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Sample records for absorption coefficients determined

  1. Determination of optical absorption coefficient with focusing photoacoustic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhifang; Li, Hui; Zeng, Zhiping; Xie, Wenming; Chen, Wei R

    2012-06-01

    Absorption coefficient of biological tissue is an important factor for photothermal therapy and photoacoustic imaging. However, its determination remains a challenge. In this paper, we propose a method using focusing photoacoustic imaging technique to quantify the target optical absorption coefficient. It utilizes the ratio of the amplitude of the peak signal from the top boundary of the target to that from the bottom boundary based on wavelet transform. This method is self-calibrating. Factors, such as absolute optical fluence, ultrasound parameters, and Grüneisen parameter, can be canceled by dividing the amplitudes of the two peaks. To demonstrate this method, we quantified the optical absorption coefficient of a target with various concentrations of an absorbing dye. This method is particularly useful to provide accurate absorption coefficient for predicting the outcomes of photothermal interaction for cancer treatment with absorption enhancement.

  2. Determination of sedimentation rates and absorption coefficient of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. MIKE HORSFALL

    particles have pores that can absorb radiation. Gamma rays have been used to study the absorption coefficients of cobalt(II) insoluble compounds (Essien and Ekpe, 1998), densities of marine sediments. (Gerland and Villinger, 1995) and soil particle-size distribution (Vaz et al., 1992). In this study, sedimentation rates of ...

  3. A method for determination mass absorption coefficient of gamma rays by Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Abd, A.

    2014-01-01

    A method was proposed for determination mass absorption coefficient of gamma rays for compounds, alloys and mixtures. It is based on simulating interaction processes of gamma rays with target elements having atomic numbers from Z=1 to Z=92 using the MCSHAPE software. Intensities of Compton scattered gamma rays at saturation thicknesses and at a scattering angle of 90° were calculated for incident gamma rays of different energies. The obtained results showed that the intensity of Compton scattered gamma rays at saturations and mass absorption coefficients can be described by mathematical formulas. These were used to determine mass absorption coefficients for compound, alloys and mixtures with the knowledge of their Compton scattered intensities. The method was tested by calculating mass absorption coefficients for some compounds, alloys and mixtures. There is a good agreement between obtained results and calculated ones using WinXom software. The advantages and limitations of the method were discussed. - Highlights: • Compton scattering of γ−rays was used for determining mass absorption coefficient. • Scattered intensities were determined by the MCSHAPE software. • Mass absorption coefficients were determined for some compounds, mixtures and alloys. • Mass absorption coefficients were calculated by Winxcom software. • Good agreements were found between determined and calculated results

  4. A method for determination mass absorption coefficient of gamma rays by Compton scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Abd, A

    2014-12-01

    A method was proposed for determination mass absorption coefficient of gamma rays for compounds, alloys and mixtures. It is based on simulating interaction processes of gamma rays with target elements having atomic numbers from Z=1 to Z=92 using the MCSHAPE software. Intensities of Compton scattered gamma rays at saturation thicknesses and at a scattering angle of 90° were calculated for incident gamma rays of different energies. The obtained results showed that the intensity of Compton scattered gamma rays at saturations and mass absorption coefficients can be described by mathematical formulas. These were used to determine mass absorption coefficients for compound, alloys and mixtures with the knowledge of their Compton scattered intensities. The method was tested by calculating mass absorption coefficients for some compounds, alloys and mixtures. There is a good agreement between obtained results and calculated ones using WinXom software. The advantages and limitations of the method were discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Extracting THz absorption coefficient spectrum based on accurate determination of sample thickness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Zhang, Zhao-hui; Zhao, Xiao-yan; Su, Hai-xia; Yan, Fang

    2012-04-01

    Extracting absorption spectrum in THz band is one of the important aspects in THz applications. Sample's absorption coefficient has a complex nonlinear relationship with its thickness. However, as it is not convenient to measure the thickness directly, absorption spectrum is usually determined incorrectly. Based on the method proposed by Duvillaret which was used to precisely determine the thickness of LiNbO3, the approach to measuring the absorption coefficient spectra of glutamine and histidine in frequency range from 0.3 to 2.6 THz(1 THz = 10(12) Hz) was improved in this paper. In order to validate the correctness of this absorption spectrum, we designed a series of experiments to compare the linearity of absorption coefficient belonging to one kind amino acid in different concentrations. The results indicate that as agreed by Lambert-Beer's Law, absorption coefficient spectrum of amino acid from the improved algorithm performs better linearity with its concentration than that from the common algorithm, which can be the basis of quantitative analysis in further researches.

  6. Bias in the absorption coefficient determination of a fluorescent dye, standard reference material 1932 fluorescein solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeRose, Paul C.; Kramer, Gary W.

    2005-01-01

    The absorption coefficient of standard reference material[registered] (SRM[registered]) 1932, fluorescein in a borate buffer solution (pH=9.5) has been determined at λ=488.0, 490.0, 490.5 and 491.0 nm using the US national reference UV/visible spectrophotometer. The purity of the fluorescein was determined to be 97.6% as part of the certification of SRM 1932. The solution measured was prepared gravimetrically by diluting SRM 1932 with additional borate buffer. The value of the absorption coefficient was corrected for bias due to fluorescence that reaches the detector and for dye purity. Bias due to fluorescence was found to be on the order of -1% for both monochromatic and polychromatic (e.g., diode-array based) spectrophotometers

  7. Measurement of gamma attenuation coefficients in UO2 and zirconium for self-absorption corrections of burn-up determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podest, M.; Klima, J.; Stecher, P.; Stecherova, E.

    1978-01-01

    UO 2 pellets from ALUOX fuel elements were used in measuring the absorption coefficient of gamma radiation in UO 2 . The results of measurements of the energy dependence of the linear absorption coefficient (within 622 to 796 keV) and of the dependence on pellet density showed that in the given density interval the absorption coefficient was almost constant. The density interval was chosen to be typical for pellet fuel used in water cooled and water moderated power reactors. The results are also shown of the dependence of the mass absorption coefficient of gamma radiation in Zr on radiation energy and compared with the mass absorption coefficient of Mo; these also showed the independence of the absorption coefficient on density. The linear and mass absorption coefficients of UO 2 are considerably high and correspond approximately to the absorption coefficient of lead. For the measured energy range the variation of absorption coefficient is about 40%, which causes errors in burnup determination. The efficiency was also determined of Ge(Li) detectors for the energy range 0.5 to 1.2 MeV. The determination of the above coefficients was used for improving the gamma fuel scanning technique in determining the activity and burnup of spent fuel elements. (J.P.)

  8. Precise determination of total absorption coefficients for low-energy gamma-quanta with Moessbauer effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonchev, T.; Statev, S.; Nejkov, Kh.

    1980-01-01

    A new method of determining the total absorption coefficient applying the Moessbauer effect is proposed. This method enables the accuracy of the measurement increase. The coefficient is measured with practically no background on using the recoilless part of gamma radiation obtained from the Moessbauer source with and without the sample between the source of the gamma-quanta and the detector. Moessbauer sources and absorbers with a single line and without an isomeric shift are used. The recoilless part of the radiation is obtained by the ''two point'' method as a difference between the numbers of photons corresponding to the stationary source and to the vibrating one with a big mean square velocity, respectively. In the concrete measurements the sources 57 Co and 119 Sn are used. The total absorption coefficient for different samples beginning with water up to plumbum is determined. The mean square error for the mean result in all measurements is less than the mean statistical error for the coefficient. The obtained experimental data give a much smaller deviation from the theoretical data of the last issue of the Stom-Israel Tables than the one expected by their authors

  9. A neural network based approach for determination of optical scattering and absorption coefficients of biological tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warncke, D; Lewis, E; Leahy, M; Lochmann, S

    2009-01-01

    The propagation of light in biological tissue depends on the absorption and reduced scattering coefficient. The aim of this project is the determination of these two optical properties using spatially resolved reflectance measurements. The sensor system consists of five laser sources at different wavelengths, an optical fibre probe and five photodiodes. For these kinds of measurements it has been shown that an often used solution of the diffusion equation can not be applied. Therefore a neural network is being developed to extract the needed optical properties out of the reflectance data. Data sets for the training, validation and testing process are provided by Monte Carlo Simulations.

  10. Peculiarities of determination of coefficient of radionuclide absorption in alimentary canal of ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korneev, N.A.; Sirotkin, A.N.; Rasin, I.M.; Sarapul'tsev, I.A.; Abramova, T.N.

    1986-01-01

    Sheep taken as example, the new method for calculation of the coefficient of radionuclide ( 65 Zn) absorption in gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is suggested. It is shown that the radionuclide absorption process of sheep lasted 35 h. In case of parenteral intake radionuclide excretion from tissues and organs and its inclusion in structural parts of blood occurs. In animals to which 65 Zn is injected orally, the same processes at 65 Zn simultaneous absorption in GIT during 35 h take place. In 35 hours after radio nuclide injection its absorption coefficient in the GIT of sheep constituted 10.1+-0.05%. Using traditional calculation methods the 65 Zn absorption coefficient for the first 24 h constituted 6.6%

  11. Determination of absorption coefficient based on laser beam thermal blooming in gas-filled tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafizi, B; Peñano, J; Fischer, R; DiComo, G; Ting, A

    2014-08-01

    Thermal blooming of a laser beam propagating in a gas-filled tube is investigated both analytically and experimentally. A self-consistent formulation taking into account heating of the gas and the resultant laser beam spreading (including diffraction) is presented. The heat equation is used to determine the temperature variation while the paraxial wave equation is solved in the eikonal approximation to determine the temporal and spatial variation of the Gaussian laser spot radius, Gouy phase (longitudinal phase delay), and wavefront curvature. The analysis is benchmarked against a thermal blooming experiment in the literature using a CO₂ laser beam propagating in a tube filled with air and propane. New experimental results are presented in which a CW fiber laser (1 μm) propagates in a tube filled with nitrogen and water vapor. By matching laboratory and theoretical results, the absorption coefficient of water vapor is found to agree with calculations using MODTRAN (the MODerate-resolution atmospheric TRANsmission molecular absorption database) and HITRAN (the HIgh-resolution atmospheric TRANsmission molecular absorption database).

  12. Density, ultrasound velocity, acoustic impedance, reflection and absorption coefficient determination of liquids via multiple reflection method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoche, S; Hussein, M A; Becker, T

    2015-03-01

    The accuracy of density, reflection coefficient, and acoustic impedance determination via multiple reflection method was validated experimentally. The ternary system water-maltose-ethanol was used to execute a systematic, temperature dependent study over a wide range of densities and viscosities aiming an application as inline sensor in beverage industries. The validation results of the presented method and setup show root mean square errors of: 1.201E-3 g cm(-3) (±0.12%) density, 0.515E-3 (0.15%) reflection coefficient and 1.851E+3 kg s(-1) m(-2) (0.12%) specific acoustic impedance. The results of the diffraction corrected absorption showed an average standard deviation of only 0.12%. It was found that the absorption change shows a good correlation to concentration variations and may be useful for laboratory analysis of sufficiently pure liquids. The main part of the observed errors can be explained by the observed noise, temperature variation and the low signal resolution of 50 MHz. In particular, the poor signal-to-noise ratio of the second reflector echo was found to be a main accuracy limitation. Concerning the investigation of liquids the unstable properties of the reference material PMMA, due to hygroscopicity, were identified to be an additional, unpredictable source of uncertainty. While dimensional changes can be considered by adequate methodology, the impact of the time and temperature dependent water absorption on relevant reference properties like the buffer's sound velocity and density could not be considered and may explain part of the observed deviations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Determination of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter from underway spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Olmo, Giorgio; Brewin, Robert J W; Nencioli, Francesco; Organelli, Emanuele; Lefering, Ina; McKee, David; Röttgers, Rüdiger; Mitchell, Catherine; Boss, Emmanuel; Bricaud, Annick; Tilstone, Gavin

    2017-11-27

    Measurements of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (ay) are needed to validate existing ocean-color algorithms. In the surface open ocean, these measurements are challenging because of low ay values. Yet, existing global datasets demonstrate that ay could contribute between 30% to 50% of the total absorption budget in the 400-450 nm spectral range, thus making accurate measurement of ay essential to constrain these uncertainties. In this study, we present a simple way of determining ay using a commercially-available in-situ spectrophotometer operated in underway mode. The obtained ay values were validated using independent collocated measurements. The method is simple to implement, can provide measurements with very high spatio-temporal resolution, and has an accuracy of about 0.0004 m -1 and a precision of about 0.0025 m -1 when compared to independent data (at 440 nm). The only limitation for using this method at sea is that it relies on the availability of relatively large volumes of ultrapure water. Despite this limitation, the method can deliver the ay data needed for validating and assessing uncertainties in ocean-colour algorithms.

  14. Determination of Scattering and Absorption Coefficients for Plasma-Sprayed Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Thermal Barrier Coatings at Elevated Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Spuckler, Charles M.; Markham, James R.

    2009-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the scattering and absorption coefficients for a set of freestanding plasma-sprayed 8 wt% yttria-stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) was determined at temperatures up to 1360 C in a wavelength range from 1.2 micrometers up to the 8YSZ absorption edge. The scattering and absorption coefficients were determined by fitting the directional-hemispherical reflectance and transmittance values calculated by a four-flux Kubelka Munk method to the experimentally measured hemispherical-directional reflectance and transmittance values obtained for five 8YSZ thicknesses. The scattering coefficient exhibited a continuous decrease with increasing wavelength and showed no significant temperature dependence. The scattering is primarily attributed to the relatively temperature-insensitive refractive index mismatch between the 8YSZ and its internal voids. The absorption coefficient was very low (less than 1 per centimeter) at wavelengths between 2 micrometers and the absorption edge and showed a definite temperature dependence that consisted of a shift of the absorption edge to shorter wavelengths and an increase in the weak absorption below the absorption edge with increasing temperature. The shift in the absorption edge with temperature is attributed to strongly temperature-dependent multiphonon absorption. While TBC hemispherical transmittance beyond the absorption edge can be predicted by a simple exponential decrease with thickness, below the absorption edge, typical TBC thicknesses are well below the thickness range where a simple exponential decrease in hemispherical transmittance with TBC thickness is expected. [Correction added after online publication August 11, 2009: "edge to a shorter wavelengths" has been updated as edge to shorter wavelengths."

  15. Comparison of different models for the determination of the absorption and scattering coefficients of thermal barrier coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Li; Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Guo, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    The thermal radiative properties of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are becoming more important as the inlet temperatures of advanced gas-turbine engines are continuously being pushed higher in order to improve efficiency. To determine the absorption and scattering coefficients of TBCs, four-flux, two-flux and Kubelka–Munk models were introduced and used to characterize the thermal radiative properties of plasma-sprayed yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings. The results show that the absorption coefficient of YSZ is extremely low for wavelengths 200 μm suggests that when the coating thickness is larger than around twice the average scattering distance, the collimated flux can be simply treated as a diffuse flux inside the coating, and thus the two-flux model can be used to determine the absorption and scattering coefficients as a simplification of the four-flux model

  16. Spectroscopic method for determination of the absorption coefficient in brain tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Johannes D.

    2010-09-01

    I use Monte Carlo simulations and phantom measurements to characterize a probe with adjacent optical fibres for diffuse reflectance spectroscopy during stereotactic surgery in the brain. Simulations and measurements have been fitted to a modified Beer-Lambert model for light transport in order to be able to quantify chromophore content based on clinically measured spectra in brain tissue. It was found that it is important to take the impact of the light absorption into account when calculating the apparent optical path length, lp, for the photons in order to get good estimates of the absorption coefficient, μa. The optical path length was found to be well fitted to the equation lp=a+b ln(Is)+c ln(μa)+d ln(Is)ln(μa), where Is is the reflected light intensity for scattering alone (i.e., zero absorption). Although coefficients a-d calculated in this study are specific to the probe used here, the general form of the equation should be applicable to similar probes.

  17. Non-invasive determination of the absorption coefficient of the brain from time-resolved reflectance using a neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, Marion; Kienle, Alwin

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the performance of a neural network for derivation of the absorption coefficient of the brain from simulated non-invasive time-resolved reflectance measurements on the head. A five-layered geometry was considered assuming that the optical properties (except the absorption coefficient of the brain) and the thickness of all layers were known with an uncertainty. A solution of the layered diffusion equation was used to train the neural network. We determined the absorption coefficient of the brain with an RMS error of <6% from reflectance data at a single distance calculated by diffusion theory. By applying the neural network to reflectance curves obtained from Monte Carlo simulations, similar errors were found. (note)

  18. Sabine absorption coefficients to random incidence absorption coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2014-01-01

    into random incidence absorption coefficients for porous absorbers are investigated. Two optimization-based conversion methods are suggested: the surface impedance estimation for locally reacting absorbers and the flow resistivity estimation for extendedly reacting absorbers. The suggested conversion methods...

  19. Reference-free determination of tissue absorption coefficient by modulation transfer function characterization in spatial frequency domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiting; Zhao, Huijuan; Li, Tongxin; Yan, Panpan; Zhao, Kuanxin; Qi, Caixia; Gao, Feng

    2017-08-08

    Spatial frequency domain (SFD) measurement allows rapid and non-contact wide-field imaging of the tissue optical properties, thus has become a potential tool for assessing physiological parameters and therapeutic responses during photodynamic therapy of skin diseases. The conventional SFD measurement requires a reference measurement within the same experimental scenario as that for a test one to calibrate mismatch between the real measurements and the model predictions. Due to the individual physical and geometrical differences among different tissues, organs and patients, an ideal reference measurement might be unavailable in clinical trials. To address this problem, we present a reference-free SFD determination of absorption coefficient that is based on the modulation transfer function (MTF) characterization. Instead of the absolute amplitude that is used in the conventional SFD approaches, we herein employ the MTF to characterize the propagation of the modulated lights in tissues. With such a dimensionless relative quantity, the measurements can be naturally corresponded to the model predictions without calibrating the illumination intensity. By constructing a three-dimensional database that portrays the MTF as a function of the optical properties (both the absorption coefficient μ a and the reduced scattering coefficient [Formula: see text]) and the spatial frequency, a look-up table approach or a least-square curve-fitting method is readily applied to recover the absorption coefficient from a single frequency or multiple frequencies, respectively. Simulation studies have verified the feasibility of the proposed reference-free method and evaluated its accuracy in the absorption recovery. Experimental validations have been performed on homogeneous tissue-mimicking phantoms with μ a ranging from 0.01 to 0.07 mm -1 and [Formula: see text] = 1.0 or 2.0 mm -1 . The results have shown maximum errors of 4.86 and 7% for [Formula: see text] = 1.0 mm -1 and

  20. Converting Sabine absorption coefficients to random incidence absorption coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2013-01-01

    are suggested: An optimization method for the surface impedances for locally reacting absorbers, the flow resistivity for extendedly reacting absorbers, and the flow resistance for fabrics. With four porous type absorbers, the conversion methods are validated. For absorbers backed by a rigid wall, the surface...... coefficients to random incidence absorption coefficients are proposed. The overestimations of the Sabine absorption coefficient are investigated theoretically based on Miki's model for porous absorbers backed by a rigid wall or an air cavity, resulting in conversion factors. Additionally, three optimizations...... impedance optimization produces the best results, while the flow resistivity optimization also yields reasonable results. The flow resistivity and flow resistance optimization for extendedly reacting absorbers are also found to be successful. However, the theoretical conversion factors based on Miki's model...

  1. Determination of self-absorption coefficient in measurement of solid sample activity using 4π ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dryak, P.

    1982-01-01

    Computation based on the Monte Carlo method was tested for a 4π cylindrical ionization chamber with a detection volume of 7 litres, filled with argon. The sources are placed in the geometrical centre. The correction coefficient for self-absorption was determined as being the ratio of ionization currents induced by a source of finite size and by a massless point source. A flowchart of the program is given. The computations were experimentally tested for cylindrical sources of aqueous 137 Cs and 57 Co solutions. (M.D.)

  2. Impact of measurement uncertainties on determination of chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficient for marine phytoplankton

    OpenAIRE

    McKee, D.; Röttgers, R.; Neukermans, G.; Calzado, V.S.; Trees, C.; Ampolo-Rella, M.; Neil, C.; Cunningham, A.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption of marine phytoplankton, aph*Chl (λ), is essential for primary production modelling, calculation of underwater light field characteristics, and development of algorithms for remote sensing of chlorophyll concentrations. Previous field and laboratory studies have demonstrated significant apparent variability in aph*Chl (λ) for natural samples and algal cultures. However, the potential impact of measurement uncertain...

  3. Determination of scattering coefficient considering wavelength and absorption dependence of anisotropy factor measured by polarized beam for biological tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukutomi, D.; Ishii, K.; Awazu, K.

    2015-12-01

    Anisotropy factor g, one of the optical properties of biological tissues, is the most important parameter to accurately determine scattering coefficient μs in the inverse Monte Carlo (iMC) simulation. It has been reported that g has wavelength and absorption dependence, however, there are few attempts in order to calculate μs of biological tissue considering the wavelength and absorption dependence of g. In this study, the scattering angular distributions of biological tissue phantoms were measured in order to determine g by using goniometric measurements with three polarization conditions at strongly and weakly absorbing wavelengths of hemoglobin. Then, optical properties, especially, μs were measured by integrating sphere measurements and iMC simulation in order to confirm the influence of measured g on optical properties in comparison of with general value of g (0.9) for soft biological tissue. Consequently, it was found that μs was overestimated at strongly absorbing wavelength, however, μs was underestimated at weakly absorbing wavelength if the g was not considered its wavelength and absorption dependence.

  4. Determination of ash content of coal by mass absorption coefficient measurements at two X-ray energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fookes, R.A.; Gravitis, V.L.; Watt, J.S.

    1977-01-01

    A method for determining the ash content of coal is proposed. It involves measurements proportional to mass absorption coefficients of coal at two X-ray energies. These measurements can be made using X-ray transmission or scatter techniques. Calculations based on transmission of narrow beams of X-rays have shown that ash can be determined to about 1wt%(1 sigma) in coal of widely varying ash content and composition. Experimentally, ash content was determined to 0.67wt% by transmission techniques and 1.0wt% by backscatter techniques in coal samples from the Bulli seam, NSW, Australia, having ash in the range 11-34wt%. For samples with a much wider range of coal composition (7-53wt% ash and 0-25wt% iron in the ash), ash content was determined by backscatter measurements to 1.62wt%. The method produced ash determinations at least as accurate as those produced by the established technique which compensates for variation in iron content of the ash by X-ray fluorescence analysis for iron. Compared with the established technique, it has the advantage of averaging analysis over much larger volumes of coal, but the disadvantage that much more precise measurements of X-ray intensities are required. (author)

  5. Experimental Determination of the Molar Absorption Coefficient of n-Hexane Adsorbed on High-Silica Zeolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Giorgio; Olivas Olivera, Diana F; Sacchetto, Vittoria; Cossi, Maurizio; Braschi, Ilaria; Marchese, Leonardo; Bisio, Chiara

    2017-09-06

    Determination of the molar absorption coefficients of the CH 3 bending mode at ν˜ =1380 cm -1 (ϵ 1380 ) of n-hexane adsorbed from the gas phase on two different dealuminated zeolites is derived by a combination of IR spectroscopy and microgravimetric analysis. High-silica zeolite Y (HSZ-Y) and zeolite ZSM-5 (with SiO 2 /Al 2 O 3 ratios of 200 and 280, respectively) with different textural and surface features are selected to evaluate the effect of the pore structure and architecture on the value of ϵ 1380 of the adsorbed n-hexane. Experimental data indicate that the molecule experiences a different adsorption environment inside zeolites; thus resulting in a significant change of the dipole moment and very different ϵ 1380 values: (0.278±0.018) cm μmol -1 for HSZ-Y and (0.491±0.032) cm μmol -1 for ZSM-5. Experimental data are also supported by computational modeling, which confirms the effect of different matrices on the IR absorption intensity. This study reveals that the use of probe molecules for quantitative measurements of surface sites has to be judiciously adopted, especially if adsorption occurs in the restricted spaces of microporous materials. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Experimental and theoretical determination of the absorption coefficients of X-rays through barium plaster from 100 to 400 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joksimovicj, V.

    1976-01-01

    The absorption coefficients of X-rays from 100 to 400 keV through barium plaster of equivalent atomic number of 26 have been determined experimentally and theoretically. Calculated values are compared with experimental data. Matrix components of barium plaster were determined chemically and by X-ray fluorescence

  7. Determination of the scattering coefficient of biological tissue considering the wavelength and absorption dependence of the anisotropy factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukutomi, Daichi; Ishii, Katsunori; Awazu, Kunio

    2016-04-01

    The anisotropy factor g, one of the optical properties of biological tissues, has a strong influence on the calculation of the scattering coefficient μ s in inverse Monte Carlo (iMC) simulations. It has been reported that g has the wavelength and absorption dependence; however, few attempts have been made to calculate μ s using g values by taking the wavelength and absorption dependence into account. In this study, the angular distributions of scattered light for biological tissue phantoms containing hemoglobin as a light absorber were measured by a goniometric optical setup at strongly (405 nm) and weakly (664 nm) absorbing wavelengths to obtain g. Subsequently, the optical properties were calculated with the measured values of g by integrating sphere measurements and an iMC simulation, and compared with the results obtained with a conventional g value of 0.9. The μ s values with measured g were overestimated at the strongly absorbing wavelength, but underestimated at the weakly absorbing wavelength if 0.9 was used in the iMC simulation.

  8. Determination of the Mass Absorption Coefficient in Two-Layer Ti/V and V/Ti Thin Film Systems by the X-Ray Fluorescence Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashin, N. I.; Chernyaeva, E. A.; Tumanova, A. N.; Gafarova, L. M.

    2016-03-01

    A new XRF procedure for the determination of the mass absorption coefficient in thin film Ti/V and V/Ti two-layer systems has been proposed. The procedure uses easy-to-make thin-film layers of sputtered titanium and vanadium on a polymer film substrate. Correction coefficients have been calculated that take into account attenuation of primary radiation of the X-ray tube, as well as attenuation of the spectral line of the bottom layer element in the top layer.

  9. Mass: Fortran program for calculating mass-absorption coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Aa.; Svane Petersen, T.

    1980-01-01

    Determinations of mass-absorption coefficients in the x-ray analysis of trace elements are an important and time consuming part of the arithmetic calculation. In the course of time different metods have been used. The program MASS calculates the mass-absorption coefficients from a given major element analysis at the x-ray wavelengths normally used in trace element determinations and lists the chemical analysis and the mass-absorption coefficients. The program is coded in FORTRAN IV, and is operational on the IBM 370/165 computer, on the UNIVAC 1110 and on PDP 11/05. (author)

  10. Absorption coefficients of silicon: A theoretical treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chin-Yi

    2018-05-01

    A theoretical model with explicit formulas for calculating the optical absorption and gain coefficients of silicon is presented. It incorporates direct and indirect interband transitions and considers the effects of occupied/unoccupied carrier states. The indirect interband transition is calculated from the second-order time-independent perturbation theory of quantum mechanics by incorporating all eight possible routes of absorption or emission of photons and phonons. Absorption coefficients of silicon are calculated from these formulas. The agreements and discrepancies among the calculated results, the Rajkanan-Singh-Shewchun (RSS) formula, and Green's data are investigated and discussed. For example, the RSS formula tends to overestimate the contributions of indirect transitions for cases with high photon energy. The results show that the state occupied/unoccupied effect is almost negligible for silicon absorption coefficients up to the onset of the optical gain condition where the energy separation of Quasi-Femi levels between electrons and holes is larger than the band-gap energy. The usefulness of using the physics-based formulas, rather than semi-empirical fitting ones, for absorption coefficients in theoretical studies of photovoltaic devices is also discussed.

  11. Experimental methodology for obtaining sound absorption coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Macía M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the authors propose a new methodology for estimating sound absorption coefficients using genetic algorithms. Methodology: sound waves are generated and conducted along a rectangular silencer. The waves are then attenuated by the absorbing material covering the silencer’s walls. The attenuated sound pressure level is used in a genetic algorithm-based search to find the parameters of the proposed attenuation expressions that include geometric factors, the wavelength and the absorption coefficient. Results: a variety of adjusted mathematical models were found that make it possible to estimate the absorption coefficients based on the characteristics of a rectangular silencer used for measuring the attenuation of the noise that passes through it. Conclusions: this methodology makes it possible to obtain the absorption coefficients of new materials in a cheap and simple manner. Although these coefficients might be slightly different from those obtained through other methodologies, they provide solutions within the engineering accuracy ranges that are used for designing noise control systems.

  12. Reproducibility of The Random Incidence Absorption Coefficient Converted From the Sabine Absorption Coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Chang, Ji-ho

    2015-01-01

    largely depending on the test room. Several conversion methods for porous absorbers from the Sabine absorption coefficient to the random incidence absorption coefficient were suggested by considering the finite size of a test specimen and non-uniformly incident energy onto the specimen, which turned out...... resistivity optimization outperforms the surface impedance optimization in terms of the reproducibility....

  13. Regularity of the Interband Light Absorption Coefficient

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we consider the interband light absorption coefficient (ILAC), in a symmetric form, in the case of random operators on the -dimensional lattice. We show that the symmetrized version of ILAC is either continuous or has a component which has the same modulus of continuity as the density of states.

  14. Determination of the X-ray mass absorption coefficient by measurement of the intensity of AgKα Compton scattered radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzini, M.; Leoni, L.; Saitta, M.

    1976-01-01

    By utilizing a reflection geometry, an accurate mass absorption coefficient of a sample can be determined by measuring the Ag Kα Compton intensity. Intensities of Ag Kα Compton scattered radiation have been collected by using either the usual reflection geometry of a Philips PW 1450 automatic x-ray spectrometer or a more refined reflection geometry, achieved on a Philips PW 1540/10A manual x-ray spectrometer. The experimental results have shown that the relationship between the Ag Kα Compton intensity and the mass absorption is a logarithmic function. The experimental results are not in agreement with those reported in literature, but a theoretical explanation to account for this fact has not been achieved as yet. (author)

  15. Determination of true optical absorption and scattering coefficient of wooden cell wall substance by time-of-flight near infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Ryunosuke; Inagaki, Tetsuya; Tsuchikawa, Satoru

    2016-02-22

    The true absorption coefficient (μa) and reduced scattering coefficient (μ´s) of the cell wall substance in Douglas fir were determined using time-of-flight near infrared spectroscopy. Samples were saturated with hexane, toluene or quinolone to minimize the multiple reflections of light on the boundary between pore-cell wall substance in wood. μ´s exhibited its minimum value when the wood was saturated with toluene because the refractive index of toluene is close to that of the wood cell wall substance. The optical parameters of the wood cell wall substance calculated were μa = 0.030 mm(-1) and μ´s= 18.4 mm(-1). Monte Carlo simulations using these values were in good agreement with the measured time-resolved transmittance profiles.

  16. Absorption coefficient instrument for turbid natural waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, E.; Cherdak, A.; Poole, L.; Houghton, W.

    1980-01-01

    The paper presents an instrument that directly measures multispectral absorption coefficient of turbid natural water. Attention is given to the design, which is shown to incorporate methods for the compensation of variation in the internal light source intensity, correction of the spectrally dependent nature of the optical elements, and correction for variation in the background light level. In addition, when used in conjunction with a spectrally matched total attenuation instrument, the spectrally dependent scattering coefficient can also be derived. Finally, it is reported that systematic errors associated with multiple scattering have been estimated using Monte Carlo techniques.

  17. Aerosol Angstrom Absorption Coefficient Comparisons during MILAGRO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, N. A.; Marchany-Rivera, A.; Kelley, K. L.; Mangu, A.; Gaffney, J. S.

    2007-12-01

    Measurements of aerosol absorption were obtained as part of the MAX-Mex component of the MILAGRO field campaign at site T0 (Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo in Mexico City) by using a 7-channel aethalometer (Thermo- Anderson) during the month of March, 2006. The absorption measurements obtained in the field at 370, 470, 520, 590, 660, 880, and 950 nm were used to determine the aerosol Angstrom absorption exponents by linear regression. Since, unlike other absorbing aerosol species (e.g. humic like substances, nitrated PAHs), black carbon absorption is relatively constant from the ultraviolet to the infrared with an Angstrom absorption exponent of -1 (1), a comparison of the Angstrom exponents can indicate the presence of aerosol components with an enhanced UV absorption over that expected from BC content alone. The Angstrom exponents determined from the aerosol absorption measurements obtained in the field varied from - 0.7 to - 1.3 during the study and was generally lower in the afternoon than the morning hours, indicating an increase in secondary aerosol formation and photochemically generated UV absorbing species in the afternoon. Twelve-hour integrated samples of fine atmospheric aerosols (Petroleo (IMP) and CENICA.

  18. Multiphoton absorption coefficients in solids: an universal curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandi, H.S.; Araujo, C.B. de

    1983-04-01

    An universal curve for the frequency dependence of the multiphoton absorption coefficient is proposed based on a 'non-perturbative' approach. Specific applications have been made to obtain two, three, four and five photons absorption coefficient in different materials. Properly scaling of the two photon absorption coefficient and the use of the universal curve yields results for the higher order absorption coefficients in good agreement with the experimental data. (Author) [pt

  19. Realistic absorption coefficient of ultrathin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesaria, M; Caricato, A P; Martino, M

    2012-01-01

    Both a theoretical algorithm and an experimental procedure are discussed of a new route to determine the absorption/scattering properties of thin films deposited on transparent substrates. Notably, the non-measurable contribution of the film–substrate interface is inherently accounted for. While the experimental procedure exploits only measurable spectra combined according to a very simple algorithm, the theoretical derivation does not require numerical handling of the acquired spectra or any assumption on the film homogeneity and substrate thickness. The film absorption response is estimated by subtracting the measured absorption spectrum of the bare substrate from that of the film on the substrate structure but in a non-straightforward way. In fact, an assumption about the absorption profile of the overall structure is introduced and a corrective factor accounting for the relative film-to-substrate thickness. The method is tested on films of a well known material (ITO) as a function of the film structural quality and influence of the film–substrate interface, both deliberately changed by thickness tuning and doping. Results are found fully consistent with information obtained by standard optical analysis and band gap values reported in the literature. Additionally, comparison with a conventional method demonstrates that our route is generally more accurate even if particularly suited for very thin films. (paper)

  20. Realistic absorption coefficient of ultrathin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaria, M.; Caricato, A. P.; Martino, M.

    2012-10-01

    Both a theoretical algorithm and an experimental procedure are discussed of a new route to determine the absorption/scattering properties of thin films deposited on transparent substrates. Notably, the non-measurable contribution of the film-substrate interface is inherently accounted for. While the experimental procedure exploits only measurable spectra combined according to a very simple algorithm, the theoretical derivation does not require numerical handling of the acquired spectra or any assumption on the film homogeneity and substrate thickness. The film absorption response is estimated by subtracting the measured absorption spectrum of the bare substrate from that of the film on the substrate structure but in a non-straightforward way. In fact, an assumption about the absorption profile of the overall structure is introduced and a corrective factor accounting for the relative film-to-substrate thickness. The method is tested on films of a well known material (ITO) as a function of the film structural quality and influence of the film-substrate interface, both deliberately changed by thickness tuning and doping. Results are found fully consistent with information obtained by standard optical analysis and band gap values reported in the literature. Additionally, comparison with a conventional method demonstrates that our route is generally more accurate even if particularly suited for very thin films.

  1. Axially symmetric reconstruction of plasma emission and absorption coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Lixin; Jia Hui; Yang Jiankun; Li Xiujian; Chen Shaorong; Liu Xishun

    2013-01-01

    A layered structure imaging model is developed in order to reconstruct emission coefficients and absorption coefficients simultaneously, in laser fusion core plasma diagnostics. A novel axially symmetric reconstruction method that utilizes the LM (Levenberg-Marquardt) nonlinear least squares minimization algorithm is proposed based on the layered structure. Numerical simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method is sufficiently accurate to reconstruct emission coefficients and absorption coefficients, and when the standard deviation of noise is 0.01, the errors of emission coefficients and absorption coefficients are 0.17, 0.22, respectively. Furthermore, this method could perform much better on reconstruction effect compared with traditional inverse Abel transform algorithms. (authors)

  2. Estimation of water absorption coefficient using the TDR method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchorab, Zbigniew; Majerek, Dariusz; Brzyski, Przemysław; Sobczuk, Henryk; Raczkowski, Andrzej

    2017-07-01

    Moisture accumulation and transport in the building barriers is an important feature that influences building performance, causing serious exploitation problems as increased energy use, mold and bacteria growth, decrease of indoor air parameters that may lead to sick building syndrome (SBS). One of the parameters that is used to describe moisture characteristic of the material is water absorption coefficient being the measure of capillary behavior of the material as a function of time and the surface area of the specimen. As usual it is determined using gravimetric methods according to EN 1925:1999 standard. In this article we demonstrate the possibility of determination of water absorption coefficient of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) using the Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) method. TDR is an electric technique that had been adopted from soil science and can be successfully used for real-time monitoring of moisture transport in building materials and envelopes. Data achieved using TDR readouts show high correlation with standard method of moisture absorptivity coefficient determination.

  3. Noninvasive photoacoustic measurement of absorption coefficient using internal light irradiation of cylindrical diffusing fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Dong-qing; Zhu, Li-li; Li, Zhi-fang; Li, Hui

    2017-09-01

    Absorption coefficient of biological tissue is an important parameter in biomedicine, but its determination remains a challenge. In this paper, we propose a method using focusing photoacoustic imaging technique and internal light irradiation of cylindrical diffusing fiber (CDF) to quantify the target optical absorption coefficient. Absorption coefficients for ink absorbers are firstly determined through photoacoustic and spectrophotometric measurements at the same excitation, which demonstrates the feasibility of this method. Also, the optical absorption coefficients of ink absorbers with several concentrations are measured. Finally, the two-dimensional scanning photoacoustic image is obtained. Optical absorption coefficient measurement and simultaneous photoacoustic imaging of absorber non-invasively are the typical characteristics of the method. This method can play a significant role for non-invasive determination of blood oxygen saturation, the absorption-based imaging and therapy.

  4. Calculation of effective absorption coefficient for aerosols of internal mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Bo; Huang Yinbo; Fan Chengyu; Qiao Chunhong

    2012-01-01

    The effective absorption coefficient with time of strong absorbing aerosol made of carbon dusts and water of internal mixture is analyzed, and the influence of different wavelengths and radius ratios on it is discussed. The shorter the wavelength is, the larger the effective absorption coefficient is , and more quickly it increases during 1-100 μs, and the largest increase if 132.65% during 1-100 μs. Different ratios between inner and outer radius have large influence on the effective absorption coefficient. The larger the ratio is, the larger the effective absorption coefficient is, and more quickly it increases during 1-100 μs. The increase of the effective absorption coefficient during 1-100 μs is larger than that during 100-1000 μs, and the largest increase is 138.66% during 1-100 μs. (authors)

  5. Determination of the quasi-TE mode (in-plane) graphene linear absorption coefficient via integration with silicon-on-insulator racetrack cavity resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Iain F; Clark, Nicholas; Hussein, Siham; Towlson, Brian; Whittaker, Eric; Milosevic, Milan M; Gardes, Frederic Y; Mashanovich, Goran Z; Halsall, Matthew P; Vijayaraghaven, Aravind

    2014-07-28

    We examine the near-IR light-matter interaction for graphene integrated cavity ring resonators based on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) race-track waveguides. Fitting of the cavity resonances from quasi-TE mode transmission spectra reveal the real part of the effective refractive index for graphene, n(eff) = 2.23 ± 0.02 and linear absorption coefficient, α(gTE) = 0.11 ± 0.01dBμm(-1). The evanescent nature of the guided mode coupling to graphene at resonance depends strongly on the height of the graphene above the cavity, which places limits on the cavity length for optical sensing applications.

  6. Modelling the light absorption coefficients of oceanic waters: Implications for underwater optical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakaran, Sai Shri; Sahu, Sanjay Kumar; Dev, Pravin Jeba; Shanmugam, Palanisamy

    2018-05-01

    Spectral absorption coefficients of particulate (algal and non-algal components) and dissolved substances are modelled and combined with the pure seawater component to determine the total light absorption coefficients of seawater in the Bay of Bengal. Two parameters namely chlorophyll-a (Chl) concentration and turbidity were measured using commercially available instruments with high sampling rates. For modelling the light absorption coefficients of oceanic waters, the measured data are classified into two broad groups - algal dominant and non-algal particle (NAP) dominant. With these criteria the individual absorption coefficients of phytoplankton and NAP were established based on their concentrations using an iterative method. To account for the spectral dependence of absorption by phytoplankton, the wavelength-dependent coefficients were introduced into the model. The CDOM absorption was determined by subtracting the individual absorption coefficients of phytoplankton and NAP from the measured total absorption data and then related to the Chl concentration. Validity of the model is assessed based on independent in-situ data from certain discrete locations in the Bay of Bengal. The total absorption coefficients estimated using the new model by considering the contributions of algal, non-algal and CDOM have good agreement with the measured total absorption data with the error range of 6.9 to 28.3%. Results obtained by the present model are important for predicting the propagation of the radiant energy within the ocean and interpreting remote sensing observation data.

  7. Restricted mass energy absorption coefficients for use in dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brahme, A.

    1977-02-01

    When matter is irradiated by a photon beam the fraction of energy absorbed locally in some region Rsub(Δ) (where the size of the region Rsub(Δ) is related to the range of secondary electrons of some restriction energy Δ) is expressed by the restricted mass energy absorption coefficient. In this paper an example is given of how restricted mass energy absorption coefficients can be calculated from existing differential photon interaction cross sections. Some applications of restricted mass absorption coefficients in dosimetry are also given. (B.D.)

  8. Studies on absorption coefficient near edge of multi elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisa, M.H.; Shen, H.; Yao, H.Y.; Mi, Y.; Zhou, Z.Y.; Hu, T.D.; Xie, Y.N.

    2005-01-01

    X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) was used to study the near edge mass-absorption coefficients of seven elements, such as, Ti, V, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn. It is well known that, on the near edge absorption of element, when incident X-ray a few eV change can make the absorption coefficient an order magnitude alteration. So that, there are only a few points mass-absorption coefficient at the near edge absorption and that always average value in published table. Our results showed a wide range of data, the total measured data of mass-absorption coefficient of the seven elements was about 505. The investigation confirmed that XANES is useful technique for multi-element absorption coefficient measurement. Details of experimental methods and results are given and discussed. The experimental work has been performed at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The measured values were compared with the published data. Good agreement between experimental results and published data is obtained

  9. Studies on absorption coefficient near edge of multi elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisa, M. H.; Shen, H.; Yao, H. Y.; Mi, Y.; Zhou, Z. Y.; Hu, T. D.; Xie, Y. N.

    2005-12-01

    X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) was used to study the near edge mass-absorption coefficients of seven elements, such as, Ti, V, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn. It is well known that, on the near edge absorption of element, when incident X-ray a few eV change can make the absorption coefficient an order magnitude alteration. So that, there are only a few points mass-absorption coefficient at the near edge absorption and that always average value in published table. Our results showed a wide range of data, the total measured data of mass-absorption coefficient of the seven elements was about 505. The investigation confirmed that XANES is useful technique for multi-element absorption coefficient measurement. Details of experimental methods and results are given and discussed. The experimental work has been performed at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The measured values were compared with the published data. Good agreement between experimental results and published data is obtained.

  10. Effect of applied mechanical stress on absorption coefficient of compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Manoj Kumar, E-mail: mkgupta.sliet@gmail.com [Department of Applied Sciences, Bhai Gurdas Institute of Engineering and Technology, Sangrur (India); Singh, Gurinderjeet; Dhaliwal, A. S.; Kahlon, K. S. [Department of Physics, Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering & Technology Deemed University, Longowal (Sangrur) India-148106 (India)

    2015-08-28

    The absorption coefficient of given materials is the parameter required for the basic information. The measurement of absorption coefficient of compounds Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CaCO{sub 3}, ZnO{sub 2}, SmO{sub 2} and PbO has been taken at different incident photon energies 26, 59.54, 112, 1173, 1332keV. The studies involve the measurements of absorption coefficient of the self supporting samples prepared under different mechanical stress. This mechanical stress is render in terms of pressure up to 0-6 ton by using hydraulic press. Measurements shows that absorption coefficient of a material is directly proportional to applied mechanical stress on it up to some extent then become independent. Experimentally measured results are in fairly good agreement with in theoretical values obtained from WinXCOM.

  11. Use of appropriate absorption coefficients in gamma-ray dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopinath, D.V.; Natarajan, A.; Subbaiah, K.V.

    1985-01-01

    The current use of the different types of absorption coefficients in the computation of γ-ray energy deposition rates and air dose is critically analyzed. Transport calculations are presented to bring out the errors associated with the use of different absorption coefficients. It is observed that except for source energies in the range of 0.3 to 3.0 MeV the consistent use of the absorption coefficient, μ/sub a/ results in an underestimate of the air dose everywhere and of energy deposition at regions away from source. The underestimate becomes more significant with increased atomic number (Z) of the medium. Based on the computations and analysis it is concluded that the absorption coefficients μ/sub a/ and μ/sub k/ are of very limited use in practical γ-ray dosimetry

  12. Techniques For Measuring Absorption Coefficients In Crystalline Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Philipp H.

    1981-10-01

    Absorption coefficients smaller than 0.001 cm-1 can, with more or less difficulty, be measured by several techniques. With diligence, all methods can be refined to permit measurement of absorption coefficients as small as 0.00001 cm-1. Spectral data are most readily obtained by transmission (spectrophotometric) methods, using multiple internal reflection to increase effective sample length. Emissivity measurements, requiring extreme care in the elimination of detector noise and stray light, nevertheless afford the most accessible spectral data in the 0.0001 to 0.00001 cm-1 range. Single-wavelength informa-tion is most readily obtained with modifications of laser calorimetry. Thermo-couple detection of energy absorbed from a laser beam is convenient, but involves dc amplification techniques and is susceptible to stray-light problems. Photoacoustic detection, using ac methods, tends to diminish errors of these types, but at some expense in experimental complexity. Laser calorimetry has been used for measurements of absorption coefficients as small as 0.000003 cm-1. Both transmission and calorimetric data, taken as functions of intensity, have been used for measurement of nonlinear absorption coefficients.

  13. Lifshitz Tails for the Interband Light Absorption Coefficient

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we consider the interband light absorption coefficient (ILAC) for various models. We show that at the lower and upper edges of the spectrum the Lifshitz tails behaviour of the density of states implies similar behaviour for the ILAC at appropriate energies. The Lifshitz tails property is also exhibited at some points ...

  14. Producing of Impedance Tube for Measurement of Acoustic Absorption Coefficient of Some Sound Absorber Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Golmohammadi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Noise is one of the most important harmful agents in work environment. In spit of industrial improvements, exposure with over permissible limit of noise is counted as one of the health complication of workers. In Iran, do not exact information of the absorption coefficient of acoustic materials. Iranian manufacturer have not laboratory for measured of sound absorbance of their products, therefore using of sound absorber is limited for noise control in industrial and non industrial constructions. The goal of this study was to design an impedance tube based on pressure method for measurement of the sound absorption coefficient of acoustic materials.Materials & Methods: In this study designing of measuring system and method of calculation of sound absorption based on a available equipment and relatively easy for measurement of the sound absorption coefficient related to ISO10534-1 was performed. Measuring system consist of heavy asbestos tube, a pure tone sound generator, calibrated sound level meter for measuring of some commonly of sound absorber materials was used. Results: In this study sound absorption coefficient of 23 types of available acoustic material in Iran was tested. Reliability of results by three repeat of measurement was tested. Results showed that the standard deviation of sound absorption coefficient of study materials was smaller than .Conclusion: The present study performed a necessary technology of designing and producing of impedance tube for determining of acoustical materials absorption coefficient in Iran.

  15. Bayesian inversion from sabine absorption coefficients to flow resistivity values for porous absorbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2015-01-01

    to determine the flow resistivity of a porous material from the Sabine absorption coefficient was investigated through a reliable model. The model for the flow resistivity estimation is based on an equivalent fluid model, i.e., Miki’s model, together with the most advanced model that accounts for edge...... diffraction, named Thomasson’s finite size correction. As input data, a set of the Sabine absorption coefficients in a recent absorption round robin test in 13 European chambers was used. Finally, the flow resistivity of the test specimen is characterized via the Bayesian framework, together...

  16. A parameterization scheme for the x-ray linear attenuation coefficient and energy absorption coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midgley, S M

    2004-01-21

    A novel parameterization of x-ray interaction cross-sections is developed, and employed to describe the x-ray linear attenuation coefficient and mass energy absorption coefficient for both elements and mixtures. The new parameterization scheme addresses the Z-dependence of elemental cross-sections (per electron) using a simple function of atomic number, Z. This obviates the need for a complicated mathematical formalism. Energy dependent coefficients describe the Z-direction curvature of the cross-sections. The composition dependent quantities are the electron density and statistical moments describing the elemental distribution. We show that it is possible to describe elemental cross-sections for the entire periodic table and at energies above the K-edge (from 6 keV to 125 MeV), with an accuracy of better than 2% using a parameterization containing not more than five coefficients. For the biologically important elements 1 coefficients. At higher energies, the parameterization uses fewer coefficients with only two coefficients needed at megavoltage energies.

  17. Absorption coefficient of nearly transparent liquids measured using thermal lens spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.Cabrera

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We use an optimized pump-probe mode-mismatched thermal lens scheme to determine the optical absorption coefficient and thermal diffusivity of ethanol, benzene, acetone, methanol, toluene and chloroform. In this scheme the excitation beam is focused in the presence of a collimated probe beam. The agreement between experimentally obtained results and values reported in the literature is good.

  18. Absorption Coefficient in Periodic InAs/GaAs Nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-BolIvar, S; Gomez-Campos, F M; Luque-Rodriguez, A; Lopez-Villanueva, J A; Carceller, J E, E-mail: fmgomez@ugr.e [Departamento de Electronica y TecnologIa de los Computadores, Facultad de Ciencias, Av. Fuentenueva s/n, C. P. 18071, Universidad de Granada (Spain)

    2010-09-01

    Periodic nanostructure manufacture has been proposed as a procedure for obtaining new materials with tunable physical properties, such as the photon absorption coefficient. In this work we have theoretically investigated this quantity in ordered InAs/GaAs cubic quantum dot systems. We solved the Schroedinger equation associated with these structures, using a set of 13x13x13 plane waves at 12,167 equally spaced points of the Q space. We focused on the transitions between minibands arising from the conduction band. We took into account the different effective masses in each material. We included the effects of the strain by taking a conduction band offset of 0.5 eV, corresponding to strained InAs in GaAs

  19. Laboratory measurement of the absorption coefficient of riboflavin for ultraviolet light (365 nm).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iseli, Hans Peter; Popp, Max; Seiler, Theo; Spoerl, Eberhard; Mrochen, Michael

    2011-03-01

    Corneal cross-linking (CXL) is an increasingly used treatment technique for stabilizing the cornea in keratoconus. Cross-linking (polymerization) between collagen fibrils is induced by riboflavin (vitamin B2) and ultraviolet light (365 nm). Although reported to reach a constant value at higher riboflavin concentrations, the Lambert-Beer law predicts a linear increase in the absorption coefficient. This work was carried out to determine absorption behavior at different riboflavin concentrations and to further investigate the purported plateau absorption coefficient value of riboflavin and to identify possible bleaching effects. The Lambert-Beer law was used to calculate the absorption coefficient at various riboflavin concentrations. The following investigated concentrations of riboflavin solutions were prepared using a mixture of 0.5% riboflavin and 20% Dextran T500 dissolved in 0.9% sodium chloride solution: 0%, 0.02%, 0.03%, 0.04%, 0.05%, 0.06%, 0.08%, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4%, and 0.5%, and were investigated with and without aperture plate implementation. An additional test series measured the transmitted power at selected riboflavin concentrations over time. In diluted solutions, a linear correlation exists between the absorption coefficient and riboflavin concentration. The absorption coefficient reaches a plateau, but this occurs at a higher riboflavin concentration (0.1%) than previously reported (just above 0.04%). Transmitted light power increases over time, indicating a bleaching effect of riboflavin. The riboflavin concentration can be effectively varied as a treatment parameter in a considerably broader range than previously thought. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Prediction of mass absorption coefficients from inelastically scattered X-radiation for specimens of less than 'infinite thickness'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kieser, R.; Mulligan, T.J.

    1979-01-01

    An equation is developed which describes the X-ray scatter radiation from specimens of any thickness. This equation suggests that a specimen's mass absorption coefficient can be determined from its inelastically scattered X-radiation not only when the specimen is 'infinitely thick' but also when it is of 'intermediate thickness'. Measurements have been carried out with a standard energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer on specimens of 'intermediate thickness'. Good agreement is obtained between the mass absorption coefficients that are calculated from the scattered radiation and those obtained on the basis of tabulated mass absorption coefficients for the elements. (author)

  1. Drag Coefficient Estimation in Orbit Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Craig A.; Manee, Steve; Lichtenberg, Travis

    2011-07-01

    Drag modeling is the greatest uncertainty in the dynamics of low Earth satellite orbits where ballistic coefficient and density errors dominate drag errors. This paper examines fitted drag coefficients found as part of a precision orbit determination process for Stella, Starlette, and the GEOSAT Follow-On satellites from 2000 to 2005. The drag coefficients for the spherical Stella and Starlette satellites are assumed to be highly correlated with density model error. The results using MSIS-86, NRLMSISE-00, and NRLMSISE-00 with dynamic calibration of the atmosphere (DCA) density corrections are compared. The DCA corrections were formulated for altitudes of 200-600 km and are found to be inappropriate when applied at 800 km. The yearly mean fitted drag coefficients are calculated for each satellite for each year studied. The yearly mean drag coefficients are higher for Starlette than Stella, where Starlette is at a higher altitude. The yearly mean fitted drag coefficients for all three satellites decrease as solar activity decreases after solar maximum.

  2. Molecular Diffusion Coefficients: Experimental Determination and Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fate, Gwendolyn; Lynn, David G.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are laboratory methods which allow the demonstration and determination of the diffusion coefficients of compounds ranging in size from water to small proteins. Included are the procedures involving the use of a spectrometer, UV cell, triterated agar, and oxygen diffusion. Results including quantification are described. (CW)

  3. Measured and numerically partitioned phytoplankton spectral absorption coefficients in inland waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.; Liu, M.; Van Dijk, M.A.; Zhu, G.; Gong, Z.; Li, Y.M.; Qin, B.

    2009-01-01

    Total particulate, tripton and phytoplankton absorption coefficients were measured for eutrophic (Lake Taihu), meso-eutrophic (Lake Tianmuhu) and mesotrophic waters (the Three Gorges Reservoir) in China using the quantitative filter technique. Meanwhile, tripton and phytoplankton absorption

  4. Bayesian inference of the flow resistivity of a sound absorber and the room's influence on the Sabine absorption coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Choi, Sang-Hyeon; Lee, Ikjin

    2017-01-01

    A Bayesian analysis is applied to determine the flow resistivity of a porous sample and the influence of the test chamber based on measured Sabine absorption coefficient data. The Sabine absorption coefficient measured in a reverberation chamber according to ISO 354 is influenced by the test...... chamber significantly, whereas the flow resistivity is a rather reproducible material property, from which the absorptive characteristics can be calculated through reliable models. Using Sabine absorption coefficients measured in 13 European reverberation chambers, the maximum a posteriori...... and the uncertainty of the flow resistivity and the test chamber’s influence are estimated. Inclusion of more than one chamber’s absorption data helps the flow resistivity converge towards a reliable value with a standard deviation below 17%...

  5. Light Absorption Coefficients for Soluble Species in Snow, Dome C, Antarctica, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains light absorption coefficients for soluble chromophores (light-absorbing chemicals) and concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (HOOH) and nitrate...

  6. Experimental determination of fission gas adsorption coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovell, R.; Underhill, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    Large charcoal beds have been used for a number of years for the holdup and decay of radioactive isotopes of krypton and xenon. Reliable design of these beds depends on an accurate knowledge of the adsorption coefficient of krypton and xenon on the adsorbents used in these beds. It is somewhat surprising that there is no standard procedure of determining the adsorption coefficient for krypton and xenon. Fundamental information needed to establish a standardized reproducible test procedure is given emphasizing the breakthrough curves commonly used to analyze dynamic adsorption data can lead to serious systematic errors and the fact that the adsorption coefficient, if calculated from the arithmetic holding time, is independent of geometric factors such as the shape of the adsorption bed and the irregular shape of the adsorbent

  7. Mass Absorption Coefficients At 661,6 keV Energy In Various Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhariyono, Gatot; Bunawas

    2000-01-01

    Determination mass absorption coefficients (mum) at 661.6 keV energy in the samples various, such as lysine, coffee, chocolate, nutrisari, coconut oil, monosodium glutamate (MSG), tea, tin fish and the soil with experiment method has been carried out. The mum research was carried out in effort to give the measurement result of Cs-137 concentration that more accurate to the samples, because the sample density increases, mass absorption coefficients (mum) decreases. The mum correction on measurement of Cs-137 concentration in the samples various around between 0 and 13%, the highest is on the chocolate sample and the lowest is on the tin fish sample. Density of the samples decreases, the mum influence increases on the counting of Cs-137 concentration in the sample (Bq/kg)

  8. Functional dependence of the lower hybrid power absorption coefficient in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pericoli-Ridolfini, V.; Ekedahl, A.; Baranov, Y.

    1997-01-01

    The fraction of the coupled lower hybrid (LH) power adsorbed in divertor plasmas in JET has been determined experimentally with a method utilizing the time derivative of the total stored energy (plasma and magnetic). This method can account for the power adsorbed inside a normalized flux co-ordinate ψ ∼ 0.7. The experimental LH absorption coefficient reaches 100% at low plasma densities, antineutron e 19 m -3 and decreases to 25% at antineutron e > 3.5 x 10 19 m -3 . The LH wave accessibility to the plasma core has been found to play an important role in determining the power absorption and the radial deposition profile. The decreasing absorption is correlated with a gradual shift of the LH power deposition profile, as determined by the hard x-ray profiles, towards the plasma periphery. Similar behaviour is found in ray tracing + Fokker-Planck code calculations. The frequency spectrum of the LH pump wave as determined by a probe outside the tokamak vessel broadens strongly as the wave accessibility is reduced and the absorption drops. (author)

  9. Temperature dependence of the absorption coefficient of water for midinfrared laser radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, E. D.; van Leeuwen, T. G.; Motamedi, M.; Borst, C.; Welch, A. J.

