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Sample records for absorbed uv suggesting

  1. CUVE — Cubesat UV Experiment: Unveil Venus' UV Absorber with Cubesat UV Mapping Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottini, V.; Aslam, S.; Gorius, N.; Hewagama, T.; Glaze, L.; Ignatiev, N.; Piccioni, G.; D'Aversa, E.

    2017-11-01

    The Cubesat UV Experiment (CUVE) will investigate Venus’ atmosphere at its absorbers at the cloud tops in the UV, with two on-board science payloads (i) a high spectral resolution UV spectrometer and (ii) a multispectral UV imager.

  2. Inorganic UV absorbers for the photostabilisation of wood-clearcoating systems: Comparison with organic UV absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloui, F.; Ahajji, A.; Irmouli, Y.; George, B.; Charrier, B.; Merlin, A.

    2007-02-01

    Inorganic UV absorbers which are widely used today were originally designed neither as a UV blocker in coatings applications, nor for wood protection. In recent years however, there has been extensive interest in these compounds, especially with regard to their properties as a UV blocker in coating applications. In this work, we carried out a comparative study to look into some inorganic and organic UV absorbers used in wood coating applications. The aim of this study is to determine the photostabilisation performances of each type of UV absorbers, to seek possible synergies and the influences of different wood species. We have also searched to find eventual correlation between these performances and the influence of UV absorbers on the film properties. Our study has compared the performances of the following UV absorbers: hombitec RM 300, hombitec RM 400 from the Sachtleben Company; transparent yellow and red iron oxides from Sayerlack as inorganic UV absorbers; organic UV absorbers Tinuvin 1130 and Tinuvin 5151 from Ciba Company. The study was carried out on three wood species: Abies grandis, tauari and European oak. The environmental constraints (in particular the limitation of the emission of volatile organic compounds VOCs) directed our choice towards aqueous formulations marketed by the Sayerlack Arch Coatings Company. The results obtained after 800 h of dry ageing showed that the Tinuvins and the hombitecs present better wood photostabilisations. On the other hand in wet ageing, with the hombitec, there are appearances of some cracks and an increase in the roughness of the surface. This phenomenon is absent when the Tinuvins are used. With regard to these results, the thermomechanical analyses relating to the follow-up of the change of the glass transition temperature ( Tg) of the various coating systems, show a different behaviour between the two types of absorbers. However, contrary to organic UV absorbers, inorganic ones tend to increase Tg during ageing

  3. Role of UV-absorbing compounds in genetic differences in the resistance to UV-B radiation in rice plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, T.; Kumagai, T.

    1997-01-01

    Parental cultivars (Oryza sativa L. Japanese lowland cultivars Sasanishiki and Norin 1), F 2 plants, and F 3 Iines were grown under visible light with or without supplemental UV-B radiation in a phytotron, to determine whether the accumulation of UV-absorbing compounds plays a role in the difference in UV-B resistance between these rice cultivars. The level of UV-absorbance per unit leaf area increased with the UV-B treatuent in all the leaves of these two rice cultivars, but was higher in Sasanishiki than in Norin 1 irrespective of UV-B treatment. An analysis by thin-layer chromatography and the UV-absorption spectra of the extracts did not show any qualitative difference in UV-absorbing compounds in leaf tissues between these two cultivars. There was a significant positive correlation between the level of UV-absorbance per unit leaf area and the fresh weight of aerial parts in the F 2 plants exposed to UV-B radiation. Furthermore, the level of UV-absorbance per unit leaf area tended to be higher in the F 3 Iines resistant to UV-B radiation than in those sensitive to such radiation regardless of whether these F 3 lines were exposed to supplemental UV-B radiation. These results suggest that the differences in UV-B resistance between Sasanishiki and Norin 1 are associated with genetic differences in the level of accumulation of UV-B absorbing compounds in leaf tissues. Based on these results we suggest that the accumulation of UV-B absorbing compounds is an important factor contributing to UV-B resistance in rice cultivars. Since the accumulation of UV-absorbing compounds in leaves appears to minimize the latent negative impact of UV-B radiation on rice production, it may be a useful character to select in ordinary breeding. (author)

  4. CUVE - Cubesat UV Experiment: Unveil Venus' UV Absorber with Cubesat UV Mapping Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottini, V.; Aslam, S.; D'Aversa, E.; Glaze, L.; Gorius, N.; Hewagama, T.; Ignatiev, N.; Piccioni, G.

    2017-09-01

    Our Venus mission concept Cubesat UV Experiment (CUVE) is one of ten proposals selected for funding by the NASA PSDS3 Program - Planetary Science Deep Space SmallSat Studies. CUVE concept is to insert a CubeSat spacecraft into a Venusian orbit and perform remote sensing of the UV spectral region using a high spectral resolution point spectrometer to resolve UV molecular bands, observe nightglow, and characterize the unidentified main UV absorber. The UV spectrometer is complemented by an imaging UV camera with multiple bands in the UV absorber main band range for contextual imaging. CUVE Science Objectives are: the nature of the "Unknown" UV-absorber; the abundances and distributions of SO2 and SO at and above Venus's cloud tops and their correlation with the UV absorber; the atmospheric dynamics at the cloud tops, structure of upper clouds and wind measurements from cloud-tracking; the nightglow emissions: NO, CO, O2. This mission will therefore be an excellent platform to study Venus' cloud top atmospheric properties where the UV absorption drives the planet's energy balance. CUVE would complement past, current and future Venus missions with conventional spacecraft, and address critical science questions cost effectively.

  5. Urea Rebound Assessment Based on UV Absorbance in Spent Dialysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomson, Ruth; Uhlin, Fredrik; Fridolin, Ivo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the possibility of postdialysis urea rebound assessment using UV-absorbance measurements in spent dialysate. Twenty-six patients on chronic three-times-a-week hemodialysis (HD) were studied in two separate studies. Double-beam spectrophotometer was used for the determination of UV absorbance in the collected spent dialysate samples. Also, on-line UV absorbance was monitored. The equilibrium concentration (C(eq)) of urea at the end of the rebound phase was calculated based on urea concentration in blood and dialysate and UV absorbance in spent dialysate. Based on C(eq), urea rebound was expressed relative to urea concentration at the end of HD (R1) and relative to the decrease in urea concentration during HD (R2). Estimates based on UV-absorbance values in spent dialysate (R(1_a), R(2_a)) slightly over assess postdialysis rebound compared with results based on the blood sample drawn 30 min after HD (R(1_30post), R(2_30post)), but R(1_a) and R(2_a) presented greater consistency and accuracy compared with the estimates based on the intradialytic blood sample (R(1_b), R(2_b)). In summary, the results show that it is possible to assess postdialysis urea rebound in blood based on UV-absorbance measurements in spent dialysate.

  6. UV absorbance of a bioengineered corneal stroma substitute in the 240-400 nm range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Ana-Maria; de la Cruz Cardona, Juan; González-Andrades, Miguel; Alaminos, Miguel; Campos, Antonio; Hita, Enrique; del Mar Pérez, María

    2010-08-01

    To determine the UV absorbance of a bioengineered human corneal stroma construct based on fibrin and fibrin-agarose scaffolds in the 240-400 nm range. Three types of artificial substitutes of the human corneal stroma were developed by tissue engineering using fibrin and fibrin with 0.1% and 0.2% agarose scaffolds with human keratocytes immersed within. After 28 days of culture, the UV absorbance of each sample was determined using a spectrophotometer. The thickness of corneal stroma samples was determined by light microscope. For all the 3 types of corneal stroma substitutes studied, the range of the UV absorbance values was similar to that of the native human corneal stroma, although the fibrin with 0.1% agarose stroma substitute had the best UV filtering properties. The higher UV absorbance of the artificial substitute of the human corneal stroma was in the UV-B and -A ranges, suggesting that these artificial tissues could have potential clinical usefulness and proper UV light-absorption capabilities. Our data suggest that the bioengineered human corneal substitute of fibrin with 0.1% agarose is an effective absorber of harmful UV radiation and could therefore be potentially useful.

  7. UV absorbers for cellulosic apparels: A computational and experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahar, Anum; Ali, Shaukat; Hussain, Tanveer; Irfan, Muhammad; Eliasson, Bertil; Iqbal, Javed

    2018-01-01

    Two triazine based Ultra Violet (UV) absorbers Sulfuric acid mono-(2-{4-[4-chloro-6-(4-{4-chloro-6-[4-(2-sulfooxy-ethanesulfonyl)-phenylamino]-[1,3,5] triazin-2-ylamino-phenylamino)-[1,3,5]triazin-2-ylamino]-benzenesulfonyl}-ethyl) ester (1a) and 4-{4-chloro-6-[4-(2-sulfooxy-ethanesulfonyl)-phenylamino]-[1,3,5] triazin-2-ylamino}-2-[4-chloro-6-(2-sulfooxy-ethanesulfonyl)-[1,3,5]triazin-2-ylamino]-benzenesulfonic acid (2a) with different substituents were designed computationally. The influence of different substituents on the electrochemical properties and UV spectra of the absorbers was investigated. The presence of electron deficient unit in 1a to the molecular core significantly reduces the LUMO levels and energy gap. The designed absorbers were synthesized via condensation reaction and characterized by UV-Vis, FT-IR, MS studies. The performance of synthesized compounds as UV absorbers and their fastness properties were assessed by finishing the cotton fabric through exhaust method at different concentration and results appeared in good range.

  8. UV-absorbing compounds in subarctic herbarium bryophytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huttunen, S.; Lappalainen, N.M.; Turunen, J.

    2005-01-01

    The UV-B-absorbing compounds of herbarium specimens of 10 subarctic bryophyte species collected during the years 1926-1996 and available at the Botanical Museum, University of Oulu, were studied. We studied whether herbarium specimens reflect changes in the past radiation climate through their methanol-extractable compounds. The order of gametophytes based on the average amount of total compounds (sum of A 280-320nm ) per mass from the lowest to the highest was Polytrichum commune, Pleurozium schreberi, Hylocomium splendens, Sphagnum angustifolium, Dicranum scoparium, Funaria hygrometrica, Sphagnum fuscum, Sphagnum warnstorfii, Sphagnum capillifolium and Polytrichastrum alpinum, and the amount of UV-B-absorbing compounds per specific surface area correlated with the summertime daily global radiation and latitude. P. alpinum, F. hygrometrica and three Sphagnum species seem to be good indicators for further studies. The amount of UV-B-absorbing compounds revealed no significant trends from the 1920s till the 1990s, with the exception of S. capillifolium, which showed a significant decreasing trend. - UV-B-absorbing compounds in subarctic herbarium bryophytes indicate the radiation climate of the collecting site and time

  9. UV-absorbing compounds in subarctic herbarium bryophytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huttunen, S. [Botany Division, Department of Biology, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-90 014 University of Oulu (Finland)]. E-mail: satu.huttunen@oulu.fi; Lappalainen, N.M. [Botany Division, Department of Biology, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-90 014 University of Oulu (Finland); Turunen, J. [Botany Division, Department of Biology, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-90 014 University of Oulu (Finland)

    2005-01-01

    The UV-B-absorbing compounds of herbarium specimens of 10 subarctic bryophyte species collected during the years 1926-1996 and available at the Botanical Museum, University of Oulu, were studied. We studied whether herbarium specimens reflect changes in the past radiation climate through their methanol-extractable compounds. The order of gametophytes based on the average amount of total compounds (sum of A{sub 280-320nm}) per mass from the lowest to the highest was Polytrichum commune, Pleurozium schreberi, Hylocomium splendens, Sphagnum angustifolium, Dicranum scoparium, Funaria hygrometrica, Sphagnum fuscum, Sphagnum warnstorfii, Sphagnum capillifolium and Polytrichastrum alpinum, and the amount of UV-B-absorbing compounds per specific surface area correlated with the summertime daily global radiation and latitude. P. alpinum, F. hygrometrica and three Sphagnum species seem to be good indicators for further studies. The amount of UV-B-absorbing compounds revealed no significant trends from the 1920s till the 1990s, with the exception of S. capillifolium, which showed a significant decreasing trend. - UV-B-absorbing compounds in subarctic herbarium bryophytes indicate the radiation climate of the collecting site and time.

  10. Nitric oxide is involved in integration of UV-B absorbing compounds among parts of clonal plants under a heterogeneous UV-B environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Li, Qian; Yue, Ming; Zhang, Xiaofei; Zhang, Ruichang; Zhang, Bing; Wang, Ming

    2014-11-26

    In nature, ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation is highly heterogeneous, both spatially and temporally. Plants exposed to UV-B radiation produce UV-B absorbing compounds that function as a protective filter. For clonal plants under heterogeneous UV-B radiation conditions, integration among ramets can allow irradiated ramets to benefit un-irradiated ramets by causing them to increase their UV-B absorbing compounds content. In this study, we evaluated integration between pairs of clonal ramets of Glechoma longituba under heterogeneous or homogeneous UV-B conditions. We determined the levels of UV-B absorbing compounds, nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and measured the activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) in connected ramet pairs under homogeneous or heterogeneous UV-B conditions. Under heterogeneous UV-B conditions, the UV-B absorbing compounds content increased in leaves of irradiated and un-irradiated ramets, but not in the connecting stolons. The NO content increased in irradiated and un-irradiated leaves and stolons, but the H 2 O 2 content did not. Application of NO synthesis inhibitors and an NO blocker to irradiated ramets blocked the increase in UV-B absorbing compounds and PAL activity in un-irradiated ramets. These results suggested that NO is involved in the integration process for UV-B absorbing compounds among ramets. Our findings suggested that a UV-B-induced increase in NO transmits a signal to un-irradiated ramets via the stolon, leading to an increase in PAL activity and UV-B absorbing compounds content. The internal translocation of signal enables members of clonal networks to function as a whole unit and to mount an efficient defensive response to localized UV-B radiation. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  11. /UV Synergistic Aging of Polyester Polyurethane Film Modified by Composite UV Absorber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanzhi Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The pure polyester polyurethane (TPU film and the modified TPU (M-TPU film containing 2.0 wt.% inorganic UV absorbers mixture (nano-ZnO/CeO2 with weight ratio of 3 : 2 and 0.5 wt.% organic UV absorbers mixture (UV-531/UV-327 with weight ratio of 1 : 1 were prepared by spin-coating technique. The accelerated aging tests of the films exposed to constant UV radiation of 400 ± 20 µW/cm2 (313 nm with an ozone atmosphere of 100 ± 2 ppm were carried out by using a self-designed aging equipment at ambient temperature and relative humidity of 20%. The aging resistance properties of the films were evaluated by UV-Vis spectra, Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR, photooxidation index, and carbonyl index analysis. The results show that the composite UV absorber has better protection for TPU system, which reduces distinctly the degradation of TPU film. O3/UV aging of the films increases with incremental exposure time. PI and CI of TPU and M-TPU films increase with increasing exposure time, respectively. PI and CI of M-TPU films are much lower than that of TPU film after the same time of exposure, respectively. Distinct synergistic aging effect exists between ozone aging and UV aging when PI and CI are used as evaluation index, respectively. Of course, the formula of these additives needs further improvement for industrial application.

  12. Construction of Nontoxic Polymeric UV-Absorber with Great Resistance to UV-Photoaging

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Zhong; Ding, Aishun; Guo, Hao; Lu, Guolin; Huang, Xiaoyu

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we developed a series of new nontoxic polymeric UV-absorbers through covalently attaching a benzophenone derivative onto the main chain of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) via mild and quantitative click chemistry. Azide groups were firstly introduced into the backbone of PVC via a nucleophilic reaction without affecting polymeric skeleton. Copper-catalyzed Husigen-Click cycloaddition reaction was performed between the pendant azide groups of PVC and alkynyl of (2-hydroxy-4-(prop-2...

  13. Analysis of Photosynthetic Characteristics and UV-B Absorbing Compounds in Mung Bean Using UV-B and Red LED Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Min Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mung bean has been reported to have antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor activities. Various factors have important effects on the types and contents of plant chemical components. In order to study quality of mung bean from different light sources, mung bean seedlings were exposed to red light-emitting diodes (LEDs and ultraviolet-B (UV-B. Changes in the growth parameters, photosynthetic characteristics, the concentrations of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b and the content of UV-B absorbing compounds were measured. The results showed that photosynthetic characteristics and chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b concentrations were enhanced by red LEDs. The concentrations of UV-B absorbing compounds were enhanced by UV-B on the 20th day, while photosynthetic characteristics, plant length, and the concentrations of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b were reduced by UV-B on the 40th day; at the same time the values of the stem diameter, plant fresh weight, dry weight, and the concentrations of UV-B absorbing compounds were enhanced. It is suggested that red LEDs promote the elongation of plant root growth and photosynthetic characteristics, while UV-B promotes horizontal growth of stems and the synthesis of UV-B absorbing compounds.

  14. Energy-donor phosphorescence quenching study of triplet–triplet energy transfer between UV absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Azusa; Nakabai, Yuya [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Yokohama National University, Tokiwadai, Hodogaya-ku, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan); Oguchi-Fujiyama, Nozomi; Miyazawa, Kazuyuki [Shiseido Research Center, Hayabuchi, Tsuzuki-ku, Yokohama 224-8558 (Japan); Yagi, Mikio, E-mail: yagimiki@ynu.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Yokohama National University, Tokiwadai, Hodogaya-ku, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    The intermolecular triplet–triplet energy transfer from a photounstable UV-A absorber, 4-tert-butyl-4′-methoxydibenzoylmethane (BMDBM), to UV-B absorbers, 2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxycinnamate (octyl methoxycinnamate, OMC), octocrylene (OCR) and dioctyl 4-methoxybenzylidenemalonate (DOMBM) has been observed using a 355 nm laser excitation in rigid solutions at 77 K. The decay curves of the energy-donor phosphorescence in the presence of the UV-B absorbers deviate from the exponential decay at the initial stage of the decay. The Stern–Volmer formulation is not valid in rigid solutions because molecular diffusion is impossible. The experimental results indicate that the rate constant of triplet–triplet energy transfer from BMDBM to the UV-B absorbers, k{sub T–T}, decreases in the following order: k{sub T–T} (BMDBM–DOMBM)>k{sub T–T} (BMDBM–OMC)≥k{sub T–T} (BMDBM–OCR). The presence of DOMBM enhances the photostability of the widely used combination of UV-A and UV-B absorbers, BMDBM and OCR. The effects of the triplet–triplet energy transfer on the photostability of BMDBM are discussed. - Highlights: • The intermolecular triplet–triplet energy transfer between UV absorbers was observed. • The phosphorescence decay deviates from exponential at the initial stage of decay. • The effects of triplet–triplet energy transfer on the photostability are discussed.

  15. Effects of Na and Ca on particle size; Effect of filtering on UV absorbance

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Effects of Na and Ca on particle size; Effect of filtering on UV absorbance. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Bouchard, D., C. Knightes, X....

  16. Diminished UV-absorbing nets reduce the Spreads and population density of Macrosiphum euphorbiae in lettuce.

    OpenAIRE

    Legarrea, S.; Díaz, B. M.; Plaza, M.; Barrios, L.; Morales, Ignacio; Viñuela Sandoval, Elisa; Fereres Castiel, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    UV-absorbing covers reduce the incidence of injurious insect pests and viruses in protected crops. In the present study, the effect of a UV-absorbing net (Bionet) on the spatio-temporal dynamics of the potato aphid on lettuce plants was evaluated. A field experiment was conducted during three seasons in two identical tunnels divided in four plots. A set of lettuce plants were artificially infested with Macrosiphum euphorbiae adults and the population was estimated by counting aphids on ev...

  17. Photostabilisation of the 'wood-clearcoatings' systems with UV absorbers: correlation with their effect on the glass transition temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aloui, F [Laboratoire d' Etude et de Recherches sur le Materiau Bois LERMAB UMR-A1093 INRA/ENGREF/UHP - Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, BP 239 - 54506 Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France); Ahajji, A [Laboratoire d' Etude et de Recherches sur le Materiau Bois LERMAB UMR-A1093 INRA/ENGREF/UHP - Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, BP 239 - 54506 Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France); Irmouli, Y [Laboratoire d' Etude et de Recherches sur le Materiau Bois LERMAB UMR-A1093 INRA/ENGREF/UHP - Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, BP 239 - 54506 Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France); George, B [Laboratoire d' Etude et de Recherches sur le Materiau Bois LERMAB UMR-A1093 INRA/ENGREF/UHP - Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, BP 239 - 54506 Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France); Charrier, B [IUT des Pays de l' Adour, Departement SGM-Bois, 371, rue du ruisseau, 40004 Mont de Marsan (France); Merlin, A [Laboratoire d' Etude et de Recherches sur le Materiau Bois LERMAB UMR-A1093 INRA/ENGREF/UHP - Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, BP 239 - 54506 Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France)

    2006-05-15

    In an application-oriented study, the effective transition temperature T{sub g} of organic wood-clearcoatings between a hard, glassy state and a viscoelastic and rubbery state is measured. The value of T{sub g} is important in the eventual development of cracks and a thermomechanical analysis is used to study the photostabilisation performance of some UV absorbers. A weathering exposure test suggests that certain organic UV absorbers have quite a low T{sub g} and may inhibit the crack formation, in contrast with inorganic UV absorbers.

  18. Liposomogenic UV Absorbers are Water-Resistant on Pig Skin-A Model Study With Relevance for Sunscreens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Bernd; Hüglin, Dietmar; Luther, Helmut

    2017-02-01

    An important property of sunscreens is their water resistance after the application on human skin. In this work, the hypothesis that UV absorber molecules which are able to form liposomes, so-called liposomogenic UV absorbers, show better water resistance on a pig skin model than UV-absorbing molecules lacking this ability was tested. The assumption behind is that molecules which can form liposomes are able to integrate into the stratum corneum lipids of the skin. Three different liposomogenic UV absorbers were synthesized and their behavior investigated, leading to the confirmation of the hypothesis. With one of the liposomogenic UV absorbers, it was possible to show the integration of the UV absorber molecules into the bilayers of another liposome consisting of phosphatidylcholine, supporting the assumption that liposomogenic UV absorbers exhibit improved water resistance because they integrate into the skin lipids. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. UV-visible absorbance spectroscopy as a proxy for peatland dissolved organic carbon (DOC) quantity and quality: considerations on wavelength and absorbance degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Mike; Evans, Chris D; Fenner, Nathalie; Freeman, Chris; Gough, Rachel; Jones, Timothy G; Lebron, Inma

    2014-05-01

    Absorbance in the UV or visible spectrum (UV-vis) is commonly used as a proxy for DOC concentrations in waters draining upland catchments. To determine the appropriateness of different UV-vis measurements we used surface and pore water samples from two Welsh peatlands in four different experiments: (i) an assessment of single wavelength proxies (1 nm increments between 230-800 nm) for DOC concentration demonstrated that 254 nm was more accurate than 400 nm. The highest R(2) values between absorbance and DOC concentration were generated using 263 nm for one sample set (R(2) = 0.91), and 230 nm for the other three sample sets (respective R(2) values of 0.86, 0.81, and 0.93). (ii) A comparison of different DOC concentration proxies, including single wavelength proxies, a two wavelength model, a proxy using phenolic concentration, and a proxy using the area under a UV spectrum at 250-350 nm. It was found that both a single wavelength proxy (≤263 nm) and a two wavelength model performed well for both pore water and surface water. (iii) An evaluation of the E2 : E3, E2 : E4, E4 : E6 ratios, and SUVA (absorbance at 254 nm normalised to DOC concentration) as indicators of DOC quality showed that the E4 : E6 ratio was subject to extensive variation over time, and was highly correlated between surface water and pore water, suggesting that it is a useful metric to determine temporal changes in DOC quality. (iv) A repeated weekly analysis over twelve weeks showed no consistent change in UV-vis absorbance, and therefore an inferred lack of degradation of total DOC in samples that were filtered and stored in the dark at 4 °C.

  20. Electrophoresis microchip with integrated waveguides for simultaneous native UV fluorescence and absorbance detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohlsson, Pelle Daniel; Sala, Olga Ordeig; Mogensen, Klaus Bo

    2009-01-01

    Simultaneous label-free detection of UV absorbance and native UV-excited fluorescence in an electrophoresis microchip is presented. UV transparent integrated waveguides launch light at a wavelength of 254 nm from a mercury lamp along the length of a 1-mm. long detection cell. Transmitted UV light...... lid and by choosing a PMT insensitive to the excitation light. This way, the need for a fluorescence filter is eliminated. Calibration curves were measured for serotonin, tryptophan, propranolol and acetaminophen, and separations of the four compounds were demonstrated by electrophoresis and MEKC. All...... compounds could be detected in the micromolar range by absorbance detection, but fluorescence detection improved detection limits for compounds displaying native UV fluorescence up to ten times. The simultaneous detection also proved useful for the identification of compounds with similar retention times...

  1. Ozonation of the oxybenzone, octinoxate, and octocrylene UV-filters: Reaction kinetics, absorbance characteristics, and transformation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Zachary R; Snowberger, Sebastian; Blaney, Lee

    2017-09-15

    UV-filters (UVFs) are active ingredients in personal care products that protect skin from exposure to UV light. Environmentally-relevant concentrations of UVFs have recently been linked to toxicity in aquatic organisms, necessitating research into improved UVF removal in water/wastewater treatment. Here, we investigated ozonation of the three most commonly employed UVFs: octinoxate (OMC), octocrylene (OC), and oxybenzone (OXY). Specific second-order rate constants for UVF reaction with ozone were identified as follows: OMC, 5.25×10 4 M -1 s -1 ; OC, 1.58M -1 s -1 ; OXY (neutral), 3.80×10 2 M -1 s -1 ; and, OXY (anion), 1.51×10 6 M -1 s -1 . These kinetic parameters indicated that OMC and OXY undergo significant (2-log or greater) transformation for typical ozone exposures in disinfection processes; however, minimal oxidation is expected for OC. UV absorbance mapping was employed to characterize the loss of UVF activity (i.e., absorbance across the UV-A, UV-B, and UV-C ranges) during ozonation. These 4-dimensional maps also confirmed ozone attack mechanisms, namely reaction at phenolate (OXY) and olefin (OMC, OC) groups. Primary transformation products from these reactions were identified for all three UVFs of concern. For OC and OXY, the benzophenone structure is conserved, suggesting that transformation products retain toxicity concerns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. An Electrochromatography Chip with Integrated Waveguides for UV Absorbance Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Omar; Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Ohlsson, Pelle Daniel

    2008-01-01

    A silicon-based microchip for electrochromatographic separations is presented. Apart from a microfluidic network, the microchip has integrated UV-transparent waveguides for detection and integrated couplers for optical fibers on the chip, yielding the most complete chromatography microchip to date...... of an octylsilane covalently bonded to the surfaces to provide chromatographic interaction. The chip features a 1 mm long U-shaped detection cell and planar silicon dioxide waveguides that couple light to and from the detection cell. Microfabricated on-chip fiber couplers assure perfect alignment of optical fibers...

  3. Design of UV-absorbing PVDF membrane via surface-initiated AGET ATRP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Li; Liu, Xiangdong; Xiong, Zhengrong; Sheng, Dekun; Zhou, Yan; Lin, Changhong; Yang, Yuming

    2018-03-01

    Herein, PVDF membranes with excellent UV-absorbing property were first synthesized through grafting the polymerizable low-molecular-weight organic UV-absorber 2-hydroxy-4-(3-methacryloxy-2-hydroxylpropoxy) benzophenone (BPMA) onto α-bromoester-functionalized PVDF membranes via the surface-initiated activator generated by electron transfer atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-AGET ATRP). The surface initiators were immobilized by the reaction between 2-bromoisobutyryl bromide (BIBB) and the hydroxylated PVDF membranes. PVDF-g-PBPMA membranes with different grafting densities were obtained by tuning the polymerization time and the modified membranes were characterized by 1H-NMR, FT-IR, XPS, SEM, UV-vis Spectrophotometer, TGA and DSC. The experimental results indicated that PBPMA chains were successfully introduced onto PVDF membranes. Most importantly, the PVDF-g-PBPMA membranes exhibited outstanding UV-shielding property. UV-vis transmittance spectra showed that most UV light below 360 nm could be absorbed by PVDF-g-PBPMA membranes and the whole UV light region (200-400 nm) can be blocked with the reaction time increased.

  4. The production of UV Absorber amorphous cerium sulfide thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kariper, İshak Afşin, E-mail: akariper@gmail.com [Faculty of Education, Erciyes University, Kayseri (Turkey)

    2017-10-15

    This study investigates the production of cerium sulfide (CeSx) amorphous thin films on substrates (commercial glass) by chemical bath deposition at different pH levels. The transmittance, absorption, optical band gap and refractive index of the films are measured by UV/VIS Spectrum. According to XRD analysis, the films show amorphous structure in the baths with pH: 1 to 5. It has been observed that the optical and structural properties of the films depend on pH value of the bath. The optical band gap (2.08 eV to 3.16 eV) of the films changes with the film thickness (23 nm to 1144 nm). We show that the refractive index has a positive relationship with the film thickness, where the values of 1.93, 1.45, 1.42, 2.60 and 1.39 are obtained for the former, and 34, 560, 509, 23 and 1144 nm (at 550 nm wavelength) for the latter. We compare the optical properties of amorphous and crystal form of CeSx thin films. We show that the optical band gaps of the amorphous CeS{sub x} are lower than that of crystal CeS{sub x} . (author)

  5. Tekstilde Uv Absorban Madde Uygulamaları The Applications of UV Absorber on Textiles

    OpenAIRE

    MERDAN, Nigar; ACAR, Kamil

    2009-01-01

    Tekstiller UV radyasyonuna karşı koruma sağlarken, bu aşamada radyasyonun dozu da önem taşımaktadır. Bu nedenle tekstil materyallerine UV absorban maddeler, liflerin üretimi esnasında ya da bitim işlemlerinde uygulanmaktadır. UV absorban maddelerin kullanılmasıyla, tekstil ürünlerinde UV ışınlarının geçirgenliğinin yoğunluk derecesi azaltılır. UV absorbanları, materyale gelen ışık tarafından oluşan olumsuz etkileri engeller

  6. UV-B absorbing compounds in present-day and fossil pollen, spores, cuticles seed coats and wood: evaluation of a proxy for solar UV-B radiation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozema, J.; Blokker, P.; Mayoral Fuertes, M.; Broekman, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    UV-B absorbing compounds (UACs) in present-day and fossil pollen, spores, cuticles, seed coats and wood have been evaluated as a proxy for past UV. This proxy may not only provide information on variation of stratospheric ozone and solar UV in the period preceding and during the Antarctic ozone hole

  7. Effects of enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation, water deficit, and their combination on UV-absorbing compounds and osmotic adjustment substances in two different moss species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Rong; Zhao, Ruiming; Song, Guang; Li, Yixuan; Zhao, Yang; Wang, Yanli

    2018-03-16

    A simulation experiment was conducted to explore the influence of enhanced ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation, water deficit, and their combination on UV-absorbing compounds and osmotic adjustment substances of mosses Bryum argenteum and Didymodon vinealis isolated from biological soil crusts (BSCs) growing in a revegetated area of the Tengger Desert, China. Four levels of UV-B radiation and two gradients of water regime were employed. Compared with their controls, amounts of total flavonoids, chlorophyll, carotenoids, soluble sugars, and soluble proteins significantly decreased (p water deficit. The negative effects of enhanced UV-B were alleviated when water deficit was applied. There were increases in UV-absorbing compounds and osmotic adjustment substances when exposed to a combination of enhanced UV-B and water deficit compared with single stresses, except for the proline content in D. vinealis. In addition, our results also indicated interspecific differences in response to enhanced UV-B, water deficit, and their combination. Compared with B. argenteum, D. vinealis was more resistant to enhanced UV-B and water deficit singly and in combination. These results suggest that the damage of enhanced UV-B on both species might be alleviated by water deficit. This alleviation is important for understanding the response of BSCs to UV-B radiation in future global climate change. This also provides novel insights into assessment damages of UV-B to BSC stability in arid and semiarid regions.

  8. The encapsulation effect of UV molecular absorbers into biocompatible lipid nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacatusu Ioana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The efficiency of a cosmetic product depends not only on the active ingredients, but also on the carrier system devoted to improve its bioavailability. This article aims to encapsulate two couples of UV molecular absorbers, with a blocking action on both UV-A and UV-B domains, into efficient lipid nanoparticles. The effect of encapsulation on the specific properties such as sun protection factor and photostability behaviour has been demonstrated. The lipid nanoparticles with size range 30-350 nm and a polydispersity index between 0.217 and 0.244 are obtained using a modified high shear homogenisation method. The nanoparticles had spherical shapes with a single crystallisation form of lipid matrices characteristic for the least ordered crystal structure (α-form. The in vitro determination of photoprotection has led to high SPF ratings, with values of about 20, which assure a good photoprotection and filtering about 95% of UV radiation. The photoprotection effect after irradiation stage was observed to be increased more than twice compared to initial samples as a result of isomerisation phenomena. All the results have shown that good photoprotection effect and improved photostability could be obtained using such sunscreen couples, thus demonstrating that UV absorbers-solid lipid nanoparticles are promising carriers for cosmetic formulations.

  9. The Effects of UV Light on the Chemical and Mechanical Properties of a Transparent Epoxy-Diamine System in the Presence of an Organic UV Absorber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Nikafshar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite several excellent properties including low shrinkage, good chemical resistance, curable at low temperatures and the absence of byproducts or volatiles, epoxy resins are susceptible to ultra violet (UV damage and their durability is reduced substantially when exposed to outdoor environments. To overcome this drawback, UV absorbers have been usually used to decrease the rate of UV degradation. In this present study, the effects of UV light on the chemical, mechanical and physical properties of cured epoxy structure, as well as the effect of an organic UV absorber, Tinuvin 1130, on the epoxy properties were investigated. Chemical changes in a cured epoxy system as a result of the presence and absence of Tinuvin 1130 were determined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR analyses. The effect of Tinuvin 1130 on the surface morphology of the epoxy systems was also investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM imaging. Additionally, the glass transition temperatures (Tg before and during UV radiation were measured. After an 800 h UV radiation, mechanical test results revealed that the lack of the UV absorber can lead to a ~30% reduction in tensile strength. However, in the presence of Tinuvin 1130, the tensile strength was reduced only by ~11%. It was hypothesized that the use of Tinuvin 1130, as an organic UV absorber in the epoxy-amine system, could decrease the undesirable effects, arising from exposure to UV light.

  10. Magnetized solutions altered the absorbance of tramadol hcl: uv-spectrophotometer study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nimer, Marwan S M; Neda, Fezaa Sh; Lateef, Zainab W Abdul

    2010-03-01

    Magnetized water showed alterations in the electrolyte potential and vibration modes. This study aimed to investigate the effect of magnetic water and physiological solutions on the UV-spectra of tramadol HCl. Distilled water as well as full strength or diluted physiological solutions are magnetized by magnetic disc. Then tramadol HCl was dissolved in each magnetic and in non-magnetic solution to obtain the following final concentrations: 0, 25, 50, 100, and 200μg/mL. The pH of each solution and the absorbance (O.D.) was recorded at wavelength 271 nm. Magnetized water or physiological solutions showed alterations in pH as well as in the absorbance (O.D.) of tramadol HCl detected by ultraviolet spectra at λ271 nm. It concludes that magnetized physiological solutions adversely altered the stability of tramadol HCl.

  11. Release of UV-absorbing substances from maize coleoptiles during auxin-, fusicoccin- and acid-mediated elongation growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, K.; Schopfer, P.

    1997-01-01

    Isolated cell walls from maize coleoptiles prepared under conditions that preserve the ability for enzymatic hemicellulose autolysis release UV-absorbing substances into the incubation medium in a time-dependent reaction with an optimal rate at pH 6–7. The reaction can be inhibited by low temperature and protein-denaturing treatments, indicating an enzymatic process. Spectroscopic and chromatographic analyses showed that the liberated substances represent a complex mixture of free and bound (alkali-hydrolyzable) phenolic compounds with similar absorption spectra restricted to the range below 300 nm and thus excluding hydroxycinnamic acids from cell-wall esters. A spectroscopically and chromatographically similar mixture of soluble UV-absorbing substances is released if living (abraded) maize coleoptiles or coleoptile segments are incubated in water or buffer, suggesting that insoluble phenolic materials in the cell wall are metabolized also in vivo. This reaction can be promoted by anaerobic conditions and application of fusicoccin whereas auxin had a slightly inhibitory effect. No clear relationship to elongation growth could be demonstrated. We conclude from these results that polymeric phenolic constituents of the cell wall are subject to enzymatic degradation in muro similar to polysaccharide autolysis and that this process is under metabolic control

  12. Dynamics of nonpersistent aphid-borne viruses in lettuce crops covered with UV-absorbing nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legarrea, S; Betancourt, M; Plaza, M; Fraile, A; García-Arenal, F; Fereres, A

    2012-04-01

    Aphid-transmitted viruses frequently cause severe epidemics in lettuce grown under Mediterranean climates. Spatio-temporal dynamics of aphid-transmitted viruses and its vector were studied on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) grown under tunnels covered by two types of nets: a commercial UV-absorbing net (Bionet) and a Standard net. A group of plants infected by Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, family Bromoviridae, genus Cucumovirus) and Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV, family Potyviridae, genus Potyvirus) was transplanted in each plot. The same virus-infected source plants were artificially infested by the aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas). Secondary spread of insects was weekly monitored and plants were sampled for the detection of viruses every two weeks. In 2008, the infection rate of both CMV and LMV were lower under the Bionet than under the Standard cover, probably due to the lower population density and lower dispersal rate achieved by M. euphorbiae. However, during spring of 2009, significant differences in the rate of infection between the two covers were only found for LMV six weeks after transplant. The spatial distribution of the viruses analysed by SADIE methodology was "at random", and it was not associated to the spatial pattern of the vector. The results obtained are discussed analyzing the wide range of interactions that occurred among UV-radiation, host plant, viruses, insect vector and environmental conditions. Our results show that UV-absorbing nets can be recommended as a component of an integrated disease management program to reduce secondary spread of lettuce viruses, although not as a control measure on its own. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Non-tinted Transparent Luminescent Solar Concentrators Employing Both UV and NIR Selective Absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yimu; Lunt, Richard

    2014-03-01

    Luminescent solar concentrators are a potentially low-cost solar harvesting solution that additionally offer opportunities for integration around buildings and windows. However, the visible absorption and emission of previously demonstrated chromophores hamper their widespread applications including solar windows. Here, we demonstrate non-tinted transparent luminescent solar concentrators (TLSC) that employ both ultraviolet (UV) and near-infrared (NIR) selective absorbing luminophores that create an entirely new paradigm for power-producing transparent surfaces and enhances the potential over UV-only TLSCs. We have previously designed UV-harvesting systems composed of metal halide phosphorescent luminophore blends that enable absorption cutoff positioned at the edge of visible spectrum (430nm) and massive-downconverted emission in the near-infrared (800nm) with quantum yields for luminescence of 75%. Here, we have developed a complimentary TLSC employing fluorescent organic salts with both efficient NIR absorption and deeper NIR emission. We will discuss the photophysical properties of these luminophores, the impact of ligand-host control, and optimization of the TLSC architectures.

  14. Lean body mass assessment based on UV absorbance in spent dialysate and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomson, Ruth; Fridolin, Ivo; Luman, Merike

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the possibility of assessing lean body mass (LBM) based on UV absorbance measurements in spent dialysate. 9 patients on chronic three-times-a-week HD (4 female, 5 male, mean age 58.8 ± 8.6 years) were studied. Blood and spent dialysate samples were collected for 3 consecutive hemodialysis (HD) sessions from every patient. A double-beam spectrophotometer was used for the determination of UV absorbance in the collected spent dialysate samples. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans were performed on an interdialytic day. LBM was calculated based on creatinine concentration in blood (LBMblood) and UV absorbance in spent dialysate (LBMa) and assessed by DXA (LBMDXA). Also, in vitro experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of tissue hydration on DXA measurements. Although LBMa was slightly lower compared to LBMblood, the estimates based on UV absorbance in spent dialysate presented greater accuracy and precision compared to LBMDXA. The significant difference between LBMblood and LBMDXA was with high probability caused by the altered tissue hydration of HD patents. In summary, the results show that it is possible to asses LBM based on UV absorbance in spent dialysate.

  15. UV-B absorbing compounds in present-day and fossil pollen, spores, cuticles, seed coats and wood: evaluation of a proxy for solar UV radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozema, J; Blokker, P; Mayoral Fuertes, M A; Broekman, R

    2009-09-01

    UV-B absorbing compounds (UACs) in present-day and fossil pollen, spores, cuticles, seed coats and wood have been evaluated as a proxy for past UV. This proxy may not only provide information on variation of stratospheric ozone and solar UV in the period preceding and during the Antarctic ozone hole (1974-present day), but also on the development and variation of the stratospheric ozone layer and solar surface UV during the evolution of life on Earth. Sporopollenin and cutin are highly resistant biopolymers, preserving well in the geological record and contain the phenolic acids p-coumaric (pCA) and ferulic acid (FA). pCA and FA represent a good perspective for a plant-based proxy for past surface UV radiation since they are induced by solar UV-B via the phenylpropanoid pathway (PPP). UV-B absorption by these monomers in the wall of pollen and spores and in cuticles may prevent damage to the cellular metabolism. Increased pCA and FA in pollen of Vicia faba exposed to enhanced UV-B was found in greenhouse experiments. Further correlative evidence comes from UV-absorbing compounds in spores from 1960-2000 comparing exposure of land plants (Lycopodium species) to solar UV before and during ozone depletion and comparing plants from Antarctica (severe ozone depletion), Arctic, and other latitudes with less or negligible ozone depletion. Wood-derived compounds guaiacyl (G), syringyl (S), and p-hydroxyphenyl (P) are produced via the PPP. The proportions of P, G, and S in the lignin differ between various plant groups (e.g. dicotyledons/monocotyledons, gymnosperms/angiosperms). It is hypothesized that this lignin composition and derived physiological and physical properties of lignin (such as tree-ring wood density) has potential as a proxy for palaeo-UV climate. However validation by exposure of trees to enhanced UV is lacking. pCA and FA also form part of cutin polymers and are found in extant and fossil Ginkgo leaf cuticles as shown by thermally-assisted hydrolysis and

  16. The molecular background of the differential UV absorbance of the human lens in the 240-400 nm range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajer, Viktor; Tiboldi, Akos; Bae, Narkhyun; Li, Kongzhao; Kang, Sung Ung; Hopp, Béla; Kolozsvári, Lajos; Lubec, Gert; Nógrádi, Antal

    2013-01-01

    The ultraviolet (UV) absorption of various sections of the human lens was studied and compared with protein expression paralleling differential UV absorbance in anterior and posterior lenticular tissue. The UV absorbance of serial lens cryostat sections (60 μm) and that of lens capsules was determined using a Shimadzu scanning spectrophotometer, and the absorption coefficients were calculated. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was performed using two pooled lenticular protein extracts (anterior and posterior sections). Protein spots were quantified and significantly different spots were identified by mass spectrometry following in-gel digestion with trypsin and chymotrypsin. The UV-C and UV-B absorption of the human lens increased toward the posterior parts of the lens. The anterior and posterior lens capsules also effectively absorbed UV radiation. Levels of molecular chaperone proteins Beta-crystallin B2 (UniProtKB ID:P43320), A3 (UniProtKB ID:P05813) and of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (UniProtKB ID:P04406) were significantly higher in the anterior part of the lens, whereas lens proteins Beta-crystallin B1 (UniProtKB ID:P53674) and Alpha-crystallin A chain (UniProtKB ID:P02489) were higher in the posterior sections. These results provide evidence that differential UV absorption in the anterior and posterior lens is accompanied by differential protein expression. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2013 The American Society of Photobiology.

  17. [Existant quality problems and suggestions for quality control of medical absorbent cotton].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, De-long; Chi, An-zheng; Zhang, Qi-hua

    2005-07-01

    In the process of acid hydrolysis of medical absorbent cotton, we have discovered that some of the domestic manufactured medical absorbent cotton is mixed with wasted non-cotton chemical fiber. If the cotton is used in medical treatments, the chemical fiber will cause irritation, allergy and inflammation, so it's very harmful. But the non-cotton fiber content is not stipulated in the standard of YY0330-2002, and no testing method for it is available. In this paper we discuss the existent quality problems, the control and the test method for non-cotton chemical fiber in medical absorbent cotton.

  18. Combined UV-Vis-absorbance and Reflectance Spectroscopy Study of Dye Transfer Kinetics in Aqueous Mixtures of Surfactants

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, Carlos G.; Manova, Anna; Hoppe, Corinna; Dreja, Michael; Schmiedel, Peter; Job, Mareile; Richtering, Walter; Böker, Alexander; Tsarkova, Larisa

    2017-01-01

    We report an analytical approach to study the kinetics of desorption and exhaustion of a hydrophobic dye in a multicomponent washing model environment. The process of dye transfer between an acceptor textile (white polyamide), detergent micelles and a donor textile (red polyester) was quantified by a combination of colorimetric analyses. UV-Vis absorbance and UV- reflectance spectroscopy were used to follow the concentration of the solubilised dye in the micelles and t...

  19. Epidermal UV-A absorbance and whole-leaf flavonoid composition in pea respond more to solar blue light than to solar UV radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siipola, Sari M; Kotilainen, Titta; Sipari, Nina; Morales, Luis O; Lindfors, Anders V; Robson, T Matthew; Aphalo, Pedro J

    2015-05-01

    Plants synthesize phenolic compounds in response to certain environmental signals or stresses. One large group of phenolics, flavonoids, is considered particularly responsive to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. However, here we demonstrate that solar blue light stimulates flavonoid biosynthesis in the absence of UV-A and UV-B radiation. We grew pea plants (Pisum sativum cv. Meteor) outdoors, in Finland during the summer, under five types of filters differing in their spectral transmittance. These filters were used to (1) attenuate UV-B; (2) attenuate UV-B and UV-A light; and (5) as a control not attenuating these wavebands. Attenuation of blue light significantly reduced the flavonoid content in leaf adaxial epidermis and reduced the whole-leaf concentrations of quercetin derivatives relative to kaempferol derivatives. In contrast, UV-B responses were not significant. These results show that pea plants regulate epidermal UV-A absorbance and accumulation of individual flavonoids by perceiving complex radiation signals that extend into the visible region of the solar spectrum. Furthermore, solar blue light instead of solar UV-B radiation can be the main regulator of phenolic compound accumulation in plants that germinate and develop outdoors. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Effect of UV-B radiation on UV absorbing compounds and pigments of moss and lichen of Schirmacher oasis region, East Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J; Gautam, S; Bhushan Pant, A

    2012-12-22

    The survival of Antarctic flora under ozone depletion depends on their ability to acclimate against increasing UV—B radiation by employing photo protective mechanisms either by avoiding or repairing UV—B damage. A fifteen days experiment was designed to study moss (Bryum argenteum) and lichen (Umbilicaria aprina) under natural UV—B exposure and under UV filter frames at the Maitri region of Schirmacher oasis, East Antarctica. Changes in UV absorbing compounds, phenolics, carotenoids and chlorophyll content were studied for continuous fifteen days and significant changes were observed in the UV exposed plants of B. argenteum and U. aprina. The change in the UV absorbing compounds was more significant in B. argenteum (P<0.0001) than U. aprina (P<0.0002). The change in phenolic contents and total carotenoid content was significant (P<0.0001) in both B. argenteum and lichen U. aprina indicating that the increase in UV absorbing compounds, phenolic contents and total carotenoid content act as a protective mechanism against the deleterious effect of UV—B radiations.

  1. Venus upper clouds and the UV-absorber from MESSENGER/MASCS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Hoyos, Santiago; Sanchez-Lavega, Agustin; Garcia Munoz, Antonio; Irwin, Patrick; Peralta, Javier; Holsclaw, Greg; McClintock, William

    2014-11-01

    In June 2007, the MESSENGER spacecraft performed its second Venus flyby on its route to Mercury. The spacecraft’s MASCS instrument (VIRS channel) acquired numerous spectra of the sunlight reflected from the equatorial region of the planet at wavelengths from the near ultraviolet (300nm) to the near infrared (1450 nm). In this work we present an analysis of the data and their spectral and spatial variability following the mission footprint on the Venus disk. In order to reproduce the observed reflectivity and obtain information on the upper clouds and the unknown UV absorber, we use the NEMESIS retrieval code, including SO2 , CO2 and H2O absorption together with absorption and scattering by mode-1, -2 and -3 cloud particles. This spectral range provides sensitivity to the uppermost cloud levels, above 60 km. Vertical profiles of the mode-1 and mode-2 particles have been retrieved along the equatorial region of Venus, with average retrieved sounding levels of 70 +/- 2 km at 1 micron, in good agreement with previous investigations. This spectral range is also very interesting because of the existence of a mysterious absorber in the blue and UV side of the reflected spectra, whose origin remains as one of the key questions about the Venus atmosphere. Here we report a comparison with some of the previously proposed absorbers: (1) sulfur-related compounds (amorphous and liquid sulfur, S3, S4, S8, S2O); (2) chlorine related species (Cl2, FeCl3); (3) organics (C3O2, Croconic acid). Preliminary results show that the first group provides better fits to the data, although combinations of the proposed agents might be required in order to produce better results. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the Spanish MICIIN projects AYA2009- 10701, AYA2012-38897-C02-01, and AYA2012-36666 with FEDER support, PRICIT-S2009/ESP-1496, Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT765-13, and UPV/EHU UFI11/55. S.P.-H. acknowledges support from the Jose Castillejo Program funded by Ministerio de Educaci

  2. Formulation comprising silicon microparticles, as a pigment that can absorb visible UV radiation and reflect ir radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Marie-Isabelle; Fenollosa Esteve, Roberto; Meseguer, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    [EN] The invention relates to a formulation characterised in that it comprises silicon microparticles having a size between 0.010 um and 50 um in diameter, and to the use thereof as a pigment that can absorb visible UV radiation and reflect IR radiation.

  3. [Using UV-Vis Absorbance for Characterization of Maturity in Composting Process with Different Materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yue; Wei, Yu-quan; Li, Yang; Xi, Bei-dou; Wei, Zi-min; Wang, Xing-lei; Zhao, Zhi-nan; Ding, Jei

    2015-04-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the degree of humification in DOM during composting using different raw materials, and their effect on maturity of compost based on UV-Vis spectra measurements and chemometrics method. The raw materials of composting studied included chicken manure, pig manure, kitchen waste, lawn waste, fruits and vegetables waste, straw waste, green waste, sludge, and municipal solid waste. During composting, the parameters of UV-Vis spectra of DOM, including SUVA254 , SUVA280 , E250/E365, E4/E6, E2/E4, E2/E6, E253/E203, E253/E220, A226-400, S275-295 and S350-400 were calculated, Statistical analysis indicated that all the parameter were significantly changed during composting. SUVA254 and SUVA280 of DOM were continuously increased, E250/E365 and E4/E6 were continuously decreased in DOM, while A226-400, S275-295 and S350-400 of DOM at the final stage were significantly different with those at other stages of composting. Correlation analysis indicated that the parameters were significantly correlated with each other except for E2/E4 and E235/E203. Furthermore, principal component analysis suggested that A226-400, SUVA254, S350-400, SUVA280 and S275~295 were reasonable parameters for assessing the compost maturity. To distinguish maturity degree among different composts, hierarchical cluster analysis, an integrated tool utilizing multiple UV-Vis parameters, was performed based on the data (A226-400, SUVA254, S350-400, SUVA280 and S275-295) of DOM derived from the final stage of composting. Composts from different sources were clustered into 2 groups. The first group included chicken manure, pig manure, lawn waste, fruits and vegetables waste, green waste, sludge, and municipal solid waste characterized by a lower maturity degree, and the second group contained straw waste and kitchen waste associated with a higher maturity degree. The above results suggest that a multi-index of UV-Vis spectra could accurately evaluate the compost maturity

  4. Simultaneous UV and X-ray Spectroscopy of the Seyfert 1 Galaxy NGC 5548. I: Physical Conditions in the UV Absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crenshaw, D. M.; Kraemer, S. B.; Gabel, J. R.; Kaastra, J. S.; Steenbrugge, K. C.; Brinkman, A. C.; Dunn, J. P.; George, I. M.; Liedahl, D. A.; Paerels, F. B. S.

    2003-01-01

    We present new UV spectra of the nucleus of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548, which we obtained with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph at high spectral resolution, in conjunction with simultaneous Chandra X-ray Observatory spectra. Taking advantage of the low UV continuum and broad emission-line fluxes, we have determined that the deepest UV absorption component covers at least a portion of the inner, high-ionization narrow-line region (NLR). We find nonunity covering factors in the cores of several kinematic components, which increase the column density measurements of N V and C IV by factors of 1.2 to 1.9 over the full-covering case; however, the revised columns have only a minor effect on the parameters derived from our photoionization models. For the first time, we have simultaneous N V and C IV columns for component 1 (at -1040 km/s), and find that this component cannot be an X-ray warm absorber, contrary to our previous claim based on nonsimultaneous observations. We find that models of the absorbers based on solar abundances severely overpredict the O VI columns previously obtained with the Far Ultraviolet Spectrograph, and present arguments that this is not likely due to variability. However, models that include either enhanced nitrogen (twice solar) or dust, with strong depletion of carbon in either case, are successful in matching all of the observed ionic columns. These models result in substantially lower ionization parameters and total column densities compared to dust-free solar-abundance models, and produce little O VII or O VIII, indicating that none of the UV absorbers are X-ray warm absorbers.

  5. Presence of benzophenones commonly used as UV filters and absorbers in paired maternal and fetal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, M; Frederiksen, H; Sundberg, K; Jørgensen, F S; Jensen, L N; Nørgaard, P; Jørgensen, C; Ertberg, P; Juul, A; Drzewiecki, K T; Skakkebaek, N E; Andersson, A M

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated widespread exposure of humans to certain benzophenones commonly used as UV filters or UV absorbers; some of which have been demonstrated to have endocrine disrupting abilities. To examine whether benzophenones present in pregnant women pass through the placental barrier to amniotic fluid and further to the fetal blood circulation. A prospective study of 200 pregnant women with simultaneously collected paired samples of amniotic fluid and maternal serum and urine. In addition, unique samples of human fetal blood (n=4) obtained during cordocentesis: and cord blood (n=23) obtained at delivery, both with paired maternal samples of serum and urine collected simultaneously, were used. All biological samples were analyzed by TurboFlow-liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry for seven different benzophenones. Benzophenone-1 (BP-1), benzophenone-3 (BP-3), 4-methyl-benzophenone (4-MBP), and 4-hydroxy-benzophenone (4-HBP) were all detectable in amniotic fluid and cord blood samples and except 4-HBP also in fetal blood; albeit at a low frequency. BP-1 and BP-3 were measured at ~10-times lower concentrations in fetal and cord blood compared to maternal serum and 1000-times lower concentration compared to maternal urine levels. Therefore BP-1 and BP-3 were only detectable in the fetal circulation in cases of high maternal exposure indicating some protection by the placental barrier. 4-MBP seems to pass into fetal and cord blood more freely with a median 1:3 ratio between cord blood and maternal serum levels. Only for BP-3, which the women seemed to be most exposed to, did the measured concentrations in maternal urine and serum correlate to concentrations measured in amniotic fluid. Thus, for BP-3, but not for the other tested benzophenones, maternal urinary levels seem to be a valid proxy for fetal exposure. Detectable levels of several of the investigated benzophenones in human amniotic fluid as well as in fetal and cord blood calls

  6. Prevention of UV-induced damage to the anterior segment using class I UV-absorbing hydrogel contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Heather L; Reuter, Kathleen S; Sinnott, Loraine T; Nichols, Jason J

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether class I ultraviolet (UV) light-blocking contact lenses prevent UV-induced pathologic changes in a rabbit model. Twelve rabbits were assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups (n = 4), as follows: senofilcon A (class I UV blocking) contact lenses; lotrafilcon A contact lenses (no reported UV blocking); no contact lens. The contralateral eye was patched without a contact lens. Animals received UV-B (1.667 J/cm(2)) exposure daily for 5 days. Postmortem tissue was examined as follows: in the cornea, the expression of matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs) was evaluated by zymography, and apoptosis was evaluated by TUNEL and caspase-3 ELISA; ascorbate in the aqueous humor was evaluated by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy; crystalline lens apoptosis was evaluated by TUNEL and caspase-3 ELISA. Exposed corneas showed a significant increase in MMP-2 and -9, TUNEL-positive cells, and caspase-3 activity in the lotrafilcon A group compared with the senofilcon A group (all P = 0.03). A significant decrease in aqueous humor ascorbate was observed in the exposed lotrafilcon A lens-wearing group compared with the exposed senofilcon A lens-wearing group (P = 0.03). Exposed crystalline lenses had significantly increased caspase-3 activity in the lotrafilcon A group compared with the senofilcon A group (P = 0.03). Increased numbers of TUNEL-positive cells were noted in both the lotrafilcon A and the non-contact lens groups. The authors show that senofilcon A class I UV-blocking contact lenses are capable of protecting the cornea, aqueous humor, and crystalline lens of rabbits from UV-induced pathologic changes.

  7. Use of a heated graphite scrubber as a means of reducing interferences in UV-absorbance measurements of atmospheric ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Turnipseed

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A new solid-phase scrubber for use in conventional ozone (O3 photometers was investigated as a means of reducing interferences from other UV-absorbing species and water vapor. It was found that when heated to 100–130 °C, a tubular graphite scrubber efficiently removed up to 500 ppb ozone and ozone monitors using the heated graphite scrubber were found to be less susceptible to interferences from water vapor, mercury vapor, and aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs compared to conventional metal oxide scrubbers. Ambient measurements from a graphite scrubber-equipped photometer and a co-located Federal equivalent method (FEM ozone analyzer showed excellent agreement over 38 days of measurements and indicated no loss in the scrubber's ability to remove ozone when operated at 130 °C. The use of a heated graphite scrubber was found to reduce the interference from mercury vapor to ≤ 3 % of that obtained using a packed-bed Hopcalite scrubber. For a series of substituted aromatic compounds (ranging in volatility and absorption cross section at 253.7 nm, the graphite scrubber was observed to consistently exhibit reduced levels of interference, typically by factors of 2.5 to 20 less than with Hopcalite. Conventional solid-phase scrubbers also exhibited complex VOC adsorption and desorption characteristics that were dependent upon the relative humidity (RH, volatility of the VOC, and the available surface area of the scrubber. This complex behavior involving humidity is avoided by use of a heated graphite scrubber. These results suggest that heated graphite scrubbers could be substituted in most ozone photometers as a means of reducing interferences from other UV-absorbing species found in the atmosphere. This could be particularly important in ozone monitoring for compliance with the United States (U.S. Clean Air Act or for use in VOC-rich environments such as in smog chambers and monitoring indoor air quality.

  8. Ultraviolet-B (280-320 nm) absorbing pigments in the leaves of Silene vulgaris: their role in UV-B tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staaij, J.W.M. van de; Ernst, W.H.O.; Hakvoort, H.W.J.; Rozema, J.

    1995-01-01

    The UV-B radiation tolerant perennial herb Silene vulgaris was tested on the influence of incident UV-B fluxes during growth on the synthesis of UV-B absorbing pigments in the leaves. Analysis of methanolic leaf extracts showed a stimulating effect of UV-B on the absorbing ability of leaf extracts. HPLC analysis made clear that UV-B radiation stimulated extractable flavonoid concentrations in leaves, but that UV-B absorption could only be partly attributed to these flavonoids. The contribution of flavonoids to UV-B absorption diminishes if plants mature. Other possible functions of flavonoids in plants growing under elevated UV-B conditions are discussed. (author)

  9. PCA/DFT as forecasting tools for absorbance time series received by UV-visible probes in urban sewer systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Plazas Nossa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to introduce a forecasting method for UV-Vis spectrometry time series that combines principal component analysis (PCA, the discrete Fourier transform (DFT and the inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT. The corresponding absorbance time series were used for three different study sites: (i Salitre wastewater treatment plant (WWTP in Bogotá; (ii Gibraltar pumping station in Bogotá; and (iii San Fernando WWTP in Itagüí (in the southern part of Medellín. Each of these time series had an equal number of samples (5705. By reducing the absorbance time series dimensionality with PCA, 3, 5 and 6 principal components were used for each study site respectively; these altogether explain more than 97% of the variability. It was used the most important harmonic given by the DFT and the IFFT procedure, which removed from one to half values of the time series length. Therefore, forecast errors between 0,01% and 34% for 95% of the cases were obtained for the three study sites and the wavelength ranges (UV, Vis and UV-Vis. However, for 100% of the cases errors were lower than 37%, independently of the wavelength and the forecasting time.

  10. Synthesis of Benzoyl C-Phenylcalix[4]resorcinaryl Octaacetate and Cinnamoyl C-Phenylcalix[4]arene for UV Absorbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budiana I Gusti M. Ngurah

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A new upper rim-functionalized benzoyl C-phenylcalix[4]resorcinaryl octaacetate and cinnamoyl C-phenylcalix[4]resorcinarene have been synthesized and evaluated as the absorbers for ultraviolet radiation. The benzoyl C-phenylcalix[4]resorcinaryl octaacetate was synthesized in 3 steps. They were synthesis of C-phenilcalix[4]resorcinarene via acid-catalyzed-condensation of resorcinol and benzaldehyde, followed by O-acetylation and Friedel-Craft benzoylation. The cinnamoyl C-phenylcalix[4]resorcinarene was synthesized in 4 steps. They were synthesis of C-phenilcalix[4]resorcinarene via acid-catalyzed-condensation of resorcinol and benzaldehyde, followed by O-acetylation, Friedel-Craft cinnamoylation and hydrolysis. Spectroscopic analysis (UV showed that the target molecule absorbed the ultraviolet radiation between 200 and 400 nm with the maximum absorption at 240.50 nm (ε = 10.135 M-1 cm-1 and 243.50 nm (ε = 12.135 M-1 cm-1.

  11. Temporal-spatial variation of DOC concentration, UV absorbance and the flux estimation in the Lower Dagu River, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Min; Kong, Fanlong; Li, Yue; Kong, Fanting

    2017-12-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is an important component for both carbon cycle and energy balance. The concentration, UV absorbance, and export flux of DOC in the natural environment dominate many important transport processes. To better understand the temporal and spatial variation of DOC, 7 sites along the Lower Dagu River were chosen to conduct a comprehensive measurement from March 2013 to February 2014. Specifically, water samples were collected from the Lower Dagu River between the 26th and 29th of every month during the experimental period. The DOC concentration (CDOC) and UV absorbance were analyzed using a total organic carbon analyzer and the ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrum, and the DOC export flux was estimated with a simple empirical model. The results showed that the CDOC of the Lower Dagu River varied from 1.32 to 12.56 mg/L, consistent with global rivers. The CDOC and UV absorbance showed significant spatial variation in the Dagu River during the experiential period because of the upstream natural processes and human activities in the watershed. The spatial variation is mainly due to dam or reservoir constructions, riverside ecological environment changes, and non-point source or wastewater discharge. The seasonal variation of CDOC was mainly related to the source of water DOC, river runoff, and temperature, and the UV absorbance and humification degree of DOC had no obvious differences among months ( PDOC export flux varied from 1.6 to 3.76 × 105 g C/km2/yr in a complete hydrological year, significantly lower than the global average. It is worth mentioning that the DOC export flux was mainly concentrated in summer (˜90% of all-year flux in July and August), since the runoff in the Dagu River took place frequently in summer. These observations implied environment change could bring the temporal-spatial variation of DOC and the exports, which would further affect the land-ocean interactions in the Lower Dagu River and the global carbon cycle.

  12. A Ten-Year Global Record of Absorbing Aerosols Above Clouds from OMI's Near-UV Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jethva, Hiren; Torres, Omar; Ahn, Changwoo

    2016-01-01

    Aerosol-cloud interaction continues to be one of the leading uncertain components of climate models, primarily due to the lack of an adequate knowledge of the complex microphysical and radiative processes associated with the aerosol-cloud system. The situations when aerosols and clouds are found in the same atmospheric column, for instance, when light-absorbing aerosols such as biomass burning generated carbonaceous particles or wind-blown dust overlay low-level cloud decks, are commonly found over several regional of the world. Contrary to the cloud-free scenario over dark surface, for which aerosols are known to produce a net cooling effect (negative radiative forcing) on climate, the overlapping situation of absorbing aerosols over cloud can potentially exert a significant level of atmospheric absorption and produces a positive radiative forcing at top-of-atmosphere. The magnitude of direct radiative effects of aerosols above cloud depends directly on the aerosol loading, microphysical-optical properties of the aerosol layer and the underlying cloud deck, and geometric cloud fraction. We help in addressing this problem by introducing a novel product of optical depth of absorbing aerosols above clouds retrieved from near-UV observations made by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on board NASA's Aura platform. The presence of absorbing aerosols above cloud reduces the upwelling radiation reflected by cloud and produces a strong 'color ratio' effect in the near-UV region, which can be unambiguously detected in the OMI measurements. Physically based on this effect, the OMACA algorithm retrieves the optical depths of aerosols and clouds simultaneously under a prescribed state of atmosphere. The algorithm architecture and results from a ten-year global record including global climatology of frequency of occurrence and above-cloud aerosol optical depth, and a discussion on related future field campaigns are presented.

