from the metallurgic process. The results further demonstrate the complete loss of REEs in the existing shredding-based WEEE treatment processes. Dismantling and separate processing of NdFeB magnets from their end-use products can be a more preferred option over shredding. However, it remains a technological and logistic challenge for the existing system.

  19. HELP (INFORMATION ELECTRONIC RESOURCE "CHRONICLE OF ONU: DATES, FACTS, EVENTS": HISTORY OF UNIVERSITY IN INFORMATION SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. М. Гавриленко

    2016-03-01

    Object of research is the help information resource "The chronicle of the Odessa national university of I. I. Mechnikov: dates, facts, events". The main objective of our article – to state the main methodological bases of creation of information resource. One of advantages of information resource is possibility of continuous updating and replenishment by new information. Main objective of creation of this information resource is systematization of material on stories of the Odessa national university of I. I. Mechnikov from the date of his basis to the present, ensuring interactive access to information on the main dates, the most significant events in life of university. The base of research are sources on the history of university, chronology of historical development, formation of infrastructure, cadres and scientific researches. In information resource the main stages of development, functioning and transformation of the Odessa University are analyzed, information on its divisions is collected. For creation of this information resource in Scientific library the method of work was developed, the main selection criteria of data are allocated. This information resource have practical value for all who is interested in history of university, historians, scientists-researchers of history of science and the city of Odessa.

  20. DFT/TD-semiempirical study on the structural and electronic properties and absorption spectra of supramolecular fullerene-porphyrine-metalloporphyrine triads based dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezvani, M.; Darvish Ganji, M.; Jameh-Bozorghi, S.; Niazi, A.

    2018-04-01

    In the present work density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent semiempirical ZNIDO/S (TD-ZNIDO/S) methods have been used to investigate the ground state geometries, electronic structures and excited state properties of triad systems. The influences of the type of metal in the porphyrin ring, change in bridge position and porphyrine-ZnP duplicate on the energies of frontier molecular orbital and UV-Vis spectra has been studied. Geometry optimization, the energy levels and electron density of the Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital (HOMO) and the Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital (LUMO), chemical hardness (η), electrophilicity index (ω), electron accepting power (ω+) were calculated using ZINDO/S method to predict which molecule is the most efficient with a great capability to be used as a triad molecule in solar industry. Moreover the light harvesting efficiency (LHE) was calculated by means of the oscillator strengths which are obtained by TD-ZINDO/S calculation. Theoretical studies of the electronic spectra by ZINDO/S method were helpful in interpreting the observed electronic transitions. This aspect was systematically explored in a series of C60-Porphyrine-Metalloporphyrine (C60-P-Mp) triad system with M being Fe, Co, Ni, Ti, and Zn. Generally, transition metal coordination compounds are used as effective sensitizers, due to their intense charge-transfer absorption over the whole visible range and highly efficient metal-to-ligand charge transfer. We aim to optimize the performance of the title solar cells by altering the frontier orbital energy gaps. The results reveal that cell efficiency can be enhanced by metal functionalization of the free base porphyrin. Ti-porphyrin was found to be the most efficient dye sensitizer for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on C60-P-Mptriad system due to C60-Por-TiP complex has lower chemical hardness, gap energy and chemical potential as well as higher electron accepting power among other complexes. In

  1. Effect of Access to an Electronic Medical Resource on Performance Characteristics of a Certification Examination: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipner, Rebecca S; Brossman, Bradley G; Samonte, Kelli M; Durning, Steven J

    2017-09-05

    Electronic resources are increasingly used in medical practice. Their use during high-stakes certification examinations has been advocated by many experts, but whether doing so would affect the capacity to differentiate between high and low abilities is unknown. To determine the effect of electronic resources on examination performance characteristics. Randomized controlled trial. Medical certification program. 825 physicians initially certified by the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) who passed the Internal Medicine Certification examination or sat for the Internal Medicine Maintenance of Certification (IM-MOC) examination in 2012 to 2015. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions: closed book using typical or additional time, or open book (that is, UpToDate [Wolters Kluwer]) using typical or additional time. All participants took the same modified version of the IM-MOC examination. Primary outcomes included item difficulty (how easy or difficult the question was), item discrimination (how well the question differentiated between high and low abilities), and average question response time. Secondary outcomes included examination dimensionality (that is, the number of factors measured) and test-taking strategy. Item response theory was used to calculate question characteristics. Analysis of variance compared differences among conditions. Closed-book conditions took significantly less time than open-book conditions (mean, 79.2 seconds [95% CI, 78.5 to 79.9 seconds] vs. 110.3 seconds [CI, 109.2 to 111.4 seconds] per question). Mean discrimination was statistically significantly higher for open-book conditions (0.34 [CI, 0.32 to 0.35] vs. 0.39 [CI, 0.37 to 0.41] per question). A strong single dimension showed that the examination measured the same factor with or without the resource. Only 1 electronic resource was evaluated. Inclusion of an electronic resource with time constraints did not adversely affect test performance and did not change

  2. Unexpected covalency from actinide 5f orbital interactions (An = Th, U, Np, Pu) determined from chlorine K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy and electronic structure theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.L.; Batista, E.R.; Boland, K.S.

    2010-01-01

    We have employed Cl K-edge XAS and multiple levels of sophisticated electronic structure calculations on a series of simple octahedral light actinide (Th, U, Np, Pu) chloride salts, AnCl 6 n- in order to assess the relative roles of the valence 5f and 6d orbitals in chemical bonding. Chlorine K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy on AnCl 6 n- (An = Th, U, Np, Pu) systems indicates the presence of covalent interactions between both Cl 3p and An 5f and 6d orbitals, with the relative contributions changing across the series. Electronic structure calculations indicate the predominant covalent interactions are expected to occur through An-Cl bonding via t 1u and t 2u interactions with the An 5f orbitals, and through t 2g and e g interactions with An 6d orbitals. For the Cl K-edge data therefore, we expect bound state transitions from Cl 1s → e g (σ), t 2g (π), and t 1u (σ + π) orbitals. Qualitatively, the Cl K-edge data fulfills these expectations

  3. On the relations between proton influx and D-region electron densities during the polar-cap absorption event of 28-29 October 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Hargreaves

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Observations by incoherent-scatter radar have been applied to explore relationships between the fluxes of incident protons and the resulting D-region electron densities during a polar-cap radio-absorption event. Using proton flux data from a GOES geosynchronous satellite, the energy band having the greatest influence at a selected height is estimated by a process of trial and error, and empirical relationships are defined. The height profiles of the effective recombination coefficient are determined for day and night, and the transition over the evening twilight is investigated for the height range 60-70 km.

    The results show that the day-night change is confined to heights below 80 km, night-time values at the lower levels being consistent with a balance between negative ions and electrons controlled by 3-body attachment and collisional detachment. The daytime results confirm that, contrary to the prediction of some chemical models, a square-law continuity equation may be strictly applied. It is confirmed that, as previously reported, the timing of the sunset change varies with altitude.

  4. On the relations between proton influx and D-region electron densities during the polar-cap absorption event of 28-29 October 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Hargreaves

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Observations by incoherent-scatter radar have been applied to explore relationships between the fluxes of incident protons and the resulting D-region electron densities during a polar-cap radio-absorption event. Using proton flux data from a GOES geosynchronous satellite, the energy band having the greatest influence at a selected height is estimated by a process of trial and error, and empirical relationships are defined. The height profiles of the effective recombination coefficient are determined for day and night, and the transition over the evening twilight is investigated for the height range 60-70 km. The results show that the day-night change is confined to heights below 80 km, night-time values at the lower levels being consistent with a balance between negative ions and electrons controlled by 3-body attachment and collisional detachment. The daytime results confirm that, contrary to the prediction of some chemical models, a square-law continuity equation may be strictly applied. It is confirmed that, as previously reported, the timing of the sunset change varies with altitude.

  5. Determination of equilibrium structures of bromothymol blue revealed by using quantum chemistry with an aid of multivariate analysis of electronic absorption spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Toru; Hasegawa, Takeshi

    2017-10-01

    The pH dependent chemical structures of bromothymol blue (BTB), which have long been under controversy, are determined by employing a combined technique of multivariate analysis of electronic absorption spectra and quantum chemistry. Principle component analysis (PCA) of the pH dependent spectra apparently reveals that only two chemical species are adequate to fully account for the color changes, with which the spectral decomposition is readily performed by using augmented alternative least-squares (ALS) regression analysis. The quantity variation by the ALS analysis also reveals the practical acid dissociation constant, pKa‧. The determination of pKa‧ is performed for various ionic strengths, which reveals the thermodynamic acid constant (pKa = 7.5) and the number of charge on each chemical species; the yellow form is negatively charged species of - 1 and the blue form that of - 2. On this chemical information, the quantum chemical calculation is carried out to find that BTB molecules take the pure quinoid form in an acid solution and the quinoid-phenolate form in an alkaline solution. The time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations for the theoretically determined chemical structures account for the peak shift of the electronic spectra. In this manner, the structures of all the chemical species appeared in equilibrium have finally been confirmed.

  6. In Situ Industrial Bimetallic Catalyst Characterization using Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy at One Atmosphere and Elevated Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestat, Eric; Kulzick, Matthew A; Dietrich, Paul J; Smith, Mr Matthew; Tien, Mr Eu-Pin; Burke, M Grace; Haigh, Sarah J; Zaluzec, Nestor J

    2017-08-18

    We have developed a new experimental platform for in situ scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) which allows real time, nanoscale, elemental and structural changes to be studied at elevated temperature (up to 1000 °C) and pressure (up to 1 atm). Here we demonstrate the first application of this approach to understand complex structural changes occurring during reduction of a bimetallic catalyst, PdCu supported on TiO 2 , synthesized by wet impregnation. We reveal a heterogeneous evolution of nanoparticle size, distribution, and composition with large differences in reduction behavior for the two metals. We show that the data obtained is complementary to in situ STEM electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and when combined with in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) allows correlation of bulk chemical state with nanoscale changes in elemental distribution during reduction, facilitating new understanding of the catalytic behavior for this important class of materials. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  7. Determination of equilibrium structures of bromothymol blue revealed by using quantum chemistry with an aid of multivariate analysis of electronic absorption spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Toru; Hasegawa, Takeshi

    2017-10-05

    The pH dependent chemical structures of bromothymol blue (BTB), which have long been under controversy, are determined by employing a combined technique of multivariate analysis of electronic absorption spectra and quantum chemistry. Principle component analysis (PCA) of the pH dependent spectra apparently reveals that only two chemical species are adequate to fully account for the color changes, with which the spectral decomposition is readily performed by using augmented alternative least-squares (ALS) regression analysis. The quantity variation by the ALS analysis also reveals the practical acid dissociation constant, pK a '. The determination of pK a ' is performed for various ionic strengths, which reveals the thermodynamic acid constant (pK a =7.5) and the number of charge on each chemical species; the yellow form is negatively charged species of -1 and the blue form that of -2. On this chemical information, the quantum chemical calculation is carried out to find that BTB molecules take the pure quinoid form in an acid solution and the quinoid-phenolate form in an alkaline solution. The time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations for the theoretically determined chemical structures account for the peak shift of the electronic spectra. In this manner, the structures of all the chemical species appeared in equilibrium have finally been confirmed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Total electron yield measurements of extended x-ray absorption fine structures (EXAFS) of Ni and Fe thin foils, and adsorption of Ni on polycrystalline Fe substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sham, T.K.; Carr, R.G.

    1985-01-01

    X-ray absorption spectra of Fe and Ni K edges have been obtained at room temperature by means of a total electron yield technique for a clean Fe foil on which Ni was subsequently deposited, and a Ni foil. This technique involves the measurement of the specimen current. The total yield is found to be approx.1 x 10 -2 electron per photon absorbed at the Fe K edge for a 1/4 mil foil. Dramatic increase in surface sensitivity is gained over transmission EXAFS by using this technique to study Ni overlayers on Fe surface. The EXAFS of the deposited Ni overlayers (several monolayer coverage) are compared with those of the pure elements and of Ni/Fe alloys in the α(bcc) and γ(fcc) phases. The results indicate that the average Ni--Ni bond in the deposited Ni overlayers does not contract relative to that in the bulk in contrast to previously observed contraction of Ni deposition on carbon substrates. The feasibility of this technique and its application are discussed

  9. On the participation of photoinduced N-H bond fission in aqueous adenine at 266 and 220 nm: a combined ultrafast transient electronic and vibrational absorption spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Gareth M; Marroux, Hugo J B; Grubb, Michael P; Ashfold, Michael N R; Orr-Ewing, Andrew J

    2014-11-26

    A combination of ultrafast transient electronic absorption spectroscopy (TEAS) and transient vibrational absorption spectroscopy (TVAS) is used to investigate whether photoinduced N–H bond fission, mediated by a dissociative 1πσ(*) state, is active in aqueous adenine (Ade) at 266 and 220 nm. In order to isolate UV/visible and IR spectral signatures of the adeninyl radical (Ade[-H]), formed as a result of N–H bond fission, TEAS and TVAS are performed on Ade in D2O under basic conditions (pD = 12.5), which forms Ade[-H](-) anions via deprotonation at the N7 or N9 sites of Ade's 7H and 9H tautomers. At 220 nm we observe one-photon detachment of an electron from Ade[-H](-), which generates solvated electrons (eaq(-)) together with Ade[-H] radicals, with clear signatures in both TEAS and TVAS. Additional wavelength dependent TEAS measurements between 240–260 nm identify a threshold of 4.9 ± 0.1 eV (∼250 nm) for this photodetachment process in D2O. Analogous TEAS experiments on aqueous Ade at pD = 7.4 generate a similar photoproduct signal together with eaq(-) after excitation at 266 and 220 nm. These eaq(-) are born from ionization of Ade, together with Ade(+) cations, which are indistinguishable from Ade[-H] radicals in TEAS. Ade(+) and Ade[-H] are found to have different signatures in TVAS and we verify that the pD = 7.4 photoproduct signal observed in TEAS following 220 nm excitation is solely due to Ade(+) cations. Based on these observations, we conclude that: (i) N–H bond fission in aqueous Ade is inactive at wavelengths ≥220 nm; and (ii) if such a channel exists in aqueous solution, its threshold is strongly blue-shifted relative to the onset of the same process in gas phase 9H-Ade (≤233 nm). In addition, we extract excited state lifetimes and vibrational cooling dynamics for 9H-Ade and Ade[-H](-). In both cases, excited state lifetimes of <500 fs are identified, while vibrational cooling occurs within a time frame of 4–5 ps. In contrast, 7H

  10. Structural, electronic and optical properties of monoclinic Na2Ti3O7 from density functional theory calculations: A comparison with XRD and optical absorption measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo-Filho, Adailton A.; Silva, Fábio L. R.; Righi, Ariete; da Silva, Mauricélio B.; Silva, Bruno P.; Caetano, Ewerton W. S.; Freire, Valder N.

    2017-06-01

    Powder samples of bulk monoclinic sodium trititanate Na2Ti3O7 were prepared carefully by solid state reaction, and its monoclinic P21/m crystal structure and morphology were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. Moreover, the sodium trititanate main energy band gap was estimated as Eg=3.51±0.01 eV employing UV-Vis spectroscopy, which is smaller than the measured 3.70 eV energy gap published previously by other authors. Aiming to achieve a better understanding of the experimental data, density functional theory (DFT) computations were performed within the local density and generalized gradient approximations (LDA and GGA, respectively) taking into account dispersion effects through the scheme of Tkatchenko and Scheffler (GGA+TS). Optimal lattice parameters, with deviations relative to measurements Δa=-0.06 Å, Δb=0.02 Å, and Δc=-0.09 Å, were obtained at the GGA level, which was then used to simulate the sodium trititanate electronic and optical properties. Indirect band transitions have led to a theoretical gap energy value of about 3.25 eV. Our results, however, differ from pioneer DFT results with respect to the specific Brillouin zone vectors for which the indirect transition with smallest energy value occurs. Effective masses for electrons and holes were also estimated along a set of directions in reciprocal space. Lastly, our calculations revealed a relatively large degree of optical isotropy for the Na2Ti3O7 optical absorption and complex dielectric function.

  11. The level of the usage of the human resource information system and electronic recruitment in Croatian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snježana Pivac

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Performing business according to contemporary requirements influences companies for continuous usage of modern managerial tools, such as a human resource information system (HRIS and electronic recruitment (ER. Human resources have been recognised as curtail resources and the main source of a competitive advantage in creation of successful business performance. In order to attract and select the top employees, companies use quality information software for attracting internal ones, and electronic recruitment for attracting the best possible external candidates. The main aim of this paper is to research the level of the usage of HRIS and ER within medium-size and large Croatian companies. Moreover, the additional aim of this paper is to evaluate the relationship among the usage of these modern managerial tools and the overall success of human resource management within these companies. For the purpose of this paper, primary and secondary research has been conducted in order to reveal the level of the usage of HRIS and ER as well as the overall success of human resource management in Croatian companies. The companies’ classification (HRIS and ER is done by using the non-hierarchical k-means cluster method as well as the nonparametric Kruskal Wallis test. Further, the companies are ranked by the multicriteria PROMETHEE method. Relevant nonparametric tests are used for testing the overall companies’ HRM. Finally, binary logistic regression is estimated, relating binary variable HRM and HRIS development. After detailed research, it can be concluded that large Croatian companies apply HRIS in majority (with a positive relation to HRM performance, but still require certain degrees of its development.

  12. A clinical case-based hypothesis: secretory IgA operates as an electronic transistor controlling the selection or rejection of molecules in the absorption process in the lumen of gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamm AV

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Alfred V Zamm Retired, Malibu, CA, USA Abstract: There is a clinical correlation between (1 an allergic patient's ability to resist the development of symptoms that would have resulted from an allergenic challenge, (2 the magnitude of geomagnetism at a geographic site, and (3 the amount of solar energy falling on that site. It is suggested that the digestive membrane has an electronic gatekeeper that “decides” electronically which molecules to allow or not allow to pass on to the absorptive surface. The unique bipolar structure of secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA, having a central secretory piece and the resultant unique electronic function of this polarized molecule, allows it to function as an electronic transistor, producing an electronic gatekeeper in the form of an electronic sieve. Keywords: geomagnetism, atmospheric negative ions, electronic transistor, secretory IgA, food allergies, autoimmunity

  13. Electronic structure and optical properties of CdS{sub x}Se{sub 1−x} solid solution nanostructures from X-ray absorption near edge structure, X-ray excited optical luminescence, and density functional theory investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, M. W. [DESY (Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron), FS-PEX, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Yiu, Y. M., E-mail: yyiu@uwo.ca; Sham, T. K. [Department of Chemistry, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A5B7 (Canada); Ward, M. J. [Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Liu, L. [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Soochow University-Western University Center for Synchrotron Radiation Research, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, 215123 (China); Hu, Y. [Canadian Light Source, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N2V3 (Canada); Zapien, J. A. [Center Of Super-Diamond and Advanced Films (COSDAF) and Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Liu, Yingkai [Institute of Physics and Electronic Information, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming, Yunnan, 650500 (China)

    2014-11-21

    The electronic structure and optical properties of a series of iso-electronic and iso-structural CdS{sub x}Se{sub 1−x} solid solution nanostructures have been investigated using X-ray absorption near edge structure, extended X-ray absorption fine structure, and X-ray excited optical luminescence at various absorption edges of Cd, S, and Se. It is found that the system exhibits compositions, with variable local structure in-between that of CdS and CdSe accompanied by tunable optical band gap between that of CdS and CdSe. Theoretical calculation using density functional theory has been carried out to elucidate the observations. It is also found that luminescence induced by X-ray excitation shows new optical channels not observed previously with laser excitation. The implications of these observations are discussed.

  14. QR Codes as Finding Aides: Linking Electronic and Print Library Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Danielle; Schneidewind, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    As part of a focused, methodical, and evaluative approach to emerging technologies, QR codes are one of many new technologies being used by the UC Irvine Libraries. QR codes provide simple connections between print and virtual resources. In summer 2010, a small task force began to investigate how QR codes could be used to provide information and…

  15. Supporting Learning and Information Sharing in Natural Resource Management with Technologies for Electronic Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alem, Leila; McLean, Alistair

    2005-01-01

    Community participation is central to achieving sustainable natural resource management. A prerequisite to informed participation is that community and stakeholder groups have access to different knowledge sources, are more closely attuned to the different issues and viewpoints, and are sufficiently equipped to understand and maybe resolve complex…

  16. MendelWeb: An Electronic Science/Math/History Resource for the WWW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Roger B.

    This paper describes a hypermedia resource, called MendelWeb that integrates elementary biology, discrete mathematics, and the history of science. MendelWeb is constructed from Gregor Menders 1865 paper, "Experiments in Plant Hybridization". An English translation of Mendel's paper, which is considered to mark the birth of classical and…

  17. In situ UV-visible absorption during spin-coating of organic semiconductors: A new probe for organic electronics and photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelsamie, Maged

    2014-01-01

    Spin-coating is the most commonly used technique for the lab-scale production of solution processed organic electronic, optoelectronic and photovoltaic devices. Spin-coating produces the most efficient solution-processed organic solar cells and has been the preferred approach for rapid screening and optimization of new organic semiconductors and formulations for electronic and optoelectronic applications, both in academia and in industrial research facilities. In this article we demonstrate, for the first time, a spin-coating experiment monitored in situ by time resolved UV-visible absorption, the most commonly used, simplest, most direct and robust optical diagnostic tool used in organic electronics. In the first part, we successfully monitor the solution-to-solid phase transformation and thin film formation of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), the de facto reference conjugated polymer in organic electronics and photovoltaics. We do so in two scenarios which differ by the degree of polymer aggregation in solution, prior to spin-coating. We find that a higher degree of aggregation in the starting solution results in small but measurable differences in the solid state, which translate into significant improvements in the charge carrier mobility of organic field-effect transistors (OFET). In the second part, we monitor the formation of a bulk heterojunction photoactive layer based on a P3HT-fullerene blend. We find that the spin-coating conditions that lead to slower kinetics of thin film formation favour a higher degree of polymer aggregation in the solid state and increased conjugation length along the polymer backbone. Using this insight, we devise an experiment in which the spin-coating process is interrupted prematurely, i.e., after liquid ejection is completed and before the film has started to form, so as to dramatically slow the thin film formation kinetics, while maintaining the same thickness and uniformity. These changes yield substantial improvements to the

  18. Electronic Resources in a Next-Generation Catalog: The Case of WorldCat Local

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadle, Steve

    2009-01-01

    In April 2007, the University of Washington Libraries debuted WorldCat Local (WCL), a localized version of the WorldCat database that interoperates with a library's integrated library system and fulfillment services to provide a single-search interface for a library's physical and electronic content. This brief will describe how WCL incorporates a…

  19. Survey of the use of electronic information resources by students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For libraries to continue to lead in this industry generally and academic libraries in particular, deliberate effort must be made to bring the IT education to every potential user of the libraries. This however must be done based on available data. This is what this study sought to provide- a survey of the use of electronic ...

  20. Bringing Up Gopher: Access to Local & Remote Electronic Resources for University Library Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Melvin Marlo; And Others

    Some of the administrative and organizational issues in creating a gopher, specifically a library gopher for university libraries, are discussed. In 1993 the Electronic Collections Task Force of the New Mexico State University library administration began to develop a library-based gopher system that would enable users to have unlimited access to…

  1. Eavesdropping on Electronic Guidebooks: Observing Learning Resources in Shared Listening Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Allison; Aoki, Paul M.; Grinter, Rebecca E.; Hurst, Amy; Szymanski, Margaret H.; Thornton, James D.

    This paper describes an electronic guidebook, "Sotto Voce," that enables visitors to share audio information by eavesdropping on each others guidebook activity. The first section discusses the design and implementation of the guidebook device, key aspects of its user interface, the design goals for the audio environment, the eavesdropping…

  2. Data Resource Profile: Cardiovascular disease research using linked bespoke studies and electronic health records (CALIBER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denaxas, Spiros C; George, Julie; Herrett, Emily; Shah, Anoop D; Kalra, Dipak; Hingorani, Aroon D; Kivimaki, Mika; Timmis, Adam D; Smeeth, Liam; Hemingway, Harry

    2012-01-01

    The goal of cardiovascular disease (CVD) research using linked bespoke studies and electronic health records (CALIBER) is to provide evidence to inform health care and public health policy for CVDs across different stages of translation, from discovery, through evaluation in trials to implementation, where linkages to electronic health records provide new scientific opportunities. The initial approach of the CALIBER programme is characterized as follows: (i) Linkages of multiple electronic heath record sources: examples include linkages between the longitudinal primary care data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, the national registry of acute coronary syndromes (Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project), hospitalization and procedure data from Hospital Episode Statistics and cause-specific mortality and social deprivation data from the Office of National Statistics. Current cohort analyses involve a million people in initially healthy populations and disease registries with ∼105 patients. (ii) Linkages of bespoke investigator-led cohort studies (e.g. UK Biobank) to registry data (e.g. Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project), providing new means of ascertaining, validating and phenotyping disease. (iii) A common data model in which routine electronic health record data are made research ready, and sharable, by defining and curating with meta-data >300 variables (categorical, continuous, event) on risk factors, CVDs and non-cardiovascular comorbidities. (iv) Transparency: all CALIBER studies have an analytic protocol registered in the public domain, and data are available (safe haven model) for use subject to approvals. For more information, e-mail s.denaxas@ucl.ac.uk PMID:23220717

  3. X-ray absorption spectroscopy on phosphoric-salt pellets. Determination of the geometric and electronic structure of metal-oxide doped sodium-phosphate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brendebach, B.