    1994-01-01

    The dynamics of the water absorption peak around 1.94 microns was examined. This peak is important for the absorption of holmium and thulium laser radiation. To examine the effect of temperature on the absorption coefficient, the transmission of pulsed Ho:YAG, Ho:YAG, Ho:YSGG, and Tm:YAG laser

  10. Mass absorption and mass energy transfer coefficients for 0.4-10 MeV gamma rays in elemental solids and gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurler, O. [Physics Department, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Uludag University, Gorukle Campus, 16059 Bursa (Turkey)], E-mail: ogurler@uludag.edu.tr; Oz, H. [Physics Department, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Uludag University, Gorukle Campus, 16059 Bursa (Turkey); Yalcin, S. [Education Faculty, Kastamonu University, 37200 Kastamonu (Turkey); Gundogdu, O. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); NCCPM, Medical Physics, Royal Surrey County Hospital, GU2 7XX (United Kingdom)

    2009-01-15

    The mass energy absorption, the mass energy transfer and mass absorption coefficients have been widely used for problems and applications involving dose calculations. Direct measurements of the coefficients are difficult, and theoretical computations are usually employed. In this paper, analytical equations are presented for determining the mass energy transfer and mass absorption coefficients for gamma rays with an incident energy range between 0.4 and 10 MeV in nitrogen, silicon, carbon, copper and sodium iodide. The mass absorption and mass energy transfer coefficients for gamma rays were calculated, and the results obtained were compared with the values reported in the literature.

  11. Mass absorption and mass energy transfer coefficients for 0.4-10 MeV gamma rays in elemental solids and gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurler, O.; Oz, H.; Yalcin, S.; Gundogdu, O.

    2009-01-01

    The mass energy absorption, the mass energy transfer and mass absorption coefficients have been widely used for problems and applications involving dose calculations. Direct measurements of the coefficients are difficult, and theoretical computations are usually employed. In this paper, analytical equations are presented for determining the mass energy transfer and mass absorption coefficients for gamma rays with an incident energy range between 0.4 and 10 MeV in nitrogen, silicon, carbon, copper and sodium iodide. The mass absorption and mass energy transfer coefficients for gamma rays were calculated, and the results obtained were compared with the values reported in the literature

  12. Determination of coefficient matrices for ARMA model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Dinh Tri.

    1990-10-01

    A new recursive algorithm for determining coefficient matrices of ARMA model from measured data is presented. The Yule-Walker equations for the case of ARMA model are derived from the ARMA innovation equation. The recursive algorithm is based on choosing appropriate form of the operator functions and suitable representation of the (n+1)-th order operator functions according to ones with the lower order. Two cases, when the order of the AR part is equal to one of the MA part, and the optimal case, were considered. (author) 5 refs

  13. Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy in cystic fibrosis: dose, variability and coefficient of fat absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Lerma, Joaquim; Martínez-Barona, Sandra; Masip, Etna; Fornés, Victoria; Ribes-Koninckx, Carmen

    2017-10-01

    Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT) remains a backbone in the nutritional treatment of cystic fibrosis. Currently, there is a lack of an evidence-based tool that allows dose adjustment. To date, no studies have found an association between PERT dose and fat absorption. Therefore, the aim of the study was to assess the influence of both the PERT dose and the variability in this dose on the coefficient of fat absorption (CFA). This is a retrospective longitudinal study of 16 pediatric patients (192 food records) with three consecutive visits to the hospital over a twelve-month period. Dietary fat intake and PERT were assessed via a four-day food record and fat content in stools was determined by means of a three-day stool sample collection. A beta regression model was built to explain the association between the CFA and the interaction between the PERT dose (lipase units [LU]/g dietary fat) and the variability in the PERT dose (standard deviation [SD]). The coefficient of fat absorption increased with the PERT dose when the variability in the dose was low. In contrast, even at the highest PERT dose values, the CFA decreased when the variability was high. The confidence interval suggested an association, although the analysis was not statistically significant. The variability in the PERT dose adjustment should be taken into consideration when performing studies on PERT efficiency. A clinical goal should be the maintenance of a constant PERT dose rather than trying to obtain an optimal value.

  14. Measurement of Absorption Coefficient of Paraformaldehyde and Metaldehyde with Terahertz Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Xia, T.; Chen, Q.; Sun, Q.; Deng, Y.; Wang, C.

    2018-03-01

    The characteristic absorption spectra of paraformaldehyde and metaldehyde in the terahertz frequency region are obtained by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). In order to reduce the absorption of terahertz (THz) wave by water vapor in the air and the background noise, the measurement system was filled with dry air and the measurements were conducted at the temperature of 24°C. Meanwhile, the humidity was controlled within 10% RH. The THz frequency domain spectra of samples and their references from 0 to 2.5 THz were analyzed via Fourier transform. The refractive index and absorption coefficients of the two aldehydes were calculated by the model formulas. From 0.1 to 2.5 THz, there appear two weak absorption peaks at 1.20 and 1.66 THz in the absorption spectra of paraformaldehyde. Only one distinct absorption peak emerges at 1.83 THz for metaldehyde. There are significant differences between the terahertz absorption coefficients of paraformaldehyde and metaldehyde, which can be used as "fingerprints" to identify these substances. Furthermore, the relationship between the average absorption coefficients and mass concentrations was investigated and the average absorption coefficient-mass concentration diagrams of paraformaldehyde and metaldehyde were shown. For paraformaldehyde, there is a linear relationship between the average absorption coefficient and the natural logarithm of mass concentration. For metaldehyde, there exists a simpler linear relationship between the average absorption coefficient and the mass concentration. Because of the characteristics of THz absorption of paraformaldehyde and metaldehyde, the THz-TDS can be applied to the qualitative and quantitative detection of the two aldehydes to reduce the unpredictable hazards due to these substances.

  15. Absorption coefficients for water vapor at 193 nm from 300 to 1073 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, W. J.; Carleton, K. L.; Marinelli, W. J.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of the water absorption coefficient at 193 nm from 300 to 1073 K are reported. The measurements were made using broadband VUV radiation and a monochromator-based detection system. The water vapor was generated by a saturator and metered into a flowing, 99 cm absorption cell via a water vapor mass flow meter. The 193 nm absorption coefficient measurements are compared to room temperature and high temperature shock tube measurements with good agreement. The absorption can be parameterized by a nu3 vibrational mode reaction coordinate and the thermal population of the nu3 mode.

  16. Thermal expansion coefficient determination by CBED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelini, P.; Bentley, J.

    1984-01-01

    The present application of CBED involves measurements of thermal-expansion coefficients by measurement of changes in HOLZ line positions as a function of temperature. Previous work on this subject was performed on Si at a constant accelerating voltage of 100 kV between about 90 and 600 K. Diffraction patterns were recorded and line shifts correlated to lattice parameter changes. Differences were noted between values determined by CBED and accepted thermal expansion values. Significant HOLZ line interactions and splitting occurring in the (111) patterns were noted to contribute to the differences. Preliminary measurements have been made on Al, Al 2 O 3 , and single-crystal tau (Ni/sub 20.3/Ti/sub 2.7/B 6 ). An example of changes in HOLZ lines present in (114) patterns for Al are shown and the effect of temperature on the position of lines in the pattern illustrated

  17. Spatial dispersion effects in spectral line broadening by pressure. I. The Bouguer Law and absorption coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherkasov, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    Based on the general principles of semiclassical electrodynamics, the Bouguer law is derived, and the expression for the absorption coefficient is obtained, formally including all effects related to the phenomenon of spatial dispersion

  18. Photon mass energy absorption coefficients from 0.4 MeV to 10 MeV for silicon, carbon, copper and sodium iodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oz, H.; Gurler, O.; Gultekin, A.; Yalcin, S.; Gundogdu, O.

    2006-01-01

    The absorption coefficients have been widely used for problems and applications involving dose calculations. Direct measurements of the coefficients are difficult, and theoretical computations are usually employed. In this paper, analytical equations are presented for determining the mass energy absorption coefficients for gamma rays with an incident energy range between 0.4 MeV and 10 MeV in silicon, carbon, copper and sodium iodide. The mass energy absorption coefficients for gamma rays were calculated, and the results obtained were compared with the values reported in the literature.

  19. Photon mass energy absorption coefficients from 0.4 MeV to 10 MeV for silicon, carbon, copper and sodium iodide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oz, H.; Gurler, O.; Gultekin, A. [Uludag University, Bursa (Turkmenistan); Yalcin, S. [Kastamonu University, Kastamonu (Turkmenistan); Gundogdu, O. [University of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-15

    The absorption coefficients have been widely used for problems and applications involving dose calculations. Direct measurements of the coefficients are difficult, and theoretical computations are usually employed. In this paper, analytical equations are presented for determining the mass energy absorption coefficients for gamma rays with an incident energy range between 0.4 MeV and 10 MeV in silicon, carbon, copper and sodium iodide. The mass energy absorption coefficients for gamma rays were calculated, and the results obtained were compared with the values reported in the literature.

  20. On the sound absorption coefficient of porous asphalt pavements for oblique incident sound waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer-Krijnen, Marieke; Wijnant, Ysbrand H.; de Boer, Andries; Bekke, Dirk; Davy, J.; Don, Ch.; McMinn, T.; Dowsett, L.; Broner, N.; Burgess, M.

    2014-01-01

    A rolling tyre will radiate noise in all directions. However, conventional measurement techniques for the sound absorption of surfaces only give the absorption coefficient for normal incidence. In this paper, a measurement technique is described with which it is possible to perform in situ sound

  1. Determination of the surface drag coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahrt, L.; Vickers, D.; Sun, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    This study examines the dependence of the surface drag coefficient on stability, wind speed, mesoscale modulation of the turbulent flux and method of calculation of the drag coefficient. Data sets over grassland, sparse grass, heather and two forest sites are analyzed. For significantly unstable...... conditions, the drag coefficient does not depend systematically on z/L but decreases with wind speed for fixed intervals of z/L, where L is the Obukhov length. Even though the drag coefficient for weak wind conditions is sensitive to the exact method of calculation and choice of averaging time, the decrease...... of the drag coefficient with wind speed occurs for all of the calculation methods. A classification of flux calculation methods is constructed, which unifies the most common previous approaches. The roughness length corresponding to the usual Monin-Obukhov stability functions decreases with increasing wind...

  2. Sound absorption coefficient in situ: an alternative for estimating soil loss factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Rosane; Meletti de Abreu, Marco Henrique; Okada, Rafael Yuri; Soares, Paulo Fernando; GranhenTavares, Célia Regina

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between the sound absorption coefficient and factors of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) was determined in a section of the Maringá Stream basin, Paraná State, by using erosion plots. In the field, four erosion plots were built on a reduced scale, with dimensions of 2.0×12.5m. With respect to plot coverage, one was kept with bare soil and the others contained forage grass (Brachiaria), corn and wheat crops, respectively. Planting was performed without any type of conservation practice in an area with a 9% slope. A sedimentation tank was placed at the end of each plot to collect the material transported. For the acoustic system, pink noise was used in the measurement of the proposed monitoring, for collecting information on incident and reflected sound pressure levels. In general, obtained values of soil loss confirmed that 94.3% of material exported to the basin water came from the bare soil plot, 2.8% from the corn plot, 1.8% from the wheat plot, and 1.1% from the forage grass plot. With respect to the acoustic monitoring, results indicated that at 16kHz erosion plot coverage type had a significant influence on the sound absorption coefficient. High correlation coefficients were found in estimations of the A and C factors of the USLE, confirming that the acoustic technique is feasible for the determination of soil loss directly in the field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Bottom Extreme-Ultraviolet-Sensitive Coating for Evaluation of the Absorption Coefficient of Ultrathin Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijikata, Hayato; Kozawa, Takahiro; Tagawa, Seiichi; Takei, Satoshi

    2009-06-01

    A bottom extreme-ultraviolet-sensitive coating (BESC) for evaluation of the absorption coefficients of ultrathin films such as extreme ultraviolet (EUV) resists was developed. This coating consists of a polymer, crosslinker, acid generator, and acid-responsive chromic dye and is formed by a conventional spin-coating method. By heating the film after spin-coating, a crosslinking reaction is induced and the coating becomes insoluble. A typical resist solution can be spin-coated on a substrate covered with the coating film. The evaluation of the linear absorption coefficients of polymer films was demonstrated by measuring the EUV absorption of BESC substrates on which various polymers were spin-coated.

  4. X-ray absorption coefficients of the elements (Li TO Bi, U)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Satoshi.

    1990-11-01

    The atomic absorption coefficient, μ a , and the mass absorption coefficient, μ/ρ, have been calculated for the elements Li to Bi and U, based on both photoelectric and scattering effects. Tables include the μ a and μ/ρ values (i) at 0.01 A intervals in the wavelength range from 0.1 to 2.89 A and (ii) at 0.0001 A intervals in the neighborhood of the K, L 1 , L 2 , and L 3 absorption edges. (author)

  5. IR Absorption Coefficients for the Quantification of Water in Hydrous Ringwoodite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Sylvia-Monique; Jacobsen, Steven D.; Bina, Craig R.; Smyth, Joseph R.; Frost, Daniel J.

    2010-05-01

    Raman spectroscopy, combined with the 'Comparator technique' has been developed to determine water contents ranging from a few wt ppm to wt% in glasses and nominally anhydrous minerals including garnets, olivine, and SiO2 polymorphs (Thomas et al. 2009). The routine is one promising example of quantification tools to determine mineral specific molar absorption coefficients (ɛ) for IR spectroscopy. Mineral specific absorption coefficients are required because general IR calibrations do not necessarily apply to minerals with water incorporated as hydroxyl point defects. Here we utilize the 'Comparator technique' to provide ɛ-values for a set of synthetic Fe-free (Fo100) and Fe-bearing (Fo90, Fo87, Fo83, Fo60) ringwoodites, as well as for γ-Mg2GeO4. Ringwoodite is considered one of the major phases of the Earth's lower transition zone (520-660 km depth) and the knowledge of its absolute water storage capacity is essential for modeling the Earth's deep water cycle. Samples were synthesized at variable P-T conditions in a multi-anvil press and cover a range of OH contents. Single-crystals were characterized using X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy. Mineral specific IR absorption coefficients were calculated from independently determined water contents from Raman spectroscopy. Unpolarized IR spectra of Mg-ringwoodite show broad absorption features in the OH region with band maxima at ~2350, 2538, 3130, 3172, 3598 and 3688 cm-1. In the spectra of Fe-bearing ringwoodite and γ-Mg2GeO4 the maxima of the main OH band are shifted to 3244 cm-1 (Fo60) and 3207 cm-1, respectively. For Mg-ringwoodite with the mean wavenumber (area-weighted average of the peak position) of 3170 cm-1 an ɛ-value of 191500 ± 38300 L cm-2/ molH2O was determined. For the ringwoodites with Fo90, Fo87 and Fo83 composition and the mean wavenumbers of 3229 cm-1, 3252 cm-1 and 3163 cm-1 values of 123600 ± 24700 L cm-2/ molH2O, 176300 ± 52900 L cm-2/ molH2O and 155000 ± 46500 L cm-2/ molH2O were

  6. Correlation between oral drug absorption in humans and apparent drug permeability coefficients in human intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artursson, P.; Karlsson, J.

    1991-01-01

    Monolayers of a well differentiated human intestinal epithelial cell line, Caco-2, were used as a model to study passive drug absorption across the intestinal epithelium. Absorption rate constants (expressed as apparent permeability coefficients) were determined for 20 drugs and peptides with different structural properties. The permeability coefficients ranged from approximately 5 x 10 - 8 to 5 x 10 - 5 cm/s. A good correlation was obtained between data on oral absorption in humans and the results in the Caco-2 model. Drugs that are completely absorbed in humans had permeability coefficients greater than 1 x 10 - 6 cm/s. Drugs that are absorbed to greater than 1% but less than 100% had permeability coefficients of 0.1-1.0 x 10 - 6 cm/s while drugs and peptides that are absorbed to less than 1% had permeability coefficients of less than or equal to 1 x 10 - 7 cm/s. The results indicate that Caco-2 monolayers can be used as a model for studies on intestinal drug absorption

  7. Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy in cystic fibrosis: dose, variability and coefficient of fat absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Calvo-Lerma

    Full Text Available Objectives: Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT remains a backbone in the nutritional treatment of cystic fibrosis. Currently, there is a lack of an evidence-based tool that allows dose adjustment. To date, no studies have found an association between PERT dose and fat absorption. Therefore, the aim of the study was to assess the influence of both the PERT dose and the variability in this dose on the coefficient of fat absorption (CFA. Methods: This is a retrospective longitudinal study of 16 pediatric patients (192 food records with three consecutive visits to the hospital over a twelve-month period. Dietary fat intake and PERT were assessed via a four-day food record and fat content in stools was determined by means of a three-day stool sample collection. A beta regression model was built to explain the association between the CFA and the interaction between the PERT dose (lipase units [LU]/g dietary fat and the variability in the PERT dose (standard deviation [SD]. Results: The coefficient of fat absorption increased with the PERT dose when the variability in the dose was low. In contrast, even at the highest PERT dose values, the CFA decreased when the variability was high. The confidence interval suggested an association, although the analysis was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The variability in the PERT dose adjustment should be taken into consideration when performing studies on PERT efficiency. A clinical goal should be the maintenance of a constant PERT dose rather than trying to obtain an optimal value.

  8. Vapor-Phase Infrared Absorptivity Coefficient of HN1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    the boil-off of a bulk liquid nitrogen tank, across an alumina Soxhlet thimble in a glass holder filled with the analyte. A vapor–liquid...with mass spectrometry (MS) yielded the results shown in Table 3. Table 3. Results from Analysis of HN1 Sample Used for Determination of...2 yields (3) Equation 3 can then be solved at each frequency using a least-squares approach. This was

  9. Evaluation of the Extinction Coefficient, Radiation Absorption and Use Efficiency of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyedeh Maliheh Mirhashemi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Leaf area index, light extinction coefficient and radiation use efficiency are important eco-physiological characteristics for realization of crops growth, development and radiation absorption. In order to determine the leaf area index (LAI, light extinction coefficient (K and radiation use efficiency (RUE of saffron during the first and second growing seasons, four experiments were started in 2011 and ended in 2014, at the Research Farm of the Agriculture Faculty, the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. Saffron corms with weights between 13 to15 g and density of 50 plant.m2 were cultivated in 2011 and 2012. In all experimental years during the growing season, crop sampling was taken for required measurements including the leaf area index and shoot dry weight of saffron once every 14 days. The results showed that by increasing the age of saffron from 1 year to two years, the maximum LAI of saffron increased from 0.33 to 1.81, and light extinction coefficient decreased from 1.20 to 0.54. The increasing trend of LAI was coincident with fraction of absorbed radiation for all four years of the experiment. In the first and the second growing seasons, the amount of fraction of absorbed radiation gradually increased with increasing LAI and at 1083 and 1034 GDD reached its maximum value, respectively. In saffron farms when the plant was one year old and two years old, the mean value of RUE was 0.68 and 1.73 g.MJ-1 PAR, respectively. These results indicate that by increasing the saffron age and LAI, the value of K decreases and consequently radiation absorption and use efficiency will‎ increase.

  10. Determination of hafnium by atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Isao; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Ueno, Keihei.

    1977-01-01

    Optimum conditions for atomic absorption spectrophotometric determination of hafnium were investigated by use of a Jarrel-Ash AA-1 instrument which was equipped with a premixed gas burner slotted 50 mm in length and 0.4 mm in width. Absorption of hafnium, which was atomized in an nitrous oxide-acetylene flame, was measured on a resonance line at 307.29 nm. The absorption due to hafnium was enhanced in the presence of ammonium fluoride and iron(III) ion, as shown in Figs. 2 and 3, depending on their concentration. The highest absorption was attained by the addition of (0.15 -- 0.3)M ammonium fluoride, 0.07 M of iron(III) ion and 0.05 M of hydrochloric acid. An excess of the additives decreased the absorption. The presence of zirconium, which caused a significant interference in the ordinary analytical methods, did not affect the absorption due to hafnium, if the zirconium concentration is less than 0.2 M. A standard procedure was proposed; A sample containing a few mg of hafnium was dissolved in a 25-ml volumetric flask, and ammonium fluoride, ferric nitrate and hydrochloric acid were added so that the final concentrations were 0.3, 0.07 and 0.05 M, respectively. Atomic absorption was measured on the aqueous solution in a nitrous oxide-acetylene flame and the hafnium content was calculated from the absorbance. Sensitivity was as high as 12.5 μg of Hf/ml/l% absorption. The present method is especially recommendable to the direct determination of hafnium in samples containing zirconium. (auth.)

  11. Friction Coefficient Determination by Electrical Resistance Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunyagi, A.; Kandrai, K.; Fülöp, Z.; Kapusi, Z.; Simon, A.

    2018-01-01

    A simple and low-cost, DIY-type, Arduino-driven experiment is presented for the study of friction and measurement of the friction coefficient, using a conductive rubber cord as a force sensor. It is proposed for high-school or college/university-level students. We strongly believe that it is worthwhile planning, designing and performing Arduino…

  12. The Optical Absorption Coefficient of Maize Grains Investigated by Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Páez, C. L.; Carballo-Carballo, A.; Rico-Molina, R.; Hernández-Aguilar, C.; Domínguez-Pacheco, A.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Moreno-Martínez, E.

    2017-01-01

    In the maize and tortilla industry, it is important to characterize the color of maize ( Zea mays L.) grain, as it is one of the attributes that directly affect the quality of the tortillas consumed by the population. For this reason, the availability of alternative techniques for assessing and improving the quality of grain is valued. Photoacoustic spectroscopy has proven to be a useful tool for characterizing maize grain. So, the objective of the present study was to determine the optical absorption coefficient β of the maize grain used to make tortillas from two regions of Mexico: (a) Valles Altos, 2012-2013 production cycle and (b) Guasave, Sinaloa, 2013-2014 production cycle. Traditional reflectance measurements, physical characteristics of the grain and nutrient content were also calculated. The experimental results show different characteristics for maize grains.

  13. Minority carrier diffusion lengths and absorption coefficients in silicon sheet material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, K. A.; Swimm, R. T.

    1980-01-01

    Most of the methods which have been developed for the measurement of the minority carrier diffusion length of silicon wafers require that the material have either a Schottky or an ohmic contact. The surface photovoltage (SPV) technique is an exception. The SPV technique could, therefore, become a valuable diagnostic tool in connection with current efforts to develop low-cost processes for the production of solar cells. The technique depends on a knowledge of the optical absorption coefficient. The considered investigation is concerned with a reevaluation of the absorption coefficient as a function of silicon processing. A comparison of absorption coefficient values showed these values to be relatively consistent from sample to sample, and independent of the sample growth method.

  14. Dynamic absorption coefficients of chemically amplified resists and nonchemically amplified resists at extreme ultraviolet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallica, Roberto; Stowers, Jason K.; Grenville, Andrew; Frommhold, Andreas; Robinson, Alex P. G.; Ekinci, Yasin

    2016-07-01

    The dynamic absorption coefficients of several chemically amplified resists (CAR) and non-CAR extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photoresists are measured experimentally using a specifically developed setup in transmission mode at the x-ray interference lithography beamline of the Swiss Light Source. The absorption coefficient α and the Dill parameters ABC were measured with unprecedented accuracy. In general, the α of resists match very closely with the theoretical value calculated from elemental densities and absorption coefficients, whereas exceptions are observed. In addition, through the direct measurements of the absorption coefficients and dose-to-clear values, we introduce a new figure of merit called chemical sensitivity to account for all the postabsorption chemical reaction ongoing in the resist, which also predicts a quantitative clearing volume and clearing radius, due to the photon absorption in the resist. These parameters may help provide deeper insight into the underlying mechanisms of the EUV concepts of clearing volume and clearing radius, which are then defined and quantitatively calculated.

  15. Semi-analytical Model for Estimating Absorption Coefficients of Optically Active Constituents in Coastal Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D.; Cui, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The objectives of this paper are to validate the applicability of a multi-band quasi-analytical algorithm (QAA) in retrieval absorption coefficients of optically active constituents in turbid coastal waters, and to further improve the model using a proposed semi-analytical model (SAA). The ap(531) and ag(531) semi-analytically derived using SAA model are quite different from the retrievals procedures of QAA model that ap(531) and ag(531) are semi-analytically derived from the empirical retrievals results of a(531) and a(551). The two models are calibrated and evaluated against datasets taken from 19 independent cruises in West Florida Shelf in 1999-2003, provided by SeaBASS. The results indicate that the SAA model produces a superior performance to QAA model in absorption retrieval. Using of the SAA model in retrieving absorption coefficients of optically active constituents from West Florida Shelf decreases the random uncertainty of estimation by >23.05% from the QAA model. This study demonstrates the potential of the SAA model in absorption coefficients of optically active constituents estimating even in turbid coastal waters. Keywords: Remote sensing; Coastal Water; Absorption Coefficient; Semi-analytical Model

  16. Measurement of the sound absorption coefficient for an advanced undergraduate physics laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macho-Stadler, E.; Elejalde-García, M. J.

    2017-09-01

    We present a simple experiment that allows advanced undergraduates to learn the basics of the acoustic properties of materials. The impedance tube-standing wave method is applied to study the normal absorption coefficient of acoustics insulators. The setup includes a tube, a speaker, a microphone, a digital function generator and an oscilloscope, material available in an undergraduate laboratory. Results of the change of the absorption coefficient with the frequency, the sample thickness and the sample density are analysed and compared with those obtained with a commercial system.

  17. Sound absorption coefficient of coal bottom ash concrete for railway application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramzi Hannan, N. I. R.; Shahidan, S.; Maarof, Z.; Ali, N.; Abdullah, S. R.; Ibrahim, M. H. Wan

    2017-11-01

    A porous concrete able to reduce the sound wave that pass through it. When a sound waves strike a material, a portion of the sound energy was reflected back and another portion of the sound energy was absorbed by the material while the rest was transmitted. The larger portion of the sound wave being absorbed, the lower the noise level able to be lowered. This study is to investigate the sound absorption coefficient of coal bottom ash (CBA) concrete compared to the sound absorption coefficient of normal concrete by carried out the impedance tube test. Hence, this paper presents the result of the impedance tube test of the CBA concrete and normal concrete.

  18. Friction coefficient determination by electrical resistance measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunyagi, A.; Kandrai, K.; Fülöp, Z.; Kapusi, Z.; Simon, A.

    2018-05-01

    A simple and low-cost, DIY-type, Arduino-driven experiment is presented for the study of friction and measurement of the friction coefficient, using a conductive rubber cord as a force sensor. It is proposed for high-school or college/university-level students. We strongly believe that it is worthwhile planning, designing and performing Arduino and compatible sensor-based experiments in physics class in order to ensure a better understanding of phenomena, develop theoretical knowledge and multiple experimental skills.

  19. Realistic absorption coefficient of each individual film in a multilayer architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaria, M.; Caricato, A. P.; Martino, M.

    2015-02-01

    A spectrophotometric strategy, termed multilayer-method (ML-method), is presented and discussed to realistically calculate the absorption coefficient of each individual layer embedded in multilayer architectures without reverse engineering, numerical refinements and assumptions about the layer homogeneity and thickness. The strategy extends in a non-straightforward way a consolidated route, already published by the authors and here termed basic-method, able to accurately characterize an absorbing film covering transparent substrates. The ML-method inherently accounts for non-measurable contribution of the interfaces (including multiple reflections), describes the specific film structure as determined by the multilayer architecture and used deposition approach and parameters, exploits simple mathematics, and has wide range of applicability (high-to-weak absorption regions, thick-to-ultrathin films). Reliability tests are performed on films and multilayers based on a well-known material (indium tin oxide) by deliberately changing the film structural quality through doping, thickness-tuning and underlying supporting-film. Results are found consistent with information obtained by standard (optical and structural) analysis, the basic-method and band gap values reported in the literature. The discussed example-applications demonstrate the ability of the ML-method to overcome the drawbacks commonly limiting an accurate description of multilayer architectures.

  20. Mapping Surface Water DOC in the Northern Gulf of Mexico Using CDOM Absorption Coefficients and Remote Sensing Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, B.; Chelsky, A.; Bulygina, E.; Roberts, B. J.

    2017-12-01

    Remote sensing techniques have become valuable tools to researchers, providing the capability to measure and visualize important parameters without the need for time or resource intensive sampling trips. Relationships between dissolved organic carbon (DOC), colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and spectral data have been used to remotely sense DOC concentrations in riverine systems, however, this approach has not been applied to the northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM) and needs to be tested to determine how accurate these relationships are in riverine-dominated shelf systems. In April, July, and October 2017 we sampled surface water from 80+ sites over an area of 100,000 km2 along the Louisiana-Texas shelf in the northern GoM. DOC concentrations were measured on filtered water samples using a Shimadzu TOC-VCSH analyzer using standard techniques. Additionally, DOC concentrations were estimated from CDOM absorption coefficients of filtered water samples on a UV-Vis spectrophotometer using a modification of the methods of Fichot and Benner (2011). These values were regressed against Landsat visible band spectral data for those same locations to establish a relationship between the spectral data, CDOM absorption coefficients. This allowed us to spatially map CDOM absorption coefficients in the Gulf of Mexico using the Landsat spectral data in GIS. We then used a multiple linear regressions model to derive DOC concentrations from the CDOM absorption coefficients and applied those to our map. This study provides an evaluation of the viability of scaling up CDOM absorption coefficient and remote-sensing derived estimates of DOC concentrations to the scale of the LA-TX shelf ecosystem.

  1. [Estimation of DOC concentrations using CDOM absorption coefficients: a case study in Taihu Lake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guang-Jia; Ma, Rong-Hua; Duan, Hong-Tao

    2012-07-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is the largest organic carbon stock in water ecosystems, which plays an important role in the carbon cycle in water. Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), an important water color variation, is the colored fraction of DOC and its absorption controls the instruction of light under water. The available linkage between DOC concentration and CDOM absorptions enables the determination of DOC accumulations using remote sensing reflectance or radiance in lake waters. The present study explored the multi-liner relationship between CDOM absorptions [a(g) (250) and a(g) (365)] and DOC concentrations in Taihu Lake, based on the available data in 4 cruises (201005, 201101, 201103, 201105) (totally 183 sampling sites). Meanwhile, the results were validated with the data of the experiment carried out from August 29 to September 2, 2011 in Taihu Lake (n = 27). Furthermore, a universal pattern of modeling from remote sensing was built for lake waters. The results demonstrated that this method provided more satisfying estimation of DOC concentrations in Taihu Lake. Except the data obtained in January 2011, the fitted results of which were not conductive to the winter dataset (201101) in Taihu Lake, due to the diverse sources and sinks of DOC and CDOM, the multi-liner relationship was robust for the data collected in the other three cruises (R2 = 0.64, RMSE = 14.31%, n = 164), which was validated using the 201108 sampling dataset (R2 = 0.67, RMSE = 10.58%, n = 27). In addition, the form of the statistic model is universal, to some extent, for other water areas, however, there is difference in the modeling coefficients. Further research should be focused on the parameterization using local data from different lakes, which provides effective methodology for the estimation of DOC concentrations in lakes and other water regions.

  2. Temperature modulation of the visible and near infrared absorption and scattering coefficients of human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Omar S; Yeh, Shu-Jen; Lowery, Michael G; Wu, Xiaomao; Hanna, Charles F; Kantor, Stanislaw; Jeng, Tzyy-Wen; Kanger, Johannes S; Bolt, Rene A; de Mul, Frits F

    2003-04-01

    We determine temperature effect on the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients (mu(a) and mu(s)(')) of human forearm skin. Optical and thermal simulation data suggest that mu( a) and mu(s)(') are determined within a temperature-controlled depth of approximately 2 mm. Cutaneous mu(s)(') change linearly with temperature. Change in mu(a) was complex and irreversible above body normal temperatures. Light penetration depth (delta) in skin increased on cooling, with considerable person-to-person variations. We attribute the effect of temperature on mu(s)(') to change in refractive index mismatch, and its effect on mu(a) to perfusion changes. The reversible temperature effect on mu (s)(' ) was maintained during more than 90 min. contact between skin and the measuring probe, where temperature was modulated between 38 and 22 degrees C for multiple cycles While temperature modulated mu(s)(' ) instantaneously and reversibly, mu(a) exhibited slower response time and consistent drift. There was a statistically significant upward drift in mu(a) and a mostly downward drift in mu( s)(') over the contact period. The drift in temperature-induced fractional change in mu(s)(') was less statistically significant than the drift in mu(s)('). Deltamu( s)(') values determined under temperature modulation conditions may have less nonspecific drift than mu(s)(') which may have significance for noninvasive determination of analytes in human tissue.

  3. Mass attenuation coefficient of chromium and manganese compounds around absorption edge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharanabasappa; Kaginelli, S B; Kerur, B R; Anilkumar, S; Hanumaiah, B

    2009-01-01

    The total mass attenuation coefficient for Potassium dichromate, Potassium chromate and Manganese acetate compounds are measured at different photon energies 5.895, 6.404, 6.490, 7.058, 8.041 and 14.390 keV using Fe-55, Co-57 and 241Am source with Copper target, radioactive sources. The photon intensity is analyzed using a high resolution HPGe detector system coupled to MCA under good geometrical arrangement. The obtained values of mass attenuation coefficient values are compared with theoretical values. This study suggests that measured mass attenuation coefficient values at and near absorption edges differ from the theoretical value by about 5-28%.

  4. Reconstruction of absorption and scattering coefficients in two dimensional heterogeneous participating media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero, Raul F. Carita; Roberty, Nilson C.; Silva Neto, Antonio J.; Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ

    2002-01-01

    In the present work it is presented the solution of the two dimensional inverse radiative transfer problem of scattering and absorption coefficients estimation, in heterogeneous media, using the source-detector methodology and a discrete ordinates method consistent with the source-detector system. The mathematical formulation of the direct and inverse problems is presented as well as test case results. (author)

  5. Local diffusion coefficient determination: Mediterranean Sea experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacciola, D.; Borghini, M.; Cannarsa, S.

    1993-10-01

    The Mediterranean is a semi/enclosed basin characterized by the presence of channels and straits influencing the circulation, temperature and salinity fields. The tides generally have amplitudes of the order of 10 cm and velocities of few cm/s. Conversely, the wind forced circulation is very strong and can assume velocity values of 1 m/s at the sea surface. The temperature and salinity fields have a high temporal and spatial variability, because of many mixing processes existing in the sea. For example, the waters coming from the Provencal basin meet those waters coming from the Tyrrhenian Sea in the eastern Ligurian Sea, creating meanders and eddies. Local runoff influences significantly the coastal circulation. This paper describes diffusion experiments carried out in this complex environment. The experimental apparatus for the detection of the fluorescine released at sea was composed by two Turner mod. 450 fluorometres. During the experiments, temperature and salinity vertical profiles were measured by using a CTD; meteorological data were acquired on a dinghy. The positioning was obtained by means of a Motorola system, having a precision of about 1 meter. The experiments were carried out under different stratification and wind conditions. From data analysis it was found that the horizontal diffusion coefficient does not depend on time or boundary conditions. The role of stratification is important with regard to vertical displacement of the dye. However, its role with regard to vertical diffusion cannot be assessed with the actual experimental apparatus

  6. Quantitative photoacoustic microscopy of optical absorption coefficients from acoustic spectra in the optical diffusive regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zijian; Favazza, Christopher; Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro; Wang, Lihong V

    2012-06-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) microscopy (PAM) can image optical absorption contrast with ultrasonic spatial resolution in the optical diffusive regime. Conventionally, accurate quantification in PAM requires knowledge of the optical fluence attenuation, acoustic pressure attenuation, and detection bandwidth. We circumvent this requirement by quantifying the optical absorption coefficients from the acoustic spectra of PA signals acquired at multiple optical wavelengths. With the acoustic spectral method, the absorption coefficients of an oxygenated bovine blood phantom at 560, 565, 570, and 575 nm were quantified with errors of <3%. We also quantified the total hemoglobin concentration and hemoglobin oxygen saturation in a live mouse. Compared with the conventional amplitude method, the acoustic spectral method provides greater quantification accuracy in the optical diffusive regime. The limitations of the acoustic spectral method was also discussed.

  7. Statistical Models for Sediment/Detritus and Dissolved Absorption Coefficients in Coastal Waters of the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Green, Rebecca E; Gould, Jr., Richard W; Ko, Dong S

    2008-01-01

    ... (CDOM) absorption coefficients from physical hydrographic and atmospheric properties. The models were developed for northern Gulf of Mexico shelf waters using multi-year satellite and physical data...

  8. The selection of stopping power and mass energy absorption coefficient data for the HPA Code of Practice for dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P.C.

    1985-01-01

    The author draws attention to a discussion by Cunningham and Schultz (1984) which states that, 'with the exception of the NACP and AAPM protocols, the selection of stopping power and energy absorption coefficient ratios has been based upon only the stated accelerating potential of the accelerator', and points out that the HPA Revised Code of Practice should be added to these exceptions. In calculating the HPA's new Csub(lambda) values, a similar, but not identical, approach was taken in order to determine the stopping power and absorption coefficient ratios at each radiation quality. It was recognised that the approximation of a spectrum to a monoenergetic spectrum of between 0.4 and 0.45 of the maximum energy, as had been done in calculating the values, given in ICRU Report 14, was incorrect. (U.K.)

  9. Calculus of the amplification and absorption coefficients of the electromagnetic waves in a cylindrical over dense plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzate P, N.

    1994-01-01

    Based on the fundamental theory of cylindrical waveguides and resonant cavities, the main characteristic parameters of the microwave plasma source reported in [1] are calculated. The absorption coefficient of an electromagnetic wave which is excited in H 11 mode in a cylindrical waveguide that contains a cold, inhomogeneous and magnetized plasma column is determined by using the perturbative method describe in [2]. In similar way, due to the presence of the plasma column, the shifts of the resonant frequency and of the inverse of the quality of a cylindrical resonant cavity where a TE 111 mode is oscilating are obtained. Finally, based on the linear theory, an analysis of the penetration of electromagnetic fields in a semi-bounded plasma and a plasma layer is done. The reflexion, transmission and absorption coefficients of H waves for the cases of an isotropic homogeneous and weak inhomogeneous plasma are calculated. (Author)

  10. Chlorophyll specific absorption coefficient and phytoplankton biomass in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Tiwari, Surya Prakash

    2015-01-01

    The role of total particulate matter, the sum of phytoplankton and nonalgal particles, is essential to understanding the distribution and pathways of particulate carbon in the ocean. Their relative contributions to light absorption and scattering are fundamental to understanding remotely sensed ocean color. Until recently, data regarding the contribution of phytoplankton and algal particles to the inherent optical properties of the Red Sea was nonexistent. Some of the first measurements of these inherent optical properties in the Red Sea including phytoplankton specific absorption coefficients (aph*(λ)) were obtained by the TARA Oceans expedition in January 2010. From these observations, chlorophyll a was calculated using the Line Height Method (LHM) that minimizes the contribution to total and particulate absorption by non-algal particles (NAP) and CDOM. Bricaud and Stramski’s (1990) a method was then used to decompose hyperspectral total particulate absorption into the contributions by phytoplankton and nonalgal particles.

  11. Determination of beta attenuation coefficients by means of timing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermis, E.E.; Celiktas, C.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Beta attenuation coefficients of absorber materials were found in this study. ► For this process, a new method (timing method) was suggested. ► The obtained beta attenuation coefficients were compatible with the results from the traditional one. ► The timing method can be used to determine beta attenuation coefficient. - Abstract: Using a counting system with plastic scintillation detector, beta linear and mass attenuation coefficients were determined for bakelite, Al, Fe and plexiglass absorbers by means of timing method. To show the accuracy and reliability of the obtained results through this method, the coefficients were also found via conventional energy method. Obtained beta attenuation coefficients from both methods were compared with each other and the literature values. Beta attenuation coefficients obtained through timing method were found to be compatible with the values obtained from conventional energy method and the literature.

  12. Changing of optical absorption and scattering coefficients in nonlinear-optical crystal lithium triborate before and after interaction with UV-radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demkin, Artem S.; Nikitin, Dmitriy G.; Ryabushkin, Oleg A.

    2016-04-01

    In current work optical properties of LiB3O5 (LBO) crystal with ultraviolet (UV) (λ= 266 nm) induced volume macroscopic defect (track) are investigated using novel piezoelectric resonance laser calorimetry technique. Pulsed laser radiation of 10 W average power at 532 nm wavelength, is consecutively focused into spatial regions with and without optical defect. For these cases exponential fitting of crystal temperature kinetics measured during its irradiation gives different optical absorption coefficients α1 = 8.1 • 10-4 cm-1 (region with defect) and α =3.9ṡ10-4 cm-1 (non-defected region). Optical scattering coefficient is determined as the difference between optical absorption coefficients measured for opaque and transparent lateral facets of the crystal respectively. Measurements reveal that scattering coefficient of LBO in the region with defect is three times higher than the optical absorption coefficient.

  13. A new method for the direct measurement of the energy absorption coefficient of gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, D.A.; Chong, C.S.; Shukri, A.; Tajuddin, A.A.; Ghose, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    The most important primary interaction cross section of gamma radiation which is of interest in radiation dosimetry and health physics is the energy absorption coefficient μ en of the medium under study. Direct measurement of μ en is, however, difficult and recourse is t aken to theoretical computations for its estimation. In this study a new, simple and direct method for the determination of μ en is reported. The method is based on paraxial sphere transmission using a proportional-response gamma detector. The bremsstrahlung originating from photoelectrons in the absorbing medium and fluorescence radiations from shielding etc. have been suppressed by using suitable filters. The effects of nonparaxiality of finite sample thickness have been accounted for, using extrapolation procedures. The deviation from nonproportionality and other corrections have been shown to be small. The measured value of μ en for paraffin has been determined as (3.3+-0.2)x10 -3 m 2 /Kg. This compares favourably with the theoretically computed value of 3.35 x 10 -3 m 2 /Kg given by Hubbell et al [pt

  14. Compositional dependence of absorption coefficient and band-gap for Nb2O5-SiO2 mixture thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sancho-Parramon, Jordi; Janicki, Vesna; Zorc, Hrvoje

    2008-01-01

    The absorption coefficient of composite films consisting of niobia (Nb 2 O 5 ) and silica (SiO 2 ) mixtures is studied for photon energies around the band gap. The films were deposited by co-evaporation and their composition was varied by changing the ratio of deposition rates of the two materials. Both, as-deposited and thermally annealed films were characterized by different techniques: the absorption coefficient was determined by spectrophotometric measurements and the structural properties were investigated using infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The correlation between the variations of absorption properties and film composition and structure is established. The absorption coefficients determined experimentally are compared with the results derived from effective medium theories in order to evaluate the suitability of these theories for the studied composites

  15. Analysis of the absorption coefficient by annealing in carbon implanted Nd: YVO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Morales, M E; Vazquez, G V; Lifante, G; Cantelar, E; Rickards, J; Trejo-Luna, R

    2011-01-01

    Low loss in optical waveguides is very important in order to achieve high laser efficiency. Waveguide fabrication by ion implantation generates color centers, leading to absorption losses which can be reduced by annealing; however, this process may eliminate the waveguide and hence it is necessary to consider both the optimum annealing time and temperature. This work reports the behavior of the absorption coefficient by successive annealing steps in Nd:YVO 4 implanted with a dose of 5xl0 14 ions/cm 2 .

  16. Large nonlinear absorption and refraction coefficients of carbon nanotubes estimated from femtosecond z-scan measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaraju, N.; Kumar, Sunil; Sood, A. K.; Guha, Shekhar; Krishnamurthy, Srinivasan; Rao, C. N. R.

    2007-12-01

    Nonlinear transmission of 80 and 140fs pulsed light with 0.79μm wavelength through single walled carbon nanotubes suspended in water containing sodium dodecyl sulfate is studied. Pulse-width independent saturation absorption and negative cubic nonlinearity are observed, respectively, in open and closed aperture z-scan experiments. The theoretical expressions derived to analyze the z-dependent transmission in the saturable limit require two photon absorption coefficient β0˜1.4cm/MW and a nonlinear index γ ˜-5.5×10-11cm2/W to fit the data.

  17. Energy absorption coefficients for 662 keV gamma ray in some fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhandal, G.S.; Singh, K.; Rama Rani; Vijay Kumar

    1993-01-01

    The mass energy absorption coefficient refers to the amount of energy dissipation by the secondary electron set in motion as a result of interactions between incident photons and matter. Under certain conditions, the energy dissipated by electrons in a given volume can be equated to the energy absorbed in that volume. The absorbed energy is of basic interest in radiation dosimetry because it represents the amount of energy made available for the production of chemical or biological effects. Sphere transmission is employed for the direct measurement of mass energy absorption coefficients at 662 keV in some fatty acids. Excellent agreement is obtained between the measured and theoretical values. (author). 6 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  18. Stopping-power and mass energy-absorption coefficient ratios for Solid Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, A.K.; Paliwal, B.R.

    1986-01-01

    The AAPM Task Group 21 protocol provides tables of ratios of average restricted stopping powers and ratios of mean energy-absorption coefficients for different materials. These values were based on the work of Cunningham and Schulz. We have calculated these quantities for Solid Water (manufactured by RMI), using the same x-ray spectra and method as that used by Cunningham and Schulz. These values should be useful to people who are using Solid Water for high-energy photon calibration

  19. Water vapor absorption coefficients in the 8-13-micron spectral region - A critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, William B.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of water vapor absorption coefficients in the thermal IR atmospheric window (8-13 microns) during the past 20 years obtained by a variety of techniques are reviewed for consistency and compared with computed values based on the AFGL spectral data tapes. The methods of data collection considered were atmospheric long path absorption with a CO2 laser or a broadband source and filters, a White cell and a CO2 laser or a broadband source and a spectrometer, and a spectrophone with a CO2 laser. Advantages and disadvantages of each measurement approach are given as a guide to further research. Continuum absorption has apparently been measured accurately to about the 5-10 percent level in five of the measurements reported.

  20. Modeling of the Interminiband Absorption Coefficient in InGaN Quantum Dot Superlattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Giannoccaro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a model to estimate minibands and theinterminiband absorption coefficient for a wurtzite (WZ indium gallium nitride (InGaN self-assembled quantum dot superlattice (QDSL is developed. It considers a simplified cuboid shape for quantum dots (QDs. The semi-analytical investigation starts from evaluation through the three-dimensional (3D finite element method (FEM simulations of crystal mechanical deformation derived from heterostructure lattice mismatch under spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization effects. From these results, mean values in QDs and barrier regions of charge carriers’ electric potentials and effective masses for the conduction band (CB and three valence sub-bands for each direction are evaluated. For the minibands’ investigation, the single-particle time-independent Schrödinger equation in effective mass approximation is decoupled in three directions and resolved using the one-dimensional (1D Kronig–Penney model. The built-in electric field is also considered along the polar axis direction, obtaining Wannier–Stark ladders. Then, theinterminiband absorption coefficient in thermal equilibrium for transverse electric (TE and magnetic (TM incident light polarization is calculated using Fermi’s golden rule implementation based on a numerical integration into the first Brillouin zone. For more detailed results, an absorption coefficient component related to superlattice free excitons is also introduced. Finally, some simulation results, observations and comments are given.

  1. Determination of the optical absorption spectra of thin layers from their photoacoustic spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychto, Leszek; Maliński, Mirosław; Patryn, Aleksy; Tivanov, Mikhail; Gremenok, Valery

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a new method for computations of the optical absorption coefficient spectra from the normalized photoacoustic amplitude spectra of thin semiconductor samples deposited on the optically transparent and thermally thick substrates. This method was tested on CuIn(Te0.7Se0.3)2 thin films. From the normalized photoacoustic amplitude spectra, the optical absorption coefficient spectra were computed with the new formula as also with the numerical iterative method. From these spectra, the value of the energy gap of the thin film material and the type of the optical transitions were determined. From the experimental optical transmission spectra, the optical absorption coefficient spectra were computed too, and compared with the optical absorption coefficient spectra obtained from photoacoustic spectra.

  2. Vertical profiles of aerosol absorption coefficient from micro-Aethalometer data and Mie calculation over Milan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, L; Mocnik, G; Ferrini, B S; Perrone, M G; Sangiorgi, G; Bolzacchini, E

    2011-06-15

    Vertical profiles of aerosol number-size distribution and black carbon (BC) concentration were measured between ground-level and 500m AGL over Milan. A tethered balloon was fitted with an instrumentation package consisting of the newly-developed micro-Aethalometer (microAeth® Model AE51, Magee Scientific, USA), an optical particle counter, and a portable meteorological station. At the same time, PM(2.5) samples were collected both at ground-level and at a high altitude sampling site, enabling particle chemical composition to be determined. Vertical profiles and PM(2.5) data were collected both within and above the mixing layer. Absorption coefficient (b(abs)) profiles were calculated from the Aethalometer data: in order to do so, an optical enhancement factor (C), accounting for multiple light-scattering within the filter of the new microAeth® Model AE51, was determined for the first time. The value of this parameter C (2.05±0.03 at λ=880nm) was calculated by comparing the Aethalometer attenuation coefficient and aerosol optical properties determined from OPC data along vertical profiles. Mie calculations were applied to the OPC number-size distribution data, and the aerosol refractive index was calculated using the effective medium approximation applied to aerosol chemical composition. The results compare well with AERONET data. The BC and b(abs) profiles showed a sharp decrease at the mixing height (MH), and fairly constant values of b(abs) and BC were found above the MH, representing 17±2% of those values measured within the mixing layer. The BC fraction of aerosol volume was found to be lower above the MH: 48±8% of the corresponding ground-level values. A statistical mean profile was calculated, both for BC and b(abs), to better describe their behaviour; the model enabled us to compute their average behaviour as a function of height, thus laying the foundations for valid parametrizations of vertical profile data which can be useful in both remote sensing

  3. Measurement of the electronic absorption coefficient for 57Co 14.4 keV gamma photons in aluminium using the Moessbauer effect as a monochromator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan, N.; Nigam, A.K.

    1984-01-01

    The total electronic absorption coefficient for 14.4 keV gamma photons in aluminium, has been measured experimentally, for the first time, using the Moessbauer effect as a monochromator. This data is important for the determination of background in Moessbauer recoilless fraction measurements especially if the energy of X-rays of the source host lattice lie near the 14.4 keV photon energy (e.g. in Rh and Pd) in which case electronic absorption coefficients should be known precisely. The coefficient obtained by interpolation from available values at other energies differ from our experimental value by as much as 20%. It is shown that this can lead to errors, in recoilless fraction values, which are far from negligible. The above absorption coefficient for aluminium was measured to be 11+-1 cm 2 /g. (orig.)

  4. Determination of absolute internal conversion coefficients using the SAGE spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorri, J., E-mail: juha.m.t.sorri@jyu.fi [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); Greenlees, P.T.; Papadakis, P.; Konki, J. [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); Cox, D.M. [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Auranen, K.; Partanen, J.; Sandzelius, M.; Pakarinen, J.; Rahkila, P.; Uusitalo, J. [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); Herzberg, R.-D. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Smallcombe, J.; Davies, P.J.; Barton, C.J.; Jenkins, D.G. [Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-11

    A non-reference based method to determine internal conversion coefficients using the SAGE spectrometer is carried out for transitions in the nuclei of {sup 154}Sm, {sup 152}Sm and {sup 166}Yb. The Normalised-Peak-to-Gamma method is in general an efficient tool to extract internal conversion coefficients. However, in many cases the required well-known reference transitions are not available. The data analysis steps required to determine absolute internal conversion coefficients with the SAGE spectrometer are presented. In addition, several background suppression methods are introduced and an example of how ancillary detectors can be used to select specific reaction products is given. The results obtained for ground-state band E2 transitions show that the absolute internal conversion coefficients can be extracted using the methods described with a reasonable accuracy. In some cases of less intense transitions only an upper limit for the internal conversion coefficient could be given.

  5. Determination of absolute internal conversion coefficients using the SAGE spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorri, J.; Greenlees, P.T.; Papadakis, P.; Konki, J.; Cox, D.M.; Auranen, K.; Partanen, J.; Sandzelius, M.; Pakarinen, J.; Rahkila, P.; Uusitalo, J.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Smallcombe, J.; Davies, P.J.; Barton, C.J.; Jenkins, D.G.

    2016-01-01

    A non-reference based method to determine internal conversion coefficients using the SAGE spectrometer is carried out for transitions in the nuclei of "1"5"4Sm, "1"5"2Sm and "1"6"6Yb. The Normalised-Peak-to-Gamma method is in general an efficient tool to extract internal conversion coefficients. However, in many cases the required well-known reference transitions are not available. The data analysis steps required to determine absolute internal conversion coefficients with the SAGE spectrometer are presented. In addition, several background suppression methods are introduced and an example of how ancillary detectors can be used to select specific reaction products is given. The results obtained for ground-state band E2 transitions show that the absolute internal conversion coefficients can be extracted using the methods described with a reasonable accuracy. In some cases of less intense transitions only an upper limit for the internal conversion coefficient could be given.

  6. Determination of rolling resistance coefficient based on normal tyre stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rykov, S. P.; Tarasuyk, V. N.; Koval, V. S.; Ovchinnikova, N. I.; Fedotov, A. I.; Fedotov, K. V.

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of the article is to develop analytical dependence of wheel rolling resistance coefficient based on the mathematical description of normal tyre stiffness. The article uses the methods of non-holonomic mechanics and plane section methods. The article shows that the abscissa of gravity center of tyre stiffness expansion by the length of the contact area is the shift of normal road response. It can be used for determining rolling resistance coefficient. When determining rolling resistance coefficient using ellipsis and power function equations, one can reduce labor costs for testing and increase assessment accuracy.

  7. Determination of ion diffusion coefficients by the electromigration method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonchev, G.D.; Milanov, M.V.; Bozhikov, G.A.; Ivanov, P.I.; Priemyshev, A.N.; Maslov, O.D.; Dmitriev, S.N.

    2003-01-01

    An electrophoretic method for measuring ion diffusion coefficients in aqueous solutions is developed. The value of the diffusion coefficient can be determined from the linear relationship between the square standard deviation of the electrophoretic zone and the time from the start of the diffusion process. Using the device for horizontal zone electrophoresis in a free electrolyte, a series of diffusion experiments are performed with no-carrier-added radionuclides in microconcentrations (10 -9 - 10 -10 M). Diffusion coefficients of 111 In(III), 175 Hf(IV) and 237 Pu(VI) ions at 25 0 C are determined in nitric acid media. Simultaneous determination of the diffusion coefficient and electrophoretic mobility allows one to calculate the effective charge of the investigated ions in accordance with the Nernst-Einstein law

  8. Determination of sedimentation rates and absorption coefficient of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2+ has a higher sedimentation rate of 5.10x10-2 s-1 while Ni2+ has the lowest sedimentation rates of 1.10 x10-3. The rate of sedimentation of the metal carbonates decreased in the order: Zn2+ > Cd2+ > Cu2+ > Co2+ > Ni2+. The order ...

  9. Empirical formulae for mass attenuation and energy absorption coefficients from 1 keV to 20 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manjunatha, H.C.; Sowmya, N.; Seenappa, L.; Sridhar, K.N.; Hanumantharayappa, C.

    2017-01-01

    Mass attenuation and energy absorption coefficients represents attenuation and absorption of X-rays and gamma rays in the material medium. A new empirical formula is proposed for mass attenuation and energy absorption coefficients in the region 1 < Z < 92 and from 1 keV to 20 MeV. The mass attenuation and energy absorption coefficients do not varies linearly with energy. We have performed the nonlinear regressions/nonlinear least square fittings and proposed the simple empirical relations between mass attenuation coefficients (μ/ρ) and mass energy absorption coefficients (μ en /ρ) and energy. We have compared the values produced by this formula with that of experiments. A good agreement of present formula with the experiments/previous models suggests that the present formulae could be used to evaluate mass attenuation and energy absorption coefficients in the region 1 < Z < 92. This formula is a model-independent formula and is the first of its kind that produces a mass attenuation and energy absorption coefficient values with the only simple input of energy for wide energy range 1 keV - 20 MeV in the atomic number region 1 < Z < 92. This formula is very much useful in the fields of radiation physics and dosimetry

  10. An Improved Method of Predicting Extinction Coefficients for the Determination of Protein Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilario, Eric C; Stern, Alan; Wang, Charlie H; Vargas, Yenny W; Morgan, Charles J; Swartz, Trevor E; Patapoff, Thomas W

    2017-01-01

    Concentration determination is an important method of protein characterization required in the development of protein therapeutics. There are many known methods for determining the concentration of a protein solution, but the easiest to implement in a manufacturing setting is absorption spectroscopy in the ultraviolet region. For typical proteins composed of the standard amino acids, absorption at wavelengths near 280 nm is due to the three amino acid chromophores tryptophan, tyrosine, and phenylalanine in addition to a contribution from disulfide bonds. According to the Beer-Lambert law, absorbance is proportional to concentration and path length, with the proportionality constant being the extinction coefficient. Typically the extinction coefficient of proteins is experimentally determined by measuring a solution absorbance then experimentally determining the concentration, a measurement with some inherent variability depending on the method used. In this study, extinction coefficients were calculated based on the measured absorbance of model compounds of the four amino acid chromophores. These calculated values for an unfolded protein were then compared with an experimental concentration determination based on enzymatic digestion of proteins. The experimentally determined extinction coefficient for the native proteins was consistently found to be 1.05 times the calculated value for the unfolded proteins for a wide range of proteins with good accuracy and precision under well-controlled experimental conditions. The value of 1.05 times the calculated value was termed the predicted extinction coefficient. Statistical analysis shows that the differences between predicted and experimentally determined coefficients are scattered randomly, indicating no systematic bias between the values among the proteins measured. The predicted extinction coefficient was found to be accurate and not subject to the inherent variability of experimental methods. We propose the use of a

  11. Determination of BEACON Coupling Coefficients using data from Xenon transient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozic, M.; Kurincic, B.

