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Sample records for absorption coefficient ratios

  1. Sabine absorption coefficients to random incidence absorption coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2014-01-01

    into random incidence absorption coefficients for porous absorbers are investigated. Two optimization-based conversion methods are suggested: the surface impedance estimation for locally reacting absorbers and the flow resistivity estimation for extendedly reacting absorbers. The suggested conversion methods...

  2. Reproducibility of The Random Incidence Absorption Coefficient Converted From the Sabine Absorption Coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Chang, Ji-ho

    2015-01-01

    Absorption coefficients measured in reverberation chambers, Sabine absorption coefficients, suffer from two major problems. Firstly, they sometimes exceed unity. Secondly, the reproducibility of the Sabine absorption coefficients is quite poor, meaning that the Sabine absorption coefficients vary...... resistivity optimization outperforms the surface impedance optimization in terms of the reproducibility....

  3. Calculation of effective absorption coefficient for aerosols of internal mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Bo; Huang Yinbo; Fan Chengyu; Qiao Chunhong

    2012-01-01

    The effective absorption coefficient with time of strong absorbing aerosol made of carbon dusts and water of internal mixture is analyzed, and the influence of different wavelengths and radius ratios on it is discussed. The shorter the wavelength is, the larger the effective absorption coefficient is , and more quickly it increases during 1-100 μs, and the largest increase if 132.65% during 1-100 μs. Different ratios between inner and outer radius have large influence on the effective absorption coefficient. The larger the ratio is, the larger the effective absorption coefficient is, and more quickly it increases during 1-100 μs. The increase of the effective absorption coefficient during 1-100 μs is larger than that during 100-1000 μs, and the largest increase is 138.66% during 1-100 μs. (authors)

  4. Regularity of the interband light absorption coefficient

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In experimental studies the absorption coefficient is a means to study the band gaps at ... to l2( ), where. ⊂ Zd is a finite set. (usually taken to be a lattice cube centred at the origin) and λ±,uλ± are eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of H. ±. ,ω . Then the interband light absorption coefficient A for such finite volume models can.

  5. Experimental methodology for obtaining sound absorption coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Macía M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the authors propose a new methodology for estimating sound absorption coefficients using genetic algorithms. Methodology: sound waves are generated and conducted along a rectangular silencer. The waves are then attenuated by the absorbing material covering the silencer’s walls. The attenuated sound pressure level is used in a genetic algorithm-based search to find the parameters of the proposed attenuation expressions that include geometric factors, the wavelength and the absorption coefficient. Results: a variety of adjusted mathematical models were found that make it possible to estimate the absorption coefficients based on the characteristics of a rectangular silencer used for measuring the attenuation of the noise that passes through it. Conclusions: this methodology makes it possible to obtain the absorption coefficients of new materials in a cheap and simple manner. Although these coefficients might be slightly different from those obtained through other methodologies, they provide solutions within the engineering accuracy ranges that are used for designing noise control systems.

  6. Regularity of the Interband Light Absorption Coefficient

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we consider the interband light absorption coefficient (ILAC), in a symmetric form, in the case of random operators on the -dimensional lattice. We show that the symmetrized version of ILAC is either continuous or has a component which has the same modulus of continuity as the density of states.

  7. An alternative coefficient for sound absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnant, Ysbrand H.; Kuipers, E.R.; de Boer, Andries; Sas, P; Jonckheere, S.; Moens, D.

    2013-01-01

    The acoustic absorption coefficient is a number that indicates which fraction of the incident acoustic power impinging on a surface is being absorbed. The incident acoustic power is obtained by spatial integration of the incident intensity, which is (classically) defined as the time-averaged

  8. Absorption coefficient instrument for turbid natural waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, E.; Cherdak, A.; Poole, L.; Houghton, W.

    1980-01-01

    The paper presents an instrument that directly measures multispectral absorption coefficient of turbid natural water. Attention is given to the design, which is shown to incorporate methods for the compensation of variation in the internal light source intensity, correction of the spectrally dependent nature of the optical elements, and correction for variation in the background light level. In addition, when used in conjunction with a spectrally matched total attenuation instrument, the spectrally dependent scattering coefficient can also be derived. Finally, it is reported that systematic errors associated with multiple scattering have been estimated using Monte Carlo techniques.

  9. Aerosol Angstrom Absorption Coefficient Comparisons during MILAGRO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, N. A.; Marchany-Rivera, A.; Kelley, K. L.; Mangu, A.; Gaffney, J. S.

    2007-12-01

    Measurements of aerosol absorption were obtained as part of the MAX-Mex component of the MILAGRO field campaign at site T0 (Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo in Mexico City) by using a 7-channel aethalometer (Thermo- Anderson) during the month of March, 2006. The absorption measurements obtained in the field at 370, 470, 520, 590, 660, 880, and 950 nm were used to determine the aerosol Angstrom absorption exponents by linear regression. Since, unlike other absorbing aerosol species (e.g. humic like substances, nitrated PAHs), black carbon absorption is relatively constant from the ultraviolet to the infrared with an Angstrom absorption exponent of -1 (1), a comparison of the Angstrom exponents can indicate the presence of aerosol components with an enhanced UV absorption over that expected from BC content alone. The Angstrom exponents determined from the aerosol absorption measurements obtained in the field varied from - 0.7 to - 1.3 during the study and was generally lower in the afternoon than the morning hours, indicating an increase in secondary aerosol formation and photochemically generated UV absorbing species in the afternoon. Twelve-hour integrated samples of fine atmospheric aerosols (Petroleo (IMP) and CENICA.

  10. Measurement of the absorption coefficient using the sound-intensity technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwal, M.; Bernhard, R.

    1984-01-01

    The possibility of using the sound intensity technique to measure the absorption coefficient of a material is investigated. This technique measures the absorption coefficient by measuring the intensity incident on the sample and the net intensity reflected by the sample. Results obtained by this technique are compared with the standard techniques of measuring the change in the reverberation time and the standing wave ratio in a tube, thereby, calculating the random incident and the normal incident adsorption coefficient.

  11. Restricted mass energy absorption coefficients for use in dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brahme, A.

    1977-02-01

    When matter is irradiated by a photon beam the fraction of energy absorbed locally in some region Rsub(Δ) (where the size of the region Rsub(Δ) is related to the range of secondary electrons of some restriction energy Δ) is expressed by the restricted mass energy absorption coefficient. In this paper an example is given of how restricted mass energy absorption coefficients can be calculated from existing differential photon interaction cross sections. Some applications of restricted mass absorption coefficients in dosimetry are also given. (B.D.)

  12. Retrieving complex surface impedances from statistical absorption coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mondet, Boris Jean-Francois; Brunskog, Jonas; Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2017-01-01

    coefficients, prior information about the absorber of interest can be used as constraints, which is shown to help determine the correct impedance from absorption coefficient. Further stability and sensitivity investigations indicate that the method presented constitutes an efficient solution to convert sound......In room acoustic simulations the surface materials are commonly represented with energy parameters, such as the absorption and scattering coefficients, which do not carry phase information. This paper presents a method to transform statistical absorption coefficients into complex surface impedances...... that the impedance found has a physical meaning and respects causality in the time domain. Known material models, such as Miki’s and Maa’s models, are taken as references to assess the validity of the suggested model. Due to the non-uniqueness of retrieving complex-valued impedances from real-valued absorption...

  13. Use of appropriate absorption coefficients in gamma-ray dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopinath, D.V.; Natarajan, A.; Subbaiah, K.V.

    1985-01-01

    The current use of the different types of absorption coefficients in the computation of γ-ray energy deposition rates and air dose is critically analyzed. Transport calculations are presented to bring out the errors associated with the use of different absorption coefficients. It is observed that except for source energies in the range of 0.3 to 3.0 MeV the consistent use of the absorption coefficient, μ/sub a/ results in an underestimate of the air dose everywhere and of energy deposition at regions away from source. The underestimate becomes more significant with increased atomic number (Z) of the medium. Based on the computations and analysis it is concluded that the absorption coefficients μ/sub a/ and μ/sub k/ are of very limited use in practical γ-ray dosimetry

  14. Reflection and absorption coefficients for use in room acoustic simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Two ideas to improve the boundary conditions for room acoustic simulations are presented. First, all rooms have finite boundary surfaces, thereby a reflection coefficient for finite surfaces should be physically more suitable than that for infinitely large surfaces. Second, absorption coefficients...

  15. A theoretical framework for quantitatively characterizing sound field diffusion based on scattering coefficient and absorption coefficient of walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanyu, Toshiki

    2010-09-01

    This paper describes the development of a theoretical framework for quantitatively characterizing sound field diffusion based on scattering coefficient and absorption coefficient of walls. The concepts of equivalent scattering area, equivalent scatter reflection area, average scattering coefficient and average scatter reflection coefficient are introduced in order to express all walls' capability of scatter in a room. Using these concepts and the mean free path, scatter-to-absorption ratio, mean scatter time and diffusion time are defined in order to evaluate degree of diffusion of a space. Furthermore the effect of spatial scattering objects to sound field diffusion is formulated. In addition the time variation of specular and scattered components in a room impulse response is formulated. The verification of these characterization methods was performed with computer simulations based on the sound ray tracing method. The results supported that the ideas presented are basically valid.

  16. Theoretical assessment of sound absorption coefficient for anisotropic nonwovens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klara Kalinova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The anisotropy factor as a function of fiber arrangement, fiber fineness and sample thickness has been derived from the theories of soundwave transformation due to phase changing. The sound absorption coefficient of the anisotropic fibrous material is then theoretically calculated. The fibrous materials were prepared so that the fibers are arranged parallel (perpendicularly laid fiber web called STRUTO technology in the direction of soundwave propagation or perpendicularly (longitudinally laid fiber web to the direction of sound propagation. The sound absorption coefficient was measured due to the Impedance tube. The theoretical results are in good agreement with experimental findings.

  17. First sound absorption and dissipation coefficients of HeII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamenko, I.N.; Belyaev, N.R.; Tsyganok, V.I.

    1988-01-01

    The first sound absorption coefficient is obtained on the basis of kinetic equations for phonons and rotons. The second viscosity coefficient of He II is calculated at different pressures in a wide temperature range including the phonon-roton and pure phonon regions and taking into account the inelastic phonon scattering by rotons and the phonon spectrum dispersion. The calculation is compared with experimental results

  18. Lifshitz Tails for the Interband Light Absorption Coefficient

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we consider the interband light absorption coefficient (ILAC) for various models. We show that at the lower and upper edges of the spectrum the Lifshitz tails behaviour of the density of states implies similar behaviour for the ILAC at appropriate energies. The Lifshitz tails property is also exhibited at some points ...

  19. Determination of sedimentation rates and absorption coefficient of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. MIKE HORSFALL

    particles have pores that can absorb radiation. Gamma rays have been used to study the absorption coefficients of cobalt(II) insoluble compounds (Essien and Ekpe, 1998), densities of marine sediments. (Gerland and Villinger, 1995) and soil particle-size distribution (Vaz et al., 1992). In this study, sedimentation rates of ...

  20. The mass energy transfer and mass absorption coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomljenovic, I.; Stankovic, S.; Ninkovic, M.

    2002-01-01

    The calculation of the mass energy transfer and the mass absorption coefficients is presented and data for their change by energy, in range from 0,01 MeV to 10 MeV, are given. Data are numerically and graphically presented for following materials: air, water, polyethylene, lucite and polystyrene (author)

  1. Theoretical assessment of sound absorption coefficient for anisotropic nonwovens

    OpenAIRE

    Klara Kalinova

    2012-01-01

    The anisotropy factor as a function of fiber arrangement, fiber fineness and sample thickness has been derived from the theories of soundwave transformation due to phase changing. The sound absorption coefficient of the anisotropic fibrous material is then theoretically calculated. The fibrous materials were prepared so that the fibers are arranged parallel (perpendicularly laid fiber web called STRUTO technology) in the direction of soundwave propagation or perpendicularly (longitudinally la...

  2. Estimation of water absorption coefficient using the TDR method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchorab, Zbigniew; Majerek, Dariusz; Brzyski, Przemysław; Sobczuk, Henryk; Raczkowski, Andrzej

    2017-07-01

    Moisture accumulation and transport in the building barriers is an important feature that influences building performance, causing serious exploitation problems as increased energy use, mold and bacteria growth, decrease of indoor air parameters that may lead to sick building syndrome (SBS). One of the parameters that is used to describe moisture characteristic of the material is water absorption coefficient being the measure of capillary behavior of the material as a function of time and the surface area of the specimen. As usual it is determined using gravimetric methods according to EN 1925:1999 standard. In this article we demonstrate the possibility of determination of water absorption coefficient of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) using the Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) method. TDR is an electric technique that had been adopted from soil science and can be successfully used for real-time monitoring of moisture transport in building materials and envelopes. Data achieved using TDR readouts show high correlation with standard method of moisture absorptivity coefficient determination.

  3. Optical properties of the adaxial and abaxial faces of leaves. Chlorophyll fluorescence, absorption and scattering coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordón, Gabriela B; Lagorio, María G

    2007-08-01

    Emission fluorescence spectra were obtained for the adaxial and abaxial faces of dicotyledonous (Ficus benjamina L., Ficus elastica, Gardenia jasminoides and Hedera helix) and monocotyledonous leaves (Gladiolus spp. and Dracaena cincta bicolor). After correction by light-re-absorption processes, using a previously published physical model, the adaxial faces of dicotyledons showed a fluorescence ratio Fred/Ffar-red rather lower than the respective values for the abaxial faces. Monocotyledons and shade-adapted-plants showed similar values for the corrected fluorescence ratio for both faces. Even when differences in experimental fluorescence emission from adaxial and abaxial leaves in dicotyledons are mostly due to light re-absorption processes, the residual dissimilarity found after application of the correction model would point to the fact that fluorescence re-absorption is not the only responsible for the observed disparity. It was concluded that light re-absorption processes does not account entirely for the differences in the experimental emission spectra between adaxial and abaxial leaves. Differences that remains still present after correction might be interpreted in terms of a different photosystem ratio (PSII/PSI). Experiments at low temperature sustained this hypothesis. In dicotyledons, light reflectance for adaxial leaves was found to be lower than for the abaxial ones. It was mainly due to an increase in the scattering coefficient for the lower leaf-side. The absorption coefficient values were slightly higher for the upper leaf-side. During senescence of Ficus benjamina leaves, the scattering coefficient increased for both the upper and lower leaf-sides. With senescence time the absorption coefficient spectra broadened while the corrected fluorescence ratio (Fred/Ffar-red) decreased for both faces. The results pointed to a preferential destruction of photosystem II relative to photosystem I during senescence.

  4. Measurement of the temperature coefficient of ratio transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Matthew E.; Gammon, Robert W.; Shaumeyer, J. N.

    1993-01-01

    We have measured the temperature coefficient of the output of several ratio transformers at ratios near 0.500,000 using an ac bridge and a dual-phase, lock-in amplifier. The two orthogonal output components were each resolved to +/- ppb of the bridge drive signal. The results for three commercial ratio transformers between 20 and 50 C range from 0.5 to 100 ppb/K for the signal component in phase with the bridge drive, and from 4 to 300 ppb/K for the quadrature component.

  5. Photosensitizer absorption coefficient modeling and necrosis prediction during Photodynamic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-García, Irene; Fanjul-Vélez, Félix; Arce-Diego, José Luis

    2012-09-03

    The development of accurate predictive models for Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) has emerged as a valuable tool to adjust the current therapy dosimetry to get an optimal treatment response, and definitely to establish new personal protocols. Several attempts have been made in this way, although the influence of the photosensitizer depletion on the optical parameters has not been taken into account so far. We present a first approach to predict the spatio-temporal variation of the photosensitizer absorption coefficient during PDT applied to dermatological diseases, taking into account the photobleaching of a topical photosensitizer. This permits us to obtain the photons density absorbed by the photosensitizer molecules as the treatment progresses and to determine necrosis maps to estimate the short term therapeutic effects in the target tissue. The model presented also takes into account an inhomogeneous initial photosensitizer distribution, light propagation in biological media and the evolution of the molecular concentrations of different components involved in the photochemical reactions. The obtained results allow to investigate how the photosensitizer depletion during the photochemical reactions affects light absorption by the photosensitizer molecules as the optical radiation propagates through the target tissue, and estimate the necrotic tumor area progression under different treatment conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Estimating the Sabine absorption coefficient of fibrous materials for various backing conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Since absorber manufacturers cannot provide the absorption coefficients for all possible mounting conditions, acousticians have difficulties knowing the absorption characteristics of their own configurations. This paper aims to predict the Sabine absorption coefficient for various mounting...... conditions by extracting the air flow resistivity of the test specimen and the frequency-dependent effect of the chamber on the measured absorption coefficients. Two homogeneous fibrous absorbers are measured for experimental validation, showing good agreements between the predictions and measurements...

  7. Measured and numerically partitioned phytoplankton spectral absorption coefficients in inland waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.; Liu, M.; Van Dijk, M.A.; Zhu, G.; Gong, Z.; Li, Y.M.; Qin, B.

    2009-01-01

    Total particulate, tripton and phytoplankton absorption coefficients were measured for eutrophic (Lake Taihu), meso-eutrophic (Lake Tianmuhu) and mesotrophic waters (the Three Gorges Reservoir) in China using the quantitative filter technique. Meanwhile, tripton and phytoplankton absorption

  8. Light Absorption Coefficients for Soluble Species in Snow, Dome C, Antarctica, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains light absorption coefficients for soluble chromophores (light-absorbing chemicals) and concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (HOOH) and nitrate...

  9. Modelling the light absorption coefficients of oceanic waters: Implications for underwater optical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakaran, Sai Shri; Sahu, Sanjay Kumar; Dev, Pravin Jeba; Shanmugam, Palanisamy

    2018-05-01

    Spectral absorption coefficients of particulate (algal and non-algal components) and dissolved substances are modelled and combined with the pure seawater component to determine the total light absorption coefficients of seawater in the Bay of Bengal. Two parameters namely chlorophyll-a (Chl) concentration and turbidity were measured using commercially available instruments with high sampling rates. For modelling the light absorption coefficients of oceanic waters, the measured data are classified into two broad groups - algal dominant and non-algal particle (NAP) dominant. With these criteria the individual absorption coefficients of phytoplankton and NAP were established based on their concentrations using an iterative method. To account for the spectral dependence of absorption by phytoplankton, the wavelength-dependent coefficients were introduced into the model. The CDOM absorption was determined by subtracting the individual absorption coefficients of phytoplankton and NAP from the measured total absorption data and then related to the Chl concentration. Validity of the model is assessed based on independent in-situ data from certain discrete locations in the Bay of Bengal. The total absorption coefficients estimated using the new model by considering the contributions of algal, non-algal and CDOM have good agreement with the measured total absorption data with the error range of 6.9 to 28.3%. Results obtained by the present model are important for predicting the propagation of the radiant energy within the ocean and interpreting remote sensing observation data.

  10. Sound absorption properties of kenaf bamboo particleboard at various mixing ratio and density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, J. W.; Yeo, W. S.; Paridah, M. T.

    2017-11-01

    This study investigated the acoustic properties made by various different ratio of kenaf core (KC) and bamboo betung (BB). The particleboard were manufactured at density of 400 kg/m3 and 600 kg/m3 with four different mixing ratio of 100:0 (KC:BB), 70:30 (KC:BB), 50:50 (KC:BB) and 0:100 (KC:BB) respectively. The absorption coefficient of the samples was measured using the standing wave method. The characteristic curves of sound absorption coefficients of the samples demonstrated a linear increment with frequency, peak at 2000 Hz and decreased gradually thereafter. The sound absorption properties were investigated by comparing the noise reduction coefficient (NRC). Overall, particleboard with density of 400 kg/m3 exhibited better sound absorption properties as compared with 600 kg/m3 density of particleboard for all mixing ratio. Also, particleboard made with higher amount of BB particles exhibited better sound absorption properties. In addition, results showed a consistent reduction of NRC values with the amount of BB used.

  11. Uncertainty analysis of standardized measurements of random-incidence absorption and scattering coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Trapet, Markus; Vorländer, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This work presents an analysis of the effect of some uncertainties encountered when measuring absorption or scattering coefficients in the reverberation chamber according to International Organization for Standardization/American Society for Testing and Materials standards. This especially relates to the uncertainty due to spatial fluctuations of the sound field. By analyzing the mathematical definition of the respective coefficient, a relationship between the properties of the chamber and the test specimen and the uncertainty in the measured quantity is determined and analyzed. The validation of the established equations is presented through comparisons with measurement data. This study analytically explains the main sources of error and provides a method to obtain the product of the necessary minimum number of measurement positions and the band center frequency to achieve a given maximum uncertainty in the desired quantity. It is shown that this number depends on the ratio of room volume to sample surface area and the reverberation time of the empty chamber.

  12. In situ measurements of the oblique incidence sound absorption coefficient for finite sized absorbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottink, Marco; Brunskog, Jonas; Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2016-01-01

    for the finiteness of the absorber. A sound field model, which accounts for scattering from the finite absorber edges, assuming plane wave incidence is derived. A significant influence of the finiteness on the radiation impedance and the corresponding absorption coefficient is found. A finite surface method, which......Absorption coefficients are mostly measured in reverberation rooms or with impedance tubes. Since these methods are only suitable for measuring the random incidence and the normal incidence absorption coefficient, there exists an increasing need for absorption coefficient measurement of finite...... absorbers at oblique incidence in situ. Due to the edge diffraction effect, oblique incidence methods considering an infinite sample fail to measure the absorption coefficient at large incidence angles of finite samples. This paper aims for the development of a measurement method that accounts...

  13. Measurement of the absorption coefficient of acoustical materials using the sound intensity method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwal, Mahabir S.; Crocker, Malcolm J.

    1987-01-01

    In this study the possibility of using the two-microphone sound intensity technique to measure the normal incidence and the random incidence sound absorption coefficient was investigated. The normal incidence absorption coefficient was determined by measuring the intensity incidence on the sample and the intensity reflected by the sample placed in an anechoic chamber. The random incidence absorption coefficient was determined by measuring the intensity incident on the sample and the intensity reflected by the sample placed in a reverberation chamber. Absorption coefficient results obtained by the sound intensity technique were compared with standard techniques, namely the reverberation chamber and the standing wave tube. The major advantages of using the sound intensity technique are that it permits 'in situ' measurements and the absorption coefficient for a large range of frequencies can be obtained from a single measurement.

  14. Temperature dependence of the absorption coefficient of water for midinfrared laser radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, E. D.; van Leeuwen, T. G.; Motamedi, M.; Borst, C.; Welch, A. J.

    1994-01-01

    The dynamics of the water absorption peak around 1.94 microns was examined. This peak is important for the absorption of holmium and thulium laser radiation. To examine the effect of temperature on the absorption coefficient, the transmission of pulsed Ho:YAG, Ho:YAG, Ho:YSGG, and Tm:YAG laser

  15. Carbonation Coefficients from Concrete Made with High-Absorption Limestone Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric I. Moreno

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal aggregates employed in concrete have absorption levels in the range of 0.2% to 4% for coarse aggregate and 0.2 to 2% for fine aggregate. However, some aggregates have absorption levels above these values. As the porosity of concrete is related to the porosity of both the cement paste and the aggregate and the carbonation rate is a function, among other things, of the porosity of the material, there is concern about the effect of this high porosity material in achieving good quality concrete from the durability point of view. Thus, the objective of this investigation was to study the carbonation rates of concrete specimens made with high-absorption limestone aggregate. Four different water/cement ratios were used, and cylindrical concrete specimens were exposed to accelerated carbonation. High porosity values were obtained for concrete specimens beyond the expected limits for durable concrete. However, carbonation coefficients related to normal quality concrete were obtained for the lowest water/cement ratio employed suggesting that durable concrete may be obtained with this material despite the high porosity.

  16. Predicted sound absorption coefficients of absorber materials lined in a chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Forouharmajd

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The present study was aimed to measurement of sound absorption coefficient of mineral wool and determination of their absorption ability. Materials and Methods: Mineral wool was used to find noise absorption coefficient. Random and normal sound absorption coefficient values were predicted. Then, the measures of transmission loss calculated as an overall value, for applied absorbent material and bare sheet metal. Results: The measured values of noise with one octave band frequency demonstrated an attenuation of 5.5-7 dB for these frequencies. The absorption coefficients of materials showed that mineral wool had more normal sound coefficients than its random sound absorption coefficient values. Conclusion: It can be concluded that predicted normal sound absorption coefficients of used mineral wool materials were near to the areas of standard line. It seems that the amount or thickness of absorbent lining was a main reason of noise reduction in low band frequencies. Mineral wool has a higher density and can provide better acoustical and insulating results than fiberglass. Besides, mineral wool doesn′t lose its insulating value when wet and has an outstanding resistance to fire.

  17. Measurement of Absorption Coefficient of Paraformaldehyde and Metaldehyde with Terahertz Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Xia, T.; Chen, Q.; Sun, Q.; Deng, Y.; Wang, C.

    2018-03-01

    The characteristic absorption spectra of paraformaldehyde and metaldehyde in the terahertz frequency region are obtained by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). In order to reduce the absorption of terahertz (THz) wave by water vapor in the air and the background noise, the measurement system was filled with dry air and the measurements were conducted at the temperature of 24°C. Meanwhile, the humidity was controlled within 10% RH. The THz frequency domain spectra of samples and their references from 0 to 2.5 THz were analyzed via Fourier transform. The refractive index and absorption coefficients of the two aldehydes were calculated by the model formulas. From 0.1 to 2.5 THz, there appear two weak absorption peaks at 1.20 and 1.66 THz in the absorption spectra of paraformaldehyde. Only one distinct absorption peak emerges at 1.83 THz for metaldehyde. There are significant differences between the terahertz absorption coefficients of paraformaldehyde and metaldehyde, which can be used as "fingerprints" to identify these substances. Furthermore, the relationship between the average absorption coefficients and mass concentrations was investigated and the average absorption coefficient-mass concentration diagrams of paraformaldehyde and metaldehyde were shown. For paraformaldehyde, there is a linear relationship between the average absorption coefficient and the natural logarithm of mass concentration. For metaldehyde, there exists a simpler linear relationship between the average absorption coefficient and the mass concentration. Because of the characteristics of THz absorption of paraformaldehyde and metaldehyde, the THz-TDS can be applied to the qualitative and quantitative detection of the two aldehydes to reduce the unpredictable hazards due to these substances.

  18. Comparative study of sound absorption coefficient determination using FEM method and experimental tests on Kundt's tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaconu, Marius; Toma, Adina Cristina; Dragasanu, Luminita Ioana; Mihai, Dragos

    2017-06-01

    Sound absorption coefficient is a commonly used parameter to characterize the acoustic properties of sound absorbing materials that plays an important role in noise attenuation. For this study a specific material has been chosen in order to be evaluated experimentally and compared with the simulated results. Both simulation and experimental assessments used to estimate the sound absorption coefficient are based on transfer function method in accordance with standard SR EN JSO 10354-2. Results are obtained for 15, 30, 45 mm material sample thickness in order to assess the relationship between absorption coefficient, thickness and frequency response. Comparative analysis is performed to determine differences given by the two approaches.

  19. Absorption coefficients for water vapor at 193 nm from 300 to 1073 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, W. J.; Carleton, K. L.; Marinelli, W. J.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of the water absorption coefficient at 193 nm from 300 to 1073 K are reported. The measurements were made using broadband VUV radiation and a monochromator-based detection system. The water vapor was generated by a saturator and metered into a flowing, 99 cm absorption cell via a water vapor mass flow meter. The 193 nm absorption coefficient measurements are compared to room temperature and high temperature shock tube measurements with good agreement. The absorption can be parameterized by a nu3 vibrational mode reaction coordinate and the thermal population of the nu3 mode.

  20. Producing of Impedance Tube for Measurement of Acoustic Absorption Coefficient of Some Sound Absorber Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Golmohammadi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Noise is one of the most important harmful agents in work environment. In spit of industrial improvements, exposure with over permissible limit of noise is counted as one of the health complication of workers. In Iran, do not exact information of the absorption coefficient of acoustic materials. Iranian manufacturer have not laboratory for measured of sound absorbance of their products, therefore using of sound absorber is limited for noise control in industrial and non industrial constructions. The goal of this study was to design an impedance tube based on pressure method for measurement of the sound absorption coefficient of acoustic materials.Materials & Methods: In this study designing of measuring system and method of calculation of sound absorption based on a available equipment and relatively easy for measurement of the sound absorption coefficient related to ISO10534-1 was performed. Measuring system consist of heavy asbestos tube, a pure tone sound generator, calibrated sound level meter for measuring of some commonly of sound absorber materials was used. Results: In this study sound absorption coefficient of 23 types of available acoustic material in Iran was tested. Reliability of results by three repeat of measurement was tested. Results showed that the standard deviation of sound absorption coefficient of study materials was smaller than .Conclusion: The present study performed a necessary technology of designing and producing of impedance tube for determining of acoustical materials absorption coefficient in Iran.

  1. On the Pressure and Temperature Dependence of the Absorption Coefficient of NH3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Aousgi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of pressure and temperature on the absorption coefficient of ammonia (NH3 gas self-perturbed and perturbed by nitrogen (N2 gas have been measured. We varied the gas pressure from 10 to 160 Torr and the temperature from 235 to 296 K in order to study the absorption coefficient at the center and the wings of lines in the ν4 band of NH3. These measurements were made using a high resolution (0.0038 cm-1 Bruker Fourier-transform spectrometer. These spectra have been analyzed using the method of multipressure technique permitting to succeed to an evolution of the absorption coefficient with the pressure and the quantum numbers J and K of the NH3 molecule. The results show that the absorption coefficient varies as a quadratic function of the pressure at the center of a given line. However, it has a linear evolution in the wings of the line. Moreover, the absorption coefficients are inversely proportional to temperature in the wings when NH3 lines are broadened by N2. The retrieved values of these coefficients were used to derive the temperature dependence of N2 broadening NH3 lines. The absorption coefficients were shown to fit closely the well-known exponential law.

  2. The Effect of New Collision-Induced Absorption Coefficients on the Early Mars Limit Cycle Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayworth, B. P.; Payne, R. C.; Kasting, J. F.

    2017-11-01

    Updating the Limit Cycling (LC) Model for early Mars with new absorption coefficients to test for changes to LC behavior and to potentially lower needed concentrations of greenhouse gases. Thought will be given to the effect of LC on habitability.

  3. Preliminary results of an algorithm to determine the total absorption coefficient of water

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suresh, T.; Talaulikar, M.; Desa, E.J.; Lotlikar, A.

    An algorithm to determine the spectral total absorption coefficient of water is presented. The algorithm is based on the Gershun’s equation of alfa = micro KE. The spectral underwater average cosine, micro and vertical attenuation...

  4. Redox ratio and optical absorption of polyvalent ions in industrial ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The changes in glass structure and redox ratio, (reduced ion to oxidized ion) of Mn2+–Mn3+, Cu+–Cu2+, Cr3+–Cr6+, Ni2+–Ni3+ and Co2+–Co3+ couples and optical absorption due to Mn3+, Cu2+, Cr3+, Ni2+ and Co2+ ions in industrial soda–lime–silica glass were investigated as a function of Na2O concentration in the ...

  5. Density, ultrasound velocity, acoustic impedance, reflection and absorption coefficient determination of liquids via multiple reflection method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoche, S; Hussein, M A; Becker, T

    2015-03-01

    The accuracy of density, reflection coefficient, and acoustic impedance determination via multiple reflection method was validated experimentally. The ternary system water-maltose-ethanol was used to execute a systematic, temperature dependent study over a wide range of densities and viscosities aiming an application as inline sensor in beverage industries. The validation results of the presented method and setup show root mean square errors of: 1.201E-3 g cm(-3) (±0.12%) density, 0.515E-3 (0.15%) reflection coefficient and 1.851E+3 kg s(-1) m(-2) (0.12%) specific acoustic impedance. The results of the diffraction corrected absorption showed an average standard deviation of only 0.12%. It was found that the absorption change shows a good correlation to concentration variations and may be useful for laboratory analysis of sufficiently pure liquids. The main part of the observed errors can be explained by the observed noise, temperature variation and the low signal resolution of 50 MHz. In particular, the poor signal-to-noise ratio of the second reflector echo was found to be a main accuracy limitation. Concerning the investigation of liquids the unstable properties of the reference material PMMA, due to hygroscopicity, were identified to be an additional, unpredictable source of uncertainty. While dimensional changes can be considered by adequate methodology, the impact of the time and temperature dependent water absorption on relevant reference properties like the buffer's sound velocity and density could not be considered and may explain part of the observed deviations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. On the sound absorption coefficient of porous asphalt pavements for oblique incident sound waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer-Krijnen, Marieke; Wijnant, Ysbrand H.; de Boer, Andries; Bekke, Dirk; Davy, J.; Don, Ch.; McMinn, T.; Dowsett, L.; Broner, N.; Burgess, M.

    2014-01-01

    A rolling tyre will radiate noise in all directions. However, conventional measurement techniques for the sound absorption of surfaces only give the absorption coefficient for normal incidence. In this paper, a measurement technique is described with which it is possible to perform in situ sound

  7. Parameterization of the chlorophyll a-specific in vivo light absorption coefficient covering estuarine, coastal and oceanic waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stæhr, P. A.; Markager, S. S.

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated models predicting the spectral chlorophyll-a (Chl a)-specific absorption coefficient (a*ph (¿)) from Chl a concentration [Chl a] on the basis of 465 phytoplankton absorption spectra collected in estuarine, coastal and oceanic waters. A power model on ln-transformed data provided.......015 m2 mg-1 Chl a) at 440 nm, the peak absorption of Chl a in the blue part of the spectrum. The variations in the modelled a*ph spectra were within realistic predictions of a*ph (¿) and the model satisfactorily reproduced the spectral flattening with increasing [Chl a]. The parameterization of a......*ph (¿) confirmed the indirect dependency of a*ph (¿) on [Chl a] through co-variations between [Chl a] with pigment packaging and pigment composition. Although pigment packaging determined the spectral flattening, analysis of absorption ratios revealed a systematic change in pigment composition with profound...

  8. In situ measurements of the oblique incidence sound absorption coefficient for finite sized absorbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottink, Marco; Brunskog, Jonas; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Fernandez-Grande, Efren; Trojgaard, Per; Tiana-Roig, Elisabet

    2016-01-01

    Absorption coefficients are mostly measured in reverberation rooms or with impedance tubes. Since these methods are only suitable for measuring the random incidence and the normal incidence absorption coefficient, there exists an increasing need for absorption coefficient measurement of finite absorbers at oblique incidence in situ. Due to the edge diffraction effect, oblique incidence methods considering an infinite sample fail to measure the absorption coefficient at large incidence angles of finite samples. This paper aims for the development of a measurement method that accounts for the finiteness of the absorber. A sound field model, which accounts for scattering from the finite absorber edges, assuming plane wave incidence is derived. A significant influence of the finiteness on the radiation impedance and the corresponding absorption coefficient is found. A finite surface method, which combines microphone array measurements over a finite sample with the sound field model in an inverse manner, is proposed. Besides, a temporal subtraction method, a microphone array method, impedance tube measurements, and an equivalent fluid model are used for validation. The finite surface method gives promising agreement with theory, especially at near grazing incidence. Thus, the finite surface method is proposed for further measurements at large incidence angles.

  9. The fundamental parameter approach of quantitative XRFA- investigation of photoelectric absorption coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaltout, A.

    2003-06-01

    The present work describes some actual problems of quantitative x-ray fluorescence analysis by means of the fundamental parameter approach. To perform this task, some of the main parameters are discussed in detail. These parameters are photoelectric cross sections, coherent and incoherent scattering cross sections, mass absorption cross sections and the variation of the x-ray tube voltage. Photoelectric cross sections, coherent and incoherent scattering cross sections and mass absorption cross sections in the energy range from 1 to 300 keV for the elements from Z=1 to 94 considering ten different data bases are studied. These are data bases given by Hubbell, McMaster, Mucall, Scofield, Xcom, Elam, Sasaki, Henke, Cullen and Chantler's data bases. These data bases have been developed also for an application in fundamental parameter programs for quantitative x-ray analysis (Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (EDXRFA), Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA), X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Total Electron Yield (TEY)). In addition a comparison is performed between different data bases. In McMaster's data base, the missing elements (Z=84, 85, 87, 88, 89, 91, and 93) are added by using photoelectric cross sections of Scofield's data base, coherent as well as incoherent scattering cross sections of Elam's data base and the absorption edges of Bearden. Also, the N-fit coefficients of the elements from Z=61 to 69 are wrong in McMaster data base, therefore, linear least squares fits are used to recalculate the N-fit coefficients of these elements. Additionally, in the McMaster tables the positions of the M- and N-edges of all elements with the exception of the M1- and N1- edges are not defined as well as the jump ratio of the edges. In the present work, the M- and N-edges and the related jump ratios are calculated. To include the missing N-edges, Bearden's values of energy edges are used. In Scofield's data base, modifications include check and correction

  10. Measurement of the sound absorption coefficient for an advanced undergraduate physics laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macho-Stadler, E.; Elejalde-García, M. J.

    2017-09-01

    We present a simple experiment that allows advanced undergraduates to learn the basics of the acoustic properties of materials. The impedance tube-standing wave method is applied to study the normal absorption coefficient of acoustics insulators. The setup includes a tube, a speaker, a microphone, a digital function generator and an oscilloscope, material available in an undergraduate laboratory. Results of the change of the absorption coefficient with the frequency, the sample thickness and the sample density are analysed and compared with those obtained with a commercial system.

  11. Sound absorption coefficient of coal bottom ash concrete for railway application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramzi Hannan, N. I. R.; Shahidan, S.; Maarof, Z.; Ali, N.; Abdullah, S. R.; Ibrahim, M. H. Wan

    2017-11-01

    A porous concrete able to reduce the sound wave that pass through it. When a sound waves strike a material, a portion of the sound energy was reflected back and another portion of the sound energy was absorbed by the material while the rest was transmitted. The larger portion of the sound wave being absorbed, the lower the noise level able to be lowered. This study is to investigate the sound absorption coefficient of coal bottom ash (CBA) concrete compared to the sound absorption coefficient of normal concrete by carried out the impedance tube test. Hence, this paper presents the result of the impedance tube test of the CBA concrete and normal concrete.

  12. Measurement of the absorption coefficient of sound absorbing materials under a synthesized diffuse acoustic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Olivier; Berry, Alain; Doutres, Olivier; Atalla, Noureddine

    2014-07-01

    This letter proposes an experimental method to estimate the absorption coefficient of sound absorbing materials under a synthesized diffuse acoustic field in free-field conditions. Comparisons are made between experiments conducted with this approach, the standard reverberant room method, and numerical simulations using the transfer matrix method. With a simple experimental setup and smaller samples than those required by standards, the results obtained with the proposed approach do not exhibit non-physical trends of the reverberant room method and provide absorption coefficients in good agreement with those obtained by simulations for a laterally infinite material.

  13. A numerical study of a method for measuring the effective in situ sound absorption coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Erwin R; Wijnant, Ysbrand H; de Boer, André

    2012-09-01

    The accuracy of a method [Wijnant et al., Proc. of ISMA 31, Leuven, Belgium (2010), Vol. 31] for measurement of the effective area-averaged in situ sound absorption coefficient is investigated. Based on a local plane wave assumption, this method can be applied to sound fields for which a model is not available. Investigations were carried out by means of finite element simulations for a typical case. The results show that the method is a promising method for determining the effective area-averaged in situ sound absorption coefficient in complex sound fields.

  14. Absorption coefficient of nearly transparent liquids measured using thermal lens spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.Cabrera

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We use an optimized pump-probe mode-mismatched thermal lens scheme to determine the optical absorption coefficient and thermal diffusivity of ethanol, benzene, acetone, methanol, toluene and chloroform. In this scheme the excitation beam is focused in the presence of a collimated probe beam. The agreement between experimentally obtained results and values reported in the literature is good.

  15. The frequency dispersion of velocity and sound waves absorption coefficient in the electrolyte solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odinaev, S.; Dodarbekov, A.

    2001-01-01

    Present article is devoted to frequency dispersion of velocity and sound waves absorption coefficient in the electrolyte solutions. The analytical expressions for acoustic parameters in a wide range of thermodynamic parameters and frequencies change were obtained. The system of equations of generalized hydrodynamics for electrolyte solutions was constructed.

  16. A numerical study of a method for measuring the effective in situ sound absorption coefficient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, E.R.; Wijnant, Ysbrand H.; de Boer, A

    2012-01-01

    The accuracy of a method [Wijnant et al., “Development and applica- tion of a new method for the in-situ measurement of sound absorption”, ISMA 31, Leuven, Belgium (2010).], for measurement of the effective area-averaged in situ sound absorption coefficient is investigated. Based on a local plane

  17. Statistical Models for Sediment/Detritus and Dissolved Absorption Coefficients in Coastal Waters of the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Green, Rebecca E; Gould, Jr., Richard W; Ko, Dong S

    2008-01-01

    ... (CDOM) absorption coefficients from physical hydrographic and atmospheric properties. The models were developed for northern Gulf of Mexico shelf waters using multi-year satellite and physical data...

  18. Chlorophyll specific absorption coefficient and phytoplankton biomass in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Tiwari, Surya Prakash

    2015-01-01

    The role of total particulate matter, the sum of phytoplankton and nonalgal particles, is essential to understanding the distribution and pathways of particulate carbon in the ocean. Their relative contributions to light absorption and scattering are fundamental to understanding remotely sensed ocean color. Until recently, data regarding the contribution of phytoplankton and algal particles to the inherent optical properties of the Red Sea was nonexistent. Some of the first measurements of these inherent optical properties in the Red Sea including phytoplankton specific absorption coefficients (aph*(λ)) were obtained by the TARA Oceans expedition in January 2010. From these observations, chlorophyll a was calculated using the Line Height Method (LHM) that minimizes the contribution to total and particulate absorption by non-algal particles (NAP) and CDOM. Bricaud and Stramski’s (1990) a method was then used to decompose hyperspectral total particulate absorption into the contributions by phytoplankton and nonalgal particles.

  19. Determination of self-absorption coefficient in measurement of solid sample activity using 4π ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dryak, P.

    1982-01-01

    Computation based on the Monte Carlo method was tested for a 4π cylindrical ionization chamber with a detection volume of 7 litres, filled with argon. The sources are placed in the geometrical centre. The correction coefficient for self-absorption was determined as being the ratio of ionization currents induced by a source of finite size and by a massless point source. A flowchart of the program is given. The computations were experimentally tested for cylindrical sources of aqueous 137 Cs and 57 Co solutions. (M.D.)

  20. Phytoplankton community dynamic detection from the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficient in productive inland waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Sayuri Yoshino Watanabe

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim: In this research, we investigated the spectral variability of the specific phytoplankton absorption coefficient, a*φ, measured in a tropical meso-to-hypertrophic reservoir, aiming to find spectral features associated with the chlorophyll-a (chla and other accessory pigments present in different phytoplankton species. Methods To accomplish this research, two fieldworks were carried out in different seasons in order to report a high bio-optical variation. Phytoplankton absorption coefficient, aφ, and chla concentration were measured in laboratory to estimate a*φ. Results The outcomes have indicated that there is a remarkable phytoplankton community dynamic as spatially as seasonally. Chla absorption features were well-defined at 440 nm and 675 nm. Conclusions All the a*φ spectra exhibited the absorption peak around 630 nm associated with phycocyanin pigment present in cyanobacteria. Some spectra have shown a peak at about 460 nm, which is related to chlorophyll b and chlorophyll c (chlb and chlc, respectively found in different phytoplankton species. In turn, absorption features of carotenoids around 490 nm also were identified, however, well defined just in curves measured in austral autumn. Such spectral features are found in phytoplankton groups already identified in the study area such as Chlorophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, Cyanophyceae, Conjugatophyceae, Chrysophyceae, among others. We expect that the results are useful in researches about remote sensing of phytoplankton and eutrophication in reservoirs.

  1. NORMAL INCIDENCE SOUND ABSORPTION COEFFICIENT OF DIRECT PIERCING CARVED WOOD PANEL WITH DAUN SIREH MOTIF USING BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Zamri Jusoh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Direct Piercing Carved Wood Panel (DPCWP installed in Masjid Abidin, Kuala Terengganu, is one example that carries much aesthetic and artistic value. The use of DPCWP in earlier mosques was envisaged to improve the intelligibility of indoor speech because the perforated panels allow some of the sound energy to pass through. In this paper, the normal incidence sound absorption coefficient of DPCWP with Daun Sireh motif, which is a form of floral pattern, is discussed. The Daun Sireh motif was chosen and investigated for 30%, 35%, 40%, and 45% perforation ratios. The simulations were conducted using BEASY Acoustic Software based on the boundary element method. The simulation results were compared with measurements obtained by using the sound intensity technique. An accompanying discussion on both the numerical and the measurement tendencies of the sound absorption characteristics of the DPCWP is provided. The results show that the DPCWP with Daun Sireh motif can act as a good sound absorber.

  2. Bias in the absorption coefficient determination of a fluorescent dye, standard reference material 1932 fluorescein solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeRose, Paul C.; Kramer, Gary W.

    2005-01-01

    The absorption coefficient of standard reference material[registered] (SRM[registered]) 1932, fluorescein in a borate buffer solution (pH=9.5) has been determined at λ=488.0, 490.0, 490.5 and 491.0 nm using the US national reference UV/visible spectrophotometer. The purity of the fluorescein was determined to be 97.6% as part of the certification of SRM 1932. The solution measured was prepared gravimetrically by diluting SRM 1932 with additional borate buffer. The value of the absorption coefficient was corrected for bias due to fluorescence that reaches the detector and for dye purity. Bias due to fluorescence was found to be on the order of -1% for both monochromatic and polychromatic (e.g., diode-array based) spectrophotometers

  3. Modeling of the Interminiband Absorption Coefficient in InGaN Quantum Dot Superlattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Giannoccaro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a model to estimate minibands and theinterminiband absorption coefficient for a wurtzite (WZ indium gallium nitride (InGaN self-assembled quantum dot superlattice (QDSL is developed. It considers a simplified cuboid shape for quantum dots (QDs. The semi-analytical investigation starts from evaluation through the three-dimensional (3D finite element method (FEM simulations of crystal mechanical deformation derived from heterostructure lattice mismatch under spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization effects. From these results, mean values in QDs and barrier regions of charge carriers’ electric potentials and effective masses for the conduction band (CB and three valence sub-bands for each direction are evaluated. For the minibands’ investigation, the single-particle time-independent Schrödinger equation in effective mass approximation is decoupled in three directions and resolved using the one-dimensional (1D Kronig–Penney model. The built-in electric field is also considered along the polar axis direction, obtaining Wannier–Stark ladders. Then, theinterminiband absorption coefficient in thermal equilibrium for transverse electric (TE and magnetic (TM incident light polarization is calculated using Fermi’s golden rule implementation based on a numerical integration into the first Brillouin zone. For more detailed results, an absorption coefficient component related to superlattice free excitons is also introduced. Finally, some simulation results, observations and comments are given.

  4. Uncertainty analysis for the coefficient of band-to-band absorption of crystalline silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Schinke

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the uncertainty of the coefficient of band-to-band absorption of crystalline silicon. For this purpose, we determine the absorption coefficient at room temperature (295 K in the wavelength range from 250 to 1450 nm using four different measurement methods. The data presented in this work derive from spectroscopic ellipsometry, measurements of reflectance and transmittance, spectrally resolved luminescence measurements and spectral responsivity measurements. A systematic measurement uncertainty analysis based on the Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM as well as an extensive characterization of the measurement setups are carried out for all methods. We determine relative uncertainties of the absorption coefficient of 0.4% at 250 nm, 11% at 600 nm, 1.4% at 1000 nm, 12% at 1200 nm and 180% at 1450 nm. The data are consolidated by intercomparison of results obtained at different institutions and using different measurement approaches.

  5. Water vapor absorption coefficients in the 8-13-micron spectral region - A critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, William B.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of water vapor absorption coefficients in the thermal IR atmospheric window (8-13 microns) during the past 20 years obtained by a variety of techniques are reviewed for consistency and compared with computed values based on the AFGL spectral data tapes. The methods of data collection considered were atmospheric long path absorption with a CO2 laser or a broadband source and filters, a White cell and a CO2 laser or a broadband source and a spectrometer, and a spectrophone with a CO2 laser. Advantages and disadvantages of each measurement approach are given as a guide to further research. Continuum absorption has apparently been measured accurately to about the 5-10 percent level in five of the measurements reported.

  6. A comparison of the Standing Wave and Two Microphone Methods in Measuring The Sound Absorption Coefficient of Wood

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Chunwon; Matsumura, Junji; Oda, Kazuyuki

    2006-01-01

    To compare the standing wave method with two microphone transfer function method in the measuring the sound absorption properties of wood, we measured the sound absorption coefficients of beech wood experimentally in the frequency range of 50 to 1600 Hz by the standing wave method and two-microphone method. The sound absorption coefficient under a continuous frequency range can be estimated in a shorter time by the two microphone transfer function method than the standing wave method. There...

  7. Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy in cystic fibrosis: dose, variability and coefficient of fat absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Lerma, Joaquim; Martínez-Barona, Sandra; Masip, Etna; Fornés, Victoria; Ribes-Koninckx, Carmen

    2017-10-01

    Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT) remains a backbone in the nutritional treatment of cystic fibrosis. Currently, there is a lack of an evidence-based tool that allows dose adjustment. To date, no studies have found an association between PERT dose and fat absorption. Therefore, the aim of the study was to assess the influence of both the PERT dose and the variability in this dose on the coefficient of fat absorption (CFA). This is a retrospective longitudinal study of 16 pediatric patients (192 food records) with three consecutive visits to the hospital over a twelve-month period. Dietary fat intake and PERT were assessed via a four-day food record and fat content in stools was determined by means of a three-day stool sample collection. A beta regression model was built to explain the association between the CFA and the interaction between the PERT dose (lipase units [LU]/g dietary fat) and the variability in the PERT dose (standard deviation [SD]). The coefficient of fat absorption increased with the PERT dose when the variability in the dose was low. In contrast, even at the highest PERT dose values, the CFA decreased when the variability was high. The confidence interval suggested an association, although the analysis was not statistically significant. The variability in the PERT dose adjustment should be taken into consideration when performing studies on PERT efficiency. A clinical goal should be the maintenance of a constant PERT dose rather than trying to obtain an optimal value.

  8. Redox ratio and optical absorption of polyvalent ions in industrial ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    and CoO concentrations were determined using atomic emission spectroscopy with inductively coupled plasma,. ARL Fisons 3410 ICP. The Mn3+ and Cu2+ ion concentra- tions were estimated by using their known molar extinction coefficients of soda–lime–silica glasses having similar basicity of glasses in the present ...

  9. Determination of absorption coefficient of Chlorella vulgaris and Arthrospira maxima in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekiner, Murat; Kurt, Mustafa; Ak, Ilknur; Kurt, Arzu

    2018-02-01

    Safe drinking water is crucial for human healthy, nowadays all drinking and irrigation water in developed country commonly come from dams. The water is transported to our usage area by several type of pipe or water-trench. The water can be infected some bacteria such as Chlorella vulgaris, Arthrospira maxima, during this transportation. In this study, we determine which wavelength effect to these green algae and cyanobacteria. For different concentration of these microorganisms in water, we determined uv-vis spectrum. By analyzing these spectrums, we determined absorption coefficient of these microorganisms for selected wavelength. The results show which wavelength can be used for destroy these microorganisms in affected water.

  10. Non-uniform sound intensity distributions when measuring absorption coefficients in reverberation chambers using a phased beam tracing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2010-06-01

    Measured absorption coefficients in reverberation chambers often differ from theoretical random incidence absorption coefficients, because ideal assumptions for the theoretical random incidence absorption coefficient are not fulfilled during measurements in actual reverberation chambers. Therefore sound intensity distributions on absorber under measurement conditions have been simulated using a phased beam tracing, and used as correction functions for reducing discrepancies between the measured and theoretical absorption coefficients. Two reverberation rooms were investigated by assuming that a test specimen was attached to a vertical surface and the floor. The frequency-dependent sound intensity distributions on absorbers were found to be affected by the reverberation chamber geometry and dimensions, the absorption capability of the specimen, and the placement of the specimen. High frequency intensity distributions above 1 kHz were similar for all studied cases, but some variations in low frequency intensity distributions were observed. If the non-uniform intensity distribution and a finite size effect are taken into account for correcting the theoretical absorption coefficients, a good agreement is found between corrected and measured statistical absorption coefficients. The non-uniform sound intensity can account for the discrepancy at high frequencies.

  11. Bayesian inference of the flow resistivity of a sound absorber and the room's influence on the Sabine absorption coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Choi, Sang-Hyeon; Lee, Ikjin

    2017-01-01

    chamber significantly, whereas the flow resistivity is a rather reproducible material property, from which the absorptive characteristics can be calculated through reliable models. Using Sabine absorption coefficients measured in 13 European reverberation chambers, the maximum a posteriori......A Bayesian analysis is applied to determine the flow resistivity of a porous sample and the influence of the test chamber based on measured Sabine absorption coefficient data. The Sabine absorption coefficient measured in a reverberation chamber according to ISO 354 is influenced by the test...... and the uncertainty of the flow resistivity and the test chamber’s influence are estimated. Inclusion of more than one chamber’s absorption data helps the flow resistivity converge towards a reliable value with a standard deviation below 17%...

  12. Bayesian inference of the flow resistivity of a sound absorber and the room's influence on the Sabine absorption coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Choi, Sang-Hyeon; Lee, Ikjin

    2017-03-01

    A Bayesian analysis is applied to determine the flow resistivity of a porous sample and the influence of the test chamber based on measured Sabine absorption coefficient data. The Sabine absorption coefficient measured in a reverberation chamber according to ISO 354 is influenced by the test chamber significantly, whereas the flow resistivity is a rather reproducible material property, from which the absorptive characteristics can be calculated through reliable models. Using Sabine absorption coefficients measured in 13 European reverberation chambers, the maximum a posteriori and the uncertainty of the flow resistivity and the test chamber's influence are estimated. Inclusion of more than one chamber's absorption data helps the flow resistivity converge towards a reliable value with a standard deviation below 17%.

  13. Determination of absorption coefficient based on laser beam thermal blooming in gas-filled tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafizi, B; Peñano, J; Fischer, R; DiComo, G; Ting, A

    2014-08-01

    Thermal blooming of a laser beam propagating in a gas-filled tube is investigated both analytically and experimentally. A self-consistent formulation taking into account heating of the gas and the resultant laser beam spreading (including diffraction) is presented. The heat equation is used to determine the temperature variation while the paraxial wave equation is solved in the eikonal approximation to determine the temporal and spatial variation of the Gaussian laser spot radius, Gouy phase (longitudinal phase delay), and wavefront curvature. The analysis is benchmarked against a thermal blooming experiment in the literature using a CO₂ laser beam propagating in a tube filled with air and propane. New experimental results are presented in which a CW fiber laser (1 μm) propagates in a tube filled with nitrogen and water vapor. By matching laboratory and theoretical results, the absorption coefficient of water vapor is found to agree with calculations using MODTRAN (the MODerate-resolution atmospheric TRANsmission molecular absorption database) and HITRAN (the HIgh-resolution atmospheric TRANsmission molecular absorption database).