  13. Screening and monitoring microbial xenobiotics’ biodegradation by rapid, inexpensive and easy to perform microplate UV-absorbance measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Evaluation of xenobiotics biodegradation potential, shown here for benzotriazoles (corrosion inhibitors) and sulfamethoxazole (sulfonamide antibiotic) by microbial communities and/or pure cultures normally requires time intensive and money consuming LC/GC methods that are, in case of laboratory setups, not always needed. Results The usage of high concentrations to apply a high selective pressure on the microbial communities/pure cultures in laboratory setups, a simple UV-absorbance measurement (UV-AM) was developed and validated for screening a large number of setups, requiring almost no preparation and significantly less time and money compared to LC/GC methods. This rapid and easy to use method was evaluated by comparing its measured values to LC-UV and GC-MS/MS results. Furthermore, its application for monitoring and screening unknown activated sludge communities (ASC) and mixed pure cultures has been tested and approved to detect biodegradation of benzotriazole (BTri), 4- and 5-tolyltriazole (4-TTri, 5-TTri) as well as SMX. Conclusions In laboratory setups, xenobiotics concentrations above 1.0 mg L-1 without any enrichment or preparation could be detected after optimization of the method. As UV-AM does not require much preparatory work and can be conducted in 96 or even 384 well plate formats, the number of possible parallel setups and screening efficiency was significantly increased while analytic and laboratory costs were reduced to a minimum. PMID:24558966

  14. Screening and monitoring microbial xenobiotics' biodegradation by rapid, inexpensive and easy to perform microplate UV-absorbance measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Bastian; Lemmer, Hilde; Horn, Harald; Müller, Elisabeth

    2014-02-22

    Evaluation of xenobiotics biodegradation potential, shown here for benzotriazoles (corrosion inhibitors) and sulfamethoxazole (sulfonamide antibiotic) by microbial communities and/or pure cultures normally requires time intensive and money consuming LC/GC methods that are, in case of laboratory setups, not always needed. The usage of high concentrations to apply a high selective pressure on the microbial communities/pure cultures in laboratory setups, a simple UV-absorbance measurement (UV-AM) was developed and validated for screening a large number of setups, requiring almost no preparation and significantly less time and money compared to LC/GC methods. This rapid and easy to use method was evaluated by comparing its measured values to LC-UV and GC-MS/MS results. Furthermore, its application for monitoring and screening unknown activated sludge communities (ASC) and mixed pure cultures has been tested and approved to detect biodegradation of benzotriazole (BTri), 4- and 5-tolyltriazole (4-TTri, 5-TTri) as well as SMX. In laboratory setups, xenobiotics concentrations above 1.0 mg L(-1) without any enrichment or preparation could be detected after optimization of the method. As UV-AM does not require much preparatory work and can be conducted in 96 or even 384 well plate formats, the number of possible parallel setups and screening efficiency was significantly increased while analytic and laboratory costs were reduced to a minimum.

  15. Pollen sensitivity to ultraviolet-B (UV-B) suggests floral structure evolution in alpine plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chan; Yang, Yong-Ping; Duan, Yuan-Wen

    2014-03-31

    Various biotic and abiotic factors are known to exert selection pressures on floral traits, but the influence of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) light on the evolution of flower structure remains relatively unexplored. We have examined the effectiveness of flower structure in blocking radiation and the effects of UV-B on pollen viability in 42 species of alpine plants in the Hengduan Mountains, China. Floral forms were categorized as either protecting or exposing pollen grains to UV-B. The floral materials of plants with exposed and protected pollen grains were able to block UV-B at similar levels. Exposure to UV-B radiation in vitro resulted in a significantly greater loss of viability in pollen from plant species with protective floral structures. The pronounced sensitivity of protected pollen to UV-B radiation was associated with the type of flower structure. These findings demonstrate that UV-B plays an important role in the evolution of protective floral forms in alpine plants.

  16. Inclusion complexes of β-cyclodextrin-dinitrocompounds as UV absorber for ballpoint pen ink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Krishnan; Radhakrishnan, S; Stalin, Thambusamy

    2014-08-14

    2,4-Dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP), 2,4-dinitroaniline (2,4-DNA), 2,6-dinitroaniline (2,6-DNA) and 2,6-dinitrobenzoic acid (2,6-DNB) has appeared for the UV absorption bands in different wavelength region below 400 nm, a combination of these dinitro aromatic compounds gave the broad absorption spectra within the UV region. The absorption intensities have been increased by preparation of the inclusion complex of dinitro compounds with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD). Prepared inclusion complexes are used to improve the UV protection properties of the ball point pen ink against photo degradation. The formation of solid inclusion complexes was characterized by FT-IR, and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The UV protecting properties of these inclusion complexes were calculated their sun protection factor (SPF) is also discussed. The stability of the ballpoint pen ink has been confirmed by UV-Visible spectroscopic method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Identification of OSSO as a near-UV absorber in the Venusian atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Benjamin Normann; Wennberg, Paul O.; Kjærgaard, Henrik Grum

    2016-01-01

    The planet Venus exhibits atmospheric absorption in the 320–400 nm wavelength range produced by unknown chemistry. We investigate electronic transitions in molecules that may exist in the atmosphere of Venus. We identify two different S2O2 isomers, cis-OSSO and trans-OSSO, which are formed...... in significant amounts and are removed predominantly by near-UV photolysis. We estimate the rate of photolysis of cis- and trans-OSSO in the Venusian atmosphere and find that they are good candidates to explain the enigmatic 320–400 nm near-UV absorption. Between 58 and 70 km, the calculated OSSO concentrations...

  18. The preparation of zinc silicate/ZnO particles and their use as an efficient UV absorber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podbrscek, Peter [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Drazic, Goran [Department for Nanostructured Materials, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Anzlovar, Alojz [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Center of Excellence for Polymer Materials and Technologies, Tehnoloski Park 24, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Orel, Zorica Crnjak, E-mail: zorica.crnjak.orel@ki.si [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Center of Excellence for Polymer Materials and Technologies, Tehnoloski Park 24, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} We used innovative gel-route in order to prepare zinc silicate/ZnO nano-particles. {yields} Continuous reactor was efficient for synthesizing ZnO and zinc silicate/ZnO precursors. {yields} Introduction of Si into reaction mixture influenced on particle size and their photoactivity. {yields} Prepared particles are appropriate for UV absorbers in polymers. -- Abstract: The formation of zinc silicate/ZnO particles synthesized by a two-step method and their incorporation into PMMA is presented. In the first step a segmented-flow tubular reactor was used for the continuous room-temperature preparation of a zinc silicate/Zn(OH){sub 2} gel that was thermally treated after rinsing and drying in the second step. The same preparation procedure was also employed for the synthesis of pure ZnO and pure zinc silicate particles. It was found that the presence of the zinc silicate phase significantly influenced the final particle size, decreased the degree of crystallization and reduced the particles' UV absorption capabilities. The reduced photocatalytic activity of the zinc silicate/ZnO particles indicated that the majority of ZnO crystallites were formed inside the zinc silicate matrix. The nanocomposite prepared from zinc silicate/ZnO particles (0.04 wt.%) and PMMA showed high UV shielding and at the same time sufficient transmittance in the visible-light region.

  19. UV saturable absorber for short-pulse KrF laser systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, H; Kuranishi, H; Ueda, K; Takuma, H

    1989-07-01

    A derivative of the linear tricyclic compound, acridine, is shown to be useful as a saturable absorber for short-pulse KrF lasers. The saturation characteristics and absorption recovery of a methanol solution of acridine for a 20-psec KrF laser pulse are reported. We obtain a saturation fluence of 1.2 mJ/cm(2) and a ratio of the primary to the excited absorption cross section of 6.25:1.

  20. UV saturable absorber for short-pulse KrF laser systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishioka, H.; Kuranishi, H.; Ueda, K.; Takuma, H.

    1989-07-01

    A derivative of the linear tricyclic compound, acridine, is shown to beuseful as a saturable absorber for short-pulse KrF lasers. The saturationcharacteristics and absorption recovery of a methanol solution of acridine for a20-psec KrF laser pulse are reported. We obtain a saturation fluence of 1.2mJ/cm/sup 2/ and a ratio of the primary to the excited absorption cross sectionof 6.25:1.

  1. Natural organic UV-absorbent coatings based on cellulose and lignin: designed effects on spectroscopic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambardzumyan, Arayik; Foulon, Laurence; Chabbert, Brigitte; Aguié-Béghin, Véronique

    2012-12-10

    Novel nanocomposite coatings composed of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and lignin (either synthetic or fractionated from spruce and corn stalks) were prepared without chemical modification or functionalization (via covalent attachment) of one of the two biopolymers. The spectroscopic properties of these coatings were investigated by UV-visible spectrophotometry and spectroscopic ellipsometry. When using the appropriate weight ratio of CNC/lignin (R), these nanocomposite systems exhibited high-performance optical properties, high transmittance in the visible spectrum, and high blocking in the UV spectrum. Atomic force microscopy analysis demonstrated that these coatings were smooth and homogeneous, with visible dispersed lignin nodules in a cellulosic matrix. It was also demonstrated that the introduction of nanoparticles into the medium increases the weight ratio and the CNC-specific surface area, which allows better dispersion of the lignin molecules throughout the solid film. Consequently, the larger molecular expansion of these aromatic polymers on the surface of the cellulosic nanoparticles dislocates the π-π aromatic aggregates, which increases the extinction coefficient and decreases the transmittance in the UV region. These nanocomposite coatings were optically transparent at visible wavelengths.

  2. Spatial variability of ultraviolet-absorbing compounds in an aquatic liverwort and their usefulness as biomarkers of current and past UV radiation: A case study in the Atlantic–Mediterranean transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monforte, Laura; Tomás-Las-Heras, Rafael; Del-Castillo-Alonso, María-Ángeles; Martínez-Abaigar, Javier, E-mail: javier.martinez@unirioja.es; Núñez-Olivera, Encarnación

    2015-06-15

    The spatial variability of ultraviolet-absorbing compounds (UVACs) in the freshwater liverwort Jungermannia exsertifolia subsp. cordifolia was studied in mid-latitudes (the Atlantic–Mediterranean transition) across a wide lati-altitudinal gradient, with the aim of testing the usefulness of UVACs as biomarkers of current ambient levels of UV radiation. We analysed 17 samples from streams located in the main mountain ranges of the Iberian Peninsula, differentiating methanol-soluble (SUVACs, mainly located in the vacuoles) and methanol-insoluble (IUVACs, bound to cell walls) compounds, since they represent different manners to cope with UV radiation. In both fractions, the bulk level of UVACs and the concentrations of several individual compounds were measured. In addition, we measured F{sub v}/F{sub m}, DNA damage and sclerophylly index (SI) as possible additional UV biomarkers. UVACs showed a high variability, probably due not only to the gradients of macroenvironmental factors (UV radiation, PAR, and water temperature), but also to microenvironmental factors inherent to the dynamic nature of mountain streams. Two soluble coumarins were positively correlated with UV levels and could be used for ambient UV biomonitoring in the spatial scale. In contrast to the variability in UVACs, the relatively homogeneous values of F{sub v}/F{sub m} and the lack of any DNA damage made these variables useless for ambient UV biomonitoring, but suggested a strong acclimation capacity of this liverwort to changing environmental conditions (in particular, to UV levels). Finally, UVACs of fresh samples of the liverwort were compared to those of herbarium samples collected in the same lati-altitudinal gradient. SUVACs were significantly higher in fresh samples, whereas IUVACs generally showed the contrary. Thus, IUVACs were more stable than SUVACs and hence more adequate for retrospective UV biomonitoring. In conclusion, UVAC compartmentation should be taken into account for bryophyte

  3. Spatial variability of ultraviolet-absorbing compounds in an aquatic liverwort and their usefulness as biomarkers of current and past UV radiation: A case study in the Atlantic–Mediterranean transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monforte, Laura; Tomás-Las-Heras, Rafael; Del-Castillo-Alonso, María-Ángeles; Martínez-Abaigar, Javier; Núñez-Olivera, Encarnación

    2015-01-01

    The spatial variability of ultraviolet-absorbing compounds (UVACs) in the freshwater liverwort Jungermannia exsertifolia subsp. cordifolia was studied in mid-latitudes (the Atlantic–Mediterranean transition) across a wide lati-altitudinal gradient, with the aim of testing the usefulness of UVACs as biomarkers of current ambient levels of UV radiation. We analysed 17 samples from streams located in the main mountain ranges of the Iberian Peninsula, differentiating methanol-soluble (SUVACs, mainly located in the vacuoles) and methanol-insoluble (IUVACs, bound to cell walls) compounds, since they represent different manners to cope with UV radiation. In both fractions, the bulk level of UVACs and the concentrations of several individual compounds were measured. In addition, we measured F v /F m , DNA damage and sclerophylly index (SI) as possible additional UV biomarkers. UVACs showed a high variability, probably due not only to the gradients of macroenvironmental factors (UV radiation, PAR, and water temperature), but also to microenvironmental factors inherent to the dynamic nature of mountain streams. Two soluble coumarins were positively correlated with UV levels and could be used for ambient UV biomonitoring in the spatial scale. In contrast to the variability in UVACs, the relatively homogeneous values of F v /F m and the lack of any DNA damage made these variables useless for ambient UV biomonitoring, but suggested a strong acclimation capacity of this liverwort to changing environmental conditions (in particular, to UV levels). Finally, UVACs of fresh samples of the liverwort were compared to those of herbarium samples collected in the same lati-altitudinal gradient. SUVACs were significantly higher in fresh samples, whereas IUVACs generally showed the contrary. Thus, IUVACs were more stable than SUVACs and hence more adequate for retrospective UV biomonitoring. In conclusion, UVAC compartmentation should be taken into account for bryophyte-based UV

  4. Detection of Outliers and Imputing of Missing Values for Water Quality UV-VIS Absorbance Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Plazas-Nossa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The UV-Vis absorbance collection using online optical captors for water quality detection may yield outliers and/or missing values. Therefore, data pre-processing is a necessary pre-requisite to monitoring data processing. Thus, the aim of this study is to propose a method that detects and removes outliers as well as fills gaps in time series. Method: Outliers are detected using Winsorising procedure and the application of the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT and the Inverse of Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT to complete the time series. Together, these tools were used to analyse a case study comprising three sites in Colombia ((i Bogotá D.C. Salitre-WWTP (Waste Water Treatment Plant, influent; (ii Bogotá D.C. Gibraltar Pumping Station (GPS; and, (iii Itagüí, San Fernando-WWTP, influent (Medellín metropolitan area analysed via UV-Vis (Ultraviolet and Visible spectra. Results: Outlier detection with the proposed method obtained promising results when window parameter values are small and self-similar, despite that the three time series exhibited different sizes and behaviours. The DFT allowed to process different length gaps having missing values. To assess the validity of the proposed method, continuous subsets (a section of the absorbance time series without outlier or missing values were removed from the original time series obtaining an average 12% error rate in the three testing time series. Conclusions: The application of the DFT and the IFFT, using the 10% most important harmonics of useful values, can be useful for its later use in different applications, specifically for time series of water quality and quantity in urban sewer systems. One potential application would be the analysis of dry weather interesting to rain events, a feat achieved by detecting values that correspond to unusual behaviour in a time series. Additionally, the result hints at the potential of the method in correcting other hydrologic time series.

  5. Tinted windows: The presence of the UV absorbing compounds called mycosporine-like amino acids embedded in the frustules of marine diatoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingalls, Anitra E.; Whitehead, Kenia; Bridoux, Maxime C.

    2010-01-01

    Diatom frustule-bound organic compounds presumably play an important role in biomineralization and constitute an important pool of organic matter preserved in diatom frustule-rich sediments. In this study, detailed analysis of diatom frustule-bound organic matter in opal-rich Southern Ocean plankton and sediments revealed for the first time the presence of low molecular weight, UV light absorbing compounds called mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs). Chemically cleaned diatom frustule-derived biosilica was dissolved in HF, releasing bound or entrapped organic compounds that were subsequently characterized using liquid chromatography with UV-Vis and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC/PDA/ESI-MS). Palythine ([M+H] + = 245), porphyra-334 ([M+H] + = 347) and shinorine ([M+H] + = 333) were the most abundant MAAs detected in HF digests of plankton and sediment. Traces of asterina ([M+H] + = 289), palythinol ([M+H] + = 303) and palythinic acid ([M+H] + = 329) were also detected. MAAs in cleaned HF digested frustules were up to two orders of magnitude more abundant than methanol extractable MAAs. MAAs are substituted with acid hydrolysable amino acid residues. Our results suggest that MAAs, and not proteins, could be responsible for the high proportion of the amino acids glycine and threonine found in hydrolysates of HF digested diatom-rich environmental samples. Total MAAs accounted for 3-27% of the carbon and 2-18% of total nitrogen in the frustules undergoing various chemical cleaning treatments. This is the first report of MAAs in close association with a mineral phase and we hypothesize that the mineral matrix could stabilize these compounds, thereby enhancing photoprotection against the harmful effects of UV light. The presence of frustule-bound MAAs in sediment cores further suggests the possibility that they could be used in compound-specific isotope analysis of diatom-bound organic matter and as indicators of past solar irradiance.

  6. Performance of an in-plane detection cell with integrated waveguides for UV/Vis absorbance measurements on microfluidic separation devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nickolaj Jacob; Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    2002-01-01

    A microfluidic device with integrated waveguides and a long path length detection cell for UV/Vis absorbance detection is presented. The 750 mum U-cell detection geometry was evaluated in terms of its optical performance as well as its influence on efficiency for electrophoretic separations...

  7. Wavelength-dependent induction of UV absorbing mycosporine-like amino acids in the red alga Chondrus crispus under natural solar radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabs, G; Bischof, K; Hanelt, D; Karsten, U; Wiencke, C

    2002-01-01

    Polychromatic response spectra for the induction of UV absorbing mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) were calculated after exposing small thalli of the red alga Chondrus crispus under various cut-off filters to natural solar radiation on the North Sea island Helgoland, Germany. The laboratory-grown

  8. Spatial variability of ultraviolet-absorbing compounds in an aquatic liverwort and their usefulness as biomarkers of current and past UV radiation: a case study in the Atlantic-Mediterranean transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monforte, Laura; Tomás-Las-Heras, Rafael; Del-Castillo-Alonso, María-Ángeles; Martínez-Abaigar, Javier; Núñez-Olivera, Encarnación

    2015-06-15

    The spatial variability of ultraviolet-absorbing compounds (UVACs) in the freshwater liverwort Jungermannia exsertifolia subsp. cordifolia was studied in mid-latitudes (the Atlantic-Mediterranean transition) across a wide lati-altitudinal gradient, with the aim of testing the usefulness of UVACs as biomarkers of current ambient levels of UV radiation. We analysed 17 samples from streams located in the main mountain ranges of the Iberian Peninsula, differentiating methanol-soluble (SUVACs, mainly located in the vacuoles) and methanol-insoluble (IUVACs, bound to cell walls) compounds, since they represent different manners to cope with UV radiation. In both fractions, the bulk level of UVACs and the concentrations of several individual compounds were measured. In addition, we measured Fv/Fm, DNA damage and sclerophylly index (SI) as possible additional UV biomarkers. UVACs showed a high variability, probably due not only to the gradients of macroenvironmental factors (UV radiation, PAR, and water temperature), but also to microenvironmental factors inherent to the dynamic nature of mountain streams. Two soluble coumarins were positively correlated with UV levels and could be used for ambient UV biomonitoring in the spatial scale. In contrast to the variability in UVACs, the relatively homogeneous values of Fv/Fm and the lack of any DNA damage made these variables useless for ambient UV biomonitoring, but suggested a strong acclimation capacity of this liverwort to changing environmental conditions (in particular, to UV levels). Finally, UVACs of fresh samples of the liverwort were compared to those of herbarium samples collected in the same lati-altitudinal gradient. SUVACs were significantly higher in fresh samples, whereas IUVACs generally showed the contrary. Thus, IUVACs were more stable than SUVACs and hence more adequate for retrospective UV biomonitoring. In conclusion, UVAC compartmentation should be taken into account for bryophyte-based UV biomonitoring in

  9. Anti-Inflammation Activities of Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids (MAAs) in Response to UV Radiation Suggest Potential Anti-Skin Aging Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Sung-Suk; Hwang, Jinik; Park, Mirye; Seo, Hyo Hyun; Kim, Hyoung-Shik; Lee, Jeong Hun; Moh, Sang Hyun; Lee, Taek-Kyun

    2014-01-01

    Certain photosynthetic marine organisms have evolved mechanisms to counteract UV-radiation by synthesizing UV-absorbing compounds, such as mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs). In this study, MAAs were separated from the extracts of marine green alga Chlamydomonas hedleyi using HPLC and were identified as porphyra-334, shinorine, and mycosporine-glycine (mycosporine-Gly), based on their retention times and maximum absorption wavelengths. Furthermore, their structures were confirmed by triple quadrupole MS/MS. Their roles as UV-absorbing compounds were investigated in the human fibroblast cell line HaCaT by analyzing the expression levels of genes associated with antioxidant activity, inflammation, and skin aging in response to UV irradiation. The mycosporine-Gly extract, but not the other MAAs, had strong antioxidant activity in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Furthermore, treatment with mycosporine-Gly resulted in a significant decrease in COX-2 mRNA levels, which are typically increased in response to inflammation in the skin, in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, in the presence of MAAs, the UV-suppressed genes, procollagen C proteinase enhancer (PCOLCE) and elastin, which are related to skin aging, had increased expression levels equal to those in UV-mock treated cells. Interestingly, the increased expression of involucrin after UV exposure was suppressed by treatment with the MAAs mycosporine-Gly and shinorine, but not porphyra-334. This is the first report investigating the biological activities of microalgae-derived MAAs in human cells. PMID:25317535

  10. Anti-inflammation activities of mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) in response to UV radiation suggest potential anti-skin aging activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Sung-Suk; Hwang, Jinik; Park, Mirye; Seo, Hyo Hyun; Kim, Hyoung-Shik; Lee, Jeong Hun; Moh, Sang Hyun; Lee, Taek-Kyun

    2014-10-14

    Certain photosynthetic marine organisms have evolved mechanisms to counteract UV-radiation by synthesizing UV-absorbing compounds, such as mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs). In this study, MAAs were separated from the extracts of marine green alga Chlamydomonas hedleyi using HPLC and were identified as porphyra-334, shinorine, and mycosporine-glycine (mycosporine-Gly), based on their retention times and maximum absorption wavelengths. Furthermore, their structures were confirmed by triple quadrupole MS/MS. Their roles as UV-absorbing compounds were investigated in the human fibroblast cell line HaCaT by analyzing the expression levels of genes associated with antioxidant activity, inflammation, and skin aging in response to UV irradiation. The mycosporine-Gly extract, but not the other MAAs, had strong antioxidant activity in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Furthermore, treatment with mycosporine-Gly resulted in a significant decrease in COX-2 mRNA levels, which are typically increased in response to inflammation in the skin, in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, in the presence of MAAs, the UV-suppressed genes, procollagen C proteinase enhancer (PCOLCE) and elastin, which are related to skin aging, had increased expression levels equal to those in UV-mock treated cells. Interestingly, the increased expression of involucrin after UV exposure was suppressed by treatment with the MAAs mycosporine-Gly and shinorine, but not porphyra-334. This is the first report investigating the biological activities of microalgae-derived MAAs in human cells.

  11. Towards a high performing UV-A sensor based on Silicon Carbide and hydrogenated Silicon Nitride absorbing layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzillo, M.; Renna, L.; Costa, N.; Badalà, P.; Sciuto, A.; Mannino, G.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a major risk factor for most skin cancers. The sun is our primary natural source of UV radiation. The strength of the sun's ultraviolet radiation is expressed as Solar UV Index (UVI). UV-A (320–400 nm) and UV-B (290–320 nm) rays mostly contribute to UVI. UV-B is typically the most destructive form of UV radiation because it has enough energy to cause photochemical damage to cellular DNA. Also overexposure to UV-A rays, although these are less energetic than UV-B photons, has been associated with toughening of the skin, suppression of the immune system, and cataract formation. The use of preventive measures to decrease sunlight UV radiation absorption is fundamental to reduce acute and irreversible health diseases to skin, eyes and immune system. In this perspective UV sensors able to monitor in a monolithic and compact chip the UV Index and relative UV-A and UV-B components of solar spectrum can play a relevant role for prevention, especially in view of the integration of these detectors in close at hand portable devices. Here we present the preliminary results obtained on our UV-A sensor technology based on the use of hydrogenated Silicon Nitride (SiN:H) thin passivating layers deposited on the surface of thin continuous metal film Ni_2Si/4H-SiC Schottky detectors, already used for UV-Index monitoring. The first UV-A detector prototypes exhibit a very low leakage current density of about 0.2 pA/mm"2 and a peak responsivity value of 0.027 A/W at 330 nm, both measured at 0V bias.

  12. Effects of the novel poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-encapsulated organic ultraviolet (UV) filters on the UV absorbance and in vitro sun protection factor (SPF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pey-Shiuan; Huang, Lan-Ni; Guo, Yi-Cing; Lin, Chih-Chien

    2014-02-05

    Sunscreens are thought to protect skin from many of the harmful effects of ultraviolet (UV) light and the photostability of sunscreens is thus an important concern in their application. Therefore, to discover new UV filters or to modify well-known UV filters are presents an important way for development of sunscreens. In this study, we presented several novel poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) encapsulated organic UV filters, including encapsulated benzophenone-3 (TB-MS), avobenzone (TA-MS), octyl methoxycinnamate (TO-MS) and diethylamino hydroxybenzoyl hexyl benzoate (TD-MS). Our results have demonstrated that PMMA-encapsulated UV filters have improved safety, photoprotective ability and photostability. We proposed therefore that these PMMA-encapsulated UV filters can be used as ingredients for sunscreen products in the future. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Anti-Inflammation Activities of Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids (MAAs in Response to UV Radiation Suggest Potential Anti-Skin Aging Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Suk Suh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Certain photosynthetic marine organisms have evolved mechanisms to counteract UV-radiation by synthesizing UV-absorbing compounds, such as mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs. In this study, MAAs were separated from the extracts of marine green alga Chlamydomonas hedleyi using HPLC and were identified as porphyra-334, shinorine, and mycosporine-glycine (mycosporine-Gly, based on their retention times and maximum absorption wavelengths. Furthermore, their structures were confirmed by triple quadrupole MS/MS. Their roles as UV-absorbing compounds were investigated in the human fibroblast cell line HaCaT by analyzing the expression levels of genes associated with antioxidant activity, inflammation, and skin aging in response to UV irradiation. The mycosporine-Gly extract, but not the other MAAs, had strong antioxidant activity in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH assay. Furthermore, treatment with mycosporine-Gly resulted in a significant decrease in COX-2 mRNA levels, which are typically increased in response to inflammation in the skin, in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, in the presence of MAAs, the UV-suppressed genes, procollagen C proteinase enhancer (PCOLCE and elastin, which are related to skin aging, had increased expression levels equal to those in UV-mock treated cells. Interestingly, the increased expression of involucrin after UV exposure was suppressed by treatment with the MAAs mycosporine-Gly and shinorine, but not porphyra-334. This is the first report investigating the biological activities of microalgae-derived MAAs in human cells.

  14. The role of UV-B radiation in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems - an experimental and functional analysis of the evolution of UV-absorbing componist.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozema, J.; Bjorn, L.O.; Bornman, J.F.; Gaberscik, A.; Hader, D.P.; Trost, T.; Germ, M.; Klisch, M.; Groniger, A.; Sinha, R.P.; Lebert, M.; He, Y.Y.; Buffoni-Hall, R.; Bakker, N.; van de Staaij, J.W.M.; Meijkamp, B.B.

    2002-01-01

    We analysed and compared the functioning of UV-B screening pigments in plants from marine, fresh water and terrestrial ecosystems, along the evolutionary line of cyanobacteria, unicellular algae, primitive multicellular algae, charophycean algae, lichens, mosses and higher plants, including

  15. The UV-absorber benzophenone-4 alters transcripts of genes involved in hormonal pathways in zebrafish (Danio rerio) eleuthero-embryos and adult males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchi, Sara; Bluethgen, Nancy; Ieronimo, Andrea; Fent, Karl

    2011-01-01

    Benzophenone-4 (BP-4) is frequently used as UV-absorber in cosmetics and materials protection. Despite its frequent detection in the aquatic environment potential effects on aquatic life are unknown. In this study, we evaluate the effects of BP-4 in eleuthero-embryos and in the liver, testis and brain of adult male fish on the transcriptional level by focusing on target genes involved in hormonal pathways to provide a more complete toxicological profile of this important UV-absorber. Eleuthero-embryos and males of zebrafish were exposed up to 3 days after hatching and for 14 days, respectively, to BP-4 concentrations between 30 and 3000 μg/L. In eleuthero-embryos transcripts of vtg1, vtg3, esr1, esr2b, hsd17ss3, cyp19b cyp19a, hhex and pax8 were induced at 3000 μg/L BP-4, which points to a low estrogenic activity and interference with early thyroid development, respectively. In adult males BP-4 displayed multiple effects on gene expression in different tissues. In the liver vtg1, vtg3, esr1 and esr2b were down-regulated, while in the brain, vtg1, vtg3 and cyp19b transcripts were up-regulated. In conclusion, the transcription profile revealed that BP-4 interferes with the expression of genes involved in hormonal pathways and steroidogenesis. The effects of BP-4 differ in life stages and adult tissues and point to an estrogenic activity in eleuthero-embryos and adult brain, and an antiestrogenic activity in the liver. The results indicate that BP-4 interferes with the sex hormone system of fish, which is important for the risk assessment of this UV-absorber.

  16. Quantitation of underivatized branched-chain amino acids in sport nutritional supplements by capillary electrophoresis with direct or indirect UV absorbance detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Qiu

    Full Text Available The branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs including leucine (Leu, isoleucine (Ile and valine (Val play a pivotal role in the human body. Herein, we developed capillary electrophoresis (CE coupled with conventional UV detector to quantify underivatized BCAAs in two kinds of sport nutritional supplements. For direct UV detection at 195 nm, the BCAAs (Leu, two enantiomers of Ile and Val were separated in a background electrolyte (BGE consisting of 40.0 mmol/L sodium tetraborate, and 40.0 mmol/L β-cyclodextrin (β-CD at pH 10.2. In addition, the indirect UV detection at 264 nm was achieved in a BGE of 2.0 mmol/L Na2HPO4, 10.0 mmol/L p-aminosalicylic acid (PAS as UV absorbing probe, and 40.0 mmol/L β-CD at pH 12.2. The β-CD significantly benefited the isomeric separation of Leu, L- and D-Ile. The optimal conditions allowed the LODs (limit of detections of direct and indirect UV absorption detection to be tens μmol/L level, which was comparable to the reported CE inline derivatization method. The RSDs (relative standard deviations of migration time and peak area were less than 0.91% and 3.66% (n = 6. Finally, CE with indirect UV detection method was applied for the quantitation of BCAAs in two commercial sport nutritional supplements, and good recovery and precision were obtained. Such simple CE method without tedious derivatization process is feasible of quality control and efficacy evaluation of the supplemental proteins.

  17. Quantitation of underivatized branched-chain amino acids in sport nutritional supplements by capillary electrophoresis with direct or indirect UV absorbance detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jun; Wang, Jinhao; Xu, Zhongqi; Liu, Huiqing; Ren, Jie

    2017-01-01

    The branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) including leucine (Leu), isoleucine (Ile) and valine (Val) play a pivotal role in the human body. Herein, we developed capillary electrophoresis (CE) coupled with conventional UV detector to quantify underivatized BCAAs in two kinds of sport nutritional supplements. For direct UV detection at 195 nm, the BCAAs (Leu, two enantiomers of Ile and Val) were separated in a background electrolyte (BGE) consisting of 40.0 mmol/L sodium tetraborate, and 40.0 mmol/L β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) at pH 10.2. In addition, the indirect UV detection at 264 nm was achieved in a BGE of 2.0 mmol/L Na2HPO4, 10.0 mmol/L p-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) as UV absorbing probe, and 40.0 mmol/L β-CD at pH 12.2. The β-CD significantly benefited the isomeric separation of Leu, L- and D-Ile. The optimal conditions allowed the LODs (limit of detections) of direct and indirect UV absorption detection to be tens μmol/L level, which was comparable to the reported CE inline derivatization method. The RSDs (relative standard deviations) of migration time and peak area were less than 0.91% and 3.66% (n = 6). Finally, CE with indirect UV detection method was applied for the quantitation of BCAAs in two commercial sport nutritional supplements, and good recovery and precision were obtained. Such simple CE method without tedious derivatization process is feasible of quality control and efficacy evaluation of the supplemental proteins.

  18. Bacterial Sunscreen: Layer-by-Layer Deposition of UV-Absorbing Polymers on Whole-Cell Biosensors (POSTPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    green fluorescent protein ( GFP ) either...Escherichia coli cells with two different green fluorescent protein ( GFP ) expression systems: constitutive expression of a UV-excitable GFP (GFPuv) and...regulated expression of the intensely fluorescent GFP from amphioxus (GFPa1) through a theophylline-inducible riboswitch. Ribos- witches activate protein

  19. UV-B absorbing pigments in spores: biochemical responses to shade in a high-latitude birch forest and implications for sporopollenin-based proxies of past environmental change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry V. Callaghan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Current attempts to develop a proxy for Earth's surface ultraviolet-B (UV-B flux focus on the organic chemistry of pollen and spores because their constituent biopolymer, sporopollenin, contains UV-B absorbing pigments whose relative abundance may respond to the ambient UV-B flux. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR microspectroscopy provides a useful tool for rapidly determining the pigment content of spores. In this paper, we use FTIR to detect a chemical response of spore wall UV-B absorbing pigments that correspond with levels of shade beneath the canopy of a high-latitude Swedish birch forest. A 27% reduction in UV-B flux beneath the canopy leads to a significant (p<0.05 7.3% reduction in concentration of UV-B absorbing compounds in sporopollenin. The field data from this natural flux gradient in UV-B further support our earlier work on sporopollenin-based proxies derived from sedimentary records and herbaria collections.

  20. Change in the amount of epsilon-hexosyllysine, UV absorbance, and fluorescence of collagen with age in different animal species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miksik, I.; Deyl, Z.

    1991-01-01

    Skin and aorta collagen specimens of Wistar rats, white mice, beagle dogs, cats, horses, and human necropsies of different ages were examined with respect to the content of glycated products. The data presented show that (a) glycation and accumulation of the chromophore(s) are comparable in collagen samples from different species of comparable age; (b) glycation and pigmented accumulation increase markedly during the first 5-10 years of age; (c) the extent of glycation is different in different tissues (in particular, glycation of aortal collagen is about twice that of skin collagen); and (d) collagen pigmentation as followed by fluorescence is comparable in aortal and skin collagen (except below 10 years); pigmentation measured by absorbance at 350 nm is, on the contrary, lower in aortal than in skin collagen. Based on the assumption of constant blood glucose level during the life span, it appears feasible to conclude that the degree of nonenzymatic collagen glycation reflects the time period for which the protein was exposed to the action of sugars. This period, because of increased cross-linking, is likely to be extended in older animals. Other factors, such as differences in collagen turnover between different tissues and the intensity of the removal process of the glycated products, should be taken into consideration as well

  1. Near UV radiation effect on the lens and retina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zigman, S.

    1987-01-01

    The discussion presented in this paper indicates that the retina of a diurnal animal with a natural UV-absorbing lens (ie: the gray squirrel) is susceptible to near-UV damage from environmental sources only after the lens has been removed. This suggests that it is very important to protect against near-UV exposure of human eyes after cataract surgery

  2. Skin Cancer and UV Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarbuk Anita

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of skin cancer is increasing by epidemic proportions. Basal cell cancer remains the most common skin neoplasm, and simple excision is generally curative. On the other hand, aggressive local growth and metastasis are common features of malignant melanoma, which accounts for 75% of all deaths associated with skin cancer. The primary cause of skin cancer is long exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UV-R crossed with the amount of skin pigmentation and family genetics. It is believed that in childhood and adolescence, 80% of UV-R gets absorbed while in the remaining, 20 % gets absorbed later in the lifetime. This suggests that proper and early photoprotection may reduce the risk of subsequent occurrence of skin cancer. Reducing the exposure time to sunlight, using sunscreens and protective textiles are the three ways of UV protection. Most people think that all the clothing will protect them, but it does not provide full sun screening properties. Literature sources claim that only 1/3 of the spring and summer collections tested give off proper UV protection. This is very important during the summer months, when UV index is the highest. Fabric UV protection ability highly depends on large number of factors such as type of fiber, fabric surface, construction, porosity, density, moisture content, type and concentration of dyestuff, fluorescent whitening agents, UV-B protective agents (UV absorbers, as well as nanoparticles, if applied. For all of these reasons, in the present paper, the results of UV protecting ability according to AS/NZS 4399:1996 will be discussed to show that standard clothing materials are not always adequate to prevent effect of UV-R to the human skin; and to suggest the possibilities for its improvement for this purpose enhancing light conversion and scattering. Additionally, the discrepancy in UV protection was investigated in distilled water as well as Adriatic Sea water.

  3. Optimization of matrix solid-phase dispersion for the rapid determination of salicylate and benzophenone-type UV absorbing substances in marketed fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Dung-Ying; Chen, Chien-Liang; Ding, Wang-Hsien

    2014-07-01

    A simple and effective method for the rapid determination of five salicylate and benzophenone-type UV absorbing substances in marketed fish is described. The method involves the use of matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) prior to their determination by on-line silylation gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The parameters that affect the extraction efficiency were optimized using a Box-Behnken design method. The optimal extraction conditions involved dispersing 0.5g of freeze-dried powdered fish with 1.0g of Florisil using a mortar and pestle. This blend was then transferred to a solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge containing 1.0g of octadecyl bonded silica (C18), as the clean-up co-sorbent. The target analytes were then eluted with 7mL of acetonitrile. The extract was derivatized on-line in the GC injection-port by reaction with a trimethylsilylating (TMS) reagent. The TMS-derivatives were then identified and quantitated by GC-MS/MS. The limits of quantitation (LOQs) were less than 0.1ng/g. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Feasibility study of online supercritical fluid extraction-liquid chromatography-UV absorbance-mass spectrometry for the determination of proanthocyanidins in grape seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenyu; Ashraf-Khorassani, Mehdi; Taylor, Larry T

    2005-03-01

    Online coupling of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with liquid chromatography (LC)-UV absorbance-electrospray ionization (ESI)-mass spectrometry (MS) is evaluated for the determination of proanthocyanidins in grape seeds. The solid-phase intermediate trap is optimized in order to enhance the collection efficiency for the extracted polar components. Pure supercritical CO2 is used first to remove the oil in the seeds. Then methanol-modified CO2 is used to remove the polar components (e.g., phenolic compounds). Catechin and epicatechin (90%) are extracted out of the de-oiled after 240 min with 40% methanol as a modifier. Both singly-linked (B-type) and doubly-linked (A-type) procyanidins are identified by LC-ESI-MS, as well as their galloylated derivatives. The hyphenated system combines the extraction, separation, and detection in series. The experimental design minimizes the chance of analyte oxidation, degradation, and contamination. The traditional off-line SFE-LC method is also studied for comparison with the online method. Both advantages and disadvantages are observed for the online mode.

  5. MODELING OF ALKYL SALICYLATE COMPOUNDS AS UV ABSORBER BASED ON ELECTRONIC TRANSITION BY USING SEMIEMPIRICAL QUANTUM MECHANICS ZINDO/s CALCULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqmal Tahir

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of several alkyl salicylates based on electronic transition by using semiempriical mechanical quantum ZINDO/s calculation has been done. Object of these research were assumed only alkyl salicylates of C4 (butyl until C8 (octyl homologue with 4-7 example structures of each homologue. All of the computation have been performed using quantum chemistry - package software Hyperchem 6.0. The research covered about drawing each of the structure, geometry optimization using semiempirical AM1 algorithm and followed with single point calculation using semiempirical ZINDO/s technique. ZINDO/s calculations used a defined criteria that is singly excited - Configuration Interaction (CI, gap of HOMO-LUMO energy transition was 2 and degeneracy level was 3. Analysis of the theoretical spectra was focused in the UV-B (290-320 nm and UV-C (200-290 nm area. The result showed that modeling of the compound can be used for predicting the type of UV protection activity depending with the electronic transition in the UV area. Modification of the alkyl homologue relatively did not change the value of wavelength absorbtion to indicate the UV protection activity. Alkyl salicylate compounds were predicted as UV-C sunscreen or relatively the compounds have protection effect for UV-C.   Keywords: alkyl salicylate, sunscreen, semiempirical methods

  6. Inferring runoff generation processes through high resolution spatial and temporal UV-Vis absorbance measurements in a mountainous headwater catchment in Southern Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windhorst, David; Schob, Sarah; Zang, Carina; Crespo, Patricio; Breuer, Lutz

    2015-04-01

    The alpine grassland páramo - typically occurring in the headwater catchments of the Andes - plays an important role in flow regulation, hydropower generation and local water supply. However, hydrological and hydro-biogeochemical processes in the páramo and their potential reactions to climate and land use change are largely unknown. Therefore, we used a UV-Vis absorbance spectrometer to investigate fluxes of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), turbidity and nitrate (NO3-N) in a small headwater catchment (91.31 km²) in the páramo in south Ecuador on a 5 min temporal and 100 m spatial resolution to gain first insights in its hydrological functioning. Spatial sampling was realized during three snapshot sampling campaigns along the 14.2 km long stream between October 2013 and January 2014, while temporal sampling took place at a permanent sampling site within the catchment between February and June 2014. To identify the runoff generation processes the spatial patterns have been associated with local site specific (e.g. fish ponds) and sub-catchment wide (e.g. land use) characteristics. Storm flow events within the time series allowed to further study temporal changes and rotational patterns of concentration-discharge relations (hysteresis). In total, 35 events were identified to be suitable for analyzing hysteresis effects of BOD, COD, and turbidity. Nitrate concentrations could be studied for 20 events. Regardless of the flow conditions nitrate leaching increased with a growing share of non-native pine forests or pastures in the study area. During low flow conditions, the high water holding capacity of the upstream páramo areas ensured a continuous supply of BOD to the stream. Pasture and pine forest sites, mostly occurring in the downstream section of the stream, contributed to BOD only during discharge events. Contradicting the expectations the trout farms along the lower part of the streams had a relatively closed nutrient cycle and

  7. Ultraviolet-B wavelengths regulate changes in UV absorption of cleaner fish Labroides dimidiatus mucus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill P Zamzow

    Full Text Available High-energy wavelengths in the ultraviolet-B (UVB, 280-315 nm and the UVA (315-400-nm portion of the spectrum are harmful to terrestrial and aquatic organisms. Interestingly, UVA is also involved in the repair of UV induced damage. Organisms living in shallow coral reef environments possess UV absorbing compounds, such as mycosporine-like amino acids, to protect them from UV radiation. While it has been demonstrated that exposure to UV (280-400 nm affects the UV absorbance of fish mucus, whether the effects of UV exposure vary between UVB and UVA wavelengths is not known. Therefore, we investigated whether the UVB, UVA, or photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm portions of the spectrum affected the UV absorbance of epithelial mucus and Fulton's body condition index of the cleaner fish Labroides dimidiatus. We also compared field-measured UV absorbance with laboratory based high-performance liquid chromatography measurements of mycosporine-like amino acid concentrations. After 1 week, we found that the UV absorbance of epithelial mucus was higher in the UVB+UVA+PAR treatment compared with the UVA+PAR and PAR only treatments; after 2 and 3 weeks, however, differences between treatments were not detected. After 3 weeks, Fulton's body condition index was lower for fish in the UVB+UVA+PAR compared with PAR and UVA+PAR treatments; furthermore, all experimentally treated fish had a lower Fulton's body condition index than did freshly caught fish. Finally, we found a decrease with depth in the UV absorbance of mucus of wild-caught fish. This study suggests that the increase in UV absorbance of fish mucus in response to increased overall UV levels is a function of the UVB portion of the spectrum. This has important implications for the ability of cleaner fish and other fishes to adjust their mucus UV protection in response to variations in environmental UV exposure.

  8. Ultraviolet-B Wavelengths Regulate Changes in UV Absorption of Cleaner Fish Labroides dimidiatus Mucus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamzow, Jill P.; Siebeck, Ulrike E.; Eckes, Maxi J.; Grutter, Alexandra S.

    2013-01-01

    High-energy wavelengths in the ultraviolet-B (UVB, 280-315 nm) and the UVA (315-400-nm) portion of the spectrum are harmful to terrestrial and aquatic organisms. Interestingly, UVA is also involved in the repair of UV induced damage. Organisms living in shallow coral reef environments possess UV absorbing compounds, such as mycosporine-like amino acids, to protect them from UV radiation. While it has been demonstrated that exposure to UV (280-400 nm) affects the UV absorbance of fish mucus, whether the effects of UV exposure vary between UVB and UVA wavelengths is not known. Therefore, we investigated whether the UVB, UVA, or photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) portions of the spectrum affected the UV absorbance of epithelial mucus and Fulton’s body condition index of the cleaner fish Labroides dimidiatus. We also compared field-measured UV absorbance with laboratory based high-performance liquid chromatography measurements of mycosporine-like amino acid concentrations. After 1 week, we found that the UV absorbance of epithelial mucus was higher in the UVB+UVA+PAR treatment compared with the UVA+PAR and PAR only treatments; after 2 and 3 weeks, however, differences between treatments were not detected. After 3 weeks, Fulton’s body condition index was lower for fish in the UVB+UVA+PAR compared with PAR and UVA+PAR treatments; furthermore, all experimentally treated fish had a lower Fulton’s body condition index than did freshly caught fish. Finally, we found a decrease with depth in the UV absorbance of mucus of wild-caught fish. This study suggests that the increase in UV absorbance of fish mucus in response to increased overall UV levels is a function of the UVB portion of the spectrum. This has important implications for the ability of cleaner fish and other fishes to adjust their mucus UV protection in response to variations in environmental UV exposure. PMID:24143264

  9. NIR absorbing diferrocene-containing meso-cyano-BODIPY with a UV-Vis-NIR spectrum remarkably close to that of magnesium tetracyanotetraferrocenyltetraazaporphyrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didukh, Natalia O; Zatsikha, Yuriy V; Rohde, Gregory T; Blesener, Tanner S; Yakubovskyi, Viktor P; Kovtun, Yuriy P; Nemykin, Victor N

    2016-10-04

    Diferrocene-containing meso-cyano-BODIPY (4) was prepared by the direct cyanation/oxidation reaction of symmetric BODIPY 1 followed by Knoevenagel condensation with ferrocenealdehyde. Ferrocene-containing BODIPY 4 was characterized by a variety of spectroscopic, electrochemical, and theoretical methods and its UV-Vis-NIR spectrum has a striking similarity with a UV-Vis-NIR spectrum of the previously reported magnesium 2(3),7(8),12(13),17(18)-tetracyano-3(2),8(7),13(12),18(17)-tetraferrocenyl-5,10,15,20-tetraazaporphyrin.

  10. Real Time Monitoring of Dissolved Organic Carbon Concentration and Disinfection By-Product Formation Potential in a Surface Water Treatment Plant with Simulaneous UV-VIS Absorbance and Fluorescence Excitation-Emission Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    This study describes a method based on simultaneous absorbance and fluorescence excitation-emission mapping for rapidly and accurately monitoring dissolved organic carbon concentration and disinfection by-product formation potential for surface water sourced drinking water treatment. The method enables real-time monitoring of the Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC), absorbance at 254 nm (UVA), the Specific UV Absorbance (SUVA) as well as the Simulated Distribution System Trihalomethane (THM) Formation Potential (SDS-THMFP) for the source and treated water among other component parameters. The method primarily involves Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC) decomposition of the high and lower molecular weight humic and fulvic organic component concentrations. The DOC calibration method involves calculating a single slope factor (with the intercept fixed at 0 mg/l) by linear regression for the UVA divided by the ratio of the high and low molecular weight component concentrations. This method thus corrects for the changes in the molecular weight component composition as a function of the source water composition and coagulation treatment effects. The SDS-THMFP calibration involves a multiple linear regression of the DOC, organic component ratio, chlorine residual, pH and alkalinity. Both the DOC and SDS-THMFP correlations over a period of 18 months exhibited adjusted correlation coefficients with r2 > 0.969. The parameters can be reported as a function of compliance rules associated with required % removals of DOC (as a function of alkalinity) and predicted maximum contaminant levels (MCL) of THMs. The single instrument method, which is compatible with continuous flow monitoring or grab sampling, provides a rapid (2-3 minute) and precise indicator of drinking water disinfectant treatability without the need for separate UV photometric and DOC meter measurements or independent THM determinations.

  11. Shock absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Housman, J.J.

    1978-01-01

    A shock absorber is described for use in a hostile environment at the end of a blind passage for absorbing impact loads. The shock absorber includes at least one element which occupies the passage and which is comprised of a porous brittle material which is substantially non-degradable in the hostile environment. A void volume is provided in the element to enable the element to absorb a predetermined level of energy upon being crushed due to impact loading

  12. Photosynthesis and pigment production in Liquidambar styraciflua - developmental and UV-B radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillenburg, L.R.; Sullivan, J.H.; Teramura, A.H.

    1993-01-01

    Leaf expansion is very sensitive to different environmental stresses. This study describes ontogenetic changes in leaf size and physiology of Liquidambar styraciflua seedlings grown under UV-B irradiance levels simulating 0% (control), 16% (low) and 25% (high) stratospheric ozone reductions. Leaf size, light- and CO 2 -saturated rates of O 2 evolution (A max ), and concentration of chlorophylls (chl), and UV-B absorbing pigments were measured over a 4-week period. Specific leaf weight, A max and chl concentration increased with leaf age, except for a peak in A max at early development. Chlorophyll b concentration increased at a slower rate than chl a. Recently unfurled leaves has the greatest concentration of UV-B absorbing pigments. The effect of UV-B radiation on leaf growth and physiology were small and not dose-dependent. Expansion of leaves exposed to low UV-B was slightly delayed compared to controls (1.663 vs. 1.90 cm 2 /day), but final leaf size was unaffected by UV-B radiation. Physiological effects were less pronounced during the rapid expansion period. High UV-B tended to promote, while low UV-B inhibited accumulation of chl, especially chl a. In contrast, concentration of UV-B absorbing compounds was promoted only by low UV-B. The small inhibitory effects of UV-B on leaf growth and physiology suggests a high tolerance of the species to damaging UV-B radiation

  13. UV-induced effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liebsch, M.; Spielmann, H.; Pape, W.; Krul, C.; Deguercy, A.; Eskes, C.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Regulatory requirements: According to the current Notes for Guidance of the Scientific Committee on Cosmetic Products and Non-Food Products (SCCNFP), cosmetic ingredients and mixtures of ingredients absorbing UV light (in particular UV filter chemicals used, for example, to ensure the light

  14. On seeing yellow: the case for, and against, short-wavelength light-absorbing intraocular lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simunovic, Matthew P

    2012-07-01

    The normal human crystalline lens absorbs UV and short-wavelength visible electromagnetic radiation. Early intraocular lenses (IOLs) permitted the transmission of such radiation to the retina following cataract extraction. Experimental studies of the absorption profile of the crystalline lens and animal studies demonstrating the deleterious effects of short-wavelength radiation on the retina led to the development of UV-absorbing, and later, short-wavelength light-absorbing (SLA) IOLs. Short-wavelength light-absorbing IOLs were designed to mimic the absorption properties of the normal crystalline lens by absorbing some short-wavelength light in addition to UV radiation; however, debate continues regarding the relative merits of such lenses over UV-absorbing IOLs. Advocates of SLA IOLs suggest that they may theoretically offer increased photoprotection and decreased glare sensitivity and draw on in vitro, animal, and limited clinical studies that infer possible benefits. Detractors suggest that there is no direct evidence supporting a role for SLA IOLs in preventing retinal dysfunction in humans and suggest that they may have negative effects on color perception, scotopic vision, and circadian rhythms. This article examines the theoretical and empirical evidence for, and against, such lenses.

  15. Light Conversion and Scattering in UV Protective Textiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grancarić Ana Marija

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary cause of skin cancer is believed to be a long exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UV-R crossed with the amount of skin pigmentation in the population. It is believed that in childhood and adolescence 80% of UV-R gets absorbed, whilst in the remaining 20% gets absorbed later in the lifetime. This suggests that proper and early photoprotection may reduce the risk of subsequent occurrence of skin cancer. Textile and clothing are the most suitable interface between environment and human body. It can show UV protection, but in most cases it does not provide full sun screening properties. UV protection ability highly depends on large number of factors such as type of fibre, fabric surface and construction, type and concentration of dyestuff, fluorescent whitening agent (FWA, UV-B protective agents, as well as nanoparticles, if applied. Based on electronically excited state by energy of UV-R (usually 340-370 nm, the molecules of FWAs show the phenomenon of fluorescence giving to white textiles high whiteness of outstanding brightness by reemitting the energy at the blue region (typically 420-470 nm of the spectrum. By absorbing UV-A radiation, optical brightened fabrics transform this radiation into blue fluorescence, which leads to better UV protection. Natural zeolites are rock-forming, microporous silicate minerals. Applied as nanoparticles to textile surface, it scatters the UV-R resulting in lower UV-A and UV-B transmission. If applied with other UV absorbing agents, e.g. FWAs, synergistic effect occurs. Silicones are inert, synthetic compounds with a variety of forms and uses. It provides a unique soft touch, is very resistant to washing and improves the property of fabric to protect against UV radiation. Therefore, the UV protective properties of cotton fabric achieved by light conversion and scattering was researched in this paper. For that purpose, the stilbene-derived FWAs were applied on cotton fabric in wide concentration

  16. Photochemical processes involving the UV absorber benzophenone-4 (2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone-5-sulphonic acid) in aqueous solution: reaction pathways and implications for surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Laurentiis, Elisa; Minella, Marco; Sarakha, Mohamed; Marrese, Alessandro; Minero, Claudio; Mailhot, Gilles; Brigante, Marcello; Vione, Davide

    2013-10-01

    The sunlight filter benzophenone-4 (BP-4) is present in surface waters as two prevailing forms, the singly deprotonated (HA-) and the doubly deprotonated one (A(2-)), with pKa2 = 7.30 ± 0.14 (μ ± σ, by dissociation of the phenolic group). In freshwater environments, BP-4 would mainly undergo degradation by reaction with ·OH and direct photolysis. The form HA(-) has a second-order reaction rate constant with ·OH (k(·OH)) of (1.87 ± 0.31)·10(10) M(-1) s(-1) and direct photolysis quantum yield Φ equal to (3.2 ± 0.6)·10(-5). The form A(2-) has (8.46 ± 0.24)·10(9) M(-1) s(-1) as the reaction rate constant with ·OH and (7.0 ± 1.3)·10(-5) as the photolysis quantum yield. The direct photolysis of HA(-) likely proceeds via homolytic breaking of the O-H bond of the phenolic group to give the corresponding phenoxy radical, as suggested by laser flash photolysis experiments. Photochemical modelling shows that because of more efficient direct photolysis (due to both higher sunlight absorption and higher photolysis quantum yield), the A(2-) form can be degraded up to 3 times faster than HA(-) in surface waters. An exception is represented by low-DOC (dissolved organic carbon) conditions, where the ·OH reaction dominates degradation and the transformation kinetics of HA(-) is faster compared to A(2-). The half-life time of BP-4 in mid-latitude summertime would be in the range of days to weeks, depending on the environmental conditions. BP-4 also reacts with Br2(·-), and a rate constant k(Br2(·-),BP-4) = (8.05 ± 1.33)·10(8) M(-1) s(-1) was measured at pH 7.5. Model results show that reaction with Br2(·-) could be a potentially important transformation pathway of BP-4 in bromide-rich (e.g. seawater) and DOM-rich environments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sound Absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, H. V.; Möser, M.

    Sound absorption indicates the transformation of sound energy into heat. It is, for instance, employed to design the acoustics in rooms. The noise emitted by machinery and plants shall be reduced before arriving at a workplace; auditoria such as lecture rooms or concert halls require a certain reverberation time. Such design goals are realised by installing absorbing components at the walls with well-defined absorption characteristics, which are adjusted for corresponding demands. Sound absorbers also play an important role in acoustic capsules, ducts and screens to avoid sound immission from noise intensive environments into the neighbourhood.

  18. Effects of UV radiation on freshwater metazooplankton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tartarotti, B.

    1999-06-01

    There is evidence that fluxes of solar ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B, 290-320 nm) are increasing over wide parts of the earth's surface due to stratospheric ozone depletion. UV radiation (290-400 nm) can have damaging effects on biomolecules and cell components that are common to most living organisms. The aim of this thesis is to gain a more thorough understanding of the potential impacts of solar radiation on freshwater metazooplankton. To detect UV-vulnerability in zooplankton populations dominating the zooplankton community of two clear-water, high mountain lakes located one in the Austrian Alps and another in the Chilean Andes, the survival of two copepod species was studied. The organisms were exposed to a 10- to 100-fold increase in UV-B radiation compared to those levels found at their natural, maximum daytime distribution. Both species vertically migrate and are pigmented. UV-absorbing compounds with a maximum absorption at ∼334 nm were also detected. Cyclops abyssorum tatricus, a common cyclopoid copepod species of Alpine lakes, was highly resistant to UV-B radiation and no significant lethal effect was observed. The calanoid copepod Boeckella gracilipes, frequent in Andean lakes, had a mortality ∼5 times higher in the treatment receiving full sunlight than in the UV-B excluded treatment (3.2 %) only when exposed for 70 h. The resistance of B. gracilipes was higher than that reported in the literature for the same species suggesting the existence of intraspecific differences in UV sensitivity. Survival, fecundity and development of the zooplankton community of a clear-water, high elevation Andean lake (33 o S) were studied with mesocosms experiments after prolonged UV exposure (48 days). When exposed to full sunlight, the population of the cladoceran Chydorus sphaericus and the rotifer Lepadella ovalis were strongly inhibited by UV-B, whereas both species were resistant to UV-A radiation. Conversely, UV-B radiation had no effect on the survival of the

  19. Responses of a rice-field cyanobacterium Anabaena siamensis TISTR-8012 upon exposure to PAR and UV radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Rajesh P; Incharoensakdi, Aran; Madamwar, Datta

    2014-10-15

    The effects of PAR and UV radiation and subsequent responses of certain antioxidant enzymatic and non-enzymatic defense systems were studied in a rice field cyanobacterium Anabaena siamensis TISTR 8012. UV radiation resulted in a decline in growth accompanied by a decrease in chlorophyll a and photosynthetic efficiency. Exposure of cells to UV radiation significantly affected the differentiation of vegetative cells into heterocysts or akinetes. UV-B radiation caused the fragmentation of the cyanobacterial filaments conceivably due to the observed oxidative stress. A significant increase of reactive oxygen species in vivo and DNA strand breaks were observed in UV-B exposed cells followed by those under UV-A and PAR radiation, respectively. The UV-induced oxidative damage was alleviated due to an induction of antioxidant enzymatic/non-enzymatic defense systems. In response to UV irradiation, the studied cyanobacterium exhibited a significant increase in antioxidative enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase. Moreover, the cyanobacterium also synthesized some UV-absorbing/screening substances. HPLC coupled with a PDA detector revealed the presence of three compounds with UV-absorption maxima at 326, 331 and 345 nm. The induction of the biosynthesis of these UV-absorbing compounds was found under both PAR and UV radiation, thus suggesting their possible function as an active photoprotectant. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of an UV- and VIS-absorbing, purpurogallin-derived secondary pigment new to algae and highly abundant in Mesotaenium berggrenii (Zygnematophyceae, Chlorophyta), an extremophyte living on glaciers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remias, Daniel; Schwaiger, Stefan; Aigner, Siegfried; Leya, Thomas; Stuppner, Hermann; Lütz, Cornelius

    2012-03-01

    Mesotaenium berggrenii is one of few autotrophs that thrive on bare glacier surfaces in alpine and polar regions. This extremophilic alga produces high amounts of a brownish vacuolar pigment, whose chemical constitution and ecological function is largely unknown until now. Field material was harvested to isolate and characterize this pigment. Its tannin nature was determined by photometric methods, and the structure determination was carried out by means of HPLC-MS and 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy. The main constituent turned out to be purpurogallin carboxylic acid-6-O-β-d-glucopyranoside. This is the first report of such a phenolic compound in this group of algae. Because of its broad absorption capacities of harmful UV and excessive VIS radiation, this secondary metabolite seems to play an important role for the survival of this alga at exposed sites. Attributes and abundances of the purpurogallins found in M. berggrenii strongly suggest that they are of principal ecophysiological relevance like analogous protective pigments of other extremophilic microorganisms. To prove that M. berggrenii is a true psychrophile, photosynthesis measurements at ambient conditions were carried out. Sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene of this alpine species and of its arctic relative, the filamentous Ancylonema nordenskiöldii, underlined their distinct taxonomic position within the Zygnematophyceae. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Reproductive, morphological, and phytochemical responses of Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes to enhanced UV-B radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trumbull, V.L.; McCloud, E.S.; Paige, K.N. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States))

    1994-06-01

    Two ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana, collected from Libya and Norway, were grown in the greenhouse under. UV-B doses of 0 and 10.5 kJ m[sup [minus]2] UV-B[sub BE]. The high UV-B dose simulated midsummer ambient conditions over Libya and a 40% reduction in stratospheric ozone over Norway. The Libyan ectotype, which originated from latitudes where solar UV-B is high, showed no UV-B induced damage to plant growth. However the Norwegian ecotype, which originated from latitudes where solar UV-B is low, showed a significant reduction in plant height, inflorescence weight, and rosette weight in response to enhanced UV-B. Although fruit and seed number for both ecotypes were unaffected by enhanced UV-B radiation the germination success of the seeds harvested from the irradiated Norwegian plants were significantly reduced. The two ecotypes also differed with respect to their accumulation of kaempferol, a putative UV-B protective filter. The Libyan ecotype increased kaempferol concentration by 38% over the 0 kJ treatment whereas the Norwegian ecotype increased by only 15%. These data suggest that, for these ecotypes, variation in UV-B sensitivity may be explained by the differential induction of UV-absorbing leaf pigments.

  2. The genetic origins of biosynthesis and light-responsive control of the chemical UV screen of land plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorgensen, R.

    1994-01-01

    Most land plants possess the capacity to protect themselves from UV light, and do so by producing pigments that absorb efficiently in the UV-A and UV-B regions of the spectrum while allowing transmission of nearly all photosynthetically useful wavelengths. These UV-absorbing pigments are mainly phenylpropanoids and flavonoids. This chapter summarizes current understanding of the mechanism of UV protection in higher land plants, evaluates the information available from lower land plants and their green-algal relatives, and then considers the possible evolutionary origins of this use of chemical filters for selectively screening UV light from solar radiation. It is proposed that photo control over the biosynthesis of UV-absorbing phenylpropanoids and flavonoids may have evolved in concert with the evolution of the high biosynthetic activity necessary for UV protection. The toxicity of phenylpropanoids and flavonoids has been postulated to have been a barrier to the evolution of an effective chemical UV screen, and that some means for sequestering these compounds and/or for controlling their synthesis probably evolved prior to, or in concert with, the evolution of high rates of biosynthesis. The original photoreceptor and signal transduction system is speculated to have been based on photo isomerization of a phenylpropanoid ester and a pre-existing product feedback mechanism for controlling phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. Understanding the original mechanism for photo control of the chemical UV screen of land plants could be valuable for understanding the adaptability of extant land plants to rising levels of solar UV-B radiation and may suggest genetic strategies for engineering improved UV tolerance in crop plants. (author)

  3. UV-A/Blue-Light responses in algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senger, Horst; Hermsmeier, Dieter

    1994-01-01

    All life on earth depends on light. A variety of photoreceptors capture the light for a wide range of reactions. Photosynthetic organisms absorb the light necessary for energy transformation and charge separation facilitating photosynthesis. In addition to the bulk pigments there is a great diversity of photoreceptors present in minute concentrations that control development, metabolism and orientation of plants and microorganisms. Based on its spectral absorbance, the well-studied phytochrome system acts in the RL (red light) region as well as in the UV-A/BL (blue light) region where the above mentioned reactions are mediated by a variety of photoreceptors whose natures are largely unknown. Phyllogenetically the UV-A/BL photoreceptors seem to be more ancient pigments that eventually were replaced by the phytochrome system. However, there are many reports that suggest a coaction between the UV-A/BL receptors and the phytochrome system. In several cases the UV-A/BL activation is the prerequisite for the phytochrome reaction. Historically it was the German botanist Julius Sachs who first discovered in 1864 that phototropism in plants was due to BL reactions. It took over 70 years until Bunning (1937) and Galston and Baker (1949) rediscovered the BL response. Since then, an ever-increasing attention has been paid to this effect. In this contribution, the general aspect of UV-A/BL responses and especially the responsiveness of algae will be covered.