    2007-01-01

    NEK uses BEACO TM code (BEACO TM - Westinghouse Best Estimate Analyzer for Core Operating Nuclear) for core monitoring, analysis and core behaviour prediction. Coupling Coefficients determine relationship between core response and excore instrumentation. Measured power distribution using incore moveable detectors during Xenon transient with sufficient power axial offset change is the most important data for further analysis. Classic methodology and BEACO TM Conservative methodology using established Coupling Coefficients are compared on NPP Krsko case. BEACON TM Conservative methodology with predefined Coupling Coefficients is used as a surveillance tool for verification of relationship between core and excore instrumentation during power operation. (author)

  12. Pressure-induced absorption coefficients for radiative transfer calculations in Titan's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtin, Regis

    1988-01-01

    The semiempirical theory of Birnbaum and Cohen (1976) is used to calculate the FIR pressure-induced absorption (PIA) spectra of N2, CH4, N2 + Ar, N2 + CH4, and N2 + H2 under conditions like those in the Titan troposphere. The results are presented graphically and compared with published data from laboratory measurements of PIA in the same gases and mixtures (Dagg et al., 1986; Dore et al., 1986). Good agreement is obtained, with only a slight underestimation of PIA at 300-400/cm in the case of CH4. The absorption coefficients are presented in tables, and it is suggested that the present findings are of value for evaluating the effects of tropospheric clouds on the Titan FIR spectrum and studying the greenhouse effect near the Titan surface.

  13. Determination of electromagnetic absorption parameters by reflection measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vittitoe, C.N.

    1975-09-01

    The method described is for determining the electromagnetic absorption parameters of a material by measuring the optical reflection from a thick sample. With linearly polarized incident light (both perpendicular to and parallel to the plane of incidence), the ratio of the reflected intensities at three or more angles of incidence offers promise for determining the complex index of refraction of a material for a broad range of parameter values. The method may be applicable to molten materials, such as UO 2 , where high temperatures cause corrosion and containment difficulties. A method is given for extending the data to neighboring frequencies. Use of the method was successful for all portions of the complex index of refraction plane except for small values of the extinction coefficient

  14. Opto-acoustic measurement of the local light absorption coefficient in turbid media: 2. On the possibility of light absorption coefficient measurement in a turbid medium from the amplitude of the opto-acoustic signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelivanov, Ivan M; Barskaya, M I; Podymova, N B; Khokhlova, Tanya D; Karabutov, Aleksander A

    2009-01-01

    The second part of this work describes the experimental technique of measuring the local light absorption in turbid media. The technique is based on the measurement of the amplitude of an opto-acoustic (OA) signal excited in a turbid medium under the condition of one-sided access to the object under study. An OA transducer is developed to perform the proposed measurement procedure. Experiments are conducted for the turbid media with different optical properties (light absorption and reduced scattering coefficients) and for different diameters of the incident laser beam. It is found that the laser beam diameter can be chosen so that the dependences of the measured OA signal amplitude on the light absorption coefficient coincide upon varying the reduced scattering coefficient by more than twice. The obtained numerical and experimental results demonstrate that the OA method is applicable for measuring the local light absorption coefficient in turbid media, for example, in biological tissues. (measurement of parametrs of laser radiation)

  15. Measurement of mass attenuation coefficients around the K absorption edge by parametric X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Masaya; Akimoto, Tadashi; Aoki, Yohei; Ikeda, Jiro; Sato, Koichi; Fujita, Fumiyuki; Homma, Akira; Sawamura, Teruko; Narita, Masakuni

    2002-01-01

    When electrons at relativistic velocities pass through a crystal plate, such as silicon, photons are emitted around the Bragg angle for X-ray diffraction. This phenomenon is called parametric X-ray radiation (PXR). The monochromaticity and directivity of PXR are adequate and the energy can be changed continuously by rotating the crystal. This study measured the mass attenuation coefficient around the K-shell absorption edge of Nb, Zr and Mo as a PXR application of monochromatic hard X-ray radiation sources

  16. Measurement of mass attenuation coefficients around the K absorption edge by parametric X-rays

    CERN Document Server

    Tamura, M; Aoki, Y; Ikeda, J; Sato, K; Fujita, F; Homma, A; Sawamura, T; Narita, M

    2002-01-01

    When electrons at relativistic velocities pass through a crystal plate, such as silicon, photons are emitted around the Bragg angle for X-ray diffraction. This phenomenon is called parametric X-ray radiation (PXR). The monochromaticity and directivity of PXR are adequate and the energy can be changed continuously by rotating the crystal. This study measured the mass attenuation coefficient around the K-shell absorption edge of Nb, Zr and Mo as a PXR application of monochromatic hard X-ray radiation sources.

  17. Determination of photon detector coefficient in neutron flux study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jedol Dayou; Azali Muhammad; Abd Aziz Mohamed; Abdul Razak Daud; Elias Saniman

    1995-01-01

    The efficiency of photon detector which is normally used in neutron flux measurement has been studied. The data obtain have been plotted using mathematical models in the form of reciprocal, exponential and semilog equation and subsequently efficiency coefficient of the detector has been determined. Beside that, energy quadratic equation model has also been used. It has been found that equation model selection is very important in the detector efficiency coefficient determination. In the case of energy quadratic equation, it has been found that the selection of energy set influenced the result. It can be concluded that energy quadratic equation is the best model in the neutron flux determination

  18. Water analysis. Determination of elements by atomic absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    Analysis of homogeneous water solutions (plain water, polluted waters, effluents...) by atomic absorption spectrometry with correction for non specific absorption. The quantity ratio is determined by comparison with standard solutions, correction tables are given [fr

  19. Simultaneous measurement of thermal diffusivity and effective infrared absorption coefficient in IR semitransparent and semiconducting n-CdMgSe crystals using photothermal radiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawlak, M., E-mail: mpawlak@fizyka.umk.pl [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Grudziądzka 5/7, Toruń (Poland); Maliński, M. [Department of Electronics and Computer Science, Koszalin University of Technology, 2 Śniadeckich St., Koszalin 75-453 (Poland)

    2015-01-10

    Highlights: • The new method of determination of the effective infrared absorption coefficient is presented. • The method can be used for transparent samples for the excitation radiation. • The effect of aluminum foil on the PTR signal in a transmission configuration is discussed. - Abstract: In this paper we propose a new procedure of simultaneous estimation of the effective infrared optical absorption coefficient and the thermal diffusivity of solid state samples using the photothermal infrared radiometry method in the transmission configuration. The proposed procedure relies on the analysis of the frequency dependent signal obtained from the samples covered with thin aluminum foil. This method can be applied for both optically opaque and transparent samples. The proposed method is illustrated with the results of the thermal diffusivity and the effective IR absorption coefficient obtained for several Cd{sub 1−x}Mg{sub x}Se crystals.

  20. ABSORPTION, SCATTERING, ATTENUATION COEFFICIENTS and Other Data from NOAA-11 SATELLITE from 19930101 to 19931231 (NCEI Accession 9300064)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Sea surface topography, absorption, scattering, attenuation coefficients and other data in this accession was collected from NOAA-11 Advanced Very High...

  1. Carbonation Coefficients from Concrete Made with High-Absorption Limestone Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric I. Moreno

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal aggregates employed in concrete have absorption levels in the range of 0.2% to 4% for coarse aggregate and 0.2 to 2% for fine aggregate. However, some aggregates have absorption levels above these values. As the porosity of concrete is related to the porosity of both the cement paste and the aggregate and the carbonation rate is a function, among other things, of the porosity of the material, there is concern about the effect of this high porosity material in achieving good quality concrete from the durability point of view. Thus, the objective of this investigation was to study the carbonation rates of concrete specimens made with high-absorption limestone aggregate. Four different water/cement ratios were used, and cylindrical concrete specimens were exposed to accelerated carbonation. High porosity values were obtained for concrete specimens beyond the expected limits for durable concrete. However, carbonation coefficients related to normal quality concrete were obtained for the lowest water/cement ratio employed suggesting that durable concrete may be obtained with this material despite the high porosity.

  2. Determination of Dimensionless Attenuation Coefficient in Shaped Resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, C.; Steinetz, B.; Finkbeiner, J.; Raman, G.; Li, X.

    2003-01-01

    The value of dimensionless attenuation coefficient is an important factor when numerically predicting high-amplitude acoustic waves in shaped resonators. Both the magnitude of the pressure waveform and the quality factor rely heavily on this dimensionless parameter. Previous authors have stated the values used, but have not completely explained their methods. This work fully describes the methodology used to determine this important parameter. Over a range of frequencies encompassing the fundamental resonance, the pressure waves were experimentally measured at each end of the shaped resonators. At the corresponding dimensionless acceleration, the numerical code modeled the acoustic waveforms generated in the resonator using various dimensionless attenuation coefficients. The dimensionless attenuation coefficient that most closely matched the pressure amplitudes and quality factors of the experimental and numerical results was determined to be the value to be used in subsequent studies.

  3. Technique for Determining Lock Coefficient of Differential "Quif"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Fominyh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the traction qualities of cars on the black ice and snow-covered roads is a relevant task. There are two ways to solve this task, i.e. optimize distribution of the power stream between the driving wheels of the car; introduce a differential (differentials of the increased friction in transmission.Now, an installation of the increased friction differential in transmission is the most widespread measure to increase traction properties of cars. The differential of design "Quif" is one of such differentials. To estimate the efficiency degree of using such a differential is possible either experimentally or theoretically. In case of theoretically determined usefulness of this differential design, as an estimate indicator of the differential installation in transmission a coefficient of lock is accepted.The article considers an algorithm and a technique to calculate a lock coefficient of the differential design "Quif" allowing us to define numeric values of the lock coefficient of such differential at designing stage. It also considers how the lock coefficient depends on the gearing angle and tilt angle of the gear wheel teeth of differential. The given estimating algorithm of designated parameter of differential has more logical and compact structure with regard to the known ones. The lock coefficient values calculated by the offered technique differ from the experimental data by no more than 12%. Taking into account abovementioned, the presented technique for calculating lock coefficient of differential "Quif" is advisable for practical application.

  4. Parameterization of the chlorophyll a-specific in vivo light absorption coefficient covering estuarine, coastal and oceanic waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stæhr, P. A.; Markager, S.

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated models predicting the spectral chlorophyll-a (Chl a)-specific absorption coefficient (a*ph (¿)) from Chl a concentration [Chl a] on the basis of 465 phytoplankton absorption spectra collected in estuarine, coastal and oceanic waters. A power model on ln-transformed data provided...

  5. Absorption and scattering coefficient dependence of laser-Doppler flowmetry models for large tissue volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binzoni, T; Leung, T S; Ruefenacht, D; Delpy, D T

    2006-01-01

    Based on quasi-elastic scattering theory (and random walk on a lattice approach), a model of laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF) has been derived which can be applied to measurements in large tissue volumes (e.g. when the interoptode distance is >30 mm). The model holds for a semi-infinite medium and takes into account the transport-corrected scattering coefficient and the absorption coefficient of the tissue, and the scattering coefficient of the red blood cells. The model holds for anisotropic scattering and for multiple scattering of the photons by the moving scatterers of finite size. In particular, it has also been possible to take into account the simultaneous presence of both Brownian and pure translational movements. An analytical and simplified version of the model has also been derived and its validity investigated, for the case of measurements in human skeletal muscle tissue. It is shown that at large optode spacing it is possible to use the simplified model, taking into account only a 'mean' light pathlength, to predict the blood flow related parameters. It is also demonstrated that the 'classical' blood volume parameter, derived from LDF instruments, may not represent the actual blood volume variations when the investigated tissue volume is large. The simplified model does not need knowledge of the tissue optical parameters and thus should allow the development of very simple and cost-effective LDF hardware

  6. Determination of the Drag Resistance Coefficients of Different Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahsl, Christoph; Vogt, Patrik

    2018-01-01

    While it has been demonstrated how air resistance could be analyzed by using mobile devices, this paper demonstrates a method of how to determine the drag resistance coefficient "c" of a commercial automobile by using the acceleration sensor of a smartphone or tablet. In an academic context, the drag resistance is often mentioned, but…

  7. Determination of the Static Friction Coefficient from Circular Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Bolívar, J. A.; Cabrerizo-Vílchez, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a physics laboratory exercise for determining the coefficient of static friction between two surfaces. The circular motion of a coin placed on the surface of a rotating turntable has been studied. For this purpose, the motion is recorded with a high-speed digital video camera recording at 240 frames s[superscript-1], and the…

  8. Determination of the chloride diffusion coefficient in blended cement mortars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elfmarkova, V.; Spiesz, P.R.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2015-01-01

    The rapid chloride migration test (RCM) is a commonly used accelerated test for the determination of the chloride diffusion coefficient in concrete. Nevertheless, the initial development and further experience with the RCM test concern mainly the ordinary Portland cement system. Therefore, the

  9. Methodology update for determination of the erosion coefficient(Z

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošić Radislav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The research and mapping the intensity of mechanical water erosion that have begun with the empirical methodology of S. Gavrilović during the mid-twentieth century last, by various intensity, until the present time. A many decades work on the research of these issues pointed to some shortcomings of the existing methodology, and thus the need for its innovation. In this sense, R. Lazarević made certain adjustments of the empirical methodology of S. Gavrilović by changing the tables for determination of the coefficients Φ, X and Y, that is, the tables for determining the mean erosion coefficient (Z. The main objective of this paper is to update the existing methodology for determining the erosion coefficient (Z with the empirical methodology of S. Gavrilović and amendments made by R. Lazarević (1985, but also with better adjustments to the information technologies and the needs of modern society. The proposed procedure, that is, the model to determine the erosion coefficient (Z in this paper is the result of ten years of scientific research and project work in mapping the intensity of mechanical water erosion and its modeling using various models of erosion in the Republic of Srpska and Serbia. By analyzing the correlation of results obtained by regression models and results obtained during the mapping of erosion on the territory of the Republic of Srpska, a high degree of correlation (R² = 0.9963 was established, which is essentially a good assessment of the proposed models.

  10. On the uncertainties of photon mass energy-absorption coefficients and their ratios for radiation dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreo, Pedro; Burns, David T.; Salvat, Francesc

    2012-04-01

    A systematic analysis of the available data has been carried out for mass energy-absorption coefficients and their ratios for air, graphite and water for photon energies between 1 keV and 2 MeV, using representative kilovoltage x-ray spectra for mammography and diagnostic radiology below 100 kV, and for 192Ir and 60Co gamma-ray spectra. The aim of this work was to establish ‘an envelope of uncertainty’ based on the spread of the available data. Type A uncertainties were determined from the results of Monte Carlo (MC) calculations with the PENELOPE and EGSnrc systems, yielding mean values for µen/ρ with a given statistical standard uncertainty. Type B estimates were based on two groupings. The first grouping consisted of MC calculations based on a similar implementation but using different data and/or approximations. The second grouping was formed by various datasets, obtained by different authors or methods using the same or different basic data, and with different implementations (analytical, MC-based, or a combination of the two); these datasets were the compilations of NIST, Hubbell, Johns-Cunningham, Attix and Higgins, plus MC calculations with PENELOPE and EGSnrc. The combined standard uncertainty, uc, for the µen/ρ values for the mammography x-ray spectra is 2.5%, decreasing gradually to 1.6% for kilovoltage x-ray spectra up to 100 kV. For 60Co and 192Ir, uc is approximately 0.1%. The Type B uncertainty analysis for the ratios of µen/ρ values includes four methods of analysis and concludes that for the present data the assumption that the data interval represents 95% confidence limits is a good compromise. For the mammography x-ray spectra, the combined standard uncertainties of (µen/ρ)graphite,air and (µen/ρ)graphite,water are 1.5%, and 0.5% for (µen/ρ)water,air, decreasing gradually down to uc = 0.1% for the three µen/ρ ratios for the gamma-ray spectra. The present estimates are shown to coincide well with those of Hubbell (1977 Rad. Res

  11. Atomic absorption spectrometric determination of mineral elements in mammalian bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udoh, Anthony P.

    2000-01-01

    The phosphorus content of the major bones of male and female selected mammals was determined using the yellow vanadomolybdate colorimetric method. For each animal, the bone with the highest phosphorus content was used as pilot sample. Varying concentrations of strontium were added to solutions of the ashed pilot samples to minimize phosphorus interference in the determination of calcium and magnesium using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry operated on the air-acetylene mode. At least 6,000 ppm (0.6%) of strontium was required to give optimum results for calcium. The amount of magnesium obtained from the analysis was not affected by the addition of strontium. With the incorporation of strontium in the sample solution, all elements of interest can be determined in the same sample solution. Based on this, a procedure is proposed for the determination of calcium and other elements in bones. Average recoveries of spiked calcium and magnesium were 97.85% and 98.16%, respectively at the 95% confidence level. The coefficients of variation obtained for replicate determinations using one of the samples were 0.00% for calcium, lead and sodium, 2.93% for magnesium, 3.27% for iron and 3.92% for zinc at the concentration levels found in that sample. Results from the proposed procedure compared well with those from classical chemical methods at the 95% confidence level. It is evident that calcium phosphorus, magnesium and sodium which are the most abundant elements in the bones are distributed in varying amounts both in the different types of bones and different animal species, although the general trend is Ca > P > Na > Mg for each bone considered. The calcium - phosphorus ratio is generally 3:1. The work set out to propose an atomic absorption spectrometric method for the multi-element analysis of mammalian bones with a single sample preparation and to study the distribution pattern of these elements in the bones. (Author)

  12. Determination of the Rb atomic number density in dense rubidium vapors by absorption measurements of Rb2 triplet bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvatic, Vlasta; Veza, Damir; Niemax, Kay; Vadla, Cedomil

    2008-01-01

    A simple and accurate way of determining atom number densities in dense rubidium vapors is presented. The method relies on the experimental finding that the reduced absorption coefficients of the Rb triplet satellite bands between 740 nm and 750 nm and the triplet diffuse band between 600 nm and 610 nm are not temperature dependent in the range between 600 K and 800 K. Therefore, the absolute values of the reduced absorption coefficients of these molecular bands can provide accurate information about atomic number density of the vapor. The rubidium absorption spectrum was measured by spatially resolved white-light absorption in overheated rubidium vapor generated in a heat pipe oven. The absolute values for the reduced absorption coefficients of the triplet bands were determined at lower vapor densities, by using an accurate expression for the reduced absorption coefficient in the quasistatic wing of the Rb D1 line, and measured triplet satellite bands to the resonance wing optical depth ratio. These triplet satellite band data were used to calibrate in absolute scale the reduced absorption coefficients of the triplet diffuse band at higher temperatures. The obtained values for the reduced absorption coefficient of these Rb molecular features can be used for accurate determination of rubidium atomic number densities in the range from about 5 x 10 16 cm -3 to 1 x 10 18 cm -3

  13. Determination of the diffusion coefficient of hydrogen ion in hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuszter, Gábor; Gehér-Herczegh, Tünde; Szűcs, Árpád; Tóth, Ágota; Horváth, Dezső

    2017-05-17

    The role of diffusion in chemical pattern formation has been widely studied due to the great diversity of patterns emerging in reaction-diffusion systems, particularly in H + -autocatalytic reactions where hydrogels are applied to avoid convection. A custom-made conductometric cell is designed to measure the effective diffusion coefficient of a pair of strong electrolytes containing sodium ions or hydrogen ions with a common anion. This together with the individual diffusion coefficient for sodium ions, obtained from PFGSE-NMR spectroscopy, allows the determination of the diffusion coefficient of hydrogen ions in hydrogels. Numerical calculations are also performed to study the behavior of a diffusion-migration model describing ionic diffusion in our system. The method we present for one particular case may be extended for various hydrogels and diffusing ions (such as hydroxide) which are relevant e.g. for the development of pH-regulated self-healing mechanisms and hydrogels used for drug delivery.

  14. Determining photon energy absorption parameters for different soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucuk, Nil; Cakir, Merve; Tumsavas, Zeynal

    2013-01-01

    The mass attenuation coefficients (μ s ) for five different soil samples were measured at 661.6, 1173.2 and 1332.5 keV photon energies. The soil samples were separately irradiated with 137 Cs and 60 Co (370 kBq) radioactive point gamma sources. The measurements were made by performing transmission experiments with a 2″ x 2″ NaI(Tl) scintillation detector, which had an energy resolution of 7% at 0.662 MeV for the gamma-rays from the decay of 137 Cs. The effective atomic numbers (Z eff ) and the effective electron densities (N eff ) were determined experimentally and theoretically using the obtained μ s values for the soil samples. Furthermore, the Z eff and N eff values of the soil samples were computed for the total photon interaction cross-sections using theoretical data over a wide energy region ranging from 1 keV to 15 MeV. The experimental values of the soils were found to be in good agreement with the theoretical values. Sandy loam and sandy clay loam soils demonstrated poor photon energy absorption characteristics. However, clay loam and clay soils had good photon energy absorption characteristics. (author)

  15. THE DETERMINATION OF DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT OF INVERT MATERIALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P. Heller and J. Wright

    2000-01-01

    The Engineered Barrier System (EBS) Testing Department is performing tests in the Department of Energy's Atlas Facility to evaluate the performance of various means for increasing the time for breakthrough of radionuclides from the waste package to the base of the invert. This includes testing various barriers in the invert as a means of increasing breakthrough time through the process of diffusion. A diffusion barrier may serve as an invert material for the emplacement drifts. The invert material may consist of crushed tuff from the repository excavation at Yucca Mountain or silica sand. The objective of this report is to determine the diffusion coefficient of the crushed tuff and silica sand invert materials specified by the EBS Testing Department. The laboratory derived information from the testing was used in the Nernst-Einstein equation (Jurinak et al. 1987, p. 626) to determine the diffusion coefficient of the invert material. This report transmits the results and describes the methodology and interpretation. The scope of this report is to determine the diffusion coefficients of the invert materials mentioned above using the centrifuge at UFA Ventures. Standard laboratory procedures, described in Section 2 of this report, were used. The diffusion coefficients are to be determined over a range of moisture contents. The report contains the diffusion coefficients calculated by the Nernst-Einstein equation (Jurinak et al. 1987, p. 626) that become a part of the Technical Database. Raw data is also included in the report, however this data does not become part of the Technical Database as per Section 3.23 of AP-SIII.3Q ''Submittal and Incorporation of Data to the Technical Data Management System''. A sieve analysis of the samples was not conducted as part of this report, but sieve analysis may be accomplished as part of other reports. Two samples of crushed tuff and two samples of silica sand were tested

  16. Coefficient of Performance Optimization of Single-Effect Lithium-Bromide Absorption Cycle Heat Pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Kasper; Just Nielsen, Rene; Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the coefficient of performance (COP) of a LiBr absorption cycle heat pump under different operating conditions. The investigation is carried out using a dynamical model fitted against data recorded from an actual heat pump used for district heating in S......⊘nderborg, Denmark. Since the model is too complex to study analytically, we vary different input variables within the permissible operating range of the heat pump and evaluate COP at the resulting steady-state operating points. It is found that the best set-point for each individual input is located at an extreme......-state operation of the heat pump, while avoiding crystallization issues....

  17. Determination of the diffusion coefficient and solubility of radon in plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressyanov, D; Georgiev, S; Dimitrova, I; Mitev, K; Boshkova, T

    2011-05-01

    This paper describes a method for determination of the diffusion coefficient and the solubility of radon in plastics. The method is based on the absorption and desorption of radon in plastics. Firstly, plastic specimens are exposed for controlled time to referent (222)Rn concentrations. After exposure, the activity of the specimens is followed by HPGe gamma spectrometry. Using the mathematical algorithm described in this report and the decrease of activity as a function of time, the diffusion coefficient can be determined. In addition, if the referent (222)Rn concentration during the exposure is known, the solubility of radon can be determined. The algorithm has been experimentally applied for different plastics. The results show that this approach allows the specified quantities to be determined with a rather high accuracy-depending on the quality of the counting equipment, it can be better than 10 %.

  18. The fundamental parameter approach of quantitative XRFA- investigation of photoelectric absorption coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaltout, A.

    2003-06-01

    The present work describes some actual problems of quantitative x-ray fluorescence analysis by means of the fundamental parameter approach. To perform this task, some of the main parameters are discussed in detail. These parameters are photoelectric cross sections, coherent and incoherent scattering cross sections, mass absorption cross sections and the variation of the x-ray tube voltage. Photoelectric cross sections, coherent and incoherent scattering cross sections and mass absorption cross sections in the energy range from 1 to 300 keV for the elements from Z=1 to 94 considering ten different data bases are studied. These are data bases given by Hubbell, McMaster, Mucall, Scofield, Xcom, Elam, Sasaki, Henke, Cullen and Chantler's data bases. These data bases have been developed also for an application in fundamental parameter programs for quantitative x-ray analysis (Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (EDXRFA), Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA), X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Total Electron Yield (TEY)). In addition a comparison is performed between different data bases. In McMaster's data base, the missing elements (Z=84, 85, 87, 88, 89, 91, and 93) are added by using photoelectric cross sections of Scofield's data base, coherent as well as incoherent scattering cross sections of Elam's data base and the absorption edges of Bearden. Also, the N-fit coefficients of the elements from Z=61 to 69 are wrong in McMaster data base, therefore, linear least squares fits are used to recalculate the N-fit coefficients of these elements. Additionally, in the McMaster tables the positions of the M- and N-edges of all elements with the exception of the M1- and N1- edges are not defined as well as the jump ratio of the edges. In the present work, the M- and N-edges and the related jump ratios are calculated. To include the missing N-edges, Bearden's values of energy edges are used. In Scofield's data base, modifications include check and correction

  19. Nuclear equipment to determine soil and water mass attenuation coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchi, O.L.A.D.; Nascimento Filho, V.F. do

    1984-01-01

    The feasibility of substituting the monochannel gamma spectrometer, traditionally used in the gamma ray attenuation technique, for a less sophisticated and less expensive system of integral counting is studied. The proposed system can be operated by a non-specialized person. Three detection systems were used in the determination of the mass attenuation coefficients for different types of soil and for water. (M.A.C.) [pt

  20. Antimony orthophosphate glasses with large nonlinear refractive indices, low two-photon absorption coefficients, and ultrafast response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falcao-Filho, E.L.; Araujo, Cid B. de; Bosco, C.A.C.; Maciel, G.S.; Acioli, L.H.; Nalin, M.; Messaddeq, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Antimony glasses based on the composition Sb 2 O 3 -SbPO 4 were prepared and characterized. The samples present high refractive index, good transmission from 380 to 2000 nm, and high thermal stability. The nonlinear refractive index, n 2 , of the samples was studied using the optical Kerr shutter technique at 800 nm. The third-order correlation signals between pump and probe pulses indicate ultrafast response ( 2 was observed by adding lead oxide to the Sb 2 O 3 -SbPO 4 composition. Large values of n 2 ≅10 -14 cm 2 /W and negligible two-photon absorption coefficients (smaller than 0.01 cm/GW) were determined for all samples. The glass compositions studied present appropriate figure-of-merit for all-optical switching applications

  1. Standardization and determination of the total internal conversion coefficient of In-111.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Izabela T; Koskinas, Marina F; Nascimento, Tatiane S; Yamazaki, Ione M; Dias, Mauro S

    2014-05-01

    The standardization of (111)In by means of a 4πβ-γ coincidence system, composed of a proportional counter in 4π geometry, coupled to a 20% relative efficiency HPGe crystal, for measuring gamma-rays is presented. The data acquisition was performed by means of the software coincidence system (SCS) and the activity was determined by the extrapolation technique. Two gamma-ray windows were selected: at 171 keV and 245 keV total absorption peaks, allowing the determination of the total internal conversion coefficient for these two gamma transitions. The results were compared with those available in the literature. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Quantitative determination of elastic and inelastic attenuation coefficients by off-axis electron holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kern, F.; Wolf, D.; Pschera, P.; Lubk, A.

    2016-01-01

    Off-axis electron holography is a well-established transmission electron microscopy technique, typically employed to investigate electric and magnetic fields in and around nanoscale materials, which modify the phase of the reconstructed electron wave function. Here, we elaborate on a detailed analysis of the two characteristic intensity terms that are completing the electron hologram, the conventional image intensity and the interference fringe intensity. We show how both are related to elastic and inelastic scattering absorption at the sample and how they may be separated to analyze the chemical composition of the sample. Since scattering absorption is aperture dependent, a quantitative determination of the corresponding attenuation coefficients (reciprocal mean free path lengths) requires the use of holographic image modi with well-defined objective aperture stops in the back-focal plane of the objective lens. The proposed method extends quantitative electron holography to a correlated three-in-one characterization of electric and magnetic fields, Z-contrast and dielectric losses in materials. - Highlights: • Quantitative determination of attenuation coefficients by electron holography. • Separation of elastic and inelastic attenuation coefficients (mean free path length). • Quantitative determination of the objective aperture semi-angle influence. • Compilation of elastic and inelastic attenuation from different materials.

  3. Quantitative determination of elastic and inelastic attenuation coefficients by off-axis electron holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, F.; Wolf, D.; Pschera, P.; Lubk, A.

    2016-12-15

    Off-axis electron holography is a well-established transmission electron microscopy technique, typically employed to investigate electric and magnetic fields in and around nanoscale materials, which modify the phase of the reconstructed electron wave function. Here, we elaborate on a detailed analysis of the two characteristic intensity terms that are completing the electron hologram, the conventional image intensity and the interference fringe intensity. We show how both are related to elastic and inelastic scattering absorption at the sample and how they may be separated to analyze the chemical composition of the sample. Since scattering absorption is aperture dependent, a quantitative determination of the corresponding attenuation coefficients (reciprocal mean free path lengths) requires the use of holographic image modi with well-defined objective aperture stops in the back-focal plane of the objective lens. The proposed method extends quantitative electron holography to a correlated three-in-one characterization of electric and magnetic fields, Z-contrast and dielectric losses in materials. - Highlights: • Quantitative determination of attenuation coefficients by electron holography. • Separation of elastic and inelastic attenuation coefficients (mean free path length). • Quantitative determination of the objective aperture semi-angle influence. • Compilation of elastic and inelastic attenuation from different materials.

  4. Study of the determination method of the river dispersion coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, M.A.G. de.

    1982-01-01

    An application of the method introduced by 'Fischer, H.B. - 1968 - Dispersion prediction in natural streams Journal of the Sanitary Engineering Division, ACSE, vol. 94 n 5A5. Proc. Paper 6169 pp 927-943.', for the calculation of the dispersion coefficient, based on Taylor's model is made. The aim is to develop a method which avoids the necessity of having an instantaneous impulse at the entrance section (1st section) of the system being measured. The dispersion coefficient is determined by curve fitting the experimental response in the 2nd secton and that obtained with the model by means of the non-linear least-squares method. The same method is applied with the residence time distribution function. The theoretical differences between these two function and their results are discussed. By adjusting the two model parameters in all these calculations, the dispersion coefficient and the mean velocity are determined, simultaneously. A comparison between the moment's method and Fischer's formulation is also done using the same experimental data. (E.G.) [pt

  5. Lithium bromide high-temperature absorption heat pump: coefficient of performance and exergetic efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izquierdo, M [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid (ES). Inst. de Optica; Aroca, S [Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Valladolid (ES). Catedratico de Ingenieria Termica

    1990-04-01

    A theoretical study of a lithium bromide absorption heat pump, used as a machine type I and aimed to produce heat at 120{sup 0}C via waste heat sources at 60{sup 0}C, is given. Real performance conditions are stated for each component of the machine. By means of thermodynamic diagrams (p, t, x) and (h, x), the required data are obtained for calculation of the heat recovered in the evaporator Q{sub e}, the heat delivered to the absorber Q{sub a} and to the condenser Q{sub c}, and the heat supplied to the generator Q{sub g}. The heat delivered by the hot solution to the cold solution in the heat recovered Q{sub r}, and the work W{sub p} done by the solution pump are calculated. The probable COP is calculated as close to 1.4 and the working temperature in the generator ranges from 178 to 200{sup 0}C. The heat produced by the heat pump is 22% cheaper than that obtained from a cogeneration system comprising a natural gas internal combustion engine and high temperature heat pump with mechanical compression. Compared with a high temperature heat pump with mechanical compression, the heat produced by the absorption heat pump is 31% cheaper. From (h, x) and (s, x) diagrams, exergy losses for each component can be determined leading to an exergetic efficiency of 75% which provides the quality index of the absorption cycle. (author).

  6. Determination of quenching coefficients by time resolved emission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gans, T.; Schulz-von der Gathen, V.; Doebele, H.F. [Essen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Inst. fuer Laser- und Plasmaphysik

    2001-07-01

    Capacitively coupled RF discharges (CCRF discharges) at 13.56 MHz in hydrogen exhibit a field reversal phase of about 10 ns during which an intense electron current provides collisional excitation, within the sheath region. After this strongly dominant short pulsed electron impact excitation, it is possible to determine quenching coefficients from the lifetime of the fluorescence at various pressures by time resolved OES even for high energy levels and without any restrictions of optical selection rules. This novel technique allows the measurement of quenching coefficients for atomic and molecular emission lines of hydrogen itself, as well as for emission lines of small admixtures (e.g. noble gases) to the hydrogen discharge, since with a fast gate-able ICCD camera operating at 13.56 MHz it is possible to measure even faint emission lines temporally resolved.

  7. Determination of quenching coefficients by time resolved emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gans, T.; Schulz-von der Gathen, V.; Doebele, H.F.

    2001-01-01

    Capacitively coupled RF discharges (CCRF discharges) at 13.56 MHz in hydrogen exhibit a field reversal phase of about 10 ns during which an intense electron current provides collisional excitation, within the sheath region. After this strongly dominant short pulsed electron impact excitation, it is possible to determine quenching coefficients from the lifetime of the fluorescence at various pressures by time resolved OES even for high energy levels and without any restrictions of optical selection rules. This novel technique allows the measurement of quenching coefficients for atomic and molecular emission lines of hydrogen itself, as well as for emission lines of small admixtures (e.g. noble gases) to the hydrogen discharge, since with a fast gate-able ICCD camera operating at 13.56 MHz it is possible to measure even faint emission lines temporally resolved

  8. Mass energy-absorption coefficients and average atomic energy-absorption cross-sections for amino acids in the energy range 0.122-1.330 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    More, Chaitali V., E-mail: chaitalimore89@gmail.com; Lokhande, Rajkumar M.; Pawar, Pravina P., E-mail: pravinapawar4@gmail.com [Department of physics, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad 431004 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Mass attenuation coefficients of amino acids such as n-acetyl-l-tryptophan, n-acetyl-l-tyrosine and d-tryptophan were measured in the energy range 0.122-1.330 MeV. NaI (Tl) scintillation detection system was used to detect gamma rays with a resolution of 8.2% at 0.662 MeV. The measured attenuation coefficient values were then used to determine the mass energy-absorption coefficients (σ{sub a,en}) and average atomic energy-absorption cross sections (μ{sub en}/ρ) of the amino acids. Theoretical values were calculated based on XCOM data. Theoretical and experimental values are found to be in good agreement.

  9. New naphthalene polyimide with unusual molar absorption coefficient and excited state properties: Synthesis, photophysics and electrochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozser, Mustafa E. [Girne American University, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Department of Industrial Engineering, Girne, North Cyprus (Cyprus); Yucekan, Ilke; Bodapati, Jagadeesh B. [Eastern Mediterranean University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Famagusta, North Cyprus (Cyprus); Icil, Huriye, E-mail: huriye.icil@emu.edu.tr [Eastern Mediterranean University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Famagusta, North Cyprus (Cyprus)

    2013-11-15

    A high molecular weight 1,4,5,8-naphthalene polyimide (ENPI) by one-step polycondensation mechanism and for comparison its monomeric diimide (ENDI) were synthesized; the photophysical and electrochemical properties were studied in detail for ENPI. Monomer has shown unusual insolubility so that the characterization proven to be difficult, whereas ENPI has shown better solubility. The molecular weight data obtained by GPC for the polymer were M{sub n}=8240 and M{sub w}=34,000 g mol{sup −1} respectively with a polydispersity of 4.13. The polyimide exhibited outstandingly high molar absorption coefficients as 599,000, 1,021,000, and 972,700 M{sup −1} cm{sup −1}, which is first time reported in literature for the characteristic 0–2, 0–1, and 0–0 electronic transitions, respectively. ENPI showed concentration dependent and red shifted excimer emission in 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane (TCE). The polymer has undergone multielectron reductions in CHCl{sub 3} solution below 100 mV s{sup −1} scan rates which merged into two reversible one-electron reduction peaks at higher scan rates. In solid-state, similar scan rate dependent reduction peaks were noticed. The LUMO, HOMO and optical band gap values obtained for ENPI were −3.73, −6.91, and 3.18 eV respectively. ENDI polymer with striking features has great potential as new sensitizer for efficient dye sensitized organic cells. Highlights: • A high molecular weight naphthalene polyimide was synthesized (M{sub w}=34,000 g mol{sup −1}). • The oligoether polyimide exhibited outstanding molar absorptivity (972,700 M{sup −1} cm{sup −1}). • A red shifted excimer emission has been observed. • The polymer has undergone multielectron reductions.

  10. The influence of surface modification on sound absorption coefficient of albizzia wood absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diharjo, Kuncoro; Prabowo, Anditya E.; Jamasri, Suharty, Neng Sri

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the influence of surface modification to sound absorption on absorber based albizia wood and kenaf fiber. The absorber was produced using the albizia wood as main materials, and the kenaf fiber was used as acoustic fill. The albizia wood used for producing the absorber was cut in the transverse direction so that its surface had good porosity. The size of specimens had 100 mm in diameter and 40 mm in thickness. The configuration of resonator cavities was 30 mm in diameter and 20 mm in depth, and each resonator was completed with a neck hole of the resonator. The types of surface modification were the addition of screen printing ink, fabric (with and without neck hole), and vinyl-wallpaper (with and without neck hole). According to ISO 10534-2, the absorber specimens were tested using two microphones impedance tube with random noise source to get the curve of noise absorption coefficient (NAC) for each specimen. The result shows that both unmodified absorber and absorber modified with screen printing ink have the similar characteristic of NAC and they are feasible to be used as an absorber in conversation rooms. The addition of fabric and vinyl-wallpaper as cover on the absorber surface give the positive effect of the air gap, and it increases the NAC in low frequency (100-400 Hz). However, the covers decrease the NAC in high frequency (400-1,400 Hz). The holes on the fabric and wallpaper covers give the improvement of NAC.

  11. Chromatographic determination of the rate and extent of absorption of air pollutants by sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolakaki, S.; Vassilakos, C.; Katsanos, N.A.

    1994-01-01

    A simple chromatographic method is developed to determine the rate constant for expulsion of an air pollutant from water or its diffusion parameter in the liquid, the rate constant for chemical reaction of the pollutant with water, its mass transfer coefficient in the liquid, and the partition coefficient between liquid water and air. From these physicochemical parameters, the absorption rate by sea water and, therefore, the depletion rate of a polluting substance from the air can be calculated, together with the equilibrium state of this absorption. The method has been applied to nitrogen dioxide being absorbed by triple-distilled water and by sea water, at various temperatures. From the temperature variation of the reaction rate constant and of the partition coefficient, the activation energy for the reaction and the differential heat of solution were determined. (orig.)

  12. Determination of dispersion coefficients in the River Plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maggio, G.E.; Graino, J.G.; Kopp, U.I.; Tripoli, C.R.

    1987-01-01

    The determination of dispersion coefficients of contaminants through a radioactive tracer was performed as a contribution to the development of a mathematical model for a zone of the River Plate, close to the effluent discharge. During March 1987, six operations of tracer (I-131) injection and follow-up were carried out. The injection was performed by breaking a bulb under water and the follow-up of the 'radioactive spot' was done by means of a boat. Once the 'radioactive spot' was located (approximately 2 hours after the injection) a series of transversal movements over it was effected, measuring the activity concentration by means of a submerged detector. At the same time the coordinates of each point were determined in order to draw a map of the activity distribution. This procedure was repeated for different spot positions. This set of data can be plotted on a map of the zone under study, so as to obtain a set of iso activity curves. However, these curves would be representative provided that corrections are made for the boat speed, the water speed and the half-life of radionuclide. From each set of iso activity curves, the variance and the increase of variance, as well as the dispersion coefficients, can be determined. This procedure was applied to each one of the six above mentioned operations. Presently, different values of dispersion coefficient are available for different river conditions. These values, together with other parameters, such as wind velocity, temperature, salinity, bacterial behaviour, etc., will allow the calibration of the mathematical model. (Author)

  13. Saponification reaction system: a detailed mass transfer coefficient determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pečar, Darja; Goršek, Andreja

    2015-01-01

    The saponification of an aromatic ester with an aqueous sodium hydroxide was studied within a heterogeneous reaction medium in order to determine the overall kinetics of the selected system. The extended thermo-kinetic model was developed compared to the previously used simple one. The reaction rate within a heterogeneous liquid-liquid system incorporates a chemical kinetics term as well as mass transfer between both phases. Chemical rate constant was obtained from experiments within a homogeneous medium, whilst the mass-transfer coefficient was determined separately. The measured thermal profiles were then the bases for determining the overall reaction-rate. This study presents the development of an extended kinetic model for considering mass transfer regarding the saponification of ethyl benzoate with sodium hydroxide within a heterogeneous reaction medium. The time-dependences are presented for the mass transfer coefficient and the interfacial areas at different heterogeneous stages and temperatures. The results indicated an important role of reliable kinetic model, as significant difference in k(L)a product was obtained with extended and simple approach.

  14. Determination of the drag resistance coefficients of different vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahsl, Christoph; Vogt, Patrik

    2018-05-01

    While it has been demonstrated how air resistance could be analyzed by using mobile devices, this paper demonstrates a method of how to determine the drag resistance coefficient c of a commercial automobile by using the acceleration sensor of a smartphone or tablet. In an academic context, the drag resistance is often mentioned, but little attention is paid to quantitative measurements. This experiment was driven by the fact that this physical value is most certainly neglected because of its difficult measurability. In addition to that, this experiment gives insights on how the aerodynamic factor of an automobile affects the energy dissipation and thus how much power is required by automobile transportation.

  15. Determination of rare earth element content in yttrium aluminium garnet crystals by absorption spectrophotometry method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejl'man, M.L.; Kolomijtsev, A.I.; Baskakova, Z.M.; Bagdasarov, Kh.S.; Kevorkov, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    Possibility of determination of relative and absolute contents of impurity trivalent REE ions in yttrium aluminium garnet of (YAG) monocrystals has been studied by the absorption spectrophotometry method. Absorption spectra in UV and visible regions YAG monocrystals doped by REE are studied. For each admixture the characteristic lines or absorption bands not overlapping with lines of other admixtures are defined and investigated. The extinction coefficients of characteristic lines are determined which allow one to measure absolute REE admixture concentrations in garnet crystals. A conclusion is drawn that the absorption spectrophotometry method permits to measure REE admixture content in YAG monocrystals within the concentration range of approximately 1x10sup(-3)-5 mas. % with an accuracy not less than 20% (with sample thickness of approximately 1 cm)

  16. Experimental Determination of Infrared Extinction Coefficients of Interplanetary Dust Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, J. F., Jr.; Abbas, M. M.

    1998-01-01

    This technique is based on irradiating a single isolated charged dust particle suspended in balance by an electric field, and measuring the scattered radiation as a function of angle. The observed scattered intensity profile at a specific wavelength obtained for a dust particle of known composition is compared with Mie theory calculations, and the variable parameters relating to the particle size and complex refractive index are adjusted for a best fit between the two profiles. This leads to a simultaneous determination of the particle radius, the complex refractive index, and the scattering and extinction coefficients. The results of these experiments can be utilized to examine the IRAS and DIRBE (Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment) infrared data sets in order to determine the dust particle physical characteristics and distributions by using infrared models and inversion techniques. This technique may also be employed for investigation of the rotational bursting phenomena whereby large size cosmic and interplanetary particles are believed to fragment into smaller dust particles.

  17. Determination of first Townsend coefficient in pure isobutane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Iara B.; Vivaldini, Tulio C.; Goncalves, Josemary A.C.; Botelho, Suzana; Tobias, Carmen C.B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ridenti, Marco A.; Pascholati, Paulo R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Lab. do Acelerador Linear; Fonte, Paulo; Mangiarotti, Alessio [Universidade de Coimbra (Portugal). Dept. de Fisica. Lab. de Instrumentacao e Fisica Experimental de Particulas

    2010-07-01

    Full text. Electron transport parameters in gases play an important role for detector design, discharge modelling and validation of the electron impact cross-sections involved. Recently, the experiments in high energy physics and the development of gaseous detectors operating in high electric fields have motivated the determination of these parameters in gases with complex structure. This work presents measurements of first Townsend coefficient (alpha) in pure isobutane, choosing due to its importance for the development of gaseous detectors. The measurements were obtained with a parallel plate chamber, protected against discharges by the anode made of a high resistivity ({rho} = 2 x 10{sup 10} {Omega}{center_dot}m) glass plate (32.5 x 32.5mm{sup 2}). The experimental method is based on the Pulsed Townsend technique, where the primary ionization is produced through the incidence of a nitrogen laser beam (MNL202-LD LTB) onto the cathode (40mm diameter) made of aluminum. The electrons released drift toward the anode under the electric field applied through a high voltage power supply (225-30R Bertan). This charges movement produces an electric current which is measured by an electrometer (610C Keithley), directly connected to the cathode. Considering the solution of the Townsend equation for uniform electric fields, from the ratio between the current measured in avalanche regime (I) and the primary ionization current (I{sub 0}), the first Townsend coefficient can be determined, since {alpha} = d{sup -1} In(I/I{sub 0}), where d is the gap between the electrodes. The validation of the technique was provided by measurements of first Townsend coefficient in pure nitrogen, a widely studied gas, which has well-established data in literature. The alpha coefficient in isobutane was measured as a function of the reduced electric field in the range of 139Td up to 208Td (1Td = 1 x 10{sup 21} V.m{sup 2}). The obtained values were compared with those simulated by Imonte code

  18. Determination of first Townsend coefficient in pure isobutane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Iara B.; Vivaldini, Tulio C.; Goncalves, Josemary A.C.; Botelho, Suzana; Tobias, Carmen C.B.; Ridenti, Marco A.; Pascholati, Paulo R.; Fonte, Paulo; Mangiarotti, Alessio

    2010-01-01

    Full text. Electron transport parameters in gases play an important role for detector design, discharge modelling and validation of the electron impact cross-sections involved. Recently, the experiments in high energy physics and the development of gaseous detectors operating in high electric fields have motivated the determination of these parameters in gases with complex structure. This work presents measurements of first Townsend coefficient (alpha) in pure isobutane, choosing due to its importance for the development of gaseous detectors. The measurements were obtained with a parallel plate chamber, protected against discharges by the anode made of a high resistivity (ρ = 2 x 10 10 Ω·m) glass plate (32.5 x 32.5mm 2 ). The experimental method is based on the Pulsed Townsend technique, where the primary ionization is produced through the incidence of a nitrogen laser beam (MNL202-LD LTB) onto the cathode (40mm diameter) made of aluminum. The electrons released drift toward the anode under the electric field applied through a high voltage power supply (225-30R Bertan). This charges movement produces an electric current which is measured by an electrometer (610C Keithley), directly connected to the cathode. Considering the solution of the Townsend equation for uniform electric fields, from the ratio between the current measured in avalanche regime (I) and the primary ionization current (I 0 ), the first Townsend coefficient can be determined, since α = d -1 In(I/I 0 ), where d is the gap between the electrodes. The validation of the technique was provided by measurements of first Townsend coefficient in pure nitrogen, a widely studied gas, which has well-established data in literature. The alpha coefficient in isobutane was measured as a function of the reduced electric field in the range of 139Td up to 208Td (1Td = 1 x 10 21 V.m 2 ). The obtained values were compared with those simulated by Imonte code (version 4.5) and the only experimental results available

  19. ABSORBANCE, ABSORPTION COEFFICIENT, AND APPARENT QUANTUM YIELD: A COMMENT ON AMBIGUITY IN THE USE OF THESE OPTICAL CONCEPTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several important optical terms such as "absorbance" and "absorption coefficient" are frequently used ambiguously in the current peer-reviewed literature. Since they are important terms that are required to derive other quantities such as the "apparent quantum yield" of photoprod...

  20. Pancreatic Enzyme Therapy and Coefficient of Fat Absorption in Children and AdolReplacement escents With Cystic Fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woestenenk, Janna W; van der Ent, Cornelis K.; Houwen, Roderick H J; van der Ent, CK

    Objectives: Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT) is the proven therapy to substantially reduce fat malabsorption in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Few details of the daily practice regarding PERT and the resulting coefficient of fat absorption (CFA) are known. We therefore recorded the

  1. Determining the surface roughness coefficient by 3D Scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmen Fifer Bizjak

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, several test methods can be used in the laboratory to determine the roughness of rock joint surfaces.However, true roughness can be distorted and underestimated by the differences in the sampling interval of themeasurement methods. Thus, these measurement methods produce a dead zone and distorted roughness profiles.In this paper a new rock joint surface roughness measurement method is presented, with the use of a camera-typethree-dimensional (3D scanner as an alternative to current methods. For this study, the surfaces of ten samples oftuff were digitized by means of a 3D scanner, and the results were compared with the corresponding Rock JointCoefficient (JRC values. Up until now such 3D scanner have been mostly used in the automotive industry, whereastheir use for comparison with obtained JRC coefficient values in rock mechanics is presented here for the first time.The proposed new method is a faster, more precise and more accurate than other existing test methods, and is apromising technique for use in this area of study in the future.

  2. Aerodynamic coefficient identification package dynamic data accuracy determinations: Lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, M. L.; Findlay, J. T.; Compton, H. R.

    1983-01-01

    The errors in the dynamic data output from the Aerodynamic Coefficient Identification Packages (ACIP) flown on Shuttle flights 1, 3, 4, and 5 were determined using the output from the Inertial Measurement Units (IMU). A weighted least-squares batch algorithm was empolyed. Using an averaging technique, signal detection was enhanced; this allowed improved calibration solutions. Global errors as large as 0.04 deg/sec for the ACIP gyros, 30 mg for linear accelerometers, and 0.5 deg/sec squared in the angular accelerometer channels were detected and removed with a combination is bias, scale factor, misalignment, and g-sensitive calibration constants. No attempt was made to minimize local ACIP dynamic data deviations representing sensed high-frequency vibration or instrument noise. Resulting 1sigma calibrated ACIP global accuracies were within 0.003 eg/sec, 1.0 mg, and 0.05 deg/sec squared for the gyros, linear accelerometers, and angular accelerometers, respectively.

  3. Experimentally Determined Heat Transfer Coefficients for Spacesuit Liquid Cooled Garments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bue, Grant; Watts, Carly; Rhodes, Richard; Anchondo, Ian; Westheimer, David; Campbell, Colin; Vonau, Walt; Vogel, Matt; Conger, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    A Human-In-The-Loop (HITL) Portable Life Support System 2.0 (PLSS 2.0) test has been conducted at NASA Johnson Space Center in the PLSS Development Laboratory from October 27, 2014 to December 19, 2014. These closed-loop tests of the PLSS 2.0 system integrated with human subjects in the Mark III Suit at 3.7 psi to 4.3 psi above ambient pressure performing treadmill exercise at various metabolic rates from standing rest to 3000 BTU/hr (880 W). The bulk of the PLSS 2.0 was at ambient pressure but effluent water vapor from the Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) and the Auxiliary Membrane Evaporator (Mini-ME), and effluent carbon dioxide from the Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) were ported to vacuum to test performance of these components in flight-like conditions. One of the objectives of this test was to determine the heat transfer coefficient (UA) of the Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG). The UA, an important factor for modeling the heat rejection of an LCG, was determined in a variety of conditions by varying inlet water temperature, flowrate, and metabolic rate. Three LCG configurations were tested: the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) LCG, the Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS) LCG, and the OSS auxiliary LCG. Other factors influencing accurate UA determination, such as overall heat balance, LCG fit, and the skin temperature measurement, will also be discussed.

  4. Doppler broadening and its contribution to Compton energy-absorption cross sections: An analysis of the Compton component in terms of mass-energy absorption coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, D.V.; Takeda, T.; Itai, Y.; Akatsuka, T.; Cesareo, R.; Brunetti, A.; Gigante, G.E.

    2002-01-01

    Compton energy absorption cross sections are calculated using the formulas based on a relativistic impulse approximation to assess the contribution of Doppler broadening and to examine the Compton profile literature and explore what, if any, effect our knowledge of this line broadening has on the Compton component in terms of mass-energy absorption coefficient. Compton energy-absorption cross sections are evaluated for all elements, Z=1-100, and for photon energies 1 keV-100 MeV. Using these cross sections, the Compton component of the mass-energy absorption coefficient is derived in the energy region from 1 keV to 1 MeV for all the elements Z=1-100. The electron momentum prior to the scattering event should cause a Doppler broadening of the Compton line. The momentum resolution function is evaluated in terms of incident and scattered photon energy and scattering angle. The overall momentum resolution of each contribution is estimated for x-ray and γ-ray energies of experimental interest in the angular region 1 deg. -180 deg. . Also estimated is the Compton broadening using nonrelativistic formula in the angular region 1 deg. -180 deg., for 17.44, 22.1, 58.83, and 60 keV photons for a few elements (H, C, N, O, P, S, K, and Ca) of biological importance

  5. Doppler Broadening and its Contribution to Compton Energy-Absorption Cross Sections: An Analysis of the Compton Component in Terms of Mass-Energy Absorption Coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, D. V.; Takeda, T.; Itai, Y.; Akatsuka, T.; Cesareo, R.; Brunetti, A.; Gigante, G. E.

    2002-09-01

    Compton energy absorption cross sections are calculated using the formulas based on a relativistic impulse approximation to assess the contribution of Doppler broadening and to examine the Compton profile literature and explore what, if any, effect our knowledge of this line broadening has on the Compton component in terms of mass-energy absorption coefficient. Compton energy-absorption cross sections are evaluated for all elements, Z=1-100, and for photon energies 1 keV-100 MeV. Using these cross sections, the Compton component of the mass-energy absorption coefficient is derived in the energy region from 1 keV to 1 MeV for all the elements Z=1-100. The electron momentum prior to the scattering event should cause a Doppler broadening of the Compton line. The momentum resolution function is evaluated in terms of incident and scattered photon energy and scattering angle. The overall momentum resolution of each contribution is estimated for x-ray and γ-ray energies of experimental interest in the angular region 1°-180°. Also estimated is the Compton broadening using nonrelativistic formula in the angular region 1°-180°, for 17.44, 22.1, 58.83, and 60 keV photons for a few elements (H, C, N, O, P, S, K, and Ca) of biological importance.

  6. Polaron effects on the linear and the nonlinear optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes in cylindrical quantum dots with applied magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Qingjie; Guo Kangxian; Liu Guanghui; Wu Jinghe

    2013-01-01

    Polaron effects on the linear and the nonlinear optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes in cylindrical quantum dots with the radial parabolic potential and the z-direction linear potential with applied magnetic field are theoretically investigated. The optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes are presented by using the compact-density-matrix approach and iterative method. Numerical calculations are presented for GaAs/AlGaAs. It is found that taking into account the electron-LO-phonon interaction, not only are the linear, the nonlinear and the total optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes enhanced, but also the total optical absorption coefficients are more sensitive to the incident optical intensity. It is also found that no matter whether the electron-LO-phonon interaction is considered or not, the absorption coefficients and refractive index changes above are strongly dependent on the radial frequency, the magnetic field and the linear potential coefficient.

  7. Determination of cadmium in aluminium by atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batistoni, D.A.; Erlijman, L.H.

    1978-12-01

    A direct method for the determination of cadmium in elemental aluminium is described. Metal samples are dissolved in diluted hydrochloric acid and cadmium is determined by atomic absorption spectrometry in an air-acetylene flame. Interference by non-specific absorption observed at the analytical wavelength incorrected for by means of a non-absorbing line emitted by the hollow-cathode lamp. Relatively large amounts of arsenic do not interfere. The minimun determinable concentration of cadmium for this procedure is 2-3 ppm, expressed on aluminium basis. (author) [es

  8. Mass attenuation and mass energy absorption coefficients for 10 keV to 10 MeV photons; Coefficients d'attenuation massique et d'absorption massique en energie pour les photons de 10 keV a 10 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joffre, H; Pages, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    In this report are given the elements allowing the definition of the values of mass attenuation coefficients and mass energy absorption coefficients for some elements and mixtures, necessary for the study of tissue equivalent materials, for photons in the energy range 10 keV to 10 MeV. After a short reminding of the definitions of the two coefficients, follows, in table form, a compilation of these coefficients, as a function of energy, for simple elements, for certain mineral compounds, organic compounds, gases and particularly of soft tissues. (author) [French] Dans ce rapport, sont donnes les elements permettant de determiner les valeurs des coefficients d'attenuation massique et d'absorption massique en energie pour certains elements et melanges necessaires a l'etude des materiaux equivalents aux tissus pour les photons dans le domaine d'energie allant de 10 keV a 10 MeV. Apres un bref rappel des definitions des deux coefficients, suit, sous forme de tableaux, un recueil de ces coefficients, en fonction de l'energie, pour les elements simples, certains composes mineraux, composes organiques, gaz, et, particulierement, pour les tissus mous. (auteur)

  9. Determination of gas diffusion coefficients in undisturbed Boom clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacops, E.; Volckaert, G.; Maes, N.; Govaerts, J.; Weetjens, E.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The Belgian agency for radioactive waste and enriched fissile materials Ondraf/Niras presently considers Boom Clay as a potential host formation for the disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive waste. The production of gas is unavoidable within a geological repository. Gas is produced by different mechanisms: anaerobic corrosion of metals in waste and packaging, radiolysis of water and organic materials in the waste and engineered barriers and microbial degradation of various organic wastes. Corrosion and radiolysis yield mainly hydrogen while microbial degradation leads to methane and carbon dioxide. The gas generated in the near field of a geological repository will dissolve in the pore water and is transported away from the repository by diffusion as dissolved species. If the gas generation rate is larger than the diffusive flux, the pore water will become over-saturated and a free gas phase will form. Initially, isolated gas bubbles will accumulate until a continuous gas phase is formed. As gas pressure continues to increase, discrete gas pathways may be formed by tensile fractures within the rock fabric. Consequently, this entire process may locally and at least temporarily alter the hydraulic and mechanical properties of the engineered barriers and the clay and, perhaps, their performance. Therefore it is important to assess whether or not gas production rates might exceed the diffusive gas flux. The currently available gas diffusion parameters (D eff : effective diffusion coefficient) for hydrogen in Boom Clay, obtained from the MEGAS project, and re-evaluated after lead to an estimated D eff between 1.9 10 -12 and 1.5 10 -10 m 2 /s. Sensitivity calculations showed that this uncertainty on the diffusion coefficient, combined with that on the gas source term, made it impossible to exclude the formation of a free gas phase. To reduce the uncertainty, an experimental method was developed to determine

  10. Measurement of the mass energy-absorption coefficient of air for x-rays in the range from 3 to 60 keV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhr, H; Büermann, L; Gerlach, M; Krumrey, M; Rabus, H

    2012-12-21

    For the first time the absolute photon mass energy-absorption coefficient of air in the energy range of 10 to 60 keV has been measured with relative standard uncertainties below 1%, considerably smaller than those of up to 2% assumed for calculated data. For monochromatized synchrotron radiation from the electron storage ring BESSY II both the radiant power and the fraction of power deposited in dry air were measured using a cryogenic electrical substitution radiometer and a free air ionization chamber, respectively. The measured absorption coefficients were compared with state-of-the art calculations and showed an average deviation of 2% from calculations by Seltzer. However, they agree within 1% with data calculated earlier by Hubbell. In the course of this work, an improvement of the data analysis of a previous experimental determination of the mass energy-absorption coefficient of air in the range of 3 to 10 keV was found to be possible and corrected values of this preceding study are given.