  14. Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy in cystic fibrosis: dose, variability and coefficient of fat absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Calvo-Lerma

    Full Text Available Objectives: Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT remains a backbone in the nutritional treatment of cystic fibrosis. Currently, there is a lack of an evidence-based tool that allows dose adjustment. To date, no studies have found an association between PERT dose and fat absorption. Therefore, the aim of the study was to assess the influence of both the PERT dose and the variability in this dose on the coefficient of fat absorption (CFA. Methods: This is a retrospective longitudinal study of 16 pediatric patients (192 food records with three consecutive visits to the hospital over a twelve-month period. Dietary fat intake and PERT were assessed via a four-day food record and fat content in stools was determined by means of a three-day stool sample collection. A beta regression model was built to explain the association between the CFA and the interaction between the PERT dose (lipase units [LU]/g dietary fat and the variability in the PERT dose (standard deviation [SD]. Results: The coefficient of fat absorption increased with the PERT dose when the variability in the dose was low. In contrast, even at the highest PERT dose values, the CFA decreased when the variability was high. The confidence interval suggested an association, although the analysis was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The variability in the PERT dose adjustment should be taken into consideration when performing studies on PERT efficiency. A clinical goal should be the maintenance of a constant PERT dose rather than trying to obtain an optimal value.

  15. Sound absorption coefficient in situ: an alternative for estimating soil loss factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Rosane; Meletti de Abreu, Marco Henrique; Okada, Rafael Yuri; Soares, Paulo Fernando; GranhenTavares, Célia Regina

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between the sound absorption coefficient and factors of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) was determined in a section of the Maringá Stream basin, Paraná State, by using erosion plots. In the field, four erosion plots were built on a reduced scale, with dimensions of 2.0×12.5m. With respect to plot coverage, one was kept with bare soil and the others contained forage grass (Brachiaria), corn and wheat crops, respectively. Planting was performed without any type of conservation practice in an area with a 9% slope. A sedimentation tank was placed at the end of each plot to collect the material transported. For the acoustic system, pink noise was used in the measurement of the proposed monitoring, for collecting information on incident and reflected sound pressure levels. In general, obtained values of soil loss confirmed that 94.3% of material exported to the basin water came from the bare soil plot, 2.8% from the corn plot, 1.8% from the wheat plot, and 1.1% from the forage grass plot. With respect to the acoustic monitoring, results indicated that at 16kHz erosion plot coverage type had a significant influence on the sound absorption coefficient. High correlation coefficients were found in estimations of the A and C factors of the USLE, confirming that the acoustic technique is feasible for the determination of soil loss directly in the field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of the Extinction Coefficient, Radiation Absorption and Use Efficiency of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyedeh Maliheh Mirhashemi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Leaf area index, light extinction coefficient and radiation use efficiency are important eco-physiological characteristics for realization of crops growth, development and radiation absorption. In order to determine the leaf area index (LAI, light extinction coefficient (K and radiation use efficiency (RUE of saffron during the first and second growing seasons, four experiments were started in 2011 and ended in 2014, at the Research Farm of the Agriculture Faculty, the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. Saffron corms with weights between 13 to15 g and density of 50 plant.m2 were cultivated in 2011 and 2012. In all experimental years during the growing season, crop sampling was taken for required measurements including the leaf area index and shoot dry weight of saffron once every 14 days. The results showed that by increasing the age of saffron from 1 year to two years, the maximum LAI of saffron increased from 0.33 to 1.81, and light extinction coefficient decreased from 1.20 to 0.54. The increasing trend of LAI was coincident with fraction of absorbed radiation for all four years of the experiment. In the first and the second growing seasons, the amount of fraction of absorbed radiation gradually increased with increasing LAI and at 1083 and 1034 GDD reached its maximum value, respectively. In saffron farms when the plant was one year old and two years old, the mean value of RUE was 0.68 and 1.73 g.MJ-1 PAR, respectively. These results indicate that by increasing the saffron age and LAI, the value of K decreases and consequently radiation absorption and use efficiency will‎ increase.

  17. Absorption and scattering coefficient dependence of laser-Doppler flowmetry models for large tissue volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binzoni, T; Leung, T S; Ruefenacht, D; Delpy, D T

    2006-01-01

    Based on quasi-elastic scattering theory (and random walk on a lattice approach), a model of laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF) has been derived which can be applied to measurements in large tissue volumes (e.g. when the interoptode distance is >30 mm). The model holds for a semi-infinite medium and takes into account the transport-corrected scattering coefficient and the absorption coefficient of the tissue, and the scattering coefficient of the red blood cells. The model holds for anisotropic scattering and for multiple scattering of the photons by the moving scatterers of finite size. In particular, it has also been possible to take into account the simultaneous presence of both Brownian and pure translational movements. An analytical and simplified version of the model has also been derived and its validity investigated, for the case of measurements in human skeletal muscle tissue. It is shown that at large optode spacing it is possible to use the simplified model, taking into account only a 'mean' light pathlength, to predict the blood flow related parameters. It is also demonstrated that the 'classical' blood volume parameter, derived from LDF instruments, may not represent the actual blood volume variations when the investigated tissue volume is large. The simplified model does not need knowledge of the tissue optical parameters and thus should allow the development of very simple and cost-effective LDF hardware

  18. Determination of Scattering and Absorption Coefficients for Plasma-Sprayed Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Thermal Barrier Coatings at Elevated Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Spuckler, Charles M.; Markham, James R.

    2009-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the scattering and absorption coefficients for a set of freestanding plasma-sprayed 8 wt% yttria-stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) was determined at temperatures up to 1360 C in a wavelength range from 1.2 micrometers up to the 8YSZ absorption edge. The scattering and absorption coefficients were determined by fitting the directional-hemispherical reflectance and transmittance values calculated by a four-flux Kubelka Munk method to the experimentally measured hemispherical-directional reflectance and transmittance values obtained for five 8YSZ thicknesses. The scattering coefficient exhibited a continuous decrease with increasing wavelength and showed no significant temperature dependence. The scattering is primarily attributed to the relatively temperature-insensitive refractive index mismatch between the 8YSZ and its internal voids. The absorption coefficient was very low (less than 1 per centimeter) at wavelengths between 2 micrometers and the absorption edge and showed a definite temperature dependence that consisted of a shift of the absorption edge to shorter wavelengths and an increase in the weak absorption below the absorption edge with increasing temperature. The shift in the absorption edge with temperature is attributed to strongly temperature-dependent multiphonon absorption. While TBC hemispherical transmittance beyond the absorption edge can be predicted by a simple exponential decrease with thickness, below the absorption edge, typical TBC thicknesses are well below the thickness range where a simple exponential decrease in hemispherical transmittance with TBC thickness is expected. [Correction added after online publication August 11, 2009: "edge to a shorter wavelengths" has been updated as edge to shorter wavelengths."

  19. Portfolio Optimization under Local-Stochastic Volatility: Coefficient Taylor Series Approximations & Implied Sharpe Ratio

    OpenAIRE

    Lorig, Matthew; Sircar, Ronnie

    2015-01-01

    We study the finite horizon Merton portfolio optimization problem in a general local-stochastic volatility setting. Using model coefficient expansion techniques, we derive approximations for the both the value function and the optimal investment strategy. We also analyze the `implied Sharpe ratio' and derive a series approximation for this quantity. The zeroth-order approximation of the value function and optimal investment strategy correspond to those obtained by Merton (1969) when the risky...

  20. Temperature-dependent absorption coefficient of the fourth sound in bulk liquid 4He near absolute zero temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Chul Won; Um, C. I.

    2000-01-01

    The temperature-dependent absorption coefficient of the fourth sound is evaluated explicitly near absolute zero temperature via the temperature-dependent anomalous excitation spectrum in bulk liquid helium. The coefficient increases with decreasing temperature, and the main contribution is due to the thermal conductivity

  1. Non-uniform sound intensity distributions when measuring absorption coefficients in reverberation chambers using a phased beam tracing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2010-01-01

    sound intensity distributions on absorber under measurement conditions have been simulated using a phased beam tracing, and used as correction functions for reducing discrepancies between the measured and theoretical absorption coefficients. Two reverberation rooms were investigated by assuming...... that a test specimen was attached to a vertical surface and the floor. The frequency-dependent sound intensity distributions on absorbers were found to be affected by the reverberation chamber geometry and dimensions, the absorption capability of the specimen, and the placement of the specimen. High frequency...... agreement is found between corrected and measured statistical absorption coefficients. The non-uniform sound intensity can account for the discrepancy at high frequencies....

  2. Appropriate heat load ratio of generator for different types of air cooled lithium bromide–water double effect absorption chiller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zeyu; Liu, Jinping

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of heat load ratio of generator on the performance was analyzed. • The performance is sensitive to heat load ratio of generator. • The appropriate heat load ratio of generator for four systems was obtained. • The change of appropriate heat load ratio of generator for four systems was studied. - Abstract: The lower coefficient of performance and higher risk of crystallization in the higher surrounding temperature is the primary disadvantage of air cooled lithium bromide–water double effect absorption chiller. Since the coefficient of performance and risk of crystallization strongly depend on the heat load ratio of generator, the appropriate heat load ratio of generator can improve the performance as the surrounding temperature is higher. The paper mainly deals with the appropriate heat load ratio of generator of air cooled lithium bromide–water double effect absorption chiller. Four type systems named series, pre-parallel, rear parallel and reverse parallel flow configuration were considered. The corresponding parametric model was developed to analyze the comprehensive effect of heat load ratio of generator on the coefficient of performance and risk of crystallization. It was found that the coefficient of performance goes up linearly with the decrease of heat load ratio of generator. Simultaneously, the risk of crystallization also rises slowly at first but increases fast finally. Consequently, the appropriate heat load ratio of generator for the series and pre-parallel flow type systems is suggested to be 0.02 greater than the minimum heat load ratio of generator and that for the rear parallel and reverse parallel flow chillers should be 0.01 higher than the minimum heat load ratio of generator. Besides, the changes of minimum heat load ratio of generator for different type systems with the working condition were analyzed and compared. It was found that the minimum heat load ratio of generator goes up with the increase of

  3. Coefficient of Performance Optimization of Single-Effect Lithium-Bromide Absorption Cycle Heat Pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Kasper; Just Nielsen, Rene; Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the coefficient of performance (COP) of a LiBr absorption cycle heat pump under different operating conditions. The investigation is carried out using a dynamical model fitted against data recorded from an actual heat pump used for district heating in S......⊘nderborg, Denmark. Since the model is too complex to study analytically, we vary different input variables within the permissible operating range of the heat pump and evaluate COP at the resulting steady-state operating points. It is found that the best set-point for each individual input is located at an extreme...... value of the investigated permissible range, and that the COP optimization is likely to be a convex problem. Further, we exploit this observation to propose a simple offline set-point optimization algorithm, which can be used as an automated assistance for the plant operator to optimize steady...

  4. The Optical Absorption Coefficient of Maize Grains Investigated by Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Páez, C. L.; Carballo-Carballo, A.; Rico-Molina, R.; Hernández-Aguilar, C.; Domínguez-Pacheco, A.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Moreno-Martínez, E.

    2017-01-01

    In the maize and tortilla industry, it is important to characterize the color of maize ( Zea mays L.) grain, as it is one of the attributes that directly affect the quality of the tortillas consumed by the population. For this reason, the availability of alternative techniques for assessing and improving the quality of grain is valued. Photoacoustic spectroscopy has proven to be a useful tool for characterizing maize grain. So, the objective of the present study was to determine the optical absorption coefficient β of the maize grain used to make tortillas from two regions of Mexico: (a) Valles Altos, 2012-2013 production cycle and (b) Guasave, Sinaloa, 2013-2014 production cycle. Traditional reflectance measurements, physical characteristics of the grain and nutrient content were also calculated. The experimental results show different characteristics for maize grains.

  5. Free-free absorption coefficients and Gaunt factors for dense hydrogen-like stellar plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srećković, V. A.; Sakan, N.; Šulić, D.; Jevremović, D.; Ignjatović, Lj M.; Dimitrijević, M. S.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we present a study dedicated to determination of the inverse bremsstrahlung absorption coefficients and the corresponding Gaunt factor of dense hydrogen-like stellar-atmosphere plasmas where electron density and temperature change in a wide range. A method suitable for this wide range is suggested and applied to the inner layers of the solar atmosphere, as well as the plasmas of partially ionized layers of some other stellar atmospheres (for example, some DA and DB white dwarfs) where the electron densities vary from 1014 cm-3 to 1020 cm-3 and temperatures from 6000 K to 300 000 K in the wavelength region of 10 nm ≤ λ ≤ 3000 nm. The results of the calculations are illustrated by the corresponding figures and tables.

  6. Determination of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter from underway spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Olmo, Giorgio; Brewin, Robert J W; Nencioli, Francesco; Organelli, Emanuele; Lefering, Ina; McKee, David; Röttgers, Rüdiger; Mitchell, Catherine; Boss, Emmanuel; Bricaud, Annick; Tilstone, Gavin

    2017-11-27

    Measurements of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (ay) are needed to validate existing ocean-color algorithms. In the surface open ocean, these measurements are challenging because of low ay values. Yet, existing global datasets demonstrate that ay could contribute between 30% to 50% of the total absorption budget in the 400-450 nm spectral range, thus making accurate measurement of ay essential to constrain these uncertainties. In this study, we present a simple way of determining ay using a commercially-available in-situ spectrophotometer operated in underway mode. The obtained ay values were validated using independent collocated measurements. The method is simple to implement, can provide measurements with very high spatio-temporal resolution, and has an accuracy of about 0.0004 m -1 and a precision of about 0.0025 m -1 when compared to independent data (at 440 nm). The only limitation for using this method at sea is that it relies on the availability of relatively large volumes of ultrapure water. Despite this limitation, the method can deliver the ay data needed for validating and assessing uncertainties in ocean-colour algorithms.

  7. Experimental Determination of the Molar Absorption Coefficient of n-Hexane Adsorbed on High-Silica Zeolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Giorgio; Olivas Olivera, Diana F; Sacchetto, Vittoria; Cossi, Maurizio; Braschi, Ilaria; Marchese, Leonardo; Bisio, Chiara

    2017-09-06

    Determination of the molar absorption coefficients of the CH 3 bending mode at ν˜ =1380 cm -1 (ϵ 1380 ) of n-hexane adsorbed from the gas phase on two different dealuminated zeolites is derived by a combination of IR spectroscopy and microgravimetric analysis. High-silica zeolite Y (HSZ-Y) and zeolite ZSM-5 (with SiO 2 /Al 2 O 3 ratios of 200 and 280, respectively) with different textural and surface features are selected to evaluate the effect of the pore structure and architecture on the value of ϵ 1380 of the adsorbed n-hexane. Experimental data indicate that the molecule experiences a different adsorption environment inside zeolites; thus resulting in a significant change of the dipole moment and very different ϵ 1380 values: (0.278±0.018) cm μmol -1 for HSZ-Y and (0.491±0.032) cm μmol -1 for ZSM-5. Experimental data are also supported by computational modeling, which confirms the effect of different matrices on the IR absorption intensity. This study reveals that the use of probe molecules for quantitative measurements of surface sites has to be judiciously adopted, especially if adsorption occurs in the restricted spaces of microporous materials. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. [Estimation of DOC concentrations using CDOM absorption coefficients: a case study in Taihu Lake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guang-Jia; Ma, Rong-Hua; Duan, Hong-Tao

    2012-07-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is the largest organic carbon stock in water ecosystems, which plays an important role in the carbon cycle in water. Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), an important water color variation, is the colored fraction of DOC and its absorption controls the instruction of light under water. The available linkage between DOC concentration and CDOM absorptions enables the determination of DOC accumulations using remote sensing reflectance or radiance in lake waters. The present study explored the multi-liner relationship between CDOM absorptions [a(g) (250) and a(g) (365)] and DOC concentrations in Taihu Lake, based on the available data in 4 cruises (201005, 201101, 201103, 201105) (totally 183 sampling sites). Meanwhile, the results were validated with the data of the experiment carried out from August 29 to September 2, 2011 in Taihu Lake (n = 27). Furthermore, a universal pattern of modeling from remote sensing was built for lake waters. The results demonstrated that this method provided more satisfying estimation of DOC concentrations in Taihu Lake. Except the data obtained in January 2011, the fitted results of which were not conductive to the winter dataset (201101) in Taihu Lake, due to the diverse sources and sinks of DOC and CDOM, the multi-liner relationship was robust for the data collected in the other three cruises (R2 = 0.64, RMSE = 14.31%, n = 164), which was validated using the 201108 sampling dataset (R2 = 0.67, RMSE = 10.58%, n = 27). In addition, the form of the statistic model is universal, to some extent, for other water areas, however, there is difference in the modeling coefficients. Further research should be focused on the parameterization using local data from different lakes, which provides effective methodology for the estimation of DOC concentrations in lakes and other water regions.

  9. Mass attenuation and mass energy absorption coefficients for 10 keV to 10 MeV photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joffre, H.; Pages, L.

    1968-01-01

    In this report are given the elements allowing the definition of the values of mass attenuation coefficients and mass energy absorption coefficients for some elements and mixtures, necessary for the study of tissue equivalent materials, for photons in the energy range 10 keV to 10 MeV. After a short reminding of the definitions of the two coefficients, follows, in table form, a compilation of these coefficients, as a function of energy, for simple elements, for certain mineral compounds, organic compounds, gases and particularly of soft tissues. (author) [fr

  10. RATIO ESTIMATORS FOR THE CO-EFFICIENT OF VARIATION IN A FINITE POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana V

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Co-efficient of variation (C.V is a relative measure of dispersion and is free from unit of measurement. Hence it is widely used by the scientists in the disciplines of agriculture, biology, economics and environmental science. Although a lot of work has been reported in the past for the estimation of population C.V in infinite population models, they are not directly applicable for the finite populations. In this paper we have proposed six new estimators of the population C.V in finite population using ratio and product type estimators. The bias and mean square error of these estimators are derived for the simple random sampling design. The performance of the estimators is compared using a real life dataset. The ratio estimator using the information on the population C.V of the auxiliary variable emerges as the best estimator

  11. H + O3 Fourier-transform infrared emission and laser absorption studies of OH(X2Pi) radical - An experimental dipole moment function and state-to-state Einstein A coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, David D., Jr.; Schiffman, Aram; Nesbitt, David J.; Orlando, John J.; Burkholder, James B.

    1990-01-01

    FTIR emission/absorption spectroscopy is used to measure the relative intensities of 88 pairs of rovibrational transitions of OH(X2Pi) distributed over 16 vibrational bands. The experimental technique used to obtain the Einstein A ratios is discussed. The dipole moment function which follows from the intensity ratios along with Einstein A coefficients calculated from mu(r) is presented.

  12. Validation of a dual-isotope plasma ratio method for measurement of cholesterol absorption in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilversmit, D B; Hughes, L B

    1974-09-01

    Several methods for measuring cholesterol absorption in the rat have been compared. After administration of an oral dose of labeled cholesterol ((14)C or (3)H) and an intravenous dose of colloidal labeled cholesterol ((3)H or (14)C) the ratio of the two labels in plasma or whole blood 48 hr or more after dosing compared closely to the ratio of areas under the respective specific activity-time curves. The area ratio method is independent of a time lag between the appearance of oral and intravenous label in the bloodstream. Both measures of cholesterol absorption agree fairly well with a method based on measuring the unabsorbed dietary cholesterol in a pooled fecal sample. The plasma isotope ratio method gave more reproducible results than the fecal collection method when the measurement was repeated in the same animals 5 days after the first measurement. Cholesterol absorption was overestimated by the use of Tween 20-solubilized labeled cholesterol for the intravenous dose. The plasma disappearance curves of injected labeled colloidal cholesterol and cholesterol-labeled chylomicrons infused intravenously over a 3.5-hr period in the same animal coincided within experimental error from the first day until 75 days after injection. The plasma isotope ratio method for cholesterol absorption gave the same results in rats practicing coprophagy as in those in which this practice was prevented. The addition of sulfaguanidine to the diet lowered cholesterol absorption as measured by the plasma isotope ratio to the same degree as that measured by the fecal collection method.

  13. Correlation between oral drug absorption in humans and apparent drug permeability coefficients in human intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artursson, P.; Karlsson, J. (Uppsala Univ., (Sweden))

    1991-03-29

    Monolayers of a well differentiated human intestinal epithelial cell line, Caco-2, were used as a model to study passive drug absorption across the intestinal epithelium. Absorption rate constants (expressed as apparent permeability coefficients) were determined for 20 drugs and peptides with different structural properties. The permeability coefficients ranged from approximately 5 x 10{sup {minus} 8} to 5 x 10{sup {minus} 5} cm/s. A good correlation was obtained between data on oral absorption in humans and the results in the Caco-2 model. Drugs that are completely absorbed in humans had permeability coefficients greater than 1 x 10{sup {minus} 6} cm/s. Drugs that are absorbed to greater than 1% but less than 100% had permeability coefficients of 0.1-1.0 x 10{sup {minus} 6} cm/s while drugs and peptides that are absorbed to less than 1% had permeability coefficients of less than or equal to 1 x 10{sup {minus} 7} cm/s. The results indicate that Caco-2 monolayers can be used as a model for studies on intestinal drug absorption.

  14. Measurement of K-shell absorption jump factors and jump ratios in some lanthanide elements using EDXRF technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polat, Recep; İçelli, Orhan; Yalçın, Zeynel; Pesen, Erhan; Orak, Salim

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Mass attenuation coefficients, jump factor and jump ratio for lanthanide elements are obtained. ► The method used in this experiment is combined both transmission and scattering geometry. ► Secondary gamma rays energy is 59.5 keV. ► Experimental values of jump factor and jump ratio for K shell are new. ► The experimental values are in good agreement with those calculated theoretically. - Abstract: 59.5 keV gamma rays scattered by an aluminum foil have been used as a radiation source to measure the absorption jump factor and jump ratios for absorbers Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu and Tb. The theoretical and experimental values are compared with the corresponding ones in the literature

  15. Effects of heat treatment on sound absorption coefficients in nanosilver-impregnated and normal solid woods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmailpour, Ayoub; Taghiyari, Hamid Reza; Zolfaghari, Habib

    2017-06-01

    Effects of impregnation with silver nano-suspension as well as heat-treatment on sound absorption coefficients (AC) were studied in tangential direction of five different solid woods based on their importance. AC was measured at two frequencies of 250 and 500 Hz. A 400 ppm nanosuspension was used for the impregnation; silver nanoparticles had a size range of 30-80 nm. Based on the obtained results, the species reacted significantly different in absorbing sound at the two frequencies. Impregnation with nano-suspension substantially decreased AC at the lower frequency of 250 Hz; it did not show any particular trend when AC was measured at the frequency of 500 Hz. Heat treatment significantly increased AC at the frequency of 250 Hz. ACs of mulberry tended to be similar at the two frequencies; in the other four species though, ACs were significantly different. High significant correlations were found in the hardwoods between the ACs measured at the two frequencies.

  16. Effects of nanosilver on sound absorption coefficients in solid wood species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghiyari, Hamid Reza; Esmailpour, Ayoub; Zolfaghari, Habib

    2016-06-01

    Sound absorption coefficients (ACs) were determined in five solid woods (poplar, beech, walnut, mulberry, and fir) in the longitudinal and tangential directions at four different frequencies of 800, 1000, 2000, and 4000 Hz. The length of the longitudinal and tangential specimens was 50-mm and 10-mm, respectively. Separate sets of specimens were impregnated with either nanosilver suspension or water. The size range of nanoparticles was 30-80 nm. Results showed that sound ACs were lower in longitudinal specimens because sound waves could penetrate the open ends of vessels more easily, being trapped and damped there. Impregnation with both nanosilver suspension and water resulted in a significant decrease in the sound ACs. The decrease in the ACs was due to the collapsing and accumulation of perforation plates and cell parts, blocking the way through which waves could pass through the vessels. This caused higher damping due to a phenomenon called vibration decay. Correlation between gas permeability versus sound AC is significantly dependant on the porous structure of individual specimens.

  17. Pancreatic Enzyme Therapy and Coefficient of Fat Absorption in Children and AdolReplacement escents With Cystic Fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woestenenk, Janna W; van der Ent, Cornelis K.; Houwen, Roderick H J; van der Ent, CK

    Objectives: Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT) is the proven therapy to substantially reduce fat malabsorption in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Few details of the daily practice regarding PERT and the resulting coefficient of fat absorption (CFA) are known. We therefore recorded the

  18. Optical absorption coefficient and minority carrier diffusion length measurements in low-cost silicon solar cell material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swimm, R.T.; Dumas, K.A.

    1982-11-01

    The optical absorption coefficient of silicon solar cell material grown by three low-cost growth methods was measured in the wavelength interval 0.8< or =lambda< or =1.0 ..mu..m, the wavelength region of interest in surface photovoltage measurements of the minority carrier diffusion length. The square root of the absorption coefficient was found to vary linearly with photon energy over the wavelengths studied, and the measured data agree with a linear empirical fit to within 0.5% RMS. The absorption coefficients obtained are slightly lower than those reported by Runyan, with the greatest disagreement at long wavelengths. Minority carrier diffusion lengths computed using the present absorption coefficients are approximately 16% greater than those calculated using Runyan's data. Excellent sample-to-sample agreement within and between lots indicates that for two of the growth methods studied, material quality as judged by optical properties has not been sacrificed by the use of low-cost growth methods. Samples grown by the third growth method studied showed measurably poorer optical quality.

  19. Mapping Surface Water DOC in the Northern Gulf of Mexico Using CDOM Absorption Coefficients and Remote Sensing Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, B.; Chelsky, A.; Bulygina, E.; Roberts, B. J.

    2017-12-01

    Remote sensing techniques have become valuable tools to researchers, providing the capability to measure and visualize important parameters without the need for time or resource intensive sampling trips. Relationships between dissolved organic carbon (DOC), colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and spectral data have been used to remotely sense DOC concentrations in riverine systems, however, this approach has not been applied to the northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM) and needs to be tested to determine how accurate these relationships are in riverine-dominated shelf systems. In April, July, and October 2017 we sampled surface water from 80+ sites over an area of 100,000 km2 along the Louisiana-Texas shelf in the northern GoM. DOC concentrations were measured on filtered water samples using a Shimadzu TOC-VCSH analyzer using standard techniques. Additionally, DOC concentrations were estimated from CDOM absorption coefficients of filtered water samples on a UV-Vis spectrophotometer using a modification of the methods of Fichot and Benner (2011). These values were regressed against Landsat visible band spectral data for those same locations to establish a relationship between the spectral data, CDOM absorption coefficients. This allowed us to spatially map CDOM absorption coefficients in the Gulf of Mexico using the Landsat spectral data in GIS. We then used a multiple linear regressions model to derive DOC concentrations from the CDOM absorption coefficients and applied those to our map. This study provides an evaluation of the viability of scaling up CDOM absorption coefficient and remote-sensing derived estimates of DOC concentrations to the scale of the LA-TX shelf ecosystem.

  20. Remote Sensing of the Absorption Coefficients and Chlorophyll a Concentration in the U.S. Southern Middle Atlantic Bight from SeaWiFS and MODIS-Aqua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaoju; Mannino, Antonio; Russ, Mary E.; Hooker, Stanford B.

    2008-01-01

    At present, satellite remote sensing of coastal water quality and constituent concentration is subject to large errors as compared to the capability of satellite sensors in oceanic waters. In this study, field measurements collected on a series of cruises within U.S. southern Middle Atlantic Bight (SMAB) were applied to improve retrievals of satellite ocean color products in order to examine the factors that regulate the bio-optical properties within the continental shelf waters of the SMAB. The first objective was to develop improvements in satellite retrievals of absorption coefficients of phytoplankton (a(sub ph)), colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) (a(sub g)), non-pigmented particles (a(sub d)), and non-pigmented particles plus CDOM (a(sub dg)), and chlorophyll a concentration ([Chl_a]). Several algorithms were compared to derive constituent absorption coefficients from remote sensing reflectance (R(sub rs)) ratios. The validation match-ups showed that the mean absolute percent differences (MAPD) were typically less than 35%, although higher errors were found for a(sub d) retrievals. Seasonal and spatial variability of satellite-derived absorption coefficients and [Chl_a] was apparent and consistent with field data. CDOM is a major contributor to the bio-optical properties of the SMAB, accounting for 35-70% of total light absorption by particles plus CDOM at 443 nm, as compared to 30-45% for phytoplankton and 0-20% for non-pigmented particles. The overestimation of [Chl_a] from the operational satellite algorithms may be attributed to the strong CDOM absorption in this region. River discharge is important in controlling the bio-optical environment, but cannot explain all of the regional and seasonal variability of biogeochemical constituents in the SMAB.

  1. Further validation of the plasma isotope ratio method for measurement of cholesterol absorption in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, P; McNamara, D J; Ahrens, E H; Crouse, J R; Parker, T

    1982-03-01

    Recently we evaluated an isotope ratio method (IRM) for measurement of cholesterol absorption in 14 patients (15 experiments) hospitalized in the metabolic ward by comparing it to simultaneous measurements with a fecal radioactivity method (FRM) and found good to excellent agreement between two procedures (Samuel, P., J. R. Crouse, and E. H. Ahrens, Jr. 1978 J. Lipid Res. 19: 82-93). This comparison has now been extended to additional studies carried out in eight hospitalized patients (19 experiments). Of the 34 comparisons between the IRM and the FRM in our hands, 29 were technically acceptable (chromic oxide fecal recovery >/=80%): percent cholesterol absorption was 43.1 +/- 12% by the FRM and 46.0 +/- 11% by the IRM, exhibiting an accuracy within 3.5% at the 95% and 4.7% at the 99% confidence levels. In addition, various procedural modifications of the IRM were studied in out-patients. The measurement of isotope ratios in a single blood sample (analyzed in sextuplicate) on the third day (or later) following the tests gave identical results to those obtained from six to eight daily blood samplings. Blood samples drawn at any time during the day gave cholesterol absorption values similar to those obtained from samples drawn following an overnight fast. Absorption tests carried out before and 1 hr after breakfast, lunch, or dinner, or giving the oral isotope in three divided daily doses all yielded identical results with tests carried out in the am in the fasting state. Cholesterol absorption was markedly reduced when the oral radiolabeled cholesterol was administered in orange juice vs. liquid formula, milk or a solution of glucose and amino acids, consistent with the well-known fact that gallbladder contraction is a critical requirement of cholesterol absorption. A meal high in cholesterol consumed on the day of the test did not influence the results of the absorption measurements. Furthermore, addition of three eggs per day (~750mg cholesterol) for 3 weeks to a

  2. Validation of a dual-isotope plasma ratio method for measurement of cholesterol absorption in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilversmit, D.B.; Hughes, L.B.

    1974-01-01

    Several methods for measuring cholesterol absorption in the rat have been compared. After administration of an oral dose of labeled cholesterol ( 14 C or 3 H) and an intravenous dose of colloidal labeled cholesterol ( 3 H or 14 C) the ratio of the two labels in plasma or whole blood 48 hr or more after dosing compared closely to the ratio of areas under the respective specific activity-time curves. The area ratio method is independent of a time lag between the appearance of oral and intravenous label in the bloodstream. Both measures of cholesterol absorption agree fairly well with a method based on measuring the unabsorbed dietary cholesterol in a pooled fecal sample. The plasma isotope ratio method gave more reproducible results than the fecal collection method when the measurement was repeated in the same animals 5 days after the first measurement. Cholesterol absorption was overestimated by the use of Tween 20-solubilized labeled cholesterol for the intravenous dose. The plasma disappearance curves of injected labeled colloidal cholesterol and cholesterol-labeled chylomicrons infused intravenously over a 3.5-h period in the same animal coincided within experimental error from the first day until 75 days after injection. The plasma isotope ratio method for cholesterol absorption gave the same results in rats practicing coprophagy as in those in which this practice was prevented. The addition of sulfaguanidine to the diet lowered cholesterol absorption as measured by the plasma isotope ratio to the same degree as that measured by the fecal collection method. (U.S.)

  3. Evaluation of self-absorption coefficients of aluminum emission lines in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Sherbini, A.M.; El Sherbini, Th.M.; Hegazy, H.; Cristoforetti, G.; Legnaioli, S.; Palleschi, V.; Pardini, L.; Salvetti, A.; Tognoni, E.

    2005-01-01

    In quantitative Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) measurements it is essential to account for the effect of self-absorption on the emission lines intensity. In order to quantify this effect, in this paper we propose a simple method for evaluating the ratio between the actual measured line intensity and the intensity expected in absence of self-absorption and, if necessary, correcting the effect of self-absorption on line intensity. The method, based on a homogeneous plasma model, is applicable when the plasma electron density is known and in particular to lines whose Stark broadening parameter is available

  4. Resonant tube for measurement of sound absorption in gases at low frequency/pressure ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerwar, A. J.; Griffin, W. A.

    1980-01-01

    The paper describes a resonant tube for measuring sound absorption in gases, with specific emphasis on the vibrational relaxation peak of N2, over a range of frequency/pressure ratios from 0.1 to 2500 Hz/atm. The experimental background losses measured in argon agree with the theoretical wall losses except at few isolated frequencies. Rigid cavity terminations, external excitation, and a differential technique of background evaluation were used to minimize spurious contributions to the background losses. Room temperature measurements of sound absorption in binary mixtures of N2-CO2 in which both components are excitable resulted in the maximum frequency/pressure ratio in Hz/atm of 0.063 + 123m for the N2 vibrational relaxation peak, where m is mole percent of added CO2; the maximum ratio for the CO2 peak was 34,500 268m where m is mole percent of added N2.

  5. Calculus of the amplification and absorption coefficients of the electromagnetic waves in a cylindrical over dense plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzate P, N.

    1994-01-01

    Based on the fundamental theory of cylindrical waveguides and resonant cavities, the main characteristic parameters of the microwave plasma source reported in [1] are calculated. The absorption coefficient of an electromagnetic wave which is excited in H 11 mode in a cylindrical waveguide that contains a cold, inhomogeneous and magnetized plasma column is determined by using the perturbative method describe in [2]. In similar way, due to the presence of the plasma column, the shifts of the resonant frequency and of the inverse of the quality of a cylindrical resonant cavity where a TE 111 mode is oscilating are obtained. Finally, based on the linear theory, an analysis of the penetration of electromagnetic fields in a semi-bounded plasma and a plasma layer is done. The reflexion, transmission and absorption coefficients of H waves for the cases of an isotropic homogeneous and weak inhomogeneous plasma are calculated. (Author)

  6. A Correction of Random Incidence Absorption Coefficients for the Angular Distribution of Acoustic Energy under Measurement Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2009-01-01

    Most acoustic measurements are based on an assumption of ideal conditions. One such ideal condition is a diffuse and reverberant field. In practice, a perfectly diffuse sound field cannot be achieved in a reverberation chamber. Uneven incident energy density under measurement conditions can cause...... discrepancies between the measured value and the theoretical random incidence absorption coefficient. Therefore the angular distribution of the incident acoustic energy onto an absorber sample should be taken into account. The angular distribution of the incident energy density was simulated using the beam...... tracing method for various room shapes and source positions. The averaged angular distribution is found to be similar to a Gaussian distribution. As a result, an angle-weighted absorption coefficient was proposed by considering the angular energy distribution to improve the agreement between...

  7. Absorption coefficient measurrement of monochromatized synchrotron radiation at 0.65 - 1.3 A interval for some biological objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avakian, Ts.M.; Karabekov, I.P.; Martirossian, M.A.

    1977-01-01

    The results of the measurement of absorption coefficients for some biological objects such as pea (Pissum sativum), wheat (Triticum aestivum), tobacco (Nicotiana-tabacum-α) seeds, as well as the distilled water are presented. The measurement has been carried out on the Erevan Physical Institute Electron Accelerator synchrotron radiation beam. The good agreement of experimental and calculated data for water confirms the accuracy of the results related to other objects

  8. A Fiberoptic Irradiance Microsensor (Cosine Collector) - Application for In-Situ Measurements of Absorption-Coefficients in Sediments and Microbial Mats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LASSEN, C.; JØRGENSEN, BB

    1994-01-01

    microsensor was used concurrently with fiber-optic microsensors for radiance and scalar irradiance in two cyanobacterial mats: a gelatinous laminated mat of Aphanothece sp. and Phormidium sp. and a compact marine intertidal mat of Microcoleus chthonoplastes. At the surface, the ratio of scalar irradiance...... at all wavelenghts and a maximum of 3.9 was reached in the gelatinous mat at both 675 and 760 nm. The results stress the importance of measuring the right light parameter when photobiological processes in sediments are investigated and the application of scalar irradiance and irradiance as quantitative...... measures of available light for photosynthesis parameter is discussed. From the distribution of scalar irradiance and irradiance, in situ absorption coefficients were calculated. Within the upper 3 mm of the gelatinous mat, the vertical attenuation coefficients of scalar irradiance, upward radiance...

  9. Molecular design for improved photovoltaic efficiency: band gap and absorption coefficient engineering

    KAUST Repository

    Mondal, Rajib

    2009-01-01

    Removing the adjacent thiophene groups around the acceptor core in low band gap polymers significantly enhances solar cell efficiency through increasing the optical absorption and raising the ionization potential of the polymer. © 2009 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  10. Estimation of the molar absorption coefficient of copper salicylate within the spectral range 300-350 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrik, N. L.; Mulloev, N. U.

    2017-12-01

    Additional absorption was detected in absorption spectra within the range 300-350 nm after addition of copper sulfate CuSO4(aq) to a solution of sodium salicylate NaНSal (рН = 7.8). The additional maximum absorption was observed at 320 nm. Assuming that the additional absorption depends on the formation of copper salicylate CuSal, the molar absorption coefficient εCuSal of this complex was determined to be (3.8 ± 0.02) · 103 М- 1 сm- 1. This value is almost equal to that of monoanion HSal-, εHSal - = (3.6 ± 0.04) · 103 М- 1 сm- 1, and is 2.5 times as much as εFe3 + HSal - = (1.55 ± 0.05) · 103 М- 1 сm- 1 for iron salicylate. The difference in εCuSal and εFe3 + HSal - is due to the difference in the initial electron states of Cu2 + and Fe3 + ions that have the d9 and d5 configurations, respectively.

  11. Verification of the semiempirical formulae for γ-ray absorption coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikkur, G.C.; Hanagodimath, S.M.

    1989-01-01

    The total absorption cross-section have been calculated for power energy γ-rays using the semiempirical formulae put forth by Massaro et al (1982) at three different energies, and the values are compared with the experimental values of Smiles et al (1982). There is a good agreement between experimental and calculated values. (author). 7 refs

  12. A Multi-Band Analytical Algorithm for Deriving Absorption and Backscattering Coefficients from Remote-Sensing Reflectance of Optically Deep Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Zhong-Ping; Carder, Kendall L.

    2001-01-01

    A multi-band analytical (MBA) algorithm is developed to retrieve absorption and backscattering coefficients for optically deep waters, which can be applied to data from past and current satellite sensors, as well as data from hyperspectral sensors. This MBA algorithm applies a remote-sensing reflectance model derived from the Radiative Transfer Equation, and values of absorption and backscattering coefficients are analytically calculated from values of remote-sensing reflectance. There are only limited empirical relationships involved in the algorithm, which implies that this MBA algorithm could be applied to a wide dynamic range of waters. Applying the algorithm to a simulated non-"Case 1" data set, which has no relation to the development of the algorithm, the percentage error for the total absorption coefficient at 440 nm a (sub 440) is approximately 12% for a range of 0.012 - 2.1 per meter (approximately 6% for a (sub 440) less than approximately 0.3 per meter), while a traditional band-ratio approach returns a percentage error of approximately 30%. Applying it to a field data set ranging from 0.025 to 2.0 per meter, the result for a (sub 440) is very close to that using a full spectrum optimization technique (9.6% difference). Compared to the optimization approach, the MBA algorithm cuts the computation time dramatically with only a small sacrifice in accuracy, making it suitable for processing large data sets such as satellite images. Significant improvements over empirical algorithms have also been achieved in retrieving the optical properties of optically deep waters.

  13. Backscattering and absorption coefficients for electrons: Solutions of invariant embedding transport equations using a method of convergence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa, C.; Brizuela, H.; Heluani, S. P.

    2014-01-01

    The backscattering coefficient is a magnitude whose measurement is fundamental for the characterization of materials with techniques that make use of particle beams and particularly when performing microanalysis. In this work, we report the results of an analytic method to calculate the backscattering and absorption coefficients of electrons in similar conditions to those of electron probe microanalysis. Starting on a five level states ladder model in 3D, we deduced a set of integro-differential coupled equations of the coefficients with a method know as invariant embedding. By means of a procedure proposed by authors, called method of convergence, two types of approximate solutions for the set of equations, namely complete and simple solutions, can be obtained. Although the simple solutions were initially proposed as auxiliary forms to solve higher rank equations, they turned out to be also useful for the estimation of the aforementioned coefficients. In previous reports, we have presented results obtained with the complete solutions. In this paper, we present results obtained with the simple solutions of the coefficients, which exhibit a good degree of fit with the experimental data. Both the model and the calculation method presented here can be generalized to other techniques that make use of different sorts of particle beams

  14. Quantitative photoacoustic integrating sphere (QPAIS platform for absorption coefficient and Grüneisen parameter measurements: Demonstration with human blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Villanueva-Palero

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative photoacoustic imaging in biomedicine relies on accurate measurements of relevant material properties of target absorbers. Here, we present a method for simultaneous measurements of the absorption coefficient and Grüneisen parameter of small volume of liquid scattering and absorbing media using a coupled-integrating sphere system which we refer to as quantitative photoacoustic integrating sphere (QPAIS platform. The derived equations do not require absolute magnitudes of optical energy and pressure values, only calibration of the setup using aqueous ink dilutions is necessary. As a demonstration, measurements with blood samples from various human donors are done at room and body temperatures using an incubator. Measured absorption coefficient values are consistent with known oxygen saturation dependence of blood absorption at 750 nm, whereas measured Grüneisen parameter values indicate variability among five different donors. An increasing Grüneisen parameter value with both hematocrit and temperature is observed. These observations are consistent with those reported in literature.

  15. [Ru(bpy)(3)](2+) as a reference in transient absorption spectroscopy: differential absorption coefficients for formation of the long-lived (3)MLCT excited state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Pavel; Brettel, Klaus

    2012-04-01

    Transient absorption spectroscopy and other time-resolved methods are commonly used to study chemical reactions and biological processes induced by absorption of light. In order to scale the signal amplitude or to compare results obtained under different conditions, it is advisable to use a reference system, a standard of convenient and well-defined properties. Finding Tris(bipyridine)ruthenium(ii), [Ru(bpy)(3)](2+), a suitable candidate for a transient-absorption spectroscopy reference due to its favourable photochemical properties, we have determined accurate relative values of differential molar absorption coefficients (Δε) for light-induced formation of the metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) excited triplet state at several relevant wavelengths (wavelengths of commercially available lasers) in the UV and visible regions. We have also attempted to determine the absolute value of Δε close to the wavelength of maximum bleaching (∼450 nm) and we propose to narrow down the interval of conceivable values for Δε(450) from the broad range of published values (-0.88 × 10(4) M(-1)cm(-1) to -1.36 × 10(4) M(-1)cm(-1)) to -1.1 × 10(4) M(-1)cm(-1)± 15%. Having ourselves successfully applied [Ru(bpy)(3)](2+) as a standard in a recent time-resolved study of enzymatic DNA repair, we would like to encourage other scientists to use this convenient tool as a reference in their future spectroscopic studies on time scales from picoseconds to hundreds of nanoseconds.

  16. Measuring the ratio of aqueous diffusion coefficients between 6Li +Cl - and 7Li +Cr - by osmometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Steven J.

    1992-10-01

    Osmotic equilibrium is a singular occurrence in the evolution of an osmotic cell because at this event the net solution flux is zero such that -J w · V¯w = J s · V¯s. At this juncture, the diffusion coefficient of the solute through the membrane (ω) equals the solute flux ( Js) divided by the osmotic pressure (ΔΠ). Because the solute permeability coefficient (ω) is related to the Fickian diffusion coefficient ( D) through the gas constant, temperature, and the membrane's thickness and tortuosity, the ratio of ω values for individual isotopic species equals the ratio of D values for the same isotopic components. A 0.9450 molal LiCl solution was placed within sealed dialysis tubing and osmoted against a kilogram of deionized water at 22°C. Osmotic equilibrium occurred at 164 ± 10 min. The ratio of ω6Li +Cl -/ω7Li +Cl - was measured to be 1.011 ± 0.003 - a value close to the square root of the mass ratio between 7LiCl and 6LiCl (= 1.012) as calculated by Graham's Law. The measured diffusion coefficient ratio was used to predict the degree of hyperfiltration-induced fractionation of Li isotopes as a function of membrane ideality. When a membrane's σ exceeds 0.95 (as is likely for low-porosity shales) the 6Li /7Li ratio on the high-pressure side of the membrane can theoretically vary by more than 0.0017.

  17. Simultaneous measurement of quantum yield ratio and absorption ratio between acceptor and donor by linearly unmixing excitation-emission spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C; Lin, F; DU, M; Qu, W; Mai, Z; Qu, J; Chen, T

    2018-02-13

    Quantum yield ratio (Q A /Q D ) and absorption ratio (K A /K D ) in all excitation wavelengths used between acceptor and donor are indispensable to quantitative fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurement based on linearly unmixing excitation-emission spectra (ExEm-spFRET). We here describe an approach to simultaneously measure Q A /Q D and K A /K D values by linearly unmixing the excitation-emission spectra of at least two different donor-acceptor tandem constructs with unknown FRET efficiency. To measure the Q A /Q D and K A /K D values of Venus (V) to Cerulean (C), we used a wide-field fluorescence microscope to image living HepG2 cells separately expressing each of four different C-V tandem constructs at different emission wavelengths with 435 nm and 470 nm excitation respectively to obtain the corresponding excitation-emission spectrum (S DA ). Every S DA was linearly unmixed into the contributions (weights) of three excitation-emission spectra of donor (W D ) and acceptor (W A ) as well as donor-acceptor sensitisation (W S ). Plot of W S /W D versus W A /W D for the four C-V plasmids from at least 40 cells indicated a linear relationship with 1.865 of absolute intercept (Q A /Q D ) and 0.273 of the reciprocal of slope (K A /K D ), which was validated by quantitative FRET measurements adopting 1.865 of Q A /Q D and 0.273 of K A /K D for C32V, C5V, CVC and VCV constructs respectively in living HepG2 cells. © 2018 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2018 Royal Microscopical Society.

  18. Mechanochemical synthesis of stoichiometric nickel and nickel-zinc ferrite powders with Nicolson-Ross analysis of absorption coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovalekić Čedomir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The interest in finding new methods for preparation of nickel ferrite (NiFe2O4 and nickel-zinc ferrite (NixZn1-xFe2O4 powders has recently increased, due to the fact that physical and chemical properties of these soft magnetic materials depend strongly on the preparation conditions. In this paper, powder samples of ferrites were obtained by: 1 classic sintering procedure (NixZn1-xFe2O4, x = 0.9 and 2 planetary mill synthesis (both NiFe2O4 and NixZn1-xFe2O4. Mechanochemical reaction leading to the formation of NixZn1-xFe2O4 (x = 1 and 0.9 spinel phase was monitored by SEM, TEM, and XRD. Values of the real and imaginary parts of permittivity and permeability were measured for the obtained nickel and nickel-zinc ferrite samples in the 7-12 GHz frequency range. Based on the obtained results, the EMR absorption coefficients were calculated for all three sample types. It has been concluded that the method of preparation and the final particle size influence the EMR absorption coefficient of nickel and nickel-zinc ferrites.

  19. Comparison of two internationally recognized methods for determining the sound absorption coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drabek Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With today’s growing focus on noise control issues and the emergence of sound quality as an important aspect of product design, acoustic material testing is becoming increasingly relevant to engineers, designers and manufacturers from a broad range of industries. Acoustic material testing is the process by which acoustic characteristics of materials are determined in terms of absorption, reflection, impedance, admittance and transmission loss. Many different methods can be used to determine the acoustic properties of materials. There are standing wave method, two-microphone free field and multimicrophone techniques, reverberation chamber method, in-situ methods and many other alternative methods based on measurement of internal properties of porous materials. The point is that some methods are preferred over others because the environment in which they are measured is closer to real practice. The article deals with the comparison of the results of the measurement in the reverberation chamber and in the interferometer.

  20. Determination of scattering coefficient considering wavelength and absorption dependence of anisotropy factor measured by polarized beam for biological tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukutomi, D.; Ishii, K.; Awazu, K.

    2015-12-01

    Anisotropy factor g, one of the optical properties of biological tissues, is the most important parameter to accurately determine scattering coefficient μs in the inverse Monte Carlo (iMC) simulation. It has been reported that g has wavelength and absorption dependence, however, there are few attempts in order to calculate μs of biological tissue considering the wavelength and absorption dependence of g. In this study, the scattering angular distributions of biological tissue phantoms were measured in order to determine g by using goniometric measurements with three polarization conditions at strongly and weakly absorbing wavelengths of hemoglobin. Then, optical properties, especially, μs were measured by integrating sphere measurements and iMC simulation in order to confirm the influence of measured g on optical properties in comparison of with general value of g (0.9) for soft biological tissue. Consequently, it was found that μs was overestimated at strongly absorbing wavelength, however, μs was underestimated at weakly absorbing wavelength if the g was not considered its wavelength and absorption dependence.

  1. Higher values of spectral response, absorption coefficient and external quantum efficiency of solar cell in the form of pyramids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, A.

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents a study on spectral response, absorption coefficient and external quantum efficiency of solar cell in the form of pyramid [1, 2]. We investigate to what extent and under what conditions we want to take advantage of ray incidence Seven times [3, 4]. It is found that these analyses can be used to determine the optimal surface texture which provides the best light trapping for solar cells in terms of the total internal reflection occurring in the high-index medium at incidence angles larger than the nominal critical angle [3-9]. One of the main contributions of this paper is the analysis and quantification of the influence of the opening between the heads of the two closest pyramids in textured surface for solar cells and its application on the photovoltaic parameters. In this model we show that the material can have seven successive incident ray absorptions instead of five currently, where we changed the direction of the reflected ray, by identifying and install the angle between the two neighbouring pyramids, the incidence angle, the opening between the heads of the two closest pyramids and their height. Thus, with an angle between the two neighbouring pyramid fixed at 12° and for angle of incidence fixed at 84°. For these values of the angle between the two neighbouring pyramids and incidence angle, the opening between the heads of the two closest pyramids fixed at 2.10 μm for a pyramid height of 10 μm. This leads to the largest possible increase in optical efficiency, such as spectral response, Absorption Coefficient and External Quantum Efficiency. The results are in good agreement with the available literature.

  2. Analytic calculation of the nonzero fast wave reflection coefficient from the tunneling equation with absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, C.S.; Swanson, D.G.

    1994-01-01

    An analytic series expression of the nonzero fast wave reflection coefficient has been found from the tunneling equation which models the wave propagation in weakly inhomogeneous media near a back-to-back resonance-cutoff pair. Explicit calculations are done for both second ion cyclotron and second electron cyclotron harmonic cases. Numerical values of this expression are compared to those calculated by solving an integral equation iteratively. They agree well with each other whenever both the series and the iteration converge. This result is based on a new method of evaluating integrals derived from the integral equation without having to solve the equation itself. This new method may have more applications and deserves further research and development

  3. Mesonic and non-mesonic branching ratios of K{sup −} absorption in the nuclear medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekihara, Takayasu, E-mail: sekihara@post.kek.jp [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1, Oho, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Yamagata-Sekihara, Junko [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1, Oho, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Jido, Daisuke [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Kanada-En' yo, Yoshiko [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2013-09-20

    The branching ratios of K{sup −} absorption at rest in nuclear matter are evaluated from the K{sup −} self-energy by using the chiral unitary approach for the s-wave K{sup ¯}N amplitude. We find that both the mesonic and non-mesonic absorption potentials are dominated by the Λ(1405) contributions. We also observe that the mesonic absorption ratio [π{sup −}Σ{sup +}]/[π{sup +}Σ{sup −}] increases as a function of nuclear density due to the interference between Λ(1405) and the I=1 non-resonant background, which is consistent with experimental results. The fraction of the non-mesonic absorption is evaluated to be about 30% at the saturation density. The branching ratios of the K{sup −} absorption at rest into deuteron and {sup 4}He are also calculated.

  4. Determination of the mass attenuation coefficients for X-ray fluorescence measurements correction by the Rayleigh to Compton scattering ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, C. C.; Anjos, M. J.; Salgado, C. M.

    2014-09-01

    X-ray fluorescence technique plays an important role in nondestructive analysis nowadays. The development of equipment, including portable ones, enables a wide assortment of possibilities for analysis of stable elements, even in trace concentrations. Nevertheless, despite of the advantages, one important drawback is radiation self-attenuation in the sample being measured, which needs to be considered in the calculation for the proper determination of elemental concentration. The mass attenuation coefficient can be determined by transmission measurement, but, in this case, the sample must be in slab shape geometry and demands two different setups and measurements. The Rayleigh to Compton scattering ratio, determined from the X-ray fluorescence spectrum, provides a link to the mass attenuation coefficient by means of a polynomial type equation. This work presents a way to construct a Rayleigh to Compton scattering ratio versus mass attenuation coefficient curve by using the MCNP5 Monte Carlo computer code. The comparison between the calculated and literature values of the mass attenuation coefficient for some known samples showed to be within 15%. This calculation procedure is available on-line at www.macx.net.br.

  5. Measurement of X-ray attenuation coefficients around K-absorption edges using Fe Kα X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerur, B.R.; Thontadarya, S.R.; Hanumaiah, B.

    1993-01-01

    The x-ray mass attenuation coefficients were measured around the K-absorption edges of elements in the range 16 ≤ Z ≤ 30 using Fe Kα x-rays of energy 6.400 keV, which is the weighted average energy of Kα 1 and Kα 2 x-ray components from the 57 Co radioactive source. Kβ x-rays were almost eliminated by the differential absorption technique. The small difference in energy between Kα 1 and Kα 2 , 13 eV, was shown to be inconsequential by comparing the measured and theoretical values of μ/ρ for standard materials such as Al, Cu, Mo and Ta. The effect of fine structure of the K-absorption edge on μ/ρ was elucidated by using the compounds of elements in the range 16 ≤ X ≤ 30, containing one element with its K-absorption edge energy (E k ) close to the incident photon energy (E x ). The results clearly indicate the validity of the theoretical mixture rule for all those compounds whose K edge is far away from the incident energy but show deviations of as much as 10% for the manganese compound whose K edge is 140 eV above E x and about 12% for the chromium compound whose K edge is 410 eV below E x . These deviations are attributed to the possible influence of resonance Raman scattering when the incident photon energy E x is less than the edge and to the influence of EXAFS when E x is more than the edge energy. (Author)

  6. Determination of oral mucosal Poisson's ratio and coefficient of friction from in-vivo contact pressure measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junning; Suenaga, Hanako; Hogg, Michael; Li, Wei; Swain, Michael; Li, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Despite their considerable importance to biomechanics, there are no existing methods available to directly measure apparent Poisson's ratio and friction coefficient of oral mucosa. This study aimed to develop an inverse procedure to determine these two biomechanical parameters by utilizing in vivo experiment of contact pressure between partial denture and beneath mucosa through nonlinear finite element (FE) analysis and surrogate response surface (RS) modelling technique. First, the in vivo denture-mucosa contact pressure was measured by a tactile electronic sensing sheet. Second, a 3D FE model was constructed based on the patient CT images. Third, a range of apparent Poisson's ratios and the coefficients of friction from literature was considered as the design variables in a series of FE runs for constructing a RS surrogate model. Finally, the discrepancy between computed in silico and measured in vivo results was minimized to identify the best matching Poisson's ratio and coefficient of friction. The established non-invasive methodology was demonstrated effective to identify such biomechanical parameters of oral mucosa and can be potentially used for determining the biomaterial properties of other soft biological tissues.