    2004-02-01

    Sodium metaphosphate glasses doped with transition metal oxides show characteristic colors. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) investigations provide information whether the coloration stems from different electronic transitions or changes in the geometrical structure of the glasses. Even though the violet color of MnO y -doped glasses is considered as an evidence for Mn 3+ -ions, Mn K-XAS reveals that the majority of the manganese ions are in the oxidation state +II and have a mixed coordination of four and six oxygen atoms, respectively. The oxygen coordination around the nickel ions in NiO-doped glasses with different metall oxide concentrations is always six. The change of color from citreous to auburn with increasing nickel oxide content is attributed to a systematic change in the bonding characteristic from mainly ionic-like to a small but significant contribution of covalent-like bonding. Analysis of higher coordination shells provides no indication of the formation of metal oxide clusters. (orig.)

  4. Frozen lattice and absorptive model for high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy: A comparison study in terms of integrated intensity and atomic column position measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alania, M; Lobato, I; Van Aert, S

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, both the frozen lattice (FL) and the absorptive potential (AP) approximation models are compared in terms of the integrated intensity and the precision with which atomic columns can be located from an image acquired using high angle annular dark field (HAADF) scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). The comparison is made for atoms of Cu, Ag, and Au. The integrated intensity is computed for both an isolated atomic column and an atomic column inside an FCC structure. The precision has been computed using the so-called Cramér-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB), which provides a theoretical lower bound on the variance with which parameters can be estimated. It is shown that the AP model results into accurate measurements for the integrated intensity only for small detector ranges under relatively low angles and for small thicknesses. In terms of the attainable precision, both methods show similar results indicating picometer range precision under realistic experimental conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Coupled Heterojunction Sn₂Ta₂O₇@SnO₂: Cooperative Promotion of Effective Electron-Hole Separation and Superior Visible-light Absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Junyu; Li, Congyan; Wang, Shuwei; Lv, Juanjuan; Su, Yiguo; Wang, Xiaojing; Li, Guangshe

    2015-07-01

    In this work, a novel heterostructure integrated by two wide-band gap semiconductors, SnO2 and Sn2Ta2O7, is successfully prepared via a hydrothermal approach. Hollow Sn2Ta2O7 spheres were first formed, and small SnO2 particles were then well-dispersed onto the outside surface of the spheres, forming a p-n heterostructure. This heterostructure exhibits a higher potential edge that yielded enhanced photoredox ability. Further, the heterostructure is of Z-type with a consistent internal electric field direction, which effectively separates the photogenerated electron-hole pairs. Although both component semiconductors do not absorb visible light, the resulted p-n heterostructure is surprisingly observed to show an outstanding photocatalytic performance under visible light illumination. Such a visible light response is concluded to be the consequence of the impurity band formed by Sn(2+) doped in SnO2 and Sn(4+) in Sn2Ta2O7 via in situ redox. The existence of coupled Sn(2+) and Sn(4+) ions in p-n heterostructure is responsible for the absence of defects and the regenerated catalytic activities. The findings reported here may provide an approach to fabricate the new types of photocatalysts with a synergetic promotion for visible light absorption and sustained photocatalytic activities by coupling different wide-band semiconductors.

  6. Preconcentration, speciation and determination of ultra trace amounts of mercury by modified octadecyl silica membrane disk/electron beam irradiation and cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashkenani, Hamid [Department of Chemistry, Yazd University, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dadfarnia, Shayessteh [Department of Chemistry, Yazd University, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: sdadfarnia@yazduni.ac.ir; Shabani, Ali Mohammad Haji; Jaffari, Abbas Ali [Department of Chemistry, Yazd University, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Behjat, Abbas [Department of physics, Yazd University, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-01-15

    Mercury (II) and methyl mercury cations at the Sub-ppb level were adsorbed quantitatively from aqueous solution onto an octadecyl-bonded silica membrane disk modified by 2-[(2-mercaptophyenylimino)methyl] phenol (MPMP). The trapped mercury was then eluted with 3 ml ethanol and Hg{sup 2+} ion was directly measured by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry, utilizing tin (II) chloride. Total mercury (Hgt) was determined after conversion of MeHg{sup +} into Hg{sup 2+} ion by electron beam irradiation. A sample volume of 1500 ml resulted in a preconcentration factor of 500 and the precision for a sampling volume of 500 ml at a concentration of 2.5 {mu}g l{sup -1} (n = 7) was 3.1%. The limit of detection of the proposed method is 3.8 ng l{sup -1}. The method was successfully applied to analysis of water samples, and the accuracy was assessed via recovery experiment.

  7. Absorption studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganatra, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Absorption studies were once quite popular but hardly anyone does them these days. It is easier to estimate the blood level of the nutrient directly by radioimmunoassay (RIA). However, the information obtained by estimating the blood levels of the nutrients is not the same that can be obtained from the absorption studies. Absorption studies are primarily done to find out whether some of the essential nutrients are absorbed from the gut or not and if they are absorbed, to determine how much is being absorbed. In the advanced countries, these tests were mostly done to detect pernicious anaemia where vitamin B 12 is not absorbed because of the lack of the intrinsic factor in the stomach. In the tropical countries, ''malabsorption syndrome'' is quire common. In this condition, several nutrients like fat, folic acid and vitamin B 12 are not absorbed. It is possible to study absorption of these nutrients by radioisotopic absorption studies

  8. A clinical case-based hypothesis: secretory IgA operates as an electronic transistor controlling the selection or rejection of molecules in the absorption process in the lumen of gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamm, Alfred V

    2013-01-01

    There is a clinical correlation between (1) an allergic patient's ability to resist the development of symptoms that would have resulted from an allergenic challenge, (2) the magnitude of geomagnetism at a geographic site, and (3) the amount of solar energy falling on that site. It is suggested that the digestive membrane has an electronic gatekeeper that "decides" electronically which molecules to allow or not allow to pass on to the absorptive surface. The unique bipolar structure of secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA), having a central secretory piece and the resultant unique electronic function of this polarized molecule, allows it to function as an electronic transistor, producing an electronic gatekeeper in the form of an electronic sieve.

  9. Resource-efficient conception of waste electrical and electronic equipment collection groups

    OpenAIRE

    Gries, Nadja von; Wilts, Claas Henning

    2014-01-01

    Critical metals are in great demand by the electrical and electronics industry, so waste electrical and eletronic equipment represents a significant source of secondary raw materials. Owing to low recycling rates and the concomitant supply risks associated with critical metals, the closure of the material cycles is highly relevant to the German economy. Losses of these metals occur from collection until their material recovery, along the entire disposal chain of waste electrical and electroni...

  10. Preference and Use of Electronic Information and Resources by Blind/Visually Impaired in NCR Libraries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to determine the preference and use of electronic information and resources by blind/visually impaired users in the leading National Capital Region (NCR libraries of India. Survey methodology has been used as the basic research tool for data collection with the help of questionnaires. The 125 in total users surveyed in all the five libraries were selected randomly on the basis of willingness of the users with experience of working in digital environments to participate in the survey. The survey results were tabulated and analyzed with descriptive statistics methods using Excel software and 'Stata version 11'. The findings reveal that ICT have a positive impact in the lives of people with disabilities as it helps them to work independently and increases the level of confidence among them. The Internet is the most preferred medium of access to information among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. The 'Complexity of content available on the net' is found as the major challenge faced during Internet use by blind users of NCR libraries. 'Audio books on CDs/DVDs and DAISY books' are the most preferred electronic resources among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. This study will help the library professionals and organizations/institutions serving people with disabilities to develop effective library services for blind/visually impaired users in the digital environment on the basis of findings on information usage behavior in the study.

  11. An Exploratory study on the use of LibAnswers to Resolve, Track and Monitor Electronic Resources Issues: The KAUST Library experience

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-03

    An Exploratory study on KAUST library use of LibAnswers in resolving electronic resources questions received in LibAnswers. It describes the findings of the questions received in LibAnswers. The author made suggestions based on the findings to improve the reference services in responding to e-resources questions.

  12. Internet and electronic resources for inflammatory bowel disease: a primer for providers and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortinsky, Kyle J; Fournier, Marc R; Benchimol, Eric I

    2012-06-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasingly turning to the Internet to research their condition and engage in discourse on their experiences. This has resulted in new dynamics in the relationship between providers and their patients, with misinformation and advertising potentially presenting barriers to the cooperative patient-provider partnership. This article addresses important issues of online IBD-related health information and social media activity, such as quality, reliability, objectivity, and privacy. We reviewed the medical literature on the quality of online information provided to IBD patients, and summarized the most commonly accessed Websites related to IBD. We also assessed the activity on popular social media sites (such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube), and evaluated currently available applications for use by IBD patients and providers on mobile phones and tablets. Through our review of the literature and currently available resources, we developed a list of recommended online resources to strengthen patient participation in their care by providing reliable, comprehensive educational material. Copyright © 2011 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.

  13. Granulometric composition study of mineral resources using opto-electronic devices and Elsieve software system

    OpenAIRE

    Kaminski Stanislaw; Kaminski Piotr; Kaminska Dorota; Trzcinski Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    The use of mechanical sieves has a great impact on measurement results because occurrence of anisometric particles causes undercounting the average size. Such errors can be avoided by using opto-electronic measuring devices that enable measurement of particles from 10 μm up to a few dozen millimetres in size. The results of measurement of each particle size fraction are summed up proportionally to its weight with the use of Elsieve software system and for every type of material particle-size ...

  14. Folate absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, S.J.

    1976-01-01

    Folate is the generic term given to numerous compounds of pteroic acid with glutamic acid. Knowledge of absorption is limited because of the complexities introduced by the variety of compounds and because of the inadequacy of investigational methods. Two assay methods are in use, namely microbiological and radioactive. Techniques used to study absorption include measurement of urinary excretion, serum concentration, faecal excretion, intestinal perfusion, and haematological response. It is probably necessary to test absorption of both pteroylmonoglutamic acid and one or more polyglutamates, and such tests would be facilitated by availability of synthesized compounds labelled with radioactive tracers at specifically selected sites. (author)

  15. Nonlinear effects in collective absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uenoyama, Takeshi; Mima, Kunioki; Watanabe, Tsuguhiro.

    1981-01-01

    The collective absorption of high intensity laser radiation is analyzed numerically. Density profile modification due to the ponderomotive force associating laser radiation and the excited electron plasma waves is self-consistently taken into account, and the intensity dependences of the absorption efficiency are obtained. In the high intensity regime, the absorption efficiency is found to be strongly enhanced in the plasma without flow, but reduced with supersonic flow. (author)

  16. Narrative absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narrative Absorption brings together research from the social sciences and Humanities to solve a number of mysteries: Most of us will have had those moments, of being totally absorbed in a book, a movie, or computer game. Typically we do not have any idea about how we ended up in such a state. Nor...... do we fully realize how we might have changed as we return for the fictional worlds we have visited. The feeling of being absorbed is one of the most illusive and transient feelings, but also one that motivates audiences to spend considerable amounts of time in narrative worlds, and one...... that is central to our understanding of the effects of narratives on beliefs and behavior. Key specialists inform the reader of this book about the nature of the peculiar state of consciousness during episodes of absorption, the perception of absorption in history, the role of absorption in meaningful experiences...

  17. Electronic structures of B 2p and C 2p levels in boron-doped diamond films studied using soft x-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Jin; Kabasawa, Eiki; Yamada, Nobuyoshi; Einaga, Yasuaki; Saito, Daisuke; Isshiki, Hideo; Yugo, Shigemi; Perera, Rupert C. C.

    2004-12-01

    X-ray absorption (XAS) and emission (XES) spectroscopy near B K and C K edges have been performed on metallic ( ˜0.1at.% B, B-diamond) and semiconducting ( ˜0.03at.% B and N, BN-diamond) doped diamond films. Both B K XAS and XES spectra show a metallic partial density of states (PDOS) with the Fermi energy of 185.3eV , and there is no apparent boron-concentration dependence in contrast to the different electric property. In C K XAS spectrum of B-diamond, the impurity state ascribed to boron is clearly observed near the Fermi level. The Fermi energy is found to be almost same with the top of the valence band of nondoped diamond: EV=283.9eV . C K XAS of BN-diamond shows both the B-induced shallow level and N-induced deep and broad levels as the in-gap states, in which the shallow level is in good agreement with the activation energy (Ea=0.37eV) estimated from the temperature dependence of the conductivity; namely, the change in C2p PDOS of impurity-induced metallization is directly observed. The electric property of this diamond is ascribed mainly to the electronic structure of C2p near the Fermi level. The observed XES spectra are compared with the discrete variational Xα ( DVXα ) cluster calculation. The DVXα result supports the strong hybridization between B2p and C2p observed in XAS and XES spectra, and suggests that the small amount of boron (⩽0.1at.%) in diamond occupies the substitutional site rather than interstitial site.

  18. Granulometric composition study of mineral resources using opto-electronic devices and Elsieve software system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaminski Stanislaw

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of mechanical sieves has a great impact on measurement results because occurrence of anisometric particles causes undercounting the average size. Such errors can be avoided by using opto-electronic measuring devices that enable measurement of particles from 10 μm up to a few dozen millimetres in size. The results of measurement of each particle size fraction are summed up proportionally to its weight with the use of Elsieve software system and for every type of material particle-size distribution can be obtained. The software allows further statistical interpretation of the results. Beam of infrared radiation identifies size of particles and counts them precisely. Every particle is represented by an electronic impulse proportional to its size. Measurement of particles in aqueous suspension that replaces the hydrometer method can be carried out by using the IPS L analyser (range from 0.2 to 600 μm. The IPS UA analyser (range from 0.5 to 2000 μm is designed for measurement in the air. An ultrasonic adapter enables performing measurements of moist and aggregated particles from 0.5 to 1000 μm. The construction and software system allow to determine second dimension of the particle, its shape coefficient and specific surface area. The AWK 3D analyser (range from 0.2 to 31.5 mm is devoted to measurement of various powdery materials with subsequent determination of particle shape. The AWK B analyser (range from 1 to 130 mm measures materials of thick granulation and shape of the grains. The presented method of measurement repeatedly accelerates and facilitates study of granulometric composition.

  19. Infrared absorption of t-HOCO(+), H(+)(CO2)2, and HCO2 (-) produced in electron bombardment of CO2 in solid para-H2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Prasanta; Tsuge, Masashi; Lee, Yuan-Pern

    2016-07-07

    We have employed electron bombardment during matrix deposition of CO2 (or (13)CO2, C(18)O2) and para-hydrogen (p-H2) at 3.2 K and recorded infrared (IR) spectra of t-HOCO(+), H(+)(CO2)2, HCO2 (-), CO2 (-), t-HOCO, and other species isolated in solid p-H2. After the matrix was maintained in darkness for 13 h, intensities of absorption features of t-HOCO(+) at 2403.5 (ν1), 2369.9 (ν2), 1018.1 (ν4), and 606.5 (ν6) cm(-1) and those of H(+)(CO2)2 at 1341.1, 883.6, and 591.5 cm(-1) decreased. Corresponding lines of isotopologues were observed when (13)CO2 or C(18)O2 replaced CO2. In contrast, lines of HCO2 (-) at 2522.4 (ν1), 1616.1 (ν5), 1327.9 (ν2), and 745.6 (ν3) cm(-1) increased in intensity; corresponding lines of H(13)CO2 (-) or HC(18)O2 (-) were also observed. Lines of t-DOCO(+) and DCO2 (-) were observed in an electron bombarded CO2 /normal-deuterium (n-D2) matrix. Data of ν6 of t-HOCO(+) and all observed modes of H(18)OC(18)O(+) and HC(18)O2 (-) are new. The assignments were made according to expected chemical behavior, observed isotopic shifts, and comparisons with vibrational wavenumbers and relative intensities of previous reports and calculations with the B3PW91/aug-cc-pVQZ method. The ν1 line of t-HOCO(+) in solid p-H2 (2403.5 cm(-1)), similar to the line at 2673 cm(-1) of t-HOCO(+) tagged with an Ar atom, is significantly red-shifted from that reported for gaseous t-HOCO(+) (3375.37 cm(-1)) due to partial proton sharing between CO2 and H2 or Ar. The ν1 line of HCO2 (-) in solid p-H2 (2522.4 cm(-1)) is blue shifted from that reported for HCO2 (-) in solid Ne (2455.7 cm(-1)) and that of HCO2 (-) tagged with Ar (2449 cm(-1)); this can be explained by the varied solvation effects by Ne, Ar, or H2 on the mixing of H(+) + CO2 and H + CO2 (-) surfaces. Possible formation mechanisms of t-HOCO(+), H(+)(CO2)2, HCO2 (-), CO2 (-), t-HOCO, H2O, and t-HCOOH are discussed.

  20. Electronic learning and open educational resources in the health sciences in ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adanu, Rmk; Adu-Sarkodie, Y; Opare-Sem, O; Nkyekyer, K; Donkor, P; Lawson, A; Engleberg, N C

    2010-12-01

    To determine whether a group of Ghanaian students are able to easily use electronic learning material and whether they perceive this method of learning as acceptable. The University of Ghana Medical School (UGMS) and the School of Medical Sciences (SMS), Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) PARTICIPANTS: One hundred and fifty third year medical students at SMS and nineteen fifth year medical students at UGMS METHODS: Two e-learning materials were developed, one on the polymerase chain reaction and the other on total abdominal hysterectomy and these were distributed to selected medical students. Two weeks after the distribution of the programmes, a one-page, self-administered questionnaire was distributed to the target groups of students at the two institutions. Ninety three percent (139) of respondents at KNUST and 95% (18) at UG report having access to a computer for learning purposes. All of the UG students viewed the TAH programme; 82% (130) of the KNUST students viewed the PCR animations. All students who viewed the programmes at both institutions indicated that the e-learning pro-grammes were "more effective" in comparison to other methods of learning. Computer ownership or availability at both medical schools is sufficient to permit the distribution and viewing of e-learning materials by students and the medical students considered both programmes to be very helpful.

  1. Cardiovascular implantable electronic device function and longevity at autopsy: an underestimated resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Sunil K; Crain, Barbara; Flickinger, Katie; Calkins, Hugh; Rickard, John; Cheng, Alan; Berger, Ronald; Tomaselli, Gordon; Marine, Joseph E

    2016-10-01

    The feasibility and safety of postmortem cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED; pacemaker or defibrillator) retrieval for reuse has been shown. To date, studies indicate a low yield of reusable postmortem CIEDs (17%-30%). The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that a higher rate of reusable CIEDs would be identified upon postmortem retrieval when an institutional protocol for systematic and routine acquisition, interrogation, reprogramming, and manufacturer analysis was used. Over a 6-year period, all subjects referred for autopsy underwent concomitant CIED pulse generator retrieval and enrollment in the Johns Hopkins Post-Mortem CIED Registry. CIEDs were interrogated, reprogrammed, and submitted for manufacturer analysis. In total, 84 autopsies had CIEDs (37 pacemakers, 47 implantable cardioverter-defibrillators). CIEDs were implanted 2.84 ± 2.32 years before death, with 30% implanted 60% of pacemakers and >50% of defibrillators demonstrated normal functional status with projected longevities >7 years on average. Formation of a national hospital-based "CIED donor network" would facilitate larger scale charitable efforts in underserved countries. Copyright © 2016 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Green Supply Chain Collaboration for Fashionable Consumer Electronics Products under Third-Party Power Intervention—A Resource Dependence Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuh-Biing Sheu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Under third-party power intervention (TPPI, which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced green supply chain collaboration in brander-retailer bidirectional green supply chains of fashionable consumer electronics products (FCEPs. An FCEP refers to the consumer electronics product (e.g., personal computers, mobile phones, computer notebooks, and game consoles with the features of a well-known brand associated, a short product lifecycle, timely and fashionable design fit for market trends, and quick responsiveness to the variations of market demands. The proposed model is tested empirically using questionnaire data obtained from retailers in the FCEP brander-retailer distribution channels. Analytical results reveal that as an extension of political and social power, TPPI positively affects the reciprocal interdependence of dyadic members and reduces power asymmetry, thereby enhancing the collaborative relationship of dyadic members and leading to improved green supply chain performance. Therein, reciprocal interdependence underlying collaborative relationship is the key to reducing the external environmental uncertainties in the TPPI context.

  3. Direct atomic flux measurement of electron-beam evaporated yttrium with a diode-laser-based atomic absorption monitor at 668 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, W.; Hammond, R.H.; Fejer, M.M.; Arnason, S.; Beasley, M.R.; Bortz, M.L.; Day, T.

    1997-01-01

    A direct measurement of atomic flux in e-beam evaporated yttrium has been demonstrated with a diode-laser-based atomic absorption (AA) monitor at 668 nm. Atomic number density and velocity were measured through absorption and Doppler shift measurements to provide the atomic flux. The AA-based deposition rates were compared with independent quartz crystal monitors showing agreement between the two methods. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  4. Contrasting ERP absorption between transition and developed economies from Central and Eastern Europe (CEE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernroider, Edward W.N.; Sudzina, Frantisek; Pucihar, Andreja

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates Enterprise Resource Planning absorption in transition and developed economies in Central and Eastern Europe. Using absorptive capacity theory and data envelopment analysis, we view organizational transformation in Enterprise Resource Planning absorption as an economic...

  5. Electronic medical record data to identify variables associated with a fibromyalgia diagnosis: importance of health care resource utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masters ET

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth T Masters,1 Jack Mardekian,1 Birol Emir,1 Andrew Clair,1 Max Kuhn,2 Stuart L Silverman,31Pfizer, Inc., New York, NY, 2Pfizer, Inc., Groton, CT, 3Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USABackground: Diagnosis of fibromyalgia (FM is often challenging. Identifying factors associated with an FM diagnosis may guide health care providers in implementing appropriate diagnostic and management strategies.Methods: This retrospective study used the de-identified Humedica electronic medical record (EMR database to identify variables associated with an FM diagnosis. Cases (n=4,296 were subjects ≥18 years old with ≥2 International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9 codes for FM (729.1 ≥30 days apart during 2012, associated with an integrated delivery network, with ≥1 encounter with a health care provider in 2011 and 2012. Controls without FM (no-FM; n=583,665 did not have the ICD-9 codes for FM. Demographic, clinical, and health care resource utilization variables were extracted from structured EMR data. Univariate analysis identified variables showing significant differences between the cohorts based on odds ratios (ORs.Results: Consistent with FM epidemiology, FM subjects were predominantly female (78.7% vs 64.5%; P<0.0001 and slightly older (mean age 53.3 vs 52.7 years; P=0.0318. Relative to the no-FM cohort, the FM cohort was characterized by a higher prevalence of nearly all evaluated comorbidities; the ORs suggested a higher likelihood of an FM diagnosis (P<0.0001, especially for musculoskeletal and neuropathic pain conditions (OR 3.1 for each condition. Variables potentially associated with an FM diagnosis included higher levels of use of specific health care resources including emergency-room visits, outpatient visits, hospitalizations, and medications. Units used per subject for emergency-room visits, outpatient visits, hospitalizations, and medications were also significantly higher in the FM cohort (P<0

  6. Development of an electronic medical record based alert for risk of HIV treatment failure in a low-resource setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Puttkammer

    Full Text Available The adoption of electronic medical record systems in resource-limited settings can help clinicians monitor patients' adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART and identify patients at risk of future ART failure, allowing resources to be targeted to those most at risk.Among adult patients enrolled on ART from 2005-2013 at two large, public-sector hospitals in Haiti, ART failure was assessed after 6-12 months on treatment, based on the World Health Organization's immunologic and clinical criteria. We identified models for predicting ART failure based on ART adherence measures and other patient characteristics. We assessed performance of candidate models using area under the receiver operating curve, and validated results using a randomly-split data sample. The selected prediction model was used to generate a risk score, and its ability to differentiate ART failure risk over a 42-month follow-up period was tested using stratified Kaplan Meier survival curves.Among 923 patients with CD4 results available during the period 6-12 months after ART initiation, 196 (21.2% met ART failure criteria. The pharmacy-based proportion of days covered (PDC measure performed best among five possible ART adherence measures at predicting ART failure. Average PDC during the first 6 months on ART was 79.0% among cases of ART failure and 88.6% among cases of non-failure (p<0.01. When additional information including sex, baseline CD4, and duration of enrollment in HIV care prior to ART initiation were added to PDC, the risk score differentiated between those who did and did not meet failure criteria over 42 months following ART initiation.Pharmacy data are most useful for new ART adherence alerts within iSanté. Such alerts offer potential to help clinicians identify patients at high risk of ART failure so that they can be targeted with adherence support interventions, before ART failure occurs.