  11. [Determination of equilibrium solubility and n-octanol/water partition coefficient of pulchinenosiden D by HPLC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Xiao-Yong; Yin, Shan; Zhang, Guo-Song; Luo, Xiao-Jian; Jian, Hui; Feng, Yu-Lin; Yang, Shi-Lin

    2014-05-01

    To determine the equilibrium solubility of pulchinenosiden D in different solvents and its n-octanol/water partition coefficients. Combining shaking flask method and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to detect the n-octanol/water partition coefficients of pulchinenosiden D, the equilibrium solubility of pulchinenosiden D in six organic solvents and different pH buffer solution were determined by HPLC analysis. n-Octanol/water partition coefficients of pulchinenosiden D in different pH were greater than zero, the equilibrium solubility of pulchinenosiden D was increased with increase the pH of the buffer solution. The maximum equilibrium solubility of pulchinenosiden D was 255.89 g x L(-1) in methanol, and minimum equilibrium solubility of pulchinenosiden D was 0.20 g x L(-1) in acetonitrile. Under gastrointestinal physiological conditions, pulchinenosiden D exists in molecular state and it has good absorption but poor water-solubility, so increasing the dissolution rate of pulchinenosiden D may enhance its bioavailability.

  12. A Correction of Random Incidence Absorption Coefficients for the Angular Distribution of Acoustic Energy under Measurement Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2009-01-01

    Most acoustic measurements are based on an assumption of ideal conditions. One such ideal condition is a diffuse and reverberant field. In practice, a perfectly diffuse sound field cannot be achieved in a reverberation chamber. Uneven incident energy density under measurement conditions can cause...... discrepancies between the measured value and the theoretical random incidence absorption coefficient. Therefore the angular distribution of the incident acoustic energy onto an absorber sample should be taken into account. The angular distribution of the incident energy density was simulated using the beam...... tracing method for various room shapes and source positions. The averaged angular distribution is found to be similar to a Gaussian distribution. As a result, an angle-weighted absorption coefficient was proposed by considering the angular energy distribution to improve the agreement between...

  13. Determination of the evaporation coefficient of D2O

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Cohen

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The evaporation rate of D2O has been determined by Raman thermometry of a droplet train (12–15 μm diameter injected into vacuum (~10-5 torr. The cooling rate measured as a function of time in vacuum was fit to a model that accounts for temperature gradients between the surface and the core of the droplets, yielding an evaporation coefficient (γe of 0.57±0.06. This is nearly identical to that found for H2O (0.62±0.09 using the same experimental method and model, and indicates the existence of a kinetic barrier to evaporation. The application of a recently developed transition-state theory (TST model suggests that the kinetic barrier is due to librational and hindered translational motions at the liquid surface, and that the lack of an isotope effect is due to competing energetic and entropic factors. The implications of these results for cloud and aerosol particles in the atmosphere are discussed.

  14. Bayesian estimation of the discrete coefficient of determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Braga-Neto, Ulisses M

    2016-12-01

    The discrete coefficient of determination (CoD) measures the nonlinear interaction between discrete predictor and target variables and has had far-reaching applications in Genomic Signal Processing. Previous work has addressed the inference of the discrete CoD using classical parametric and nonparametric approaches. In this paper, we introduce a Bayesian framework for the inference of the discrete CoD. We derive analytically the optimal minimum mean-square error (MMSE) CoD estimator, as well as a CoD estimator based on the Optimal Bayesian Predictor (OBP). For the latter estimator, exact expressions for its bias, variance, and root-mean-square (RMS) are given. The accuracy of both Bayesian CoD estimators with non-informative and informative priors, under fixed or random parameters, is studied via analytical and numerical approaches. We also demonstrate the application of the proposed Bayesian approach in the inference of gene regulatory networks, using gene-expression data from a previously published study on metastatic melanoma.

  15. Absorption coefficient measurrement of monochromatized synchrotron radiation at 0.65 - 1.3 A interval for some biological objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avakian, Ts.M.; Karabekov, I.P.; Martirossian, M.A.

    1977-01-01

    The results of the measurement of absorption coefficients for some biological objects such as pea (Pissum sativum), wheat (Triticum aestivum), tobacco (Nicotiana-tabacum-α) seeds, as well as the distilled water are presented. The measurement has been carried out on the Erevan Physical Institute Electron Accelerator synchrotron radiation beam. The good agreement of experimental and calculated data for water confirms the accuracy of the results related to other objects

  16. UV absorption coefficients of Y2(1-x-y)Gd2xEu2yO3 phosphors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, M.; Yocom, P.W.; Soules, T.F.

    1990-01-01

    The ability of a phosphor to absorb 254 nm excitation is important in the development of phosphors for fluorescent lamps. Recently the optical properties of phosphor coating were modeled using ray tracing Monte-Carlo techniques. These calculations provided a relationship between absorptance measured on a semi-infinite plaque at a given wavelength and the product of the absorption coefficient of the phosphor and its particle diameter. The purpose of this work is to provide experimental data for comparison with the calculated data, to demonstrate a technique for obtaining absorption coefficients and to provide UV absorption coefficients obtained in this way for important yttrium oxide europium red-emitting phosphors

  17. Molecular design for improved photovoltaic efficiency: band gap and absorption coefficient engineering

    KAUST Repository

    Mondal, Rajib; Ko, Sangwon; Norton, Joseph E.; Miyaki, Nobuyuki; Becerril, Hector A.; Verploegen, Eric; Toney, Michael F.; Bré das, Jean-Luc; McGehee, Michael D.; Bao, Zhenan

    2009-01-01

    Removing the adjacent thiophene groups around the acceptor core in low band gap polymers significantly enhances solar cell efficiency through increasing the optical absorption and raising the ionization potential of the polymer. © 2009 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  18. Additions and corrections to the absorption coefficients of CO2 ice: Applications to the Martian south polar cap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvin, W.M.

    1990-01-01

    Reflectance spectra of carbon dioxide frosts were calculated using the optical constants provided by Warren (1986) for the wavelength region 2-6 μm. In comparing these calculated spectra to spectra of frosts observed in the laboratory and on the surface of Mars, problems in the optical constants presented by Warren (1986) became apparent. Absorption coefficients for CO 2 ice have been derived using laboratory reflectance measurements and the Hapke (1981) model for calculating diffuse reflectance. This provides approximate values in regions where no data were previously available and indicates where corrections to the compilation by Warren (1986) are required. Using these coefficients to calculate the reflectance of CO 2 ice at varying grain sizes indicates that a typical Mariner polar cap spectrum is dominated by absorptions due to CO 2 frost or ice at grain sizes that are quite large, probably of the order of millimeters to centimeters. There are indications of contamination of water frost or dust, but confirmation will require more precise absorption coefficients for solid CO 2 than can be obtained from the method used here

  19. Determining Composite Validity Coefficients for Army Jobs and Job Families

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zeidner, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    .... These correlation coefficients are corrected, first, for unreliability of the criterion and, then, for restriction in range effects due to assignment from an Army input population to MOS samples...

  20. Determining Composite Validity Coefficients for Army Jobs and Job Families

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zeidner, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    ...) is to compute composite validity coefficients. using criterion data derived from the 1987 - 1989 Skill Qualifications Test program, for the 7-test ASVAB for 150, 17, and 9 job family structures...

  1. Einstein A-coefficients and statistical weights for molecular absorption transitions in the HITRAN database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simeckova, Marie; Jacquemart, David; Rothman, Laurence S.; Gamache, Robert R.; Goldman, Aaron

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the calculation of the statistical weights and the Einstein A-coefficients for the 39 molecules and their associated isotopologues/isotopomers currently present in the line-by-line portion of the HITRAN database. Calculation of the Einstein A-coefficients was carried out using the HITRAN line intensities and the necessary statistical weights. The Einstein A-coefficient and the statistical weights of the upper and lower levels of the transition were added in the new format of the line parameters for the most recent edition of the HITRAN database

  2. Expanded uncertainty estimation methodology in determining the sandy soils filtration coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusanova, A. D.; Malaja, L. D.; Ivanov, R. N.; Gruzin, A. V.; Shalaj, V. V.

    2018-04-01

    The combined standard uncertainty estimation methodology in determining the sandy soils filtration coefficient has been developed. The laboratory researches were carried out which resulted in filtration coefficient determination and combined uncertainty estimation obtaining.

  3. A better coefficient of determination for genetic profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Hong; Goddard, Michael E; Wray, Naomi R; Visscher, Peter M

    2012-04-01

    Genome-wide association studies have facilitated the construction of risk predictors for disease from multiple Single Nucleotide Polymorphism markers. The ability of such "genetic profiles" to predict outcome is usually quantified in an independent data set. Coefficients of determination (R(2) ) have been a useful measure to quantify the goodness-of-fit of the genetic profile. Various pseudo-R(2) measures for binary responses have been proposed. However, there is no standard or consensus measure because the concept of residual variance is not easily defined on the observed probability scale. Unlike other nongenetic predictors such as environmental exposure, there is prior information on genetic predictors because for most traits there are estimates of the proportion of variation in risk in the population due to all genetic factors, the heritability. It is this useful ability to benchmark that makes the choice of a measure of goodness-of-fit in genetic profiling different from that of nongenetic predictors. In this study, we use a liability threshold model to establish the relationship between the observed probability scale and underlying liability scale in measuring R(2) for binary responses. We show that currently used R(2) measures are difficult to interpret, biased by ascertainment, and not comparable to heritability. We suggest a novel and globally standard measure of R(2) that is interpretable on the liability scale. Furthermore, even when using ascertained case-control studies that are typical in human disease studies, we can obtain an R(2) measure on the liability scale that can be compared directly to heritability. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Determination of X-ray photoelectric absorption of Ge and Si avoiding solid-state effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltazar-Rodrigues, J.; Cusatis, C.

    2001-01-01

    X-ray linear attenuation coefficients of germanium and silicon were measured with precision between 0.1% and 0.3% for six characteristic wavelengths: copper, molybdenum and silver K lines. The linear photoelectric absorption coefficients were determined from the values of the measured attenuation coefficients by subtracting the calculated Compton and thermal diffuse scattering involved. It is shown that in order to compare calculated values of X-ray absorption coefficients based on the isolated atom assumption with experimental results obtained from solid samples it is necessary to take into consideration the solid-state effects. Before the measurements the sample's angular positions were scanned to search for Bragg scattering and the measurements of the transmitted intensities were done far from these angular positions. The measurements were performed in three samples of each element with different thickness and in different angular positions for each sample in order to check the consistency of the measured attenuation coefficients. Several instrumental and experimental details were considered in order to achieve the final asserted precision

  5. The determination of zirconium by atomic absorption spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, E.R.; Cunha, M.T.C. da

    1975-01-01

    The interference of iron in the determination of zirconium by atomic absorption spectrophotometry was studied. Attempts were made to emininate this interference by complexing the iron with EDTA, ascorbic acid and hydrazine; also by the addition of ammonium fluoride to the solution. Some experiments were carried out in order to explain the results obtained [pt

  6. A new term 'Jzeff' derived from measured total attenuation coefficients of photons near the absorption edges of some compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polat, Recep; Icelli, Orhan

    2010-01-01

    In order to determine the effect of XAFS (X-ray absorption fine structure) on J zeff , we have measured μ/ρ values of compounds, which are determined by the mixture rule or the independent atomic model. Also, we want to obtain both XAFS effect and non-applicability or applicability of mixture rule. The most crucial finding in this study is that measurement of the effective atomic number is not appropriate near the absorption edge and the effective atomic number is affected by near the absorption edge. The results obtained have been compared with theoretical values. Also, the objective of this study is to show that there is a term 'J zeff ' between effective atomic numbers and absorption jump factor.

  7. Determination of trace amounts of cadmium in sea water by a flameless atomic absorption method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazoe, Seigo; Oshima, Shozo

    1975-01-01

    Determination of trace amounts of cadmium in sea water has been developed by a flameless atomic absorption method using a carbon rod atomizer. Sea water is diluted with isopropyl alcohol and the white salt formed is removed by filtration, then the filtrate is fed to the instrument as a sample for measurement. A complete separation of the salt is not needed in this pre-treatment. The effect of the residual salt can be avoided by separating the atomic absorption of cadmium and the molecular absorption of the residual salt by means of controlling the temperature and the time of ashing and atomization of the sample in the carbon rod. The repeatability and the accuracy are 2.0--8.5% in the coefficient of variation and 0.8--5.3% respectively. (auth.)

  8. Determination of optical constants and nonlinear optical coefficients ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of single crystals of organic molecules [12,13], organic molecules in a liquid solution. [14,15] and organic ... valence band 'tail states' might have a strong effect on the optical absorption resulting in ..... cm/W). The negative sign of the third-order.

  9. Determination of corneal elasticity coefficient using the ORA database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avetisov, Sergei E; Novikov, Ivan A; Bubnova, Irina A; Antonov, Alexei A; Siplivyi, Vladimir I

    2010-07-01

    To propose a new approach for the study of corneal biomechanics using the Reichert Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA) database, which is based on changes in velocity retardation in the central cornea at the peak of flattening. The ORA applanation curve was analyzed using a mathematical technique, which allowed calculation of the elasticity coefficient (Ke), which is primarily characteristic of the elastic properties of the cornea. Elasticity coefficient values were obtained in patients with presumably different biomechanical properties of the cornea: "normal" cornea (71 eyes, normal group), keratoconus (34 eyes, keratoconus group), LASIK (36 eyes, LASIK group), and glaucoma with elevated and compensated intraocular pressure (lOP) (38 eyes, glaucoma group). The mean Ke value in the normal group was 11.05 +/- 1.6, and the corneal thickness correlation coefficient r2 was 0.48. In the keratoconus group, the mean Ke value was 4.91 +/- 1.87 and the corneal thickness correlation coefficient r2 was 0.47. In the LASIK group, Ke and r2 were 5.99 +/- 1.18 and 0.39, respectively. In the glaucoma group, the same eyes that experienced a two-fold reduction in lOP developed a statistically significant reduction in the Ke (1.06 times lower), whereas their corneal hysteresis value increased 1.25 times. The elasticity coefficient calculated using the ORA applanation curve can be used in the evaluation of corneal biomechanical properties.

  10. Flotation atomic absorption determination of bismuth in nonferrous metal alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ososkov, V.K.; Plintus, A.M.; Kornelli, M.Eh.; Zakhariya, A.N.; Lozanova, E.V.

    1986-01-01

    Technique of flotation concentration and atomic absorption determination of bismuth microquantities in alloys on the basis of copper and zinc has been developed. Fine-dispersed EhDEh-10P anionite was used as a carrier in flotation concentration. State standard samples (SSS) of brasses and German silver were used as analysed objects. Effect of macrocomponents on the results of bismuth content determination has been studied. Satisfactory coincidence of the results obtained and SSS certificates is shown

  11. Precise Measurement of Refractive Index and Absorption Coefficient of Near Millimeter Wave and Far Infrared Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-01

    polyethylene. The plexiglass is a polymethyl methacrylate and the acrylic is a polymethacrylate . The polyamide(nylon) is made with adipic acid and hexamethylene...are made with acrylic acid . It was not sur- prizing to see both exhibiting similar absorption characteristics atleast 30 times higher than

  12. Radiographic and radioscopic testing of coatings with a high absorption coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdarios, M.; Deleuze, M.; Lepoutre, M.

    1983-06-01

    Radiographies of a uranium disk obtained with an Ir192 source and a X-ray generator of 420kV are compared. Then a testing installation with a X-ray generator for high absorption material is studied. It comprises a mechanism to put the sample into position and a system for image processing to improve contrast and decrease background noise [fr

  13. Semi-empirical γ-ray peak efficiency determination including self-absorption correction based on numerical integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, M.; Takeda, K.; Higuchi, H.

    1981-01-01

    A method of γ-ray efficiency determination for extended (plane or bulk) samples based on numerical integration of point source efficiency is studied. The proposed method is widely applicable to samples of various shapes and materials. The geometrical factor in the peak efficiency can easily be corrected for by simply changing the integration region, and γ-ray self-absorption is also corrected by the absorption coefficients for the sample matrix. (author)

  14. Quantitative photoacoustic integrating sphere (QPAIS platform for absorption coefficient and Grüneisen parameter measurements: Demonstration with human blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Villanueva-Palero

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative photoacoustic imaging in biomedicine relies on accurate measurements of relevant material properties of target absorbers. Here, we present a method for simultaneous measurements of the absorption coefficient and Grüneisen parameter of small volume of liquid scattering and absorbing media using a coupled-integrating sphere system which we refer to as quantitative photoacoustic integrating sphere (QPAIS platform. The derived equations do not require absolute magnitudes of optical energy and pressure values, only calibration of the setup using aqueous ink dilutions is necessary. As a demonstration, measurements with blood samples from various human donors are done at room and body temperatures using an incubator. Measured absorption coefficient values are consistent with known oxygen saturation dependence of blood absorption at 750 nm, whereas measured Grüneisen parameter values indicate variability among five different donors. An increasing Grüneisen parameter value with both hematocrit and temperature is observed. These observations are consistent with those reported in literature.

  15. Determination of Water Requirement and Crop Coefficient for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge of crop evapotranspiration (ETc), the combined process of evaporation and plant transpiration, is important in agriculture for scheduling farm operations and designing and managing irrigation and drainage systems. Development of crop coefficient (Kc) can enhance crop evapotranspiration (ETc) estimates in ...

  16. Experimental partition determination of octanol-water coefficients of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An electrochemical method based on square wave voltammetry was developed for the measurement of octanol-water partition coefficient, LogP, for ten ferrocene derivatives. Measured LogP values ranged over two orders of magnitude, between 2.18 for 1- ferrocenylethanol and 4.38 for ferrocenyl-2-nitrophenyl.

  17. Conversion coefficients for determining organ doses in paediatric spine radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidenbusch, Michael; Schneider, Karl [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Institute of Clinical Radiology - Paediatric Radiology, Muenchen (Germany)

    2014-04-15

    Knowledge of organ and effective doses achieved during paediatric x-ray examinations is an important prerequisite for assessment of radiation burden to the patient. Conversion coefficients for reconstruction of organ and effective doses from entrance doses for segmental spine radiographs of 0-, 1-, 5-, 10-, 15- and 30-year-old patients are provided regarding the Guidelines of Good Radiographic Technique of the European Commission. Using the personal computer program PCXMC developed by the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (Saeteilyturvakeskus STUK), conversion coefficients for conventional segmental spine radiographs were calculated performing Monte Carlo simulations in mathematical hermaphrodite phantom models describing patients of different ages. The clinical variation of beam collimation was taken into consideration by defining optimal and suboptimal radiation field settings. Conversion coefficients for the reconstruction of organ doses in about 40 organs and tissues from measured entrance doses during cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine radiographs of 0-, 1-, 5-, 10-, 15- and 30-year-old patients were calculated for the standard sagittal and lateral beam projections and the standard focus detector distance of 115 cm. The conversion coefficients presented may be used for organ dose assessments from entrance doses measured during spine radiographs of patients of all age groups and all field settings within the optimal and suboptimal standard field settings. (orig.)

  18. Thermally induced lensing determination from the coefficient of defocus aberration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bell, Teboho

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of a temperature gradient in a laser crystal in an end-pumped configuration in a solid-state laser resonator results in thermally induced aberrations. Of particular interest we measure the thermally induced lens from the coefficient...

  19. Direct atomic absorption determination of silicon in metallic niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blinova, Eh.S.; Guzeev, I.D.; Nedler, V.V.; Khokhrin, V.M.

    1984-01-01

    Consideration is being given to realization of the basic advantage of non-flame atomizer-analysis of directly solid samples-for silicon determination in niobium for the content of the first one of less than 1x10 -3 mass %. Analysis technique is described. Diagrams of the dependences of atomic silicon absorption in graphite cells of usual type as well as lined by tungsten carbide and atomic silicon absorption on the value of niobium weighed amount are presented. It is shown that Si determination in metallic niobium according to aqueous reference solutions results in understatement of results 2.4 times. The optimal conditions for Si determination in niobium are the following: 2400 deg C temperature, absence of carbon and oxygen. Different niobium specimens with the known silicon content were used as reference samples

  20. Novel and facile microwave-assisted synthesis of Mo-doped hydroxyapatite nanorods: Characterization, gamma absorption coefficient, and bioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abutalib, M M; Yahia, I S

    2017-09-01

    In the current work, the authors report the microwave-assisted synthesis Molybdenum-doped (from 0.05 to 5wt%) hydroxyapatite (HAp) for the first time. The morphology of Mo-doped HAp is nanorods of diameter in the range of 25-70nm and length in the range of 25nm to 200nm. The good crystalline nature was confirmed from X-ray diffraction patterns and also lattice parameters, grain size, strain and dislocation density were determined. The crystallite size was found to be in the range 16 to 30nm and crystallinity was found to be enhanced from 0.5 to 0.7 with doping. The field emission SEM micrographs show that the morphology of the synthesized nanostructures of pure and Mo-doped HAp are nanorods of few nanometers. The vibrational modes were identified using the FT-Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy. The dielectric properties were studied and the AC electrical conductivity was found to be increased with increasing the concentration of Mo ions doping in HAp. Moreover, antimicrobial studies were also carried out to understand the anti-bacterial and anti-fungi properties. The results suggest that it may be a good bio-ceramics material for bio-medical applications. Mo-doped HAp was subjected to the gamma irradiation produced from Cs-137 (662keV) and its related parameters such as linear absorption coefficient, the half-value layer (HVL) and the tenth value layer TVL were calculated and analyzed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Anomalous x-ray attenuation coefficients around the absorption edges using Mn Ksub(α) and Cu Ksub(α) x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerur, B.R.; Thontadarya, S.R.; Hanumaiah, B.

    1994-01-01

    The x-ray attenuation coefficients for three elements and for eight compounds are determined, adopting the method developed by employing a proportional counter, with a view to study the effect of fine structure on the mass attenuation coefficient values using Mn K α and Cu K α x-rays derived from K x-ray emitters, 55 Fe and 65 Zn radioactive sources, by a differential absorption technique. It is experimentally established that a small difference in energy between K α1 and K α2 (11 eV in the case of Mn K α and 24 eV in the case of the Cu K α x-ray) is inconsequential by comparing the measured and theoretical values of μ/ρ for standard elements, aluminium, copper and tantalum. The effect of fine structure on μ/ρ values is studied using the compounds containing one element with its absorption edge close to the incident photon energy. Results obtained in the present investigation show the nonvalidity of the mixture rule above the edge and also below the edge, ranging from about 600 eV below the edge to about 1500 eV about the edge. The contribution of resonance Raman scattering to the attenuation coefficient and indications to the presence of pre-edge structure similar to EXAFS are discussed. (author)

  2. Specific absorption and backscatter coefficient signatures in southeastern Atlantic coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostater, Charles R., Jr.

    1998-12-01

    Measurements of natural water samples in the field and laboratory of hyperspectral signatures of total absorption and reflectance were obtained using long pathlength absorption systems (50 cm pathlength). Water was sampled in Indian River Lagoon, Banana River and Port Canaveral, Florida. Stations were also occupied in near coastal waters out to the edge of the Gulf Stream in the vicinity of Kennedy Space Center, Florida and estuarine waters along Port Royal Sound and along the Beaufort River tidal area in South Carolina. The measurements were utilized to calculate natural water specific absorption, total backscatter and specific backscatter optical signatures. The resulting optical cross section signatures suggest different models are needed for the different water types and that the common linear model may only appropriate for coastal and oceanic water types. Mean particle size estimates based on the optical cross section, suggest as expected, that particle size of oceanic particles are smaller than more turbid water types. The data discussed and presented are necessary for remote sensing applications of sensors as well as for development and inversion of remote sensing algorithms.

  3. Determination of aerodynamic sensitivity coefficients for wings in transonic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Leland A.; El-Banna, Hesham M.

    1992-01-01

    The quasianalytical approach is applied to the 3-D full potential equation to compute wing aerodynamic sensitivity coefficients in the transonic regime. Symbolic manipulation is used to reduce the effort associated with obtaining the sensitivity equations, and the large sensitivity system is solved using 'state of the art' routines. The quasianalytical approach is believed to be reasonably accurate and computationally efficient for 3-D problems.

  4. The influence of numerical models on determining the drag coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobeš Josef

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with numerical modelling of body aerodynamic drag coefficient in the transition from laminar to turbulent flow regimes, where the selection of a suitable numerical model is problematic. On the basic problem of flow around a simple body – sphere selected computational models are tested. The values obtained by numerical simulations of drag coefficients of each model are compared with the graph of dependency of the drag coefficient vs. Reynolds number for a sphere. Next the dependency of Strouhal number vs. Reynolds number is evaluated, where the vortex shedding frequency values for given speed are obtained numerically and experimentally and then the values are compared for each numerical model and experiment. The aim is to specify trends for the selection of appropriate numerical model for flow around bodies problem in which the precise description of the flow field around the obstacle is used to define the acoustic noise source. Numerical modelling is performed by finite volume method using CFD code.

  5. Synthesis/literature review for determining structural layer coefficients (SLC) of bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    FDOTs current method of determining a base material structural layer coefficient (SLC) is detailed in the : Materials Manual, Chapter 2.1, Structural Layer Coefficients for Flexible Pavement Base Materials. : Currently, any new base material not a...

  6. AN EFFICIENT ANALYSIS FOR ABSORPTION AND GAIN COEFFICIENTS IN 'SINGLE STEP-INDEX WAVEGUIDE'S BY USING THE ALPHA METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa TEMİZ

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, some design parameters such as normalized frequency and especially normalized propagation constant have been obtained, depending on some parameters which are functions of energy eigenvalues of the carriers such as electrons and holes confined in a single step-index waveguide laser (SSIWGL or single stepindex waveguide (SSIWG. Some optical expressions about the optical power and probability quantities for the active region and cladding layers of the SSIWG or SSIWGL have been investigated. Investigations have been undertaken in terms of these parameters and also individually the optical even and odd electric field waves with the lowest-modes were theoretically computed. Especially absorption coefficients and loss coefficients addition to some important quantities of the single step-index waveguide lasers for the even and odd electric field waves are evaluated.

  7. In vivo determination of the absorption and scattering spectra of the human prostate during photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlay, Jarod C.; Zhu, Timothy C.; Dimofte, Andreea; Stripp, Diana C. H.; Malkowicz, S. B.; Whittington, Richard; Miles, Jeremy; Glatstein, Eli; Hahn, Stephen M.

    2004-06-01

    A continuing challenge in photodynamic therapy is the accurate in vivo determination of the optical properties of the tissue being treated. We have developed a method for characterizing the absorption and scattering spectra of prostate tissue undergoing PDT treatment. Our current prostate treatment protocol involves interstitial illumination of the organ via cylindrical diffusing optical fibers (CDFs) inserted into the prostate through clear catheters. We employ one of these catheters to insert an isotropic white light point source into the prostate. An isotropic detection fiber connected to a spectrograph is inserted into a second catheter a known distance away. The detector is moved along the catheter by a computer-controlled step motor, acquiring diffuse light spectra at 2 mm intervals along its path. We model the fluence rate as a function of wavelength and distance along the detector"s path using an infinite medium diffusion theory model whose free parameters are the absorption coefficient μa at each wavelength and two variables A and b which characterize the reduced scattering spectrum of the form μ"s = Aλ-b. We analyze our spectroscopic data using a nonlinear fitting algorithm to determine A, b, and μa at each wavelength independently; no prior knowledge of the absorption spectrum or of the sample"s constituent absorbers is required. We have tested this method in tissue simulating phantoms composed of intralipid and the photosensitizer motexafin lutetium (MLu). The MLu absorption spectrum recovered from the phantoms agrees with that measured in clear solution, and μa at the MLu absorption peak varies linearly with concentration. The ´"s spectrum reported by the fit is in agreement with the known scattering coefficient of intralipid. We have applied this algorithm to spectroscopic data from human patients sensitized with MLu (2 mg kg-1) acquired before and after PDT. Before PDT, the absorption spectra we measure include the characteristic MLu absorption

  8. Polarization dependence of two-photon absorption coefficient and nonlinear susceptibility tensor in InP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsusue, Toshio; Bando, Hiroyuki; Fujita, Shoichi; Takayama, Yusuke

    2011-01-01

    Two-photon absorption (TPA) effect in (001) InP is investigated using fs laser. Its dependences on wavelength and polarization are clarified by single and double beam methods with linearly polarized lights. Characteristic features are revealed and discussed with scaling law, crystal bonding and mutual relation of polarizations for double beams. The results are successfully analyzed on the basis of the third-order susceptibility tensor for comprehensive understanding of TPA effect at any polarization geometry. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. [Determination of a Friction Coefficient for THA Bearing Couples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrbka, M; Nečas, D; Bartošík, J; Hartl, M; Křupka, I; Galandáková, A; Gallo, J

    2015-01-01

    The wear of articular surfaces is considered one of the most important factors limiting the life of total hip arthroplasty (THA). It is assumed that the particles released from the surface of a softer material induce a complex inflammatory response, which will eventually result in osteolysis and aseptic loosening. Implant wear is related to a friction coefficient which depends on combination of the materials used, roughness of the articulating surfaces, internal clearance, and dimensions of the prosthesis. The selected parameters of the bearing couples tested were studied using an experimental device based on the principle of a pendulum. Bovine serum was used as a lubricant and the load corresponded to a human body mass of 75 kg. The friction coefficient was derived from a curve of slowdown of pendulum oscillations. Roughness was measured with a device working on the principle of interferometry. Clearance was assessed by measuring diameters of the acetabular and femoral heads with a 3D optical scanner. The specimens tested included unused metal-on-highly cross-linked polyethylene, ceramic-on-highly cross-linked polyethylene and ceramic-on-ceramic bearing couples with the diameters of 28 mm and 36 mm. For each measured parameter, an arithmetic mean was calculated from 10 measurements. 1) The roughness of polyethylene surfaces was higher by about one order of magnitude than the roughness of metal and ceramic components. The Protasul metal head had the least rough surface (0.003 μm). 2) The ceramic-on-ceramic couples had the lowest clearance. Bearing couples with polyethylene acetabular liners had markedly higher clearances ranging from 150 μm to 545 μm. A clearance increased with large femoral heads (up to 4-fold in one of the couple tested). 3) The friction coefficient was related to the combination of materials; it was lowest in ceramic-on-ceramic surfaces (0.11 to 0.12) and then in ceramic-on-polyethylene implants (0.13 to 0.14). The friction coefficient is

  10. Determination of kinetic coefficients for some selected wastes (research note)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qaisi, M. K.; Samaneh, T; Zoubi, O.

    1999-01-01

    This study was undertaken to estimate the kinetic constants of different wastes experimentally using laboratory scale reactors. three wastes were close n; domestic, brewery, and whey. The resulting data for the three wastes fit well both sludge growth and oxygen utilization kinetic models with high correlation coefficients, and were found to be within the reported values by others. The study shows that oxygen utilization rate was higher for domestic than those for the two other wastes. Also it shows that suspended growth treating brewery and whey wastes are more sensitive to any increase in BOD 5 than that treating domestic wastewater. (authors). 7 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs

  11. Modified loss coefficients in the determination of optimum generation scheduling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazarika, D.; Bordoloi, P.K. (Assam Engineering Coll. (IN))

    1991-03-01

    A modified method has been evolved to form the loss coefficients of an electrical power system network by decoupling load and generation and thereby creating additional fictitious load buses. The system losses are then calculated and co-ordinated to arrive at an optimum scheduling of generation using the standard co-ordination equation. The method presented is superior to the ones currently available, in that it is applicable to a multimachine system with random variation of load and it accounts for limits in plant generations and line losses. The precise nature of results and the economy in the cost of energy production obtained by this method is quantified and presented. (author).

  12. ABSORPTION, SCATTERING, ATTENUATION COEFFICIENTS and Other Data from NOAA-11 SATELLITE From East Coast - US/Canada and Others from 19920201 to 19920331 (NCEI Accession 9200072)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Sea surface topography, absorption, scattering, attenuation coefficients and other data in this accession was collected from NOAA-11 satellite in East Coast...

  13. ABSORPTION, SCATTERING, ATTENUATION COEFFICIENTS and Other Data from NOAA-11 SATELLITE and Other Platforms from 19950101 to 19951231 (NCEI Accession 9500020)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Sea surface topography, absorption, scattering, attenuation coefficients and other data in this accession was collected from NOAA-11 AVHRR satellite in East...

  14. Predicting dissolved lignin phenol concentrations in the coastal ocean from chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM absorption coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric G. Fichot

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved lignin is a well-established biomarker of terrigenous dissolved organic matter (DOM in the ocean, and a chromophoric component of DOM. Although evidence suggests there is a strong linkage between lignin concentrations and chromophoric DOM (CDOM absorption coefficients in coastal waters, the characteristics of this linkage and the existence of a relationship that is applicable across coastal oceans remain unclear. Here, 421 paired measurements of dissolved lignin concentrations (sum of 9 lignin phenols and CDOM absorption coefficients (ag(λ were used to examine their relationship along the river-ocean continuum (0-37 salinity and across contrasting coastal oceans (sub-tropical, temperate, high-latitude. Overall, lignin concentrations spanned four orders of magnitude and revealed a strong, non-linear relationship with ag(λ. The characteristics of the relationship (shape, wavelength dependency, lignin-composition dependency and evidence from degradation indicators were all consistent with lignin being an important driver of CDOM variability in coastal oceans, and suggested physical mixing and long-term photodegradation were important in shaping the relationship. These observations were used to develop two simple empirical models for estimating lignin concentrations from ag(λ with a +/- 20% error relative to measured values. The models are expected to be applicable in most coastal oceans influenced by terrigenous inputs.

  15. The determination of vanadium in brines by atomic absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump-Wiesner, Hans J.; Feltz, H.R.; Purdy, W.C.

    1971-01-01

    A standard addition method is described for the determination of vanadium in brines by atomic absorption spectroscopy with a nitrous oxide-acetylene flame. Sample pH is adjusted to 1.0 with concentrated hydrochloric acid and the vanadium is directly extracted with 5% cupferron in methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). The ketone layer is then aspirated into the flame and the recorded absorption values are plotted as a function of the concentration of the added metal. As little as 2.5 ??g l-1 of vanadium can be detected under the conditions of the procedure. Tungsten and tin interfere when present in excess of 5 and 10 ??g ml-1, respectively. The concentrations of the two interfering ions normally found in brines are well below interference levels. ?? 1971.

  16. Airflow in Gravity Sewers - Determination of Wastewater Drag Coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Østertoft, Kristian Kilsgaard; Vollertsen, Jes; Fuglsang, Emil Dietz; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning

    2016-03-01

    Several experiments have been conducted in order to improve the understanding of the wastewater drag and the wall frictional force acting on the headspace air in gravity sewers. The aim of the study is to improve the data basis for a numerical model of natural sewer ventilation. The results of the study shows that by integrating the top/side wall shear stresses the log-law models for the air velocity distribution along the unwetted perimeter resulted in a good agreement with the friction forces calculated by use of the Colebrook-White formula for hydraulic smooth pipes. Secondly, the water surface drags were found by log-law models of the velocity distribution in turbulent flows to fit velocity profiles measured from the water surface and by integrating the water surface drags along the wetted perimeter, mean water surface drags were found and a measure of the water surface drag coefficient was found.

  17. Determination of the natural convection coefficient in low-gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldmeer, J.; Motevalli, V.; Haghdoust, M.; Jumper, G.

    1992-01-01

    Fire safety is an important issue in the current space program; ignition in low-g needs to be studied. The reduction in the gravitational acceleration causes changes in the ignition process. This paper examines the effect of gravity on natural convection, which is one of the important parameters in the ignition process. The NASA-Lewis 2.2 Second Drop Tower provided the low-gravity environment for the experiments. A series of experiments was conducted to measure the temperature of a small copper plate which was heated by a high intensity lamp. These experiments verified that in low-gravity the plate temperature increased faster than in the corresponding 1-g cases, and that the natural convection coefficient rapidly decreased in the low-gravity environment.

  18. Determination of friction coefficient in unconfined compression of brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Badar; Destrade, Michel; Gilchrist, Michael D

    2012-10-01

    Unconfined compression tests are more convenient to perform on cylindrical samples of brain tissue than tensile tests in order to estimate mechanical properties of the brain tissue because they allow homogeneous deformations. The reliability of these tests depends significantly on the amount of friction generated at the specimen/platen interface. Thus, there is a crucial need to find an approximate value of the friction coefficient in order to predict a possible overestimation of stresses during unconfined compression tests. In this study, a combined experimental-computational approach was adopted to estimate the dynamic friction coefficient μ of porcine brain matter against metal platens in compressive tests. Cylindrical samples of porcine brain tissue were tested up to 30% strain at variable strain rates, both under bonded and lubricated conditions in the same controlled environment. It was established that μ was equal to 0.09±0.03, 0.18±0.04, 0.18±0.04 and 0.20±0.02 at strain rates of 1, 30, 60 and 90/s, respectively. Additional tests were also performed to analyze brain tissue under lubricated and bonded conditions, with and without initial contact of the top platen with the brain tissue, with different specimen aspect ratios and with different lubricants (Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS), Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and Silicone). The test conditions (lubricant used, biological tissue, loading velocity) adopted in this study were similar to the studies conducted by other research groups. This study will help to understand the amount of friction generated during unconfined compression of brain tissue for strain rates of up to 90/s. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Determination of permeability coefficients of ophthalmic drugs through different layers of porcine, rabbit and bovine eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loch, Christian; Zakelj, Simon; Kristl, Albin; Nagel, Stefan; Guthoff, Rudolf; Weitschies, Werner; Seidlitz, Anne

    2012-08-30

    To treat ophthalmic diseases like glaucoma or inflammatory disorders topically applied ophthalmic formulations such as eye drops are usually used. In addition, novel ophthalmic implants releasing drug substances locally into different parts of the eye are available today. In the work presented here, the permeability coefficients of selected drugs (ciprofloxacin hydrochloride, lidocaine hydrochloride, timolol maleate) for ophthalmic tissues were determined using side-by-side diffusion chambers (so-called Ussing chambers). Sclera, conjunctiva, cornea, choroidea-retina-complex and a complex of conjunctiva-sclera-choroidea-retina were excised from fresh porcine, rabbit and bovine eyes. In the porcine eye tissues the highest P(app) values were obtained for conjunctiva with the exception of lidocaine. Therefore, it can be estimated that a certain amount of drug diffuses or is transported through conjunctiva after application. The P(app) values for sclera were also higher than those for cornea and even more, the surface area of sclera which is available for drug absorption is much larger than that of cornea when applying an implant. The obtained permeability coefficients for sclera and conjunctiva indicate that the administration of periocular implants can be an alternative to topically applied formulations. The complexes of the tissues were a significantly (p<0.01) stronger barrier to the investigated substances than the separated tissues. Distinct differences in permeability coefficients between the investigated animal tissues were observed. Overall the highest P(app) values for all mounted tissues were obtained with the rabbit, followed by porcine and bovine eyes. Because of these distinct interspecies differences one must be very careful when selecting the proper animal model for the permeability experiments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Determination of the total attenuation coefficient for six contact lens materials using the Beer-Lambert law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, C C; Crofts, N C

    1996-03-01

    The Beer-Lambert law has been used to determine the total attenuation coefficient, mu t, of three hard and three soft contact lens materials. The three hard contact lens materials were PMMA, Polycon II and Boston IV whereas the 3 soft materials were chosen with differing water contents of 38, 55 and 70%, respectively. The total attenuation coefficients of all six materials were obtained from measurements of the axial transmission at 632.8 nm of a series of plano powered lenses varying in axial thickness from 0.5 to 3.5 mm. The value of the total attenuation coefficient depends on both scattering and absorption and hence PMMA and Boston IV, which both incorporated a handling tint, showed significantly higher values (P 0.5) was found between any of the hydrated soft contact lens materials tested.

  1. Experimental determination of the electron-avalanche and the electron-ion recombination coefficient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ernst, G.J.; Boer, A.G.

    1980-01-01

    The electron-ion recombination coefficient γ and the avalanche coefficient δ = (α − a) · vd, where α and a are the ionizat ion and attachment coefficients respectively and vd the drift velocity of the electrons, have been experimentally determined in a self-sustained CO2-laser system (1:1:3 mixture)

  2. Methods for measuring nuclear properties of materials, Safety coefficient method and measurement of effective absorption coefficient of graphite by safety coefficient method; Razvijanje metoda merenja nuklearnih karakteristika materijala, Razrada metode koeficijenta opasnosti i merenje efektivnog apsorpcionog preseka grafita metodom koeficijenta opasnosti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maglic, R [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1962-11-15

    Reactivity of a reactor depends on production, absorption and leaking of neutrons. Change of absorption causes reactivity change, and this fact is used for determining the neutron absorption cross section for the sample inserted in the reactor core. Method for determining the absorption cross section based on reactivity change is called method of safety coefficient. Measurements of neutron absorption cross section for graphite was done in the RA reactor vertical experimental channel VK-5. taking into account the results obtained for five types of graphite this method is considered to be reliable for use. Comparison of nuclear properties of different types of graphite was done as well. Reaktivnost reaktora zavisi od proizvodnje neutrona, apsorpcije i isticanja neutrona. Promena apsorpcije izaziva promene reaktivnosti reaktora pa se ova osobina koristi za odedjivanje neutronskog apsorpcionog preseka uzorka koji se unosi u reaktor. Metoda merenja apsorpcionog preseka na bazi promene reaktivnosti nazvana je metodom koeficijenta opasnosti. Merenje apsorpcionog preseka grafita uradjeno je na reaktoru RA u vertikalnom eksperimentalnom kanalu VK-5. S obzirom na rezultate koji su dobijeni za pet vrsta grafita moze se smatrati da je opravdano koriscenje ove metode. Izvrseno je i poredjenje nuklearnih osobina pomenutih tipova grafita.

  3. Measurement of X-ray attenuation coefficients around K-absorption edges using Fe Kα X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerur, B.R.; Thontadarya, S.R.; Hanumaiah, B.

    1993-01-01

    The x-ray mass attenuation coefficients were measured around the K-absorption edges of elements in the range 16 ≤ Z ≤ 30 using Fe Kα x-rays of energy 6.400 keV, which is the weighted average energy of Kα 1 and Kα 2 x-ray components from the 57 Co radioactive source. Kβ x-rays were almost eliminated by the differential absorption technique. The small difference in energy between Kα 1 and Kα 2 , 13 eV, was shown to be inconsequential by comparing the measured and theoretical values of μ/ρ for standard materials such as Al, Cu, Mo and Ta. The effect of fine structure of the K-absorption edge on μ/ρ was elucidated by using the compounds of elements in the range 16 ≤ X ≤ 30, containing one element with its K-absorption edge energy (E k ) close to the incident photon energy (E x ). The results clearly indicate the validity of the theoretical mixture rule for all those compounds whose K edge is far away from the incident energy but show deviations of as much as 10% for the manganese compound whose K edge is 140 eV above E x and about 12% for the chromium compound whose K edge is 410 eV below E x . These deviations are attributed to the possible influence of resonance Raman scattering when the incident photon energy E x is less than the edge and to the influence of EXAFS when E x is more than the edge energy. (Author)

  4. Determination of metals in atmospheric particulates using atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alduan, F.A.; Capdevila, C.

    1979-01-01

    Nineteen trace metals in atmospheric samples have been determined by atomic absorption spectrometry, using a graphite furnace for most elements. Paper filters have been used to collect air samples. The sample preparation procedure involves the removal of organic matter and the conversion of the metals to soluble salts by ashing the filters in an oxygen plasma at 125 deg C for 6 h. and by subsequent dissolution in HN0 3 HCl solution. The sensitivities achieved are in the range of 2,5.10 -5 and 6,3.10 -3 μg/m 3 , for an air volume of 2000 m 3 . (author)

  5. Determination of Lead in Urine by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selander, Stig; Cramé, Kim

    1968-01-01

    A method for the determination of lead in urine by means of atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) is described. A combination of wet ashing and extraction with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate into isobutylmethylketone was used. The sensitivity was about 0·02 μg./ml. for 1% absorption, and the detection limit was about 0·02 μg./ml. with an instrumental setting convenient for routine analyses of urines. Using the scale expansion technique, the detection limit was below 0·01 μg./ml., but it was found easier to determine urinary lead concentrations below 0·05 μg./ml. by concentrating the lead in the organic solvent by increasing the volume of urine or decreasing that of the solvent. The method was applied to fresh urines, stored urines, and to urines, obtained during treatment with chelating agents, of patients with lead poisoning. Urines with added inorganic lead were not used. The results agreed well with those obtained with a colorimetric dithizone extraction method (r = 0·989). The AAS method is somewhat more simple and allows the determination of smaller lead concentrations. PMID:5647975

  6. Effect of the concentration of magnetic grains on the linear-optical-absorption coefficient of ferrofluid-doped lyotropic mesophases: deviation from the Beer-Lambert law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuppo, F L S; Gómez, S L; Figueiredo Neto, A M

    2004-04-01

    In this paper is reported a systematic experimental study of the linear-optical-absorption coefficient of ferrofluid-doped isotropic lyotropic mixtures as a function of the magnetic-grains concentration. The linear optical absorption of ferrolyomesophases increases in a nonlinear manner with the concentration of magnetic grains, deviating from the usual Beer-Lambert law. This behavior is associated to the presence of correlated micelles in the mixture which favors the formation of small-scale aggregates of magnetic grains (dimers), which have a higher absorption coefficient with respect to that of isolated grains. We propose that the indirect heating of the micelles via the ferrofluid grains (hyperthermia) could account for this nonlinear increase of the linear-optical-absorption coefficient as a function of the grains concentration.

  7. Determining convective heat transfer coefficient using phoenics software package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostikov, A; Matsevity, Y [Institute of Mechanical Engineering Problems of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    1998-12-31

    The two methods of determination of such important quantity of heat exchange on a body surface using PHOENICS are suggested in the presentation. The first method consists in a post-processing of results of conjugate heat transfer problem solved by PHOENICS. The second one is solving an inverse heat conduction problem for solid body using PHOENICS. Comparative characteristic of these two methods is represented. (author) 4 refs.

  8. Determining convective heat transfer coefficient using phoenics software package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostikov, A.; Matsevity, Y. [Institute of Mechanical Engineering Problems of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    1997-12-31

    The two methods of determination of such important quantity of heat exchange on a body surface using PHOENICS are suggested in the presentation. The first method consists in a post-processing of results of conjugate heat transfer problem solved by PHOENICS. The second one is solving an inverse heat conduction problem for solid body using PHOENICS. Comparative characteristic of these two methods is represented. (author) 4 refs.

  9. Method to determine the sticking coefficient of precursor molecules in atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, M.; Bartha, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    A method to determine the sticking coefficient of precursor molecules used in atomic layer deposition (ALD) will be introduced. The sticking coefficient is an interesting quantity for comparing different ALD processes and reactors but it cannot be observed easily. The method relies on free molecular flow in nanoscale cylindrical holes. The sticking coefficient is determined for tetrakis(dimethylamino)titanium in combination with ozone. The proposed method can be applied independent of the type of reactor, precursor delivery system and precursors.

  10. Guideline for Adopting the Local Reaction Assumption for Porous Absorbers in Terms of Random Incidence Absorption Coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2011-01-01

    resistivity and the absorber thickness on the difference between the two surface reaction models are examined and discussed. For a porous absorber backed by a rigid surface, the assumption of local reaction always underestimates the random incidence absorption coefficient and the local reaction models give...... incidence acoustical characteristics of typical building elements made of porous materials assuming extended and local reaction. For each surface reaction, five well-established wave propagation models, the Delany-Bazley, Miki, Beranek, Allard-Champoux, and Biot model, are employed. Effects of the flow...... errors of less than 10% if the thickness exceeds 120 mm for a flow resistivity of 5000 Nm-4s. As the flow resistivity doubles, a decrease in the required thickness by 25 mm is observed to achieve the same amount of error. For an absorber backed by an air gap, the thickness ratio between the material...

  11. Atomic-absorption determination of tantalum and niobium in ore concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elinson, S.V.; Korovin, Yu.I.; Kuchumov, V.A.

    1975-01-01

    A flame atom-absorption method was developed for determining tantalum and niobium at their level greater than 5% in Ta-Nb ore concentrates. Flame was produced by a nitrous oxide-acetylene mixture. The optimal composition of a buffer (3 mg/ml) of iron was determined by the method of factorial planning of the experiment and steep ascention by gradient. The optimizing parameter in factorial planning was obtained from the difference of optical densities of Ta and Nb, by taking the average value for two solutions which had dissimilar total composition and which imitated the real composition of the ore concentrates, i.e., the value of (ΔD/Dsub(av))sub(Ta) or (ΔD/Dsub(av))sub(Nb). The optimization of analytical conditions corresponded to the condition (ΔD/Dsub(av))→ 0, which indicated that the chosen optimizing parameter also facilitated the attainment of maximum D values. The variation coefficient in the determination of Ta and Nb was respectively 0.8 and 1.4%. There was a good agreement between the results obtained in Ta analysis by the atom-absorption and the extraction-gravimetric methods, and in Nb analysis by the atom-absorption, differential spectrophotometric and x-ray fluorescence methods

  12. Determination of lead in mother's milk by atomic absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandarchian, F.; Assadian, F

    2002-01-01

    With due attention to increasing air pollution specially the lead amount that is generated from gasoline burning in automobiles, it seems that it is necessary to control the amount of it continuously. Because Pb has an easy absorbability to body and also damages the nervous system. For this reason determination of it in mother's milk has a special importance. In this research, the milks of 15 mothers twice a day were examined and the concentration of Pb were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. In accordance the international organization, the permissible amount in body is 0.05 ppm. Fortunately, the obtained data was less than of it and it showed the absorbance of lead by babies is insignificant

  13. Spectral slopes of the absorption coefficient of colored dissolved and detrital material inverted from UV-visible remote sensing reflectance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jianwei; Lee, Zhongping; Ondrusek, Michael; Mannino, Antonio; Tzortziou, Maria; Armstrong, Roy

    2016-03-01

    The spectral slope of the absorption coefficient of colored dissolved and detrital material (CDM), S cdm (units: nm -1 ), is an important optical parameter for characterizing the absorption spectral shape of CDM. Although highly variable in natural waters, in most remote sensing algorithms, this slope is either kept as a constant or empirically modeled with multiband ocean color in the visible domain. In this study, we explore the potential of semianalytically retrieving S cdm with added ocean color information in the ultraviolet (UV) range between 360 and 400 nm. Unique features of hyperspectral remote sensing reflectance in the UV-visible wavelengths (360-500 nm) have been observed in various waters across a range of coastal and open ocean environments. Our data and analyses indicate that ocean color in the UV domain is particularly sensitive to the variation of the CDM spectral slope. Here, we used a synthesized data set to show that adding UV wavelengths to the ocean color measurements will improve the retrieval of S cdm from remote sensing reflectance considerably, while the spectral band settings of past and current satellite ocean color sensors cannot fully account for the spectral variation of remote sensing reflectance. Results of this effort support the concept to include UV wavelengths in the next generation of satellite ocean color sensors.

  14. Water absorption lines, 931-961 nm - Selected intensities, N2-collision-broadening coefficients, self-broadening coefficients, and pressure shifts in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giver, L. P.; Gentry, B.; Schwemmer, G.; Wilkerson, T. D.

    1982-01-01

    Intensities were measured for 97 lines of H2O vapor between 932 and 961 nm. The lines were selected for their potential usefulness for remote laser measurements of H2O vapor in the earth's atmosphere. The spectra were obtained with several different H2O vapor abundances and N2 broadening gas pressures; the spectral resolution was 0.046/cm FWHM. Measured H2O line intensities range from 7 x 10 to the -25th to 7 x 10 to the -22nd/cm per (molecules/sq cm). H2O self-broadening coefficients were measured for 13 of these strongest lines; the mean value was 0.5/cm per atm. N2-collision-broadening coefficients were measured for 73 lines, and the average was 0.11 cm per atm HWHM. Pressure shifts in air were determined for a sample of six lines between 948 and 950 nm; these lines shift to lower frequency by an amount comparable to 0.1 of the collision-broadened widths measured in air or N2. The measured intensities of many lines of 300-000 band are much larger than expected from prior computations, in some cases by over an order of magnitude. Coriolis interactions with the stronger 201-000 band appear to be the primary cause of the enhancement of these line intensities.

  15. Light absorption coefficients by phytoplankton pigments, suspended particles and colored dissolved organic matter in the Crimea coastal water (the Black sea) in June 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiseeva, N.; Churilova, T.; Efimova, T.; Krivenko, O.; Latushkin, A.

    2017-11-01

    Variability of the bio-optical properties of the Crimean coastal waters in June 2016 has been analyzed. The type of vertical distribution chlorophyll a concentration and phytoplankton light absorption coefficients and spectra shape differed between shallow and deeper water. In the deeper water seasonal stratification divided euphotic zone into layers with different environmental conditions. In the deeper part of the euphotic zone (below the thermocline) phytoplankton absorption spectra had local maximum at 550 nm, which was likely to be associated with high abundance of cyanobacteria (Synechococcus sps.) in the phytoplankton community. The concentration of chlorophyll a specific light absorption coefficient of phytoplankton decreased with depth (especially pronounced in the blue domain of the spectrum). In the shallow water the vertical distributions of all absorption properties were relatively homogeneous due to vertical water mixing. In the shallow water non-algal particles light absorption coefficient and its contribution to total particulate absorption were higher than those in the deeper water. The non-algal particles (NAP) and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) light absorption spectra were well described by an exponential function with a slope averaging 0.010 nm-1 (SD = 0.001 nm-1) and 0.022 nm-1 (SD = 0.0060 nm-1), correspondingly. The CDOM absorption at 440 nm and slope coefficient varied significantly across the investigated area, which was possibly associated with the terrestrial influences. The assessment of the contribution of phytoplankton, NAP and CDOM to total light absorption showed that CDOM dominated in the absorption at 440 nm.

  16. Determination of Flow Resistance Coefficient for Vegetation in Open Channel: Laboratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliza Ahmad, Noor; Ali, ZarinaMd; Arish, Nur Aini Mohd; Munirah Mat Daud, Azra; Fatin Amirah Alias, Nur

    2018-04-01

    This study focused on determination of flow resistances coefficient for grass in an open channel. Laboratory works were conducted to examine the effects of varying of roughness elements on the flume to determine flow resistance coefficient and also to determine the optimum flow resistance with five different flow rate, Q. Laboratory study with two type of vegetation which are Cow Grass and Pearl Grass were implementing to the bed of a flume. The roughness coefficient, n value is determine using Manning’s equation while Soil Conservation Services (SCS) method was used to determine the surface resistance. From the experiment, the flow resistance coefficient for Cow Grass in range 0.0008 - 0.0039 while Pearl Grass value for the flow resistance coefficient are in between 0.0013 - 0.0054. As a conclusion the vegetation roughness value in open channel are depends on density, distribution type of vegetation used and physical characteristic of the vegetation itself

  17. Determining Sample Size for Accurate Estimation of the Squared Multiple Correlation Coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algina, James; Olejnik, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    Discusses determining sample size for estimation of the squared multiple correlation coefficient and presents regression equations that permit determination of the sample size for estimating this parameter for up to 20 predictor variables. (SLD)

  18. Distinct positive temperature coefficient effect of polymer-carbon fiber composites evaluated in terms of polymer absorption on fiber surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; Zheng, Shaodi; Zheng, Xiaofang; Liu, Zhengying; Yang, Wei; Yang, Mingbo

    2016-03-21

    In this article, the positive temperature coefficient (PTC) effect was studied for high-density polyethylene (HDPE)/carbon fiber (CF) composites. All of the samples showed a significant PTC effect during the heating processes without a negative temperature coefficient (NTC) effect, even at a temperature much higher than the melting point of the polymer matrix. An ever-increasing PTC intensity with increasing thermal cycles was observed in our study that had never been reported in previous research. The absence of a NTC effect resulted from the increased binding force between the matrix and fillers that contributed to the very special structure of CF surface. We incorporated thermal expansion theory and quantum tunneling effects to explain PTC effect. From the SEM micrographs for the HDPE/CF composites before and after the different thermal cycles, we found that the surface of CF was covered with a layer of polymer which resulted in a change in the gap length between CF and HDPE and its distribution. We believed that the gap change induced by polymer absorption on the fiber surface had a great effect on the PTC effect.