  7. Molar absorption coefficients and stability constants of Zincon metal complexes for determination of metal ions and bioinorganic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocyła, Anna; Pomorski, Adam; Krężel, Artur

    2017-11-01

    Zincon (ZI) is one of the most common chromophoric chelating probes for the determination of Zn 2+ and Cu 2+ ions. It is also known to bind other metal ions. However, literature data on its binding properties and molar absorption coefficients are rather poor, varying among publications or determined only in certain conditions. There are no systematic studies on Zn 2+ and Cu 2+ affinities towards ZI performed under various conditions. However, this widely commercially available and inexpensive agent is frequently the first choice probe for the measurement of metal binding and release as well as determination of affinity constants of other ligands/macromolecules of interest. Here, we establish the spectral properties and the stability of ZI and its complexes with Zn 2+ , Cu 2+ , Cd 2+ , Hg 2+ , Co 2+ , Ni 2+ and Pb 2+ at multiple pH values from 6 to 9.9. The obtained results show that in water solution the MZI complex is predominant, but in the case of Co 2+ and Ni 2+ , M(ZI) 2 complexes are also formed. The molar absorption coefficient at 618 nm for ZnZI and 599nm for CuZI complexes at pH7.4 in buffered (I=0.1M) water solutions are 24,200 and 26,100M -1 cm -1 , respectively. Dissociation constants of those complexes are 2.09×10 -6 and 4.68×10 -17 M. We also characterized the metal-assisted Zincon decomposition. Our results provide new and reassessed optical and stability data that are applicable to a wide range of chemical and bioinorganic applications including metal ion detection, and quantification and affinity studies of ligands of interest. Accurate values of molar absorption coefficients of Zincon complex with Zn 2+ , Cd 2+ , Hg 2+ , Co 2+ , Ni 2+ , Cu 2+ , and Pb 2+ for rapid metal ion quantification are provided. Zincon stability constants with Zn 2+ and Cu 2+ in a wide pH range were determined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Gamma-ray absorption coefficient of non-homogeneous materials. Part 2. Monte-Carlo calculations and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umiastowski, K.; Buniak, M.; Gyurcsak, J.; Maloszewski, P.

    1976-01-01

    Monte-Carlo calculations and experiments performed in order to verify the analytical formulae developed in the first part of the present paper are discussed. The grain size effect parameter R is determined from the measurements and Monte-Carlo calculations of the absorption coefficient of the granular samples. The dependence of parameter R on the dimensionless grain size Y, obtained in this way is compared with the one calculated from the formulae of Part 1. Good agreement is obtained for all results in a broad range of radiation energies (from 17 keV to 1.33 MeV) and grain sizes (from 40 μm to 4.0 cm). (author)

  9. Guideline for Adopting the Local Reaction Assumption for Porous Absorbers in Terms of Random Incidence Absorption Coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2011-01-01

    resistivity and the absorber thickness on the difference between the two surface reaction models are examined and discussed. For a porous absorber backed by a rigid surface, the assumption of local reaction always underestimates the random incidence absorption coefficient and the local reaction models give......Room surfaces have been extensively modeled as locally reacting in room acoustic predictions although such modeling could yield significant errors under certain conditions. Therefore, this study aims to propose a guideline for adopting the local reaction assumption by comparing predicted random...... incidence acoustical characteristics of typical building elements made of porous materials assuming extended and local reaction. For each surface reaction, five well-established wave propagation models, the Delany-Bazley, Miki, Beranek, Allard-Champoux, and Biot model, are employed. Effects of the flow...

  10. Determination of the scattering coefficient of biological tissue considering the wavelength and absorption dependence of the anisotropy factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukutomi, Daichi; Ishii, Katsunori; Awazu, Kunio

    2016-04-01

    The anisotropy factor g, one of the optical properties of biological tissues, has a strong influence on the calculation of the scattering coefficient μ s in inverse Monte Carlo (iMC) simulations. It has been reported that g has the wavelength and absorption dependence; however, few attempts have been made to calculate μ s using g values by taking the wavelength and absorption dependence into account. In this study, the angular distributions of scattered light for biological tissue phantoms containing hemoglobin as a light absorber were measured by a goniometric optical setup at strongly (405 nm) and weakly (664 nm) absorbing wavelengths to obtain g. Subsequently, the optical properties were calculated with the measured values of g by integrating sphere measurements and an iMC simulation, and compared with the results obtained with a conventional g value of 0.9. The μ s values with measured g were overestimated at the strongly absorbing wavelength, but underestimated at the weakly absorbing wavelength if 0.9 was used in the iMC simulation.

  11. Light absorption coefficients by phytoplankton pigments, suspended particles and colored dissolved organic matter in the Crimea coastal water (the Black sea) in June 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiseeva, N.; Churilova, T.; Efimova, T.; Krivenko, O.; Latushkin, A.

    2017-11-01

    Variability of the bio-optical properties of the Crimean coastal waters in June 2016 has been analyzed. The type of vertical distribution chlorophyll a concentration and phytoplankton light absorption coefficients and spectra shape differed between shallow and deeper water. In the deeper water seasonal stratification divided euphotic zone into layers with different environmental conditions. In the deeper part of the euphotic zone (below the thermocline) phytoplankton absorption spectra had local maximum at 550 nm, which was likely to be associated with high abundance of cyanobacteria (Synechococcus sps.) in the phytoplankton community. The concentration of chlorophyll a specific light absorption coefficient of phytoplankton decreased with depth (especially pronounced in the blue domain of the spectrum). In the shallow water the vertical distributions of all absorption properties were relatively homogeneous due to vertical water mixing. In the shallow water non-algal particles light absorption coefficient and its contribution to total particulate absorption were higher than those in the deeper water. The non-algal particles (NAP) and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) light absorption spectra were well described by an exponential function with a slope averaging 0.010 nm-1 (SD = 0.001 nm-1) and 0.022 nm-1 (SD = 0.0060 nm-1), correspondingly. The CDOM absorption at 440 nm and slope coefficient varied significantly across the investigated area, which was possibly associated with the terrestrial influences. The assessment of the contribution of phytoplankton, NAP and CDOM to total light absorption showed that CDOM dominated in the absorption at 440 nm.

  12. Distinct positive temperature coefficient effect of polymer-carbon fiber composites evaluated in terms of polymer absorption on fiber surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; Zheng, Shaodi; Zheng, Xiaofang; Liu, Zhengying; Yang, Wei; Yang, Mingbo

    2016-03-21

    In this article, the positive temperature coefficient (PTC) effect was studied for high-density polyethylene (HDPE)/carbon fiber (CF) composites. All of the samples showed a significant PTC effect during the heating processes without a negative temperature coefficient (NTC) effect, even at a temperature much higher than the melting point of the polymer matrix. An ever-increasing PTC intensity with increasing thermal cycles was observed in our study that had never been reported in previous research. The absence of a NTC effect resulted from the increased binding force between the matrix and fillers that contributed to the very special structure of CF surface. We incorporated thermal expansion theory and quantum tunneling effects to explain PTC effect. From the SEM micrographs for the HDPE/CF composites before and after the different thermal cycles, we found that the surface of CF was covered with a layer of polymer which resulted in a change in the gap length between CF and HDPE and its distribution. We believed that the gap change induced by polymer absorption on the fiber surface had a great effect on the PTC effect.

  13. Molar absorption coefficients and stability constants of metal complexes of 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol (PAR): Revisiting common chelating probe for the study of metalloproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocyła, Anna; Pomorski, Adam; Krężel, Artur

    2015-11-01

    4-(2-Pyridylazo)resorcinol (PAR) is one of the most popular chromogenic chelator used in the determination of the concentrations of various metal ions from the d, p and f blocks and their affinities for metal ion-binding biomolecules. The most important characteristics of such a sensor are the molar absorption coefficient and the metal-ligand complex dissociation constant. However, it must be remembered that these values are dependent on the specific experimental conditions (e.g. pH, solvent components, and reactant ratios). If one uses these values to process data obtained in different conditions, the final result can be under- or overestimated. We aimed to establish the spectral properties and the stability of PAR and its complexes accurately with Zn(2+), Cd(2+), Hg(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Mn(2+) and Pb(2+) at a multiple pH values. The obtained results account for the presence of different species of metal-PAR complexes in the physiological pH range of 5 to 8 and have been frequently neglected in previous studies. The effective molar absorption coefficient at 492 nm for the ZnHx(PAR)2 complex at pH7.4 in buffered water solution is 71,500 M(-1) cm(-1), and the dissociation constant of the complex in these conditions is 7.08×10(-13) M(2). To confirm these values and estimate the range of the dissociation constants of zinc-binding biomolecules that can be measured using PAR, we performed several titrations of zinc finger peptides and zinc chelators. Taken together, our results provide the updated parameters that are applicable to any experiment conducted using inexpensive and commercially available PAR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Simultaneous measurement of thermal diffusivity and effective infrared absorption coefficient in IR semitransparent and semiconducting n-CdMgSe crystals using photothermal radiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawlak, M., E-mail: mpawlak@fizyka.umk.pl [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Grudziądzka 5/7, Toruń (Poland); Maliński, M. [Department of Electronics and Computer Science, Koszalin University of Technology, 2 Śniadeckich St., Koszalin 75-453 (Poland)

    2015-01-10

    Highlights: • The new method of determination of the effective infrared absorption coefficient is presented. • The method can be used for transparent samples for the excitation radiation. • The effect of aluminum foil on the PTR signal in a transmission configuration is discussed. - Abstract: In this paper we propose a new procedure of simultaneous estimation of the effective infrared optical absorption coefficient and the thermal diffusivity of solid state samples using the photothermal infrared radiometry method in the transmission configuration. The proposed procedure relies on the analysis of the frequency dependent signal obtained from the samples covered with thin aluminum foil. This method can be applied for both optically opaque and transparent samples. The proposed method is illustrated with the results of the thermal diffusivity and the effective IR absorption coefficient obtained for several Cd{sub 1−x}Mg{sub x}Se crystals.

  15. [Determination of partition coefficient of dissolved gases in transformer oil using phase ratio variation method and static headspace gas chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jinghong; Wang, Hailong; Liu, Wenmin; Zhou, Yansheng; Guan, Yafeng

    2004-05-01

    The partition coefficients of dissolved gases in transformer oil were determined using a phase ratio variation method and static headspace gas chromatography (GC). A pressure balancing and gas volume-metering device was connected to the vent of a sample loop on a six-port injection valve of the GC. The gas phase sample from the headspace vial of 25 mL was transferred to an 80 microL sample-loop through a fused silica capillary of 0.53 mm i.d., and then separated and determined quantitatively by GC. A 2 m x 1 mm i.d. GDX502 micro-packed column was used for the separation. Five different gas-liquid volume ratios in the headspace vials were measured at different equilibrium concentrations. The partition coefficients of hydrocarbon gases including methane, acetylene, ethylene, ethane and propane dissolved in transformer oil were determined by using linear regression analysis at 20 degrees C and 50 degrees C separately. The errors between the real values and regression values from experimental data were less than 4.14% except methane. Fundamental data for on-line measurement of dissolved gases in transformer oil are provided by GC.

  16. Evaluation of the normal-to-diseased apparent diffusion coefficient ratio as an indicator of prostate cancer aggressiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebovici, Andrei; Sfrangeu, Silviu A; Feier, Diana; Caraiani, Cosmin; Lucan, Ciprian; Suciu, Mihai; Elec, Florin; Iacob, Gheorghita; Buruian, Mircea

    2014-01-01

    We tested the feasibility of a simple method for assessment of prostate cancer (PCa) aggressiveness using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to calculate apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) ratios between prostate cancer and healthy prostatic tissue. The requirement for institutional review board approval was waived. A set of 20 standardized core transperineal saturation biopsy specimens served as the reference standard for placement of regions of interest on ADC maps in tumorous and normal prostatic tissue of 22 men with PCa (median Gleason score: 7; range, 6–9). A total of 128 positive sectors were included for evaluation. Two diagnostic ratios were computed between tumor ADCs and normal sector ADCs: the ADC peripheral ratio (the ratio between tumor ADC and normal peripheral zone tissue, ADC-PR), and the ADC central ratio (the ratio between tumor ADC and normal central zone tissue, ADC-CR). The performance of the two ratios in detecting high-risk tumor foci (Gleason 8 and 9) was assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Both ADC ratios presented significantly lower values in high-risk tumors (0.48 ± 0.13 for ADC-CR and 0.40 ± 0.09 for ADC-PR) compared with low-risk tumors (0.66 ± 0.17 for ADC-CR and 0.54 ± 0.09 for ADC-PR) (p < 0.001) and had better diagnostic performance (ADC-CR AUC = 0.77, sensitivity = 82.2%, specificity = 66.7% and ADC-PR AUC = 0.90, sensitivity = 93.7%, specificity = 80%) than stand-alone tumor ADCs (AUC of 0.75, sensitivity = 72.7%, specificity = 70.6%) for identifying high-risk lesions. The ADC ratio as an intrapatient-normalized diagnostic tool may be better in detecting high-grade lesions compared with analysis based on tumor ADCs alone, and may reduce the rate of biopsies

  17. Determination of ash content of coal by mass absorption coefficient measurements at two X-ray energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fookes, R.A.; Gravitis, V.L.; Watt, J.S.

    1977-01-01

    A method for determining the ash content of coal is proposed. It involves measurements proportional to mass absorption coefficients of coal at two X-ray energies. These measurements can be made using X-ray transmission or scatter techniques. Calculations based on transmission of narrow beams of X-rays have shown that ash can be determined to about 1wt%(1 sigma) in coal of widely varying ash content and composition. Experimentally, ash content was determined to 0.67wt% by transmission techniques and 1.0wt% by backscatter techniques in coal samples from the Bulli seam, NSW, Australia, having ash in the range 11-34wt%. For samples with a much wider range of coal composition (7-53wt% ash and 0-25wt% iron in the ash), ash content was determined by backscatter measurements to 1.62wt%. The method produced ash determinations at least as accurate as those produced by the established technique which compensates for variation in iron content of the ash by X-ray fluorescence analysis for iron. Compared with the established technique, it has the advantage of averaging analysis over much larger volumes of coal, but the disadvantage that much more precise measurements of X-ray intensities are required. (author)

  18. A method to determine the acoustic reflection and absorption coefficients of porous media by using modal dispersion in a waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisutova, Jevgenija; Horoshenkov, Kirill; Groby, Jean-Philippe; Brouard, Bruno

    2014-12-01

    The measurement of acoustic material characteristics using a standard impedance tube method is generally limited to the plane wave regime below the tube cut-on frequency. This implies that the size of the tube and, consequently, the size of the material specimen must remain smaller than a half of the wavelength. This paper presents a method that enables the extension of the frequency range beyond the plane wave regime by at least a factor of 3, so that the size of the material specimen can be much larger than the wavelength. The proposed method is based on measuring of the sound pressure at different axial locations and applying the spatial Fourier transform. A normal mode decomposition approach is used together with an optimization algorithm to minimize the discrepancy between the measured and predicted sound pressure spectra. This allows the frequency and angle dependent reflection and absorption coefficients of the material specimen to be calculated in an extended frequency range. The method has been tested successfully on samples of melamine foam and wood fiber. The measured data are in close agreement with the predictions by the equivalent fluid model for the acoustical properties of porous media.

  19. Anomalous phosphine sensitivity coefficients as probes for a possible variation of the proton-to-electron mass ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, A.; Yurchenko, S. N.; Špirko, V.

    2018-02-01

    A robust variational approach is used to investigate the sensitivity of the rotation-vibration spectrum of phosphine (PH3) to a possible cosmological variation of the proton-to-electron mass ratio, μ. Whilst the majority of computed sensitivity coefficients, T, involving the low-lying vibrational states acquire the expected values of T ≈ -1 and T ≈ -1/2 for rotational and ro-vibrational transitions, respectively, anomalous sensitivities are uncovered for the A1 - A2 splittings in the ν2/ν4, ν1/ν3 and 2ν _4^{ℓ=0}/2ν _4^{ℓ=2} manifolds of PH3. A pronounced Coriolis interaction between these states in conjunction with accidentally degenerate A1 and A2 energy levels produces a series of enhanced sensitivity coefficients. Phosphine is expected to occur in a number of different astrophysical environments and has potential for investigating a drifting constant. Furthermore, the displayed behaviour hints at a wider trend in molecules of C_{3v}(M) symmetry, thus demonstrating that the splittings induced by higher-order ro-vibrational interactions are well suited for probing μ in other symmetric top molecules in space, since these low-frequency transitions can be straightforwardly detected by radio telescopes.

  20. Effect of the hardener to epoxy monomer ratio on the water absorption behavior of the DGEBA/TETA epoxy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayrton Alef Castanheira Pereira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The water absorption behavior of the DGEBA/TETA epoxy system was evaluated as a function of the epoxy monomer to amine hardener ratio. Weight gain versus immersion time curves were obtained and the experimental points were fitted using Fickian and Non-Fickian diffusion models. The results obtained showed that for all epoxy monomer to hardener ratios analyzed water diffusion followed non-Fickian behavior. It was possible to correlate the water absorption behavior to the macromolecular structure developed when the epoxy/ hardener ratio was varied. All epoxy/hardener ratios present a two-phase macromolecular structure, composed of regions with high crosslink density and regions with lower crosslinking. Epoxy rich systems have a more open macromolecular structure with a lower fraction of the dense phase than the amine rich systems, which present a more compact two-phase structure.

  1. Intestinal absorption of radiocalcium. Measurement by the oral and intraveinous activity ratio and by the inverse convolution method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monnier, L.; Collet, H.; Suquet, P.; Mirouze, J.

    1975-01-01

    The intestinal absorption of calcium was measured by a double isotopic labelling method, the results being obtained by a mathematical deconvolution technique. This analytical method was compared with the simple measurement of the plasma radioactivity ratio for the two isotopes administered orally and intraveinously respectively. The study covered 29 determinations. It was possible to estimate the total fractional absorption of calcium (TFACa) by calculating the average of the 47 Ca/ 45 Ca quotients measured on the 3rd and 8th hour after simultaneous administration of 45 Ca intraveinously and 47 Ca by mouth. The advantages of this method are obvious: need for only two blood samplings, simplicity of calculations which nevertheless give TFACa values comparable to those obtained by deconvolution analysis. However the only information supplied by the quotients method is the total fractional absorption, whereas inverse convolution analysis provides several interesting parameters such as the maximum absorption and the mean transit time of radiocalcium through the intestinal wall [fr

  2. Determination of the particulate extinction-coefficient profile and the column-integrated lidar ratios using the backscatter-coefficient and optical-depth profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimir A Kovalev; Wei Min Hao; Cyle Wold

    2007-01-01

    A new method is considered that can be used for inverting data obtained from a combined elastic-inelastic lidar or a high spectral resolution lidar operating in a one-directional mode, or an elastic lidar operating in a multiangle mode. The particulate extinction coefficient is retrieved from the simultaneously measured profiles of the particulate backscatter...

  3. Mass energy-absorption coefficients and average atomic energy-absorption cross-sections for amino acids in the energy range 0.122-1.330 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    More, Chaitali V., E-mail: chaitalimore89@gmail.com; Lokhande, Rajkumar M.; Pawar, Pravina P., E-mail: pravinapawar4@gmail.com [Department of physics, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad 431004 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Mass attenuation coefficients of amino acids such as n-acetyl-l-tryptophan, n-acetyl-l-tyrosine and d-tryptophan were measured in the energy range 0.122-1.330 MeV. NaI (Tl) scintillation detection system was used to detect gamma rays with a resolution of 8.2% at 0.662 MeV. The measured attenuation coefficient values were then used to determine the mass energy-absorption coefficients (σ{sub a,en}) and average atomic energy-absorption cross sections (μ{sub en}/ρ) of the amino acids. Theoretical values were calculated based on XCOM data. Theoretical and experimental values are found to be in good agreement.

  4. Deriving effective atomic numbers from DECT based on a parameterization of the ratio of high and low linear attenuation coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Guillaume; Seco, Joao; Gaudreault, Mathieu; Verhaegen, Frank

    2013-10-07

    Dual energy computed tomography (DECT) can provide simultaneous estimation of relative electron density ρe and effective atomic number Zeff. The ability to obtain these quantities (ρe, Zeff) has been shown to benefit selected radiotherapy applications where tissue characterization is required. The conventional analysis method (spectral method) relies on knowledge of the CT scanner photon spectra which may be difficult to obtain accurately. Furthermore an approximate empirical attenuation correction of the photon spectrum through the patient is necessary. We present an alternative approach based on a parameterization of the measured ratio of low and high kVp linear attenuation coefficients for deriving Zeff which does not require the estimation of the CT scanner spectra. In a first approach, the tissue substitute method (TSM), the Rutherford parameterization of the linear attenuation coefficients was employed to derive a relation between Zeff and the ratio of the linear attenuation coefficients measured at the low and high kVp of the CT scanner. A phantom containing 16 tissue mimicking inserts was scanned with a dual source DECT scanner at 80 and 140 kVp. The data from the 16 inserts phantom was used to obtain model parameters for the relation between Zeff and [Formula: see text]. The accuracy of the method was evaluated with a second phantom containing 4 tissue mimicking inserts. The TSM was compared to a more complex approach, the reference tissue method (RTM), which requires the derivation of stoichiometric fit parameters. These were derived from the 16 inserts phantom scans and used to calculate CT numbers at 80 and 140 kVp for a set of tabulated reference human tissues. Model parameters for the parameterization of [Formula: see text] were estimated for this reference tissue dataset and compared to the results of the TSM. Residuals on Zeff for the reference tissue dataset for both TSM and RTM were compared to those obtained from the spectral method. The

  5. Comparing the effects of interparticle friction coefficient and intermediate stress ratio on critical-state DEM simulations using Delaunay triangulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Kevin J.; Huang, Xin; O'Sullivan, Catherine

    2017-06-01

    Strong force chains form when any granular material is subjected to load. A prior study used Delaunay triangulations to investigate the role of interparticle friction coefficient, μ, in stabilising the strong force chains [1]. In this follow-on paper, the effects of μ and the intermediate stress ratio, b, are compared. Numerical samples were sheared triaxially until critical state was attained. The contact networks and Delaunay triangulations of the particle centroids were both obtained at the end of each simulation. As μ is increased, the numbers of contacts in the contact networks decrease consistently. The numbers of edges, faces or tetrahedra in the Delaunay triangulations all increase with increasing μ up to 0.25 and become approximately constant thereafter. Changing b has no significant effect. The percentage of faces in the triangulation comprising three contacts shows a linearly-decreasing trend with increasing angle of shearing resistance. This is because only orthogonal loads are applied. Triangular structures require larger lateral supporting forces to maintain their stability than columnar structures when subjected to an axial load; hence, σ3' is expected to be larger relative to σ1' when triangular motifs are more prevalent. An increased proportion of triangular structures therefore leads to a lower ϕcv'.

  6. Dependence of image flickering of negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal on the flexoelectric coefficient ratio and the interdigitated electrode structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyojin; Kim, Hyungmin; Kim, Jongyoon; Lee, Ji-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally measured the splay (e s ) and the bend flexoelectric coefficients (e b ) of liquid crystal (LC) mixtures with negative dielectric anisotropy and investigated their effect on the image flicker of the LC mixtures driven with a low frequency electric field. Using the experimentally measured e s and e b , we simulated the transmittance (TR) response with the continuum model. First, we confirmed that the TR simulation results were approximated to the experimental data with only small variation. Second, we varied the simulation parameters of e s , e b , the separation (S), and the width (W) of the interdigitated electrodes and tried to find the optimum condition showing the least image flicker. Given W  =  3.0 μm and e b   =  5.7 pC m −1 , it was found that the image flicker could be minimized when the e s /e b value was about 2.4 and the S/W ratio was about 1.5. Because the e s /e b value of the rod-like LC material is generally less than 1, it is desirable to design an interdigitated electrode structure to minimize the image flicker effect. (paper)

  7. Water absorption lines, 931-961 nm - Selected intensities, N2-collision-broadening coefficients, self-broadening coefficients, and pressure shifts in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giver, L. P.; Gentry, B.; Schwemmer, G.; Wilkerson, T. D.

    1982-01-01

    Intensities were measured for 97 lines of H2O vapor between 932 and 961 nm. The lines were selected for their potential usefulness for remote laser measurements of H2O vapor in the earth's atmosphere. The spectra were obtained with several different H2O vapor abundances and N2 broadening gas pressures; the spectral resolution was 0.046/cm FWHM. Measured H2O line intensities range from 7 x 10 to the -25th to 7 x 10 to the -22nd/cm per (molecules/sq cm). H2O self-broadening coefficients were measured for 13 of these strongest lines; the mean value was 0.5/cm per atm. N2-collision-broadening coefficients were measured for 73 lines, and the average was 0.11 cm per atm HWHM. Pressure shifts in air were determined for a sample of six lines between 948 and 950 nm; these lines shift to lower frequency by an amount comparable to 0.1 of the collision-broadened widths measured in air or N2. The measured intensities of many lines of 300-000 band are much larger than expected from prior computations, in some cases by over an order of magnitude. Coriolis interactions with the stronger 201-000 band appear to be the primary cause of the enhancement of these line intensities.

  8. Absorption coefficient and refractive index changes of a quantum ring in the presence of spin-orbit couplings: Temperature and Zeeman effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, A.; Azargoshasb, T.; Niknam, E.

    2017-10-01

    Effects of applied magnetic field, temperature and dimensions on the optical absorption coefficients (AC) and refractive index (RI) changes of a GaAs quantum ring are investigated in the presence of both Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions (SOI). To this end, the finite difference method (FDM) is used in order to numerically calculate the energy eigenvalues and eigenstates of the system while the compact density matrix approach is hired to calculate the optical properties. It is shown that application of magnetic field, temperature as well as the geometrical size in the presence of spin-orbit interactions, alter the electronic structure and consequently influence the linear and third-order nonlinear optical absorption coefficients as well as the refractive index changes of the system. Results show an obvious blue shift in optical curves with enhancing external magnetic field and temperature while the increment of dimensions result in red shift.

  9. Determination of the carrier concentration in CdSe crystals from the effective infrared absorption coefficient measured by means of the photothermal infrared radiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawlak, M. [Nicolaus Copernicus University, Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics, Institute of Physics, Torun (Poland)

    2014-11-11

    In this paper, a non-contact method that allows to determine the carrier concentration in CdSe crystals is presented. The method relies on the measurement of the effective infrared absorption coefficient by means of the photothermal infrared radiometry (PTR). In order to obtain the effective infrared absorption coefficient and thermal diffusivity, the frequency characteristics of the PTR signal were analyzed in the frame of a one-dimensional heat transport model for infrared semitransparent crystals. The carrier concentrations were estimated using a theory introduced by Ruda and a recently proposed normalization procedure for the PTR signal. The deduced carrier concentrations of the investigated CdSe crystals are in reasonable agreement with those obtained using Hall measurements and infrared spectroscopy. The method presented in this paper can also be applied to other semiconductors with the carrier concentration in the range of 10{sup 14}-10{sup 17} cm{sup -3}. (orig.)

  10. Chemical and spectral behavior of nitric acid in aqueous sulfuric acid solutions: Absorption spectrum and molar absorption coefficient of nitronium ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershov, Boris G.; Panich, Nadezhda M.

    2018-01-01

    The chemical species formed from nitric acid in aqueous solutions of sulfuric acid (up to 18.0 mol L- 1) were studied by optical spectroscopy method. The concentration region of nitronium ion formation was identified and NO2+ ion absorption spectrum was measured (λmax ≤ 190 nm and ε190 = 1040 ± 50 mol- 1 L cm- 1).

  11. Coefficients of apparent absorption of the dietary nutrients from broiler feeds that include oil industry by-products (rapeseeds, grapes, buckthorn, flax and pumpkin meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Dumitra PANAITE

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A 42-day feeding trial was conducted on 120, day-old ROSS 308 chicks assigned to 4 (C; E1; E2; E3 groups. The broilers were housed in three-tier digestibility cages (5 broilers/cage which allowed the daily recording of the feed intake and excreta located in an experimental hall with controlled environmental conditions (27.07±2.750 C; humidity 64,80±9,57%; light regimen 23h. During the starter stage (1-10 days all chicks received a conventional compound feed (C. During the grower and finisher stages, compared to C formulation, the experimental diets different proportions, varying with the stage of development, of rapeseeds and grape meals (E1, buckthorn and flax meals (E2, pumpkin meal (lot E3. The balance study was conducted for 5 days, during weeks 4 and 6. During this period, average weights from each two cages (6 samples/group of feed consumed and excreta voided (dry matter basis were recorded and sampled for: dry matter, nitrogen, fat, fibre, ash and gross energy analysis. The chicks from E1 group had a lower (P≤0.05 coefficient of dietary nitrogen absorption than E2 chicks. The coefficients of apparent absorption of the dietary fat varied with the period of development. During the finishing stage, E3 chicks had a higher (P≤0.05 coefficient of fibre absorption than groups C, E1 and E2.

  12. Nonlinear absorption coefficient and optically detected electrophonon resonance in cylindrical GaAs/AlAs quantum wires with different confined phonon models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoa, Doan Quoc; Phuong, Le Thi Thu; Hoi, Bui Dinh

    2017-03-01

    A quantum kinetic equation for electrons interacting with confined phonons is used to investigate the nonlinear absorption of an intense electromagnetic wave by electrons in cylindrical GaAs/AlAs quantum wires. The analytic expression for absorption coefficient is calculated for three models of confined optical phonons: the dielectric continuum (DC), hydrodynamic continuum (HC), and Huang-Zhu (HZ) models. The absorption coefficient depends on the square of the electromagnetic wave amplitude. The electrophonon resonance and optically detected electrophonon resonance (ODEPR) are observed through the absorption spectrum. The full width at half maximum (the line-width) of the ODEPR peaks is obtained by a computational method. The line-width is found to increase with increasing temperature and decrease with increasing the quantum wire radius. In particular, numerical results show that the DC and HZ models lead to a similar behaviour of electron - confined phonon interaction whereas the HC model results in a quite different one, especially at small quantum wire radius. For large quantum wire radii, above mentioned phonon models have equivalent contributions to the ODEPR line-width.

  13. Mass attenuation and mass energy absorption coefficients for 10 keV to 10 MeV photons; Coefficients d'attenuation massique et d'absorption massique en energie pour les photons de 10 keV a 10 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joffre, H.; Pages, L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    In this report are given the elements allowing the definition of the values of mass attenuation coefficients and mass energy absorption coefficients for some elements and mixtures, necessary for the study of tissue equivalent materials, for photons in the energy range 10 keV to 10 MeV. After a short reminding of the definitions of the two coefficients, follows, in table form, a compilation of these coefficients, as a function of energy, for simple elements, for certain mineral compounds, organic compounds, gases and particularly of soft tissues. (author) [French] Dans ce rapport, sont donnes les elements permettant de determiner les valeurs des coefficients d'attenuation massique et d'absorption massique en energie pour certains elements et melanges necessaires a l'etude des materiaux equivalents aux tissus pour les photons dans le domaine d'energie allant de 10 keV a 10 MeV. Apres un bref rappel des definitions des deux coefficients, suit, sous forme de tableaux, un recueil de ces coefficients, en fonction de l'energie, pour les elements simples, certains composes mineraux, composes organiques, gaz, et, particulierement, pour les tissus mous. (auteur)

  14. Effect of water vapor on sound absorption in nitrogen at low frequency/pressure ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerwar, A. J.; Griffin, W. A.

    1981-01-01

    Sound absorption measurements were made in N2-H2O binary mixtures at 297 K over the frequency/pressure range f/P of 0.1-2500 Hz/atm to investigate the vibrational relaxation peak of N2 and its location on f/P axis as a function of humidity. At low humidities the best fit to a linear relationship between the f/P(max) and humidity yields an intercept of 0.013 Hz/atm and a slope of 20,000 Hz/atm-mole fraction. The reaction rate constants derived from this model are lower than those obtained from the extrapolation of previous high-temperature data.

  15. Determination of boron isotope ratios by high-resolution continuum source molecular absorption spectrometry using graphite furnace vaporizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Carlos; Florek, Stefan; Becker-Ross, Helmut; Huang, Mao-Dong; Heinrich, Hans-Joachim; Recknagel, Sebastian; Vogl, Jochen; Jakubowski, Norbert; Panne, Ulrich

    2017-10-01

    Boron isotope amount ratios n(10B)/n(11B) have been determined by monitoring the absorption spectrum of boron monohydride (BH) in a graphite furnace using high-resolution continuum source molecular absorption spectrometry (HR-CS-MAS). Bands (0 → 0) and (1 → 1) for the electronic transition X1Σ+ → A1Π were evaluated around wavelengths 433.1 nm and 437.1 nm respectively. Clean and free of memory effect molecular spectra of BH were recorded. In order to eliminate the memory effect of boron, a combination of 2% (v/v) hydrogen gas in argon and 1% trifluoromethane in argon, an acid solution of calcium chloride and mannitol as chemical modifiers was used. Partial least square regression (PLS) for analysis of samples and reference materials were applied. For this, a spectral library with different isotopes ratios for PLS regression was built. Results obtained around the 433.1 nm and 437.1 nm spectral regions are metrologically compatible with those reported by mass spectrometric methods. Moreover, for the evaluated region of 437 nm, an accuracy of 0.15‰ is obtained as the average deviation from the isotope reference materials. Expanded uncertainties with a coverage factor of k = 2 range between 0.15 and 0.44‰. This accuracy and precision are compatible with those obtained by mass spectrometry for boron isotope ratio measurements.

  16. Semi-Empirical Validation of the Cross-Band Relative Absorption Technique for the Measurement of Molecular Mixing Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliutau, Denis; Prasad, Narasimha S

    2013-01-01

    Studies were performed to carry out semi-empirical validation of a new measurement approach we propose for molecular mixing ratios determination. The approach is based on relative measurements in bands of O2 and other molecules and as such may be best described as cross band relative absorption (CoBRA). . The current validation studies rely upon well verified and established theoretical and experimental databases, satellite data assimilations and modeling codes such as HITRAN, line-by-line radiative transfer model (LBLRTM), and the modern-era retrospective analysis for research and applications (MERRA). The approach holds promise for atmospheric mixing ratio measurements of CO2 and a variety of other molecules currently under investigation for several future satellite lidar missions. One of the advantages of the method is a significant reduction of the temperature sensitivity uncertainties which is illustrated with application to the ASCENDS mission for the measurement of CO2 mixing ratios (XCO2). Additional advantages of the method include the possibility to closely match cross-band weighting function combinations which is harder to achieve using conventional differential absorption techniques and the potential for additional corrections for water vapor and other interferences without using the data from numerical weather prediction (NWP) models.

  17. High-resolution absorption coefficient and refractive index spectra of common pollutant gases at millimeter and THz wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almoayed, Nawaf N.; Piyade, Baris C.; Afsar, Mohammed N.

    2007-09-01

    Dispersive Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DFTS) provides us with a very precise method of measuring the absorption and refractive index spectra of common pollutant gases. This paper presents the rotational transition lines of Sulfur Dioxide and Carbon Monoxide gas as a function of varying pressure using DFTS for the very first time as a combined study. The relationship between the variation of the pressure and the change in the absorption spectrum is examined and discussed in detail. Sulfur Dioxide and Carbon Monoxide gases are highly toxic, pollutant gases that are major contributors to global pollution and can potentially be used as a chemical threat. The relationship between pressure and rotational transmission lines is discussed in detail in the frequency range of 0.3 THz - 0.9 THz. These findings are crucial in characterizing these gases as well as identifying them in a blind test.

  18. Determination of the X-ray mass absorption coefficient by measurement of the intensity of AgKα Compton scattered radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzini, M.; Leoni, L.; Saitta, M.

    1976-01-01

    By utilizing a reflection geometry, an accurate mass absorption coefficient of a sample can be determined by measuring the Ag Kα Compton intensity. Intensities of Ag Kα Compton scattered radiation have been collected by using either the usual reflection geometry of a Philips PW 1450 automatic x-ray spectrometer or a more refined reflection geometry, achieved on a Philips PW 1540/10A manual x-ray spectrometer. The experimental results have shown that the relationship between the Ag Kα Compton intensity and the mass absorption is a logarithmic function. The experimental results are not in agreement with those reported in literature, but a theoretical explanation to account for this fact has not been achieved as yet. (author)

  19. Seasonal variation in chromophoric dissolved organic matter and relationships among fluorescent components, absorption coefficients and dissolved organic carbon in the Bohai Sea, the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wen-Zhuo; Zhang, Hong-Hai; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Gui-Peng

    2018-04-01

    The absorption coefficient and fluorescent components of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the Bohai Sea (BS), Yellow Sea (YS), and East China Sea (ECS) in spring and autumn were analyzed in this study. Excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) combined with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) identified three components, namely, humic-like C1, tyrosine-like C2 and tryptophan-like C3. The seasonal variations in the vertical patterns of the CDOM absorption coefficient (aCDOM(355)) and fluorescent components were influenced by the seasonal water mass except for the terrestrial input. The relationship between aCDOM(355) and dissolved organic matter (DOC) was attributed to their own mixing behavior. The correlation of the fluorescent components with DOC was disturbed by other non-conservative processes during the export of CDOM to the open ocean. The different chemical compositions and origins of DOC and CDOM led to variability in carbon-specific CDOM absorption (a*CDOM(355)) and fluorescent component ratios (ICn/IC1). The relationship between a*CDOM(355) and aCDOM(355) demonstrated that dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the BS, but not in the ECS, highly contributed non-absorbing DOC to the total DOC concentration. The photodegradation of dominant terrestrially derived CDOM in the ECS contributed to the positive relationship between a*CDOM(355) and ICn/IC1. By contrast, the abundant autochthonous CDOM in the YS was negatively correlated with ICn/IC1 in autumn. Our established box models showed that water exchange is a potentially important source of the aromatic components in the BS, YS, and ECS. Hence, the seasonal variations in water exchange might contribute to the variability of CDOM chemical composition in the BS, YS, and ECS, and significantly influence the structure and function of their ecosystems.

  20. Lead concentrations and isotope ratios in street dust determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nageotte, S M; Day, J P

    1998-01-01

    A major source of environmental lead, particularly in urban areas, has been from the combustion of leaded petrol. Street dust has previously been used to assess urban lead contamination, and the dust itself can also be a potential source of lead ingestion, particularly to children. The progressive reduction of lead in petrol, in recent years, would be expected to have been reflected in a reduction of lead in urban dust. We have tested this hypothesis by repeating an earlier survey of Manchester street dust and carrying out a comparable survey in Paris. Samples were collected from streets and parks, lead was extracted by digestion with concentrated nitric acid and determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Lead isotope ratios were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results for Manchester show that lead concentrations have fallen by about 40% (street dust averages, 941 micrograms g-1 (ppm) in 1975 down to 569 ppm in 1997). In Paris, the lead levels in street dust are much higher and significant differences were observed between types of street (not seen in Manchester). Additionally, lead levels in parks were much lower than in Manchester. Samples collected under the Eiffel Tower had very high concentrations and lead isotope ratios showed that this was unlikely to be fallout from motor vehicles but could be due to the paint used on the tower. Isotope ratios measurements also revealed that lead additives used in France and the UK come from different sources.

  1. Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Nathan A. S.; Pownceby, Mark I.; Madsen, Ian C.; Studer, Andrew J.; Manuel, James R.; Kimpton, Justin A.

    2014-12-01

    Effects of basicity, B (CaO:SiO2 ratio) on the thermal range, concentration, and formation mechanisms of silico-ferrite of calcium and aluminum (SFCA) and SFCA-I iron ore sinter bonding phases have been investigated using an in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction-based methodology with subsequent Rietveld refinement-based quantitative phase analysis. SFCA and SFCA-I phases are the key bonding materials in iron ore sinter, and improved understanding of the effects of processing parameters such as basicity on their formation and decomposition may assist in improving efficiency of industrial iron ore sintering operations. Increasing basicity significantly increased the thermal range of SFCA-I, from 1363 K to 1533 K (1090 °C to 1260 °C) for a mixture with B = 2.48, to ~1339 K to 1535 K (1066 °C to 1262 °C) for a mixture with B = 3.96, and to ~1323 K to 1593 K (1050 °C to 1320 °C) at B = 4.94. Increasing basicity also increased the amount of SFCA-I formed, from 18 wt pct for the mixture with B = 2.48 to 25 wt pct for the B = 4.94 mixture. Higher basicity of the starting sinter mixture will, therefore, increase the amount of SFCA-I, considered to be more desirable of the two phases. Basicity did not appear to significantly influence the formation mechanism of SFCA-I. It did, however, affect the formation mechanism of SFCA, with the decomposition of SFCA-I coinciding with the formation of a significant amount of additional SFCA in the B = 2.48 and 3.96 mixtures but only a minor amount in the highest basicity mixture. In situ neutron diffraction enabled characterization of the behavior of magnetite after melting of SFCA produced a magnetite plus melt phase assemblage.

  2. Characterization of thin poly(dimethylsiloxane)-based tissue-simulating phantoms with tunable reduced scattering and absorption coefficients at visible and near-infrared wavelengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greening, Gage J; Istfan, Raeef; Higgins, Laura M; Balachandran, Kartik; Roblyer, Darren; Pierce, Mark C; Muldoon, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    Optical phantoms are used in the development of various imaging systems. For certain applications, the development of thin phantoms that simulate the physical size and optical properties of tissue is important. Here, we demonstrate a method for producing thin phantom layers with tunable optical properties using poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) as a substrate material. The thickness of each layer (between 115 and 880 μm) was controlled using a spin coater. The reduced scattering and absorption coefficients were controlled using titanium dioxide and alcohol-soluble nigrosin, respectively. These optical coefficients were quantified at six discrete wavelengths (591, 631, 659, 691, 731, and 851 nm) at varying concentrations of titanium dioxide and nigrosin using spatial frequency domain imaging. From the presented data, we provide lookup tables to determine the appropriate concentrations of scattering and absorbing agents to be used in the design of PDMS-based phantoms with specific optical coefficients. In addition, heterogeneous phantoms mimicking the layered features of certain tissue types may be fabricated from multiple stacked layers, each with custom optical properties. These thin, tunable PDMS optical phantoms can simulate many tissue types and have broad imaging calibration applications in endoscopy, diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging, and optical coherence tomography, etc.

  3. Prediction of transmission, reflection and absorption coefficients of periodic structures using a hybrid Wave Based - Finite Element unit cell method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckers, Elke; Jonckheere, Stijn; Van Belle, Lucas; Claeys, Claus; Desmet, Wim

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a hybrid Wave Based Method - Finite Element unit cell method to predict the absorption, reflection and transmission properties of arbitrary, two-dimensional periodic structures. The planar periodic structure, represented by its unit cell combined with Bloch-Floquet periodicity boundary conditions, is modelled within the Finite Element Method, allowing to represent complex geometries and to include any type of physics. The planar periodic structure is coupled to semi-infinite acoustic domains above and/or below, in which the dynamic pressure field is modelled with the Wave Based Method, applying a wave function set that fulfills the Helmholtz equation and satisfies the Sommerfeld radiation condition and the Bloch-Floquet periodicity conditions inherently. The dynamic fields described within both frameworks are coupled using a direct coupling strategy, accounting for the mutual dynamic interactions via a weighted residual formulation. The method explicitly accounts for the interaction between the unit cell and the surrounding acoustic domain, also accounting for higher order periodic waves. The convergence of the method is analysed and its applicability is shown for a variety of problems, proving it to be a useful tool combining the strengths of two methods.

  4. Evaluation of distribution coefficients and concentration ratios of 90Sr and 137Cs in the Techa River and the Miass River

    OpenAIRE

    Shishkina, Elena A.; Pryakhin, Evgeny A.; Popova, Irina Ya.; Osipov, Denis I.; Tikhova, Yu.; Andreyev, S.S.; Shaposhnikova, I.A.; Egoreichenkov, E.A.; Styazhkina, E.V.; Deryabina, Larisa V.; Tryapitsina, Galina A.; Melnikov, Viktor S.; Rudolfsen, Geir; Teien, Hans-Christian; Sneve, Malgorzata Karpov

    2016-01-01

    Source:http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0265931X16300959 Empirical data on the behavior of radionuclides in aquatic ecosystems are needed for radioecological modeling, which is commonly used for predicting transfer of radionuclides, estimating doses, and assessing possible adverse effects on species and communities. Preliminary studies of radioecological parameters including distribution coefficients and concentration ratios, for 90Sr and 137Cs were not in full agreement w...

  5. Power, efficiency, ecological function and ecological coefficient of performance of an irreversible Dual-Miller cycle (DMC) with nonlinear variable specific heat ratio of working fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhixiang; Chen, Lingen; Ge, Yanlin; Sun, Fengrui

    2017-05-01

    Finite time thermodynamic (FTT) theory is applied to perform performance analysis for an air-standard irreversible Dual-Miller cycle (DMC) based on the power output (P), thermal efficiency (η, ecological function (E) and ecological coefficient of performance (ECOP) criteria by considering nonlinear variable specific heat ratio, piston friction loss, heat transfer loss and other internal irreversible losses. Relationships between different performance characteristics are obtained via numerical calculations. Effects of pressure ratio and stroke length on each criterion are analyzed, and performance characteristics with different optimization objective are compared. The results show that pressure ratio has little influence on performance characteristics, but stroke length has great influence on performance characteristics. Moreover P, η, E and ECOP decrease with increasing stroke length, but when stroke length increases to a certain value, E is less than 0 whatever value of compression ratio takes. Choosing the E and ECOP as optimization objectives is more significant by comparing with other performance indexes.

  6. Geometric approach to the Miesowicz coefficients at the region of the crystalline-nematic transition and a universal relation for their ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, M.; Domiciano, S. M.

    2002-12-01

    In this work the ratios between the Miesowicz coefficients of rigid calamitic nematic liquid crystals will be studied. It will be shown that the microscopic theory that describes these coefficients, the kinetic theory [M. Doi and S. F. Edwards, The Theory of Polymer Dynamics (Oxford Press, New York, 1986)], suggests that some ratios between the Miesowicz coefficients would have a universal character, that does not depend on the nematic material being examined. A set of experimental data has been collected from the liquid crystal literature and, once these data are rescaled in a common temperature scale, they point to the existence of such a universality. Nevertheless, only in the neighborhoods of the nematic-isotropic transition, do the theoretical calculations of the kinetic theory and the experimental data predict the same profile for this universality; when the region of the crystalline-nematic transition is approached theory and experiment present severe discrepancies. The reason for this disagreement is studied and it is proposed that it results from the fact that the kinetic theory does not take into account the packing properties of the nematic medium. A different approach to the calculation of these ratios is proposed and it is shown that it describes the experimental data for all temperatures.

  7. Absorption dynamics of organic chemical transport across trout gills as related to octanol-water partition coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKim, J.; Schmieder, P.; Veith, G.

    1985-01-01

    An in vivo fish preparation was used that allowed a direct measure of the transport rates of 14 different organic chemicals across the gills of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). The chemicals, all C14 labeled, were selected from five classes, encompassing a range of octanol-water partition coefficient (log P) values, from 0.23 (ethyl formate) to 7.5 (mirex). The uptake efficiency (extraction efficiency) of each chemical was determined by monitoring the inspired and expired water of trout exposed to each chemical over an exposure period of 1 to 6 hr. The mean gill extraction efficiency for all chemicals tested varied from a low of 7% to a high of 60%, extracted in a single pall of the chemical across the gills. The extraction efficiency of chemicals with log P or 1 or less were low and showed no relationship to log P. These low extraction efficiencies seen at log P of 1 and below with molecular weights below 100 were indicative of aqueous pore transport. The mean extraction efficiency for chemicals with log P values of 1 to 3 seemed to vary directly with log P, to a maximum of slightly greater than 60%, suggesting that uptake was controlled by the lipid membrane. The mean extraction efficiency for chemicals with log P of 3 to 6 was independent of log P and remained at 60%, which suggested that gill uptake was controlled by aqueous diffusion rates rather than gill membrane permeability. The mean extraction efficiency with mirex (log P . 7.5) decreased to 20%

  8. Grinding temperature and energy ratio coefficient in MQL grinding of high-temperature nickel-base alloy by using different vegetable oils as base oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Benkai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable oil can be used as a base oil in minimal quantity of lubrication (MQL. This study compared the performances of MQL grinding by using castor oil, soybean oil, rapeseed oil, corn oil, sunflower oil, peanut oil, and palm oil as base oils. A K-P36 numerical-control precision surface grinder was used to perform plain grinding on a workpiece material with a high-temperature nickel base alloy. A YDM–III 99 three-dimensional dynamometer was used to measure grinding force, and a clip-type thermocouple was used to determine grinding temperature. The grinding force, grinding temperature, and energy ratio coefficient of MQL grinding were compared among the seven vegetable oil types. Results revealed that (1 castor oil-based MQL grinding yields the lowest grinding force but exhibits the highest grinding temperature and energy ratio coefficient; (2 palm oil-based MQL grinding generates the second lowest grinding force but shows the lowest grinding temperature and energy ratio coefficient; (3 MQL grinding based on the five other vegetable oils produces similar grinding forces, grinding temperatures, and energy ratio coefficients, with values ranging between those of castor oil and palm oil; (4 viscosity significantly influences grinding force and grinding temperature to a greater extent than fatty acid varieties and contents in vegetable oils; (5 although more viscous vegetable oil exhibits greater lubrication and significantly lower grinding force than less viscous vegetable oil, high viscosity reduces the heat exchange capability of vegetable oil and thus yields a high grinding temperature; (6 saturated fatty acid is a more efficient lubricant than unsaturated fatty acid; and (7 a short carbon chain transfers heat more effectively than a long carbon chain. Palm oil is the optimum base oil of MQL grinding, and this base oil yields 26.98 N tangential grinding force, 87.10 N normal grinding force, 119.6 °C grinding temperature, and 42.7% energy

  9. Nonlinear absorption coefficient and relative refraction index change for an asymmetrical double δ-doped quantum well in GaAs with a Schottky barrier potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas-Briseño, J.G.; Martínez-Orozco, J.C.; Rodríguez-Vargas, I. [Unidad Académica de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Calzada Solidaridad esquina con Paseo la Bufa S/N, C.P. 98060, Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, CP 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellín (Colombia); Duque, C.A., E-mail: cduque@fisica.udea.edu.co [Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellín (Colombia)

    2013-09-01

    In this work we are reporting the energy level spectrum for a quantum system consisting of an n-type double δ-doped quantum well with a Schottky barrier potential in a Gallium Arsenide matrix. The calculated states are taken as the basis for the evaluation of the linear and third-order nonlinear contributions to the optical absorption coefficient and to the relative refractive index change, making particular use of the asymmetry of the potential profile. These optical properties are then reported as a function of the Schottky barrier height (SBH) and the separation distance between the δ-doped quantum wells. Also, the effects of the application of hydrostatic pressure are studied. The results show that the amplitudes of the resonant peaks are of the same order of magnitude of those obtained in the case of single δ-doped field effect transistors; but tailoring the asymmetry of the confining potential profile allows the control the resonant peak positions.

  10. Calculation procedure to determine average mass transfer coefficients in packed columns from experimental data for ammonia-water absorption refrigeration systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sieres, Jaime; Fernandez-Seara, Jose [University of Vigo, Area de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Vigo (Spain)

    2008-08-15

    The ammonia purification process is critical in ammonia-water absorption refrigeration systems. In this paper, a detailed and a simplified analytical model are presented to characterize the performance of the ammonia rectification process in packed columns. The detailed model is based on mass and energy balances and simultaneous heat and mass transfer equations. The simplified model is derived and compared with the detailed model. The range of applicability of the simplified model is determined. A calculation procedure based on the simplified model is developed to determine the volumetric mass transfer coefficients in the vapour phase from experimental data. Finally, the proposed model and other simple calculation methods found in the general literature are compared. (orig.)

  11. UV/VIS SPECTROMETER DETERMINATION OF CAFFEINE IN GREEN COFFEE BEANS FROM HARARGHE, ETHIOPIA, USING BEER-LAMBERT’S LAW AND INTEGRATED ABSORPTION COEFFICIENT TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EPHREM G. DEMISSIE

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of fifteen samples of green coffee (Coffea arabica L. beans from the major producing region of Hararghe Ethiopia were studied using UV-Vis spectrometer measurement caffeine quantitative analysis from coffee beans. The number density of caffeine in green coffee beans has been reported using Beer-Lambert’s law and integrating absorption coefficient technique. Our results obtained using integrated absorption and Beer-Lambert’s law has a good agreement and we observed a maximum difference of 10.4 %. Based on their low caffeine concentrations among the samples collected were found in Jarso coffee. Coffee beans from the Harar Aboker were characterized by higher concentrations of caffeine. The determined concentration for caffeine in coffee beans (% w/w ranged 0.601 % to 0.903 %. The concentrations of the caffeine varied significantly, depending on the geographical origin of the beans. The concentrations of caffeine in coffee collected from in Hararghe region were noticeably lower than their counterpart (1.0 - 1.2 % grows in the other parts of Ethiopia.

  12. Evaluation of distribution coefficients and concentration ratios of (90)Sr and (137)Cs in the Techa River and the Miass River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkina, E A; Pryakhin, E A; Popova, I Ya; Osipov, D I; Tikhova, Yu; Andreyev, S S; Shaposhnikova, I A; Egoreichenkov, E A; Styazhkina, E V; Deryabina, L V; Tryapitsina, G A; Melnikov, V; Rudolfsen, G; Teien, H-C; Sneve, M K; Akleyev, A V

    2016-07-01

    Empirical data on the behavior of radionuclides in aquatic ecosystems are needed for radioecological modeling, which is commonly used for predicting transfer of radionuclides, estimating doses, and assessing possible adverse effects on species and communities. Preliminary studies of radioecological parameters including distribution coefficients and concentration ratios, for (90)Sr and (137)Cs were not in full agreement with the default values used in the ERICA Tool and the RESRAD BIOTA codes. The unique radiation situation in the Techa River, which was contaminated by long-lived radionuclides ((90)Sr and (137)Cs) in the middle of the last century allows improved knowledge about these parameters for river systems. Therefore, the study was focused on the evaluation of radioecological parameters (distribution coefficients and concentration ratios for (90)Sr and (137)Cs) for the Techa River and the Miass River, which is assumed as a comparison waterbody. To achieve the aim the current contamination of biotic and abiotic components of the river ecosystems was studied; distribution coefficients for (90)Sr and (137)Cs were calculated; concentration ratios of (90)Sr and (137)Cs for three fish species (roach, perch and pike), gastropods and filamentous algae were evaluated. Study results were then compared with default values available for use in the well-known computer codes ERICA Tool and RESRAD BIOTA (when site-specific data are not available). We show that the concentration ratios of (137)Cs in whole fish bodies depend on the predominant type of nutrition (carnivores and phytophagous). The results presented here are useful in the context of improving of tools for assessing concentrations of radionuclides in biota, which could rely on a wider range of ecosystem information compared with the process limited the current versions of ERICA and RESRAD codes. Further, the concentration ratios of (90)Sr are species-specific and strongly dependent on Ca(2+) concentration in

  13. Converting Sabine absorption coefficients to random incidence absorption coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2013-01-01

    are suggested: An optimization method for the surface impedances for locally reacting absorbers, the flow resistivity for extendedly reacting absorbers, and the flow resistance for fabrics. With four porous type absorbers, the conversion methods are validated. For absorbers backed by a rigid wall, the surface...... impedance optimization produces the best results, while the flow resistivity optimization also yields reasonable results. The flow resistivity and flow resistance optimization for extendedly reacting absorbers are also found to be successful. However, the theoretical conversion factors based on Miki's model...