  7. Electronic structure of the [tris(dithiolene)chromium](z) (z = 0, 1-, 2-, 3-) electron transfer series and their manganese(IV) analogues. An X-ray absorption spectroscopic and density functional theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Priyabrata; Sproules, Stephen; Weyhermüller, Thomas; Debeer George, Serena; Wieghardt, Karl

    2009-07-06

    From the reaction mixture of 3,6-dichlorobenzene-1,2-dithiol, H(2)(Cl(2)-bdt), [CrCl(3)(thf)(3)], and NEt(3) in tetrahydrofuran (thf) in the presence of air, dark green crystals of [N(n-Bu)(4)](2)[Cr(Cl(2)-bdt)(3)] (S = 1) (1) were isolated upon addition of [N(n-Bu)(4)]Br. Oxidation of the AsPh(4)(+) salt of 1 with [Fc]PF(6) yielded microcrystals of [AsPh(4)][Cr(Cl(2)-bdt)(3)] (S = (1)/(2)) (2) whereas the reduction of 1 with sodium amalgam produced light green crystals of [N-(n-Bu)(4)](3)[Cr(Cl(2)-bdt)(3)].thf (S = (3)/(2)) (3). The corresponding maleonitriledithiolato complexes [PPh(4)](2)[Cr(mnt)(3)] (S = 1) (4) and [PPh(4)](3)[Cr(mnt)(3)] (S = (3)/(2)) (5) have been synthesized. Isoelectronic manganese complexes of 3 and 5, namely, [NEt(4)](2)[Mn(Cl(2)-bdt)(3)] (S = (3)/(2)) (6) and [PPh(4)](2)[Mn(mnt)(3)] (S = (3)/(2)) (7), have also been prepared. Complexes 1, 6, and 7 have been characterized by single crystal X-ray crystallography. Complexes 1-7 have been electrochemically studied and their UV-vis and electron paramagnetic resonance spectra (EPR) have been recorded; magnetic properties have been elucidated by temperature-dependent susceptibility measurements. It is shown by chromium K-edge and sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) that the oxidation state of the central Cr ion in each compound is the same (+III, d(3)) and that all one-electron redox processes are ligand-based, involving one, two, or three ligand pi radical monoanions. Complexes 6 and 7 possess a Mn(IV) ion with three dianionic ligands. The results have been corroborated by broken symmetry (BS) density functional theoretical (DFT) calculations by using the B3LYP functional. Time-dependent DFT calculations have been performed to calculate the metal and sulfur K-pre-edges. It is suggested that the neutral complexes [Cr(dithiolene)(3)](0) S = 0 possess octahedral rather than trigonal prismatic CrS(6) polyhedra. Three ligand pi radicals (S(rad) = (1)/(2)) couple antiferromagnetically

  8. Consumer reports [electronic resource

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1942-01-01

    ... only. A limited number of selected reports, advice on product selection and safety alerts are freely available, as are a five year listing of product recalls, a listing of major consumer product...

  9. Electronic Commerce Resource Centers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caprio, Kimberley

    1997-01-01

    ... No. 5AB-0052, "Audit of the Management and Administration of Research Projects Funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency," will discuss the adequacy of the Defense Advanced Research...

  10. Electronic Information Resources (EIR Adoption in Private University Libraries: The Moderating Effect of Productivity and Relative Advantage on Perceived Usefulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izuagbe, Roland

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study tested a hybrid model with constructs drawn from the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM and Diffusion of Innovation (DOI theory in order to examine the moderating effect of productivity and relative advantage (RA on perceived usefulness (PU vis-à-vis electronic information resources (EIR adoption in private university libraries in Ogun and Osun States of Nigeria. The descriptive research design was adopted in the study. The population consisted of 61 (55.0% librarians and 50 (45.0% library officers (totaling 116—100% in Babcock University, Bells University, Covenant University, Bowen University, Oduduwa University, and Redeemer's University. Purposive sampling procedure was adopted after which total enumeration was used since the total population is small. The questionnaire was used for data collection. Of the 116 copies of the questionnaire administered, 111 (95.7% were found usable. The instrument was structured based on a 4-point Likert agreement scale of Strongly Agree, Agree, Disagree, and Strongly Disagree. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics like tables of frequency counts and percentage. The findings revealed that productivity and relative advantage are significant moderators of perceived usefulness of EIR adoption in private university libraries in Ogun and Osun States, Nigeria.

  11. Conclusively Addressing the CoPc Electronic Structure : A Joint Gas-Phase and Solid-State Photoemission and Absorption Spectroscopy Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brumboiu, I. E.; Lanzilotto, V.; Luder, J.; Grazioli, C.; Giangrisostomi, E.; Ovsyannikov, R.; Sass, Y.; Bidermane, I.; Stupar, M.; de Simone, M.; Coreno, M.; Ressel, B.; Pedio, M.; Rudolf, P.; Brena, B.; Puglia, C.

    2017-01-01

    The occupied and empty densities of states of cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc) were investigated by photoelectron and X-ray absorption spectroscopies in the gas phase and in thin films deposited on a Au(111) surface. The comparison between the gas-phase results and density functional theory

  12. Electronic and crystallographic properties of the system CeY2Ni9Dx (0-bar x-bar 8.7) measured by X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latroche, M.; Paul-Boncour, V.; Percheron-Guegan, A.

    2005-01-01

    The electronic and crystallographic properties of CeY 2 Ni 9 D x (0-bar x-bar 8.7D/f.u.) have been investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The PuNi 3 -type structure (space group R3-bar m) is described as a stacking of RM 2 and RM 5 units (R: Y, Ce; M: Ni). Hydrogen occupies the RM 2 units only. The Ce-L III and Ni-K edges have been measured by XAS as a function of hydrogen uptake. A heterogeneous mixed valence state is reported for Ce in the hydride and related to differences in deuterium site occupancies. Huge anisotropic volume expansion is observed and is related to hydrogen absorption and valence change of Ce

  13. The BRIGHTEN Program: Implementation and Evaluation of a Program to Bridge Resources of an Interdisciplinary Geriatric Health Team via Electronic Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Erin E.; Lapidos, Stan; Eisenstein, Amy R.; Ivan, Iulia I.; Golden, Robyn L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of the BRIGHTEN Program (Bridging Resources of an Interdisciplinary Geriatric Health Team via Electronic Networking), an interdisciplinary team intervention for assessing and treating older adults for depression in outpatient primary and specialty medical clinics. The BRIGHTEN team collaborates "virtually"…

  14. The module of methodical support in system of electronic educational resources as the innovative element of the modern maintenance of formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Николаевна Крылова

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces some results of research, which were devoted to evaluation of tearches' mobility to introduce innovations in the contents of education. The author considers innovative potential of modules of the methodical support for system of electronic educational resources.

  15. Charting a Course through CORAL: Texas A&M University Libraries' Experience Implementing an Open-Source Electronic Resources Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, Eric; Beh, Eugenia; Resnick, Taryn; Ugaz, Ana; Tabacaru, Simona

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, after two previous unsuccessful attempts at electronic resources management system (ERMS) implementation, Texas A&M University (TAMU) Libraries set out once again to find an ERMS that would fit its needs. After surveying the field, TAMU Libraries selected the University of Notre Dame Hesburgh Libraries-developed, open-source ERMS,…

  16. 圖書館事業專欄/Marketing of Electronic Information Resources: A Case of The J.D. Rockefeller Research Library, Egerton University/Nerisa Kamar

    OpenAIRE

    Nerisa Kamar

    2008-01-01

    This paper gives a brief overview of electronic information resources and services offered by The J.D. Rockefeller Research Library at Egerton University and the marketing of these resources. The paper examines the various reasons for marketing electronic information resources, with emphasis on the various, and illustrates marketing strategies used by J.D Rockefeller Research library towards effective utilization of the available resources in supporting research, teaching and learnin...

  17. Measurement of electron-spin transports in GaAs quantum wells using a transmission-grating-sampled circular dichroism absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Hua-Liang; Fang, Shaoyin; Wen, Jinhui; Lai, Tianshu

    2014-01-01

    A transmission-grating-sampled circular dichroism absorption spectroscopy (TGS-CDAS) and its theoretical model are developed sensitively to measure decay dynamics of a transient spin grating (TSG). A binary transmission grating with the same period as TSG is set behind TSG. It allows only a same small part of each period in TSG measured by circular dichroism absorption effect of a probe. In this way, the zero average of spin-dependent effects measured over a whole period in TSG is avoided so that TGS-CDAS has a high sensitivity to spin evolution in TSG. Spin transport experiments are performed on GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells. Experimental results prove the feasibility and reliability of TGS-CDAS

  18. The extraction of gold nanoparticles from oat and wheat biomasses using sodium citrate and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, studied by x-ray absorption spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and UV-visible spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armendariz, Veronica; Parsons, Jason G; Lopez, Martha L; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Jose-Yacaman, Miguel; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2009-03-11

    Gold (Au) nanoparticles can be produced through the interaction of Au(III) ions with oat and wheat biomasses. This paper describes a procedure to recover gold nanoparticles from oat and wheat biomasses using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide or sodium citrate. Extracts were analyzed using UV-visible spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The HRTEM data demonstrated that smaller nanoparticles are extracted first, followed by larger nanoparticles. In the fourth extraction, coating of chelating agents is visible on the extracted nanoparticles.

  19. The extraction of gold nanoparticles from oat and wheat biomasses using sodium citrate and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, studied by x-ray absorption spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and UV-visible spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armendariz, Veronica; Parsons, Jason G; Lopez, Martha L; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L; Jose-Yacaman, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    Gold (Au) nanoparticles can be produced through the interaction of Au(III) ions with oat and wheat biomasses. This paper describes a procedure to recover gold nanoparticles from oat and wheat biomasses using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide or sodium citrate. Extracts were analyzed using UV-visible spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The HRTEM data demonstrated that smaller nanoparticles are extracted first, followed by larger nanoparticles. In the fourth extraction, coating of chelating agents is visible on the extracted nanoparticles.

  20. Extensive reduction in back electron transfer in twisted intramolecular charge-transfer (TICT) coumarin-dye-sensitized TiO(2) nanoparticles/film: a femtosecond transient absorption study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Tushar; Maity, Partha; Lobo, Hyacintha; Singh, Balvant; Shankarling, Ganapati S; Ghosh, Hirendra N

    2014-03-17

    We report the synthesis, characterization, and optical and electrochemical properties of two structurally similar coumarin dyes (C1 and C2). These dyes have been deployed as sensitizers in TiO2 nanoparticles and thin films, and the effect of molecular structure on interfacial electron-transfer dynamics has been studied. Steady-state optical absorption, emission, and time-resolved emission studies on both C1 and C2, varying the polarity of the solvent and the solution pH, suggest that both photoexcited dyes exist in a locally excited (LE) state in solvents of low polarity. In highly polar solvents, however, C1 exists in an intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT) state, whereas C2 exists in both ICT and twisted intramolecular charge-transfer (TICT) states, their populations depending on the degree of polarity of the solvent and the pH of the solution. We have employed femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy to monitor the charge-transfer dynamics in C1- and C2-sensitized TiO2 nanoparticles and thin films. Electron injection has been confirmed by direct detection of electrons in the conduction band of TiO2 nanoparticles and of radical cations of the dyes in the visible and near-IR regions of the transient absorption spectra. Electron injection in both the C1/TiO2 and C2/TiO2 systems has been found to be pulse-width limited (<100 fs); however, back-electron-transfer (BET) dynamics has been found to be slower in the C2/TiO2 system than in the C1/TiO2 system. The involvement of TICT states in C2 is solely responsible for the higher electron injection yield as well as the slower BET process compared to those in the C1/TiO2 system. Further pH-dependent experiments on C1- and C2-sensitized TiO2 thin films have corroborated the participation of the TICT state in the slower BET process in the C2/TiO2 system. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Effect of internal R&D activities to the accumulation of organizational technical knowledge with the mediation role of absorptive capacity to establish the innovation capability of electronic industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purwanggono Bambang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovation is a strategy for the electronics industry to create a sustainable competitive advantage, in the midst of a rapidly changing environment with all its complexity. Seven AT program as an effort for PT. Hartono Istana Teknologi (Polytron into enterprise knowledge, will accelerate the innovation process, combined with good organizational technical knowledge management. Organizational technical knowledge will be instrumental in innovation capabilities properly if there is an internal R & D activities that support and absorptive capacity as a mediator. This study reviewed the organizational technical knowledge influence to innovation capability, the influence of R & D activities to organizational technical knowledge, as well as the role of absorptive capacity as a mediator. The study was conducted by distributing questionnaires to 130 employees of PT. Hartono Istana Teknologi. Data processing was conducted using SEM. The results showed that the absorptive capacity mediate the relationship between R & D activities and organizational technical knowledge by 51%, and organizational technical knowledge affect innovation capabilities by 64%.

  2. Multifunctional hybrids for electromagnetic absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huynen, I. [Research Center in Micro and Nanoscopic Materials and Electronic Devices, CeRMiN, Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Information and Communications Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics (ICTEAM), Microwave Laboratory, Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Quievy, N. [Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences (IMCN), Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Bailly, C. [Research Center in Micro and Nanoscopic Materials and Electronic Devices, CeRMiN, Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences (IMCN), Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Institute of Mechanics, Materials and Civil Engineering (iMMC), Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Bollen, P. [Information and Communications Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics (ICTEAM), Microwave Laboratory, Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences (IMCN), Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Institute of Mechanics, Materials and Civil Engineering (iMMC), Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Detrembleur, C. [Center for Education and Research on Macromolecules (CERM), University of Liege, Sart-Tilman B6a, 4000 Liege (Belgium); Eggermont, S.; Molenberg, I. [Information and Communications Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics (ICTEAM), Microwave Laboratory, Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Thomassin, J.M.; Urbanczyk, L. [Center for Education and Research on Macromolecules (CERM), University of Liege, Sart-Tilman B6a, 4000 Liege (Belgium)

    2011-05-15

    Highlights: > EM absorption requires low dielectric constant and {approx}1 S/m electrical conductivity. > New hybrids were processed with CNT-filled polymer foam inserted in Al honeycomb. > The EM absorption in the GHz range is superior to any known material. > A closed form model is used to guide the design of the hybrid. > The architectured material is light with potential for thermal management. - Abstract: Electromagnetic (EM) interferences are ubiquitous in modern technologies and impact on the reliability of electronic devices and on living cells. Shielding by EM absorption, which is preferable over reflection in certain instances, requires combining a low dielectric constant with high electrical conductivity, which are antagonist properties in the world of materials. A novel class of hybrid materials for EM absorption in the gigahertz range has been developed based on a hierarchical architecture involving a metallic honeycomb filled with a carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer foam. The waveguide characteristics of the honeycomb combined with the performance of the foam lead to unexpectedly large EM power absorption over a wide frequency range, superior to any known material. The peak absorption frequency can be tuned by varying the shape of the honeycomb unit cell. A closed form model of the EM reflection and absorption provides a tool for the optimization of the hybrid. This designed material sets the stage for a new class of sandwich panels combining high EM absorption with mass efficiency, stiffness and thermal management.

  3. Multifunctional hybrids for electromagnetic absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huynen, I.; Quievy, N.; Bailly, C.; Bollen, P.; Detrembleur, C.; Eggermont, S.; Molenberg, I.; Thomassin, J.M.; Urbanczyk, L.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → EM absorption requires low dielectric constant and ∼1 S/m electrical conductivity. → New hybrids were processed with CNT-filled polymer foam inserted in Al honeycomb. → The EM absorption in the GHz range is superior to any known material. → A closed form model is used to guide the design of the hybrid. → The architectured material is light with potential for thermal management. - Abstract: Electromagnetic (EM) interferences are ubiquitous in modern technologies and impact on the reliability of electronic devices and on living cells. Shielding by EM absorption, which is preferable over reflection in certain instances, requires combining a low dielectric constant with high electrical conductivity, which are antagonist properties in the world of materials. A novel class of hybrid materials for EM absorption in the gigahertz range has been developed based on a hierarchical architecture involving a metallic honeycomb filled with a carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer foam. The waveguide characteristics of the honeycomb combined with the performance of the foam lead to unexpectedly large EM power absorption over a wide frequency range, superior to any known material. The peak absorption frequency can be tuned by varying the shape of the honeycomb unit cell. A closed form model of the EM reflection and absorption provides a tool for the optimization of the hybrid. This designed material sets the stage for a new class of sandwich panels combining high EM absorption with mass efficiency, stiffness and thermal management.

  4. Ab Initio Potential Energy Surfaces for Both the Ground (X̃1A′ and Excited (A∼1A′′ Electronic States of HSiBr and the Absorption and Emission Spectra of HSiBr/DSiBr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anyang Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ab initio potential energy surfaces for the ground (X̃1A′ and excited (A˜A′′1 electronic states of HSiBr were obtained by using the single and double excitation coupled-cluster theory with a noniterative perturbation treatment of triple excitations and the multireference configuration interaction with Davidson correction, respectively, employing an augmented correlation-consistent polarized valence quadruple zeta basis set. The calculated vibrational energy levels of HSiBr and DSiBr of the ground and excited electronic states are in excellent agreement with the available experimental band origins. In addition, the absorption and emission spectra of HSiBr and DSiBr were calculated using an efficient single Lanczos propagation method and are in good agreement with the available experimental observations.

  5. Ab initio potential energy surfaces for the ground (X1A') and excited (A1A'') electronic states of HGeBr and the Absorption and emission spectra of HGeBr/DGeBr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sen; Xie, Daiqian; Guo, Hua

    2009-07-02

    We report global potential energy surfaces for both the ground (X(1)A') and the excited (A(1)A'') electronic states of HGeBr as well as the transition dipole moment surface between them using an internally contracted multireference configuration interaction method with the Davidson correction and an augmented correlation-consistent polarized valence quadruple-zeta basis set. Vibrational energy levels of HGeBr and DGeBr are calculated on both the ground and the excited electronic states and found in good agreement with the available experimental band origins. In addition, the A(1)A''-X(1)A' absorption and emission spectra of the two isotopomers were obtained, and an excellent agreement with the available experimental spectra was found.

  6. Studies of electron-hole recombination processes at deep levels in GaAs and GaP by means of transient optical absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, T.; Ishikawa, Y.; Tanimura, K.; Hayashi, Y.; Itoh, N.

    1989-01-01

    Studies of recombination processes by means of transient optical absorption (TOA) spectroscopy in GaAs and GaP are reviewed. It is pointed out that the technique can reveal production of excited states having long lifetimes and of non-luminescent metastable states. Two distinct recombination processes in GaAs containing EL2 defects are discussed: one is at the metastable EL2 defects, accompanied with transformation to the EL2 defects and the other is at deep acceptors through pair recombination. (author) 11 refs., 2 figs

  7. Ultraviolet photochemical reaction of [Fe(III(C2O43]3− in aqueous solutions studied by femtosecond time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy using an X-ray free electron laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ogi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy was performed for aqueous ammonium iron(III oxalate trihydrate solutions using an X-ray free electron laser and a synchronized ultraviolet laser. The spectral and time resolutions of the experiment were 1.3 eV and 200 fs, respectively. A femtosecond 268 nm pulse was employed to excite [Fe(III(C2O43]3− in solution from the high-spin ground electronic state to ligand-to-metal charge transfer state(s, and the subsequent dynamics were studied by observing the time-evolution of the X-ray absorption spectrum near the Fe K-edge. Upon 268 nm photoexcitation, the Fe K-edge underwent a red-shift by more than 4 eV within 140 fs; however, the magnitude of the redshift subsequently diminished within 3 ps. The Fe K-edge of the photoproduct remained lower in energy than that of [Fe(III(C2O43]3−. The observed red-shift of the Fe K-edge and the spectral feature of the product indicate that Fe(III is upon excitation immediately photoreduced to Fe(II, followed by ligand dissociation from Fe(II. Based on a comparison of the X-ray absorption spectra with density functional theory calculations, we propose that the dissociation proceeds in two steps, forming first [(CO2•Fe(II(C2O42]3− and subsequently [Fe(II(C2O42]2−.

  8. The electronic Trauma Health Record: design and usability of a novel tablet-based tool for trauma care and injury surveillance in low resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargaran, Eiman; Schuurman, Nadine; Nicol, Andrew J; Matzopoulos, Richard; Cinnamon, Jonathan; Taulu, Tracey; Ricker, Britta; Garbutt Brown, David Ross; Navsaria, Pradeep; Hameed, S Morad

    2014-01-01

    Ninety percent of global trauma deaths occur in under-resourced or remote environments, with little or no capacity for injury surveillance. We hypothesized that emerging electronic and web-based technologies could enable design of a tablet-based application, the electronic Trauma Health Record (eTHR), used by front-line clinicians to inform trauma care and acquire injury surveillance data for injury control and health policy development. The study was conducted in 3 phases: 1. Design of an electronic application capable of supporting clinical care and injury surveillance; 2. Preliminary feasibility testing of eTHR in a low-resource, high-volume trauma center; and 3. Qualitative usability testing with 22 trauma clinicians from a spectrum of high- and low-resource and urban and remote settings including Vancouver General Hospital, Whitehorse General Hospital, British Columbia Mobile Medical Unit, and Groote Schuur Hospital in Cape Town, South Africa. The eTHR was designed with 3 key sections (admission note, operative note, discharge summary), and 3 key capabilities (clinical checklist creation, injury severity scoring, wireless data transfer to electronic registries). Clinician-driven registry data collection proved to be feasible, with some limitations, in a busy South African trauma center. In pilot testing at a level I trauma center in Cape Town, use of eTHR as a clinical tool allowed for creation of a real-time, self-populating trauma database. Usability assessments with traumatologists in various settings revealed the need for unique eTHR adaptations according to environments of intended use. In all settings, eTHR was found to be user-friendly and have ready appeal for frontline clinicians. The eTHR has potential to be used as an electronic medical record, guiding clinical care while providing data for injury surveillance, without significantly hindering hospital workflow in various health-care settings. Copyright © 2014 American College of Surgeons. Published

  9. Imaging ultrafast excited state pathways in transition metal complexes by X-ray transient absorption and scattering using X-ray free electron laser source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Lin X; Shelby, Megan L; Lestrange, Patrick J

    2016-01-01

    orbital energies. A strong influence of the valence orbital occupation on the inner shell orbital energies indicates that one should not use the transition energy from 1s to other orbitals to draw conclusions about the d-orbital energies. For photocatalysis, a transient electronic configuration could...

  10. L-Edge X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Dilute Systems Relevant to Metalloproteins Using an X-ray Free-Electron Laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitzner, Rolf; Rehanek, Jens; Kern, Jan; Gul, Sheraz; Hattne, Johan; Taguchi, Taketo; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Tran, Rosalie; Weniger, Christian; Schroeder, Henning; Quevedo, Wilson; Laksmono, Hartawan; Sierra, Raymond G.; Han, Guangye; Lassalle-Kaiser, Benedikt; Koroidov, Sergey; Kubicek, Katharina; Schreck, Simon; Kunnus, Kristjan; Brzhezinskaya, Maria; Firsov, Alexander; Minitti, Michael P.; Turner, Joshua J.; Moeller, Stefan; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Bogan, Michael J.; Nordlund, Dennis; Schlotter, William F.; Messinger, Johannes; Borovik, Andrew; Techert, Simone; de Groot, Frank M. F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/08747610X; Foehlisch, Alexander; Erko, Alexei; Bergmann, Uwe; Yachandra, Vittal K.; Wernet, Philippe; Yano, Junko

    2013-01-01

    L-edge spectroscopy of 3d transition metals provides important electronic structure information and has been used in many fields. However, the use of this method for studying dilute aqueous systems, such as metalloenzymes, has not been prevalent because of severe radiation damage and the lack of

  11. Imaging ultrafast excited state pathways in transition metal complexes by X-ray transient absorption and scattering using X-ray free electron laser source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Lin X; Shelby, Megan L; Lestrange, Patrick J

    2016-01-01

    This report will describe our recent studies of transition metal complex structural dynamics on the fs and ps time scales using an X-ray free electron laser source, Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Ultrafast XANES spectra at the Ni K-edge of nickel(ii) tetramesitylporphyrin (NiTMP) were measur...