  4. Investigation of the use of FXG gel dosimeter for UV radiation detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bero, M.; Abu Kassem, I.

    2009-02-01

    The radio-chromic chemical radiation dosimeter is well known type of detectors that have been used in the measurement application of radiation dose resulting for ionizing radiation such as γ and X-rays. The detector materials consist of mainly water with added gelatin powder that gives the detector its solid shape. Other chemicals sensitive to radiation are also added to form the Ferrous-sulfate Xylenol-orange Gelatin gel detector (FXG). Ionizing radiation effects appears as an increase in the optical absorbance within a defined range of wavelengths located in the visible region of the light spectrum. These visible changes in the materials optical characteristic as a result of radiation exposure is proportional to the radiation absorbed dose at certain wave lengths. Ultraviolet radiation was found to produce similar effects in the FXG detector materials; hence we suggested studying the UV effects in details. It is known that UV radiation carry relatively high quantum energies big enough to enhance important chemical and biological reactions in some exposed medium. This study examines the most important properties required for the FXG detector to be used as a UV monitoring system that is capable of measuring the absorbed UV radiation dose. The study also works on finding chemical detector structure that is easy to be used for simulating the UV interactions with human body. It has been shown that the optical absorbance of standard size FXG samples increases linearly with the exposure time to UV radiation produced by a sun simulator source, when the beam is filtered to produces exposure similar to that found in nature. However, the UV effects are also influenced by the applied UV radiation spectrum used for irradiation as well as the thicknesses of the FXG materials.(authors)

  5. UV-Screening Strategies of a Lower Eukaryote Grown in Hydrocarbon Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcano, Vicente; Benitez, Pedro; Palacios-Prü, Ernesto

    2006-02-01

    In this paper, a detailed analysis of the UV-screening strategies of the fungus Fusarium alkanophyllum is offered using spectroscopic (UV-VIS, FTIR), chromatographic (TLC, HPLC) and physiological analysis methods. Fusarium alkanophyllum showed an optimum growth when exposed to UV radiation at 253.7 (inducing DNA and protein damages) or 354.5 nm (inducing photoxidative damage) in several hydrocarbon media. Further, no ultrastructural difference was seen when cultures were or not irradiated with monochromatic UV. High absorbance between 200 300 nm of F. alkanophyllum indole derivatives, viz. melanin-type pigments, suggests a protector effect for proteins and nucleic acids. The presence of sulfur linked to aliphatic groups in hydrocarbons which is itself a strong UV absorber in the region of λ significant relic of the early evolution of microbial pigmentation. Likewise, it is thought that sulfur-enriched heterogeneous hydrocarbon environments could have occurred on the surface of the early Earth and could have absorbed and scattered UV-radiation avoiding or minimizing the damage produced on the biochemical machinery of early microorganisms able to metabolize those hydrocarbons.

  6. Ultraviolet absorbance as a proxy for total dissolved mercury in streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittman, Jason A.; Shanley, James B.; Driscoll, Charles T.; Aiken, George R.; Chalmers, Ann T.; Towse, Janet E.

    2009-01-01

    Stream water samples were collected over a range of hydrologic and seasonal conditions at three forested watersheds in the northeastern USA. Samples were analyzed for dissolved total mercury (THg d ), DOC concentration and DOC composition, and UV 254 absorbance across the three sites over different seasons and flow conditions. Pooling data from all sites, we found a strong positive correlation of THg d to DOC (r 2 = 0.87), but progressively stronger correlations of THg d with the hydrophobic acid fraction (HPOA) of DOC (r 2 = 0.91) and with UV 254 absorbance (r 2 = 0.92). The strength of the UV 254 absorbance-THg d relationship suggests that optical properties associated with dissolved organic matter may be excellent proxies for THg d concentration in these streams. Ease of sample collection and analysis, the potential application of in-situ optical sensors, and the possibility for intensive monitoring over the hydrograph make this an effective, inexpensive approach to estimate THg d flux in drainage waters. - Ultraviolet absorbance measurements are a cost-effective proxy to estimate dissolved mercury concentration in stream water.

  7. Long-term changes in pigmentation of arctic Daphnia provide potential for reconstructing aquatic UV exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevalainen, Liisa; Rantala, Marttiina V.; Luoto, Tomi P.; Ojala, Antti E. K.; Rautio, Milla

    2016-07-01

    Despite the biologically damaging impacts of solar ultraviolet radiation (UV) in nature, little is known about its natural variability, forcing mechanisms, and long-term effects on ecosystems and organisms. Arctic zooplankton, for example the aquatic keystone genus Daphnia (Crustacea, Cladocera) responds to biologically damaging UV by utilizing photoprotective strategies, including pigmentation. We examined the preservation and content of UV-screening pigments in fossil Daphnia remains (ephippia) in two arctic lake sediment cores from Cornwallis Island (Lake R1), Canada, and Spitsbergen (Lake Fugledammen), Svalbard. The aims were to document changes in the degree of UV-protective pigmentation throughout the past centuries, elucidate the adaptive responses of zooplankton to long-term variations in UV exposure, and estimate the potential of fossil zooplankton pigments in reconstructing aquatic UV regimes. The spectroscopic absorbance measurements of fossil Daphnia ephippia under UV (280-400 nm) and visible light (400-700 nm) spectral ranges indicated that melanin (absorbance maxima at UV wavebands 280-350 nm) and carotenoids (absorbance maxima at 400-450 nm) pigments were preserved in the ephippia in both sediment cores. Downcore measurements of the most important UV-protective pigment melanin (absorbance measured at 305 and 340 nm) showed marked long-term variations in the degree of melanisation. These variations likely represented long-term trends in aquatic UV exposure and were positively related with solar radiation intensity. The corresponding trends in melanisation and solar activity were disrupted at the turn of the 20th century in R1, but remained as strong in Fugledammen. The reversed trends in the R1 core were simultaneous with a significant aquatic community reorganization taking place in the lake, suggesting that recent environmental changes, likely related to climate warming had a local effect on pigmentation strategies. This time horizon is also

  8. Effects of UV-B radiation on Olea europaea: comparisons between a greenhouse and a field experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liakoura, V.; Stavrianakou, S.; Liakopoulos, G.; Karabourniotis, G. [Athens Agricultural Univ. Dept. of Agricultural Biotechnology, Athens (Greece); Manetas, Y. [Patras Univ, Dept, of Biology, Patras (Greece)

    1999-11-01

    Olea europaea plants were grown in the field with or without supplemental ultraviolet B radiation equivalent to the increase at ground level resulting from a 15 per cent depletion in stratospheric ozone concentration. After one year, their morphology, anatomy and physiology were compared with that of plants grown in a greenhouse and exposed for four months to either zero UV-B radiation or UV-B radiation equivalent to that of supplemented outdoor treatment. Results showed an increase in adaxial epidermal thickness and reduced total protein concentration in plants grown in the field, in contrast to greenhouse-grown plants which under the influence of UV-B radiation showed significant increases in abaxial cutical thickness and trichome UV-B absorbing compounds. These observations suggest that Olea europaea plants have a high UV-B tolerance and are not affected by increase in UV-B radiation. 23 refs., 1 tab.

  9. Comparison of UV and visible Raman spectroscopy of bulk metal molybdate and metal vanadate catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hanjing; Wachs, Israel E; Briand, Laura E

    2005-12-15

    The visible (532 and 442 nm) and UV (325 nm) Raman spectra of bulk mixed metal oxides (metal molybdates and metal vanadates) were compared on the same spectrometer, for the first time, to allow examination of how varying the excitation energy from visible to UV affects the resulting Raman spectra. The quality of the Raman spectra was found to be a strong function of the absorption properties of the bulk mixed oxide. For bulk mixed metal oxides that absorb weakly in the visible and UV regions, both the visible and UV Raman spectra were of high quality and exhibit identical vibrational bands, but with slightly different relative intensities. For bulk mixed metal oxides that absorb strongly in the UV and visible regions and/or strongly in the UV and weakly in the visible regions, the visible Raman spectra are much richer in structural information and of higher resolution than the corresponding UV Raman spectra. This is a consequence of the strong UV absorption that significantly reduces the sampling volume and number of scatterers giving rise to the Raman signal. The shallower escape depth of UV Raman, however, was not sufficient to detect vibrations from the surface metal oxide species that are present on the outermost surface layer of these crystalline mixed metal oxide phases as previously suggested. It was also demonstrated that there is no sample damage by the more energetic UV excitation when very low laser powers and fast detectors are employed, thus avoiding the need of complicated fluidized bed sample arrangements sometimes used for UV Raman investigations. The current comparative Raman investigation carefully documents, for the first time, the advantages and disadvantages of applying different excitation energies in collecting Raman spectra of bulk mixed metal oxide materials.

  10. Critical discussion on the UV absorption properties of Earth's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döhring, Thorsten

    2017-08-01

    Sun's ultraviolet radiation is classified into UV-A, UV-B, and UV-C bands. Thereby UV-A passes through Earth's atmosphere, while UV-B is partially absorbed by ozone. The limitations of the commonly accepted statement, that UV-C is always completely absorbed by Earth's atmosphere, are discussed critically. Below 200 nm the solar spectrum is strongly absorbed by molecular oxygen. The stratospheric ozone layer has strong absorption between 200 nm and 300 nm. However, the "ozone hole" increases UV-B radiation just below 300 nm and may also open a transmitting atmospheric window for harmful UV-C at the overlap region between oxygen absorption and ozone absorption.

  11. Comparison of discrete Fourier transform (DFT) and principal component analysis/DFT as forecasting tools for absorbance time series received by UV-visible probes installed in urban sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plazas-Nossa, Leonardo; Torres, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work is to introduce a forecasting method for UV-Vis spectrometry time series that combines principal component analysis (PCA) and discrete Fourier transform (DFT), and to compare the results obtained with those obtained by using DFT. Three time series for three different study sites were used: (i) Salitre wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Bogotá; (ii) Gibraltar pumping station in Bogotá; and (iii) San Fernando WWTP in Itagüí (in the south part of Medellín). Each of these time series had an equal number of samples (1051). In general terms, the results obtained are hardly generalizable, as they seem to be highly dependent on specific water system dynamics; however, some trends can be outlined: (i) for UV range, DFT and PCA/DFT forecasting accuracy were almost the same; (ii) for visible range, the PCA/DFT forecasting procedure proposed gives systematically lower forecasting errors and variability than those obtained with the DFT procedure; and (iii) for short forecasting times the PCA/DFT procedure proposed is more suitable than the DFT procedure, according to processing times obtained.

  12. Near-visible light and UV photoprotection in the treatment of melasma: a double-blind randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanedo-Cazares, Juan Pablo; Hernandez-Blanco, Diana; Carlos-Ortega, Blanca; Fuentes-Ahumada, Cornelia; Torres-Álvarez, Bertha

    2014-02-01

    Melasma is an acquired hyperpigmentation on sun-exposed areas. Multiple approaches are used to treat it, but all include broad ultraviolet (UV)-spectrum sunscreens. Visible light (VL) can induce pigmentary changes similar to those caused by UV radiation on darker-skinned patients. To assess the efficacy of sunscreen with broad-spectrum UV protection that contains iron oxide as a VL-absorbing pigment (UV-VL) compared with a regular UV-only broad-spectrum sunscreen for melasma patients exposed to intense solar conditions. Sixty-eight patients with melasma were randomized in two groups to receive either UV-VL sunscreen or UV-only sunscreen, both with sun protection factor ≥ 50, over 8 weeks. All patients received 4% hydroquinone as a depigmenting treatment. At onset and at conclusion of the study, they were assessed by the Melasma Activity and Severity Index (MASI; a subjective scale), colorimetry (L*) and histological analysis of melanin. Sixty-one patients concluded the study. At 8 weeks, the UV-VL group showed 15%, 28% and 4% greater improvements than the UV-only group in MASI scores, colorimetric values and melanin assessments, respectively. UV-VL sunscreen enhances the depigmenting efficacy of hydroquinone compared with UV-only sunscreen in treatment of melasma. These findings suggest a role for VL in melasma pathogenesis. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The Methoxyflavonoid Isosakuranetin Suppresses UV-B-Induced Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 Expression and Collagen Degradation Relevant for Skin Photoaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Jung

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Solar ultraviolet (UV radiation is a main extrinsic factor for skin aging. Chronic exposure of the skin to UV radiation causes the induction of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, such as MMP-1, and consequently results in alterations of the extracellular matrix (ECM and skin photoaging. Flavonoids are considered as potent anti-photoaging agents due to their UV-absorbing and antioxidant properties and inhibitory activity against UV-mediated MMP induction. To identify anti-photoaging agents, in the present study we examined the preventative effect of methoxyflavonoids, such as sakuranetin, isosakuranetin, homoeriodictyol, genkwanin, chrysoeriol and syringetin, on UV-B-induced skin photo-damage. Of the examined methoxyflavonoids, pretreatment with isosakuranetin strongly suppressed the UV-B-mediated induction of MMP-1 in human keratinocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. Isosakuranetin inhibited UV-B-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling components, ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and p38 proteins. This result suggests that the ERK1/2 kinase pathways likely contribute to the inhibitory effects of isosakuranetin on UV-induced MMP-1 production in human keratinocytes. Isosakuranetin also prevented UV-B-induced degradation of type-1 collagen in human dermal fibroblast cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that isosakuranetin has the potential for development as a protective agent for skin photoaging through the inhibition of UV-induced MMP-1 production and collagen degradation.

  14. Bend-absorbing clamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, J. R.; Valencia, B., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Compact, inexpensive clamp for flexible cables or rigid tubes absorbs vibrations and other motion. It accomodates wide range of dimensions, and saves space by eliminating pigtails or bellows commonly used to absorb linear movement or vibrations

  15. Why is the Great Red Spot Red? The Exogenic, Photolytic Origin of the UV/Blue-Absorbing Chromophores of Jupiter’s Great Red Spot as Determined by Spectral Analysis of Cassini/VIMS Observations using New Laboratory Optical Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, Kevin H.; Carlson, Robert W.; Momary, Thomas W.

    2014-11-01

    For centuries, a major question for Jupiter has been: Why is the Great Red Spot red? In particular, two major theories have been proposed: (1) that the coloring is due to photolytic processes in the upper cloud layer, or (2) it is due to the upwellimg of red materials processed relatively deep within the troposphere. Utilizing indices of refraction for red choromophores generated by the photolysis of ammonia and acetylene in the laboratory, we present results of a spectral analysis of the core of Jupiter’s Great Red Spot (GRS) as observed by the visual channel of the Cassini/Visual Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS). Consistent with the physical origin of such laboratory-generated chromophores in Jupiter - i.e., by solar-driven UV photolysis within the upper levels of the GRS structure near ~ 0.3 bar - our spectral modeling yields satisfactory results for such Mie scattering chromophores only when they are confined to the upper ~ 100 mbar of the GRS. Beneath this reddish upper cloud layer, our models indicate that the remainder of the GRS cloud - assumed to extend down to at least the ammonia condensation level near 0.6 bar - must be relatively spectrally bright throughout the UV-red spectrum; that is, they must be predominantly a whitish or grey color at depth. Thus, our 0.35-1.0 micron spectral models of the GRS are inconsistent with an endogenic origin of the reddish coloring originating in the depths of Jupiter, but are consistent with a photolytic origin due to the photolysis of ammonia and acetylene in the upper troposphere.

  16. Leaf absorbance and photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurer, Kees

    1994-01-01

    The absorption spectrum of a leaf is often thought to contain some clues to the photosynthetic action spectrum of chlorophyll. Of course, absorption of photons is needed for photosynthesis, but the reverse, photosynthesis when there is absorption, is not necessarily true. As a check on the existence of absorption limits we measured spectra for a few different leaves. Two techniques for measuring absorption have been used, viz. the separate determination of the diffuse reflectance and the diffuse transmittance with the leaf at a port of an integrating sphere and the direct determination of the non-absorbed fraction with the leaf in the sphere. In a cross-check both methods yielded the same results for the absorption spectrum. The spectrum of a Fuchsia leaf, covering the short-wave region from 350 to 2500 nm, shows a high absorption in UV, blue and red, the well known dip in the green and a steep fall-off at 700 nm. Absorption drops to virtually zero in the near infrared, with subsequent absorptions, corresponding to the water absorption bands. In more detailed spectra, taken at 5 nm intervals with a 5 nm bandwidth, differences in chlorophyll content show in the different depths of the dip around 550 nm and in a small shift of the absorption edge at 700 nm. Spectra for Geranium (Pelargonium zonale) and Hibiscus (with a higher chlorophyll content) show that the upper limit for photosynthesis can not be much above 700 nm. No evidence, however, is to be seen of a lower limit for photosynthesis and, in fact, some experiments down to 300 nm still did not show a decrease of the absorption although it is well recognized that no photosynthesis results with 300 nm wavelengths.

  17. Recoverable neutron absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keay, R.T.; Williams, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    In the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel elements the nuclear fuel material is separated from the material which forms the remainder of the elements by dissolving the nuclear fuel material in nitric acid. Neutron absorbers are added to control criticality. The neutron absorbers comprise pellets each having a core of neutron absorbing material encased in a sheath of a material which is resistant to attack by acid, the core or sheath being magnetic. The sheath protects the core of neutron absorbing material from attack by the acid and the magnetic content of the core or sheath enables the absorbers to be recovered for reuse by magnetic separation techniques. (author)

  18. UV-A/blue-light responses in algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senger, H.; Hermsmeier, D. [Philipps-Universitaet Marburg (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    All life on earth depends on light. A variety of photoreceptors capture the light for a wide range of reactions. Photosynthetic organisms absorb the light necessary for energy transformation and charge separation facilitating photosynthesis. In addition to the bulk pigments there are a great diversity of photoreceptors present in minute concentrations that control development, metabolism and orientation of plants and microorganisms. Based on its spectral absorbance, the well-studied phytochrome system acts in the RL region as well as in the UV-A/BL region where the above mentioned reactions are mediated by a variety of photoreceptors whose natures are largely unknown. Phyllogenetically the UV-A/BL photoreceptors seem to be more ancient pigments that eventually were replaced by the phytochrome system. However, there are many reports that suggest a coaction between the UV-A/BL receptors and the phytochrome system. In several cases the UV-A/BL activation is the prerequisite for the phytochrome reaction. Historically it was the German botanist Julius Sachs who first discovered in 1864 that phototropism in plants was due to BL reactions. It took over 70 years until Bunning (1937) and Galston and Baker (1949) rediscovered the BL response. Since then, an ever-increasing attention has been paid to this effect. Two international conferences in 1979 and 1983 have been entirely dedicated to the BL phenomenon. In this contribution, the general aspect of UV-A/BL responses and especially the responsiveness of algae will be covered. There are numerous review articles covering the various aspects of UV-A/BL action and the photoreceptors involved.

  19. Effects of ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) on growth and physiology of the dune grassland species Calamagrostis epigeios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosserams, M.; Rozema, J.

    1995-01-01

    Seedlings of Calamagrostis epigeios were exposed to four levels of UV-B radiation (280-320 nm), simulating up to 44% reduction of stratospheric ozone concentration during summertime in The Netherlands, to determine the response of this plant species to UV-B irradiation. After six weeks of UV-B treatment, total biomass of all UV-B treated plants was higher, compared to plants that had received no UV-B radiation. The increase of biomass did not appear to be the result of a stimulation of net photosynthesis. Also, transpiration rate and water use efficiency were not altered by UV-B at any exposure level. Pigment analysis of leaf extracts showed no effect of enhanced UV-B radiation on chlorophyll content and accumulation of UV absorbing pigments. UV-B irradiance, however, did reduce the transmittance of visible light (400-700 nm) of intact attached leaves, suggesting a change in anatomical characteristics of the leaves. Additionally, the importance of including an ambient UV-B treatment in indoor experiments is discussed

  20. Formation of chlorination by-products in waters with low SUVA--correlations with SUVA and differential UV spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Nuray; Kitis, Mehmet; Yetis, Ulku

    2007-10-01

    The formation of THMs and HAAs after chlorination of bulk water fractions of low-SUVA (specific UV absorbance) surface waters was investigated, and the applicability of SUVA and differential UV spectroscopy for monitoring THMs and HAAs in such waters was evaluated. Samples from two reservoirs were fractionated employing XAD-8, XAD-4, MIEX resin and granular activated carbon adsorption. A total of 83 bulk water NOM fractions (i.e., the remaining solutions after contact with the adsorbent or resin at various doses) were obtained and chlorinated. The majority of NOM in both waters was found to have average molecular weights <2000 Da and SUVA values <2L/mg Cm, indicating that NOM in the tested waters contained dominantly lower molecular weight fractions and low aromaticity. SUVA did not correlate well with the formation and speciation of THMs and HAAs, suggesting that SUVA does not capture the reactive sites on NOM moieties responsible for DBP formation in low-SUVA waters. Similarly, no correlations were found among THMs/HAAs formations and differential UV spectroscopy, indicating the formation of DBPs independent of destruction in UV-absorbing sites. In all fractions, concentrations of THMs were higher than those of HAAs. Chlorinated DBP species were dominant over brominated ones due to low bromide concentrations. The results overall suggested that low- or non-UV-absorbing NOM moieties play important roles in the formation of DBPs in waters with low SUVA, low DOC and low bromide levels.

  1. [Responses of enzymes in terrestrial plants to enhanced UV-B radiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xiaoqin; Liu, Qing

    2006-05-01

    With the destruction of ozone layer, ultraviolet-B (UV-B, 280 to approximately 320nm) radiation has being enhanced at the earth's surface. The energy of UV-B irradiation is far higher than that of visible light, which could be absorbed by biomacromolecules such as protein and nuclei acid. Enzyme is a sort of protein catalyzing the biochemical processes, and its content and activity in plant have strong responses to enhanced UV-B radiation. This paper summarized the research advances in the effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on the key enzymes, mainly including antioxidant enzymes, ribulose-1, 5-diphosphoscarboxylase, nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase in terrestrial plants. Some suggestions for future research in this field were put forward.

  2. UV-induced changes in antioxidant capacities of selected carotenoids toward lecithin in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cvetkovic, Dragan [Faculty of Technology, University of Nish, Bulevar oslobodjenja 124, 16000 Leskovac (Serbia); Markovic, Dejan [Faculty of Technology, University of Nish, Bulevar oslobodjenja 124, 16000 Leskovac (Serbia)], E-mail: markovic57@info-net.co.yu

    2008-01-15

    Antioxidant action of four selected carotenoids (two carotenes, {beta}-carotene and lycopene, and two xanthophylls, lutein and neoxanthin) on UV-induced lecithin lipid peroxidation in aqueous solution has been studied by thiobarbituric acid (TBA) test. TBA test is based on absorbance measurements of complex formed between malondialdehyde, secondary product of lipid peroxidation and thiobarbituric acid, at 532 nm. The antioxidant capacities of investigated carotenoids appeared to be strongly affected by UV-action. High energy input of the involved UV-photons plays major governing role, though a certain impact of the carotenoid structures cannot be neglected. The results suggest a minor remained contribution of selected carotenoids to prevention of lecithin peroxidation in the studied system as a result of UV-irradiation.

  3. UV-induced changes in antioxidant capacities of selected carotenoids toward lecithin in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvetkovic, Dragan; Markovic, Dejan

    2008-01-01

    Antioxidant action of four selected carotenoids (two carotenes, β-carotene and lycopene, and two xanthophylls, lutein and neoxanthin) on UV-induced lecithin lipid peroxidation in aqueous solution has been studied by thiobarbituric acid (TBA) test. TBA test is based on absorbance measurements of complex formed between malondialdehyde, secondary product of lipid peroxidation and thiobarbituric acid, at 532 nm. The antioxidant capacities of investigated carotenoids appeared to be strongly affected by UV-action. High energy input of the involved UV-photons plays major governing role, though a certain impact of the carotenoid structures cannot be neglected. The results suggest a minor remained contribution of selected carotenoids to prevention of lecithin peroxidation in the studied system as a result of UV-irradiation

  4. Evolutionary replacement of UV vision by violet vision in fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Takashi; Altun, Ahmet; Yokoyama, Shozo

    2009-01-01

    The vertebrate ancestor possessed ultraviolet (UV) vision and many species have retained it during evolution. Many other species switched to violet vision and, then again, some avian species switched back to UV vision. These UV and violet vision are mediated by short wavelength-sensitive (SWS1) pigments that absorb light maximally (λmax) at approximately 360 and 390–440 nm, respectively. It is not well understood why and how these functional changes have occurred. Here, we cloned the pigment of scabbardfish (Lepidopus fitchi) with a λmax of 423 nm, an example of violet-sensitive SWS1 pigment in fish. Mutagenesis experiments and quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) computations show that the violet-sensitivity was achieved by the deletion of Phe-86 that converted the unprotonated Schiff base-linked 11-cis-retinal to a protonated form. The finding of a violet-sensitive SWS1 pigment in scabbardfish suggests that many other fish also have orthologous violet pigments. The isolation and comparison of such violet and UV pigments in fish living in different ecological habitats will open an unprecedented opportunity to elucidate not only the molecular basis of phenotypic adaptations, but also the genetics of UV and violet vision. PMID:19805066

  5. Investigation of photochemical reaction products of glucose formed during direct UV detection in CE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Thomas; Himmelsbach, Markus; Buchberger, Wolfgang W

    2016-04-01

    In CE, saccharides are accessible to direct UV detection due to a photochemical reaction in the detection window of the separation capillary resulting in the formation of UV absorbing substances. Employing a CE method that allows long in-capillary irradiation with subsequent UV and MS detection, the present study could identify several reaction products of glucose. Among these were UV absorbing substances so far unknown to be formed during direct UV detection with the chemical formulas C4 H6 O2 , C5 H6 O4 , C5 H8 O3, and C6 H8 O5 . Investigations of the impact of the irradiation time revealed differences between these reaction products suggesting differing reaction mechanisms especially for the smallest products. More detailed information could be obtained by experiments with isotope-labeled substrates performed to determine the parts of glucose that are converted to the particular reaction products. In addition, structural formulas for the reaction products were suggested based on HPLC-MS/MS measurements of off-line irradiated glucose solutions which revealed the existence of functional groups such as carboxylic acid or aldehyde groups. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Laser patterning of SiO x-layers for the fabrication of UV diffractive phase elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz-Ruhtenberg, Malte; Ihlemann, Juergen; Heber, Joerg

    2005-01-01

    Diffractive phase elements (DPE), consisting of a patterned UV-transparent layer on a UV-transparent substrate, were fabricated by three steps. A UV-absorbing SiO x -coating (x x -coating was oxidised to UV-transparent SiO 2 , resulting in a UV-grade surface relief element

  7. Oceanic protection of prebiotic organic compounds from UV radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleaves, H J; Miller, S L

    1998-06-23

    It is frequently stated that UV light would cause massive destruction of prebiotic organic compounds because of the absence of an ozone layer. The elevated UV flux of the early sun compounds this problem. This applies to organic compounds of both terrestrial and extraterrestrial origin. Attempts to deal with this problem generally involve atmospheric absorbers. We show here that prebiotic organic polymers as well as several inorganic compounds are sufficient to protect oceanic organic molecules from UV degradation. This aqueous protection is in addition to any atmospheric UV absorbers and should be a ubiquitous planetary phenomenon serving to increase the size of planetary habitable zones.

  8. Oceanic protection of prebiotic organic compounds from UV radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleaves, H. J.; Miller, S. L.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    It is frequently stated that UV light would cause massive destruction of prebiotic organic compounds because of the absence of an ozone layer. The elevated UV flux of the early sun compounds this problem. This applies to organic compounds of both terrestrial and extraterrestrial origin. Attempts to deal with this problem generally involve atmospheric absorbers. We show here that prebiotic organic polymers as well as several inorganic compounds are sufficient to protect oceanic organic molecules from UV degradation. This aqueous protection is in addition to any atmospheric UV absorbers and should be a ubiquitous planetary phenomenon serving to increase the size of planetary habitable zones.

  9. UV-sensitive photoreceptor protein OPN5 in humans and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Daisuke; Mori, Suguru; Torii, Masaki; Wada, Akimori; Morishita, Rika; Fukada, Yoshitaka

    2011-01-01

    A variety of animal species utilize the ultraviolet (UV) component of sunlight as their environmental cues, whereas physiological roles of UV photoreception in mammals, especially in human beings, remain open questions. Here we report that mouse neuropsin (OPN5) encoded by the Opn5 gene exhibited an absorption maximum (λmax) at 380 nm when reconstituted with 11-cis-retinal. Upon UV-light illumination, OPN5 was converted to a blue-absorbing photoproduct (λmax 470 nm), which was stable in the dark and reverted to the UV-absorbing state by the subsequent orange light illumination, indicating its bistable nature. Human OPN5 also had an absorption maximum at 380 nm with spectral properties similar to mouse OPN5, revealing that OPN5 is the first and hitherto unknown human opsin with peak sensitivity in the UV region. OPN5 was capable of activating heterotrimeric G protein Gi in a UV-dependent manner. Immuno-blotting analyses of mouse tissue extracts identified the retina, the brain and, unexpectedly, the outer ears as the major sites of OPN5 expression. In the tissue sections of mice, OPN5 immuno-reactivities were detected in a subset of non-rod/non-cone retinal neurons as well as in the epidermal and muscle cells of the outer ears. Most of these OPN5-immuno-reactivities in mice were co-localized with positive signals for the alpha-subunit of Gi. These results demonstrate the first example of UV photoreceptor in human beings and strongly suggest that OPN5 triggers a UV-sensitive Gi-mediated signaling pathway in the mammalian tissues.

  10. UV imaging in pharmaceutical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jesper

    2018-01-01

    UV imaging provides spatially and temporally resolved absorbance measurements, which are highly useful in pharmaceutical analysis. Commercial UV imaging instrumentation was originally developed as a detector for separation sciences, but the main use is in the area of in vitro dissolution...... and release testing studies. The review covers the basic principles of the technology and summarizes the main applications in relation to intrinsic dissolution rate determination, excipient compatibility studies and in vitro release characterization of drug substances and vehicles intended for parenteral...... administration. UV imaging has potential for providing new insights to drug dissolution and release processes in formulation development by real-time monitoring of swelling, precipitation, diffusion and partitioning phenomena. Limitations of current instrumentation are discussed and a perspective to new...

  11. Effect of UV irradiation on aflatoxin reduction: a cytotoxicity evaluation study using human hepatoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patras, Ankit; Julakanti, Sharath; Yannam, Sudheer; Bansode, Rishipal R; Burns, Mallory; Vergne, Matthew J

    2017-11-01

    In this proof-of-concept study, the efficacy of a medium-pressure UV (MPUV) lamp source to reduce the concentrations of aflatoxin B 1 , aflatoxin B 2 , and aflatoxin G 1 (AFB 1, AFB 2 , and AFG 1 ) in pure water is investigated. Irradiation experiments were conducted using a collimated beam system operating between 200 to 360 nm. The optical absorbance of the solution and the irradiance of the lamp are considered in calculating the average fluence rate. Based on these factors, the UV dose was quantified as a product of average fluence rate and treatment time. Known concentrations of aflatoxins were spiked in water and irradiated at UV doses ranging from 0, 1.22, 2.44, 3.66, and 4.88 J cm -2 . The concentration of aflatoxins was determined by HPLC with fluorescence detection. LC-MS/MS product ion scans were used to identify and semi-quantify degraded products of AFB 1 , AFB 2 , and AFG 1 . It was observed that UV irradiation significantly reduced aflatoxins in pure water (p UV light may have caused photolysis of AFB 1 , AFB 2 , and AFG 1 molecules. In cell culture studies, our results demonstrated that the increase of UV dosage decreased the aflatoxin-induced cytotoxicity in HepG 2 cells. Therefore, our research finding suggests that UV irradiation can be used as an effective technique for the reduction of aflatoxins.

  12. Absorber manufacturing made easy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berner, Joachim

    2010-07-01

    Whether by means of a laser source or an ultrasound head - automation technology is making progress in the solar thermal sector. S and WE presents news developments in welding technology in absorber manufacture. (orig.)

  13. PWR burnable absorber evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacciapouti, R.J.; Weader, R.J.; Malone, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relative neurotic efficiency and fuel cycle cost benefits of PWR burnable absorbers. Establishment of reference low-leakage equilibrium in-core fuel management plans for 12-, 18- and 24-month cycles. Review of the fuel management impact of the integral fuel burnable absorber (IFBA), erbium and gadolinium. Calculation of the U 3 O 8 , UF 6 , SWU, fuel fabrication, and burnable absorber requirements for the defined fuel management plans. Estimation of fuel cycle costs of each fuel management plan at spot market and long-term market fuel prices. Estimation of the comparative savings of the different burnable absorbers in dollar equivalent per kgU of fabricated fuel. (author)

  14. TOMS Absorbing Aerosol Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Washington University St Louis — TOMS_AI_G is an aerosol related dataset derived from the Total Ozone Monitoring Satellite (TOMS) Sensor. The TOMS aerosol index arises from absorbing aerosols such...

  15. Photomorphogenic effects of UV-B radiation on plants: consequences for light competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, P.W.; Ballaré, C.L.; Caldwell, M.M.

    1996-01-01

    A combination of field and labotatory studies were conducted to explore the nature of photomorphogenic effects of ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B; 280–320 nm) on plant morphology and to evaluate the ecological consequences of these alterations in morphology for interspecific competition. Under laboratory conditions, seedlings of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) exhibited appreciable (ca. 50%) and rapid (< 3h) inhibition in hypocotyl elongation in response to UV-B exposure. In cucumber, this inhibition was reversible, occurred without any associated changes in dry matter production and was caused by UV-B incident on the cotyledons and not the stem or growing tip. Inhibition of stem elongation in etiolated tomato seedlings occurred at least 3 h prior to the onset of accumulation of UV-absorbing pigments and monochromatic UV supplied against a background of visible radiation revealed maximum effectiveness in inhibition around 300 nm. Collectively, these findings suggest that a specific, but yet unidentified, UV-B photoreceptor is involved in mediating certain morphological responses to UV-B. For mixtures of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and wild oat (Avena fatua L.), a common weedy competitor, supplemental UV-B irradiation in the field differentially altered shoot morphology which resulted in changes in canopy structure, light interception and calculated stand photosynthesis. It is argued that, because of its asymmetrical nature, competition for light can potentially amplify the effects of UV-B on shoot morphology and may, therefore, be an important mechanism by which changes in the solar UV-B spectrum associated with stratospheric ozone reduction could alter the composition and character of terrestrial vegetation

  16. Short- and long-term physiological responses of grapevine leaves to UV-B radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Lüscher, J; Morales, F; Delrot, S; Sánchez-Díaz, M; Gomés, E; Aguirreolea, J; Pascual, I

    2013-12-01

    The present study aimed at evaluating the short- and long-term effects of UV-B radiation on leaves of grapevine Vitis vinifera (cv. Tempranillo). Grapevine fruit-bearing cuttings were exposed to two doses of supplemental biologically effective UV-B radiation (UV-BBE) under glasshouse-controlled conditions: 5.98 and 9.66kJm(-2)d(-1). The treatments were applied either for 20d (from mid-veraison to ripeness) or 75d (from fruit set to ripeness). A 0kJm(-2)d(-1) UV-B treatment was included as control. The main effects of UV-B were observed after the short-term exposure (20d) to 9.66kJm(-2)d(-1). Significant decreases in net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, sub-stomatal CO2 concentration, the actual photosystem II (PSII) efficiency, total soluble proteins and de-epoxidation state of the VAZ cycle were observed, whereas the activities of several antioxidant enzymes increased significantly. UV-B did not markedly affect dark respiration, photorespiration, the maximum potential PSII efficiency (Fv/Fm), non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), as well as the intrinsic PSII efficiency. However, after 75d of exposure to 5.98and 9.66kJm(-2)d(-1) UV-B most photosynthetic and biochemical variables were unaffected and there were no sign of oxidative damage in leaves. The results suggest a high long-term acclimation capacity of grapevine to high UV-B levels, associated with a high accumulation of UV-B absorbing compounds in leaves, whereas plants seemed to be tolerant to moderate doses of UV-B. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of UV-B radiation on tetraspores of Chondrus ocellatus Holm (Rhodophyta), and effects of red and blue light on repair of UV-B-induced damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Qing; Xiao, Hui; Wang, You; Tang, Xuexi

    2015-05-01

    We evaluated the effects of red and blue light on the repair of UV-B radiation-induced damage in tetraspores of Chondrus ocellatus Holm. Tetraspores of C. ocellatus were treated with different UV-B radiation levels (0, 36, 72, 108, 144 and 180 J/m2), and thereafter subjected to PAR, darkness, or red or blue light during a 2-h repair stage, each day for 48 days. The diameters and cellular contents of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimmers (CPDs), chlorophyll a (Chl a), phycoerythrin, and UV-B-absorbing mycosporinelike amino acids (MAAs) contents of the tetraspores were determined. Our results show that low doses of UV-B radiation (36 and 72 J/m2) promoted the growth of C. ocellatus; however, increased UV-B radiation gradually reduced the C. ocellatus growth (greater than 72 J/m2). The MAAs (palythine and asterina-330) in C. ocellatus were detected and analyzed by LC/MS. Our results suggest that moderate red light could induce the growth of this alga in aquaculture. In addition, photorepair was inhibited by red light, so there may be some other DNA repair mechanism activated by red light. Blue light promoted the activity of DNA photolyase, greatly improving remediation efficiency. Red and blue lights were found to reduce the capacity of C. ocellatus to form MAAs. Therefore, PAR, red light, and blue light play different roles during the repair processes for damage induced by UV-B radiation.

  18. Monitoring of MOCVD reactants by UV absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baucom, K.C.; Killeen, K.P.; Moffat, H.K.

    1995-07-01

    In this paper, we describe how UV absorption measurements can be used to measure the flow rates of metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) reactants. This method utilizes the calculation of UV extinction coefficients by measuring the total pressure and absorbance in the neat reactant system. The development of this quantitative reactant flow rate monitor allows for the direct measurement of the efficiency of a reactant bubbler. We demonstrate bubbler efficiency results for TMGa, and then explain some discrepancies found in the TMAl system due to the monomer to dimer equilibrium. Also, the UV absorption spectra of metal organic and hydride MOCVD reactants over the wavelength range 185 to 400 nm are reported.

  19. Neutron absorbing article

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naum, R.G.; Owens, D.P.; Dooher, G.I.

    1979-01-01

    A neutron absorbing article, in flat plate form and suitable for use in a storage rack for spent fuel, includes boron carbide particles, diluent particles and a solid, irreversibly cured phenolic polymer cured to a continuous matrix binding the boron carbide and diluent particles. The total conent of boron carbide and diluent particles is a major proportion of the article and the content of cured phenolic polymer present is a minor proportion. By regulation of the ratio of boron carbide particles to diluent particles, normally within the range of 1:9 and 9:1 and preferably within the range of 1:5 to 5:1, the neutron absorbing activity of the product may be controlled, which facilitates the manufacture of articles of particular absorbing activities best suitable for specific applications

  20. Neutron absorbing article

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naum, R.G.; Owens, D.P.; Dooker, G.I.

    1981-01-01

    A neutron-absorbing article suitable for use in spent fuel racks is described. It comprises boron carbide particles, diluent particles, and a phenolic polymer cured to a continuous matrix. The diluent may be silicon carbide, graphite, amorphous carbon, alumina, or silica. The combined boron carbide-diluent phase contains no more than 2 percent B 2 O 3 , and the neutron-absorbing article contains from 20 to 40 percent phenol resin. The ratio of boron carbide to diluent particles is in the range 1:9 to 9:1

  1. Analyzing Exonuclease-Induced Hyperchromicity by Uv Spectroscopy: An Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Megan M.; Ricciardi, Christopher; Weiss, David; Chant, Alan; Kraemer-Chant, Christina M.

    2016-01-01

    An undergraduate biochemistry laboratory experiment is described that utilizes free online bioinformatics tools along with readily available exonucleases to study the effects of base stacking and hydrogen bonding on the UV absorbance of DNA samples. UV absorbance of double-stranded DNA at the ?[subscript max] is decreased when the DNA bases are…

  2. Warm Absorber Diagnostics of AGN Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallman, Timothy

    Warm absorbers and related phenomena are observable manifestations of outflows or winds from active galactic nuclei (AGN) that have great potential value. Understanding AGN outflows is important for explaining the mass budgets of the central accreting black hole, and also for understanding feedback and the apparent co-evolution of black holes and their host galaxies. In the X-ray band warm absorbers are observed as photoelectric absorption and resonance line scattering features in the 0.5-10 keV energy band; the UV band also shows resonance line absorption. Warm absorbers are common in low luminosity AGN and they have been extensively studied observationally. They may play an important role in AGN feedback, regulating the net accretion onto the black hole and providing mechanical energy to the surroundings. However, fundamental properties of the warm absorbers are not known: What is the mechanism which drives the outflow?; what is the gas density in the flow and the geometrical distribution of the outflow?; what is the explanation for the apparent relation between warm absorbers and the surprising quasi-relativistic 'ultrafast outflows' (UFOs)? We propose a focused set of model calculations that are aimed at synthesizing observable properties of warm absorber flows and associated quantities. These will be used to explore various scenarios for warm absorber dynamics in order to answer the questions in the previous paragraph. The guiding principle will be to examine as wide a range as possible of warm absorber driving mechanisms, geometry and other properties, but with as careful consideration as possible to physical consistency. We will build on our previous work, which was a systematic campaign for testing important class of scenarios for driving the outflows. We have developed a set of tools that are unique and well suited for dynamical calculations including radiation in this context. We also have state-of-the-art tools for generating synthetic spectra, which are

  3. Corneal epithelium and UV-protection of the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringvold, A

    1998-04-01

    To study UV-absorption and UV-induced fluorescence in the bovine corneal epithelium. Spectrophotometry and spectrofluorimetry. The corneal epithelium absorbs UV-B radiation mainly owing to its content of protein, RNA, and ascorbate. Some of the absorbed energy is transformed to the less biotoxic UV-A radiation by fluorescence. RNA and ascorbate reduce tissue fluorescence. The corneal epithelium acts as a UV-filter, protecting internal eye structures through three different mechanisms: (1) Absorption of UV-B roughly below 310 nm wavelength. (2) Fluorescence-mediated ray transformation to longer wavelengths. (3) Fluorescence reduction. The extremely high ascorbate concentration in the corneal epithelium has a key role in two of these processes.

  4. Impedance matched thin metamaterials make metals absorbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiucci, N; Bloemer, M J; Aközbek, N; D'Aguanno, G

    2013-11-13

    Metals are generally considered good reflectors over the entire electromagnetic spectrum up to their plasma frequency. Here we demonstrate an approach to tailor their absorbing characteristics based on the effective metamaterial properties of thin, periodic metallo-dielectric multilayers by exploiting a broadband, inherently non-resonant, surface impedance matching mechanism. Based on this mechanism, we design, fabricate and test omnidirectional, thin ( 99%) over a frequency range spanning from the UV to the IR. Our approach opens new venues to design cost effective materials for many applications such as thermo-photovoltaic energy conversion devices, light harvesting for solar cells, flat panel display, infrared detectors, stray light reduction, stealth and others.

  5. Absorber for nuclear radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planchamp, C.

    1987-01-01

    Neutrons, gamma and x radiations are highly absorbed by an alloy of gadolinium and aluminium. Workability, thermal conductivity, mechanical properties, corrosion resistance of the alloy are good. Possible applications are transport or storage of radioactive wastes or nuclear fuels, fuel racks, shelters, etc [fr

  6. Low Absorbance Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, T. D.; Williams, A. M.

    1983-10-01

    The application of low absorption measurements to dilute solute determination requires specific instrumental characteristics. The use of laser intracavity absorption and thermal lens calorimetry to measure concentration is shown. The specific operating parameters that determine sensitivity are delineated along with the limits different measurement strategies impose. Finally areas of improvement in components that would result in improve sensitivity, accuracy, and reliability are discussed. During the past decade, a large number of methods have been developed for measuring the light absorbed by transparent materials. These include measurements on gases, liquids, and solids. The activity has been prompted by a variety of applications and a similar variety of disciplines. In Table 1 some representative examples of these methods is shown along with their published detection limits.1 It is clear that extraordinarily small absorbances can be measured. Most of the methods can be conveniently divided into two groups. These groups are those that measure the transmission of the sample and those that measure the light absorbed by the sample. The light absorbed methods are calorimetric in character. The advantages and disadvantages of each method varies depending on the principal application for which they were developed. The most prevalent motivation has been to characterize the bulk optical properties of transparent materials. Two examples are the development of extremely transparent glasses for use as fiber optic materials and the development of substrates for high power laser operation.

  7. Scutellaria radix Extract as a Natural UV Protectant for Human Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Jin Kyung; Kwak, Jun Yup; Choi, Go Woon; An, Sang Mi; Kwak, Jae-Hoon; Seo, Hyeong-Ho; Suh, Hwa-Jin; Boo, Yong Chool

    2016-03-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces oxidative injury and inflammation in human skin. Scutellaria radix (SR, the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi) contains flavonoids with high UV absorptivity and antioxidant properties. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential use of SR extract as an additive in cosmetic products for UV protection. SR extract and its butanol (BuOH) fraction strongly absorbed UV radiation and displayed free radical scavenging activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radials and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radicals. They also attenuated the UV-induced death of HaCaT cells. Sunscreen creams, with or without supplementation of SR extract BuOH fraction, were tested in vivo in human trials to evaluate potential skin irritation and determine the sun protection factor (SPF). Both sunscreen creams induced no skin irritation. A sunscreen cream containing 24% ZnO showed an SPF value of 17.8, and it increased to 22.7 when supplemented with 5% SR extract BuOH fraction. This study suggests that SR-derived materials are useful as safe cosmetic additives that provide UV protection. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Factors affecting UV-B-induced changes in Arabidopsis thaliana L. gene expression: The role of development, protective pigments and the chloroplast signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, B.R.; James, P.E.; Mackerness, S.A.H.

    1998-01-01

    Gene expression is known to change in response to UV-B radiation. In this paper, we have investigated three factors in Arabidopsis leaves that are likely to influence these changes: development, protective pigments and the 'chloroplast signal'. During late leaf development the major change in pigment composition, after exposure to UV-B radiation, is an increase in UV-absorbing pigments. Chl and Chl a/b ratio do not change substantially. Similarly Chl fluorescence is not altered. In contrast, RNA transcripts of photosynthetic proteins are reduced more in older leaves than in young leaves. To determine the role of flavonoids in UV-B protection, plants of Arabidopsis mutant tt-5, which have reduced flavonoids and sinapic esters, were exposed to UV-B and RNA transcript levels determined. The tt-mutants were more sensitive to UV-B radiation than wild-type. To examine the role of the chloroplast signal in regulating UV-B induced changes in gene expression, Arabidopsis gun mutants (genome uncoupled) have been used. The results show that UV-B-induced down-regulation still takes place in gun mutants and strongly suggests that the chloroplast signal is not required. Overall, this study clearly demonstrates that UV-B-induced changes in gene expression are influenced by both developmental and cellular factors but not chloroplastic factors

  9. UV filters for lighting of plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doehring, T.; Koefferlein, M.; Thiel, S.; Seidlitz, H. K.; Payer, H. D.

    1994-01-01

    The wavelength dependent interaction of biological systems with radiation is commonly described by appropriate action spectra. Particularly effective plant responses are obtained for ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Excess shortwave UV-B radiation will induce genetic defects and plant damage. Besides the ecological discussion of the deleterious effects of the excess UV radiation there is increasing interest in horticultural applications of this spectral region. Several metabolic pathways leading to valuable secondary plant products like colors, odors, taste, or resulting in mechanical strength and vitality are triggered by UV radiation. Thus, in ecologically as well as in economically oriented experiments the exact generation and knowledge of the spectral irradiance, particularly near the UV absorption edge, is essential. The ideal filter 'material' to control the UV absorption edge would be ozone itself. However, due to problems in controlling the toxic and chemically aggressive, instable gas, only rather 'small ozone filters' have been realized so far. In artificial plant lighting conventional solid filter materials such as glass sheets and plastic foils (celluloseacetate or cellulosetriacetate) which can be easily handled have been used to absorb the UV-C and the excess shortwave UV-B radiation of the lamp emissions. Different filter glasses are available which provide absorption properties suitable for gradual changes of the spectral UV-B illumination of artificial lighting. Using a distinct set of lamps and filter glasses an acceptable simulation of the UV-B part of natural global radiation can be achieved. The aging of these and other filter materials under the extreme UV radiation in the lamphouse of a solar simulator is presently unavoidable. This instability can be dealt with only by a precise spectral monitoring and by replacing the filters accordingly. For this reason attempts would be useful to develop real ozone filters which can replace glass filters. In

  10. UV filters for lighting of plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doehring, T.; Koefferlein, M.; Thiel, S.; Seidlitz, H. K.; Payer, H. D.

    1994-03-01

    The wavelength dependent interaction of biological systems with radiation is commonly described by appropriate action spectra. Particularly effective plant responses are obtained for ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Excess shortwave UV-B radiation will induce genetic defects and plant damage. Besides the ecological discussion of the deleterious effects of the excess UV radiation there is increasing interest in horticultural applications of this spectral region. Several metabolic pathways leading to valuable secondary plant products like colors, odors, taste, or resulting in mechanical strength and vitality are triggered by UV radiation. Thus, in ecologically as well as in economically oriented experiments the exact generation and knowledge of the spectral irradiance, particularly near the UV absorption edge, is essential. The ideal filter 'material' to control the UV absorption edge would be ozone itself. However, due to problems in controlling the toxic and chemically aggressive, instable gas, only rather 'small ozone filters' have been realized so far. In artificial plant lighting conventional solid filter materials such as glass sheets and plastic foils (celluloseacetate or cellulosetriacetate) which can be easily handled have been used to absorb the UV-C and the excess shortwave UV-B radiation of the lamp emissions. Different filter glasses are available which provide absorption properties suitable for gradual changes of the spectral UV-B illumination of artificial lighting. Using a distinct set of lamps and filter glasses an acceptable simulation of the UV-B part of natural global radiation can be achieved. The aging of these and other filter materials under the extreme UV radiation in the lamphouse of a solar simulator is presently unavoidable. This instability can be dealt with only by a precise spectral monitoring and by replacing the filters accordingly. For this reason attempts would be useful to develop real ozone filters which can replace glass filters. In

  11. Kinetic energy absorbing pad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bricmont, R.J.; Hamilton, P.A.; Ming Long Ting, R.

    1981-01-01

    Reactors, fuel processing plants etc incorporate pipes and conduits for fluids under high pressure. Fractures, particularly adjacent to conduit elbows, produce a jet of liquid which whips the broken conduit at an extremely high velocity. An enormous impact load would be applied to any stationary object in the conduit's path. The design of cellular, corrugated metal impact pads to absorb the kinetic energy of the high velocity conduits is given. (U.K.)

  12. Absorbable and biodegradable polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Shalaby, Shalaby W

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION NOTES: Absorbable/Biodegradable Polymers: Technology Evolution. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATIONOF NEW SYSTEMS: Segmented Copolyesters with Prolonged Strength Retention Profiles. Polyaxial Crystalline Fiber-Forming Copolyester. Polyethylene Glycol-Based Copolyesters. Cyanoacrylate-Based Systems as Tissue Adhesives. Chitosan-Based Systems. Hyaluronic Acid-Based Systems. DEVELOPMENTS IN PREPARATIVE, PROCESSING, AND EVALUATION METHODS: New Approaches to the Synthesis of Crystalline. Fiber-Forming Aliphatic Copolyesters. Advances in Morphological Development to Tailor the Performance of Me

  13. Burnable neutron absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radford, K.C.; Carlson, W.G.

    1985-01-01

    This patent deals with the fabrication of pellets for neutron absorber rods. Such a pellet includes a matrix of a refractory material which may be aluminum or zirconium oxide, and a burnable poison distributed throughout the matrix. The neutron absorber material may consist of one or more elements or compounds of the metals boron, gadolinium, samarium, cadmium, europium, hafnium, dysprosium and indium. The method of fabricating pellets of these materials outlined in this patent is designed to produce pores or voids in the pellets that can be used to take up the expansion of the burnable poison and to absorb the helium gas generated. In the practice of this invention a slurry of Al 2 O 3 is produced. A hard binder is added and the slurry and binder are spray dried. This powder is mixed with dry B 4 C powder, forming a homogeneous mixture. This mixture is pressed into green tubes which are then sintered. During sintering the binder volatilizes leaving a ceramic with nearly spherical high-density regions of

  14. Porphyra-334, a mycosporine-like amino acid, attenuates UV-induced apoptosis in HaCaT cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suh Sung-Suk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the current research was to study the effect of porphyra-334, one of mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs, well known as UV-absorbing compounds, on UVinduced apoptosis in human immortalized keratinocyte (HaCaT cells. Due to their UV-screening capacity and ability to prevent UV-induced DNA damage, MAAs have recently attracted considerable attention in both industry and research in pharmacology. Herein, human HaCaT cells were used to determine the biological activities of porphyra- 334 by various in vitro assays, including proliferation, apoptosis and Western blot assays. The proliferation rate of UV-irradiated HaCaT cells was significantly decreased compared to the control group. Pretreatment with porphyra- 334 markedly attenuated the inhibitory effect of UV and induced a dramatic decrease in the apoptotic rate. Expression of active caspase-3 protein was increased in response to UV irradiation, while caspase-3 levels were similar between cells treated with porphyra-334 and the non-irradiated control group. Taken together, our data suggest that porphyra-334 inhibits UV-induced apoptosis in HaCaT cells through attenuation of the caspase pathway.

  15. Porphyra-334, a mycosporine-like amino acid, attenuates UV-induced apoptosis in HaCaT cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Sung-Suk; Oh, Se Kyung; Lee, Sung Gu; Kim, Il-Chan; Kim, Sanghee

    2017-06-27

    The main aim of the current research was to study the effect of porphyra-334, one of mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), well known as UV-absorbing compounds, on UVinduced apoptosis in human immortalized keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells. Due to their UV-screening capacity and ability to prevent UV-induced DNA damage, MAAs have recently attracted considerable attention in both industry and research in pharmacology. Herein, human HaCaT cells were used to determine the biological activities of porphyra- 334 by various in vitro assays, including proliferation, apoptosis and Western blot assays. The proliferation rate of UV-irradiated HaCaT cells was significantly decreased compared to the control group. Pretreatment with porphyra- 334 markedly attenuated the inhibitory effect of UV and induced a dramatic decrease in the apoptotic rate. Expression of active caspase-3 protein was increased in response to UV irradiation, while caspase-3 levels were similar between cells treated with porphyra-334 and the non-irradiated control group. Taken together, our data suggest that porphyra-334 inhibits UV-induced apoptosis in HaCaT cells through attenuation of the caspase pathway.

  16. UV curable lens production using molecular weight controlled PEEK based acrylic oligomer (Ac-PEEK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    İnan, Tulay Y; Yıldız, Emel; Karaca, Birsen; Dogan, Hacer; Vatansever, Alican; Nalbant, Muhammed; Eken, Koray

    2014-08-01

    We produced UV curable lenses with properties blocking short wave UV light. In the UV-curable formulations, we used an oligomer (Ac-PEEK) with another urethan oligomer (Mw = 2000). Radically active, molecular weight controlled Ac-PEEK was obtained by reacting 2-hydroxyl ethyl methacrylate with molecular- weight- controlled and isocyanate terminated PEEK (Mn = 4500). We characterized all synthesized monomer, oligomer and optical materials with UV/Vis spectrophotometer with interferogram, elemental analyser, mass spectrophotometer, proton nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analyzer, differential scanning calorimeter, scanning electron microscopy and gas chromatography. Results suggested that newly synthesized oligomer with the structure of PEEK absorbs short wave UV-light. Ageing tests [ISO 11979-5, Ophthalmic implants-intraocular lenses (IOL)-Part 5: Biocompatibility] performed on the IOL materials were successful. High contact angle of the obtained lenses suggests that all lenses were hydrophobic and SEM results revealed that lenses are morphologically homogeneous. Based on all positive properties just mentioned, we safely conclude that the lenses produced in this study are very promising for IOL production.

  17. Absorber for terahertz radiation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biallas, George Herman; Apeldoorn, Cornelis; Williams, Gwyn P.; Benson, Stephen V.; Shinn, Michelle D.; Heckman, John D.

    2015-12-08

    A method and apparatus for minimizing the degradation of power in a free electron laser (FEL) generating terahertz (THz) radiation. The method includes inserting an absorber ring in the FEL beam path for absorbing any irregular THz radiation and thus minimizes the degradation of downstream optics and the resulting degradation of the FEL output power. The absorber ring includes an upstream side, a downstream side, and a plurality of wedges spaced radially around the absorber ring. The wedges form a scallop-like feature on the innermost edges of the absorber ring that acts as an apodizer, stopping diffractive focusing of the THz radiation that is not intercepted by the absorber. Spacing between the scallop-like features and the shape of the features approximates the Bartlett apodization function. The absorber ring provides a smooth intensity distribution, rather than one that is peaked on-center, thereby eliminating minor distortion downstream of the absorber.

  18. Corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jor-Shan [El Cerrito, CA; Farmer, Joseph C [Tracy, CA; Lee, Chuck K [Hayward, CA; Walker, Jeffrey [Gaithersburg, MD; Russell, Paige [Las Vegas, NV; Kirkwood, Jon [Saint Leonard, MD; Yang, Nancy [Lafayette, CA; Champagne, Victor [Oxford, PA

    2012-05-29

    A method of forming a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising the steps of spray or deposition or sputtering or welding processing to form a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material. Also a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material.

  19. Solar radiation absorbing material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Googin, John M.; Schmitt, Charles R.; Schreyer, James M.; Whitehead, Harlan D.

    1977-01-01

    Solar energy absorbing means in solar collectors are provided by a solar selective carbon surface. A solar selective carbon surface is a microporous carbon surface having pores within the range of 0.2 to 2 micrometers. Such a surface is provided in a microporous carbon article by controlling the pore size. A thermally conductive substrate is provided with a solar selective surface by adhering an array of carbon particles in a suitable binder to the substrate, a majority of said particles having diameters within the range of about 0.2-10 microns.

  20. Removal of fluorescence and ultraviolet absorbance of dissolved organic matter in reclaimed water by solar light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qianyuan; Li, Chao; Wang, Wenlong; He, Tao; Hu, Hongying; Du, Ye; Wang, Ting

    2016-05-01

    Storing reclaimed water in lakes is a widely used method of accommodating changes in the consumption of reclaimed water during wastewater reclamation and reuse. Solar light serves as an important function in degrading pollutants during storage, and its effect on dissolved organic matter (DOM) was investigated in this study. Solar light significantly decreased the UV254 absorbance and fluorescence (FLU) intensity of reclaimed water. However, its effect on the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) value of reclaimed water was very limited. The decrease in the UV254 absorbance intensity and FLU excitation-emission matrix regional integration volume (FLU volume) of reclaimed water during solar light irradiation was fit with pseudo-first order reaction kinetics. The decrease of UV254 absorbance was much slower than that of the FLU volume. Ultraviolet light in solar light had a key role in decreasing the UV254 absorbance and FLU intensity during solar light irradiation. The light fluence-based removal kinetic constants of the UV254 and FLU intensity were independent of light intensity. The peaks of the UV254 absorbance and FLU intensity with an apparent molecular weight (AMW) of 100Da to 2000Da decreased after solar irradiation, whereas the DOC value of the major peaks did not significantly change. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Light-absorbing secondary organic material formed by glyoxal in aqueous aerosol mimics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Shapiro

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Light-absorbing and high-molecular-weight secondary organic products were observed to result from the reaction of glyoxal in mildly acidic (pH=4 aqueous inorganic salt solutions mimicking aqueous tropospheric aerosol particles. High-molecular-weight (500–600 amu products were observed when ammonium sulfate ((NH42SO4 or sodium chloride (NaCl was present in the aqueous phase. The products formed in (NH42SO4 or ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3 solutions absorb light at UV and visible wavelengths. Substantial absorption at 300–400 nm develops within two hours, and absorption between 400–600 nm develops within days. Pendant drop tensiometry measurements show that the products are not surface-active. The experimental results along with ab initio predictions of the UV/Vis absorption of potential products suggest a mechanism involving the participation of the ammonium ion. If similar products are formed in atmospheric aerosol particles, they could change the optical properties of the seed aerosol over its lifetime.

  2. Scattering Properties of the Venusian Clouds Observed by the UV Imager on board Akatsuki

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y. J.; Yamazaki, A.; Imamura, T.; Yamada, M.; Watanabe, S.; Sato, T. M.; Ogohara, K.; Hashimoto, G. L.; Murakami, S.

    2017-08-01

    We analyze the albedo of Venus obtained from the UV Imager on board Akatsuki. A relative global mean albedo over phase angle is used in this study, and we confirm the glory feature at 283 and 365 nm in the data acquired in 2016 May. We successfully simulate the observation using a radiative transfer model. Our results show that cloud aerosols of {r}{eff}=1.26 μm and {v}{eff}=0.076 (mode 2) can explain the glory, consistent with a property of aerosols previously suggested by using the Venus Monitoring Camera on board Venus Express. We find that SO2 and the unknown UV absorber are necessary factors to explain the decreasing trend of the observed relative albedo at phase angles larger than 10°. We suggest a range of possible SO2 abundance from 80 to 400 ppbv at the cloud top level, depending on atmospheric conditions assumed.

  3. Insights into the early dissolution events of amlodipine using UV imaging and Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boetker, Johan P; Savolainen, Marja; Koradia, Vishal; Tian, Fang; Rades, Thomas; Müllertz, Anette; Cornett, Claus; Rantanen, Jukka; Østergaard, Jesper

    2011-08-01

    Traditional dissolution testing determines drug release to the bulk, but does not enable an understanding of the events happening close to the surface of a solid or a tablet. UV imaging is a new imaging approach that can be used to study the dissolution behavior of chemical compounds. The UV imaging instrumentation offers recording of absorbance maps with a high spatial and temporal resolution which facilitates the abundant collection of information regarding the evolving solution concentrations. In this study, UV imaging was used to visualize the dissolution behavior of amlodipine besylate (amorphous and dihydrate forms) and amlodipine free base. The dissolution of amlodipine besylate was faster from the amorphous form than from the crystalline forms. The UV imaging investigations suggested that a solvent mediated phase transformation occurred for the amorphous amlodipine besylate and the amlodipine free base samples. Raman spectroscopy was used to confirm and probe the changes at the solid surface occurring upon contact with the dissolution media and verified the recrystallization of the amorphous form to the monohydrate. The combination of UV imaging and Raman spectroscopy is an efficient tool to obtain a deeper insight into the early events of the dissolution process.