  14. Imaging properties of high aspect ratio absorption gratings for use in preclinical x-ray grating interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimborn, Barbara; Meyer, Pascal; Kunka, Danays; Zuber, Marcus; Albrecht, Frederic; Kreuer, Sascha; Volk, Thomas; Baumbach, Tilo; Koenig, Thomas

    2016-01-21

    X-ray grating interferometry is one among various methods that allow extracting the so-called phase and visibility contrasts in addition to the well-known transmission images. Crucial to achieving a high image quality are the absorption gratings employed. Here, we present an in-depth analysis of how the grating type and lamella heights influence the final images. Benchmarking gratings of two different designs, we show that a frequently used proxy for image quality, a grating's so-called visibility, is insufficient to predict contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs). Presenting scans from an excised rat lung, we demonstrate that the CNRs obtained for transmission and visibility images anti-correlate. This is explained by the stronger attenuation implied by gratings that are engineered to provide high visibilities by means of an increased lamella height. We show that even the visibility contrast can suffer from this effect when the associated reduced photon flux on the detector is not outweighed by a corresponding gain in visibility. Resulting in an inevitable trade-off between the quality of the two contrasts, the question of how an optimal grating should be designed can hence only be answered in terms of Pareto optimality.

  15. Aerosol absorption coefficient and Equivalent Black Carbon by parallel operation of AE31 and AE33 aethalometers at the Zeppelin station, Ny Ålesund, Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleftheriadis, Konstantinos; Kalogridis, Athina-Cerise; Vratolis, Sterios; Fiebig, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Light absorbing carbon in atmospheric aerosol plays a critical role in radiative forcing and climate change. Despite the long term measurements across the Arctic, comparing data obtained by a variety of methods across stations requires caution. A method for extracting the aerosol absorption coefficient from data obtained over the decades by filter based instrument is still under development. An IASOA Aerosol working group has been initiated to address this and other cross-site aerosol comparison opportunities. Continuous ambient measurements of EBC/light attenuation by means of a Magee Sci. AE-31 aethalometer operating at the Zeppelinfjellet station (474 m asl; 78°54'N, 11°53'E), Ny Ålesund, Svalbard, have been available since 2001 (Eleftheriadis et al, 2009), while a new aethalometer model (AE33, Drinovec et al, 2014) has been installed to operate in parallel from the same inlet since June 2015. Measurements are recorded by a Labview routine collecting all available parameters reported by the two instrument via RS232 protocol. Data are reported at 1 and 10 minute intervals as averages for EBC (μg m-3) and aerosol absorption coefficients (Mm-1) by means of routine designed to report Near Real Time NRT data at the EBAS WDCA database (ebas.nilu.no) Results for the first 6 month period are reported here in an attempt to evaluate comparative performance of the two instruments in terms of their response with respect to the variable aerosol load of light absorbing carbon during the warm and cold seasons found in the high arctic. The application of available conversion schemes for obtaining the absorption coefficient by the two instruments is found to demonstrate a marked difference in their output. During clean periods of low aerosol load (EBC < 30 ng m-3), the two instruments display a better agreement with regression slope for the 880 nm signal between the two at ~ 0.9 compared to a slope at ~ 0.6 during the period of higher absorbing carbon loads (400< EBC<30 ng m

  16. Effects of organometallic chelates and inulin in diets for laying hens on Mn and Fe absorption coefficients and their content in egg and tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornescu Gabriela Maria

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of organic sources of manganese (Mn and iron (Fe and inulin in diets for laying hens on absorption of these minerals and their deposition in egg and tissue. The study was conducted on 90 Lohmann Brown laying hens in the period from 46-52 weeks of age, assigned to 3 groups with 30 hens/group and 3 hens/cage. The hens from the control group (C received a diet based on corn, rice bran and soybean meal with 16% of crude protein, as well as 60 mg Fe/kg and 71.9 mg Mn/kg of diet in form of inorganic salts. The formulation of the experimental diets (E1 and E2 differed from C group diet by the replacement of inorganic Fe and Mn salts by organometallic chelates of these elements, at a level of 25% lower than in the premix for group C. As source of inulin, group E1 diet also included 0.5% of dry Jerusalem artichoke, while group E2 diet included 0.5% of a product based on chicory root extract. At the end of the experiment, 6 hens from each group were slaughtered and blood serum and liver samples were collected and assayed for concentration of Fe and Mn. In the final week of the experiment, 18 eggs/group were collected for determination of Fe and Mn concentration in egg yolk. Concentration of measured blood serum parameters (haemoglobin, haematocrit, Fe and Mn in experimental (E groups were lower than in group C, but no significant differences (P>0.05 were registered. Absorption coefficients of Mn had higher values in E groups than in group C, with significant increase (P0.05 between groups were observed for Mn and Fe concentration in egg yolk.

  17. Equivalent Black Carbon measurements and spectral analysis of absorption coefficient during a biomass burning episode in the city of Bogotá, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirama, M.; Morales, R.

    2016-12-01

    Light-absorbing carbonaceous aerosol is recognized as a significant short lived climate pollutant that can contribute to direct and indirect radiative forcing. In urban environments, black carbon is an important contributor to the deterioration of local air quality. In this study, we report measurements of equivalent Black Carbon performed during the months of January, February, and March 2016 in the city of Bogotá, Colombia. During this period, a persistent condition of atmospheric stability lead to high concentrations of particulate matter throughout the city. During the month of February, the city was further impacted by a series of small-scale forest fires that took place on hills neighboring the city center. Equivalent Black Carbon (eBC) concentrations were monitored before, during, and after a mayor forest fire episode with a 7-wavelength Aethalometer. The monitoring instruments were located at a traffic impacted site, 18.3 km from the forest fire. To evaluate the contribution of biomass burning to the light-absorbing aerosol particle concentration, spectral analysis of the absorption coefficient of the sampled aerosol particles was performed. When the biomass burning plume directly impacted the monitoring station during the night of February 4, eBC concentrations of up to 40 µg/m3 were observed at nighttime. This concentration was significantly higher than average nighttime concentrations of eBC, observed to be 4 µg/m3 at the site. However, during the period most intensely affected by the biomass burning plume, the angstrom exponent computed between the 450nm and the 970 nm channel, was found to be close to 1. Angstrom exponent close to 1 is an indication that the contribution from traffic generated black carbon is dominant compared to the contribution of biomass burning. The data set collected during this period suggests that despite the significant contribution of the fresh biomass burning plume to the particulate matter concentration in the city, the

  18. Ultrasonic absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    The paper reviews studies of ultrasonic absorption in liquid alkali metals. The experimental methods to measure the absorption coefficients are briefly described. Experimental results reported for the liquid metals: sodium, potassium, rubidium and caesium, at medium temperatures, are presented, as well as data for liquid alloys. Absorption losses due to the presence of an external magnetic field, and the effects of viscosity on the absorption in metals, are both discussed. (U.K.)

  19. Intersubband optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes in a graded quantum well under intense laser field: Effects of hydrostatic pressure, temperature and electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ungan, F.; Restrepo, R.L.; Mora-Ramos, M.E.; Morales, A.L.; Duque, C.A.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of hydrostatic pressure, temperature, and electric field on the optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes associated with intersubband transition in a typical GaAs/Ga 0.7 Al 0.3 As graded quantum well under intense laser field have been investigated theoretically. The electron energy eigenvalues and the corresponding eigenfunctions of the graded quantum well are calculated within the effective mass approximation and envelope wave function approach. The analytical expressions of the optical properties are obtained using the compact density-matrix approach and the iterative method. The numerical results show that the linear and nonlinear optical properties depend strongly on the intense laser field and electric field but weakly on the hydrostatic pressure and temperature. Additionally, it has been found that the electronic and optical properties in a GaAs/Ga 0.7 Al 0.3 As graded quantum well under the intense laser field can be tuned by changing these external inputs. Thus, these results give a new degree of freedom in the devices applications

  20. Accurate prediction of H3O+ and D3O+ sensitivity coefficients to probe a variable proton-to-electron mass ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, A.; Yurchenko, S. N.; Polyansky, O. L.; Ovsyannikov, R. I.; Thiel, W.; Špirko, V.

    2015-12-01

    The mass sensitivity of the vibration-rotation-inversion transitions of H316O+, H318O+, and D316O+ is investigated variationally using the nuclear motion program TROVE (Yurchenko, Thiel & Jensen). The calculations utilize new high-level ab initio potential energy and dipole moment surfaces. Along with the mass dependence, frequency data and Einstein A coefficients are computed for all transitions probed. Particular attention is paid to the Δ|k| = 3 and Δ|k - l| = 3 transitions comprising the accidentally coinciding |J, K = 0, v2 = 0+> and |J, K = 3, v2 = 0-> rotation-inversion energy levels. The newly computed probes exhibit sensitivities comparable to their ammonia and methanol counterparts, thus demonstrating their potential for testing the cosmological stability of the proton-to-electron mass ratio. The theoretical TROVE results are in close agreement with sensitivities obtained using the non-rigid and rigid inverter approximate models, confirming that the ab initio theory used in the present study is adequate.

  1. Spatial decoupling of light absorption and catalytic activity of Ni-Mo-loaded high-aspect-ratio silicon microwire photocathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijselaar, Wouter; Westerik, Pieter; Veerbeek, Janneke; Tiggelaar, Roald M.; Berenschot, Erwin; Tas, Niels R.; Gardeniers, Han; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2018-01-01

    A solar-driven photoelectrochemical cell provides a promising approach to enable the large-scale conversion and storage of solar energy, but requires the use of Earth-abundant materials. Earth-abundant catalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction, for example nickel-molybdenum (Ni-Mo), are generally opaque and require high mass loading to obtain high catalytic activity, which in turn leads to parasitic light absorption for the underlying photoabsorber (for example silicon), thus limiting production of hydrogen. Here, we show the fabrication of a highly efficient photocathode by spatially and functionally decoupling light absorption and catalytic activity. Varying the fraction of catalyst coverage over the microwires, and the pitch between the microwires, makes it possible to deconvolute the contributions of catalytic activity and light absorption to the overall device performance. This approach provided a silicon microwire photocathode that exhibited a near-ideal short-circuit photocurrent density of 35.5 mA cm-2, a photovoltage of 495 mV and a fill factor of 62% under AM 1.5G illumination, resulting in an ideal regenerative cell efficiency of 10.8%.

  2. Comment on "A theoretical framework for quantitatively characterizing sound field diffusion based on scattering coefficient and absorption coefficient of walls" [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 128, 1140-1148 (2010)] (L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoto, Akira

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between the acoustic scattering characteristics of materials and the degree of diffusion in enclosed acoustic spaces has recently attracted considerable research attention. Hanyu [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 128(3), 1140-1148 (2010)] introduced a theoretical framework, in which the diffusion time in an enclosure is expressed as a function of a material's average scattering coefficient. In this letter, a modification of this theory is proposed. The decay process of the sound energy through scattering is divided into discrete sub-processes, specifically, a purely scattering process, and alternating scattering and specular reflections. The behavior of each process is examined for different scattering coefficients.

  3. Solid/liquid partition coefficients (Kd) and plant/soil concentration ratios (CR) for selected soils, tills and sediments at Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, Steve; Sohlenius, Gustav; Omberg, Lars-Gunnar; Borgiel, Mikael; Grolander, Sara; Norden, Sara

    2011-11-01

    Solid/liquid partition coefficients (K d ) are used to indicate the relative mobility of radionuclides and elements of concern from nuclear fuel waste, as well as from other sources. To indicate the uptake of radionuclides in biota concentration ratios (CR) between soil and biota are used. This report summarized K d data for regolith and marine sediments based on concentrations of 69 indigenous stable elements measured from samples collected at the Forsmark site and CR data concerning cereals growing on these soils. The samples included 50 regolith samples from agricultural land and wetlands, 8 samples of till collected at different depths, and two marine sediment samples. In addition, cereal grains, stems and roots were collected from 4 sites for calculation of CRs. The regolith samples represented the major 5 deposits, which can be used as arable land, at the site (clayey till, glacial clay, clay gyttja and peat (cultivated and undisturbed)). K d values were generally lower for peat compared to clay soils. There were also clear differences in K d resulting from differences in soil chemistry within each regolith type. Soil pH was the most important factor, and K d values for many elements were lower in acidic clay soils compared to basic clay soils. Although there were only a few samples of sandy till and marine sediment, the K d values were generally consistent with the corresponding regolith K d values. Of the different cereal parts the grain always had the lowest CR. In most cases, the root CR was significantly higher than the grain CR, whereas only for a few elements were the grain and stem CR values different

  4. Solid/liquid partition coefficients (K{sub d}) and plant/soil concentration ratios (CR) for selected soils, tills and sediments at Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheppard, Steve (ECOMatters Inc. (Canada)); Sohlenius, Gustav (Sveriges geologiska undersoekning (Sweden)); Omberg, Lars-Gunnar (ALS Scandinavia AB (Sweden)); Borgiel, Mikael (Sveriges Vattenekologer AB (Sweden)); Grolander, Sara (Facilia AB (Sweden)); Norden, Sara (Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (Sweden))

    2011-11-15

    Solid/liquid partition coefficients (K{sub d}) are used to indicate the relative mobility of radionuclides and elements of concern from nuclear fuel waste, as well as from other sources. To indicate the uptake of radionuclides in biota concentration ratios (CR) between soil and biota are used. This report summarized K{sub d} data for regolith and marine sediments based on concentrations of 69 indigenous stable elements measured from samples collected at the Forsmark site and CR data concerning cereals growing on these soils. The samples included 50 regolith samples from agricultural land and wetlands, 8 samples of till collected at different depths, and two marine sediment samples. In addition, cereal grains, stems and roots were collected from 4 sites for calculation of CRs. The regolith samples represented the major 5 deposits, which can be used as arable land, at the site (clayey till, glacial clay, clay gyttja and peat (cultivated and undisturbed)). K{sub d} values were generally lower for peat compared to clay soils. There were also clear differences in K{sub d} resulting from differences in soil chemistry within each regolith type. Soil pH was the most important factor, and K{sub d} values for many elements were lower in acidic clay soils compared to basic clay soils. Although there were only a few samples of sandy till and marine sediment, the K{sub d} values were generally consistent with the corresponding regolith K{sub d} values. Of the different cereal parts the grain always had the lowest CR. In most cases, the root CR was significantly higher than the grain CR, whereas only for a few elements were the grain and stem CR values different

  5. Estimating absorption coefficients of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM using a semi-analytical algorithm for southern Beaufort Sea waters: application to deriving concentrations of dissolved organic carbon from space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Matsuoka

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A series of papers have suggested that freshwater discharge, including a large amount of dissolved organic matter (DOM, has increased since the middle of the 20th century. In this study, a semi-analytical algorithm for estimating light absorption coefficients of the colored fraction of DOM (CDOM was developed for southern Beaufort Sea waters using remote sensing reflectance at six wavelengths in the visible spectral domain corresponding to MODIS ocean color sensor. This algorithm allows the separation of colored detrital matter (CDM into CDOM and non-algal particles (NAP through the determination of NAP absorption using an empirical relationship between NAP absorption and particle backscattering coefficients. Evaluation using independent datasets, which were not used for developing the algorithm, showed that CDOM absorption can be estimated accurately to within an uncertainty of 35% and 50% for oceanic and coastal waters, respectively. A previous paper (Matsuoka et al., 2012 showed that dissolved organic carbon (DOC concentrations were tightly correlated with CDOM absorption in our study area (r2 = 0.97. By combining the CDOM absorption algorithm together with the DOC versus CDOM relationship, it is now possible to estimate DOC concentrations in the near-surface layer of the southern Beaufort Sea using satellite ocean color data. DOC concentrations in the surface waters were estimated using MODIS ocean color data, and the estimates showed reasonable values compared to in situ measurements. We propose a routine and near real-time method for deriving DOC concentrations from space, which may open the way to an estimate of DOC budgets for Arctic coastal waters.

  6. Measurements of the speed of sound and the absorption coefficient for ion exchange resin embedded in concrete and bitumen using ultrasonic waves at around 0.1 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeblom, R.

    1981-01-01

    Ultrasonic measurements have been carried out on concrete and bitumen containing ion exchange resin. The speed and absorption of sound was determined for different amounts of resin, different times after preparation of the samples, and for different temperatures. The absorption data indicate that it should be possible to use the technique on full-scale waste products. The data also indicate that the velocity of sound is sensitive to several parameters of interest in radioactive waste treatment and storage. The technique may also be used to gain information on the internal disposition of a waste package. (Auth.)

  7. Influence of hydrogen absorption in amorphous Ni-P electrodes on double layer capacitance and charge transfer coefficient of hydrogen evolution reaction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paseka, Ivo

    1999-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 25 (1999), s. 4551-4558 ISSN 0013-4686 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/96/1320 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4032918 Keywords : hydrogen absorption * hydrogen evolution * Amorphous alloys * Nickel phosphorus electrodes Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.325, year: 1999

  8. Determination of visible near-IR absorption coefficients of mammalian fat using time- and spatially resolved diffuse reflectance and transmission spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, R. L. P.; Sterenborg, H. J. C. M.; Pifferi, A.; Torricelli, A.; Chikoidze, E.; Cubeddu, R.

    2005-01-01

    In-vivo optical spectroscopy and the determination of tissue absorption and scattering properties have a central role in the development of novel optical diagnostic and therapeutic modalities in medicine. A number of techniques are available for the optical characterization of tissue in the visible

  9. Donor impurity-related linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients in GaAs/Ga1−xAlxAs concentric double quantum rings: Effects of geometry, hydrostatic pressure, and aluminum concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baghramyan, H.M.; Barseghyan, M.G.; Kirakosyan, A.A.; Restrepo, R.L.; Mora-Ramos, M.E.; Duque, C.A.

    2014-01-01

    The linear and nonlinear optical absorption associated with the transition between 1s and 2s states corresponding to the electron-donor-impurity complex in GaAs/Ga 1−x Al x As three-dimensional concentric double quantum rings are investigated. Taking into account the combined effects of hydrostatic pressure and the variation of the aluminum concentration, the energies of the ground and first excited s-like states of a donor impurity in such a system have been calculated using the effective mass approximation and a variational method. The energies of these states and the corresponding threshold energy of the optical transitions are examined as functions of hydrostatic pressure, aluminum concentration, radial impurity position, as well as the geometrical dimensions of the structure. The dependencies of the linear, nonlinear and total optical absorption coefficients as functions of the incident photon energy are investigated for different values of those mentioned parameters. It is found that the influences mentioned above lead to either redshifts or blueshifts of the resonant peaks of the optical absorption spectrum. It is particularly discussed the unusual property exhibited by the third-order nonlinear of becoming positive for photon energies below the resonant transition one. It is shown that this phenomenon is associated with the particular features of the system under study, which determine the values of the electric dipole moment matrix elements. -- Highlights: • Intra-band optical absorption associated to impurity states in double quantum rings. • Combined effects of hydrostatic pressure and aluminum concentration are studied. • The influences mentioned above lead to shifts of resonant peaks. • It is discussed an unusual property exhibited by the third-order nonlinear absorption

  10. DETERMINING TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA HOST GALAXY EXTINCTION PROBABILITIES AND A STATISTICAL APPROACH TO ESTIMATING THE ABSORPTION-TO-REDDENING RATIO R{sub V}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cikota, Aleksandar [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching b. München (Germany); Deustua, Susana [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Marleau, Francine, E-mail: acikota@eso.org [Institute for Astro- and Particle Physics, University of Innsbruck, Technikerstrasse 25/8, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2016-03-10

    We investigate limits on the extinction values of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) to statistically determine the most probable color excess, E(B – V), with galactocentric distance, and use these statistics to determine the absorption-to-reddening ratio, R{sub V}, for dust in the host galaxies. We determined pixel-based dust mass surface density maps for 59 galaxies from the Key Insight on Nearby Galaxies: a Far-infrared Survey with Herschel (KINGFISH). We use SN Ia spectral templates to develop a Monte Carlo simulation of color excess E(B – V) with R{sub V} = 3.1 and investigate the color excess probabilities E(B – V) with projected radial galaxy center distance. Additionally, we tested our model using observed spectra of SN 1989B, SN 2002bo, and SN 2006X, which occurred in three KINGFISH galaxies. Finally, we determined the most probable reddening for Sa–Sap, Sab–Sbp, Sbc–Scp, Scd–Sdm, S0, and irregular galaxy classes as a function of R/R{sub 25}. We find that the largest expected reddening probabilities are in Sab–Sb and Sbc–Sc galaxies, while S0 and irregular galaxies are very dust poor. We present a new approach for determining the absorption-to-reddening ratio R{sub V} using color excess probability functions and find values of R{sub V} = 2.71 ± 1.58 for 21 SNe Ia observed in Sab–Sbp galaxies, and R{sub V} = 1.70 ± 0.38, for 34 SNe Ia observed in Sbc–Scp galaxies.

  11. Modelling the light absorption properties of particulate matter forming organic particles suspended in seawater.Part 1. Model description, classification of organic particles, and example spectra of the light absorption coefficient and the imaginary part of the refractive index of particulate matter for phytoplankton cells and phytoplankton-like particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Woźniak

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Data on organic substances in the sea are applied to distinguish hypothetical chemical classes and physical types of suspended particulate organic matter (POM in seawater. Spectra of the light absorption coefficients of particulate matter apm(λ and the imaginary refractive index n'p(λ, are assessed for some of these classes and types of POM in seawater, that is, for live phytoplankton cells and phytoplankton-like particles. The spectral characteristics of these coefficients are established and the probable ranges of variability of their absolute magnitudes defined on the basis of the mass-specific coefficients of light absorption by the various organic substances forming the particles. Also presented are mathematical relationships linking the coefficients apm(λ and n'p(λ for the various chemical classes of POM with their physical parameters, such as the relative contents of organic matter, water, air or some other gas. This article is part of a bio-optical study undertaken by the authors, the objective of which is to implement remote sensing techniques in the investigation of Baltic ecosystems (Woźniak et al. 2004.

  12. Accurate computation of the Briot-Sellmeier and Briot-Cauchy chromatic dispersion coefficients from the transmittance spectrum of thin films of arbitrary absorptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauvin, Serge

    2002-08-01

    An exact formalism devoted to the determination of dispersion coefficients is described. The method takes into account two frequent experimental configurations: a solid thin layer on a substrate and a fluid, or solid, layer between a substrate and a superstrate. Introducing the concepts of reduction and reduced finesse, this method is based entirely on the fringes' spectral position of the maxima in the transmittance spectrum. It is found that the chromatic dispersion does not affect the spectral position of the minima in the same way as it does for the maxima. There is no need to get the refractive-index curve, n(lambda), to determine the dispersion coefficients nor to work at multiple incidence angles. Bringing together the possible nonrestrictive approximations, the method becomes easy and simple to implement from a spectrophotometer in tandem with a computer. In addition, the spectrometer does not require ordinate-axis calibration, and knowledge of the substrate's and superstrate's refractive index is not required. Alternatively, the method can be easily used to accurately determine the thickness of thin layers. A numerical example using a thin layer of 2-methyl-4-nitroaniline (MNA) is given.

  13. The spectral-line moment-based (SLMB) modeling of the wide band and global blackbody-weighted transmission function and cumulative distribution function of the absorption coefficient in uniform gaseous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andre, Frederic [Centre de Thermique de Lyon (CETHIL, CNRS-INSA Lyon-UCBL), Bat. Sadi Carnot, INSA-Lyon, Lyon F-69621 (France)], E-mail: frederic.andre@insa-lyon.fr; Vaillon, Rodolphe [Centre de Thermique de Lyon (CETHIL, CNRS-INSA Lyon-UCBL), Bat. Sadi Carnot, INSA-Lyon, Lyon F-69621 (France)

    2008-09-15

    The spectral-line moment-based (SLMB) modeling is proposed for the calculation of radiative properties of gases on any spectral width. The associated mathematical formulation is obtained by applying several concepts of the k-distribution methods such as the reordering of the wavenumber scale by monotonic variations of the absorption coefficient, together with the application of the k-moment method's principles. This approach gives both a general formula for the BTF and a simple and readily applicable approximation for the blackbody-weighted cumulated k-distribution function of the absorption coefficient. The model is applied for the computation of wide band BTFs and cumulative k-distributions for uniform columns of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O in the temperature range (300-2400 K) at atmospheric pressure. Model parameters are deduced from line-by-line (LBL) spectra calculated using the HITEMP database. Comparisons with LBL reference data as well as with contemporary modeling approaches (SLW, FSK, SNB) are performed and discussed.

  14. EXTENSION OF THE INVERSE ADDING-DOUBLING METHOD TO THE MEASUREMENT OF WAVELENGTH-DEPENDENT ABSORPTION AND SCATTERING COEFFICIENTS OF BIOLOGICAL SAMPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allegood, M.S.; Baba, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    Light interaction with biological tissue can be described using three parameters: the scattering and absorption coeffi cients (μs and μa), as well as the anisotropy (g) which describes the directional dependence of the scattered photons. Accurately determining these optical properties for different tissue types at specifi c wavelengths simultaneously would be benefi cial for a variety of different biomedical applications. The goal of this project was to take a user defi ned g-value and determine the remaining two parameters for a specifi ed wavelength range. A fully automated computer program and process was developed to collect data for all wavelengths in a timely and accurate manner. LabVIEW® was used to write programs to automate raw intensity data collection from a spectrometer equipped integrating sphere, conversion of the data into a format for analysis via Scott Prahl’s Inverse Adding-Doubling (IAD) C code execution, and fi nally computation of the optical properties based on the output from the IAD code. To allow data to be passed effi ciently between LabVIEW® and C code program modules, the two were combined into a single program (OPT 3.1). OPT 3.1 was tested using tissue mimicking phantoms. Determination of the absorption and scattering coeffi cients showed excellent agreement with theory for wavelengths where the user inputted single g-value was suffi ciently precise. Future improvements entail providing for multi-wavelength g-value entry to extend the accuracy of results to encompass the complete multispectral range. Ultimately, the data collection process and algorithms developed through this effort will be used to examine actual biological tissues for the purpose of building and refi ning models for light-tissue interactions.

  15. Evaluation of the use of partition coefficients and molecular surface properties as predictors of drug absorption: a provisional biopharmaceutical classification of the list of national essential medi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NU Rahman

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of the study: Partition coefficients (log D and log P and molecular surface area (PSA are potential predictors of the intestinal permeability of drugs. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate and compare these intestinal permeability indicators.   Methods: Aqueous solubility data were obtained from literature or calculated using ACD/Labs and ALOGPS. Permeability data were predicted based on log P, log D at pH 6.0 (log D6.0, and PSA.  Results: Metoprolol's log P, log D6.0 and a PSA of <65 Å correctly predicted 55.9%, 50.8% and 54.2% of permeability classes, respectively. Labetalol's log P, log D6.0, and PSA correctly predicted 54.2%, 64.4% and 61% of permeability classes, respectively. Log D6.0 correlated well (81% with Caco-2 permeability (Papp. Of the list of national essential medicines, 135 orally administered drugs were classified into biopharmaceutical classification system (BCS. Of these, 57 (42.2%, 28 (20.7%, 44 (32.6%, and 6 (4.4% were class I, II, III and IV respectively. Conclusion: Log D6.0 showed better prediction capability than log P. Metoprolol as permeability internal standard was more conservative than labetalol.

  16. Spatial Variability in the Ratio of Interstellar Atomic Deuterium to Hydrogen. II. Observations toward γ2 Velorum and ζ Puppis by the Interstellar Medium Absorption Profile Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonneborn, George; Tripp, Todd M.; Ferlet, Roger; Jenkins, Edward B.; Sofia, U. J.; Vidal-Madjar, Alfred; Woźniak, Prezemysław R.

    2000-12-01

    High-resolution far-ultraviolet spectra of the early-type stars γ2 Vel and ζ Pup were obtained to measure the interstellar deuterium abundances in these directions. The observations were made with the Interstellar Medium Absorption Profile Spectrograph (IMAPS) during the ORFEUS-SPAS II mission in 1996. IMAPS spectra cover the wavelength range 930-1150 Å with λ/Δλ~80,000. The interstellar D I features are resolved and cleanly separated from interstellar H I in the Lyδ and Lyɛ profiles of both sight lines and also in the Lyγ profile of ζ Pup. The D I profiles were modeled using a velocity template derived from several N I lines in the IMAPS spectra recorded at higher signal-to-noise ratio. To find the best D I column density, we minimized χ2 for model D I profiles that included not only the N(D I) as a free parameter, but also the effects of several potential sources of systematic error, which were allowed to vary as free parameters. H I column densities were measured by analyzing Lyα absorption profiles in a large number of IUE high-dispersion spectra for each of these stars and applying this same χ2-minimization technique. Ultimately we found that D/H=2.18+0.36-0.31×10-5 for γ2 Vel and 1.42+0.25-0.23×10-5 for ζ Pup, values that contrast markedly with D/H derived in Paper I for δ Ori A (the stated errors are 90% confidence limits). Evidently, the atomic D/H ratio in the ISM, averaged over path lengths of 250-500 pc, exhibits significant spatial variability. Furthermore, the observed spatial variations in D/H do not appear to be anticorrelated with N/H, one measure of heavy-element abundances. We briefly discuss some hypotheses to explain the D/H spatial variability. Within the framework of standard big bang nucleosynthesis, the large value of D/H found toward γ2 Vel is equivalent to a cosmic baryon density of ΩBh2=0.023+/-0.002, which we regard as an upper limit since there is no correction for the destruction of deuterium in stars. This paper is

  17. On the use of a variable coefficient of reflectivity associated with an augmented area-to-mass ratio to de-orbit CubeSats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Neto, J. B.; Prado, A. F. B. A.; Sanchez, D. M.; Formiga, J. K. S.

    2017-10-01

    The number of missions involving CubeSats increases each year, including Brazilian missions. The simplification of the projects, aiming smaller structures and less weight, makes the missions of CubeSats cheaper compared to large satellites. Another point is that, in recent years, the concern about the increase of objects in orbit becomes important, since operational satellites and upper stage of launchers that populate the Low Earth Orbit region (LEO region) are more numerous. To try to reduce the impact of this problem, there is a consensus that objects in LEO region should re-enter in the atmosphere within 25 years. This is becoming a limit for projects of CubeSats. In this scenario, the present paper presents an alternative to this problem, which is the use of devices of area augmentation and/or variation of the coefficient of reflectivity in a CubeSat. By using these devices, it is possible, even in regions where the air density is not sufficiently large or where there is no more atmosphere, to force the decay of a CubeSat. Then, one can carry out missions of CubeSat to aim for higher altitudes than current missions, expanding the possibilities of applications.

  18. On the Equality Assumption of Latent and Sensible Heat Energy Transfer Coefficients of the Bowen Ratio Theory for Evapotranspiration Estimations: Another Look at the Potential Causes of Inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suat Irmak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Evapotranspiration (ET and sensible heat (H flux play a critical role in climate change; micrometeorology; atmospheric investigations; and related studies. They are two of the driving variables in climate impact(s and hydrologic balance dynamics. Therefore, their accurate estimate is important for more robust modeling of the aforementioned relationships. The Bowen ratio energy balance method of estimating ET and H diffusions depends on the assumption that the diffusivities of latent heat (KV and sensible heat (KH are always equal. This assumption is re-visited and analyzed for a subsurface drip-irrigated field in south central Nebraska. The inequality dynamics for subsurface drip-irrigated conditions have not been studied. Potential causes that lead KV to differ from KH and a rectification procedure for the errors introduced by the inequalities were investigated. Actual ET; H; and other surface energy flux parameters using an eddy covariance system and a Bowen Ratio Energy Balance System (located side by side on an hourly basis were measured continuously for two consecutive years for a non-stressed and subsurface drip-irrigated maize canopy. Most of the differences between KV and KH appeared towards the higher values of KV and KH. Although it was observed that KV was predominantly higher than KH; there were considerable data points showing the opposite. In general; daily KV ranges from about 0.1 m2∙s−1 to 1.6 m2∙s−1; and KH ranges from about 0.05 m2∙s−1 to 1.1 m2∙s−1. The higher values for KV and KH appear around March and April; and around September and October. The lower values appear around mid to late December and around late June to early July. Hourly estimates of KV range between approximately 0 m2∙s−1 to 1.8 m2∙s−1 and that of KH ranges approximately between 0 m2∙s−1 to 1.7 m2∙s−1. The inequalities between KV and KH varied diurnally as well as seasonally. The inequalities were greater during the non

  19. Water absorption enhances the uptake of mannitol and decreases Cr-EDTA/mannitol permeability ratios in cat small intestine in situ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, P. B.; Fihn, B. M.; Sjöqvist, A.; Groot, J. A.; Taminiau, J. A. J. M.; Jodal, M.

    2002-01-01

    Background: Recently, we hypothesized that mannitol absorption in human intestinal permeability tests is a reflection of small intestinal water absorption and is dependent mainly on the efficiency of the countercurrent multiplier in the villi. This may affect the outcome of clinical double-sugar

  20. Regularity of the interband light absorption coefficient

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    that the symmetrized version of ILAC is either continuous or has a component which has the same modulus of continuity as the .... and Rω = −ω and P = ×μ with a probability measure μ on R. If μ is continuous, then the density of states is ..... Proof. We note that as in eq. (1.3.4) [9], we have by integration by parts,. 1 h(a).

  1. Absorption Coefficient of Alkali Halides. Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-03-01

    transparent region by Hohls [29], Harting [30], Kublitzky [72], and Spangenberg [73], and the infrared region by Randall [74]. Zarzyski and Naudin [75...Index of NaF at Low Temperature," Aspen International Conference on Fourier Spectroscopy (1970), 371-6 (1971). 75. Zarzyski, J. and Naudin , F., "Index

  2. High Aspect Ratio Plasmonic Nanotrench Structures with Large Active Surface Area for Label-Free Mid-Infrared Molecular Absorption Sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shkondin, Evgeniy; Repän, Taavi; Panah, Mohammad Esmail Aryaee

    2018-01-01

    Mid-infrared spectroscopy offers unique sensing schemes to detect target molecules thanks to the absorption of infrared light at specific wavelengths unique to chemical compositions. Due to the mismatch of the mid-infrared light wavelength on the order of micron and nanometer size molecules, the ...... may serve as a highly sensitive bio- and chemo-sensing platform for mid-infrared absorption spectroscopy....

  3. Sound absorption property of openpore aluminum foams

    OpenAIRE

    WANG Fang; WANG Lu-cai; WU Jian-guo

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a study on sound absorption property of aluminum foam by evaluating its sound absorption coefficients using standing wave tube method. Experimental results showed that the average values of sound absorption coefficients (over the test frequency range) are all above 0.4, which indicate very good sound absorption property of the aluminum foams. The sound absorption coefficient is affected by frequency and pore structure, and reaches its maximum value at around 1 000 Hz. With...

  4. Taxa de absorção atmosférica sobre as cidades de Botucatu-SP e Rio de Janeiro-RJ Atmospheric absorption ratio on the cities of Botucatu-SP and Rio de Janeiro-RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Veissid

    2010-12-01

    October 23, 1998 and it hosts on board a solar cell experiment. Silicon solar cell is a semiconductor device that senses visible and near infrared (400-1100 nm radiations. The experiment permits the simultaneous inference of direct insolation and the insolation that is reflected outside of Earth. The data of the solar cell experiment are transmitted in real time by the satellite telemetry and are received by the ground station of Cuiabá, MT-Brazil (16°S, 56°W. This fact limits their spatial coverage to a circle on the South America. The planetary albedo is obtained inside this coverage area and the data can be grouped into periods of time (annual, seasonal or monthly or studied for several places (latitude and longitude during the life of the satellite. Atmospheric transmission coefficient or clearness index (Kt, measured at meteorological stations around the Earth surface, together with simultaneous measured of the planetary albedo permits to calculate the atmospheric absorption coefficient (Ka. The developed method in this work for evaluating the Ka considers that the planetary albedo is composed by two parts: the local and the non local reflectivity. Considering this new concept, an atmospheric absorption ratio (called here Ra is defined as the quotient between Ka and the net solar irradiance power that is not transmitted through the atmosphere (100%-Kt. The atmospheric absorption ratio defined by this way is not cloud cover dependent. The frequency histogram of Ra indicates the values of 0.86±0.07 and 0.88±0.09 on the cities of Botucatu-SP and Rio de Janeiro-RJ respectively, during the years of 1999 to 2006.

  5. Perdas endógenas e coeficientes de absorção aparente e real do magnésio em caprinos Endogenous losses and coefficients of apparent and true absorption of magnesium in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudete Regina Alcalde

    1999-01-01

    (AN and Saanen (SN goat breeds. Twelve kids, six of each breed, with average 19.8 kg LW, were used. Semipurified diets (low Mg content based on cracked rice, corn gluten meal and cellulose were supplemented with MgO to obtain the levels of .05 (without supplementation, .20 and .35% of Mg (% DM. The levels of Mg affected the coefficient of apparent absorption of Mg and Ca, with average values of 57.8, 73.9, and 73.2% for Mg and 55.7, 39.6 and 49.5% for Ca for diets with .05, .20, and .35% Mg, respectively. However, there was no effect of the dietary Mg level on the coefficient of apparent absorption of P, Na and K. An interaction between Mg level and breeds was observed for the real absorption of Mg. The mean for AN breed, on the level .05% Mg was 61.0% and for the levels 0.20 and 0.35% Mg, 77.2 and 73.2%, respectively. However, for SN breed the means were 73.3, 75.5 and 76.0%, for the same levels, without differences. The digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, and nitrogen free extract decreased with the crescent dietary Mg level. The fecal (7.0, 20.8 and 34.4 mg/kg LW0.75.d and urinary (3.9, 30.8 and 44.6 mg/kg LW0.75.d Mg excretion increased with the crescent dietary Mg level. There was also influence of the dietary Mg level on the blood serum Mg concentration (1.74, 2.23 and 2.80 mg/dL for .05, .20, and .35% Mg, respectively.

  6. Digestibilidade aparente de dietas práticas com diferentes relações energia: proteína em juvenis de pirarucu Apparent digestibility coefficient of practical diets with different energy: protein ratios for pirarucu juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Akifumi Ono

    2008-02-01

    order to determine the apparent digestibility coefficients. Diets containing an energy:protein ratio of 9 kcal digestible energy per gram of crude protein resulted in significantly lower apparent digestibility coefficient for dry matter, crude protein and non-nitrogenous extract. The highest apparent digestibility coefficients for crude fat was obtained with soybean oil. The dietary energy:protein ratio influences the nutrient and energy apparent digestibility coefficients to pirarucu juveniles.

  7. Sound absorption property of openpore aluminum foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Fang

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on sound absorption property of aluminum foam by evaluating its sound absorption coefficients using standing wave tube method. Experimental results showed that the average values of sound absorption coefficients (over the test frequency range are all above 0.4, which indicate very good sound absorption property of the aluminum foams. The sound absorption coefficient is affected by frequency and pore structure, and reaches its maximum value at around 1 000 Hz. With the increase of porosity and decrease of cell diameter, the sound absorption coefficient values increase.

  8. The effect Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio to specific gravity and water absorption of artifiticial geopolymer aggregate dolomite based

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor, Aiman Mahmad; Yahya, Zarina; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri

    2017-09-01

    Industry such as construction and materials had depended a lot on the available aggregate. The use of aggregate need to be designed so that it have a well sustainable system with good physical properties. This paper is using dolomite to produce an artificial aggregate. The dolomite based artificial aggregate is produced using geopolymer as a hardened process. The dolomite base artificial aggregate is tested with a different alkaline activator to find water absorption and density. The lowest water absorption of dolomite artificial aggregate is 14%. The specific gravity of the artificial aggregate tested are lower when the sodium silicate is decreasing. The lowest density of artificial aggregate obtain are with 2.03 g/cm3.

  9. Short tau inversion recovery in breast diffusion-weighted imaging: signal-to-noise ratio and apparent diffusion coefficients using a breast phantom in comparison with spectral attenuated inversion recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Tsukasa; Urikura, Atsushi; Shirata, Kensei; Nakaya, Yoshihiro; Endo, Masahiro; Terashima, Shingo; Hosokawa, Yoichiro

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to compare the signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) and apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) obtained using two fat suppression techniques in breast diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of a phantom. The breast phantom comprised agar gels with four different concentrations of granulated sugar (samples 1, 2, 3, and 4). DWI with short tau inversion recovery (STIR-DWI) and that with spectral attenuated inversion recovery (SPAIR-DWI) were performed using 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging, and the obtained SNRs and ADCs were compared. ADCs were also compared between the right and left breast phantoms. For samples 3 and 4, SNRs obtained using STIR-DWI were lower than those obtained using SPAIR-DWI. For samples 2, 3, and 4, overall ADCs obtained using STIR-DWI were significantly higher than those obtained using SPAIR-DWI (p phantoms than SPAIR-DWI. SNRs and ADCs obtained using STIR-DWI are influenced by the T 1 value; a shorter T 1 value decreases SNRs, overestimates ADCs, and induces the measurement error in ADCs. STIR-DWI showed a larger difference in ADCs between the right and left phantoms than SPAIR-DWI.

  10. Determination of the Rb atomic number density in dense rubidium vapors by absorption measurements of Rb2 triplet bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvatic, Vlasta; Veza, Damir; Niemax, Kay; Vadla, Cedomil

    2008-01-01

    A simple and accurate way of determining atom number densities in dense rubidium vapors is presented. The method relies on the experimental finding that the reduced absorption coefficients of the Rb triplet satellite bands between 740 nm and 750 nm and the triplet diffuse band between 600 nm and 610 nm are not temperature dependent in the range between 600 K and 800 K. Therefore, the absolute values of the reduced absorption coefficients of these molecular bands can provide accurate information about atomic number density of the vapor. The rubidium absorption spectrum was measured by spatially resolved white-light absorption in overheated rubidium vapor generated in a heat pipe oven. The absolute values for the reduced absorption coefficients of the triplet bands were determined at lower vapor densities, by using an accurate expression for the reduced absorption coefficient in the quasistatic wing of the Rb D1 line, and measured triplet satellite bands to the resonance wing optical depth ratio. These triplet satellite band data were used to calibrate in absolute scale the reduced absorption coefficients of the triplet diffuse band at higher temperatures. The obtained values for the reduced absorption coefficient of these Rb molecular features can be used for accurate determination of rubidium atomic number densities in the range from about 5 x 10 16 cm -3 to 1 x 10 18 cm -3

  11. Formation of Copper Catalysts for CO2 Reduction with High Ethylene/Methane Product Ratio Investigated with In Situ X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilert, André; Roberts, F Sloan; Friebel, Daniel; Nilsson, Anders

    2016-04-21

    Nanostructured copper cathodes are among the most efficient and selective catalysts to date for making multicarbon products from the electrochemical carbon dioxide reduction reaction (CO2RR). We report an in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy investigation of the formation of a copper nanocube CO2RR catalyst with high activity that highly favors ethylene over methane production. The results show that the precursor for the copper nanocube formation is copper(I)-oxide, not copper(I)-chloride as previously assumed. A second route to an electrochemically similar material via a copper(II)-carbonate/hydroxide is also reported. This study highlights the importance of using oxidized copper precursors for constructing selective CO2 reduction catalysts and shows the precursor oxidation state does not affect the electrocatalyst selectivity toward ethylene formation.

  12. Diode laser absorption spectrometry for (CO2)-C-13/(CO2)-C-12 isotope ratio analysis : Investigation on precision and accuracy levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castrillo, A; Casa, G; Kerstel, E; Gianfrani, L

    2005-01-01

    Near-infrared laser spectroscopy is used to measure the C-13/C-12 isotope abundance ratio in gas phase carbon dioxide. The spectrometer, developed expressly for field applications, is based on a 2 mu m distributed feedback diode laser in combination with sensitive wavelength modulation detection. It

  13. Seeking excellence: An evaluation of 235 international laboratories conducting water isotope analyses by isotope-ratio and laser-absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassenaar, L. I.; Terzer-Wassmuth, S.; Douence, C.; Araguas-Araguas, L.; Aggarwal, P. K.; Coplen, Tyler B.

    2018-01-01

    RationaleWater stable isotope ratios (δ2H and δ18O values) are widely used tracers in environmental studies; hence, accurate and precise assays are required for providing sound scientific information. We tested the analytical performance of 235 international laboratories conducting water isotope analyses using dual-inlet and continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometers and laser spectrometers through a water isotope inter-comparison test.MethodsEight test water samples were distributed by the IAEA to international stable isotope laboratories. These consisted of a core set of five samples spanning the common δ-range of natural waters, and three optional samples (highly depleted, enriched, and saline). The fifth core sample contained unrevealed trace methanol to assess analyst vigilance to the impact of organic contamination on water isotopic measurements made by all instrument technologies.ResultsFor the core and optional samples ~73 % of laboratories gave acceptable results within 0.2 ‰ and 1.5 ‰ of the reference values for δ18O and δ2H, respectively; ~27 % produced unacceptable results. Top performance for δ18O values was dominated by dual-inlet IRMS laboratories; top performance for δ2H values was led by laser spectrometer laboratories. Continuous-flow instruments yielded comparatively intermediate results. Trace methanol contamination of water resulted in extreme outlier δ-values for laser instruments, but also affected reactor-based continuous-flow IRMS systems; however, dual-inlet IRMS δ-values were unaffected.ConclusionsAnalysis of the laboratory results and their metadata suggested inaccurate or imprecise performance stemmed mainly from skill- and knowledge-based errors including: calculation mistakes, inappropriate or compromised laboratory calibration standards, poorly performing instrumentation, lack of vigilance to contamination, or inattention to unreasonable isotopic outcomes. To counteract common errors, we recommend that

  14. UV laser long-path absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Hans-Peter; Brauers, Theo; Neuroth, Rudolf

    1994-01-01

    Long path Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) using a picosecond UV laser as a light source was developed in our institute. Tropospheric OH radicals are measured by their rotational absorption lines around 308 nm. The spectra are obtained using a high resolution spectrograph. The detection system has been improved over the formerly used optomechanical scanning device by application of a photodiode array which increased the observed spectral range by a factor of 6 and which utilizes the light much more effectively leading to a considerable reduction of the measurement time. This technique provides direct measurements of OH because the signal is given by the product of the absorption coefficient and the OH concentration along the light path according to Lambert-Beers law. No calibration is needed. Since the integrated absorption coefficient is well known the accuracy of the measurement essentially depends on the extent to which the OH absorption pattern can be detected in the spectra. No interference by self generated OH radicals in the detection lightpath has been observed. The large bandwidth (greater than 0.15 nm) and the high spectral resolution (1.5 pm) allows absolute determination of interferences by other trace gas absorptions. The measurement error is directly accessible from the absorption-signal to baseline-noise ratio in the spectra. The applicability of the method strongly depends on visibility. Elevated concentrations of aerosols lead to considerable attenuation of the laser light which reduces the S/N-ratio. In the moderately polluted air of Julich, where we performed a number of OH measurement spectra. In addition absorption features of unidentified species were frequently detected. A quantitative deconvolution even of the known species is not easy to achieve and can leave residual structures in the spectra. Thus interferences usually increase the noise and deteriorate the OH detection sensitivity. Using diode arrays for sensitive

  15. Experimental investigation of stability and extinction coefficient of Al2O3–CuO binary nanoparticles dispersed in ethylene glycol–water mixture for low-temperature direct absorption solar collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menbari, Amir; Alemrajabi, Ali Akbar; Ghayeb, Yousef

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Viscosity and optical properties of binary nanofluids are investigated. • Effective parameters on stability of binary nanofluids are studied. • At optimal stability condition viscosity and absorbency of nanofluids are optimum. • The extinction coefficient of binary nanofluids is sum of its components ones. - Abstract: Binary nanofluids form a new class of nanofluids made through the simultaneous dispersion of two dissimilar nanoparticles in a base fluid. Two different nanoparticles may behave differently from their constituent components. Given the wide applications of binary nanofluids in a variety of fields, it is important to gain an understanding of the best stability conditions for binary nanofluids. In this work, the effects of such nanofluid properties as pH, surfactant (SHMP) concentration, and ultrasonic time are experimentally investigated on the stability of binary nanofluids. For this purpose, binary nanofluids are prepared using the two-step method. Two dissimilar nanoparticles, i.e. CuO and γ-Al 2 O 3 nanoparticles are dispersed in ethylene glycol and in the ethylene glycol–water mixture to form the desired nanofluids. Results show that at optimal stability conditions, viscosity and absorbency of the nanofluids are minimum and maximum, respectively. Also, the stability optimal parameters of binary nanofluids are found to be different from their corresponding values for each individual nanofluid. The extinction coefficient of the binary nanofluid is found to be approximately equal to the sum of those of the constituent components. Finally, the extinction coefficient of the nanoparticles dispersed in the mixture of ethylene glycol–water is determined to be greater than that of ethylene glycol.

  16. Sustainable Absorption Panels from Agricultural Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail F.Z.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise has become a serious environmental problem and there are demands for alternative sustainable materials which capable to reduce the noise level at various frequency ranges. Therefore, the aim of this research is to study the potential of turning the agricultural waste and waste paper into a sound absorption panel. For the purpose of this study, combination of two materials was under studied; coconut coir fibre from agriculture waste and shredded waste paper from the office. There were two main objective of the research; first is to develop absorption panels from coconut coir powder that available locally with a combination of shredded paper at different percentage of mixture. Second objective is to identify the absorption rate of the panels. The study encompasses the fabrication of the particle board using the coconut husk powder mix with shredded waste paper and using the gypsum powder as the binder for the two materials. Four acoustic panels of size 0.5m x 0.5m and 0.012 m thick were fabricated with different mix ratio; 25% of coconut coir powder mixed with 75% of shredded waste papers for sample 1, 50% both of the material for sample 2, 75% of coconut coir powder mixed with 25% of shredded waste paper for sample 3, and lastly 100% of coconut coir powder for sample 4. The absorption coefficient of the panels was tested in a reverberation chamber and in accordance with ISO 354:1985 standards. Based on the results, sample 1 gave the highest absorption coefficient compared to sample 2, 3 and 4. It can be concluded that the acoustic panel made from a mixture of 25% coconut coir powder with 75% shredded waste paper provided higher absorption coefficient compared to the performance of the other samples. This might be caused by the size of the coir powder which is very small, creating less void space in between the panel and thus causing it to absorb less sound. Since sound absorption is very much affected by the availability of void space of

  17. Prediction of sound absorption in rigid porous media with the lattice Boltzmann method

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Andrey Ricardo; Mareze, Paulo; Brandão, Eric

    2016-02-01

    In this work, sound absorption phenomena associated with the viscous shear stress within rigid porous media is investigated with a simple isothermal lattice Boltzmann BGK model. Simulations are conducted for different macroscopic material properties such as sample thickness and porosity and the results are compared with the exact analytical solution for materials with slit-like structure in terms of acoustic impedance and sound absorption coefficient. The numerical results agree very well with the exact solution, particularly for the sound absorption coefficient. The small deviations found in the low frequency limit for the real part of the acoustic impedance are attributed to the ratio between the thicknesses of the slit and the viscous boundary layer. The results suggest that the lattice Boltzmann method can be a very compelling numerical tool for simulating viscous sound absorption phenomena in the time domain, particularly due to its computational simplicity when compared to traditional continuum based techniques.

  18. Prediction of sound absorption in rigid porous media with the lattice Boltzmann method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Andrey Ricardo da; Mareze, Paulo; Brandão, Eric

    2016-01-01

    In this work, sound absorption phenomena associated with the viscous shear stress within rigid porous media is investigated with a simple isothermal lattice Boltzmann BGK model. Simulations are conducted for different macroscopic material properties such as sample thickness and porosity and the results are compared with the exact analytical solution for materials with slit-like structure in terms of acoustic impedance and sound absorption coefficient. The numerical results agree very well with the exact solution, particularly for the sound absorption coefficient. The small deviations found in the low frequency limit for the real part of the acoustic impedance are attributed to the ratio between the thicknesses of the slit and the viscous boundary layer. The results suggest that the lattice Boltzmann method can be a very compelling numerical tool for simulating viscous sound absorption phenomena in the time domain, particularly due to its computational simplicity when compared to traditional continuum based techniques. (paper)

  19. Quenching of Einstein-coefficients by photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aumayr, F.; Lee, W.; Skinner, C.H.; Suckewer, S.

    1991-03-01

    Experimental evidence is presented for the change of Einstein's A- coefficients for spontaneous transitions from the upper laser level of argon ion laser discharge due to the presence of the high- intensity laser flux. To demonstrate that this quenching effect cannot be attributed to a reduction in self-absorption of the strong spontaneous emission line, absorption and line profile measurements have been performed. Computer modelling of the reduction of self absorption due to Rabi splitting also indicated that this effect is too small to explain the observed quenching of spontaneous line emissions. 13 refs., 11 figs

  20. Quenching of Einstein A-Coefficients in plasmas and lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suckewer, S.; Princeton Univ., NJ

    1991-03-01

    The coefficient of spontaneous emission (Einstein A-coefficient) is considered to be one of the basic constants of a given transition in atom or ion. The formula for the Einstein A-coefficient was derived in the pioneering works of Weisskopf and Wigner (WW) based on Dirac's theory of light. More recently, however, it was noted in several papers that the rate of spontaneous radiative decay can deviate significantly from the WW expression in certain conditions, for example in a laser cavity. A different type of change in A- coefficients was inferred from measurements of changes in the intensity branching ratio of spectral lines in a plasma. A change of branching ratio of up to a factor of 10 was observed in CIV for 3p-3s (580.1--581.2nm) and 3p-2s (31.2-nm) transitions when the electron density changed from approximately N e ∼ 1 x 10 18 to 5 x 10 18 cm -3 . This effect was also observed in CIII and NV. An initial theoretical approach to the problem based on the integration of the Schroedinger equation with the ion Coulomb potential modified by the electron cloud within the Debye radius was unsuccessfully in predicting the experimental observations. The effect of quenching of spontaneous emission coefficients was observed also in an Ar-ion laser as a function of the intracavity power density (photon density) for lines originating from the same upper level as the lasing line. Measurements of these line profiles absorption for different lasing conditions and related discussions are also presented. 14 refs., 6 figs

  1. Absorption studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganatra, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Absorption studies were once quite popular but hardly anyone does them these days. It is easier to estimate the blood level of the nutrient directly by radioimmunoassay (RIA). However, the information obtained by estimating the blood levels of the nutrients is not the same that can be obtained from the absorption studies. Absorption studies are primarily done to find out whether some of the essential nutrients are absorbed from the gut or not and if they are absorbed, to determine how much is being absorbed. In the advanced countries, these tests were mostly done to detect pernicious anaemia where vitamin B 12 is not absorbed because of the lack of the intrinsic factor in the stomach. In the tropical countries, ''malabsorption syndrome'' is quire common. In this condition, several nutrients like fat, folic acid and vitamin B 12 are not absorbed. It is possible to study absorption of these nutrients by radioisotopic absorption studies

  2. Why is the Ratio of Reflectivity Effective for Chlorophyll Estimation in the Lake Water?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo Oki

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The reasons why it is effective to estimate the chlorophyll-a concentration with the ratio of spectral radiance reflectance at the red light region and near infrared regions were shown in theory using a two-flow model. It was found that all of the backscattering coefficients can consequently be ignored by using the ratio of spectral radiance reflectance, which is the ratio of the upward radiance to the downward irradiance, at the red light and near infrared regions. In other words, the ratio can be expressed by using only absorption coefficients, which are more stable for measurement than backscattering coefficients. In addition, the band selection is crucial for producing the band ratio when the chlorophyll-a concentration is estimated without the effects of backscattering. I conclude that the two wavelengths selected must be close, but one must be within the absorption range of chlorophyll-a, and the other must be outside of the absorption range of chlorophyll-a, in order to accurately estimate the chlorophyll-a concentration.