  19. Tomography based determination of permeability, Dupuit-Forchheimer coefficient, and interfacial heat transfer coefficient in reticulate porous ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrasch, Joerg; Meier, Fabian; Friess, Hansmartin; Steinfeld, Aldo

    2008-01-01

    A computer tomography based methodology is applied to determine the transport properties of fluid flow across porous media. A 3D digital representation of a 10-ppi reticulate porous ceramic (RPC) sample was generated by X-ray tomographic scans. Structural properties such as the porosity, specific interfacial surface area, pore-size distribution, mean survival time, two-point correlation function s 2 , and local geometry distribution of the RPC sample are directly extracted from the tomographic data. Reference solutions of the fluid flow governing equations are obtained for Re = 0.2-200 by applying finite volume direct pore-level numerical simulation (DPLS) using unstructured, body-fitted, tetrahedral mesh discretization. The permeability and the Dupuit-Forchheimer coefficient are determined from the reference solutions by DPLS, and compared to the values predicted by selected porous media flow models, namely: conduit-flow, hydraulic radius theory, drag models, mean survival time bound, s 2 -bound, fibrous bed correlations, and local porosity theory-based models. DPLS is further employed to determine the interfacial heat transfer coefficient and to derive a corresponding Nu-correlation, which is compared to empirical correlations

  20. Determination of molybdenum in flotation concentrates by atomic absorption spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ise, Kazuo

    1978-01-01

    Molybdenum was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in 0.05 N ammoniacal solution after the decomposition of the concentrate with aqua regia. Negros ore from Philippines was used as a flotation feed, which contained chalcopyrites and calcium-magnesium minerals. Among the metals tested copper, iron and the alkaline earths interfered. Less than 50 ppm of copper yielded lower results for molybdenum. Higher results came out with more than 50 ppm of copper. In the presence of iron and citric acid (0.4 g/100 ml) which is a suppressor for hydroxide formation, a lower estimation resulted for molybdenum. Calcium interfered, lower results by 2 and >10% being obtained with respective 2.5 and 20 ppm of calcium. More than 20 ppm of magnesium behaved similarly. Sodium sulfate (0.5 g/100 ml) served as the suppressor for copper, iron and citric acid; 100 ppm each of copper and iron did not interfere in this way. Interferences due to calcium and magnesium (less than 60 ppm) was able to be masked by the addition of sodium silicate (200 ppm as silica). The analysis of flotation products and synthetic samples consisting of molybdenite, chalcopyrite, calcium chloride and magnesium sulfate revealed that the atomic absorption method can be applied to the analysis of the concentrates for molybdenum with an error of about 2%. (auth.)

  1. [Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for determination of thallium in blood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q L; Gao, G

    2016-04-20

    Colloidal palladium was used as chemical modifier in the determination of blood thallium by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Blood samples were precipitated with 5% (V/V)nitric acid, and then determined by GFAAS with colloidal palladium used as a chemical modifier. 0.2% (W/V)sodium chloride was added in the standard series to improve the matrix matching between standard solution and sample. The detection limit was 0.2 μg/L. The correlation coefficient was 0.9991. The recoveries were between 93.9% to 101.5%.The relative standard deviations were between 1.8% to 2.7%.The certified reference material of whole blood thallium was determined and the result was within the reference range Conclusion: The method is accurate, simple and sensitive, and it can meet the needs of detection thallium in blood entirely.

  2. Control of methanol vapours in a biotrickling filter: performance analysis and experimental determination of partition coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalos Ramirez, Antonio; Peter Jones, J; Heitz, Michéle

    2009-02-01

    Methanol vapours were treated in a biotrickling filter (BTF) packed with inert polypropylene spheres. The effects of the nitrogen concentration in the nutrient solution, the empty bed residence time (EBRT) and the methanol inlet concentration, on the BTF performance, were all examined. The elimination capacity (EC), the biomass and the carbon dioxide production rates were all increased with the rising of the nitrogen concentration and the EBRT. The EC also rose with increasing methanol inlet load (IL) when the methanol inlet concentration and the EBRT were varied, from 0.3 to 37.0 g m(-3), and from 20 to 65 s, respectively. The BTF reached its maximum EC level of 2160 g m(-3) h(-1) when it was operated at an IL level of 3700 g m(-3) h(-1). The input methanol was removed through two mechanisms: biodegradation and absorption in the liquid phase. The partition coefficient for the methanol in the BTF was determined at five EBRTs and along the packed bed. It generally followed the Henry model, having an average value of 2.64 x 10(-4)[mol L(-1)](gas)/[mol L(-1)](liquid).

  3. Determination of Lead in Blood by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selander, Stig; Cramér, Kim

    1968-01-01

    Lead in blood was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, using a wet ashing procedure and a procedure in which the proteins were precipitated with trichloroacetic acid. In both methods the lead was extracted into isobutylmethylketone before measurement, using ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate as chelator. The simpler precipitation procedure was shown to give results identical with those obtained with the ashing technique. In addition, blood specimens were examined by the precipitation method and by spectral analysis, which method includes wet ashing of the samples, with good agreement. All analyses were done on blood samples from `normal' persons or from lead-exposed workers, and no additions of inorganic lead were made. The relatively simple protein precipitation technique gave accurate results and is suitable for the large-scale control of lead-exposed workers. PMID:5663425

  4. Modelling research on determining shape coefficients for subdivision interpretation in γ-ray spectral logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Wangming; She Guanjun; Tang Bin

    2011-01-01

    This paper first describes the physical meaning of the shape coefficients in the subdivision interpretation of γ-ray logging; then discusses the theory, method to determine the practical shape coefficients with logging model and defines the formula to approximately calculate the coefficients. A great deal of experimental work has been preformed with a HPGe γ-ray spectrometer and reached satisfied result which has validated the effeciency of the modelling method. (authors)

  5. Simultaneous effects of hydrostatic pressure and spin–orbit coupling on linear and nonlinear intraband optical absorption coefficients in a GaAs quantum ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mughnetsyan, V.N.; Manaselyan, A.Kh.; Barseghyan, M.G.; Kirakosyan, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the simultaneous effect of hydrostatic pressure and Rashba spin–orbit interaction on intraband linear and nonlinear light absorption has been investigated in cylindrical quantum ring. The one electron energy spectrum has been found using the effective mass approximation and diagonalization procedure. We have found that the Rashba interaction can lead both to the blue- or to the red-shift of the absorption spectrum depending on the transitions character, while the only red-shift is observed due to the hydrostatic pressure. - Highlights: ► The effects of hydrostatic pressure and spin–orbit coupling are investigated for quantum ring. ► The non-linear absorption coefficient is calculated. ► The hydrostatic pressure leads to the decrease in the absorption coefficient. ► Spin–orbit coupling weakens some transitions and strengthens others.

  6. Determination of the gas-to-membrane mass transfer coefficient in a catalytic membrane reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldsink, J.W.; Versteeg, G.F.; Swaaij, W.P.M. van

    1995-01-01

    A novel method to determine the external mass transfer coefficient in catalytic membrane reactors (Sloot et al., 1992a, b) was presented in this study. In a catalytically active membrane reactor, in which a very fast reaction occurs, the external transfer coefficient can conveniently be measured by

  7. Geopotential coefficient determination and the gravimetric boundary value problem: A new approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjoeberg, Lars E.

    1989-01-01

    New integral formulas to determine geopotential coefficients from terrestrial gravity and satellite altimetry data are given. The formulas are based on the integration of data over the non-spherical surface of the Earth. The effect of the topography to low degrees and orders of coefficients is estimated numerically. Formulas for the solution of the gravimetric boundary value problem are derived.

  8. Estimating absorption coefficients of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) using a semi-analytical algorithm for Southern Beaufort Sea (Canadian Arctic) waters: application to deriving concentrations of dissolved organic carbon from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, A.; Hooker, S. B.; Bricaud, A.; Gentili, B.; Babin, M.

    2012-10-01

    A series of papers have suggested that freshwater discharge, including a large amount of dissolved organic matter (DOM), has increased since the middle of the 20th century. In this study, a semi-analytical algorithm for estimating light absorption coefficients of the colored fraction of DOM (CDOM) was developed for Southern Beaufort Sea waters using remote sensing reflectance at six wavelengths in the visible spectral domain corresponding to MODIS ocean color sensor. This algorithm allows to separate colored detrital matter (CDM) into CDOM and non-algal particles (NAP) by determining NAP absorption using an empirical relationship between NAP absorption and particle backscattering coefficients. Evaluation using independent datasets, that were not used for developing the algorithm, showed that CDOM absorption can be estimated accurately to within an uncertainty of 35% and 50% for oceanic and turbid waters, respectively. In situ measurements showed that dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were tightly correlated with CDOM absorption (r2 = 0.97). By combining the CDOM absorption algorithm together with the DOC versus CDOM relationship, it is now possible to estimate DOC concentrations in the near-surface layer of the Southern Beaufort Sea using satellite ocean color data. DOC concentrations in the surface waters were estimated using MODIS ocean color data, and the estimates showed reasonable values compared to in situ measurements. We propose a routine and near real-time method for deriving DOC concentrations from space, which may open the way to an estimate of DOC budgets for Arctic coastal waters.

  9. The method of atomic absorption spectrophotometry for determining of cadmium in fruit and vegetable products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brzozowska, B.

    1977-01-01

    The method of atomic absorption with the technique of standard addition was used for determination of cadmium in the following tinned products: green peas, cut bean pods, sorel, stewed black currants, greengage plums, orange juice. The products were dry mineralized. Each mineralizate was divided into three portions, known amounts of cadmium were added to two portions and all portions were supplemented to a defined volume. Determinations were performed using a Pye Unicam SP 90 A spectrophotometer and they served as a base for plotting a curve in the system: absorbance - concentration of added metal. The curve was extrapolated to zero absorbance for reading directly the content of the metal in the product. This content was in the range from 10 to 80 μg/kg at variance coefficient 5-15% and the recovery was 80-130%. (author)

  10. Levels of trace elements in different varieties of wheat determined by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, A.E.; Taha, G.M.

    2003-01-01

    Trace elements Ag, Au, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn were determined in six wheat samples purchased from the open market in different localities (Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Oman, Dubai and Australia). The dried powdered samples were decomposed in HNO3-HClO4 acids mixtures and elements were determined using recording atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results were within the safety baseline of all the assayed elements. Certified biological standards, Brown's Kale (BK), Orchard Leaves (OL) and tomato leaves (TOML) were used to assure the accuracy of results. However, Co, Pb and Sr were absent from samples except the Egyptian samples. The obtained databases were statistically treated. Several significant and strong positive correlation coefficients (r=0.506-1.00) between the groups of elements were observed. On the other hand, strong negative correlations (r=0.492-0.873) between another group of elements were also shown. (author)

  11. Determination of diffusion coefficients of various livestock antibiotics in water at infinite dilution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soriano Allan N.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The fate of antibiotics entering the environment raised concerns on the possible effect of antimicrobial resistance bacteria. Prediction of the fate and transport of these particles are needed to be determined, significantly the diffusion coefficient of antibiotic in water at infinite dilution. A systematic determination of diffusion coefficient of antibiotic in water at infinite dilution of five different kinds of livestock antibiotics namely: Amtyl, Ciprotyl, Doxylak Forte, Trisullak, and Vetracin Gold in the 293.15 to 313.15 K temperature range are reported through the use of the method involving the electrolytic conductivity measurements. A continuous stirred tank reactor is utilized to measure the electrolytic conductivities of the considered systems. These conductivities are correlated by using the Nernst-Haskell equation to determine the infinite dilution diffusion coefficient. Determined diffusion coefficients are based on the assumption that in dilute solution, these antibiotics behave as strong electrolyte from which H+ cation dissociate from the antibiotic’s anion.

  12. Determination of diffusion coefficients of various livestock antibiotics in water at infinite dilution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, Allan N.; Adamos, Kristoni G.; Bonifacio, Pauline B.; Adornado, Adonis P.; Bungay, Vergel C.; Vairavan, Rajendaran

    2017-11-01

    The fate of antibiotics entering the environment raised concerns on the possible effect of antimicrobial resistance bacteria. Prediction of the fate and transport of these particles are needed to be determined, significantly the diffusion coefficient of antibiotic in water at infinite dilution. A systematic determination of diffusion coefficient of antibiotic in water at infinite dilution of five different kinds of livestock antibiotics namely: Amtyl, Ciprotyl, Doxylak Forte, Trisullak, and Vetracin Gold in the 293.15 to 313.15 K temperature range are reported through the use of the method involving the electrolytic conductivity measurements. A continuous stirred tank reactor is utilized to measure the electrolytic conductivities of the considered systems. These conductivities are correlated by using the Nernst-Haskell equation to determine the infinite dilution diffusion coefficient. Determined diffusion coefficients are based on the assumption that in dilute solution, these antibiotics behave as strong electrolyte from which H+ cation dissociate from the antibiotic's anion.

  13. Method for the determination of Clebsch-Gordan coefficients of finite magnetic groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, P.M.; Horowitz, L.P.; Ne'eman, Y.

    1980-01-01

    A recent method for the determination of Clebsch-Gordan coefficients of finite magnetic groups is generalised to magnetic groups. Discussion is restricted to unitary-anti-unitary representations of type I.

  14. Determination of the mass attenuation coefficients for X-ray fluorescence measurements correction by the Rayleigh to Compton scattering ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conti, C.C., E-mail: ccconti@ird.gov.br [Institute for Radioprotection and Dosimetry – IRD/CNEN, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Physics Institute, State University of Rio de Janeiro – UERJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Anjos, M.J. [Physics Institute, State University of Rio de Janeiro – UERJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Salgado, C.M. [Nuclear Engineering Institute – IEN/CNEN, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: •This work describes a procedure for sample self-absorption correction. •The use of Monte Carlo simulation to calculate the mass attenuation coefficients curve was effective. •No need for transmission measurement, saving time, financial resources and effort. •This article provides de curves for the 90° scattering angle. •Calculation on-line at (www.macx.net.br). -- Abstract: X-ray fluorescence technique plays an important role in nondestructive analysis nowadays. The development of equipment, including portable ones, enables a wide assortment of possibilities for analysis of stable elements, even in trace concentrations. Nevertheless, despite of the advantages, one important drawback is radiation self-attenuation in the sample being measured, which needs to be considered in the calculation for the proper determination of elemental concentration. The mass attenuation coefficient can be determined by transmission measurement, but, in this case, the sample must be in slab shape geometry and demands two different setups and measurements. The Rayleigh to Compton scattering ratio, determined from the X-ray fluorescence spectrum, provides a link to the mass attenuation coefficient by means of a polynomial type equation. This work presents a way to construct a Rayleigh to Compton scattering ratio versus mass attenuation coefficient curve by using the MCNP5 Monte Carlo computer code. The comparison between the calculated and literature values of the mass attenuation coefficient for some known samples showed to be within 15%. This calculation procedure is available on-line at (www.macx.net.br)

  15. Landsat-8/OLI images has the potential to estimate the CDOM absorption coefficient in tropical inland water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcantara, E.; Bernardo, N.

    2016-12-01

    Colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is the most abundant dissolved organic matter (DOM) in many natural waters and can affect the water quality, such as the light penetration and the thermal properties of water system. So the objective of this letter was to estimate the colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) absorption coefficient at 440 nm, aCDOM(440), in Barra Bonita Reservoir (São Paulo State, Brazil) using OLI/Landsat-8 images. For this two field campaigns were conducted in May and October 2014. During the field campaigns remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) were measured using a TriOS hyperspectral radiometer. Water samples were collected and analyzed to obtain the aCDOM(440). To predict the aCDOM(440) from Rrs at two key wavelengths (650 and 480 nm) were regressed against laboratory derived aCDOM(440) values. The validation using in situ data of aCDOM(440) algorithm indicated a goodness of fit, R2 = 0.70, with a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 10.65%. The developed algorithm was applied to the OLI/Lansat-8 images. Distribution maps were created with OLI/Landsat-8 images based on the adjusted algorithm.

  16. Determination of thermodynamical coefficients for Mo-W alloys according to short-range order parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erokhin, L.N.; Mokrov, A.P.; Shivrin, O.N.; Khanina, N.I.

    1986-01-01

    A method is proposed for determining thermodynamical coefficients according to short-range order parameters. The method approbation for Mo-W alloys has shown a good agreement between the thermodynamical and diffusion data. The Mo-W system in the concentration range under study is close to the ideal one. The calculated relative error of determination of interdiffusion coefficients in alloys of the Mo-W system does not exceed 16%

  17. A Study on the Determinants of Earnings Response Coefficient in an Emerging Market

    OpenAIRE

    Bita Mashayekhi; Zeynab Lotfi Aghel

    2016-01-01

    The determinants of Earnings Response Coefficient (ERC), including firm size, earnings growth, and earnings persistence are studied in this research. These determinants are supposed to be moderator variables that affect ERC and Return Response Coefficient. The research sample contains 82 Iranian listed companies in Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE) from 2001 to 2012. Gathered data have been processed by EVIEWS Software. Results show a significant positive relation between firm size and ERC, and als...

  18. Determining the Viscosity Coefficient for Viscoelastic Wave Propagation in Rock Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Leilei; Zhu, Wancheng; Li, Shaohua; Guan, Kai

    2018-05-01

    Rocks with microdefects exhibit viscoelastic behavior during stress wave propagation. The viscosity coefficient of the wave can be used to characterize the attenuation as the wave propagates in rock. In this study, a long artificial bar with a readily adjustable viscosity coefficient was fabricated to investigate stress wave attenuation. The viscoelastic behavior of the artificial bar under dynamic loading was investigated, and the initial viscoelastic coefficient was obtained based on the amplitude attenuation of the incident harmonic wave. A one-dimensional wave propagation program was compiled to reproduce the time history of the stress wave measured during the experiments, and the program was well fitted to the Kelvin-Voigt model. The attenuation and dispersion of the stress wave in long artificial viscoelastic bars were quantified to accurately determine the viscoelastic coefficient. Finally, the method used to determine the viscoelastic coefficient of a long artificial bar based on the experiments and numerical simulations was extended to determine the viscoelastic coefficient of a short rock bar. This study provides a new method of determining the viscosity coefficient of rock.

  19. Two media method for linear attenuation coefficient determination of irregular soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vici, Carlos Henrique Georges

    2004-01-01

    In several situations of nuclear applications, the knowledge of gamma-ray linear attenuation coefficient for irregular samples is necessary, such as in soil physics and geology. This work presents the validation of a methodology for the determination of the linear attenuation coefficient (μ) of irregular shape samples, in such a way that it is not necessary to know the thickness of the considered sample. With this methodology irregular soil samples (undeformed field samples) from Londrina region, north of Parana were studied. It was employed the two media method for the μ determination. It consists of the μ determination through the measurement of a gamma-ray beam attenuation by the sample sequentially immersed in two different media, with known and appropriately chosen attenuation coefficients. For comparison, the theoretical value of μ was calculated by the product of the mass attenuation coefficient, obtained by the WinXcom code, and the measured value of the density sample. This software employs the chemical composition of the samples and supplies a table of the mass attenuation coefficients versus the photon energy. To verify the validity of the two media method, compared with the simple gamma ray transmission method, regular pome stone samples were used. With these results for the attenuation coefficients and their respective deviations, it was possible to compare the two methods. In this way we concluded that the two media method is a good tool for the determination of the linear attenuation coefficient of irregular materials, particularly in the study of soils samples. (author)

  20. A new methodology for determining dispersion coefficient using ordinary and partial differential transport equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyung Hwa; Lee, Seungwon; Ham, Young Sik; Hwang, Jin Hwan; Cha, Sung Min; Park, Yongeun; Kim, Joon Ha

    2009-01-01

    The present study proposes a methodology for determining the effective dispersion coefficient based on the field measurements performed in Gwangju (GJ) Creek in South Korea which is environmentally degraded by the artificial interferences such as weirs and culverts. Many previous works determining the dispersion coefficient were limited in application due to the complexity and artificial interferences in natural stream. Therefore, the sequential combination of N-Tank-In-Series (NTIS) model and Advection-Dispersion-Reaction (ADR) model was proposed for evaluating dispersion process in complex stream channel in this study. The series of water quality data were intensively monitored in the field to determine the effective dispersion coefficient of E. coli in rainy day. As a result, the suggested methodology reasonably estimates the dispersion coefficient for GJ Creek with 1.25 m(2)/s. Also, the sequential combined method provided Number of tank-Velocity-Dispersion coefficient (NVD) curves for convenient evaluation of dispersion coefficient of other rivers or streams. Comparing the previous studies, the present methodology is quite general and simple for determining the effective dispersion coefficients which are applicable for other rivers and streams.

  1. Experimental determination of the transient heat absorption of W divertor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greuner, H; Böswirth, B; Eich, T; Herrmann, A; Maier, H; Sieglin, B

    2014-01-01

    Fast infrared (IR) thermography resolves the transient edge localized mode (ELM) induced heat fluxes on divertor components on time scales of a few hundred microseconds. These heat loads range from 10 to several 100 MW m −2 and energy densities of 15–200 kJ m −2 . The calculation of the local ELM heat flux depends on the so-called surface heat transfer coefficient very sensitively. Therefore we performed dedicated experiments in the high heat flux test facility GLADIS with well-defined temporal and spatial shape of heat fluxes to reduce the uncertainties of the ELM heat flux calculations in JET. We have experimentally determined the surface heat transfer coefficient for the W components used as divertor components of the JET ILW project. Based on the results of the measured transient heat absorption, the coefficient was deduced in a temperature range from 400 to 1200 °C for the bulk W lamella and for 10 and 20 μm W-coated carbon fibre reinforced carbon tiles, respectively. The measurements allow an improved estimation of ELM heat loads in JET on W and W-coated tiles and an error estimate of the absorbed heat flux. (paper)

  2. Simultaneous all-optical determination of molecular concentration and extinction coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Byungmoon; Tiwari, Vivek; Jonas, David M

    2013-06-04

    Absolute molecular number concentration and extinction coefficient are simultaneously determined from linear and nonlinear spectroscopic measurements. This method is based on measurements of absolute femtosecond pump-probe signals. Accounting for pulse propagation, we present a closed form expression for molecular number concentration in terms of absorbance, fluorescence, absolute pump-probe signal, and laser pulse parameters (pulse energy, spectrum, and spatial intensity profile); all quantities are measured optically. As in gravimetric and coulometric determinations of concentration, no standard samples are needed for calibration. The extinction coefficient can then be determined from the absorbance spectrum and the concentration. For fluorescein in basic methanol, the optically determined molar concentrations and extinction coefficients match gravimetric determinations to within 10% for concentrations from 0.032 to 0.540 mM, corresponding to absorbance from 0.06 to 1. In principle, this photonumeric method is extensible to transient chemical species for which other methods are not available.

  3. Luminescence and optical absorption determination in porous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogal, U.; Calderon, A.; Marin, E.; Rojas T, J. B.; Juarez, A. G.

    2012-10-01

    We applied the photoacoustic spectroscopy technique in order to obtain the optical absorption spectrum in porous silicon samples prepared by electrochemical anodic etching on n-type, phosphorous doped, (100)-oriented crystal-line silicon wafer with thickness of 300 μm and 1-5 ωcm resistivity. The porous layers were prepared with etching times of 13, 20, 30, 40 and 60 minutes. Also, we realized a comparison among the optical absorption spectrum with the photoluminescence and photo reflectance ones, both obtained at room temperature. Our results show that the absorption spectrum of the samples of porous silicon depends notably of the etching time an it consist of two distinguishable absorption bands, one in the Vis region and the other one in the UV region. (Author)

  4. Determination of cadmium in human urine by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Tokuo; Shijo, Yoshio; Sakai, Kaoru

    1981-01-01

    A trace amount of cadmium in human urine was determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. A urine sample (25 ml) was digested with 5 ml of HNO 3 and 30 ml of H 2 O 2 in a long-neck flask on a hot-plate (200 0 C), then diluted to 50 ml. The standard addition method was carried out before digesting. Ten μl of the resulted solution was injected into a tube treated with tungsten carbide, and the cadmium signal was measured with the ramp mode atomization. Interference induced by organic materials in urine was avoided by HNO 3 -H 2 O 2 digestion. Interference induced by inorganic salts could be reduced by 2-fold dilution and tungsten carbide treatment. The cadmium signal was separated sufficiently from the molecular absorption due to NaCl etc. by the ramp mode atomization. Since the blank level of H 2 O 2 was relatively high, the determination was limited to about 0.1 μg/l. The coefficient of variation was 1.76% at 0.36 μg/l in 24 h human urine (n = 4). The time required was (8 -- 10)h. The precision of this method was higher than those of direct methods, and the reasonable values of urine levels of cadmium were obtained. (author)

  5. Correction for sample self-absorption in activity determination by gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galloway, R.B.

    1991-01-01

    Gamma ray spectrometry is a convenient method of determining the activity of the radioactive components in environmental samples. Commonly samples vary in gamma absorption or differ in absorption from the calibration standards available, so that accurate correction for self-absorption in the sample is essential. A versatile correction procedure is described. (orig.)

  6. Osmotic coefficients of alcoholic mixtures containing BMpyrDCA: Experimental determination and correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvar, N.; Domínguez, Á.; Macedo, E.A.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Osmotic coefficients of alcohols with BMpyrDCA ionic liquid are determined. • Experimental data were correlated with Extended Pitzer model of Archer and MNRTL. • Mean molal activity coefficients and excess Gibbs free energies were calculated. • The results have been interpreted in terms of interactions. - Abstract: The vapour pressure osmometry technique (VPO) has been used to obtain the osmotic coefficients of the binary mixtures of the primary and secondary alcohols 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol and 1-pentanol with the ionic liquid 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium dicyanamide, BMpyrDCA. From these coefficients, the corresponding activity coefficients and vapour pressures of the mixtures have been also determined. The results have been discussed in terms of solute–solvent and ion–ion interactions and have been compared with those taken from literature in order to analyse the influence of the anion or cation constituting the ionic liquid. For the treatment of the experimental data, the Extended Pitzer model of Archer and the MNRTL model have been applied, obtaining standard deviations from the experimental osmotic coefficients lower than 0.015 and 0.065, respectively. From the parameters obtained with the Extended Pitzer model or Archer, the mean molal activity coefficients and the excess Gibbs free energy for the studied mixtures have been calculated

  7. On the methods for determining the transverse dispersion coefficient in river mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Kyong Oh; Seo, Il Won

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the strengths and weaknesses of existing methods for determining the dispersion coefficient in the two-dimensional river mixing model were assessed based on hydraulic and tracer data sets acquired from experiments conducted on either laboratory channels or natural rivers. From the results of this study, it can be concluded that, when the longitudinal dispersion coefficient as well as the transverse dispersion coefficients must be determined in the transient concentration situation, the two-dimensional routing procedures, 2D RP and 2D STRP, can be employed to calculate dispersion coefficients among the observation methods. For the steady concentration situation, the STRP can be applied to calculate the transverse dispersion coefficient. When the tracer data are not available, either theoretical or empirical equations by the estimation method can be used to calculate the dispersion coefficient using the geometric and hydraulic data sets. Application of the theoretical and empirical equations to the laboratory channel showed that equations by Baek and Seo [[3], 2011] predicted reasonable values while equations by Fischer [23] and Boxwall and Guymer (2003) overestimated by factors of ten to one hundred. Among existing empirical equations, those by Jeon et al. [28] and Baek and Seo [6] gave the agreeable values of the transverse dispersion coefficient for most cases of natural rivers. Further, the theoretical equation by Baek and Seo [5] has the potential to be broadly applied to both laboratory and natural channels.

  8. Sintering equation: determination of its coefficients by experiments - using multiple regression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Windelberg, D.

    1999-01-01

    Sintering is a method for volume-compression (or volume-contraction) of powdered or grained material applying high temperature (less than the melting point of the material). Maekipirtti tried to find an equation which describes the process of sintering by its main parameters sintering time, sintering temperature and volume contracting. Such equation is called a sintering equation. It also contains some coefficients which characterise the behaviour of the material during the process of sintering. These coefficients have to be determined by experiments. Here we show that some linear regressions will produce wrong coefficients, but multiple regression results in an useful sintering equation. (orig.)

  9. Diffusion and solubility coefficients determined by permeation and immersion experiments for organic solvents in HDPE geomembrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Keh-Ping; Wang, Ping; Wang, Ya-Ting

    2007-04-02

    The chemical resistance of eight organic solvents in high density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane has been investigated using the ASTM F739 permeation method and the immersion test at different temperatures. The diffusion of the experimental organic solvents in HDPE geomembrane was non-Fickian kinetic, and the solubility coefficients can be consistent with the solubility parameter theory. The diffusion coefficients and solubility coefficients determined by the ASTM F739 method were significantly correlated to the immersion tests (pHDPE as barriers in the field.

  10. Determination of Orbiter and Carrier Aerodynamic Coefficients from Load Cell Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, G. M.

    1976-01-01

    A method of determining orbiter and carrier total aerodynamic coefficients from load cell measurements is required to support the inert and the captive active flights of the ALT program. A set of equations expressing the orbiter and carrier total aerodynamic coefficients in terms of the load cell measurements, the sensed dynamics of the Boeing 747 (carrier) aircraft, and the relative geometry of the orbiter/carrier is derived.

  11. The use of photon correlation spectroscopy method for determining diffusion coefficient in brine and herring flesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumanova M.V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The process fish salting has been studied by the method of photon correlation spectroscopy; the distribution of salt concentration in the solution and herring flesh with skin has been found, diffusion coefficients and salt concentrations used for creating a mathematical model of the salting technology have been worked out; the possibility of determination by this method the coefficient of dynamic viscosity of solutions and different media (minced meat etc. has been considered

  12. Determination of thermal reactivity coefficients for the first fuel loading of MO34

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lueley, J.; Vrban, B.; Farkas, G.; Hascik, J.; Hinca, R.; Petriska, M.; Slugen, V.

    2012-01-01

    The article introduces determination of thermal reactivity coefficients, especially summarized (isothermal) and moderator (density) reactivity coefficients between 200 grad C and 260 grad C with 2 grad C step, - in compliance with the assignment - for the first fuel loading into the RC of NP Mochovce units using 2 nd generation fuel during the start-up using calculation code MCNP5 1.60. (authors)

  13. Determination of axial diffusion coefficients by the Monte-Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milgram, M.

    1994-01-01

    A simple method to calculate the homogenized diffusion coefficient for a lattice cell using Monte-Carlo techniques is demonstrated. The method relies on modelling a finite reactor volume to induce a curvature in the flux distribution, and then follows a large number of histories to obtain sufficient statistics for a meaningful result. The goal is to determine the diffusion coefficient with sufficient accuracy to test approximate methods built into deterministic lattice codes. Numerical results are given. (author). 4 refs., 8 figs

  14. Frenkel defect absorption on dislocations and dislocation discharge rate. Modeling determination of the absorption zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhlin, Eh.Ya.

    1988-01-01

    A situation connected with the fact that evaluations of dislocation discharge strength which somehow or other are based on the elasticity theory in the dislocation nucleus or near it, do not lead to results complying with experimental data, is discussed. Bases of the alternative approach to this problem consisting in direct investigation into the process of Frenkel defect absorption on dislocation by its computerized simulation at the microscopic level are also presented. Methods of investigation and results are described using α dislocation in iron-alpha as an example. The concept of zones of vacancy and interstitial atom absorption on dislocation is discussed. It is shown that a spontaneous transition, performed by any of these defects near a dislocation is not always identical to absorption and usually appears to be only a part of a multistage process leading to the defect disappearance. Potential relief characteristics for vacancy movement near the dislocation are found. An area wide enough in a transverse direction is found around the dislocation. Vacncies reaching this area can be easily transported to places of their disappearance. Therefore the vacancy entry to this area is equivalent to the absorption. the procedure of simulating the atomic structure of a crystallite containing a dislocation with a step is described. Positions from which these defects perform spontaneous transitions, reaching the disappearance places are found on the dislocation near the step

  15. A Maximum Likelihood Approach to Determine Sensor Radiometric Response Coefficients for NPP VIIRS Reflective Solar Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ning; Chiang, Kwo-Fu; Oudrari, Hassan; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2011-01-01

    Optical sensors aboard Earth orbiting satellites such as the next generation Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) assume that the sensors radiometric response in the Reflective Solar Bands (RSB) is described by a quadratic polynomial, in relating the aperture spectral radiance to the sensor Digital Number (DN) readout. For VIIRS Flight Unit 1, the coefficients are to be determined before launch by an attenuation method, although the linear coefficient will be further determined on-orbit through observing the Solar Diffuser. In determining the quadratic polynomial coefficients by the attenuation method, a Maximum Likelihood approach is applied in carrying out the least-squares procedure. Crucial to the Maximum Likelihood least-squares procedure is the computation of the weight. The weight not only has a contribution from the noise of the sensor s digital count, with an important contribution from digitization error, but also is affected heavily by the mathematical expression used to predict the value of the dependent variable, because both the independent and the dependent variables contain random noise. In addition, model errors have a major impact on the uncertainties of the coefficients. The Maximum Likelihood approach demonstrates the inadequacy of the attenuation method model with a quadratic polynomial for the retrieved spectral radiance. We show that using the inadequate model dramatically increases the uncertainties of the coefficients. We compute the coefficient values and their uncertainties, considering both measurement and model errors.

  16. Direct Determination of the Absorption of Graphene Mono- and Multi-layers in the Visible and Near-Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yang; Mak, Kin Fai; Lui, Chun Hung; Maultzsch, Janina; Heinz, Tony

    2008-03-01

    Single-crystal mono- and multi-layer graphene samples were prepared by mechanical exfoliation on quartz substrates. The absorption spectra of samples of 1 -- 8 monolayer thickness were measured in the optical and near-infrared range. The absorption coefficient was found to be largely independent of photon energy and linear in the number of graphene layers. Such absorption measurements can thus be used to determine the thickness of mesoscopic graphite to monolayer accuracy, as already demonstrated in the context of Rayleigh scattering [Casiraghi et al. Nano Letters 2007]. By analysis of the optical transmission problem for a thin film at the air-quartz interface, we deduced an absorption of 2.3% per layer. The magnitude of the monolayer absorption agrees with the value of πα, where α is the fine-structure constant, and corresponds the result obtained from a tight-binding model of the graphene electronic structure [Gusynin et al. PRL 2006]. The predicted (and measured) optical absorption, we note, is equivalent to a constant optical conductance ofπe^22h=6.09x10-5φ-1.

  17. Determination of air-loop volume and radon partition coefficient for measuring radon in water sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kil Yong; Burnett, William C

    A simple method for the direct determination of the air-loop volume in a RAD7 system as well as the radon partition coefficient was developed allowing for an accurate measurement of the radon activity in any type of water. The air-loop volume may be measured directly using an external radon source and an empty bottle with a precisely measured volume. The partition coefficient and activity of radon in the water sample may then be determined via the RAD7 using the determined air-loop volume. Activity ratios instead of absolute activities were used to measure the air-loop volume and the radon partition coefficient. In order to verify this approach, we measured the radon partition coefficient in deionized water in the temperature range of 10-30 °C and compared the values to those calculated from the well-known Weigel equation. The results were within 5 % variance throughout the temperature range. We also applied the approach for measurement of the radon partition coefficient in synthetic saline water (0-75 ppt salinity) as well as tap water. The radon activity of the tap water sample was determined by this method as well as the standard RAD-H 2 O and BigBottle RAD-H 2 O. The results have shown good agreement between this method and the standard methods.

  18. Determination of air-loop volume and radon partition coefficient for measuring radon in water sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kil Yong Lee; Burnett, W.C.

    2013-01-01

    A simple method for the direct determination of the air-loop volume in a RAD7 system as well as the radon partition coefficient was developed allowing for an accurate measurement of the radon activity in any type of water. The air-loop volume may be measured directly using an external radon source and an empty bottle with a precisely measured volume. The partition coefficient and activity of radon in the water sample may then be determined via the RAD7 using the determined air-loop volume. Activity ratios instead of absolute activities were used to measure the air-loop volume and the radon partition coefficient. In order to verify this approach, we measured the radon partition coefficient in deionized water in the temperature range of 10-30 deg C and compared the values to those calculated from the well-known Weigel equation. The results were within 5 % variance throughout the temperature range. We also applied the approach for measurement of the radon partition coefficient in synthetic saline water (0-75 ppt salinity) as well as tap water. The radon activity of the tap water sample was determined by this method as well as the standard RAD-H 2 O and BigBottle RAD-H 2 O. The results have shown good agreement between this method and the standard methods. (author)

  19. Determination of trapping parameters and the chemical diffusion coefficient from hydrogen permeation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svoboda, J.; Mori, G.; Prethaler, A.; Fischer, F.D.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A modeling study for diffusion of hydrogen with traps is presented. • Introduction of a new chemical diffusion coefficient. • Density of traps and average depth of traps can be determined. • Lattice diffusion and sub-surface concentration of atomic hydrogen can be determined. - Abstract: An improved diffusion theory accounting for trapping effects is applied to evaluation of hydrogen permeation experiments performed for pure iron and pearlitic and martensitic steels. The trapping parameters as molar volume and depth of traps are determined by fitting experiments by simulations based on the theory. The concentration-dependent chemical diffusion coefficient of hydrogen is extracted indicating that the trapping effect on diffusion in pure iron and pearlitic steel is negligible. However, it is significant for martensitic steel, for which the chemical diffusion coefficient cannot be considered as concentration-independent as it is established in current standards

  20. An experimental determination of the drag coefficient of a Mens 8+ racing shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckmann, James G; Harris, Samuel D

    2014-01-01

    This study centered around an experimental analysis of a Mens Lightweight Eight racing shell and, specifically, determining an approximation for the drag coefficient. A testing procedure was employed that used a Global Positioning System (GPS) unit in order to determine the acceleration and drag force on the shell, and through calculations yield a drag coefficient. The testing was run over several days in numerous conditions, and a 95% confidence interval was established to capture the results. The results obtained, over these varying trials, maintained a successful level of consistency. The significance of this study transcends the determination an approximation for the drag coefficient of the racing shell; it defined a successful means of quantifying performance of the shell itself. The testing procedures outlined in the study represent a uniform means of evaluating the factors that influence drag on the shell, and thus influence speed.

  1. Sensitivity analysis of an experimental methodology to determine radionuclide diffusion coefficients in granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, U.; Missana, T.; Garcia-Gutierrez, M.; Patelli, A.; Rigato, V.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The long-term quantitative analysis of the migration behaviour of the relevant radionuclides (RN) within the geological barrier of a radioactive waste repository requires, amongst other data, the introduction of reliable transport parameters, as diffusion coefficients. Since the determination of diffusion coefficients within crystalline rocks is complex and requires long experimental times even for non-sorbing radionuclides, the data available in the literature are very scarce. The nuclear ion beam technique RBS (Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry) that is successfully used to determine diffusion profiles in thin film science is here examined as possible suitable technique to determine the diffusion coefficients of different RN within granite. As first step, the technique sensitivity and limitations to analyse diffusion coefficients in granite samples is evaluated, considering that the technique is especially sensitive to heavy elements. The required experimental conditions in terms of experimental times, concentration and methodology of analysis are discussed. The diffusants were selected accounting the RBS sensitivity but also trying to cover different behaviours of critical RN and a wide range of possible oxidation states. In particular, Cs(I) was chosen as representative fission product, while as relevant actinides or homologues, the diffusion of Th(IV), U(IV) and Eu (III) was studied. The diffusion of these above-mentioned cations is compared to the diffusion of Re, and I as representative of anionic species. The methodology allowed evaluating diffusion coefficients in the granite samples and, for most of the elements, the values obtained are in agreement with the values found in the literature. The diffusion coefficients calculated ranged from 10 -13 to 10 -16 m 2 /s. It is remarkable that the RBS technique is especially promising to determine diffusion coefficients of high-sorbing RN and it is applicable to a wide range

  2. Stabilized determination of geopotential coefficients by the mixed hom-BLUP approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middel, B.; Schaffrin, B.

    1989-01-01

    For the determination of geopotential coefficients, data can be used from rather different sources, e.g., satellite tracking, gravimetry, or altimetry. As each data type is particularly sensitive to certain wavelengths of the spherical harmonic coefficients it is of essential importance how they are treated in a combination solution. For example the longer wavelengths are well described by the coefficients of a model derived by satellite tracking, while other observation types such as gravity anomalies, delta g, and geoid heights, N, from altimetry contain only poor information for these long wavelengths. Therefore, the lower coefficients of the satellite model should be treated as being superior in the combination. In the combination a new method is presented which turns out to be highly suitable for this purpose due to its great flexibility combined with robustness.

  3. Determination of the Peltier Coefficient of Germanium in a Vertical Bridgeman-Stockbarger Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, Michaela E. K.; Matthiesen, David H.

    1997-01-01

    The Peltier effect is the fundamental mechanism that makes interface demarcation through current pulsing possible. If a method for calculating the necessary current density for effective demarcation is to be developed, it will be necessary to know the value of the Peltier coefficient. This study determined experimentally the value of the Peltier coefficient for gallium-doped germanium by comparing the change in average growth rates between current-on and current-off periods. Current-on and current-off layer thickness measurements were made using differential interference contrast microscopy and atomic force microscopy. It was found that the Joule and Thomson effects could not be neglected. Peltier coefficients calculated from the experimental data with an analysis that accounts for Joule, Thomson, and Peltier effects yielded an average value for the Peltier coefficient of 0.076 +/- 0.015 V.

  4. The mutual diffusion coefficient for (meth)acrylate monomers as determined with a nuclear microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leewis, Christian M.; Mutsaers, Peter H.A.; Jong, Arthur M. de; Ijzendoorn, Leo J. van; Voigt, Martien J.A. de; Ren, Min Q.; Watt, Frank; Broer, Dirk J.

    2004-01-01

    The value of the mutual diffusion coefficient D V of two acrylic monomers is determined with nuclear microprobe measurements on a set of polymer films. These films have been prepared by allowing the monomers to diffuse into each other for a certain time and subsequently applying fast ultraviolet photo-polymerization, which freezes the concentration profile. The monomer diffusion profiles are studied with a scanning 2.1 MeV proton microprobe. Each monomer contains a marker element, e.g., Cl and Si, which are easily detected with proton induced x-ray emission. From the diffusion profiles, it is possible to determine the mutual diffusion coefficient. The mutual diffusion coefficient is dependent of concentration, which is concluded from the asymmetry in the Cl- and Si-profiles. A linear dependence of the mutual diffusion coefficient on the composition is used as a first order approximation. The best fits are obtained for a value of b=(0.38±0.15), which is the ratio of the diffusion coefficient of 1,3-bis(3-methacryloxypropyl)-1, 1,3,3-tetramethyldisiloxane in pure 2-chloroethyl acrylate and the diffusion coefficient of 2-chloroethyl acrylate in pure 1,3-bis(3-methacryloxypropyl)-1,1,3,3-tetramethyldisiloxane. Under the assumption of a linear dependence of the mutual diffusion coefficient D V on monomer composition, it follows that D V =(2.9±0.6)·10 -10 m 2 /s at a 1:1 monomer ratio. With Flory-Huggins expressions for the monomer chemical potentials, one can derive approximate values for the individual monomer diffusion coefficients

  5. Determination of gamma ray attenuation coefficient of archaeological ceramics from Parana State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Richard M.C.; Appoloni, Carlos R.; Parreira, Paulo S.; Coimbra, Melayne M.; Aragao, Pedro H.A.

    1997-01-01

    This work demonstrates an alternative methodology for the linear attenuation coefficient determination (μρ) of irregular form samples. This methodology aims the study of indigenous archaeological ceramics from the region of Londrina, North of Parana State, Brazil. These ceramics are from Padre Carlos Weiss Historic Museum, Londrina University and belong to the Kaingaing tradition. Firstly, μρ determination by two mean method was performed by the gamma ray beam attenuation of the immersed ceramics, by using two different means with well-known linear attenuation coefficient. Beyond, the deduction of the equation for the μρ determination by the two-means methods, was also realized. By the other side, μρ theoretical value was determined with the XCOM computer program. This program uses the ceramics chemistry composition and provides an energy versus mass attenuation coefficient table. To verify the two-means method efficiency, five ceramics sample of thickness 1.15 cm and 1.87 cm were prepared with homogeneous clay. Theses ceramics, we used for the μρ determination using the attenuation method, and two-means method. The results and the μρ obtained deviation were compared for these samples, for the two methods. With the obtained results, it was concluded that the two-means method is applicable for the mass attenuation coefficient determination for the archaeometry studies. (author). 6 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  6. Effects of organometallic chelates and inulin in diets for laying hens on Mn and Fe absorption coefficients and their content in egg and tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornescu Gabriela Maria

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of organic sources of manganese (Mn and iron (Fe and inulin in diets for laying hens on absorption of these minerals and their deposition in egg and tissue. The study was conducted on 90 Lohmann Brown laying hens in the period from 46-52 weeks of age, assigned to 3 groups with 30 hens/group and 3 hens/cage. The hens from the control group (C received a diet based on corn, rice bran and soybean meal with 16% of crude protein, as well as 60 mg Fe/kg and 71.9 mg Mn/kg of diet in form of inorganic salts. The formulation of the experimental diets (E1 and E2 differed from C group diet by the replacement of inorganic Fe and Mn salts by organometallic chelates of these elements, at a level of 25% lower than in the premix for group C. As source of inulin, group E1 diet also included 0.5% of dry Jerusalem artichoke, while group E2 diet included 0.5% of a product based on chicory root extract. At the end of the experiment, 6 hens from each group were slaughtered and blood serum and liver samples were collected and assayed for concentration of Fe and Mn. In the final week of the experiment, 18 eggs/group were collected for determination of Fe and Mn concentration in egg yolk. Concentration of measured blood serum parameters (haemoglobin, haematocrit, Fe and Mn in experimental (E groups were lower than in group C, but no significant differences (P>0.05 were registered. Absorption coefficients of Mn had higher values in E groups than in group C, with significant increase (P0.05 between groups were observed for Mn and Fe concentration in egg yolk.

  7. Determination of surface tension coefficient of liquids by diffraction of light on capillary waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolić, D; Nešić, Lj

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a simple technique for determining the coefficient of the surface tension of liquids, based on laser light diffraction on capillary waves. Capillary waves of given frequency are created by an exciter needle acting on the surface of liquid and represent a reflective diffraction grating, the constant of which (the wavelength of capillary waves) can be determined based on a known incidence angle of light (grazing angle). We obtain the coefficient of the surface tension of liquids by applying the dispersion relation for capillary waves and analyze the difficulties that arise when setting up and conducting the experiment in detail. (paper)

  8. Determination of diffusion coefficients in polypyrrole thin films using a current pulse relaxation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, Reginald M.; Vandyke, Leon S.; Martin, Charles R.

    1987-01-01

    The current pulse E sub oc relaxation method and its application to the determination of diffusion coefficients in electrochemically synthesized polypyrrole thin films is described. Diffusion coefficients for such films in Et4NBF4 and MeCN are determined for a series of submicron film thicknesses. Measurement of the double-layer capacitance, C sub dl, and the resistance, R sub u, of polypyrrole thin films as a function of potential obtained with the galvanostatic pulse method is reported. Measurements of the electrolyte concentration in reduced polypyrrole films are also presented to aid in the interpretation of the data.

  9. The inverse problem of determining several coefficients in a nonlinear Lotka–Volterra system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roques, Lionel; Cristofol, Michel

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we prove a uniqueness result in the inverse problem of determining several non-constant coefficients of a system of two parabolic equations, which corresponds to a Lotka–Volterra competition model. Our result gives a sufficient condition for the uniqueness of the determination of four coefficients of the system. This sufficient condition only involves pointwise measurements of the solution (u, v) of the system and of the spatial derivative ∂u/∂x or ∂v/∂x of one component at a single point x 0 , during a time interval (0, ε). Our results are illustrated by numerical computations. (paper)

  10. Absorption and scattering coefficients estimation in two-dimensional participating media using the generalized maximum entropy and Levenberg-Marquardt methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berrocal T, Mariella J.; Roberty, Nilson C.; Silva Neto, Antonio J.; Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ

    2002-01-01

    The solution of inverse problems in participating media where there is emission, absorption and dispersion of the radiation possesses several applications in engineering and medicine. The objective of this work is to estimative the coefficients of absorption and dispersion in two-dimensional heterogeneous participating media, using in independent form the Generalized Maximum Entropy and Levenberg Marquardt methods. Both methods are based on the solution of the direct problem that is modeled by the Boltzmann equation in cartesian geometry. Some cases testes are presented. (author)

  11. Determination of the coefficient of dynamic friction between coatings of alumina and metallic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A.; Córdoba, E.; Ramírez, Z.; Sierra, C.; Ortega, Y.

    2017-12-01

    This project aims to determine the coefficient of dynamic friction between micrometric size coatings of alumina and metallic materials (Steel and aluminium); the methodology used to achieve the proposed objective consisted of 4 phases, in the first one was developed a procedure that allowed, from a Pin on Disk machine built based on the specifications given by the ASTM G99-05 standard (Standard test method for wear tests with a Pin on Disk machine), to determine the coefficient of dynamic friction between two materials in contact; subsequently the methodology was verified through tests between steel-steel and steel-aluminium, due to these values are widely reported in the literature; as a third step, deposits of alumina particles of micrometric size were made on a steel substrate through thermal spraying by flame; finally, the tests were carried out between pins of steel of aluminium and alumina coating to determine the coefficients of dynamic friction between these two surfaces. The results of the project allowed to verify that the developed methodology is valid to obtain coefficients of dynamic friction between surfaces in contact since the percentages of error were of 3.5% and 2.1% for steel-steel and aluminium-steel, respectively; additionally, it was found that the coefficient of friction between steel-alumina coatings is 0.36 and aluminium-alumina coating is 0.25.

  12. Experimental Research on the Determination of the Coefficient of Sliding Wear under Iron Ore Handling Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Chen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The handling of iron ore bulk solids maintains an increasing trend due to economic development. Because iron ore particles have hard composites and irregular shapes, the bulk solids handling equipment surface can suffer from severe sliding wear. Prediction of equipment surface wear volume is beneficial to the efficient maintenance of worn areas. Archard’s equation provides a theoretical solution to predict wear volume. To use Archard’s equation, the coefficient of sliding wear must be determined. To our best knowledge, the coefficient of sliding wear for iron ore handling conditions has not yet been determined. In this research, using a pin-on-disk tribometer, the coefficients of sliding wear for both Sishen particles and mild steel are determined with regard to iron ore handling conditions. Both naturally irregular and spherical shapes of particles are used to estimate average values of wear rate. Moreover, the hardness and inner structures of Sishen particles are examined, which adds the evidence of the interpretation of wear results. It is concluded that the coefficients of sliding wear can vary largely for both Sishen particle and mild steel. The wear rate decreases from transient- to steady-state. The average coefficient of sliding wear is capable of predicting wear with respect to long distances at the steady-state. Two types of sliding friction are distinguished. In addition, it is found that the temperature rise of the friction pairs has negligible influence on wear rate.

  13. Determination of the temperature coefficients and the kinetic parameters for the HTTR safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuhara, K.; Nakata, T.; Murata, I.; Yamashita, K.; Shindo, R.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the calculational methods which were employed to determine the temperature coefficients and the kinetic parameters for the safety analysis in the HTTR (High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor). The temperature coefficients (doppler, moderator temperature) and the kinetic parameters (prompt neutron life time; l, effective delayed neutron fraction; β eff) are important for the point model core dynamic analysis and should be evaluated properly. The temperature coefficients were calculated by the whole core model. Doppler coefficient was evaluated under the conditions of all control rods withdrawn and the uniform change of fuel temperature. The minimum and the maximum value of the evaluated doppler coefficients in a burnup cycle are -4.6x10 -5 and -1.5x10 -5 ΔK/K/deg. C respectively. The moderator temperature coefficient was evaluated under the conditions of all control rods withdrawn and the uniform change of moderator temperature. The minimum and the maximum value of the evaluated moderator temperature coefficients in a burnup cycle are -17.1x10 -5 and 0.99x10 -5 ΔK/K/deg. C respectively. In spite of positive moderator temperature coefficient, the power coefficient is always negative. Therefore the HTTR possesses inherent power-suppressing feed back characteristic in all operating condition. We surveyed the effects of the Xe existence, the control rods existence, the fuel temperature and the region in which the temperature was changed on the moderator temperature coefficients. The kinetic parameters were calculated by the perturbation method with the whole core model. The minimum and the maximum value of the evaluated effective delayed neutron fraction (β eff) are 0.0047 and 0.0065 respectively. These of the evaluated prompt neutron life time (l) are 0.67 and 0.78 ms respectively. We have surveyed the effects of the fuel depletion and the core power level on these parameters, and considered these effects on the kinetic parameters. From

  14. Thermal expansion coefficient determination of polylactic acid using digital image correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botean, Adrian-Ioan

    2018-02-01

    This paper aims determining the linear thermal expansion coefficient (CTE) of polylactic acid (PLA) using an optical method for measuring deformations called digital image correlation method (DIC). Because PLA is often used in making many pieces with 3D printing technology, it is opportune to know this coefficient to obtain a higher degree of precision in the construction of parts and to monitor deformations when these parts are subjected to a thermal gradient. Are used two PLA discs with 20 and 40% degree of filling. In parallel with this approach was determined the linear thermal expansion coefficient (CTE) for the copper cylinder on the surface of which are placed the two discs of PLA.

  15. Thermal expansion coefficient determination of polylactic acid using digital image correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botean Adrian - Ioan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims determining the linear thermal expansion coefficient (CTE of polylactic acid (PLA using an optical method for measuring deformations called digital image correlation method (DIC. Because PLA is often used in making many pieces with 3D printing technology, it is opportune to know this coefficient to obtain a higher degree of precision in the construction of parts and to monitor deformations when these parts are subjected to a thermal gradient. Are used two PLA discs with 20 and 40% degree of filling. In parallel with this approach was determined the linear thermal expansion coefficient (CTE for the copper cylinder on the surface of which are placed the two discs of PLA.

  16. Determination of uranyl nitrate diffusion coefficients in organic and aqueous media using the porous diaphragm method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chierice, G.O.

    1974-01-01

    The diffusion coefficient is one of the parameters necessary for the obtention of the extraction exponential coefficients, that are contained within the H.T.U. (height of transfer unity) calculation expression, when operating with continuous organic phase. The organic phase used was tri-n-butyl-phosphate (TBP) and varsol in the 35% and 65% proportions respectively. After each experiment, the uranium content present in each compartment was spectrophotometrically determined and the quantities contained in the aqueous phases were determined by means of volumetric titration. It was found out that the uranyl ion diffusion coefficient is two and one half times less in organic phase, this just being attributed to the greater interactions of the uranyl ions in organic than in aqueous medium

  17. Determination of the concentration dependent diffusion coefficient of nitrogen in expanded austenite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2008-01-01

    The concentration dependent diffusion coefficient of nitrogen in expanded austenite was determined from of the rate of retracting nitrogen from thin initially N-saturated coupons. Nitrogen saturated homogeneous foils of expanded austenite were obtained by nitriding AISI 304 and AISI 316 in pure...... in the composition range where nitrogen can be extracted by hydrogen gas at the diffusion temperature. Numerical simulation of the denitriding experiments shows that the thus determined concentration dependent diffusion coefficients are an accurate approximation of the actual diffusivity of nitrogen in expanded...... ammonia at 693 K and 718 K. Denitriding experiments were performed by equilibrating the foils with a successively lower nitrogen activity, as imposed by a gas mixture of ammonia and hydrogen. The concentration dependent diffusion coefficient of nitrogen in expanded austenite was approximated...

  18. Non-destructive testing method for determining the solvent diffusion coefficient in the porous materials products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, V. P.; Mishchenko, S. V.; Belyaev, P. S.

    2018-01-01

    Ensuring non-destructive testing of products in industry is an urgent task. Most of the modern methods for determining the diffusion coefficient in porous materials have been developed for bodies of a given configuration and size. This leads to the need for finished products destruction to make experimental samples from them. The purpose of this study is the development of a dynamic method that allows operatively determine the diffusion coefficient in finished products from porous materials without destroying them. The method is designed to investigate the solvents diffusion coefficient in building constructions from materials having a porous structure: brick, concrete and aerated concrete, gypsum, cement, gypsum or silicate solutions, gas silicate blocks, heat insulators, etc. A mathematical model of the method is constructed. The influence of the design and measuring device operating parameters on the method accuracy is studied. The application results of the developed method for structural porous products are presented.

  19. Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Computing Technique for Determining Turbulent Flow Friction Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Givehchi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of the friction coefficient in pipes is very important in many water and wastewater engineering issues, such as distribution of velocity and shear stress, erosion, sediment transport and head loss. In analyzing these problems, knowing the friction coefficient, can obtain estimates that are more accurate. In this study in order to estimate the friction coefficient in pipes, using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS, grid partition method was used. For training and testing of neuro-fuzzy model, the data derived from the Colebrook’s equation was used. In the neuro-fuzzy approach, pipe relative roughness and Reynolds number are considered as input variables and friction coefficient as output variable is considered. Performance of the proposed approach was evaluated by using of the data obtained from the Colebrook’s equation and based on statistical indicators such as coefficient determination (R2, root mean squared error (RMSE and mean absolute error (MAE. The results showed that the adaptive nerou-fuzzy inference system with grid partition method and gauss model as an input membership function and linear as an output function could estimate friction coefficient more accurately than other conditions. The new proposed approach in this paper has capability of application in the practical design issues and can be combined with mathematical and numerical models of sediment transfer or real-time updating of these models.