  4. Ozone depletion and climate change: impacts on UV radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bais, A F; McKenzie, R L; Bernhard, G; Aucamp, P J; Ilyas, M; Madronich, S; Tourpali, K

    2015-01-01

    We assess the importance of factors that determine the intensity of UV radiation at the Earth's surface. Among these, atmospheric ozone, which absorbs UV radiation, is of considerable importance, but other constituents of the atmosphere, as well as certain consequences of climate change, can also be major influences. Further, we assess the variations of UV radiation observed in the past and present, and provide projections for the future. Of particular interest are methods to measure or estimate UV radiation at the Earth's surface. These are needed for scientific understanding and, when they are sufficiently sensitive, they can serve as monitors of the effectiveness of the Montreal Protocol and its amendments. Also assessed are several aspects of UV radiation related to biological effects and health. The implications for ozone and UV radiation from two types of geoengineering methods that have been proposed to combat climate change are also discussed. In addition to ozone effects, the UV changes in the last two decades, derived from measurements, have been influenced by changes in aerosols, clouds, surface reflectivity, and, possibly, by solar activity. The positive trends of UV radiation observed after the mid-1990s over northern mid-latitudes are mainly due to decreases in clouds and aerosols. Despite some indications from measurements at a few stations, no statistically significant decreases in UV-B radiation attributable to the beginning of the ozone recovery have yet been detected. Projections for erythemal irradiance (UVery) suggest the following changes by the end of the 21(st) century (2090-2100) relative to the present time (2010-2020): (1) Ozone recovery (due to decreasing ozone-depleting substances and increasing greenhouse gases) would cause decreases in UVery, which will be highest (up to 40%) over Antarctica. Decreases would be small (less than 10%) outside the southern Polar Regions. A possible decline of solar activity during the 21(st) century

  5. The Flexible Bass Absorber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adelman-Larsen, Niels Werner; Thompson, Eric Robert; Gade, Anders Christian

    2007-01-01

    Multi-purpose concert halls face a dilemma. They host different performance types that require significantly different acoustic conditions in order to provide the best sound quality to both the performers, sound engineers and the audience. Pop and rock music often contain high levels of bass sound...... energy but still require high definition for good sound quality. The mid- and high-frequency absorption is easily regulated, but adjusting the low-frequency absorption has typically been too expensive or requires too much space to be practical for multi-purpose halls. A practical solution to this dilemma...... has been developed. Measurements were made on a variable and mobile low-frequency absorber. The paper presents the results of prototype sound absorption measurements as well as elements of the design....

  6. The Flexible Bass Absorber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adelman-Larsen, Niels Werner; Thompson, Eric Robert; Gade, Anders Christian

    2007-01-01

    Multi-purpose concert halls face a dilemma. They host different performance types that require significantly different acoustic conditions in order to provide the best sound quality to both the performers, sound engineers and the audience. Pop and rock music often contains high levels of bass sound...... energy but still require high definition for good sound quality. The mid- and high-frequency absorption is easily regulated, but adjusting the low-frequency absorption has typically been too expensive or requires too much space to be practical for multi-purpose halls. A practical solution to this dilemma...... has been developed. Measurements were made on a variable and mobile low-frequency absorber. The paper presents the results of prototype sound absorption measurements as well as elements of the design....

  7. Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Claire M; Liu, Xianliang; Padilla, Willie J

    2012-06-19

    The advent of negative index materials has spawned extensive research into metamaterials over the past decade. Metamaterials are attractive not only for their exotic electromagnetic properties, but also their promise for applications. A particular branch-the metamaterial perfect absorber (MPA)-has garnered interest due to the fact that it can achieve unity absorptivity of electromagnetic waves. Since its first experimental demonstration in 2008, the MPA has progressed significantly with designs shown across the electromagnetic spectrum, from microwave to optical. In this Progress Report we give an overview of the field and discuss a selection of examples and related applications. The ability of the MPA to exhibit extreme performance flexibility will be discussed and the theory underlying their operation and limitations will be established. Insight is given into what we can expect from this rapidly expanding field and future challenges will be addressed. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Heterogeneous neutron absorbers development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boccaccini, Aldo; Agueda, Horacio; Russo, Diego; Perez, Edmundo

    1987-01-01

    The use of solid burnable absorber materials in power light water reactors has increased in the last years, specially due to improvements attained in costs of generated electricity. The present work summarizes the basic studies made on an alumina-gadolinia system, where alumina is the inert matrix and gadolinia acts as burnable poison, and describes the fabrication method of pellets with that material. High density compacts were obtained in the range of concentrations used by cold pressing and sintering at 1600 deg C in inert (Ar) atmosphere. Finally, the results of the irradiation experiences made at RA-6 reactor, located at the Bariloche Atomic Center, are given where variations on negative reactivity caused by introduction of burnable poison rods were measured. The results obtained from these experiences are in good agreement with those coming from calculation codes. (Author)

  9. Persistence, temporal and spatial profiles of ultraviolet absorbents and phenolic personal care products in riverine and estuarine sediment of the Pearl River catchment, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xianzhi; Xiong, Songsong; Ou, Weihui; Wang, Zhifang; Tan, Jianhua; Jin, Jiabin; Tang, Caiming; Liu, Jun; Fan, Yujuan

    2017-02-05

    A variety of personal care products have been classified as emerging contaminants (ECs). Occurrence, fate, spatial and vertical profiles of 13 ultraviolet absorbents, triclocarban (TCC) and its dechlorinated products, triclosan (TCS), 2-phenylphenol and parabens were investigated in riverine and estuarine sediment of the Pearl River catchment, China. Bisphenol A (BPA), a widely applied plasticizer, was also investigated. The ECs were widely present in the bed sediment. TCC was the most abundant with a maximum concentration of 332ngg -1 dry weight. The other prominent ECs included BPA, TCS, octocrylene, and benzotriazole UV stabilizers UV326 and UV328. Treated wastewater effluent was the major source of the ECs in the riverine sediment. TCC, BPA, TCS, methyparaben, UV531, UV326, and UV328 were also detected throughout the estuarine sediment cores, indicating their persistence in the sediment. Temporal trends of the ECs in the sediment cores reflected a combined effect of industrial development, population growth, human life quality improvement, and waste treatment capacity in the Pearl River Delta over the last decades. TCC dechlorination products were frequently detected in the bed sediment with higher levels near treated effluent outlets but only occasionally observed in the sediment cores, suggesting insignificant in-situ TCC dechlorination in the sediment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Hypnosis, suggestion, and suggestibility: an integrative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Laurence, Jean-Roch; Kirsch, Irving

    2015-01-01

    This article elucidates an integrative model of hypnosis that integrates social, cultural, cognitive, and neurophysiological variables at play both in and out of hypnosis and considers their dynamic interaction as determinants of the multifaceted experience of hypnosis. The roles of these variables are examined in the induction and suggestion stages of hypnosis, including how they are related to the experience of involuntariness, one of the hallmarks of hypnosis. It is suggested that studies of the modification of hypnotic suggestibility; cognitive flexibility; response sets and expectancies; the default-mode network; and the search for the neurophysiological correlates of hypnosis, more broadly, in conjunction with research on social psychological variables, hold much promise to further understanding of hypnosis.

  11. UV-A enhanced growth and UV-B induced positive effects in the recovery of photochemical yield in Gracilaria lemaneiformis (Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Juntian; Gao, Kunshan

    2010-09-02

    The effects of solar UV radiation (280-400 nm) on growth, quantum yield and pigmentation in Gracilaria lemaneiformis were investigated when the thalli were cultured under solar radiation with or without UV for a period of 15 days. Presence of UV-A (315-400 nm) enhanced the relative growth rate, while UV-B (218-315 nm) inhibited it. The positive effect of UV-A and negative effect of UV-B counteracted to result in an insignificant impact of UVR on growth. During the noon period, both UV-A and UV-B resulted in the decrease of maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm), but UV-B aided in the recovery of the yield in the late afternoon, reflecting that UV-B might be used as a signal in photorepair processes. UV induced the accumulation of UV-absorbing compounds (UVAC) to defend against the harmful UVR. However, the accumulation of UVAC took a much longer time compared to that previously reported, which was probably due to the lower levels of solar radiation and water temperature in the early spring period. Unknown UV-absorbing compounds (UVAC), which peaked at 265 nm, probably the precursor of MAAs (UVAC(325)), accumulated under moderate levels of solar radiation and were transformed to MAAs under higher solar radiation. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Investigations of freezing and cold storage for the analysis of peatland dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and absorbance properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Mike; Freeman, Chris; Gauci, Vincent; Lebron, Inma; Evans, Chris D

    2015-07-01

    Although measured rates of biological degradation of DOC are typically low under dark conditions, it is assumed that water samples must be analysed soon after collection to provide an accurate measure of DOC concentration and UV-visible absorbance. To examine the impact of storage on DOC quality and quantity, we took water samples from an ombrotrophic peatland, and stored them in the dark at 4 °C for 138-1082 days. A median of 29% of DOC was lost during storage, but losses of absorbance at 254 nm were less. DOC loss followed a first-order exponential decay function, and was dependent on storage time. DOC half-life was calculated as 1253 days. Specific absorbance at 254 nm suggested that samples containing more aromatic DOC were more resistant to degradation, although time functioned as the primary control. Samples from two fens showed that loss of absorbance was greater at 400 nm rather than 254 nm, after 192 days storage, suggesting that non-aromatic DOC is preferentially degraded. These results suggest that samples can be stored for several months before losses of DOC become detectable, and that it is possible to back-calculate initial DOC concentrations in long-term stored samples based on known decay rates. Freeze/thaw experiments using samples from a range of peatlands suggested that DOC concentration was mostly unaffected by the process, but DOC increased 37% in one sample. Freezing had unpredictable and sometimes strong effects on absorbance, SUVA and E ratios, therefore freezing is not recommended as a method of preservation for these analyses.

  13. Aperiodic-metamaterial-based absorber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanlong Yang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The periodic-metamaterial-based perfect absorber has been studied broadly. Conversely, if the unit cell in the metamaterial-based absorber is arranged aperiodically (aperiodic-metamaterial-based absorber, how does it perform? Inspired by this, here we present a systematic study of the aperiodic-metamaterial-based absorber. By investigating the response of metamaterial absorbers based on periodic, Fibonacci, Thue-Morse, and quasicrystal lattices, we found that aperiodic-metamaterial-based absorbers could display similar absorption behaviors as the periodic one in one hand. However, their absorption behaviors show different tendency depending on the thicknesses of the spacer. Further studies on the angle and polarization dependence of the absorption behavior are also presented.

  14. Black carbon or brown carbon? The nature of light-absorbing carbonaceous aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Andreae

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the definition and measurement techniques for atmospheric 'black carbon' ('BC' or 'elemental carbon'' ('EC' have long been subjects of scientific controversy, the recent discovery of light-absorbing carbon that is not black ('brown carbon, Cbrown' makes it imperative to reassess and redefine the components that make up light-absorbing carbonaceous matter (LAC in the atmosphere. Evidence for the atmospheric presence of Cbrown comes from (1 spectral aerosol light absorption measurements near specific combustion sources, (2 observations of spectral properties of water extracts of continental aerosol, (3 laboratory studies indicating the formation of light-absorbing organic matter in the atmosphere, and (4 indirectly from the chemical analogy of aerosol species to colored natural humic substances. We show that brown carbon may severely bias measurements of 'BC' and 'EC' over vast parts of the troposphere, especially those strongly polluted by biomass burning, where the mass concentration of Cbrown is high relative to that of soot carbon. Chemical measurements to determine 'EC' are biased by the refractory nature of Cbrown as well as by complex matrix interferences. Optical measurements of 'BC' suffer from a number of problems: (1 many of the presently used instruments introduce a substantial bias into the determination of aerosol light absorption, (2 there is no unique conversion factor between light absorption and 'EC' or 'BC' concentration in ambient aerosols, and (3 the difference in spectral properties between the different types of LAC, as well as the chemical complexity of Cbrown, lead to several conceptual as well as practical complications. We also suggest that due to the sharply increasing absorption of Cbrown towards the UV, single-wavelength light absorption measurements may not be adequate for the assessment of absorption of solar radiation in the troposphere. We discuss the possible consequences of these effects for our

  15. Application of isothermal calorimetry and uv spectroscopy for stability monitoring of pentaerythritol tetranitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosser, L.R.; Pickard, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    Thermal stabilities for a series of pentaerythritol-tetranitrate (PETN) samples with variable surf ace areas were monitored by isothermal calorimetry and UV spectroscopy over the temperature range of 363 to 408 K. Isothermal induction times measured with constant volume calorimetry under an air atmosphere and No evolution rates monitored by UV absorbance at 213 nm under vacuum correlated with the PETN surface area at temperatures equal to or exceeding 383 K. Rate data measured at 383 K are in accord with predictions based on detailed kinetic modeling. Below 383 K, NO evolution data suggested that additional geometric factors may be significant in controlling PETN stability. Mechanisms for influencing surface area upon the rate-determining step are addressed

  16. Absorbance and electrochemical properties of natural indigo dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basuki, Suyitno, Kristiawan, Budi

    2018-02-01

    The objective of study is to investigate the absorbance and electrochemical properties of natural indigo dyes. The natural indigo dyes were extracted from Indigofera tinctoria leaves. The solution was kept in alkaline condition and the reductor used was Sodium dithionite (Na2S2O4). The absorbance and electrochemical properties were tested by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The results show that the absorbance spectrum of dyes was at a wavelength from 375 to 475. The dyes also have C=C, C-H, and C-N which important for anchoring in semiconductors. Moreover, the level energy of highest occupied molecular orbital and that of lowest unoccupied molecular orbital from indigo dyes were -4.89 eV and -4.035 eV, respectively. The findings show that the natural indigo dye has promising properties for dyeing of photo-anode in solar energy harvester.

  17. UV water disinfector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadgil, A.; Garud, V.

    1998-07-14

    A UV disinfector with a gravity driven feed water delivery system and an air-suspended bare UV lamp are disclosed. The disinfector is hydrodynamically optimized with a laminerizing, perforated baffle wall, beveled treatment chamber, and outlet weir. 7 figs.

  18. UV holographic filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyashova, Zoya N.

    2017-11-01

    A new approach to UV holographic filter's manufacturing, when the filters are the volume reflection holograms, working in UV region in the second Bragg diffraction order, is offered. The method is experimentally realized for wavelength of 266 nm.

  19. Burnable absorber coated nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chubb, W.; Radford, K.C.; Parks, B.H.

    1984-01-01

    A nuclear fuel body which is at least partially covered by a burnable neutron absorber layer is provided with a hydrophobic overcoat generally covering the burnable absorber layer and bonded directly to it. In a method for providing a UO 2 fuel pellet with a zirconium diboride burnable poison layer, the fuel body is provided with an intermediate niobium layer. (author)

  20. Metal-shearing energy absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, R. J.; Wittrock, E. P.

    1971-01-01

    Device, consisting of tongue of thin aluminum alloy strip, pull tab, slotted steel plate which serves as cutter, and steel buckle, absorbs mechanical energy when its ends are subjected to tensile loading. Device is applicable as auxiliary shock absorbing anchor for automobile and airplane safety belts.

  1. Erbium concentration dependent absorbance in tellurite glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sazali, E. S., E-mail: mdsupar@utm; Rohani, M. S., E-mail: mdsupar@utm; Sahar, M. R., E-mail: mdsupar@utm; Arifin, R., E-mail: mdsupar@utm; Ghoshal, S. K., E-mail: mdsupar@utm; Hamzah, K., E-mail: mdsupar@utm [Advanced Optical Material Research Group, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, Skudai, Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-25

    Enhancing the optical absorption cross-section in topically important rare earth doped tellurite glasses is challenging for photonic devices. Controlled synthesis and detailed characterizations of the optical properties of these glasses are important for the optimization. The influence of varying concentration of Er{sup 3+} ions on the absorbance characteristics of lead tellurite glasses synthesized via melt-quenching technique are investigated. The UV-Vis absorption spectra exhibits six prominent peaks centered at 490, 526, 652, 800, 982 and 1520 nm ascribed to the transitions in erbium ion from the ground state to the excited states {sup 4}F{sub 7/2}, {sup 2}H{sub 11/2}, {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}, {sup 4}I{sub 9/2}, {sup 2}H{sub 11/2} and {sup 4}I{sub 13/2}, respectively. The results are analyzed by means of optical band gap E{sub g} and Urbach energy E{sub u}. The values of the energy band gap are found decreased from 2.82 to 2.51 eV and the Urbach energy increased from 0.15 to 0.24 eV with the increase of the Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration from 0 to 1.5 mol%. The excellent absorbance of the prepared tellurite glasses makes them suitable for fabricating solid state lasers.

  2. Visible light broadband perfect absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, X. L.; Meng, Q. X.; Yuan, C. X.; Zhou, Z. X.; Wang, X. O., E-mail: wxo@hit.edu.cn [School of Science, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2016-03-15

    The visible light broadband perfect absorbers based on the silver (Ag) nano elliptical disks and holes array are studied using finite difference time domain simulations. The semiconducting indium silicon dioxide thin film is introduced as the space layer in this sandwiched structure. Utilizing the asymmetrical geometry of the structures, polarization sensitivity for transverse electric wave (TE)/transverse magnetic wave (TM) and left circular polarization wave (LCP)/right circular polarization wave (RCP) of the broadband absorption are gained. The absorbers with Ag nano disks and holes array show several peaks absorbance of 100% by numerical simulation. These simple and flexible perfect absorbers are particularly desirable for various potential applications including the solar energy absorber.

  3. Índice UV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Información general sobre el Índice UV que proporciona un pronóstico del riesgo esperado de sobreexposición a la radiación ultravioleta (UV) del sol. El índice UV va acompañado de recomendaciones para protegerse del sol.

  4. Effects of Enhanced UV-B Radiation on Biochemical Traits in Postharvest Flowers of Medicinal Chrysanthemum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Chao; Yao, Xiao-Qin; He, Xue-Li; Chu, Jian-Zhou; Ma, Chun-Hui; Shi, Xiao-Fei

    2015-01-01

    This article reported UV-B radiation effects on biochemical traits in postharvest flowers of chrysanthemum. The experiment included six levels of UV-B radiation (UV0, 0 μW cm(-2); UV50, 50 μW cm(-2); UV200, 200 μW cm(-2); UV400, 400 μW cm(-2); UV600, 600 μW cm(-2) and UV800, 800 μW cm(-2). Enhanced UV-B radiation significantly increased hydrogen peroxide content (except for UV50), but did not evidently affect malondialdehyde content in flowers. Chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll content were significantly increased by UV600 and UV800. UV400 and UV600 significantly increased anthocyanins, carotenoids and UV-B absorbing compounds content, and the activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and cinnamic acid-4-hydroxylase (C4H) over the control. 4-coumarate CoA ligase (4CL) activity was significantly decreased by enhanced UV-B radiation (except for UV50). The relationships between UV-B radiation intensities and the activities of secondary metabolism enzymes were best described by a second-order polynomial. The R(2) values for UV-B radiation intensities and the activities of PAL, C4H and 4CL were 0.8361, 0.5437 and 0.8025, respectively. The results indicated that enhanced UV-B radiation could promote secondary metabolism processes in postharvest flowers, which might be beneficial for the accumulation of medically active ingredients in medicinal plants. The optimal UV-B radiation intensities in the study were between UV400-UV600. © 2015 The American Society of Photobiology.

  5. Open to Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Reading, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Offers (1) suggestions for improving college students' study skills; (2) a system for keeping track of parent, teacher, and community contacts; (3) suggestions for motivating students using tic tac toe; (4) suggestions for using etymology to improve word retention; (5) a word search grid; and (6) suggestions for using postcards in remedial reading…

  6. Biological responses to current UV-B radiation in Arctic regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian Rost; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Ro-Poulsen, H.

    2008-01-01

    on high-arctic vegetation. They supplement previous investigations from the Arctic focussing on other variables like growth etc., which have reported no or minor plant responses to UV-B, and clearly indicates that UV-B radiation is an important factor affecting plant life at high-arctic Zackenberg......Depletion of the ozone layer and the consequent increase in solar ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) may impact living conditions for arctic plants significantly. In order to evaluate how the prevailing UV-B fluxes affect the heath ecosystem at Zackenberg (74°30'N, 20°30'W) and other high......-arctic regions, manipulation experiments with various set-ups have been performed. Activation of plant defence mechanisms by production of UV-B absorbing compounds was significant in ambient UV-B in comparison to a filter treatment reducing the UV-B radiation. Despite the UV-B screening response, ambient UV...

  7. Biological responses to current UV-B radiation in Arctic regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian Rost; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Ro-Poulsen, H.

    2008-01-01

    (mycorrhiza) or in the biomass of microbes in the soil of the root zone. However, the composition of the soil microbial community was different in the soils under ambient and reduced UV radiation after three treatment years. These results provide new insight into the negative impact of current UV-B fluxes......Depletion of the ozone layer and the consequent increase in solar ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) may impact living conditions for arctic plants significantly. In order to evaluate how the prevailing UV-B fluxes affect the heath ecosystem at Zackenberg (74°30'N, 20°30'W) and other high......-arctic regions, manipulation experiments with various set-ups have been performed. Activation of plant defence mechanisms by production of UV-B absorbing compounds was significant in ambient UV-B in comparison to a filter treatment reducing the UV-B radiation. Despite the UV-B screening response, ambient UV...

  8. Changes in ultraviolet-B and visible optical properties and absorbing pigment concentrations in pecan leaves during a growing season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadong Qi; Shuju Bai; Gordon M. Heisler

    2003-01-01

    UV-B (280-320 nm) and visible (400-760 nm) spectral reflectance, transmittance, and absorptance; chlorophyll content; UV-B absorbing compound concentration; and leaf thickness were measured for pecan (Carya illinoensis) leaves over a growing season (April-October). Leaf samples were collected monthly from a pecan plantation located on the Southern...

  9. Model of radiation transmittance by inorganic fouling on UV reactor lamp sleeves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wait, Isaac W; Blatchley, Ernest R

    2010-11-01

    The efficacy of UV disinfection of water depends on the ability of radiation to pass from UV lamps through the quartz sleeves that encase them; the accumulation of metal-containing foulants on sleeve surfaces inhibits disinfection by absorbing radiation that would otherwise be available for inactivation. In a series of experiments, the composition and quantity of sleeve foulants were studied relative to water chemistry and sleeve transmittance. Findings indicate that iron and calcium dominate fouling, with elevated fouling activity by iron, aluminum, manganese, and zinc. A regression-based modeling approach was used to characterize and quantify the effects of foulant metals on UV absorbance. The molar extinction coefficient for iron was found to be more than 3 times greater than that of calcium. Iron's relatively high activity in fouling reactions, elevated capacity to absorb UV, and reduced solubility under oxidizing conditions makes it a fouling precursor of particular concern, with respect to potential for sleeve fouling in UV reactors.

  10. Parallel microscope-based fluorescence, absorbance and time-of-flight mass spectrometry detection for high performance liquid chromatography and determination of glucosamine in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Bo; Wang, Ling-Ling; Li, Qiong; Nie, Yu-Ting; Cheng, Shuang-Shuang; Zhang, Hui; Sun, Ren-Qiang; Wang, Yu-Jiao; Zhou, Hong-Bin

    2015-11-01

    A parallel microscope-based laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), ultraviolet-visible absorbance (UV) and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) detection for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was achieved and used to determine glucosamine in urines. First, a reliable and convenient LIF detection was developed based on an inverted microscope and corresponding modulations. Parallel HPLC-LIF/UV/TOF-MS detection was developed by the combination of preceding Microscope-based LIF detection and HPLC coupled with UV and TOF-MS. The proposed setup, due to its parallel scheme, was free of the influence from photo bleaching in LIF detection. Rhodamine B, glutamic acid and glucosamine have been determined to evaluate its performance. Moreover, the proposed strategy was used to determine the glucosamine in urines, and subsequent results suggested that glucosamine, which was widely used in the prevention of the bone arthritis, was metabolized to urines within 4h. Furthermore, its concentration in urines decreased to 5.4mM at 12h. Efficient glucosamine detection was achieved based on a sensitive quantification (LIF), a universal detection (UV) and structural characterizations (TOF-MS). This application indicated that the proposed strategy was sensitive, universal and versatile, and it was capable of improved analysis, especially for analytes with low concentrations in complex samples, compared with conventional HPLC-UV/TOF-MS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Ultraviolet/visible and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic investigations of organic–inorganic hybrid layers for UV protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Präfke, Christiane, E-mail: christiane.praefke@iof.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute of Applied Optics and Precision Engineering, Optical Coatings Department, Albert-Einstein-Straße 7, 07745 Jena (Germany); Institute of Applied Physics, Abbe Center of Photonics, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena (Germany); Schulz, Ulrike, E-mail: ulrike.schulz@iof.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute of Applied Optics and Precision Engineering, Optical Coatings Department, Albert-Einstein-Straße 7, 07745 Jena (Germany); Kaiser, Norbert, E-mail: norbert.kaiser@iof.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute of Applied Optics and Precision Engineering, Optical Coatings Department, Albert-Einstein-Straße 7, 07745 Jena (Germany); Tünnermann, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.tuennermann@iof.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute of Applied Optics and Precision Engineering, Optical Coatings Department, Albert-Einstein-Straße 7, 07745 Jena (Germany); Institute of Applied Physics, Abbe Center of Photonics, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena (Germany)

    2013-04-01

    A study of vacuum-deposited organic–inorganic hybrid coatings for ultraviolet (UV) protection of polycarbonate is presented. For this purpose, UV-absorbing organic molecules were embedded in a silica matrix by thermal co-evaporation. Typical UV absorbers, namely a benzotriazole, a hydroxyphenyltriazine, and a cyanoacrylate, were used as organic materials. The hybrid layers were investigated by means of ultraviolet/visible (UV/VIS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) concerning their UV/VIS absorption properties and the influence of the silica network on the organic molecules. The porosity and silica–organic interactions are discussed with reference to the infrared spectra. UV irradiation experiments were carried out to demonstrate the UV protection ability of the hybrid layers. Hybrid layers containing the hydroxyphenyltriazine compound showed the best results. - Highlights: ► Vacuum deposited organic–inorganic UV protective coatings for polycarbonate ► Thermal co-evaporation of organic UV absorbing compounds with silica ► Matrix materials and the absorber concentration influence the absorption behavior. ► The coatings on PC show improved UV stability under artificial irradiation. ► The hydroxyphenyltriazine–silica layer shows best UV protection results.

  12. Ultraviolet/visible and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic investigations of organic–inorganic hybrid layers for UV protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Präfke, Christiane; Schulz, Ulrike; Kaiser, Norbert; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    A study of vacuum-deposited organic–inorganic hybrid coatings for ultraviolet (UV) protection of polycarbonate is presented. For this purpose, UV-absorbing organic molecules were embedded in a silica matrix by thermal co-evaporation. Typical UV absorbers, namely a benzotriazole, a hydroxyphenyltriazine, and a cyanoacrylate, were used as organic materials. The hybrid layers were investigated by means of ultraviolet/visible (UV/VIS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) concerning their UV/VIS absorption properties and the influence of the silica network on the organic molecules. The porosity and silica–organic interactions are discussed with reference to the infrared spectra. UV irradiation experiments were carried out to demonstrate the UV protection ability of the hybrid layers. Hybrid layers containing the hydroxyphenyltriazine compound showed the best results. - Highlights: ► Vacuum deposited organic–inorganic UV protective coatings for polycarbonate ► Thermal co-evaporation of organic UV absorbing compounds with silica ► Matrix materials and the absorber concentration influence the absorption behavior. ► The coatings on PC show improved UV stability under artificial irradiation. ► The hydroxyphenyltriazine–silica layer shows best UV protection results

  13. Contrasting UV-Vis Spectra of Terrestrial and Algal Derived Dissolved Organic Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jessica; Tipping, Edward; Scholefield, Paul; Feuchtmayr, Heidrun; Carter, Heather; Keenan, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is an important freshwater component. It controls aquatic ecological and biochemical cycling, and can be problematic in industrial water treatment. Thus, the demand for effective and reliable monitoring is growing. The heterogeneity of the spectroscopic properties of DOM are such that measurements of absorbance at a single wavelength cannot provide accurate predictions of [DOC]. Previous construction of a two-component model, based on the combination of absorbance at two wavelengths and a constant accountable for non-absorbing DOM, resulted in good predictions of [DOC] across approximately 1800 different freshwater systems (R2=0.99). However, there were isolated cases where the model appreciably underestimated [DOC], including shallow lakes and reservoirs in the Yangtze basin, China where waters were deemed to be highly eutrophic. Here, we used a revised series of samples, from small scale algal dominated microcosms, mesocosms and catchment scale field samples to explore the capability of the two component model in situations where algae may be the dominant producer of aquatic DOC. Absorbances were measured using a laboratory based UV-Vis spectrometer and subsamples were also analysed through combustion and infra-red detection. In both the microcosms and mesocosms, the model failed to provide a reliable fit, and [DOC] was considerably underestimated. At the field scale, analysis of 55 samples from a combination of reservoirs, arable ponds, streams and rivers produced mostly reliable predictions of [DOC] (R2=0.96), which can be attributed to the dominant input of terrestrial DOM. Samples of shallow, enclosed meres from the North-West of the UK showed hints of similar behaviour to that of the Chinese lakes, suggesting some influences from algal DOM. Our results therefore provide evidence that algae may produce complex forms of DOM that harbour different spectroscopic properties to terrestrially derived material, in the UV spectral range.

  14. Preillumination of lettuce seedlings with red light enhances the resistance of photosynthetic apparatus to UV-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreslavski, Vladimir D; Lyubimov, Valery Yu; Shirshikova, Galina N; Shmarev, Alexander N; Kosobryukhov, Anatoly A; Schmitt, Franz-Josef; Friedrich, Thomas; Allakhverdiev, Suleyman I

    2013-05-05

    Seedlings of 10-day-old lettuce (Lactuca sativa L., cultivar Berlin) were preilluminated by low intensity red light (λmax=660 nm, 10 min, 5 μmol quanta m(-2) s(-1)) and far-red light (λmax=730 nm, 10 min, 5 μmol quanta m(-2) s(-1)) to study the effect of pre-treatment on photosynthesis, photochemical activity of photosystem II (PSII), the contents of photosynthetic and UV-A-absorbing pigments (UAPs) and H2O2, as well as total and ascorbate peroxidase activities in cotyledonary leaves of seedlings exposed to UV-A. UV radiation reduced the photosynthetic rate (Pn), the activity of PSII, and the contents of Chl a and b, carotenoids and UAPs in the leaves, but increased the content of H2O2 and the total peroxidase activity. Preillumination with red light removed these effects of UV. In turn, the illumination with red light, then far-red light removed the effect of the red light. Illumination with red light alone increased the content of UAPs, as well as peroxidase activity. It is suggested that higher resistance of the lettuce photosynthetic apparatus to UV-A radiation is associated with involvement of the active form of phytochrome B, thereby increasing peroxidase activities as well as UAPs and saving preservation of photosynthetic pigment contents due to pre-illumination with red light. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Field research on the effects of UV-B filters on terrestrial Antarctic vegetation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huiskes, A.H.L.; Lud, D.; Moerdijk-Poortvliet, T.C.W.

    2001-01-01

    Patches of vegetation of six common species growing on Leonie Island (67 degrees 35' S, 68 degrees 20' W), Antarctic Peninsula region were covered with either UV-B transparent perspex screens or UV-B absorbing screens. Uncovered plots served as a control. Temperature and relative humidity were

  16. Optical and UV-Aging Properties of LDH-Modified Bitumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xing; Wu, Shaopeng; Liu, Gang; Li, Liping

    2015-07-03

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are an ultraviolet-light (UV) resistant material. In this study, LDHs were used to modify bitumen. The optical and UV aging properties of LDHs modified bitumen were investigated. Firstly, the thin films of bitumen, with and without LDHs, were prepared. By using the UV-Vis spectrophotometer, absorbance, reflectance, and transmittance of bituminous thin film were evaluated. The morphology of LDHs-modified bitumen was observed by using fluorescence microscopy (FM). Finally, the aging resistance of LDH-modified bitumen was investigated by using the UV-aging oven. Results indicated that the LDHs, especially with 5 wt % in the bitumen, can effectively absorb and reflect the UV light and improve the UV-aging resistance of bitumen. This implied that the addition of LDHs into bitumen had the potential to prolong the service life of asphalt pavement.

  17. Optical and UV-Aging Properties of LDH-Modified Bitumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Liu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Layered double hydroxides (LDHs are an ultraviolet-light (UV resistant material. In this study, LDHs were used to modify bitumen. The optical and UV aging properties of LDHs modified bitumen were investigated. Firstly, the thin films of bitumen, with and without LDHs, were prepared. By using the UV-Vis spectrophotometer, absorbance, reflectance, and transmittance of bituminous thin film were evaluated. The morphology of LDHs-modified bitumen was observed by using fluorescence microscopy (FM. Finally, the aging resistance of LDH-modified bitumen was investigated by using the UV-aging oven. Results indicated that the LDHs, especially with 5 wt % in the bitumen, can effectively absorb and reflect the UV light and improve the UV-aging resistance of bitumen. This implied that the addition of LDHs into bitumen had the potential to prolong the service life of asphalt pavement.

  18. Evaluation of environmental UV doses by empirical WL4UV model and multichannel radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piervitali, Emanuela; Benedetti, Elena; Damiani, Alessandro; Rafanelli, Claudio; Di Menno, Ivo; Casu, Giovanni; Malaspina, Fabio; Anav, Andrea; Di Menno, Massimo

    2005-08-01

    Solar UV radiation interacts both with atmospheric constituents, producing photochemical reactions, and with the biosphere, inducing changes or protection responses. Important for humans are the skin and eye diseases that result from UV exposure, in particular from social or recreational exposure. This leads to an evaluation of risks and to an assessment of suitable prevention strategies. Therefore, the correct evaluation of the available environmental dose is important; in fact, only a fraction of UV radiation will be absorbed by individuals depending on their outdoor activity. The more dense the UV solar network is, the more the doses will be correct. This paper shows the results of research carried out in Vigna di Valle (Rome, Italy) during spring 2004. The available environmental doses are evaluated by the WL4UV empirical model, developed by the authors, utilizing the solar UV spectral irradiance measured by a GUV 511C multichannel radiometer. The spectra of a wide range Brewer spectrophotometer (286.5 - 363.0 nm) have been assumed as reference. As an evaluation of the model in cloudy situations, an analysis in San Diego, Calif., USA, with a SUV 100 spectroradiometer is also shown.

  19. UV-B radiation and acclimation in timberline plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turunen, Minna; Latola, Kirsi

    2005-01-01

    Research has shown that some plants respond to enhanced UV-B radiation by producing smaller and thicker leaves, by increasing the thickness of epidermis and concentration of UV-B absorbing compounds of their surface layers and activation of the antioxidant defence system. The response of high-altitude plants to UV-B radiation in controlled conditions is often less pronounced compared to low-altitude plants, which shows that the alpine timberline plants are adapted to UV-B. These plants may have a simultaneous co-tolerance for several stress factors: acclimation or adaptation to the harsh climate can also increase tolerance to UV-B radiation, and vice versa. On the other hand, alpine timberline plants of northern latitudes may be less protected against increasing UV-B radiation than plants from more southern latitudes and higher elevations due to harsh conditions and weaker preadaptation resulting from lower UV-B radiation exposure. It is evident that more long-term experimental field research is needed in order to study the interaction of climate, soil and UV-B irradiance on the timberline plants. - More long-term field research is needed to assess the interaction of climate, soil and UV-B on timberline plants

  20. Photosynthesis, growth, and ultraviolet irradiance absorbance of Cucurbita pepo L. leaves exposed to ultraviolet-B radiation (280 to 315 nm)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisson, W.B.

    1981-01-01

    Net photosynthesis, growth, and ultraviolet (uv) radiation absorbance were determined for the first leaf of Cucurbita pepo L. exposed to two levels of uv-B irradiation and a uv-B radiation-free control treatment. Absorbance by extracted flavonoid pigments and other uv-B radiation-absorbing compounds from the first leaves increased with time and level of uv-B radiation impinging on leaf surfaces. Although absorbance of uv-B radiation by extracted pigments increased substantially, uv-B radiation attenuation apparently was insufficient to protect completely the photosynthetic apparatus or leaf growth processes. Leaf expansion was repressed by daily exposure to 1365 Joules per meter per day of biologically effective uv-B radiation by not by exposure to 660 Joules per meter per day. Photosynthesis measured through ontogenesis of the first leaf was depressed by both uv-B radiation treatments. Repression of photosynthesis by uv-B radiation was especially evident during the ontogenetic period of maximum photosynthetic activity

  1. Comets in UV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shustov, B.; Sachkov, M.; Gómez de Castro, A. I.; Vallejo, J. C.; Kanev, E.; Dorofeeva, V.

    2018-04-01

    Comets are important "eyewitnesses" of Solar System formation and evolution. Important tests to determine the chemical composition and to study the physical processes in cometary nuclei and coma need data in the UV range of the electromagnetic spectrum. Comprehensive and complete studies require additional ground-based observations and in situ experiments. We briefly review observations of comets in the ultraviolet (UV) and discuss the prospects of UV observations of comets and exocomets with space-borne instruments. A special reference is made to the World Space Observatory-Ultraviolet (WSO-UV) project.

  2. Modulations of physiological responses and possible involvement of defense-related secondary metabolites in acclimation of Artemisia annua L. against short-term UV-B radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Neha; Pandey-Rai, Shashi

    2014-09-01

    UV - B radiation exposure for upto 3 h did not cause direct damage to physiology, but adjusted secondary metabolism and metabolites accumulation as an effective acclimation mechanism to mitigate the adverse effects of radiation. Artemisia annua L. plants were irradiated with UV-B radiation (280-315 nm; 2.8 Wm(-2)) for different short-term (1, 2, 3 and 4 h) durations. UV-B irradiation of 3 h reduced the photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate. However, F v/F m, a sensitive indicator of photosynthetic inhibition, remained stable (0.78) upto 3 h, thereafter it declined sharply (0.72). Interestingly, transcript level of LHCB1, PSBA and PSBO genes related to photosystem II (PSII) were induced under UV-B exposure. In addition, genes coding for Rubisco small (RBCS1B) and large (RBCL) subunits were also upregulated upto 3 h. To mitigate the adverse effects of UV-B radiation, plants tremendously induced defense-related secondary metabolites such as antioxidative phenolics, UV-B absorbing flavonoids, anthocyanins and protective terpenes. The GC-MS analysis of essential oils revealed relatively higher production of monoterpenes over sesquiterpenes as well as 1.2-folds higher total oil yield under UV-B radiation. Owing to its diverse biological activities, the altered quantity and quality of essential oil of A. annua may contribute towards improving its therapeutic properties. The results suggest that UV-B irradiation upto 3 h reduced photosynthesis, probably due to stomatal limitations rather than any direct injury to photosynthetic apparatus as evident from stable F v/F m value, upregulated genes and greater accumulation of their corresponding proteins which gauge PSII health, elevated UV-B absorbing compounds and other protective metabolites. Correlation analysis indicates a significant positive correlation of photosynthetic rate with stomatal conductance while a negative correlation with anthocyanin and monoterpene contents under UV-B radiation

  3. Absorber materials in CANDU PHWR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, E.G.; Boss, C.R.; Novak, W.Z.; Fong, R.W.L.

    1995-03-01

    In a CANDU reactor the fuel channels are arranged on a square lattice in a calandria filled with heavy water moderator. This arrangement allows five types of tubular neutron absorber devices to be located in a relatively benign environment of low pressure, low temperature heavy water between neighbouring rows of columns of fuel channels. This paper will describe the roles of the devices and outline the design requirements of the absorber component from a reactor physics viewpoint. Nuclear heating and activation problems associated with the different absorbers will be briefly discussed. The design and manufacture of the devices will be also discussed. The control rod absorbers and shut off materials are cadmium and stainless steel. In the tubular arrangement, the cadmium is sandwiched between stainless steel tubes. This type of device has functioned well, but there is now concern over the availability and expense of cadmium which is used in two types of CANDU control devices. There are also concerns about the toxicity of cadmium during the fabrication of the absorbers. These concerns are prompting AECL to study alternatives. To minimize design changes, pure boron-10 alloyed in stainless steel is a favoured option. Work is underway to confirm the suitability of the boron-loaded steel and identify other encapsulated absorber materials for practical application. Because the reactivity devices or their guide tubes span the calandria vessel, the long slender components must be sufficiently rigid to resist operational vibration and also be seismically stable. Some of these components are made of Zircaloy to minimize neutron absorption. Slow irradiation growth and creep can reduce the spring tension, and periodic adjustments to the springs are required. Experience with the control absorber devices has generally been good. In one instance liquid zone controllers had a problem of vibration induced fretting but a designed back-fit resolved the problem. (author). 3 refs., 1

  4. Comments on a Method to Measure Sucralose Using UV Photodegradation Followed by UV Spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Te; Andrews, Susan A; Hofmann, Ron

    2017-05-01

    A simple and quick method to measure sucralose in aqueous solution at concentrations in the order of 0.1-1.2 g·L-1 proposed by Idris et al. uses UV irradiation prior to UV spectrophotometry. The photolysis of sucralose forms a photoactive compound characterized by maximum absorbance at approximately 270 nm. The conditions required for sucralose photolysis, however, had not been completely reported. In this work, the procedure described by Idris et al. was replicated using a low-pressure UV lamp to irradiate sucralose samples with a wider range of initial concentrations (0.04-10 g·L-1) with known fluences. It was determined that care must be taken to ensure that the same fluence is applied for both calibration and measurement steps because the absorbance of the sucralose photolysis product is a function of the applied fluence. The way the samples are irradiated also has an impact on the results in that the method exhibits a greater linear range if an apparatus is used that maximizes the fluence rate (e.g., by placing samples closer to the UV source or using a higher-intensity lamp).

  5. Biochemical traits and proteomic changes in postharvest flowers of medicinal chrysanthemum exposed to enhanced UV-B radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xiaoqin; Chu, Jian-Zhou; Ma, Chun-Hui; Si, Chao; Li, Ji-Gang; Shi, Xiao-Fei; Liu, Chao-Nan

    2015-08-01

    The article studied UV-B effects on biochemical traits and proteomic changes in postharvest flowers of medicinal chrysanthemum. The experiment about UV-B effects on biochemical traits in flowers included six levels of UV-B treatments (0 (UV0), 50 (UV50), 200 (UV200), 400 (UV400), 600 (UV600) and 800 (UV800) μWcm(-2)). UV400, UV600 and UV800 treatments significantly increased the contents of hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde and UV-B absorbing compounds, and the activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase enzyme over the control. The contents of chlorogenic acid and flavone in flowers were significantly increased by UV-B treatments (except for UV50 and UV800). Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was utilized to analyze proteomic changes in flowers with or without UV-B radiation. Results indicated that 43 protein spots (>1.5-fold difference in volume) were detected, including 19 spots with a decreasing trend and 24 spots with an increasing trend, and 19 differentially expressed protein spots were successfully indentified by MALDI-TOF MS. The indentified proteins were classified based on functions, the most of which were involved in photosynthesis, respiration, protein biosynthesis and degradation and defence. An overall assessment using biochemical and differential proteomic data revealed that UV-B radiation could affect biochemical reaction and promote secondary metabolism processes in postharvest flowers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Viewpoint: Inorganic Materials for UV and Deep-UV Nonlinear-Optical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halasyamani, P Shiv; Zhang, Weiguo

    2017-10-16

    New inorganic nonlinear-optical (NLO) materials are necessary for solid-state lasers to generate coherent radiation in the ultraviolet (UV) and deep-UV regions. The purpose of this Viewpoint is to describe the chemical and physical requirements for such materials, as well as the current state of the field. In addition, the "birefringence challenge" is described and a flowchart is presented for characterizing new second-harmonic-generation materials. Finally, several new materials are suggested that may have UV and/or deep-UV NLO applications.

  7. Syntheses, structures and photoelectrochemical properties of three water-stable, visible light absorbing mental-organic frameworks based on tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl)silane and 1,4-bis(pyridyl)benzene mixed ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tiantian; Yang, Xiaowei; Li, Ruyan; Liu, Xiaoyu; Gao, Yanling; Dai, Zhihui; Fang, Min; Liu, Hong-Ke; Wu, Yong

    2017-09-01

    Photovoltaics (PV), which directly convert solar energy into electricity generally using semiconductors, offer a practical and sustainable solution to the current energy shortage and environmental pollution crisis. Photovoltaic applications of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) belong to a relatively new area of research. Given that UV light accounts for only 4% while visible light contributes 43% of solar energy, it is rather imperative to develop semiconductors with narrow band gaps so that they could absorb visible light. In this work, three water-stable, narrow band semiconducting MOFs of [Cu(H2TCS)(H2O)] (1), [Co(H2TCS)(BPB)] (2) and [Ni(H2TCS)(BPB)] (3) were synthesized using tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl)silane (H4TCS) and 1,4-bis (pyridyl)benzene (BPB) in water, and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffractions. MOF 1 has a 2D structure. MOF 2 and 3 are isostructrual and have 3D frameworks formed by interwoven 2D layers. All three MOFs are stable in acidic water solutions and can be stable in water for 7 days. MOFs 1-3 absorb UV and visible light and have band gaps of 0.50, 1.77 and 1.49 eV, respectively. Rapid and stable photocurrent responses of MOFs 1-3 under UV and visible light illuminations are observed. This work demonstrates that using electron rich Cu2+, Co2+, or Ni2+ as metal nodes can effectively decrease the band gaps of MOFs to make them absorbing visible light. To increase the conjugation in the linker is generally considered to be the method to decrease the band gap of MOFs. The conjugation in H4TCS is not significant and this ligand basically only absorbs UV light. However, by using electron rich Cu2+ ions as metal nodes, the prepared [Cu(H2TCS)(H2O)]·H2O (1) absorbs broadly in the visible light region. Thus, this work suggests that by using electron rich Cu2+, many narrow-band semiconductor MOFs can be prepared even by using ligands which only absorbs UV light.

  8. Ambient UV-B radiation reduces PSII performance and net photosynthesis in high Arctic Salix arctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian Rost; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Ro-Poulsen, Helge

    2011-01-01

    Ambient ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation potentially impacts the photosynthetic performance of high Arctic plants. We conducted an UV-B exclusion experiment in a dwarf shrub heath in NE Greenland (74°N), with open control, filter control, UV-B filtering and UV-AB filtering, all in combination......, nitrogen and UV-B absorbing compounds. Compared to a 60% reduced UV-B irradiance, the ambient solar UV-B reduced net photosynthesis in Salix arctica leaves fixed in the 45° position which exposed leaves to maximum natural irradiance. Also a reduced Calvin Cycle capacity was found, i.e. the maximum rate...... across position in the vegetation. These findings add to the evidence that the ambient solar UV-B currently is a significant stress factor for plants in high Arctic Greenland....

  9. UV exposure in cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehrle, Matthias; Soballa, Martin; Korn, Manfred

    2003-08-01

    There is increasing knowledge about the hazards of solar and ultraviolet (UV) radiation to humans. Although people spend a significant time in cars, data on UV exposure during traveling are lacking. The aim of this study was to obtain basic information on personal UV exposure in cars. UV transmission of car glass samples, windscreen, side and back windows and sunroof, was determined. UV exposure of passengers was evaluated in seven German middle-class cars, fitted with three different types of car windows. UV doses were measured with open or closed windows/sunroof of Mercedes-Benz E 220 T, E 320, and S 500, and in an open convertible car (Mercedes-Benz CLK). Bacillus subtilis spore film dosimeters (Viospor) were attached to the front, vertex, cheeks, upper arms, forearms and thighs of 'adult' and 'child' dummies. UV wavelengths longer than >335 nm were transmitted through car windows, and UV irradiation >380 nm was transmitted through compound glass windscreens. There was some variation in the spectral transmission of side windows according to the type of glass. On the arms, UV exposure was 3-4% of ambient radiation when the car windows were shut, and 25-31% of ambient radiation when the windows were open. In the open convertible car, the relative personal doses reached 62% of ambient radiation. The car glass types examined offer substantial protection against short-wave UV radiation. Professional drivers should keep car windows closed on sunny days to reduce occupational UV exposure. In individuals with polymorphic light eruption, produced by long-wave UVA, additional protection by plastic films, clothes or sunscreens appears necessary.

  10. Carbon Absorber Retrofit Equipment (CARE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Eric [Neumann Systems Group, Incorporated, Colorado Springs, CO (United States)

    2015-12-23

    During Project DE-FE0007528, CARE (Carbon Absorber Retrofit Equipment), Neumann Systems Group (NSG) designed, installed and tested a 0.5MW NeuStream® carbon dioxide (CO2) capture system using the patented NeuStream® absorber equipment and concentrated (6 molal) piperazine (PZ) as the solvent at Colorado Springs Utilities’ (CSU’s) Martin Drake pulverized coal (PC) power plant. The 36 month project included design, build and test phases. The 0.5MW NeuStream® CO2 capture system was successfully tested on flue gas from both coal and natural gas combustion sources and was shown to meet project objectives. Ninety percent CO2 removal was achieved with greater than 95% CO2product purity. The absorbers tested support a 90% reduction in absorber volume compared to packed towers and with an absorber parasitic power of less than 1% when configured for operation with a 550MW coal plant. The preliminary techno-economic analysis (TEA) performed by the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) predicted an over-the-fence cost of $25.73/tonne of CO2 captured from a sub-critical PC plant.

  11. Additive manufacturing of RF absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Matthew S.

    The ability of additive manufacturing techniques to fabricate integrated electromagnetic absorbers tuned for specific radio frequency bands within structural composites allows for unique combinations of mechanical and electromagnetic properties. These composites and films can be used for RF shielding of sensitive electromagnetic components through in-plane and out-of-plane RF absorption. Structural composites are a common building block of many commercial platforms. These platforms may be placed in situations in which there is a need for embedded RF absorbing properties along with structural properties. Instead of adding radar absorbing treatments to the external surface of existing structures, which adds increased size, weight and cost; it could prove to be advantageous to integrate the microwave absorbing properties directly into the composite during the fabrication process. In this thesis, a method based on additive manufacturing techniques of composites structures with prescribed electromagnetic loss, within the frequency range 1 to 26GHz, is presented. This method utilizes screen printing and nScrypt micro dispensing to pattern a carbon based ink onto low loss substrates. The materials chosen for this study will be presented, and the fabrication technique that these materials went through to create RF absorbing structures will be described. The calibration methods used, the modeling of the RF structures, and the applications in which this technology can be utilized will also be presented.

  12. Light Absorbing Aerosols in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, N. A.; Kelley, K. L.; Kilaparty, P. S.; Gaffney, J. S.

    2008-12-01

    The direct effects of aerosol radiative forcing has been identified by the IPCC as a major uncertainty in climate modeling. The DOE Megacity Aerosol Experiment-Mexico City (MAX-Mex), as part of the MILAGRO study in March of 2006, was undertaken to reduce these uncertainties by characterization of the optical, chemical, and physical properties of atmospheric aerosols emitted from this megacity environment. Aerosol samples collected during this study using quartz filters were characterized in the uv-visible-infrared by using surface spectroscopic techniques. These included the use of an integrating sphere approach combined with the use of Kubelka-Munk theory to obtain aerosol absorption spectra. In past work black carbon has been assumed to be the only major absorbing species in atmospheric aerosols with an broad band spectral profile that follows a simple inverse wavelength dependence. Recent work has also identified a number of other absorbing species that can also add to the overall aerosol absorption. These include primary organics from biomass and trash burning and secondary organic aerosols including nitrated PAHs and humic-like substances, or HULIS. By using surface diffuse reflection spectroscopy we have also obtained spectra in the infrared that indicate significant IR absorption in the atmospheric window-region. These data will be presented and compared to spectra of model compounds that allow for evaluation of the potential importance of these species in adding strength to the direct radiative forcing of atmospheric aerosols. This work was supported by the Office of Science (BER), U.S. Department of Energy, Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER64327 as part of the Atmospheric Science Program.

  13. Determination of the concentration of single-walled carbon nanotubes in aqueous dispersions using UV-visible absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attal, S; Thiruvengadathan, R; Regev, O

    2006-12-01

    Stable, homogeneous, aqueous dispersions of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are prepared by nonspecific physical adsorption of surfactants enhanced by sonication. Upon centrifugation, supernatant and precipitate phases are obtained. The initial weights of the SWNTs and the surfactant are divided between these two phases, and the respective SWNT concentration in each phase is unknown. The focus of this work is on the determination of the true concentration of raw, exfoliated HiPCO SWNTs in the supernatant phase. A UV-visible absorption-based approach is suggested for a direct measurement of the SWNT and the surfactant concentration in the supernatant. UV-visible absorbance spectra of SWNTs-surfactant dispersions and surfactants alone reveal that the intensity of a certain peak, attributed to the pi-plasmon resonance absorption, is unaffected by the presence of most surfactants. A calibration plot is then made by monitoring the intensity of the peak as a function of the true concentration of the exfoliated SWNTs. Thus, we are able to determine the unknown concentration of surfactant-dispersed HiPCO SWNTs in the supernatant solution, simply by measuring its optical absorbance. Moreover, we can now calculate the surfactant efficiency in dispersing SWNTs. Cryogenic-transmission electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis techniques are used for the characterization of these dispersions and to complement the UV-visible measurements.

  14. Potential link between fruit yield, quality parameters and phytohormonal changes in preharvest UV-C treated strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanqun; Charles, Marie Thérèse; Luo, Zisheng; Roussel, Dominique; Rolland, Daniel

    2017-07-01

    Preharvest ultraviolet-C (UV-C) treatment of strawberry is a very new approach, and little information is available on the effect of this treatment on plant growth regulators. In this study, the effect of preharvest UV-C irradiations at three different doses on strawberry yield, fruit quality parameters and endogenous phytohormones was investigated simultaneously. The overall marketable yield of strawberry was not affected by the preharvest UV-C treatments, although more aborted and misshapen fruits were found in UV-C treated groups than in the untreated control. The fruits in the high dose group were firmer and had approximately 20% higher sucrose content and 15% higher ascorbic acid content than the control, while fruits from the middle and low dose groups showed no significant changes in these parameters. The lower abscisic acid (ABA) content found in the fruits in the high UV-C group may be associated with those quality changes. The citric acid content decreased only in the low dose group (reduction of 5.8%), with a concomitant 37% reduction in jasmonic acid (JA) content, compared to the control. The antioxidant status of fruits that received preharvest UV-C treatment was considered enhanced based on their oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. In terms of aroma, three volatile alcohols differed significantly among the various treatments with obvious activation of alcohol acyltransferase (AAT) activity. The observed synchronous influence on physiological indexes and related phytohormones suggests that preharvest UV-C might affect fruit quality via the action of plant hormones. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Time-resolved study of absorbing film assisted laser induced forward transfer of Trichoderma longibrachiatum conidia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopp, B [Hungarian Academy of Sciences and University of Szeged, Research Group on Laser Physics, H-6720 Szeged, Dom ter 9 (Hungary); Smausz, T [Hungarian Academy of Sciences and University of Szeged, Research Group on Laser Physics, H-6720 Szeged, Dom ter 9 (Hungary); Barna, N [Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged, Dom ter 9 (Hungary); Vass, Cs [Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged, Dom ter 9 (Hungary); Antal, Zs [Hungarian Academy of Sciences and University of Szeged, Microbiological Research Group, PO Box 533, H-6701 Szeged (Hungary); Kredics, L [Hungarian Academy of Sciences and University of Szeged, Microbiological Research Group, PO Box 533, H-6701 Szeged (Hungary); Chrisey, D [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2005-03-21

    We have characterized the absorbing film assisted transfer of Trichoderma longibrachiatum conidia using a synchronized laser for illumination. The transfer laser used was a KrF excimer laser ({lambda} = 248 nm, FWHM = 30 ns) and the ejected material was illuminated parallel to the quartz plate by a nitrogen laser pumped Coumarine 153 dye laser beam ({lambda} = 453 nm, FWHM 1 ns) electronically delayed relative to the transfer UV pulse. Our time-resolved investigations determined that the ejection velocity front of the conidia plume from the donor surface during the transfer procedure was 1150 m s{sup -1} at 355 mJ cm{sup -2} applied laser fluence. On the basis of the measured data, the acceleration of the emitted conidia at the plume front was approximately 10{sup 9} x g. The conidia survived the absorbing film assisted forward transfer and associated mechanical shear without significant damages suggesting that the technique might be applicable to other more fragile types of biological objects and applications.

  16. Water fugacity in absorbing polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burg, K J; Shalaby, S W

    1997-01-01

    Absorbable biomaterials, as dynamic systems, require special handling, processing, and characterization techniques beyond those of the traditional nonabsorbable materials. As the material degrades or absorbs, in vitro or in vivo, it undergoes structural, physical, and chemical changes. These changes in the base material may significantly impact the performance of a particular biomedical device; hence, it is important that the investigator consider the full range of properties that constitute the lifetime of a given absorbable material. The long term degradation study presented here sought to identify one such property, the change in water retention of a degrading oriented polylactide film. The investigation found through differential scanning calorimetry that later stages of degradation are often characterized by a stronger retention of water, potentially due to a higher number of polar carboxyl groups within the relatively hydrophobic polymer matrix.

  17. Ambient UV-B radiation decreases photosynthesis in high arctic Vaccinium uliginosum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, K.R.; Ro-Poulsen, H. (Univ. of Copenhagen, Dept. of Terrestrial Ecology, Copenhagen (DK)); Mikkelsen, T.N. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Biosystems Dept., Roskilde (DK))

    2008-06-15

    An UV-B-exclusion experiment was established in high arctic Zackenberg, Northeast Greenland, to investigate the possible effects of ambient UV-B on plant performance. During almost a whole growing season, canopy gas exchange and Chl fluorescence were measured on Vaccinium uliginosum (bog blueberry). Leaf area, biomass, carbon, nitrogen and UV-B-absorbing compounds were determined from a late season harvest. Compared with the reduced UV-B treatment, the plants in ambient UV-B were found to have a higher content of UV-B-absorbing compounds, and canopy net photosynthesis was as an average 23% lower during the season. By means of the JIP-test, it was found that the potential of processing light energy through the photosynthetic machinery was slightly reduced in ambient UV-B. This indicates that not only the UV-B effects on PSII may be responsible for some of the observed reduction of photosynthesis but also the effects on other parts of the photosynthetic machinery, e.g. the Calvin cycle, might be important. The 60% reduction of the UV-B irradiance used in this study implies a higher relative change in the UV-B load than many of the supplemental experiments do, but the substantial effect on photosynthesis clearly indicates that V. uliginosum is negatively affected by the current level of UV-B. (au)

  18. Adaptive inertial shock-absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faraj, Rami; Holnicki-Szulc, Jan; Knap, Lech; Seńko, Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces and discusses a new concept of impact absorption by means of impact energy management and storage in dedicated rotating inertial discs. The effectiveness of the concept is demonstrated in a selected case-study involving spinning management, a recently developed novel impact-absorber. A specific control technique performed on this device is demonstrated to be the main source of significant improvement in the overall efficiency of impact damping process. The influence of various parameters on the performance of the shock-absorber is investigated. Design and manufacturing challenges and directions of further research are formulated. (paper)

  19. Plant Responses to Increased UV-B Radiation: A Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    DAntoni, H. L.; Skiles, J. W.; Armstrong, R.; Coughlan, J.; Daleo, G.; Mayoral, A.; Lawless, James G. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    because there is anecdotal evidence of plant damage on the saguaros that has been linked to increased UV radiation, and (3) the forests of Nothofagus spp. and the steppe of Patagonia where the risk of plant damage at 35S is 5% and increases to as much as 15% at 55S due to increased UV-B radiation. Measurements of UV-B radiation impinging on the surface at 55S largely exceed the predicted UV-B radiation values at 50 latitude and 0% ozone depletion. Preliminary HPLC analyses of UV-B absorbing compounds in Nothofagus antartica, N. pumilio, N. betuloides and Rumex sp. in natural conditions show species-specific patterns. The spectrum of N. antartica grown at 38S differs significantly from that of N. antartica in natural conditions in Ushuaia (55S). These results suggest that the selected main area (Patagonia) is appropriate for assessing the problem and its magnitude and that Nothofagus is appropriate for our study.

  20. Risks of increased UV-B radiation: higher plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rau, W.; Hofmann, H.

    1994-01-01

    The question pursued within the Bavarian climate research programme (BayFORKLIM) in the present context was as follows: Does the fact that UV-B radiation increases with growing site elevation mean that the low sensitivity of predominantly alpine plants compared with that of lowland plants is attributable to their different genetic constitution, possibly as a result of selective pressure and/or de alpine species have a greater capacity to develop protective mechanisms? Pairs and triplets of species belonging to the same genus but occuring at different site elevations were grown from seeds in a greenhouse that is, without UV-B. In order to determine their capacity to adapt to UV-B radiation, some of the plants were additionally exposed to UV-B for 5-6 weeks prior to sensitivity testing. Sensitivity was tested by exposing the plants to additional UV-B of different intensities in test chambers. Visible damage, ranging from light bronzing or yellowing to withering, served as an assessment criterion. Levels of UV-B absorbing substances (phenylpropane species, usually flavonoids) were also measured in these plants. The results obtained permit the following conclusions: The greater UV-B resistance of alpine species compared with that of lowland species of the same genus is not attributable to their genetic constitution but rather to their superior adaptability. Superior resistance is in part due to a greater accumulation of UV-B absorbing substances. Distinct differences in sensitivity between different genera could lead to population shifts within ecosystems as a result of increased UV-B radiation. (orig./KW) [de

  1. Improving UV protection by clothing--recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterwalder, Uli; Rohwer, Hauke

    2002-01-01

    The assessment of UV transmittance of clothing and the determination of the UV protection factor (UPF) are now well established and the influencing factors such as type of fiber, color, and fabric construction are known. Quick and reliable instruments to measure UV transmittance are crucial. Besides expensive scientific laboratory instruments, a low-cost UV meter is now available for this purpose. The questions arise as to what can be done about a given garment and whether there are ways to improve textiles by the consumer. The many opportunities to improve UV protection of clothing along the textile chain of manufacturing are discussed. The latest possibility for improving the UV-protective properties of clothing is now available at the fabric care stage in every household. A UV absorber can be brought into contact with a fabric during the wash or rinse cycle of a laundry operation. The high UV transmittance of 30% of a thin, bleached cotton swatch in the dry state (UPF 3), can be reduced tenfold to about 3% (UPF >30) in ten washes cycles. This is more than the effect achieved by dyestuffs. The detergent should contain about 0.1-0.3% of the special UV absorber. The same effect can be achieved as early as after one wash cycle with a higher concentration provided by a special laundry additive. Yet another form of application is via rinse cycle fabric conditioner. To make these new types of improvement of fabrics visible the Skin Cancer Foundation now provides the possibility for laundry products to qualify for the "Seal of Recommendation".

  2. Optical coatings for the Tropomi UV channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Martijn; van Buuren, Robin; Gawlitta, Niels; Grabarnik, Semen; van der Valk, Nick; Vink, Rob; van Brug, Hedser; Visser, Huib

    2017-11-01

    Earth observation measurements at wavelengths below 320nm are challenging due to the steep decrease of the earth irradiance towards shorter wavelengths. Stray light and ghosting of longer wave light can easily overwhelm the signals at short wavelengths. In the UV channel (270-320nm) of the TROPOMI instrument this challenge has been addressed using a number of coatings. Three black UV mirror coatings absorb light with a wavelength above 370nm. Together, these achieve more than four orders suppression of long wave out-of-band light. A lowpass transmission filter with a position dependent cut-off wavelength is deposited on the last lens surface, directly in front of the detector. At the position where short wavelength light passes the filter, longer wavelength in-band stray light and ghosts are blocked. A simulation predicts that this graded filter reduces ghosting by a factor 20 and scatter related stray light by factor 30.