  3. Folate absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, S.J.

    1976-01-01

    Folate is the generic term given to numerous compounds of pteroic acid with glutamic acid. Knowledge of absorption is limited because of the complexities introduced by the variety of compounds and because of the inadequacy of investigational methods. Two assay methods are in use, namely microbiological and radioactive. Techniques used to study absorption include measurement of urinary excretion, serum concentration, faecal excretion, intestinal perfusion, and haematological response. It is probably necessary to test absorption of both pteroylmonoglutamic acid and one or more polyglutamates, and such tests would be facilitated by availability of synthesized compounds labelled with radioactive tracers at specifically selected sites. (author)

  4. Extinction Coefficient of Gold Nanostars

    OpenAIRE

    de Puig, Helena; Tam, Justina O.; Yen, Chun-Wan; Gehrke, Lee; Hamad-Schifferli, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Gold nanostars (NStars) are highly attractive for biological applications due to their surface chemistry, facile synthesis and optical properties. Here, we synthesize NStars in HEPES buffer at different HEPES/Au ratios, producing NStars of different sizes and shapes, and therefore varying optical properties. We measure the extinction coefficient of the synthesized NStars at their maximum surface plasmon resonances (SPR), which range from 5.7 × 108 to 26.8 × 108 M−1cm−1. Measured values correl...

  5. Heat transfer coefficient for boiling carbon dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hans Jørgen Høgaard; Jensen, Per Henrik

    1998-01-01

    Heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop for boiling carbon dioxide (R744) flowing in a horizontal pipe has been measured. The calculated heat transfer coeeficient has been compared with the Chart correlation of Shah. The Chart Correlation predits too low heat transfer coefficient but the ratio...

  6. Narrative absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narrative Absorption brings together research from the social sciences and Humanities to solve a number of mysteries: Most of us will have had those moments, of being totally absorbed in a book, a movie, or computer game. Typically we do not have any idea about how we ended up in such a state. Nor...... do we fully realize how we might have changed as we return for the fictional worlds we have visited. The feeling of being absorbed is one of the most illusive and transient feelings, but also one that motivates audiences to spend considerable amounts of time in narrative worlds, and one...... that is central to our understanding of the effects of narratives on beliefs and behavior. Key specialists inform the reader of this book about the nature of the peculiar state of consciousness during episodes of absorption, the perception of absorption in history, the role of absorption in meaningful experiences...

  7. Absorption factor for cylindrical samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sears, V.F.

    1984-01-01

    The absorption factor for the scattering of X-rays or neutrons in cylindrical samples is calculated by numerical integration for the case in which the absorption coefficients of the incident and scattered beams are not equal. An extensive table of values having an absolute accuracy of 10 -4 is given in a companion report [Sears (1983). Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Report No. AECL-8176]. In the present paper an asymptotic expression is derived for the absorption factor which can be used with an error of less than 10 -3 for most cases of interest in both neutron inelastic scattering and neutron diffraction in crystals. (Auth.)

  8. The absorption spectrum of cis-azobenzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetráková, Ľubica; Ladányi, Vít; Al Anshori, Jamaludin; Dvořák, Pavel; Wirz, Jakob; Heger, Dominik

    2017-12-06

    Azobenzene is a prototypical photochromic molecule existing in two isomeric forms, which has numerous photochemical applications that rely on a precise knowledge of the molar absorption coefficients (ε). Careful analysis revealed that the previously reported absorption spectra of the "pure" isomers were in fact mutually contaminated by small amounts of the other isomer. Therefore, the absorption spectra of both trans- and cis-azobenzene in methanol were re-determined at temperatures of 5-45 °C. The thermodynamically more stable trans-azobenzene was prepared by warming the solution in the dark. To obtain the spectrum of cis-azobenzene three methods were used, which gave consistent results within the limits of error. The method based on the subtraction of derivative spectra coupled with a global analysis of the spectra recorded during thermal cis-trans isomerization is shown to give slightly more reliable results than the method using isomeric ratios determined by 1 H-NMR. The described methods are readily generalizable to other azobenzene derivatives and to other photochromic systems. The practical implication of the re-determined ε values is demonstrated by a very high precision of spectrophotometric species analysis in azobenzene isomeric mixtures. The new ε values imply that the previously reported quantum yields must be revised.

  9. Diffuse reflectance relations based on diffusion dipole theory for large absorption and reduced scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremmer, Rolf H; van Gemert, Martin J C; Faber, Dirk J; van Leeuwen, Ton G; Aalders, Maurice C G

    2013-08-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectra are used to determine the optical properties of biological samples. In medicine and forensic science, the turbid objects under study often possess large absorption and/or scattering properties. However, data analysis is frequently based on the diffusion approximation to the radiative transfer equation, implying that it is limited to tissues where the reduced scattering coefficient dominates over the absorption coefficient. Nevertheless, up to absorption coefficients of 20  mm-1 at reduced scattering coefficients of 1 and 11.5  mm-1, we observed excellent agreement (r2=0.994) between reflectance measurements of phantoms and the diffuse reflectance equation proposed by Zonios et al. [Appl. Opt.38, 6628-6637 (1999)], derived as an approximation to one of the diffusion dipole equations of Farrell et al. [Med. Phys.19, 879-888 (1992)]. However, two parameters were fitted to all phantom experiments, including strongly absorbing samples, implying that the reflectance equation differs from diffusion theory. Yet, the exact diffusion dipole approximation at high reduced scattering and absorption also showed agreement with the phantom measurements. The mathematical structure of the diffuse reflectance relation used, derived by Zonios et al. [Appl. Opt.38, 6628-6637 (1999)], explains this observation. In conclusion, diffuse reflectance relations derived as an approximation to the diffusion dipole theory of Farrell et al. can analyze reflectance ratios accurately, even for much larger absorption than reduced scattering coefficients. This allows calibration of fiber-probe set-ups so that the object's diffuse reflectance can be related to its absorption even when large. These findings will greatly expand the application of diffuse reflection spectroscopy. In medicine, it may allow the use of blue/green wavelengths and measurements on whole blood, and in forensic science, it may allow inclusion of objects such as blood stains and cloth at crime

  10. Diffuse reflectance relations based on diffusion dipole theory for large absorption and reduced scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremmer, Rolf H.; van Gemert, Martin J. C.; Faber, Dirk J.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Aalders, Maurice C. G.

    2013-08-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectra are used to determine the optical properties of biological samples. In medicine and forensic science, the turbid objects under study often possess large absorption and/or scattering properties. However, data analysis is frequently based on the diffusion approximation to the radiative transfer equation, implying that it is limited to tissues where the reduced scattering coefficient dominates over the absorption coefficient. Nevertheless, up to absorption coefficients of 20 m at reduced scattering coefficients of 1 and 11.5 mm-1, we observed excellent agreement (r2=0.994) between reflectance measurements of phantoms and the diffuse reflectance equation proposed by Zonios et al. [Appl. Opt. 38, 6628-6637 (1999)], derived as an approximation to one of the diffusion dipole equations of Farrell et al. [Med. Phys. 19, 879-888 (1992)]. However, two parameters were fitted to all phantom experiments, including strongly absorbing samples, implying that the reflectance equation differs from diffusion theory. Yet, the exact diffusion dipole approximation at high reduced scattering and absorption also showed agreement with the phantom measurements. The mathematical structure of the diffuse reflectance relation used, derived by Zonios et al. [Appl. Opt. 38, 6628-6637 (1999)], explains this observation. In conclusion, diffuse reflectance relations derived as an approximation to the diffusion dipole theory of Farrell et al. can analyze reflectance ratios accurately, even for much larger absorption than reduced scattering coefficients. This allows calibration of fiber-probe set-ups so that the object's diffuse reflectance can be related to its absorption even when large. These findings will greatly expand the application of diffuse reflection spectroscopy. In medicine, it may allow the use of blue/green wavelengths and measurements on whole blood, and in forensic science, it may allow inclusion of objects such as blood stains and cloth at crime scenes.

  11. Bent Electro-Absorption Modulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    components and the applied electric field in relation to the frequency of the modulated radiation, the bending losses (and possibly coupling losses) will provide extinction of light guided by the bent waveguide section. The refractive index contract may be modulated while keeping the absorption coefficient...... by bendng losses co-operates to provide more compact modulators with improved performance (extinction) and speed....

  12. Determination of sedimentation rates and absorption coefficient of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2+ has a higher sedimentation rate of 5.10x10-2 s-1 while Ni2+ has the lowest sedimentation rates of 1.10 x10-3. The rate of sedimentation of the metal carbonates decreased in the order: Zn2+ > Cd2+ > Cu2+ > Co2+ > Ni2+. The order ...

  13. Optical absorption coefficient of different tortillas by photoacoustic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The color of the tortilla is one of the properties that determine the purchasing decision and acceptance for the consumer. This sensory attribute is altered, when making tortillas with elements to improve digestion and nutrition. Therefore, the objective of this investigation was to determine some information about the color in ...

  14. Optical absorption coefficient of different tortillas by photoacoustic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    李兴林

    balances Ohaus were used for determining the thickness and weight of the tortilla's samples, respectively. Optical characterization of the “tortilla”. The photoacoustic instrumentation consisted of a Xenon lamp. (Oriel), a monochromator (Oriel), a chopper adjusted at a frequency of 17 Hz, and a fiber optic cable was connected ...

  15. Vapor-Phase Infrared Absorptivity Coefficient of Cyclohexyl Isothiocyanate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Samuels, Alan C; Miles, Jr., Ronald W; Williams, Barry R; Hulet, Melissa S

    2008-01-01

    ...)) at a spectral resolution of 0.125 cm(-1). The chemical used in the feedstock was subjected to a rigorous analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, and Karl-Fischer titration to verify its purity...

  16. Lifshitz tails for the interband light absorption coefficient

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    discrete case or on L2(Rd) in the continuous case, and taking a random potential V ω. Restricting these operators H .... where ρ is set to be ∞ if either A or B is an unbounded element of I. Using Hypothesis 2 and .... which this feature is valid and the dashed lines are those for which this is not true. In the definition below the ...

  17. CH3D ICE ABSORPTION COEFFICIENTS V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is the result of laboratory transmission spectroscopy experiments performed within a sealed cell in the ice laboratory at Northern Arizona University....

  18. Determination of optical constants and nonlinear optical coefficients ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    −7 cm2/W and nonlinear absorption coefficient, β = 6.31×10. −3 cm/W. Optical limiting characteris- tics of the dye-doped polymer film was studied. The result reveals that Violet 1 can be a promising material for optical limiting applications. Keywords. Absorption spectra; nonlinear optics; optical constants; optical limiting.

  19. Relationship between lipophilicity of BCS class III and IV drugs and the functional activity of peroral absorption enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pradeep; Varma, Manthena V S; Chawla, Harmander P S; Panchagnula, Ramesh

    2005-01-01

    Absorption enhancers (AEs) have been shown to be specific in permeation enhancement capabilities because of which they increase absorption of some drug molecules more than others. Present study was designed to investigate the relationship between lipophilicity of drug molecules and the absorption enhancement potential of AEs. Four drug molecules of different lipophilicity were selected as model compounds, namely, cefotaxime sodium, ceftazidime pentahydrate, lovastatin and cyclosporin A. Their apparent permeability coefficients in the absence and presence of three classes of AEs (fatty acids, cyclodextrins, and bile salts) were determined using in vitro everted rat intestinal sac absorption model. Significant relationship was observed between log P of drug and absorption enhancement ratios by AEs. This relationship was found to be functionally directly or indirectly proportional depending upon nature of AE and explain the mechanism of permeation enhancement.

  20. Transport Coefficients of Fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Eu, Byung Chan

    2006-01-01

    Until recently the formal statistical mechanical approach offered no practicable method for computing the transport coefficients of liquids, and so most practitioners had to resort to empirical fitting formulas. This has now changed, as demonstrated in this innovative monograph. The author presents and applies new methods based on statistical mechanics for calculating the transport coefficients of simple and complex liquids over wide ranges of density and temperature. These molecular theories enable the transport coefficients to be calculated in terms of equilibrium thermodynamic properties, and the results are shown to account satisfactorily for experimental observations, including even the non-Newtonian behavior of fluids far from equilibrium.

  1. Terahertz absorption spectrum of triacetone triperoxide (TATP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, John; Konek, Christopher T.; Moran, Jesse S.; Witko, Ewelina M.; Korter, Timothy M.

    2009-08-01

    We report here, for the first time, the terahertz absorption spectrum of triacetone triperoxide (TATP). The experimental spectra are coupled with solid-state density functional theory, and preliminary assignments are provided to gain physical insight into the experimental spectrum. The calculated absorption coefficients are in excellent agreement with experiment.

  2. Scavenging ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krey, P.W.; Toonkel, L.E.

    1977-01-01

    Total 90 Sr fallout is adjusted for dry deposition, and scavenging ratios are calculated at Seattle, New York, and Fayetteville, Ark. Stable-lead scavenging ratios are also presented for New York. These ratios show large scatter, but average values are generally inversely proportional to precipitation. Stable-lead ratios decrease more rapidly with precipitation than do those of 90 Sr, a decrease reflecting a lesser availability of lead to the scavenging processes

  3. Golden Ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Our attraction to another body increases if the body is symmetricaland in proportion. If a face or a structure is in proportion,we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful.The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found inmany structures. This ratio comes from Fibonacci numbers.In this article, we explore this ...

  4. Coefficient of restitution of model repaired car body parts

    OpenAIRE

    D. Hadryś; M. Miros

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The qualification of influence of model repaired car body parts on the value of coefficient of restitution and evaluation of impact energy absorption of model repaired car body parts.Design/methodology/approach: Investigation of plastic strain and coefficient of restitution of new and repaired model car body parts with using impact test machine for different impact energy.Findings: The results of investigations show that the value of coefficient of restitution changes with speed (ene...

  5. THE NATURE COMPOSITE OF VETIVER FIBER AND THE WASTE OF POWDER SAWN AS AN SOUND ABSORPTION MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purwanto Purwanto

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasing use of composites in all fields is engineered materials that many people do to obtain the new alternative materials, one of the materials such as natural vetiver fiber (SAW which is strong and lightweight and powder sawn (SGK, which is waste material. In this research, manufacturing the composite of  SAW and SGK then testing acoustic/absorption power by measuring the absorption coefficient of the sound and the observation of microstructure. The method used in the study is an experiment in the laboratory to make composites based on the ratio of the weight fraction between SAW and SGK from 1: 5, 2: 5, 3: 5, 4: 5 and 5: 5. Having formed the composites, then the specimen has made by an acoustic test that compatible to ASTM E-1050-98 standard with B & K 4206 Small Tube Set test instrument. Furthermore, to determine the composition of fibers in the composites, there do the micro observation. From the results of the show the composites produced the sound absorption ability for the low frequency (1000 Hz with an absorption coefficient (α of 0.25 occurred in comparative fraction of 2: 5 (SAW20, SGK50. While at high frequency (5000 Hz has a value of coefficient (α of 0.41 occurred in the ratio of 1: 5 (SAW10, SGK50. The number of composition number fiber influence the composite tensile strength and micro observations occurred in the composition ratio of 5: 5 its highest strength.

  6. Simple parametrization of photon mass energy absorption ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, we provide polynomial coefficients and a semi-empirical relation using which one can derive photon mass energy absorption coefficient of any H-, C-, N-,. O-based sample of biological interest containing any other elements in the atomic number range 2–40 and energy range 200–1500 keV.

  7. Simple parametrization of photon mass energy absorption ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    More interestingly, it has been observed in the present work that in this energy range, both the mass attenuation coefficients and the mass energy absorption coefficients for such samples vary only with respect to energy. Hence it was possible to represent the photon interaction properties of such samples by a mean value of ...

  8. Reflection and absorption of ordinary waves in an inhomogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croci, R.

    1990-11-01

    This study treats the system of Vlasov and Maxwell equations for the Fourier transform in space and time of a plasma referred to Cartesian coordinates with the coordinate z parallel to the uniform equilibrium magnetic field with the equilibrium plasma density dependent on ηx, where η is a parameter. The k y component of the wave vector is taken equal to zero, whereas k z is different from zero. When the interaction of ordinary and extraordinary waves is neglected, the Fourier transform of the electric field of the ordinary waves obeys a homogeneous integral equation with principal part integrals, which is solved in the case of weak absorption and sufficiently small η (essentially smaller than vacuum wave vector), but without limitations on the ratio of the wavelength to the Larmor radius (the usual approximation being limited to wavelengths much smaller than the Larmor radius). The reflection and transmission coefficients and the total energy absorption are given in this approximation, whereas the energy conservation theorem for the reflection and transmission coefficients in an absorption-free plasma are derived for every value of η without explicit knowledge of the solutions. Finally, a general and compact equation for the eigenvalues which does not require complex analysis and knowledge of all solutions of the dispersion relation is given. (orig.)

  9. Subgap Absorption in Conjugated Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, M.; Seager, C. H.; McBranch, D.; Heeger, A. J; Baker, G. L.

    1991-01-01

    Along with X{sup (3)}, the magnitude of the optical absorption in the transparent window below the principal absorption edge is an important parameter which will ultimately determine the utility of conjugated polymers in active integrated optical devices. With an absorptance sensitivity of materials. We have used PDS to measure the optical absorption spectra of the conjugated polymers poly(1,4-phenylene-vinylene) (and derivitives) and polydiacetylene-4BCMU in the spectral region from 0.55 eV to 3 eV. Our spectra show that the shape of the absorption edge varies considerably from polymer to polymer, with polydiacetylene-4BCMU having the steepest absorption edge. The minimum absorption coefficients measured varied somewhat with sample age and quality, but were typically in the range 1 cm{sup {minus}1} to 10 cm{sup {minus}1}. In the region below 1 eV, overtones of C-H stretching modes were observed, indicating that further improvements in transparency in this spectral region might be achieved via deuteration of fluorination.

  10. PENURUNAN TINGKAT INTRUSI AIR LAUT BERDASARKAN "CHLORIDE BICARBONATE RATIO" MENGGUNAKAN LUBANG RESAPAN BIOPORI : STUDI KASUS DI KOTA SEMARANG (Decreased of Sea Water Intrusion Based On “Chloride-Bicarbonater Ratio”Using the Biopore Absorption Hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Sundari Miswadi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Banjir menjadi agenda tahunan bagi warga yang tinggal di daerah pinggiran pantai di Kota Semarang. Namun sekarang, wilayah yang jauh dari pantaipun kini sudah tidak luput dari banjir dan intrusi air laut. Hal ini terjadi karena airtanah sudah melebihi besarnya pengisian kembali (recharge, dan tanah sudah kehilangan fungsinya dalam menyerap air akibat maraknya pembangunan gedung dan perumahan yang tidak ramah lingkungan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memetakan tingkat intrusi air laut di sumur-sumur gali berdasarkan "Chloride-Bicarbonate Ratio", dan daya hantar listrik (DHL serta salinitas di Kota Semarang. Penelitian dilakukan terhadap 30 sumur gali milik penduduk dengan jarak dari pantai antara 0,5-5 (lima kilometer. Tingkat intrusi air laut dihitung berdasarkan rasio klorida terhadap karbonat dan bikarbonat, dan hasilnya diplotkan pada peta dasar. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan, tingkat intrusi air laut dan nilai DHL di Kota Semarang bagian timur jauh lebih jelek dibandingkan dengan wilayah pantai sebelah barat Kota Semarang, sedangkan kadar salinitas di sebagian besar daerah penelitian rata-rata kadarnya sedang. Hasil penelitian menggunakan lubang resapan biopori (LRB sebagai adsorben menunjukkan, pada minggu ketiga setelah pembuatan LRB didapatkan tingkat intrusi air laut naik sebesar 66,64 % sumur, dan sebanyak 33,33% sumur turun tingkat intrusinya, sedangkan pada mingggu keenam terjadi penurunan tingkat intrusi sebesar 66,64% sumur, dan 33,33% sumur naik. Kadar salinitas pada minggu ketiga turun sebanyak 83,30 %sumur, dan 16,66% tetap, sedangkan pada minggu keenam 49,90 % sumur salinitasnya naik, 33,33% turun, dan 16,66% tetap. Nilai daya hantar tistrik (DHL pada minggu ketiga terdeteksi 16,66% sumur naik, dan 83,30% sumur turun, sedangkan pada minggu keenam 49,98 % sumur DHL-nya naik, dan 49,98% turun. Nilai pH pada minggu ketiga terdeteksi 100% sumur turun, sedangkan minggu kelima 66,64 % turun dan 33,33 % sumur p

  11. Optical distortion coefficients of laser windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of describing and evaluating thermal lensing phenomena that occur as a result of the absorption of laser light in solid windows. The aberration-function expansion method is applied for deriving the two optical distortion coefficients χ + and χ - that characterize the degradation in light intensity at the Gaussian focus of an initially diffraction-limited laser beam passing through a weakly absorbing stress-birefringent window. In a pulsed mode of operation, the concept of an effective optical distortion coefficient. χ eff, which properly combines the coefficients χ + and χ - in terms of potential impact on focal irradiances, then leads to the definition of a figure of merit for distortion. The theory and the calculations presented in this papers provide simple analytical tools for predicting the optical performance of a window-material candidate in a specific system's environment

  12. Solution procedure and performance evaluation for a water–LiBr absorption refrigeration machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wonchala, Jason; Hazledine, Maxwell; Goni Boulama, Kiari

    2014-01-01

    The water–lithium bromide absorption cooling machine was investigated theoretically in this paper. A detailed solution procedure was proposed and validated. A parametric study was conducted over the entire admissible ranges of the desorber, condenser, absorber and evaporator temperatures. The performance of the machine was evaluated based on the circulation ratio which is a measure of the system size and cost, the first law coefficient of performance and the second law exergy efficiency. The circulation ratio and the coefficient of performance were seen to improve as the temperature of the heat source increased, while the second law performance deteriorated. The same qualitative responses were obtained when the temperature of the refrigerated environment was increased. On the other hand, simultaneously raising the condenser and absorber temperatures was seen to result in a severe deterioration of both the circulation ratio and first law coefficient of performance, while the second law performance indicator improved significantly. The influence of the difference between the condenser and absorber exit temperatures, as well as that of the internal recovery heat exchanger on the different performance indicators was also calculated and discussed. - Highlights: • Analysis of a water–LiBr absorption machine, including detailed solution procedure. • Performance assessed using first and second law considerations, as well as flow ratio. • Effects of heat source and refrigerated environment temperatures on the performance. • Effects of the difference between condenser and absorber temperatures. • Effects of internal heat exchanger efficiency on overall cooling machine performance

  13. Confidence bounds and hypothesis tests for normal distribution coefficients of variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Verrill; Richard A. Johnson

    2007-01-01

    For normally distributed populations, we obtain confidence bounds on a ratio of two coefficients of variation, provide a test for the equality of k coefficients of variation, and provide confidence bounds on a coefficient of variation shared by k populations.

  14. X-ray absorption in atomic potassium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomilsek, Jana Padeznik; Kodre, Alojz; Arcon, Iztok; Nemanic, Vincenc

    2008-01-01

    A new high-temperature absorption cell for potassium vapor is described. X-ray absorption coefficient of atomic potassium is determined in the energy interval of 600 eV above the K edge where thresholds for simultaneous excitations of 1s and outer electrons, down to [1s2p] excitation, appear. The result represents also the atomic absorption background for XAFS (X-ray absorption fine structure) structure analysis. The K ionization energy in the potassium vapor is determined and compared with theoretical data and with the value for the metal

  15. Prestarlike functions with negative coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Silverman

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available The extreme points for prestarlike functions having negative coefficients are determined. Coefficient, distortion and radii of univalence, starlikeness, and convexity theorems are also obtained.

  16. Laser beam absorption study of a 238U(5L60) vapor obtained with a hollow cathode lamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagne, J.M.; Leblanc, B.; Mongeau, B.; Carleer, M.; Bertrand, L.

    1979-01-01

    The density of U atoms in the 5 L 0 6 ground state present in a vapor of this element from a hollow cathode lamp has been measured using laser absorption spectroscopy. The influence of the carrier gases (Ar, Kr, Xe) on the density, the absorption coefficient profiles, and on the ratio of U atoms to the dissipated electrical power has been investigated. It has been found that, in our range of operating conditions, the xenon gas is the most efficient. With xenon, a density of 2.2 x 10 12 cm -3 ground-state U atoms is obtained when the lamp dissipates 40 W of electrical power

  17. Extinction Coefficient of Gold Nanostars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Puig, Helena; Tam, Justina O; Yen, Chun-Wan; Gehrke, Lee; Hamad-Schifferli, Kimberly

    2015-07-30

    Gold nanostars (NStars) are highly attractive for biological applications due to their surface chemistry, facile synthesis and optical properties. Here, we synthesize NStars in HEPES buffer at different HEPES/Au ratios, producing NStars of different sizes and shapes, and therefore varying optical properties. We measure the extinction coefficient of the synthesized NStars at their maximum surface plasmon resonances (SPR), which range from 5.7 × 10 8 to 26.8 × 10 8 M -1 cm -1 . Measured values correlate with those obtained from theoretical models of the NStars using the discrete dipole approximation (DDA), which we use to simulate the extinction spectra of the nanostars. Finally, because NStars are typically used in biological applications, we conjugate DNA and antibodies to the NStars and calculate the footprint of the bound biomolecules.

  18. The Hyperspectral Absorption Sensor - Advantages and challenges of continuous, in situ absorption coefficient measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollschläger, J.; Röttgers, R.; Petersen, W.; Zielinski, O.

    2016-12-01

    A free-water mass balance-based study was conducted to address the rate of metabolism and net carbon exchange for the tidal wetland and estuarine portion of the coastal ocean and the uncertainties associated with this approach were assessed. Open water diurnal O2 and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) were measured seasonally in a salt marsh-estuary in Georgia, U.S.A. with a focus on the marsh-estuary linkage associated with tidal flooding. We observed that the overall estuarine system was a net source of CO2 to the atmosphere and coastal ocean and a net sink for oceanic and atmospheric O2. Rates of metabolism were extremely high, with respiration (43 mol m-2 yr-1) greatly exceeding gross primary production (28 mol m-2 yr-1), such that the overall system was net heterotrophic. Metabolism measured with DIC were higher than with O2, which we attribute to high rates of anaerobic respiration and reduced sulfur storage in salt marsh sediments, and we assume substantial levels of anoxygenic photosynthesis. We found gas exchange from a flooded marsh is substantial, accounting for about 28% of total O2 and CO2 air-water exchange. A significant percentage of the overall estuarine aquatic metabolism is attributable to metabolism of marsh organisms during inundation. Our study suggests not rely on oceanographic stoichiometry to convert from O2to C based measurements when constructing C balances for the coastal ocean. We also suggest eddy covariance measurements of salt marsh net ecosystem exchange underestimate net ecosystem production as they do not account for lateral DIC exchange associated with marsh tidal inundation. With the increase of global temperature and sea level rise, salt marshes are likely to export more inorganic carbon to the atmosphere and the coastal ocean due to the decrease of solubility, the increase of aquatic and benthic metabolic activities and the longer marsh inundation.

  19. Sound absorption in a field of a strong electromagnetic wave in a quantizied magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chajkovskij, I.A.

    1974-01-01

    A coefficient of sound absorption GAMMA in a semiconductor and semi-metal in the quantized magnetic field is calculated for a system exposed to a field of strong electromagnetic radiation. The cases E parallel H and E orthogonal H are considered. Along with the already known strong oscillations of sound absorption in magnetic fields, the absorption spectrum GAMMAsub(par) and GAMMAsub(orth) shows new oscillations representing a manifestation of the quasi-energetic electron spectrum in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave. The oscillation height at E parallel H is modulated by the electromagnetic field. It is shown that the ratio GAMMAsub(par)/GAMMAsub(orth) allows the determination of the effective mass of the carriers

  20. Golden Ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of mathematical biology. Our attraction to another body increases if the body is sym- metrical and in proportion. If a face or a structure is in pro- ... his practice of oral and maxillofacial surgery, and he developed a mask using the concept of golden ratio. The mask is called the. Marquardt beauty mask (Figure 1) [1]. Keywords.

  1. Examination of the Measurement of Absorption Using the Reverberant Room Method for Highly Absorptive Acoustic Foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, William O.; McNelis, Anne M.; Chris Nottoli; Eric Wolfram

    2015-01-01

    The absorption coefficient for material specimens are needed to quantify the expected acoustic performance of that material in its actual usage and environment. The ASTM C423-09a standard, "Standard Test Method for Sound Absorption and Sound Absorption Coefficients by the Reverberant Room Method" is often used to measure the absorption coefficient of material test specimens. This method has its basics in the Sabine formula. Although widely used, the interpretation of these measurements are a topic of interest. For example, in certain cases the measured Sabine absorption coefficients are greater than 1.0 for highly absorptive materials. This is often attributed to the diffraction edge effect phenomenon. An investigative test program to measure the absorption properties of highly absorbent melamine foam has been performed at the Riverbank Acoustical Laboratories. This paper will present and discuss the test results relating to the effect of the test materials' surface area, thickness and edge sealing conditions. A follow-on paper is envisioned that will present and discuss the results relating to the spacing between multiple piece specimens, and the mounting condition of the test specimen.

  2. Empirical relation between interstellar x-ray absorption and optical extinction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorenstein, P.

    1975-01-01

    An empirical relation between interstellar X-ray absorption and optical extinction is derived from the correlation of measurements made on objects of large intrinsic diameter. The result is A/subv/=4.5times10 -22 N/subH/ mag, with the principal error being largely systematic in origin, where N/subH/ represents the column density of interstellar matter in the Brown and Gould model for the X-ray absorption coefficient. Applying this ratio to optically identified compact sources, it is concluded that sources in binary systems showing pronounced X-ray occultations have an intrinsic absorption equivalent to approx.10 22 atoms cm -2 of interstellar matter and that there are a few compact sources where the absorption seems to be primarily interstellar in origin. The interstellar absorption expected in Cyg X-1 from the extinction of its optical counterpart is much greater than that suggested by X-ray spectra, which may be due to a soft X-ray component greater than that predicted by the power law fitted to higher energy data. A reinterpretation of published spectral parameters of Cyg X-1 in its posttransition phase suggests that the soft component shifted downward in energy during the transition. The value of A/sub v//N/sub H/ determined from the X-ray measurements is compatible with the Lα results for 0A0 2. It is in accord with an interstellar dust-to-mass ratio of approximately 10 -2 . (U.S.)

  3. Minimum wall pressure coefficient of orifice plate energy dissipater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-zheng Ai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Orifice plate energy dissipaters have been successfully used in large-scale hydropower projects due to their simple structure, convenient construction procedure, and high energy dissipation ratio. The minimum wall pressure coefficient of an orifice plate can indirectly reflect its cavitation characteristics: the lower the minimum wall pressure coefficient is, the better the ability of the orifice plate to resist cavitation damage is. Thus, it is important to study the minimum wall pressure coefficient of the orifice plate. In this study, this coefficient and related parameters, such as the contraction ratio, defined as the ratio of the orifice plate diameter to the flood-discharging tunnel diameter; the relative thickness, defined as the ratio of the orifice plate thickness to the tunnel diameter; and the Reynolds number of the flow through the orifice plate, were theoretically analyzed, and their relationships were obtained through physical model experiments. It can be concluded that the minimum wall pressure coefficient is mainly dominated by the contraction ratio and relative thickness. The lower the contraction ratio and relative thickness are, the larger the minimum wall pressure coefficient is. The effects of the Reynolds number on the minimum wall pressure coefficient can be neglected when it is larger than 105. An empirical expression was presented to calculate the minimum wall pressure coefficient in this study.

  4. In situ observation of Cu-Ni alloy nanoparticle formation by X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy: Influence of Cu/Ni ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiongxiao; Duchstein, Linus Daniel Leonhard; Chiarello, Gian Luca

    2014-01-01

    the same reduction conditions, the particle sizes of reduced Cu-Ni alloys decrease with increasing Ni content. Estimates of the metal surface area from sulfur chemisorption and from the XRD particle size generally agree well on the trend across the composition range, but show some disparity in terms...... of the absolute magnitude of the metal area. This work provides practical synthesis guidelines towards preparation of Cu-Ni alloy nanomaterials with different Cu/Ni ratios, and insight into the application of different in situ techniques for characterization of the alloy formation. Copyright © 2014 WILEY...

  5. Absorption boundary conditions for geomertical acoustics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2012-01-01

    Defining accurate acoustical boundary conditions is of crucial importance for room acoustic simulations. In predicting sound fields using phased geometrical acoustics methods, the absorption coefficients or surface impedances of the boundary surfaces can be used, but no guideline has been developed...... on which boundary condition produces the best results. In this study, various boundary conditions in terms of normal and random incidence absorption coefficients, and normal incidence surface impedances are used in a phased beam tracing model, and simulated results are validated with boundary element...... solutions. Two rectangular rooms with uniform and non-uniform absorption distributions are tested. It is concluded that the impedance and random incidence absorption boundary conditions produce reasonable results with some exceptions at low frequencies for acoustically soft materials....

  6. Tunable THz wave absorption by graphene-assisted plasmonic metasurfaces based on metallic split ring resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadivand, Arash, E-mail: aahmadiv@fiu.edu; Sinha, Raju; Karabiyik, Mustafa; Vabbina, Phani Kiran; Gerislioglu, Burak; Kaya, Serkan; Pala, Nezih [Florida International University, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Graphene plasmonics has been introduced as a novel platform to design various nano- and microstructures to function in a wide range of spectrum from optical to THz frequencies. Herein, we propose a tunable plasmonic metamaterial in the THz regime by using metallic (silver) concentric microscale split ring resonator arrays on a multilayer metasurface composed of silica and silicon layers. We obtained an absorption percentage of 47.9% including two strong Fano resonant dips in THz regime for the purely plasmonic metamaterial without graphene layer. Considering the data of an atomic graphene sheet (with the thickness of ~0.35 nm) in both analytical and experimental regimes obtained by prior works, we employed a graphene layer under concentric split ring resonator arrays and above the multilayer metasurface to enhance the absorption ratio in THz bandwidth. Our numerical and analytical results proved that the presence of a thin graphene layer enhances the absorption coefficient of MM to 64.35%, at the highest peak in absorption profile that corresponds to the Fano dip position. We also have shown that changing the intrinsic characteristics of graphene sheet leads to shifts in the position of Fano dips and variations in the absorption efficiency. The maximum percentage of absorption (~67%) was obtained for graphene-based MM with graphene layer with dissipative loss factor of 1477 Ω. Employing the antisymmetric feature of the split ring resonators, the proposed graphene-based metamaterial with strong polarization dependency is highly sensitive to the polarization angle of the incident THz beam.

  7. The influence of edge geometry on end-correction coefficients in micro perforated plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temiz, Muttalip Aşkın; Lopez Arteaga, Ines; Efraimsson, Gunilla; Åbom, Mats; Hirschberg, Avraham

    2015-12-01

    Global expressions are proposed for end-correction coefficients in micro perforated plates (MPPs) using non-dimensional parameters. MPPs are sound absorbers with small perforation diameters such that the Stokes boundary layers fill up almost the entire perforation. Sound absorption does not only occur within the perforation, but also takes place just outside of it. The latter contribution plus the outside inertia effect on the transfer impedance of the MPP are referred to as end-corrections. In order to determine them, an analytical solution employing the very thin Stokes layer assumption has been derived. However, this assumption requires empirical coefficients in the end-corrections for accurate results. To explore the effects of various parameters a numerical model is used. This model is verified with open-end reflection coefficient measurements. The most prominent result from this study is that compared to plate thickness, the ratio of perforation diameter to Stokes layer thickness (Shear number) and edge geometry affect the end-correction coefficients more significantly. The effect of plate thickness can be neglected for practical purposes, therefore, expressions for the end-corrections in terms of Shear number and edge geometry are provided. The relative error of these expressions is <3% compared to the numerical results.

  8. Assessment of normal incidence absorption performance of sound absorbing materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Forouharmajd

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The purpose of the present work was to consider the effect of different samples thicknesses on the acoustic absorption coefficient. Materials and Methods: An impedance tube was built with two microphones accordance to ISO-10534 and the American Society for Testing Materials-E1050 standards. For the measurement of absorption, the study was carried for 25 and 30 mm thicknesses of closed cell polyurethane foam, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC, rubber, mineral wool, carpet, and glass samples. Measurements were performed by impedance tube and VA-lab4 software. Results: In carpet and mineral wool with more thickness, the absorption was increased but, the carpet with less thickness showed more sound absorption in the frequency range of 1500-3600 Hz. The peak of the absorption coefficient of 25 mm glass was 0.36 that the amount was reduced to 0.2 in the 30 mm thickness. Furthermore, the difference between the peak absorption of two thicknesses in polystyrene sample was equal to 0.29. In fact, polystyrene with less thickness had better sound absorption. The same situation was happened for glass in frequencies of below 4500 Hz with less thickness. Conclusion: Incident sound energy, which is not absorbed, must be reflected, transmitted, or dissipated. The porous materials had a higher absorption coefficient. Carpet and mineral wool samples had the highest absorption coefficient, but the materials such as polyurethane foam, PVC, and rubber had lower sound absorption.

  9. Coefficient estimates of negative powers and inverse coefficients for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    λ. Using this we shall determine the ... Univalent; starlike; meromorphic functions; subordination; coefficient bounds; inverse ...... [6] FitzGerald C H, Quadratic inequalities and coefficient estimates for Schlicht functions, Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal.

  10. Particulate absorption properties in the Red Sea from hyperspectral particulate absorption spectra

    KAUST Repository

    Tiwari, Surya Prakash

    2018-03-16

    This paper aims to describe the variability of particulate absorption properties using a unique hyperspectral dataset collected in the Red Sea as part of the TARA Oceans expedition. The absorption contributions by phytoplankton (aph) and non-algal particles (aNAP) to the total particulate absorption coefficients are determined using a numerical decomposition method (NDM). The NDM is validated by comparing the NDM derived values of aph and aNAP with simulated values of aph and aNAP are found to be in excellent agreement for the selected wavelengths (i.e., 443, 490, 555, and 676nm) with high correlation coefficient (R2), low root mean square error (RMSE), mean relative error (MRE), and with a slope close to unity. Further analyses showed that the total particulate absorption coefficients (i.e., ap(443)average = 0.01995m−1) were dominated by phytoplankton absorption (i.e., aph(443)average = 0.01743m−1) with a smaller contribution by non-algal particles absorption (i.e., aNAP(443)average = 0.002524m−1). The chlorophyll a is computed using the absorption based Line Height Method (LHM). The derived chlorophyll-specific absorption ((a⁎ph = aph(λ)/ChlLH)) showed more variability in the blue part of spectrum as compared to the red part of spectrum representative of the package effect and changes in pigment composition. A new parametrization proposed also enabled the reconstruction of a⁎ph(λ) for the Red Sea. Comparison of derived spectral constants with the spectral constants of existing models showed that our study A(λ) values are consistent with the existing values, despite there is a divergence with the B(λ) values. This study provides valuable information derived from the particulate absorption properties and its spectral variability and this would help us to determine the relationship between the phytoplankton absorption coefficients and chlorophyll a and its host of variables for the Red Sea.

  11. Air- and N2-Broadening Coefficients and Pressure-Shift Coefficients in the C-12(O2-16) Laser Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, V. Malathy; Benner, D. Chris; Smith, Mary Ann H.; Rinsland, Curtis P.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we report the pressure broadening and the pressure-induced line shift coefficients for 46 individual rovibrational lines in both the (12)C(16)O2, 00(sup 0)1-(10(sup 0)0-02(sup 0)0)I, and 00(sup 0)1-(10(sup 0)0-02(sup 0)0)II, laser bands (laser band I centered at 960.959/cm and laser band II centered at 1063.735/cm) determined from spectra recorded with the McMath-Pierce Fourier transform spectrometer. The results were obtained from analysis of 10 long-path laboratory absorption spectra recorded at room temperature using a multispectrum nonlinear least-squares technique. Pressure effects caused by both air and nitrogen have been investigated. The air-broadening coefficients determined in this study agree well with the values in the 1996 HITRAN database; ratios and standard deviations of the ratios of the present air-broadening measurements to the 1996 HITRAN values for the two laser bands are: 1.005(15) for laser band I and 1.005(14) for laser band II. Broadening by nitrogen is 3 to 4% larger than that of air. The pressure-induced line shift coefficients are found to be transition dependent and different for the P- and R-branch lines with same J" value. No noticeable differences in the shift coefficients caused by air and nitrogen were found. The results obtained are compared with available values previously reported in the literature.

  12. Sound absorption by a Helmholtz resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komkin, A. I.; Mironov, M. A.; Bykov, A. I.

    2017-07-01

    Absorption characteristics of a Helmholtz resonator positioned at the end wall of a circular duct are considered. The absorption coefficient of the resonator is experimentally investigated as a function of the diameter and length of the resonator neck and the depth of the resonator cavity. Based on experimental data, the linear analytic model of a Helmholtz resonator is verified, and the results of verification are used to determine the dissipative attached length of the resonator neck so as to provide the agreement between experimental and calculated data. Dependences of sound absorption by a Helmholtz resonator on its geometric parameters are obtained.

  13. Different mathematical processing of absorption, ratio and derivative spectra for quantification of mixtures containing minor component: An application to the analysis of the recently co-formulated antidiabetic drugs; canagliflozin and metformin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfy, Hayam M.; Mohamed, Dalia; Elshahed, Mona S.

    2018-01-01

    In the presented work several spectrophotometric methods were performed for the quantification of canagliflozin (CGZ) and metformin hydrochloride (MTF) simultaneously in their binary mixture. Two of these methods; response correlation (RC) and advanced balance point-spectrum subtraction (ABP-SS) were developed and introduced for the first time in this work, where the latter method (ABP-SS) was performed on both the zero order and the first derivative spectra of the drugs. Besides, two recently established methods; advanced amplitude modulation (AAM) and advanced absorbance subtraction (AAS) were also accomplished. All the proposed methods were validated in accordance to the ICH guidelines, where all methods were proved to be accurate and precise. Additionally, the linearity range, limit of detection and limit of quantification were determined and the selectivity was examined through the analysis of laboratory prepared mixtures and the combined dosage form of the drugs. The proposed methods were capable of determining the two drugs in the ratio present in the pharmaceutical formulation CGZ:MTF (1:17) without the requirement of any preliminary separation, further dilution or standard spiking. The results obtained by the proposed methods were in compliance with the reported chromatographic method when compared statistically, proving the absence of any significant difference in accuracy and precision between the proposed and reported methods.

  14. Evolution of absorption machines; Evolution des machines a absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soide, I.; Klemsdal, E. [Gaz de France (GDF), 75 - Paris (France); Le Goff, P.; Hornut, J.M. [LSGC-ENSIC, 54 - Nancy (France)

    1997-12-31

    Most of todays absorption air-conditioning machineries use the lithium bromide-water pair. The most performing can operate at a 150-160 deg. C, the temperature being limited by the corrosion resistance of metals with respect to LiBr solutions. Also, there is a revival of interest for water-ammonia systems. These systems require the use of a rectification column which reduces the coefficient of performance. Higher thermal performances are reached with hydrocarbon pairs and ternary mixtures (water-methanol-LiBr etc..). This paper presents different schemes of refrigerating heat pumps based on these different systems. (J.S.)

  15. Absorption of controlled-release iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.D.; Lipschitz, D.A.; Skikne, B.S.

    1982-01-01

    A multiple-dose double radioiron technic was used to compare absorption of iron administered as a controlled release (CR) capsule and as an elixir; both formulations contained 50 mg elemental iron as ferrous sulfate. When taken by normal subjects in the fasting state, mean absorption from the elixir and CR capsule averaged 4.92% and 4.38%, which gave a CR capsule:elixir ratio of 0.89. This difference was not significant, but when taken with meals that inhibit absorption of dietary iron by different degrees, absorption of the CR formulation was superior. CR capsule:elixir absorption ratios averaged 1.70 from a meal that is mildly inhibitory and 3.13 from a meal that causes more marked inhibition. It is concluded that CR iron formulations may offer a therapeutic advantage to patients who take oral iron with meals to avoid gastrointestinal side effects

  16. Absorption/desorption in sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naimpally, A.

    1987-01-01

    This survey paper shall seek to present the present state of knowledge concerning absorption and desorption in spray chambers. The first part of the paper presents the theories and formulas for the atomization and break-up of sprays in nozzles. Formulas for the average (sauter-mean) diameters are then presented. For the case of absorption processes, the formulas for the dimensionless mass transfer coefficients is in drops. The total; mass transfer is the total of the transfer in individual drops. For the case of desorption of sparingly soluble gases from liquids in a spray chamber, the mass transfer occurs in the spray just at the point of break-up of the jet. Formulas for the desorption of gases are presented

  17. Acoustic absorption of geopolymer/sand mixture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Perná, Ivana; Hanzlíček, Tomáš; Straka, Pavel; Steinerová, Michaela

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 1 (2009), s. 48-51 ISSN 0862-5468 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : acoustic absorption coefficient * geopolymer Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 0.649, year: 2009 www.ceramics-silikaty.cz/2009/pdf/2009_01_48.pdf

  18. Simple parametrization of photon mass energy absorption ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E-mail: tku@physics.uni-mysore.ac.in; umeshtk@gmail.com. MS received 21 May 2008; ... Complex molecules such as carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, enzymes, vitamins and hormones perform a variety of ... where φ is the fluence of photon flux of energy E and µen/ρ is the mass energy absorption coefficient. Thus, in ...

  19. Measuring sound absorption using local field assumptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, E.R.

    2013-01-01

    To more effectively apply acoustically absorbing materials, it is desirable to measure angle-dependent sound absorption coefficients, preferably in situ. Existing measurement methods are based on an overall model of the acoustic field in front of the absorber, and are therefore sensitive to

  20. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTIONS OF ABSORPTION, LOCAL SUPPRESSION, AND EMISSIVITY REDUCTION OF SOLAR ACOUSTIC WAVES IN MAGNETIC REGIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, D.-Y.; Yang, M.-H.; Zhao Hui; Liang Zhichao; Sun, M.-T.

    2009-01-01

    Observed acoustic power in magnetic regions is lower than the quiet Sun because of absorption, emissivity reduction, and local suppression of solar acoustic waves in magnetic regions. In the previous studies, we have developed a method to measure the coefficients of absorption, emissivity reduction, and local suppression of sunspots. In this study, we go one step further to measure the spatial distributions of three coefficients in two active regions, NOAA 9055 and 9057. The maps of absorption, emissivity reduction, and local suppression coefficients correlate with the magnetic map, including plage regions, except the emissivity reduction coefficient of NOAA 9055 where the emissivity reduction coefficient is too weak and lost among the noise.

  1. A Review: Characteristics of Noise Absorption Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amares, S.; Sujatmika, E.; Hong, T. W.; Durairaj, R.; Hamid, H. S. H. B.

    2017-10-01

    Noise is always treated as a nuisance to human and even noise pollution appears in the environmental causing discomfort. This also concerns the engineering design that tends to cultivate this noise propagation. Solution such as using material to absorb the sound have been widely used. The fundamental of the sound absorbing propagation, sound absorbing characteristics and its factors are minimally debated. Furthermore, the method in order to pertain sound absorbing related to the sound absorption coefficient is also limited, as many studies only contributes in result basis and very little in literature aspect. This paper revolves in providing better insight on the importance of sound absorption and the materials factors in obtaining the sound absorption coefficient.

  2. Gold analysis by the gamma absorption technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtoglu, Arzu; Tugrul, A.B.

    2003-01-01

    Gold (Au) analyses are generally performed using destructive techniques. In this study, the Gamma Absorption Technique has been employed for gold analysis. A series of different gold alloys of known gold content were analysed and a calibration curve was obtained. This curve was then used for the analysis of unknown samples. Gold analyses can be made non-destructively, easily and quickly by the gamma absorption technique. The mass attenuation coefficients of the alloys were measured around the K-shell absorption edge of Au. Theoretical mass attenuation coefficient values were obtained using the WinXCom program and comparison of the experimental results with the theoretical values showed generally good and acceptable agreement

  3. Determination of electromagnetic absorption parameters by reflection measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vittitoe, C.N.

    1975-09-01

    The method described is for determining the electromagnetic absorption parameters of a material by measuring the optical reflection from a thick sample. With linearly polarized incident light (both perpendicular to and parallel to the plane of incidence), the ratio of the reflected intensities at three or more angles of incidence offers promise for determining the complex index of refraction of a material for a broad range of parameter values. The method may be applicable to molten materials, such as UO 2 , where high temperatures cause corrosion and containment difficulties. A method is given for extending the data to neighboring frequencies. Use of the method was successful for all portions of the complex index of refraction plane except for small values of the extinction coefficient

  4. Enhancement in BC absorption under varying hygroscopic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamjad, P.; Tripathi, S. N.; Aggarwal, S.; Mishra, S. K.; Joshi, M.; Khan, A.; Sapra, B. K.; Ram, K.

    2012-12-01

    The estimation of radiative impact of BC strongly depends on the accurate measurement of its absorption coefficient, mass concentration and its mixing state. Mixing of BC with other inorganic species induce changes in optical properties. Models that consider Internal mixing of BC provide more realistic absorption estimates as compared to external mixing models. Absorption by BC increases when BC particles are mixed and/or coated with other less absorbing materials, which are hygroscopic in nature. We quantified the hygroscopic growth of aerosols during winter season over an urban site (Kanpur) in the Indo-Gangetic Plane (IGP) and thereby explain the enhancement in BC absorption coefficient observed for the same period. From the calculated hygroscopic growth factor we derived a model to predict the chemical composition of particles during the experimental period. Absorption and scattering coefficients are calculated using a core-shell assumption based on Mie theory. These derived optical parameters are compared with experimental values and the closure is found to be very good. The estimated optical properties agree within 7% for absorption coefficient and 30% for scattering coefficient with that of measured values. The enhancement of absorption is found to vary according to the thickness of the shell and BC mass, with a maximum of 2.3 for a shell thickness of 18 nm for the particles.

  5. Quadrature formulas for Fourier coefficients

    KAUST Repository

    Bojanov, Borislav

    2009-09-01

    We consider quadrature formulas of high degree of precision for the computation of the Fourier coefficients in expansions of functions with respect to a system of orthogonal polynomials. In particular, we show the uniqueness of a multiple node formula for the Fourier-Tchebycheff coefficients given by Micchelli and Sharma and construct new Gaussian formulas for the Fourier coefficients of a function, based on the values of the function and its derivatives. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Optical absorption of charged excitons in semiconducting carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønnow, Troels Frimodt; Pedersen, Thomas Garm; Cornean, Horia

    2012-01-01

    In this article we examine the absorption coefficient of charged excitons in carbon nanotubes. We investigate the temperature and damping dependence of the absorption spectra. We show that the trion peak in the spectrum is asymmetric for temperatures greater than approximately 1 K whereas...

  7. Measuring of heat transfer coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Poul; Lindegren, Maria

    Subtask 3.4 Measuring of heat transfer coefficient Subtask 3.4.1 Design and setting up of tests to measure heat transfer coefficient Objective: Complementary testing methods together with the relevant experimental equipment are to be designed by the two partners involved in order to measure...... the heat transfer coefficient for a wide range of interface conditions in hot and warm forging processes. Subtask 3.4.2 Measurement of heat transfer coefficient The objective of subtask 3.4.2 is to determine heat transfer values for different interface conditions reflecting those typically operating in hot...

  8. Classification of coefficients of variation in experiments with commercial layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DE Faria Filho

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at determining a specific classification of coefficients of variation in experiments with commercial layers. Coefficients of variation were collected from papers published in Brazilian journals between 2000 and 2009 for performance, internal egg quality, and eggshell quality parameters. The coefficients of variation of each parameter were classified as low, intermediate, high, and very high according to the ratio between the median and the pseudo-sigma. It was concluded that the parameters used in experiments with commercial layers have a specific classification of coefficients of variation, and that this must be considered to evaluate experimental accuracy.

  9. New in vitro dermal absorption database and the prediction of dermal absorption under finite conditions for risk assessment purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist, H.E.; Burgsteden, J.A. van; Freidig, A.P.; Maas, W.J.M.; Sandt, J.J.M. van de

    2010-01-01

    Most QSARs for dermal absorption predict the permeability coefficient, Kp, of a molecule, which is valid for infinite dose conditions. In practice, dermal exposure mostly occurs under finite dose conditions. Therefore, a simple model to predict finite dose dermal absorption from infinite

  10. New in vitro dermal absorption database and the prediction of dermal absorption under finite conditions for risk assessment purposes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist, H.E.; Burgsteden, J.A. van; Freidig, A.P.; Maas, W.J.; Sandt, J.J. van de

    2010-01-01

    Most QSARs for dermal absorption predict the permeability coefficient, K(p), of a molecule, which is valid for infinite dose conditions. In practice, dermal exposure mostly occurs under finite dose conditions. Therefore, a simple model to predict finite dose dermal absorption from infinite dose data

  11. Broken-cloud enhancement of solar radiation absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, R.N. [Science Applications International Corporation, San Diego, CA (United States); Somerville, R.C. [Univ. of California, La Jolla, CA (United States); Subasilar, B. [Curtain Univ. of Technology, Perth (Australia)

    1996-04-01

    Two papers recently published in Science have shown that there is more absorption of solar radiation than estimated by current atmospheric general circulation models (GCMs) and that the discrepancy is associated with cloudy scenes. We have devised a simple model which explains this as an artifact of stochastic radiative transport. We first give a heuristic description, unencumbered by mathematical detail. Consider a simple case with clouds distributed at random within a single level whose upper and lower boundaries are fixed. The solar zenith angle is small to moderate; this is therefore an energetically important case. Fix the average areal liquid water content of the cloud layer, and take the statistics of the cloud distribution to be homogeneous within the layer. Furthermore, assume that all the clouds in the layer have the same liquid water content, constant throughout the cloud, and that apart from their droplet content they are identical to the surrounding clear sky. Let the clouds occupy on the average a fraction p{sub cld} of the volume of the cloudy layer, and let them have a prescribed distribution of sizes about some mean. This is not a fractal distribution, because it has a scale. Cloud shape is unimportant so long as cloud aspect ratios are not far from unity. Take the single-scattering albedo to be unity for the droplets in the clouds. All of the absorption is due to atmospheric gases, so the absorption coefficient at a point is the same for cloud and clear sky. Absorption by droplets is less than 10% effect in the numerical stochastic radiation calculations described below, so it is reasonable to neglect it at this level of idealization.