  20. Pathlength Determination for Gas in Scattering Media Absorption Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Mei

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Gas in scattering media absorption spectroscopy (GASMAS has been extensively studied and applied during recent years in, e.g., food packaging, human sinus monitoring, gas diffusion studies, and pharmaceutical tablet characterization. The focus has been on the evaluation of the gas absorption pathlength in porous media, which a priori is unknown due to heavy light scattering. In this paper, three different approaches are summarized. One possibility is to simultaneously monitor another gas with known concentration (e.g., water vapor, the pathlength of which can then be obtained and used for the target gas (e.g., oxygen to retrieve its concentration. The second approach is to measure the mean optical pathlength or physical pathlength with other methods, including time-of-flight spectroscopy, frequency-modulated light scattering interferometry and the frequency domain photon migration method. By utilizing these methods, an average concentration can be obtained and the porosities of the material are studied. The last method retrieves the gas concentration without knowing its pathlength by analyzing the gas absorption line shape, which depends upon the concentration of buffer gases due to intermolecular collisions. The pathlength enhancement effect due to multiple scattering enables also the use of porous media as multipass gas cells for trace gas monitoring. All these efforts open up a multitude of different applications for the GASMAS technique.

  1. Absorption coefficient and refractive index changes of a quantum ring in the presence of spin-orbit couplings: Temperature and Zeeman effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, A.; Azargoshasb, T.; Niknam, E.

    2017-10-01

    Effects of applied magnetic field, temperature and dimensions on the optical absorption coefficients (AC) and refractive index (RI) changes of a GaAs quantum ring are investigated in the presence of both Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions (SOI). To this end, the finite difference method (FDM) is used in order to numerically calculate the energy eigenvalues and eigenstates of the system while the compact density matrix approach is hired to calculate the optical properties. It is shown that application of magnetic field, temperature as well as the geometrical size in the presence of spin-orbit interactions, alter the electronic structure and consequently influence the linear and third-order nonlinear optical absorption coefficients as well as the refractive index changes of the system. Results show an obvious blue shift in optical curves with enhancing external magnetic field and temperature while the increment of dimensions result in red shift.

  2. Evaluation of self-absorption coefficients of aluminum emission lines in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Sherbini, A.M.; El Sherbini, Th.M.; Hegazy, H.; Cristoforetti, G.; Legnaioli, S.; Palleschi, V.; Pardini, L.; Salvetti, A.; Tognoni, E.

    2005-01-01

    In quantitative Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) measurements it is essential to account for the effect of self-absorption on the emission lines intensity. In order to quantify this effect, in this paper we propose a simple method for evaluating the ratio between the actual measured line intensity and the intensity expected in absence of self-absorption and, if necessary, correcting the effect of self-absorption on line intensity. The method, based on a homogeneous plasma model, is applicable when the plasma electron density is known and in particular to lines whose Stark broadening parameter is available

  3. The determination of the pressure-viscosity coefficient of two traction oils using film thickness measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van H.J.

    2010-01-01

    The pressure-viscosity coefficients of two commercial traction fluids are determined by fitting calculation results on accurate film thickness measurements, obtained at a wide range of speeds, and different temperatures. Film thickness values are calculated using a numerical method and approximation

  4. Simple Method to Determine the Partition Coefficient of Naphthenic Acid in Oil/Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bitsch-Larsen, Anders; Andersen, Simon Ivar

    2008-01-01

    The partition coefficient for technical grade naphthenic acid in water/n-decane at 295 K has been determined (K-wo = 2.1 center dot 10(-4)) using a simple experimental technique with large extraction volumes (0.09 m(3) of water). Furthermore, nonequilibrium values at different pH values...

  5. Thermographic determination of the sheath heat transmission coefficient in a high density plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den M.A.; Bystrov, K.E.; Pasquet, R.; Zielinski, J.J.; De Temmerman, G.C.

    2013-01-01

    Experiments were performed in the Pilot-PSI linear plasma device, to determine the sheath heat transmission coefficients in a high recycling regime under various conditions of density (1–20 × 1020 m-3) and plasma composition (H2, Ar, N2) relevant for the ITER divertor plasma. The 2D surface

  6. determination of reaeration coefficient k2 for polluted stream as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    include velocity of flow, average depth of flow, DO, self purification ratio (f) and reaeration constant (K2). ... Determination of Reaeration Reaeration Coefficient K2 for Polluted Stream. 175. Table 1: ... and theory on which it is based. The result ...

  7. Estimating absorption coefficients of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) using a semi-analytical algorithm for southern Beaufort Sea waters: application to deriving concentrations of dissolved organic carbon from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, A.; Hooker, S. B.; Bricaud, A.; Gentili, B.; Babin, M.

    2013-02-01

    A series of papers have suggested that freshwater discharge, including a large amount of dissolved organic matter (DOM), has increased since the middle of the 20th century. In this study, a semi-analytical algorithm for estimating light absorption coefficients of the colored fraction of DOM (CDOM) was developed for southern Beaufort Sea waters using remote sensing reflectance at six wavelengths in the visible spectral domain corresponding to MODIS ocean color sensor. This algorithm allows the separation of colored detrital matter (CDM) into CDOM and non-algal particles (NAP) through the determination of NAP absorption using an empirical relationship between NAP absorption and particle backscattering coefficients. Evaluation using independent datasets, which were not used for developing the algorithm, showed that CDOM absorption can be estimated accurately to within an uncertainty of 35% and 50% for oceanic and coastal waters, respectively. A previous paper (Matsuoka et al., 2012) showed that dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were tightly correlated with CDOM absorption in our study area (r2 = 0.97). By combining the CDOM absorption algorithm together with the DOC versus CDOM relationship, it is now possible to estimate DOC concentrations in the near-surface layer of the southern Beaufort Sea using satellite ocean color data. DOC concentrations in the surface waters were estimated using MODIS ocean color data, and the estimates showed reasonable values compared to in situ measurements. We propose a routine and near real-time method for deriving DOC concentrations from space, which may open the way to an estimate of DOC budgets for Arctic coastal waters.

  8. Estimating absorption coefficients of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM using a semi-analytical algorithm for southern Beaufort Sea waters: application to deriving concentrations of dissolved organic carbon from space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Matsuoka

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A series of papers have suggested that freshwater discharge, including a large amount of dissolved organic matter (DOM, has increased since the middle of the 20th century. In this study, a semi-analytical algorithm for estimating light absorption coefficients of the colored fraction of DOM (CDOM was developed for southern Beaufort Sea waters using remote sensing reflectance at six wavelengths in the visible spectral domain corresponding to MODIS ocean color sensor. This algorithm allows the separation of colored detrital matter (CDM into CDOM and non-algal particles (NAP through the determination of NAP absorption using an empirical relationship between NAP absorption and particle backscattering coefficients. Evaluation using independent datasets, which were not used for developing the algorithm, showed that CDOM absorption can be estimated accurately to within an uncertainty of 35% and 50% for oceanic and coastal waters, respectively. A previous paper (Matsuoka et al., 2012 showed that dissolved organic carbon (DOC concentrations were tightly correlated with CDOM absorption in our study area (r2 = 0.97. By combining the CDOM absorption algorithm together with the DOC versus CDOM relationship, it is now possible to estimate DOC concentrations in the near-surface layer of the southern Beaufort Sea using satellite ocean color data. DOC concentrations in the surface waters were estimated using MODIS ocean color data, and the estimates showed reasonable values compared to in situ measurements. We propose a routine and near real-time method for deriving DOC concentrations from space, which may open the way to an estimate of DOC budgets for Arctic coastal waters.

  9. Pressure shift coefficient measurements in an RF discharge for Ar 4s[3/2]2—5p[3/2]3 transition with the help of diodelaser absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyshov, A. K.; Mikheyev, P. A.; Lunev, N. N.; Azyazov, V. N.

    2018-04-01

    Optically pumped all-rare-gas laser (OPRGL) with unique properties were recently proposed with a possibility to obtain the laser power on the order of hundreds of Watts from a cubic centimeter. To provide high laser efficiency, the pumping radiation has to match the absorption spectrum of the rare gas metastables. To meet this condition a reliable diagnostics of the key parameters of the active medium is required and knowledge of the broadening and shift coefficients for corresponding transitions of rare gases is necessary. In this paper, the diode-laser absorption spectroscopy was employed to determine the pressure shift coefficient for 811.5 nm Ar line. The value of obtained coefficient in pure argon reduced to 300 K is -(2.1 ± 0.1) × 10-10 s-1cm3. In the course of the study the pressure broadening coefficient was also evaluated and found to be (2.4 ± 0.5) × 10-10 s-1cm3.

  10. Measurement of X-ray mass attenuation coefficient of nickel around the K-edge using synchrotron radiation based X-ray absorption study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Bunty Rani; Rajput, Parasmani; Jha, S.N.; Nageswara Rao, A.S.

    2015-01-01

    The work presents the X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) technique for measuring the X-ray mass attenuation coefficient of nickel metal foil in the X-ray energy range of 8271.2–8849.4 eV using scanning XAFS beam line (BL-09) at Indus-2 synchrotron radiation source facility, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT) at Indore, India. The result represents the X-ray mass attenuation coefficient data for 0.02 mm thick Ni metal foil in the XAFS region of Ni K-edge. However, the results are compared to theoretical values using X-COM. There is a maximum deviation which is found exactly near the K-edge jump and decreases as we move away from the absorption edge. Oscillatory structure appears just above the observed absorption edge i.e., 8348.7 eV and is confined to around 250 eV above the edge. - Highlights: • Mass attenuation coefficient measurements of nickel using synchrotron radiation. • The measurements were taken exactly near the Ni K-edge at an energy step of 1 eV. • A maximum deviation is found near the K-edge

  11. Wronskian and Grammian Determinant Solutions for a Variable-Coefficient Kadomtsev-Petviashvili Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Zhenzhi; Zhu Hongwu; Meng Xianghua; Lue Xing; Shan Wenrui; Tian Bo; Zhang Chunyi

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we derive the bilinear form for a variable-coefficient Kadomtsev-Petviashvili-typed equation. Based on the bilinear form, we obtain the Wronskian determinant solution, which is proved to be indeed an exact solution of this equation through the Wronskian technique. In addition, we testify that this equation can be reduced to a Jacobi identity by considering its solution as a Grammian determinant by means of Pfaffian derivative formulae

  12. Determination of Concentration Dependent Diffusion Coefficients of Carbon in Expanded Austenite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hummelshøj, Thomas Strabo; Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract. In the present paper various experimental procedures to experimentally determine the concentration dependent diffusion coefficient of carbon in expanded austenite are evaluated. To this end thermogravimetric carburization was simulated for various experimental conditions and the evaluated...... composition dependent diffusivity of carbon derived from the simulated experiments was compared with the input data. The most promising procedure for an accurate determination is shown to be stepwise gaseous carburizing of thin foils in a gaseous atmosphere; the finer the stepsize, the more accurate...

  13. Linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients in GaAs/Ga1−xAlxAs concentric double quantum rings: Effects of hydrostatic pressure and aluminum concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baghramyan, H.M.; Barseghyan, M.G.; Kirakosyan, A.A.; Restrepo, R.L.; Duque, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    The linear and nonlinear intra-band optical absorption coefficients in GaAs/Ga 1−x Al x As two-dimensional concentric double quantum rings are investigated. Taking into account the combined effects of hydrostatic pressure and aluminum concentration the energies of the ground (n=1,l=0) and the first excited state (n=2,l=1) have been found using the effective mass approximation and the transfer matrix formalism. The energies of these states and the corresponding threshold energy of the intra-band optical transitions are examined as a function of hydrostatic pressure and aluminum concentration for different sizes of the structure. We also investigated the dependencies of the linear, nonlinear, and total optical absorption coefficients as functions of the incident photon energy for different values of hydrostatic pressure, aluminum concentration, sizes of the structure, and incident optical intensity. Its is found that the effects of the hydrostatic pressure and the aluminum concentration lead to a shifting of the resonant peaks of the intra-band optical spectrum. - Highlights: ► Linear and nonlinear intra-band absorption in quantum rings. ► Threshold energy strongly depends on the hydrostatic pressure. ► Threshold energy strongly depends on the stoichiometry and sizes of structure. ► Optical absorption is affected by the incident optical intensity.

  14. On a new procedure for determining the diffusion coefficients of swarm electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, R.; Wilhelm, J.; Braglia, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    A new method for solving the Boltzmann kinetic equation applied to the determination of diffusion coefficients of swarm electrons in a model plasma, and CO 2 and N 2 plasmas is proposed. The method which uses Legendre polynomial expansion of the electron velocity distribution of the stationary and homogeneous plasma, is based upon an analytical isolation of the non-singular part of the general solution from the singular part. The converged values of the diffusion coefficients given by the new method are compared with the results of Monte-Carlo simulations. (D.Gy.)

  15. Experimental determination of the local heat transfer coefficient in a closely packed pin arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, S.V.

    1982-09-01

    The determination of the heat transfer coefficient of the pins of the Spallation Neutron Source is a very important problem for the development of this facility, as data for thermal and structural studies. For this purpose, a test apparatus was built, in scale 1:1, for the simulation of the thermal and hydraulical conditions of the Neutron Source. This apparatus is a pin bank, with one of the pins electrically heated. Performance of measurements gave the values for the heat transfer coefficient, here presented in the Nusselt Number form, and its local distribution. Results show the linear dependence of Nusselt Number on Reynolds Number, for a constant heat production. (orig.) [de

  16. Determination of re-aeration coefficients on high mountain rivers using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajardo, Marco

    2001-01-01

    The rivers Machangara and Guayllabamba in Quito, Ecuador, currently are highly polluted, mainly due to human and industrial residues from the city. The objective of this survey is to establish the dynamics of dissolved oxygen in these rivers using the Krypton 85 method to determine the re aeration coefficient in representative sectors of the rivers. In addition, conventional test tracers establish mean flow speed and flow longitudinal dispersion coefficients. The results of this study will be useful for future water quality modelling of these rivers, in order to define their behaviour and auto depurative capacity to treat sludge waters from Quito

  17. Determination and reliability of dose coefficients for radiopharmaceuticals; Ermittlung der Zuverlaessigkeit von Dosiskoeffizienten fuer Radiopharmaka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spielmann, V.; Li, W.B.; Zankl, M.; Oeh, U.

    2015-11-15

    The dose coefficients used in nuclear medicine for dose calculations of radiopharmaceuticals are based on recommendations by ICRP (International Commission on radiological protection) and the MIRD (Medical Internal Radiation Dose Committee) using mathematical models for the temporal activity distributions in organs and tissues (biokinetic models) and mathematical models of the human body. These models using an idealized human body do not include uncertainty estimations. The research project is aimed to determine the uncertainties and thus the reliability of the dose coefficients for radiopharmaceuticals and to identify the biokinetic and dosimetric parameters that contribute most of the uncertainties.

  18. Attenuation coefficient determination of printed ABS and PLA samples in diagnostic radiology standard beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veneziani, G.R.; Correa, E.L.; Potiens, M.P.A.; Campos, L.L.

    2015-01-01

    IAEA code of practice TRS-457 states that standard phantoms should offer the same primary attenuation and scatter production as relevant body section of a representative patient. Material cost, availability and dimensional stability must also be considered. The goal of this study is to determine the attenuation coefficient of printed ABS and PLA in standard X-ray beams, verifying if phantoms printed with these materials could be an easier-handle substitute for PMMA, enabling the creation of different designs in an easier and cheaper way. Results show that PMMA presents higher attenuation coefficient, followed by PLA and ABS, which means that thinner PMMA layer creates higher radiation attenuation. (author)

  19. Compartment modelling in nuclear medicine: a new program for the determination of transfer coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallstadius, L.

    1986-01-01

    In many investigations concerning transport/exchange of matter in a natural system, e.g. functional studies in nuclear medicine, it is advantageous to relate experimental results to a model of the system. A new computer program is presented for the determination of linear transfer coefficients in a compartment model from experimentally observed time-compartment content curves. The program performs a least-square fit with the specified precision of the observed values as weight factors. The resulting uncertainty in the calculated transfer coefficients may also be assessed. The application of the program in nuclear medicine is demonstrated and discussed. (author)

  20. Determination of the sticking coefficient of low-energy hydrocarbon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tichmann, Klaus Markus

    2011-01-01

    The maximum lifetime of future fusion facilities like ITER will be limited by the retention of radioactive tritium in the vessel walls. The retention is significantly affected by the sticking coefficient of hydrocarbon molecules that form in the machine. Using a particle-beam experiment, this sticking coefficient was determined for multiple species at energies below 200 eV. The equipment for the production of the particle beam was optimised and a new ion source for hydrocarbon ions was developed. Simulations using molecular dynamics were performed in parallel to improve the understanding of the processes at the surface.

  1. Determination numbers of ionized atoms from emission and absorption lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alizadeh Azimi, A.; Shokouhi, N.

    2002-01-01

    Saha, M., (1920) estimated that salter chromosphere is not only due to radiation from neutral atoms, but from ionized atoms. The failure to observe these stellar lines in the laboratory was attributed to internal temperature and pressure about 10* E + 6 K 10* E-7 atm. In this research we found that emission lines of ionized atoms (like Cs) could be measured in laboratory condition, (about 10* E-3 atm and 2000 K) by using Graphite France Atomic Absorption with injection 124 u g C sel. We calculated the numbers of ionized atoms from Bottzman law. We also measured these numbers from area under the energy-time curve

  2. Determination of technetium by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaye, J.H.; Ballou, N.E.

    1978-01-01

    A detection limit of 6 x 10 -11 g has been achieved for measurement of technetium by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. A commercially available, demountable, hollow cathode lamp was used and both argon and neon were used as fill gases for the lamp. The range of applicability of the method, when the unresolved 2614.23 to 2615.87 A doublet is used for analysis, is from 60 pg to at least 3 ng of technetium per aliquot analyzed. 3 figures, 1 table

  3. Inverse method for determining radon diffusion coefficient and free radon production rate of fragmented uranium ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Yong-jun; Wang, Li-heng; Ding, De-xin; Zhao, Ya-li; Fan, Nan-bin

    2014-01-01

    The radon diffusion coefficient and the free radon production rate are important parameters for describing radon migration in the fragmented uranium ore. In order to determine the two parameters, the pure diffusion migration equation for radon was firstly established and its analytic solution with the two parameters to be determined was derived. Then, a self manufactured experimental column was used to simulate the pure diffusion of the radon, the improved scintillation cell method was used to measure the pore radon concentrations at different depths of the column loaded with the fragmented uranium ore, and the nonlinear least square algorithm was used to inversely determine the radon diffusion coefficient and the free radon production rate. Finally, the solution with the two inversely determined parameters was used to predict the pore radon concentrations at some depths of the column, and the predicted results were compared with the measured results. The results show that the predicted results are in good agreement with the measured results and the numerical inverse method is applicable to the determination of the radon diffusion coefficient and the free radon production rate for the fragmented uranium ore. - Highlights: • Inverse method for determining two transport parameters of radon is proposed. • A self-made experimental apparatus is used to simulate radon diffusion process. • Sampling volume and position for measuring radon concentration are optimized. • The inverse results of an experimental sample are verified

  4. Analysis of vibration waveforms of electromechanical response to determine piezoelectric and electrostrictive coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Tatsuya; Hagiwara, Manabu; Hoshina, Takuya; Takeda, Hiroaki; Tsurumi, Takaaki

    2012-08-01

    We developed a possible method to determine both coefficients of piezoelectricity (d) and electrostriction (M) at the same time by a waveform analysis of current and vibration velocity in the resonance state. The waveforms of the current and vibration velocity were theoretically described using the equations of motion and piezoelectric constitutive equations, considering the dissipation effect. The dissipation factor of the d coefficient and M coefficient is dielectric loss tangent tan δ. The waveforms measured in all of the ceramics, such as Pb(Zr,Ti)O(3) (PZT), Pb(Mg,Nb)O(3) (PMN), and 0.8Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb2/3)O(3)-0.2PbTiO(3) (PMN-PT), were well fitted with the calculated waveform. This fitting produced both the d and M coefficients, which agreed with those determined via the conventional methods. Moreover, the respective contributions of both piezoelectricity and electrostriction to the d value determined in the resonance-antiresonance method were clarified.

  5. Accurate Determination of Tunneling-Affected Rate Coefficients: Theory Assessing Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Junxiang; Xie, Changjian; Guo, Hua; Xie, Daiqian

    2017-07-20

    The thermal rate coefficients of a prototypical bimolecular reaction are determined on an accurate ab initio potential energy surface (PES) using ring polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD). It is shown that quantum effects such as tunneling and zero-point energy (ZPE) are of critical importance for the HCl + OH reaction at low temperatures, while the heavier deuterium substitution renders tunneling less facile in the DCl + OH reaction. The calculated RPMD rate coefficients are in excellent agreement with experimental data for the HCl + OH reaction in the entire temperature range of 200-1000 K, confirming the accuracy of the PES. On the other hand, the RPMD rate coefficients for the DCl + OH reaction agree with some, but not all, experimental values. The self-consistency of the theoretical results thus allows a quality assessment of the experimental data.

  6. New method and installation for rapid determination of radon diffusion coefficient in various materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsapalov, Andrey; Gulabyants, Loren; Livshits, Mihail; Kovler, Konstantin

    2014-04-01

    The mathematical apparatus and the experimental installation for the rapid determination of radon diffusion coefficient in various materials are developed. The single test lasts not longer than 18 h and allows testing numerous materials, such as gaseous and liquid media, as well as soil, concrete and radon-proof membranes, in which diffusion coefficient of radon may vary in an extremely wide range, from 1·10(-12) to 5·10(-5) m(2)/s. The uncertainty of radon diffusion coefficient estimation depends on the permeability of the sample and varies from about 5% (for the most permeable materials) to 40% (for less permeable materials, such as radon-proof membranes). Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Determination and correlation of mass transfer coefficients in a stirred cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herranz, J.; Bloxom, S.R.; Keeler, J.B.; Roth, S.R.

    1975-01-01

    In the proposed Molten Salt Breeder Reactor flowsheet, a fraction of the rare earth fission products is removed from the fuel salt in mass transfer cells. To obtain design parameters for this extraction, the effect of cell size, blade diameter, phase volume, and agitation rate on the mass transfer for a high density ratio system (mercury/water) in nondispersing square cross section contactors was determined. Aqueous side mass transfer coefficients were measured by polarography over a wide range of operating conditions. Correlations for the experimental mass transfer coefficients as functions of the operating parameters are presented. Several techniques for measuring mercury-side mass transfer coefficients were evaluated and a new one is recommended

  8. Preliminary results of an algorithm to determine the total absorption coefficient of water

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suresh, T.; Talaulikar, M.; Desa, E.J.; Lotlikar, A.

    ”, J. Math. Phys., 18, 51–151(1939). [15] Gordon H. R. and D. C. Clarke, “Remote sensing of optical properties of a stratified ocean: an improved interpretation,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3428–3430 (1980). [16] Sokoletsky, L. G.., Yacobi, Y. Z., “Comparison...

  9. Fabrication And Determination Of Coefficient Absorption Of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon By Direct Evaporation Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoso, Agus; Darsono; Sujitno, Tjipto; Suprapto

    1996-01-01

    Fabrication and characterization of hydrogenated amorphous silicon produced by direct evaporation method have been done. The experiment was carried out at pressure conditions of 2 x 10-5 torr, RF frequency of 13.56 MHz, hydrogen gas flow of 0,8 1/minute, electrode distance of 2.48 cm. voltage electrode of 700 volt and evaporation time 1.45 minute. Using UV-VIS spectrophotometer, it is found that at wavelength of 359 nm, the absorbance degree of material that was by direct hydrogenated method was 0,886. This means that more hydrogen are absorbed by direct method While, if the hydrogenation is carried out by means of indirect method, the degree of absorbance at the wavelength of 359 nm is 0,103. From this result, it can be concluded that the direct methods is better than indirect method

  10. Impact of the cameras radiometric resolution on the accuracy of determining spectral reflectance coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orych, A.; Walczykowski, P.; Jenerowicz, A.; Zdunek, Z.

    2014-11-01

    Nowadays remote sensing plays a very important role in many different study fields, i.e. environmental studies, hydrology, mineralogy, ecosystem studies, etc. One of the key areas of remote sensing applications is water quality monitoring. Understanding and monitoring of the water quality parameters and detecting different water contaminants is an important issue in water management and protection of whole environment and especially the water ecosystem. There are many remote sensing methods to monitor water quality and detect water pollutants. One of the most widely used method for substance detection with remote sensing techniques is based on usage of spectral reflectance coefficients. They are usually acquired using discrete methods such as spectrometric measurements. These however can be very time consuming, therefore image-based methods are used more and more often. In order to work out the proper methodology of obtaining spectral reflectance coefficients from hyperspectral and multispectral images, it is necessary to verify the impact of cameras radiometric resolution on the accuracy of determination of them. This paper presents laboratory experiments that were conducted using two monochromatic XEVA video sensors (400-1700 nm spectral data registration) with two different radiometric resolutions (12 and 14 bits). In view of determining spectral characteristics from images, the research team used set of interferometric filters. All data collected with multispectral digital video cameras were compared with spectral reflectance coefficients obtained with spectroradiometer. The objective of this research is to find the impact of cameras radiometric resolution on reflectance values in chosen wavelength. The main topic of this study is the analysis of accuracy of spectral coefficients from sensors with different radiometric resolution. By comparing values collected from images acquired with XEVA sensors and with the curves obtained with spectroradiometer it

  11. Determination of the Accomodation Coefficient Using Vapor/Gas Bubble Dynamics in an Acoustic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumerov, Nail A.

    1999-01-01

    Non-equilibrium liquid/vapor phase transformations can occur in superheated or subcooled liquids in fast processes such as in evaporation in a vacuum, in processing of molten metals, and in vapor explosions. The rate at which such a phase transformation occurs, Xi, can be described by the Hertz-Knudsen-Langmuir formula. More than one century of the history of the accommodation coefficient measurements shows many problems with its determination. This coefficient depends on the temperature, is sensitive to the conditions at the interface, and is influenced by small amounts of impurities. Even recent measurements of the accommodation coefficient for water (Hagen et al, 1989) showed a huge variation in Beta from 1 for 1 micron droplets to 0.006 for 15 micron droplets. Moreover, existing measurement techniques for the accommodation coefficient are complex and expensive. Thus development of a relatively inexpensive and reliable technique for measurement of the accommodation coefficient for a wide range of substances and temperatures is of great practical importance.

  12. Statistical Analysis of Bending Rigidity Coefficient Determined Using Fluorescence-Based Flicker-Noise Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doskocz, Joanna; Drabik, Dominik; Chodaczek, Grzegorz; Przybyło, Magdalena; Langner, Marek

    2018-06-01

    Bending rigidity coefficient describes propensity of a lipid bilayer to deform. In order to measure the parameter experimentally using flickering noise spectroscopy, the microscopic imaging is required, which necessitates the application of giant unilamellar vesicles (GUV) lipid bilayer model. The major difficulty associated with the application of the model is the statistical character of GUV population with respect to their size and the homogeneity of lipid bilayer composition, if a mixture of lipids is used. In the paper, the bending rigidity coefficient was measured using the fluorescence-enhanced flicker-noise spectroscopy. In the paper, the bending rigidity coefficient was determined for large populations of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine vesicles. The quantity of obtained experimental data allows to perform statistical analysis aiming at the identification of the distribution, which is the most appropriate for the calculation of the value of the membrane bending rigidity coefficient. It has been demonstrated that the bending rigidity coefficient is characterized by an asymmetrical distribution, which is well approximated with the gamma distribution. Since there are no biophysical reasons for that we propose to use the difference between normal and gamma fits as a measure of the homogeneity of vesicle population. In addition, the effect of a fluorescent label and types of instrumental setups on determined values has been tested. Obtained results show that the value of the bending rigidity coefficient does not depend on the type of a fluorescent label nor on the type of microscope used.

  13. Band gap of corundumlike α -Ga2O3 determined by absorption and ellipsometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, A.; Artús, L.; Cuscó, R.; Goldhahn, R.; Feneberg, M.

    2017-07-01

    The electronic structure near the band gap of the corundumlike α phase of Ga2O3 has been investigated by means of optical absorption and spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements in the ultraviolet (UV) range (400-190 nm). The absorption coefficient in the UV region and the imaginary part of the dielectric function exhibit two prominent absorption thresholds with wide but well-defined structures at 5.6 and 6.3 eV which have been ascribed to allowed direct transitions from crystal-field split valence bands to the conduction band. Excitonic effects with large Gaussian broadening are taken into account through the Elliott-Toyozawa model, which yields an exciton binding energy of 110 meV and direct band gaps of 5.61 and 6.44 eV. The large broadening of the absorption onset is related to the slightly indirect character of the material.

  14. Long term change in atmospheric dust absorption, dust scattering and black carbon aerosols scattering coefficient parameters over western Indian locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoliya, Anil Kumar; Vyas, B. M.; Shekhawat, M. S.

    2018-05-01

    The first time satellite space based measurement of atmospheric black carbon (BC) aerosols scattering coefficient at 550nm (BC SC at 550nm), dust aerosols scattering and dust aerosols extinction coefficient (DSC at 550nm and DEC at 550nm) parameters have been used to understand their long term trend of natural and anthropogenic aerosols behavior with its close association with ground based measured precipitation parameters such as Total Rain Fall (TRF), and Total Number of Rainy Days (TNRD) for the same period over western Indian regions concerned to the primary aerosols sources of natural activities. The basic objective of this study is an attempt to investigate the inter-correlation between dust and black carbon aerosols loading characteristics with a variation of rainfall pattern parameters as indirect aerosols induced effect i.e., aerosols-cloud interaction. The black carbon aerosols generated by diverse anthropogenic or human made activities are studied by choosing of measured atmospheric BC SC at 550nm parameter, whereas desert dust mineral aerosols primarily produced by varieties of natural activities pre-dominated of dust mineral desert aerosols mainly over Thar desert influenced area of hot climate and rural tropical site are investigated by selecting DSC at 550nm and DEC at 550nm of first semi-urban site i.e., Udaipur (UDP, 24.6°N, 73.35°E, 580m above surface level (asl)) situated in southern Rajasthan part as well as over other two Great Indian Thar desert locations i.e., Jaisalmer (JSM, 26.90°N, 69.90°E, 220m asl)) and Bikaner (BKN, 28.03°N, 73.30°E, 224m asl) located in the vicinity of the Thar desert region situated in Rajasthan state of the western Indian region. The source of the present study would be collection of longer period of monthly values of the above parameters of spanning 35 years i.e., 1980 to 2015. Such types of atmospheric aerosols-cloud monsoon interaction investigation is helpful in view of understanding their direct and

  15. New method and installation for rapid determination of radon diffusion coefficient in various materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsapalov, Andrey; Gulabyants, Loren; Livshits, Mihail; Kovler, Konstantin

    2014-01-01

    The mathematical apparatus and the experimental installation for the rapid determination of radon diffusion coefficient in various materials are developed. The single test lasts not longer than 18 h and allows testing numerous materials, such as gaseous and liquid media, as well as soil, concrete and radon-proof membranes, in which diffusion coefficient of radon may vary in an extremely wide range, from 1·10 −12 to 5·10 −5 m 2 /s. The uncertainty of radon diffusion coefficient estimation depends on the permeability of the sample and varies from about 5% (for the most permeable materials) to 40% (for less permeable materials, such as radon-proof membranes). - Highlights: • The new method and installation for determination of radon diffusion coefficient D are developed. • The measured D-values vary in an extremely wide range, from 5×10 -5 to 1×10 -12 m 2 /s. • The materials include water, air, soil, building materials and radon-proof membranes. • The duration of the single test does not exceed 18 hours. • The measurement uncertainty varies from 5% (in permeable materials) to 40% (in radon gas barriers)

  16. Determination of drying kinetics and convective heat transfer coefficients of ginger slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, Ebru Kavak; Toraman, Seda

    2016-10-01

    In the present work, the effects of some parametric values on convective heat transfer coefficients and the thin layer drying process of ginger slices were investigated. Drying was done in the laboratory by using cyclone type convective dryer. The drying air temperature was varied as 40, 50, 60 and 70 °C and the air velocity is 0.8, 1.5 and 3 m/s. All drying experiments had only falling rate period. The drying data were fitted to the twelve mathematical models and performance of these models was investigated by comparing the determination of coefficient ( R 2), reduced Chi-square ( χ 2) and root mean square error between the observed and predicted moisture ratios. The effective moisture diffusivity and activation energy were calculated using an infinite series solution of Fick's diffusion equation. The average effective moisture diffusivity values and activation energy values varied from 2.807 × 10-10 to 6.977 × 10-10 m2/s and 19.313-22.722 kJ/mol over the drying air temperature and velocity range, respectively. Experimental data was used to evaluate the values of constants in Nusselt number expression by using linear regression analysis and consequently, convective heat transfer coefficients were determined in forced convection mode. Convective heat transfer coefficient of ginger slices showed changes in ranges 0.33-2.11 W/m2 °C.

  17. Random effects coefficient of determination for mixed and meta-analysis models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidenko, Eugene; Sargent, James; Onega, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    The key feature of a mixed model is the presence of random effects. We have developed a coefficient, called the random effects coefficient of determination, [Formula: see text], that estimates the proportion of the conditional variance of the dependent variable explained by random effects. This coefficient takes values from 0 to 1 and indicates how strong the random effects are. The difference from the earlier suggested fixed effects coefficient of determination is emphasized. If [Formula: see text] is close to 0, there is weak support for random effects in the model because the reduction of the variance of the dependent variable due to random effects is small; consequently, random effects may be ignored and the model simplifies to standard linear regression. The value of [Formula: see text] apart from 0 indicates the evidence of the variance reduction in support of the mixed model. If random effects coefficient of determination is close to 1 the variance of random effects is very large and random effects turn into free fixed effects-the model can be estimated using the dummy variable approach. We derive explicit formulas for [Formula: see text] in three special cases: the random intercept model, the growth curve model, and meta-analysis model. Theoretical results are illustrated with three mixed model examples: (1) travel time to the nearest cancer center for women with breast cancer in the U.S., (2) cumulative time watching alcohol related scenes in movies among young U.S. teens, as a risk factor for early drinking onset, and (3) the classic example of the meta-analysis model for combination of 13 studies on tuberculosis vaccine.

  18. An indirect atomic absorption spectrometric determination of ciprofloxacin, amoxycillin and diclofenac sodium in pharmaceutical formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAHMOUD MOHAMED ISSA

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A highly sensitive indirect atomic absorption spectrophotometric (AAS method has been developed for the determination of very low concentrations of ciprofloxacin, amoxycillin and diclofenac sodium. The method is based on the oxidation of these drugs with iron(III. The excess of iron(III was extracted into diethyl ether and then the iron(II in the aqueous layer was aspirated into an air–acetylene flame and determined by AAS. The linear concentration ranges were 25–400, 50–500 and 60–600 ng ml-1 for ciprofloxacin, amoxycillin and diclofenac sodium, respectively. The results were statistically compared with the official method using t- and f-test at p < 0.05. There were insignificant interferences from most of the excipients present. The intra- and inter-day assay coefficients of variation were less than 6.1 % and the recoveries ranged from 95 to 103 %. The method was applied for the analysis of these drug substances in their commercial pharmaceutical formulations.

  19. Using wave intensity analysis to determine local reflection coefficient in flexible tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ye; Parker, Kim H; Khir, Ashraf W

    2016-09-06

    It has been shown that reflected waves affect the shape and magnitude of the arterial pressure waveform, and that reflected waves have physiological and clinical prognostic values. In general the reflection coefficient is defined as the ratio of the energy of the reflected to the incident wave. Since pressure has the units of energy per unit volume, arterial reflection coefficient are traditionally defined as the ratio of reflected to the incident pressure. We demonstrate that this approach maybe prone to inaccuracies when applied locally. One of the main objectives of this work is to examine the possibility of using wave intensity, which has units of energy flux per unit area, to determine the reflection coefficient. We used an in vitro experimental setting with a single inlet tube joined to a second tube with different properties to form a single reflection site. The second tube was long enough to ensure that reflections from its outlet did not obscure the interactions of the initial wave. We generated an approximately half sinusoidal wave at the inlet of the tube and took measurements of pressure and flow along the tube. We calculated the reflection coefficient using wave intensity (R dI and R dI 0.5 ) and wave energy (R I and R I 0.5 ) as well as the measured pressure (R dP ) and compared these results with the reflection coefficient calculated theoretically based on the mechanical properties of the tubes. The experimental results show that the reflection coefficients determined by all the techniques we studied increased or decreased with distance from the reflection site, depending on the type of reflection. In our experiments, R dP , R dI 0.5 and R I 0.5 are the most reliable parameters to measure the mean reflection coefficient, whilst R dI and R I provide the best measure of the local reflection coefficient, closest to the reflection site. Additional work with bifurcations, tapered tubes and in vivo experiments are needed to further understand, validate the

  20. Absorption dynamics of organic chemical transport across trout gills as related to octanol-water partition coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKim, J.; Schmieder, P.; Veith, G.

    1985-01-01

    An in vivo fish preparation was used that allowed a direct measure of the transport rates of 14 different organic chemicals across the gills of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). The chemicals, all C14 labeled, were selected from five classes, encompassing a range of octanol-water partition coefficient (log P) values, from 0.23 (ethyl formate) to 7.5 (mirex). The uptake efficiency (extraction efficiency) of each chemical was determined by monitoring the inspired and expired water of trout exposed to each chemical over an exposure period of 1 to 6 hr. The mean gill extraction efficiency for all chemicals tested varied from a low of 7% to a high of 60%, extracted in a single pall of the chemical across the gills. The extraction efficiency of chemicals with log P or 1 or less were low and showed no relationship to log P. These low extraction efficiencies seen at log P of 1 and below with molecular weights below 100 were indicative of aqueous pore transport. The mean extraction efficiency for chemicals with log P values of 1 to 3 seemed to vary directly with log P, to a maximum of slightly greater than 60%, suggesting that uptake was controlled by the lipid membrane. The mean extraction efficiency for chemicals with log P of 3 to 6 was independent of log P and remained at 60%, which suggested that gill uptake was controlled by aqueous diffusion rates rather than gill membrane permeability. The mean extraction efficiency with mirex (log P . 7.5) decreased to 20%

  1. TO DETERMINATION OF DAMPING COEFFICIENT OF VERTICAL DEAD STRESS OF EARTH DAMS ON A DEPTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NESTEROVA E. V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. At the problem solving about determination of deflected mode (DM of build constructions by the finite element method (FEM on accuracy of solving substantial influence is rendered by the sizes of effective area of foundation. It is suggested to develop the criteria of determining the size of effective area. Presently at the calculation of vertical fallouts of earth dams with the trapeziform section (fig. 1, is assumed that the epure of contact pressures has a rectangular form [2, 6]. Thus actual epure of contact pressures on the sole of dam has form of trapezoid (fig. 1. Thus, there is a disparity between actual and accepted in the normative documents in the contact pressures on the sole of earth dams. Purpose. At writing of this article we were pursue a purpose to calculate the value of damping coefficient of vertical dead stress on the depth of foundation, trapeziform loading determined and to foundation attached. About it has been already written not a bit in scientific literature [2; 5; 6; 7; 13]. In our view, for determination of vertical fallouts of foundation of earth dams it is necessary to use the formula of D-1 DBN [7], corrected in it the damping coefficient of vertical stress on a depth, conditioned of dam weight, that is to calculate a trapezoidal form of environmental stress (fig. 1. Conclusion. The damping coefficients of vertical stress calculated by us on a depth (tablas. 1 allow more exactly to determine their values, than coefficients, presented in normative documents [7]. This is caused by more complete, than it takes a place in normative documents, in the light of configuration of the environmental stress.

  2. Precise determination of protein extinction coefficients under native and denaturing conditions using SV-AUC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Andreas; Grassl, Kerstin; Gommert, Janine; Schlesak, Christian; Bepperling, Alexander

    2018-04-17

    The accurate determination of protein concentration is an important though non-trivial task during the development of a biopharmaceutical. The fundamental prerequisite for this is the availability of an accurate extinction coefficient. Common approaches for the determination of an extinction coefficient for a given protein are either based on the theoretical prediction utilizing the amino acid sequence or the photometric determination combined with a measurement of absolute protein concentration. Here, we report on an improved SV-AUC based method utilizing an analytical ultracentrifuge equipped with absorbance and Rayleigh interference optics. Global fitting of datasets helped to overcome some of the obstacles encountered with the traditional method employing synthetic boundary cells. Careful calculation of dn/dc values taking glycosylation and solvent composition into account allowed the determination of the extinction coefficients of monoclonal antibodies and an Fc-fusion protein under native as well as under denaturing conditions. An intra-assay precision of 0.9% and an accuracy of 1.8% compared to the theoretical value was achieved for monoclonal antibodies. Due to the large number of data points of a single dataset, no meaningful difference between the ProteomeLab XL-I and the new Optima AUC platform could be observed. Thus, the AUC-based approach offers a precise, convenient and versatile alternative to conventional methods like total amino acid analysis (AAA).

  3. Determination of extinction coefficients of human hemoglobin in various redox states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fantao; Alayash, Abdu I

    2017-03-15

    The role of hemoglobin (Hb) redox forms in tissue and organ toxicities remain ambiguous despite the well-documented contribution of Hb redox reactivity to cellular and subcellular oxidative changes. Moreover, several recent studies, in which Hb toxicity were investigated, have shown conflicting outcomes. Uncertainties over the potential role of these species may in part be due to the protein preparation method of choice, the use of published extinction coefficients and the lack of suitable controls for Hb oxidation and heme loss. Highly purified and well characterized redox forms of human Hb were used in this study and the extinction coefficients of each Hb species (ferrous/oxy, ferric/met and ferryl) were determined. A new set of equations were established to improve accuracy in determining the transient ferryl Hb species. Additionally, heme concentrations in solutions and in human plasma were determined using a novel reversed phase HPLC method in conjugation with our photometric measurements. The use of more accurate redox-specific extinction coefficients and method calculations will be an invaluable tool for both in vitro and in vivo experiments aimed at determining the role of Hb-mediated vascular pathology in hemolytic anemias and when Hb is used as oxygen therapeutics. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Simultaneous Atomic Absorption Spectrometry for Cadmium and Lead Determination in Wastewater: A Laboratory Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Paulo R. M.; Oliveira, Pedro V.

    2004-01-01

    The simultaneous determination of cadmium and lead by multi-element atomic absorption spectrometry with electrochemical atomization is proposed by employing a problem-based approach. The reports indicate that the students assimilated the principles of the simultaneous atomic absorption spectrometry (SIMAAS), the role of the chemical modifier, the…

  5. A laboratory manual for the determination of metals in water and wastewater by atomic absorption spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.

    1983-01-01

    This guide presents, in addition to a brief discussion of the basic principles and practical aspects of atomic absorption spectrophotometry, a scheme of analysis for the determination of 19 metals in water and wastewater, 16 by flame atomic absorption and 3 by vapour generation techniques. Simplicity, speed and accuracy were the main criteria considered in the selection of the various methods

  6. A Novel Method to Determine the Hydrodynamic Coefficients of an Eyeball ROV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yh, Eng; Ws, Lau; Low, E.; Ggl, Seet; Cs, Chin [Robotic Research Center, School of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering (MAE), Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Ave, 639798 Singapore (Singapore)

    2009-01-12

    A good dynamics model is essential and critical for the successful design of navigation and control system of an underwater vehicle. However, it is difficult to determine from the hydrodynamic forces, the inertial added mass terms and the drag coefficients. In this paper, a new experimental method has been used to find the hydrodynamic forces for the ROV II, a remotely operated underwater vehicle. The proposed method is based on the classical free decay test, but with the spring oscillation replaced by a pendulum motion. The experiment results determined from the free decay test of a scaled model compared well with the simulation results obtained from well‐established computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program. Thus, the proposed approach can be used to find the added mass and drag coefficients for other underwater vehicles.

  7. A Novel Method to Determine the Hydrodynamic Coefficients of an Eyeball ROV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yh, Eng; Ws, Lau; Low, E.; Ggl, Seet; Cs, Chin

    2009-01-01

    A good dynamics model is essential and critical for the successful design of navigation and control system of an underwater vehicle. However, it is difficult to determine from the hydrodynamic forces, the inertial added mass terms and the drag coefficients. In this paper, a new experimental method has been used to find the hydrodynamic forces for the ROV II, a remotely operated underwater vehicle. The proposed method is based on the classical free decay test, but with the spring oscillation replaced by a pendulum motion. The experiment results determined from the free decay test of a scaled model compared well with the simulation results obtained from well‐established computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program. Thus, the proposed approach can be used to find the added mass and drag coefficients for other underwater vehicles.

  8. On determination of enthalpies of complex formation reactions by means of temperature coefficient of complexing degree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povar, I.G.

    1995-01-01

    Equations describing the relation between temperature coefficient of ∂lnα/∂T complexing degree and the sum of changes in the enthalpy of complex formation of the composition M m L n δH mn multiplied by the weight coefficients k mm , are presented. A method to determine changes in the enthalpy of certain ΔH mm reactions from ∂lnα/∂T derivatives has been suggested. The best approximating equation from lnα/(T) dependence has been found. Errors of thus determined δH mm values are estimated and the results of calculation experiment for the system In 3+ -F - are provided. 10 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Flow injection analysis simulations and diffusion coefficient determination by stochastic and deterministic optimization methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucza, Witold

    2013-07-25

    Stochastic and deterministic simulations of dispersion in cylindrical channels on the Poiseuille flow have been presented. The random walk (stochastic) and the uniform dispersion (deterministic) models have been used for computations of flow injection analysis responses. These methods coupled with the genetic algorithm and the Levenberg-Marquardt optimization methods, respectively, have been applied for determination of diffusion coefficients. The diffusion coefficients of fluorescein sodium, potassium hexacyanoferrate and potassium dichromate have been determined by means of the presented methods and FIA responses that are available in literature. The best-fit results agree with each other and with experimental data thus validating both presented approaches. Copyright © 2013 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Determination of Sorption Coefficient of Phosphorus Applied for Sugarcane Production in Southwestern Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muwamba, A; Nkedi-Kizza, P; Morgan, K T

    2016-09-01

    Phosphorus is among the essential nutrients applied to sugarcane ( L.) fields in the form of a fertilizer mixture (N, P, and K) in southwestern Florida. Sorption coefficient is used for modeling P movement, and in this study, we hypothesized that the sorption coefficient determined using fertilizer mixture (N, P, and K) will be significantly different from values determined using KCl and CaCl, the electrolytes most commonly used for conducting sorption experiments. Supporting electrolytes, 0.01 mol L KCl, 0.005 mol L CaCl, deionized (DI) water, simulated Florida rain, and fertilizer mixture prepared in Florida rain were used to characterize P sorption. Immokalee (Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Arenic Alaquods) and Margate (Sandy, siliceous hyperthermic Mollic Psammaquents) are the dominant mineral soils used for sugarcane production in southwestern Florida; we used the A and B horizons of Margate soil and the A and B horizons of the Immokalee soil for sorption experiments in this study. Freundlich sorption isotherms described P sorption data. The Freundlich sorption isotherm coefficients followed the trend 0.005 mol L CaCl > 0.01 mol L KCl ≈ fertilizer mixture > simulated Florida rain ≈ DI water. Sorption coefficients were used for modeling P movement with HYDRUS 1D; similar P results were obtained with the 0.01 mol L KCl and fertilizer mixture electrolyte treatments. The sorption coefficient for DI water and simulated Florida rain overpredicted P movement. The P sorption data showed the importance of choosing the appropriate electrolyte for conducting experiments based on the composition of fertilizer. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  11. Conditional stability and uniqueness for determining two coefficients in a hyperbolic–parabolic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Bin; Liu, Jijun

    2011-01-01

    We study the inverse problem of determining two spatially varying coefficients in a thermoelastic model with the following observation data: displacement in a subdomain ω satisfying ∂ω superset of ∂Ω along a sufficiently large time interval, both displacement and temperature at a suitable time over the whole spatial domain. Based on a Carleman estimate on the hyperbolic–parabolic system, we prove the Lipschitz stability and the uniqueness for this inverse problem under some a priori information

  12. Low degree Earth's gravity coefficients determined from different space geodetic observations and climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wińska, Małgorzata; Nastula, Jolanta

    2017-04-01

    Large scale mass redistribution and its transport within the Earth system causes changes in the Earth's rotation in space, gravity field and Earth's ellipsoid shape. These changes are observed in the ΔC21, ΔS21, and ΔC20 spherical harmonics gravity coefficients, which are proportional to the mass load-induced Earth rotational excitations. In this study, linear trend, decadal, inter-annual, and seasonal variations of low degree spherical harmonics coefficients of Earth's gravity field, determined from different space geodetic techniques, Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), satellite laser ranging (SLR), Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), Earth rotation, and climate models, are examined. In this way, the contribution of each measurement technique to interpreting the low degree surface mass density of the Earth is shown. Especially, we evaluate an usefulness of several climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) to determine the low degree Earth's gravity coefficients using GRACE satellite observations. To do that, Terrestrial Water Storage (TWS) changes from several CMIP5 climate models are determined and then these simulated data are compared with the GRACE observations. Spherical harmonics ΔC21, ΔS21, and ΔC20 changes are calculated as the sum of atmosphere and ocean mass effect (GAC values) taken from GRACE and a land surface hydrological estimate from the selected CMIP5 climate models. Low degree Stokes coefficients of the surface mass density determined from GRACE, SLR, GNSS, Earth rotation measurements and climate models are compared to each other in order to assess their consistency. The comparison is done by using different types of statistical and signal processing methods.

  13. Determination of heat and mass transfer coefficients in a rotary shaker used in fermentation processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Arias Zabala

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the volumetric oxygen transfer (kLa and overall heat transfer (Ua coefficients were determined in flasks which were subjected to rotary shaker action, also provided with a temperature control chamber. Likewise, it was determined the effect over such coefficients of some parameters like surrounding temperature, shaking speed, closure type, liquid volume, capacity and baffles presence or absence in each flask, to determine the optimal work conditions in the rotary shaker. The used liquid in these experiments was distilled water. The kLa and Ua coefficients were also determined in the alcoholic fermentation of glucose by Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast, in order to establish comparison standards. The maximum and minimum values of referred coefficients to distilled water and the operation conditions were:   kLa of 6.2 x 10-3 s-1, working at 25 ºC, 100 rpm, 50 ml of liquid volume, erlenmeyer of 500 ml with baffles and plastic closure. kLa of 4.107 x 10-3 s-1, working at 45 ºC, 60 rpm, 150 ml of liquid volume, erlenmeyer of 250 ml without baffles and cotton closure. Ua of 31.9963 J/min °C, working at 45 ºC, 150 rpm, 150 ml of liquid volume, erlenmeyer of 500 ml with baffles and cotton closure. Ua of 6.0179 J/min °C, working at 35 ºC, 60 rpm, 50 ml of liquid volume, erlenmeyer of 250 ml without baffles and plastic closure. The kLa and Ua values in the alcoholic fermentation and the operation conditions were: kLa of 2.6 x 10-4 s-1 and Ua of 12.8907 J/min °C, working at 35 °C, 150 rpm, 150 ml of liquid volume, Erlenmeyer of 250 ml, with baffles and cotton closure.

  14. Determination of aerodynamic sensitivity coefficients in the transonic and supersonic regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbanna, Hesham M.; Carlson, Leland A.

    1989-01-01

    The quasi-analytical approach is developed to compute airfoil aerodynamic sensitivity coefficients in the transonic and supersonic flight regimes. Initial investigation verifies the feasibility of this approach as applied to the transonic small perturbation residual expression. Results are compared to those obtained by the direct (finite difference) approach and both methods are evaluated to determine their computational accuracies and efficiencies. The quasi-analytical approach is shown to be superior and worth further investigation.

  15. Determination of the Townsend primary ionization coefficient using a parallel plate avalanche counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsumaki, Koji

    1988-01-01

    Gas multiplication factors were obtained from the observed fast pulse of a parallel plate avalache counter and the Townsend primary ionization coefficients for methane and isobutane were determined from the data over the ranges E/P = 150-228 V/cm·Torr and 183-411 V/cm·Torr, respectively. The results for methane agreed well with the values obtained by Heylen. (author)

  16. Determination of permeability coefficients of ophthalmic drugs through different layers of porcine, rabbit and bovine eyes

    OpenAIRE

    Nagel, Stefan; Guthoff, Rudolf F.; Weitschies, Werner; Seidlitz, Anne; Kristl, Albin; Žakelj, Simon; Loch, Christian

    2015-01-01

    To treat ophthalmic diseases like glaucoma or inflammatory disorders topically applied ophthalmic formulations such as eye drops are usually used. In addition, novel ophthalmic implants releasing drug substances locally into different parts of the eye are available today. In the work presented here, the permeability coefficients of selected drugs (ciprofloxacin hydrochloride, lidocaine hydrochloride, timolol maleate) for ophthalmic tissues were determined using side-by-side diffusion chambers...

  17. Remarkable optical red shift and extremely high optical absorption coefficient of V-Ga co-doped TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Quanrong; Han, Xiaoping; Gao, Yun; Shao, Guosheng

    2012-07-01

    A first attempt has been made to study the effect of codoping of transition metal and sp metal on the electronic structure and associated optical properties of TiO2, through V-Ga codoped thin films. V-Ga codoped rutile TiO2 films were fabricated on fused quartz substrates using pulsed laser ablation, followed by heat treatment at high temperatures. Gigantic redshift in the optical absorption edge was observed in V-Ga co-doped TiO2 materials, from UV to infrared region with high absorption coefficient. Through combined structural characterization and theoretical modeling, this is attributed to the p-d hybridization between the two metals. This leads to additional energy bands to overlap with the minimum of the conduction band, leading to remarkably narrowed band gap free of mid-gap states. The direct-gap of the co-doped phase is key to the remarkably high optical absorption coefficient of the coped titania.

  18. Determination of the air/water partition coefficient of groundwater radon using liquid scintillation counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.Y.; Yoon, Y.Y.; Ko, K.S.

    2010-01-01

    A method was studied for measuring air/water partition coefficient (K air/water ) of groundwater radon by a simple procedure using liquid scintillation counter (LSC). In contrast conventional techniques such as equilibrium partitioning in a closed system or air striping methods, the described method allow for a simple and uncomplicated determination of the coefficient. The (K air/water ) of radon in pure water has been well known quantitatively over a wide range of temperatures. In this work, groundwater samples having high radon concentration instead of distilled water have been used to determine the (K air/water ) of radon in the temperature range of 0-25. Aqueous phase in a closed system was used in this study instead of gaseous phase in conventional methods. Three kinds of groundwater taken from different geologic environments were used to investigate the effect of groundwater properties. With the aim to evaluate the reproducibility of the data an appropriate number of laboratory experiments have been carried out. The results show that tie (K air/water ) of radon in the groundwater is smaller than that in the pure water. However, the temperature effect on the coefficient is similar in the groundwater and the pure water. The method using aqueous phase in a closed system by LSC can be used to determine the (K air/water ) of radon in various groundwaters with a simple procedure. The results will be presented at the NAC-IV conference

  19. Accurate determination of the diffusion coefficient of proteins by Fourier analysis with whole column imaging detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarabadi, Atefeh S; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2015-02-17

    Analysis in the frequency domain is considered a powerful tool to elicit precise information from spectroscopic signals. In this study, the Fourier transformation technique is employed to determine the diffusion coefficient (D) of a number of proteins in the frequency domain. Analytical approaches are investigated for determination of D from both experimental and data treatment viewpoints. The diffusion process is modeled to calculate diffusion coefficients based on the Fourier transformation solution to Fick's law equation, and its results are compared to time domain results. The simulations characterize optimum spatial and temporal conditions and demonstrate the noise tolerance of the method. The proposed model is validated by its application for the electropherograms from the diffusion path of a set of proteins. Real-time dynamic scanning is conducted to monitor dispersion by employing whole column imaging detection technology in combination with capillary isoelectric focusing (CIEF) and the imaging plug flow (iPF) experiment. These experimental techniques provide different peak shapes, which are utilized to demonstrate the Fourier transformation ability in extracting diffusion coefficients out of irregular shape signals. Experimental results confirmed that the Fourier transformation procedure substantially enhanced the accuracy of the determined values compared to those obtained in the time domain.

  20. Determination of the crystal-melt interface kinetic coefficient from molecular dynamics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monk, J; Mendelev, M I; Yang, Y; Asta, M; Hoyt, J J; Sun, D Y

    2010-01-01

    The generation and dissipation of latent heat at the moving solid–liquid boundary during non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of crystallization can lead to significant underestimations of the interface mobility. In this work we examine the heat flow problem in detail for an embedded atom description of pure Ni and offer strategies to obtain an accurate value of the kinetic coefficient, μ. For free-solidification simulations in which the entire system is thermostated using a Nose–Hoover or velocity rescaling algorithm a non-uniform temperature profile is observed and a peak in the temperature is found at the interface position. It is shown that if the actual interface temperature, rather than the thermostat set point temperature, is used to compute the kinetic coefficient then μ is approximately a factor of 2 larger than previous estimates. In addition, we introduce a layered thermostat method in which several sub-regions, aligned normal to the crystallization direction, are indepently thermostated to a desired undercooling. We show that as the number of thermostats increases (i.e., as the width of each independently thermostated layer decreases) the kinetic coefficient converges to a value consistent with that obtained using a single thermostat and the calculated interface temperature. Also, the kinetic coefficient was determined from an analysis of the equilibrium fluctuations of the solid–liquid interface position. We demonstrate that the kinetic coefficient obtained from the relaxation times of the fluctuation spectrum is equivalent to the two values obtained from free-solidification simulations provided a simple correction is made for the contribution of heat flow controlled interface motion. Finally, a one-dimensional phase field model that captures the effect of thermostats has been developed. The mesoscale model reproduces qualitatively the results from MD simulations and thus allows for an a priori estimate of the accuracy of a

  1. Determination of fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients by means of artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto B, T. G.; Rivera P, E.; De Leon M, H. A.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R.; Gallego, E.; Lorente, A.