  12. Barriers to electronic access and delivery of educational information in resource constrained public schools: a case of Greater Tubatse Municipality

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pholotho, T

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are capable of expanding access to quality education, educational resources and provide teachers with new skills. Nevertheless, a majority of rural public schools have limited ICTs, mainly due...

  13. Electronic Grey Literature in Accelerator Science and Its Allied Subjects : Selected Web Resources for Scientists and Engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Rajendiran, P

    2006-01-01

    Grey literature Web resources in the field of accelerator science and its allied subjects are collected for the scientists and engineers of RRCAT (Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology). For definition purposes the different types of grey literature are described. The Web resources collected and compiled in this article (with an overview and link for each) specifically focus on technical reports, preprints or e-prints, which meet the main information needs of RRCAT users.

  14. Determination of the electronic structure and UV-Vis absorption properties of (Na2-xCux)Ta4O11 from first-principle calculations

    KAUST Repository

    Harb, Moussab

    2013-08-29

    Density functional theory (DFT) and density functional perturbation theory (DFPT) were applied to study the structural, electronic, and optical properties of a (Na2-xCux)Ta4O11 solid solution to accurately calculate the band gap and to predict the optical transitions in these materials using the screened coulomb hybrid (HSE06) exchange-correlation formalism. The calculated density of states showed excellent agreement with UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra predicting a significant red-shift of the band gap from 4.58 eV (calculated 4.94 eV) to 2.76 eV (calculated 2.60 eV) as copper content increased from 0 to 83.3%. The band gap narrowing in these materials, compared to Na2Ta4O11, results from the incorporation of new occupied electronic states, which are strongly localized on the Cu 3d orbitals, and is located within 2.16-2.34 eV just above the valence band of Na2Ta4O11. These new occupied states, however, possess an electronic character localized on Cu, which makes hole mobility limited in the semiconductor. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  15. Photochemical reaction dynamics of 2,2'-dithiobis(benzothiazole): direct observation of the addition product of an aromatic thiyl radical to an alkene with time-resolved vibrational and electronic absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Daisuke; Orr-Ewing, Andrew J

    2016-04-28

    The photochemical reaction dynamics of the benzothiazole-2-thiyl (BS) radical, produced by 330 nm ultraviolet photolysis of 2,2'-dithiobis(benzothiazole) (BSSB), are examined on the picosecond time scale. The initial addition product of a thiol-ene reaction between the BS radical and styrene is directly observed by transient vibrational absorption spectroscopy (TVAS). Transient electronic absorption spectroscopy (TEAS) in the ultraviolet and visible spectral regions reveals rapid formation of the ground state BS radical with a time constant of ∼200 fs. The photolytically generated BS radical decays through geminate recombination to the parent molecule BSSB and competitive formation of a BS radical dimer with a rate coefficient of (3.7 ± 0.2) × 10(10) M(-1) s(-1) in methanol, and thereafter (36 ± 1)% of the initially formed BS radicals survive at the longest time delay (1.3 ns). In styrene solution, in contrast to methanol and toluene solutions, kinetic traces of the BS radical show an additional decay with a time constant of 305 ± 13 ps, and a broad band at 345-500 nm grows with the same time constant, suggesting a bimolecular reaction of the BS radical with styrene. The TVAS measurements reveal an absorption band of the ground state BS radical at 1301 cm(-1) in toluene solution, and the band decays with a time constant of 294 ± 32 ps in styrene solution. Two product bands grow at 1239 cm(-1) and 1429 cm(-1) with respective time constants of 312 ± 68 ps and 325 ± 33 ps, and are attributed to the addition product BS-St radical formed from the BS radical and styrene. A bimolecular reaction rate coefficient of kreact = (3.8 ± 0.2) × 10(8) M(-1) s(-1) is deduced and 22 ± 1% of the initially formed BS radicals are converted to the BS-St radical in neat styrene solution.

  16. Organic sensitizers from D-π-A to D-A-π-A: effect of the internal electron-withdrawing units on molecular absorption, energy levels and photovoltaic performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yongzhen; Zhu, Weihong

    2013-03-07

    The high performance and low cost of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have drawn great interest from both academic and industrial circles. The research on exploring novel efficient sensitizers, especially on inexpensive metal-free pure organic dyes, has never been suspended. The donor-π bridge-acceptor (D-π-A) configuration is mainstream in the design of organic sensitizers due to its convenient modulation of the intramolecular charge-transfer nature. Recently, it has been found that incorporation of additional electron-withdrawing units (such as benzothiadiazole, benzotriazole, quinoxaline, phthalimide, diketopyrrolopyrrole, thienopyrazine, thiazole, triazine, cyanovinyl, cyano- and fluoro-substituted phenyl) into the π bridge as internal acceptors, termed the D-A-π-A configuration, displays several advantages such as tuning of the molecular energy levels, red-shift of the charge-transfer absorption band, and distinct improvement of photovoltaic performance and stability. We apply the D-A-π-A concept broadly to the organic sensitizers containing additional electron-withdrawing units between electron donors and acceptors. This review is projected to summarize the category of pure organic sensitizers on the basis of the D-A-π-A feature. By comparing the structure-property relationship of typical photovoltaic D-A-π-A dyes, the important guidelines in the design of such materials are highlighted.

  17. New ab initio potential energy surfaces for both the ground (X̃1A') and excited (Ã1A″) electronic states of HSiCl and the absorption and emission spectra of HSiCl/DSiCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sen; Xie, Daiqian

    2011-06-01

    New ab initio potential energy surfaces for the ground (X̃1A') and excited (Ã1A″) electronic states of HSiCl were obtained by using the single and double excitation coupled-cluster theory with a noniterative perturbation treatment of triple excitations and the multi-reference configuration interaction with Davidson correction, respectively, employing an augmented correlation-consistent polarized valence quadruple zeta basis set. For the excited state Ã1A″, an extended active space (18 electrons in 12 orbitals) was used. The calculated vibrational energy levels of HSiCl and DSiCl of the ground and excited electronic states are in better agreement with the available experimental values than the previous theoretical results. In addition, with the calculated transition dipole moment, the absorption and emission spectra of HSiCl and DSiCl were calculated using an efficient single Lanczos propagation method and are in reasonable agreement with the available observed spectra. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Sensing properties of multiwalled carbon nanotubes grown in MW plasma torch: electronic and electrochemical behavior, gas sensing, field emission, IR absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majzlíková, Petra; Sedláček, Jiří; Prášek, Jan; Pekárek, Jan; Svatoš, Vojtěch; Bannov, Alexander G; Jašek, Ondřej; Synek, Petr; Eliáš, Marek; Zajíčková, Lenka; Hubálek, Jaromír

    2015-01-26

    Vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (VA-MWCNTs) with an average diameter below 80 nm and a thickness of the uniform VA-MWCNT layer of about 16 µm were grown in microwave plasma torch and tested for selected functional properties. IR absorption important for a construction of bolometers was studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Basic electrochemical characterization was performed by cyclic voltammetry. Comparing the obtained results with the standard or MWCNT‑modified screen-printed electrodes, the prepared VA-MWCNT electrodes indicated their high potential for the construction of electrochemical sensors. Resistive CNT gas sensor revealed a good sensitivity to ammonia taking into account room temperature operation. Field emission detected from CNTs was suitable for the pressure sensing application based on the measurement of emission current in the diode structure with bending diaphragm. The advantages of microwave plasma torch growth of CNTs, i.e., fast processing and versatility of the process, can be therefore fully exploited for the integration of surface-bound grown CNTs into various sensing structures.

  19. Simulating Ru L 3 -Edge X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy with Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory: Model Complexes and Electron Localization in Mixed-Valence Metal Dimers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Kuiken, Benjamin E.; Valiev, Marat; Daifuku, Stephanie L.; Bannan, Caitlin; Strader, Matthew L.; Cho, Hana; Huse, Nils; Schoenlein, Robert W.; Govind, Niranjan; Khalil, Munira

    2013-05-30

    Ruthenium L3-edge X-ray absorption (XA) spectroscopy probes unoccupied 4d orbitals of the metal atom and is increasingly being used to investigate the local electronic structure in ground and excited electronic states of Ru complexes. The simultaneous development of computational tools for simulating Ru L3-edge spectra is crucial for interpreting the spectral features at a molecular level. This study demonstrates that time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is a viable and predictive tool for simulating ruthenium L3-edge XA spectroscopy. We systematically investigate the effects of exchange correlation functional and implicit and explicit solvent interactions on a series of RuII and RuIII complexes in their ground and electronic excited states. The TDDFT simulations reproduce all of the experimentally observed features in Ru L3-edge XA spectra within the experimental resolution (0.4 eV). Our simulations identify ligand-specific charge transfer features in complicated Ru L3-edge spectra of [Ru(CN)6]4- and RuII polypyridyl complexes illustrating the advantage of using TDDFT in complex systems. We conclude that the B3LYP functional most accurately predicts the transition energies of charge transfer features in these systems. We use our TDDFT approach to simulate experimental Ru L3-edge XA spectra of transition metal mixed-valence dimers of the form [(NC)5MII-CN-RuIII(NH3)5] (where M = Fe or Ru) dissolved in water. Our study determines the spectral signatures of electron delocalization in Ru L3-edge XA spectra. We find that the inclusion of explicit solvent molecules is necessary for reproducing the spectral features and the experimentally determined valencies in these mixed-valence complexes. This study validates the use of TDDFT for simulating Ru 2p excitations using popular quantum chemistry codes and providing a powerful interpretive tool for equilibrium and ultrafast Ru L3-edge XA spectroscopy.

  20. MS-Xα calculation of the elastic electron scattering cross sections and x-ray absorption spectra of CX4 and SiX4 (X = H,F,Cl)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossell, J.A.; Davenport, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    Multiple scattering Xα bound state and continuum calculations are used to study low energy elastic electron scattering cross sections and pre-edge features in the x-ray absorption spectra (XAS) of (C,Si)X 4 , X = H,F,Cl. Maxima in the electron scattering cross section are predicted to occur at energies below 4 eV in the t 2 channel for CF 4 , CCl 4 , SiH 4 , and SiCl 4 . These maxima can be assigned to final state orbitals which are bound in XAS and well localized in space and a quantitative correspondence of such scattering ''resonance'' energies and XAS energies may be obtained using the transition state approach. For CH 4 and SiF 4 even those bound state orbitals giving the greatest XAS intensity are very diffuse, being essentially of Rydberg character. Broad electron scattering maxima are found at energies above 4 eV in these molecules which cannot be directly associated with the bound state orbitals dominating the XAS. The results thus establish that low energy electron scattering resonances and pre-edge XAS are closely related only for orbitals bound and reasonably well localized in XAS. The MS-Xα results almost always reproduce experimental trends along the molecular series but quantitative discrepancies from experiment are sometimes substantial, particularly for the broad high energy scattering maxima in CH 4 . The narrow t 2 resonance calculated for CF 4 is found to vary greatly in position and intensity as the C--F distance is varied by small amounts but the stronger, broader t 2 resonance in SiH 4 is little affected by bond distance variation

  1. Enhancement of absorption and resistance of motion utilizing a multi-channel opto-electronic sensor to effectively monitor physiological signs during sport exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzahrani, Abdullah; Hu, Sijung; Azorin-Peris, Vicente; Barrett, Laura; Esliger, Dale; Hayes, Matthew; Akbare, Shafique; Achart, Jérôme; Kuoch, Sylvain

    2015-03-01

    This study presents an effective engineering approach for human vital signs monitoring as increasingly demanded by personal healthcare. The aim of this work is to study how to capture critical physiological parameters efficiently through a well-constructed electronic system and a robust multi-channel opto-electronic patch sensor (OEPS), together with a wireless communication. A unique design comprising multi-wavelength illumination sources and a rapid response photo sensor with a 3-axis accelerometer enables to recover pulsatile features, compensate motion and increase signal-to-noise ratio. An approved protocol with designated tests was implemented at Loughborough University a UK leader in sport and exercise assessment. The results of sport physiological effects were extracted from the datasets of physical movements, i.e. sitting, standing, waking, running and cycling. t-test, Bland-Altman and correlation analysis were applied to evaluate the performance of the OEPS system against Acti-Graph and Mio-Alpha.There was no difference in heart rate measured using OEPS and both Acti-Graph and Mio-Alpha (both p<0.05). Strong correlations were observed between HR measured from the OEPS and both the Acti-graph and Mio-Alpha (r = 0.96, p<0.001). Bland-Altman analysis for the Acti-Graph and OEPS found the bias 0.85 bpm, the standard deviation 9.20 bpm, and the limits of agreement (LOA) -17.18 bpm to +18.88 bpm for lower and upper limits of agreement respectively, for the Mio-Alpha and OEPS the bias is 1.63 bpm, standard deviation SD8.62 bpm, lower and upper limits of agreement, - 15.27 bpm and +18.58 bpm respectively. The OEPS demonstrates a real time, robust and remote monitoring of cardiovascular function.

  2. Defect formation and desorption of metal atoms from alkali halide crystals under low energy electron bombardment studied by optical absorption and mass spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, N.R.

    1993-04-01

    This work presents an extensive investigation of electronically induced desorption of ground-state alkali atoms from alkali halides and for the first time correlates directly the desorption with the stability and spatial distribution of the defects formed during bombardment. The electron impact results in the formation of stable F-centers and F-center clusters in the bulk of the crystals. In striking contrast a significant metallization of the surface is observed. Even at temperatures as low as 90 deg C the metallization is achieved within the time resolution of our detection system, which can only be explained by the rapid diffusion of hot holes. Superimposed to the fast and short diffusion of hot holes is the slow F-center diffusion. Measuring the distribution of defects with low energy ion sputtering techniques indicates that at least in the case of LiF the observed diffusion constant of F-centers agrees with values derived by using methods different from that applied here. At low temperatures the formation of F-center clusters and metal on the surface dominates. Colloid formation clearly requires higher temperatures (typically around 200 deg C). This is a strong evidence that efficient F-center diffusion is necessary for the formation of metallic particles (colloids) in the bulk of the crystals. Desorption of alkali atoms from alkali halides at temperatures around room temperature is due to weakly bound alkali atoms. For elevated temperatures the stability of the metallic clusters in the bulk of the crystals (i.e. colloids) are the rate limiting process. (author)

  3. Web Accessibility Issues for Higher & Further Education. EDNER (Formative Evaluation of the Distributed National Electronic Resource) Project. Issues Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchester Metropolitan Univ. (England).

    This issues paper, sixth in a series of eight, is intended to distill formative evaluation questions on topics that are central to the development of the higher and further education information environment in the United Kingdom. In undertaking formative evaluation studies, the Formative Evaluation of the Distributed National Electronic Resource…

  4. Analyzing the Academic Research Trends by Using University Digital Resources: A Bibliometric Study of Electronic Commerce in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Anam; Abbas, Asad; Ming, Wan; Zaheer, Ahmad Nawaz; Akhtar, Masood-ul-Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Technology plays a vital role in every field of life especially in business and education. Electronic commerce (EC) begins in the year of 1991 right after internet was introduced for commercial use. It is known to be the 12th five years' plan (2011 to 2015) of Chinese Ministry of Industry and Information Technology. The main "objective"…

  5. Clinician‐selected Electronic Information Resources do not Guarantee Accuracy in Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs. A review of: McKibbon, K. Ann, and Douglas B. Fridsma. “Effectiveness of Clinician‐selected Electronic Information Resources for Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs.” Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 13.6 (2006: 653‐9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Ingrid Preddie

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine if electronic information resources selected by primary care physicians improve their ability to answer simulated clinical questions.Design – An observational study utilizing hour‐long interviews and think‐aloud protocols.Setting – The offices and clinics of primary care physicians in Canada and the United States.Subjects – Twenty‐five primary care physicians of whom 4 were women, 17 were from Canada, 22 were family physicians,and 24 were board certified.Methods – Participants provided responses to 23 multiple‐choice questions. Each physician then chose two questions and looked for the answers utilizing information resources of their own choice. The search processes, chosen resources and search times were noted. These were analyzed along with data on the accuracy of the answers and certainties related to the answer to each clinical question prior to the search.Main results – Twenty‐three physicians sought answers to 46 simulated clinical questions. Utilizing only electronic information resources, physicians spent a mean of 13.0 (SD 5.5 minutes searching for answers to the questions, an average of 7.3(SD 4.0 minutes for the first question and 5.8 (SD 2.2 minutes to answer the second question. On average, 1.8 resources were utilized per question. Resources that summarized information, such as the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, UpToDate and Clinical Evidence, were favored 39.2% of the time, MEDLINE (Ovid and PubMed 35.7%, and Internet resources including Google 22.6%. Almost 50% of the search and retrieval strategies were keyword‐based, while MeSH, subheadings and limiting were used less frequently. On average, before searching physicians answered 10 of 23 (43.5% questions accurately. For questions that were searched using clinician‐selected electronic resources, 18 (39.1% of the 46 answers were accurate before searching, while 19 (42.1% were accurate after searching. The difference of

  6. Absorption enhancement in graphene photonic crystal structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaleque, Abdul; Hattori, Haroldo T

    2016-04-10

    Graphene, a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice, is attracting significant interest because of its potential applications in electronic and optoelectronic devices. Although graphene exhibits almost uniform absorption within a large wavelength range, its interaction with light is weak. In this paper, the enhancement of the optical absorption in graphene photonic crystal structures is studied: the structure is modified by introducing scatterers and mirrors. It is shown that the absorption of the graphene photonic crystal structure can be enhanced about four times (nearly 40%) with respect to initial reference absorption of 9.8%. The study can be a useful tool for investigating graphene physics in different optical settings.

  7. X-ray absorption in atomic potassium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomilsek, Jana Padeznik; Kodre, Alojz; Arcon, Iztok; Nemanic, Vincenc

    2008-01-01

    A new high-temperature absorption cell for potassium vapor is described. X-ray absorption coefficient of atomic potassium is determined in the energy interval of 600 eV above the K edge where thresholds for simultaneous excitations of 1s and outer electrons, down to [1s2p] excitation, appear. The result represents also the atomic absorption background for XAFS (X-ray absorption fine structure) structure analysis. The K ionization energy in the potassium vapor is determined and compared with theoretical data and with the value for the metal

  8. Homo- and heteronuclear meso,meso-(E)-ethene-1,2-diyl-linked diporphyrins: preparation, x-ray crystal structure, electronic absorption and emission spectra and density functional theory calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locos, Oliver; Bašić, Bruno; McMurtrie, John C; Jensen, Paul; Arnold, Dennis P

    2012-04-27

    Homo- and heteronuclear meso,meso-(E)-ethene-1,2-diyl-linked diporphyrins have been prepared by the Suzuki coupling of porphyrinylboronates and iodovinylporphyrins. Combinations comprising 5,10,15-triphenylporphyrin (TriPP) on both ends of the ethene-1,2-diyl bridge M(2)10 (M(2) =H(2)/Ni, Ni(2), Ni/Zn, H(4), H(2)Zn, Zn(2)) and 5,15-bis(3,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)porphyrinato-nickel(II) on one end and H(2), Ni, and ZnTriPP on the other (M(2)11), enable the first studies of this class of compounds possessing intrinsic polarity. The compounds were characterized by electronic absorption and steady state emission spectra, (1)H NMR spectra, and for the Ni(2) bis(TriPP) complex Ni(2)10, single crystal X-ray structure determination. The crystal structure shows ruffled distortions of the porphyrin rings, typical of Ni(II) porphyrins, and the (E)-C(2)H(2) bridge makes a dihedral angle of 50° with the mean planes of the macrocycles. The result is a stepped parallel arrangement of the porphyrin rings. The dihedral angles in the solid state reflect the interplay of steric and electronic effects of the bridge on interporphyrin communication. The emission spectra in particular, suggest energy transfer across the bridge is fast in conformations in which the bridge is nearly coplanar with the rings. Comparisons of the fluorescence behaviour of H(4)10 and H(2)Ni10 show strong quenching of the free base fluorescence when the complex is excited at the lower energy component of the Soret band, a feature associated in the literature with more planar conformations. TDDFT calculations on the gas-phase optimized geometry of Ni(2)10 reproduce the features of the experimental electronic absorption spectrum within 0.1 eV. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Electronic absorption spectroscopic studies on charge-transfer interactions in a biologically important molecule: N, N'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridylium chloride (paraquat or methyl viologen) as an electron acceptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, A. S. N.; Bhardwaj, A. P.

    The charge-transfer spectra of N, N'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridylium chloride (paraquat, PQ 2+) with a wide range of electron donors has been investigated and the thermodynamic data determined. An estimate of the empirical energy parameters has been made using the spectroscopic and thermodynamic data, using Mulliken's theory.

  10. SAGES: A Suite of Freely-Available Software Tools for Electronic Disease Surveillance in Resource-Limited Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    3] Recently, the emergence of the novel 2009 influenza A ( H1N1 ) virus and the SARS coronavirus have demonstrated how rapidly pathogens can spread...standards in both minimum data sets for disease surveillance and routine diagnosis and care. Analysis & Visualization. As previously discussed, the...g002 SAGES Electronic Disease Surveillance PLoS ONE | www.plosone.org 3 May 2011 | Volume 6 | Issue 5 | e19750 for pandemic influenza as well as

  11. Share and share alike: encouraging the reuse of academic resources through the Scottish electronic Staff Development Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna M. Campbell

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The Scottish electronic Staff Development Library (http://www.sesdl.scotcit.acuk is an ongoing collaborative project involving the Universities of Edinburgh, Paisley and Strathclyde which has been funded by SHEFC as part of their current ScotCIT Programme (http:llwww.scotcit.ac.uk. This project is being developed in response to the increasing demand for flexible, high-quality staff development materials.

  12. Boltzmann equation analysis of electrons swarm parameters and properties of excited particle number densities in Xe/Ne plasmas. Laser absorption effect; Xe/Ne plasma chudenshi yuso keisu narabi ni reiki ryushisu mitsudo tokusei no Boltzmann hoteishiki kaiseki. Laser ko kyushu koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, S.; Sugawara, H.; Ventzek, P.; Sakai, Y. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    1998-06-01

    Xe/Ne plasmas are important for plasma display panels and VUV light sources. However, reactions between electrons and excited particles in the mixtures are so complicated that influence of the reactions on the plasma properties is not understood well. In this work, taking account of reactions through which electrons are produced, such as cumulative and Penning ionization, and of transition between excited levels, the electron and excited particle properties in Xe/Ne plasmas are calculated using the Boltzmann equation. The ionization coefficient and electron drift velocity agreed with experimental data. The influence of laser absorption in Xe/Ne plasmas on the plasma properties is also discussed. 25 refs., 15 figs.

  13. Structural, electronic and optical properties of monoclinic Na{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7} from density functional theory calculations: A comparison with XRD and optical absorption measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araújo-Filho, Adailton A. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Caixa Postal 6030, 60455-760 Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Silva, Fábio L.R.; Righi, Ariete [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG 31270-901 (Brazil); Silva, Mauricélio B. da; Silva, Bruno P. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Caixa Postal 6030, 60455-760 Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Caetano, Ewerton W.S., E-mail: ewcaetano@gmail.com [Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Ceará, 60040-531 Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Freire, Valder N. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Caixa Postal 6030, 60455-760 Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2017-06-15

    Powder samples of bulk monoclinic sodium trititanate Na{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7} were prepared carefully by solid state reaction, and its monoclinic P2{sub 1}/m crystal structure and morphology were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. Moreover, the sodium trititanate main energy band gap was estimated as E{sub g}=3.51±0.01 eV employing UV–Vis spectroscopy, which is smaller than the measured 3.70 eV energy gap published previously by other authors. Aiming to achieve a better understanding of the experimental data, density functional theory (DFT) computations were performed within the local density and generalized gradient approximations (LDA and GGA, respectively) taking into account dispersion effects through the scheme of Tkatchenko and Scheffler (GGA+TS). Optimal lattice parameters, with deviations relative to measurements Δa=−0.06 Å, Δb=0.02 Å, and Δc=−0.09 Å, were obtained at the GGA level, which was then used to simulate the sodium trititanate electronic and optical properties. Indirect band transitions have led to a theoretical gap energy value of about 3.25 eV. Our results, however, differ from pioneer DFT results with respect to the specific Brillouin zone vectors for which the indirect transition with smallest energy value occurs. Effective masses for electrons and holes were also estimated along a set of directions in reciprocal space. Lastly, our calculations revealed a relatively large degree of optical isotropy for the Na{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7} optical absorption and complex dielectric function. - Graphical abstract: Monoclinic sodium trititanate Na2Ti3O7 was characterized by experiment and dispersion-corrected DFT calculations. An indirect gap of 3.5 eV is predicted, with heavy electrons and anisotropic holes ruling its conductivity. - Highlights: • Monoclinic Na2Ti3O7 was characterized by experiment (XRD, SEM, UV–Vis spectroscopy). • DFT GGA+TS optimized geometry and

  14. Electronic absorption study on acid-base equilibria for some keto and thioketo pyrimidine derivatives. Experimental and theoretical evidence of enolization and solute-solvent interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıç, H.