  12. Redox ratio and optical absorption of polyvalent ions in industrial ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    †Institute of Ceramics, Glass and Cement, Freiberg University of Mining and Technology, Leipziger St. 28, 09596. Freiberg, Germany. MS received 22 September ... and Co2+ ions in industrial soda–lime–silica glass were investigated as a function of Na2O concentration in the range 11–19 mol%. With increasing Na2O ...

  13. Nutrition and magnesium absorption

    OpenAIRE

    Brink, E.J.

    1992-01-01

    The influence of various nutrients present in dairy products and soybean-based products on absorption of magnesium has been investigated. The studies demonstrate that soybean protein versus casein lowers apparent magnesium absorption in rats through its phytate component. However, true magnesium absorption was neither affected by soybean protein in the diet nor by supplemental phytate. The inhibitory influence of soybean protein and phytate on apparent magnesium absorption was found ...

  14. Absorption and excretion tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berberich, R.

    1988-01-01

    The absorption and excretion of radiopharmaceuticals is still of interest in diagnostic investigations of nuclear medicine. In this paper the most common methods of measuring absorption and excretion are described. The performance of the different tests and their standard values are discussed. More over the basic possibilities of measuring absorption and excretion including the needed measurement equipments are presented. (orig.) [de

  15. Thermal expansion coefficient and characteristic temperature of cubic dodecaborides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mojseenko, L.L.

    1980-01-01

    Temperature dependence of the thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) of cubic dodecaborides was studied within the 77-1200 K range. The Debye characteristic temperatures were determined from the experimental results of the TEC. Application of various ratios to calculate the Debye temperatures is analyzed relative to the ratios validity. These temperatures are compared with characteristic ones determined by X-raying

  16. Sound absorption by clamped poroelastic plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aygun, H; Attenborough, K

    2008-09-01

    Measurements and predictions have been made of the absorption coefficient and the surface acoustic impedance of poroelastic plates clamped in a large impedance tube and separated from the rigid termination by an air gap. The measured and predicted absorption coefficient and surface impedance spectra exhibit low frequency peaks. The peak frequencies observed in the absorption coefficient are close to those predicted and measured in the deflection spectra of the clamped poroelastic plates. The influences of the rigidity of the clamping conditions and the width of the air gap have been investigated. Both influences are found to be important. Increasing the rigidity of clamping reduces the low frequency absorption peaks compared with those measured for simply supported plates or plates in an intermediate clamping condition. Results for a closed cell foam plate and for two open cell foam plates made from recycled materials are presented. For identical clamping conditions and width of air gap, the results for the different materials differ as a consequence mainly of their different elasticity, thickness, and cell structure.

  17. Aerosol Absorption Measurements in MILAGRO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Arnott, W. P.; Paredes-Miranda, L.; Barnard, J. C.

    2007-12-01

    to carbonyl- and nitro- functional groups on conjugated and aromatic organic structures (e.g. PAH, and terpene derived products). Using 12-hour fine (0.1-1.0 micron) aerosol samples collected in the field on quartz filters, uv/vis and infrared spectra were obtained in the laboratory using integrating spheres and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, respectively. An inter-comparison of the "real-time" measurements made by the photo-acoustic, aethalometer and MAAP techniques have been described. In addition, the in situ aethalometer (seven-channel) results are compared with continuous integrating sphere uv-visible spectra to examine the angstrom absorption coefficient variance. These results will be briefly overviewed and the specific posters detailing these results will be highlighted highlighted. This work was performed as part of the Department of Energy's Megacity Aerosol Experiment - Mexico City under the support of the Atmospheric Science Program. "This researchwas supported by the Office of Science (BER), U. S. Department of Energy, Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER64329.

  18. Electron cyclotron absorption in Tokamak plasmas in the presence of radial transport of particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, Paulo R. da S.; Ziebell, Luiz F.

    1998-01-01

    We use quasilinear theory to study effects of particle radial transport on the electron cyclotron absorption coefficient by a current carrying plasma, in a tokamak modelated as a plasma slab. Our numerical results indicate significant modification in the profile of the electron cyclotron absorption coefficient when transport is taken into account relative to the situation without transport. (author)

  19. Calcium absorption and achlorhydria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recker, R.R.

    1985-01-01

    Defective absorption of calcium has been thought to exist in patients with achlorhydria. The author compared absorption of calcium in its carbonate form with that in a pH-adjusted citrate form in a group of 11 fasting patients with achlorhydria and in 9 fasting normal subjects. Fractional calcium absorption was measured by a modified double-isotope procedure with 0.25 g of calcium used as the carrier. Mean calcium absorption (+/- S.D.) in the patients with achlorhydria was 0.452 +/- 0.125 for citrate and 0.042 +/- 0.021 for carbonate (P less than 0.0001). Fractional calcium absorption in the normal subjects was 0.243 +/- 0.049 for citrate and 0.225 +/- 0.108 for carbonate (not significant). Absorption of calcium from carbonate in patients with achlorhydria was significantly lower than in the normal subjects and was lower than absorption from citrate in either group; absorption from citrate in those with achlorhydria was significantly higher than in the normal subjects, as well as higher than absorption from carbonate in either group. Administration of calcium carbonate as part of a normal breakfast resulted in completely normal absorption in the achlorhydric subjects. These results indicate that calcium absorption from carbonate is impaired in achlorhydria under fasting conditions. Since achlorhydria is common in older persons, calcium carbonate may not be the ideal dietary supplement

  20. Thermal neutron diffusion cooling coefficient for plexiglass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdowicz, K.

    1992-08-01

    The thermal neutron diffusion cooling coefficient is a macroscopic material parameter. It is needed for description of the decay of the thermal neutron pulse in a medium and gives information of the diffusion cooling of the thermal neutron spectrum in a bounded volume. Experimental results from various measurements for plexiglass are overviewed in the paper. A method for theoretical, exact calculation of the parameter is presented. The formula utilizes some other thermal neutron parameters and a cooling function, i.e. the function which describes the deviation of the neutron spectrum in a bounded system from the distribution in an infinite one. The energy dependence of the function is obtained numerically from relations which results from the eigenvalue problem of the scattering operator when both the decay constant and the spectrum of the thermal neutron flux are developed on powers of the geometrical buckling. The case of a 1/ν absorption cross section is considered. The calculation utilizes a synthetic scattering function elaborated for hydrogenous media by GRANADA (1985). The influence of some quantities used in the calculation on the final result is investigated. The obtained value of the diffusion cooling coefficient for plexiglass is C = 6514 cm 4 s -1 at the temperature of 20 degrees C. The uncertainty is estimated to be ± 100 cm 4 s -1 within the physical model of the scattering kernel used. (au)

  1. Gastrointestinal absorption of uranium in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, R.P.; Orlandini, K.A.

    1984-01-01

    A method has been established for determining the fractional absorption of uranium directly in man. Measurements are made of the urinary excretion rates of uranium for individuals whose drinking water has a high 234 U to 238 U activity ratio and is the primary source of 234 U in their diets. For two individuals, the values obtained for the fractional absorption of 234 U were 0.004 and 0.006. The values obtained for the fractional absorption of 238 U, using a literature value for the 238 U intake from food, were 0.008 and 0.015. The present ICRP value is 0.20. 7 references, 1 table

  2. Kuznetsov equation with variable coefficients

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    like solutions of the PDE in (2+1) dimension with variable coefficients. ... Shivamoggi [12] gives only four polynomial conservation laws of the ZK equation ..... [3] P J Olver, Application of Lie group to differential equation (Springer, New York,.

  3. Monitoring of MOCVD reactants by UV absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baucom, K.C.; Killeen, K.P.; Moffat, H.K.

    1995-07-01

    In this paper, we describe how UV absorption measurements can be used to measure the flow rates of metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) reactants. This method utilizes the calculation of UV extinction coefficients by measuring the total pressure and absorbance in the neat reactant system. The development of this quantitative reactant flow rate monitor allows for the direct measurement of the efficiency of a reactant bubbler. We demonstrate bubbler efficiency results for TMGa, and then explain some discrepancies found in the TMAl system due to the monomer to dimer equilibrium. Also, the UV absorption spectra of metal organic and hydride MOCVD reactants over the wavelength range 185 to 400 nm are reported.

  4. Disorder-induced enhancement of indirect absorption in a GeSn photodetector grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, H.; Chang, C.; Cheng, H. H.; Sun, G.; Soref, R. A.

    2016-01-01

    We report an investigation on the absorption mechanism of a GeSn photodetector with 2.4% Sn composition in the active region. Responsivity is measured and absorption coefficient is calculated. Square root of absorption coefficient linearly depends on photon energy indicating an indirect transition. However, the absorption coefficient is found to be at least one order of magnitude higher than that of most other indirect materials, suggesting that the indirect optical absorption transition cannot be assisted only by phonon. Our analysis of absorption measurements by other groups on the same material system showed the values of absorption coefficient on the same order of magnitude. Our study reveals that the strong enhancement of absorption for the indirect optical transition is the result of alloy disorder from the incorporation of the much larger Sn atoms into the Ge lattice that are randomly distributed.

  5. Fuel Temperature Coefficient of Reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewe, W.E.

    2001-07-31

    A method for measuring the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity in a heterogeneous nuclear reactor is presented. The method, which is used during normal operation, requires that calibrated control rods be oscillated in a special way at a high reactor power level. The value of the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity is found from the measured flux responses to these oscillations. Application of the method in a Savannah River reactor charged with natural uranium is discussed.

  6. [Study on lead absorption in pumpkin by atomic absorption spectrophotometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen-Xia; Sun, Yong-Dong; Chen, Bi-Hua; Li, Xin-Zheng

    2008-07-01

    A study was carried out on the characteristic of lead absorption in pumpkin via atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed that lead absorption amount in pumpkin increased with time, but the absorption rate decreased with time; And the lead absorption amount reached the peak in pH 7. Lead and cadmium have similar characteristic of absorption in pumpkin.

  7. Clustering Coefficients for Correlation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Masuda

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Graph theory is a useful tool for deciphering structural and functional networks of the brain on various spatial and temporal scales. The clustering coefficient quantifies the abundance of connected triangles in a network and is a major descriptive statistics of networks. For example, it finds an application in the assessment of small-worldness of brain networks, which is affected by attentional and cognitive conditions, age, psychiatric disorders and so forth. However, it remains unclear how the clustering coefficient should be measured in a correlation-based network, which is among major representations of brain networks. In the present article, we propose clustering coefficients tailored to correlation matrices. The key idea is to use three-way partial correlation or partial mutual information to measure the strength of the association between the two neighboring nodes of a focal node relative to the amount of pseudo-correlation expected from indirect paths between the nodes. Our method avoids the difficulties of previous applications of clustering coefficient (and other measures in defining correlational networks, i.e., thresholding on the correlation value, discarding of negative correlation values, the pseudo-correlation problem and full partial correlation matrices whose estimation is computationally difficult. For proof of concept, we apply the proposed clustering coefficient measures to functional magnetic resonance imaging data obtained from healthy participants of various ages and compare them with conventional clustering coefficients. We show that the clustering coefficients decline with the age. The proposed clustering coefficients are more strongly correlated with age than the conventional ones are. We also show that the local variants of the proposed clustering coefficients (i.e., abundance of triangles around a focal node are useful in characterizing individual nodes. In contrast, the conventional local clustering coefficients

  8. Measurement of atomic number and mass attenuation coefficient in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    energy selective scintillation counter with radioactive γ-ray sources having energy 0.36,. 0.511, 0.662, 1.17 and 1.28 MeV. The experimentally obtained values of μ/ρ and Zeff agreed fairly well with those obtained theoretically. Keywords. Absorption; attenuation coefficient; effective atomic number. PACS Nos 29.40.Mc; 29.30 ...

  9. The vibroacoustic response and sound absorption performance of multilayer, microperforated rib-stiffened plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haian; Wang, Xiaoming; Wu, Huayong; Meng, Jianbing

    2017-10-01

    The vibroacoustic response and sound absorption performance of a structure composed of multilayer plates and one rigid back wall are theoretically analyzed. In this structure, all plates are two-dimensional, microperforated, and periodically rib-stiffened. To investigate such a structural system, semianalytical models of one-layer and multilayer plate structures considering the vibration effects are first developed. Then approaches of the space harmonic method and Fourier transforms are applied to a one-layer plate, and finally the cascade connection method is utilized for a multilayer plate structure. Based on fundamental acoustic formulas, the vibroacoustic responses of microperforated stiffened plates are expressed as functions of a series of harmonic amplitudes of plate displacement, which are then solved by employing the numerical truncation method. Applying the inverse Fourier transform, wave propagation, and linear addition properties, the equations of the sound pressures and absorption coefficients for the one-layer and multilayer stiffened plates in physical space are finally derived. Using numerical examples, the effects of the most important physical parameters—for example, the perforation ratio of the plate, sound incident angles, and periodical rib spacing—on sound absorption performance are examined. Numerical results indicate that the sound absorption performance of the studied structure is effectively enhanced by the flexural vibration of the plate in water. Finally, the proposed approaches are validated by comparing the results of stiffened plates of the present work with solutions from previous studies.

  10. Absorption heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formigoni, C.

    1998-01-01

    A brief description of the difference between a compression and an absorption heat pump is made, and the reasons why absorption systems have spread lately are given. Studies and projects recently started in the field of absorption heat pumps, as well as criteria usually followed in project development are described. An outline (performance targets, basic components) of a project on a water/air absorption heat pump, running on natural gas or LPG, is given. The project was developed by the Robur Group as an evolution of a water absorption refrigerator operating with a water/ammonia solution, which has been on the market for a long time and recently innovated. Finally, a list of the main energy and cost advantages deriving from the use of absorption heat pumps is made [it

  11. Polarization independent asymmetric light absorption in plasmonic nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco Rêgo, Davi; Rodriguez-Esquerre, Vitaly Felix

    2017-08-01

    The directional dependency of the optical coefficients, such as absorbance and reflectance, of a periodic hole plasmonic structure is numerically simulated and investigated. The tridimensional structure, which is composed of a metallic thin layer on a semiconductor matrix, is polarization independent and exhibits wide angle tolerance. It is found that the optical coefficients of the simulated structure have strong dependency to the radii of the holes due to cavity modes resonance and surface plasmon resonance. Simulations were carried out using gold and silver, varying the holes radii ranging from 40 to 70nm, as well as its depth, from 30 to 60nm of the metallic thin layer and from 100 to 200nm of the semiconductor matrix. A maximum contrast ratio of a unit was obtained. The resonant modes excited in the structure and excitation of surface plasmon polaritons in the metallic side illumination favors absorption, which explains the asymmetric behavior. We also investigate the structure's fabrication sensitivity by randomizing the generation of center of the holes in a supercell. These findings are significant for a diverse range of applications, ranging from optical integrated circuits to solar and thermovoltaics energy harvesting.

  12. Non-constant retardation coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiming; Gu Zhijie; Yang Yue'e; Li Shushen

    2004-12-01

    Retardation coefficient is one of the important parameters used in transport models describing radionuclide migration in geological media and usually regarded as a constant in the models. The objectives of the work are to understand: (1) Whether the retardation coefficient, R d , is a constant? (2) How much effect is R d on calculated consequence if R d is not constant? (3) Is the retardation coefficient derived from distribution coefficient, k d , according to conventional equation suitable for safety assessment? The objectives are achieved through test and analysis of the test results on radionuclide migration in unsaturated loess. It can be seen from the results that retardation coefficient, R d , of 85 Sr is not constant and increases with water content, θ, under unsaturated condition. R d , of 85 Sr derived from k d according to conventional equation can not be used for safety assessment. R d , used for safety assessment should be directly measured, rather than derived from k d . It is shown from calculation that the effect of R d on calculated consequence is very considerable. (authors)

  13. High temperature measurement of water vapor absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, Dennis; Lewis, J. W. L.; Eskridge, Richard

    1985-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to measure the absorption coefficient, at a wavelength of 10.6 microns, for mixtures of water vapor and a diluent gas at high temperature and pressure. The experimental concept was to create the desired conditions of temperature and pressure in a laser absorption wave, similar to that which would be created in a laser propulsion system. A simplified numerical model was developed to predict the characteristics of the absorption wave and to estimate the laser intensity threshold for initiation. A non-intrusive method for temperature measurement utilizing optical laser-beam deflection (OLD) and optical spark breakdown produced by an excimer laser, was thoroughly investigated and found suitable for the non-equilibrium conditions expected in the wave. Experiments were performed to verify the temperature measurement technique, to screen possible materials for surface initiation of the laser absorption wave and to attempt to initiate an absorption wave using the 1.5 kW carbon dioxide laser. The OLD technique was proven for air and for argon, but spark breakdown could not be produced in helium. It was not possible to initiate a laser absorption wave in mixtures of water and helium or water and argon using the 1.5 kW laser, a result which was consistent with the model prediction.

  14. Coefficient estimates of negative powers and inverse coefficients for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1 an(−λ, f )zn for z ∈ D. (1.4). One of the well-known extremal problems in the theory of univalent functions is to esti- mate the modulus of the Taylor coefficients an(−λ, f ) given by (1.4). This problem has been extensively studied in the literature ...

  15. Earning on Response Coefficient in Automobile and Go Public Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisdawati Arifin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze factors that influence earnings response coefficients (ERC, simultaneously and partially, composed of leverage, the systematic risk (beta, growth opportunities (market to book value ratio, and the size of the firm (firm size, selection of the sample in this study the author take 12 automakers and components that meet the criteria of completeness of the data from the year 2008 to 2012, entirely based on consideration of the following criteria: (1 the company's automotive and components are listed on the stock exchange, (2 have the financial statements years 2008-2012 (3 has a return data (closing price the first day after the date of issuance of the financial statements. This study uses secondary data applying multiple linear regression models to analyze and test the effect of independent variables on the dependent variable partially (t-test, simultaneous (f-test, and the goodness of fit (R-square on a research model. The result shows that leverage, beta, growth opportunities (market to book value ratio and size along with (simultaneously the effect on the dependent variable (dependent variable earnings response coefficients. Partially leverage negatively affect earnings response coefficients, partially beta negatively correlated earnings response coefficients, partially growth opportunities (market to book value ratio significant effect on earnings response coefficients, partially sized companies (firm size significantly influence earnings response coefficients.

  16. Investigation on Thrust and Moment Coefficients of a Centrifugal Turbomachine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Hu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In radial pumps and turbines, the centrifugal through-flow in both the front and the back chambers is quite common. It strongly impacts the core swirl ratio, pressure distribution, axial thrust and frictional torque. In order to investigate these relationships experimentally, a test rig was designed at the University of Duisburg-Essen and described in this paper. Based on both the experimental and numerical results, correlations are determined to predict the impacts of the centrifugal through-flow on the core swirl ratio, the thrust coefficient and the moment coefficient. Two correlations respectively are determined to associate the core swirl ratio with the local through-flow coefficient for both Batchelor type flow and Stewartson type flow. The correlations describing the thrust coefficient and the moment coefficient in a rotor-stator cavity with centripetal through-flow (Hu et al., 2017 are modified for the case of centrifugal through-flow. The Daily and Nece diagram distinguishing between different flow regimes in rotor-stator cavities is extended with a through-flow coordinate into 3D. The achieved results provide a comprehensive data base which is intended to support the calculation of axial thrust and moment coefficients during the design process of radial pumps and turbines in a more accurate manner.

  17. Sound absorption by Menger sponge fractal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Tetsuji; Miyazaki, Takatsuna; Oka, Daisuke; Koyanagi, Sin'ichiro; Hinokidani, Atsushi

    2009-05-01

    For the purpose of investigation on acoustic properties of fractals, the sound absorption coefficients are experimentally measured by using the Menger sponge which is one of typical three-dimensional fractals. From the two-microphone measurement, the frequency range of effectively absorbing sound waves is shown to broaden with degree of fractality, which comes from the fractal property of the homothetic character. It is shown that experimental features are qualitatively explained by an electrical equivalent circuit model for the Menger sponge.

  18. Harmonic functions with varying coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Dziok

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Complex-valued harmonic functions that are univalent and sense preserving in the open unit disk can be written in the form f = h + g ‾ $f=h+\\overline{g}$ , where h and g are analytic. In this paper we investigate some classes of univalent harmonic functions with varying coefficients related to Janowski functions. By using the extreme points theory we obtain necessary and sufficient convolution conditions, coefficients estimates, distortion theorems, and integral mean inequalities for these classes of functions. The radii of starlikeness and convexity for these classes are also determined.

  19. Sound absorption with green materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trematerra, Amelia; Lombardi, Ilaria

    2017-07-01

    Green materials are a valid alternative to traditional materials that are by-products of processing oil. At the end of their useful life, green materials can be disposed of without polluting the environment. They are now being used in the construction and automotive industries. While, studies are currently being carried out in the aviation sector on the use of green materials for non-structural components of airplanes. Green materials can be used to improve the acoustic comfort inside buildings as well as mitigate reverberation, echoes effects and reduce the transmission of noise between rooms. In this paper, the acoustic measurements of the properties of green materials are reported. The absorption coefficient of samples of the materials were measured in the frequency range from 200 Hz to 2,000 Hz with an impedance tube, with the flow resistance being measured.

  20. Acoustic absorption in n=InSb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmedov, S.Eh.; Podoplelova, V.L.; Roj, V.F.

    1976-01-01

    The temperature dependence was studied of the electric conductivity (sigma), the acoustic electromotive force Esub(ae) and the coefficient of absorption of ultra sound (a) in a wide temperature range (1.4 to 300 deg K) of monocrystals n-InSb with a concentration of carriers n=2.3 10 14 cm -3 at the temperature of 77 K. The relationship sigma(T) is of a nature common to semiconductors throughout the temperature range. The relationship a(T) in the range from 80 to 180 K changes little with the temperature. In the range of 30 to 80 K, the absorption coefficient drops sharply. In the 4.2-30 K temperature range the value of the coefficient of absorption increases. The correlation should be noted between the relationships a(T) and sigma(T) practically throughout the whole range of the investigated temperatures. This is particularly observable at temperatures below 30 K and above 180 K. Peaks of a(T) at very low temperatures are observable only on excitation of non-equilibrium current carriers and are explainable in terms of the exciton-phonon interaction or interaction of the ultrasound with electron-hole drops

  1. Modification of Einstein A Coefficient in Dissipative Gas Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chang-Qi; Cao, Hui; Qin, Ke-Cheng

    1996-01-01

    Spontaneous radiation in dissipative gas medium such as plasmas is investigated by Langevin equations and the modified Weisskopf-Wigner approximation. Since the refractive index of gas medium is expected to be nearly unity, we shall first neglect the medium polarization effect. We show that absorption in plasmas may in certain case modify the Einstein A coefficient significantly and cause a pit in the A coefficient-density curves for relatively low temperature plasmas and also a pit in the A coefficient-temperature curves. In the next, the effect of medium polarization is taken into account in addition. To our surprise, its effect in certain case is quite significant. The dispersive curves show different behaviors in different region of parameters.

  2. Solar absorption surface panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santala, Teuvo J.

    1978-01-01

    A composite metal of aluminum and nickel is used to form an economical solar absorption surface for a collector plate wherein an intermetallic compound of the aluminum and nickel provides a surface morphology with high absorptance and relatively low infrared emittance along with good durability.

  3. Nutrition and magnesium absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, E.J.

    1992-01-01

    The influence of various nutrients present in dairy products and soybean-based products on absorption of magnesium has been investigated. The studies demonstrate that soybean protein versus casein lowers apparent magnesium absorption in rats through its phytate component. However, true

  4. Zeeman atomic absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loos-Vollebregt, M.T.C. de.

    1980-01-01

    A new method of background correction in atomic absorption spectroscopy has recently been introduced, based on the Zeeman splitting of spectral lines in a magnetic field. A theoretical analysis of the background correction capability observed in such instruments is presented. A Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometer utilizing a 50 Hz sine wave modulated magnetic field is described. (Auth.)

  5. Chemical evolution coefficients for the study of galactic evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallik, D.C.V.

    1980-01-01

    A new evaluation of chemical evolution coefficients has been made using recent stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis data. The role of the low and intermediate mass stars in galactic nuclosynthesis has been emphasized. A significant amount of 4 He, 12 C and neutron-rich species is found to be contributed by these stars. Comparison with observed abundances suggests a primary origin of 14 N. The simple model of galactic evolution with the new coefficients has been used to derive the ratio of helium to heavy element enrichment in the Galaxy. The new stellar evolution data do not explain the large value of this ratio that has been determined observationally. (orig.)

  6. Long-term water absorption and thickness swelling and determine their characteristics in wood flour/polypropylene/Nano SiO2 nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Ismaeilimoghadam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of nano SiO2 on long-term water absorption and thickness swelling, humidity coefficient diffusion and thickness swelling rate of wood plastic composite. For this purpose, 60% wood flour, 40% polypropylene, 2 per hundred compound (phc MAPP in internal mixer (HAAKE were mixed. Nano SiO2 with 0, 1, 3 and 5 (phc ratios as a reinforcing was used too. Finally test samples were fabricated by using the injection molding machine. Then long-term water absorption and thickness swelling for 1848 hours according to the ASTM standard on the samples were measured. Humidity coefficient diffusion and thickness swelling rate for closer look long-term water absorption and thickness swelling behavior in wood plastic nanocomposite were calculated too. For ensure to the formation of hydrogen bonds between hydroxyl grope of SiO2 nanoparticles with hydroxyl grope of wood flour form Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy tests was used. The results showed that water absorption behavior of nanocomposite is according to Fick's law, in addition with increasing to SiO2 nanoparticles, long-term water absorption and thickness swelling and humidity coefficient diffusion in wood plastic nanocomposite decreased. The results of infrared spectroscopy showed that hydrogen bond between the nano SiO2 and wood flour confirmed. Statistical analysis showed that after 1848 hours of immersion, nano SiO2 showed a significant effect at a confidence level of 99% on water absorption and thickness swelling, so the sample with 5% silica nanoparticles was chosen as the best treatment.

  7. Evidence for validity of ileal digestibility coefficients in monogastrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbus, Daniel; de Lange, Cornelis F M

    2012-08-01

    Measures of amino acid (AA) digestibility are used widely to estimate bioavailability of AA in feed and food ingredients for monogastric animals. In principle, the digestibility assay is simpler than in vivo assessments of AA bioavailability and allows for simultaneous estimation of the bioavailability of all AA in an experimental diet. It is generally assumed that absorption of intact AA in the hindgut of monogastrics is minimal, even though colonocytes do contain AA transporters and have been shown to absorb AA. This assumption is supported by the observation that infusion of AA into the hindgut does not improve nitrogen balance in monogastrics. In addition, growth performance of monogastrics is more highly correlated with ileal than faecal AA digestibility. Therefore, ileal digestibility coefficients provide better estimates of AA bioavailability than faecal digestibility coefficients. Measures of apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of AA are confounded with endogenous gut AA losses (EAAL). The curvilinear increase in AID of AA with increasing dietary AA level has been attributed to the relatively large contribution of EAAL to total ileal AA flows at low dietary AA levels. Subtracting basal EAAL from total ileal AA flows yields standardized ileal digestibility (SID) coefficients that appear to be more additive than AID coefficients in mixtures of feed ingredients. An implicit assumption when using SID AA coefficients in diet formulation is that the post-absorptive utilization of AA is not influenced by the dietary protein source. This assumption appears inappropriate when using feed or food ingredients that have been over-heated, induce large amounts of EAAL, or contain substantial amounts of fermentable fibre. Improved understanding of processes that contribute to the discrepancy between bioavailability and ileal digestibility will allow a more effective use of AA digestibility coefficients in diet formulation.

  8. Aerosol optical absorption measurements with photoacoustic spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kun; Wang, Lei; Liu, Qiang; Wang, Guishi; Tan, Tu; Zhang, Weijun; Chen, Weidong; Gao, Xiaoming

    2015-04-01

    Many parameters related to radiative forcing in climate research are known only with large uncertainties. And one of the largest uncertainties in global radiative forcing is the contribution from aerosols. Aerosols can scatter or absorb the electromagnetic radiation, thus may have negative or positive effects on the radiative forcing of the atmosphere, respectively [1]. And the magnitude of the effect is directly related to the quantity of light absorbed by aerosols [2,3]. Thus, sensitivity and precision measurement of aerosol optical absorption is crucial for climate research. Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) is commonly recognized as one of the best candidates to measure the light absorption of aerosols [4]. A PAS based sensor for aerosol optical absorption measurement was developed. A 532 nm semiconductor laser with an effective power of 160 mW was used as a light source of the PAS sensor. The PAS sensor was calibrated by using known concentration NO2. The minimum detectable optical absorption coefficient (OAC) of aerosol was determined to be 1 Mm-1. 24 hours continues measurement of OAC of aerosol in the ambient air was carried out. And a novel three wavelength PAS aerosol OAC sensor is in development for analysis of aerosol wavelength-dependent absorption Angstrom coefficient. Reference [1] U. Lohmann and J. Feichter, Global indirect aerosol effects: a review, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 715-737 (2005) [2] M. Z. Jacobson, Strong radiative heating due to the mixing state of black carbon in atmospheric aerosols, Nature 409, 695-697 (2001) [3] V. Ramanathan and G. Carmichae, Global and regional climate changes due to black carbon, nature geoscience 1, 221-227 (2008) [4] W.P Arnott, H. Moosmuller, C. F. Rogers, T. Jin, and R. Bruch, Photoacoustic spectrometer for measuring light absorption by aerosol: instrument description. Atmos. Environ. 33, 2845-2852 (1999).

  9. Integer Solutions of Binomial Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbertson, Nicholas J.

    2016-01-01

    A good formula is like a good story, rich in description, powerful in communication, and eye-opening to readers. The formula presented in this article for determining the coefficients of the binomial expansion of (x + y)n is one such "good read." The beauty of this formula is in its simplicity--both describing a quantitative situation…

  10. Effective Viscosity Coefficient of Nanosuspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudyak, V. Ya.; Belkin, A. A.; Egorov, V. V.

    2008-12-01

    Systematic calculations of the effective viscosity coefficient of nanosuspensions have been performed using the molecular dynamics method. It is established that the viscosity of a nanosuspension depends not only on the volume concentration of the nanoparticles but also on their mass and diameter. Differences from Einstein's relation are found even for nanosuspensions with a low particle concentration.

  11. Irrational "Coefficients" in Renaissance Algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oaks, Jeffrey A

    2017-06-01

    Argument From the time of al-Khwārizmī in the ninth century to the beginning of the sixteenth century algebraists did not allow irrational numbers to serve as coefficients. To multiply by x, for instance, the result was expressed as the rhetorical equivalent of . The reason for this practice has to do with the premodern concept of a monomial. The coefficient, or "number," of a term was thought of as how many of that term are present, and not as the scalar multiple that we work with today. Then, in sixteenth-century Europe, a few algebraists began to allow for irrational coefficients in their notation. Christoff Rudolff (1525) was the first to admit them in special cases, and subsequently they appear more liberally in Cardano (1539), Scheubel (1550), Bombelli (1572), and others, though most algebraists continued to ban them. We survey this development by examining the texts that show irrational coefficients and those that argue against them. We show that the debate took place entirely in the conceptual context of premodern, "cossic" algebra, and persisted in the sixteenth century independent of the development of the new algebra of Viète, Decartes, and Fermat. This was a formal innovation violating prevailing concepts that we propose could only be introduced because of the growing autonomy of notation from rhetorical text.

  12. Influence of Li/Nb ratios on defect structure and photorefractive properties of Zn: In: Fe: LiNbO 3 crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Li; Su, Yan-Qing; Wu, Shi-Ping; Guo, Jing-Jie; Xu, Chao; Xu, Yu-Heng

    2011-04-01

    A series of Zn: In: Fe: LiNbO3 crystals are grown by the Czochralski technique with various ratios of Li/Nb = 0.94, 1.05, 1.20 and 1.38 in the melt. The Zn, In, Fe, Nb and Li concentrations in the crystals are analyzed by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectrometry. The results indicate that with increasing the [Li]/[Nb] ratio in melt, [Li]/[Nb] ratio increases and goes up continuously in the crystal, the segregation coefficients of both Zn and In ions decrease. The absorption spectra measurement and two-wave coupling experiment are employed to study the effect of [Li]/[Nb] ratio on photorefractive properties of Zn: In: Fe: LiNbO3 crystals. It is found that the [Li]/[Nb] ratio increases, the write time is shortened and the photorefractive sensitivity is improved.

  13. Nutrient absorption in lambs fed diets containing different amounts of phosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Patiño P.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Evaluate the effect of increasing P intake on nutrient digestibility, and compare the true and apparent absorption coefficients of P and Ca in lambs. Materials and methods. Twenty-four Santa Ines sheep, with an average weight of 33.6 ± 1.6 kg, were distributed into four treatments (0, 2, 4 and 6 g/day of supplementary P with forage: concentrate ratio of 70:30. The study of apparent nutrient digestibility was conducted during the first week, using the total feces collection method. During the second week, after injection of 7.4 MBq of 32P and 7.7 MBq of 45Ca, apparent (AAC and true (TAC absorption coefficients of P and Ca were determined. The lambs were kept in metabolic cages. Results. The increase in P intake did not affect (p>0.05 dry matter, crude protein, NDF or ADF digestibility, but the TAC of P and Ca and mineral matter digestibility decreased. The AAC was not affected (p=0.10. A cubic relationship was observed between P intake and TAC (TAC=2.16–1.95X+0.55X2-0.04X3; R2=0.38 and linear relationship with the TAC of Ca (TAC=0.559–0.03X; R2=0.26. TAC and AAC values were different (p<0.001. Conclusions. The increase in P intake doesn’t impact organic matter digestibility, but does affect P and Ca absorption. Apparent digestibility is not a reliable parameter to determine the efficiency of P and Ca absorption.

  14. An in silico skin absorption model for fragrance materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jie; Kromidas, Lambros; Schultz, Terry; Bhatia, Sneha

    2014-12-01

    Fragrance materials are widely used in cosmetics and other consumer products. The Research Institute for Fragrance Materials (RIFM) evaluates the safety of these ingredients and skin absorption is an important parameter in refining systemic exposure. Currently, RIFM's safety assessment process assumes 100% skin absorption when experimental data are lacking. This 100% absorption default is not supportable and alternate default values were proposed. This study aims to develop and validate a practical skin absorption model (SAM) specific for fragrance material. It estimates skin absorption based on the methodology proposed by Kroes et al. SAM uses three default absorption values based on the maximum flux (J(max)) - namely, 10%, 40%, and 80%. J(max) may be calculated by using QSAR models that determine octanol/water partition coefficient (K(ow)), water solubility (S) and permeability coefficient (K(p)). Each of these QSAR models was refined and a semi-quantitative mechanistic model workflow is presented. SAM was validated with a large fragrance-focused data set containing 131 materials. All resulted in predicted values fitting the three-tiered absorption scenario based on Jmax ranges. This conservative SAM may be applied when fragrance material lack skin absorption data. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Acoustic absorption behaviour of an open-celled aluminium foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Fusheng; Seiffert, Gary; Zhao Yuyuan; Gibbs, Barry

    2003-01-01

    Metal foams, especially close-celled foams, are generally regarded as poor sound absorbers. This paper studies the sound absorption behaviour of the open-celled Al foams manufactured by the infiltration process, and the mechanisms involved. The foams show a significant improvement in sound absorption compared with close-celled Al foams, because of their high flow resistance. The absorption performance can be further enhanced, especially at low frequencies, if the foam panel is backed by an appropriate air gap. Increasing the air-gap depth usually increases both the height and the width of the absorption peak and shifts the peak towards lower frequencies. The foam samples with the smallest pore size exhibit the best absorption capacities when there is no air gap, whereas those with medium pore sizes have the best overall performance when there is an air gap. The typical maximum absorption coefficient, noise reduction coefficient and half-width of the absorption peak are 0.96-0.99, 0.44-0.62 and 1500-3500 Hz, respectively. The sound dissipation mechanisms in the open-celled foams are principally viscous and thermal losses when there is no air-gap backing and predominantly Helmholtz resonant absorption when there is an air-gap backing

  16. Uranium absorption study pile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raievski, V.; Sautiez, B.

    1959-01-01

    The report describes a pile designed to measure the absorption of fuel slugs. The pile is of graphite and comprises a central section composed of uranium rods in a regular lattice. RaBe sources and BF 3 counters are situated on either side of the center. A given uranium charge is compared with a specimen charge of about 560 kg, and the difference in absorption between the two noted. The sensitivity of the equipment will detect absorption variations of about a few ppm boron (10 -6 boron per gr. of uranium) or better. (author) [fr

  17. Microwave Absorption by Used Moulding and Core Sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak D.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents measurement results of standing wave ratio to be used as an efficiency indicator of microwave absorption by used moulding and core sands chosen for the microwave utilization process. The absorption measurements were made using a prototype stand of microwave slot line. Examined were five used moulding and core sands. It was demonstrated that the microwave absorption measurements can make grounds for actual microwave utilization of moulding and core sands.

  18. Absorption of water and lubricating oils into porous nylon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, P. A.

    1995-01-01

    Oil and water absorption from air into sintered porous nylon can be described by infiltration into the pores of the material. This process can be modeled by a diffusion-like mechanism. For water absorption, we find a formal diffusion coefficient of 1.5 x 10(exp -4)sq cm/min when the nylon is initially dry. The diffusion coefficient is 4 x 10(exp -6)sq cm/min when the nylon is oil-impregnated prior to air exposure. In a 52% RH atmosphere, dry nylon absorbs 3% w/w water, and oil-impregnated nylon absorbs 0.6% w/w water. For oil absorption there are three steps: (1) surface absorption and infiltration into (2) larger and (3) smaller pores. Surface absorption is too fast to be measured in these experiments. The diffusion coefficient for the second step is 6 x 10(exp -4)sq cm/min for SRG-60 oil into dry nylon and 4 x 10(exp -4)sq cm/min for air-equilibrated nylon. The diffusion coefficient for the third step is about 1 x 10(exp -6)sq cm/min for both cases. The total amount of oil absorbed is 31% w/w. The interaction between water and nylon is not as strong as that between water and cotton-phenolic: oil can replace water, and only a small amount of water can enter previously oil-impregnated nylon.

  19. Revisiting Absorptive Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Araújo, Ana Luiza Lara; Ulhøi, John Parm; Lettl, Christopher

    learning processes of absorptive capacity, which comprise combinative and adaptive capabilities. Drawing on survey data (n=169), the study concludes that combinative capabilities primarily enhance transformative and exploratory learning processes, while adaptive capabilities strengthen all three learning......Absorptive capacity has mostly been perceived as a 'passive' outcome of R&D investments. Recently, however, a growing interest into its 'proactive' potentials has emerged. This paper taps into this development and proposes a dynamic model for conceptualizing the determinants of the complementary...

  20. Absorption fluids data survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macriss, R. A.; Zawacki, T. S.

    Development of improved data for the thermodynamic, transport and physical properties of absorption fluids were studied. A specific objective of this phase of the study is to compile, catalog and coarse screen the available US data of known absorption fluid systems and publish it as a first edition document to be distributed to manufacturers, researchers and others active in absorption heat pump activities. The methodology and findings of the compilation, cataloguing and coarse screening of the available US data on absorption fluid properties and presents current status and future work on this project are summarized. Both in house file and literature searches were undertaken to obtain available US publications with pertinent physical, thermodynamic and transport properties data for absorption fluids. Cross checks of literature searches were also made, using available published bibliographies and literature review articles, to eliminate secondary sources for the data and include only original sources and manuscripts. The properties of these fluids relate to the liquid and/or vapor state, as encountered in normal operation of absorption equipment employing such fluids, and to the crystallization boundary of the liquid phase, where applicable. The actual data were systematically classified according to the type of fluid and property, as well as temperature, pressure and concentration ranges over which data were available. Data were sought for 14 different properties: Vapor-Liquid Equilibria, Crystallization Temperature, Corrosion Characteristics, Heat of Mixing, Liquid-Phase-Densities, Vapor-Liquid-Phase Enthalpies, Specific Heat, Stability, Viscosity, Mass Transfer Rate, Heat Transfer Rate, Thermal Conductivity, Flammability, and Toxicity.

  1. Absorption cooling device. Absorptions-Kuehlvorrichtung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourne, J.; Vardi, I.; Kimchi, Y.; Ben-Dror, J.

    1980-03-25

    The invention concerns improvements of absorption refrigerators, where a lithium chloride or lithium bromide/water cycle is used. According to the invention an inner separating or dividing structure between different functional parts of a machine of this type is provided. The structure contains two sections of wall, which are separated from one another by a suitable space, in order to achieve thermal insulation. This air space is provided with an opening in the direction towards the inside of the container and the opening is shielded to prevent the entry of liquids (in liquid or spray form).

  2. Research on Effects of Blast Casting Vibration and Vibration Absorption of Presplitting Blasting in Open Cast Mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact energy produced by blast casting is able to break and cast rocks, yet the strong vibration effects caused at the same time would threaten the safety of mines. Based on the theory of Janbu’s Limit Equilibrium Method (LEM, pseudo-static method has been incorporated to analyze the influence of dynamic loads of blasting on slope stability. The horizontal loads produced by blast vibrations cause an increase in sliding forces, and this leads to a lower slope stability coefficient. When the tensile stresses of the two adjacent blast holes are greater than the tensile strength of rock mass, the radical oriented cracks are formed, which is the precondition for the formation of presplit face. Thus, the formula for calculating the blast hole spacing of presplit blasting can be obtained. Based on the analysis of the principles of vibration tester and vibration pick-up in detecting blast vibrations, a detection scheme of blast vibration is worked out by taking the blast area with precrack rear and non-precrack side of the detection object. The detection and research results of blast vibration show that presplit blasting can reduce the attenuation coefficient of stress wave by half, and the vibration absorption ratio could reach 50.2%; the impact of dynamic loads on the end-wall slope stability coefficient is 1.98%, which proves that presplit blasting plays an important role in shock absorption of blast casting.

  3. Nonlinear refraction and multiphoton absorption in polydiacetylenes from 1200 to 2200 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakov, Sergey; Yoshino, Fumiyo; Liu, Mingguo; Stegeman, George

    2004-03-01

    We report femtosecond measurements of the dispersion in the nonlinear refraction and multiphoton absorption in polydiacetylenes, specifically in PTS [polymer poly (bis para-toluene sulfonate) of 2,4-hexadiyne -1,6 diol] over the spectral range 1200 to 2200 nm. Various modifications of the Z-scan technique were used to make the measurements. The nonlinear refractive index coefficient n2 decreased monotonically with wavelength and can be reasonably extrapolated to previous measurements at 1064 nm. It was found that multiple multiphoton absorption mechanisms contributed to the nonlinear absorption at most wavelengths so that the intensity dependence at each wavelength was needed to identify the different contributions. A two-photon absorption coefficient decreasing monotonically with increasing wavelength was identified with the long wavelength tail of the massive two-photon absorption peak measured previously at 930 nm. The three-photon absorption coefficient showed a weak resonance around 1850 nm associated with the one-photon absorption into the odd symmetry peak at 620 nm, but also exhibited larger values at shorter wavelengths whose assignment is not clear. The four-photon coefficient, measurable only around 1900 nm was associated with four-photon absorption into the even symmetry 465 nm state responsible for strong two-photon absorption measured previously at 930 nm. This resonance, normally much too weak to be observed, was measurable only because of the accidental degeneracy with the three-photon absorption resonance. This degeneracy also leads to a single photon excited state absorption into the 465 nm state via an initial three-photon absorption into the odd symmetry 620 nm state. It was shown that this (3+1) process is in the saturation regime over the intensity range of the measurements and does not contribute to absorption change proportional to the cube of the input intensity, which indicates the pure four-photon absorption process. Thus the measured

  4. Study of transport coefficients of nanodiamond nanofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryazhnikov, M. I.; Minakov, A. V.; Guzei, D. V.

    2017-09-01

    Experimental data on the thermal conductivity coefficient and viscosity coefficient of nanodiamond nanofluids are presented. Distilled water and ethylene glycol were used as the base fluid. Dependences of transport coefficients on concentration are obtained. It was shown that the thermal conductivity coefficient increases with increasing nanodiamonds concentration. It was shown that base fluids properties and nanodiamonds concentration affect on the rheology of nanofluids.

  5. Study of the relationship between peaks scattering Rayleigh to Compton ratio and effective atomic number in biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Marcelo O.; Conti, Claudio de Carvalho; Anjos, Marcelino J.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a new method to correct the absorbed radiation (the mass attenuation coefficient curve) in low energy (E B O 3 , Na 2 CO 3 , CaCO 3 , Al 2 O 3 , K 2 SO 4 and MgO) of radiation produced by a gamma-ray source of Am-241(59.54 keV) also applied to certified biological samples of milk powder, hay powder and bovine liver (NIST 155 7B). In addition, six methods of effective atomic number determination were used as described in literature to determinate the Rayleigh to Compton scattering ratio (R/C) , in order to calculate the mass attenuation coefficient. The results obtained by the proposed method were compared with those obtained using the transmission method. The experimental results were in good agreement with transmission values suggesting that the method to correct radiation absorption presented in this paper is adequate for biological samples. (author)

  6. Self-absorption corrections for well-type germanium detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleby, P.G.; Richardson, N.; Nolan, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    Corrections for self-absorption are of vital importance to accurate determination by gamma spectrometry of radionuclides such as 210 Pb, 241 Am and 234 Th which emit low energy gamma radiation. A simple theoretical model for determining the necessary corrections for well-type germanium detectors is presented. In this model, self-absorption factors are expressed in terms of the mass attenuation coefficient of the sample and a parameter characterising the well geometry. Experimental measurements of self-absorption are used to evaluate the model and to determine a semi-empirical algorithm for improved estimates of the geometrical parameter. (orig.)

  7. Sound absorption of porous metals at high sound pressure levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolin; Peng, Feng; Chang, Baojun

    2009-08-01

    This paper is a study about sound absorption properties of porous metals at high sound pressure levels. A method of deriving the nonlinear static flow resistance for highly porous fibrous metals is proposed by solving Oseen's equation to take account of the inertia effect, validated by experiments of airflow measurement. In order to predict nonlinear sound absorbing performance of a finite thickness porous metal layer, a numerical method is employed, verified by sound absorption measurement in an impedance tube. Accordingly, the effects of the nonlinear coefficient on the porous metal sound absorption are investigated.

  8. Quantitative photoacoustic imaging of two-photon absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardsley, Patrick; Ren, Kui; Zhang, Rongting

    2018-01-01

    Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is a hybrid imaging modality where we intend to reconstruct optical properties of heterogeneous media from measured ultrasound signals generated by the photoacoustic effect. In recent years, there have been considerable interests in using PAT to image two-photon absorption, in addition to the usual single-photon absorption, inside diffusive media. We present a mathematical model for quantitative image reconstruction in two-photon photoacoustic tomography (TP-PAT). We propose a computational strategy for the reconstruction of the optical absorption coefficients and provide some numerical evidences based on synthetic photoacoustic acoustic data to demonstrate the feasibility of quantitative reconstructions in TP-PAT.

  9. Estimation of the Human Absorption Cross Section Via Reverberation Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinböck, Gerhard; Pedersen, Troels; Fleury, Bernard Henri

    2018-01-01

    and compare the obtained results to those of Sabine's model. We find that the absorption by persons is large enough to be measured with a wideband channel sounder and that estimates of the human absorption cross section differ for the two models. The obtained values are comparable to values reported...... in the literature. We also suggest the use of controlled environments with low average absorption coefficients to obtain more reliable estimates. The obtained values can be used to predict the change of reverberation time with persons in the propagation environment. This allows prediction of channel characteristics...... relevant in communication systems, e.g. path loss and rms delay spread, for various population densities....

  10. Absorption Of Crushing Energy In Square Composite Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Gary L.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes investigation of crash-energy-absorbing capabilities of square-cross-section tubes of two matrix/fiber composite materials. Both graphite/epoxy and Kevlar/epoxy tubes crushed in progressive and stable manner. Ratio between width of cross section and thickness of wall determined to affect energy-absorption significantly. As ratio decreases, energy-absorption capability increases non-linearly. Useful in building energy-absorbing composite structures.

  11. Acoustic absorption behaviour of an open-celled aluminium foam

    CERN Document Server

    Han Fu Sheng; Zhao Yu Yuan; Gibbs, B

    2003-01-01

    Metal foams, especially close-celled foams, are generally regarded as poor sound absorbers. This paper studies the sound absorption behaviour of the open-celled Al foams manufactured by the infiltration process, and the mechanisms involved. The foams show a significant improvement in sound absorption compared with close-celled Al foams, because of their high flow resistance. The absorption performance can be further enhanced, especially at low frequencies, if the foam panel is backed by an appropriate air gap. Increasing the air-gap depth usually increases both the height and the width of the absorption peak and shifts the peak towards lower frequencies. The foam samples with the smallest pore size exhibit the best absorption capacities when there is no air gap, whereas those with medium pore sizes have the best overall performance when there is an air gap. The typical maximum absorption coefficient, noise reduction coefficient and half-width of the absorption peak are 0.96-0.99, 0.44-0.62 and 1500-3500 Hz, r...

  12. Measurements of thermal accommodation coefficients.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rader, Daniel John; Castaneda, Jaime N.; Torczynski, John Robert; Grasser, Thomas W.; Trott, Wayne Merle

    2005-10-01

    A previously-developed experimental facility has been used to determine gas-surface thermal accommodation coefficients from the pressure dependence of the heat flux between parallel plates of similar material but different surface finish. Heat flux between the plates is inferred from measurements of temperature drop between the plate surface and an adjacent temperature-controlled water bath. Thermal accommodation measurements were determined from the pressure dependence of the heat flux for a fixed plate separation. Measurements of argon and nitrogen in contact with standard machined (lathed) or polished 304 stainless steel plates are indistinguishable within experimental uncertainty. Thus, the accommodation coefficient of 304 stainless steel with nitrogen and argon is estimated to be 0.80 {+-} 0.02 and 0.87 {+-} 0.02, respectively, independent of the surface roughness within the range likely to be encountered in engineering practice. Measurements of the accommodation of helium showed a slight variation with 304 stainless steel surface roughness: 0.36 {+-} 0.02 for a standard machine finish and 0.40 {+-} 0.02 for a polished finish. Planned tests with carbon-nanotube-coated plates will be performed when 304 stainless-steel blanks have been successfully coated.

  13. Comparison of Flurbiprofen Tablets Available In Pakistani Market and Their Absorption Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hanif

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe aim of this present work was to compare different parameters of various brands of flurbiprofen tablets collected from different retail pharmacies in the local market of Pakistan. Four brands A, B, C and D were tested for weight variation, hardness, friability, disintegration dissolution, HPLC assay and in vitro absorption studies in rabbit skin, stomach and intestine by using the prepacked Column RT 250-4.6 Purospher® STAR RP-18 end capped (5 µm and acetonitrile, phosphate buffer (pH 3.7 as mobile phase in the ratio of 1:1. Flurbiprofen was detected at 265 nm at the flow rate of 1 ml/min. Brand B was considered as reference. Similarity factor (f2 of brand B and C and brand B & D was found to be 61 and 51 and dissimilarity factors (f1 values were 5 and 9 respectively in same dissolution medium. Model dependent methods First order, Hixon crowell and Weibull model were used. The method was found to be sensitive and linear in the range of 10 to 700 ppm with 0.999 coefficient of correlation. Everted sac absorption studies of selected formulation showed 50% of drug absorption from stomach in first 3 hours, 21% through intestine and very negligible through skin.

  14. Vitamin A absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, S.J.

    1976-01-01

    Investigation of the absorption of vitamin A and related substances is complicated by the multiplicity of forms in which they occur in the diet and by the possibility that they may be subject to different mechanisms of absorption. Present knowledge of these mechanisms is inadequate, especially in the case of carotenoids. Numerous tests of absorption have been developed. The most common has been the biochemical measurement of the rise in plasma vitamin A after an oral dose of retinol or retinyl ester, but standardization is inadequate. Radioisotope tests based upon assay of serum or faecal activity following oral administration of tritiated vitamin A derivaties hold considerable promise, but again standardization is inadequate. From investigations hitherto performed it is known that absorption of vitamin A is influenced by several diseases, although as yet the consistency of results and the correlation with other tests of intestinal function have often been poor. However, the test of vitamin A absorption is nevertheless of clinical importance as a specialized measure of intestinal function. (author)

  15. Virial coefficients of anisotropic hard solids of revolution: The detailed influence of the particle geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Elisabeth; Hellmann, Robert; Wagner, Joachim

    2017-11-28

    We provide analytical expressions for the second virial coefficients of differently shaped hard solids of revolution in dependence on their aspect ratio. The second virial coefficients of convex hard solids, which are the orientational averages of the mutual excluded volume, are derived from volume, surface, and mean radii of curvature employing the Isihara-Hadwiger theorem. Virial coefficients of both prolate and oblate hard solids of revolution are investigated in dependence on their aspect ratio. The influence of one- and two-dimensional removable singularities of the surface curvature to the mutual excluded volume is analyzed. The virial coefficients of infinitely thin oblate and infinitely long prolate particles are compared, and analytical expressions for their ratios are derived. Beyond their dependence on the aspect ratio, the second virial coefficients are influenced by the detailed geometry of the particles.

  16. Measurements of soil-solution distribution coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukada, Hirofumi; Hasegawa, Hidenao; Hisamatsu, Shunichi; Sakurai, Naoyuki; Koyama, Kenji

    1999-01-01

    The soil-solution distribution coefficient (Kd) is defined as the ratio of element concentrations in a soil-solid phase to that in a solution phase. It is commonly used as an important parameter for transfer models of radionuclides in different environments, such as describing the migration behavior in the geosphere and transfer behavior in the biosphere. We plan to measure the Kd of elements by means of an extraction method in soils throughout Aomori Prefecture and to probe related factors affecting their variance. However, Kd values vary widely, dependent upon conditions of measurements even if a similar soil sample is measured. Therefore, measurement conditions for the Kd of elements were examined in the present study and the following conditions were adopted. A collected soil sample was passed through a 2 mm sieve and dried at 50degC. The ratio of solution to solid was 10. The mixture sample was shaken for 24 h at 20degC in a clean centrifuge bottle which was made of polypropylene copolymer (PPCO). According to the literature, common soil types in Aomori Prefecture are as follows: andosols in the Sanpachi-Kamikita region, gray lowland and upland soils in the Tsugaru region, sand-dune regosols in Kizukuri-machi, peat soils around lakes and so on. The Kd values for those soil types will be measured hereafter. (author)

  17. Experimental Determination of Mass-transfer Coefficients and Area of Dumped Packing Using Alkanolamine Solvents

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Diego D.D.; Emonds, Rob; Versteeg, Geert F.

    2016-01-01

    The absorption process is strongly influenced by the effective contact area. In absorber columns, this is related to the type of the internals used in the columns. Therefore, a good representation of the effective mass-transfer area and mass-transfer coefficients (kL or kg) is also essential for accurately represent and design a process. For CO2 capture process packed columns are usually preferred. The mass transfer area and coefficients for several packing (both structured and random) are co...

  18. Water column attenuation coefficient estimations in Alqueva reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potes, Miguel; João Costa, Maria; Salgado, Rui; Rodrigues, Gonçalo; Bortoli, Daniele

    2017-04-01

    The vertical structure of the underwater radiative absorption plays an important role in the thermal dynamics of the water surface layer and consequently on the energy budget at the water-lake interface. Thus, a better estimation of the irradiance at different levels is relevant to understand the lake-air interactions. The main purpose of this dataset of measurements is to estimate the spectral attenuation coefficient of the water column. The apparatus exploited in this work are composed of an optical cable linked to a portable FieldSpec UV/VNIR (ASD). This version has hemispherical field-of-view (FOV) of 180° allowing for measurements under all range of solar zenith. In situ water spectral reflectances were also obtained to help in the validation of satellite water leaving reflectances obtained from satellite spectroradiometers. It is intention of the team to develop an algorithm to derive the attenuation coefficient from satellite data in this reservoir.