    2012-10-01

    In this paper is presented an Artificial Neural Network (Ann) that has been designed, trained and validated to determinate the effective dose e, ambient dose equivalent h(10) and personal dose equivalent hp(10,θ) fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients at different positions, having as only input data 7 count rates obtained with a Bonner Sphere Spectrometer (Bss) system. A set of 211 neutron spectra and the fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients published by the International Atomic Energy Agency were used to train and validate the Ann. This set was divided into 2 subsets, one of 181 elements to train the Ann and the remaining 30 to validate it. The Ann was trained using Bss count rates as input data and the fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients as output data. The network was validated and tested with the set of 30 elements that were not used during the training process. Good results were obtained proving that Ann are a good choice for calculating the fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients having as only data the count rates obtained with a Bss. (Author)

  2. Determination of Partition Coefficients of Selected Model Migrants between Polyethylene and Polypropylene and Nanocomposite Polypropylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Otero-Pazos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on nanoparticles have focused the attention of the researchers because they can produce nanocomposites that exhibit unexpected hybrid properties. Polymeric materials are commonly used in food packaging, but from the standpoint of food safety, one of the main concerns on the use of these materials is the potential migration of low molecular substances from the packaging into the food. The key parameters of this phenomenon are the diffusion and partition coefficients. Studies on migration from food packaging with nanomaterials are very scarce. This study is focused on the determination of partition coefficients of different model migrants between the low-density polyethylene (LDPE and polypropylene (PP and between LDPE and nanocomposite polypropylene (naPP. The results show that the incorporation of nanoparticles in polypropylene increases the mass transport of model migrants from LDPE to naPP. This quantity of migrants absorbed into PP and naPP depends partially on the nature of the polymer and slightly on the chemical features of the migrant. Relation (RPP/naPP between partition coefficient KLDPE/PP and partition coefficient KLDPE/naPP at 60°C and 80°C shows that only BHT at 60°C has a RPP/naPP less than 1. On the other hand, bisphenol A has the highest RPP/naPP with approximately 50 times more.

  3. Determination of the heat transfer coefficient from IRT measurement data using the Trefftz method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciejewska Beata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the method of heat transfer coefficient determination for boiling research during FC-72 flow in the minichannels, each 1.7 mm deep, 24 mm wide and 360 mm long. The heating element was the thin foil, enhanced on the side which comes into contact with fluid in the minichannels. Local values of the heat transfer coefficient were calculated from the Robin boundary condition. The foil temperature distribution and the derivative of the foil temperature were obtained by solving the two-dimensional inverse heat conduction problem, due to measurements obtained by IRT. Calculations was carried out by the method based on the approximation of the solution of the problem using a linear combination of Trefftz functions. The basic property of this functions is they satisfy the governing equation. Unknown coefficients of linear combination of Trefftz functions are calculated from the minimization of the functional that expresses the mean square error of the approximate solution on the boundary. The results presented as IR thermographs, two-phase flow structure images and the heat transfer coefficient as a function of the distance from the channel inlet, were analyzed.

  4. Semiempirical method of determining flow coefficients for pitot rake mass flow rate measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trefny, C. J.

    1985-01-01

    Flow coefficients applicable to area-weighted pitot rake mass flow rate measurements are presented for fully developed, turbulent flow in an annulus. A turbulent velocity profile is generated semiempirically for a given annulus hub-to-tip radius ratio and integrated numerically to determine the ideal mass flow rate. The calculated velocities at each probe location are then summed, and the flow rate as indicated by the rake is obtained. The flow coefficient to be used with the particular rake geometry is subsequently obtained by dividing the ideal flow rate by the rake-indicated flow rate. Flow coefficients ranged from 0.903 for one probe placed at a radius dividing two equal areas to 0.984 for a 10-probe area-weighted rake. Flow coefficients were not a strong function of annulus hub-to-tip radius ratio for rakes with three or more probes. The semiempirical method used to generate the turbulent velocity profiles is described in detail.

  5. Determination of fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients by means of artificial neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto B, T. G.; Rivera P, E.; De Leon M, H. A.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Gallego, E.; Lorente, A., E-mail: tzinnia.soto@gmail.com [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear, Jose Gutierrez Abascal No. 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-10-15

    In this paper is presented an Artificial Neural Network (Ann) that has been designed, trained and validated to determinate the effective dose e, ambient dose equivalent h(10) and personal dose equivalent hp(10,{theta}) fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients at different positions, having as only input data 7 count rates obtained with a Bonner Sphere Spectrometer (Bss) system. A set of 211 neutron spectra and the fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients published by the International Atomic Energy Agency were used to train and validate the Ann. This set was divided into 2 subsets, one of 181 elements to train the Ann and the remaining 30 to validate it. The Ann was trained using Bss count rates as input data and the fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients as output data. The network was validated and tested with the set of 30 elements that were not used during the training process. Good results were obtained proving that Ann are a good choice for calculating the fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients having as only data the count rates obtained with a Bss. (Author)

  6. Moisture Transfer in Concrete: Numerical Determination of the Capillary Conductivity Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simo Elie

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We numerically investigated moisture transfer in buildings made of concrete. We considered three types of concrete: normal concrete, pumice concrete and cellular concrete. We present the results of a 1-D liquid water flow in such materials. We evaluated the moisture distribution in building materials using the Runge-Kutta fourth-and-fifth-order method. The DOPRI5 code was used as an integrator. The model calculated the resulting moisture content and other moisture-dependent physical parameters. The moisture curves were plotted. The dampness data obtained was utilized for the numerical computation of the coefficient of the capillary conductivity of moisture. Different profiles of this coefficient are represented. Calculations were performed for four different values of the outdoor temperature: -5°C, 0°C, 5°C and 10°C. We determined that the curves corresponding to small time intervals of wetting are associated with great amplitudes of the capillary conductivity . The amplitudes of the coefficient of the capillary conductivity decrease as the time interval increases. High outdoor temperatures induce high amplitudes of the coefficient of the capillary conductivity.

  7. Determination of mixture coefficients in tests simulating channels of a fuel assembly in a water cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, W.R.

    1983-09-01

    Here, the mixture coefficients are determined in tests which simulate two symmetric and two assymetric coolant channels of a water cooled reactor. It was studies the effects of coolant flow and of the distance among the coolant channels on these coefficients. The technique used to determine the mixture coefficients was to introduce a tracer (methylene blue) into the flow. The determination of the tracer concentration at the end of the channels was made by means of spectrophotometric analysis. (author)

  8. Progress in the determination of the gravitational coefficient of the earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, J. C.; Eanes, R. J.; Shum, C. K.; Watkins, M. M.

    1992-01-01

    In most of the recent determinations of the geocentric gravitational coefficient (GM) of the earth, the laser ranging data to the Lageos satellite have had the greatest influence on the solution. These data, however, have generally been processed with a small but significant error in one of the range corrections. In a new determination of GM using the corrected center-of-mass offset, a value of 398600.4415 cu km/sq sec (including the mass of the atmosphere) has been obtained, with an estimated uncertainty (1 sigma of 0.0008 cu km/sq sec.

  9. Determination of air and hydrofoil pressure coefficient by laser doppler anemometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Slavica S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Some results of experiments performed in water cavitation tunnel are presented. Pressure coefficient (Cp was experimentally determined by Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA measurements. Two models were tested: model of airplane G4 (Super Galeb and hydrofoil of high speed axial pump. These models are not prepared for conventional pressure measurements, so that LDA is applied for Cp determination. Numerical results were obtained using a code for average Navier-Stokes equations solutions. Comparisons between computational and experimental results prove the effectiveness of the LDA. The advantages and disadvantages of LDA application are discussed. Flow visualization was made by air bubbles.

  10. Determination of calcium and magnesium in hydroethanolic extracts of propolis by atomic absorption flame spectrophotometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Q. SANTANA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Propolis is a natural product collected by honeybees and has a large range of pharmacological activity, including antimicrobial, antitumoral, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory. Its use as a popular medicine is increasing all over the world, creating a need for quality control of the commercial products. In this study the levels of calcium and magnesium in commercial hydroalcoholic propolis extracts from varios states of Brazil were determined by atomic absorption flame spectrophotometry and different values were obtained for northern and southern states. This study can be extended to the analysis of metals that are harmful to health. The results showed that the calibration curves were linear over a wide concentration range (0.5-4.0 µg.mL-1 for calcium and 0.05-0.4 µg.mL-1 for magnesium with good correlation coefficients (0.999 and 0.988, respectively. Good analytical recovery (94% was obtained. The proposed method showed adequate precision and relative standard deviation lower than 2 %. The method is accurate and precise as well as having advantages such as simplicity and speed. Keywords: hydroalcoholic propolis extract; mineralization; analysis; calcium; magnesium.

  11. Determination of Kinetic Coefficients in Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Using Sugarcane Industrial Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sana mousavian

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Extraction of sugar from sugarcane produces a high volume of effluent carrying large amounts of organics and BOD5. Discharging the effluent into rivers and into the environment endangers the aquatic life and increases the risks of environmental pollution. This study was conducted in 2012 to determine the kinetic coefficients of the anaerobic treatment systems (UASB at the wastewater treatment plant of Imam Khomeini Sugarcane Agro-industrial Plant in Shushtar. The parameters of BOD5, COD, and TSS were measured at the inlet and outlet of the WWTP. Subsequently, the operation and design parameters of the system were determined. Using the modified Monod Equations, the kinetic coefficients Ks, Y, Kd, μ max, and K max for employing the UASB process at the WWPT in question were calculated as 506.4mg/l, 0.11 g VSS/g COD, 0.0045 d-1, 0.0069 d-1, and 0.055 d-1, respectively. The kinetic coefficients obtained in this study can be used in the steering and operation as well as fundamental design of similar plants, especially in hot areas.

  12. An innovative method for determining the diffusion coefficient of product nuclide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chih Lung [Dept. of Nuclear Back-end Management, Taiwan Power Company, Taipei (China); Wang, Tsing Hai [Dept. Biomedical Engineering and Environment Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu (China)

    2017-08-15

    Diffusion is a crucial mechanism that regulates the migration of radioactive nuclides. In this study, an innovative numerical method was developed to simultaneously calculate the diffusion coefficient of both parent and, afterward, series daughter nuclides in a sequentially reactive through-diffusion model. Two constructed scenarios, a serial reaction (RN{sub 1} → RN{sub 2} → RN{sub 3}) and a parallel reaction (RN{sub 1} → RN{sub 2}A + RN{sub 2}B), were proposed and calculated for verification. First, the accuracy of the proposed three-member reaction equations was validated using several default numerical experiments. Second, by applying the validated numerical experimental concentration variation data, the as-determined diffusion coefficient of the product nuclide was observed to be identical to the default data. The results demonstrate the validity of the proposed method. The significance of the proposed numerical method will be particularly powerful in determining the diffusion coefficients of systems with extremely thin specimens, long periods of diffusion time, and parent nuclides with fast decay constants.

  13. Determination of the conversion coefficient for ambient dose equivalent, H(10), from air kerma measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez J, F.; Alvarez R, J. T.

    2015-09-01

    Namely the operational magnitudes can be determined by the product of a conversion coefficient by exposure air kerma or fluence, etc. In particular in Mexico for the first time is determined the conversion coefficient (Cc) for operational magnitude Environmental Dose Equivalent H(10) by thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) technique. First 30 TLD-100 dosimeters are calibrated in terms of air kerma, then these dosimeters are irradiated inside a sphere ICRU type of PMMA and with the aid of theory cavity the absorbed dose in PMMA is determined at a depth of 10 mm within the sphere D PMMA (10), subsequently absorbed dose to ICRU tissue is corrected and the dose equivalent H(10) is determined. The Cc is determined as the ratio of H(10)/K a obtaining a value of 1.20 Sv Gy -1 with a u c = 3.66%, this being consistent with the published value in ISO-4037-3 of 1.20 Sv Gy -1 with a u c = 2%. (Author)

  14. Determination of boron in natural waters using atomic-absorption spectrometry with electrothermal atomization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usenko, S.I.; Prorok, M.M.

    1992-01-01

    A method of direct determination of boron in natural waters using atomic-absorption spectrometry with electrothermal atomization was developed. Concomitant elements Si, K, Mg, Na, present in natural waters in the concentration of 0.05-100 mg/cv 3 , do not produce effect on the value of boron atomic absorption. Boron determination limit constituted 0.02 mg/cm 3 for 25 ml of solution introduced

  15. A Multi-Band Analytical Algorithm for Deriving Absorption and Backscattering Coefficients from Remote-Sensing Reflectance of Optically Deep Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Zhong-Ping; Carder, Kendall L.

    2001-01-01

    A multi-band analytical (MBA) algorithm is developed to retrieve absorption and backscattering coefficients for optically deep waters, which can be applied to data from past and current satellite sensors, as well as data from hyperspectral sensors. This MBA algorithm applies a remote-sensing reflectance model derived from the Radiative Transfer Equation, and values of absorption and backscattering coefficients are analytically calculated from values of remote-sensing reflectance. There are only limited empirical relationships involved in the algorithm, which implies that this MBA algorithm could be applied to a wide dynamic range of waters. Applying the algorithm to a simulated non-"Case 1" data set, which has no relation to the development of the algorithm, the percentage error for the total absorption coefficient at 440 nm a (sub 440) is approximately 12% for a range of 0.012 - 2.1 per meter (approximately 6% for a (sub 440) less than approximately 0.3 per meter), while a traditional band-ratio approach returns a percentage error of approximately 30%. Applying it to a field data set ranging from 0.025 to 2.0 per meter, the result for a (sub 440) is very close to that using a full spectrum optimization technique (9.6% difference). Compared to the optimization approach, the MBA algorithm cuts the computation time dramatically with only a small sacrifice in accuracy, making it suitable for processing large data sets such as satellite images. Significant improvements over empirical algorithms have also been achieved in retrieving the optical properties of optically deep waters.

  16. DETERMINATION OF QMS PRINCIPLE COEFFICIENTS OF SIGNIFICANCE IN ACHIEVING BUSINESS EXCELLENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Vujovic

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper has been developed as a tendency of researchers in the Center for quality-Faculty of mechanical engineering in Podgorica to establish a model for improvement of business processes performances based on quality management system through comparison with top organizational performances characterized by criteria i.e. particularities of the business excellence model. Correlation of principles of the quality management system with QMS principles has been established to that effect. Weight coefficients have been also determined for each principle individually. Thereby key principles were identified, namely priorities in terms of achieving business excellence i.e. areas (principles were given priorities, that is to say principles that play the biggest part in achieving business excellence. In that way, pre conditions were made to define preventive measures of a certain intensity depending on the weight coefficients, with a goal to improve performances of a certified and process-modulated quality management system in direction of achieving top organizational performances.

  17. Determination of the N2 recombination rate coefficient in the ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini, N.; Torr, D. G.; Brinton, H. C.; Brace, L. H.; Hanson, W. B.; Hoffman, J. H.; Nier, A. O.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of aeronomic parameters made by the Atmosphere Explorer-C satellite are used to determine the recombination rate coefficient of N2(+) in the ionosphere. The rate is found to increase significantly with decreasing electron density. Values obtained range from approximately 1.4 x 10 to the -7th to 3.8 x 10 to the -7th cu cm/sec. This variation is explained in a preliminary way in terms of an increase in the rate coefficient with vibrational excitation. Thus, high electron densities depopulate high vibrational levels reducing the effective recombination rate, whereas, low electron densities result in an enhancement in the population of high vibrational levels, thus, increasing the effective recombination rate.

  18. Determination of the fission coefficients in thermal nuclear reactors for antineutrino detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Lenilson M. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Cabral, Ronaldo G., E-mail: rgcabral@ime.eb.b [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Anjos, Joao C.C. dos, E-mail: janjos@cbpf.b [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. GLN - G

    2011-07-01

    The nuclear reactors in operation periodically need to change their fuel. It is during this process that these reactors are more vulnerable to occurring of several situations of fuel diversion, thus the monitoring of the nuclear installations is indispensable to avoid events of this nature. Considering this fact, the most promissory technique to be used for the nuclear safeguard for the nonproliferation of nuclear weapons, it is based on the detection and spectroscopy of antineutrino from fissions that occur in the nuclear reactors. The detection and spectroscopy of antineutrino, they both depend on the single contribution for the total number of fission of each actinide in the core reactor, these contributions receive the name of fission coefficients. The goal of this research is to show the computational and mathematical modeling used to determinate these coefficients for PWR reactors. (author)

  19. Determination of the diffusion coefficient of new insulators composed of vegetable fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boulaoued I.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the moisture transport of building materials is necessary for the performance of building structures. The control of moisture transport is essential to describe the moisture migration process through the building walls. The present work’s aim is to determine through experiment the water diffusion coefficient of different insulators in unsteady-state based on the Fick’s second law equation. This equation was solved analytically by the separation of variables method (MOD1 and by the change of variables method (MOD2. The moisture diffusion coefficient for building material was experimentally predicted by using the weighing technique and different analytical methods. The results were compared with experimental data.

  20. Determination of heat transfer coefficient for an interaction of sub-cooled gas and metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidek, Mohd Zaidi; Kamarudin, Muhammad Syahidan

    2016-01-01

    Heat transfer coefficient (HTC) for a hot metal surface and their surrounding is one of the need be defined parameter in hot forming process. This study has been conducted to determine the HTC for an interaction between sub-cooled gas sprayed on a hot metal surface. Both experiments and finite element have been adopted in this work. Initially, the designated experiment was conducted to obtain temperature history of spray cooling process. Then, an inverse method was adopted to calculate the HTC value before we validate in a finite element simulation model. The result shows that the heat transfer coefficient for interaction of subcooled gas and hot metal surface is 1000 W/m 2 K. (paper)

  1. Estimation of organic carbon deposition into forest ecosystems by determination of the spectral absorption of rainwater in range of ultraviolet radiation (SAC254)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartels, U.

    1988-01-01

    Organic compounds are mostly neglected within deposition measurement programs because their determination is expensive and complicated. A very simple and rapid estimation of total organic carbon (TOC) is possible by determination of the spectral absorption coefficient in the range of ultraviolet radiation at 254 nm wave-length (SAC 254 ): TOC (mg/1) = 0,5 SAC 254 (m −1 ) - 0,15 (author) [de

  2. Measurement of polarization dependence of two-photon absorption coefficient in InP using extended Z-scan technique for thick materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Masaki; Shinozaki, Tomohisa; Hara, Hikaru; Yamamoto, Kazunuki; Matsusue, Toshio; Bando, Hiroyuki

    2018-03-01

    The two-photon absorption coefficient β in InP has been measured in the wavelength range of 1640 to 1800 nm by the Z-scan technique in relatively thick materials. The values of β have been evaluated from the fit to the equation including the spatial and temporal profiles of the focused Gaussian beam. The polarization dependence of β has also been measured. The dependence has been expressed very well by the expression of β with the imaginary part of the third-order nonlinear susceptibility tensor χ(3).

  3. Determination of boron in sea water by atomic absorption spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horta, A.M.T.C.; Curtius, A.J.

    1978-01-01

    The chelation-extraction of boric acid with are acid solution of 2-ethyl-1,3 hexanediol in methy1-isobutye-ketone is studied. By this way a simple, quick and precise method for boron determination can be obtained [pt

  4. Pattern placement errors: application of in-situ interferometer-determined Zernike coefficients in determining printed image deviations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, William R.; Gould, Christopher J.; Smith, Adlai H.; Rebitz, Ken

    2000-08-01

    Several ideas have recently been presented which attempt to measure and predict lens aberrations for new low k1 imaging systems. Abbreviated sets of Zernike coefficients have been produced and used to predict Across Chip Linewidth Variation. Empirical use of the wavefront aberrations can now be used in commercially available lithography simulators to predict pattern distortion and placement errors. Measurement and Determination of Zernike coefficients has been a significant effort of many. However the use of this data has generally been limited to matching lenses or picking best fit lense pairs. We will use wavefront aberration data collected using the Litel InspecStep in-situ Interferometer as input data for Prolith/3D to model and predict pattern placement errors and intrafield overlay variation. Experiment data will be collected and compared to the simulated predictions.

  5. Determination of iron absorption and excretion by whole-body counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollard, D.; Benabid, Y.; Berard, M.; Bonnin, J.; Darnault, J.; Millet, M.

    1969-01-01

    Using a whole-body counter, the authors have studied 59 Fe absorption and loss in 8 normal subjects and in 30 iron deficient patients. Results showed that whole-body counting provided an excellent and simple method for iron retention measurements, obviating many inaccuracies of previous technic. Normal absorption of radio iron with this procedure has ranged from 9 per cent to 20 per cent of the administered tracer in normal subjects, with a mean of 15 per cent. A significant increase in 59 Fe absorption was noted in 21 iron-deficient patients in whom the retention ranged from 40 to 100 per cent. However, 3 iron-deficient patients were found to have low absorption, and their severe iron deficiency could be correlated with this defect in absorption. This method permits also the determination of the rate of iron excretion during the following months and therefore the study of the mechanism of some pathological loss. (authors) [fr

  6. Determination of total selenium in nutritional supplements and selenised yeast by Zeeman-effect graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Ekelund, J.

    1989-01-01

    A method for the determination of total selenium in nutritional supplements and selenised yeast is described. The samples were ashed in nitric acid. Hydrochloric acid was used to prevent precipitation of, in particular, iron salts. After appropriate dilutions, the selenium was determined by Zeeman......-effect background corrected graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. A furnace ashing step at 1100 °C was necessary in order to obtain a total recovery of selenium when present in the organic form. Palladium nitrate-magnesium nitrate was used as a matrix modifier. Independent methods were used to determine...... the content of selenium in a selenised yeast check sample. Accuracy was assured using this sample and by recovery experiments. Between-day random error showed a coefficient of variation of 4.2%. Results from the analysis of eight different commercial supplements were in good agreement with declared contents....

  7. The influence of the atmosphere on geoid and potential coefficient determinations from gravity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, R.; Rapp, R. H.

    1976-01-01

    For the precise computation of geoid undulations the effect of the attraction of the atmosphere on the solution of the basic boundary value problem of gravimetric geodesy must be considered. This paper extends the theory of Moritz for deriving an atmospheric correction to the case when the undulations are computed by combining anomalies in a cap surrounding the computation point with information derived from potential coefficients. The correction term is a function of the cap size and the topography within the cap. It reaches a value of 3.0 m for a cap size of 30 deg, variations on the decimeter level being caused by variations in the topography. The effect of the atmospheric correction terms on potential coefficients is found to be small, reaching a maximum of 0.0055 millionths at n = 2, m = 2 when terrestrial gravity data are considered. The magnitude of this correction indicates that in future potential coefficient determination from gravity data the atmospheric correction should be made to such data.

  8. Determination of the molar extinction coefficient for the ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, William A; Mills, Daniel S; Neville, Rachel F; Kiddie, Jenna; Collins, Lisa M

    2011-09-15

    The FRAP reagent contains 2,4,6-tris(2-pyridyl)-s-triazine, which forms a blue-violet complex ion in the presence of ferrous ions. Although the FRAP (ferric reducing/antioxidant power) assay is popular and has been in use for many years, the correct molar extinction coefficient of this complex ion under FRAP assay conditions has never been published, casting doubt on the validity of previous calibrations. A previously reported value of 19,800 is an underestimate. We determined that the molar extinction coefficient was 21,140. The value of the molar extinction coefficient was also shown to depend on the type of assay and was found to be 22,230 under iron assay conditions, in good agreement with published data. Redox titration indicated that the ferrous sulfate heptahydrate calibrator recommended by Benzie and Strain, the FRAP assay inventors, is prone to efflorescence and, therefore, is unreliable. Ferrous ammonium sulfate hexahydrate in dilute sulfuric acid was a more stable alternative. Few authors publish their calibration data, and this makes comparative analyses impossible. A critical examination of the limited number of examples of calibration data in the published literature reveals only that Benzie and Strain obtained a satisfactory calibration using their method. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Desorption modeling of hydrophobic organic chemicals from plastic sheets using experimentally determined diffusion coefficients in plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwang; Byun, Da-Eun; Kim, Ju Min; Kwon, Jung-Hwan

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate rate of migration from plastic debris, desorption of model hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) from polyethylene (PE)/polypropylene (PP) films to water was measured using PE/PP films homogeneously loaded with the HOCs. The HOCs fractions remaining in the PE/PP films were compared with those predicted using a model characterized by the mass transfer Biot number. The experimental data agreed with the model simulation, indicating that HOCs desorption from plastic particles can generally be described by the model. For hexachlorocyclohexanes with lower plastic-water partition coefficients, desorption was dominated by diffusion in the plastic film, whereas desorption of chlorinated benzenes with higher partition coefficients was determined by diffusion in the aqueous boundary layer. Evaluation of the fraction of HOCs remaining in plastic films with respect to film thickness and desorption time showed that the partition coefficient between plastic and water is the most important parameter influencing the desorption half-life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Determination of kinetic coefficients for the simultaneous reduction of sulfate and uranium by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucker, M.D.

    1995-05-01

    Uranium contamination of groundwaters and surface waters near abandoned mill tailings piles is a serious concern in many areas of the western United States. Uranium usually exists in either the U(IV) or the U(VI) oxidation state. U(VI) is soluble in water and, as a result, is very mobile in the environment. U(IV), however, is generally insoluble in water and, therefore, is not subject to aqueous transport. In recent years, researchers have discovered that certain anaerobic microorganisms, such as the sulfate-reducing bacteria Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, can mediate the reduction of U(VI) to U(IV). Although the ability of this microorganism to reduce U(VI) has been studied in some detail by previous researchers, the kinetics of the reactions have not been characterized. The purpose of this research was to perform kinetic studies on Desulfovibrio desulficans bacteria during simultaneous reduction of sulfate and uranium and to determine the phase in which uranium exists after it has been reduced and precipitated from solution. The studies were conducted in a laboratory-scale chemostat under substrate-limited growth conditions with pyruvate as the substrate. Kinetic coefficients for substrate utilization and cell growth were calculated using the Monod equation. The maximum rate of substrate utilization (k) was determined to be 4.70 days -1 while the half-velocity constant (K s ) was 140 mg/l COD. The yield coefficient (Y) was determined to be 0.17 mg cells/mg COD while the endogenous decay coefficient (k d ) was calculated as 0.072 days -1 . After reduction, U(IV) Precipitated from solution in the uraninite (UO 2 ) phase. Uranium removal efficiency as high as 90% was achieved in the chemostat

  11. The error analysis of the determination of the activity coefficients via the isopiestic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jun; Chen Qiyuan; Fang Zheng; Liang Yizeng; Liu Shijun; Zhou Yong

    2005-01-01

    Error analysis is very important to experimental designs. The error analysis of the determination of activity coefficients for a binary system via the isopiestic method shows that the error sources include not only the experimental errors of the analyzed molalities and the measured osmotic coefficients, but also the deviation of the regressed values from the experimental data when the regression function is used. It also shows that the accurate chemical analysis of the molality of the test solution is important, and it is preferable to keep the error of the measured osmotic coefficients changeless in all isopiestic experiments including those experiments on the very dilute solutions. The isopiestic experiments on the dilute solutions are very important, and the lowest molality should be low enough so that a theoretical method can be used below the lowest molality. And it is necessary that the isopiestic experiment should be done on the test solutions of lower than 0.1 mol . kg -1 . For most electrolytes solutions, it is usually preferable to require the lowest molality to be less than 0.05 mol . kg -1 . Moreover, the experimental molalities of the test solutions should be firstly arranged by keeping the interval of the logarithms of the molalities nearly constant, and secondly more number of high molalities should be arranged, and we propose to arrange the experimental molalities greater than 1 mol . kg -1 according to some kind of the arithmetical progression of the intervals of the molalities. After experiments, the error of the calculated activity coefficients of the solutes could be calculated from the actually values of the errors of the measured isopiestic molalities and the deviations of the regressed values from the experimental values with our obtained equations

  12. SDSS-II: Determination of shape and color parameter coefficients for SALT-II fit model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dojcsak, L.; Marriner, J.; /Fermilab

    2010-08-01

    In this study we look at the SALT-II model of Type IA supernova analysis, which determines the distance moduli based on the known absolute standard candle magnitude of the Type IA supernovae. We take a look at the determination of the shape and color parameter coefficients, {alpha} and {beta} respectively, in the SALT-II model with the intrinsic error that is determined from the data. Using the SNANA software package provided for the analysis of Type IA supernovae, we use a standard Monte Carlo simulation to generate data with known parameters to use as a tool for analyzing the trends in the model based on certain assumptions about the intrinsic error. In order to find the best standard candle model, we try to minimize the residuals on the Hubble diagram by calculating the correct shape and color parameter coefficients. We can estimate the magnitude of the intrinsic errors required to obtain results with {chi}{sup 2}/degree of freedom = 1. We can use the simulation to estimate the amount of color smearing as indicated by the data for our model. We find that the color smearing model works as a general estimate of the color smearing, and that we are able to use the RMS distribution in the variables as one method of estimating the correct intrinsic errors needed by the data to obtain the correct results for {alpha} and {beta}. We then apply the resultant intrinsic error matrix to the real data and show our results.

  13. Determination of the dispersion coefficient, in rivers through radioactive and fluorescent tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida Rosso, T.C. de.

    1986-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine experimentally the dispersion coefficient in natural streams through the aplication of radioactive and fluorescent tracers. The technique used to obtain the experimental data was the simmultaneous injection of the radioactive tracer Bromim - 82 and the fluorescent ones, Amidorodamine G. extra and Uranine. A comparison among these different tracers is shown as well as the performance of Uranine in a poluented stream in the presence of suspended sediments. The site chosen for the experiments was the Piabanha River, between Pedro do Rio and Areal, located at Rio de Janeiro state, in a nearly 20 Km strech. (Author) [pt

  14. Experimental apparatus to determine lead attenuation coefficients for photons of 0.511 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, Luis C.B.; Cardoso, Domingos O.; Gavazza, Sérgio; Morales, Rudnei K.; Oliveira, Luciano S. R.

    2017-01-01

    Radioactive gamma-emitting sources with higher energies than 1.022 MeV, may interact with matter by pair production process, generating two photons of 0.511 MeV in the positron annihilation, that may contribute to increase doses in both IOE´s or public. National regulatory agencies require a radiation protection plan and a shielding project to consider the influence of these photons in the licensing procedure. This work will present all steps for the development of the experimental apparatus for determination of the attenuation coefficients for photons with energy of 0.511 MeV in lead. (author)

  15. A new method for flight test determination of propulsive efficiency and drag coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, G.; Bridges, P. D.

    1983-01-01

    A flight test method is described from which propulsive efficiency as well as parasite and induced drag coefficients can be directly determined using relatively simple instrumentation and analysis techniques. The method uses information contained in the transient response in airspeed for a small power change in level flight in addition to the usual measurement of power required for level flight. Measurements of pitch angle and longitudinal and normal acceleration are eliminated. The theoretical basis for the method, the analytical techniques used, and the results of application of the method to flight test data are presented.

  16. Determination of balloon gas mass and revised estimates of drag and virtual mass coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, E.; Martone, M.

    1993-01-01

    In support of the NASA Balloon Program, small-scale balloons were flown with varying lifting gas and total system mass. Instrument packages were developed to measure and record acceleration and temperature data during these tests. Top fitting and instrument payload accelerations were measured from launch to steady state ascent and through ballast drop transients. The development of the small lightweight self-powered Stowaway Special instrument packages is discussed along with mathematical models developed to determine gas mass, drag and virtual mass coefficients.

  17. An experiment for Shuttle aerodynamic force coefficient determination from inflight dynamical and atmospheric measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, H. R.; Blanchard, R. C.; Walberg, G. D.

    1978-01-01

    A two-phase experiment is proposed which utilizes the Shuttle Orbiter and its unique series of repeated entries into the earth's atmosphere as an airborne in situ aerodynamic testing laboratory. The objective of the experiment is to determine static aerodynamic force coefficients, first of the orbiter, and later of various entry configurations throughout the high speed flight regime, including the transition from free molecule to continuum fluid flow. The objective will be accomplished through analysis of inflight measurements from both shuttle-borne and shuttle-launched instrumented packages. Results are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of such an experiment.

  18. Determination of aerodynamic sensitivity coefficients based on the three-dimensional full potential equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbanna, Hesham M.; Carlson, Leland A.

    1992-01-01

    The quasi-analytical approach is applied to the three-dimensional full potential equation to compute wing aerodynamic sensitivity coefficients in the transonic regime. Symbolic manipulation is used to reduce the effort associated with obtaining the sensitivity equations, and the large sensitivity system is solved using 'state of the art' routines. Results are compared to those obtained by the direct finite difference approach and both methods are evaluated to determine their computational accuracy and efficiency. The quasi-analytical approach is shown to be accurate and efficient for large aerodynamic systems.

  19. Determination of particles concentration in Black Sea waters from spectral beam attenuation coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korchemkina, E. N.; Latushkin, A. A.; Lee, M. E.

    2017-11-01

    The methods of determination of concentration and scattering by suspended particles in seawater are compared. The methods considered include gravimetric measurements of the mass concentration of suspended matter, empirical and analytical calculations based on measurements of the light beam attenuation coefficient (BAC) in 4 spectral bands, calculation of backscattering by particles using satellite measurements in the visible spectral range. The data were obtained in two cruises of the R/V "Professor Vodyanitsky" in the deep-water part of the Black Sea in July and October 2016., Spatial distribution of scattering by marine particles according to satellite data is in good agreement with the contact measurements.

  20. Improved spectral absorption coefficient grouping strategy of wide band k-distribution model used for calculation of infrared remote sensing signal of hot exhaust systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Haiyang; Wang, Qiang

    2018-07-01

    A new strategy for grouping spectral absorption coefficients, considering the influences of both temperature and species mole ratio inhomogeneities on correlated-k characteristics of the spectra of gas mixtures, has been deduced to match the calculation method of spectral overlap parameter used in multiscale multigroup wide band k-distribution model. By comparison with current spectral absorption coefficient grouping strategies, for which only the influence of temperature inhomogeneity on the correlated-k characteristics of spectra of single species was considered, the improvements in calculation accuracies resulting from the new grouping strategy were evaluated using a series of 0D cases in which radiance under 3-5-μm wave band emitted by hot combustion gas of hydrocarbon fuel was attenuated by atmosphere with quite different temperature and mole ratios of water vapor and carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide. Finally, evaluations are presented on the calculation of remote sensing thermal images of transonic hot jet exhausted from a chevron ejecting nozzle with solid wall cooling system.

  1. Absorption coefficient and relative refractive index change for a double δ-doped GaAs MIGFET-like structure: Electric and magnetic field effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Orozco, J. C.; Rodríguez-Magdaleno, K. A.; Suárez-López, J. R.; Duque, C. A.; Restrepo, R. L.

    2016-04-01

    In this work we present theoretical results for the electronic structure as well as for the absorption coefficient and relative refractive index change for an asymmetric double δ-doped like confining potential in the active region of a Multiple Independent Gate Field Effect Transistor (MIGFET) system. We model the potential profile as a double δ-doped like potential profile between two Schottky (parabolic) potential barriers that are just the main characteristics of the MIGFET configuration. We investigate the effect of external electromagnetic fields in this kind of quantum structures, in particular we applied a homogeneous constant electric field in the growth direction z as well as a homogeneous constant magnetic field in the x-direction. In general we conclude that by applying electromagnetic fields we can modulate the resonant peaks of the absorption coefficient as well as their energy position. Also with such probes it is possible to control the nodes and amplitude of the relative refractive index changes related to resonant intersubband optical transitions.

  2. Calcium Absorption in Infants and Small Children: Methods of Determination and Recent Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A. Abrams

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Determining calcium bioavailability is important in establishing dietary calcium requirements. In infants and small children, previously conducted mass balance studies have largely been replaced by stable isotope-based studies. The ability to assess calcium absorption using a relatively short 24-hour urine collection without the need for multiple blood samples or fecal collections is a major advantage to this technique. The results of these studies have demonstrated relatively small differences in calcium absorption efficiency between human milk and currently available cow milk-based infant formulas. In older children with a calcium intake typical of Western diets, calcium absorption is adequate to meet bone mineral accretion requirements.

  3. Determination of antimony by using tungsten trap atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titretir, Serap [Department of Chemistry, Inoenue University, 44065 Malatya (Turkey); Kenduezler, Erdal [Department of Primary Education, Faculty of Education, Ahi Evran University, 40100 Kirsehir (Turkey); Arslan, Yasin [Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Department of Chemistry, Atatuerk University, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey); Kula, Ibrahim [Department of Chemistry, Mugla University, 48000 Mugla (Turkey); Bakirdere, Sezgin [Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Department of Chemistry, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, 67100 Zonguldak (Turkey); Ataman, O. Yavuz. [Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: ataman@metu.edu.tr

    2008-08-15

    An electrically heated tungsten coil was used as a trap in the determination of antimony. The technique consists of three steps. Initially, SbH{sub 3} is formed by hydride generation procedure; then the analyte species in vapor form are transported to W-coil trap heated at 370 deg. C. Following the preconcentration step, the trap is heated to 895 deg. C; analyte species are revolatilized and transported to the flame-heated quartz atom cell where atomization and the formation of signal take place. The experimental parameters were optimized both for trap and no-trap studies. The most important experimental parameters are concentrations of HCl and NaBH{sub 4} solutions, H{sub 2} and Ar gas flow rates, and collection and revolatilization temperatures of W-coil. Accuracy was tested using a certified reference material, waste water EU-L-1. Limit of detection for the system is 16 ng l{sup -1} using a sample of 36 ml collected in 4.0 min. Enhancement factor in sensitivity was 17.

  4. Experimental determination of the absorption rate of unattached radon progeny from respiratory tract to blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butterweck, G.; Schuler, Ch.; Vessl, G.; Mueller, R.; Marsh, J.W.; Thrift, S.; Birchall, A.

    2002-01-01

    An exposure methodology was developed for the determination of the absorption rate of unattached radon progeny deposited in the human respiratory tract to blood. Twenty-one volunteers were exposed in a radon chamber during well-controlled aerosol and radon progeny conditions, with predominantly unattached radon daughters. Special efforts were made to restrict the dose to the volunteers to an absolute maximum of 0.08 mSv. Measurements of radon gas and radon progeny in blood samples of these volunteers indicated absorption half times of 20 min to 60 min. Former determinations, mainly performed with much larger aerosol particles of diameters between 100 nm and 1000 nm, implied absorption half times around 10 h. This indicates that the absorption of radon decay products from ciliated airways into blood is dependent upon particle size and particle composition. (author)

  5. Determining the K coefficient to leaf area index estimations in a tropical dry forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Sarah Freitas; Calvo-Rodriguez, Sofia; do Espírito Santo, Mário Marcos; Sánchez Azofeifa, Gerardo Arturo

    2018-03-01

    Vegetation indices are useful tools to remotely estimate several important parameters related to ecosystem functioning. However, improving and validating estimations for a wide range of vegetation types are necessary. In this study, we provide a methodology for the estimation of the leaf area index (LAI) in a tropical dry forest (TDF) using the light diffusion through the canopy as a function of the successional stage. For this purpose, we estimated the K coefficient, a parameter that relates the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to LAI, based on photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and solar radiation. The study was conducted in the Mata Seca State Park, in southeastern Brazil, from 2012 to 2013. We defined four successional stages (very early, early, intermediate, and late) and established one optical phenology tower at one plot of 20 × 20 m per stage. Towers measured the incoming and reflected solar radiation and PAR for NDVI calculation. For each plot, we established 24 points for LAI sampling through hemispherical photographs. Because leaf cover is highly seasonal in TDFs, we determined ΔK (leaf growth phase) and K max (leaf maturity phase). We detected a strong correlation between NDVI and LAI, which is necessary for a reliable determination of the K coefficient. Both NDVI and LAI varied significantly between successional stages, indicating sensitivity to structural changes in forest regeneration. Furthermore, the K values differed between successional stages and correlated significantly with other environmental variables such as air temperature and humidity, fraction of absorbed PAR, and soil moisture. Thus, we established a model based on spectral properties of the vegetation coupled with biophysical characteristics in a TDF that makes possible to estimate LAI from NDVI values. The application of the K coefficient can improve remote estimations of forest primary productivity and gases and energy exchanges between vegetation and atmosphere

  6. A new in-situ method to determine the apparent gas diffusion coefficient of soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laemmel, Thomas; Paulus, Sinikka; Schack-Kirchner, Helmer; Maier, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Soil aeration is an important factor for the biological activity in the soil and soil respiration. Generally, gas exchange between soil and atmosphere is assumed to be governed by diffusion and Fick's Law is used to describe the fluxes in the soil. The "apparent soil gas diffusion coefficient" represents the proportional factor between the flux and the gas concentration gradient in the soil and reflects the ability of the soil to "transport passively" gases through the soil. One common way to determine this coefficient is to take core samples in the field and determine it in the lab. Unfortunately this method is destructive and needs laborious field work and can only reflect a small fraction of the whole soil. As a consequence insecurity about the resulting effective diffusivity on the profile scale must remain. We developed a new in-situ method using new gas sampling device, tracer gas and inverse soil gas modelling. The gas sampling device contains several sampling depths and can be easily installed into vertical holes of an auger, which allows for fast installation of the system. At the lower end of the device inert tracer gas is injected continuously. The tracer gas diffuses into the surrounding soil. The resulting distribution of the tracer gas concentrations is used to deduce the diffusivity profile of the soil. For Finite Element Modeling of the gas sampling device/soil system the program COMSOL is used. We will present the results of a field campaign comparing the new in-situ method with lab measurements on soil cores. The new sampling pole has several interesting advantages: it can be used in-situ and over a long time; so it allows following modifications of diffusion coefficients in interaction with rain but also vegetation cycle and wind.

  7. Experimental determination of resonance absorption cross sections for Zircaloy-2 and zirconium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocic, A; Markovic, V [Boris Kidric Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1968-05-15

    The integral absorption cross section for the neutron spectrum and the thermal absorption cross section for zircaloy-2 have been determined using the pile oscillator technique. Using both values and a measured ratio of the epithermal to the thermal flux, the effective resonance integrals were obtained. After subtraction of the contributions for alloy and impurity elements, the effective resonance integrals for zirconium were evaluated. An extrapolated value of 0.91{+-}0.10 was obtained for the dilute integral. (author)

  8. Correlation between octanol/water and liposome/water distribution coefficients and drug absorption of a set of pharmacologically active compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Freddy; Moutinho, Carla; Matos, Carla

    2013-06-01

    Absorption and consequent therapeutic action are key issues in the development of new drugs by the pharmaceutical industry. In this sense, different models can be used to simulate biological membranes to predict the absorption of a drug. This work compared the octanol/water and the liposome/water models. The parameters used to relate the two models were the distribution coefficients between liposomes and water and octanol and water and the fraction of drug orally absorbed. For this study, 66 drugs were collected from literature sources and divided into four groups according to charge and ionization degree: neutral; positively charged; negatively charged; and partially ionized/zwitterionic. The results show a satisfactory linear correlation between the octanol and liposome systems for the neutral (R²= 0.9324) and partially ionized compounds (R²= 0.9367), contrary to the positive (R²= 0.4684) and negatively charged compounds (R²= 0.1487). In the case of neutral drugs, results were similar in both models because of the high fraction orally absorbed. However, for the charged drugs (positively, negatively, and partially ionized/zwitterionic), the liposomal model has a more-appropriate correlation with absorption than the octanol model. These results show that the neutral compounds only interact with membranes through hydrophobic bonds, whereas charged drugs favor electrostatic interactions established with the liposomes. With this work, we concluded that liposomes may be a more-appropriate biomembrane model than octanol for charged compounds.

  9. Optical absorption measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draggoo, V.G.; Morton, R.G.; Sawicki, R.H.; Bissinger, H.D.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes a non-intrusive method for measuring the temperature rise of optical elements under high laser power optical loading to determine the absorption coefficient. The method comprises irradiating the optical element with a high average power laser beam, viewing the optical element with an infrared camera to determine the temperature across the optical element and calculating the absorption of the optical element from the temperature

  10. Spatial distribution of coefficients for determination of global radiation in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Jugoslav L.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is a creation of the spatial distribution of the corresponding coefficients for the indirect determination of global radiation using all direct measurements data of this shortwave radiation balance component in Serbia in the standard climate period (1961-1990. Based on the global radiation direct measurements data recorded in the past and routine measurements/observations of cloudiness and sunshine duration, the spatial distribution coefficients maps required for calculation of global radiation were produced on the basis of sunshine/cloudiness in an arbitrary point on the territory of Serbia. Besides, a specific verification of the proposed empirical formula was performed. This paper contributes to a wide range of practical applications as direct measurements of global radiation are relatively rare, and are not carried out in Serbia today. Significant application is possible in the domain of renewable energy sources. The development of method for determination of the global radiation has an importance from the aspect of the environmental protection; however it also has an economic importance through applications in numerous commercial projects, as it does not require special measurements or additional financial investments.

  11. [Determination of sulfur in plant using a high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Li, Jia-xi

    2009-05-01

    A method for the analysis of sulfur (S) in plant by molecular absorption of carbon monosulfide (CS) using a high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometer (CS AAS) with a fuel-rich air/acetylene flame has been devised. The strong CS absorption band was found around 258 nm. The half-widths of some absorption bands were of the order of picometers, the same as the common atomic absorption lines. The experimental procedure in this study provided optimized instrumental conditions (the ratio of acetylene to air, the burner height) and parameters, and researched the spectral interferences and chemical interferences. The influence of the organic solvents on the CS absorption signals and the different digestion procedures for the determination of sulfur were also investigated. The limit of detection achieved for sulfur was 14 mg x L(-1), using the CS wavelength of 257. 961 nm and a measurement time of 3 s. The accuracy and precision were verified by analysis of two plant standard reference materials. The major applications of this method have been used for the determination of sulfur in plant materials, such as leaves. Compared to the others, this method for the analysis of sulfur is rapid, easy and simple for sulfur determination in plant.

  12. Determination of the interfacial heat transfer coefficient in the hot stamping of AA7075

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xiaochuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC is a key parameter in hot stamping processes, in which a hot blank is formed and quenched by cold dies simultaneously. The IHTC should therefore be identified and used in FE models to improve the accuracy of simulation results of hot stamping processes. In this work, a hot stamping simulator was designed and assembled in a Gleeble 3800 thermo-mechanical testing system and a FE model was built in PAM-STAMP to determine the IHTC value between a hot aluminium alloy 7075 blank and cold dies. The IHTC was determined at different contact pressures under both dry and lubricated (Omega-35 conditions. In addition, a model to calculate the IHTC value at different contact pressures and area densities of lubricant was developed for the hot stamping process.

  13. Determination of the Interfacial Heat Transfer Coefficient in the Hot Stamping of AA7075

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Kang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC is a key parameter in hot stamping processes, in which a hot blank is formed and quenched by cold dies simultaneously. The IHTC should therefore be identified and used in FE simulations to improve the accuracy of simulation results of hot stamping processes. In this work, a hot stamping simulator was designed and assembled in a Gleeble 3800 thermo-mechanical testing system and a FE model was built in PAM-STAMP to determine the IHTC values between a hot aluminium alloy 7075 blank and cold dies. The IHTC values were determined at different contact pressures under both dry and lubricated (Omega-35 conditions. In addition, a model to calculate the IHTC value at different contact pressures and area densities of lubricant was developed for the hot stamping process, which was proved to be working well with verification tests.

  14. A New Method for Determination of Joint Roughness Coefficient of Rock Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigui Du

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The joint roughness coefficient (JRC of rock joints has the characteristic of scale effect. JRC measured on small-size exposed rock joints should be evaluated by JRC scale effect in order to obtain the JRC of actual-scale rock joints, since field rock joints are hardly fully exposed or well saved. Based on the validity analysis of JRC scale effect, concepts of rate of JRC scale effect and effective length of JRC scale effect were proposed. Then, a graphic method for determination of the effective length of JRC scale effect was established. Study results show that the JRC of actual-scale rock joints can be obtained through a fractal model of JRC scale effect according to the statistically measured results of the JRC of small-size partial exposed rock joints and by the selection of fractal dimension of JRC scale effect and the determination of effective length of JRC scale effect.

  15. Simultaneous determination of mass and thermal accommodation coefficients from temporal evolution of an evaporating water microdroplet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zientara, M; Jakubczyk, D; Derkachov, G; Kolwas, K; Kolwas, M

    2005-01-01

    Scattering of coherent light by an evaporating droplet of pure water several micrometres in size was investigated. The droplet was levitated in an electrodynamic trap placed in a small climatic chamber. The evolution of the droplet radius and the evolution dynamics were investigated by means of analysing the scattering patterns with the aid of Mie theory. A numerical model of droplet evolution, incorporating the kinetic effects near the droplet surface, was constructed. Application of this model to the experimental data allowed us to determine the mass and thermal accommodation coefficients to be α C = 0.12 ± 0.02 and α T = 0.65 ± 0.09, respectively. This model enabled us to determine with high precision the temperature evolution of the droplet and the relative humidity in the droplet vicinity

  16. An improved procedure for determining grain boundary diffusion coefficients from averaged concentration profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryaznov, D.; Fleig, J.; Maier, J.

    2008-03-01

    Whipple's solution of the problem of grain boundary diffusion and Le Claire's relation, which is often used to determine grain boundary diffusion coefficients, are examined for a broad range of ratios of grain boundary to bulk diffusivities Δ and diffusion times t. Different reasons leading to errors in determining the grain boundary diffusivity (DGB) when using Le Claire's relation are discussed. It is shown that nonlinearities of the diffusion profiles in lnCav-y6/5 plots and deviations from "Le Claire's constant" (-0.78) are the major error sources (Cav=averaged concentration, y =coordinate in diffusion direction). An improved relation (replacing Le Claire's constant) is suggested for analyzing diffusion profiles particularly suited for small diffusion lengths (short times) as often required in diffusion experiments on nanocrystalline materials.

  17. The use of infrared absorption to determine density of liquid hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unland, H. D.; Timmerhaus, K. D.; Kropschot, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    Experimental evaluation of the use of infrared absorption for determining the density of liquid hydrogen, and discussion of the feasibility of an airborne densitometer based on this concept. The results indicate that infrared absorption of liquid hydrogen is highly sensitive to the density of hydrogen, and, under the operating limitations of the equipment and experimental techniques used, the determined values proved to be repeatable to an accuracy of 2.7%. The desiderata and limitations of an in-flight density-determining device are outlined, and some of the feasibility problems are defined.

  18. Rate Coefficient Determinations for H + NO2 → OH + NO from High Pressure Flow Reactor Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Francis M; Dryer, Frederick L

    2015-07-16

    Rate coefficients for the reaction H + NO2 → OH + NO (R1) have been determined over the nominal temperature and pressure ranges of 737-882 K and 10-20 atm, respectively, from measurements in two different flow reactor facilities: one laminar and one turbulent. Considering the existing database of experimental k1 measurements, the present conditions add measurements of k1 at previously unconsidered temperatures between ∼820-880 K, as well as at pressures that exceed existing measurements by over an order of magnitude. Experimental measurements of NOx-perturbed H2 oxidation have been interpreted by a quasi-steady state NOx plateau (QSSP) method. At the QSSP conditions considered here, overall reactivity is sensitive only to the rates of R1 and H + O2 + M → HO2 + M (R2.M). Consequently, the ratio of k1 to k2.M may be extracted as a simple algebraic function of measured NO2, O2, and total gas concentrations with only minimal complication (within measurement uncertainty) due to treatment of overall gas composition M that differs slightly from pure bath gas B. Absolute values of k1 have been determined with reference to the relatively well-known, pressure-dependent rate coefficients of R2.B for B = Ar and N2. Rate coefficients for the title reaction determined from present experimental interpretation of both laminar and turbulent flow reactor results appear to be in very good agreement around a representative value of 1.05 × 10(14) cm(3) mol(-1) s(-1) (1.74 × 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)). Further, the results of this study agree both with existing low pressure flash photolysis k1 determinations of Ko and Fontijn (J. Phys. Chem. 95 3984) near 760 K as well as a present fit to the theoretical expression of Su et al. (J. Phys. Chem. A 106 8261). These results indicate that, over the temperature range considered in this study and up to at least 20 atm, net chemistry due to stabilization of the H-NO2 reaction intermediate to form isomers of HNO2 may proceed at

  19. Donor impurity-related linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients in GaAs/Ga{sub 1−x}Al{sub x}As concentric double quantum rings: Effects of geometry, hydrostatic pressure, and aluminum concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baghramyan, H.M.; Barseghyan, M.G.; Kirakosyan, A.A. [Department of Solid State Physics, Yerevan State University, Al. Manookian 1, 0025 Yerevan (Armenia); Restrepo, R.L. [Física Teórica y Aplicada, Escuela de Ingeniería de Antioquia, AA 7516, Medellín (Colombia); Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultadde Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21,Medellín (Colombia); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultadde Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21,Medellín (Colombia); Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, CP 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Duque, C.A., E-mail: cduque@fisica.udea.edu.co [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultadde Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21,Medellín (Colombia)

    2014-01-15

    The linear and nonlinear optical absorption associated with the transition between 1s and 2s states corresponding to the electron-donor-impurity complex in GaAs/Ga{sub 1−x}Al{sub x}As three-dimensional concentric double quantum rings are investigated. Taking into account the combined effects of hydrostatic pressure and the variation of the aluminum concentration, the energies of the ground and first excited s-like states of a donor impurity in such a system have been calculated using the effective mass approximation and a variational method. The energies of these states and the corresponding threshold energy of the optical transitions are examined as functions of hydrostatic pressure, aluminum concentration, radial impurity position, as well as the geometrical dimensions of the structure. The dependencies of the linear, nonlinear and total optical absorption coefficients as functions of the incident photon energy are investigated for different values of those mentioned parameters. It is found that the influences mentioned above lead to either redshifts or blueshifts of the resonant peaks of the optical absorption spectrum. It is particularly discussed the unusual property exhibited by the third-order nonlinear of becoming positive for photon energies below the resonant transition one. It is shown that this phenomenon is associated with the particular features of the system under study, which determine the values of the electric dipole moment matrix elements. -- Highlights: • Intra-band optical absorption associated to impurity states in double quantum rings. • Combined effects of hydrostatic pressure and aluminum concentration are studied. • The influences mentioned above lead to shifts of resonant peaks. • It is discussed an unusual property exhibited by the third-order nonlinear absorption.

  20. Donor impurity-related linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients in GaAs/Ga1−xAlxAs concentric double quantum rings: Effects of geometry, hydrostatic pressure, and aluminum concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baghramyan, H.M.; Barseghyan, M.G.; Kirakosyan, A.A.; Restrepo, R.L.; Mora-Ramos, M.E.; Duque, C.A.

    2014-01-01

    The linear and nonlinear optical absorption associated with the transition between 1s and 2s states corresponding to the electron-donor-impurity complex in GaAs/Ga 1−x Al x As three-dimensional concentric double quantum rings are investigated. Taking into account the combined effects of hydrostatic pressure and the variation of the aluminum concentration, the energies of the ground and first excited s-like states of a donor impurity in such a system have been calculated using the effective mass approximation and a variational method. The energies of these states and the corresponding threshold energy of the optical transitions are examined as functions of hydrostatic pressure, aluminum concentration, radial impurity position, as well as the geometrical dimensions of the structure. The dependencies of the linear, nonlinear and total optical absorption coefficients as functions of the incident photon energy are investigated for different values of those mentioned parameters. It is found that the influences mentioned above lead to either redshifts or blueshifts of the resonant peaks of the optical absorption spectrum. It is particularly discussed the unusual property exhibited by the third-order nonlinear of becoming positive for photon energies below the resonant transition one. It is shown that this phenomenon is associated with the particular features of the system under study, which determine the values of the electric dipole moment matrix elements. -- Highlights: • Intra-band optical absorption associated to impurity states in double quantum rings. • Combined effects of hydrostatic pressure and aluminum concentration are studied. • The influences mentioned above lead to shifts of resonant peaks. • It is discussed an unusual property exhibited by the third-order nonlinear absorption

  1. Systematics of interaction and strong absorption radii determined from heavy-ion elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkelund, J.R.; Huizenga, J.R.

    1977-01-01

    Various methods for determining the strong absorption radius for light and intermediate mass nuclei are discussed. It is found that this determination in terms of the half-density radii of the target and projectile is more accurate over the whole range of available data than the other simple parametrizations. 62 references

  2. Determination coefficient distribution rhenium and tungsten using method extraction with solvent methyl ethyl ketone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riftanio Natapratama Hidayat; Maria Christina Prihatiningsih; Duyeh Setiawan

    2015-01-01

    Determination of the distribution coefficient (K d ) of the rhenium and tungsten conducted for the purpose of knowing the value of K d of the two elements. K d value determination is applied to the process of separation rhenium-188 from target of tungsten-188 for the purposes purification of radioisotopes that are made to meet the radionuclide and radiochemical purity. The K d value determination using solvent extraction with methyl ethyl ketone (MEK). Prior to the determination of K d values, determined beforehand the optimum conditions of extraction process based on the effect of agitation time, the volume of MEK, and the pH of the solution. Confirmation the results of the extraction was conducted using UV-Vis spectrophotometer with a complexing KSCN under acidic conditions and reductant SnCl 2 . The results showed that the optimum condition extraction process to feed each of 10 ppm is when the agitation for 10 minutes, the volume of MEK in 20 ml, and the pH below 5. Obtained the maximum recovery of rhenium are drawn to the organic phase as much as 9.545 ppm. However, the condition of the extraction process does not affect the migration of tungsten to the organic phase. Then the maximum K d values obtained at 2.7566 rhenium and tungsten maximum K d is 0.0873. Optimum conditions of extraction process can be further tested on radioactive rhenium and tungsten as an alternative to the separation of radioisotopes. (author)

  3. Determination of the Navier slip coefficient of microchannels exploiting the streaming potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hung Mok

    2012-03-01

    For most microchannels made of hydrophobic materials such as polymers, velocity slip occurs at the wall, affecting volumetric flow rate of electroosmotic flow Q(eof) and streaming potential (∂ϕ(str)/∂z). Since most techniques exploit Q(eof) or (∂ϕ(str)/∂z) to determine the zeta potential, ζ, it is very difficult to measure ζ of hydrophobic walls, if the slip coefficient b is not found a priori. Until now, Q(eof) and (∂ϕ(str)/∂z) are known to depend on ζ and b in a same functional form, which makes it impossible to estimate ζ or b separately using measurements of Q(eof) and (∂ϕ(str)/∂z). However, exploiting the analytic formula for Q(eof) and (∂ϕ(str)/∂z) derived in the present work, it is found that the effect of ζ and that of b on Q(eof) and (∂ϕ(str)/∂z) can be separated from each other by varying the bulk ionic concentration. Thus, the slip coefficient as well as the zeta potential of hydrophobic microchannels can be found with reasonable accuracy by means of a nonlinear curve fitting method using measured data of Q(eof) and (∂ϕ(str)/∂z) at various bulk ionic concentrations. The present method allows an accurate estimation of slip coefficient of hydrophobic microchannels, which is quite simple and cheap compared with methods employing microparticle velocimetry. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. High accuracy experimental determination of copper and zinc mass attenuation coefficients in the 100 eV to 30 keV photon energy range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménesguen, Y.; Gerlach, M.; Pollakowski, B.; Unterumsberger, R.; Haschke, M.; Beckhoff, B.; Lépy, M.-C.