    2007-08-01

    The UV-vis spectra of recently synthesized 1-amino-5-benzoyl-4-phenyl-1H-pyrimidine-2-one, ( I), and 1-amino-5-benzoyl-4-phenyl-1H-pyrimidine-2-thione ( II), were studied in aqueous methanol (5%, v/v, methanol) and pure methanol. The nature of the electronic transitions and the role of carbonyl oxygen of I and thiocarbonyl sulfur of II in the behavior of the observed UV-vis spectra were discussed. The carbonyl group at position 2 of I and the thiocarbonyl group of II were found to be enolized instead of protonation. Quantum chemical calculations showed agreement with the experimental evidence. However, the carbonyl group of the benzoyl moiety at position 5 of both compounds underwent neither enolization nor protonation. Acid-base equilibria of the compounds against varying pH have been examined in detail. The p Ka values of all related equilibria were determined at room temperature and an ionic strength of 0.10 M from the pH-dependence of the absorbance values using the Henderson-Haselbalch equation and graphical logarithmic analysis. The mean acidity constants for the protonated forms of the compounds were determined as p Ka1 = 4.214 and p Ka2 = 6.678 for I and p Ka1 = 3.739 and p Ka2 = 6.258 for II. The mean acidity constants (p Ka3) for the enol form of I and the thioenol form of II were determined as 11.278 and 11.063, respectively. The preferred dissociation mechanisms were discussed based on the data of UV-vis spectroscopy and a mechanism was proposed for each compound. The formation of intramolecular and intermolecular hydrogen bonding were found with I but not with II. The intramolecular bonding stabilizing the enol form was favoured at pH values corresponding to p Ka1 and above. On the other hand, the intermolecular hydrogen bonding stabilizing the free form of the carbonyl group was favoured at all pH values.

  15. Success factors for implementing and sustaining a mature electronic medical record in a low-resource setting: a case study of iSanté in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deRiel, E; Puttkammer, N; Hyppolite, N; Diallo, J; Wagner, S; Honoré, J G; Balan, J G; Celestin, N; Vallès, J S; Duval, N; Thimothé, G; Boncy, J; Coq, N R L; Barnhart, S

    2018-03-01

    Electronic health information systems, including electronic medical records (EMRs), have the potential to improve access to information and quality of care, among other things. Success factors and challenges for novel EMR implementations in low-resource settings have increasingly been studied, although less is known about maturing systems and sustainability. One systematic review identified seven categories of implementation success factors: ethical, financial, functionality, organizational, political, technical and training. This case study applies this framework to iSanté, Haiti's national EMR in use in more than 100 sites and housing records for more than 750 000 patients. The author group, consisting of representatives of different agencies within the Haitian Ministry of Health (MSPP), funding partner the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Haiti, and implementing partner the International Training and Education Center for Health (I-TECH), identify successes and lessons learned according to the seven identified categories, and propose an additional cross-cutting category, sustainability. Factors important for long-term implementation success of complex information systems are balancing investments in hardware and software infrastructure upkeep, user capacity and data quality control; designing and building a system within the context of the greater eHealth ecosystem with a plan for interoperability and data exchange; establishing system governance and strong leadership to support local system ownership and planning for system financing to ensure sustainability. Lessons learned from 10 years of implementation of the iSanté EMR system are relevant to sustainability of a full range of increasingly interrelated information systems (e.g. for laboratory, supply chain, pharmacy and human resources) in the health sector in low-resource settings. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene

  16. A partnership model for implementing electronic health records in resource-limited primary care settings: experiences from two nurse-managed health centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennehy, Patricia; White, Mary P; Hamilton, Andrew; Pohl, Joanne M; Tanner, Clare; Onifade, Tiffiani J; Zheng, Kai

    2011-01-01

    To present a partnership-based and community-oriented approach designed to ease provider anxiety and facilitate the implementation of electronic health records (EHR) in resource-limited primary care settings. The approach, referred to as partnership model, was developed and iteratively refined through the research team's previous work on implementing health information technology (HIT) in over 30 safety net practices. This paper uses two case studies to illustrate how the model was applied to help two nurse-managed health centers (NMHC), a particularly vulnerable primary care setting, implement EHR and get prepared to meet the meaningful use criteria. The strong focus of the model on continuous quality improvement led to eventual implementation success at both sites, despite difficulties encountered during the initial stages of the project. There has been a lack of research, particularly in resource-limited primary care settings, on strategies for abating provider anxiety and preparing them to manage complex changes associated with EHR uptake. The partnership model described in this paper may provide useful insights into the work shepherded by HIT regional extension centers dedicated to supporting resource-limited communities disproportionally affected by EHR adoption barriers. NMHC, similar to other primary care settings, are often poorly resourced, understaffed, and lack the necessary expertise to deploy EHR and integrate its use into their day-to-day practice. This study demonstrates that implementation of EHR, a prerequisite to meaningful use, can be successfully achieved in this setting, and partnership efforts extending far beyond the initial software deployment stage may be the key.

  17. XUV Absorption by Solid Density Aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias, C A

    2009-09-21

    An inverse bremsstrahlung model for plasmas and simple metals that approximates the cold, solid Al experimental data below the L-edge is applied to matter conditions relevant to XUV laser applications. The model involves an all-order calculation using a semi-analytical effective electron-ion interaction. The predicted increases in XUV absorption with rising temperature occur via two effects: increased availability of final states from reduced electron degeneracy and a stronger electron-ion interaction from reduced screening. Discrepancies in the temperature dependence as well as other details between the present approach and a recently proposed absorption model are discussed.

  18. X-ray absorption spectroscopy on phosphoric-salt pellets. Determination of the geometric and electronic structure of metal-oxide doped sodium-phosphate glasses; Roentgenabsorptionsspektroskopie an Phosphorsalzperlen. Bestimmung der geometrischen und elektronischen Struktur von metalloxid-dotierten Natriumphosphatglaesern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brendebach, B.

    2004-02-01

    Sodium metaphosphate glasses doped with transition metal oxides show characteristic colors. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) investigations provide information whether the coloration stems from different electronic transitions or changes in the geometrical structure of the glasses. Even though the violet color of MnO{sub y}-doped glasses is considered as an evidence for Mn{sup 3+}-ions, Mn K-XAS reveals that the majority of the manganese ions are in the oxidation state +II and have a mixed coordination of four and six oxygen atoms, respectively. The oxygen coordination around the nickel ions in NiO-doped glasses with different metall oxide concentrations is always six. The change of color from citreous to auburn with increasing nickel oxide content is attributed to a systematic change in the bonding characteristic from mainly ionic-like to a small but significant contribution of covalent-like bonding. Analysis of higher coordination shells provides no indication of the formation of metal oxide clusters. (orig.)

  19. Nutrition and magnesium absorption

    OpenAIRE

    Brink, E.J.

    1992-01-01

    The influence of various nutrients present in dairy products and soybean-based products on absorption of magnesium has been investigated. The studies demonstrate that soybean protein versus casein lowers apparent magnesium absorption in rats through its phytate component. However, true magnesium absorption was neither affected by soybean protein in the diet nor by supplemental phytate. The inhibitory influence of soybean protein and phytate on apparent magnesium absorption was found ...

  20. Utility of the electronic information resource UpToDate for clinical decision-making at bedside rounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, J; See, K C; Khalizah, H J; Low, S P; Lim, T K

    2012-02-01

    Clinical questions often arise at daily hospital bedside rounds. Yet, little information exists on how the search for answers may be facilitated. The aim of this prospective study was, therefore, to evaluate the overall utility, including the feasibility and usefulness of incorporating searches of UpToDate, a popular online information resource, into rounds. Doctors searched UpToDate for any unresolved clinical questions during rounds for patients in general medicine and respiratory wards, and in the medical intensive care unit of a tertiary teaching hospital. The nature of the questions and the results of the searches were recorded. Searches were deemed feasible if they were completed during the rounds and useful if they provided a satisfactory answer. A total of 157 UpToDate searches were performed during the study period. Questions were raised by all ranks of clinicians from junior doctors to consultants. The searches were feasible and performed immediately during rounds 44% of the time. Each search took a median of three minutes (first quartile: two minutes, third quartile: five minutes). UpToDate provided a useful and satisfactory answer 75% of the time, a partial answer 17% of the time and no answer 9% of the time. It led to a change in investigations, diagnosis or management 37% of the time, confirmed what was originally known or planned 38% of the time and had no effect 25% of the time. Incorporating UpToDate searches into daily bedside rounds was feasible and useful in clinical decision-making.

  1. Absorption and excretion tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berberich, R.

    1988-01-01

    The absorption and excretion of radiopharmaceuticals is still of interest in diagnostic investigations of nuclear medicine. In this paper the most common methods of measuring absorption and excretion are described. The performance of the different tests and their standard values are discussed. More over the basic possibilities of measuring absorption and excretion including the needed measurement equipments are presented. (orig.) [de

  2. Calcium absorption and achlorhydria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recker, R.R.

    1985-01-01

    Defective absorption of calcium has been thought to exist in patients with achlorhydria. The author compared absorption of calcium in its carbonate form with that in a pH-adjusted citrate form in a group of 11 fasting patients with achlorhydria and in 9 fasting normal subjects. Fractional calcium absorption was measured by a modified double-isotope procedure with 0.25 g of calcium used as the carrier. Mean calcium absorption (+/- S.D.) in the patients with achlorhydria was 0.452 +/- 0.125 for citrate and 0.042 +/- 0.021 for carbonate (P less than 0.0001). Fractional calcium absorption in the normal subjects was 0.243 +/- 0.049 for citrate and 0.225 +/- 0.108 for carbonate (not significant). Absorption of calcium from carbonate in patients with achlorhydria was significantly lower than in the normal subjects and was lower than absorption from citrate in either group; absorption from citrate in those with achlorhydria was significantly higher than in the normal subjects, as well as higher than absorption from carbonate in either group. Administration of calcium carbonate as part of a normal breakfast resulted in completely normal absorption in the achlorhydric subjects. These results indicate that calcium absorption from carbonate is impaired in achlorhydria under fasting conditions. Since achlorhydria is common in older persons, calcium carbonate may not be the ideal dietary supplement

  3. Comprehensive evaluation of electronic medical record system use and user satisfaction at five low-resource setting hospitals in ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilahun, Binyam; Fritz, Fleur

    2015-05-25

    Electronic medical record (EMR) systems are increasingly being implemented in hospitals of developing countries to improve patient care and clinical service. However, only limited evaluation studies are available concerning the level of adoption and determinant factors of success in those settings. The objective of this study was to assess the usage pattern, user satisfaction level, and determinants of health professional's satisfaction towards a comprehensive EMR system implemented in Ethiopia where parallel documentation using the EMR and the paper-based medical records is in practice. A quantitative, cross-sectional study design was used to assess the usage pattern, user satisfaction level, and determinant factors of an EMR system implemented in Ethiopia based on the DeLone and McLean model of information system success. Descriptive statistical methods were applied to analyze the data and a binary logistic regression model was used to identify determinant factors. Health professionals (N=422) from five hospitals were approached and 406 responded to the survey (96.2% response rate). Out of the respondents, 76.1% (309/406) started to use the system immediately after implementation and user training, but only 31.7% (98/309) of the professionals reported using the EMR during the study (after 3 years of implementation). Of the 12 core EMR functions, 3 were never used by most respondents, and they were also unaware of 4 of the core EMR functions. It was found that 61.4% (190/309) of the health professionals reported over all dissatisfaction with the EMR (median=4, interquartile range (IQR)=1) on a 5-level Likert scale. Physicians were more dissatisfied (median=5, IQR=1) when compared to nurses (median=4, IQR=1) and the health management information system (HMIS) staff (median=2, IQR=1). Of all the participants, 64.4% (199/309) believed that the EMR had no positive impact on the quality of care. The participants indicated an agreement with the system and information

  4. 圖書館事業專欄/Marketing of Electronic Information Resources: A Case of The J.D. Rockefeller Research Library, Egerton University/Nerisa Kamar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerisa Kamar

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper gives a brief overview of electronic information resources and services offered by The J.D. Rockefeller Research Library at Egerton University and the marketing of these resources. The paper examines the various reasons for marketing electronic information resources, with emphasis on the various, and illustrates marketing strategies used by J.D Rockefeller Research library towards effective utilization of the available resources in supporting research, teaching and learning. These strategies include use of posters, notices, brochures, telephone calls, Current Awareness Services (CAS, workshops and seminars, and decentralization of services, among others. It concludes with a discussion of cost effective use of these strategies in research and teaching.

    頁次:89-93

  5. [Study on lead absorption in pumpkin by atomic absorption spectrophotometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen-Xia; Sun, Yong-Dong; Chen, Bi-Hua; Li, Xin-Zheng

    2008-07-01

    A study was carried out on the characteristic of lead absorption in pumpkin via atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed that lead absorption amount in pumpkin increased with time, but the absorption rate decreased with time; And the lead absorption amount reached the peak in pH 7. Lead and cadmium have similar characteristic of absorption in pumpkin.

  6. Randomized Controlled Trial of Electronic Care Plan Alerts and Resource Utilization by High Frequency Emergency Department Users with Opioid Use Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Rathlev, MD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a paucity of literature supporting the use of electronic alerts for patients with high frequency emergency department (ED use. We sought to measure changes in opioid prescribing and administration practices, total charges and other resource utilization using electronic alerts to notify providers of an opioid-use care plan for high frequency ED patients. Methods: This was a randomized, non-blinded, two-group parallel design study of patients who had 1 opioid use disorder and 2 high frequency ED use. Three affiliated hospitals with identical electronic health records participated. Patients were randomized into “Care Plan” versus “Usual Care groups”. Between the years before and after randomization, we compared as primary outcomes the following: 1 opioids (morphine mg equivalents prescribed to patients upon discharge and administered to ED and inpatients; 2 total medical charges, and the numbers of; 3 ED visits, 4 ED visits with advanced radiologic imaging (computed tomography [CT] or magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] studies, and 5 inpatient admissions. Results: A total of 40 patients were enrolled. For ED and inpatients in the “Usual Care” group, the proportion of morphine mg equivalents received in the post-period compared with the pre-period was 15.7%, while in the “Care Plan” group the proportion received in the post-period compared with the pre-period was 4.5% (ratio=0.29, 95% CI [0.07-1.12]; p=0.07. For discharged patients in the “Usual Care” group, the proportion of morphine mg equivalents prescribed in the post-period compared with the pre-period was 25.7% while in the “Care Plan” group, the proportion prescribed in the post-period compared to the pre-period was 2.9%. The “Care Plan” group showed an 89% greater proportional change over the periods compared with the “Usual Care” group (ratio=0.11, 95% CI [0.01-0.092]; p=0.04. Care plans did not change the total charges, or, the numbers

  7. Absorptive capacity and smart companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Moro González

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The current competitive environment is substantially modifying the organizations’ learning processes due to a global increase of available information allowing this to be transformed into knowledge. This opportunity has been exploited since the nineties by the tools of “Business Analytics” and “Business Intelligence” but, nevertheless, being integrated in the study of new organizational capacities engaged in the process of creating intelligence inside organizations is still an outstanding task. The review of the concept of absorptive capacity and a detailed study from the perspective of this new reality will be the main objective of study of this paper.Design/methodology/approach: By comparing classical absorptive capacity and absorptive capacity from the point of view of information management tools in each one of the three stages of the organizational learning cycle, some gaps of the former are overcome/fulfilled. The academic/bibliographical references provided in this paper have been obtained from ISI web of knowledge, Scopus and Dialnet data bases, supporting the state of affairs on absorptive capacity and thereafter filtering by "Business Intelligence" and "Business Analytics". Specialized websites and Business Schools` Publications there have also been included, crowning the content on information management tools used that are currently used in the strategic consulting.Findings: Our contribution to the literature is the development of "smart absorptive capacity". This is a new capacity emerging from the reformulation of the classical concept of absorptive capacity wherein some aspects of its definition that might have been omitted are emphasized. The result of this new approach is the creation of a new Theoretical Model of Organizational Intelligence, which aims to explain, within the framework of the Resources and Capabilities Theory, the competitive advantage achieved by the so-called smart companies

  8. Absorption heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formigoni, C.

    1998-01-01

    A brief description of the difference between a compression and an absorption heat pump is made, and the reasons why absorption systems have spread lately are given. Studies and projects recently started in the field of absorption heat pumps, as well as criteria usually followed in project development are described. An outline (performance targets, basic components) of a project on a water/air absorption heat pump, running on natural gas or LPG, is given. The project was developed by the Robur Group as an evolution of a water absorption refrigerator operating with a water/ammonia solution, which has been on the market for a long time and recently innovated. Finally, a list of the main energy and cost advantages deriving from the use of absorption heat pumps is made [it

  9. There is a Relationship between Resource Expenditures and Reference Transactions in Academic Libraries. A Review of: Dubnjakovic, A. (2012. Electronic resource expenditure and the decline in reference transaction statistics in academic libraries. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 38(2, 94-100. doi:10.1016/j.acalib.2012.01.001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie M. Hughes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To provide an analysis of the impact of expenditures on electronic resourcesand gate counts on the increase or decrease in reference transactions.Design – Analysis of results of existing survey data from the National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES 2006 Academic Library Survey(ALS.Setting – Academic libraries in the United States.Subjects – 3925 academic library respondents.Methods – The author chose to use survey data collected from the 2006 ALS conducted bythe NCES. The survey included data on various topics related to academic libraries, but in the case of this study, the author chose to analyze three of the 193 variables included. The three variables: electronic books expenditure, computer hardware and software, and expenditures on bibliographic utilities, were combined into one variable called electronic resource expenditure. Gate counts were also considered as a variable. Electronic resource expenditure was also split as a variable into three groups: low, medium, and high. Multiple regression analysis and general linear modeling, along with tests of reliability, were employed. Main Results – The author determined that low, medium, and high spenders with regard to electronic resources exhibited differences in gate counts, and gate counts have an effect on reference transactions in any given week. Gate counts tend to not have much of an effect on reference transactions for the higher spenders, and higher spenders tend to have a higher number of reference transactions overall. Low spenders have lower gate counts and also a lower amount of reference transactions.Conclusion – The findings from this study show that academic libraries spending more on electronic resources also tend to have an increase with regard to reference transactions. The author also concludes that library spaces are no longer the determining factor with regard to number of reference transactions. Spending more on electronic resources is

  10. Absorption chillers: Part of the solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Occhionero, A.J.; Hughes, P.J.; Reid, E.A.

    1991-01-01

    Acid rain, ozone depletion, global warming, and implementation economics are considered as they relate to the advisability of expanding the application of absorption chillers. Introductory and background information are provided to put the discussion in the proper context. Then all four issues are discussed separately as they relate to absorption chillers. Acid rain and ozone depletion concerns, and implementation economics, are found to support the expanded use of absorption chillers. The global warming concern is found to be more of a gray area, but the areas of benefit correspond well with the conditions of greatest economic advantage. All things considered, absorption chillers are believed to be part of the environmental and economic solution. It is further believed that integrated resource planning (IRP) processes that consider electric and gas technologies on an equal footing would come to the same conclusion for many regions of the United States. 9 refs., 3 tabs

  11. Solar absorption surface panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santala, Teuvo J.

    1978-01-01

    A composite metal of aluminum and nickel is used to form an economical solar absorption surface for a collector plate wherein an intermetallic compound of the aluminum and nickel provides a surface morphology with high absorptance and relatively low infrared emittance along with good durability.

  12. Nutrition and magnesium absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, E.J.

    1992-01-01

    The influence of various nutrients present in dairy products and soybean-based products on absorption of magnesium has been investigated. The studies demonstrate that soybean protein versus casein lowers apparent magnesium absorption in rats through its phytate component. However, true

  13. Zeeman atomic absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loos-Vollebregt, M.T.C. de.

    1980-01-01

    A new method of background correction in atomic absorption spectroscopy has recently been introduced, based on the Zeeman splitting of spectral lines in a magnetic field. A theoretical analysis of the background correction capability observed in such instruments is presented. A Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometer utilizing a 50 Hz sine wave modulated magnetic field is described. (Auth.)

  14. The IR Spectra, Molar Absorptivity, and Integrated Molar Absorptivity of the C76-D2 and C84-D2:22 Isomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Jovanovic

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The FT-IR spectra of the stable C76 and C84 isomers of D2 symmetry, isolated by the new, advanced extraction and chromatographic methods and processes, were recorded by the KBr technique, over the relevant region from 400 to 2000 cm−1, at room temperature. All the observed infrared bands are in excellent agreement with the semiempirical QCFF/PI, DFT, and TB potential calculations for these fullerenes, which is presented in this article, as the evidence of their validity. The molar absorptivity ε and the integrated molar absorptivity ψ of their IR absorption bands were determined and reported together with the relative intensities. Excellent agreement is found between the relative intensities of the main and characteristic absorption maxima calculated from ελ and from the ψλ values in adequate integration ranges. These results are significant for the identification and quantitative determination of the C76-D2 and C84-D2:22 fullerenes, either in natural resources on Earth and in space or in artificially synthesized biomaterials, electronic, optical, and biomedical devices, sensors, polymers, optical limiters, solar cells, organic field effect transistors, special lenses, diagnostic and therapeutic agents, pharmaceutical substances in biomedical engineering, and so forth.

  15. Political Unrest and Educational Electronic Resource Usage in a Conflict Zone, Kashmir (Indian Administered Kashmir): Log Analysis as Politico Analytical Tool=Hindistan Tarafından Yönetilen Keşmir Anlaşmazlık Bölgesi’nde Siyasi Karışıklık ve Eğitimle İlgili Elektronik Kaynakların Kullanımı: Siyasi Analiz Aracı Olarak Log Analizleri

    OpenAIRE

    Sumeer Gul; Samrin Nabi; Samina Mushtaq; Tariq Ahmad Shah; Suhail Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Electronic resource usage has proved as one of the best decision making tools in the library setups. Electronic resource usage in relation to the political disturbance can act as one of the tools to highlight the impact of political disturbance on educational setups in general and the electronic resource usage in particular. The study takes a serious look in the electronic resource usage in Kashmir and the impact of unrest on it. The paper highlights a relational platform between educat...

  16. Tunable electromagnetically induced absorption based on graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Maoyong; Wang, Tongling; Zhang, Huiyun; Zhang, Yuping

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, an electronically induced absorption (EIA) structure based on graphene at the infrared frequency is proposed. A pair of nanorods is coupled to a ring resonator, resulting in electronically induced transparency (EIT), and then, Babinet's principle is applied to transform the EIT structure into an EIA structure. Based on the bright and dark modes of the coupling schemes, the adjustment of the coupling strength between the dark and bright modes can be achieved by changing the asymmetry degree. In addition, the transparency window and the absorption peak can be tuned by changing the Fermi energy of graphene. This graphene-based EIA structure can develop the path in narrow-band filtering and, absorptive switching in the future.

  17. A cylindrical furnace for absorption spectral studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    our laboratory. The components and accessories required for operating this furnace are described here. The salient feature of this furnace is that it contains three separate heating zones. The heating zone at .... spectrograph, the electronic absorption spectrum of C1Π ← X1Σ system of InBr at. ~ 2800 Å. The bands of C ← X ...