  3. Non-invasive measurements of leaf epidermal transmittance of UV radiation using chlorophyll fluorescence: field and laboratory studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, P.W. [Southwest Texas State Univ.. Dept. of Biology, San Marcos, TX (United States); Searles, P.S.; Ryel, R.J.; Caldwell, M.M. [Utah State Univ., Dept. of Rangeland Resources and the Ecology Center, Logan, UT (United States); Ballare, C.L. [IFEVA, Univ. de Buenos Aires, Dept. de Ecologia, Facultad de Agronomia, Buenos Aires, (Argentina)

    2000-07-01

    Ratios of chlorophyll fluorescence induced by ultraviolet (UV) and bluegreen (BG) radiation [F(UV)/F(BG)] were determined with a Xe-PAM fluorometer to test the utility of this technique as a means of non-intrusively assessing changes in the pigmentation and optical properties of leaves exposed to varying UV exposures under laboratory and field conditions. For plants of Vicia faba and Brassica campestris, grown under controlled-environmental conditions, F(UV-B)/F(BG) was negatively correlated with whole-leaf UV-B-absorbing pigment concentrations. Fluorescence ratios of V.faba were similar to, and positively correlated with (r{sup 2} = 0.77 [UV-B]; 0.85 [UV-A]), direct measurements of epidermal transmittance made with an integrating sphere. Leaves of 2 of 4 cultivars of field-grown Glycine max exposed to near-ambient solar UV-B at a mid-latitude site (Buenos Aires, Argentina, 34 degrees S) showed significantly lower abaxial F(UV-B)/F(BG) values (i.e., lower UV-B epidermal transmittance) than those exposed to attenuated UV-B, but solar UV-B reduction had a minimal effect on F(UV-B)/F(BG) in plants growing at a high-latitude site (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, 55 degrees S). Similarly, the exotic Taraxacum officinale did not show significant changes in F(UV-B)/F(BG) when exposed to very high supplemental UV-B (biologically effective UV-B = 14-15 kJ m{sup -2} day{sup -1}) in the field in Tierra del Fuego, whereas a native species, Gunnera magellanica, showed significant increases in F(UV-B)/F(BG) relative to those receiving ambient UV-B. These anomalous fluorescence changes were associated with increases in BG-absorbing pigments (anthocyanins), but not UV-B-absorbing pigments. These results indicate that non-invasive estimates of epidermal transmittance of UV radiation using chlorophyll fluorescence can detect changes in pigmentation and leaf optical properties induced by UV-B radiation under both field and laboratory conditions. However, this technique may be of limited

  4. Absorbed Doses to Patients in Nuclear Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leide-Svegborn, Sigrid; Mattsson, Soeren; Nosslin, Bertil; Johansson, Lennart

    2004-09-01

    The work with a Swedish catalogue of radiation absorbed doses to patients undergoing nuclear medicine investigations has continued. After the previous report in 1999, biokinetic data and dose estimates (mean absorbed dose to various organs and tissues and effective dose) have been produced for a number of substances: 11 C- acetate, 11 C- methionine, 18 F-DOPA, whole antibody labelled with either 99m Tc, 111 In, 123 I or 131 I, fragment of antibody, F(ab') 2 labelled with either 99m Tc, 111 In, 123 I or 131 I and fragment of antibody, Fab' labelled with either 99m Tc, 111 In, 123 I or 131 I. The absorbed dose estimates for these substances have been made from published biokinetic information. For other substances of interest, e.g. 14 C-urea (children age 3-6 years), 14 C-glycocholic acid, 14 C-xylose and 14 C-triolein, sufficient literature data have not been available. Therefore, a large number of measurements on patients and volunteers have been carried out, in order to determine the biokinetics and dosimetry for these substances. Samples of breast milk from 50 mothers, who had been subject to nuclear medicine investigations, have been collected at various times after administration of the radiopharmaceutical to the mother. The activity concentration in the breast milk samples has been measured. The absorbed dose to various organs and tissues and the effective dose to the child who ingests the milk have been determined for 17 different radiopharmaceuticals. Based on these results revised recommendations for interruption of breast-feeding after nuclear medicine investigations are suggested

  5. A high absorbance material for solar collectors' applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva, A I; Maldonado, R D; Díaz, E A; Montalvo, A I

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we proposed a low cost material to be used as an excellent absorber for solar collectors, to increase its thermal efficiency by the high capacity to absorb solar radiation. The material, known as 'smoke black' (soot) can be obtained by the incomplete combustion of organic materials, such as the oxygen-acetylene, paraffin, or candles. A comparative analysis between the optical properties (reflectance, absorbance, and emissivity) measured on three covered copper surfaces (without paint, with a commercial matte black paint, and with smoke black) shows amazing optical results for the smoke black. Reflectance values of the smoke black applied over copper surfaces improves 56 times the values obtained from commercial black paints. High values of emissivity (E=0.9988) were measured on the surface covered with smoke black by spectrophotometry in the UV-VIS range, which represents about 7% of increment as compared with the value obtained for commercial black paints (E=0.938). The proposed high absorbance material can be easily applied on any kind of surfaces at low cost.

  6. A UV-Vis photoacoustic spectrophotometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Joseph R; Mathews, L Dalila; Smith, Geoffrey D

    2014-06-17

    A novel photoacoustic spectrophotometer (PAS) for the measurement of gas-phase and aerosol absorption over the UV-visible region of the spectrum is described. Light from a broadband Hg arc lamp is filtered in eight separate bands from 300 to 700 nm using bandpass interference filters (centered at 301 nm, 314 nm, 364 nm, 405 nm, 436 nm, 546 nm, 578 and 687 nm) and modulated with an optical chopper before entering the photoacoustic cell. All wavelength bands feature a 20-s detection limit of better than 3.0 Mm(-1) with the exception of the lower-intensity 687 nm band for which it is 10.2 Mm(-1). Validation measurements of gas-phase acetone and nigrosin aerosol absorption cross sections at several wavelengths demonstrate agreement to within 10% with those measured previously (for acetone) and those predicted by Mie theory (for nigrosin). The PAS instrument is used to measure the UV-visible absorption spectrum of ambient aerosol demonstrating a dramatic increase in the UV region with absorption increasing by 300% from 405 to 301 nm. This type of measurement throughout the UV-visible region and free from artifacts associated with filter-based methods has not been possible previously, and we demonstrate its promise for classifying and quantifying different types of light-absorbing ambient particles.

  7. Spectral radiation balance of absorbing aerosols over clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stammes, Piet; de Graaf, Martin; Deneke, Hartwig

    2017-04-01

    Absorption by aerosols, like smoke and desert dust, may lead to strong atmospheric warming, surface cooling, and cloud dynamical responses. Therefore, detection of absorbing aerosols and assessment of their radiative effects is important. However, absorbing aerosols are difficult to detect, especially in cloudy scenes. Here we use a satellite detection technique which can be used to determine the spectral absorption effects of smoke aerosols over clouds, using the fact that aerosols have a much stronger effect at UV and visible wavelengths than at longer wavelengths. We also analyse the shortwave radiative balance of absorbing aerosols over clouds. We have developed a technique of measuring aerosols from their absorption effect using multi-spectral satellite data (De Graaf et al., JGR, 2012). Using a wide spectral range, from the UV (300-400 nm) up to the shortwave (SW) IR (1000-1750 nm), it is possible to distinguish the absorption by aerosols from the scattering by clouds. No microphysical assumptions are needed for the aerosols, except that their absorption must vanish at long wavelengths. With this method, called the Differential Aerosol Absorption (DAA) technique, which was applied to SCIAMACHY satellite data, we measured the direct radiative effect of absorbing biomass burning aerosols over clouds in the South-East Atlantic. We measured instantaneous direct radiative effects by the aerosols of the order of 100 W/m2 at top-of-atmosphere. The spectral radiation balance at both top-of-atmosphere and surface is needed to estimate the amount of absorption inside the aerosol layer. We therefore perform a simulation study, using accurate spectral RT modelling, in which we compute the profile of absorption in the aerosol layer. We find that the atmospheric absorption characteristics cannot be measured only from satellite by using reflected light, also the transmission at the surface has to be measured. Therefore, field campaigns are needed in addition to satellite

  8. Absorbing-and-diffusing coating

    OpenAIRE

    Tkalich, N. V.; Mokeev, Yu. G.; Onipko, A. F.; Vashchenko, V. F.; Topchev, M. D.; Glebov, V. V.; Ivanchenko, Dmitrij D.; Kolchigin, Nikolay N.; Yevdokimov, V. V.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the results of complex experimental research of the absorbing-and-diffusing material "Contrast". It is shown to be an efficient wideband-camouflage material in the radiolocation and the video bands. Ways for improving the material characteristics are outlined.

  9. UV-Completion by Classicalization

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia; Gomez, Cesar; Kehagias, Alex

    2011-01-01

    We suggest a novel approach to UV-completion of a class of non-renormalizable theories, according to which the high-energy scattering amplitudes get unitarized by production of extended classical objects (classicalons), playing a role analogous to black holes, in the case of non-gravitational theories. The key property of classicalization is the existence of a classicalizer field that couples to energy-momentum sources. Such localized sources are excited in high-energy scattering processes and lead to the formation of classicalons. Two kinds of natural classicalizers are Nambu-Goldstone bosons (or, equivalently, longitudinal polarizations of massive gauge fields) and scalars coupled to energy-momentum type sources. Classicalization has interesting phenomenological applications for the UV-completion of the Standard Model both with or without the Higgs. In the Higgless Standard Model the high-energy scattering amplitudes of longitudinal $W$-bosons self-unitarize via classicalization, without the help of any new...

  10. Cytoprotective effect against UV-induced DNA damage and oxidative stress: role of new biological UV filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, T; Dutot, M; Martin, C; Beaudeux, J-L; Boucher, C; Enee, E; Baudouin, C; Warnet, J-M; Rat, P

    2007-03-01

    The majority of chemical solar filters are cytotoxic, particularly on sensitive ocular cells (corneal and conjunctival cells). Consequently, a non-cytotoxic UV filter would be interesting in dermatology, but more especially in ophthalmology. In fact, light damage to the eye can be avoided thanks to a very efficient ocular antioxidant system; indeed, the chromophores absorb light and dissipate its energy. After middle age, a decrease in the production of antioxidants and antioxidative enzymes appears with accumulation of endogenous molecules that are phototoxic. UV radiations can induce reactive oxygen species formation, leading to various ocular diseases. Because most UV filters are cytotoxic for the eye, we investigated the anti-UV properties of Calophyllum inophyllum oil in order to propose it as a potential vehicle, free of toxicity, with a natural UV filter action in ophthalmic formulation. Calophyllum inophyllum oil, even at low concentration (1/10,000, v/v), exhibited significant UV absorption properties (maximum at 300nm) and was associated with an important sun protection factor (18-22). Oil concentrations up to 1% were not cytotoxic on human conjunctival epithelial cells, and Calophyllum inophyllum oil appeared to act as a cytoprotective agent against oxidative stress and DNA damage (85% of the DNA damage induced by UV radiations were inhibited with 1% Calophyllum oil) and did not induce in vivo ocular irritation (Draize test on New Zealand rabbits). Calophyllum inophyllum oil thus exhibited antioxidant and cytoprotective properties, and therefore might serve, for the first time, as a natural UV filter in ophthalmic preparations.

  11. UV-Activated Luminescence/Colourimetric O2 Indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Mills

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An oxygen indicator is described, comprising nanoparticles of titania dispersed in hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC polymer film containing a sacrificial electron donor, glycerol, and the redox indicator, indigo-tetrasulfonate (ITS. The indicator is blue- coloured in the absence of UV light, however upon exposure to UV light it not only loses its colour but also luminesces, unless and until it is exposed to oxygen, whereupon its original colour is restored. The initial photobleaching spectral (absorbance and luminescence response characteristics in air and in vacuum are described and discussed in terms of a simple reaction scheme involving UV activation of the titania photocatalyst particles, which are used to reduce the redox dye, ITS, to its leuco form, whilst simultaneously oxidising the glycerol to glyceraldehye. The response characteristics of the activated, that is, UV photobleached, form of the indicator to oxygen are also reported and the possible uses of such an indicator to measure ambient O2 levels are discussed.

  12. Radiation sterilization of absorbent cotton and of absorbent gauze

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosobuchi, Kazunari; Oka, Mitsuru; Kaneko, Akira; Ishiwata, Hiroshi.

    1986-01-01

    The bioburden of absorbent cotton and of absorbent gauze and their physical and chemical characteristics after irradiation are investigated. The survey conducted on contaminants of 1890 cotton samples from 53 lots and 805 gauze samples from 56 lots showed maximum numbers of microbes per g of the cotton and gauze were 859 (an average of 21.4) and 777 (an average of 42.2), respectively. Isolation and microbiological and biochemical tests of representative microbes indicated that all of them, except one, were bacilli. The sterilization dose at 10 -6 of sterlity assurance level was found to be 2.0 Mrad when irradiated the spores loaded on paper strips and examined populations having graded D values from 0.10 to 0.28 Mrad. The sterilization dose would be about 1.5 Mrad if subjected the average numbers of contaminants observed in this study to irradiation. No significant differences were found between the irradiated samples and control up to 2 Mrad in tensile strength, change of color, absorbency, sedimentation rate, soluble substances, and pH of solutions used for immersion and other tests conventionally used. These results indicate that these products can be sterilized by irradiation. (author)

  13. Role of near ultraviolet wavelength measurements in the detection and retrieval of absorbing aerosols from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Sonoyo; Fujito, Toshiyuki; Nakata, Makiko; Sano, Itaru

    2017-10-01

    Aerosol remote sensing by ultraviolet (UV) wavelength is established by a Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) mounted on the long-life satellite Nimbus-7 and continues to make observations using Ozone monitoring instrument (OMI) located on the Aura satellite. For example, TOMS demonstrated that UV radiation (0.331 and 0.360 μm) could easily detect absorbing particles such as mineral dust or smoke aerosols. TOMS-AI (absorbing aerosol index) has been used to identify the absorbing aerosols from space. For an upcoming mission, JAXA/GCOM-C will have the polarization sensor SGLI boarded in December 2017. The SGLI has multi (19)-channels including near UV (0.380 μm) and violet (0.412 μm) wavelengths. This work intends to examine the role of near UV data in the detection of absorbing aerosols similar to TOMS-AI played. In practice, the measurements by GLI mounted on the short Japanese mission JAXA/ADEOS-2, whose data archive period was just 8 months from April to October in 2003, are available for simulation of SGLI data because ADEOS-2/GLI installed near UV and violet channels. First of all, the ratio of data at 0.412 μm to that at 0.380 μm is examined as an indicator to detect absorbing aerosols on a global scale during ADEOS-2 era. It is noted that our research group has developed an efficient algorithm for aerosol retrieval in hazy episodes (dense concentrations of atmospheric aerosols). It can be said that at least this work is an attempt to grasp the biomass burning plumes from the satellite.

  14. Solar UV-B effects on PSII performance in Betula nana are influenced by PAR level and reduced by EDU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian Rost; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Ro-Poulsen, Helge

    2012-01-01

    The long-term and diurnal responses of photosystem II (PSII) performance to near-ambient UV-B radiation were investigated in High Arctic Betula nana. We conducted an UV exclusion experiment with five replicated blocks consisting of open control (no filter), photosynthetic active radiation and UV...... the effects of UV-B. Chlorophyll-a fluorescence induction curves were used for analysis of OJIP test parameters. Near-ambient UV-B radiation reduced across season maximum quantum yield (TRo /ABS = Fv /Fm ), approximated number of active PSII reaction center (RC/ABS) and the performance index (PIABS ), despite...... improved leaf screening against UV-B with higher content of UV-B-absorbing compounds and a lower specific leaf area. EDU application counteracted the negative impact of UV-B on TR(o) /ABS, RC/ABS and PI(ABS) . This indicates that the mechanisms behind UV-B and ozone damage share some common features...

  15. A Study of UV Resistance of a Water-based Polyurethane Lacquer Containing Nano Ceria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Saadat-Monfared

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerium oxide (Ceria nano particle, as photodegradation prevention agent was studied in water-based polyurethane clear coat  systems. Polyurethane coatings show superior weathering resistance compared with acrylic melamine systems. However, any chemical change has detrimental effects on the property profile of PU coatings. Coatings containing various amounts of cerium oxide nanoparticles were prepared and their weathering resistance was evaluated using simulated UV cabinet. To this end the extent and mechanism of degradation was studied utilizing UV-Vis and FTIR-ATR spectroscopy as well as DMTA analysis. The results revealed that Ceria nano particles with concentration of 1.44 % (wt absorb beyond 92.5% of UV light of UV-B region and showed an efficiency of 2000 times as of organic UV absorbers.

  16. Comprehensive Expression Profiling and Functional Network Analysis of Porphyra-334, One Mycosporine-Like Amino Acid (MAA), in Human Keratinocyte Exposed with UV-radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Sung-Suk; Lee, Sung Gu; Youn, Ui Joung; Han, Se Jong; Kim, Il-Chan; Kim, Sanghee

    2017-06-24

    Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) have been highlighted as pharmacologically active secondary compounds to protect cells from harmful UV-radiation by absorbing its energy. Previous studies have mostly focused on characterizing their physiological properties such as antioxidant activity and osmotic regulation. However, molecular mechanisms underlying their UV-protective capability have not yet been revealed. In the present study, we investigated the expression profiling of porphyra-334-modulated genes or microRNA (miRNAs) in response to UV-exposure and their functional networks, using cDNA and miRNAs microarray. Based on our data, we showed that porphyra-334-regulated genes play essential roles in UV-affected biological processes such as Wnt (Wingless/integrase-1) and Notch pathways which exhibit antagonistic relationship in various biological processes; the UV-repressed genes were in the Wnt signaling pathway, while the activated genes were in the Notch signaling. In addition, porphyra-334-regulated miRNAs can target many genes related with UV-mediated biological processes such as apoptosis, cell proliferation and translational elongation. Notably, we observed that functional roles of the target genes for up-regulated miRNAs are inversely correlated with those for down-regulated miRNAs; the former genes promote apoptosis and translational elongation, whereas the latter function as inhibitors in these processes. Taken together, these data suggest that porphyra-334 protects cells from harmful UV radiation through the comprehensive modulation of expression patterns of genes involved in UV-mediated biological processes, and that provide a new insight to understand its functional molecular networks.

  17. UV Signature Mutations †

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Sequencing complete tumor genomes and exomes has sparked the cancer field's interest in mutation signatures for identifying the tumor's carcinogen. This review and meta-analysis discusses signatures and their proper use. We first distinguish between a mutagen's canonical mutations – deviations from a random distribution of base changes to create a pattern typical of that mutagen – and the subset of signature mutations, which are unique to that mutagen and permit inference backward from mutations to mutagen. To verify UV signature mutations, we assembled literature datasets on cells exposed to UVC, UVB, UVA, or solar simulator light (SSL) and tested canonical UV mutation features as criteria for clustering datasets. A confirmed UV signature was: ≥60% of mutations are C→T at a dipyrimidine site, with ≥5% CC→TT. Other canonical features such as a bias for mutations on the non-transcribed strand or at the 3' pyrimidine had limited application. The most robust classifier combined these features with criteria for the rarity of non-UV canonical mutations. In addition, several signatures proposed for specific UV wavelengths were limited to specific genes or species; non-signature mutations induced by UV may cause melanoma BRAF mutations; and the mutagen for sunlight-related skin neoplasms may vary between continents. PMID:25354245

  18. Europa in the Far-UV: Spatial and Spectral Analysis from HST Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Tracy M.; Retherford, Kurt D.; Roth, Lorenz; Hendrix, Amanda R.; McGrath, Melissa; Alday, Juan; Saur, Joachim; Molyneux, Philippa M.; Raut, Ujjwal; Teolis, Benjamin

    2017-10-01

    We present a spatial and spectral analysis of Europa using far-UV observations from 1999 - 2015 made by the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Disk-integrated observations show that the far-UV spectrum from ~130 nm - 170 nm is blue (increasing albedo with decreasing wavelength) for the studied hemispheres: the leading, trailing, and anti-Jovian hemispheres. At Lyman-alpha (121.6 nm), the albedo of the trailing hemisphere continues the blue trend, but it reddens for the leading hemisphere. At wavelengths shorter than 133.5 nm, the leading hemisphere, which is brighter than the trailing hemisphere at near-UV and visible wavelengths, becomes darker than the trailing hemisphere. We find no evidence of a sharp water-ice absorption edge at 165 nm on any hemisphere of Europa, which is intriguing since such an absorption feature has been observed on most icy moons. This suggests the possibility that radiolytic alteration by Jovian magnetospheric plasma has made the surface more strongly absorbing, masking the absorption edge. We will also present a spatial map of Lyman-alpha across the entire surface of Europa. This map can then be used to distinguish variable H emissions in the atmosphere from surface reflectance, improving our ability to detect potential plumes occurring on the disk of Europa during an observation.

  19. UV radiation field inside dense clouds - Its possible existence and chemical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, S. S.; Tarafdar, S. P.

    1983-01-01

    Interstellar UV radiation cannot penetrate into the interior of dense clouds, and cosmic ray ionization is thought to be the sole driver of the gas phase chemistry. However, cosmic ray energy deposition also involves electronic excitation of the absorbing gas. It appears, therefore, possible that emissions resulting from these excitations might maintain a significant flux of chemically effective UV photons in the interior of dense clouds. The present investigation is concerned with this possibility, taking into account a simplified approach. This approach involves a consideration of Lyman and Werner band photons of molecular hydrogen and their relevance to C and CO chemistry. The results of this investigation suggest that a chemically significant flux of UV photons may exist inside dense clouds due to cosmic ray excitation of the various band systems of hydrogen. These photons would recover C I from the CO reservoir in dense clouds via photodissociation at an order of magnitude faster rate than that possible in connection with the reaction of CO with He(+).

  20. Effect of dihydrocaffeic acid on UV irradiation of human keratinocyte HaCaT cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poquet, Laure; Clifford, Michael N; Williamson, Gary

    2008-08-15

    Dihydrocaffeic acid, a dietary constituent and a microbial metabolite of flavonoids, is an antioxidant, but few biological effects have been examined. After its production by microflora in the colon, dihydrocaffeic acid is absorbed and found in plasma as a combination of free and metabolized forms. Excess solar UV radiation provokes damage and initiates immune response and inflammation in skin, sometimes leading to cancer. Dihydrocaffeic acid reduced the cytotoxicity and pro-inflammatory cytokine production (interleukin-6 and -8) in HaCaT cells, a keratinocyte model, following UV radiation. The effect of dihydrocaffeic acid may result from a combination of direct radical scavenging of the reactive oxygen species formed or reinforcement of the antioxidant potential of the keratinocytes, as well as a direct interference with the pathway involved in cytokine stimulation. The minimum structure required for such an effect appears to consist of a propionate side chain attached to a catechol moiety, as indicated by the efficacy of caffeic acid, but not of the methyl and glucuronide conjugates of dihydrocaffeic acid. The data obtained suggest that dihydrocaffeic acid is a potential candidate for photo-protection by interfering with the events initiated after UV exposure in keratinocytes.

  1. In Situ UV-Visible Assessment of Iron-Based High-Temperature Water-Gas Shift Catalysts Promoted with Lanthana: An Extent of Reduction Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basseem B. Hallac

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The extent of reduction of unsupported iron-based high-temperature water-gas shift catalysts with small (<5 wt % lanthana contents was studied using UV-visible spectroscopy. Temperature- programmed reduction measurements showed that lanthana content higher than 0.5 wt % increased the extent of reduction to metallic Fe, while 0.5 wt % of lanthana facilitated the reduction to Fe3O4. In situ measurements on the iron oxide catalysts using mass and UV-visible spectroscopies permitted the quantification of the extent of reduction under temperature-programmed reduction and high-temperature water-gas shift conditions. The oxidation states were successfully calibrated against normalized absorbance spectra of visible light using the Kubelka-Munk theory. The normalized absorbance relative to the fully oxidized Fe2O3 increased as the extent of reduction increased. XANES suggested that the average bulk iron oxidation state during the water-gas shift reaction was Fe+2.57 for the catalyst with no lanthana and Fe+2.54 for the catalysts with 1 wt % lanthana. However, the UV-vis spectra suggest that the surface oxidation state of iron would be Fe+2.31 for the catalyst with 1 wt % lanthana if the oxidation state of iron in the catalyst with 0 wt % lanthana were Fe+2.57. The findings of this paper emphasize the importance of surface sensitive UV-visible spectroscopy for determining the extent of catalyst reduction during operation. The paper highlights the potential to use bench-scale UV-visible spectroscopy to study the surface chemistry of catalysts instead of less-available synchrotron X-ray radiation facilities.

  2. Validation of OMI UV measurements against ground-based measurements at a station in Kampala, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyimbwa, Dennis; Dahlback, Arne; Stamnes, Jakob; Hamre, Børge; Frette, Øyvind; Ssenyonga, Taddeo; Chen, Yi-Chun

    2015-04-01

    We present solar ultraviolet (UV) irradiance data measured with a NILU-UV instrument at a ground site in Kampala (0.31°N, 32.58°E), Uganda for the period 2005-2014. The data were analyzed and compared with UV irradiances inferred from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) for the same period. Kampala is located on the shores of lake Victoria, Africa's largest fresh water lake, which may influence the climate and weather conditions of the region. Also, there is an excessive use of worn cars, which may contribute to a high anthropogenic loading of absorbing aerosols. The OMI surface UV algorithm does not account for absorbing aerosols, which may lead to systematic overestimation of surface UV irradiances inferred from OMI satellite data. We retrieved UV index values from OMI UV irradiances and validated them against the ground-based UV index values obtained from NILU-UV measurements. The UV index values were found to follow a seasonal pattern similar to that of the clouds and the rainfall. OMI inferred UV index values were overestimated with a mean bias of about 28% under all-sky conditions, but the mean bias was reduced to about 8% under clear-sky conditions when only days with radiation modification factor (RMF) greater than 65% were considered. However, when days with RMF greater than 70, 75, and 80% were considered, OMI inferred UV index values were found to agree with the ground-based UV index values to within 5, 3, and 1%, respectively. In the validation we identified clouds/aerosols, which were present in 88% of the measurements, as the main cause of OMI inferred overestimation of the UV index.

  3. Beam Line Commissioning of a UV/VUV FEL at Jefferson Lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, Stephen; Blackburn, Keith; Bullard, Daniel; Clavero Perez, Cesar; Coleman, James; Dickover, Cody; Douglas, David; Ellingsworth, Forrest; Evtushenko, Pavel; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Gould, Christopher; Gubeli, Joseph; Hardy, David; Jordan, Kevin; Klopf, John; James, Kortze; Legg, Robert; Marchlik, Matthew; Moore, Steven; Neil, George; Powers, Thomas; Sexton, Daniel; Shinn, Michelle D; Tennant, Christopher; Walker, Richard; Williams, Gwyn; Wilson, Frederick

    2011-08-01

    Many novel applications in photon sciences require very high brightness and/or short pulses in the vacuum ultra-violet (VUV). Jefferson Lab has commissioned a UV oscillator with high gain and has transported the third harmonic of the UV to a user lab. The experimental performance of the UV FEL is much better than simulated performance in both gain and efficiency. This success is important for efforts to push towards higher gain FELs at short wavelengths where mirrors absorb strongly. We will report on efforts to characterize the UV laser and the VUV coherent harmonics as well as designs to lase directly in the VUV wavelength range.

  4. UV spectrophotometric determination of piperine in pepper preparations: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupina, T; Cripps, H

    1987-01-01

    Eight collaborating laboratories performed replicate analyses for piperine on 5 samples representing pepper raw spice, oleoresins, and soluble seasonings. Piperine is extracted into ethylene dichloride and measured at maximal absorbance 342-345 nm with a UV light source. Piperine content is calculated using an absorbance factor derived from piperine. Intralaboratory coefficients of variation (CVo) ranged from 0.5 to 3.1%; interlaboratory coefficients of variation (CVx) ranged from 3.0 to 5.8%. The method has been adopted as an official method of the American Spice Trade Association and as an official first action method by AOAC.

  5. Development and Validation of UV-Visible Spectrophotometric Methods for Simultaneous Estimation of Thiocolchicoside and Dexketoprofen in Bulk and Tablet Dosage Form

    OpenAIRE

    M. T. Harde; S. B. Jadhav; D. L. Dharam; P. D. Chaudhari

    2012-01-01

    Development and validation of two simple, accurate, precise and economical UV Spectrophotometric methods for simultaneous estimation of Thiocolchicoside and Dexketoprofen in bulk and in tablet dosage form. The methods employed were Method-1 Absorbance correction method and Method-2 First order derivative spectroscopic method. In method-1 Absorbance is measured at two wavelengths 370nm at which Dexketoprofen has no absorbance and 255nm at which both the drug have considerable absorbance. In me...

  6. STUDY OF VARIOUS SOLVENTS FOR PHOLCODINE DETERMINATION USING UV SPECTROPHOTOMETER

    OpenAIRE

    Ajay Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Pholcodine is an opioid cough suppressant (anti-tussive). The objective of this work was study of various solvents for Pholcodine determination using UV Spectrophotometer and to develop a new method for determination of the Pholcodine by using UV-Visible Spectrophotometer that would be more accurate and cheapest. A number of solvents were used during the study those were methanol, chloroform, water, 0.1N KOH and 0.1N HCL that were soluble in Pholcodine and by using absorbance method at (285±...

  7. Use of UV absorption for identifying subspecies of Artemisia tridentata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spomer, G.G.; Henderson, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    Use of UV absorption spectra for identifying subspecies of Artemisia tridentata Nutt. was investigated by analyzing the relative optical densities of alcohol extracts from herbarium and fresh plant material at 240 nm, 250 nm, and 265 nm. In all but 1 comparison, mean relative optical densities were significantly different (p=0.95) between subspecies, but intraplant and intrasubspecies variation and overlap was found to be too large to permit use of UV absorbance alone for identifying individual specimens. These results held whether dry or fresh leaves were extracted, or whether methanol or ethanol was used as the extracting solvent. (author)

  8. New combination of ultraviolet absorbers in an oily emollient increases sunscreen efficacy and photostability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'alloret, Florence; Candau, Didier; Seité, Sophie; Pygmalion, Marie-Jocelyne; Ruiz, Laetitia; Josso, Martin; Meaudre, Hélène; Gauchet, Lydie; Pena, Ana-Maria; Colonna, Anne

    2012-12-01

    It is now recognized that to adequately protect skin from sun damage, sunscreens require a photostable combination of ultraviolet (UV) filters with a suitable level of UVA protection. The total amount of UV filters should be as low as possible to avoid adverse skin reactions, potential environmental impact, and to ensure acceptable texture for better application and usage. A synergistic combination of UV filters was selected to obtain a high sun protection factor (SPF) and UVA protection factor (UVA-PF). An oily vehicle was then added to the formula to improve the solubility and the photostability of the lipophilic UV filters. The combination of filters, i.e., terephthalylidene dicamphor sulfonic acid (TDSA), bis-ethylhexyloxyphenol methoxyphenyl triazin (BEMT), and butyl methoxy dibenzoyl methane (BMDM), obtained an elevated SPF as well as a high UVA-PF. Isopropyl lauroyl sarcosinate (ILS), a derivative of a natural amino acid (sarcosine, also known as N-methylglycine) was introduced in this formulation in order to dissolve the oil-soluble UV absorbers and to photostabilize BMDM. The new sunscreen formulation obtained with this combination is photostable and contains a reduced amount of UV filters compared to other sunscreens with the same level of efficacy. This report described the steps resulting in the formulation of a new combination of UV filters in an oily emollient, which presents a high UVA-PF (UVA-PF = 38) and a SPF 50+, is photostable, and offers good protection against UV-induced biological damage.

  9. UV-A radiation effects on higher plants: Exploring the known unknown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdaguer, Dolors; Jansen, Marcel A K; Llorens, Laura; Morales, Luis O; Neugart, Susanne

    2017-02-01

    Ultraviolet-A radiation (UV-A: 315-400nm) is a component of solar radiation that exerts a wide range of physiological responses in plants. Currently, field attenuation experiments are the most reliable source of information on the effects of UV-A. Common plant responses to UV-A include both inhibitory and stimulatory effects on biomass accumulation and morphology. UV-A effects on biomass accumulation can differ from those on root: shoot ratio, and distinct responses are described for different leaf tissues. Inhibitory and enhancing effects of UV-A on photosynthesis are also analysed, as well as activation of photoprotective responses, including UV-absorbing pigments. UV-A-induced leaf flavonoids are highly compound-specific and species-dependent. Many of the effects on growth and development exerted by UV-A are distinct to those triggered by UV-B and vary considerably in terms of the direction the response takes. Such differences may reflect diverse UV-perception mechanisms with multiple photoreceptors operating in the UV-A range and/or variations in the experimental approaches used. This review highlights a role that various photoreceptors (UVR8, phototropins, phytochromes and cryptochromes) may play in plant responses to UV-A when dose, wavelength and other conditions are taken into account. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Plasmonic titanium nitride nanostructures for perfect absorbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guler, Urcan; Li, Wen-Wei; Kinsey, Nathaniel

    2013-01-01

    We propose a metamaterial based perfect absorber in the visible region, and investigate the performance of titanium nitride as an alternative plasmonic material. Numerical and experimental results reveal that titanium nitride performs better than gold as a plasmonic absorbing material...

  11. Visual acuity of fly photoreceptors in natural conditions - dependence on UV sensitizing pigment and light-controlling pupil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenga, DG

    The effect of the UV-absorbing sensitizing pigment fly photoreceptors on absolute, spectral and angular sensitivity was investigated with a wave-optics model for the facet lens-rhabdomere system. When sky light was used as a UV-rich light source, one sensitizing pigment molecule per rhodopsin

  12. p53 induction in normal human skin in vitro following exposure to solar simulated UV and UV-B irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, V; Morris, J F; Motazed, R; Chu, A C

    1999-04-01

    Exposure of normal human breast skin ex vivo to physiological levels of UV-B and solar simulated UV results in a UV dose- and time-dependent increase in epidermal p53, as determined by PAGE analysis. Peak p53 levels are detected 12 to 24 h post irradiation with UV-B (470-1410 mJ cm-2) and solar simulated UV (5-12 minimal erythema dose (MED) equivalents). Irradiation with an FS20 UV-B lamp, contaminated with UV-A and UV-C (74-1111 mJ cm-2), also induces peak levels after 12 h incubation at 37 degrees C but these levels persist to 36 h post UV irradiation. In all cases p53 levels start to return to normal by 48 h culture. A significant positive correlation is demonstrated between UV-B dose (47-1645 mJ cm-2) and p53 level (p 0.977) in explants cultured for 24 h at 37 degrees C post irradiation. The FS20 induces a 'UV-B' dose-dependent increase in p53 to a maximum from 370 to 1111 mJ cm-2. Similarly, solar simulated UV induces a plateau of peak p53 induction between 5 and 15 MED equivalents. Immunohistochemical analysis using microwave retrieval on 5 microns sections shows the same pattern of p53 staining with UV-B and solar UV insult, but proves unreliable as a method of quantification. These results suggest that the skin explant model may be a useful tool in the evaluation of UV-induced epidermal cell damage, providing a valuable alternative to in vivo studies.

  13. Piezooptic effect of absorbing environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ю. А. Рудяк

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Application of piezooptic effect of absorbing environment for the definition of the parameter of stress deformation state was examined. The analysis of dielectric permeability tensor of imaginary parts was done. It is shown that changes in the real part dielectric permeability tensor mainly the indicator of fracture was fixed by means of mechanics interference methods and the changes in the imaginary part (α – real rate of absorption can be measured by means of analysis of light absorption and thus stress deformation state can be determined

  14. Simultaneous energy generation and UV quencher removal from landfill leachate using a microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskander, Syeed Md; Novak, John T; Brazil, Brian; He, Zhen

    2017-11-01

    The presence of UV quenching compounds in landfill leachate can negatively affect UV disinfection in a wastewater treatment plant when leachate is co-treated. Herein, a microbial fuel cell (MFC) was investigated to remove UV quenchers from a landfill leachate with simultaneous bioelectricity generation. The key operating parameters including hydraulic retention time (HRT), anolyte recirculation rate, and external resistance were systematically studied to maximize energy recovery and UV absorbance reduction. It was found that nearly 50% UV absorbance was reduced under a condition of HRT 40 days, continuous anolyte recirculation, and 10 Ω external resistance. Further analysis showed a total reduction of organics by 75.3%, including the reduction of humic acids, fulvic acids, and hydrophilic fraction concentration as TOC. The MFC consumed 0.056 kWh m -3 by its pump system for recirculation and oxygen supply. A reduced HRT of 20 days with periodical anode recirculation (1 hour in every 24 hours) and 39 Ω external resistance (equal to the internal resistance of the MFC) resulted in the highest net energy of 0.123 kWh m -3 . Granular activated carbon (GAC) was used as an effective post-treatment step and could achieve 89.1% UV absorbance reduction with 40 g L -1 . The combined MFC and GAC treatment could reduce 92.9% of the UV absorbance and remove 89.7% of the UV quenchers. The results of this study would encourage further exploration of using MFCs as an energy-efficient method for removing UV quenchers from landfill leachate.

  15. A study on UV irradiated HDPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sang Haibo; Liu Zimin; Wu Shishan; Shen Jian

    2006-01-01

    The structure and properties of HDPE irradiated by ultraviolet (UV) in ozone atmosphere were studied by FT-IR, XPS, gel, and water contact angle test. The oxygen-containing groups such as C=O, C-O and C(=O)O were introduced onto high density polyethylene (HDPE) chains through ultraviolet irradiation in ozone atmosphere, their content increased with the UV irradiation time. Under the same UV irradiation conditions, amount of the oxygen-containing groups introduced in ozone atmosphere was more than that in air atmosphere, indicating that the speed of oxygen-containing groups introduced through UV irradiation in ozone atmosphere was faster than that in air. Therefore, HDPE could be quickly functionalized through UV irradiation in ozone atmosphere. There was no gel formed in the HDPE irradiated in ozone atmosphere. After UV irradiation, the water contact angle of HDPE decreased, and its hydrophilicity was improved, suggesting that the compatibility between the irradiated HDPE and polar polymer or inorganic fillers may be better. Compared with HDPE, the temperature of initial weight loss for irradiated HDPE decreased. The structure and properties of irradiated HDPE/CaCO 3 blend were also investigated. The results showed that the compatibility and interfacial action of the irradiated HDPE/CaCO 3 blend were improved compared to that of HDPE/CaCO 3 blend. The mechanical properties of irradiated HDPE/CaCO 3 blend increased with increasing irradiation time. (authors)

  16. Biobased Nanoparticles for Broadband UV Protection with Photostabilized UV Filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Douglas R; Imhof, Arnout; Velikov, Krassimir P

    2016-12-07

    Sunscreens rely on multiple compounds to provide effective and safe protection against UV radiation. UV filters in sunscreens, in particular, provide broadband UV protection but are heavily linked to adverse health effects due to the generation of carcinogenic skin-damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon solar irradiation. Herein, we demonstrate significant reduction in the ROS concentration by encapsulating an antioxidant photostabilizer with multiple UV filters into biobased ethyl cellulose nanoparticles. The developed nanoparticles display complete broadband UV protection and can form transparent and flexible films. This system therefore shows significant potential toward effective and safe nanoparticle-based UV protective coatings.

  17. Neutron dosimetry by UV and IR spectrophotometry of the newly developed dyed ECE tracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohrabi, M.; Sadeghi Bajd, S.

    1990-01-01

    New, large and high-contrasted dyed ECE recoil tracks have been successfully developed. The chief reason for this development has been the provision of large photon-absorbing sites on a non-absorbing unaffected polymer surface for UV and IR spectrophotometry. In this approach, ECE recoil tracks in polycarbonate were dyed using our optimised conditions; sensitisation in 20% by weight acrylic acid at 75 0 C for 3.5 h and dyeing in 3% by weight eosin at 95 0 C for 4 h. Spectrophotometry by UV and IR, track counting and optical densitometry were applied to the samples. These preliminary studies showed some promise for UV absorbance measurements for routine large-scale applications. the results of which are presented and discussed. (author)

  18. Multi-channel coherent perfect absorbers

    KAUST Repository

    Bai, Ping

    2016-05-18

    The absorption efficiency of a coherent perfect absorber usually depends on the phase coherence of the incident waves on the surfaces. Here, we present a scheme to create a multi-channel coherent perfect absorber in which the constraint of phase coherence is loosened. The scheme has a multi-layer structure such that incident waves in different channels with different angular momenta can be simultaneously and perfectly absorbed. This absorber is robust in achieving high absorption efficiency even if the incident waves become "incoherent" and possess "random" wave fronts. Our work demonstrates a unique approach to designing highly efficient metamaterial absorbers. © CopyrightEPLA, 2016.

  19. Graphene based salisbury screen for terahertz absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min Woo, Jeong; Kim, Min-Sik; Woong Kim, Hyun; Jang, Jae-Hyung

    2014-02-01

    A graphene-based, multiband absorber operating in terahertz (THz) frequency range was demonstrated. Graphene film was transferred onto the top of a flexible polymer substrate backed with a gold reflector. The graphene acts as a resistive film that partially attenuates and reflects THz waves. The destructive interference between THz waves reflected from graphene and backside reflector gives rise to perfect absorbance at multiple frequencies. To enhance the absorbance on/off ratio (AR), the conductivity of graphene was varied using a chemical doping method. The resulting p-doped, graphene-based THz absorber exhibited absorbance at maxima and AR higher than 0.95 and 25 dB, respectively.

  20. Microstructure and Damping Property of Polyurethane Composites Hybridized with Ultraviolet Absorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Chang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article investigated the microstructure and damping property of TPU composites with different contents of ultraviolet absorbents. It can be found that the ultraviolet absorbents formed fiber-shaped precipitations in the TPU matrix. The UV-328 was randomly distributed in the matrix and exhibited a weak interfacial bonding with the matrix. In comparison, the UV-329 was well embedded in the matrix and formed a relatively better interfacial bonding and compatibility with the TPU matrix. The damping factor tanδ of both 328-composites and 329-composites had been reduced gradually with increasing content of ultraviolet absorbents at the glass transition temperature range due to the fact that the ultraviolet absorbents were in the crystalline state which decreased the volume content of the viscoelastic TPU matrix. But the tanδ increased at the temperature range of higher than the glass transition temperature, which should be related to the dominance of interfacial frictions between the ultraviolet absorbents and the matrix on the energy absorption.

  1. Impact of UV Radiation on Genome Stability and Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sujit

    2017-01-01

    Gradual depletion of the atmospheric ozone layer during the past few years has increased the incidence of solar UV radiation specifically the UV-C on earth's surface is one of the major environmental concerns because of the harmful effects of this radiation in all forms of life. The solar UV radiation including the harmful wavelength range of UV-B (280-320 nm) represents a significant climatic stress for both animals and plants, causing damage to the fundamental biomolecules such as DNA, proteins and lipids, thus activating genotoxic stress and induces genome instability. When DNA absorbs UV-B light, energy from the photon causes covalent linkages to form between adjacent pyrimidine bases, creating photoproducts, primarily cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and pyrimidine-6,4-pyrimidinone photoproduct (6,4PPs). Pyrimidine dimers create distortions in the DNA strands and therefore can inhibit DNA replication as well transcription. Lack of efficient repair of UV-induced DNA damage may induce the formation of DNA double stand breaks (DSBs), one of the serious forms of damage in DNA double helix, as well as oxidative damage. Unrepaired DSBs in the actively dividing somatic cells severely affect cell growth and development, finally results in loss of cell viability and development of various diseases, such as cancer in man.This chapter mainly highlights the incidence of solar UV-radiation on earth's surface along with the formation of major types of UV-induced DNA damage and the associated repair mechanisms as well as methods of detecting DNA damage and finally our present understanding on the impact on solar UV radiation on human health.

  2. UV spectroscopy. Ch. 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, Eugene S.

    1991-01-01

    The use of synchrotron radiation (SR) in the ultraviolet (UV) region by biophysics and biophysical chemists continues to increase as access improves and as awareness of its unique combination of properties grows. SR is continuously tunable, intense (even in the UV region), and pulsed. Pulse characteristics are comparable to those of picosecond lasers, but have the advantage of being independent of wavelength. Drawbacks are the continuous, but slow, decay of intensity arising from loss of particles in the ring, and the intrinsic limitation in pulse repetition rate. The particular combination of features that makes SR a superior light source depends upon the application. Spectroscopic techniques based on absorption and some techniques based on emission exploit its intensity and continuous tunability; time resolved techniques make use of its pulse characteristics. This chapter is a status report on two of the major biological applications of UV SR, circular dichroism and time-resolved fluorescence, covering mainly the published literature of the last five years. For the present purpose, the term UV is understood to include the vacuum ultraviolet region to 100 nm. (author). 83 refs.; 4 figs.; 6 tabs

  3. Risks of increased UV-B radiation: higher plants; Risiken erhoehter UV-B-Strahlung: Hoehere Pflanzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rau, W. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Botanisches Inst.; Hofmann, H. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Botanisches Inst.

    1994-03-01

    The question pursued within the Bavarian climate research programme (BayFORKLIM) in the present context was as follows: Does the fact that UV-B radiation increases with growing site elevation mean that the low sensitivity of predominantly alpine plants compared with that of lowland plants is attributable to their different genetic constitution, possibly as a result of selective pressure and/or de alpine species have a greater capacity to develop protective mechanisms? Pairs and triplets of species belonging to the same genus but occuring at different site elevations were grown from seeds in a greenhouse that is, without UV-B. In order to determine their capacity to adapt to UV-B radiation, some of the plants were additionally exposed to UV-B for 5-6 weeks prior to sensitivity testing. Sensitivity was tested by exposing the plants to additional UV-B of different intensities in test chambers. Visible damage, ranging from light bronzing or yellowing to withering, served as an assessment criterion. Levels of UV-B absorbing substances (phenylpropane species, usually flavonoids) were also measured in these plants. The results obtained permit the following conclusions: The greater UV-B resistance of alpine species compared with that of lowland species of the same genus is not attributable to their genetic constitution but rather to their superior adaptability. Superior resistance is in part due to a greater accumulation of UV-B absorbing substances. Distinct differences in sensitivity between different genera could lead to population shifts within ecosystems as a result of increased UV-B radiation. (orig./KW) [Deutsch] Die Fragestellung, die im Rahmen des Bayerischen Klimaforschungsprogramms (BayFORKLIM) bearbeitet wurde, ist folgende: Die UV-B-Strahlung nimmt mit der Hoehe ueber dem Meeresspiegel zu; sind deshalb Pflanzenarten, die bevorzugt in alpinen Habitaten vorkommen, durch ihre genetische Konstitution - moeglicherweise durch Selektion erworben - weniger UV

  4. Impact of Elastane Addition on UV Protective Properties of Viscose and Polyacrylonitrile Knits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavko-Čuden, Alenka; Urbas, Raša

    2011-12-01

    Textiles can provide effective protection against UV radiation because they reflect, absorb and scatter solar wavelengths. Properly designed, they significantly increase the area of covered skin. The optimal combination of thickness, fabric density, mass per unit area, knitted structure, yarn type and yarn linear density, facilitate the production of textiles with high UV protection properties. The objective of this research was to evaluate the impact of elastane on UV protection properties of viscose and polyacrylonitrile knitted structures. The investigation illustrated that wet relaxed elasticized knits show good UV radiation protection with UPF 20-40. In contrast, non-elasticized viscose and polyacrylonitrile knits are inappropriate for UV radiation protection. Comparing viscose samples, UPF is higher for dry relaxed elasticized structures, whilst for polyacrylonitrile samples, UPF is higher for wet relaxed elasticized structures. For non-elasticized structures, the UPF of polyacrylonitrile samples is greater than that of viscose samples. Generally, polyacrylonitrile knits investigated ensure better UV protection than viscose knits.

  5. Protective Role of Comfrey Leave Extracts on UV-induced Zebrafish Fin Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chien-Chung; Chou, Chi-Yuan; Chang, Yao-Chin; Wang, Hsuan-Wen; Wen, Chi-Chung; Chen, Yau-Hung

    2014-07-01

    In zebrafish, UV exposure leads to fin malformation phenotypes including fin reduction or absence. The present study evaluated UV-protective activities of comfrey leaves extracts in a zebrafish model by recording fin morphological changes. Chemopreventive effects of comfrey leave extracts were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression. The results showed that (1) the mean times of return to normal fin in the UV+comfrey (50 and 100 ppm) groups were 3.43 and 2.86 days and were quicker compared with that in the UV only group (4.21 days); (2) zebrafish fins in the UV+comfrey (50 and 100 ppm) groups were 2.05 and 3.25 times more likely to return to normal than those in the UV only group; and (3) comfrey leave extracts had UV-absorbance abilities and significantly reduced ROS production in UV-exposed zebrafish embryos, which may attenuate UV-mediated apoptosis. In conclusion, comfrey leaves extracts may have the potential to be developed as UV-protective agents to protect zebrafish embryos from UV-induced damage.

  6. Facile synthesis of two-photon absorbing polymers through radical copolymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A two-photon absorbing polymer has been prepared through radical copolymerization of methyl acrylate and a synthesized monomer containing a two-photon absorbing chromophore (E,E,E-1,3,5-tristyrylbenzene (1, under conventional radical polymerization conditions. The synthesized polymer was characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, infra-red spectroscopy (IR and gel permeation chromatography (GPC. The linear and nonlinear optical properties were studied by measurement of UV-Vis absorption, fluorescent emission and two-photon cross-section. This synthetic strategy provided a facile approach for synthesis of photonic materials with adjustable chromophore concentration and high molecular weights.

  7. UV-induced recessive lethals in uvs strains of Neurospora which are deficient in UV mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaefer, E.

    1984-01-01

    The frequencies of spontaneous and UV-induced recessive lethal mutations were compared for UV-sensitive and wild-type heterokaryons of Neurospora crassa. These heterokaryons were homokaryotic either for one of two alleles of uvs-3, or for uvs-6 or uvs + . For uvs-3, which is known to have mutator effects, spontaneous recessive lethals were found to be 4-6 times more frequent than observed in uvs + . After correction for clonal distribution of spontaneous mutants, an observed 2-fold increase for uvs-6 was not statistically significant and may have been due to chance occurrence of a few large clones of mutants. Treatment with low doses of UV (50-200 J/m 2 ) produced very similar overall rates of increase for recessive lethals in uvs and uvs + heterokaryons. This means, that in contrast to results obtained when mutation to ad-3 was measured, both uvs-3 alleles showed highly significant increases for recessive lethals when treated with UV. It is proposed that certain types of UV damage may be processed into recessive lethal mutations by an alternate mechanism from that responsible for viable mutations. (Auth.)

  8. Uric acid detection using uv-vis spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norazmi, N.; Rasad, Z. R. Abdul; Mohamad, M.; Manap, H.

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this research is to detect uric acid (UA) concentration using Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectrometer in the Ultraviolet (UV) region. Absorption technique was proposed to detect different uric acid concentrations and its UV absorption wavelength. Current practices commonly take a lot of times or require complicated structures for the detection process. By this proposed spectroscopic technique, every concentration can be detected and interpreted into an absorbance value at a constant wavelength peak in the UV region. This is due to the chemical characteristics belong to the uric acid since it has a particular absorption cross-section, σ which can be calculated using Beer’s Lambert law formula. The detection performance was displayed using Spectrasuite sofware. It showed fast time response about 3 seconds. The experiment proved that the concentrations of uric acid were successfully detected using UV-Vis spectrometer at a constant absorption UV wavelength, 294.46 nm in a low time response. Even by an artificial sample of uric acid, it successfully displayed a close value as the ones reported with the use of the medical sample. It is applicable in the medical field and can be implemented in the future for earlier detection of abnormal concentration of uric acid.

  9. Biobased Nanoparticles for Broadband UV Protection with Photostabilized UV Filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayden, D.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412640694; Imhof, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/145641600; Velikov, K. P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/239483472

    2016-01-01

    Sunscreens rely on multiple compounds to provide effective and safe protection against UV radiation. UV filters in sunscreens, in particular, provide broadband UV protection but are heavily linked to adverse health effects due to the generation of carcinogenic skin-damaging reactive oxygen species

  10. Prevention of the eye against the damaging effect of UV rays by soft contact lenses with UV absorbers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čejková, J.; Labský, Jiří; Vacík, Jiří

    1995-01-01

    Roč. 35, - (1995), s. 181 ISSN 0042-6989. [Joint European Research Meetings in Ophthalmology and Vision. Montpellier, 14.10.1995-18.10.1995] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA304/93/0393 Impact factor: 1.856, year: 1995

  11. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS FOR METAL BINDING CAPACITY OF CYSTEINE BY USING UV-VIS SPECTROPHOTOMETER

    OpenAIRE

    Shivendu Ranjan; Nandita Dasgupta; Gyanendra Gour; Rashmi Dubey; Kumari Amrita

    2012-01-01

    The metal binding capacity of cysteine with three different metals Nickel, Copper and Lead was studied using UV-Vis spectrophotometer for which absorbance values were taken after interaction of cysteine with metal salt solutions (10ppm and 100ppm). Before taking above absorbance dilution factor was set using cysteine stock. The increase in peak intensity was observed when metal salt solution and metal saltcysteine solution were compared. Based on peak shift and peak intensity finally it can b...

  12. Study of kinetics of the tetroxane thermolysis by UV spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorge, N.L.; Leiva, L.C.; Castellanos, M.G.; Cafferata, L.F.R.; Gomez V, M.E.

    2002-01-01

    The 3,3,6,6-tetramethyl-1,2,4,5-tetroxane (ACDP) in methanol solution shows an absorbance peak at low wave length in UV spectrum and follows the Lambert Beer law until 10-2 M concentration at 209 nm. The ACDP thermal decomposition have been studied by the UV spectroscopy like an alternative method to find out the kinetic parameters from the thermolysis of these compounds. The rate constants at the temperatures and initial concentration ranges of 130-166 and 0,003-0,013 mol / L, respectively, and the activation parameters were similar to the corresponding values found by other methodology, verifying this analytic technique. Acetone produced during reaction no interference in ACDP quantification by UV analysis. (Author)

  13. Development of electromagnetic wave absorbers with alnico magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jae Man; Kim, Dong Il; Shin, Seung Jae; Moon, Sang Hyun; Kim, Ki Man; Rhyu, Keel Soo

    2004-01-01

    We suggest a cast Alnico magnet as a new EM wave absorber. The proposed Alnico EM wave absorber shows advanced EM wave absorption properties of 24 dB at 15 GHz, 24 dB at 8.1 GHz, and 24 dB at 5.1 GHz for thicknesses of 1 mm, 2 mm, and 3 mm respectively. We also investigated the effects of the carbon and the Alnico contents and of the thickness dependence on the EM wave absorption properties.

  14. Synthesis and microwave absorbing properties of Cobalt ferrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H. Y.; Li, Y. S.

    2018-01-01

    Cobalt ferrite power CoFe2O4 was synthesized through the chemical co-precipitation method. The structure, morphology and microwave absorbing properties were studied by changing raw materials, annealing temperature and experimental steps. The measurements of X-ray diffraction and scanning electron micrograph suggest that annealed CoFe2O4 sample is still a spinel structure. Moreover, the crystalline and grain sizes become large with the enhancement of annealing temperature. The measurements of microwave absorbing properties show that the reflection loss decreases continuously, and the wavelength of maximum absorption loss shift to short-wave limit as the sample thickness increases.

  15. Radiographic fallopian tube recanalization: Absorbed ovarian radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedgpeth, P.L.; Thurmond, A.S.; Fry, R.; Schmidgall, J.R.; Roesch, J.

    1991-01-01

    Absorbed radiation dose to the ovaries during radiographic fallopian tube recanalization was estimated in 29 patients with use of thermoluminescent dosimeters placed in the vaginal fornix. With an average fluoroscopic time of 8.5 minutes ± 5.5 and an average of 14 ± 5 105-mm spot radiographs obtained, the average absorbed dose to the ovaries was 8.5 mGy ± 5.6 (0.85 rad ± 0.56). Technical guidelines for keeping patient radiation exposure to a minimum during this new interventional procedure are suggested

  16. Radiographic fallopian tube recanalization: Absorbed ovarian radiation dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedgpeth, P.L.; Thurmond, A.S.; Fry, R.; Schmidgall, J.R.; Roesch, J. (Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland (USA))

    1991-07-01

    Absorbed radiation dose to the ovaries during radiographic fallopian tube recanalization was estimated in 29 patients with use of thermoluminescent dosimeters placed in the vaginal fornix. With an average fluoroscopic time of 8.5 minutes {plus minus} 5.5 and an average of 14 {plus minus} 5 105-mm spot radiographs obtained, the average absorbed dose to the ovaries was 8.5 mGy {plus minus} 5.6 (0.85 rad {plus minus} 0.56). Technical guidelines for keeping patient radiation exposure to a minimum during this new interventional procedure are suggested.

  17. Organic matrix effects on the formation of light-absorbing compounds from α-dicarbonyls in aqueous salt solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozd, Greg T; McNeill, V Faye

    2014-04-01

    Aqueous-phase reactions of organic compounds are of general importance in environmental systems. Reactions of α-dicarbonyl compounds in the aqueous phase of atmospheric aerosols can impact their climate-relevant physical properties including hygroscopicity and absorption of light. Less-reactive water-soluble organic compounds may contribute an organic matrix component to the aqueous environment, potentially impacting the reaction kinetics. In this work we demonstrate the effects of organic matrices on the self-reactions of glyoxal (Gly) and methylglyoxal (mGly) in aqueous solutions containing ammonium sulfate. At an organic-to-sulfate mass ratio of 2 : 1, carbohydrate-like matrices resembling oxidized organic aerosol material reduce the rate of formation of light-absorbing products by up to an order of magnitude. The greatest decreases in the reaction rates were observed for organic matrices with smaller, more linear molecular structures. Initial UV-Vis spectra, product studies, relative rate data, acidity changes, and viscosity measurements suggest that shifts in carbonyl equilibria, due in part to (hemi)acetal formation with the matrix, reduce the rate of formation of light-absorbing imidazole and oligomer species.

  18. Photodegradation of nitrobenzene using 172 nm excimer UV lamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian-Rong; Gu, Cheng-Zhi; Di, Yan; Yin, Hao; Zhang, Jun-Ying

    2006-05-20

    Photodegradation of nitrobenzene (NB) using an excimer UV lamp at a wavelength of 172 nm is investigated. Experimental results show that high concentration nitrobenzene can be efficiently degraded with irradiation by excimer UV lamp, and confirm that degradation of nitrobenzene is more efficient by UV/H(2)O(2) combination than UV only. In the case of using UV only, 60 min of treatment was found to be sufficient to degrade the major part of NB solution with a concentration of less than 4mM. In the case of using the combination of UV/H(2)O(2) with a H(2)O(2) concentration of 7:1 molar ratio to NB, 4.07 mM NB solution drastically decreased to 0.41 mM after treatment for only 20 min. Degradation intermediate products are identified by analyzing the degradation products with GC/HRMS and possible degradation pathways of nitrobenzene are suggested.

  19. Covalent bindings in proteins following UV-C irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diezel, W.; Meffert, H.; Soennichsen, N.; Reinicke, C.

    1980-01-01

    Following a UV-C irradiation of catalase cross-linked catalase subunits could be detected by sodium dodecylsulfate gel electrophoresis. The subunits of aldolase were not cross-linked. The origin of covalent bindings in the catalase molecule is suggested to be effected by a free radical chain reaction induced by the heme component of catalase after UV-C irradiation. (author)

  20. Protective effects of polyamines against UV-A and UV-B illumination in Physcia semipinnata thalli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmer Işıl

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The damage to DNA induced by UV-A and UV-B and protective effects of the polyamines putrescine (put, spermidine (spd and spermine (spm were investigated on the lichen Physcia semipinnata in the present study. Our results suggest that significant alterations of the photosynthetic quantum yield ratio occurred in response to increased UV-A and UV-B exposure time. The photosynthetic quantum yield ratio gradually decreased in P. semipinnata following exposure to UV-A and UV-B. Physcia semipinnata thalli which were treated with a polyamine in a concentration of 1 mM were not affected by UV-A exposure for 72 h. In the case of UV-B treatment, the protective polyamine dosage was 0.25 mM. We also used the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD technique to detect DNA damage. The main changes observed in the RAPD profiles, which were obtained using 12 RAPD primers, were the appearance or disappearance of different bands and variation of their intensities. The use of at least three different primers allowed detection of specific band patterns in both UV-A- and UV-B-exposed samples treated with polyamines as compared to untreated ones.

  1. Does the X-ray outflow quasar PDS 456 have a UV outflow at 0.3c?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Fred; Chartas, George; Reeves, James; Nardini, Emanuele

    2018-05-01

    The quasar PDS 456 (at redshift ˜0.184) has a prototype ultra-fast outflow (UFO) measured in X-rays. This outflow is highly ionized with relativistic speeds, large total column densities log NH(cm-2) > 23, and large kinetic energies that could be important for feedback to the host galaxy. A UV spectrum of PDS 456 obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope in 2000 contains one well-measured broad absorption line (BAL) at ˜1346 Å (observed) that might be Ly α at v ≈ 0.06c or N V λ1240 at v ≈ 0.08c. However, we use photoionization models and comparisons to other outflow quasars to show that these BAL identifications are problematic because other lines that should accompany them are not detected. We argue that the UV BAL is probably C IV at v ≈ 0.30c. This would be the fastest UV outflow ever reported, but its speed is similar to the X-ray outflow and its appearance overall is similar to relativistic UV BALs observed in other quasars. The C IV BAL identification is also supported indirectly by the tentative detection of another broad C IV line at v ≈ 0.19c. The high speeds suggest that the UV outflow originates with the X-ray UFO crudely 20-30 rg from the central black hole. We speculate that the C IV BAL might form in dense clumps embedded in the X-ray UFO, requiring density enhancements of only ≳0.4 dex compared to clumpy structures already inferred for the soft X-ray absorber in PDS 456. The C IV BAL might therefore be the first detection of low-ionization clumps proposed previously to boost the opacities in UFOs for radiative driving.

  2. Stress of life at the ocean's surface: Latitudinal patterns of UV sunscreens in plankton across the Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fileman, Elaine S.; White, Daniel A.; Harmer, Rachel A.; Aytan, Ülgen; Tarran, Glen A.; Smyth, Tim; Atkinson, Angus

    2017-11-01

    The near-surface layer of the ocean is a habitat in which plankton are subjected to very different stresses to those in deeper layers. These include high turbulence and illumination, allowing increased visibility to predators, and exposure to harmful UV radiation. To provide insights into stress caused by UV, we examined the occurrence of protective UV-absorbing compounds called mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) in seston and zooplankton along an Atlantic Meridional Transect (AMT) between 45°S and 50°N. Seston contained most MAAs per unit phytoplankton carbon in the northern Atlantic gyre and equatorial region and this coincided with distribution of the nitrogen fixing cyanobacterium Trichodesmium spp. and increased UV transparency but not irradiance. Asterina-330 was the most abundant MAA in the seston. MAAs were detected in a third of the zooplankton tested and these taxa varied greatly both in the amount and diversity of the MAAs that they contained with copepods in temperate regions containing highest concentration of MAAs. Most commonly found MAAs in zooplankton were palythine and shinorine. Juvenile copepods were found not to contain any MAAs. We determined abundance and richness of zooplankton inhabiting the top 50 cm of the ocean. Zooplankton abundance and genera richness was low in the surface waters in contrast to the dome-shaped latitudinal trend in genera richness commonly found from depth-integrated zooplankton sampling. The lack of any measurable MAA compounds in nauplii across the whole transect was concomitant with their severe (3-6-fold) reduction in nauplii densities in the near-surface layer, as compared to the underlying water column. Overall we suggest that the UV stress on life near the surface, particularly in the warmer, oligotrophic and brightly-lit low latitudes, imposes radically different pressures on zooplankton communities compared to the rest of the epipelagic.

  3. Study on 'Tannix' an absorbent for heavy metals including uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Yasuo

    1997-01-01

    To treat radioactive wastes including uranium and transuranic elements such as plutonium, americium etc., development of an absorbent which can be used to absorb and isolate these elements without producing secondary wastes after treatment was attempted. And an absorbent has been successfully developed by polymerizing tannin, a natural product. It is known that tannin binds heavy metals including uranium resulting to produce their precipitates. There are some reports suggesting its absorption ability for uranium. However, tannin has not been used to isolate a heavy metal from a solution because it is soluble in water. Here, insolubilization of tannin was attempted and a manufacturing method for a gelatinized insoluble tannin named as ''Tannix'' was established. Wattle tannin extracted from Mimosa pudica produced in Africa was dissolved in an alkaline solution and gelatinized by heating after the addition of formalin. Thus obtained insoluble tannin was used after crushing and sieving. This product, ''Tannix'' was able to absorb more than 99% of uranium in the waste. And the absorbed Tannin could be degraded by incineration even at a low temperature, leaving only uranium, but not producing any secondary product. (M.N.)