  19. Kerr scattering coefficients via isomonodromy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Bruno Carneiro da [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco,50670-901, Recife, Pernambuco (Brazil); Novaes, Fábio [International Institute of Physics, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte,Av. Odilon Gomes de Lima 1722, Capim Macio, Natal-RN 59078-400 (Brazil)

    2015-11-23

    We study the scattering of a massless scalar field in a generic Kerr background. Using a particular gauge choice based on the current conservation of the radial equation, we give a generic formula for the scattering coefficient in terms of the composite monodromy parameter σ between the inner and the outer horizons. Using the isomonodromy flow, we calculate σ exactly in terms of the Painlevé V τ-function. We also show that the eigenvalue problem for the angular equation (spheroidal harmonics) can be calculated using the same techniques. We use recent developments relating the Painlevé V τ-function to Liouville irregular conformal blocks to claim that this scattering problem is solved in the combinatorial sense, with known expressions for the τ-function near the critical points.

  20. Gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, R.P.; Oldham, R.D.; Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Moretti, E.S.; Austin, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    An investigation has been made of the effect of the oxidation state of plutonium on its absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. For mice and rats that have been starved prior to gastrointestinal administration, there is no significant difference between the absorption factors for Pu(IV) and Pu(VI). The value obtained for Pu(VI) is an order of magnitude lower than that reported previously. The value obtained for Pu(IV) is two orders of magnitude higher than those reported previously for nitrate solutions and the same as those reported for citrate solutions

  1. Quantum Absorption Refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Amikam; Kosloff, Ronnie

    2012-02-01

    A quantum absorption refrigerator driven by noise is studied with the purpose of determining the limitations of cooling to absolute zero. The model consists of a working medium coupled simultaneously to hot, cold, and noise baths. Explicit expressions for the cooling power are obtained for Gaussian and Poisson white noise. The quantum model is consistent with the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The third law is quantified; the cooling power Jc vanishes as Jc∝Tcα, when Tc→0, where α=d+1 for dissipation by emission and absorption of quanta described by a linear coupling to a thermal bosonic field, where d is the dimension of the bath.

  2. The Influence of Particle Charge on Heterogeneous Reaction Rate Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikin, A. C.; Pesnell, W. D.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of particle charge on heterogeneous reaction rates are presented. Many atmospheric particles, whether liquid or solid are charged. This surface charge causes a redistribution of charge within a liquid particle and as a consequence a perturbation in the gaseous uptake coefficient. The amount of perturbation is proportional to the external potential and the square of the ratio of debye length in the liquid to the particle radius. Previous modeling has shown how surface charge affects the uptake coefficient of charged aerosols. This effect is now included in the heterogeneous reaction rate of an aerosol ensemble. Extension of this analysis to ice particles will be discussed and examples presented.

  3. Evaluation of absorption of radionuclides via roots of plants at different growth stages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambe, Shizuko [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Wako, Saitama (Japan)

    1999-03-01

    For the environmental risk assessment of radionuclides and toxic elements which were released by nuclear power plants and factories, the absorption of trace elements by plants has been studied by a multitracer technique. The selective absorption coefficient, which is a parameter of an uptake model of radionuclides by plants, was determined for various radionuclides. The selective absorption coefficients of some elements varied greatly in experimental runs. Therefore, the selective absorption coefficients of radionuclides by komatsuna at different growth stages were determined. Moreover, the soil-to-plant transfer of radionuclides in komatsuna at different growth stages was studied. Extraction of the radionuclides from the soil was carried out in order to study the correlation between the transfer factor and the aging effect of the radionuclides in soil. The effect of soil acidity on the absorption of radionuclides in soybean and tomato was studied using the plants at different growth stages. (author)

  4. Sound Absorption Characteristics of Aluminum Foams Treated by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Wei; Liu, Jiaan; Wang, Zhili; Wang, Yonghua; Cao, Zheng; Liu, Yaohui; Zhu, Xianyong

    2015-11-09

    Open-celled aluminum foams with different pore sizes were fabricated. A plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) treatment was applied on the aluminum foams to create a layer of ceramic coating. The sound absorption coefficients of the foams were measured by an impedance tube and they were calculated by a transfer function method. The experimental results show that the sound absorption coefficient of the foam increases gradually with the decrease of pore size. Additionally, when the porosity of the foam increases, the sound absorption coefficient also increases. The PEO coating surface is rough and porous, which is beneficial for improvement in sound absorption. After PEO treatment, the maximum sound absorption of the foam is improved to some extent.

  5. Sound Absorption Characteristics of Aluminum Foams Treated by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Open-celled aluminum foams with different pore sizes were fabricated. A plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO treatment was applied on the aluminum foams to create a layer of ceramic coating. The sound absorption coefficients of the foams were measured by an impedance tube and they were calculated by a transfer function method. The experimental results show that the sound absorption coefficient of the foam increases gradually with the decrease of pore size. Additionally, when the porosity of the foam increases, the sound absorption coefficient also increases. The PEO coating surface is rough and porous, which is beneficial for improvement in sound absorption. After PEO treatment, the maximum sound absorption of the foam is improved to some extent.

  6. Semi-active control of piezoelectric coating's underwater sound absorption by combining design of the shunt impedances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yang; Li, Zhaohui; Huang, Aigen; Li, Qihu

    2015-10-01

    Piezoelectric shunt damping technology has been applied in the field of underwater sound absorption in recent years. In order to achieve broadband echo reduction, semi-active control of sound absorption of multi-layered piezoelectric coating by shunt damping is significant. In this paper, a practical method is proposed to control the underwater sound absorption coefficients of piezoelectric coating layers by combining design of the shunt impedance that allows certain sound absorption coefficients at setting frequencies. A one-dimensional electro-acoustic model of the piezoelectric coating and the backing is established based on the Mason equivalent circuit theory. First, the shunt impedance of the coating is derived under the constraint of sound absorption coefficient at one frequency. Then, taking the 1-3 piezoelectric composite coating as an example, the sound absorption properties of the coating shunted to the designed shunt impedance are investigated. Next, on the basis of that, an iterative method for two constrained frequencies and an optimizing algorithm for multiple constrained frequencies are provided for combining design of the shunt impedances. At last, an experimental sample with four piezoelectric material layers is manufactured, of which the sound absorption coefficients are measured in an impedance tube. The experimental results show good agreement with the finite element simulation results. It is proved that a serial R-L circuit can control the peak frequency, maximum and bandwidth of the sound absorption coefficient and the combining R-L circuits shunted to multiple layers can control the sound absorption coefficients at multiple frequencies.

  7. Atomic absorption spectrometric determination of mineral elements in mammalian bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udoh, Anthony P.

    2000-01-01

    The phosphorus content of the major bones of male and female selected mammals was determined using the yellow vanadomolybdate colorimetric method. For each animal, the bone with the highest phosphorus content was used as pilot sample. Varying concentrations of strontium were added to solutions of the ashed pilot samples to minimize phosphorus interference in the determination of calcium and magnesium using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry operated on the air-acetylene mode. At least 6,000 ppm (0.6%) of strontium was required to give optimum results for calcium. The amount of magnesium obtained from the analysis was not affected by the addition of strontium. With the incorporation of strontium in the sample solution, all elements of interest can be determined in the same sample solution. Based on this, a procedure is proposed for the determination of calcium and other elements in bones. Average recoveries of spiked calcium and magnesium were 97.85% and 98.16%, respectively at the 95% confidence level. The coefficients of variation obtained for replicate determinations using one of the samples were 0.00% for calcium, lead and sodium, 2.93% for magnesium, 3.27% for iron and 3.92% for zinc at the concentration levels found in that sample. Results from the proposed procedure compared well with those from classical chemical methods at the 95% confidence level. It is evident that calcium phosphorus, magnesium and sodium which are the most abundant elements in the bones are distributed in varying amounts both in the different types of bones and different animal species, although the general trend is Ca > P > Na > Mg for each bone considered. The calcium - phosphorus ratio is generally 3:1. The work set out to propose an atomic absorption spectrometric method for the multi-element analysis of mammalian bones with a single sample preparation and to study the distribution pattern of these elements in the bones. (Author)

  8. Absorption of food cobalamins assessed by the double isotope method in healthy volunteers and in patients with chronic diarrhoea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kittang, B.; Hamborg, B.; Schjoensby, H.

    1985-01-01

    To make a food preparation containing radioactively labelled cobalamins, rabbits were given repeated injections with 57 Co-labelled cyanocobalamin. The liver was removed, homogenized and fried for one min. or boiled for 30 min. Of the radioactivity in the fried homogenate, 41.7% was recovered in the centrifuged supernatant compared with 50.8% in the boiled homogenate. The radioactivity in the supernatants had a molecular size close to that of free 57 Co-labelled cyanocobalamin. 42% of the radioactivity in the whole homogenate had been incorporated into 5-deoxyadenosyl-, 10% into methyl-and 16.5% into hydroxy-cobalamin. To assess the validity of a double-isotope method for measuring the intestinal absorption of doses of 57 Co-labelled liver cobalamins, 51 CrCl 3 was used as a non-absorbable marker. In 14 healthy volunteers the correlation coefficient between the absorption measured by the double-isotope technique and the faecal excretion test was highly significant (r = 0.96, p 57 Co/ 51 Cr ratio in successive stool collections. In 11 patients with chronic diarrhoea there was a significant correlation between the absorption measured by the double-isotope technique and the faecal excretion test (r = 0.92, p 57 / 51 Cr ratio in successive stool collections

  9. Study of coupled heat and mass transfer during absorption of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mayer et al (1987) concluded from their numerical investigation that an excellent heat and mass transfer inside the reaction bed, good thermal contact of the bed material to the bed wall, and high external heat transfer coefficients were the important parameters to make the hydrogen absorption/desorption reaction efficient.

  10. On the absorption of a sound in helium 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matveev, Yu.A.

    1977-01-01

    A theory is developed which describes the propagation of high frequency sound in helium 2 at low temperatures (T 15 atm.) pressures when the phonon energy spectrum becomes stable. The absorption and sound dispersion coefficients under these conditions are calculated. The dependence of the velocity of second sound on frequency is determined. The resonance properties of the solution obtained are discussed

  11. Sound absorption in solutions near the consulate critical point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В.С. Сперкач

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available  The peculiarities of acoustical absorption coefficient in solutions of critical concentration near the critical consulate temperature have been investigated by the acoustic spectroscopy methods. The obtained data confirm conclusions of the dynamic theory of critical phenomena.

  12. Tone-burst technique measures high-intensity sound absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J. G.; Van Houten, J. J.

    1971-01-01

    Tone-burst technique, in which narrow-bandwidth, short-duration sonic pulse is propagated down a standing-wave tube, measures sound absorbing capacity of materials used in jet engine noise abatement. Technique eliminates effects of tube losses and yields normal-incidence absorption coefficient of specimen.

  13. Standard Practice for Evaluating Solar Absorptive Materials for Thermal Applications

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers a testing methodology for evaluating absorptive materials used in flat plate or concentrating collectors, with concentrating ratios not to exceed five, for solar thermal applications. This practice is not intended to be used for the evaluation of absorptive surfaces that are (1) used in direct contact with, or suspended in, a heat-transfer liquid, (that is, trickle collectors, direct absorption fluids, etc.); (2) used in evacuated collectors; or (3) used in collectors without cover plate(s). 1.2 Test methods included in this practice are property measurement tests and aging tests. Property measurement tests provide for the determination of various properties of absorptive materials, for example, absorptance, emittance, and appearance. Aging tests provide for exposure of absorptive materials to environments that may induce changes in the properties of test specimens. Measuring properties before and after an aging test provides a means of determining the effect of the exposure. 1.3 Th...

  14. X-Ray Attenuation and Absorption for Materials of Dosimetric Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 126 X-Ray Attenuation and Absorption for Materials of Dosimetric Interest (Web, free access)   Tables and graphs of the photon mass attenuation coefficient and the mass energy-absorption coefficient are presented for all of the elements Z = 1 to 92, and for 48 compounds and mixtures of radiological interest. The tables cover energies of the photon (x-ray, gamma ray, bremsstrahlung) from 1 keV to 20 MeV.

  15. Sound Absorption Characteristics of Aluminum Foams Treated by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Wei; Liu, Jiaan; Wang, Zhili; Wang, Yonghua; Cao, Zheng; Liu, Yaohui; Zhu, Xianyong

    2015-01-01

    Open-celled aluminum foams with different pore sizes were fabricated. A plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) treatment was applied on the aluminum foams to create a layer of ceramic coating. The sound absorption coefficients of the foams were measured by an impedance tube and they were calculated by a transfer function method. The experimental results show that the sound absorption coefficient of the foam increases gradually with the decrease of pore size. Additionally, when the porosity of th...

  16. Brillouin scattering measurements of the temperature dependence of sound velocity and acoustic absorption in simple alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, J. R.; Coakley, R. W.

    2011-07-01

    A scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer was used to measure Brillouin spectra of methanol, isopropanol and a 95% ethanol-water mixture for temperatures ranging between 285 K and 320 K. The Brillouin frequency shifts and linewidths were used to calculate the velocities and absorption coefficients of hypersonic acoustic waves in these liquids. The temperature dependence of sound speed and acoustic attenuation was determined. For all three materials, both sound velocity and absorption coefficient decreased with temperature.

  17. Refraction and absorption of microwaves in wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziherl, Saša; Bajc, Jurij; Čepič, Mojca

    2013-01-01

    A demonstration experiment for physics students showing the dependence of the refractive index and absorption coefficient of wood on the direction of microwaves is presented. Wood and microwaves enable study of anisotropic properties, which are typically found in crystals. Wood is used as the persuasive representative of uniaxial anisotropic materials due to its visible structure and its consequent anisotropic properties. Wood can be cut in a general direction and wooden plates a few centimetres thick with well-defined fibre orientation are easily prepared. Microwaves are used because wood is transparent for microwaves and their centimetre-scale wavelength is comparable to the wood structure. (paper)

  18. Chemical Absorption Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kaj

    2011-01-01

    Chemical absorption materials that potentially can be used for post combustion carbon dioxide capture are discussed. They fall into five groups, alkanolamines, alkali carbonates, ammonia, amino acid salts, and ionic liquids. The chemistry of the materials is discussed and advantages and drawbacks...

  19. Neutron resonance absorption theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuss, P.

    1991-11-01

    After some recalls on the physics of neutron resonance absorption during their slowing down, this paper presents the main features of the theoretical developments performed by the french school of reactor physics: the effective reaction rate method so called Livolant-Jeanpierre theory, the generalizations carried out by the author, and the probability table method [fr

  20. Ozone absorption in a mechanically stirred reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LJILJANA TAKIC

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Ozone absorption in water was investigated in a mechanically stirred reactor, using both the semi-batch and continuous mode of operation. A model for the precise determination of the volumetric mass transfer coefficient in open tanks without the necessity of the measurement the ozone concentration in the outlet gas was developed. It was found that slow ozone reactions in the liquid phase, including the decomposition of ozone, can be regarded as one pseudo-first order reaction. Under the examined operating conditions, the liquid phase was completely mixed, while mixing in a gas phase can be described as plug flow. The volumetric mass transfer coefficient was found to vary with the square of the impeller speed.

  1. Elementary reaction rate measurements at high temperatures by tunable-laser flash-absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hessler, J.P. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The major objective of this program is to measure thermal rate coefficients and branching ratios of elementary reactions. To perform these measurements, the authors constructed an ultrahigh-purity shock tube to generate temperatures between 1000 and 5500 K. The tunable-laser flash-absorption technique is used to measure the rate of change of the concentration of species which absorb below 50,000 cm{sup {minus}1} e.g.: OH, CH, and CH{sub 3}. This technique is being extended into the vacuum-ultraviolet spectral region where one can measure atomic species e.g.: H, D, C, O, and N; and diatomic species e.g.: O{sub 2}, CO, and OH.

  2. Artificial absorption creation for more accurate tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Chang, Jun; Cao, Lihua; Liu, Yuanyuan; Chen, Xi; Zhu, Cunguang; Qin, Zengguang

    2017-09-01

    A novel strategy for more accurate tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) measurement is presented. This method is immune to non-absorption transmission losses, and allows dead zone removal for ultra-low concentration detection, and reference point selection at atmospheric pressure. The method adjusts laser emission and creates artificial absorption peaks according to requirements. By creating an artificial absorption peak next to the real absorption zone, calibration is not necessary. The developed method can be applied to not only wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) but also direct absorption (DA). In WMS, the method does not need two harmonic signals, resulting in higher reliability, better performance, and no electro-optical gain uncertainty. At the same time, non-absorption transmission losses effect is suppressed from 70% to 0.425% with DA and from 70% to 0.225% with WMS method. When the artificial absorption peak coincides with the real one, the dead zone of measurement can be removed to give a lower detection limit, and water vapor still can be detected when concentration is lower than 0.2 ppm in our experiment. Reference point selection uncertainty with the DA method, especially when the signal-to-noise ratio is low and absorption line is broad, can also be facilitated. And the uncertainty of reference point selection is improved from 6% to 0.8% by measuring reference point amplitude. The method is demonstrated and validated by WMS and DA measurements of water vapor (1 atm, 296 K, 1368.597 nm). The measurement results obtained using the new method reveal its promise in TDLAS.

  3. Factorization of Transport Coefficients in Macroporous Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2000-01-01

    We prove the fundamental theorem about factorization of the phenomenological coefficients for transport in macroporous media. By factorization we mean the representation of the transport coefficients as products of geometric parameters of the porous medium and the parameters characteristic...

  4. Financial Key Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Tănase Alin-Eliodor

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on computing techniques starting from trial balance data regarding financial key ratios. There are presented activity, liquidity, solvency and profitability financial key ratios. It is presented a computing methodology in three steps based on a trial balance.

  5. Effect of the refraction factor of a plastic fiber shell on the internal reflection coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pkrksypkin, A.I.; Ponomarev, L.I.

    1992-01-01

    Results of pilot studies of the effect of refraction factor of plastic fiber shell on the coefficient of light internal reflection in the fiber are presented. It is pointed, that the shell does not absorb the light, but effects the surface layer of the fiber centre so, that dependence of the coefficient of internal reflection on refraction factor of the shell may be described using Fresnel formulae. It is shown, that coefficient of internal reflection decreases with the increase of refraction factor. Technique to determine volume length of scintillation light absorption in the fiber is suggested

  6. Coefficient of restitution and plastic strain for impact of elements welded with micro-jet cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian HADRYŚ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of investigations is the qualification how post-accident repair of model car body parts influence on the value of coefficient of restitution. Evaluation of impact energy absorption by model car body parts repaired with MIG welding (with and without micro-jet cooling was carried out. The results of investigations present that the value of coefficient of restitution changes with speed of impact. Coefficient of restitution is bigger for elements welded with micro-jet cooling than for element welded with ordinary method. This could have influence on passive safety of vehicle.

  7. Symmetry chains and adaptation coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzer, H.P.; Gruber, B.

    1985-01-01

    Given a symmetry chain of physical significance it becomes necessary to obtain states which transform properly with respect to the symmetries of the chain. In this article we describe a method which permits us to calculate symmetry-adapted quantum states with relative ease. The coefficients for the symmetry-adapted linear combinations are obtained, in numerical form, in terms of the original states of the system and can thus be represented in the form of numerical tables. In addition, one also obtains automatically the matrix elements for the operators of the symmetry groups which are involved, and thus for any physical operator which can be expressed either as an element of the algebra or of the enveloping algebra. The method is well suited for computers once the physically relevant symmetry chain, or chains, have been defined. While the method to be described is generally applicable to any physical system for which semisimple Lie algebras play a role we choose here a familiar example in order to illustrate the method and to illuminate its simplicity. We choose the nuclear shell model for the case of two nucleons with orbital angular momentum l = 1. While the states of the entire shell transform like the smallest spin representation of SO(25) we restrict our attention to its subgroup SU(6) x SU(2)/sub T/. We determine the symmetry chains which lead to total angular momentum SU(2)/sub J/ and obtain the symmetry-adapted states for these chains

  8. The theoretical ultimate magnetoelectric coefficients of magnetoelectric composites by optimization design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.-L.; Liu, B.

    2014-03-01

    This paper investigates what is the largest magnetoelectric (ME) coefficient of ME composites, and how to realize it. From the standpoint of energy conservation, a theoretical analysis is carried out on an imaginary lever structure consisting of a magnetostrictive phase, a piezoelectric phase, and a rigid lever. This structure is a generalization of various composite layouts for optimization on ME effect. The predicted theoretical ultimate ME coefficient plays a similar role as the efficiency of ideal heat engine in thermodynamics, and is used to evaluate the existing typical ME layouts, such as the parallel sandwiched layout and the serial layout. These two typical layouts exhibit ME coefficient much lower than the theoretical largest values, because in the general analysis the stress amplification ratio and the volume ratio can be optimized independently and freely, but in typical layouts they are dependent or fixed. To overcome this shortcoming and achieve the theoretical largest ME coefficient, a new design is presented. In addition, it is found that the most commonly used electric field ME coefficient can be designed to be infinitely large. We doubt the validity of this coefficient as a reasonable ME effect index and consider three more ME coefficients, namely the electric charge ME coefficient, the voltage ME coefficient, and the static electric energy ME coefficient. We note that the theoretical ultimate value of the static electric energy ME coefficient is finite and might be a more proper measure of ME effect.

  9. The theoretical ultimate magnetoelectric coefficients of magnetoelectric composites by optimization design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H.-L.; Liu, B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates what is the largest magnetoelectric (ME) coefficient of ME composites, and how to realize it. From the standpoint of energy conservation, a theoretical analysis is carried out on an imaginary lever structure consisting of a magnetostrictive phase, a piezoelectric phase, and a rigid lever. This structure is a generalization of various composite layouts for optimization on ME effect. The predicted theoretical ultimate ME coefficient plays a similar role as the efficiency of ideal heat engine in thermodynamics, and is used to evaluate the existing typical ME layouts, such as the parallel sandwiched layout and the serial layout. These two typical layouts exhibit ME coefficient much lower than the theoretical largest values, because in the general analysis the stress amplification ratio and the volume ratio can be optimized independently and freely, but in typical layouts they are dependent or fixed. To overcome this shortcoming and achieve the theoretical largest ME coefficient, a new design is presented. In addition, it is found that the most commonly used electric field ME coefficient can be designed to be infinitely large. We doubt the validity of this coefficient as a reasonable ME effect index and consider three more ME coefficients, namely the electric charge ME coefficient, the voltage ME coefficient, and the static electric energy ME coefficient. We note that the theoretical ultimate value of the static electric energy ME coefficient is finite and might be a more proper measure of ME effect

  10. Mechanical Parameters Effects on Acoustic Absorption at Polymer Foam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyes Dib

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymer foams have acoustic absorption properties that play an important role in reducing noise level. When the skeleton is set to motion, it is necessary to use generalized Biot-Allard model which takes into account the deformation of the skeleton and the fluid and the interactions between them. The aim of this work is to study the quality of acoustic absorption in polyurethane foam and to show the importance of the structural vibration of this foam on the absorption by varying mechanical parameters (Young’s modulus E, Poisson’s coefficient ν, structural damping factor η, and the density ρ1. We calculated the absorption coefficient analytically using classical Biot formulation (us, uf and numerically using Biot mixed formulation (us, p in 3D COMSOL Multiphysics. The obtained results are compared together and show an excellent agreement. Afterwards, we studied the effect of varying each mechanical parameter independently on the absorption in interval of ±20%. The simulations show that these parameters have an influence on the sound absorption around the resonance frequency fr.

  11. Absorption dynamics and delay time in complex potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villavicencio, Jorge; Romo, Roberto; Hernández-Maldonado, Alberto

    2018-05-01

    The dynamics of absorption is analyzed by using an exactly solvable model that deals with an analytical solution to Schrödinger’s equation for cutoff initial plane waves incident on a complex absorbing potential. A dynamical absorption coefficient which allows us to explore the dynamical loss of particles from the transient to the stationary regime is derived. We find that the absorption process is characterized by the emission of a series of damped periodic pulses in time domain, associated with damped Rabi-type oscillations with a characteristic frequency, ω = (E + ɛ)/ℏ, where E is the energy of the incident waves and ‑ɛ is energy of the quasidiscrete state of the system induced by the absorptive part of the Hamiltonian; the width γ of this resonance governs the amplitude of the pulses. The resemblance of the time-dependent absorption coefficient with a real decay process is discussed, in particular the transition from exponential to nonexponential regimes, a well-known feature of quantum decay. We have also analyzed the effect of the absorptive part of the potential on the dynamical delay time, which behaves differently from the one observed in attractive real delta potentials, exhibiting two regimes: time advance and time delay.

  12. Standards for Standardized Logistic Regression Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Standardized coefficients in logistic regression analysis have the same utility as standardized coefficients in linear regression analysis. Although there has been no consensus on the best way to construct standardized logistic regression coefficients, there is now sufficient evidence to suggest a single best approach to the construction of a…

  13. Anomalous Seebeck coefficient in boron carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aselage, T.L.; Emin, D.; Wood, C.; Mackinnon, I.D.R.; Howard, I.A.

    1987-01-01

    Boron carbides exhibit an anomalously large Seebeck coefficient with a temperature coefficient that is characteristic of polaronic hopping between inequivalent sites. The inequivalence in the sites is associated with disorder in the solid. The temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient for materials prepared by different techniques provides insight into the nature of the disorder

  14. Coefficient rings of formal group laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchstaber, V M; Ustinov, A V

    2015-01-01

    We describe the coefficient rings of universal formal group laws which arise in algebraic geometry, algebraic topology and their application to mathematical physics. We also describe the homomorphisms of these coefficient rings coming from reductions of one formal group law to another. The proofs are based on the number-theoretic properties of binomial coefficients. Bibliography: 37 titles

  15. Soccer Ball Lift Coefficients via Trajectory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, John Eric; Carre, Matt J.

    2010-01-01

    We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin…

  16. Diffusion coefficient in photon diffusion theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, R; Ten Bosch, JJ

    2000-01-01

    The choice of the diffusion coefficient to be used in photon diffusion theory has been a subject of discussion in recent publications on tissue optics. We compared several diffusion coefficients with the apparent diffusion coefficient from the more fundamental transport theory, D-app. Application to

  17. Influence of solvent absorption on the migration of Irganox 1076 from LDPE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmroth, I.E.; Dekker, M.; Hankemeier, T.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of solvent absorption on additive migration was studied by relating the diffusion coefficient (D) of Irganox 1076 to the maximum solvent absorption of different solvents in low-density polyethylene (LDPE) film. Solvents tested were ethanol, isopropanol, isooctane, ethylacetate,

  18. Absorption properties of water-in-oil emulsions in the low THz frequency range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe; Folkenberg, Jacob Riis; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    We use transmission THz spectroscopy to investigate the absorption properties of water-in-oil emulsions with water content varying in the 0-20% range, relevant for a range of food products. We find that at low frequencies the effective absorption coefficient of the emulsion is suppressed compared...... to bulk water....

  19. Experimental determination of mass-transfer coefficients and area of dumped packing using alkanolamine solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinto, Diego D D; Emonds, Rob; Versteeg, Geert F.

    2016-01-01

    The absorption process is strongly influenced by the effective contact area. In absorber columns, this is related to the type of the internals used in the columns. Therefore, a good representation of the effective mass-transfer area and mass-transfer coefficients (kL or kg) is also essential for

  20. Temperature dependence of the kinetic coefficients of superconductors in the intermediate state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorelik, L.Y.; Kadigrobov, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    It is demonstrated that in the case of a superconductor in the intermediate state at temperature T such that e0/T 0 denoting the characteristic superconductor energy gap) the sound absorption coefficient can be strongly temperature dependent and thermal conductivity along the layers of normal metal can be nonlinearly dependent on the temperature

  1. Energy-absorption capability and scalability of square cross section composite tube specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Gary L.

    1987-01-01

    Static crushing tests were conducted on graphite/epoxy and Kevlar/epoxy square cross section tubes to study the influence of specimen geometry on the energy-absorption capability and scalability of composite materials. The tube inside width-to-wall thickness (W/t) ratio was determined to significantly affect the energy-absorption capability of composite materials. As W/t ratio decreases, the energy-absorption capability increases nonlinearly. The energy-absorption capability of Kevlar epoxy tubes was found to be geometrically scalable, but the energy-absorption capability of graphite/epoxy tubes was not geometrically scalable.

  2. Absorptive Capacity and Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristinsson, Kári

    international business, organizational economics, strategic management, technology management and last but not least neo-Schumpeterian economics. The goal of this dissertation is to examine what many consider as neglected arguments from the work by Cohen and Levinthal and thereby illuminate an otherwise......One of the most influential contributions to neo-Schumpeterian economics is Cohen and Levinthal‘s papers on absorptive capacity. Since their publication in the late 1980s and early 1990s the concept absorptive capacity has had substantial impact on research in economics and management, including...... overlooked area of research. Although research based on Cohen and Levinthal‘s work has made considerable impact, there is scarcity of research on certain fundamental points argued by Cohen and Levinthal. Among these is the importance of employee diversity as well as the type and nature of interaction between...

  3. Design of wind turbine airfoils based on maximum power coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Jiangtao; Chen, Jin; Cheng, Jiangtao

    2010-01-01

    Based on the blade element momentum (BEM) theory, the power coefficient of a wind turbine can be expressed in function of local tip speed ratio and lift-drag ratio. By taking the power coefficient in a predefined range of angle of attack as the final design objective and combining with an airfoil...... behaviors, noise emission as well as wind turbine service life. To show the performance of the new design technique, a new airfoil with relative thickness of 18% is designed. Comparisons with a wind turbine airfoil (NACA 63418) at Re=2×106 and Re=6×106 for free and fixed transitions show that the new...... airfoil has a higher power efficiency, better designed lift at off-design condition, better stall behavior, less sensitivity to leading edge roughness and lower noise emission. © 2010 Journal of Mechanical Engineering....

  4. Pressure drop coefficient of laminar Newtonian flow in axisymmetric diffusers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, S.; Pinho, F.T.

    2006-01-01

    The laminar flow of Newtonian fluids in axisymmetric diffusers has been numerically investigated to evaluate the pressure-loss coefficient as a function of Reynolds number, diffusion angle and expansion ratio. The numerical simulations were carried out with a finite-volume based code using non-orthogonal collocated grids and second order accurate differencing schemes to discretize all terms of the transport equations. The calculations were carried out for Reynolds numbers between 2 and 200, diffusion angles from 0 deg. to 90 deg. and expansion ratios of 1.5 and 2 and the data are presented in tabular form and as correlations. A simplified 1D theoretical analysis helped explain the various contributions to the loss coefficient and its difference relative to the reversible pressure variation due to differences between the actual and fully developed friction losses, distortions of the velocity profiles and pressure non-uniformity upstream and downstream of the expansion section

  5. Energy coefficients for a propeller series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anders Smærup

    2004-01-01

    The efficiency for a propeller is calculated by energy coefficients. These coefficients are related to four types of losses, i.e. the axial, the rotational, the frictional, and the finite blade number loss, and one gain, i.e. the axial gain. The energy coefficients are derived by use...... of the potential theory with the propeller modelled as an actuator disk. The efficiency based on the energy coefficients is calculated for a propeller series. The results show a good agreement between the efficiency based on the energy coefficients and the efficiency obtained by a vortex-lattice method....

  6. Single-particle absorption spectroscopy by photothermal contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorulmaz, Mustafa; Nizzero, Sara; Hoggard, Anneli; Wang, Lin-Yung; Cai, Yi-Yu; Su, Man-Nung; Chang, Wei-Shun; Link, Stephan

    2015-05-13

    Removing effects of sample heterogeneity through single-molecule and single-particle techniques has advanced many fields. While background free luminescence and scattering spectroscopy is widely used, recording the absorption spectrum only is rather difficult. Here we present an approach capable of recording pure absorption spectra of individual nanostructures. We demonstrate the implementation of single-particle absorption spectroscopy on strongly scattering plasmonic nanoparticles by combining photothermal microscopy with a supercontinuum laser and an innovative calibration procedure that accounts for chromatic aberrations and wavelength-dependent excitation powers. Comparison of the absorption spectra to the scattering spectra of the same individual gold nanoparticles reveals the blueshift of the absorption spectra, as predicted by Mie theory but previously not detectable in extinction measurements that measure the sum of absorption and scattering. By covering a wavelength range of 300 nm, we are furthermore able to record absorption spectra of single gold nanorods with different aspect ratios. We find that the spectral shift between absorption and scattering for the longitudinal plasmon resonance decreases as a function of nanorod aspect ratio, which is in agreement with simulations.

  7. Sound absorption of snow

    OpenAIRE

    Maysenhölder, W.; Schneebeli, M.; Zhou, X.; Zhang, T.; Heggli, M.

    2008-01-01

    Recently fallen snow possesses good sound-absorbing properties. This fact is well-known and confirmed by measurements. Is the filigree structure of snowflakes decisive? In principle we know that the sound-absorbing capacity of a porous material is dependent on its structure. But until now the question as to which structural characteristics are significant has been insufficiently answered. Detailed investigations of snow are to explain this fact by precise measurements of the sound absorption,...

  8. Iron absorption studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekenved, G.

    1976-01-01

    The main objective of the present work was to study iron absorption from different iron preparations in different types of subjects and under varying therapeutic conditions. The studies were performed with different radioiron isotope techniques and with a serum iron technique. The preparations used were solutions of ferrous sulphate and rapidly-disintegrating tablets containing ferrous sulphate, ferrous fumarate and ferrous carbonate and a slow-release ferrous sulphate tablet of an insoluble matrix type (Duroferon Durules). The serum iron method was evaluated and good correlation was found between the serum iron response and the total amount of iron absorbed after an oral dose of iron given in solution or in tablet form. New technique for studying the in-vivo release properties of tablets was presented. Iron tablets labelled with a radio-isotope were given to healthy subjects. The decline of the radioactivity in the tablets was followed by a profile scanning technique applied to different types of iron tablets. The release of iron from the two types of tablets was shown to be slower in vivo than in vitro. It was found that co-administration of antacids and iron tablets led to a marked reduction in the iron absorption and that these drugs should not be administered sumultaneously. A standardized meal markedly decreased the absorbability of iron from iron tablets. The influence of the meal was more marked with rapidly-disintegrating than with slow-release ferrous sulphate tablets. The absorption from rapidly-disintegrating and slow-release ferrous sulphate tablets was compared under practical clinical conditions during an extended treatment period. The studies were performed in healthy subjects, blood donors and patients with iron deficiency anaemia and it was found that the absorption of iron from the slow-release tablets was significantly better than from the rapidly-disintegrating tablets in all three groups of subjects. (author)

  9. Total Absorption Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio, B.; Gelletly, W.

    2007-01-01

    The problem of determining the distribution of beta decay strength (B(GT)) as a function of excitation energy in the daughter nucleus is discussed. Total Absorption Spectroscopy is shown to provide a way of determining the B(GT) precisely. A brief history of such measurements and a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of this technique, is followed by examples of two recent studies using the technique. (authors)

  10. Relic Neutrino Absorption Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberle, b

    2004-01-28

    Resonant annihilation of extremely high-energy cosmic neutrinos on big-bang relic anti-neutrinos (and vice versa) into Z-bosons leads to sizable absorption dips in the neutrino flux to be observed at Earth. The high-energy edges of these dips are fixed, via the resonance energies, by the neutrino masses alone. Their depths are determined by the cosmic neutrino background density, by the cosmological parameters determining the expansion rate of the universe, and by the large redshift history of the cosmic neutrino sources. We investigate the possibility of determining the existence of the cosmic neutrino background within the next decade from a measurement of these absorption dips in the neutrino flux. As a by-product, we study the prospects to infer the absolute neutrino mass scale. We find that, with the presently planned neutrino detectors (ANITA, Auger, EUSO, OWL, RICE, and SalSA) operating in the relevant energy regime above 10{sup 21} eV, relic neutrino absorption spectroscopy becomes a realistic possibility. It requires, however, the existence of extremely powerful neutrino sources, which should be opaque to nucleons and high-energy photons to evade present constraints. Furthermore, the neutrino mass spectrum must be quasi-degenerate to optimize the dip, which implies m{sub {nu}} 0.1 eV for the lightest neutrino. With a second generation of neutrino detectors, these demanding requirements can be relaxed considerably.

  11. Index-free heat kernel coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, Anton E. M.

    1998-08-01

    Using index-free notation, we present the diagonal values 0264-9381/15/8/014/img1 of the first five heat kernel coefficients 0264-9381/15/8/014/img2 associated with a general Laplace-type operator on a compact Riemannian space without boundary. The fifth coefficient 0264-9381/15/8/014/img3 appears here for the first time. For the special case of a flat space, but with a gauge connection, the sixth coefficient is given too. Also provided are the leading terms for any coefficient, both in ascending and descending powers of the Yang-Mills and Riemann curvatures, to the same order as required for the fourth coefficient. These results are obtained by directly solving the relevant recursion relations, working in the Fock-Schwinger gauge and Riemann normal coordinates. Our procedure is thus non-covariant, but we show that for any coefficient the `gauged', respectively `curved', version is found from the corresponding `non-gauged', respectively `flat', coefficient by making some simple covariant substitutions. These substitutions being understood, the coefficients retain their `flat' form and size. In this sense the fifth and sixth coefficient have only 26 and 75 terms, respectively, allowing us to write them down. Using index-free notation also clarifies the general structure of the heat kernel coefficients. In particular, in flat space we find that from the fifth coefficient onward, certain scalars are absent. This may be relevant for the anomalies of quantum field theories in ten or more dimensions.

  12. Exploring the origin of high optical absorption in conjugated polymers

    KAUST Repository

    Vezie, Michelle S.

    2016-05-16

    The specific optical absorption of an organic semiconductor is critical to the performance of organic optoelectronic devices. For example, higher light-harvesting efficiency can lead to higher photocurrent in solar cells that are limited by sub-optimal electrical transport. Here, we compare over 40 conjugated polymers, and find that many different chemical structures share an apparent maximum in their extinction coefficients. However, a diketopyrrolopyrrole-thienothiophene copolymer shows remarkably high optical absorption at relatively low photon energies. By investigating its backbone structure and conformation with measurements and quantum chemical calculations, we find that the high optical absorption can be explained by the high persistence length of the polymer. Accordingly, we demonstrate high absorption in other polymers with high theoretical persistence length. Visible light harvesting may be enhanced in other conjugated polymers through judicious design of the structure.

  13. Analysis of a solar powered absorption system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Said, S.A.M.; El-Shaarawi, M.A.I.; Siddiqui, M.U.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Conventional absorption system modified to increase COP. • Results indicated increase of 10% in COP due to dephlegmator heat recovery. • Results indicated increase of 8% in COP due to refrigerant storage unit. • Results indicated increase of 18% in COP due to combined effect of modifications. • Simulation results indicated a very good agreement with the measured results. - Abstract: Today, fossil fuel is the primary extensively used source of energy. However, its negative impact on the environment have forced the energy research continuity to seriously consider renewable sources of energy. Solar energy, in particular, has been the main focus in this regard because it is a source of clean energy and naturally available. This study presents the design and analysis of a solar powered absorption refrigeration system modified to increase its coefficient of performance (COP). The modifications include recovering of waste heat from a dephlegmator and utilization of a refrigerant storage unit. The simulation results indicate an increase of 10% in the COP of the conventional design using dephlegmator heat recovery and an increase of 8% in the COP of the conventional design due to the use of a refrigerant storage. The analysis for the combined effect of modifications indicates an increase of 18% in the COP compared to conventional design. Calculated values of coefficient of performance indicate a very good agreement with the ones obtained based on measurement

  14. Research into energy absorption of liquid cabin subjected to close-range explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Siyu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the energy absorption of different parts of a liquid cabin under a close-range explosion, a fluid-structure coupling model is built on the basis of experiments, and the deformation of the bulkhead and energy absorption ratio of different parts of the liquid cabin are analyzed, in which the influence of the water, bulkhead thickness ratio and water thickness are also discussed. The results show that the existence of a liquid medium can change the energy absorption model of a cabin. The total energy absorption is mainly affected by the front bulkhead thickness and water thickness, and alterations to the bulkhead thickness ratio or water thickness can also affect the deformation model of the bulkhead and energy absorption ratio of different parts of the cabin. A logical explanation of the energy absorption mechanisms of the liquid cabin is proposed, and some useful suggestions for designs are given.

  15. Spectroscopic properties of Bi2ZnOB2O6 single crystals doped with Pr3+ ions: Absorption and luminescence investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprowicz, D.; Brik, M. G.; Jaroszewski, K.; Pedzinski, T.; Bursa, B.; Głuchowski, P.; Majchrowski, A.; Michalski, E.

    2015-09-01

    Nonlinear optical Bi2ZnOB2O6 single crystals doped with Pr3+ ions were grown using the Kyropoulos method. The absorption and luminescence properties of these new systems were investigated for the first time. The crystals are characterized by the large values of nonlinear optical coefficients. Effective luminescence of the Pr3+ ions makes this system an excellent candidate for the near-infrared (NIR) and/or ultraviolet (UV) to visible (VIS) laser converters. Based on the obtained experimental spectroscopic data, detailed analysis of the absorption and luminescence spectra was performed using the conventional Judd-Ofelt theory. Those transitions, which can be potentially used for laser applications of the Pr3+ ion, have been identified. In addition to the intensity parameters Ω2, Ω4, Ω6 the branching ratios and radiative lifetimes were estimated for all possible transitions in the studied spectral region.

  16. Mathematical modelling of thin films growth and calculation of coefficients reflection, transmission and absorption waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istratov, A. V.; Gerke, M. N.

    2018-01-01

    Progress in nano- and microsystem technology is directly related to the development of thin-film technologies. At the present time, thin metal films can serve as the basis for the creation of new instruments for nanoelectronics. One of the important parameters of thin films affecting the characteristics of devices is their optical properties. That is why the island structures, whose optical properties, can change in a wide range depending on their morphology, are of increasing interest. However, despite the large amount of research conducted by scientists from different countries, many questions about the optimal production and use of thin films remain unresolved.

  17. Random incidence absorption coefficients of porous absorbers based on local and extended reaction models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2011-01-01

    resistivity and the absorber thickness on the difference between the two surface reaction models are examined and discussed. For a porous absorber backed by a rigid surface, the local reaction models give errors of less than 10% if the thickness exceeds 120 mm for a flow resistivity of 5000 Nm-4s. As the flow......Room surfaces have been extensively modeled as locally reacting in room acoustic predictions although such modeling could yield significant errors under certain conditions. Therefore, this study aims to propose a guideline for adopting the local reaction assumption by comparing predicted random...... incidence acoustical characteristics of typical building elements made of porous materials assuming extended and local reaction. For each surface reaction, five well-established wave propagation models, the Delany-Bazley, Miki, Beranek, Allard-Champoux, and Biot model, are employed. Effects of the flow...

  18. Vapor-Phase Infrared Absorptivity Coefficient of 2-ChlorovinylDichloroarsine (LEWISITE)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Barry R; Hulet, Melissa S; Samuels, Alan C; Miles, Jr., Ronald W; Berg, Frederic J; McMahon, Leslie; Durst, H. D

    2009-01-01

    ...) in the mid-infrared (4000-550/cm) at a spectral resolution of 0.125/cm. The Lewisite used in the feedstock was purified by fractional distillation and analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance to verify its purity...

  19. piezoelectric resonance, nonlinear-optical crystals, optical absorption, heat transfer coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Sun, J.; Rolfe, P.

    2011-06-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a sensitive technique that has the potential to detect haemodynamic changes during the performance of specific activation tasks. However, in real situations, fNIRS recordings are often corrupted by physiological phenomena, especially by cardiac contraction, breathing and blood pressure fluctuations, and these forms of interference can severely limit the utility of fNIRS. We present a novel fNIRS enhancement based on the multidistance fNIRS method with short-distance and long-distance optode pairs. With this method empirical mode decomposition (EMD) is applied to decompose the superficial haemodynamic changes, derived from the short-distance fNIRS measurements, into a series of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). By utilizing the weighting parameters for the IMFs, we perform an estimation for global interference in the desired haemodynamic changes, derived from the long-distance fNIRS measurements. We recover the evoked brain activity by minimizing least squares between the desired haemodynamic changes and the estimated global interference. To accelerate the computation, we adopt the recursive least squares (RLS) to decrease the computation complexity due to the matrix inversion. Monte Carlo simulations based on a five-layered slab model of a human adult head was implemented to evaluate our methodology. The results demonstrate that the EMD-RLS method can effectively remove contamination from the evoked brain activity.

  20. Phantom skin absorption coefficients from spectrophotometric and integrating sphere methods: preliminary comparative results

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smit, Jacoba E

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Minimalistic or non-invasive diagnosis and treatment of skin disorders requires accurate information regarding skin optical properties. Spectrophotometric and Integrating Sphere (IS) methods are commonly used to extract information regarding...

  1. Brillouin-scattering measurements of the acoustic absorption coefficient in liquid CS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, R. W.; Detenbeck, R. W.

    1975-01-01

    High-resolution Brillouin spectra were recorded for light scattered at small angles from liquid CS2. The use of a single-mode He-Ne laser, locked in frequency to a Fabry-Perot interferometer, permitted measurements of line widths of the order of 10 MHz for frequencies in the range 300-1000 MHz. These measurements extend previous Brillouin line-width measurements at higher frequencies into the region where relaxation effects are dominant and connect the optical measurements with lower-frequency acoustical data.

  2. Determination of absorption coefficients of glasses at high tempera-tures, by measuring the thermal emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loenen, E.; Van der Tempel, L.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental setup built in 1995 measures the spectral absorptioncoefficient of glass as a function of temperature and wavelength bythe emissive method. The setup was improved, as well as the softwarefor processing the measurement data. The measurement results of quartzwere validated by

  3. Thermodynamic performances of [mmim]DMP/Methanol absorption refrigeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Liang, Shiqiang; Guo, Yongxian; Cheng, Keyong; Gui, Xiaohong; Tang, Dawei

    2012-12-01

    In order to study the theoretical cycle characteristic of [mmim]DMP (1-methyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethylphosphate) /methanol absorption refrigeration, the modified UNIFAC group contribution model and the Wilson model are established through correlating the experimental vapor pressure data of [mmim]DMP/methanol at T=280˜370 K and methanol mole fraction x= 0.529˜0.965. Thermodynamic performances of absorption refrigeration utilizing [mmim]DMP/methanol, LiBr/H2O and H2O/NH3 are investigated and compared with each other under the same operating conditions. From the results, some conclusions are obtained as follows: 1) the circulation ratio of the [mmim]DMP /methanol absorption refrigeration is higher than that of the LiBr/H2O absorption refrigeration, but still can be acceptable and tolerable. 2) The COP of the [mmim]DMP/methanol absorption refrigeration is smaller than that of the LiBr/H2O absorption refrigeration, while it is higher than that of the H2O/NH3 absorption refrigeration under most operating conditions. 3) The [mmim]DMP/methanol absorption refrigeration are still available with high COP when the heat source temperature is too high to drive LiBr/H2O absorption refrigeration.

  4. Spectral effects on some physical coefficients of x-Ray interaction with materials of low atomic number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Kazzaz, S.A.; Youssef, M.; EL-Hadad, S.; and EL-Nadi, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    X-ray spectra were measured before and after passing through some materials of medical importance applying X-ray diffraction. The mass absorption coefficients of these materials were determined at X-ray peak voltages 27, 30 and 42 kV-p making use the measured spectrum and also by using the direct beam absorption. It has been found that the mass absorption coefficients calculated from the X-ray spectral distribution analysis are in general lower than those obtained considering the direct beam method. From the study of the atomic number and energy dependence of the mass absorption coefficients it has been found that the dependence of the coefficients calculated from the spectral distribution is good agreement with the previously studied data for monoenergetic x-ray beam. Also the roentgen - to - Rad conversion factors were determined at the different used energies and materials. The value of the mass absorption coefficients calculated from the spectral distribution is recommended for use in dose calculation

  5. Apparent digestibility coefficient of practical diets with different energy: protein ratios for pirarucu juveniles

    OpenAIRE

    Ono, Eduardo Akifumi; Nunes, Érica da Silva Santiago; Cedano, Jimmy Carlos Campos; Pereira Filho, Manoel; Roubach, Rodrigo

    2008-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a digestibilidade aparente de nutrientes e energia de dietas para juvenis de pirarucu, Arapaima gigas. Foram testadas oito dietas, contendo quatro relações energia:proteína (11, 10,1, 9, 8 kcal energia digestível por grama de proteína bruta) e duas fontes de energia não-protéica (óleo de soja e gordura de aves), em esquema fatorial 4x2, com três repetições. Foram estocados 240 juvenis de pirarucu com peso de 96,8±2,3 g, distribuídos em 24 tanque...

  6. Using lamb waves tomonitor moisture absorption thermally fatigues composite laminates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Sun; Cho, Youn Ho [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Nondestructive evaluation for material health monitoring is important in aerospace industries. Composite laminates are exposed to heat cyclic loading and humid environment depending on flight conditions. Cyclic heat loading and moisture absorption may lead to material degradation such as matrix breaking, debonding, and delamination. In this paper, the moisture absorption ratio was investigated by measuring the Lamb wave velocity. The composite laminates were manufactured and subjected to different thermal aging cycles and moisture absorption. For various conditions of these cycles, not only changes in weight and also ultrasonic wave velocity were measured, and the Lamb wave velocity at various levels of moisture on a carbon-epoxy plate was investigated. Results from the experiment show a linear correlation between moisture absorption ratio and Lamb wave velocity at different thermal fatigue stages. The presented method can be applied as an alternative solution in the online monitoring of composite laminate moisture levels in commercial flights.

  7. Absorption heat pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhtinen, M.; Heikkilae, M.; Andersson, R.

    1987-03-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the technical and economic feasibility of absorption heat pumps in Finland. The work was done as a case study: the technical and economic analyses have been carried out for six different cases, where in each the suitable size and type of the heat pump plant and the auxiliary components and connections were specified. The study also detailed the costs concerning the procurement, installation and test runs of the machinery, as well as the savings in energy costs incurred by the introduction of the plant. Conclusions were drawn of the economic viability of the applications studied. The following cases were analyzed: heat recovery from flue gases and productin of district heat in plants using peat, natural gas, and municipal wastes as a fuel. Heat recovery in the pulp and paper industry for the upgrading of pressure of secondary steam and for the heating of white liquor and combustion and drying the air. Heat recovery in a peat-fulled heat and power plant from flue gases that have been used for the drying of peat. According to the study, the absorption heat pump suits best to the production of district heat, when the heat source is the primary energy is steam produced by the boiler. Included in the flue as condensing is the purification of flue gases. Accordingly, benefit is gained on two levels in thick applications. In heat and power plants the use of absorption heat pumps is less economical, due to the fact that the steam used by the pump reduces the production of electricity, which is rated clearly higher than heat.

  8. Rapidly variable relatvistic absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M.; Pinto, C.; Fabian, A.; Lohfink, A.; Buisson, D.; Alston, W.; Jiang, J.

    2017-10-01

    I will present results from the 1.5Ms XMM-Newton observing campaign on the most X-ray variable AGN, IRAS 13224-3809. We find a series of nine absorption lines with a velocity of 0.24c from an ultra-fast outflow. For the first time, we are able to see extremely rapid variability of the UFO features, and can link this to the X-ray variability from the inner accretion disk. We find a clear flux dependence of the outflow features, suggesting that the wind is ionized by increasing X-ray emission.

  9. Geospatial Absorption and Regional Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOAN MAC

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The geospatial absorptions are characterized by a specific complexity both in content and in their phenomenological and spatial manifestation fields. Such processes are differentiated according to their specificity to pre-absorption, absorption or post-absorption. The mechanisms that contribute to absorption are extremely numerous: aggregation, extension, diffusion, substitution, resistivity (resilience, stratification, borrowings, etc. Between these mechanisms frequent relations are established determining an amplification of the process and of its regional effects. The installation of the geographic osmosis phenomenon in a given territory (a place for example leads to a homogenization of the geospatial state and to the installation of the regional homogeneity.

  10. The use of a reference absorber for absorption measurements in a reverberation chamber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nolan, Melanie; Vercammen, Martijn; Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2014-01-01

    will be used for qualification of the room and correction of the results. The present research establishes the requirements for a proper design of such an absorber and its reference absorption data. The diffuse field factor was used to quantify the diffuse sound field in several reverberation rooms......The statistical incidence absorption coefficient is measured in a reverberation room according to ISO 354. This absorption coefficient is referred to as Sabine absorption coefficient, which assumes the chambe r to be completely diffuse. It is known that the reproducibility of these results is poor...... and the differences in the results between laboratories are much larger than can be accepted from a jurisdictional point of view. Actions should therefore be taken to reduce the spread. The intention of this paper is to set requirements on the diffusivity of the sound field and to apply a reference absorber, which...

  11. Absorption of acrylates and polysilazanes in the far UVC and the VUV regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prager, Lutz, E-mail: lutz.prager@iom-leipzig.de [Leibniz-Institut fuer Oberflaechenmodifizierung e.V. (IOM), Chemical Department, Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Wennrich, Luise; Knolle, Wolfgang; Naumov, Sergej; Prager, Andrea [Leibniz-Institut fuer Oberflaechenmodifizierung e.V. (IOM), Chemical Department, Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Absorption coefficients were determined on acrylates and polysilazanes in the VUV spectral range. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coefficients change during irradiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantum-chemical calculations explain the findings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer XPS depth profiles reveal degradation effects in a thin surface layer. - Abstract: A simple but reliable method was developed for the determination of wavelength-dependent absorption coefficients in the vacuum-UV (VUV) spectral range 160 nm < {lambda} < 195 nm. Absorption coefficients were determined on thin layers of UV curable compounds like acrylates and of polysilazanes, which are subject to photo-induced conversion into SiO{sub x} layers. Results were discussed in terms of changing values of the absorption coefficients during irradiation. In case of acrylates polymerization leads to the decrease of the absorption coefficients especially in the wavelength range about 195 nm from about 10 {mu}m{sup -1} to about 1 {mu}m{sup -1}. Results of quantum-chemical calculations explain this finding by the depletion of double bonds for which {pi}{pi}* transitions are characteristic. XPS depth profiles reveal the VUV induced degradation of carboxyl and ether functionalities in a thin surface layer corresponding to the penetration depth of the VUV photons.

  12. Apparatus for measurement of coefficient of friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slifka, A. J.; Siegwarth, J. D.; Sparks, L. L.; Chaudhuri, Dilip K.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus designed to measure the coefficient of friction in certain controlled atmospheres is described. The coefficient of friction observed during high-load tests was nearly constant, with an average value of 0.56. This value is in general agreement with that found in the literature and also with the initial friction coefficient value of 0.67 measured during self-mated friction of 440C steel in an oxygen environment.

  13. Extended obstruction tensors and renormalized volume coefficients

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, C. Robin

    2009-01-01

    The behavior under conformal change of the renormalized volume coefficients associated to a pseudo-Riemannian metric is investigated. It is shown that they define second order fully nonlinear operators in the conformal factor whose algebraic structure is elucidated via the introduction of "extended obstruction tensors". These together with the Schouten tensor constitute building blocks for the coefficients in the ambient metric expansion. The renormalized volume coefficients have recently bee...