    2016-02-01

    The knowledge of atomic fundamental parameters such as mass attenuation coefficients with low uncertainties, is of decisive importance in elemental quantification using x-ray fluorescence analysis techniques. Several databases are accessible and frequently used within a large community of users. These compilations are most often in good agreement for photon energies in the hard x-ray ranges. However, they significantly differ for low photon energies and around the absorption edges of any element. In a joint cooperation of the metrology institutes of France and Germany, mass attenuation coefficients of copper and zinc were determined experimentally in the photon energy range from 100 eV to 30 keV by independent approaches using monochromatized synchrotron radiation at SOLEIL (France) and BESSY II (Germany), respectively. The application of high-accuracy experimental techniques resulted in mass attenuation coefficient datasets determined with low uncertainties that are directly compared to existing databases. The novel datasets are expected to enhance the reliability of mass attenuation coefficients.

  5. Determination of mercury in hair: Comparison between gold amalgamation-atomic absorption spectrometry and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domanico, Francesco; Forte, Giovanni; Majorani, Costanza; Senofonte, Oreste; Petrucci, Francesco; Pezzi, Vincenzo; Alimonti, Alessandro

    2017-09-01

    Mercury is a heavy metal that causes serious health problems in exposed subjects. The most toxic form, i.e., methylmercury (MeHg), is mostly excreted through human hair. Numerous analytical methods are available for total Hg analysis in human hair, including cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CV-AFS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and thermal decomposition amalgamation atomic absorption spectrometry (TDA-AAS). The aim of the study was to compare the TDA-AAS with the ICP-MS in the Hg quantification in human hair. After the washing procedure to minimize the external contamination, from each hair sample two aliquots were taken; the first was used for direct analysis of Hg by TDA-AAS and the second was digested for Hg determination by the ICP-MS. Results indicated that the two data sets were fully comparable (median; TDA-AAS, 475ngg -1 ; ICP-MS, 437ngg -1 ) and were not statistically different (Mann-Whitney test; p=0.44). The two techniques presented results with a good coefficient of correlation (r=0.94) despite different operative ranges and method limits. Both techniques satisfied internal performance requirements and the parameters for method validation resulting sensitive, precise and reliable. Finally, the use of the TDA-AAS can be considered instead of the ICP-MS in hair analysis in order to reduce sample manipulation with minor risk of contamination, less time consuming due to the absence of the digestion step and cheaper analyses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Capturing Absorptive Capacity: Concepts, Determinants, Measurement Modes and Role in Open Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewandowska Małgorzata Stefania

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Absorptive capacity (ACAP enables firm to adjust to a rapidly changing environment and achieve sustained competitive advantage. This study contributes to the existing body of knowledge on ACAP by providing a comprehensive literature review of the various conceptual attributes of the construct, its determinants, outcomes, and positive and negative consequences of using its input-oriented, output-oriented, and perceptive measurement modes. Proposals for constructing ACAP based on the Community Innovation Survey (CIS empirically illustrate for the conceptual part of the paper. Additionally, combining concepts of absorptive capacity and open innovation (which is still rare in the literature provides a new perspective on the role of absorptive capacity in opening up the innovation process. This advances the understanding of both inter-related proposals. The article also identifies key problems and formulates future research directions to improve the multi-level characteristics of absorptive capacity.

  7. High precision optical measurement of displacement and simultaneous determinations of piezoelectric coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa, Bryan M.; Malladi, Madhuri; Vadlamani, Ramya; Guo, Ruyan; Bhalla, Amar

    2016-09-01

    PZT are also well known for their applications in Micro Electrical Mechanical Systems (MEMS). It is necessary to study the piezoelectric coefficients of the materials accurately in order to design a sensor as an example, which defines their strain dependent applications. Systematic study of the electro mechanic displacement measurement was conducted and compared using a white light fiber optic sensor, a heterodyne laser Doppler vibrometer, and a homodyne laser interferometry setup. Frequency dependent measurement is conducted to evaluate displacement values well below and near the piezoelectric resonances. UHF-120 ultra-high frequency Vibrometer is used to measure the longitudinal piezoelectric displacement or x33 and the MTI 2000 FotonicTM Sensor is used to measure the transverse piezoelectric displacement or x11 over 100Hz to 2MHz. A Multiphysics Finite Element Analysis method, COMSOL, is also adopted in the study to generate a three dimensional electromechanical coupled model based on experimentally determined strains x33 and x11 as a function of frequency of the electric field applied. The full family of piezoelectric coefficients of the poled electronic ceramic PZT, d33, d31, and d15, can be then derived, upon satisfactory simulation of the COMSOL. This is achieved without the usual need of preparation of piezoelectric resonators of fundamental longitudinal, transversal, and shear modes respectively.

  8. Aerosol absorption coefficient and Equivalent Black Carbon by parallel operation of AE31 and AE33 aethalometers at the Zeppelin station, Ny Ålesund, Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleftheriadis, Konstantinos; Kalogridis, Athina-Cerise; Vratolis, Sterios; Fiebig, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Light absorbing carbon in atmospheric aerosol plays a critical role in radiative forcing and climate change. Despite the long term measurements across the Arctic, comparing data obtained by a variety of methods across stations requires caution. A method for extracting the aerosol absorption coefficient from data obtained over the decades by filter based instrument is still under development. An IASOA Aerosol working group has been initiated to address this and other cross-site aerosol comparison opportunities. Continuous ambient measurements of EBC/light attenuation by means of a Magee Sci. AE-31 aethalometer operating at the Zeppelinfjellet station (474 m asl; 78°54'N, 11°53'E), Ny Ålesund, Svalbard, have been available since 2001 (Eleftheriadis et al, 2009), while a new aethalometer model (AE33, Drinovec et al, 2014) has been installed to operate in parallel from the same inlet since June 2015. Measurements are recorded by a Labview routine collecting all available parameters reported by the two instrument via RS232 protocol. Data are reported at 1 and 10 minute intervals as averages for EBC (μg m-3) and aerosol absorption coefficients (Mm-1) by means of routine designed to report Near Real Time NRT data at the EBAS WDCA database (ebas.nilu.no) Results for the first 6 month period are reported here in an attempt to evaluate comparative performance of the two instruments in terms of their response with respect to the variable aerosol load of light absorbing carbon during the warm and cold seasons found in the high arctic. The application of available conversion schemes for obtaining the absorption coefficient by the two instruments is found to demonstrate a marked difference in their output. During clean periods of low aerosol load (EBC origin was also conducted. Drinovec, L., Močnik, G., Zotter, P., Prévôt, A. S. H., Ruckstuhl, C., Coz, E., Rupakheti, M., Sciare, J., Müller, T., Wiedensohler, A., and Hansen, A. D. A. The "dual-spot" Aethalometer: an

  9. Use of the quartz crystal microbalance to determine the monomeric friction coefficient of polyimides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtold, Mary M.

    1995-01-01

    obtained when using this oscillating circuit are highly variable. This circuit requires further modification to stabilize frequency readings before its use in studies to determine the diffusion coefficient of penetrant molecules into a polymer film coated on a QCM.

  10. Determining CDOM Absorption Spectra in Diverse Aquatic Environments Using a Multiple Pathlength, Liquid Core Waveguide System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Richard L.; Belz, Mathias; DelCastillo, Carlos; Trzaska, Rick

    2001-01-01

    We evaluated the accuracy, sensitivity and precision of a multiple pathlength, liquid core waveguide (MPLCW) system for measuring colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) absorption in the UV-visible spectral range (370-700 nm). The MPLCW has four optical paths (2.0, 9.8, 49.3, and 204 cm) coupled to a single Teflon AF sample cell. Water samples were obtained from inland, coastal and ocean waters ranging in salinity from 0 to 36 PSU. Reference solutions for the MPLCW were made having a refractive index of the sample. CDOM absorption coefficients, aCDOM, and the slope of the log-linearized absorption spectra, S, were compared with values obtained using a dual-beam spectrophotometer. Absorption of phenol red secondary standards measured by the MPLCW at 558 nm were highly correlated with spectrophotometer values and showed a linear response across all four pathlengths. Values of aCDOM measured using the MPLCW were virtually identical to spectrophotometer values over a wide range of concentrations. The dynamic range of aCDOM for MPLCW measurements was 0.002 - 231.5 m-1. At low CDOM concentrations spectrophotometric aCDOM were slightly greater than MPLCW values and showed larger fluctuations at longer wavelengths due to limitations in instrument precision. In contrast, MPLCW spectra followed an exponential to 600 nm for all samples.

  11. Determining the thermal expansion coefficient of thin films for a CMOS MEMS process using test cantilevers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Chao-Lin; Fang, Weileun; Tsai, Ming-Han

    2015-01-01

    Many standard CMOS processes, provided by existing foundries, are available. These standard CMOS processes, with stacking of various metal and dielectric layers, have been extensively applied in integrated circuits as well as micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS). It is of importance to determine the material properties of the metal and dielectric films to predict the performance and reliability of micro devices. This study employs an existing approach to determine the coefficients of thermal expansion (CTEs) of metal and dielectric films for standard CMOS processes. Test cantilevers with different stacking of metal and dielectric layers for standard CMOS processes have been designed and implemented. The CTEs of standard CMOS films can be determined from measurements of the out-of-plane thermal deformations of the test cantilevers. To demonstrate the feasibility of the present approach, thin films prepared by the Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacture Company 0.35 μm 2P4M CMOS process are characterized. Eight test cantilevers with different stacking of CMOS layers and an auxiliary Si cantilever on a SOI wafer are fabricated. The equivalent elastic moduli and CTEs of the CMOS thin films including the metal and dielectric layers are determined, respectively, from the resonant frequency and static thermal deformation of the test cantilevers. Moreover, thermal deformations of cantilevers with stacked layers different to those of the test beams have been employed to verify the measured CTEs and elastic moduli. (paper)

  12. Determination of molybdate mean ionic activity coefficients for the assessment of radionuclide mobility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grambow, B.; Mueller, R.; Rother, A.

    1992-01-01

    Isopiestic tests at 25deg C and solubility tests as temperatures between 22 and 190deg C were used to determine solubility products and activity coefficients in the Nd-Na-Ca-Mg-Cl-MoO 4 -H 2 O system. Pitzer parameters were determined for the binary Na-MoO 4 -H 2 O and Mg-MoO 4 -H 2 O systems, the ternary Na-Cl-MoO 4 -H 2 O and the resiprocal Na-Mg-Cl-MoO 4 -H 2 O system. Solubility products K s0 were determined for MgMoO 4 x5H 2 O, CaMoO 4 x0.2H 2 O and Na 0.5 Nd 0.5 MoO 4 x0.16H 2 O; for the latter two phases the temperature dependence of solubility was determined. Isopiestic tests in concentrated binary and ternary systems with MoO 4 as a main component are consistent with solubility tests, in which MoO 4 is present only as trace component. (orig.)

  13. Direct determination of selenoproteins in polyvinylidene difluoride membranes by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidenius, U; Gammelgaard, Bente

    2000-01-01

    A method for the direct determination of selenoproteins in plastic membranes after protein separation by gel electrophoresis was developed. Quantification was based on the determination of the selenium content of the proteins by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ET-AAS) after manual...... were excised and chemical modifier was added on top of the excised membrane prior to atomic absorption measurement. Acceptable linearity was achieved in the range 2-10 ng Se, corresponding to selenium concentrations close to 1 mg/L, when aqueous solutions of selenomethionine standard as well...

  14. Automatic determination of pathological voice transformation coefficients for TDPDOLA using neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belgacem, H.; Cherif, A.

    2011-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges in vocal transformation with TD-PSOLA technique is the selection of modified parameters that will make a successful speech resynthesis. The best selection methods are by using human ratters. This study focuses on automatic determination of the pathological voice transformation coefficients using an Artificial Neural Network this way by comparing the results to the previous manual work. Four characterizied parameters (RATA-PLP, Jitter, Shimmer and RAP) were chosen. The system is developed with supervised training, consists of recognition (neural network) for synthesis (TD-PSOLA). The experimental results show that the parameter sets selected by the proposed system can be successfully used to resynthesize and demonstrating that our system can assist in vocal of pathological voice's transformation.

  15. Analysis of the stress field in a wedge using the fast expansions with pointwise determined coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyshov, A. D.; Goryainov, V. V.; Danshin, A. A.

    2018-03-01

    The stress problem for the elastic wedge-shaped cutter of finite dimensions with mixed boundary conditions is considered. The differential problem is reduced to the system of linear algebraic equations by applying twice the fast expansions with respect to the angular and radial coordinate. In order to determine the unknown coefficients of fast expansions, the pointwise method is utilized. The problem solution derived has explicit analytical form and it’s valid for the entire domain including its boundary. The computed profiles of the displacements and stresses in a cross-section of the cutter are provided. The stress field is investigated for various values of opening angle and cusp’s radius.

  16. Determination of the convection coefficients of the new core of the RA6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silin, Nicolas; Masson, Viviana P.; Azcona, Maria A.; Delmastro, Dario F.; Mateos Bickel, Daniel E.; Eckardt, S.

    2007-01-01

    The experimental reactor RA-6 has a core with fuel elements formed by flat plates, refrigerated by a flow of water. The fluid movement in the core is downward, which is advantageous from the point of view that water is turned away from the pool mouth. For the study of the heat transfer in the fuel elements correlations developed for flat parallel plates are often used. Under the project for core replacement and power augmentation in the experimental reactor RA-6 there is a need to increase the cooling flow of the core. In the new conditions the hydrodynamic flow regime is transitional. This fact combined with the high heat flux and the downward flow of coolant make the design correlations must be verified. Therefore the objective of this work is to experimentally determine the coefficient of convection between the fuel plates in the reactor core in the range of 3000 2 and 150 C degrees wall temperature. (author) [es

  17. Determination of diffusion coefficients in Au/Ni thin films by Auger electron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdul-Lettif, Ahmed M. [Physics Department, College of Science, Babylon University, Hilla (Iraq)

    2004-07-01

    Interdiffusion in vacuum-deposited Au/Ni thin films at temperatures in the range 200-500 C has been investigated using the Auger depth profiling technique and X-ray diffraction analysis. A modified Wipple model was used to determine the diffusion coefficients of Ni in Au to be 5.3 x 10{sup -16} cm{sup 2}/s at 500 C, 4.0 x 10{sup -17} cm{sup 2}/s at 400 C, 2.5 x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2}/s at 300 C, and 1.2 x 10{sup -19} cm{sup 2}/s at 200 C. An activation energy of 0.87 eV was calculated. The present diffusion data differ significantly from the corresponding values extracted by some other investigators and the reasons for this disagreement were discussed. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. Using ab initio 'data' to accurately determine the fourth density virial coefficient of helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moldover, Michael R.; McLinden, Mark O.

    2010-01-01

    We combine accurate ab initio calculations of the second and third density virial coefficients, B(T) and C(T), of 4 He with measurements of its (p-ρ-T) behavior to determine the fourth density virial coefficient D(T). The measurements were made with a two-sinker, magnetic-suspension densimeter at pressures up to 38 MPa. The measurements on isotherms from T = 223 K to T = 323 K were previously published; new measurements from T = 323 K to T = 500 K are presented here. On each isotherm, a regression of the virial expansion was constrained to the ab initio values of B(T) and C(T); the regression determined D(T) as well as two apparatus-dependent parameters that compensated for systematic errors in the measurements. The percentage uncertainties of D(T) ranged from 2.6% at T = 223 K to 9.5% at T = 400 K to 24.7% at T = 500 K, where these uncertainties are expanded uncertainties with coverage factor of k = 2 corresponding to a 95% confidence interval. These uncertainties are 1/6th of the uncertainty obtained without the ab initio values of B(T) and C(T). The apparatus-dependent parameters can be used to calibrate the densimeter, and this will reduce the uncertainty of other measurements made with this two-sinker densimeter. The new values of D(T) will find applications in accurate gas metrology, such as a primary pressure standard based on the refractive index of helium.

  19. Determination of the partition coefficient between dissolved organic carbon and seawater using differential equilibrium kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Du Yung; Kwon, Jung-Hwan

    2018-05-04

    Because the freely dissolved fraction of highly hydrophobic organic chemicals is bioavailable, knowing the partition coefficient between dissolved organic carbon and water (K DOCw ) is crucial to estimate the freely dissolved fraction from the total concentration. A kinetic method was developed to obtain K DOCw that required a shorter experimental time than equilibrium methods. The equilibrium partition coefficients of four polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (2,4,4'-trichlorobiphenyl (PCB 28), 2,2',3,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 44), 2,2',4,5,5'-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 101), and 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 153)) between dissolved organic carbon and seawater (K DOCsw ) were determined using seawater samples from the Korean coast. The log K DOCsw values of PCB 28 were measured by equilibrating PCB 28, the least hydrophobic congener, with seawater samples, and the values ranged from 6.60 to 7.20. For the more hydrophobic PCBs (PCB 44, PCB 101, and PCB 153), kinetic experiments were conducted to determine the sorption rate constants (k 2 ) and their log K DOCsw values were obtained by comparing their k 2 with that of PCB 28. The calculated log K DOCsw values were 6.57-7.35 for PCB 44, 6.23-7.44 for PCB 101, and 6.35-7.73 for PCB 153. The validity of the proposed method was further confirmed using three less hydrophobic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. This kinetic method shortened the experimental time to obtain the K DOCsw values of the more hydrophobic PCBs, which did not reach phase equilibrium. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. On the determination of adiabatic compressibility, isoentropy coefficient and other properties of two-phase media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleshin, V.S.

    1980-01-01

    Presented are calculated dependences for adiabatic compressibility, isoentropy coefficient and thermodynamic sound velocity of a two-phase media with homogeneous disperse structure being in a state of equilibrium. The character of the change of the values mentioned for vapor water media at the change of vapor mass composition in the mixture from zero to 1 is shown. Comparison of the calculated data as to dependences obtained with the experimental ones for critical regimes of vapor-water flow outflow through short and long cylindrical channels with sharp entrance rims. The calculation error does not exceed approximately 12%. Analysis of the results obtained showed that at outflow through short channels of metastable vapor liquid flow the main characteristics, like at outflow through long channels, are determined by the pressure in the exit cross section, mass vapor content and specific volume of the mixture, which are calculated with account for real overheating of the liquid to the exit cross section. At critical regime of outflow through the very long channels, when one can not neglect hydraulic resistance in the channel and the process is not isoentropic, the pressure and mass vapor content in the exit cross section also unambiguously determine the value of adiabatic compressibility of two-phase media, sound velocity and isoentropy coefficient in the cross section. Conclusion is made that the dependences obtained can be used with sufficient for practical purposes accuracy when solving different engineering problems, as well as for the calculations of the mixture consumption at flow of the reactor contours NAI with WWR

  1. Determination of diffusion and adsorption coefficients for some contaminants in clayey soil and rock: Laboratory determination and field evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barone, F S

    1990-01-01

    A laboratory diffusion test determination of diffusion coefficient (D) and adsorption coefficient (K{sub d}) for various inorganic and organic species in a saturated, undisturbed, clayey soil is presented. Diffusion tests conducted for inorganic species (Cl{sup {minus}} , Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Mg{sup 2+}, and Ca{sup 2+}), involved placing domestic landfill leachate on top of a layer of clay and allowing the chemical constituents to diffuse into the soil. The mathematical model POLLUTE was then used to back-figure (D) and (K{sub d}) for each species. Diffusion tests conducted for organic species (acetone, 1,4-dioxane, aniline, chloroform, and toluene), involved diffusion of the species from a source solution placed on one side of a clay plug, into a distilled water collector solution on the opposite side. Using POLLUTE, D and K{sub d} were then determined by fitting the measured concentration variation with time in both the source and collector solution. In addition to the laboratory study, an investigation of inorganic contaminant diffusion below an existing industrial landfill site was conducted by analyzing soil and pore water specimens from the clay layer underlying the waste. Concentration profiles for Cl{sup {minus}}, So{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}, Na+, Ca{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+}, showed above background levels to a depth of 1.4 m below the waste after 11 years of migration. K{sup +}, B, and NH{sub 3}-N profiles, penetrated to less than 0.5 m below the waste. Field profiles for Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Cl{sup {minus}}, and SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} were then compared with those predicted using POLLUTE with D and K{sub d} values obtained from diffusion tests using leachate and natural uncontaminated clay from the site. Finally, a laboratory diffusion test determination of Cl{sup {minus}} diffusion coefficient in samples of intact, saturated shale and mudstone is presented.

  2. Determination of the slow crack growth susceptibility coefficient of dental ceramics using different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzaga, Carla Castiglia; Cesar, Paulo Francisco; Miranda, Walter Gomes; Yoshimura, Humberto Naoyuki

    2011-11-01

    This study compared three methods for the determination of the slow crack growth susceptibility coefficient (n) of two veneering ceramics (VM7 and d.Sign), two glass-ceramics (Empress and Empress 2) and a glass-infiltrated alumina composite (In-Ceram Alumina). Discs (n = 10) were prepared according to manufacturers' recommendations and polished. The constant stress-rate test was performed at five constant stress rates to calculate n(d) . For the indentation fracture test to determine n(IF) , Vickers indentations were performed and the crack lengths were measured under an optical microscope. For the constant stress test (performed only for d.Sign for the determination of n(s) ) four constant stresses were applied and held constant until the specimens' fracture and the time to failure was recorded. All tests were performed in artificial saliva at 37°C. The n(d) values were 17.2 for Empress 2, followed by d.Sign (20.5), VM7 (26.5), Empress (30.2), and In-Ceram Alumina (31.1). In-Ceram Alumina and Empress 2 showed the highest n(IF) values, 66.0 and 40.2, respectively. The n(IF) values determined for Empress (25.2), d.Sign (25.6), and VM7 (20.1) were similar. The n(s) value determined for d.Sign was 31.4. It can be concluded that the n values determined for the dental ceramics evaluated were significantly influenced by the test method used. 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Nonlinear absorption coefficient and relative refraction index change for an asymmetrical double δ-doped quantum well in GaAs with a Schottky barrier potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas-Briseño, J.G.; Martínez-Orozco, J.C.; Rodríguez-Vargas, I.; Mora-Ramos, M.E.; Duque, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we are reporting the energy level spectrum for a quantum system consisting of an n-type double δ-doped quantum well with a Schottky barrier potential in a Gallium Arsenide matrix. The calculated states are taken as the basis for the evaluation of the linear and third-order nonlinear contributions to the optical absorption coefficient and to the relative refractive index change, making particular use of the asymmetry of the potential profile. These optical properties are then reported as a function of the Schottky barrier height (SBH) and the separation distance between the δ-doped quantum wells. Also, the effects of the application of hydrostatic pressure are studied. The results show that the amplitudes of the resonant peaks are of the same order of magnitude of those obtained in the case of single δ-doped field effect transistors; but tailoring the asymmetry of the confining potential profile allows the control the resonant peak positions

  4. Nonlinear absorption coefficient and relative refraction index change for an asymmetrical double δ-doped quantum well in GaAs with a Schottky barrier potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas-Briseño, J.G.; Martínez-Orozco, J.C.; Rodríguez-Vargas, I. [Unidad Académica de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Calzada Solidaridad esquina con Paseo la Bufa S/N, C.P. 98060, Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, CP 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellín (Colombia); Duque, C.A., E-mail: cduque@fisica.udea.edu.co [Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellín (Colombia)

    2013-09-01

    In this work we are reporting the energy level spectrum for a quantum system consisting of an n-type double δ-doped quantum well with a Schottky barrier potential in a Gallium Arsenide matrix. The calculated states are taken as the basis for the evaluation of the linear and third-order nonlinear contributions to the optical absorption coefficient and to the relative refractive index change, making particular use of the asymmetry of the potential profile. These optical properties are then reported as a function of the Schottky barrier height (SBH) and the separation distance between the δ-doped quantum wells. Also, the effects of the application of hydrostatic pressure are studied. The results show that the amplitudes of the resonant peaks are of the same order of magnitude of those obtained in the case of single δ-doped field effect transistors; but tailoring the asymmetry of the confining potential profile allows the control the resonant peak positions.

  5. Experimentally Determined Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients for Spacesuit Liquid Cooled Garments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bue, Grant; Rhodes, Richard; Anchondo, Ian; Westheimer, David; Campbell, Colin; Vogel, Matt; Vonaue, Walt; Conger, Bruce; Stein, James

    2015-01-01

    A Human-In-The-Loop (HITL) Portable Life Support System 2.0 (PLSS 2.0) test has been conducted at NASA Johnson Space Center in the PLSS Development Laboratory from October 27, 2014 to December 19, 2014. These closed-loop tests of the PLSS 2.0 system integrated with human subjects in the Mark III Suit at 3.7 psi to 4.3 psi above ambient pressure performing treadmill exercise at various metabolic rates from standing rest to 3000 BTU/hr (880 W). The bulk of the PLSS 2.0 was at ambient pressure but effluent water vapor from the Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) and the Auxiliary Membrane Evaporator (Mini-ME), and effluent carbon dioxide from the Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) were ported to vacuum to test performance of these components in flight-like conditions. One of the objectives of this test was to determine the overall heat transfer coefficient (UA) of the Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG). The UA, an important factor for modeling the heat rejection of an LCG, was determined in a variety of conditions by varying inlet water temperature, flow rate, and metabolic rate. Three LCG configurations were tested: the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) LCG, the Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS) LCG, and the OSS auxiliary LCG. Other factors influencing accurate UA determination, such as overall heat balance, LCG fit, and the skin temperature measurement, will also be discussed.

  6. Determination of Rotordynamic Coefficients for Labyrinth Seals and Application to Rotordynamic Design Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, P.; Nordmann, R.

    1991-01-01

    In today's rotordynamic calculations, the input parameters for a finite element analysis (FEA) determine very much the reliability of eigenvalue and eigenmode predictions. While modeling of an elastic structure by means of beam elements etc. is relatively straightforward to perform and the input data for journal bearings are usually known exactly enough, the determination of stiffness and damping for labyrinth seals is still the subject of many investigations. Therefore, the rotordynamic influence of labyrinths is often not included in FEA for rotating machinery because of a lack of computer programs to calculate these parameters. This circumstance can give rise to severe vibration problems especially for high performance turbines or compressors, resulting in remarkable economic losses. The forces generated in labyrinths can be described for small motions around the seal center with a linearized force-motion relationship. Several years ago, we started with the development of computer codes for the determination of rotordynamic seal coefficients. Our different approaches to evaluate the dynamic fluid forces generated by turbulent, compressible seal flow are introduced.

  7. Ischemic lesion volume determination on diffusion weighted images vs. apparent diffusion coefficient maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bråtane, Bernt Tore; Bastan, Birgul; Fisher, Marc; Bouley, James; Henninger, Nils

    2009-07-07

    Though diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) is frequently used for identifying the ischemic lesion in focal cerebral ischemia, the understanding of spatiotemporal evolution patterns observed with different analysis methods remains imprecise. DWI and calculated apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were serially obtained in rat stroke models (MCAO): permanent, 90 min, and 180 min temporary MCAO. Lesion volumes were analyzed in a blinded and randomized manner by 2 investigators using (i) a previously validated ADC threshold, (ii) visual determination of hypointense regions on ADC maps, and (iii) visual determination of hyperintense regions on DWI. Lesion volumes were correlated with 24 hour 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazoliumchloride (TTC)-derived infarct volumes. TTC-derived infarct volumes were not significantly different from the ADC and DWI-derived lesion volumes at the last imaging time points except for significantly smaller DWI lesions in the pMCAO model (p=0.02). Volumetric calculation based on TTC-derived infarct also correlated significantly stronger to volumetric calculation based on last imaging time point derived lesions on ADC maps than DWI (pdetermined lesion volumes on ADC maps and DWI by both investigators correlated significantly with threshold-derived lesion volumes on ADC maps with the former method demonstrating a stronger correlation. There was also a better interrater agreement for ADC map analysis than for DWI analysis. Ischemic lesion determination by ADC was more accurate in final infarct prediction, rater independent, and provided exclusive information on ischemic lesion reversibility.

  8. [Determination of trace cobalt in human urine by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometr].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, L X; Ding, B M; Jiang, D; Liu, D Y; Yu, B; Zhu, B L; Ding, L

    2016-05-20

    To establish a method to determine cobalt in human urine by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Urine with 2% nitric acid diluted two-fold, to quantify the curve, graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric detection. Co was linear within 2.5~40.0 ng/ml with r>0.999. Spike experiment showed that Co received good recovery rate, which was 90.8%~94.8%. Intra-assay precisions were 3.2%~5.1% for Co, inter-assay precisions were 4.4%~5.2% for Co. The method by using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometr to determine urine Co was fast, accurate and with low matrix effect. It could meet the requirement in GBZ/T 210.5-2008.

  9. Determination of heat transfer coefficients in plastic French straws plunged in liquid nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, M Victoria; Sansinena, M; Chirife, J; Zaritzky, N

    2014-12-01

    The knowledge of the thermodynamic process during the cooling of reproductive biological systems is important to assess and optimize the cryopreservation procedures. The time-temperature curve of a sample immersed in liquid nitrogen enables the calculation of cooling rates and helps to determine whether it is vitrified or undergoes phase change transition. When dealing with cryogenic liquids, the temperature difference between the solid and the sample is high enough to cause boiling of the liquid, and the sample can undergo different regimes such as film and/or nucleate pool boiling. In the present work, the surface heat transfer coefficients (h) for plastic French straws plunged in liquid nitrogen were determined using the measurement of time-temperature curves. When straws filled with ice were used the cooling curve showed an abrupt slope change which was attributed to the transition of film into nucleate pool boiling regime. The h value that fitted each stage of the cooling process was calculated using a numerical finite element program that solves the heat transfer partial differential equation under transient conditions. In the cooling process corresponding to film boiling regime, the h that best fitted experimental results was h=148.12±5.4 W/m(2) K and for nucleate-boiling h=1355±51 W/m(2) K. These values were further validated by predicting the time-temperature curve for French straws filled with a biological fluid system (bovine semen-extender) which undergoes freezing. Good agreement was obtained between the experimental and predicted temperature profiles, further confirming the accuracy of the h values previously determined for the ice-filled straw. These coefficients were corroborated using literature correlations. The determination of the boiling regimes that govern the cooling process when plunging straws in liquid nitrogen constitutes an important issue when trying to optimize cryopreservation procedures. Furthermore, this information can lead to

  10. Determination of Partition coefficients for a Mixture of Volatile Organic Compounds in Rats and Humans at Different Life Stages

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mahle, Deidre A; Gearhart, Jeffrey M; Godfrey, Richard J; Mattie, David R; Cook, Robert S; Grisby, Claude C

    2004-01-01

    .... Partition coefficients (PCs) are an integral component of pharmacokinetic models and determining differences in tissue partitioning of volatile organic chemicals across life stages can help reduce the uncertainty in risk assessment...

  11. Using the Coefficient of Determination "R"[superscript 2] to Test the Significance of Multiple Linear Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinino, Roberto C.; Reis, Edna A.; Bessegato, Lupercio F.

    2013-01-01

    This article proposes the use of the coefficient of determination as a statistic for hypothesis testing in multiple linear regression based on distributions acquired by beta sampling. (Contains 3 figures.)

  12. Application of Mathematical Models for Determination of Microorganisms Growth Rate Kinetic Coefficients for Wastewater Treatment Plant Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Delnavaz

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Evaluation of Y, kd, k0 and Ks parameters in operation of Ekbatan wastewater treatment plant showed that ASM1 model could well determine the coefficients and therefore the conditions of biological treatment is appropriate.

  13. Determination of flow times and longitudinal dispersion coefficients in the Main river using 3HHO as tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, W.J.; Mundschenk, H.

    1989-01-01

    Single discharges from nuclear power plants as well as discrete labeling with tritiated water are used to determine flow times, flow velocities and longitudinal dispersion coefficients in German rivers as shown here, for example, for the Main river. (orig.)

  14. Determination of vitamin B12 (cobalamine) absorption by means of a simple double-isotope technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hippe, E.; Brynskov, J.; Gimsing, P.; Hjelt, K.

    1986-01-01

    The background, practical instruction and clinical results of a simplified method of determining the absorption of cobalamine (vitamin B 12 ) are presented. The simultaneous administration of 57 CO-CN-cobalamine, a non-absorbable marker ( 51 CrCl 3 ), and red carmine tablets enable quantitative assessments of the cobalamine absorption by collection of a small red feaces sample. In contrast to the classical Schilling-test, this vitamin B 12 absorption test (B 12 -ABS-test) or faeces-spot-test is, independent of fasting, flushing dose, renal function and diurnal urinary collection. This is documented in a series of clinical studies. The B 12 -ABS-test provides accurate and precise results compared to the reference method (whole-body-counting). The Schilling test, on the contrary, gives approximately 50% false low values in a reference group of elderly hospitalized patients. A modification of the B 12 -ABS-test, has been used to determine the cobalamine absorption in children, and a set of age-related reference intervals have been established, together with quantitative measurements of the cobalamine absorption in children with small bowel diseases. Based on several years of practical experience, we recommend replacement of the Schilling test by this simple double-isotope technique. (author)

  15. Determination of trace concentrations of chlorine in aqueous solutions by high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machyňák, Ľubomír; Čacho, František; Němeček, Martin; Beinrohr, Ernest

    2016-11-01

    Trace concentrations of total chlorine were determined by means of molecular absorption of indium mono-chloride (InCl) at 267.217 nm using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry. The effects of chemical modifiers and the amount of In on the sensitivity and accuracy were investigated. The optimum pyrolysis and vaporization temperatures were 600 °C and 1400 °C, respectively. The limit of detection and characteristic mass were found to be 0.10 ng and 0.21 ng, respectively. Potential non-spectral and spectral interferences were tested for various metals and non-metals at concentrations up to 50 mg L- 1 and for phosphoric, sulphuric and nitric acids. No spectral interferences were observed. Significant non-spectral interferences were observed with F, Br, and I at concentrations higher than 1 mg L- 1, 5 mg L- 1 and 25 mg L- 1, respectively, which is probably caused by formation of competitive indium halogen molecules. Higher concentrations of mineral acids depressed the signal owing to the formation of volatile HCl. The calibration curve was linear in the range between 0.3 and 10 ng with a correlation coefficient of R = 0.993. The elaborated method was used for the chlorine determination in various waters and a drug sample.

  16. A method for the determination of gas diffusion coefficients in undisturbed Boom Clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacops, E.; Volckaert, G.; Maes, N.; Weetjens, E.; Maes, T.; Vandervoort, F.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The main mechanisms by which gas will be generated in deep geological repositories are: anaerobic corrosion of metals in wastes and packaging; radiolysis of water and organic materials in the packages, and microbial degradation of various organic wastes. Corrosion and radiolysis yield mainly hydrogen while microbial degradation leads to methane and carbon dioxide. The gas generated in the near field of a geological repository in clay will dissolve in the ground water and be transported away from the repository by diffusion as dissolved species. However if the gas generation rate is larger than the diffusive flux, the pore water will get over-saturated and a free gas phase will be formed. This will lead to a gas pressure build-up and finally to an advective gas flux. The latter might influence the performance of the repository. Therefore it is important to assess whether or not gas production rates can exceed the capacity of the near field to store and dissipate these gases by dissolution and diffusion only. The current available gas diffusion parameters for hydrogen in Boom Clay, obtained from the MEGAS project, suffer from an uncertainty of 1 to 2 orders of magnitude. Sensitivity calculations performed by Weetjens et al. (2006) for the disposal of vitrified high-level waste showed that with this uncertainty on the diffusion coefficient, the formation of a free gas phase cannot be excluded. Furthermore, recent re-evaluations of the MEGAS experiments by Krooss (2008) and Aertsens (2008) showed that the applied technique does not allow precise determination of the diffusion coefficient. Therefore a new method was developed to determine more precisely the gas diffusion coefficient for dissolved gases (especially dissolved hydrogen) in Boom Clay. This should allow for a more realistic assessment of the gas flux evolution of a repository as function of the estimated gas generation rates. The basic idea is to perform a

  17. Determination of Krypton Diffusion Coefficients in Uranium Dioxide Using Atomic Scale Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vathonne, Emerson; Andersson, David A; Freyss, Michel; Perriot, Romain; Cooper, Michael W D; Stanek, Christopher R; Bertolus, Marjorie

    2017-01-03

    We present a study of the diffusion of krypton in UO 2 using atomic scale calculations combined with diffusion models adapted to the system studied. The migration barriers of the elementary mechanisms for interstitial or vacancy assisted migration are calculated in the DFT+U framework using the nudged elastic band method. The attempt frequencies are obtained from the phonon modes of the defect at the initial and saddle points using empirical potential methods. The diffusion coefficients of Kr in UO 2 are then calculated by combining this data with diffusion models accounting for the concentration of vacancies and the interaction of vacancies with Kr atoms. We determined the preferred mechanism for Kr migration and the corresponding diffusion coefficient as a function of the oxygen chemical potential μ O or nonstoichiometry. For very hypostoichiometric (or U-rich) conditions, the most favorable mechanism is interstitial migration. For hypostoichiometric UO 2 , migration is assisted by the bound Schottky defect and the charged uranium vacancy, V U 4- . Around stoichiometry, migration assisted by the charged uranium-oxygen divacancy (V UO 2- ) and V U 4- is the favored mechanism. Finally, for hyperstoichiometric or O-rich conditions, the migration assisted by two V U 4- dominates. Kr migration is enhanced at higher μ O , and in this regime, the activation energy will be between 4.09 and 0.73 eV depending on nonstoichiometry. The experimental values available are in the latter interval. Since it is very probable that these values were obtained for at least slightly hyperstoichiometric samples, our activation energies are consistent with the experimental data, even if further experiments with precisely controlled stoichiometry are needed to confirm these results. The mechanisms and trends with nonstoichiometry established for Kr are similar to those found in previous studies of Xe.

  18. The activity of γ-emitters as measured by ionisation chambers the determination of the specific emission coefficient γ for some radio-elements (1961)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelmann, J.

    1962-06-01

    The object of this work is to study techniques of measurement using the gamma ionisation chamber, making it possible either to measure the activities of radioactive sources, or to determine the specific emission coefficient γ (or the coefficient K) of a given radioelement. The ionisation chambers studied belong to two categories: graphites cavity-chambers, and 4 π γ chambers. For the cavity-chamber measurements, the different correction factors of which account must be taken have been calculated, in particular the geometric and hygrometric corrections. The absorption and auto-absorption corrections have led to the introduction of the notion of the 'effective energy γ' of a radioelement. In the case of 4 π γ chambers, it has been shown that appropriately shaped electrodes make it possible to improve their performances. One of the chambers described permits the measurement of β emitters using the associated Bremsstrahlung. In order to measure the K coefficient of some radioelements, it has been found useful a 4 π γ chamber with graphite walls, the measurement being carried out by comparison with a radium standard. The validity of the method was checked with radioelements for whom the K coefficient values are well-known ( 24 Na, 60 Co, 131 I, 198 Au). For other radioelements, the following values were obtained (expressed in r cm 3 mc -1 h -1 ): 51 Cr: 0,18; 56 Mn: 8,8; 65 Zn: 3,05; 124 Sb: 9,9; 134 Cs: 9,3; 137 Cs: 3,35; 141 Ce: 0,46; 170 Tm: 0,023; 192 Ir: 24,9; 203 Hg: 1,18; These values have been corrected for the contribution to the dose of the fluorescent radiation which may be emitted by the source, except in the case of Tm 170 . In the last part of this work, the performances of the different electro-metric devices used were compared. (author) [fr

  19. Quantitative determination of impurities in nuclear grade aluminum by Flame-Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jat, J.R.; Nayak, A.K.; Balaji Rao, Y.; Ravindra, H.R.

    2013-01-01

    The paper deals with quantitative determination of impurity elements in nuclear grade aluminum, used as fin tubes in research reactors, by Flame-Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (F-AAS). The results have been compared with those obtained by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) method. Experimental conditions used in both the methods are given in the paper. (author)

  20. Selenium determination in biological material by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in graphite furnace and using vapor generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho Vidal, M. de F. de.

    1984-01-01

    The applicability of the atomic absorption spectrophotometry to the determination of selenium in biological material using vapor generation and electrothermal atomization in the graphite furnace was investigated. Instrumental parameters and the analytical conditions of the methods were studied. Decomposition methods for the samples were tested, and the combustion in the Wickbold apparatus was chosen. (author) [pt

  1. Tungsten determination in heat resistant nickel-base-alloys by the method of atomic absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregorczyk, S.; Wycislik, A.

    1980-01-01

    A method of atomic absorption was developed. It allows for the tungsten to be determined in heatresistant nickel-base-alloys within the range 0.01 to 7%. It consists in precipitating tungsten acid in the presence of alkaloids with its following decomposition by hydrofluoric acid in the teflon bomb. (author)

  2. Chemical modifiers in electrothermal atomic absorption determination of Platinum and Palladium containing preparations in blood serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Аntonina Alemasova

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The biological liquids matrixes influence on the characteristic masses and repeatability of Pt and Pd electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy (ETAAS determination was studied. The chemical modifiers dimethylglyoxime and ascorbic acid for matrix interferences elimination and ETAAS results repeatability improvement were proposed while bioliquids ETAAS analysis, and their action mechanism was discussed.

  3. DETERMINING BERYLLIUM IN DRINKING WATER BY GRAPHITE FURNACE ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A direct graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy method for the analysis of beryllium in drinking water has been derived from a method for determining beryllium in urine. Ammonium phosphomolybdate and ascorbic acid were employed as matrix modifiers. The matrix modifiers s...

  4. Determination of 1-octanol-air partition coefficient using gaseous diffusion in the air boundary layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Yeonjeong; Kwon, Jung-Hwan

    2010-04-15

    Exact determination of the partition coefficient between 1-octanol and air (K(OA)) is very important because it is a key descriptor for describing the thermodynamic partitioning between the air and organic phases. In spite of its importance, the number and quality of experimental K(OA) values for hydrophobic organic chemicals are limited because of experimental difficulties. Thus, to measure K(OA) values, a high-throughput method was developed that used liquid-phase extraction with 1-octanol drop at the tip of a microsyringe needle. The concentration in the headspace surrounding the 1 muL octanol drop was equilibrated with liquid octanol containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The change in concentrations of PAHs in the octanol drop was measured to obtain mass transfer rate constants, and these rate constants were then converted into K(OA) values using a film diffusion model. Thirteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with log K(OA) between 5 and 12 were chosen for the proof of the principle. Experimental determination of log K(OA) was accomplished in 30 h for PAHs with their log K(OA) less than 11. The measured log K(OA) values were very close to those obtained by various experimental and estimation methods in the literature, suggesting that this new method can provide a fast and easy determination of log K(OA) values for many chemicals of environmental interests. In addition, the applicability of the method can be extended to determine Henry's law constant for compounds with low vapor pressure and to estimate gaseous transfer rate of semivolatile compounds for environmental fate modeling.

  5. Determination of Ionization Coefficient of Atmospheric Helium in Dielectric Barrier Discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuo, Liang; Hai-Yun, Luo; Xin-Xin, Wang; Bo, Lv; Zhi-Cheng, Guan; Li-Ming, Wang

    2008-01-01

    A weakly luminous layer close to the anode is observed at time far ahead of the current pulse in dielectric barrier discharge of helium at atmospheric pressure and it is considered as the result of a very weak Townsend discharge. Based on the assumption that the space charge produced by this Townsend discharge is too small to distort the uniform electric field in the gas gap, the electrons have more or less the same energy over the entire gap and the spatial distribution of the discharge light is proportional to the distribution of electron density. This light distribution is obtained by processing side-view photograph of discharge gap using an intensified charge coupled device camera with an exposure time of 20 ns. By fitting a theoretically derived formula with the measured curve of light distribution, the Townsend electron ionization coefficient a is determined to be 31 cm −1 at E/p = 3.6 V·cm −1 ·Torr −1 , which is much higher than that obtained by solving the Boltzmann equation of pure helium. It is believed that penning ionization of helium metastables with impurity of nitrogen molecules makes great contribution to the experimentally determined α value. The contribution of this penning ionization to α is roughly estimated. (physics of gases, plasmas, and electric discharges)

  6. Selection gradients, the opportunity for selection, and the coefficient of determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorad, Jacob A; Wade, Michael J

    2013-03-01

    Abstract We derive the relationship between R(2) (the coefficient of determination), selection gradients, and the opportunity for selection for univariate and multivariate cases. Our main result is to show that the portion of the opportunity for selection that is caused by variation for any trait is equal to the product of its selection gradient and its selection differential. This relationship is a corollary of the first and second fundamental theorems of natural selection, and it permits one to investigate the portions of the total opportunity for selection that are involved in directional selection, stabilizing (and diversifying) selection, and correlational selection, which is important to morphological integration. It also allows one to determine the fraction of fitness variation not explained by variation in measured phenotypes and therefore attributable to random (or, at least, unknown) influences. We apply our methods to a human data set to show how sex-specific mating success as a component of fitness variance can be decoupled from that owing to prereproductive mortality. By quantifying linear sources of sexual selection and quadratic sources of sexual selection, we illustrate that the former is stronger in males, while the latter is stronger in females.

  7. Rapid determination of octanol-water partition coefficient using vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, Iván P; Mastromichali, Anna; Tyrovola, Konstantina; Canals, Antonio; Psillakis, Elefteria

    2014-02-21

    Vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction (VALLME) coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is proposed here for the rapid determination of octanol-water partitioning coefficients (Kow). VALLME uses vortex agitation, a mild emulsification procedure, to disperse microvolumes of octanol in the aqueous phase thus increasing the interfacial contact area and ensuring faster partitioning rates. With VALLME, 2min were enough to achieve equilibrium conditions between the octanolic and aqueous phases. Upon equilibration, separation was achieved using centrifugation and the octanolic microdrop was collected and analyzed in a HPLC system. Six model compounds with logKow values ranging between ∼0.5 and 3.5 were used during the present investigations. The proposed method produced logKow values that were consistent with previously published values and the recorded uncertainty was well within the acceptable log unit range. Overall, the key features of the proposed Kow determination procedure comprised speed, reliability, simplicity, low cost and minimal solvent consumption. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. DSCImageCalc – Software for Determining Similarity Coefficients for the Analysis of Image Segmentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Lawton

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available DSCImageCalc is free software for calculating similarity coefficients on segmented images. It is written in Visual BASIC .NET and is available at: https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.894428. It presently calculates Sørensen-Dice Coefficient, Jaccard Coefficient, Proportional Agreement, Cohen’s Kappa, Goodman & Kruskal’s Gamma, and Rogot-Goldberg Agreement. It also calculates segment centroids and the distance between them. Whilst it was originally designed for calculating Dice coefficients on segmentations of ultrasound images, it has potential for re-use in any field where similarity of image segments is to be analysed; predominantly medical radiology and ecology.

  9. Microwave absorption across Tc: Determination of the angular dependance Hc2(theta)

    OpenAIRE

    Shaltiel, David; Bill, Hans; Grayevsky, A.; Junod, Alain; Lovy, Dominique; Sadowski, Wojciech; Walker, Eric

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that measuring microwave absorption in high-Tc superconductors at constant and very low magnetic fields, using magnetic-field modulation, is, under some conditions, equivalent to temperature modulation when sweeping the temperature across Tc. Using an ESR spectrometer, the derivative of microwave absorption is measured close to Tc. This allows a determination of the relative angular variation of dHc2/dT at T=Tc in single crystals of Y-Ba-Cu-O. The data fit the Ginzburg-Landau theo...

  10. Determination of the Neutron Flux in the Reactor Zones with the Strong Neutron Absorption and Leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljubenov, V.; Milosevic, M.

    2004-11-01

    The procedures for the numerical and experimental determination of the neutron flux in the zones with the strong neutron absorption and leakage are described in this paper. Numerical procedure is based on the application of the SCALE-4.4a code system where the Dancoff factors are determined by the VEGA2DAN code. Two main parts of the experimental methodology are measurement of the activity of irradiated foils and determination of the averaged neutron absorption cross-section in the foils by the SCALE-4.4a calculation procedure. The proposed procedures have been applied for the determination of the neutron flux in the internal neutron converter used with the RB reactor core configuration number 114. (author)

  11. Measurement procedure for the determination of thermal exchange coefficient for subsea pipelines at elevated pressure levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Luis Fernando A.; Farias, Paula S.C.; Martins, Fabio J.W.A.; Rabello, Pedro C.; Barros Junior, Julio M. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica; Lopes Junior, Fernando M.; Silva Junior, Jose Fernando; Castro, Adriana M.; Santos, Augusto A.; Pessanha, Maikon C.R. [Technip, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    The present paper describes a methodology successfully employed to determine the Thermal Exchange Coefficient - TEC - for insulated sub sea flexible lines up to a pressure level of 200 bar. In this methodology, controlled internal electrical heating was employed, together with temperature sensors installed at the inner and outer surfaces of the line. The instrumented line sample was placed in a hyperbaric chamber filled with water. Two methods were employed in parallel to determine the line TEC value. In the first method, the TEC value was determined by direct measurement of the radial heat flux by the use of heat flux sensors. The readings of these sensors, together with the inner-to-outer surface temperature difference and geometric parameters, yielded the desired TEC value. In the second method, the radial heat flux was obtained as the difference between the total energy generated by the electrical heater installed in the interior of the sample and the heat losses through the end connectors, evaluated by the readings of temperature sensors installed in covers that surrounded the end connectors. The knowledge of the cover geometry, thermal properties and the temperature readings allowed for an accurate estimate of the heat lost through the covers. Both measuring methods were backed by a detailed uncertainty analysis. A calibration procedure of the second method was performed from zero to 100 bar, the pressure range where the calibration of the heat flux sensor is valid. Beyond 100 bar and up to 200 bar, the TEC values were obtained by the second method, corrected by the calibration procedure extrapolated from the 0-100 bar range. The TEC values obtained were valid under an uncertainty level of {+-} 5%. (author)

  12. Flameless atomic absorption determination of ruthenium using a ''Saturn-1'' spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichkov, V.N.; Sinitsyn, N.M.; Sadikova, F.G.; Govorova, M.I.; Yakshinskij, A.I.

    1980-01-01

    A flameless atomic absorption method is suggested for determining ruthenium in samples of complicated composition using a ''Saturn-1'' spectrophotometer with a L'vov graphite cuvette. The method was used for determining ruthenium in a copper-based sample (10 -3 % Ru) and in electrolyte slurries (10 -3 -10 -2 %). The limit of detection Csub(min, 0.95) = 3.0x10 -3 μg Ru/ml. Other platinum metals do not interfere [ru

  13. Flame emission spectrometry using atomic absorption apparatus. I. Determination of Sr in sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizawa, S.; Yoshimura, E.; Hamachi, M.; Haraguchi, H.; Dokiya, Y.; Fuwa, K.

    1976-01-01

    Flame emission determination of Sr in seawater was studied using an ordinary atomic absorption apparatus. The analytical line 4607 A was used with a background correction at 4616 A. The ionization was negligible in an air acetylene flame with seawater, and the interference of H 2 SO 4 was eliminated using the higher part of the flame. Sr concentration of seawater of Tokyo Bay and Sagami Bay has been determined

  14. Evaluation of a method for the determination of chromium in urine by atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, M.; Sardinas, O.; Castaneda, I.; Sanchez, R.

    1990-01-01

    A method for the determination of chromium in urine by atomic absorption spectrometry, using electrothermic atomization with pyrolytic graphite tubes, is proposed. The determinations are performed by standard addition. The method is applicable to biologic monitoring of populations with different degrees of exposition. It is also used in the analysis of chromium in sediments. Results of chromium in urine of a population group non-exposed to the metal are presented. 11 refs

  15. Determination of the isotopic coefficient for x2N using a dimensional analysis of the Schroedinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pali, R.; Coss, R. de; Mustre de Leon, J.

    1999-01-01

    The adimensionalization of equations which govern the dynamics of a physical system can be very useful when studying the qualitative behavior of any variable involved in those equations. In a dynamic system like a particle moving in an effective potential, the isotopic coefficient measure the degree of anharmonicity of the potential. In general each eigenstate has a different coefficient. In this work, we determined the isotopic coefficients for potentials of the form V(x) ∝ x 2N (N=1,2,3,...) through the adimensionalization process of the Schroedinger equation. We found an analytic expression for the isotopic coefficient which depends only of N but not on the eigenstate. The isotopic coefficient value starts at 1/2 for N=1 (harmonic potential) and gradually converges to 1.0 when N increments. This reflects the fact that the potential is more anharmonic for increasing N. (Author)

  16. Determination of kinetic coefficients for proton-nucleus collisions at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzato, C.M.

    1987-01-01

    From the effective proton dynamics, the approximations in the context of high energy collisions which lead to the Boltzmann equation, are established. From this equation, general expressions for the kinetic coefficients are deduced. Using a simple model, analytical expressions for kinetic coefficients are obtained. The importance of the effect of Pauli blocking is also shown. (author) [pt

  17. Experimental determination of the heat transfer coefficient in shell-and-tube condensers using the Wilson plot method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havlik Jan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the experimental determination of heat transfer coefficients. The calculation of heat transfer coefficients constitutes a crucial issue in design and sizing of heat exchangers. The Wilson plot method and its modifications based on measured experimental data utilization provide an appropriate tool for the analysis of convection heat transfer processes and the determination of convection coefficients in complex cases. A modification of the Wilson plot method for shell-and-tube condensers is proposed. The original Wilson plot method considers a constant value of thermal resistance on the condensation side. The heat transfer coefficient on the cooling side is determined based on the change in thermal resistance for different conditions (fluid velocity and temperature. The modification is based on the validation of the Nusselt theory for calculating the heat transfer coefficient on the condensation side. A change of thermal resistance on the condensation side is expected and the value is part of the calculation. It is possible to improve the determination accuracy of the criterion equation for calculation of the heat transfer coefficient using the proposed modification. The criterion equation proposed by this modification for the tested shell-and-tube condenser achieves good agreement with the experimental results and also with commonly used theoretical methods.

  18. Predicting the activity coefficients of free-solvent for concentrated globular protein solutions using independently determined physical parameters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devin W McBride

    Full Text Available The activity coefficient is largely considered an empirical parameter that was traditionally introduced to correct the non-ideality observed in thermodynamic systems such as osmotic pressure. Here, the activity coefficient of free-solvent is related to physically realistic parameters and a mathematical expression is developed to directly predict the activity coefficients of free-solvent, for aqueous protein solutions up to near-saturation concentrations. The model is based on the free-solvent model, which has previously been shown to provide excellent prediction of the osmotic pressure of concentrated and crowded globular proteins in aqueous solutions up to near-saturation concentrations. Thus, this model uses only the independently determined, physically realizable quantities: mole fraction, solvent accessible surface area, and ion binding, in its prediction. Predictions are presented for the activity coefficients of free-solvent for near-saturated protein solutions containing either bovine serum albumin or hemoglobin. As a verification step, the predictability of the model for the activity coefficient of sucrose solutions was evaluated. The predicted activity coefficients of free-solvent are compared to the calculated activity coefficients of free-solvent based on osmotic pressure data. It is observed that the predicted activity coefficients are increasingly dependent on the solute-solvent parameters as the protein concentration increases to near-saturation concentrations.

  19. Oblique rotaton in canonical correlation analysis reformulated as maximizing the generalized coefficient of determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satomura, Hironori; Adachi, Kohei

    2013-07-01

    To facilitate the interpretation of canonical correlation analysis (CCA) solutions, procedures have been proposed in which CCA solutions are orthogonally rotated to a simple structure. In this paper, we consider oblique rotation for CCA to provide solutions that are much easier to interpret, though only orthogonal rotation is allowed in the existing formulations of CCA. Our task is thus to reformulate CCA so that its solutions have the freedom of oblique rotation. Such a task can be achieved using Yanai's (Jpn. J. Behaviormetrics 1:46-54, 1974; J. Jpn. Stat. Soc. 11:43-53, 1981) generalized coefficient of determination for the objective function to be maximized in CCA. The resulting solutions are proved to include the existing orthogonal ones as special cases and to be rotated obliquely without affecting the objective function value, where ten Berge's (Psychometrika 48:519-523, 1983) theorems on suborthonormal matrices are used. A real data example demonstrates that the proposed oblique rotation can provide simple, easily interpreted CCA solutions.

  20. Determination of a refractive index and an extinction coefficient of standard production of CVD-graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Martínez, Efraín; Gabás, Mercedes; Barrutia, Laura; Pesquera, Amaia; Centeno, Alba; Palanco, Santiago; Zurutuza, Amaia; Algora, Carlos

    2015-01-28

    The refractive index and extinction coefficient of chemical vapour deposition grown graphene are determined by ellipsometry analysis. Graphene films were grown on copper substrates and transferred as both monolayers and bilayers onto SiO2/Si substrates by using standard manufacturing procedures. The chemical nature and thickness of residual debris formed after the transfer process were elucidated using photoelectron spectroscopy. The real layered structure so deduced has been used instead of the nominal one as the input in the ellipsometry analysis of monolayer and bilayer graphene, transferred onto both native and thermal silicon oxide. The effect of these contamination layers on the optical properties of the stacked structure is noticeable both in the visible and the ultraviolet spectral regions, thus masking the graphene optical response. Finally, the use of heat treatment under a nitrogen atmosphere of the graphene-based stacked structures, as a method to reduce the water content of the sample, and its effect on the optical response of both graphene and the residual debris layer are presented. The Lorentz-Drude model proposed for the optical response of graphene fits fairly well the experimental ellipsometric data for all the analysed graphene-based stacked structures.