  4. Study on `Tannix` an absorbent for heavy metals including uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Yasuo [Mitsubishi Nuclear Fuel Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-09-01

    To treat radioactive wastes including uranium and transuranic elements such as plutonium, americium etc., development of an absorbent which can be used to absorb and isolate these elements without producing secondary wastes after treatment was attempted. And an absorbent has been successfully developed by polymerizing tannin, a natural product. It is known that tannin binds heavy metals including uranium resulting to produce their precipitates. There are some reports suggesting its absorption ability for uranium. However, tannin has not been used to isolate a heavy metal from a solution because it is soluble in water. Here, insolubilization of tannin was attempted and a manufacturing method for a gelatinized insoluble tannin named as ``Tannix`` was established. Wattle tannin extracted from Mimosa pudica produced in Africa was dissolved in an alkaline solution and gelatinized by heating after the addition of formalin. Thus obtained insoluble tannin was used after crushing and sieving. This product, ``Tannix`` was able to absorb more than 99% of uranium in the waste. And the absorbed Tannin could be degraded by incineration even at a low temperature, leaving only uranium, but not producing any secondary product. (M.N.)

  5. uv preilluminated gas switches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, L.P.; Orham, E.L.; Stowers, I.F.; Braucht, J.R.

    1980-06-03

    We have designed, built, and characterized uv preilluminated gas switches for a trigger circuit and a low inductance discharge circuit. These switches have been incorporated into a 54 x 76 x 150 cm pulser module to produce a 1 Ma output current rising at 5 x 10/sup 12/ amps/sec with 1 ns jitter. Twenty such modules will be used on the Nova Inertial Confinement Fusion Laser System for plasma retropulse shutters.

  6. UV curable materials development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, B.G.

    1996-12-01

    Adhesives, coatings, and inks were selected for evaluation based on literature search and possible production applications. A differential photocalorimeter was used to measure degree of cure and allow prediction of optimum processing conditions. UV cure equipment were characterized and the ability to size equipment to specific materials cure needs established. Adhesion tests procedures were developed for the adhesives and solvent resistance testing procedures developed for the coatings and inks.

  7. uv preilluminated gas switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, L.P.; Orham, E.L.; Stowers, I.F.; Braucht, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    We have designed, built, and characterized uv preilluminated gas switches for a trigger circuit and a low inductance discharge circuit. These switches have been incorporated into a 54 x 76 x 150 cm pulser module to produce a 1 Ma output current rising at 5 x 10 12 amps/sec with 1 ns jitter. Twenty such modules will be used on the Nova Inertial Confinement Fusion Laser System for plasma retropulse shutters

  8. Magnetic field effects on microwave absorbing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Ira; Hollingsworth, Charles S.; Mckinney, Ted M.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this program was to gather information to formulate a microwave absorber that can work in the presence of strong constant direct current (DC) magnetic fields. The program was conducted in four steps. The first step was to investigate the electrical and magnetic properties of magnetic and ferrite microwave absorbers in the presence of strong magnetic fields. This included both experimental measurements and a literature survey of properties that may be applicable to finding an appropriate absorbing material. The second step was to identify those material properties that will produce desirable absorptive properties in the presence of intense magnetic fields and determine the range of magnetic field in which the absorbers remain effective. The third step was to establish ferrite absorber designs that will produce low reflection and adequate absorption in the presence of intense inhomogeneous static magnetic fields. The fourth and final step was to prepare and test samples of such magnetic microwave absorbers if such designs seem practical.

  9. An omnidirectional electromagnetic absorber made of metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Qiang; Cui Tiejun; Jiang Weixiang; Cai Bengeng

    2010-01-01

    In a recent theoretical work by Narimanov and Kildishev (2009 Appl. Phys. Lett. 95 041106) an optical omnidirectional light absorber based on metamaterials was proposed, in which theoretical analysis and numerical simulations showed that all optical waves hitting the absorber are trapped and absorbed. Here we report the first experimental demonstration of an omnidirectional electromagnetic absorber in the microwave frequency. The proposed device is composed of non-resonant and resonant metamaterial structures, which can trap and absorb electromagnetic waves coming from all directions spirally inwards without any reflections due to the local control of electromagnetic fields. It is shown that the absorption rate can reach 99 per cent in the microwave frequency. The all-directional full absorption property makes the device behave like an 'electromagnetic black body', and the wave trapping and absorbing properties simulate, to some extent, an 'electromagnetic black hole.' We expect that such a device could be used as a thermal emitting source and to harvest electromagnetic waves.

  10. Bees, birds and yellow flowers: pollinator-dependent convergent evolution of UV patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papiorek, S; Junker, R R; Alves-Dos-Santos, I; Melo, G A R; Amaral-Neto, L P; Sazima, M; Wolowski, M; Freitas, L; Lunau, K

    2016-01-01

    Colour is one of the most obvious advertisements of flowers, and occurs in a huge diversity among the angiosperms. Flower colour is responsible for attraction from a distance, whereas contrasting colour patterns within flowers aid orientation of flower visitors after approaching the flowers. Due to the striking differences in colour vision systems and neural processing across animal taxa, flower colours evoke specific behavioural responses by different flower visitors. We tested whether and how yellow flowers differ in their spectral reflectance depending on the main pollinator. We focused on bees and birds and examined whether the presence or absence of the widespread UV reflectance pattern of yellow flowers predicts the main pollinator. Most bee-pollinated flowers displayed a pattern with UV-absorbing centres and UV-reflecting peripheries, whereas the majority of bird-pollinated flowers are entirely UV- absorbing. In choice experiments we found that bees did not show consistent preferences for any colour or pattern types. However, all tested bee species made their first antennal contact preferably at the UV-absorbing area of the artificial flower, irrespective of its spatial position within the flower. The appearance of UV patterns within flowers is the main difference in spectral reflectance between yellow bee- and bird-pollinated flowers, and affects the foraging behaviour of flower visitors. The results support the hypothesis that flower colours and the visual capabilities of their efficient pollinators are adapted to each other. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  11. Comments on liquid hydrogen absorbers for MICE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the heat transfer problems associated with a liquid hydrogen absorber for the MICE experiment. This report describes a technique for modeling heat transfer from the outside world, to the absorber case and in its vacuum vessel, to the hydrogen and then into helium gas at 14 K. Also presented are the equation for free convection cooling of the liquid hydrogen in the absorber

  12. Multiband Negative Permittivity Metamaterials and Absorbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiran Tian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Design and characteristics of multiband negative permittivity metamaterial and its absorber configuration are presented in this paper. The proposed multiband metamaterial is composed of a novel multibranch resonator which can possess four electric resonance frequencies. It is shown that, by controlling the length of the main branches of such resonator, the resonant frequencies and corresponding absorbing bands of metamaterial absorber can be shifted in a large frequency band.

  13. A novel research model for evaluating sunscreen protection in the UV-A1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Sônia Aparecida; de Moraes, Dayane Cristina; Vilela, Fernanda Maria Pinto; de Faria, Amanda Natalina; Dos Santos, Marcelo Henrique; Fonseca, Maria José Vieira

    2018-01-01

    The use of a broad spectrum sunscreen is considered one of the main and most popular measures for preventing the damaging effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) on the skin. In this study we have developed a novel in vitro method to assess sunscreens efficacy to protect calcineurin enzyme activity, a skin cell marker. The photoprotective efficacy of sunscreen products was assessed by measuring the UV-A1 radiation-induced depletion of calcineurin (Cn) enzyme activity in primary neonatal human dermal fibroblast (HDFn) cell lysates. After exposure to 24J/cm 2 UV-A1 radiation, the sunscreens containing larger amounts of UV-A1 filters (brand B), the astaxanthin (UV-A1 absorber) and the Tinosorb® M (UV-A1 absorber) were capable of preventing loss of Cn activity when compared to the sunscreens formulations of brand A (low concentration of UV-A1 filters), with the Garcinia brasiliensis extract (UV-B absorber) and with the unprotected cell lysate and exposed to irradiation (Irradiated Control - IC). The Cn activity assay is a reproducible, accurate and selective technique for evaluating the effectiveness of sunscreens against the effects of UV-A1 radiation. The developed method showed that calcineurin activity have the potential to act as a biological indicator of UV-A1 radiation-induced damages in skin and the assay might be used to assess the efficacy of sunscreens agents and plant extracts prior to in vivo tests. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. UV Radiation and the Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Orazio, John; Jarrett, Stuart; Amaro-Ortiz, Alexandra; Scott, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    UV radiation (UV) is classified as a “complete carcinogen” because it is both a mutagen and a non-specific damaging agent and has properties of both a tumor initiator and a tumor promoter. In environmental abundance, UV is the most important modifiable risk factor for skin cancer and many other environmentally-influenced skin disorders. However, UV also benefits human health by mediating natural synthesis of vitamin D and endorphins in the skin, therefore UV has complex and mixed effects on human health. Nonetheless, excessive exposure to UV carries profound health risks, including atrophy, pigmentary changes, wrinkling and malignancy. UV is epidemiologically and molecularly linked to the three most common types of skin cancer, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma, which together affect more than a million Americans annually. Genetic factors also influence risk of UV-mediated skin disease. Polymorphisms of the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene, in particular, correlate with fairness of skin, UV sensitivity, and enhanced cancer risk. We are interested in developing UV-protective approaches based on a detailed understanding of molecular events that occur after UV exposure, focusing particularly on epidermal melanization and the role of the MC1R in genome maintenance. PMID:23749111

  15. UV Radiation and the Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Scott

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available UV radiation (UV is classified as a “complete carcinogen” because it is both a mutagen and a non-specific damaging agent and has properties of both a tumor initiator and a tumor promoter. In environmental abundance, UV is the most important modifiable risk factor for skin cancer and many other environmentally-influenced skin disorders. However, UV also benefits human health by mediating natural synthesis of vitamin D and endorphins in the skin, therefore UV has complex and mixed effects on human health. Nonetheless, excessive exposure to UV carries profound health risks, including atrophy, pigmentary changes, wrinkling and malignancy. UV is epidemiologically and molecularly linked to the three most common types of skin cancer, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma, which together affect more than a million Americans annually. Genetic factors also influence risk of UV-mediated skin disease. Polymorphisms of the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R gene, in particular, correlate with fairness of skin, UV sensitivity, and enhanced cancer risk. We are interested in developing UV-protective approaches based on a detailed understanding of molecular events that occur after UV exposure, focusing particularly on epidermal melanization and the role of the MC1R in genome maintenance.

  16. Device for absorbing mechanical shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newlon, C.E.

    1979-08-29

    This invention is a comparatively inexpensive but efficient shock-absorbing device having special application to the protection of shipping and storage cylinders. In a typical application, two of the devices are strapped to a cylinder to serve as saddle-type supports for the cylinder during storage and to protect the cylinder in the event it is dropped during lifting or lowering operations. In its preferred form, the invention includes a hardwood plank whose grain runs in the longitudinal direction. The basal portion of the plank is of solid cross-section, whereas the upper face of the plank is cut away to form a concave surface fittable against the sidewall of a storage cylinder. The concave surface is divided into a series of segments by transversely extending, throughgoing relief slots. A layer of elastomeric material is positioned on the concave face, the elastomer being extrudable into slots when pressed against the segments by a preselected pressure characteristic of a high-energy impact. The compressive, tensile, and shear properties of the hardwood and the elastomer are utilized in combination to provide a surprisingly high energy-absorption capability.

  17. Gaseous carbon dioxide absorbing column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harashina, Heihachi.

    1994-01-01

    The absorbing column of the present invention comprises a cyclone to which CO 2 gas and Ca(OH) 2 are blown to form CaCO 3 , a water supply means connected to an upper portion of the cyclone for forming a thin water membrane on the inner wall thereof, and a water processing means connected to a lower portion of the cyclone for draining water incorporating CaCO 3 . If a mixed fluid of CO 2 gas and Ca(OH) 2 is blown in a state where a flowing water membrane is formed on the inner wall of the cyclone, formation of CaCO 3 is promoted also in the inside of the cyclone in addition to the formation of CaCO 3 in the course of blowing. Then, formed CaCO 3 is discharged from the lower portion of the cyclone together with downwardly flowing water. With such procedures, solid contents such as CaCO 3 separated at the inner circumferential wall are sent into the thin water membrane, adsorbed and captured, and the solid contents are successively washed out, so that a phenomenon that the solid contents deposit and grow on the inner wall of the cyclone can be prevented effectively. (T.M.)

  18. Exclusion of solar UV radiation improves photosynthetic performance and yield of wheat varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataria, Sunita; Guruprasad, K N

    2015-12-01

    Field studies were conducted to determine the potential for alterations in photosynthetic performance and grain yield of four wheat (Triticum aestivum) varieties of India- Vidisha, Purna, Swarna and Naveen Chandausi by ambient ultraviolet radiation (UV). The plants were grown in specially designed UV exclusion chambers, wrapped with filters that excluded UV-B (solar UV exclusion increased the leaf mass per area ratio, leaf weight ratio and chlorophylls per unit area of flag leaves in all the four varieties of wheat. Polyphasic chlorophyll a fluorescence transients from the flag leaves of UV excluded wheat plants gave a higher fluorescence yield. Exclusion of solar UV significantly enhanced photosynthetic performance as a consequence of increased efficiency of PS II, performance index (PIABS) and rate of photosynthesis in the flag leaves of wheat varieties along with a remarkable increase in carbonic anhydrase, Rubisco and nitrate reductase activities. This additional fixation of carbon and nitrogen by exclusion of UV was channelized towards the improvement in grain yield of wheat varieties as there was a decrease in the UV-B absorbing substances and an increase in soluble protein content in flag leaves of all the four varieties of wheat. The magnitude of response for UV exclusion for all the measured parameters was higher in two varieties of wheat Vidisha and Purna as compared to Swarna and Naveen Chandausi. Cumulative stress response index (CSRI) for each variety was developed from the cumulative sum of physiological and yield parameters such as leaf mass area ratio of flag leaf, total chlorophyll content, performance index at absorption basis, rate of photosynthesis and grain yield. All the varieties had a negative CSRI, demonstrating a negative impact of ambient UV radiation. Naveen Chandausi and Swarna are less sensitive to ambient UV radiation; Vidisha is more sensitive to both UV-A and UV-B and Purna is more sensitive to ambient UV-B radiation. Copyright

  19. A Unified View of X-ray Absorbers in AGNs and XRBs with MHD Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumura, Keigo; Kazanas, Demosthenes; Shrader, Chris R.; Tombesi, Francesco; Behar, Ehud; Contopoulos, John

    2016-01-01

    The presence of UV and X-ray absorbers (aka. warm absorbers or WAs) has been long known for decades from extensive spectroscopic studies across diverse AGN populations such as nearby Seyfert galaxies and distant quasars. Furthermore, another class of seemingly distinct type of absorbers, ultra-fast outflows or UFOs, is becoming increasingly known today. Nonetheless, a physical identification of such absorbers, such as geometrical property and physical conditions, is very elusive to date despite the recent state-of-the-art observations. We develop a coherent scenario in which the detected absorbers are driven primarily (if not exclusively) by the action of global magnetic fields originating from a black hole accretion disk. In the context of MHD disk-wind of density profile of n~1/r, it is found that the properties of the observed WAs/UFOs are successfully described assuming a characteristic SED. As a case study, we analyze PG1211+143 and GRO J1655-40 to demonstrate that our wind model can systematically unify apparently diverse absorbers in both AGNs and XRBs in terms of explaining their global behavior as well as individual spectral lines.

  20. The TROPOMI surface UV algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindfors, Anders V.; Kujanpää, Jukka; Kalakoski, Niilo; Heikkilä, Anu; Lakkala, Kaisa; Mielonen, Tero; Sneep, Maarten; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Arola, Antti; Tamminen, Johanna

    2018-02-01

    The TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) is the only payload of the Sentinel-5 Precursor (S5P), which is a polar-orbiting satellite mission of the European Space Agency (ESA). TROPOMI is a nadir-viewing spectrometer measuring in the ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared, and the shortwave infrared that provides near-global daily coverage. Among other things, TROPOMI measurements will be used for calculating the UV radiation reaching the Earth's surface. Thus, the TROPOMI surface UV product will contribute to the monitoring of UV radiation by providing daily information on the prevailing UV conditions over the globe. The TROPOMI UV algorithm builds on the heritage of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and the Satellite Application Facility for Atmospheric Composition and UV Radiation (AC SAF) algorithms. This paper provides a description of the algorithm that will be used for estimating surface UV radiation from TROPOMI observations. The TROPOMI surface UV product includes the following UV quantities: the UV irradiance at 305, 310, 324, and 380 nm; the erythemally weighted UV; and the vitamin-D weighted UV. Each of these are available as (i) daily dose or daily accumulated irradiance, (ii) overpass dose rate or irradiance, and (iii) local noon dose rate or irradiance. In addition, all quantities are available corresponding to actual cloud conditions and as clear-sky values, which otherwise correspond to the same conditions but assume a cloud-free atmosphere. This yields 36 UV parameters altogether. The TROPOMI UV algorithm has been tested using input based on OMI and the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) satellite measurements. These preliminary results indicate that the algorithm is functioning according to expectations.

  1. The TROPOMI surface UV algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Lindfors

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI is the only payload of the Sentinel-5 Precursor (S5P, which is a polar-orbiting satellite mission of the European Space Agency (ESA. TROPOMI is a nadir-viewing spectrometer measuring in the ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared, and the shortwave infrared that provides near-global daily coverage. Among other things, TROPOMI measurements will be used for calculating the UV radiation reaching the Earth's surface. Thus, the TROPOMI surface UV product will contribute to the monitoring of UV radiation by providing daily information on the prevailing UV conditions over the globe. The TROPOMI UV algorithm builds on the heritage of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI and the Satellite Application Facility for Atmospheric Composition and UV Radiation (AC SAF algorithms. This paper provides a description of the algorithm that will be used for estimating surface UV radiation from TROPOMI observations. The TROPOMI surface UV product includes the following UV quantities: the UV irradiance at 305, 310, 324, and 380 nm; the erythemally weighted UV; and the vitamin-D weighted UV. Each of these are available as (i daily dose or daily accumulated irradiance, (ii overpass dose rate or irradiance, and (iii local noon dose rate or irradiance. In addition, all quantities are available corresponding to actual cloud conditions and as clear-sky values, which otherwise correspond to the same conditions but assume a cloud-free atmosphere. This yields 36 UV parameters altogether. The TROPOMI UV algorithm has been tested using input based on OMI and the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2 satellite measurements. These preliminary results indicate that the algorithm is functioning according to expectations.

  2. Effects of UV radiation on aquatic ecosystems and interactions with other environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häder, Donat-P; Williamson, Craig E; Wängberg, Sten-Åke; Rautio, Milla; Rose, Kevin C; Gao, Kunshan; Helbling, E Walter; Sinha, Rajeshwar P; Worrest, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between climate change and UV radiation are having strong effects on aquatic ecosystems due to feedback between temperature, UV radiation, and greenhouse gas concentration. Higher air temperatures and incoming solar radiation are increasing the surface water temperatures of lakes and oceans, with many large lakes warming at twice the rate of regional air temperatures. Warmer oceans are changing habitats and the species composition of many marine ecosystems. For some, such as corals, the temperatures may become too high. Temperature differences between surface and deep waters are becoming greater. This increase in thermal stratification makes the surface layers shallower and leads to stronger barriers to upward mixing of nutrients necessary for photosynthesis. This also results in exposure to higher levels of UV radiation of surface-dwelling organisms. In polar and alpine regions decreases in the duration and amount of snow and ice cover on lakes and oceans are also increasing exposure to UV radiation. In contrast, in lakes and coastal oceans the concentration and colour of UV-absorbing dissolved organic matter (DOM) from terrestrial ecosystems is increasing with greater runoff from higher precipitation and more frequent extreme storms. DOM thus creates a refuge from UV radiation that can enable UV-sensitive species to become established. At the same time, decreased UV radiation in such surface waters reduces the capacity of solar UV radiation to inactivate viruses and other pathogens and parasites, and increases the difficulty and price of purifying drinking water for municipal supplies. Solar UV radiation breaks down the DOM, making it more available for microbial processing, resulting in the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. In addition to screening solar irradiance, DOM, when sunlit in surface water, can lead to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Increases in carbon dioxide are in turn acidifying the oceans and inhibiting

  3. Enhanced Measurements of Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) for Water Quality Analysis using a New Simultaneous Absorbance and Fluorescence Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, A. M.

    2009-12-01

    Water quality, with respect to suspended particles and dissolved organic and inorganic compounds, is now recognized as one of the top global environmental concerns. Contemporary research indicates fluorescence spectral analyses coupled with UV-VIS absorbance assays have the potential, especially when combined and coordinated, to facilitate rapid, robust quantification of a wide range of compounds, including interactions among them. Fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) collected over the UV-VIS region provide a wealth of information on chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM). CDOM includes humic and fulvic acid, chlorophyll, petroleum, protein, amino acid, quinone, fertilizer, pesticide, sewage and numerous other compound classes. Analysis of the EEMs using conventional and multivariate techniques, including primarily parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), provides information about many types of CDOM relevant to carbon cycling and pollution of fresh, marine and drinking water sources. Of critical concern also are the CDOM interactions with, and optical activities of, dissolved inorganic compounds. Many of the inorganic compounds and oxygen demand parameters can be analyzed with a wide range of UV-VIS absorbance assays. The instrument is designed and optimized for high UV throughput and low stray light performance. The sampling optics are optimized for both fluorescence and absorbance detection with the same sample. Both EEM and absorbance measurements implement NIST traceable instrument correction and calibration routines. The fluorescence detection utilizes a high dynamic range CCD coupled to a high-resolution spectrograph while absorbance utilizes diode based detection with a high dynamic range and extremely low-stray light specifications. The CDOM analysis is facilitated by a transfer of the data and model information with the PARAFAC routine. The EEM analysis software package facilitates coordinated correction of and correlation with the

  4. uvsI mutants defective in UV mutagenesis define a fourth epistatic group of uvs genes in Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, S K; Kafer, E

    1993-01-01

    Three UV-sensitive mutations of A. nidulans, uvsI, uvsJ and uvsA, were tested for epistatic relationships with members of the previously established groups, here called the "UvsF", "UvsC", and "UvsB" groups. uvsI mutants are defective for spontaneous and induced reversion of certain point mutations and differ also for other properties from previously analyzed uvs types. They are very sensitive to the killing effects of UV-light and 4-NQO (4-nitro-quinoline-N-oxide) but not to MMS (methylmethane sulfonate). When double- and single-mutant uvs strains were compared for sensitivity to these three agents, synergistic or additive effects were found for uvsI with all members of the three groups. The uvsI gene may therefore represent a fourth epistatic group, possibly involved in mutagenic repair. On the other hand, uvsJ was clearly epistatic with members of the UvsF group and fitted well into this group also by phenotype. The uvsA gene was tentatively assigned to the UvsC group. uvsA showed epistatic interactions with uvsC in all tests, and like UvsC-group mutants is UV-sensitive mainly in dividing cells. However, the uvsA mutation does not cause the defects in recombination and UV mutagenesis typical for this group.

  5. Contribution to Casein Determination by UV Spectrophotometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanescu Raluca

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, the interaction between copper ions and proteins is presented, in order to elaborate a simple and rapid spectrophotometric assay of casein in milk. Under alkaline conditions, copper ions form the biuret complex with the proteins, which can be used in protein determination. Although very specific, the biuret method is less sensitive. Using insoluble copper phosphate, casein is able to extract copper ions, with which it forms the biuret complex, while either the complex or copper ions could be determined in the ultraviolet range. Indeed, an increased absorbance of biuret complex at 215 nm was found. Nevertheless, copper ions can be determined in UV as well, their concentration being proportional to that of casein. When used tetraglycine instead casein, mass spectrometric measurements at pH higher than 11 revealed the formation of complexes with many copper ions bound to each peptide bond-containing molecule. Nevertheless, on diluting the biuret solution the complex may dissociate leading to very complex UV spectra that should be further studied.

  6. Sinapate esters provide greater UV-B attenuation than flavonoids in Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheahan, J.J.

    1996-01-01

    Mutants affected in flavonoid (tt4) or sinapate ester (fah1) biosynthesis were used to assess the relative importance of these phenolic UV photoprotectants in Arabidopsis. Flavonoid and sinapate ester absorption was more specific for UV-B than major nonphenolic chromophores in crude extracts. A new method of evaluating phenolic UV-B attenuation was developed using fluorescence analysis. When excited by UV-B, sinapate ester containing leaves and cotyledons had enhanced sinapate ester fluorescence and reduced chlorophyll fluorescence relative to those without sinapate esters. Although fluorescence analysis gave no evidence of UV-B attenuation by flavonoids, enhanced chlorophyll and protein loss were observed upon UV-B exposure in flavonoid-deficient leaves, suggesting they have another mechanism of UV-B protection. The hydroxycinnamates have been largely ignored as UV-B attenuating pigments. and the results indicate that greater attention should be paid to their role in attenuating UV-B

  7. Intrascleral outflow after deep sclerectomy with absorbable and non-absorbable implants in the rabbit eye

    OpenAIRE

    Ka?u?ny, Jakub J.; Grzanka, Dariusz; Wi?niewska, Halina; Niewi?ska, Alicja; Ka?u?ny, Bart?omiej J.; Grzanka, Alina

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background The purpose of the study is an analysis of intrascleral drainage vessels formed in rabbits? eyes after non-penetrating deep sclerectomy (NPDS) with absorbable and non-absorbable implants, and comparison to eyes in which surgery was performed without implanted material. Material/Methods NPDS was carried out in 12 rabbits, with implantation of non-absorbable methacrylic hydrogel (N=10 eyes) or absorbable cross-linked sodium hyaluronate (N=6 eyes), or without any implant (N=8 ...

  8. Absorbencies of six different rodent beddings: commercially advertised absorbencies are potentially misleading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burn, C C; Mason, G J

    2005-01-01

    Moisture absorbency is one of the most important characteristics of rodent beddings for controlling bacterial growth and ammonia production. However, bedding manufacturers rarely provide information on the absorbencies of available materials, and even when they do, absorption values are usually expressed per unit mass of bedding. Since beddings are usually placed into cages to reach a required depth rather than a particular mass, their volumetric absorbencies are far more relevant. This study therefore compared the saline absorbencies of sawdust, aspen woodchips, two virgin loose pulp beddings (Alpha-Dri and Omega-Dri), reclaimed wood pulp (Tek-Fresh), and corncob, calculated both by volume and by mass. Absorbency per unit volume correlated positively with bedding density, while absorbency per unit mass correlated negatively. Therefore, the relative absorbencies of the beddings were almost completely reversed depending on how absorbency was calculated. By volume, corncob was the most absorbent bedding, absorbing about twice as much saline as Tek-Fresh, the least absorbent bedding. Conversely, when calculated by mass, Tek-Fresh appeared to absorb almost three times as much saline as the corncob. Thus, in practical terms the most absorbent bedding here was corncob, followed by the loose pulp beddings; and this is generally supported by their relatively low ammonia production as seen in previous studies. Many factors other than absorbency determine whether a material is suitable as a rodent bedding, and they are briefly mentioned here. However, manufacturers should provide details of bedding absorbencies in terms of volume, in order to help predict the relative absorbencies of the beddings in practical situations.

  9. Absorbed radiation dose on LHC interconnects

    CERN Document Server

    Versaci, R; Vlachoudis, V; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2011-01-01

    Here we present the results of our FLUKA simulations devoted to the evaluation of the peak dose absorbed by the busbar insulator in the LHC Interaction Region 7 interconnects. The peak dose absorbed by the cold magnet coils are also presented.

  10. Comments on liquid hydrogen absorbers for MICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Michael A.

    2003-02-01

    This report describes the heat transfer problems associatedwith a liquid hydrogen absorber for the MICE experiment. This reportdescribes a technique for modeling heat transfer from the outside world,to the abosrber case and in its vacuum vessel, to the hydrogen and theninto helium gas at 14 K. Also presented are the equation for freeconvection cooling of the liquid hydrogen in the absorber.

  11. Absorber transmissivities in 57Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballet, O.

    1985-01-01

    Some useful relations are derived for the polarization dependent optical index of 57 Fe Moessbauer absorbers. Real rotation matrices are extensively used and, besides wave-direction dependence, their properties simplify also the treatment of texture and f-anisotropy. The derivation of absorber transmissivities from the optical index is discussed with a special emphasis on line overlapping. (Auth.)

  12. Metamaterial Resonant Absorbers for Terahertz Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    process was completed in the NPS clean room for an Al/SiOx/Al metamaterial absorber . After fabrication, FTIR testing was employed to determine the...is unlimited METAMATERIAL RESONANT ABSORBERS FOR TERAHERTZ SENSING by Eric A. Stinson December 2015 Thesis Advisor: Gamani Karunasiri...

  13. Alfalfa seedlings grown outdoors are more resistant to UV-induced DNA damage than plants grown in a UV-free environmental chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayanagi, Shinnosuke; Trunk, J.G.; Sutherland, J.C.; Sutherland, B.M.

    1994-01-01

    The relative UV sensitivities of alfalfa seedlings grown outdoors versus plants grown in a growth chamber under UV-filtered cool white fluorescent bulbs have been determined using three criteria: (1) level of endogenous DNA damage as sites for the UV endonuclease from Micrococcus luteus, (2) susceptibility to pyrimidine dimer induction by a UV challenge exposure and (3) ability to repair UV-induced damage. We find that outdoor-grown plants contain approximately equal frequencies of endogenous DNA damages, are less susceptible to dimer induction by a challenge exposure of broad-spectrum UV and photorepair dimers more rapidly than plants grown in an environmental chamber under cool white fluorescent lamps plus a filter removes most UV radiation. These data suggest that plants grown in a natural environment would be less sensitive to UVB-induced damage than would be predicted on the basis of studies on plants grown under minimum UV. (author)

  14. Performance characteristics of solar blind UV image intensifier tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hongchang; Shi, Feng; Feng, Liu; Liu, Hui; Ren, Bing; Zhang, Lian-dong

    2009-07-01

    The UV radiation of spectrum range of 200~320nm almost is zero on the earth surface because UV radiation is greatly absorbed by ozone in atmosphere. So this spectrum range is called "Solar Blind Range". Because Solar Blind UV(SBUV) can't be influenced by atmosphere, it is easy to detect them as soon as SBUV radiation objects appear in the earth surface. If UV photoelectric image devices are used to observe them, high contrast picture will be acquired, that bright object's image lie in full black background. It is easy to identify the picture by human eye or other optical sensor (CCD). A solar blind UV(Ultra Violet) image intensifier tube(SBUV-IIT) is a special image intensifier tube, which was developed on double proximity focused Generation low-light-level image intensifier tube. It only responses spectrum range of 200~320 nm., SBUV-IIT can be used to observe UV faint radiation object, because UV sensitivity is high and response time is rapid and radiation gain is high. Low-altitude-flying missile can be observed by detecting its tail fog with SBUV-IIT, because its tail fog emits plenty of SBUV. By this way high contrast UV picture can be acquired to achieve missile warning, and this way has been widely used in foreign ordnance equipment. SBUV-IIT has been described in this paper. It is double proximity focused MCP (Micro-channel plate) image intensifier tube. It is 18mm active diameter of photocathode and phosphor screen. Input and output window is quartz glass and fiber optics faceplate respective. Photocathode material and phosphor screen is tellurium cesium compound and P20. It has been developed with a limiting UV resolution of 39 line pair per millimeter, and spectral response of 200~320 nm, photocathode maximum sensitivity of 29.5 milli-ampere per watt at wavelength 254 nm and a mass of 35g. It can be coupled with CCD easily. It has been well suited for fingerprint identify and camera system, It'll be used for UV hail testing, UV earthquake forecasting and

  15. Antiradiation UV Vaccine: UV Radiation, Biological effects, lesions and medical management - immune-therapy and immune-protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Jones, Jeffrey; Maliev, Slava

    moderate and high doses of UV and ionizing radiation induce cell death by necrosis and generate systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), toxic multiple organ injury (TMOI), toxic multiple organ dysfunction syndromes (TMODS),and finally, toxic multiple organ failure (TMOF). [D.Popov et al.2012, Fliedner T.et al. 2005, T. Azizova et al. 2004] UV-B is a complete carcinogen that is absorbed by DNA and directly damages DNA. DNA damage induced by UV-B irradiation typically includes the formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimmers (CPD) and 6-4 photoproducts (6-4P)[IARC, Working Group Reports, M.Saraiya et al. 2004]. The pre-vaccinated animals seem to have a blunted injury response relative to the unvaccinated animals, presumably by reduction in the inflammatory response and secondary injury effects. The mechanism of action of the antiradiation vaccine, needs further evaluation. Conclusion: A UV antiradiation vaccine appears to demonstrate efficacy as a prophylactic agent for acute solar burns and toxicity. An antiradiation UV vaccine could be used in conjunction with adjunctive measures, e.g. antioxidants and UV barriers to reduce UV radiation toxicity. The authors of this experiments would like to propose further development work of the antiradiation UV vaccine to enhance the armamentarium for prophylaxis and prevention of the various forms skin cancer.

  16. Liquid absorber experiments in ZED-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonnell, F.N.

    1975-07-01

    A set of liquid absorber experiments was performed in ZED-2 to provide data with which to test the adequacy of calculational methods for zone controller and refuelling studies associated with advanced reactor concepts. The absorber consisted of a full length aluminum tube, containing either i)H 2 O, ii)H 2 O + boron (2.5 mg/ml) or iii)H 2 O + boron (8.0 mg/ml). The tube was suspended vertically at interstitial or in-channel locations. A U-tube absorber was also simulated using two absorber tubes with appropriate spacers. Experiments were carried out at two different square lattice pitches, 22.86 and 27.94 cm. Measurements were made of the reactivity effects of the absorbers and, in some cases, of the detailed flux distribution near the perturbation. The results from one calculational method, the source-sink approach, were compared with the data from selected experiments. (author)

  17. Optical Properties and Aging of Light Absorbing Secondary Organic Aerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jiumeng; Lin, Peng; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia; Kathmann, Shawn M.; Wise, Matthew E.; Caylor, Ryan; Imholt, Felisha; Selimovic, Vanessa; Shilling, John E.

    2016-10-14

    The light-absorbing organic aerosol (OA), commonly referred to as “brown carbon (BrC)”, has attracted considerable attention in recent years because of its potential to affect atmospheric radiation balance, especially in the ultraviolet region and thus impact photochemical processes. A growing amount of data has indicated that BrC is prevalent in the atmosphere, which has motivated numerous laboratory and field studies; however, our understanding of the relationship between the chemical composition and optical properties of BrC remains limited. We conducted chamber experiments to investigate the effect of various VOC precursors, NOx concentrations, photolysis time and relative humidity (RH) on the light absorption of selected secondary organic aerosols (SOA). Light absorption of chamber generated SOA samples, especially aromatic SOA, was found to increase with NOx concentration, at moderate RH, and for the shortest photolysis aging times. The highest mass absorption coefficients (MAC) value is observed from toluene SOA products formed under high NOx conditions at moderate RH, in which nitro-aromatics were previously identified as the major light absorbing compounds. BrC light absorption is observed to decrease with photolysis time, correlated with a decline of the organonitrate fraction of SOA. SOA formed from mixtures of aromatics and isoprene absorb less visible and UV light than SOA formed from aromatic precursors alone on a mass basis. However, the mixed-SOA absorption was underestimated when optical properties were predicted using a two-product SOA formation model, as done in many current climate models. Further investigation, including analysis on detailed mechanisms, are required to explain the discrepancy.

  18. Antimicrobial Activity of UV-Induced Phenylamides from Rice Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Lin Park

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Rice produces a wide array of phytoalexins in response to pathogen attacks and UV-irradiation. Except for the flavonoid sakuranetin, most phytoalexins identified in rice are diterpenoid compounds. Analysis of phenolic-enriched fractions from UV-treated rice leaves showed that several phenolic compounds in addition to sakuranetin accumulated remarkably in rice leaves. We isolated two compounds from UV-treated rice leaves using silica gel column chromatography and preparative HPLC. The isolated phenolic compounds were identified as phenylamide compounds: N-trans-cinnamoyltryptamine and N-p-coumaroylserotonin. Expression analysis of biosynthetic genes demonstrated that genes for arylamine biosynthesis were upregulated by UV irradiation. This result suggested that phenylamide biosynthetic pathways are activated in rice leaves by UV treatment. To unravel the role of UV-induced phenylamides as phytoalexins, we examined their antimicrobial activity against rice fungal and bacterial pathogens. N-trans-Cinnamoyltryptamine inhibited the growth of rice brown spot fungus (Bipolaris oryzae. In addition to the known antifungal activity to the blast fungus, sakuranetin had antimicrobial activity toward B. oryzae and Rhizoctonia solani (rice sheath blight fungus. UV-induced phenylamides and sakuranetin also had antimicrobial activity against rice bacterial pathogens for grain rot (Burkholderia glumae, blight (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and leaf streak (X. oryzae pv. oryzicola diseases. These findings suggested that the UV-induced phenylamides in rice are phytoalexins against a diverse array of pathogens.

  19. Visual modelling suggests a weak relationship between the evolution of ultraviolet vision and plumage coloration in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, O; Delhey, K

    2015-03-01

    Birds have sophisticated colour vision mediated by four cone types that cover a wide visual spectrum including ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths. Many birds have modest UV sensitivity provided by violet-sensitive (VS) cones with sensitivity maxima between 400 and 425 nm. However, some birds have evolved higher UV sensitivity and a larger visual spectrum given by UV-sensitive (UVS) cones maximally sensitive at 360-370 nm. The reasons for VS-UVS transitions and their relationship to visual ecology remain unclear. It has been hypothesized that the evolution of UVS-cone vision is linked to plumage colours so that visual sensitivity and feather coloration are 'matched'. This leads to the specific prediction that UVS-cone vision enhances the discrimination of plumage colours of UVS birds while such an advantage is absent or less pronounced for VS-bird coloration. We test this hypothesis using knowledge of the complex distribution of UVS cones among birds combined with mathematical modelling of colour discrimination during different viewing conditions. We find no support for the hypothesis, which, combined with previous studies, suggests only a weak relationship between UVS-cone vision and plumage colour evolution. Instead, we suggest that UVS-cone vision generally favours colour discrimination, which creates a nonspecific selection pressure for the evolution of UVS cones. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  20. Changes in growth and 14CO2 fixation of Hordeum vulgare and Phaseolus vulgaris induced by UV-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussa, H.R.; Khodary, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    Increased UV-B radiation on the earth's surface due to depletion of stratospheric ozone layer is one of the changes of current climate-change pattern. A field experiment was concluded to study the effects of solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation on growth parameters, photosynthetic efficiency (14CO2-fixation) and biochemical characteristics of barley (Hordeum vulgare) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Plants grown under ambient UV-B radiation were compared with those grown without UV-B by excluding ambient UV-B radiation. To exclude solar ambient UV-B radiation, the sunlight was filtered through a polyester film that selectively absorbed UV-B. For ambient UV-B effects, plants were grown under polyvinyl chloride (PVC) filters that transmitted the complete light spectrum. The results indicated increased shoot length, leaf area, dry matter accumulation, leaf area ratio and specific leaf weight in plants of both the crops grown without UV-B compared with those grown under ambient UV-B. Similarly, the rate of photosynthetic activity, chlorophyll content, nitrates reductase (NR) enzyme activity and sugar content. The effect of UV-B exclusion was clearer in common bean compared with that in barley. We conclude that monocot species may be less sensitive to increased solar UV-B due to ozone depletion than with dicots

  1. Evaluation of Soyscreen in an Oil-based Formulation for UV Protection of Beauveria bassiana Conidia

    Science.gov (United States)

    SoyScreen oil was studied as a formulation ingredient to protect Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin conidia from UV degradation. Feruloylated soy glycerides, referred to as SoyScreen oil, are biobased ultraviolet-absorbing molecules made by combining molecules of soybean oil with ferulic acid. ...

  2. Oxyradicals and PSII activity in maize leaves in the absence of UV ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-08-13

    Aug 13, 2012 ... based on absorption; POD, peroxidase; PSII, photosystem II; RC, reaction centre; SOD, superoxide dismutase; TR, excitation energy flux trapped by a RC and utilized for the reduction of QA to QA. –. ; UAS, UV absorbing substances; X/XO, xanthine, xanthine oxidase; φEo, quantum yield of electron transport ...

  3. Performance characteristics of UV imaging instrumentation for diffusion, dissolution and release testing studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sabrine S; Jensen, Henrik; Goodall, David M

    2016-01-01

    UV imaging is capable of providing spatially and temporally resolved absorbance measurements, which is highly beneficial in drug diffusion, dissolution and release testing studies. For optimal planning and design of experiments, knowledge about the capabilities and limitations of the imaging syst...

  4. Brown carbon: a significant atmospheric absorber of solar radiation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Feng

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Several recent observational studies have shown organic carbon aerosols to be a significant source of absorption of solar radiation. The absorbing part of organic aerosols is referred to as "brown" carbon (BrC. Using a global chemical transport model and a radiative transfer model, we estimate for the first time the enhanced absorption of solar radiation due to BrC in a global model. The simulated wavelength dependence of aerosol absorption, as measured by the absorption Ångström exponent (AAE, increases from 0.9 for non-absorbing organic carbon to 1.2 (1.0 for strongly (moderately absorbing BrC. The calculated AAE for the strongly absorbing BrC agrees with AERONET spectral observations at 440–870 nm over most regions but overpredicts for the biomass burning-dominated South America and southern Africa, in which the inclusion of moderately absorbing BrC has better agreement. The resulting aerosol absorption optical depth increases by 18% (3% at 550 nm and 56% (38% at 380 nm for strongly (moderately absorbing BrC. The global simulations suggest that the strongly absorbing BrC contributes up to +0.25 W m−2 or 19% of the absorption by anthropogenic aerosols, while 72% is attributed to black carbon, and 9% is due to sulfate and non-absorbing organic aerosols coated on black carbon. Like black carbon, the absorption of BrC (moderately to strongly inserts a warming effect at the top of the atmosphere (TOA (0.04 to 0.11 W m−2, while the effect at the surface is a reduction (−0.06 to −0.14 W m−2. Inclusion of the strongly absorption of BrC in our model causes the direct radiative forcing (global mean of organic carbon aerosols at the TOA to change from cooling (−0.08 W m−2 to warming (+0.025 W m−2. Over source regions and above clouds, the absorption of BrC is higher and thus can play an important role in photochemistry and the hydrologic cycle.

  5. The UVR8 UV-B Photoreceptor: Perception, Signaling and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilbrook, Kimberley; Arongaus, Adriana B.; Binkert, Melanie; Heijde, Marc; Yin, Ruohe; Ulm, Roman

    2013-01-01

    Ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) is an intrinsic part of sunlight that is accompanied by significant biological effects. Plants are able to perceive UV-B using the UV-B photoreceptor UVR8 which is linked to a specific molecular signaling pathway and leads to UV-B acclimation. Herein we review the biological process in plants from initial UV-B perception and signal transduction through to the known UV-B responses that promote survival in sunlight. The UVR8 UV-B photoreceptor exists as a homodimer that instantly monomerises upon UV-B absorption via specific intrinsic tryptophans which act as UV-B chromophores. The UVR8 monomer interacts with COP1, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, initiating a molecular signaling pathway that leads to gene expression changes. This signaling output leads to UVR8-dependent responses including UV-B-induced photomorphogenesis and the accumulation of UV-B-absorbing flavonols. Negative feedback regulation of the pathway is provided by the WD40-repeat proteins RUP1 and RUP2, which facilitate UVR8 redimerization, disrupting the UVR8-COP1 interaction. Despite rapid advancements in the field of recent years, further components of UVR8 UV-B signaling are constantly emerging, and the precise interplay of these and the established players UVR8, COP1, RUP1, RUP2 and HY5 needs to be defined. UVR8 UV-B signaling represents our further understanding of how plants are able to sense their light environment and adjust their growth accordingly. PMID:23864838

  6. Leaf waxes of slow-growing alpine and fast-growing lowland Poa species: inherent differences and responses to UV-B radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilon, J.; Lambers, H.; Baas, W.; Tosserams, M.; Rozema, J.J.; Atkin, O.K.

    1999-01-01

    We investigated whether alpine and lowland Poa species exhibit inherent differences in leaf cuticular waxes, leaf UV absorbing compounds and/or growth responses to UV-B treatment. All plants were grown hydroponically in a growth cabinet (constant 20°; 14 hr photoperiod; 520 mol photons m-2 s-1 PAR).

  7. [Reliable UV-light protection in intraocular lenses--scientific rationale and quality requirements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, A J

    2014-09-01

    Since the late 1980s implantation of UV-blocker intraocular lenses during cataract surgery has become an internationally accepted standard. Last year the Kassenärztliche Vereinigung Bayern (KVB) and statutory health insurance organisations proposed for the first time quality criteria for intraocular lenses (IOL), thereby including exact parameters for the amount of UV light transmission (≤10% at 400 nm). Since then, the discussion has been raised again as to what extent IOLs should filter or block UV light. In this article, exact definitions of spectral subbands within the optical radiation band are given. Today, 400 nm is the internationally accepted standard to distinguish UV light and visible light. Moreover, exposure of the eye to UV radiation is described as well as mechanisms of photooxidative damage to the retina. Comprehensive laboratory and animal experimental studies show that light of short wave lengths, i.e., above all UV light but also blue light, may induce photochemical damage to the retina. Primary sites of such damage are both the outer segments of the photoreceptors and the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Physiological protective mechanisms of the eye, such as filtering properties of different ocular media are described in detail. Cornea, aqueous and vitreous absorb UV radiation below 300 nm, while the natural adult lens absorbs UV radiation between 300 and 400 nm. This protection is lost when the lens is removed by cataract surgery and thus should be restored. UV light does not contribute to vision but damages retinal structures. Therefore, UV-blocking intraocular lenses with a 10% cut-off near 400 nm should be implanted during cataract surgery. This ensures sufficient retinal protection after surgery. These theoretical considerations are supported by results from animal and clinical studies. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Method of absorbing UF6 from gaseous mixtures in alkamine absorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafferty, R.H.; Smiley, S.H.; Radimer, K.J.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for recovering UF 6 from gaseous mixtures by absorption in a liquid. The liquid absorbent must have a relatively low viscosity and at least one component of the absorbent is an alkamine having less than 3 carbon atoms bonded to the amino nitrogen, less than 2 of the carbon atoms other than those bonded to the amino nitrogen are free of the hydroxy radical and precipitate the absorbed uranium from the absorbent. At least one component of the absorbent is chosen from the group consisting of ethanolamine, diethanolamine, and 3-methyl-3-amino-propane-diol-1,2

  9. Foliage nitrogen turnover: differences among nitrogen absorbed at different times by Quercus serrata saplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Miki U.; Mizumachi, Eri; Tokuchi, Naoko

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Nitrogen turnover within plants has been intensively studied to better understand nitrogen use strategies. However, differences among the nitrogen absorbed at different times are not completely understood and the fate of nitrogen absorbed during winter is largely uncharacterized. In the present study, nitrogen absorbed at different times of the year (growing season, winter and previous growing season) was traced, and the within-leaf nitrogen turnover of a temperate deciduous oak Quercus serrata was investigated. Methods The contributions of nitrogen absorbed at the three different times to leaf construction, translocation during the growing season, and the leaf-level resorption efficiency during leaf senescence were compared using 15N. Key Results Winter- and previous growing season-absorbed nitrogen significantly contributed to leaf construction, although the contribution was smaller than that of growing season-absorbed nitrogen. On the other hand, the leaf-level resorption efficiency of winter- and previous growing season-absorbed nitrogen was higher than that of growing season-absorbed nitrogen, suggesting that older nitrogen is better retained in leaves than recently absorbed nitrogen. Conclusions The results demonstrate that nitrogen turnover in leaves varies with nitrogen absorption times. These findings are important for understanding plant nitrogen use strategies and nitrogen cycles in forest ecosystems. PMID:21515608

  10. Transcriptional and cellular effects of benzotriazole UV stabilizers UV-234 and UV-328 in the freshwater invertebrates Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraudo, Maeva; Cottin, Guillaume; Esperanza, Marta; Gagnon, Pierre; Silva, Amila O De; Houde, Magali

    2017-12-01

    Benzotriazole ultra violet stabilizers (BZT-UVs) are compounds used in many applications and products to prevent photochemical degradation. Despite their widespread presence in aquatic ecosystems and persistence in the environment, there are very limited data on their effects and toxicity, and their modes of action remain largely unknown. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the chronic effects of 2 BZT-UVs, 2-(2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-4,6-bis(1-methyl-1-phenylethyl)phenol (UV-234) and 2-(2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-4,6-di-tert-pentylphenol (UV-328), on the freshwater green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and the freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna. Organisms were exposed to 0.01 and 10 μg/L of UV-234, UV-328, as well as a mixture of the 2 compounds. Life-history endpoints (viability, reproduction, and growth) and oxidative stress-related biomarkers (gene transcription, reactive oxygen species [ROS] production, and lipid peroxidation) were measured. Daphnia magna growth, reproduction, and gene transcription were not impacted by 21-d individual or mixed exposure. After 96-h of exposure, no differences were observed on the cellular viability of C. reinhardtii for either of the 2 BZT-UVs. In the algae, results showed increased ROS production in response to UV-328 and lipid peroxidation following exposure to UV-234. Synergistic effects of the 2 BZT-UVs were evident at the transcriptional level with 2 to 6 times up-regulation of glutathione peroxidase (gp x ) in response to the mixture for all treatment conditions. The transcription of superoxide dismutase (sod), catalase (cat), and ascorbic peroxidase (apx) was also regulated by UV-234 and UV-328 in the green algae, most likely as a result of ROS production and lipid peroxidation. Results from the present study suggest potential impacts of UV-234 and UV-328 exposure on the antioxidant defense system in C. reinhardtii. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:3333-3342. © 2017 Crown in the Right of Canada. Published by

  11. STRONG UV AND X-RAY VARIABILITY OF THE NARROW LINE SEYFERT 1 GALAXY WPVS 007-ON THE NATURE OF THE X-RAY LOW STATE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grupe, Dirk; Barlow, Brad N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Komossa, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Scharwaechter, Julia [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Mount Stromlo Observatory, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Dietrich, Matthias [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Leighly, Karen M.; Lucy, Adrian, E-mail: dxg35@psu.edu, E-mail: julia.scharwaechter@obspm.fr, E-mail: leighly@nhn.ou.edu [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 West Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    We report on multi-wavelength observations of the X-ray transient Narrow Line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxy WPVS 007. The galaxy was monitored with Swift between 2005 October and 2013 July, after it had previously undergone a dramatic drop in its X-ray flux. For the first time, we are able to repeatedly detect this NLS1 in X-rays again. This increased number of detections in the last couple of years may suggest that the strong absorber that has been found in this active galactic nucleus (AGN) is starting to become leaky and may eventually disappear. The X-ray spectra obtained for WPVS 007 are all consistent with a partial covering absorber model. A spectrum based on the data during the extreme low X-ray flux states shows that the absorption column density is of the order of 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 23} cm{sup -2} with a covering fraction of 95%. WPVS 007 also displays one of the strongest UV variabilities seen in NLS1s. The UV continuum variability anti-correlates with the optical/UV slope {alpha}{sub UV}, which suggests that the variability may be primarily due to reddening. The UV variability timescales are consistent with moving dust ''clouds'' located beyond the dust sublimation radius of R{sub sub} Almost-Equal-To 20 lt-days. We present for the first time near-infrared JHK data of WPVS 007, which reveal a rich emission-line spectrum. Recent optical spectroscopy does not indicate significant variability in the broad permitted and Fe II emission lines, implying that the ionizing continuum seen by those gas clouds has not significantly changed over the last decades. All X-ray and UV observations are consistent with a scenario in which an evolving broad absorption line (BAL) flow obscures the continuum emission. As such, WPVS 007 is an important target for our understanding of BAL flows in low-mass AGNs.

  12. Vibration analysis on compact car shock absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, W. H.; Cheah, J. X.; Lam, C. K.; Lim, E. A.; Chuah, H. G.; Khor, C. Y.

    2017-10-01

    Shock absorber is a part of the suspension system which provides comfort experience while driving. Resonance, a phenomenon where forced frequency is coinciding with the natural frequency has significant effect on the shock absorber itself. Thus, in this study, natural frequencies of the shock absorber in a 2 degree-of-freedom system were investigated using Wolfram Mathematica 11, CATIA, and ANSYS. Both theoretical and simulation study how will the resonance affect the car shock absorber. The parametric study on the performance of shock absorber also had been conducted. It is found that the failure tends to occur on coil sprung of the shock absorber before the body of the shock absorber is fail. From mathematical modelling, it can also be seen that higher vibration level occurred on un-sprung mass compare to spring mass. This is due to the weight of sprung mass which could stabilize as compared with the weight of un-sprung mass. Besides that, two natural frequencies had been obtained which are 1.0 Hz and 9.1 Hz for sprung mass and un-sprung mass respectively where the acceleration is recorded as maximum. In conclusion, ANSYS can be used to validate with theoretical results with complete model in order to match with mathematical modelling.

  13. Presence of benzophenones commonly used as UV filters and absorbers in paired maternal and fetal samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause, M; Frederiksen, H; Sundberg, K

    2018-01-01

    cordocentesis: and cord blood (n=23) obtained at delivery, both with paired maternal samples of serum and urine collected simultaneously, were used. All biological samples were analyzed by TurboFlow-liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry for seven different benzophenones. RESULTS: Benzophenone-1 (BP-1...... of these compounds in order for better assessment of the risk to the developing fetus....

  14. Aracyl triflates for preparing fluorescent and UV absorbing derivatives of unreactive carboxylates, amines and other metabolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storer, Malina K.; Lever, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Aracyl trifluoromethanesulfonate (triflate) reagents alkylate the unreactive carboxyl groups of betaines. The reagents also derivatise tertiary amines, amine oxides, phosphates and thioethers. A general derivatisation procedure is to dilute the sample with a polar aprotic organic solvent containing a trace of water, followed by adding an appropriate base and the aracyl triflate reagent. Limits of detection were 40 nM for glycine betaine (GB) and carnitine, 0.14 μM for N,N-dimethylglycine, 70 nM for trimethylamine (TMA), and 5.9 μM trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). Limits of detection were improved when derivatisation yield was optimised for different analytes by changing solvent, base and water content of the reaction mixture. Solvents used include acetonitrile, acetone, butanone, dimethoxyethane and dimethoxyethyl ether, with the presence of some water or alcohol tolerated. Suitable bases include the inorganic bases magnesium hydroxide, silver oxide and lithium phosphate. These bases are sparingly soluble in the reaction solvent so sustain weakly basic conditions during derivatisation and can be removed by centrifugation to stop the reaction. This is particularly important for betaine assays since the derivatives are base-sensitive. The information presented here can be used to develop assays for many metabolites using these versatile reagents

  15. UV-absorbing bacteria in coral mucus and their response to simulated temperature elevations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ravindran, J.; Kannapiran, E.; Manikandan, B.; Francis, K.; Arora, S.; Karunya, E.; AmitKumar; Singh, S.K.; Jose, J.

    of sulfur. Appl Environ Microbiol 75: 3492-3501 Rastogi RP, Sinha RP (2011) Solar ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage and protection/repair strategies in cyanobacteria. Int J Pharma Biosci 2: B271-B288 Reef R, Kaniewska P, Hoegh- Guldberg O (2009... and deterring their growth by releasing antimicrobial compounds (Nissimov et al. 2008; Orland and Kushmaro 2009; Rypien et al. 2010; Orland et al. 2012). Raina et al. (2009) emphasized the role of microbial communities in the biogeochemical cycling of sulfur...

  16. Graphene and Graphene Metamaterials for Terahertz Absorbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Pizzocchero, Filippo; Booth, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Graphene, due to the possibility to tune its conductivity, is the promising material for a range of the terahertz (THz) applications, such as tunable reflectors, absorbers, modulators, filters and polarization converters. Subwavelength structuring of graphene in order to form metamaterials allows...... for even more control over the THz waves. In this poster presentation I will show an elegant way to describe the graphene metamaterials and the design of graphene based absorbers. I will also present our recent experimental results on the graphene absorbers characterization....

  17. Semiconductor saturable absorbers for ultrafast terahertz signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Matthias C.; Turchinovich, Dmitry

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate saturable absorber behavior of n-type semiconductors GaAs, GaP, and Ge in the terahertz THz frequency range at room temperature using nonlinear THz spectroscopy. The saturation mechanism is based on a decrease in electron conductivity of semiconductors at high electron momentum...... states, due to conduction band onparabolicity and scattering into satellite valleys in strong THz fields. Saturable absorber parameters, such as linear and nonsaturable transmission, and saturation fluence, are extracted by fits to a classic saturable absorber model. Further, we observe THz pulse...

  18. The responses to supplementary of UV radiation of some temperate meadow species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, N.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The growth and development of various meadow species was monitored while growing under enhanced UV-radiation in the natural light environment. Growth responses to supplementary ultraviolet-B (UV-B+A) and ultraviolet-A (UV-A) were compared to the ambient daylight treatment for Bellis perennis, Cardamine pratensis, Cynosurus critatus and Ranunculus ficaria. When the response of ultraviolet A (UV-A) treated plants were compared with those of the UV-B+A, differences were found which varied according to the species and parameter investigated. To further understand the growth responses of the UV-A treatment and their relationship to the UV-B responses polychromatic action spectra in the natural environment was employed B perennis had an action maximum in the UV B (280-315 nm) while C cristatus demonstrates no action in the UV-B but action in the UV-A region (315-400 nm.). To enable further explanation of the effects of elevated UV radiation on the meadow plants Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes and mutants were investigated. A thaliana ecotypes dry weight accumulation was found to respond differently to the UV treatments. UV B+A treatment was found to inhibit dry weight accumulation in most ecotypes. When UV B+A induced inhibition was expressed in terms of ambient growth rate for each ecotype a linear relationship could be derived. The higher the growth rate the more susceptible the ecotype was to UV-B+A inhibition. The pertinence of the UV-A treatment and UV protocol is discussed. It is suggested that UV responses could alter the diversity of the meadow equilibrium

  19. Expression of Nudix hydrolase genes in barley under UV irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Sayuri; Sugimoto, Manabu; Kihara, Makoto

    Seed storage and cultivation should be necessary to self-supply foods when astronauts would stay and investigate during long-term space travel and habitation in the bases on the Moon and Mars. Thought the sunlight is the most importance to plants, both as the ultimate energy source and as an environmental signal regulating growth and development, UV presenting the sunlight can damage many aspects of plant processes at the physiological and DNA level. Especially UV-C, which is eliminated by the stratospheric ozone layer, is suspected to be extremely harmful and give a deadly injury to plants in space. However, the defense mechanism against UV-C irradiation damage in plant cells has not been clear. In this study, we investigated the expression of Nudix hydrolases, which defense plants from biotic / abiotic stress, in barley under UV irradiation. The genes encoding the amino acid sequences, which show homology to those of 28 kinds of Nudix hydrolases in Arabidopsis thaliana, were identified in the barley full-length cDNA library. BLAST analysis showed 14 kinds of barley genes (HvNUDX1-14), which encode the Nudix motif sequence. A phylogenetic tree showed that HvNUDX1, HvNUDX7, HvNUDX9 and HvNUDX11 belonged to the ADP-ribose pyrophosphohydrolase, ADP-sugar pyrophosphohydrolase, NAD(P)H pyrophosphohydrolase and FAD pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies, respectively, HvNUDX3, HvNUDX6, and HvNUDX8 belonged to the Ap _{n}A pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies, HvNUDX5 and HvNUDX14 belonged to the coenzyme A pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies, HvNUDX12 and HvNUDX13 belonged to the Ap _{4}A pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies. Induction of HvNUDX genes by UV-A (340nm), UV-B (312nm), and UV-C (260nm) were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. The results showed that HvNUDX4 was induced by UV-A and UV-B, HvNUDX6 was induced by UV-B and UV-C, and HvNUDX7 and HvNUDX14 were induced by UV-C, significantly. Our results suggest that the response of HvNUDXs to UV irradiation is different by UV

  20. Postirradiation properties of a UV-sensitive variant of CHO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, R.D.; de Veciana, M.; Presson-Tincknell, B. (California Univ., Berkeley (USA). Lawrence Berkeley Lab.)

    1982-08-01

    A UV-hypersensitive mutant of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, termed 43-3B, has been used in a comparative study with the wild type CHO in order to determine the involvement of repair in several postirradiation phenomena. 43-3B has the same growth rate and chromosome number as the wild type CHO-9. It is hypersensitive to UV irradiation. 43-3B shows only about 17% of the UV-stimulated unscheduled DNA repair synthesis of CHO-9 as measured by autoradiography. When breaks in supercoiled chromatin are measured after UV by the nucleoid sedimentation method, the mutant appears to be capable of carrying out only limited incision. A much reduced ability to recover control rates of semiconservative DNA synthesis after UV irradiation was observed in the repair-deficient 43-3B cell line, suggesting that the removal of UV-induced replication blocks by excision repair is the most important factor in allowing recovery of UV-inhibited DNA synthesis. Recovery of colony-forming ability between fractionated UV exposures was observed in the wild type CHO-9, but little recovery was seen in 43-3B. This indicates that excision repair capability can also be important in split-fluence recovery.

  1. Deepening sleep by hypnotic suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordi, Maren J; Schlarb, Angelika A; Rasch, Björn

    2014-06-01

    Slow wave sleep (SWS) plays a critical role in body restoration and promotes brain plasticity; however, it markedly declines across the lifespan. Despite its importance, effective tools to increase SWS are rare. Here we tested whether a hypnotic suggestion to "sleep deeper" extends the amount of SWS. Within-subject, placebo-controlled crossover design. Sleep laboratory at the University of Zurich, Switzerland. Seventy healthy females 23.27 ± 3.17 y. Participants listened to an auditory text with hypnotic suggestions or a control tape before napping for 90 min while high-density electroencephalography was recorded. After participants listened to the hypnotic suggestion to "sleep deeper" subsequent SWS was increased by 81% and time spent awake was reduced by 67% (with the amount of SWS or wake in the control condition set to 100%). Other sleep stages remained unaffected. Additionally, slow wave activity was significantly enhanced after hypnotic suggestions. During the hypnotic tape, parietal theta power increases predicted the hypnosis-induced extension of SWS. Additional experiments confirmed that the beneficial effect of hypnotic suggestions on SWS was specific to the hypnotic suggestion and did not occur in low suggestible participants. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of hypnotic suggestions to specifically increase the amount and duration of slow wave sleep (SWS) in a midday nap using objective measures of sleep in young, healthy, suggestible females. Hypnotic suggestions might be a successful tool with a lower risk of adverse side effects than pharmacological treatments to extend SWS also in clinical and elderly populations.

  2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) skin permeation rates change with simultaneous exposures to solar ultraviolet radiation (UV-S).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopf, Nancy B; Spring, Philipp; Hirt-Burri, Nathalie; Jimenez, Silvia; Sutter, Benjamin; Vernez, David; Berthet, Aurelie

    2018-05-01

    Road construction workers are simultaneously exposed to two carcinogens; solar ultraviolet (UV-S) radiation and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in bitumen emissions. The combined exposure may lead to photogenotoxicity and enhanced PAH skin permeation rates. Skin permeation rates (J) for selected PAHs in a mixture (PAH-mix) or in bitumen fume condensate (BFC) with and without UV-S co-exposures were measured with in vitro flow-through diffusion cells mounted with human viable skin and results compared. Possible biomarkers were explored. Js were greater with UV-S for naphthalene, anthracene, and pyrene in BFC (0.08-0.1 ng/cm 2 /h) compared to without (0.02-0.26 ng/cm 2 /h). This was true for anthracene, pyrene, and chrysene in the PAH-mix. Naphthalene and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in the PAH-mix had greater Js without (0.97-13.01 ng/cm 2 /h) compared to with UV-S (0.40-6.35 ng/cm 2 /h). Time until permeation (T lags ) in the PAH-mix were generally shorter compared to the BFC, and they ranged from 1 to 13 h. The vehicle matrix could potentially be the reason for this discrepancy as BFC contains additional not identified substances. Qualitative interpretation of p53 suggested a dose-response with UV-S, and somewhat with the co-exposures. MMP1, p65 and cKIT were not exploitable. Although not statistically different, PAHs permeate human viable skin faster with simultaneous exposures to UV. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Spacesuit Evaporator-Absorber-Radiator (SEAR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary goal is to build and test a rigid Lithium Chloride Absorber Radiator (LCAR) coupon based on honeycomb geometry that would be applicable for EVA and...

  4. Absorbed dose uncertainty estimation for proton therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasić-Jokić Vesna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Successful radiotherapy treatment depends on the absorbed dose evaluation and the possibility to define metrological characteristics of the therapy beam. Radiotherapy requires tumor dose delivery with expanded uncertainty less than ±5 %. It is particularly important to reduce uncertainty during therapy beam calibration as well as to apply all necessary ionization chamber correction factors. Absorbed dose to water was determined using ionometric method. Calibration was performed in reference cobalt beam. Combined standard uncertainty of the calculated absorbed dose to water in 65 MeV proton beam was ±1.97% while the obtained expanded uncertainty of absorbed dose for the same beam quality was ±5.02%. The uncertainty estimation method has been developed within the project TESLA.