  18. Uranium absorption study pile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raievski, V.; Sautiez, B.

    1959-01-01

    The report describes a pile designed to measure the absorption of fuel slugs. The pile is of graphite and comprises a central section composed of uranium rods in a regular lattice. RaBe sources and BF 3 counters are situated on either side of the center. A given uranium charge is compared with a specimen charge of about 560 kg, and the difference in absorption between the two noted. The sensitivity of the equipment will detect absorption variations of about a few ppm boron (10 -6 boron per gr. of uranium) or better. (author) [fr

  19. Interactive Electronic Decision Trees for the Integrated Primary Care Management of Febrile Children in Low Resource Settings - Review of existing tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keitel, Kristina; D'Acremont, Valérie

    2018-04-20

    The lack of effective, integrated diagnostic tools pose a major challenge to the primary care management of febrile childhood illnesses. These limitations are especially evident in low-resource settings and are often inappropriately compensated by antimicrobial over-prescription. Interactive electronic decision trees (IEDTs) have the potential to close these gaps: guiding antibiotic use and better identifying serious disease. This narrative review summarizes existing IEDTs, to provide an overview of their degree of validation, as well as to identify gaps in current knowledge and prospects for future innovation. Structured literature review in PubMed and Embase complemented by google search and contact with developers. Six integrated IEDTs were identified: three (eIMCI, REC, and Bangladesh digital IMCI) based on Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI); four (SL eCCM, MEDSINC, e-iCCM, and D-Tree eCCM) on Integrated Community Case Management (iCCM); two (ALMANACH, MSFeCARE) with a modified IMCI content; and one (ePOCT) that integrates novel content with biomarker testing. The types of publications and evaluation studies varied greatly: the content and evidence-base was published for two (ALMANACH and ePOCT), ALMANACH and ePOCT were validated in efficacy studies. Other types of evaluations, such as compliance, acceptability were available for D-Tree eCCM, eIMCI, ALMANACH. Several evaluations are still ongoing. Future prospects include conducting effectiveness and impact studies using data gathered through larger studies to adapt the medical content to local epidemiology, improving the software and sensors, and Assessing factors that influence compliance and scale-up. IEDTs are valuable tools that have the potential to improve management of febrile children in primary care and increase the rational use of diagnostics and antimicrobials. Next steps in the evidence pathway should be larger effectiveness and impact studies (including cost analysis) and

  20. Paper electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobjörk, Daniel; Österbacka, Ronald

    2011-05-03

    Paper is ubiquitous in everyday life and a truly low-cost substrate. The use of paper substrates could be extended even further, if electronic applications would be applied next to or below the printed graphics. However, applying electronics on paper is challenging. The paper surface is not only very rough compared to plastics, but is also porous. While this is detrimental for most electronic devices manufactured directly onto paper substrates, there are also approaches that are compatible with the rough and absorptive paper surface. In this review, recent advances and possibilities of these approaches are evaluated and the limitations of paper electronics are discussed. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Revisiting Absorptive Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Araújo, Ana Luiza Lara; Ulhøi, John Parm; Lettl, Christopher

    learning processes of absorptive capacity, which comprise combinative and adaptive capabilities. Drawing on survey data (n=169), the study concludes that combinative capabilities primarily enhance transformative and exploratory learning processes, while adaptive capabilities strengthen all three learning......Absorptive capacity has mostly been perceived as a 'passive' outcome of R&D investments. Recently, however, a growing interest into its 'proactive' potentials has emerged. This paper taps into this development and proposes a dynamic model for conceptualizing the determinants of the complementary...

  2. Absorption fluids data survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macriss, R. A.; Zawacki, T. S.

    Development of improved data for the thermodynamic, transport and physical properties of absorption fluids were studied. A specific objective of this phase of the study is to compile, catalog and coarse screen the available US data of known absorption fluid systems and publish it as a first edition document to be distributed to manufacturers, researchers and others active in absorption heat pump activities. The methodology and findings of the compilation, cataloguing and coarse screening of the available US data on absorption fluid properties and presents current status and future work on this project are summarized. Both in house file and literature searches were undertaken to obtain available US publications with pertinent physical, thermodynamic and transport properties data for absorption fluids. Cross checks of literature searches were also made, using available published bibliographies and literature review articles, to eliminate secondary sources for the data and include only original sources and manuscripts. The properties of these fluids relate to the liquid and/or vapor state, as encountered in normal operation of absorption equipment employing such fluids, and to the crystallization boundary of the liquid phase, where applicable. The actual data were systematically classified according to the type of fluid and property, as well as temperature, pressure and concentration ranges over which data were available. Data were sought for 14 different properties: Vapor-Liquid Equilibria, Crystallization Temperature, Corrosion Characteristics, Heat of Mixing, Liquid-Phase-Densities, Vapor-Liquid-Phase Enthalpies, Specific Heat, Stability, Viscosity, Mass Transfer Rate, Heat Transfer Rate, Thermal Conductivity, Flammability, and Toxicity.

  3. Measurements of the Absorptive Properties of the Ionosphere

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Absorption of radio waves occurs when electrons responding to the wave fields collide with and transfer energy to the neutral particles. A study of ionospheric...

  4. Valence-to-core-detected X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Eleanor R.; Pollock, Christopher J.; Bendix, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) can provide detailed insight into the electronic and geometric structures of transition-metal active sites in metalloproteins and chemical catalysts. However, standard XAS spectra inherently represent an average contribution from the entire coordination...

  5. Absorption cooling device. Absorptions-Kuehlvorrichtung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourne, J.; Vardi, I.; Kimchi, Y.; Ben-Dror, J.

    1980-03-25

    The invention concerns improvements of absorption refrigerators, where a lithium chloride or lithium bromide/water cycle is used. According to the invention an inner separating or dividing structure between different functional parts of a machine of this type is provided. The structure contains two sections of wall, which are separated from one another by a suitable space, in order to achieve thermal insulation. This air space is provided with an opening in the direction towards the inside of the container and the opening is shielded to prevent the entry of liquids (in liquid or spray form).

  6. Absorption Spectra of Gold Nanoparticle Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anan'eva, M. V.; Nurmukhametov, D. R.; Zverev, A. S.; Nelyubina, N. V.; Zvekov, A. A.; Russakov, D. M.; Kalenskii, A. V.; Eremenko, A. N.

    2018-02-01

    Three gold nanoparticle suspensions are obtained, and mean radii in distributions - (6.1 ± 0.2), (11.9 ± 0.3), and (17.3 ± 0.7) nm - are determined by the transmission electron microscopy method. The optical absorption spectra of suspensions are obtained and studied. Calculation of spectral dependences of the absorption index of suspensions at values of the gold complex refractive index taken from the literature showed a significant deviation of experimental and calculated data in the region of 450-800 nm. Spectral dependences of the absorption of suspensions are simulated within the framework of the Mie-Drude theory taking into account the interband absorption in the form of an additional term in the imaginary part of the dielectric permittivity of the Gaussian type. It is shown that to quantify the spectral dependences in the region of the plasmon absorption band of nanoparticles, correction of the parameters of the interband absorption is necessary in addition to the increase of the relaxation parameter of the Drude theory. Spectral dependences of the dielectric permittivity of gold in nanodimensional state are refined from the solution of the inverse problem. The results of the present work are important for predicting the special features of operation of photonic devices and optical detonators based on gold nanoparticles.

  7. In-Situ X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy as an Unique Tool for Obtaining Information on Hydrogen Binding Site and Electronic Structure of Supported Pt Catalysts: Towards an Understanding of the Compensation Relation in Alkane Hydrogenolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koningsberger, D.C.; Oudenhuijzen, M.K.; Bokhoven, J.A. van; Ramaker, D.E.

    2003-01-01

    L2 and L3 X-ray absorption near edge spectra (XANES) on supported Pt particles, with and without chemisorbed hydrogen, are shown to reflect the type of hydrogen-binding site on the Pt surface. FEFF8 ab initio multiple scattering calculations are used to determine XANES spectral fingerprints for the

  8. Theory of attosecond absorption spectroscopy in krypton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesen, Jan Conrad; Lindroth, Eva; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2012-01-01

    A theory for time-domain attosecond pump–attosecond probe photoabsorption spectroscopy is formulated and related to the atomic response. The theory is illustrated through a study of attosecond absorption spectroscopy in krypton. The atomic parameters entering the formulation such as energies...... of the hole in this manner. In a second example, a hole is created in an inner shell by the first pulse, and the second probe pulse couples an even more tightly bound state to that hole. The hole decays in this example by Auger electron emission, and the absorption spectroscopy follows the decay of the hole...

  9. Library resources on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Nancy L.

    1995-07-01

    Library resources are prevalent on the Internet. Library catalogs, electronic books, electronic periodicals, periodical indexes, reference sources, and U.S. Government documents are available by telnet, Gopher, World Wide Web, and FTP. Comparatively few copyrighted library resources are available freely on the Internet. Internet implementations of library resources can add useful features, such as full-text searching. There are discussion lists, Gophers, and World Wide Web pages to help users keep up with new resources and changes to existing ones. The future will bring more library resources, more types of library resources, and more integrated implementations of such resources to the Internet.

  10. Vitamin A absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, S.J.

    1976-01-01

    Investigation of the absorption of vitamin A and related substances is complicated by the multiplicity of forms in which they occur in the diet and by the possibility that they may be subject to different mechanisms of absorption. Present knowledge of these mechanisms is inadequate, especially in the case of carotenoids. Numerous tests of absorption have been developed. The most common has been the biochemical measurement of the rise in plasma vitamin A after an oral dose of retinol or retinyl ester, but standardization is inadequate. Radioisotope tests based upon assay of serum or faecal activity following oral administration of tritiated vitamin A derivaties hold considerable promise, but again standardization is inadequate. From investigations hitherto performed it is known that absorption of vitamin A is influenced by several diseases, although as yet the consistency of results and the correlation with other tests of intestinal function have often been poor. However, the test of vitamin A absorption is nevertheless of clinical importance as a specialized measure of intestinal function. (author)

  11. Neutron scattering and absorption properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden, N.E.

    1993-12-01

    The Table in this report presents an evaluated set of values for the experimental quantities, which characterize the properties for scattering and absorption of neutrons. The neutron cross section is given for room temperature neutrons, 20.43{degree}C, corresponds to a thermal neutron energy of 0.0253 electron volts (eV) or a neutron velocity of 2200 meters/second. The neutron resonance integral is defined over the energy range from 0.5 eV to 0.1 {times} 10{sup 6} eV, or 0.1 MeV. A list of the major references used is given below. The literature cutoff data is October 1993. Uncertainties are given in parentheses. Parentheses with two or more numbers indicate values to the excited states(s) and to the ground state of the product nucleus.

  12. Gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, R.P.; Oldham, R.D.; Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Moretti, E.S.; Austin, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    An investigation has been made of the effect of the oxidation state of plutonium on its absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. For mice and rats that have been starved prior to gastrointestinal administration, there is no significant difference between the absorption factors for Pu(IV) and Pu(VI). The value obtained for Pu(VI) is an order of magnitude lower than that reported previously. The value obtained for Pu(IV) is two orders of magnitude higher than those reported previously for nitrate solutions and the same as those reported for citrate solutions

  13. Quantum Absorption Refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Amikam; Kosloff, Ronnie

    2012-02-01

    A quantum absorption refrigerator driven by noise is studied with the purpose of determining the limitations of cooling to absolute zero. The model consists of a working medium coupled simultaneously to hot, cold, and noise baths. Explicit expressions for the cooling power are obtained for Gaussian and Poisson white noise. The quantum model is consistent with the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The third law is quantified; the cooling power Jc vanishes as Jc∝Tcα, when Tc→0, where α=d+1 for dissipation by emission and absorption of quanta described by a linear coupling to a thermal bosonic field, where d is the dimension of the bath.

  14. X-ray absorption edges and E.X.A.F.S.: application to the study of electronic and atomic structures of titanium and vanadium carbides TiC(1-x) and VC(1-x)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moisy-Maurice, Virginie.

    1980-09-01

    This text presents a systematic study of the X-ray absorption fine structures evolution, at the K edge of titanium, with vacancy concentration in TiC(1-x). The absorption edges are situated in the 50 eV following the coefficient discontinuity: from the evaluation of their general aspect, it is deduced that the positive charge of titanium atoms decreases when vacancy concentration increases in TiC(1-x). This allowed us to determine the best band structure calculation model. The interpretation of EXAFS spectra (modulation of the absorption coefficient until 1500 eV above the edge) gives indications about the local atomic structure. Here, the contraction of the average titanium-carbon interatomic distances compared to the distances between crystallographic sites is of the order of the experimental resolution 0.02 A for Ti C(0.8). The study of the damping of the spectra in terms of Debye-Waller factors gave an evaluation of the relative static atomic mean square displacements between first neighbours. Last, it has been established that the disordering of vacancies in the order-disorder transition of V 8 C 7 is an atomic scale phenomenon [fr

  15. Herpes - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genital herpes - resources; Resources - genital herpes ... following organizations are good resources for information on genital herpes : March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.com/pregnancy/complications- ...

  16. Chemical Absorption Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kaj

    2011-01-01

    Chemical absorption materials that potentially can be used for post combustion carbon dioxide capture are discussed. They fall into five groups, alkanolamines, alkali carbonates, ammonia, amino acid salts, and ionic liquids. The chemistry of the materials is discussed and advantages and drawbacks...

  17. Neutron resonance absorption theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuss, P.

    1991-11-01

    After some recalls on the physics of neutron resonance absorption during their slowing down, this paper presents the main features of the theoretical developments performed by the french school of reactor physics: the effective reaction rate method so called Livolant-Jeanpierre theory, the generalizations carried out by the author, and the probability table method [fr

  18. Analysis on Current Situation and Countermeasure of Domestic Electronic Commerce Logistics in the Internet Age——Based on Resource Dependence Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jiapeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the status of electric business logistics in the current Internet era in China, and combines the SWOT analysis with AHP to do the empirical analysis, then puts forward the countermeasure that the electric business logistics resource should be shared based on the resource dependence theory. Through the empirical analysis, it is found that the disadvantages and opportunities of the logistics status are important in the Internet era.The resource sharing strategy based on the resource dependence theory is more scientific. The rational use of Internet technology in electric business logistics industry can achieve “sharing”. It is of great significance for its balanced development, intelligent development and optimization and development.

  19. Nonlinear cyclotron absorption and stimulated scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, T.H.

    1986-01-01

    In electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH), wave sources heating a plasma linearly with respect to intensity; but as the intensity of ECRH gets larger, there might appear nonlinear effects that would result in cutoff of net absorption. This thesis uses quantum mechanical theory to derive a threshold microwave intensity for nonlinear absorption. The quantum mechanical theory estimates that the threshold microwave intensity for nonlinear absorption is about 10 5 watts/cm 2 for a microwave heating experiment (T/sub e/ = 100 ev, λ = 3,783 cm, B = 2.5 kG). This value seems large considering the present power capabilities of microwave sources (10 2 ∼ 10 3 watts/cm 2 ), but for a low temperature plasma, this threshold will go down. There is another nonlinear phenomenon called stimulated cyclotron scattering that enhances photon scattering by electrons gyrating in a magnetic field. This is expected to prevent incoming photons from arriving at the central region of the fusion plasma, where absorption mainly takes place. Theory based on a photon transport model predicts that the threshold intensity for the stimulated cyclotron scattering is about 10 4 watts/cm 2 for the plasma parameters mentioned above. This value seems large also, but a longer wavelength of microwaves and a larger magnitude magnetic field, which will be the case in reactor type facilities, will lower the threshold intensity to levels comparable with the currently developed microwave sources

  20. Photoproduction of long-lived holes and electronic processes in intrinsic electric fields seen through photoinduced absorption and dichroism in Ca sub 3 Ga sub 2 sub - sub x Mn sub x Ge sub 3 O sub 1 sub 2 garnets

    CERN Document Server

    Eremenko, V V; Kachur, I S; Piryatinskaya, V G; Ratner, A M; Kosmyna, M B; Nazarenko, B P; Puzikov, V M

    2003-01-01

    Long-lived photoinduced absorption and dichroism in the Ca sub 3 Ga sub 2 sub - sub x Mn sub x Ge sub 3 O sub 1 sub 2 garnets with x < 0.06 were examined versus temperature and pumping intensity. Unusual features of the kinetics of photoinduced phenomena are indicative of the underlying electronic processes. The comparison with the case of Ca sub 3 Mn sub 2 Ge sub 3 O sub 1 sub 2 , explored earlier by the authors, permits one to finally establish the main common mechanisms of photoinduced absorption and dichroism caused by random electric fields of photoproduced charges (hole polarons). The rate of their diffusion and relaxation through recombination is strongly influenced by the same fields, whose large statistical straggling is responsible for a broad continuous set of relaxation components (observed in the relaxation time range from 1 to about 1000 min). For Ca sub 3 Ga sub 2 sub - sub x Mn sub x Ge sub 3 O sub 1 sub 2 , the time and temperature dependences of photoinduced absorption and dichroism bear ...

  1. Absorption of cosmic radio noise at different frequencies at Sanae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steyn, T.F.J.

    1983-12-01

    Electron density profiles are simulated as a function of altitude for the D- and E-regions during disturbed ionospheric conditions using auroral absorption data from riometers recording cosmic radio noise at 20, 30 and 51 MHz at Sanae, Antarctica. An elliptical function was used to simulate, as a function of height, the electron density profiles. Using these profiles the measured absorption was calculated by utilizing the Appleton-Hartree treatment for radio waves crossing the ionosphere. The frequency dependence of the riometer absorption is represented by a power law of the frequency: A(f) = C.f -n , and values of n were determined from calculations of the absorptions from the simulated electron density profiles. This power law is a fairly accurate representation in the frequency range 20 to 51 MHz. It appears that the exponent of the power law and the height of maximum absorption are effective parameters to determine the hardness of the energy spectra of precipitating electrons. A method is discussed whereby interferences on the riometer recordings are filtered from the data. Quiet day curves are obtained by the superposition of successive riometer recordings with a period of one sidereal day. A Fourier series is fitted to the points of maximum density to represent the quiet day recordings. Absorption events on day 175 and day 178 (1982) are analized for each riometer frequency, and the hardness of the precipitating electrons is inferred from the n-values of power law presentation. It is shown that the absorption of cosmic radio noise increases by increasing the depth of ionization without increasing the ionization rate (number of electrons /m 3 ) in the upper D-region. This may mean that a hardening of a precipitation spectrum will increase the absorption of cosmic radio noise

  2. Training and business performance: the mediating role of absorptive capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Perlines, Felipe; Moreno-García, Juan; Yáñez-Araque, Benito

    2016-01-01

    Training has been the focus of considerable conceptual and empirical attention but is considered a relevant factor for competitive edge in companies because it has a positive impact on business performance. This study is justified by the need for deeper analysis of the process involving the transfer of training into performance. This paper's originality lies in the implementation of the absorptive capacities approach as an appropriate conceptual framework for designing a model that reflects the connection between training and business performance through absorptive capacities. Based on the above conceptual framework and using the dual methodological implementation, a new method of analyzing the relationship between training and performance was obtained: efforts in training will not lead to performance without the mediation of absorptive. Training turns into performance if absorptive capacities are involved in this process. The suggested model becomes an appropriate framework for explaining the process of transformation of training into organizational performance, in which absorptive capacities play a key role. The findings obtained can go further owing to fs/QCA: of the different absorptive capacities, that of exploitation is a necessary condition to achieve better organizational performance. Therefore, training based on absorptive capacity will guide and facilitate the design of appropriate human resource strategies so that training results in improved performance. This conclusion is relevant for the development of a new facet of absorptive capacities by relating it to training and resulting in first-level implications for human resource management.

  3. In situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy of transition metal based water oxidation catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oversteeg, Christina H M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413490483; Doan, Hoang Q; de Groot, Frank M F|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/08747610X; Cuk, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    X-ray absorption studies of the geometric and electronic structure of primarily heterogeneous Co, Ni, and Mn based water oxidation catalysts are reviewed. The X-ray absorption near edge and extended X-ray absorption fine structure studies of the metal K-edge, characterize the metal oxidation state,

  4. Electronic structure in (Hg 0.5Pb 0.5)Sr 2(Ca 1- xY x)Cu 2O 7 compounds studied by soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. M.; Liu, R. S.; Hu, S. F.

    1996-02-01

    We report O K-edge and Cu L 23-edge X-ray-absorption near-edge-structure (XANES) spectra for the series of Hg 0.5Pb 0.5)Sr 2(Ca 1- xY x)Cu 2O 7 compounds ( x = 0.3-0.7) obtained using a bulk-sensitive total-X-ray-fluorescence-yield technique. Near the O 1s edge, the pre-edge peak with maxima at ∼528.3 eV is ascribed to the transitions to O 2p holes located in the CuO 2 planes. The intensity of this pre-edge peak monotonically increases with increasing doping level of Ca 2+ into the Y 3+ sites. The effect of chemical substitution of Ca 2+ for Y 3+ in Hg 0.5Pb 0.5)Sr 2(Ca 1- xY x)Cu 2O 7 is to induce O 2p hole states in the CuO 2 planes near the Fermi level which cause an increase of Tc from 15 K for x = 0.6 to 90 K for x = 0.3. Moreover, the generation of O 2p holes within the CuO 2 planes is probably responsible for inducing a transition from a semiconductor to a superconductor. In the Cu L-edge absorption spectra, high-energy shoulders at 933.2 and 953.0 eV are attributed to the transitions to the Cu(2 p{3}/{2}, {1}/{2}) -13 d10L states in the CuO 2 layers, where L denotes the O 2p ligand hole. The behavior of these shoulders correlates with that of the pre-edge peak at ∼ 528.3 eV in the O K-edge absorption spectra.

  5. Electronic Absorption Spectra of Neutral Perylene (C20H12), Terrylene (C30H16), and Quaterrylene (C40H20) and their Positive and Negative Ions: Ne Matrix-Isolation Spectroscopy and Time Dependent Density Functional Theory Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halasinski, Thomas M.; Weisman, Jennifer L.; Lee, Timothy J.; Salama, Farid; Head-Gordon, Martin; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present a full experimental and theoretical study of an interesting series of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, the oligorylenes. The absorption spectra of perylene, terrylene and quaterrylene in neutral, cationic and anionic charge states are obtained by matrix-isolation spectroscopy in Ne. The experimental spectra are dominated by a bright state that red shifts with growing molecular size. Excitation energies and state symmetry assignments are supported by calculations using time dependent density functional theory methods. These calculations also provide new insight into the observed trends in oscillator strength and excitation energy for the bright states: the oscillator strength per unit mass of carbon increases along the series.

  6. Mixed alkali effect in borate glasses - electron paramagnetic resonance and optical absorption studies in Cu sup 2 sup + doped xNa sub 2 O- (30 - x)K sub 2 O- 70B sub 2 O sub 3 glasses

    CERN Document Server

    Chakradhar, R P S; Rao, J L; Ramakrishna, J

    2003-01-01

    The mixed alkali borate glasses xNa sub 2 O-(30 - x)K sub 2 O-70B sub 2 O sub 3 (5 sup sup 2 B sub 2 sub g) and a weak band on the higher energy side at 22 115 cm sup - sup 1 corresponding to the transition ( sup 2 B sub 1 sub g -> sup 2 E sub g). With x > 5, the higher energy band disappears and the lower energy band shifts slightly to the lower energy side. By correlating the EPR and optical absorption data, the molecular orbital coefficients alpha sup 2 and beta sub 1 sup 2 are evaluated for the different glasses investigated. The values indicate that the in-plane sigma bonding is moderately covalent while the in-plane pi bonding is significantly ionic in nature; these exhibit a minimum with x = 15, showing the MAE. The theoretical values of optical basicity of the glasses have also been evaluated. From optical absorption edges, the optical bandgap energies have been calculated and are found to lie in the range 3.00-3.40 eV. The physical properties of the glasses studied have also been evaluated with respe...

  7. Absorptive Capacity and Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristinsson, Kári

    international business, organizational economics, strategic management, technology management and last but not least neo-Schumpeterian economics. The goal of this dissertation is to examine what many consider as neglected arguments from the work by Cohen and Levinthal and thereby illuminate an otherwise......One of the most influential contributions to neo-Schumpeterian economics is Cohen and Levinthal‘s papers on absorptive capacity. Since their publication in the late 1980s and early 1990s the concept absorptive capacity has had substantial impact on research in economics and management, including...... overlooked area of research. Although research based on Cohen and Levinthal‘s work has made considerable impact, there is scarcity of research on certain fundamental points argued by Cohen and Levinthal. Among these is the importance of employee diversity as well as the type and nature of interaction between...

  8. Sound absorption of snow

    OpenAIRE

    Maysenhölder, W.; Schneebeli, M.; Zhou, X.; Zhang, T.; Heggli, M.

    2008-01-01

    Recently fallen snow possesses good sound-absorbing properties. This fact is well-known and confirmed by measurements. Is the filigree structure of snowflakes decisive? In principle we know that the sound-absorbing capacity of a porous material is dependent on its structure. But until now the question as to which structural characteristics are significant has been insufficiently answered. Detailed investigations of snow are to explain this fact by precise measurements of the sound absorption,...