  14. Determining the Gruneisen coefficient for liquids using the PAZ-scan technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantiste, Olivier A.

    Measurement of Gruneisen coefficient is utterly important in developing efficient molecular photoacoustic (PA) contrast agents. It is one of the two parameters that describes how efficient a molecule is in transforming optical energy into sound, the other being absorption coefficient. Using the PAZ-scan technique, the Gruneisen coefficient was obtained for various samples and the values are compared with standard techniques. In a PAZ-scan, the sample is translated through the path of a focused laser beam in small steps while the generated PA signal is recorded. The incident intensity is optimum at the focal point and decreases gradually on either side of the focus. As such, the absorption and the PA signal varies according to the sample properties. Therefore at positions away from the focal point, the incident intensities are weak and the PA signal varies linearly with intensity. A plot of the PA signal versus the intensity is used to obtain the Gruneisen coefficient. Using this technique, the Gruneisen coefficients for crystal violet in two different solvents, food coloring dyes that are dissolved in water were determined. Results show that the linear part of the PAZ-scan can be used to determine the Gruneisen coefficient for liquids.

  15. Statistical fluctuations of the parametric derivative of the transmission and reflection coefficients in absorbing chaotic cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Mares, M

    2005-09-01

    Motivated by recent theoretical and experimental works, we study the statistical fluctuations of the parametric derivative of the transmission T and reflection R coefficients, T/deltaX and R/deltaX, respectively, in ballistic chaotic cavities in the presence of absorption. Analytical results for the variance of T/deltaX and R/deltaX, with and without time-reversal symmetry, are obtained for asymmetric and left-right symmetric cavities. These results are valid for an arbitrary number of channels for strong absorption strength, in complete agreement with the results found in the literature in the absence of absorption. A simple extrapolation to any absorption strength is qualitatively correct.

  16. [Design and analyze mathematical algorithms of intestinal absorption and metabolism of multicomponent drug].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ling; Xiang, Jia-Mei; Wang, Yun; Wu, Rui-Guang; Tang, Ming-Min; Sun, Mo-Han

    2014-12-01

    Evaluation of the permeability mainly focuses on intestinal absorption in biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS). It is more complicated that the absorption and metabolism under multicomponent environment in biopharmaceutics classification system of Chinese materia medica (CMMBCS) compared with single component environment, which needs suitable mathematical models to be described. Therefore, with full consideration of existing single component mathematical algorithm combining with the characteristics of intestinal absorption and metabolism, we explored and designed a new mathematical algorithm of intestinal absorption and metabolism of multicomponent drug. Then we put forward a new coefficient, P (influence), the relative change rate of the single component's intestinal absorption and metabolism under multicomponent environment compared with single component environment, which described the influences of intestinal absorption and metabolism of the component under multicomponent environment. Moreover, P (influence) highlights the distinctive characteristics of multicomponent drug's intestinal absorption and metabolism, and lays the foundation for the construction of CMMBCS.

  17. Ultraviolet part of transient absorption spectrum induced in liquid ammonia by nanosecond pulse radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhataziz

    1977-01-01

    The absorption spectra induced in neat liquid ammonia and ammoniacal solution of N 2 O by nanosecond pulse radiolysis have been measured for wavelength range 250 to 325 nm. The results indicate that the absorption spectrum induced in liquid ammonia is a composite of absorption spectra of e/sub am/ - and NH 2 . The absorptions due to e/sub am/ - decrease with decreasing wavelength, and are attributed to the tail of the absorption spectrum (maximum absorption in near infrared) of e/sub am/ - . The absorption spectrum for NH 2 has a shoulder at approximately 255 nm. In liquid ammonia at 23 0 C, the extinction coefficient for NH 2 at 250 nm is 1.1 x 10 3 M -1 cm -1

  18. Thermodynamic analysis of an absorption refrigeration system with ionic-liquid/refrigerant mixture as a working fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yoon Jo; Kim, Sarah; Joshi, Yogendra K.; Fedorov, Andrei G.; Kohl, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Thermodynamics of an ionic-liquid (IL) based absorption refrigeration system has been numerically analyzed. It provides an alternative to the normally toxic working fluids, such as the ammonia in conventional absorption systems. The use of ILs also eliminates crystallization and metal-compatibility problems of the water/LiBr system. Mixtures of refrigerants and imidazolium-based ILs are theoretically explored as the working fluid pairs in a miniature absorption refrigeration system, so as to utilize waste-heat to power a refrigeration/heat pump system for electronics cooling. A non-random two-liquid (NRTL) model was built and used to predict the solubility of the mixtures. Saturation temperatures at the evaporator and condenser were set at 25 °C and 50 °C, respectively, with the power dissipation of 100 W. Water in combination with [emim][BF 4 ] (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate) gave the highest coefficient of performance (COP) around 0.9. The refrigerant/IL compatibility indicated by the circulation ratio, alkyl chain length of the IL, and thermodynamic properties of the refrigerants, such as latent heat of evaporation were proven to be important factors in determining the performance of the absorption system. The negative effect of high viscosity was mitigated by dilution of the IL with the refrigerant and the use of slightly larger microfluidic channel heat exchangers. -- Highlights: ► Mixtures of refrigerant/ionic-liquid are studied for absorption system. ► We carry out comprehensive theoretical thermodynamic analysis. ► The essential factors of refrigerant/IL affecting the performance are identified. ► Water/[emim][BF 4 ] showed the best performance of COP. ► The effects of high viscosity ILs on the system performance are not significant.

  19. Index-free Heat Kernel Coefficients

    OpenAIRE

    van de Ven, Anton E. M.

    1997-01-01

    Using index-free notation, we present the diagonal values of the first five heat kernel coefficients associated with a general Laplace-type operator on a compact Riemannian space without boundary. The fifth coefficient appears here for the first time. For a flat space with a gauge connection, the sixth coefficient is given too. Also provided are the leading terms for any coefficient, both in ascending and descending powers of the Yang-Mills and Riemann curvatures, to the same order as require...

  20. Comparing linear probability model coefficients across groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anders; Ejrnæs, Mette; Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    2015-01-01

    This article offers a formal identification analysis of the problem in comparing coefficients from linear probability models between groups. We show that differences in coefficients from these models can result not only from genuine differences in effects, but also from differences in one or more...... of the following three components: outcome truncation, scale parameters and distributional shape of the predictor variable. These results point to limitations in using linear probability model coefficients for group comparisons. We also provide Monte Carlo simulations and real examples to illustrate...... these limitations, and we suggest a restricted approach to using linear probability model coefficients in group comparisons....

  1. A parameter identification method for the rotordynamic coefficients of a high Reynolds number hydrostatic bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouvas, C.; Childs, D. W.

    1993-01-01

    In identifying the rotordynamic coefficients of a high-Reynolds-number hydrostatic bearing, fluid-flow induced forces present a unique problem, in that they provide an unmeasureable and uncontrollable excitation to the bearing. An analysis method is developed that effectively eliminates the effects of fluid-flow induced excitation on the estimation of the bearing rotordynamic coefficients, by using power spectral densities. In addition to the theoretical development, the method is verified experimentally by single-frequency testing, and repeatability tests. Results obtained for a bearing are the twelve rotordynamic coefficients (stiffness, damping, and inertia coefficients) as functions of eccentricity ratio, speed, and supply pressure.

  2. Model for Astrophysical X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrey, R.C.; Woo, J.W.; Cho, K.

    1998-01-01

    We present a theoretical model and database designed to provide analysis of astrophysical X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). The model includes spherical wave corrections and multiple-scattering contributions to the modification of the X-ray absorption coefficient. The model and database provide the basis for the astrophysical XAFS analysis (AXA) tool, which may be used to analyze properties of interstellar grains and molecules from high-resolution X-ray spectra expected to be observed by future satellite missions (e.g., the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility). copyright copyright 1998. The American Astronomical Society

  3. From Fibonacci Sequence to the Golden Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Fiorenza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the well-known characterization of the Golden ratio as limit of the ratio of consecutive terms of the Fibonacci sequence, and we give an explanation of this property in the framework of the Difference Equations Theory. We show that the Golden ratio coincides with this limit not because it is the root with maximum modulus and multiplicity of the characteristic polynomial, but, from a more general point of view, because it is the root with maximum modulus and multiplicity of a restricted set of roots, which in this special case coincides with the two roots of the characteristic polynomial. This new perspective is the heart of the characterization of the limit of ratio of consecutive terms of all linear homogeneous recurrences with constant coefficients, without any assumption on the roots of the characteristic polynomial, which may be, in particular, also complex and not real.

  4. Brown carbon absorption in the red and near-infrared spectral region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffer, András; Tóth, Ádám; Pósfai, Mihály; Eddy Chung, Chul; Gelencsér, András

    2017-06-01

    Black carbon (BC) aerosols have often been assumed to be the only light-absorbing carbonaceous particles in the red and near-infrared spectral regions of solar radiation in the atmosphere. Here we report that tar balls (a specific type of organic aerosol particles from biomass burning) do absorb red and near-infrared radiation significantly. Tar balls were produced in a laboratory experiment, and their chemical and optical properties were measured. The absorption of these particles in the range between 470 and 950 nm was measured with an aethalometer, which is widely used to measure atmospheric aerosol absorption. We find that the absorption coefficient of tar balls at 880 nm is more than 10 % of that at 470 nm. The considerable absorption of red and infrared light by tar balls also follows from their relatively low absorption Ångström coefficient (and significant mass absorption coefficient) in the spectral range between 470 and 950 nm. Our results support the previous finding that tar balls may play an important role in global warming. Due to the non-negligible absorption of tar balls in the near-infrared region, the absorption measured in the field at near-infrared wavelengths cannot solely be due to soot particles.

  5. Brown carbon absorption in the red and near-infrared spectral region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hoffer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Black carbon (BC aerosols have often been assumed to be the only light-absorbing carbonaceous particles in the red and near-infrared spectral regions of solar radiation in the atmosphere. Here we report that tar balls (a specific type of organic aerosol particles from biomass burning do absorb red and near-infrared radiation significantly. Tar balls were produced in a laboratory experiment, and their chemical and optical properties were measured. The absorption of these particles in the range between 470 and 950 nm was measured with an aethalometer, which is widely used to measure atmospheric aerosol absorption. We find that the absorption coefficient of tar balls at 880 nm is more than 10 % of that at 470 nm. The considerable absorption of red and infrared light by tar balls also follows from their relatively low absorption Ångström coefficient (and significant mass absorption coefficient in the spectral range between 470 and 950 nm. Our results support the previous finding that tar balls may play an important role in global warming. Due to the non-negligible absorption of tar balls in the near-infrared region, the absorption measured in the field at near-infrared wavelengths cannot solely be due to soot particles.

  6. Optical absorption of sodium copper chlorophyllin thin films in UV-vis-NIR region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, A A M

    2006-11-01

    The optical absorption studies of sodium copper chlorophyllin thin films (SCC), prepared by spray pyrolysis, in the UV-vis-NIR region was reported for the first time. Several new discrete transitions are observed in the UV-vis region of the spectra in addition to a strong continuum component in the IR region. The spectra of the infrared absorption allow characterization of vibration modes for the powder and thin films of SCC. The absorption spectrum recorded in the UV-vis region showed different absorption bands, namely the Soret (B) in the region 340-450 nm and Q-band in the region 600-700 nm and other band labeled N in the 240-320 region. Some important spectral parameters namely optical absorption coefficient (alpha), molar extinction coefficient (epsilon(molar)), oscillator strength (f), electric dipole strength (q(2)) and absorption half bandwidth (Deltalambda) of the principle optical transitions were evaluated. The analysis of the absorption coefficient in the absorption region revealed direct transitions and the energy gap was estimated as 1.63 eV. Discussion of the obtained results and their comparison with the previous published data are also given.

  7. Mathematical Model of a Lithium-Bromide/Water Absorption Refrigeration System Equipped with an Adiabatic Absorber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem M. Osta-Omar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to develop a mathematical model for thermodynamic analysis of an absorption refrigeration system equipped with an adiabatic absorber using a lithium-bromide/water (LiBr/water pair as the working fluid. The working temperature of the generator, adiabatic absorber, condenser, evaporator, the cooling capacity of the system, and the ratio of the solution mass flow rate at the circulation pump to that at the solution pump are used as input data. The model evaluates the thermodynamic properties of all state points, the heat transfer in each component, the various mass flow rates, and the coefficient of performance (COP of the cycle. The results are used to investigate the effect of key parameters on the overall performance of the system. For instance, increasing the generator temperatures and decreasing the adiabatic absorber temperatures can increase the COP of the cycle. The results of this mathematical model can be used for designing and sizing new LiBr/water absorption refrigeration systems equipped with an adiabatic absorber or for optimizing existing aforementioned systems.

  8. Spectrophotometry of six broad absorption line QSOs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junkkarinen, Vesa T.; Burbidge, E. Margaret; Smith, Harding E.

    1987-01-01

    Spectrophotometric observations of six broad absorption-line QSOs (BALQSOs) are presented. The continua and emission lines are compared with those in the spectra of QSOs without BALs. A statistically significant difference is found in the emission-line intensity ratio for (N V 1240-A)/(C IV 1549-A). The median value of (N V)/(C IV) for the BALQSOs is two to three times the median for QSOs without BALs. The absorption features of the BALQSOs are described, and the column densities and limits on the ionization structure of the BAL region are discussed. If the dominant ionization mechanism is photoionization, then it is likely that either the ionizing spectrum is steep or the abundances are considerably different from solar. Collisional ionization may be a significant factor, but it cannot totally dominate the ionization rate.

  9. An algorithm to determine backscattering ratio and single scattering albedo

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suresh, T.; Desa, E.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Mascarenhas, A.A.M.Q.; Nayak, S.R.; Naik, P.

    and backscattering coefficients and the remote sensing reflectance are used to obtain a relationship for the backscattering ratio, which is defined as the ratio of the total backscattering to the total scattering in terms of the remote sensing reflectance of two...

  10. Measurements of the Absorption by Auditorium SEATING—A Model Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    BARRON, M.; COLEMAN, S.

    2001-01-01

    One of several problems with seat absorption is that only small numbers of seats can be tested in standard reverberation chambers. One method proposed for reverberation chamber measurements involves extrapolation when the absorption coefficient results are applied to actual auditoria. Model seat measurements in an effectively large model reverberation chamber have allowed the validity of this extrapolation to be checked. The alternative barrier method for reverberation chamber measurements was also tested and the two methods were compared. The effect on the absorption of row-row spacing as well as absorption by small numbers of seating rows was also investigated with model seats.

  11. Probability based calibration of pressure coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Svend Ole; Pedersen, Marie Louise; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2015-01-01

    .3, the Eurocode partial factor of 1.5 for variable actions agrees well with the inherent uncertainties of wind actions when the pressure coefficients are determined using wind tunnel test results. The increased bias and uncertainty when pressure coefficients mainly are based on structural codes lead to a larger...

  12. Problems with Discontinuous Diffusion/Dispersion Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Ferraris

    2012-01-01

    accurate on smooth solutions and based on a special numerical treatment of the diffusion/dispersion coefficients that makes its application possible also when such coefficients are discontinuous. Numerical experiments confirm the convergence of the numerical approximation and show a good behavior on a set of benchmark problems in two space dimensions.

  13. Parabolic by Shilov systems with variable coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Litovchenko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Because of the parabolic instability of the Shilov systems to change their coefficients, the definition parabolicity of Shilov for systems with time-dependent $t$ coefficients, unlike the definition parabolicity of Petrovsky, is formulated by imposing conditions on the matricant of corresponding dual by Fourier system. For parabolic systems by Petrovsky with time-dependent coefficients, these conditions are the property of a matricant, which follows directly from the definition of parabolicity. In connection with this, the question of the wealth of the class Shilov systems with time-dependent coefficients is important.A new class of linear parabolic systems with partial derivatives to the first order by the time $t$ with time-dependent coefficients is considered in this work. It covers the class by Petrovsky systems with time-dependent younger coefficients. A main part of differential expression of each such system is parabolic (by Shilov expression with constant coefficients. The fundamental solution of the Cauchy problem for systems of this class is constructed by the Fourier transform method. Also proved their parabolicity by Shilov. Only the structure of the system and the conditions on the eigenvalues of the matrix symbol were used. First of all, this class characterizes the wealth by Shilov class of systems with time-dependents coefficients.Also it is given a general method for investigating a fundamental solution of the Cauchy problem for Shilov parabolic systems with positive genus, which is the development of the well-known method of Y.I. Zhitomirskii.

  14. A gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chris J; Van der Slot, Peter J M; Boller, Klaus-J

    2013-01-01

    We report on a gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser. An electro-optic modulator is used to switch between high and low gain states by making use of the polarization dependent gain of Alexandrite. In gain-coefficient switched mode, the laser produces 85 ns pulses with a pulse energy of 240 mJ at a repetition rate of 5 Hz.

  15. Prediction of friction coefficients for gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M. F.

    1969-01-01

    Empirical relations are used for correlating laminar and turbulent friction coefficients for gases, with large variations in the physical properties, flowing through smooth tubes. These relations have been used to correlate friction coefficients for hydrogen, helium, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and air.

  16. Coefficient Alpha Bootstrap Confidence Interval under Nonnormality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin; Newton, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Three different bootstrap methods for estimating confidence intervals (CIs) for coefficient alpha were investigated. In addition, the bootstrap methods were compared with the most promising coefficient alpha CI estimation methods reported in the literature. The CI methods were assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation utilizing conditions…

  17. Estimating Runoff Coefficients Using Weather Radars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahm, Malte; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a method for estimating runoff coefficients of urban drainage catchments based on a combination of high resolution weather radar data and insewer flow measurements. By utilising the spatial variability of the precipitation it is possible to estimate the runoff coefficients...

  18. Helioseismic Solar Cycle Changes and Splitting Coefficients

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    Abstract. Using the GONG data for a period over four years, we have studied the variation of frequencies and splitting coefficients with solar cycle. Frequencies and even-order coefficients are found to change signi- ficantly with rising phase of the solar cycle. We also find temporal varia- tions in the rotation rate near the solar ...

  19. Determination of the surface drag coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahrt, L.; Vickers, D.; Sun, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    This study examines the dependence of the surface drag coefficient on stability, wind speed, mesoscale modulation of the turbulent flux and method of calculation of the drag coefficient. Data sets over grassland, sparse grass, heather and two forest sites are analyzed. For significantly unstable ...

  20. Implications of NGA for NEHRP site coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, Roger D.

    2012-01-01

    Three proposals are provided to update tables 11.4-1 and 11.4-2 of Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures (7-10), by the American Society of Civil Engineers (2010) (ASCE/SEI 7-10), with site coefficients implied directly by NGA (Next Generation Attenuation) ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs). Proposals include a recommendation to use straight-line interpolation to infer site coefficients at intermediate values of ̅vs (average shear velocity). Site coefficients are recommended to ensure consistency with ASCE/SEI 7-10 MCER (Maximum Considered Earthquake) seismic-design maps and simplified site-specific design spectra procedures requiring site classes with associated tabulated site coefficients and a reference site class with unity site coefficients. Recommended site coefficients are confirmed by independent observations of average site amplification coefficients inferred with respect to an average ground condition consistent with that used for the MCER maps. The NGA coefficients recommended for consideration are implied directly by the NGA GMPEs and do not require introduction of additional models.

  1. Difference and ratio plots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Anders Jørgen; Holmskov, U; Bro, Peter

    1995-01-01

    hitherto unnoted differences between controls and patients with either rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus. For this we use simple, but unconventional, graphic representations of the data, based on difference plots and ratio plots. Differences between patients with Burkitt's lymphoma...... and systemic lupus erythematosus from another previously published study (Macanovic, M. and Lachmann, P.J. (1979) Clin. Exp. Immunol. 38, 274) are also represented using ratio plots. Our observations indicate that analysis by regression analysis may often be misleading....

  2. Estimation of grain sizes and mixing ratios of fine powder mixtures of common geologic minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiroi, Takahiro; Pieters, Carle M.

    1994-01-01

    Two different approaches for modeling reflectance spectra of intimate mixtures, Hapke's model and the isograin model, are used to estimate grain sizes and mixing ratios of powder mixtures of three geologic minerals: olivine, orthopyroxene, and plagioclase. In Hapke's model, scattering and extinction effiencies are mixed separately, and both models employ semiempirical refractive index spectra for component minerals. Mixing ratios of mixtures of grain size 45-75 micrometers are well estimated by both models assuming a common grain size of 60 micrometers and optimizing the constants for the single-particle scattering. For each model, effective grain size ratios for mineral constituents in mixtures of grain size less than 25 micrometers, are derived successfully that allows mineral abundances to be accurately predicted within approximately 4 wt percent. On the other hand, neither model can accurately predict mineral reflectance spectra for its smaller grain sizes less than 25 and 25-45 micrometers using an absorption coefficient spectrum derived from a larger grain size (45-75 micrometers). The errors in both models are significantly reduced if surface roughness effects of the smaller grain-size fractions are modeled.

  3. MULTIMAGNON ABSORPTION IN MNF2-OPTICAL ABSORPTION SPECTRUM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The absorption spectrum of MnF2 at 4.2K in the 3900A region was measured in zero external fields and in high fields. Exciton lines with magnon ...sidebands are observed, accompanied by a large number of weak satellite lines. Results on the exciton and magnon absorptions are similar to those of...McClure et al. The satellite lines are interpreted as being multi- magnon absorptions, and it is possible to fit the energy of all the absorptions with

  4. Gini coefficient as a life table function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a toolkit for measuring and analyzing inter-individual inequality in length of life by Gini coefficient. Gini coefficient and four other inequality measures are defined on the length-of-life distribution. Properties of these measures and their empirical testing on mortality data suggest a possibility for different judgements about the direction of changes in the degree of inequality by using different measures. A new computational procedure for the estimation of Gini coefficient from life tables is developed and tested on about four hundred real life tables. The estimates of Gini coefficient are precise enough even for abridged life tables with the final age group of 85+. New formulae have been developed for the decomposition of differences between Gini coefficients by age and cause of death. A new method for decomposition of age-components into effects of mortality and composition of population by group is developed. Temporal changes in the effects of elimination of causes of death on Gini coefficient are analyzed. Numerous empirical examples show: Lorenz curves for Sweden, Russia and Bangladesh in 1995, proportional changes in Gini coefficient and four other measures of inequality for the USA in 1950-1995 and for Russia in 1959-2000. Further shown are errors of estimates of Gini coefficient when computed from various types of mortality data of France, Japan, Sweden and the USA in 1900-95, decompositions of the USA-UK difference in life expectancies and Gini coefficients by age and cause of death in 1997. As well, effects of elimination of major causes of death in the UK in 1951-96 on Gini coefficient, age-specific effects of mortality and educational composition of the Russian population on changes in life expectancy and Gini coefficient between 1979 and 1989. Illustrated as well are variations in life expectancy and Gini coefficient across 32 countries in 1996-1999 and associated changes in life expectancy and Gini

  5. Resonant behaviour of MHD waves on magnetic flux tubes. I - Connection formulae at the resonant surfaces. II - Absorption of sound waves by sunspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Takashi; Goossens, Marcel; Hollweg, Joseph V.

    1991-01-01

    The present method of addressing the resonance problems that emerge in such MHD phenomena as the resonant absorption of waves at the Alfven resonance point avoids solving the fourth-order differential equation of dissipative MHD by recourse to connection formulae across the dissipation layer. In the second part of this investigation, the absorption of solar 5-min oscillations by sunspots is interpreted as the resonant absorption of sounds by a magnetic cylinder. The absorption coefficient is interpreted (1) analytically, under certain simplifying assumptions, and numerically, under more general conditions. The observed absorption coefficient magnitude is explained over suitable parameter ranges.

  6. Extinction-to-Backscatter Ratios of Saharan Dust Layers Derived from In-Situ Measurements and CALIPSO Overflights During NAMMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Ali H.; Liu, Zhaoyan; Vaughan, Mark A.; Hu, Yongxiang; Ismail, Syed; Powell, Kathleen A.; Winker, David M.; Trepte, Charles R.; Anderson, Bruce E.

    2010-01-01

    We determine the aerosol extinction-to-backscatter (Sa) ratios of dust using airborne in-situ measurements of microphysical properties, and CALIPSO observations during the NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (NAMMA). The NAMMA field experiment was conducted from Sal, Cape Verde during Aug-Sept 2006. Using CALIPSO measurements of the attenuated backscatter of lofted Saharan dust layers, we apply the transmittance technique to estimate dust Sa ratios at 532 nm and a 2-color method to determine the corresponding 1064 nm Sa. Using this method, we found dust Sa ratios of 39.8 plus or minus 1.4 sr and 51.8 plus or minus 3.6 sr at 532 nm and 1064 nm, respectively. Secondly, Sa ratios at both wavelengths is independently calculated using size distributions measured aboard the NASA DC-8 and estimates of Saharan dust complex refractive indices applied in a T-Matrix scheme. We found Sa ratios of 39.1 plus or minus 3.5 sr and 50.0 plus or minus 4 sr at 532 nm and 1064 nm, respectively, using the T-Matrix calculations applied to measured size spectra. Finally, in situ measurements of the total scattering (550 nm) and absorption coefficients (532 nm) are used to generate an extinction profile that is used to constrain the CALIPSO 532 nm extinction profile.

  7. Absorption heat cycles. An experimental and theoretical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahamsson, K.

    1993-09-01

    A flow sheeting programme, SHPUMP, was developed for simulating different absorption heat cycles. The programme consists of ten different modules which allow the user to construct his own absorption cycle. The ten modules configurate evaporators, absorbers, generators, rectifiers, condensers, solution heat exchangers, pumps, valves, mixers and splitters. Seven basic and well established absorption cycles are available in the configuration data base of the programme. A new Carnot model is proposed heat cycles. Together with exergy analysis, general equations for the Carnot coefficient of performance and equations for thermodynamic efficiency, exergetic efficiency and exergy index, are derived, discussed and compared for both absorption heat pumps and absorption heat transformers. Utilizing SHPUMP, simulation results are presented for different configurations where absorption heat cycles are suggested to be incorporated in three different unit operations within both pulp and paper and oleochemical industries. One of the application studies reveled that an absorption heat transformer incorporated with an evaporation plant in a major pulp and paper industry, would save 18% of the total prime energy consumption in one of the evaporation plants. It was also concluded that installing an absorption heat pump in a paper drying plant would result in steam savings equivalent to 12 MW. An experimental absorption heat transformer unit operating with self-circulation has been modified and thoroughly tested. A reference heat transformer plant has been designed and installed in a major pulp and paper mill where it is directly incorporated with one of the evaporation plants. Preliminary plant operation data are presented. 72 refs, 63 figs, 33 tabs

  8. Experimental approach for measuring cylindrical flexoelectric coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuwen; Liu, Kaiyuan; Wu, Tonghui; Xu, Minglong; Shen, Shengping

    2017-10-01

    Flexoelectricity is a property of dielectric materials by which applied strain gradients induce electric polarizations within dielectric materials. Experimental research into the tensor components of the flexoelectric coefficient is essential. In this work, an experimental approach for measurement of the flexoelectric coefficient tensor components in cylindrical coordinates is developed. Two different experimental methods are designed to obtain the two related unknown flexoelectric coefficient tensor components. Theoretical and finite element analyses are developed and simplified for each experiment, and the related designs are then tested to obtain the coupled electric polarization charges. The two unknown flexoelectric coefficient tensor components of polyvinylidene fluoride are then decoupled. This work provides an experimental method that can be used to obtain multiple unknown flexoelectric coefficient tensor components in solid dielectric materials.

  9. Analyzing Water's Optical Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A cooperative agreement between World Precision Instruments (WPI), Inc., and Stennis Space Center has led the UltraPath(TM) device, which provides a more efficient method for analyzing the optical absorption of water samples at sea. UltraPath is a unique, high-performance absorbance spectrophotometer with user-selectable light path lengths. It is an ideal tool for any study requiring precise and highly sensitive spectroscopic determination of analytes, either in the laboratory or the field. As a low-cost, rugged, and portable system capable of high- sensitivity measurements in widely divergent waters, UltraPath will help scientists examine the role that coastal ocean environments play in the global carbon cycle. UltraPath(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc. LWCC(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc.

  10. Atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haswell, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    Atomic absorption spectroscopy is now well established and widely used technique for the determination of trace and major elements in a wide range analyte types. There have been many advances in the atomic spectroscopy over the last decade and for this reason and to meet the demand, it was felt that there was a need for an updated book. Whilst interest in instrumental design has tended to dominate the minds of the spectrocopist, the analyst concerned with obtaining reliable and representative data, in diverse areas of application, has been diligently modifying and developing sample treatment and instrumental introduction techniques. Such methodology is de fundamental part of analysis and form the basis of the fourteen application chapters of this book. The text focuses in the main on AAS; however, the sample handling techniques described are in many cases equally applicable to ICP-OES and ICP-MS analysis. (author). refs.; figs.; tabs

  11. Boundary Element Method Applied to Added Mass Coefficient Calculation of the Skewed Marine Propellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yari Ehsan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper mainly aims to study computation of added mass coefficients for marine propellers. A three-dimensional boundary element method (BEM is developed to predict the propeller added mass and moment of inertia coefficients. Actually, only few experimental data sets are available as the validation reference. Here the method is validated with experimental measurements of the B-series marine propeller. The behavior of the added mass coefficients predicted based on variation of geometric and flow parameters of the propeller is calculated and analyzed. BEM is more accurate in obtaining added mass coefficients than other fast numerical methods. All added mass coefficients are nondimensionalized by fluid density, propeller diameter, and rotational velocity. The obtained results reveal that the diameter, expanded area ratio, and thickness have dominant influence on the increase of the added mass coefficients.

  12. Conversion coefficients for individual monitoring calculated with integrated tiger series, ITS3, Monte Carlo code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devine, R.T.; Hsu, Hsiao-Hua

    1994-01-01

    The current basis for conversion coefficients for calibrating individual photon dosimeters in terms of dose equivalents is found in the series of papers by Grosswent. In his calculation the collision kerma inside the phantom is determined by calculation of the energy fluence at the point of interest and the use of the mass energy absorption coefficient. This approximates the local absorbed dose. Other Monte Carlo methods can be sued to provide calculations of the conversion coefficients. Rogers has calculated fluence-to-dose equivalent conversion factors with the Electron-Gamma Shower Version 3, EGS3, Monte Carlo program and produced results similar to Grosswent's calculations. This paper will report on calculations using the Integrated TIGER Series Version 3, ITS3, code to calculate the conversion coefficients in ICRU Tissue and in PMMA. A complete description of the input parameters to the program is given and comparison to previous results is included

  13. Temperature coefficients of reactivity in light water moderated cores with soluble poisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyoshi, Y.; Yamamoto, T.; Suzaki, T.; Kobayashi, I.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports that experimental studies on temperature coefficients of reactivity in light water moderated and reflected cores with soluble poisons such as boron and gadolinium have been performed with the tank- type critical assembly (TCA) in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). The critical water levels were measured in the range from room temperature to about 60 degrees C to study the dependence of temperature effect on the core configuration and concentrations of soluble poison. Temperature coefficients were calculated with SRAC code system and compared with experimental data. It was found that the temperature coefficients are always negative for the experimental cores in which the moderator contain soluble poison of boron. On the other hand, the temperature coefficients become positive in the cores with soluble poison of gadolinium due to the deviation of the absorption cross section from 1/v characteristics and the effect of the neutron spectral shift with increase of the temperature

  14. Towards a Reproducible Synthesis of High Aspect Ratio Gold Nanorods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Koeppl

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The seed-mediated method in presence of high concentrations of CTAB is frequently implemented in the preparation of high aspect ratio gold nanorods (i.e., nanorods with aspect ratios of 5 or more; however, the reproducibility has still been limited. We rendered the synthesis procedure simpler, decreased the susceptibility to impurities, and improved the reproducibility of the product distribution. As a result of the high aspect ratios, longitudinal plasmon absorptions were shifted up to very high absorption maxima of 1955 nm in UV-vis-NIR spectra (since this band is completely covered in aqueous solution by the strong absorption of water, the gold species were embedded in poly(vinyl alcohol films for UV-vis-NIR measurements. Finally, the directed particle growth in (110 direction leads to the conclusion that the adsorption of CTAB molecules at specific crystal faces accounts for nanorod growth and not cylindrical CTAB micelles, in agreement with other observations.

  15. First and second law multidimensional analysis of a triple absorption heat transformer (TAHT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnellan, Philip; Byrne, Edmond; Oliveira, Jorge; Cronin, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A full factorial analysis is conducted upon a triple absorption heat transformer. • The most influential variable settings are determined. • Condensation temperature and pinch heat transfer gradient have the greatest influence. • Points of optimum exist for the temperatures of the two absorber evaporators. • The generator causes the most irreversibility. - Abstract: In this paper, a rigorous multi-dimensional analysis is conducted upon a triple absorption heat transformer (TAHT) using the working fluids water and lithium bromide (LiBr). A full factorial design is created which determines the most influential factors affecting the system’s coefficient of performance (COP), exergetic coefficient of performance (ECOP), flow ratio (FR) and total exergy destruction (E D ). The aim is to draw general conclusions which may be adopted into any such TAHT cycle and not simply be specific to any one scenario. Accordingly the paper analyses the position of each variable across its thermodynamically available range instead of the traditional selection of arbitrary temperatures. It is found that in general the condensation temperature and the pinch heat transfer gradient selected have the greatest effect, and that these should be minimised in all situations. There exist points of optimum for the temperatures of the two absorber–evaporators within the cycle, however the evaporation temperature has conflicting effects for different dependent variables, and must therefore be selected based on an economic analysis. The results of this study also show that the generator is the source of the largest exergy destruction in the cycle, followed by the two absorber–evaporators

  16. Measuring sound absorption properties of porous materials using a calibrated volume velocity source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenas, Jorge P; Darmendrail, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Measurement of acoustic properties of sound-absorbing materials has been the source of much investigation that has produced practical measuring methods. In particular, the measurement of the normal incidence sound absorption coefficient is commonly done using a well-known configuration of a tube carrying a plane wave. The sound-absorbing coefficient is calculated from the surface impedance measured on a sample of material. Therefore, a direct measurement of the impedance requires knowing the ratio between the sound pressure and the volume velocity. However, the measurement of volume velocity is not straightforward in practice and many methods have been proposed including complex transducers, laser vibrometry, accelerometers and calibrated volume velocity sources. In this paper, a device to directly measure the acoustic impedance of a sample of sound-absorbing material is presented. The device uses an internal microphone in a small cavity sealed by a loudspeaker and a second microphone mounted in front of this source. The calibration process of the device and the limitations of the method are also discussed and measurement examples are presented. The accuracy of the device was assessed by direct comparison with the standardized method. The proposed measurement method was tested successfully with various types of commercial acoustic porous materials. (paper)

  17. Nonlinear effects in collective absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uenoyama, Takeshi; Mima, Kunioki; Watanabe, Tsuguhiro.

    1981-01-01

    The collective absorption of high intensity laser radiation is analyzed numerically. Density profile modification due to the ponderomotive force associating laser radiation and the excited electron plasma waves is self-consistently taken into account, and the intensity dependences of the absorption efficiency are obtained. In the high intensity regime, the absorption efficiency is found to be strongly enhanced in the plasma without flow, but reduced with supersonic flow. (author)

  18. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soffiantini, V.

    1981-01-01

    Atomic absorption spectrophotometry is essentially an analytical technique used for quantitative trace metal analysis in a variety of materials. The speed and specificity of the technique is its greatest advantage over other analytical techniques. What atomic absorption spectrophotometry can and cannot do and its advantages and disadvantages are discussed, a summary of operating instructions are given, as well as a summary of analytical interferences. The applications of atomic absorption spectrophotometry are also shortly discussed

  19. Influence of Rolling Friction Coefficient on Inter-Particle Percolation in a Packed Bed by Discrete Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Heng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rolling friction representing the energy dissipation mechanism with the elastic deformation at the contact point could act directly on particle percolation. The present investigation intends to elucidate the influence of rolling friction coefficient on inter-particle percolation in a packed bed by discrete element method (DEM. The results show that the vertical velocity of percolating particles decreases with increasing the rolling friction coefficient. With the increase of rolling friction coefficient, the transverse dispersion coefficient decreases, but the longitudinal dispersion coefficient increases. Packing height has a limited effect on the transverse and longitudinal dispersion coefficient. In addition, with the increase of size ratio of bed particles to percolation ones, the percolation velocity increases. The transverse dispersion coefficient increases with the size ratio before D/d<14. And it would keep constant when the size ratio is greater than 14. The longitudinal dispersion coefficient decreases when the size ratio increases up to D/d=14, then increases with the increase of the size ratio. External forces affect the percolation behaviours. Increasing the magnitude of the upward force (e.g. from a gas stream reduces the percolation velocity, and decreases the dispersion coefficient.

  20. Sound and dissipation coefficients in the phonon-impurity system of 3He-4He solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamenko, I.N.; Rudavskii, E.Y.; Tsyganok, V.I.; Chagovets, V.K.

    1988-01-01

    The phonon-impurity system of dilute solutions of 3 He in 4 He is studied experimentally and theoretically using an acoustic technique. The sound velocity and absorption measurements make it possible to identify the theoretically predicted new mechanism of phonon relaxation with anomalous dispersion in the presence of impurities. A kinetic problem for arbitrary frequencies is solved, which also enables the authors to obtain all the dissipation coefficients of the solutions and to explain the experimental data on second-sound absorption, thermal conductivity, and heat pulse propagation. The relation is considered between relaxation processes in a phonon-impurity system and the phonon spectrum dispersion in 3 He- 4 solutions

  1. Estimation of the effective distribution coefficient from the solubility constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yug-Yea; Yu, C.

    1994-01-01

    An updated version of RESRAD has been developed by Argonne National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy to derive site-specific soil guidelines for residual radioactive material. In this updated version, many new features have been added to the, RESRAD code. One of the options is that a user can input a solubility constant to limit the leaching of contaminants. The leaching model used in the code requires the input of an empirical distribution coefficient, K d , which represents the ratio of the solute concentration in soil to that in solution under equilibrium conditions. This paper describes the methodology developed to estimate an effective distribution coefficient, Kd, from the user-input solubility constant and the use of the effective K d for predicting the leaching of contaminants

  2. Denoising in Wavelet Packet Domain via Approximation Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Vahabi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a new approach in the wavelet domain for image denoising. In recent researches wavelet transform has introduced a time-Frequency transform for computing wavelet coefficient and eliminating noise. Some coefficients have effected smaller than the other's from noise, so they can be use reconstruct images with other subbands. We have developed Approximation image to estimate better denoised image. Naturally noiseless subimage introduced image with lower noise. Beside denoising we obtain a bigger compression rate. Increasing image contrast is another advantage of this method. Experimental results demonstrate that our approach compares favorably to more typical methods of denoising and compression in wavelet domain.100 images of LIVE Dataset were tested, comparing signal to noise ratios (SNR,soft thresholding was %1.12 better than hard thresholding, POAC was %1.94 better than soft thresholding and POAC with wavelet packet was %1.48 better than POAC.

  3. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.

    2009-07-09

    This review gives a brief description of the theory and application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy, both X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), especially, pertaining to photosynthesis. The advantages and limitations of the methods are discussed. Recent advances in extended EXAFS and polarized EXAFS using oriented membranes and single crystals are explained. Developments in theory in understanding the XANES spectra are described. The application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy to the study of the Mn4Ca cluster in Photosystem II is presented.

  4. Development of database on the distribution coefficient. 1. Collection of the distribution coefficient data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takebe, Shinichi; Abe, Masayoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    The distribution coefficient is very important parameter for environmental impact assessment on the disposal of radioactive waste arising from research institutes. The literature survey in the country was mainly carried out for the purpose of selecting the reasonable distribution coefficient value on the utilization of this value in the safety evaluation. This report was arranged much informations on the distribution coefficient for inputting to the database for each literature, and was summarized as a literature information data on the distribution coefficient. (author)

  5. Shock tube measurements of the branching ratios of propene + OH -> products

    KAUST Repository

    Khaled, Fathi

    2014-07-25

    Absolute rate coefficients for the reaction of OH radical with propene (C3H6) and five deutrated isotopes, propene-1-d1 (CDHCHCH3), propene-1,1-d2 (CD2CHCH3), propene-2-d1 (CH2CDCH3), propene-3,3,3-d3 (CH2CHCD3), and propene-d6 (C3D6), were measured in a shock tube behind reflected shock conditions over the temperature range of 812 K – 1460 K and pressures near 1 atm. The reaction progress was followed by monitoring OH radical near 306.7 nm using UV laser absorption. The first experimental measurements for the branching ratio of the title reaction are reported and compared with theoretical calculations. The allylic H atom abstraction of propene by OH radicals was found to be the most dominant reaction pathway followed by propen-1-yl and propen-2-yl channels over the entire temperature range of this study which is in line with theoretical predictions. Arrhenius parameters for various site-specific rate coefficients are provided for kinetic modeling.

  6. Variation in aerodynamic coefficients with altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiza Shahid

    Full Text Available Precise aerodynamics performance prediction plays key role for a flying vehicle to get its mission completed within desired accuracy. Aerodynamic coefficients for same Mach number can be different at different altitude due to difference in Reynolds number. Prediction of these aerodynamics coefficients can be made through experiments, analytical solution or Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD. Advancements in computational power have generated the concept of using CFD as a virtual Wind Tunnel (WT, hence aerodynamic performance prediction in present study is based upon CFD (numerical test rig. Simulations at different altitudes for a range of Mach numbers with zero angle of attack are performed to predict axial force coefficient behavior with altitude (Reynolds number. Similar simulations for a fixed Mach number ‘3’ and a range of angle of attacks are also carried out to envisage the variation in normal force and pitching moment coefficients with altitude (Reynolds number. Results clearly depict that the axial force coefficient is a function of altitude (Reynolds number and increase as altitude increases, especially for subsonic region. Variation in axial force coefficient with altitude (Reynolds number slightly increases for larger values of angle of attacks. Normal force and pitching moment coefficients do not depend on altitude (Reynolds number at smaller values of angle of attacks but show slight decrease as altitude increases. Present study suggests that variation of normal force and pitching moment coefficients with altitude can be neglected but the variation of axial force coefficient with altitude should be considered for vehicle fly in dense atmosphere. It is recommended to continue this study to more complex configurations for various Mach numbers with side slip and real gas effects. Keywords: Mach number, Reynolds number, Blunt body, Altitude effect, Angle of attacks

  7. Variation in aerodynamic coefficients with altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Faiza; Hussain, Mukkarum; Baig, Mirza Mehmood; Haq, Ihtram ul

    Precise aerodynamics performance prediction plays key role for a flying vehicle to get its mission completed within desired accuracy. Aerodynamic coefficients for same Mach number can be different at different altitude due to difference in Reynolds number. Prediction of these aerodynamics coefficients can be made through experiments, analytical solution or Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Advancements in computational power have generated the concept of using CFD as a virtual Wind Tunnel (WT), hence aerodynamic performance prediction in present study is based upon CFD (numerical test rig). Simulations at different altitudes for a range of Mach numbers with zero angle of attack are performed to predict axial force coefficient behavior with altitude (Reynolds number). Similar simulations for a fixed Mach number '3' and a range of angle of attacks are also carried out to envisage the variation in normal force and pitching moment coefficients with altitude (Reynolds number). Results clearly depict that the axial force coefficient is a function of altitude (Reynolds number) and increase as altitude increases, especially for subsonic region. Variation in axial force coefficient with altitude (Reynolds number) slightly increases for larger values of angle of attacks. Normal force and pitching moment coefficients do not depend on altitude (Reynolds number) at smaller values of angle of attacks but show slight decrease as altitude increases. Present study suggests that variation of normal force and pitching moment coefficients with altitude can be neglected but the variation of axial force coefficient with altitude should be considered for vehicle fly in dense atmosphere. It is recommended to continue this study to more complex configurations for various Mach numbers with side slip and real gas effects.

  8. Theory of the Infrared Absorption in the Ordered Solid Hydrogen

    OpenAIRE

    Jun-ichi, IGARASHI; Department of Physics, Osaka University

    1982-01-01

    The infrared absorption coefficient in the ordered solid orthohydrogen is calculated by making use of our anharmonic theory for libron (J=1 excitation) and roton (J=3 excitation). The momentum dependence of the transition amplitudes has properly been taken into account in conformity with our formalism. The shape of vibrational bands including J=1,3 rotational excitations is figured out in good agreement with the experiment by Boggs, Clouter and Welsh. A similar study has also been done for th...

  9. Piezoelectricity and absorption of water in biomaterials: bone and tendon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghilardi Netto, T.

    1973-01-01

    A new application of the Fabry-Perot interferometer has been developed, capable of measuring variations in length with a precision of the order of one angstrom. The method has been applied to the determination of some of the inverse piezoelectric coefficients of bovine bone and tendon. The effect of water in these materials was carefully measured and shown to decrease the piezoelectricity. Correlations between the piezoelectricity and length, weight, and volume and surface resistivity were made during the absorption of water [pt

  10. Soccer ball lift coefficients via trajectory analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, John Eric [Department of Physics, Lynchburg College, Lynchburg, VA 24501 (United States); Carre, Matt J, E-mail: goff@lynchburg.ed [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin parameters that have not been obtained by today's wind tunnels. Our trajectory analysis technique is not only a valuable tool for professional sports scientists, it is also accessible to students with a background in undergraduate-level classical mechanics.

  11. Evaluation of Planck mean coefficients for particle radiative properties in combustion environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofgren, Henrik; Sundén, Bengt

    2015-04-01

    Thermal radiation is the dominating form of heat transfer in several combustion technologies that combust solid fuels, such as pulverized coal combustion and fixed bed combustion. The thermal radiation originates from the hot combustion gases and particles. For accurate modelling of thermal radiation in these environments the selection of the radiative transport model and radiative property model is important. Radiative property models for gases have received huge attention and several well documented models exist. For particles, soot has received considerable attention whereas other particles have not to a similar extent. The Planck mean coefficients are most commonly used to describe the radiative properties of the particles. For gases the Planck mean absorption coefficient is known to give large deviations from recognised exact models in predicting the radiative heat transfer. In this study the use of Planck mean coefficients for particles are investigated and compared to spectral models. Two particle mass size distributions of fly ash are used, representing biomass and coal combustion. The evaluation is conducted in several combustion-like test cases with both gases and particles. The evaluation shows that using Planck mean coefficients for particles, in combustion-like situations, can give large errors in predicting the radiative heat flux and especially the source term. A new weighted sum of grey gas approach is tested and evaluated. It includes both the particles and gases to better account for the non-greyness of the fly ash absorption coefficient.

  12. Potential support ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Søren; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    , the prospective potential support ratio usually focuses on the current mortality schedule, or period life expectancy. Instead, in this paper we look at the actual mortality experienced by cohorts in a population, using cohort life tables. We analyse differences between the two perspectives using mortality models......, historical data, and forecasted data. Cohort life expectancy takes future mortality improvements into account, unlike period life expectancy, leading to a higher prospective potential support ratio. Our results indicate that using cohort instead of period life expectancy returns around 0.5 extra younger...

  13. Turbid Media Extinction Coefficient for Near-Infrared Laser Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreischuh, T; Gurdev, L; Vankov, O; Stoyanov, D; Avramov, L

    2015-01-01

    In this work, extended investigations are performed of the extinction coefficient of Intralipid-20% dilutions in distilled water depending on the Intralipid concentration, for laser radiation wavelengths in the red and near-infrared regions covering the so-called tissue optical window. The extinction is measured by using an approach we have developed recently based on the features of the spatial intensity distribution of laser-radiation beams propagating through semi-infinite turbid media. The measurements are conducted using separately two dilution- containing plexiglass boxes of different sizes and volumes, in order to prove the appropriateness of the assumption of semi-infinite turbid medium. The experimental results for the extinction are in agreement with our previous results and with empiric formulae found by other authors concerning the wavelength dependence of the scattering coefficient of Intralipid – 10% and Intralipid – 20%. They are also in agreement with known data of the water absorptance. It is estimated as well that the wavelengths around 1320 nm would be advantageous for deep harmless sensing and diagnostics of tissues

  14. Influence of absorption on stability of terahertz difference frequency generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Nan; Liu, Hongjun; Sun, Qibing; Wang, Zhaolu; Li, Shaopeng; Han, Jing

    2016-01-20

    This work presents numerical studies of the stability feature of terahertz difference frequency generation (THz-DFG) with a ZnGeP(2) crystal using two pump wavelengths. We found that the maximum output of a THz wave is located in the unstable output region because of the competitive equilibrium between the absorption and the gain. Furthermore, the output stability is dependent on the pump stability. Different from the results at the pump wavelength of 9.588 μm, there is neither an appropriate stable output region nor gain saturation region at the pump wavelength of 1.064 μm for a larger absorption coefficient. This work demonstrates that the stable output region of the THz wave is difficult to obtain when the pump absorption is excessively large in DFG.

  15. Bandgap widening in thermochromic Mg-doped VO{sub 2} thin films: Quantitative data based on optical absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shu-Yi; Niklasson, Gunnar A.; Granqvist, Claes G. [Department of Engineering Sciences, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 534, SE-75121 Uppsala (Sweden); Mlyuka, Nuru R. [Department of Engineering Sciences, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 534, SE-75121 Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Physics, University of Dar es Salaam, P.O. Box 35063, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of); Primetzhofer, Daniel; Possnert, Göran [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Hallén, Anders [KTH-ICT, Royal Institute of Technology, Electrum 229, SE-164 40 Kista-Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-10-14

    Thermochromic Mg-doped VO{sub 2} films were deposited by reactive direct current magnetron sputtering onto heated glass and carbon substrates. Elemental compositions were inferred from Rutherford backscattering. Optical bandgaps were obtained from spectral transmittance and reflectance measurements—from both the film side and the back side of the samples—and ensuing determination of absorption coefficients. The bandgap of Mg-doped films was found to increase by 3.9 ± 0.5 eV per unit of atom ratio Mg/(Mg + V) for 0 < Mg/(Mg + V) < 0.21. The presence of ∼0.45 at. % Si enhanced the bandgap even more.

  16. The rectilinear Steiner ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PO de Wet

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The rectilinear Steiner ratio was shown to be 3/2 by Hwang [Hwang FK, 1976, On Steiner minimal trees with rectilinear distance, SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics, 30, pp. 104– 114.]. We use continuity and introduce restricted point sets to obtain an alternative, short and self-contained proof of this result.

  17. The Reference Return Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Jeppe; Faber Frandsen, Tove

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces a new journal impact measure called The Reference Return Ratio (3R). Unlike the traditional Journal Impact Factor (JIF), which is based on calculations of publications and citations, the new measure is based on calculations of bibliographic investments (references) and returns...

  18. Results of Self-Absorption Study on the Versapor 3000 Filters for Radioactive Particulate Air Sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, J.M.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Barnett, Debra S.; Trang-Le, Truc LT; Bliss, Mary; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2009-01-01

    Since the mid-1980s, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has used a value of 0.85 as the correction factor for self absorption of activity for particulate radioactive air samples collected from building exhaust for environmental monitoring. This value accounts for activity that cannot be detected by direct counting of alpha and beta particles. Emissions can be degraded or blocked by filter fibers for particles buried in the filter material or by inactive dust particles collected with the radioactive particles. These filters are used for monitoring air emissions from PNNL stacks for radioactive particles. This paper describes an effort to re-evaluate self-absorption effects in particulate radioactive air sample filters (Versapor(reg s ign) 3000, 47 mm diameter) used at PNNL. There were two methods used to characterize the samples. Sixty samples were selected from the archive for acid digestion to compare the radioactivity measured by direct gas-flow proportional counting of filters to the results obtained after acid digestion of the filter and counting again by gas-flow proportional detection. Thirty different sample filters were selected for visible light microscopy to evaluate filter loading and particulate characteristics. Mass-loading effects were also considered. Filter ratios were calculated by dividing the initial counts by the post-digestion counts with the expectation that post-digestion counts would be higher because digestion would expose radioactivity embedded in the filter in addition to that on top of the filter. Contrary to expectations, the post digestion readings were almost always lower than initial readings and averaged approximately half the initial readings for both alpha and beta activity. Before and after digestion readings appeared to be related to each other, but with a low coefficient of determination (R 2 ) value. The ratios had a wide range of values indicating that this method did not provide sufficient precision to quantify

  19. Electromagnetic absorption behaviour of ferrite loaded three phase carbon fabric composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagatheesan, Krishnasamy; Ramasamy, Alagirusamy; Das, Apurba; Basu, Ananjan

    2018-02-01

    This article investigates the electromagnetic absorption behaviours of carbon helical yarn fabric reinforced composites and manganese-zinc (Mn-Zn) ferrite particles loaded 3 phase fabric composites. A carbon helical yarn having stainless steel core was prepared and made into single jersey knitted fabric. The composite was prepared by sandwiching a fabric with polypropylene films and thermal pressed. The absorption values of helical yarn fabric composite was observed to be less in the C band region (4-8 GHz). For improving the absorption coefficients of composite, Mn-Zn ferrite particles were dispersed in the polypropylene (PP) composite. The ferrite loaded PP composites exhibited better permittivity and permeability values, hence the absorption loss of the composite was improved. The helical yarn fabric reinforced with Mn-Zn ferrite/PP composite showed larger absorption coefficients than virgin PP/fabric composite. The change in thermal stability and particle size distribution in the Mn-Zn ferrite/PP composite was also analyzed. At higher ferrite concentration, bimodal particle distribution was observed which increased the conductivity and shielding effectiveness (SE) of the composite. In addition, complex permittivity value was also increased for higher incident frequency (4-8 GHz). As the ferrite content increases, the dielectric loss and magnetic permeability of PP/ferrite increases due to increased magnetic loss. Hence, ferrite loaded PP composite showed the total SE of -14.2 dB with the absorption coefficients of 0.717. The S1C7 fabric composite having ferrite dispersion showed the better absorption loss and lower reflection coefficient of 14.2 dB and 0.345 respectively compared to virgin PP/helical yarn fabric composite. The increasing ferrite content (45 wt%) improved the absorption loss and total SE. Though, ferrite based fabric composite exhibits moderate absorptive shielding, it can be used as shielding panels in the electronic industries.

  20. Sound absorption of cellular metals with semiopen cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, T J; Chen, F; He, D

    2000-10-01

    A combined experimental and theoretical study is presented for the feasibility of using aluminum foams with semiopen cells for sound-absorption applications. The foams are processed via negative-pressure infiltration, using a preform consisting of water-soluble spherical particles. An analytical model is developed to quantify the dependence of pore connectivity on processing parameters, including infiltration pressure, particle size, wetting angle, and surface tension of molten alloy. Normal sound-absorption coefficient and static flow resistance are measured for samples having different porosity, pore size, and pore opening. A theory is developed for idealized semiopen metallic foams, with a regular hexagonal hollow prism having one circular aperture on each of its eight surfaces as the unit cell. The theory is built upon the acoustic impedance of the circular apertures (orifices) and cylindrical cavities due to viscous effects, and the principle of electroacoustic analogy. The predicted sound-absorption coefficients are compared with those measured. To help select processing parameters for producing semiopen metallic foams with desirable sound-absorbing properties, emphasis is placed on revealing the correlation between sound absorption and morphological parameters such as pore size, pore opening, and porosity.