  5. Energy absorber uses expanded coiled tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E. F.

    1972-01-01

    Mechanical shock mitigating device, based on working material to its failure point, absorbs mechanical energy by bending or twisting tubing. It functions under axial or tangential loading, has no rebound, is area independent, and is easy and inexpensive to build.

  6. Space Compatible Radar Absorbing Materials Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase 1 project shall investigate novel radar absorbing materials (RAM) for use in space or simulated space environments. These materials are lightweight...

  7. Quantitative neutron radiography using neutron absorbing honeycomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, Masayoshi; Oda, Masahiro; Takahashi, Kenji; Ohkubo, Kohei; Tasaka, Kanji; Tsuruno, Akira; Matsubayashi, Masahito.

    1993-01-01

    This investigation concerns quantitative neutron radiography and computed tomography by using a neutron absorbing honeycomb collimator. By setting the neutron absorbing honeycomb collimator between object and imaging system, neutrons scattered in the object were absorbed by the honeycomb material and eliminated before coming to the imaging system, but the neutrons which were transmitted the object without interaction could reach the imaging system. The image by purely transmitted neutrons gives the quantitative information. Two honeycombs were prepared with coating of boron nitride and gadolinium oxide and evaluated for the quantitative application. The relation between the neutron total cross section and the attenuation coefficient confirmed that they were in a fairly good agreement. Application to quantitative computed tomography was also successfully conducted. The new neutron radiography method using the neutron-absorbing honeycomb collimator for the elimination of the scattered neutrons improved remarkably the quantitativeness of the neutron radiography and computed tomography. (author)

  8. An ultra-broadband multilayered graphene absorber

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    An ultra-broadband multilayered graphene absorber operating at terahertz (THz) frequencies is proposed. The absorber design makes use of three mechanisms: (i) The graphene layers are asymmetrically patterned to support higher order surface plasmon modes that destructively interfere with the dipolar mode and generate electromagnetically induced absorption. (ii) The patterned graphene layers biased at different gate voltages backedup with dielectric substrates are stacked on top of each other. The resulting absorber is polarization dependent but has an ultra-broadband of operation. (iii) Graphene\\'s damping factor is increased by lowering its electron mobility to 1000cm 2=Vs. Indeed, numerical experiments demonstrate that with only three layers, bandwidth of 90% absorption can be extended upto 7THz, which is drastically larger than only few THz of bandwidth that can be achieved with existing metallic/graphene absorbers. © 2013 Optical Society of America.

  9. Optically Modulated Multiband Terahertz Perfect Absorber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seren, Huseyin R.; Keiser, George R.; Cao, Lingyue

    2014-01-01

    response of resonant metamaterials continues to be a challengingendeavor. Resonant perfect absorbers have flourished as one of the mostpromising metamaterial devices with applications ranging from power har-vesting to terahertz imaging. Here, an optically modulated resonant perfectabsorber is presented...

  10. Actual behaviour of a ball vibration absorber

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pirner, Miroš

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 8 (2002), s. 987-1005 ISSN 0167-6105 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GV103/96/K034 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : TV towers * wind-excited vibrations * vibration absorbers * pendulum absorber Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering Impact factor: 0.513, year: 2002 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167610502002155#

  11. Multilayer Radar Absorbing Non-Woven Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedov, A. V.; Nazarov, V. G.

    2016-06-01

    We study the electrical properties of multilayer radar absorbing materials obtained by adding nonwoven sheets of dielectric fibers with an intermediate layer of electrically conductive carbon fibers. Multilayer materials that absorb electromagnetic radiation in a wide frequency range are obtained by varying the content of the carbon fibers. The carbon-fiber content dependent mechanism of absorption of electromagnetic radiation by sheets and multilayer materials is considered.

  12. A Wedge Absorber Experiment at MICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuffer, David [Fermilab; Mohayai, Tanaz [IIT, Chicago; Rogers, Chris [Rutherford; Snopok, Pavel [IIT, Chicago; Summers, Don [Mississippi U.

    2017-05-01

    Emittance exchange mediated by wedge absorbers is required for longitudinal ionization cooling and for final transverse emittance minimization for a muon collider. A wedge absorber within the MICE beam line could serve as a demonstration of the type of emittance exchange needed for 6-D cooling, including the configurations needed for muon colliders, as well as configurations for low-energy muon sources. Parameters for this test are explored in simulation and possible experimental configurations with simulated results are presented.

  13. Energy-Absorbing Passenger Seat for Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberger, C. P.; Alfaro-Bou, E.; Fasanella, E. L.

    1987-01-01

    Development of energy-absorbing passenger seat, designed to minimize injury in commercial-aircraft crash, part of joint FAA/NASA controlledimpact flight test of transport-category commercial aircraft. Modified seat mechanism collapses under heavy load to absorb impact energy and thereby protect passenger. Results of simulation tests indicate probability of passenger survival high. Proposed seat mechanism mitigates passenger injuries by reducing impact forces in crash.

  14. Semiconductor saturable absorbers for ultrafast THz signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Matthias C.; Turchinovich, Dmitry

    We demonstrate saturable absorber behavior of n-type semiconductors in the THz frequency range using nonlinear THz spectroscopy. Further, we observe THz pulse shortening and increase of the group refractive index at high field strengths.......We demonstrate saturable absorber behavior of n-type semiconductors in the THz frequency range using nonlinear THz spectroscopy. Further, we observe THz pulse shortening and increase of the group refractive index at high field strengths....

  15. Phase Space Exchange in Thick Wedge Absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuffer, David [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The problem of phase space exchange in wedge absorbers with ionization cooling is discussed. The wedge absorber exchanges transverse and longitudinal phase space by introducing a position-dependent energy loss. In this paper we note that the wedges used with ionization cooling are relatively thick, so that single wedges cause relatively large changes in beam phase space. Calculation methods adapted to such “thick wedge” cases are presented, and beam phase-space transformations through such wedges are discussed.

  16. Growth of a mat-forming photograph in the presence of UV radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Beverly K.; Ruff, A. L.

    1989-01-01

    Knowledge of the survival and growth of microorganisms in the presence of ultraviolet radiation is important for understanding the potential for life to exist in environments exposed to high fluxes of UV radiation. The growth of a mat-forming phototrophic prokaryote, Chloroflexus aurantiacus, was examined in the presence of continuous high UV irradiation under otherwise optimal growth conditions. Evidence was sought for an intrinsic ability to grow in the presence of UV radiation in a carefully chosen organism known to be unusually resistant to UV radiation, of ancient lineage among the phototrophs, to resemble ancient microfossils from the Precambrian, and to be a mat-former. It was assumed that even a high intrinsic UV resistance would be inadequate for survival and growth in the presence of very high UV fluxes, and iron (Fe3+) was selected as a common, abundant UV-absorbing substance that might protest microorganisms growing in or under iron-bearing sediments. The effectiveness of Fe(3+) was tested as a UV protective agent at low concentrations in thin layers. It was concluded that intrinsic UV resistance in some organisms may account for growth, not just survival, of these organisms when exposed to high UV fluxes under otherwise optimal growth conditions in an anoxic environment. It was also concluded that Fe(3+) bearing sediments of 1 mm or less in thickness may provide an adequate shield against high UV fluxes permitting the growth of microorganisms just below their surface. As long as growth conditions were met, then the evolution and development of microorganisms would not be hampered by high UV fluxes impinging upon the surface of iron-bearing sediments.

  17. Organic UV filters in personal care products in Switzerland: a survey of occurrence and concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manová, Eva; von Goetz, Natalie; Hauri, Urs; Bogdal, Christian; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2013-07-01

    Organic ultraviolet (UV) filters are a group of compounds designed to absorb UV radiation and hence protect our skin against UV-induced damage. Apart from traditional sunscreens, they can be found in many other categories of personal care products (PCPs). These include skin care, facial makeup and lip care products, which are often used simultaneously, and on a regular basis. The frequency of occurrence as well as concentrations of organic UV filters contained in PCPs change over time. Furthermore, in Switzerland the exact UV filter concentrations are confidential. To date, only limited data are available for the levels of organic UV filters in PCPs, and these data refer mainly to sunscreens. In this paper, we provide an up-to-date frequency of occurrence and concentrations of organic UV filters in PCPs, including for the first time PCPs used in everyday life. A total of 116 PCPs was selected on the basis of a product-use questionnaire and distributed among seven PCP categories: lip care products, lipsticks, face creams, liquid makeup foundations, aftershaves, hand creams, and sunscreens. Concentrations of 22 organic UV filters were measured in the selected PCPs. The most frequently occurring UV filters were butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane (BMBM) detected in 82 products (71%), ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC) in 59 products (51%) and octocrylene (OCT) in 50 products (43%). BMBM, EHMC and OCT concentrations averaged 2.6%, 4.0%, and 6.0%, respectively. Overall, UV filter concentrations in PCPs applied regularly throughout the year can be as high as those in sunscreens that are primarily used for sun protection and hence applied only on selected days. PCPs that are used on a regular basis, and often simultaneously, thus represent an important and, as yet, unquantified source of UV filter exposure. This study provides essential information for aggregate exposure assessments that combine data on concentrations of individual UV filters widely used in a variety of PCP

  18. Leaf surface wax is a source of plant methane formation under UV radiation and in the presence of oxygen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Dan; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Rolsted, M. M. M.

    2014-01-01

    The terrestrial vegetation is a source of UV radiation-induced aerobic methane (CH4) release to the atmosphere. Hitherto pectin, a plant structural component, has been considered as the most likely precursor for this CH4 release. However, most of the leaf pectin is situated below the surface wax...... layer, and UV transmittance of the cuticle differs among plant species. In some species, the cuticle effectively absorbs and/or reflects UV radiation. Thus, pectin may not necessarily contribute substantially to the UV radiation-induced CH4 emission measured at surface level in all species. Here, we...... investigated the potential of the leaf surface wax itself as a source of UV radiationinduced leaf aerobic CH4 formation. Isolated leaf surface wax emitted CH4 at substantial rates in response to UV radiation. This discovery has implications for how the phenomenon should be scaled to global levels. In relation...

  19. UV-MAOR - UV-B-specific reactions of marine planktons. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerbersdorf, S.; Steeger, H.U.; Schubert, H.; Paul, R.J.

    2001-02-01

    An initial finding of the studies performed here is that under certain hydrogeographic and meteorological conditions vertical migration of phyto and zooplankton also occurs in near-shore parts of flat waters. The vertical migration of phytoplankton was induced by exceeding the threshold intensity of approx. 300 μmol photons m -2 s -1 (PAR). However, the sigmoidal course of the reaction of phytoplankton suggests that it is apparently not the PAR intensity alone but the ratio of PAR/UV-B which governs the downward migration. However, the present body of data is not sufficient for a definitive statistical verification of this finding. Light irradiation resulted in an increased density and thus in a reduced buoyancy of flounder spawn. This effect was primarily dependent on intensity and did not increase upon irradiation with UV-B, UV-A and PAR as compared to UV-A and PAR alone. Irradiation with UV-B did not influence the substance located in the vitellus whose absorption maximum was found to be 300 nm, probably gadusol

  20. Deepening Sleep by Hypnotic Suggestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordi, Maren J.; Schlarb, Angelika A.; Rasch, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Slow wave sleep (SWS) plays a critical role in body restoration and promotes brain plasticity; however, it markedly declines across the lifespan. Despite its importance, effective tools to increase SWS are rare. Here we tested whether a hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” extends the amount of SWS. Design: Within-subject, placebo-controlled crossover design. Setting: Sleep laboratory at the University of Zurich, Switzerland. Participants: Seventy healthy females 23.27 ± 3.17 y. Intervention: Participants listened to an auditory text with hypnotic suggestions or a control tape before napping for 90 min while high-density electroencephalography was recorded. Measurements and Results: After participants listened to the hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” subsequent SWS was increased by 81% and time spent awake was reduced by 67% (with the amount of SWS or wake in the control condition set to 100%). Other sleep stages remained unaffected. Additionally, slow wave activity was significantly enhanced after hypnotic suggestions. During the hypnotic tape, parietal theta power increases predicted the hypnosis-induced extension of SWS. Additional experiments confirmed that the beneficial effect of hypnotic suggestions on SWS was specific to the hypnotic suggestion and did not occur in low suggestible participants. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of hypnotic suggestions to specifically increase the amount and duration of slow wave sleep (SWS) in a midday nap using objective measures of sleep in young, healthy, suggestible females. Hypnotic suggestions might be a successful tool with a lower risk of adverse side effects than pharmacological treatments to extend SWS also in clinical and elderly populations. Citation: Cordi MJ, Schlarb AA, Rasch B. Deepening sleep by hypnotic suggestion. SLEEP 2014;37(6):1143-1152. PMID:24882909

  1. Role of anthropogenic aerosols in UV and shortwave absorption and their consequences over natural aerosol characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindhu, K. D.

    2011-12-01

    Aerosols are extremely fine particles those affect Earth's climate by altering the Earth's "radiation budget". The aim of present work is to study the absorption in UV and shortwave regions due to aerosols over various atmospheric environments. In the first part of the work, we have performed a new technique to enumerate the absorption due to organic carbon as optical depth. This method is applied for ground based observations but it can also be useful for satellite observed spectral optical depths. Our study exhibits large "anomalous" absorption in UV wavelengths over different locations worldwide. Here we divulge that a major portion of anomalous absorption is contributed by organic carbon aerosols (nominated as Organic Carbon Aerosol Optical Depth 'OCAOD') and part of it also due to dust aerosols. Using this method, we are capable to assess the contribution of each aerosol species in UV absorption quantitatively. Second part of the work is a classic example of how the anthropogenic absorbing aerosols can modify the absorption properties of natural aerosols. Regions closest to desert locations are unique in terms of aerosol characteristics due to the co-existence of both natural and anthropogenic aerosols. Shortwave absorption over such regions is significantly affected by biomass burning activities, and hence providing an opportunity to study the interaction between natural and anthropogenic aerosols. Ground based observations from AERosol Robotic NETwork (AERONET) are used to examine the relationship between shortwave absorption and size characteristics of aerosols using single scattering albedo (ω) at 441 nm wavelength and angstrom wavelength exponent (α) in the spectral range 440-870nm respectively. For α(440-870)dust over land), ω(441) was found reasonably low (as low as 0.87) compared to those stated for pure dust in earlier studies. Our simple and cogent analysis using simple key aerosols parameters from ground based observation suggests that these

  2. Observational Evidence Linking Interstellar UV Absorption to PAH Molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasberger, Avi; Behar, Ehud; Perets, Hagai B.; Brosch, Noah; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.

    2017-01-01

    The 2175 Å UV extinction feature was discovered in the mid-1960s, yet its physical origin remains poorly understood. One suggestion is absorption by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules, which is supported by theoretical molecular structure computations and by laboratory experiments. PAHs are positively detected by their 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.3, and 12.7 μ m IR emission bands, which are specified by their modes of vibration. A definitive empirical link between the 2175 Å UV extinction and the IR PAH emission bands, however, is still missing. We present a new sample of hot stars that have both 2175 Å absorption and IR PAH emission. We find significant shifts of the central wavelength of the UV absorption feature, up to 2350 Å, but predominantly in stars that also have IR PAH emission. These UV shifts depend on stellar temperature in a fashion that is similar to the shifts of the 6.2 and 7.7 μ m IR PAH bands, that is, the features are increasingly more redshifted as the stellar temperature decreases, but only below ∼15 kK. Above 15 kK both UV and IR features retain their nominal values. Moreover, we find a suggestive correlation between the UV and IR shifts. We hypothesize that these similar dependences of both the UV and IR features on stellar temperature hint at a common origin of the two in PAH molecules and may establish the missing link between the UV and IR observations. We further suggest that the shifts depend on molecular size, and that the critical temperature of ∼15 kK above which no shifts are observed is related to the onset of UV-driven hot-star winds and their associated shocks.

  3. Legal Education Reform: Modest Suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Alan

    2001-01-01

    Based on harsh criticism of legal education by students, offers suggestions for improvement that do not require additional time for law studies, will increase the exposure of students both to law as practice and to law as an intellectual discipline, and involve no greater burden on law schools. A main suggestion involves elimination of teaching…

  4. Characterization of UV fluorophores for application to luminescent solar concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellier, Kaitlin; Carter, Sue

    The implementation of solar as an alternative energy source faces many challenges, including the competition for space with agriculture and the environmental impacts of solar farms in deserts. As a solution to these problems, the Carter Lab has developed Luminescent Solar Concentrator (LSC) panels for applications to greenhouses. These panels utilize a luminescent dye compatible with the spectrum used in photosynthesis for the plants below and front-facing PV cells, achieving power enhancement of greater than 20% compared with the cells alone. To increase this enhancement, additional portions of the unused spectrum must be harvested. In this talk, we will discuss the characterization of UV absorbing fluorophores, including spectra, quantum yield, and the enhancement of light output and power generation. We will also address the combination of these UV dyes with the original LSC dye in low and high concentration, and the FRET efficiency and potential applications associated with high concentration films.

  5. Bipolar high temporal resolution measurements of snow UV albedo in Sodankylä and Marambio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinander, Outi; Kontu, Anna; Asmi, Eija; Sanchez, Ricardo; Mei, Miguel; de Leeuw, Gerrit

    2015-04-01

    In this presentation we will give an overview of our high temporal resolution polar snow UV albedo data from Arctic Sodankylä, and from Marambio, Antarctica. These both are WMO GAW stations with many measurement parameters relevant to the albedo data usage. We will also describe our campaign based polar albedo data (SNORTEX and SOS campaigns), and an important data set of light absorbing impurities (BC) in the Arctic snow. The black carbon (BC) has been estimated to be the second most important human emission after carbon dioxide, in terms of its climate forcing in the present-day atmosphere. The reflectance effect of BC deposited on snow surface is the bigger the smaller the wavelength, i.e. the albedo effect of BC is the biggest at UV. This is also shown in SNICAR-model simulated albedo values. In Sodankylä, our bipolar snow ultraviolet (UV) albedo research started within the International Polar Year (IPY) 2007-2008. In 2007, the continuous Sodankylä snow UV albedo measurements were installed in Sodankylä, in the operational albedo field of the Finnish Meteorological Institute Arctic Research Center (FMI-ARC). These Sodankylä 1-min data during snow time were soon compared with the German Antarctic Neumayer Station UV albedo data, also with the same sensor type. In both data we found an up to 10 % decrease in albedo as a function of time within a day, ranging from 0.77 to 0.67 in Sodankylä and from 0.96 to 0.86 in Neumeyer. Physical explanations to asymmetry were found for cases with high relative humidity and low surface temperature during the previous night, favorable to frost and higher albedo on the next morning; new snow on the previous night; snow melting during day time and refreezing during night. In Marambio, in the beginning of 2013, our new continuous Finnish-Argentinian co-operation snow UV albedo measurements were installed and started as part of a larger continuous meteorological and environmental instrumentation. These new UV radiation data

  6. Enhanced natural sunlight- and artificial UV-driven photocatalytic activity of mechanically activated ZnO/SnO2 composite

    OpenAIRE

    Marković, Smilja; Stanković, Ana; Dostanić, Jasmina; Mančić, Lidija; Škapin, Srečo Davor; Uskoković, Dragan

    2017-01-01

    Over the past four decades there is an increasing interest to develop highly efficient semiconductor photocatalysts for degradation of organic and biological pollutants in water under light irradiation. The semiconductor band gap determines which wavelength of light will be absorbed; precisely, semiconductors with a wide band gap (> 3 eV) can absorb only UV light, while those with a narrow band gap (< 3 eV) can be activated by visible light. In this study we examined structural, morphologi...

  7. Evaporation of Sunscreen Films: How the UV Protection Properties Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binks, Bernard P; Brown, Jonathan; Fletcher, Paul D I; Johnson, Andrew J; Marinopoulos, Ioannis; Crowther, Jonathan M; Thompson, Michael A

    2016-06-01

    We have investigated the evaporation of thin sunscreen films and how the light absorption and the derived sun protection factor (SPF) change. For films consisting of solutions of common UV filters in propylene glycol (PG) as solvent, we show how evaporation generally causes three effects. First, the film area can decrease by dewetting leading to a transient increase in the average film thickness. Second, the film thins by evaporative loss of the solvent. Third, precipitation of the UV filter occurs when solvent loss causes the solubility limit to be reached. These evaporation-induced changes cause the UV absorbance of the film to decrease with resultant loss of SPF over the time scale of the evaporation. We derive an approximate model which accounts semiquantitatively for the variation of SPF with evaporation. Experimental results for solutions of different UV filters on quartz, different skin mimicking substrates, films with added nanoparticles, films with an added polymer and films with fast-evaporating decane as solvent (instead of slow evaporating PG) are discussed and compared with model calculations. Addition of either nanoparticles or polymer suppress film dewetting. Overall, it is hoped that the understanding gained about the mechanisms whereby film evaporation affects the SPF will provide useful guidance for the formulation of more effective sunscreens.

  8. Kinetic parameters of uracil dosimeter in simulated extraterrestrial UV radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, G.; Gróf, P.; Bérces, A.; Patel, M. R.; Lammer, H.; Rontó, Gy.

    Studies of the solar UV environment on Earth 2.0 Gyr to 3.8 Gyr ago suggest that the terrestrial atmosphere was essentially anoxic, resulting in an ozone column abundance insufficient for protecting the planetary surface in the UV-B (280 nm - 315 nm) and the UV-C (200 nm - 280 nm) ranges. Since, short wavelength solar UV radiation in the UV-B and UV-C range penetrated through the atmosphere to the unprotected early Earth's surface, associated biological consequences may be expected. We discuss experimental data obtained as follows: Radiation sources applied were solar simulator and high power deuterium lamp, the wavelength were adjusted by interference filters (210, 230, 250 nm) and the irradiances were measured by OL754 spectroradiometer. The photo-reverse effect depends highly on the wavelength of the exposed radiation. Shorter wavelength UV radiation of about 200 nm is strongly effective in monomerization, while the longer wavelengths prefer the production of dimerization. In case of polychromatic light, like in space or on a planetary surface which is unprotected by an ozone layer the two processes run parallel. We could demonstrate experimentally, for the case of a uracil thin-layer that the photo-reaction process of the nucleotides can be both dimerization and the reverse process: monomerization. These results are important for the study of solar UV effects on organisms in the early terrestrial environment as well as for the search for life on Mars since we can show that biological harmful effects can also be reduced by shorter wavelength UV radiation, which is of importance in reducing DNA damages provoked by wavelengths longer than about 240 nm. Our earlier results showed that dimerization of the pyrimidin base uracil can be described by a first order kinetics, and this reaction gives the possibility to determine the dose of the UV source applied. This work is a theoretical and experimental approach to the relevant parameters of the first order kinetics.

  9. The effect of selenium and UV radiation on leaf traits and biomass production in Triticum aestivum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golob, Aleksandra; Kavčič, Jan; Stibilj, Vekoslava; Gaberščik, Alenka; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina; Germ, Mateja

    2017-02-01

    UV radiation as an evolutionarily important environmental factor, significantly affects plants traits and alters the effects of other environmental factors. Single and combined effects of ambient UV radiation, its exclusion, and Se foliar treatments on Si concentrations and production of Si phytoliths in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv. 'Reska' were studied. The effects of these treatments on growth parameters of the plants, structural and biochemical traits of the leaves, and interactions of the leaves with light, as Si incrustation is the first barrier to light at the leaf surface were also examined. Under ambient UV radiation and foliar treatment with 10mgL -1 sodium selenate solution, there was a trade-off between the plant investment in primary and secondary metabolism, as the production of UV-absorbing compounds was enhanced while photosynthetic pigment levels were reduced. Independent of Se treatment, ambient UV radiation lowered respiratory potential, Ca concentration, and leaf thickness, and increased Si concentration, Si phytoliths formation, and cuticle thickness. The Se treatment has little effect on plant traits and biomass production but it increased Se concentrations in the plants by >100-fold, independent of UV radiation. In combination with UV radiation Se strengthen the protection of plants against stress by increasing the amount of UV absorbing compounds, light reflectance and transmittance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Maternal exposure to UV filters and associations to maternal thyroid hormones and IGF-I/IGFBP3 and birth outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause, Marianna; Frederiksen, Hanne; Sundberg, Karin

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several chemical UV filters/absorbers (in the following called UV filters) have endocrine disrupting properties in vitro and in vivo. Exposure to these chemicals, especially during prenatal development, is of concern. OBJECTIVES: To examine maternal exposure to UV filters and associat......BACKGROUND: Several chemical UV filters/absorbers (in the following called UV filters) have endocrine disrupting properties in vitro and in vivo. Exposure to these chemicals, especially during prenatal development, is of concern. OBJECTIVES: To examine maternal exposure to UV filters......) in urine and 4-hydroxy-benzophenone (4-HBP) in serum were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The relationships between 2nd trimester maternal concentrations of the three chemical UV filters and maternal serum concentrations of thyroid hormones and growth factors, as well...... and the possible impact on maternal thyroid hormones and growth factors, and on fetal growth, calls for further studies on possible long term consequences of the exposure to UV filters on fetal development and children's health....

  11. Infant Care Suggestions for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bones, that are in various stages of healing. Handling Suggestions • All movements should be slow, methodical and ... holding, lifting, diapering, and general infant care. The return demonstration will ensure that the parents are comfortable ...

  12. Vegetation fires, absorbing aerosols and smoke plume characteristics in diverse biomass burning regions of Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad; Lasko, Kristofer; Giglio, Louis; Justice, Chris

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we explored the relationships between the satellite-retrieved fire counts (FC), fire radiative power (FRP) and aerosol indices using multi-satellite datasets at a daily time-step covering ten different biomass burning regions in Asia. We first assessed the variations in MODIS-retrieved aerosol optical depths (AOD’s) in agriculture, forests, plantation and peat land burning regions and then used MODIS FC and FRP (hereafter FC/FRP) to explain the variations in AOD characteristics. Results suggest that tropical broadleaf forests in Laos burn more intensively than the other vegetation fires. FC/FRP-AOD correlations in different agricultural residue burning regions did not exceed 20% whereas in forest regions they reached 40%. To specifically account for absorbing aerosols, we used Ozone Monitoring Instrument-derived aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD) and UV aerosol index (UVAI). Results suggest relatively high AAOD and UVAI values in forest fires compared with peat and agriculture fires. Further, FC/FRP could explain a maximum of 29% and 53% of AAOD variations, whereas FC/FRP could explain at most 33% and 51% of the variation in agricultural and forest biomass burning regions, respectively. Relatively, UVAI was found to be a better indicator than AOD and AAOD in both agriculture and forest biomass burning plumes. Cloud–Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations data showed vertically elevated aerosol profiles greater than 3.2–5.3 km altitude in the forest fire plumes compared to 2.2–3.9 km and less than 1 km in agriculture and peat-land fires, respectively. We infer the need to assimilate smoke plume height information for effective characterization of pollutants from different sources. (letter)

  13. Validation of ozone monitoring instrument ultraviolet index against ground-based UV index in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyimbwa, Dennis; Dahlback, Arne; Ssenyonga, Taddeo; Chen, Yi-Chun; Stamnes, Jakob J; Frette, Øyvind; Hamre, Børge

    2015-10-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) overpass solar ultraviolet (UV) indices have been validated against the ground-based UV indices derived from Norwegian Institute for Air Research UV measurements in Kampala (0.31° N, 32.58° E, 1200 m), Uganda for the period between 2005 and 2014. An excessive use of old cars, which would imply a high loading of absorbing aerosols, could cause the OMI retrieval algorithm to overestimate the surface UV irradiances. The UV index values were found to follow a seasonal pattern with maximum values in March and October. Under all-sky conditions, the OMI retrieval algorithm was found to overestimate the UV index values with a mean bias of about 28%. When only days with radiation modification factor greater than or equal to 65%, 70%, 75%, and 80% were considered, the mean bias between ground-based and OMI overpass UV index values was reduced to 8%, 5%, 3%, and 1%, respectively. The overestimation of the UV index by the OMI retrieval algorithm was found to be mainly due to clouds and aerosols.

  14. Towards standardization of UV eye protection: what can be learned from photodermatology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutmann, Jean; Béhar-Cohen, Francine; Baillet, Gilles; de Ayguavives, Tito; Ortega Garcia, Paula; Peña-García, Pablo; Remé, Charlotte; Wolffsohn, James

    2014-01-01

    While knowledge about standardization of skin protection against ultraviolet radiation (UVR) has progressed over the past few decades, there is no uniform and generally accepted standardized measurement for UV eye protection. The literature provides solid evidence that UV can induce considerable damage to structures of the eye. As well as damaging the eyelids and periorbital skin, chronic UV exposure may also affect the conjunctiva and lens. Clinically, this damage can manifest as skin cancer and premature skin ageing as well as the development of pterygia and premature cortical cataracts. Modern eye protection, used daily, offers the opportunity to prevent these adverse sequelae of lifelong UV exposure. A standardized, reliable and comprehensive label for consumers and professionals is currently lacking. In this review we (i) summarize the existing literature about UV radiation-induced damage to the eye and surrounding skin; (ii) review the recent technological advances in UV protection by means of lenses; (iii) review the definition of the Eye-Sun Protection Factor (E-SPF®), which describes the intrinsic UV protection properties of lenses and lens coating materials based on their capacity to absorb or reflect UV radiation; and (iv) propose a strategy for establishing the biological relevance of the E-SPF. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Ultra-wideband polarization insensitive UT-shaped metamaterial absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karampour, Nasrollah; Nozhat, Najmeh

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, an ultra-wideband metamaterial absorber (MMA) with U and T shaped resonators has been proposed. The resonators and the ground plane consist of gold (Au) and titanium (Ti) layers. The resistive sheet effect of Ti layer and the resonance elements in the structure cause a broad absorption spectrum. The simulations are based on the finite element method (FEM) and the results show that the absorption of the proposed structure is more than 90% between 150 and 300 THz that is much larger than previous works. Moreover, by applying the interference theory, we have demonstrated that the simulation results are in good agreement with the theoretical results. The primary proposed MMA is polarization sensitive. Therefore, a polarization insensitive metamaterial absorber has been suggested. Also, because of the extra resonance elements the full width at 90% absorption increases about 35 THz. This ultra-wideband MMA has various applications in microbalometer, imaging, thermal emitters, photovoltaic, and energy harvesting.

  16. Growth enhancement of soybean (Glycine max) upon exclusion of UV-B and UV-B/A components of solar radiation: characterization of photosynthetic parameters in leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guruprasad, Kadur; Kadur, Guruprasad; Bhattacharjee, Swapan; Swapan, Bhattacharjee; Kataria, Sunita; Sunita, Kataria; Yadav, Sanjeev; Sanjeev, Yadav; Tiwari, Arjun; Arjun, Tiwari; Baroniya, Sanjay; Sanjay, Baroniya; Rajiv, Abhinav; Abhinav, Rajiv; Mohanty, Prasanna

    2007-01-01

    Exclusion of UV (280-380 nm) radiation from the solar spectrum can be an important tool to assess the impact of ambient UV radiation on plant growth and performance of crop plants. The effect of exclusion of UV-B and UV-A from solar radiation on the growth and photosynthetic components in soybean (Glycine max) leaves were investigated. Exclusion of solar UV-B and UV-B/A radiation, enhanced the fresh weight, dry weight, leaf area as well as induced a dramatic increase in plant height, which reflected a net increase in biomass. Dry weight increase per unit leaf area was quite significant upon both UV-B and UV-B/A exclusion from the solar spectrum. However, no changes in chlorophyll a and b contents were observed by exclusion of solar UV radiation but the content of carotenoids was significantly (34-46%) lowered. Analysis of chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence transient parameters of leaf segments suggested no change in the F v/F m value due to UV-B or UV-B/A exclusion. Only a small reduction in photo-oxidized signal I (P700+)/unit Chl was noted. Interestingly the total soluble protein content per unit leaf area increased by 18% in UV-B/A and 40% in UV-B excluded samples, suggesting a unique upregulation of biosynthesis and accumulation of biomass. Solar UV radiation thus seems to primarily affect the photomorphogenic regulatory system that leads to an enhanced growth of leaves and an enhanced rate of net photosynthesis in soybean, a crop plant of economic importance. The presence of ultra-violet components in sunlight seems to arrest carbon sequestration in plants.

  17. Method of absorbance correction in a spectroscopic heating value sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saveliev, Alexei; Jangale, Vilas Vyankatrao; Zelepouga, Sergeui; Pratapas, John

    2013-09-17

    A method and apparatus for absorbance correction in a spectroscopic heating value sensor in which a reference light intensity measurement is made on a non-absorbing reference fluid, a light intensity measurement is made on a sample fluid, and a measured light absorbance of the sample fluid is determined. A corrective light intensity measurement at a non-absorbing wavelength of the sample fluid is made on the sample fluid from which an absorbance correction factor is determined. The absorbance correction factor is then applied to the measured light absorbance of the sample fluid to arrive at a true or accurate absorbance for the sample fluid.

  18. Irradiation of ferrous ammonium sulfate for its use as high absorbed dose and low-temperature dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juarez-Calderon, J.M.; Negron-Mendoza, A.; Ramos-Bernal, S.

    2007-01-01

    In the present paper, we study the response of crystalline ammonium ferrous sulfate as a function of the irradiation dose and temperature. The dose studied ranged from 33.5 to 546 kGy. The temperature regimen varied from 77 K (liquid nitrogen) to 311 K. The analysis of the samples was made by UV spectroscopy and EPR. The results show that the change in absorbance of the dosimeter was linear with respect to the absorbed dose in the range studied. There is a small influence of the irradiation temperature in the response of the iron salt. The dose rate and storage time after irradiation was of no importance in this application

  19. UV filters bioaccumulation in fish from Iberian river basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gago-Ferrero, Pablo [Dept. of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA), Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, 15771 Athens (Greece); Díaz-Cruz, M. Silvia, E-mail: sdcqam@cid.csic.es [Dept. of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA), Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Barceló, Damià [Dept. of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA), Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), Parc Científic i Tecnològic de la Universitat de Girona, C/ Emili Grahit, 101 Edifici H2O, E-17003 Girona (Spain)

    2015-06-15

    The occurrence of eight organic UV filters (UV-Fs) was assessed in fish from four Iberian river basins. This group of compounds is extensively used in cosmetic products and other industrial goods to avoid the damaging effects of UV radiation, and has been found to be ubiquitous contaminants in the aquatic ecosystem. In particular, fish are considered by the scientific community to be the most feasible organism for contamination monitoring in aquatic ecosystems. Despite that, studies on the bioaccumulation of UV-F are scarce. In this study fish samples from four Iberian river basins under high anthropogenic pressure were analysed by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–MS/MS). Benzophenone-3 (BP3), ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC), 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4MBC) and octocrylene (OC) were the predominant pollutants in the fish samples, with concentrations in the range of ng/g dry weight (d.w.). The results indicated that most polluted area corresponded to Guadalquivir River basin, where maximum concentrations were found for EHMC (241.7 ng/g d.w.). Sediments from this river basin were also analysed. Lower values were observed in relation to fish for OC and EHMC, ranging from below the limits of detection to 23 ng/g d.w. Accumulation levels of UV-F in the fish were used to calculate biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs). These values were always below 1, in the range of 0.04–0.3, indicating that the target UV-Fs are excreted by fish only to some extent. The fact that the highest concentrations were determined in predators suggests that biomagnification of UV-F may take place along the freshwater food web. - Highlights: • First evidence of UV filters in fish from Iberian rivers • Biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) were always below 1. • Predator species presented higher UV-F concentrations suggesting trophic magnification.

  20. Classification of hadith into positive suggestion, negative suggestion, and information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraby, Said Al; Riviera Rachmawati Jasin, Eliza; Kusumaningrum, Andina; Adiwijaya

    2018-03-01

    As one of the Muslim life guidelines, based on the meaning of its sentence(s), a hadith can be viewed as a suggestion for doing something, or a suggestion for not doing something, or just information without any suggestion. In this paper, we tried to classify the Bahasa translation of hadith into the three categories using machine learning approach. We tried stemming and stopword removal in preprocessing, and TF-IDF of unigram, bigram, and trigram as the extracted features. As the classifier, we compared between SVM and Neural Network. Since the categories are new, so in order to compare the results of the previous pipelines, we created a baseline classifier using simple rule-based string matching technique. The rule-based algorithm conditions on the occurrence of words such as “janganlah, sholatlah, and so on” to determine the category. The baseline method achieved F1-Score of 0.69, while the best F1-Score from the machine learning approach was 0.88, and it was produced by SVM model with the linear kernel.

  1. Hypnotic suggestion and cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, David A; Halligan, Peter W

    2009-06-01

    The growing acceptance of consciousness as a legitimate field of enquiry and the availability of functional imaging has rekindled research interest in the use of hypnosis and suggestion to manipulate subjective experience and to gain insights into healthy and pathological cognitive functioning. Current research forms two strands. The first comprises studies exploring the cognitive and neural nature of hypnosis itself. The second employs hypnosis to explore known psychological processes using specifically targeted suggestions. An extension of this second approach involves using hypnotic suggestion to create clinically informed analogues of established structural and functional neuropsychological disorders. With functional imaging, this type of experimental neuropsychopathology offers a productive means of investigating brain activity involved in many symptom-based disorders and their related phenomenology.

  2. Distributed Absorber for Noise and Vibration Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Azoulay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An approach to a wide-band frequency passive vibration attenuation is introduced in this paper. This aims to suppress noise and vibration of extended multimode objects like plates, panels and shells. The absorber is arranged in the form of a single-layer assembly of small inertial bodies (balls being distributed and moulded within the light visco-elastic media (e.g. silicone resin. The absorber as a whole is embedded into object face covering the critical patches of the system surface. For the purpose of characterization, the authors introduced the complex frequency response function relating the volume velocity produced by the vibrating object surface (response stimulated by a point-wise force (stimulus applied to a particular point. The simulation and optimization of the main frequency characteristics has been performed using a full scale 3-dimensional Finite Element model. These revealed some new dynamic features of absorber's structures, which can contribute to vibration attenuation. A full-scale physical experimentation with synthesised absorber's structures confirmed the main results of simulation and has shown significant noise reduction over a staggering 0–20 kHz frequency band. This was achieved with a negligible weight and volume penalty due to the addition of the absorber. The results can find multiple applications in noise and vibration control of different structures. Some examples of such applications are presented.

  3. Identifying the perfect absorption of metamaterial absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, G.; Schalch, J.; Zhao, X.; Zhang, J.; Averitt, R. D.; Zhang, X.

    2018-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the conditions that result in unity absorption in metamaterial absorbers to guide the design and optimization of this important class of functional electromagnetic composites. Multilayer absorbers consisting of a metamaterial layer, dielectric spacer, and ground plane are specifically considered. Using interference theory, the dielectric spacer thickness and resonant frequency for unity absorption can be numerically determined from the functional dependence of the relative phase shift of the total reflection. Further, using transmission line theory in combination with interference theory we obtain analytical expressions for the unity absorption resonance frequency and corresponding spacer layer thickness in terms of the bare resonant frequency of the metamaterial layer and metallic and dielectric losses within the absorber structure. These simple expressions reveal a redshift of the unity absorption frequency with increasing loss that, in turn, necessitates an increase in the thickness of the dielectric spacer. The results of our analysis are experimentally confirmed by performing reflection-based terahertz time-domain spectroscopy on fabricated absorber structures covering a range of dielectric spacer thicknesses with careful control of the loss accomplished through water absorption in a semiporous polyimide dielectric spacer. Our findings can be widely applied to guide the design and optimization of the metamaterial absorbers and sensors.

  4. Sunscreens: are they beneficial for health? An overview of endocrine disrupting properties of UV-filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, M; Klit, A; Blomberg Jensen, M; Søeborg, T; Frederiksen, H; Schlumpf, M; Lichtensteiger, W; Skakkebaek, N E; Drzewiecki, K T

    2012-06-01

    Today, topical application of sunscreens, containing ultraviolet-filters (UV-filters), is preferred protection against adverse effects of ultraviolet radiation. Evidently, use of sunscreens is effective in prevention of sunburns in various models. However, evidence for their protective effects against melanoma skin cancer is less conclusive. Three important observations prompted us to review the animal data and human studies on possible side effects of selected chemical UV-filters in cosmetics. (1) the utilization of sunscreens with UV-filters is increasing worldwide; (2) the incidence of the malignant disorder for which sunscreens should protect, malignant melanoma, is rapidly increasing and (3) an increasing number of experimental studies indicating that several UV-filters might have endocrine disruptive effects. The selected UV-filters we review in this article are benzophenone-3 (BP-3), 3-benzylidene camphor (3-BC), 3-(4-methyl-benzylidene) camphor (4-MBC), 2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxy cinnamate (OMC), Homosalate (HMS), 2-ethylhexyl 4-dimethylaminobenzoate (OD-PABA) and 4-aminobenzoic acid (PABA). The potential adverse effects induced by UV-filters in experimental animals include reproductive/developmental toxicity and disturbance of hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis (HPT). Few human studies have investigated potential side effects of UV-filters, although human exposure is high as UV-filters in sunscreens are rapidly absorbed from the skin. One of the UV-filters, BP-3, has been found in 96% of urine samples in the US and several UV-filters in 85% of Swiss breast milk samples. It seems pertinent to evaluate whether exposure to UV-filters contribute to possible adverse effects on the developing organs of foetuses and children. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Andrology © 2012 European Academy of Andrology.

  5. Mechanisms underlying UV-induced immune suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullrich, Stephen E. [Department of Immunology, University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, South Campus Research Building 1, 7455 Fannin St., P.O. Box 301402, Houston, TX 77030-1903 (United States)]. E-mail: sullrich@mdanderson.org

    2005-04-01

    Skin cancer is the most prevalent form of human neoplasia. Estimates suggest that in excess of one million new cases of skin cancer will be diagnosed this year alone in the United States (www.cancer.org/statistics). Fortunately, because of their highly visible location, skin cancers are more rapidly diagnosed and more easily treated than other types of cancer. Be that as it may, approximately 10,000 Americans a year die from skin cancer. The cost of treating non-melanoma skin cancer is estimated to be in excess of US$ 650 million a year [J.G. Chen, A.B. Fleischer, E.D. Smith, C. Kancler, N.D. Goldman, P.M. Williford, S.R. Feldman, Cost of non-melanoma skin cancer treatment in the United States, Dermatol. Surg. 27 (2001) 1035-1038], and when melanoma is included, the estimated cost of treating skin cancer in the United States is estimated to rise to US$ 2.9 billion annually (www.cancer.org/statistics). Because the morbidity and mortality associated with skin cancer is a major public health problem, it is important to understand the mechanisms underlying skin cancer development. The primary cause of skin cancer is the ultraviolet (UV) radiation found in sunlight. In addition to its carcinogenic potential, UV radiation is also immune suppressive. In fact, data from studies with both experimental animals and biopsy proven skin cancer patients suggest that there is an association between the immune suppressive effects of UV radiation and its carcinogenic potential. The focus of this manuscript will be to review the mechanisms underlying the induction of immune suppression following UV exposure. Particular attention will be directed to the role of soluble mediators in activating immune suppression.

  6. Mechanisms underlying UV-induced immune suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullrich, Stephen E.

    2005-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most prevalent form of human neoplasia. Estimates suggest that in excess of one million new cases of skin cancer will be diagnosed this year alone in the United States (www.cancer.org/statistics). Fortunately, because of their highly visible location, skin cancers are more rapidly diagnosed and more easily treated than other types of cancer. Be that as it may, approximately 10,000 Americans a year die from skin cancer. The cost of treating non-melanoma skin cancer is estimated to be in excess of US$ 650 million a year [J.G. Chen, A.B. Fleischer, E.D. Smith, C. Kancler, N.D. Goldman, P.M. Williford, S.R. Feldman, Cost of non-melanoma skin cancer treatment in the United States, Dermatol. Surg. 27 (2001) 1035-1038], and when melanoma is included, the estimated cost of treating skin cancer in the United States is estimated to rise to US$ 2.9 billion annually (www.cancer.org/statistics). Because the morbidity and mortality associated with skin cancer is a major public health problem, it is important to understand the mechanisms underlying skin cancer development. The primary cause of skin cancer is the ultraviolet (UV) radiation found in sunlight. In addition to its carcinogenic potential, UV radiation is also immune suppressive. In fact, data from studies with both experimental animals and biopsy proven skin cancer patients suggest that there is an association between the immune suppressive effects of UV radiation and its carcinogenic potential. The focus of this manuscript will be to review the mechanisms underlying the induction of immune suppression following UV exposure. Particular attention will be directed to the role of soluble mediators in activating immune suppression

  7. UV-Vis Ratiometric Resonance Synchronous Spectroscopy for Determination of Nanoparticle and Molecular Optical Cross Sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, Charles B; Zhou, Yadong; Zou, Shengli; Zhang, Dongmao

    2016-03-01

    Demonstrated herein is a UV-vis Ratiometric Resonance Synchronous Spectroscopic (R2S2, pronounced as "R-two-S-two" for simplicity) technique where the R2S2 spectrum is obtained by dividing the resonance synchronous spectrum of a NP-containing solution by the solvent resonance synchronous spectrum. Combined with conventional UV-vis measurements, this R2S2 method enables experimental quantification of the absolute optical cross sections for a wide range of molecular and nanoparticle (NP) materials that range optically from pure photon absorbers or scatterers to simultaneous photon absorbers and scatterers, simultaneous photon absorbers and emitters, and all the way to simultaneous photon absorbers, scatterers, and emitters in the UV-vis wavelength region. Example applications of this R2S2 method were demonstrated for quantifying the Rayleigh scattering cross sections of solvents including water and toluene, absorption and resonance light scattering cross sections for plasmonic gold nanoparticles, and absorption, scattering, and on-resonance fluorescence cross sections for semiconductor quantum dots (Qdots). On-resonance fluorescence quantum yields were quantified for the model molecular fluorophore Eosin Y and fluorescent Qdots CdSe and CdSe/ZnS. The insights and methodology presented in this work should be of broad significance in physical and biological science research that involves photon/matter interactions.

  8. UV-responsive nano-sponge for oil absorption and desorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do Hyun; Jung, Min Chan; Cho, So-Hye; Kim, Sang Hoon; Kim, Ho-Young; Lee, Heon Ju; Oh, Kyu Hwan; Moon, Myoung-Woon

    2015-08-11

    Controlled surface wettability for oil has been intensively studied to remove industrial oil waste or oil spill pollution from seas or rivers. In particular, external stimuli-induced special wetting materials, such as photo-responsive TiO2, have attracted considerable attention for oil-water separation. In this study, a novel method is reported to fabricate a nano-sponge which is composed of hydrophobic hydrocarbon and hydrophilic TiO2 nanoparticles for oil absorption or desorption that are responsive to UV irradiation. The hydrocarbon in the nano-sponge could selectively absorb oil from water, whereas the absorbed oil is released into the water by TiO2 in response to UV irradiation. The nano-sponge functionalized porous polydimethylsiloxane released more than 98% of the absorbed crude oil with UV irradiation and air-bubbling. It could be continuously reused while maintaining a high absorption capacity and desorption efficiency without incurring secondary air or water pollution. This smart oil absorption/desorption methodology with excellent selectivity and recyclability with almost perfect removal of absorbed oil can be applied for oil-water separation, oil spill cleanup and reuse of spilled oil.

  9. Study on DNA damages induced by UV radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doan Hong Van; Dinh Ba Tuan; Tran Tuan Anh; Nguyen Thuy Ngan; Ta Bich Thuan; Vo Thi Thuong Lan; Tran Minh Quynh; Nguyen Thi Thom

    2015-01-01

    DNA damages in Escherichia coli (E. coli) exposed to UV radiation have been investigated. After 30 min of exposure to UV radiation of 5 mJ/cm 2 , the growth of E. coli in LB broth medium was about only 10% in compared with non-irradiated one. This results suggested that the UV radiation caused the damages for E. coli genome resulted in reduction in its growth and survival, and those lesions can be somewhat recovered. For both solutions of plasmid DNAs and E. coli cells containing plasmid DNA, this dose also caused the breakage on single and double strands of DNA, shifted the morphology of DNA plasmid from supercoiled to circular and linear forms. The formation of pyrimidine dimers upon UV radiation significantly reduced when the DNA was irradiated in the presence of Ganoderma lucidum extract. Thus, studies on UV-induced DNA damage at molecular level are very essential to determine the UV radiation doses corresponding to the DNA damages, especially for creation and selection of useful radiation-induced mutants, as well as elucidation the protective effects of the specific compounds against UV light. (author)

  10. Urban groundwater contamination by residues of UV filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Anna; Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Vàzquez-Suñé, Enric; Carrera, Jesus; Pujades, Estanislao; Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barceló, Damià

    2014-04-30

    The occurrence and fate of UV filters (UV F) in an urban aquifer in correlation with (1) the spatial distribution of UV F in Barcelona's groundwater, (2) the depth of the groundwater sample, (3) the physicochemical properties of the target compounds, (4) the recharge sources, and (5) the redox conditions of the Barcelona aquifers, were studied for the first time. The highest groundwater concentrations and the largest number of detected UV F were observed in an aquifer recharged by a polluted river (around 55 ng/L in SAP-4). In contrast, the urbanized areas had lower concentrations (around 20 ng/L in MPSP-1). Two pathways can be identified for UV F to enter the aquifers: (1) leakage of row sewage from the sewage network in urbanized areas and (2) wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents discharged into the river. Measured concentrations of UV F were significantly much lower than those estimated from the waste water proportion in groundwater samples suggesting that UV F might undergo transformation processes in both reducing and oxidizing conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. UV/EB curable psa's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glotfelter, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    The author describe both water-based and 100% solids UV/EB curable PSA's (Pressure Sensitive Adhesives) and their properties. A new acrylate monomer, ethoxylated nonyl phenol acrylate, has great utility in the formulation of water-based PSA's

  12. Health Effects of UV Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Related Topics: Sun Safety Contact Us Share Health Effects of UV Radiation Ozone layer depletion decreases our ... against these invaders. Fact Sheet Download the Health Effects of Overexposure to the Sun (PDF) Did You ...

  13. Absorbed dose determination in water. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novotny, J.

    1991-01-01

    The use of new values of physical parameters as recommended by international organizations has consequences in radiotherapy, e.g. in the determination of absorbed doses in water based on ionometric measurements. A procedure is proposed for the determination of the conversion factor K w,u between kerma in air and absorbed dose in water, and of the factor C w,u between exposure measured and absorbed dose in water, for ionization chambers and high-energy photon beams. The conversion factors depend not only on the radiation quality but also on the dimensions and composition of the chamber and of the cup used in the calibrations. Numerical values are given for conventional kinds of ionization chambers. (author). 3 tabs., 16 refs

  14. Absorbed dose determination in water. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novotny, J.; Hobzova, L.; Kindlova, A.

    1991-01-01

    The use of new values of physical parameters as recommended by international organizations has consequences in radiotherapy, e.g. in the determination of absorbed doses in water based on ionometric measurements. A procedure is proposed for the determination of the conversion factor K w,e from kerma in air to absorbed dose in water, and of the conversion factor C w,e from exposure measured to dose absorbed in water, this for ionization chambers and high-energy electron beams. The conversion factors depend not only on the radiation quality and measurement depth in the phantom but also on the dimensions and composition of the chamber and of the cup used in the calibrations. Numerical values are given for two conventional kinds of ionization chambers. (author). 3 tabs., 9 refs

  15. Ferrite HOM Absorber for the RHIC ERL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn,H.; Choi, E.M.; Hammons, L.

    2008-10-01

    A superconducting Energy Recovery Linac is under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory to serve as test bed for RHIC upgrades. The damping of higher-order modes in the superconducting five-cell cavity for the Energy-Recovery linac at RHIC is performed exclusively by two ferrite absorbers. The ferrite properties have been measured in ferrite-loaded pill box cavities resulting in the permeability values given by a first-order Debye model for the tiled absorber structure and an equivalent permeability value for computer simulations with solid ring dampers. Measured and simulated results for the higher-order modes in the prototype copper cavity are discussed. First room-temperature measurements of the finished niobium cavity are presented which confirm the effective damping of higher-order modes in the ERL. by the ferrite absorbers.

  16. Properties of CGM-Absorbing Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamill, Colin; Conway, Matthew; Apala, Elizabeth; Scott, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    We extend the results of a study of the sightlines of 45 low-redshift quasars (0.06 COS that lie within the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We have used photometric data from the SDSS DR12, along with the known absorption characteristics of the intergalactic medium and circumgalactic medium, to identify the most probable galaxy matches to absorbers in the spectroscopic dataset. Here, we use photometric data and measured galaxy parameters from SDSS DR12 to examine the distributions of galaxy properties such as virial radius, morphology, and position angle among those that match to absorbers within a specific range of impact parameters. We compare those distributions to galaxies within the same impact parameter range that are not matched to any absorber in the HST/COS spectrum in order to investigate global properties of the circumgalactic medium.

  17. Quantum walk with one variable absorbing boundary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Feiran [Key Laboratory of Quantum Information and Quantum Optoelectronic Devices, Shaanxi Province, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Department of Applied Physics, School of Science, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Zhang, Pei, E-mail: zhangpei@mail.ustc.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Quantum Information and Quantum Optoelectronic Devices, Shaanxi Province, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Department of Applied Physics, School of Science, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Wang, Yunlong; Liu, Ruifeng; Gao, Hong; Li, Fuli [Key Laboratory of Quantum Information and Quantum Optoelectronic Devices, Shaanxi Province, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Department of Applied Physics, School of Science, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2017-01-15

    Quantum walks constitute a promising ingredient in the research on quantum algorithms; consequently, exploring different types of quantum walks is of great significance for quantum information and quantum computation. In this study, we investigate the progress of quantum walks with a variable absorbing boundary and provide an analytical solution for the escape probability (the probability of a walker that is not absorbed by the boundary). We simulate the behavior of escape probability under different conditions, including the reflection coefficient, boundary location, and initial state. Moreover, it is also meaningful to extend our research to the situation of continuous-time and high-dimensional quantum walks. - Highlights: • A novel scheme about quantum walk with variable boundary is proposed. • The analytical results of the survival probability from the absorbing boundary. • The behavior of survival probability under different boundary conditions. • The influence of different initial coin states on the survival probability.

  18. Tribology Aspect of Rubber Shock Absorbers Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Banić

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rubber is a very flexible material with many desirable properties Which enable its broad use in engineering practice. Rubber or rubber-metal springs are widely used as anti-vibration or anti-shock components in technical systems. Rubber-metal springs are usually realized as a bonded assembly, however especially in shock absorbers, it is possible to realize free contacts between rubber and metal parts. In previous research it authors was observed that friction between rubber and metal in such case have a significant influence on the damping characteristics of shock absorber. This paper analyzes the development process of rubber or rubber-metal shock absorbers realized free contacts between the constitutive parts, starting from the design, construction, testing and operation, with special emphasis on the development of rubber-metal springs for the buffing and draw gear of railway vehicles.

  19. Neutron absorbing materials for reactors control; Materiaux absorbants neutroniques pour le pilotage des reacteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosset, D. [CEA Saclay, Dept. des Materiaux pour le Nucleaire (DMN), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Herter, P. [CEA Saclay, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire (DEN), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2007-01-15

    The different reactivity control systems allow to keep the mastery of the fission reaction inside the reactor core at any time: power control, safe shutdown, compensation of fuel burnup. These systems can be of different type: gaseous (like {sup 3}He in some experimental reactors), liquid (borated water in PWRs), and in most cases solid and combined or not with the previous types. In all cases, the constituents comprise neutron absorbing nuclides. The absorbing materials are contained in elementary absorbing elements, named control rods. This article describes the absorbing materials used in the control rods of the main nuclear power plants and also in the burnable poison rods of water cooled reactors. Content: 1 - general considerations about absorbing materials: neutron absorption cross sections, selection criteria of absorbing materials, main uses of absorbers in reactors, supply sources, wastes; 2 - description of the absorbing materials used: silver-indium-cadmium alloy (ICA), boron carbide (B{sub 4}C), dysprosium titanate, hafnium, burnable poisons and rare earths; 3 - conclusion and perspectives. (J.S.)

  20. Removal of Humic Substances from Water by Advanced Oxidation Process Using UV/TiO2 Photo Catalytic Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Khorsandi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Humic substances have been known as precursors to disinfection by-products. Because conventional treatment processes cannot meet disinfection by-product standards, novel methods have been increasingly applied for the removal of disinfection by-products precursors. The UV/TiO2 process is one of the advanced oxidation processes using the photocatalytic technology. The most important advantages of this process are its stability and high efficiency removal. The present study aims to investigate the effect of UV/TiO2 photo-catalytic technology on removal of humic substances. The study was conducted in a lab-scale batch photo-catalytic reactor using the interval experimental method. The UV irradiation source was a low pressure mercury vapor lamp 55w that was axially centered and was immersed in a humic acids solution within a stainless steel tubular 2.8 L reaction volume. Each of the samples taken from the UV/TiO2 process and other processes studied were analyzed for their dissolved organic carbon, UV absorbance at 254nm, and specific UV254 absorbance. The results indicated the high efficiency of the UV/TiO2 photo-catalytic process (TiO2=0.1 g/L and pH=5, compared to other processes, for humic substances removal from water sources. The process was also found to be capable of decreasing the initial dissolved organic carbon from 5 to 0.394 mg/L. The Specific UV254 Absorbance of 2.79 L/mg.m was attained after 1.5 hr. under photo-catalytic first order reaction (k= 0.0267 min-1. It may be concluded that the UV/TiO2 process can provide desirable drinking water quality in terms of humic substance content.

  1. Direct DOC and nitrate determination in water using dual pathlength and second derivative UV spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causse, Jean; Thomas, Olivier; Jung, Aude-Valérie; Thomas, Marie-Florence

    2017-01-01

    UV spectrophotometry is largely used for water and wastewater quality monitoring. The measurement/estimation of specific and aggregate parameters such as nitrate and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is possible with UV spectra exploitation, from 2 to multi wavelengths calibration. However, if nitrate determination from UV absorbance is known, major optical interferences linked to the presence of suspended solids, colloids or dissolved organic matter limit the relevance of UV measurement for DOC assessment. A new method based on UV spectrophotometric measurement of raw samples (without filtration) coupling a dual pathlength for spectra acquisition and the second derivative exploitation of the signal is proposed in this work. The determination of nitrate concentration is carried out from the second derivative of the absorbance at 226 nm corresponding at the inflexion point of nitrate signal decrease. A short optical pathlength can be used considering the strong absorption of nitrate ion around 210 nm. For DOC concentration determination the second derivative absorbance at 295 nm is proposed after nitrate correction. Organic matter absorbing slightly in the 270-330 nm window, a long optical pathlength must be selected in order to increase the sensitivity. The method was tested on several hundred of samples from small rivers of two agricultural watersheds located in Brittany, France, taken during dry and wet periods. The comparison between the proposed method and the standardised procedures for nitrate and DOC measurement gave a good adjustment for both parameters for ranges of 2-100 mg/L NO3 and 1-30 mg/L DOC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Enhancement of growth, photosynthetic performance and yield by exclusion of ambient UV components in C3 and C4 plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataria, Sunita; Guruprasad, K N; Ahuja, Sumedha; Singh, Bupinder

    2013-10-05

    A field experiment was conducted under tropical climate for assessing the effect of ambient UV-B and UV-A by exclusion of UV components on the growth, photosynthetic performance and yield of C3 (cotton, wheat) and C4 (amaranthus, sorghum) plants. The plants were grown in specially designed UV exclusion chambers, wrapped with filters that excluded UV-B (plant species responded to UV exclusion by a significant increase in plant height, leaf area, leaf biomass, total biomass accumulation and yield. Measurements of the chlorophyll, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, gas exchange parameters and the activity of Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco) by fixation of (14)CO2 indicated a direct relationship between enhanced rate of photosynthesis and yield of the plants. Quantum yield of electron transport was enhanced by the exclusion of UV indicating better utilization of PAR assimilation and enhancement in reducing power in all the four plant species. Exclusion of UV-B in particular significantly enhanced the net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and activity of Rubisco. Additional fixation of carbon due to exclusion of ambient UV-B was channeled towards yield as there was a decrease in the level of UV-B absorbing substances and an increase in soluble proteins in all the four plant species. The magnitude of the promotion in all the parameters studied was higher in dicots (cotton, amaranthus) compared to monocots (wheat, sorghum) after UV exclusion. The results indicated a suppressive action of ambient UV-B on growth and photosynthesis; dicots were more sensitive than monocots in this suppression while no great difference in sensitivity was found between C3 and C4 plants. Experiments indicated the suppressive action of ambient UV on carbon fixation and yield of C3 and C4 plants. Exclusion of solar UV-B will have agricultural benefits in both C3 and C4 plants under tropical climate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. LINEAR MODEL FOR NON ISOSCELES ABSORBERS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERG,J.S.

    2003-05-12

    Previous analyses have assumed that wedge absorbers are triangularly shaped with equal angles for the two faces. In this case, to linear order, the energy loss depends only on the position in the direction of the face tilt, and is independent of the incoming angle. One can instead construct an absorber with entrance and exit faces facing rather general directions. In this case, the energy loss can depend on both the position and the angle of the particle in question. This paper demonstrates that and computes the effect to linear order.

  4. Multilayer detector for skin absorbed dose measuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osanov, D.P.; Panova, V.P.; Shaks, A.I.

    1985-01-01

    A method for skin dosimetry based on utilization of multilayer detectors and permitting to estimate distribution of absorbed dose by skin depth is described. The detector represents a set of thin sensitive elements separated by tissue-equivalent absorbers. Quantitative evaluation and forecasting the degree of radiation injury of skin are determined by the formula based on determination of the probability of the fact that cells are not destroyed and they can divide further on. The given method ensures a possibility of quantitative evaluation of radiobiological effect and forecasting clinical consequences of skin irradiation by results of corresponding measurements of dose by means of the miultilayer detector

  5. Device for absorbing seismic effects on buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xercavins, Pierre; Pompei, Michel.

    1979-01-01

    Device for absorbing seismic effects. The construction or structure to be protected rests on its foundations through at least one footing formed of a stack of metal plates interlinked by layers of adhesive material, over at least a part of their extent, this material being an elastomer that can distort, characterized in that at least part of the area of some metal plates works in association with components which are able to absorb at least some of the energy resulting from friction during the relative movements of the metal plates against the distortion of the elastomer [fr

  6. Optimization of Perfect Absorbers with Multilayer Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li Voti, Roberto

    2018-02-01

    We study wide-angle and broadband perfect absorbers with compact multilayer structures made of a sequence of ITO and TiN layers deposited onto a silver thick layer. An optimization procedure is introduced for searching the optimal thicknesses of the layers so as to design a perfect broadband absorber from 400 nm to 750 nm, for a wide range of angles of incidence from 0{°} to 50{°}, for both polarizations and with a low emissivity in the mid-infrared. We eventually compare the performances of several optimal structures that can be very promising for solar thermal energy harvesting and collectors.