  9. Iron absorption studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekenved, G.

    1976-01-01

    The main objective of the present work was to study iron absorption from different iron preparations in different types of subjects and under varying therapeutic conditions. The studies were performed with different radioiron isotope techniques and with a serum iron technique. The preparations used were solutions of ferrous sulphate and rapidly-disintegrating tablets containing ferrous sulphate, ferrous fumarate and ferrous carbonate and a slow-release ferrous sulphate tablet of an insoluble matrix type (Duroferon Durules). The serum iron method was evaluated and good correlation was found between the serum iron response and the total amount of iron absorbed after an oral dose of iron given in solution or in tablet form. New technique for studying the in-vivo release properties of tablets was presented. Iron tablets labelled with a radio-isotope were given to healthy subjects. The decline of the radioactivity in the tablets was followed by a profile scanning technique applied to different types of iron tablets. The release of iron from the two types of tablets was shown to be slower in vivo than in vitro. It was found that co-administration of antacids and iron tablets led to a marked reduction in the iron absorption and that these drugs should not be administered sumultaneously. A standardized meal markedly decreased the absorbability of iron from iron tablets. The influence of the meal was more marked with rapidly-disintegrating than with slow-release ferrous sulphate tablets. The absorption from rapidly-disintegrating and slow-release ferrous sulphate tablets was compared under practical clinical conditions during an extended treatment period. The studies were performed in healthy subjects, blood donors and patients with iron deficiency anaemia and it was found that the absorption of iron from the slow-release tablets was significantly better than from the rapidly-disintegrating tablets in all three groups of subjects. (author)

  10. Total Absorption Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio, B.; Gelletly, W.

    2007-01-01

    The problem of determining the distribution of beta decay strength (B(GT)) as a function of excitation energy in the daughter nucleus is discussed. Total Absorption Spectroscopy is shown to provide a way of determining the B(GT) precisely. A brief history of such measurements and a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of this technique, is followed by examples of two recent studies using the technique. (authors)

  11. Relic Neutrino Absorption Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberle, b

    2004-01-28

    Resonant annihilation of extremely high-energy cosmic neutrinos on big-bang relic anti-neutrinos (and vice versa) into Z-bosons leads to sizable absorption dips in the neutrino flux to be observed at Earth. The high-energy edges of these dips are fixed, via the resonance energies, by the neutrino masses alone. Their depths are determined by the cosmic neutrino background density, by the cosmological parameters determining the expansion rate of the universe, and by the large redshift history of the cosmic neutrino sources. We investigate the possibility of determining the existence of the cosmic neutrino background within the next decade from a measurement of these absorption dips in the neutrino flux. As a by-product, we study the prospects to infer the absolute neutrino mass scale. We find that, with the presently planned neutrino detectors (ANITA, Auger, EUSO, OWL, RICE, and SalSA) operating in the relevant energy regime above 10{sup 21} eV, relic neutrino absorption spectroscopy becomes a realistic possibility. It requires, however, the existence of extremely powerful neutrino sources, which should be opaque to nucleons and high-energy photons to evade present constraints. Furthermore, the neutrino mass spectrum must be quasi-degenerate to optimize the dip, which implies m{sub {nu}} 0.1 eV for the lightest neutrino. With a second generation of neutrino detectors, these demanding requirements can be relaxed considerably.

  12. Innovative Resources for Education and Public Information: Electronic Services, Data and Information from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope and Other NASA Missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Carol A.

    The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), which supports the operation of the Hubble Space Telescope, is actively investigating and supporting innovative and experimental methods for improving science and math education content. The educational resources on the World Wide Web are derived from the latest data, scientific results, and advances…

  13. How Students Learn: Ways of Thinking about "Good Learning" in HE. EDNER (Formative Evaluation of the Distributed National Electronic Resource) Project. Issues Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchester Metropolitan Univ. (England).

    This issues paper, one of a series of eight, is intended to distill formative evaluation questions on topics that are central to the development of the higher and further education information environment in the United Kingdom. The topic of this first issues paper is a conceptual framework that can help members of a project (information resource)…

  14. 大學圖書館電子資源之需求分析與行銷策略之研究 A Study of Demands Analysis and Marketing Strategy of Electronic Resources in University Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang-Yu Liu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available 電子資源的出現,使得知識載體有了新的突破,提高了使用者的便利性與即時性。對於圖書館而言,如何使電子資源的使用效益達到最高,必須思考一套有效的行銷策略。電子資源行銷概念應以讀者為導向,尊重讀者的資訊需求,並利用各種宣傳技巧,行銷電子資源,使圖書館能提供更完善的服務。本研究之目的旨在探討讀者的使用需求及電子資源的推廣策略,以獲致最有效益的行銷方式。研究對象以開南大學日間部四學院(商學院、運輸觀光學院、資訊學院、人文社會學院)學生為樣本,佐以缺口分析模型為分析架構,藉以找出個案中讀者/學生對於電子資源使用的真實需求,並進而歸納出提供服務的大學圖書館在其推廣或行銷服務上可有的因應策略。The emergence of electronic resources has made new breakthrough in knowledge carriers because of their ease of use, instant availability, and the characteristic of no time and space constraints. For public libraries to achieve maximum efficiency in its electronic resources, it is necessary to seek the most effective marketing strategies. Therefore, the marketing concept of the electronic resources should be reader oriented, such as respecting and understanding library user’s information needs. Libraries also need to utilize various media and techniques to market the electronic resources, so that more comprehensive services and experiences can be provided to readers. The purpose of this study is to investigate library user’s needs and promotion strategies of electronic resources in order to identify the most effective ways of marketing. This study focuses on the students of the four colleges (College of Business, College of Tourism, College of Information, and College of Humanities and Social Science in Kainan University as subjects in the survey questionnaire. It uses the Gap Analysis

  15. Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most...... emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. Power electronics is the enabling technology and the presentation will cover the development in wind turbine...... technology from kW to MW, discuss which power electronic solutions are most feasible and used today....

  16. Application of electronic learning tools for training of specialists in the field of information technologies for enterprises of mineral resources sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. В. Катунцов

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the advantages of using modern electronic learning tools in the training of specialists for the mineral and raw materials complex and considers the basic principles of organizing training using these tools. The experience of using electronic learning tools using foreign teaching materials and involving foreign professors is described. A special attention is given to the electronic learning environment of the Cisco Networking Academy – Cisco NetAcad. The experience of teaching at the Networking Academy of the Saint-Petersburg Mining University is described. Details are given to modern virtual environments for laboratory work, such as Cisco Packet Tracer, GNS3 and Emulated Virtual Environment. The experience of using electronic learning technologies at the University of Economics of Bratislava is considered. It actively cooperates with a number of universities of other countries, such as the University of International Business (Almaty, the Eurasian National University named after LN Gumilyov (Astana and the Institute of Social and Humanitarian Knowledge (Kazan.

  17. Absorption heat pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhtinen, M.; Heikkilae, M.; Andersson, R.

    1987-03-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the technical and economic feasibility of absorption heat pumps in Finland. The work was done as a case study: the technical and economic analyses have been carried out for six different cases, where in each the suitable size and type of the heat pump plant and the auxiliary components and connections were specified. The study also detailed the costs concerning the procurement, installation and test runs of the machinery, as well as the savings in energy costs incurred by the introduction of the plant. Conclusions were drawn of the economic viability of the applications studied. The following cases were analyzed: heat recovery from flue gases and productin of district heat in plants using peat, natural gas, and municipal wastes as a fuel. Heat recovery in the pulp and paper industry for the upgrading of pressure of secondary steam and for the heating of white liquor and combustion and drying the air. Heat recovery in a peat-fulled heat and power plant from flue gases that have been used for the drying of peat. According to the study, the absorption heat pump suits best to the production of district heat, when the heat source is the primary energy is steam produced by the boiler. Included in the flue as condensing is the purification of flue gases. Accordingly, benefit is gained on two levels in thick applications. In heat and power plants the use of absorption heat pumps is less economical, due to the fact that the steam used by the pump reduces the production of electricity, which is rated clearly higher than heat.

  18. Exciton absorption of entangled photons in semiconductor quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Ferney; Guzman, David; Salazar, Luis; Quiroga, Luis; Condensed Matter Physics Group Team

    2013-03-01

    The dependence of the excitonic two-photon absorption on the quantum correlations (entanglement) of exciting biphotons by a semiconductor quantum well is studied. We show that entangled photon absorption can display very unusual features depending on space-time-polarization biphoton parameters and absorber density of states for both bound exciton states as well as for unbound electron-hole pairs. We report on the connection between biphoton entanglement, as quantified by the Schmidt number, and absorption by a semiconductor quantum well. Comparison between frequency-anti-correlated, unentangled and frequency-correlated biphoton absorption is addressed. We found that exciton oscillator strengths are highly increased when photons arrive almost simultaneously in an entangled state. Two-photon-absorption becomes a highly sensitive probe of photon quantum correlations when narrow semiconductor quantum wells are used as two-photon absorbers. Research funds from Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de los Andes

  19. Rapidly variable relatvistic absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M.; Pinto, C.; Fabian, A.; Lohfink, A.; Buisson, D.; Alston, W.; Jiang, J.

    2017-10-01

    I will present results from the 1.5Ms XMM-Newton observing campaign on the most X-ray variable AGN, IRAS 13224-3809. We find a series of nine absorption lines with a velocity of 0.24c from an ultra-fast outflow. For the first time, we are able to see extremely rapid variability of the UFO features, and can link this to the X-ray variability from the inner accretion disk. We find a clear flux dependence of the outflow features, suggesting that the wind is ionized by increasing X-ray emission.

  20. Geospatial Absorption and Regional Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOAN MAC

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The geospatial absorptions are characterized by a specific complexity both in content and in their phenomenological and spatial manifestation fields. Such processes are differentiated according to their specificity to pre-absorption, absorption or post-absorption. The mechanisms that contribute to absorption are extremely numerous: aggregation, extension, diffusion, substitution, resistivity (resilience, stratification, borrowings, etc. Between these mechanisms frequent relations are established determining an amplification of the process and of its regional effects. The installation of the geographic osmosis phenomenon in a given territory (a place for example leads to a homogenization of the geospatial state and to the installation of the regional homogeneity.

  1. Analytics on Transmission Electron Microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keum, Dong Hwa; Kim, Geung Ho; Lee, Hwak Ju and others

    1996-06-01

    This book gives descriptions of transmission electron microscopy, which deals with electron microscopy and materials science, history of electron microscopy, application of analytics on transmission electron microscopy, machine requirement of transmission electron microscopy like electron gun and TEM image and function, crystal diffraction, electron diffraction, Kikuchi's diffraction figure, analysis of diffraction figure, contrast of TEM image like absorption contrast, and phase contrast, Fresnel's diffraction and TEM contrast, thickness fringe, column approximation, analysis of diffraction contrast, image simulation, and electron energy loss spectrometry.

  2. Positive Perceptions of Access to Online Library Resources Correlates with Quality and Quantity of Scholarly Publications among Finnish Academics. A Review of: Vakkari, Pertti. “Perceived Influence of the Use of Electronic Information Resources on Scholarly Work and Publication Productivity.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 59.4 (Feb. 15, 2008: 602-12.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Marsalis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To investigate the relationship between academics’ use of library electronic resources and their opinions regarding how these resources have impacted their work, and to investigate the association between this perceived influence and publication productivity during the previous two years.Design – Two specific questions added to an annual online user-survey questionnaire; additional data mined from surveySetting – Twenty-two Finnish Universities served by FinELib, the Finnish Electronic Library.Subjects – Seven hundred and sixty seven academic staff and full-time doctoral students.Methods – A questionnaire was posted in April 2007 on FinELib’s homepage and advertised on each university library’s mainpage, and focused on respondents’ experience in the previous two years. Participants selected answers either from a list of category choices, or, when measuring perceptions, by rating agreement with statements along a four-point scale. Controlled variables measured were the respondents’ academic position, their discipline, membership in a research group, whether their literature use was discipline-specific or interdisciplinary, and their perception of the availability online of the relevant core literature. The independent variable measured was the scholars’ perception of the impact of the use of electronic library resources on their work. The dependent variable measured was the scholars’ self-reported publications in the two years preceding the survey.Main Results – Participants reported a positive impact on the efficiency of their work, most strongly in areas of ease of access, with lesser impacts in the range of materials available to them and the ease with which they can keep up-to-date in their field. To a lesser extent, the scholars perceived a positive impact on the quality of their work. Upon analysis, the study found that access to online library resources improved scholars’ work by the interconnected

  3. F K-edge soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimura, Tetsuro; Kawai, Jun; Maeda, Kuniko; Fukushima, Akiko; Shin, S.; Motoyama, Muneyuki; Nakajima Tsuyoshi

    2001-01-01

    We measured F X-ray absorption spectra of various fluorine compounds using a synchrotron radiation at KEK-PF. The absorption spectra were measured using X-ray fluorescence yield (XFY) and total electron yield (TEY) methods. Change of the spectral shape has a relation to the metal-fluorine bond distance. By comparing with the experimental spectrum and calculated spectrum, F 2p state density is divined into up and down states. (author)

  4. Electronic collection management

    CERN Document Server

    Mcginnis, Suzan D

    2013-01-01

    Build and manage your collection of digital resources with these successful strategies! This comprehensive volume is a practical guide to the art and science of acquiring and organizing electronic resources. The collections discussed here range in size from small college libraries to large research libraries, but all are facing similar problems: shrinking budgets, increasing demands, and rapidly shifting formats. Electronic Collection Management offers new ideas for coping with these issues. Bringing together diverse aspects of collection development, Electronic Collection

  5. Restricted mass energy absorption coefficients for use in dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brahme, A.

    1977-02-01

    When matter is irradiated by a photon beam the fraction of energy absorbed locally in some region Rsub(Δ) (where the size of the region Rsub(Δ) is related to the range of secondary electrons of some restriction energy Δ) is expressed by the restricted mass energy absorption coefficient. In this paper an example is given of how restricted mass energy absorption coefficients can be calculated from existing differential photon interaction cross sections. Some applications of restricted mass absorption coefficients in dosimetry are also given. (B.D.)

  6. The electronic spectra and the structures of the individual copper(II) chloride and bromide complexes in acetonitrile according to steady-state absorption spectroscopy and DFT/TD-DFT calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olshin, Pavel K.; Myasnikova, Olesya S.; Kashina, Maria V.; Gorbunov, Artem O.; Bogachev, Nikita A.; Kompanets, Viktor O.; Chekalin, Sergey V.; Pulkin, Sergey A.; Kochemirovsky, Vladimir A.; Skripkin, Mikhail Yu.; Mereshchenko, Andrey S.

    2018-03-01

    The results of spectrophotometric study and quantum chemical calculations for copper(II) chloro- and bromocomplexes in acetonitrile are reported. Electronic spectra of the individual copper(II) halide complexes were obtained in a wide spectral range 200-2200 nm. Stability constants of the individual copper(II) halide complexes in acetonitrile were calculated: log β1 = 8.5, log β2 = 15.6, log β3 = 22.5, log β4 = 25.7 for [CuCln]2-n and log β1 = 17.0, log β2 = 24.6, log β3 = 28.1, log β4 = 30.4 for [CuBrn]2-n. Structures of the studied complexes were optimized and electronic spectra were simulated using DFT and TD-DFT methodologies, respectively. According to the calculations, the more is the number of halide ligands the less is coordination number of copper ion.

  7. EFFECTIVE ELECTRONIC TUTORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei A. Fedoseev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes effective electronic tutorials creation and application based on the theory of pedagogy. Herewith the issues of necessary electronic tutorial functional, ways of the educational process organization with the use of information and communication technologies and the logistics of electronic educational resources are touched upon. 

  8. Laser light absorption and reflection in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruer, W.; Valeo, E.; Estabrook, K.; Thomson, J.; Langdon, B.; Lasinski, B.

    1975-01-01

    Mechanisms by which intense laser light energy is absorbed or reflected by a hot, dense plasma are of central concern in laser fusion studies. Extensive computer simulations show that the plasma waves responsible for absorption near the critical density are produced by instabilities, resonant excitation and, more generally, by off-resonant coupling by non-linearly produced ion density fluctuations. Non-linear modifications in the plasma density profile are found to play a key role in the light absorption. DC magnetic fields large enough to affect electron transport are observed in computer simulations of intense obliquely incident light, even in the absence of irradiation asymmetry. Finally, plasma heating near one-fourth the critical density and the role of bandwidth as a means to control Brillouin reflection are discussed. (author)

  9. Solar absorption cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, D.S.

    2007-01-01

    As the world concerns more and more on global climate changes and depleting energy resources, solar cooling technology receives increasing interests from the public as an environment-friendly and sustainable alternative. However, making a competitive solar cooling machine for the market still

  10. MULTIMAGNON ABSORPTION IN MNF2-OPTICAL ABSORPTION SPECTRUM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The absorption spectrum of MnF2 at 4.2K in the 3900A region was measured in zero external fields and in high fields. Exciton lines with magnon ...sidebands are observed, accompanied by a large number of weak satellite lines. Results on the exciton and magnon absorptions are similar to those of...McClure et al. The satellite lines are interpreted as being multi- magnon absorptions, and it is possible to fit the energy of all the absorptions with

  11. Analyzing Water's Optical Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A cooperative agreement between World Precision Instruments (WPI), Inc., and Stennis Space Center has led the UltraPath(TM) device, which provides a more efficient method for analyzing the optical absorption of water samples at sea. UltraPath is a unique, high-performance absorbance spectrophotometer with user-selectable light path lengths. It is an ideal tool for any study requiring precise and highly sensitive spectroscopic determination of analytes, either in the laboratory or the field. As a low-cost, rugged, and portable system capable of high- sensitivity measurements in widely divergent waters, UltraPath will help scientists examine the role that coastal ocean environments play in the global carbon cycle. UltraPath(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc. LWCC(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc.

  12. Atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haswell, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    Atomic absorption spectroscopy is now well established and widely used technique for the determination of trace and major elements in a wide range analyte types. There have been many advances in the atomic spectroscopy over the last decade and for this reason and to meet the demand, it was felt that there was a need for an updated book. Whilst interest in instrumental design has tended to dominate the minds of the spectrocopist, the analyst concerned with obtaining reliable and representative data, in diverse areas of application, has been diligently modifying and developing sample treatment and instrumental introduction techniques. Such methodology is de fundamental part of analysis and form the basis of the fourteen application chapters of this book. The text focuses in the main on AAS; however, the sample handling techniques described are in many cases equally applicable to ICP-OES and ICP-MS analysis. (author). refs.; figs.; tabs

  13. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soffiantini, V.

    1981-01-01

    Atomic absorption spectrophotometry is essentially an analytical technique used for quantitative trace metal analysis in a variety of materials. The speed and specificity of the technique is its greatest advantage over other analytical techniques. What atomic absorption spectrophotometry can and cannot do and its advantages and disadvantages are discussed, a summary of operating instructions are given, as well as a summary of analytical interferences. The applications of atomic absorption spectrophotometry are also shortly discussed

  14. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.

    2009-07-09

    This review gives a brief description of the theory and application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy, both X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), especially, pertaining to photosynthesis. The advantages and limitations of the methods are discussed. Recent advances in extended EXAFS and polarized EXAFS using oriented membranes and single crystals are explained. Developments in theory in understanding the XANES spectra are described. The application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy to the study of the Mn4Ca cluster in Photosystem II is presented.

  15. Merge of terminological resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lina; Braasch, Anna

    2012-01-01

    – or merging – of terminology resources are strongly needed. This paper discusses prerequisites for successful merging with the focus on identification of candidate duplicates of a subject domain found in the resources to be merged, and it describes automatic merging strategies to be applied to such duplicates...... in electronic terminology resources. Further, some perspectives of manual, supplementary assessment methods supporting the automatic procedures are sketched. Our considerations are primarily based on experience gained in the IATE and EuroTermBank projects, as merging was a much discussed issue in both projects....

  16. Merge of terminological resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lina; Braasch, Anna

    2012-01-01

    In our globalized world, the amount of cross-national communication increases rapidly, which also calls for easy access to multi-lingual high quality terminological resources. Sharing of terminology resources is currently becoming common practice, and efficient strategies for integration...... – or merging – of terminology resources are strongly needed. This paper discusses prerequisites for successful merging with the focus on identification of candidate duplicates of a subject domain found in the resources to be merged, and it describes automatic merging strategies to be applied to such duplicates...... in electronic terminology resources. Further, some perspectives of manual, supplementary assessment methods supporting the automatic procedures are sketched. Our considerations are primarily based on experience gained in the IATE and EuroTermBank projects, as merging was a much discussed issue in both projects....

  17. Renewable energy resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellabban, Omar S.; Abu-Rub, Haitham A.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    Electric energy security is essential, yet the high cost and limited sources of fossil fuels, in addition to the need to reduce greenhouse gasses emission, have made renewable resources attractive in world energy-based economies. The potential for renewable energy resources is enormous because...... they can, in principle, exponentially exceed the world's energy demand; therefore, these types of resources will have a significant share in the future global energy portfolio, much of which is now concentrating on advancing their pool of renewable energy resources. Accordingly, this paper presents how...... renewable energy resources are currently being used, scientific developments to improve their use, their future prospects, and their deployment. Additionally, the paper represents the impact of power electronics and smart grid technologies that can enable the proportionate share of renewable energy...

  18. Non thermal cyclotron emission and absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rax, J.M.

    1984-08-01

    The problem of emission and absorption in an inhomogeneous, anisotropic plasma out of thermal equilibrium is investigated. We explicitly construct the Green function of the Maxwell equations in the eikonal approximation. Then, considering the fluctuating microcurrents associated with the non thermal component of the electronic population, we give the general expressions for the source function and the optical depth. The theory is then applied to a tokamak plasma whose current is generated by lower-hybrid waves and to the final stage of the Parail-Pogutse instability

  19. Infrared absorption spectroscopy with color center lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrick, P. G.; Curl, R. F.; Tittel, F. K.; Koester, E.; Pfeiffer, J.; Kasper, J. V. V.

    Results are presented of the application of a computer controlled color center laser combined with Stark modulation and magnetic rotation effect modulation for obtaining high resolution spectra of molecular species. The lowest electronic transition of the C2H free radical, of interest in astrophysics, is observed near 3772/cm and the high resolution spectra of methanol and hydroxylamine in the OH stretching region are obtained. It is concluded that color center laser absorption spectroscopy combined with sensitivy enhancement through modulation techniques is a sensitive and versatile means of determining the spectra of free radicals and transient molecules in the infared region.

  20. Full-absorption scintillation spectrometer for neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhelepov, V.P.; Filchenkov, V.V.; Konin, A.D.; Rudenko, A.I.; Solovieva, G.M.; Zinov, V.G.

    1988-01-01

    A full-absorption scintillation spectrometer for neutrons (volume of scintillator = 24 l) has been developed and employed in investigations of muon catalysed processes. Its application allows: (a) Considerably increasing the rate of accummulation of events; (b) efficiently using muon catalysis multiplicity for fuller and more reliable determination of its parameters; (c) significantly reducing uncertainty in the calculated and experimentally found values of neutron detection efficiency. The device combines good spectrometric properties for neutron energies E n = 1-6 MeV and reliable n-γ separation (the degree of separation for a Pu-Be source 3 starting from an electron energy of 50 keV). (orig.)

  1. The Impact on Wind Power Integration from Geothermal Absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2012-01-01

    and lowtemperature geothermal resources. The analyses have also demonstrated that the municipality will still rely heavily on surrounding areas for electric load balancing assistance. With a departure in a previously elaborated 100% renewable energy scenario, this paper investigates how absorption heat pumps (AHP...

  2. Electron-Cyclotron Waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.

    1994-01-01

    The essential elements of the theory of electron cyclotron waves are reviewed, The two main electro-magnetic modes of propagation are identified and their dispersion and absorption properties are discussed. The importance of the use of the relativistic resonance condition is stressed.

  3. Phytases for improved iron absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Veller Friis; Meyer, Anne S.

    2016-01-01

    Phytase enzymes present an alternative to iron supplements, because they have been shown to improve iron absorption by means of catalysing the degradation of a potent iron absorption inhibitor: phytic acid. Phytic acid is a hexaphosphate of inositol and is particularly prevalent in cereal grains...

  4. Atomic absorption instrument functional description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bystroff, R.I.; Boyle, W.G. Jr.; Barton, G.W. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    This report describes a proposed system for automating atomic absorption analysis. The system consists of two atomic absorption instruments and an automatic sampler that can be attached to either instrument. A computer program controls the sampling and gathers data. The program then uses the data to perform bookkeeping, data processing, and report writing

  5. Optical absorption of irradiated carbohydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supe, A.A.; Tiliks, Yu.E.

    1994-01-01

    The optical absorption spectra of γ-irradiated carbohydrates (glucose, lactose, sucrose, maltose, and starch) and their aqueous solutions were studied. The comparison of the data obtained with the determination of the concentrations of molecular and radical products of radiolysis allows the absorption bands with maxima at 250 and 310 nm to be assigned to the radicals trapped in the irradiated carbohydrates

  6. Water absorption in brick masonry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brocken, H.J.P.; Smolders, H.R.

    1996-01-01

    The water absorption in brick, mortar that was cured separately, and masonry samples was studied using NMR. Models of the moisture transport are usually formulated on the basis of a diffusion equation. In the case of water absorption in separate brick and mortar samples, the moisture diffusivity in

  7. Atmospheric absorption of sound - Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, H. E.; Sutherland, L. C.; Zuckerwar, A. J.

    1990-01-01

    Best current expressions for the vibrational relaxation times of oxygen and nitrogen in the atmosphere are used to compute total absorption. The resulting graphs of total absorption as a function of frequency for different humidities should be used in lieu of the graph published earlier by Evans et al (1972).

  8. Intestinal Absorption of Thyroid Hormone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Kelderman-Bolk (Nienke)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis the treatment of hypothyroidism and absorption of T4 is described from a clinical and basic point of view. Put together the thesis gives insight in the factors influencing LT4 absorption and its results have influenced the timing of LT4 intake.

  9. Acoustic absorption in n=InSb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmedov, S.Eh.; Podoplelova, V.L.; Roj, V.F.

    1976-01-01

    The temperature dependence was studied of the electric conductivity (sigma), the acoustic electromotive force Esub(ae) and the coefficient of absorption of ultra sound (a) in a wide temperature range (1.4 to 300 deg K) of monocrystals n-InSb with a concentration of carriers n=2.3 10 14 cm -3 at the temperature of 77 K. The relationship sigma(T) is of a nature common to semiconductors throughout the temperature range. The relationship a(T) in the range from 80 to 180 K changes little with the temperature. In the range of 30 to 80 K, the absorption coefficient drops sharply. In the 4.2-30 K temperature range the value of the coefficient of absorption increases. The correlation should be noted between the relationships a(T) and sigma(T) practically throughout the whole range of the investigated temperatures. This is particularly observable at temperatures below 30 K and above 180 K. Peaks of a(T) at very low temperatures are observable only on excitation of non-equilibrium current carriers and are explainable in terms of the exciton-phonon interaction or interaction of the ultrasound with electron-hole drops

  10. Optical absorption of silicon nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, T.; Lambert, Y.; Krzeminski, C.; Grandidier, B.; Stiévenard, D.; Lévêque, G.; Akjouj, A.; Pennec, Y.; Djafari-Rouhani, B.

    2012-01-01

    We report on simulations and measurements of the optical absorption of silicon nanowires (NWs) versus their diameter. We first address the simulation of the optical absorption based on two different theoretical methods: the first one, based on the Green function formalism, is useful to calculate the scattering and absorption properties of a single or a finite set of NWs. The second one, based on the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method, is well-adapted to deal with a periodic set of NWs. In both cases, an increase of the onset energy for the absorption is found with increasing diameter. Such effect is experimentally illustrated, when photoconductivity measurements are performed on single tapered Si nanowires connected between a set of several electrodes. An increase of the nanowire diameter reveals a spectral shift of the photocurrent intensity peak towards lower photon energies that allow to tune the absorption onset from the ultraviolet radiations to the visible light spectrum.

  11. Electronics and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, George H

    1987-01-01

    Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p

  12. An outdoor investigation of the absorption degradation of single ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    thermography was used for mapping the module temperature profile. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used for the absorption characterization. ... The localized heating can cause structural damage which increases surface recombina- tion and reduces the mobility and lifetime of photogenerated electrons.

  13. Syntheses and absorption-structure relationships of some new ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    New biheterocyclic compound was synthesized as starting material to prepare new photosensitizers mono-, tri-, substituted tri-, azadimethine and mixed cyanine dyes. Absorption-structure relationship of the synthesized cyanine dyes were determined by studying their electronic spectral behaviour in ethanol. The structure of ...

  14. Pressure-induced changes in the structural and absorption ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and absorption properties of NADNP under hydrostatic pressure of 0–140 GPa. The atomic positions and the unit cell parameters were allowed to relax to the min- imum energy configuration to investigate the crystal structure at different pressures. Then, we examined the variations in electronic structure under compres-.

  15. Subgap Absorption in Conjugated Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, M.; Seager, C. H.; McBranch, D.; Heeger, A. J; Baker, G. L.

    1991-01-01

    Along with X{sup (3)}, the magnitude of the optical absorption in the transparent window below the principal absorption edge is an important parameter which will ultimately determine the utility of conjugated polymers in active integrated optical devices. With an absorptance sensitivity of materials. We have used PDS to measure the optical absorption spectra of the conjugated polymers poly(1,4-phenylene-vinylene) (and derivitives) and polydiacetylene-4BCMU in the spectral region from 0.55 eV to 3 eV. Our spectra show that the shape of the absorption edge varies considerably from polymer to polymer, with polydiacetylene-4BCMU having the steepest absorption edge. The minimum absorption coefficients measured varied somewhat with sample age and quality, but were typically in the range 1 cm{sup {minus}1} to 10 cm{sup {minus}1}. In the region below 1 eV, overtones of C-H stretching modes were observed, indicating that further improvements in transparency in this spectral region might be achieved via deuteration of fluorination.

  16. Sabine absorption coefficients to random incidence absorption coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2014-01-01

    into random incidence absorption coefficients for porous absorbers are investigated. Two optimization-based conversion methods are suggested: the surface impedance estimation for locally reacting absorbers and the flow resistivity estimation for extendedly reacting absorbers. The suggested conversion methods...

  17. ELECTRONS IN NONPOLAR LIQUIDS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOLROYD,R.A.

    2002-10-22

    Excess electrons can be introduced into liquids by absorption of high energy radiation, by photoionization, or by photoinjection from metal surfaces. The electron's chemical and physical properties can then be measured, but this requires that the electrons remain free. That is, the liquid must be sufficiently free of electron attaching impurities for these studies. The drift mobility as well as other transport properties of the electron are discussed here as well as electron reactions, free-ion yields and energy levels, Ionization processes typically produce electrons with excess kinetic energy. In liquids during thermalization, where this excess energy is lost to bath molecules, the electrons travel some distance from their geminate positive ions. In general the electrons at this point are still within the coulombic field of their geminate ions and a large fraction of the electrons recombine. However, some electrons escape recombination and the yield that escapes to become free electrons and ions is termed G{sub fi}. Reported values of G{sub fi} for molecular liquids range from 0.05 to 1.1 per 100 eV of energy absorbed. The reasons for this 20-fold range of yields are discussed here.

  18. Absorption factor for cylindrical samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sears, V.F.

    1984-01-01

    The absorption factor for the scattering of X-rays or neutrons in cylindrical samples is calculated by numerical integration for the case in which the absorption coefficients of the incident and scattered beams are not equal. An extensive table of values having an absolute accuracy of 10 -4 is given in a companion report [Sears (1983). Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Report No. AECL-8176]. In the present paper an asymptotic expression is derived for the absorption factor which can be used with an error of less than 10 -3 for most cases of interest in both neutron inelastic scattering and neutron diffraction in crystals. (Auth.)

  19. Semiconductor opto-electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Moss, TS; Ellis, B

    1972-01-01

    Semiconductor Opto-Electronics focuses on opto-electronics, covering the basic physical phenomena and device behavior that arise from the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and electrons in a solid. The first nine chapters of this book are devoted to theoretical topics, discussing the interaction of electromagnetic waves with solids, dispersion theory and absorption processes, magneto-optical effects, and non-linear phenomena. Theories of photo-effects and photo-detectors are treated in detail, including the theories of radiation generation and the behavior of semiconductor lasers a

  20. Managing Human Resource Learning for Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter

    Managing human resource learning for innovation develops a systemic understanding of building innovative capabilities. Building innovative capabilities require active creation, coordination and absorption of useful knowledge and thus a cohesive management approach to learning. Often learning...... in organizations and work is approached without considerations on how to integrate it in the management of human resources. The book investigates the empirical conditions for managing human resources learning for innovation. With focus on innovative performance the importance of modes of innovation, clues...

  1. Protonation effects on the UV/Vis absorption spectra of imatinib: A theoretical and experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grante, Ilze; Actins, Andris; Orola, Liana

    2014-08-01

    An experimental and theoretical investigation of protonation effects on the UV/Vis absorption spectra of imatinib showed systematic changes of absorption depending on the pH, and a new absorption band appeared below pH 2. These changes in the UV/Vis absorption spectra were interpreted using quantum chemical calculations. The geometry of various imatinib cations in the gas phase and in ethanol solution was optimized with the DFT/B3LYP method. The resultant geometries were compared to the experimentally determined crystal structures of imatinib salts. The semi-empirical ZINDO-CI method was employed to calculate the absorption lines and electronic transitions. Our study suggests that the formation of the extra near-UV absorption band resulted from an increase of imatinib trication concentration in the solution, while the rapid increase of the first absorption maximum could be attributed to both the formation of imatinib trication and tetracation.

  2. Vertical transition energies vs. absorption maxima: illustration with the UV absorption spectrum of ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasorne, Benjamin; Jornet-Somoza, Joaquim; Meyer, Hans-Dieter; Lauvergnat, David; Robb, Michael A; Gatti, Fabien

    2014-02-05

    We revisit the validity of making a direct comparison between measured absorption maxima and computed vertical transition energies within 0.1 eV to calibrate an excited-state level of theory. This is illustrated on the UV absorption spectrum of ethylene for which the usual experimental values of 7.66 eV (V←N) and 7.11 eV (R(3s)←N) cannot be compared directly to the results of electronic structure calculations for two very different reasons. After validation of our level of theory against experimental data, a new experimental reference of 7.28 eV is suggested for benchmarking the Rydberg state, and the often-cited average transition energy (7.80 eV) is confirmed as a safer estimate for the valence state. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Water Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abira, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Water is essential for life and ecological sustenance; its availability is essential component of national welfare and productivity.The country's socio-economic activities are largely dependent on the natural endowment of water resources. Kenya's water resources comprises of surface waters (rivers, lakes and wetlands) and ground water. Surface water forms 86% of total water resources while the rest is ground water Geological, topographical and climatic factors influence the natural availability and distribution of water with the rainfall distribution having the major influence. Water resources in Kenya are continuously under threat of depletion and quality degradation owing to rising population, industrialization, changing land use and settlement activities as well as natural changes. However, the anticipated climate change is likely to exacerbate the situation resulting in increased conflict over water use rights in particular, and, natural resource utilisation in general. The impacts of climate change on the water resources would lead to other impacts on environmental and socio-economic systems

  4. Absorption of electromagnetic radiation in a quantum wire with an anisotropic parabolic potential in a transverse magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpunin, V. V., E-mail: karpuninvv@mail.ru [Mordovian State Pedagogical Institute (Russian Federation); Margulis, V. A., E-mail: theorphysics@mrsu.ru [Mordovian State University (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-15

    An analytical expression for the coefficient of absorption of electromagnetic radiation by electrons in a quantum wire in a magnetic field is derived. The case of a magnetic field transverse with respect to the wire axis is considered. The resonance character of absorption is shown, and the resonance frequencies as functions of the field are determined. The effect of the scattering of electrons at optical phonons is studied, and it is shown that scattering is responsible for additional resonance absorption peaks.

  5. Nonequilibrium absorption in semiconductors and the dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Kristinn; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    1997-01-01

    We theoretically study free electron light absorption for a sample which is placed in a strong, time-dependent uniform electric field. In the case of static fields one observes the Franz-Keldysh effect: finite absorption for photon energies below the band gap. We refer to this phenomenon as the F...

  6. Ultrasonic absorption in solid specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siwabessy, P.J. W.; Stewart, G.A.

    1996-01-01

    As part of a project to measure the absorption of high frequency (50 - 500 kHz) sonar signals in warm sea-water, a laboratory apparatus has been constructed and tested against room temperature distilled water and various solutions of MgSO 4 (chemical relaxation of MgSO 4 is the major contribution to absorption below 200 kHz). The technique involves monitoring the decay of an acoustic signal for different sizes of vessels of water suspended in an evacuated chamber. So far, all containing vessels used have been spherical in shape. Extrapolation of the results to infinite volume yields the absorption due to the water alone. In order to accommodate variations in temperature and pressure, and to make the system more robust (e.g. for ship deck usage), it is desirable to employ stainless steel vessels. However, it was found that the quality of the data was greatly improved when pyrex glass spheres were used. The stainless steel spheres were manufactured by welding together mechanically spun hemispheres. The linear frequency dependence characteristic of acoustic absorption in solids was observed (in contrast to the quadratic frequency dependence of acoustic absorption in water), and the acoustic absorption was found to depend strongly on the thermal history of the steel

  7. Dependence of plasma profiles on ECH power absorption in Heliotron-E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasaki, Kazunobu; Mizuuchi, Tohru; Besshou, Sakae

    1998-01-01

    Dependence of plasma profiles on the power absorption of electron cyclotron heating is experimentally studied in the Heliotron-E helical device. A focused Gaussian beam with controllable polarization makes it possible to change the power absorption. The electron density and temperature profiles are sensitive to the single pass absorption rate. The electron temperature profile is peaked and the density profile is hollow as the single pass absorption increases. The resonance position is also important for determining their profiles. The electron temperature profile is changed from a peaked one to a hollow one, depending on the resonance position. The non-diffusive outward flow, which is necessary to form a hollow temperature profile, is estimated by using a simple heat transport model. (author)

  8. Optical absorption study of radiation and thermal effects in Brazilian samples of spodumene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotani, S.; Fujii, A.T.; Antonini, R.; Furtado, W.

    1988-03-01

    A detailed analysis of the optical absorption spectra of five varieties of Brazilian spodumene is presented. The samples were submitted to heat treatments and irradiated with gamma rays, x radiation, electrons and ultraviolet light. (M.C.K.) [pt

  9. Microwave absorption behavior in Cr2O3 nanopowders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montiel, H.; Alvarez, G.; Conde-Gallardo, A.; Zamorano, R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We have investigated the microwave power absorption in Cr 2 O 3 nanopowders. • EMR spectra show the contributions of the core and the surface of the nanoparticles. • MAMMAS detected an antiferro-paramagnetic transition due to core of the nanoparticles. • LFMA signal is associated with the ferromagnetic order on the surface of the nanoparticles. - Abstract: We have investigated the microwave power absorption at X-band (8.8–9.8 GHz) in Cr 2 O 3 nanopowders, for the 294–400 K temperature range. For all temperatures, two different kinds of microwave absorptions are observed: the electron magnetic resonance (EMR) at high magnetic field and the low-field microwave absorption (LFMA) around zero field. EMR spectrum can be separated in two contributions associated with two different resonant absorption modes, where this result is interpreted as the combination of two different magnetic phases; corresponding to the core (mode A) and the surface (mode B) of the Cr 2 O 3 nanoparticles. Also, we have detected the onset of the antiferro-paramagnetic transition in resonant mode A, which is characteristic of Cr 2 O 3 samples; being confirmed the magnetic transition by means of the magnetically modulated microwave absorption spectroscopy (MAMMAS). Additionally, the temperature behaviors of the resonant mode B and the LFMA signal are associated with a ferromagnetic state on the surface of the Cr 2 O 3 nanoparticles

  10. Local structures and electronic band states of α-Fe2O3 polycrystalline particles included in the red-color overglazes and the transparent glazes of the Kakiemon-style porcelains by means of X-ray absorption spectra (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidaka, M.; Kumara, L.S.R.; Wijesundera, R.P.; Sung, Nark Eon

    2009-01-01

    Kakiemon-style porcelain is mainly characterized by the porcelain body of white color or milky-white color and the elegant and bright patterns of the colored overglazes on its white body. The porcelains were first developed and completed by Kakiemon-kiln family in 1650-80's. The red-color overglazes and the transparent glazes of the present porcelain pieces, which were produced in the early 17 th century to the middle 18 th century, have been investigated by means of X-ray absorption spectrum using synchrotron radiation. The structure of a lpha - Fe 2 O 3 as red-color emission element is slightly deformed in the red-color overglazes by the other surrounding oxides (SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , K 2 O, Na 2 O, Mg O, Pb O), and/or the new complexes of (SiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 ,) systems constructed by the raw materials. The Fe ions in the transparent glazes are in the glass-state with the other oxides. However, the electronic valence, Fe 3+ , of Fe ions is the same with that of the a lpha - Fe 2 O 3 in the red-color overglazes. The lead oxides (Pb O, Pb 3 O 4 ) used in the Edo period to increase the brightness in the fritted red-color overglazes were perfectly decomposed, and Pb ions were in the glass-state of the porcelains. (author)

  11. Broadening microwave absorption via a multi-domain structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhengwang; Che, Renchao; Wei, Yong; Liu, Yupu; Elzatahry, Ahmed A.; Dahyan, Daifallah Al.; Zhao, Dongyuan

    2017-04-01

    Materials with a high saturation magnetization have gained increasing attention in the field of microwave absorption; therefore, the magnetization value depends on the magnetic configuration inside them. However, the broad-band absorption in the range of microwave frequency (2-18 GHz) is a great challenge. Herein, the three-dimensional (3D) Fe/C hollow microspheres are constructed by iron nanocrystals permeating inside carbon matrix with a saturation magnetization of 340 emu/g, which is 1.55 times as that of bulk Fe, unexpectedly. Electron tomography, electron holography, and Lorentz transmission electron microscopy imaging provide the powerful testimony about Fe/C interpenetration and multi-domain state constructed by vortex and stripe domains. Benefiting from the unique chemical and magnetic microstructures, the microwave minimum absorption is as strong as -55 dB and the bandwidth (spans 12.5 GHz ranging from 5.5 to 18 GHz. Morphology and distribution of magnetic nano-domains can be facilely regulated by a controllable reduction sintering under H2/Ar gas and an optimized temperature over 450-850 °C. The findings might shed new light on the synthesis strategies of the materials with the broad-band frequency and understanding the association between multi-domain coupling and microwave absorption performance.

  12. Broadening microwave absorption via a multi-domain structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengwang Liu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Materials with a high saturation magnetization have gained increasing attention in the field of microwave absorption; therefore, the magnetization value depends on the magnetic configuration inside them. However, the broad-band absorption in the range of microwave frequency (2-18 GHz is a great challenge. Herein, the three-dimensional (3D Fe/C hollow microspheres are constructed by iron nanocrystals permeating inside carbon matrix with a saturation magnetization of 340 emu/g, which is 1.55 times as that of bulk Fe, unexpectedly. Electron tomography, electron holography, and Lorentz transmission electron microscopy imaging provide the powerful testimony about Fe/C interpenetration and multi-domain state constructed by vortex and stripe domains. Benefiting from the unique chemical and magnetic microstructures, the microwave minimum absorption is as strong as −55 dB and the bandwidth (<−10 dB spans 12.5 GHz ranging from 5.5 to 18 GHz. Morphology and distribution of magnetic nano-domains can be facilely regulated by a controllable reduction sintering under H2/Ar gas and an optimized temperature over 450–850 °C. The findings might shed new light on the synthesis strategies of the materials with the broad-band frequency and understanding the association between multi-domain coupling and microwave absorption performance.

  13. Cohort profile of the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust Biomedical Research Centre (SLaM BRC) Case Register: current status and recent enhancement of an Electronic Mental Health Record-derived data resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Gayan; Broadbent, Matthew; Callard, Felicity; Chang, Chin-Kuo; Downs, Johnny; Dutta, Rina; Fernandes, Andrea; Hayes, Richard D; Henderson, Max; Jackson, Richard; Jewell, Amelia; Kadra, Giouliana; Little, Ryan; Pritchard, Megan; Shetty, Hitesh; Tulloch, Alex; Stewart, Robert

    2016-03-01

    The South London and Maudsley National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust Biomedical Research Centre (SLaM BRC) Case Register and its Clinical Record Interactive Search (CRIS) application were developed in 2008, generating a research repository of real-time, anonymised, structured and open-text data derived from the electronic health record system used by SLaM, a large mental healthcare provider in southeast London. In this paper, we update this register's descriptive data, and describe the substantial expansion and extension of the data resource since its original development. Descriptive data were generated from the SLaM BRC Case Register on 31 December 2014. Currently, there are over 250,000 patient records accessed through CRIS. Since 2008, the most significant developments in the SLaM BRC Case Register have been the introduction of natural language processing to extract structured data from open-text fields, linkages to external sources of data, and the addition of a parallel relational database (Structured Query Language) output. Natural language processing applications to date have brought in new and hitherto inaccessible data on cognitive function, education, social care receipt, smoking, diagnostic statements and pharmacotherapy. In addition, through external data linkages, large volumes of supplementary information have been accessed on mortality, hospital attendances and cancer registrations. Coupled with robust data security and governance structures, electronic health records provide potentially transformative information on mental disorders and outcomes in routine clinical care. The SLaM BRC Case Register continues to grow as a database, with approximately 20,000 new cases added each year, in addition to extension of follow-up for existing cases. Data linkages and natural language processing present important opportunities to enhance this type of research resource further, achieving both volume and depth of data. However, research projects still

  14. Temperature dependence of absorption spectra of P-type GaP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mounir, M.; Balloomal, L.S.

    1985-10-01

    The theoretical analysis of the optical absorption due to band-impurity (impurity-band) electron transitions involving deep impurity levels in semi-conductors is considered. Also the data of the experimental absorption spectra of GaP were performed at room temperature and the results were found to be in agreement with the theoretical results if the electron-phonon interaction is taken into consideration. (author)

  15. Theoretical modeling of the absorption spectrum of aqueous riboflavin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti-Polzi, Laura; Aschi, Massimiliano; Daidone, Isabella; Amadei, Andrea

    2017-02-01

    In this study we report the modeling of the absorption spectrum of riboflavin in water using a hybrid quantum/classical mechanical approach, the MD-PMM methodology. By means of MD-PMM calculations, with which the effect of riboflavin internal motions and of solvent interactions on the spectroscopic properties can be explicitly taken into account, we obtain an absorption spectrum in very good agreement with the experimental spectrum. In particular, the calculated peak maxima show a consistent improvement with respect to previous computational approaches. Moreover, the calculations show that the interaction with the environment may cause a relevant recombination of the gas-phase electronic states.

  16. Investigations of mechanism of laser radiation absorption at PALS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalinowska, Z.; Kasperczuk, A.; Pisarczyk, T.; Chodukowski, T.; Gus’kov, S.Yu.; Demchenko, N. N.; Ullschmied, Jiří; Krouský, Eduard; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Skála, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 2 (2012), s. 227-230 ISSN 0029-5922. [International Conference on Research and Applications of Plasmas (PLASMA)2011. Warsaw, 12.09.2011-16.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC528 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : collisional absorption * crater volume * electron density distribution * interferometry * iodine laser * resonance absorption * Laser radiation * inverse bremsstrahlung * laser interferometry * PALS laser Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.507, year: 2012 http://www.nukleonika.pl/www/back/full/vol57_2012/v57n2p227f.pdf

  17. Automated atomic absorption spectrophotometer, utilizing a programmable desk calculator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futrell, T.L.; Morrow, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    A commercial, double-beam atomic absorption spectrophotometer has been interfaced with a sample changer and a Hewlett-Packard 9810A calculator to yield a completely automated analysis system. The interface electronics can be easily constructed and should be adaptable to any double-beam atomic absorption instrument. The calculator is easily programmed and can be used for general laboratory purposes when not operating the instrument. The automated system has been shown to perform very satisfactorily when operated unattended to analyze a large number of samples. Performance statistics agree well with a manually operated instrument

  18. Quantum absorption refrigerator with trapped ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Jaren; Maslennikov, Gleb; Hablützel Marrero, Roland; Ding, Shiqian; Nimmrichter, Stefan; Roulet, Alexandre; Dai, Jibo; Scarani, Valerio; Matsukevich, Dzmitry

    2017-04-01

    We report on an experimental realization of a quantum absorption refrigerator in a system of the three trapped 171Yb+ ions. The normal modes of motion are coupled by a trilinear Hamiltonian a† bc + h . c . and represent ``hot'', ``work'' and ``cold'' bodies of the refrigerator. We investigate the equilibrium properties of the refrigerator, and demonstrate the absorption refrigeration effect with the modes being prepared in thermal states. We also investigate the coherent dynamics and steady state properties of such a system away from equilibrium operation. We compare the cooling capabilities of thermal versus squeezed thermal states prepared in the work mode as a quantum resource for cooling. Finally, we exploit the coherent dynamics of the system and demonstrate single-shot cooling in the refrigerator. By stopping the evolution in the right moment, we show a significant advantage in cooling as compared to both the steady state and equilibrium performance. This research is supported by the National Research Foundation, Prime Minister's Office, Singapore and the Ministry of Education, Singapore under the Research Centres of Excellence programme.

  19. Electronic absorption spectra and nonlinear optical properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    To calculate the spectroscopic and NLO properties, we use correction vector method,. 24 which implicitly ... Lewis acid–Lewis base interactions within the CO2 molecules. The O–C–O angle in this case becomes ..... Ishii R, Okazaki S, Odawara O, Okada I, Misawa M and Fukunaga T 1995 Fluid Phase Equilibria 104 291. 16.

  20. Electronic absorption spectra and nonlinear optical properties of CO ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have investigated the structural aspects of several carbon dioxide molecular aggregates and their spectroscopic and nonlinear optical properties within the quantum chemical theory framework. We find that, although the single carbon dioxide molecule prefers to be in a linear geometry, the puckering of angles occur in ...