  7. Interaction of COP1 and UVR8 regulates UV-B-induced photomorphogenesis and stress acclimation in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favory, Jean-Jacques; Stec, Agnieszka; Gruber, Henriette; Rizzini, Luca; Oravecz, Attila; Funk, Markus; Albert, Andreas; Cloix, Catherine; Jenkins, Gareth I; Oakeley, Edward J; Seidlitz, Harald K; Nagy, Ferenc; Ulm, Roman

    2009-01-01

    The ultraviolet-B (UV-B) portion of the solar radiation functions as an environmental signal for which plants have evolved specific and sensitive UV-B perception systems. The UV-B-specific UV RESPONSE LOCUS 8 (UVR8) and the multifunctional E3 ubiquitin ligase CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 (COP1) are key regulators of the UV-B response. We show here that uvr8-null mutants are deficient in UV-B-induced photomorphogenesis and hypersensitive to UV-B stress, whereas overexpression of UVR8 results in enhanced UV-B photomorphogenesis, acclimation and tolerance to UV-B stress. By using sun simulators, we provide evidence at the physiological level that UV-B acclimation mediated by the UV-B-specific photoregulatory pathway is indeed required for survival in sunlight. At the molecular level, we demonstrate that the wild type but not the mutant UVR8 and COP1 proteins directly interact in a UV-B-dependent, rapid manner in planta. These data collectively suggest that UV-B-specific interaction of COP1 and UVR8 in the nucleus is a very early step in signalling and responsible for the plant's coordinated response to UV-B ensuring UV-B acclimation and protection in the natural environment. PMID:19165148

  8. Thermal radiation absorbed by dairy cows in pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Roberto Gomes; Guilhermino, Magda Maria; de Morais, Débora Andréia E Façanha

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the present paper was to assess a method for estimating the thermal radiation absorbed by dairy cows (0.875 Holstein-0.125 Guzerath) on pasture. A field test was conducted with 472 crossbred dairy cows in three locations of a tropical region. The following environmental data were collected: air temperature, partial vapour pressure, wind speed, black globe temperature, ground surface temperature and solar radiation. Average total radiation absorbed by animals was calculated as R(abs) = 640.0 +/- 3.1 W .m(-2). Absorbed short-wave radiation (solar direct, diffuse and reflected) averaged 297.9 +/- 2.7 W m(-2); long wave (from the sky and from terrestrial surfaces) averaged 342.1 +/- 1.5 W m(-2). It was suggested that a new environmental measurement, the effective radiant heat load (ERHL), could be used to assess the effective mean radiant temperature (T*(mr)). Average T*(mr) was 101.4 +/- 1.2 degrees C, in contrast to the usual mean radiant temperature, T(mr) = 65.1 +/- 0.5 degrees C. Estimates of T*(mr) were considered as more reliable than those of T (mr) in evaluating the thermal environment in the open field, because T (mr) is almost totally associated only with long wave radiation.

  9. Degradation of a textile reactive azo dye by a combined biological-photocatalytic process: Candida tropicalis Jks2 -Tio2/Uv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafari Narjes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the present study, the decolorization and degradation of Reactive Black 5 (RB5 azo dye was investigated by biological, photocatalytic (UV/TiO2 and combined processes. Application of Candida tropicalis JKS2 in treatment of the synthetic medium containing RB5 indicated complete decolorization of the dye with 200 mg/L in less than 24 h. Degradation of the aromatic rings, resulting from the destruction of the dye, did not occur during the biological treatment. Mineralization of 50 mg/L RB5 solution was obtained after 80 min by photocatalytic process (in presence of 0.2 g/L TiO2. COD (chemical oxygen demand was not detectable after complete decolorization of 50 mg/L RB5 solution. However, photocatalytic process was not effective in the removal of the dye at high concentrations (≥200 mg/L. With 200 mg/L concentration, 74.9% of decolorization was achieved after 4 h illumination under photocatalytic process and the absorbance peak in UV region (attributed to aromatic rings was not completely removed. A two-step treatment process, namely, biological treatment by yeast followed by photocatalytic degradation, was also assessed. In the combined process (with 200 mg/L RB5, absorbance peak in UV region significantly disappeared after 2 h illumination and about 60% COD removal was achieved in the biological step. It is suggested that the combined process is more effective than the biological and photocatalytic treatments in the remediation of aromatic rings.

  10. Degradation of a textile reactive azo dye by a combined biological-photocatalytic process: Candida tropicalis Jks2 -Tio2/Uv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narjes Jafari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the decolorization and degradation of Reactive Black 5 (RB5 azo dye was investigated by biological, photocatalytic (UV/TiO2 and combined processes.Application of Candida tropicalis JKS2 in treatment of the synthetic medium containing RB5 indicated complete decolorization of the dye with 200 mg/L in less than 24 h. Degradation ofthe aromatic rings, resulting from the destruction of the dye, did not occur during the biological treatment. Mineralization of 50 mg/L RB5 solution was obtained after 80 min by photocatalytic process (in presence of 0.2 g/L TiO2. COD (chemical oxygen demand wasnot detectable after complete decolorization of 50 mg/L RB5 solution. However,photocatalytic process was not effective in the removal of the dye at high concentrations (≥200 mg/L. With 200 mg/L concentration, 74.9% of decolorization was achieved after 4 hillumination under photocatalytic process and the absorbance peak in UV region (attributed to aromatic rings was not completely removed. A two-step treatment process, namely,biological treatment by yeast followed by photocatalytic degradation, was also assessed. In the combined process (with 200 mg/L RB5, absorbance peak in UV region significantly disappeared after 2 h illumination and about 60 % COD removal was achieved in the biological step. It is suggested that the combined process is more effective than the biological and photocatalytic treatments in the remediation of aromatic rings.

  11. Absorbed Doses to Patients in Nuclear Medicine; Doskatalogen foer nukleaermedicin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leide-Svegborn, Sigrid; Mattsson, Soeren; Nosslin, Bertil [Universitetssjukhuset MAS, Malmoe (Sweden). Avd. foer radiofysik; Johansson, Lennart [Norrlands Universitetssjukhus, Umeaa (Sweden). Avd. foer radiofysik

    2004-09-01

    The work with a Swedish catalogue of radiation absorbed doses to patients undergoing nuclear medicine investigations has continued. After the previous report in 1999, biokinetic data and dose estimates (mean absorbed dose to various organs and tissues and effective dose) have been produced for a number of substances: {sup 11}C- acetate, {sup 11}C- methionine, {sup 18}F-DOPA, whole antibody labelled with either {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 111}In, {sup 123}I or {sup 131}I, fragment of antibody, F(ab'){sub 2} labelled with either {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 111}In, {sup 123}I or {sup 131}I and fragment of antibody, Fab' labelled with either {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 111}In, {sup 123}I or {sup 131}I. The absorbed dose estimates for these substances have been made from published biokinetic information. For other substances of interest, e.g. {sup 14}C-urea (children age 3-6 years), {sup 14}C-glycocholic acid, {sup 14}C-xylose and {sup 14}C-triolein, sufficient literature data have not been available. Therefore, a large number of measurements on patients and volunteers have been carried out, in order to determine the biokinetics and dosimetry for these substances. Samples of breast milk from 50 mothers, who had been subject to nuclear medicine investigations, have been collected at various times after administration of the radiopharmaceutical to the mother. The activity concentration in the breast milk samples has been measured. The absorbed dose to various organs and tissues and the effective dose to the child who ingests the milk have been determined for 17 different radiopharmaceuticals. Based on these results revised recommendations for interruption of breast-feeding after nuclear medicine investigations are suggested.

  12. Vacuum UV Polarization Spectroscopy of p-Terphenyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duy Duc; Jones, Nykola C; Hoffmann, Søren V; Spanget-Larsen, Jens

    2018-01-11

    p-Terphenyl is used as a component in a variety of optical devices. In this investigation, the electronic transitions of p-terphenyl are investigated by synchrotron radiation linear dichroism (SRLD) spectroscopy in the range 30000-58000 cm -1 (330-170 nm) on molecular samples aligned in stretched polyethylene, thereby extending the region investigated by polarization spectroscopy into the vacuum UV. The resulting partial absorbance curves reveal that the vacuum UV band system with a maximum at 55000 cm -1 (180 nm) is predominantly short axis-polarized. This result is of interest in the optical applications of p-terphenyl, for example as a wavelength shifter. The observed polarization spectra are compared with the results of quantum chemical model calculations. Convoluted versions of the transitions predicted with the semiempirical ZINDO method and with the long-range-corrected time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) procedures TD-CAM-B3LYP, TD-LC-ωPBE, and TD-ωB97XD are in similar qualitative agreement with the observed partial absorbance curves throughout the investigated spectral regions, while TD-B3LYP fails to predict qualitatively the spectrum of p-terphenyl in the region above 40000 cm -1 (250 nm).

  13. UV plasmonic device for sensing ethanol and acetone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Mitsuhiro; Ichikawa, Yo; Rozhin, Alex G.; Kulinich, Sergei A.

    2018-01-01

    In the present study, we demonstrate efficient detection of volatile organic vapors with improved sensitivity, exploiting the localized surface plasmon resonance of indium nanograins in the UV range (UV-LSPR). The sensitivity of deep-UV-LSPR measurements toward ethanol was observed to be 0.004 nm/ppm, which is 10 times higher than that of a previously reported visible-LSPR device based on Ag nanoprisms [Sensors 11, 8643 (2011)]. Although practical issues such as improving detection limits are still remaining, the results of the present study suggest that the new approach based on UV-LSPR may open new avenues to the detection of organic molecules in solid, liquid, and gas phases using plasmonic sensors.

  14. UV-inducible DNA repair in Acinetobacter calcoaceticus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berenstein, D.

    1987-01-01

    Bacterial mutation frequency after UV irradiation and phage mutation frequency under conditions of W-reactivation were determined in A. calcoaceticus. With the exception of streptomycin resistance, there was no increase in the frequency of the assayed markers above the background level. The increased survival of phage during W-reactivation was not followed by an increase in the frequency of mutation from turbid to clear plaque formers among phage survivors. The findings suggested that the UV-inducible repair pathway in A. calcoaceticus was error free. Post-irradiation incubation of UV-treated culture before phage infection resulted in a further increase of W-reactivation. As chloramphenicol inhibited this response, it was concluded that de novo protein synthesis was involved in the UV-inducible repair pathway in A. calcoaceticus. (Auth.)

  15. Protective function of an ultraviolet-absorbing compound associated with conidia of Glomerella cingulata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brook, P.J. (Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Auckland (New Zealand). Plant Diseases Div.)

    1981-01-01

    Conidia of Glomerella cingulata (Stoneman) Spaulding et Schrenk from agar culture were exposed, dry, to middle-wavelength u.v. radiation. Conidia taken from cultures grown in light that included middle-wavelength u.v. survived irradiation for longer than conidia grown in darkness. A compound with maximum absorbance near lamda 310nm was associated with the conidia in light; but was absent from the conidia grown in darkness. Addition of the purified ''compound 310'' to dark-grown conidia prolonged their survival under irradiation. It is postulated that in nature this compound aids the survival of G. cingulata conidia, which are produced on the surface of infected apple fruits in orchards, exposed to direct insolation.

  16. Protective function of an ultraviolet-absorbing compound associated with conidia of Glomerella cingulata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brook, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    Conidia of Glomerella cingulata (Stoneman) Spaulding et Schrenk from agar culture were exposed, dry, to middle-wavelength u.v. radiation. Conidia taken from cultures grown in light that included middle-wavelength u.v. survived irradiation for longer than conidia grown in darkness. A compound with maximum absorbance near lamda 310nm was associated with the conidia in light; but was absent from the conidia grown in darkness. Addition of the purified ''compound 310'' to dark-grown conidia prolonged their survival under irradiation. It is postulated that in nature this compound aids the survival of G. cingulata conidia, which are produced on the surface of infected apple fruits in orchards, exposed to direct isolation. (auth)

  17. DNA damage caused by UV- and near UV-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Takeo

    1986-01-01

    Much work with mutants deficient in DNA repair has been performed concerning UV-induced DNA damage under the condition where there is no artificial stimulation. In an attempt to infer the effects of solar wavelengths, the outcome of the work is discussed in terms of cellular radiation sensitivity, unscheduled DNA synthesis, and mutation induction, leading to the conclusion that some DNA damage occurs even by irradiation of the shorter wavelength light (270 - 315 nm) and is repaired by excision repair. It has been thought to date that pyrimidine dimer (PD) plays the most important role in UV-induced DNA damage, followed by (6 - 4) photoproducts. As for DNA damage induced by near UV irradiation, the yield of DNA single-strand breaks and of DNA-protein crosslinking, other than PD, is considered. The DNA-protein crosslinking has proved to be induced by irradiation at any wavelength of UV ranging from 260 to 425 nm. Near UV irradiation causes the inhibition of cell proliferation to take place. (Namekawa, K.)

  18. Investigation into the UV-Protection of Woven Fabrics Composed of Metallic Weft Yarns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghane Mohammad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The destructive effects of sun UV radiation on human skins are now very clear to everyone. Most of the present studies were focused on the fabrics’ structural parameters such as density, warp and weft yarns finenesses, fabric pattern and printing or finishing treatments applied to the fabrics. The aim of this work is achieving a technique through which the produced fabrics possess a higher UV-protection ability. For this purpose, two different metals including aluminium and copper yarns were employed in fabrics production process and their effects on UV-protection ability of the produced fabrics were investigated. Six different fabric samples comprised of either cotton/polyester, nylon yarns as the warp yarns as well as either aluminium or copper yarns as the weft yarns were produced. Using the spectrophotometer technique, which is known as one of the UPF measuring method, the absorbency and reflectivity of fabrics within the specified range of electromagnetic waves (specially the UV radiation were determined. The results illustrated that the higher UV absorbency was related to the fabric possessing the copper yarns in their structures. It was concluded that the absorption ability of nylon fabrics is higher than that of the cotton/polyester samples.

  19. Far UV irradiation of DNA in the presence of proteins, amino acids or peptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larcom, L.L.; Rains, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    The DNA of bacteriophage SPO2c12 was subjected to 254 nm irradiation in solutions containing lysozyme or histone. The sensitivity of phage DNA to biological inactivation by UV increased as the amount of lysozyme bound per DNA strand increased. Although binding constants could not be measured for the DNA-histone interaction, this protein had a protective effect which was greater under conditions which cause enhanced binding. No crosslinking of either protein could be detected. Irradiation was also performed in the presence of various amino acids and short peptides. These were chosen to include amino acids which: (1) are positively charged, (2) absorb UV of this wavelength or (3) form UV-induced crosslinks to DNA. None of the amino acids tested affected sensitivity of the DNA to biological inactivation. Peptides containing a UV-absorbing amino acid and a positively charged amino acid enhanced sensitivity. For each of these peptides, a mixture of the constituent amino acids had the same effect as the peptide itself. Under the conditions used, no evidence for formation of DNA-amino acid crosslinks was found. The results indicate that proteins and peptides can sensitize DNA to UV inactivation by mechanisms other than covalent crosslink formation. (author)

  20. Removal of UV 254 nm matter and nutrients from a photobioreactor-wetland system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yonghong; He, Jiangzhou; Hu, Zhengyi; Yang, Linzhang; Zhang, Naiming

    2011-10-30

    The output of organic pollutants and excessive nutrients in intensive agricultural areas has frequently occurred, which easily lead to pollution events such as harmful algal blooms in downstream aquatic ecosystems. A photobioreactor-wetland system was applied to remove UV(254 nm) matter and dissolved nutrients discharged from an intensive agricultural area in the Kunming region of western China. The photobioreactor-wetland system was composed of two main components: an autotrophic photobioreactor with replanted macrophytes and a constructed wetland. The results showed that there was a significant correlation between UV(245)(nm) absorbance and chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration in the effluent of the agricultural ecosystem. When the hydraulic load of the photobioreactor-wetland system was 500 m(3)day(-1), the UV(254 nm) absorbance was dramatically reduced, and dissolved nutrients such as TDP, NO(3)-N and NH(4)-N were effectively removed. The overall average removal efficiencies were as follows in relatively steady-state conditions: UV(254 nm) matter (66%), TDP (71%), NO(3)-N (75%) and NH(4)-N (65%). Simpson's diversity index of zoobenthos indicated that the system could increase the zoobenthic diversity and improve the growth conditions of the zoobenthos habitat. The results also showed that the photobioreactor-wetland system could remove the UV(254 nm) matter and dissolved nutrients, providing a promising bio-measure for reducing the risk of pollution event occurrences in downstream surface waters. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Review of Plasmonic Nanocomposite Metamaterial Absorber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Keshavarz Hedayati

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Plasmonic metamaterials are artificial materials typically composed of noble metals in which the features of photonics and electronics are linked by coupling photons to conduction electrons of metal (known as surface plasmon. These rationally designed structures have spurred interest noticeably since they demonstrate some fascinating properties which are unattainable with naturally occurring materials. Complete absorption of light is one of the recent exotic properties of plasmonic metamaterials which has broadened its application area considerably. This is realized by designing a medium whose impedance matches that of free space while being opaque. If such a medium is filled with some lossy medium, the resulting structure can absorb light totally in a sharp or broad frequency range. Although several types of metamaterials perfect absorber have been demonstrated so far, in the current paper we overview (and focus on perfect absorbers based on nanocomposites where the total thickness is a few tens of nanometer and the absorption band is broad, tunable and insensitive to the angle of incidence. The nanocomposites consist of metal nanoparticles embedded in a dielectric matrix with a high filling factor close to the percolation threshold. The filling factor can be tailored by the vapor phase co-deposition of the metallic and dielectric components. In addition, novel wet chemical approaches are discussed which are bio-inspired or involve synthesis within levitating Leidenfrost drops, for instance. Moreover, theoretical considerations, optical properties, and potential application of perfect absorbers will be presented.

  2. Selective mass transfer in a membrane absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okunev, A. Yu.; Laguntsov, N. I.

    2006-09-01

    A theoretical study of selective mass transfer in a plane-frame membrane absorber (contactor) has been made. A mathematical model of the process has been developed and the process of purification of a gas mixture depending on the flow parameters, the membrane, and the feeding-mixture composition has been studied with its help.

  3. Review of Plasmonic Nanocomposite Metamaterial Absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayati, Mehdi Keshavarz; Faupel, Franz; Elbahri, Mady

    2014-01-01

    Plasmonic metamaterials are artificial materials typically composed of noble metals in which the features of photonics and electronics are linked by coupling photons to conduction electrons of metal (known as surface _lasmon). These rationally designed structures have spurred interest noticeably since they demonstrate some fascinating properties which are unattainable with naturally occurring materials. Complete absorption of light is one of the recent exotic properties of plasmonic metamaterials which has broadened its application area considerably. This is realized by designing a medium whose impedance matches that of free space while being opaque. If such a medium is filled with some lossy medium, the resulting structure can absorb light totally in a sharp or broad frequency range. Although several types of metamaterials perfect absorber have been demonstrated so far, in the current paper we overview (and focus on) perfect absorbers based on nanocomposites where the total thickness is a few tens of nanometer and the absorption band is broad, tunable and insensitive to the angle of incidence. The nanocomposites consist of metal nanoparticles embedded in a dielectric matrix with a high filling factor close to the percolation threshold. The filling factor can be tailored by the vapor phase co-deposition of the metallic and dielectric components. In addition, novel wet chemical approaches are discussed which are bio-inspired or involve synthesis within levitating Leidenfrost drops, for instance. Moreover, theoretical considerations, optical properties, and potential application of perfect absorbers will be presented. PMID:28788511

  4. Moving core beam energy absorber and converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degtiarenko, Pavel V.

    2012-12-18

    A method and apparatus for the prevention of overheating of laser or particle beam impact zones through the use of a moving-in-the-coolant-flow arrangement for the energy absorbing core of the device. Moving of the core spreads the energy deposition in it in 1, 2, or 3 dimensions, thus increasing the effective cooling area of the device.

  5. MODELING AND SIMULATION OF INDUSTRIAL FORMALDEHYDE ABSORBERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WINKELMAN, JGM; SIJBRING, H; BEENACKERS, AACM; DEVRIES, ET

    1992-01-01

    The industrially important process of formaldehyde absorption in water constitutes a case of multicomponent mass transfer with multiple reactions and considerable heat effects. A stable solution algorithm is developed to simulate the performance of industrial absorbers for this process using a

  6. Electromagnetic and microwave absorbing properties of hollow ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    bandwidth below −10 dB and minimum RL decrease with increasing thickness of HCNSs/paraffin composites. Keywords. Nanomaterials; nanospheres; CVD; electric; magnetic; microwave absorption properties. 1. Introduction. In recent years, microwave absorbing materials have attracted considerable attention because it ...

  7. Can polar bear hairs absorb environmental energy?

    OpenAIRE

    He Ji-Huan; Wang Qing-Li; Sun Jie

    2011-01-01

    A polar bear (Ursus maritimus) has superior ability to survive in harsh Arctic regions, why does the animal have such an excellent thermal protection? The present paper finds that the unique labyrinth cavity structure of the polar bear hair plays an important role. The hair can not only prevent body temperature loss but can also absorb energy from the environment.

  8. Can polar bear hairs absorb environmental energy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Ji-Huan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A polar bear (Ursus maritimus has superior ability to survive in harsh Arctic regions, why does the animal have such an excellent thermal protection? The present paper finds that the unique labyrinth cavity structure of the polar bear hair plays an important role. The hair can not only prevent body temperature loss but can also absorb energy from the environment.

  9. Technology and assessment of neutron absorbing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, B.T.; Murgatroyd, R.A.

    1977-06-01

    The present review assesses more recent developments in the technology and application of those absorber materials which are considered to be established or to have shown potential in reactor control. Emphasis is placed on physical, chemical and metallurgical properties and upon irradiation behaviour. (author)

  10. Absorbance and fluorescence studies on porphyrin Nanostructures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this work was to study some photophysical properties of PNR for application as light harvester in dye sensitized solar cells. These properties included absorbance, fluorescence, and fluorescence quantum yield and lifetime. The results of Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) images showed the formation of ...

  11. Two-components UV-therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pullmann, H.; Steigleder, G.K.

    1980-01-01

    20 patients with generalized psoriasis were treated with an apparatus containing UV-A- and UV-B-fluorescence tubes to be switched separately. The therapy was started with an UV-A-dose of 12 J/cm 2 daily. After the first week of treatment UV-B in increasing doses was applicated additionally. Clearance was achieved in 80 percent. (orig.) [de

  12. The effect of solar UV radiation of four plant species occurring in a coastal grassland vegetation in The Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosserams, M.; Rozema, J. [Vrije Univ., Dept. of Ecology and Ecotoxicology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pais, A. de Sa [Univ. de Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real (Portugal)

    1996-09-01

    During the summer of 1992, growth and some physiological parameters of four native plant species occurring in a coastal grassland in The Netherlands, were studied after reduction of solar UV irradiance using different cut-off filters. Biomass production, morphology and photosynthesis of all species tested were unaffected by the different treatments. Litter production of Plantago lanceolata was increased in the absence of the total UV waveband, indicating a possible role for this waveband in plant senescence. Depletion of the total UV waveband from sunlight resulted in alterations in biomass allocation in Calamagrostis epigeios and Urtica dioica while no changes were observed in P. lanceolatata and Verbascum thapsus. In C. epigeios and increase in the specific leaf area was observed, whereas in U. dioica root weight per total plant weight was decreased resulting in an increase in the shoot/root ratio. Both photosynthetic and UV-absorbing pigment concentrations were altered by the different filter applications. When compared to control plants receiving full sunlight, depletion of UV-B resulted in a significant increase in chlorophyll concentration in U. dioica leaves, this however did not affect photosynthetic rate. The presence of UV-B radiation enhanced the UV-absorbance of leaf extract of all species except P. lanceolata. Optical characteristics of the leaves were also changed. Both the quantity (P. lanceolata and U. dioica) and the quality (all species) of radiation transmitted by the leaves was affected by the different treatments. (au) 44 refs.

  13. Cerium oxide nanoparticles, combining antioxidant and UV shielding properties, prevent UV-induced cell damage and mutagenesis

    KAUST Repository

    Caputo, Fanny

    2015-08-20

    Efficient inorganic UV shields, mostly based on refracting TiO2 particles, have dramatically changed the sun exposure habits. Unfortunately, health concerns have emerged from the pro-oxidant photocatalytic effect of UV-irradiated TiO2, which mediates toxic effects on cells. Therefore, improvements in cosmetic solar shield technology are a strong priority. CeO2 nanoparticles are not only UV refractors but also potent biological antioxidants due to the surface 3+/4+ valency switch, which confers anti-inflammatory, anti-ageing and therapeutic properties. Herein, UV irradiation protocols were set up, allowing selective study of the extra-shielding effects of CeO2vs. TiO2 nanoparticles on reporter cells. TiO2 irradiated with UV (especially UVA) exerted strong photocatalytic effects, superimposing their pro-oxidant, cell-damaging and mutagenic action when induced by UV, thereby worsening the UV toxicity. On the contrary, irradiated CeO2 nanoparticles, via their Ce3+/Ce4+ redox couple, exerted impressive protection on UV-treated cells, by buffering oxidation, preserving viability and proliferation, reducing DNA damage and accelerating repair; strikingly, they almost eliminated mutagenesis, thus acting as an important tool to prevent skin cancer. Interestingly, CeO2 nanoparticles also protect cells from the damage induced by irradiated TiO2, suggesting that these two particles may also complement their effects in solar lotions. CeO2 nanoparticles, which intrinsically couple UV shielding with biological and genetic protection, appear to be ideal candidates for next-generation sun shields. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

  14. Cerium oxide nanoparticles, combining antioxidant and UV shielding properties, prevent UV-induced cell damage and mutagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Fanny; de Nicola, Milena; Sienkiewicz, Andrzej; Giovanetti, Anna; Bejarano, Ignacio; Licoccia, Silvia; Traversa, Enrico; Ghibelli, Lina

    2015-09-01

    Efficient inorganic UV shields, mostly based on refracting TiO2 particles, have dramatically changed the sun exposure habits. Unfortunately, health concerns have emerged from the pro-oxidant photocatalytic effect of UV-irradiated TiO2, which mediates toxic effects on cells. Therefore, improvements in cosmetic solar shield technology are a strong priority. CeO2 nanoparticles are not only UV refractors but also potent biological antioxidants due to the surface 3+/4+ valency switch, which confers anti-inflammatory, anti-ageing and therapeutic properties. Herein, UV irradiation protocols were set up, allowing selective study of the extra-shielding effects of CeO2vs. TiO2 nanoparticles on reporter cells. TiO2 irradiated with UV (especially UVA) exerted strong photocatalytic effects, superimposing their pro-oxidant, cell-damaging and mutagenic action when induced by UV, thereby worsening the UV toxicity. On the contrary, irradiated CeO2 nanoparticles, via their Ce3+/Ce4+ redox couple, exerted impressive protection on UV-treated cells, by buffering oxidation, preserving viability and proliferation, reducing DNA damage and accelerating repair; strikingly, they almost eliminated mutagenesis, thus acting as an important tool to prevent skin cancer. Interestingly, CeO2 nanoparticles also protect cells from the damage induced by irradiated TiO2, suggesting that these two particles may also complement their effects in solar lotions. CeO2 nanoparticles, which intrinsically couple UV shielding with biological and genetic protection, appear to be ideal candidates for next-generation sun shields.

  15. Enhancement of UV absorption behavior in Zn O-TiO{sub 2} composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez Reinosa, J.; Leret, P.; Alvarez-Docio, C. M.; Campo, A. del; Fernandez, J. F.

    2016-05-01

    The ultraviolet -visible, UV-vis, absorption edge behaviour of semiconductor oxides as TiO{sub 2} and ZnO promotes their use as inorganic UV filters for sunscreens. In cosmetics, the use of nanoparticles is favoured because of their higher yield and lower whiteness. However, the particle size effect in the UV absorption is unclear. For this reason, the performances of nano and microsized TiO{sub 2} and ZnO are evaluated in both the UV-vis spectroscopy and the Sun Protection Factor, SPF, value. In order to cover the UV range completely by using inorganic filters a new composite is attempted by dry nano dispersion methodology in which TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles are dispersed onto ZnO microparticles. The new composite shows superior UV absorbing properties and ca. 60% SPF value due to a synergism between components that resulted in extended UV coverage and reduction of the total amount of nanoparticles required in the sunscreens. In addition, nanoparticles are effectively anchored onto microparticles avoiding the presence of free nanoparticles. (Author)

  16. Parameter optimization method for longitudinal vibration absorber of ship shaft system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Jinlin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The longitudinal vibration of the ship shaft system is the one of the most important factors of hull stern vibration, and it can be effectively minimized by installing a longitudinal vibration absorber. In this way, the vibration and noise of ships can be brought under control. However, the parameters of longitudinal vibration absorbers have a great influence on the vibration characteristics of the shaft system. As such, a certain shafting testing platform was studied as the object on which a finite model was built, and the relationship between longitudinal stiffness and longitudinal vibration in the shaft system was analyzed in a straight alignment state. Furthermore, a longitudinal damping model of the shaft system was built in which the parameters of the vibration absorber were non-dimensionalized, the weight of the vibration absorber was set as a constant, and an optimizing algorithm was used to calculate the optimized stiffness and damping coefficient of the vibration absorber. Finally, the longitudinal vibration frequency response of the shafting testing platform before and after optimizing the parameters of the longitudinal vibration absorber were compared, and the results indicated that the longitudinal vibration of the shafting testing platform was decreased effectively, which suggests that it could provide a theoretical foundation for the parameter optimization of longitudinal vibration absorbers.

  17. Electrospun novel super-absorbent based on polysaccharide-polyvinyl alcohol-montmorillonite clay nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Shahidul; Rahaman, Md Saifur; Yeum, Jeong Hyun

    2015-01-22

    A novel super-absorbent material was fabricated by electrospinning the natural polysaccharide pullulan (PULL) with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and montmorillonite (MMT) clay to form nonwoven webs, which were then heat treated. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrographs, X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis of the novel super-absorbent nanofibers suggest the coexistence of PULL, PVA, and MMT through the exfoliation of MMT layers in the super-absorbent nanofiber composite. The heat-treated PULL/PVA/MMT webs loaded with 5 wt% MMT electrospun nanofibers exhibited a water absorbency of 143.42 g g(-1) in distilled water and a water absorbency of 39.75 g g(-1) in a 0.9 wt% NaCl solution. Under extremely dry conditions, the PULL/PVA/MMT webs exhibited the ability to retain 43% distilled water and 38% saline water after being exposed to the atmosphere for one week. The heat treatment improved the crystallinity of the electrospun PULL/PVA/MMT super-absorbent webs and thus made the webs highly stable in aqueous environments. Overall, the addition of MMT resulted in improved thermal stability and mechanical properties and increased the water absorbency of the PULL/PVA/MMT composite. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. UV and RIR matrix assisted pulsed laser deposition of organic MEH-PPV films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bo Toftmann; Papantonalis, M.R.; Auyeung, R.C.Y.

    2004-01-01

    were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-visible absorbance and photoluminescence. Photoluminescent material was deposited by RIR-MAPLE and 248-nm MAPLE, while the RIR-PLD and 193-nm-MAPLE depositions displayed the smoothest surfaces but did not show photoluminescence. (C) 2003......-PLD). For the first time resonant infrared matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (RIR-MAPLE) was successfully demonstrated on a luminescent polymer system. In addition to this, an excimer laser has been used for UV-MAPLE depositions at 193 and 248-nm irradiation. Films deposited onto NaCl and quartz substrates...

  19. Fabrication of modified hydrogenated castor oil/GPTMS-ZnO composites and effect on UV resistance of leather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jianzhong; Duan, Limin; Lu, Juan; Lyu, Bin; Gao, Dangge; Wu, Xionghu

    2017-06-16

    Leather products are made from the natural skin collagen fibers. It is vulnerable to the environmental factor such as solar ultraviolet irradiation in the using process. Therefore anti-UV performance is a very important quality, particularly for chrome-free leather. ZnO is a well-known UV absorber commonly used in the cosmetic industry. We have investigated its potential to increase the anti-UV performance of chrome-free leather. Modified hydrogenated castor oil/GPTMS-ZnO (MHCO/ GPTMS-ZnO) composites were prepared using spherical ZnO nanoparticles, hydrogenated castor oil, maleic anhydride and sodium bisulfite. MHCO/GPTMS-ZnO composites have better anti-UV ability and stability. MHCO/GPTMS-ZnO composites were applied to the leather processing. The treated samples were exposed to artificial sunlight. Anti-yellowing tests showed that MHCO/GPTMS-ZnO composites significantly improved anti-UV performance of leather.

  20. Leukocyte DNA damage after reduced and conventional absorbed radiation doses using 3rd generation dual-source CT technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning D. Popp

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Our results provide evidence that reduced absorbed doses mediated by adjusted tube current in 3rd generation DSCT induce lower levels of DNA damage in PBMC compared to conventional absorbed doses suggesting a lower genotoxic risk for state-of-the-art tube current reduced CT protocols.

  1. Neutron absorbers and methods of forming at least a portion of a neutron absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillen, Donna P; Porter, Douglas L; Swank, W David; Erickson, Arnold W

    2014-12-02

    Methods of forming at least a portion of a neutron absorber include combining a first material and a second material to form a compound, reducing the compound into a plurality of particles, mixing the plurality of particles with a third material, and pressing the mixture of the plurality of particles and the third material. One or more components of neutron absorbers may be formed by such methods. Neutron absorbers may include a composite material including an intermetallic compound comprising hafnium aluminide and a matrix material comprising pure aluminum.

  2. Excimer UV curing in printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehnert, R.

    1999-01-01

    It is the aim of this study to investigate the potential of 308 run excimer UV curing in web and sheet fed offset printing and to discuss its present status. Using real-time FTIR-ATR and stationary or pulsed monochromatic (313 nm) irradiation chemical and physical factors affecting the curing speed of printing inks such as nature and concentration of photo-initiators, reactivity of the ink binding system, ink thickness and pigmentation, irradiance in the curing plane, oxygen concentration and nitrogen inerting, multiple pulse exposure, the photochemical dark reaction and temperature dependence were studied. The results were used to select optimum conditions for excimer UV curing in respect to ink reactivity, nitrogen inerting and UV exposure and to build an excimer UV curing unit consisting of two 50 W/cm 308 run excimer lamps, power supply, cooling and inerting unit. The excimer UV curing devices were tested under realistic conditions on a web offset press zirkon supra forte and a sheet fed press Heidelberg GTO 52. Maximum curing speeds of 300 m/min in web offset and 8000 sheets per hour in sheet fed offset were obtained

  3. Antimicrobial efficacy of UV radiation on Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EDL 933) in fruit juices of different absorptivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oteiza, Juan M; Peltzer, Mercedes; Gannuzzi, Leda; Zaritzky, Noemi

    2005-01-01

    The efficacy of UV light for inactivating E. coli (ATCC 25922) and E. coli O157:H7 (EDL 933) was examined in fruit juices (orange, apple, and multifruit) with different absorptivities under several operating conditions (liquid film thickness and agitation rate). The juices were inoculated with two bacterial concentrations (10(5) and 10(7) CFU/ml) and were treated using a UV desinfection unit at 254 nm; UV doses ranged from 0 to 6 J/cm2. The effect of the culture medium, tryptone soy agar (TSA) and sorbitol MacConkey agar (SMAC), on the recovery of E. coli strains exposed to UV radiation was also analyzed. The most suitable culture medium for recovery of E. coli strains in juices exposed to UV radiation was TSA. Values of D (radiation dose [joules per square centimeter] necessary to decrease the microbial population by 90%) obtained in all juices assessed were higher in TSA than in SMAC. In the juices analyzed, stirring of the medium exposed to UV radiation and reducing liquid film thickness (to 0.7 mm) produced the highest bactericidal effect. A linear relationship was found between the D-values obtained and the absorptivity coefficients for all the juices. The higher the absorbance of the medium, the greater the values of D required to inactivate E. coli strains by UV radiation. An equation was developed to describe the relationship of the fraction of energy absorbed by the system (absorbed energy factor [AEF]), the thickness of the film exposed to UV radiation, and the absorptivity coefficient of the juices. A linear relationship was found between D and AEF in the different juices tested.

  4. DGCR8 Mediates Repair of UV-Induced DNA Damage Independently of RNA Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calses, Philamer C; Dhillon, Kiranjit K; Tucker, Nyka; Chi, Yong; Huang, Jen-Wei; Kawasumi, Masaoki; Nghiem, Paul; Wang, Yemin; Clurman, Bruce E; Jacquemont, Celine; Gafken, Philip R; Sugasawa, Kaoru; Saijo, Masafumi; Taniguchi, Toshiyasu

    2017-04-04

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a carcinogen that generates DNA lesions. Here, we demonstrate an unexpected role for DGCR8, an RNA binding protein that canonically functions with Drosha to mediate microRNA processing, in the repair of UV-induced DNA lesions. Treatment with UV induced phosphorylation on serine 153 (S153) of DGCR8 in both human and murine cells. S153 phosphorylation was critical for cellular resistance to UV, the removal of UV-induced DNA lesions, and the recovery of RNA synthesis after UV exposure but not for microRNA expression. The RNA-binding and Drosha-binding activities of DGCR8 were not critical for UV resistance. DGCR8 depletion was epistatic to defects in XPA, CSA, and CSB for UV sensitivity. DGCR8 physically interacted with CSB and RNA polymerase II. JNKs were involved in the UV-induced S153 phosphorylation. These findings suggest that UV-induced S153 phosphorylation mediates transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair of UV-induced DNA lesions in a manner independent of microRNA processing. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Intraspecific variations in growth, yield and photosynthesis of sorghum varieties to ambient UV (280-400 nm) radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataria, Sunita; Guruprasad, K N

    2012-11-01

    A field study was conducted to investigate the impact of ambient solar UV on the various growth, physiological and yield parameters of four sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) varieties-Indore-12, Indore-26, CSV-23 and Indore-27 by excluding either UV-B (plant height, area and specific leaf weight of flag leaf, biomass accumulation, yield parameters and harvest index in all the sorghum varieties. Chlorophyll b was significantly enhanced and chlorophyll a increased to a lesser extent, UV-B absorbing substances and chlorophyll a/b ratio were significantly decreased by the exclusion of solar UV. The enhancement in the vegetative growth and yield by UV exclusion might be linked to the remarkable increase in rate of photosynthesis in sorghum varieties. The magnitude of the response was high in I-26 and I-27 as compared to CSV-23 and I-12 after exclusion of solar UV. All the varieties of sorghum had a negative cumulative stress response index (CSRI), the sensitivity of the sorghum varieties was in the following sequence I-12>CSV-23>I-26>I-27. Thus I-27 was the most sensitive and I-12 the least sensitive variety to present level of solar UV radiation. The differences in UV sensitivity identified among sorghum varieties might be useful in breeding programs for increased tolerance to UV-B radiation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of the adaptive response of grapevine (cv. Tempranillo) to UV-B radiation under water deficit conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Lüscher, J; Morales, F; Delrot, S; Sánchez-Díaz, M; Gomès, E; Aguirreolea, J; Pascual, I

    2015-03-01

    This work aims to characterize the physiological response of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. Tempranillo to UV-B radiation under water deficit conditions. Grapevine fruit-bearing cuttings were exposed to three levels of supplemental biologically effective UV-B radiation (0, 5.98 and 9.66kJm(-2)day(-1)) and two water regimes (well watered and water deficit), in a factorial design, from fruit-set to maturity under glasshouse-controlled conditions. UV-B induced a transient decrease in net photosynthesis (Anet), actual and maximum potential efficiency of photosystem II, particularly on well watered plants. Methanol extractable UV-B absorbing compounds (MEUVAC) concentration and superoxide dismutase activity increased with UV-B. Water deficit effected decrease in Anet and stomatal conductance, and did not change non-photochemical quenching and the de-epoxidation state of xanthophylls, dark respiration and photorespiration being alternative ways to dissipate the excess of energy. Little interactive effects between UV-B and drought were detected on photosynthesis performance, where the impact of UV-B was overshadowed by the effects of water deficit. Grape berry ripening was strongly delayed when UV-B and water deficit were applied in combination. In summary, deficit irrigation did not modify the adaptive response of grapevine to UV-B, through the accumulation of MEUVAC. However, combined treatments caused additive effects on berry ripening. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of 24-epibrassinolide pre-treatment on UV-B-induced changes in the pigment content of pea leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrikova, A.; Vladkova, R.; Stanoeva, D.; Popova, A.; Velitchkova, M.

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, the effects of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) on the UV-B-induced changes in the pigment content of pea leaves were studied. Control (non-EBR-treated) and EBR-treated plants were irradiated with UV-B for 3 h and pigment analysis was performed after 24 and 48 h. The results show that EBR spraying of plants 48 h prior to UV-B exposure alleviates its detrimental effect on chlorophyll a and b (Chl a and Chl b) content in comparison with control pea leaves. An increase in carotenoids (Car) and UV-B absorbing compounds was also observed at low dose of UV-B radiation. For the first time, it is shown that UV-B damage effect on control leaves is accompanied by a significant (more than 50%) increase in their pheophytin a (Pheo a) content 48 h after the UV-B exposure and that the EBR pre-treatment prevents the increase of Pheo a content in UV-B irradiated leaves. In addition, it is demonstrated that EBR application modifies UV-B-induced alterations of energy distribution between the main pigment-protein complexes in pea thylakoid membranes

  8. UV detective quantum efficiency measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Charles L.

    1999-11-01

    We have been testing the vacuum ultraviolet (UV) response of several types of detectors, supporting investigators developing photodiodes made of GaN, near UV photocathodes, and Electron-Bombarded CCDs (EBCCDs). We are currently supporting 4 independent research groups developing GaN most of which have produced devices with significant sensitivity down to 1200 Angstroms. Over the past year, we have also tested bare CCDs with coatings to enhance ultraviolet response. Detectors based on microchannel plate (MCP) have been used extensively for a wide variety of NASA mission and continue to be the standard to beat. Two particularly promising detector technologies are (1) EBCCDs which offer an immediate factor of 3 - 4 improvement in sensitivity and (2) devices made of GaN or GaAlN which may eventually offer factors of 6 - 8 increased sensitivity, both compared to MCPs for wavelengths between 1200 to 3000 Angstroms. We present latest results and plans to expand our vacuum UV testing.

  9. Hormonal activity, cytotoxicity and developmental toxicity of UV filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balázs, Adrienn; Krifaton, Csilla; Orosz, Ivett; Szoboszlay, Sándor; Kovács, Róbert; Csenki, Zsolt; Urbányi, Béla; Kriszt, Balázs

    2016-09-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) filters are commonly used compounds in personal care products and polymer based materials, as they can absorb solar energy in the UVA and UVB spectrum. However, they are able to bind to hormone receptors and have several and different types of hormonal activities determined by in vitro assays. One of the aims of this work was to measure the hormonal and cytotoxic activities of four frequently used UV filters using bioluminescence based yeast test organisms. Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae BLYES and BLYAS strains allowed the rapid and reliable detection of agonist and antagonist hormonal activities, whereas BLYR strain served to measure cytotoxicity. Results confirmed that all tested UV filters show multiple hormonal activities. Cytotoxicity is detected only in the case of benzophenone-3. Research data on the toxic effects of benzophenone-3, especially on aquatic organisms are scarce, so further investigations were carried out regarding its cytotoxic and teratogenic effects on bacteria and zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos, respectively. Results revealed the cytotoxicity of benzophenone-3 not only to yeasts but to bacteria, as well as its ability to influence zebrafish embryo hatching and development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Absorbed dose thresholds and absorbed dose rate limitations for studies of electron radiation effects on polyetherimides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Edward R., Jr.; Long, Sheila Ann T.; Gray, Stephanie L.; Collins, William D.

    1989-01-01

    The threshold values of total absorbed dose for causing changes in tensile properties of a polyetherimide film and the limitations of the absorbed dose rate for accelerated-exposure evaluation of the effects of electron radiation in geosynchronous orbit were studied. Total absorbed doses from 1 kGy to 100 MGy and absorbed dose rates from 0.01 MGy/hr to 100 MGy/hr were investigated, where 1 Gy equals 100 rads. Total doses less than 2.5 MGy did not significantly change the tensile properties of the film whereas doses higher than 2.5 MGy significantly reduced elongation-to-failure. There was no measurable effect of the dose rate on the tensile properties for accelerated electron exposures.

  11. Conformation of Alkali Metal Ion-Benzo-12-Crown-4 Complexes Investigated by UV Photodissociation and UV-UV Hole-Burning Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inokuchi, Yoshiya; Nakatsuma, Maki; Kida, Motoki; Ebata, Takayuki

    2016-08-18

    We measure UV photodissociation (UVPD) spectra of benzo-12-crown-4 (B12C4) complexes with alkali metal ions, M(+)·B12C4 (M = Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs), in the 36300-37600 cm(-1) region. Thanks to the cooling of ions to ∼10 K, all the M(+)·B12C4 complexes show sharp vibronic bands in this region. For UV-UV hole-burning (HB) spectroscopy, we first check if our experimental system works well by observing UV-UV HB spectra of the K(+) complex with benzo-18-crown-6 (B18C6), K(+)·B18C6. In the UV-UV HB spectra of the K(+)·B18C6 complex, gain signals are also observed; these are due to vibrationally hot K(+)·B18C6 complex produced by the UV excitation of cold K(+)·B18C6 complex. Then we apply UV-UV HB spectroscopy to the M(+)·B12C4 complexes, and only one conformer is found for each complex except for the Li(+) complex, which has two conformers. The vibronic structure around the origin band of the UVPD spectra is quite similar for all the complexes, indicating close resemblance of the complex structure. The most stable structures calculated for the M(+)·B12C4 (M = Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs) complexes also have a similar conformation among them, which coincides with the UVPD results. In these conformers the metal ions are too big to be included in the B12C4 cavity, even for the Li(+) ion. In solution, it was reported that 12-crown-4 (12C4) shows the preference of Na(+) ion among alkali metal ions. From the similarity of the structure for the M(+)·B12C4 complexes, it is suggested that the solvation of free metal ions, not of the M(+)·12C4 complexes, may lead to the selectivity of Na(+) ion for 12C4 in solution.

  12. Effectiveness of KNIFC-PAN Resin in Absorbing Radiocesium in Seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurrul Assyikeen Mohd Jaffary; Abdul Kadir Ishak; Zal Uyun Wan Mahmood; Wo, Y.M.; Norfaizal Mohamed; Mohd Tarmizi Ishak

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of KNiFC-PAN absorber, potassium-nickel hexacyanoferrate (II) (KNiFC) bound into modified polyacrylonitrile (PAN) have been tested for capability in absorbing radiocesium in seawater samples. The efficiency of the KNiFC-PAN were measured by the different activity of the radiocesium measured using Hyper Pure Germanium Detector (HPGe) in initial spiked seawater and eluent seawater after passed through 5 ml of KNiFC absorber. Study showed 87 % effectiveness of the KNiFC-PAN in absorbing radiocesium. Further study conducted to illustrate relation between spiked seawater and activity measured for 5 ml of KniFC passed through spiked seawater in packed column. This study suggested this relative 15L cubitainer method can be used to monitor the radiocesium in emergency situation for the fast and reliable result. (author)

  13. Polymer surface modification using UV treatment for attachment of natamycin and the potential applications for conventional food cling wrap (LDPE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Joongmin, E-mail: shinj@uwstout.edu [Engineering and Technology, University of Wisconsin-Stout, Menomonie, WI, 54751 (United States); Liu, Xiaojing [Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan (China); Chikthimmah, Naveen [Food Science and Technology, University of Wisconsin-Stout, Menomonie, WI, 54751 (United States); Lee, Youn Suk [Department of Packaging, Yonsei University, Gangwon 220-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The study suggests an optimized method for UV-induced antimicrobial agents grafting on LDPE. • The study evaluated the effective of various solvents for acrylic acid and natamycin grafting on LDPE. • The study investigated chemical and mechanical property changes by various times of UV light treatments. • Natamycin grafted film demonstrated antifungal function against mold and yeast. - Abstract: The purpose of this study was to develop an active non-migratory antifungal Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) polymer for use in food packaged applications. The functional acrylic acid monomer was grafted on the LDPE film surface by photo-initiated graft polymerization using Ultra Violet light irradiation (from 0 to 5 min). Natamycin, an antifungal agent, was applied to the treated film to bind with the pendent functional groups and were evaluated its performance against mold and yeast. The grafted amounts were determined by gravimetric measurement and dye absorbance. Attenuated Total Reflectance/Fourier Transfer Infrared Spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, mechanical strength test was used to characterize film properties. The antifungal efficacy of the film was evaluated with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Penicillium chrysogenum on growth media and fresh cut cantaloupe. The amounts of the grafted group were increased with the longer ultraviolet exposure time. The amount of the grafted natamycin on the treated film was up to 49.87 μg/cm{sup 2}, and the film inhibited mycelium formation of P. chrysogenum spores by over 60%. Due to the thickness of the film (less than 12.25 μm), long time UV exposure decrease the film’s mechanical strength. The application of such non-migratory active packaging film represents a promising approach to maintaining food quality with reduced additive.

  14. Theoretical insights on flavanones as antioxidants and UV filters: A TDDFT and NLMO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajmala Shireen, P; Abdul Mujeeb, V M; Muraleedharan, K

    2017-05-01

    UV radiations can cause several irritations to the skin like sunburn, photo aging and even skin cancer. Sunscreens are widely used to protect the skin against these harmful radiations. One of the ingredients present in these sunscreens are organic molecules capable of absorbing these harmful radiations. Recently, the search is on for antioxidant molecules which can act as UV filters as they can facilitate photo protection. In this study, a computational investigation based on density functional theory (DFT) is attempted on flavanones namely pinocembrin, pinostrobin and alpinetin found in Boesenbergia pandurata. Several quantum chemical descriptors are computed to understand the antioxidant potentiality of these molecules. Quantum chemical descriptors of these flavanone molecules are found to be comparable to that of well-known anti-oxidant quercetin. UV response of these molecules are studied using time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) formalism and by means of natural bond orbital (NBO) theory. It could be seen that these molecules exhibit a broad absorption in the UV region 270-390nm. This falls exactly in the region of harmful UVB and UVA radiation. Thus, these molecules have the potential to absorb the harmful UV radiation. From NLMO cluster studies, the orbital contribution to absorption is explained. In flavanones, unlike other classes of flavonoids, there is a discontinuity in the electron conjugation due to the absence of C2C3 double bond. This might be the key structural feature that leads to the absorption of these molecules to be centered around the UV region. These molecules can thus be treated as promising candidates for antioxidant UV filters in sunscreens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Intrascleral outflow after deep sclerectomy with absorbable and non-absorbable implants in the rabbit eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kałużny, Jakub J; Grzanka, Dariusz; Wiśniewska, Halina; Niewińska, Alicja; Kałużny, Bartłomiej J; Grzanka, Alina

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of the study is an analysis of intrascleral drainage vessels formed in rabbits' eyes after non-penetrating deep sclerectomy (NPDS) with absorbable and non-absorbable implants, and comparison to eyes in which surgery was performed without implanted material. NPDS was carried out in 12 rabbits, with implantation of non-absorbable methacrylic hydrogel (N=10 eyes) or absorbable cross-linked sodium hyaluronate (N=6 eyes), or without any implant (N=8 eyes). All the animals were euthanized 1 year after surgery. Twenty-one eyeballs were prepared for light microscopy and 3 were prepared for transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis. Aqueous humour pathways were stained with ferritin in 6 eyeballs. By light microscopy, small vessels adjacent to the areas of scarring were the most common abnormality. Vessel density was significantly higher in operated sclera compared to normal, healthy tissue, regardless of the type of implant used. The average vessel densities were 2.18±1.48 vessels/mm2 in non-implanted sclera, 2.34±1.69 vessels/mm2 in eyes with absorbable implants, and 3.64±1.78 vessels/mm2 in eyes with non-absorbable implants. Analysis of iron distribution in ferritin-injected eyes showed a positive reaction inside new aqueous draining vessels in all groups. TEM analysis showed that the ultrastructure of new vessels matched the features of the small veins. Aqueous outflow after NPDS can be achieved through the newly formed network of small intrascleral veins. Use of non-absorbable implants significantly increases vessel density in the sclera adjacent to implanted material compared to eyes in which absorbable implants or no implants were used.

  16. Life and the solar UV environment on early Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérces, A.; Kovács, G.; Lammer, H.; Kolb, Ch.; Rontó, Gy.

    Studies of the solar UV environment on Earth 2 0 Gyr to 3 8 Gyr ago suggest that the terrestrial atmosphere was essentially anoxic resulting in an ozone column abundance insufficient for protecting the planetary surface in the UV-B 280 nm - 315 nm and the UV-C 200 nm - 280 nm ranges Since short wavelength solar UV radiation in the UV-B and UV-C range penetrated through the atmosphere to the unprotected early Earth s surface associated biological consequences may be expected We discuss experimental data obtained as follows Radiation sources applied were low pressure Mercury lamp and Xenon 2 kW lamp the wavelength were adjusted by interference filters 200BP10 210BP10 220BP10 230BP10 240BP10 250BP10 260BP10 270BP10 280BP10 290BP10 300BP10 310BP10 320BP10 and the irradiances were measured by OL754 spectroradiometer The photo-reverse effect depends highly on the wavelength of the exposed radiation Shorter wavelength UV radiation of about 200 nm is strongly effective in monomerization while the longer wavelengths prefer the dimerisation In case of polychromatic light like in space or on a planetary surface which is unprotected by an ozone layer the two processes run parallel We could demonstrate experimentally for the case of a uracil thin-layer that the photo-reaction process of the nucleotides can be both dimerization and the reverse process monomerization These results are important for the study of solar UV effects on organisms in the early terrestrial environment as well as for the search for life on Mars since we can show that biological

  17. The UV and Laser Aging for PMMA/BDK/Azo-dye Polymer Blend Cured by UV Light Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, A A; Omari, A M

    2015-01-01

    A polymeric-based solution blend composed of Azo-dye methyl red (MR) doped with polymethelmethacrelate (PMMA) solution, in addition, to the BenzylDimethylKetal (BDK) photoinitiator was made with optimum molar ratios and deposited on glass substrate by spin coating technique. The samples were then exposed to UV light beams in order to assist the layers polymerization by the proper exposure process. The photo chemical reaction occurred during the UV light polymerization process induces photo refractive changes which were presented as a function of wavelength or photon energy. Two main strong absorption peaks were observed in the films at around 330 nm (3.75 eV) and 500 nm (2.48 eV) for different curing time periods. This phenomenon enhances the films usage for optical data storage media at these two wavelengths. Since the deposited films were then useful as based layers for Read/Write optical data storage media, they were then tested by UV or laser Read/Write beams independently. The optical properties of the films were investigated while exposed to each beam. Finally, their optical properties were investigated as a function of aging time in order to relate the temporary and/or permanent light-exposure effect on the films compared to their optical properties before the light exposure. The films show a low absorbance at 630 nm (1.97 eV) and high absorbance at 480 nm (2.58 eV). This fact makes it possible to record holographic gratings in the polymeric film upon light exposure. In all cases the optical properties were evaluated by using the very sensitive, non destructive surface testing spectroscopic ellipsometry technique. The films were characterized in the spectral range of 300 to 1000 nm using Lorentz oscillator model with one oscillator centred at 4.15 eV. This study has been supported by the SEM and EDAX results to investigate the effect of the UV and visible beams on their optical properties. The results of this research determined the proper conditions for

  18. Effect of the bio-absorbent on the microwave absorption property of the flaky CIPs/rubber absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Yang; Xu, Yonggang, E-mail: xuyonggang221@163.com; Cai, Jun; Yuan, Liming; Zhang, Deyuan

    2015-09-01

    Microwave absorbing composites filled with flaky carbonyl iron particles (CIPs) and the bio-absorbent were prepared by using a two-roll mixer and a vulcanizing machine. The electromagnetic (EM) parameters were measured by a vector network analyzer and the reflection loss (RL) was measured by the arch method in the frequency range of 1–4 GHz. The uniform dispersion of the absorbents was verified by comparing the calculated RL with the measured one. The results confirm that as the bio-absorbent was added, the permittivity was increased due to the volume content of absorbents, and the permeability was enlarged owing to the volume content of CIPs and interactions between the two absorbents. The composite filled with bio-absorbents achieved an excellent absorption property at a thickness of 1 mm (minimum RL reaches −7.8 dB), and as the RL was less than −10 dB the absorption band was widest (2.1–3.8 GHz) at a thickness of 2 mm. Therefore, the bio-absorbent is a promising additive candidate on fabricating microwave absorbing composites with a thinner thickness and wider absorption band. - Graphical abstract: Morphology of composites filled with flaky CIPs and the bio-absorbent. The enhancement of bio-absorbent on the electromagnetic absorption property of composites filled with flaky carbonyl iron particles (CIPs) is attributed to the interaction of the two absorbents. The volume content of the FCMPs with the larger shape CIPs play an important role in this effects, the composites filled with irons and bio-absorbents can achieve wider-band and thinner-thickness absorbing materials. - Highlights: • Absorbers filled with bio-absorbents and CIPs was fabricated. • Bio-absorbents enhanced the permittivity and permeability of the composites. • The absorbent interactions play a key role in the enhancement mechanism. • Bio-absorbents enhanced the composite RL in 1–4 GHz.

  19. Disposable Diaper Absorbency: Improvements via Advanced Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmes, C Tucker; O'Connor, Robert; Sawyer, Larry; Young, Sharon

    2014-08-01

    Absorbency effectiveness in diapers has improved significantly in recent years with the advent of new ingredient combinations and advanced design features. With these features, many leading products maintain their dryness performance overnight. Considering the importance of holding liquid away from the skin, ongoing research in diaper construction focuses on strategies to increase the effectiveness to capture liquid and help avoid rewetting of infant skin. The layout and design of a disposable diaper allows for distribution of absorbency features where they can provide the optimal benefit. Clinical evidence indicates materials can keep moisture away from the skin in the diapered area, helping maintain proper skin hydration, minimizing irritation, and contributing to reduced rates of diaper rash. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Use of Wedge Absorbers in MICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuffer, D. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Summers, D. [Univ. of Mississippi, Oxford, MS (United States); Mohayai, T. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); IIT, Chicago, IL (United States); Snopok, P. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); IIT, Chicago, IL (United States); Rogers, C. [Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Oxford (United Kingdom). Rutherford Appleton Lab. (RAL)

    2017-03-01

    Wedge absorbers are needed to obtain longitudinal cooling in ionization cooling. They also can be used to obtain emittance exchanges between longitudinal and transverse phase space. There can be large exchanges in emittance, even with single wedges. In the present note we explore the use of wedge absorbers in the MICE experiment to obtain transverse–longitudinal emittance exchanges within present and future operational conditions. The same wedge can be used to explore “direct” and “reverse” emittance exchange dynamics, where direct indicates a configuration that reduces momentum spread and reverse is a configuration that increases momentum spread. Analytical estimated and ICOOL and G4BeamLine simulations of the exchanges at MICE parameters are presented. Large exchanges can be obtained in both reverse and direct configurations.

  1. Absorbing Software Testing into the Scrum Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomikoski, Janne; Tervonen, Ilkka

    In this paper we study, how to absorb software testing into the Scrum method. We conducted the research as an action research during the years 2007-2008 with three iterations. The result showed that testing can and even should be absorbed to the Scrum method. The testing team was merged into the Scrum teams. The teams can now deliver better working software in a shorter time, because testing keeps track of the progress of the development. Also the team spirit is higher, because the Scrum team members are committed to the same goal. The biggest change from test manager’s point of view was the organized Product Owner Team. Test manager don’t have testing team anymore, and in the future all the testing tasks have to be assigned through the Product Backlog.

  2. Theory of metasurface based perfect absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaee, Rasoul; Albooyeh, Mohammad; Rockstuhl, Carsten

    2017-12-01

    Based on an analytic approach, we present a theoretical review on the absorption, scattering, and extinction of both dipole scatterers and regular arrays composed of such scatterers i.e. metasurfaces. Besides offering a tutorial by outlining the maximum absorption limit for electrically/magnetically resonant dipole particles/metasurfaces, we give an educative analytical approach to their analysis. Moreover, we put forward the analysis of two known alternatives in providing perfect absorbers out of electrically and or magnetically resonant metasurfaces; one is based on the simultaneous presence of both electric and magnetic responses in so called Huygens metasurfaces while the other is established upon the presence of a back reflector in so called Salisbury absorbers. Our work is supported by several numerical examples to clarify the discussions in each stage.

  3. Microstructured extremely thin absorber solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biancardo, Matteo; Krebs, Frederik C

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present the realization of extremely thin absorber (ETA) solar cells employing conductive glass substrates functionalized with TiO2 microstructures produced by embossing. Nanocrystalline or compact TiO2 films on Indium doped tin oxide (ITO) glass substrates were embossed by press......In this paper we present the realization of extremely thin absorber (ETA) solar cells employing conductive glass substrates functionalized with TiO2 microstructures produced by embossing. Nanocrystalline or compact TiO2 films on Indium doped tin oxide (ITO) glass substrates were embossed...... by pressing a silicon stamp containing a mu m size raised grid structure into the TiO2 by use of a hydraulic press (1 ton/50 cm(2)). The performance of these microstructured substrates in a ETA cell sensitized by a thermally evaporated or chemical bath deposited PbS film and completed by a PEDOT:PSS hole...

  4. Room Modal Equalisation with Electroacoustic Absorbers

    OpenAIRE

    Rivet, Etienne Thierry Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    The sound quality in a room is of fundamental importance for both recording and reproducing processes. Because of the room modes, the distributions in space and frequency of the sound field are largely altered. Excessive rise and decay times caused by the resonances might even mask some details at higher frequencies, and these irregularities may be heard as a coloration of the sound. To address this problem, passive absorbers are bulky and too inefficient to significantly improve the listen...

  5. On the comparison of absorbing regions methods

    OpenAIRE

    Ke , Weina; Yaacoubi , Slah; Mckeon , Peter

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Numerical simulation methods are very useful in Non Destructive Testing because they save time, lower cost and allow for the investigation of diverse experimental configurations. However, these methods consume relatively long CPU time and system memory. Different solutions exist to minimize these limitations. Absorbing region methods are among them when it’s possible. These kinds of regions are also made to minimize or eliminate the spurious reflections at the boundari...

  6. 2D Saturable Absorbers for Fibre Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert I. Woodward

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional (2D nanomaterials are an emergent and promising platform for future photonic and optoelectronic applications. Here, we review recent progress demonstrating the application of 2D nanomaterials as versatile, wideband saturable absorbers for Q-switching and mode-locking fibre lasers. We focus specifically on the family of few-layer transition metal dichalcogenides, including MoS2, MoSe2 and WS2.

  7. Definitiestudie spectrometrische UV-meetopstelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sonderen JF; Slaper H; Swart DPJ; Smetsers RCGM

    1991-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation has many, mostly harmful, effects on man and the environment. The stratospheric ozone layer offers an important protection against ultraviolet radiation because ozone absorbs the short-wave ultraviolet radiation. Therefore, a reduction in the ozone layer can cause an

  8. SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF MULTICOMPONENT FORMULATIONS BY UV-VISIBLE SPECTROSCOPY: AN OVERVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Jasmine Chaudhary; Akash Jain; Vipin saini

    2011-01-01

    UV-visible spectroscopy, a simple, rapid, precise and highly accurate method for quantitative estimation is in great use now a day. The basic principle behind this technique is that the amount of light absorbed is proportional to the concentration of analyte. Simultaneous equation is applicable for the estimation of those drugs where the spectra of drugs overlap properly whereas multi-component analysis can be applied on any degree of spectral overlap provided that two or more spectra are not...

  9. Heaving buoys, point absorbers and arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falnes, Johannes; Hals, Jørgen

    2012-01-28

    Absorption of wave energy may be considered as a phenomenon of interference between incident and radiated waves generated by an oscillating object; a wave-energy converter (WEC) that displaces water. If a WEC is very small in comparison with one wavelength, it is classified as a point absorber (PA); otherwise, as a 'quasi-point absorber'. The latter may be a dipole-mode radiator, for instance an immersed body oscillating in the surge mode or pitch mode, while a PA is so small that it should preferably be a source-mode radiator, for instance a heaving semi-submerged buoy. The power take-off capacity, the WEC's maximum swept volume and preferably also its full physical volume should be reasonably matched to the wave climate. To discuss this matter, two different upper bounds for absorbed power are applied in a 'Budal diagram'. It appears that, for a single WEC unit, a power capacity of only about 0.3 MW matches well to a typical offshore wave climate, and the full physical volume has, unfortunately, to be significantly larger than the swept volume, unless phase control is used. An example of a phase-controlled PA is presented. For a sizeable wave-power plant, an array consisting of hundreds, or even thousands, of mass-produced WEC units is required.

  10. An absorbed dose calorimeter for IMRT dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duane, S.; Aldehaybes, M.; Bailey, M.; Lee, N.D.; Thomas, C.G.; Palmans, H.

    2012-01-01

    A new calorimeter for dosimetry in small and complex fields has been built. The device is intended for the direct determination of absorbed dose to water in moderately small fields and in composite fields such as IMRT treatments, and as a transfer instrument calibrated against existing absorbed dose standards in conventional reference conditions. The geometry, materials and mode of operation have been chosen to minimize detector perturbations when used in a water phantom, to give a reasonably isotropic response and to minimize the effects of heat transfer when the calorimeter is used in non-reference conditions in a water phantom. The size of the core is meant to meet the needs of measurement in IMRT treatments and is comparable to the size of the air cavity in a type NE2611 ionization chamber. The calorimeter may also be used for small field dosimetry. Initial measurements in reference conditions and in an IMRT head and neck plan, collapsed to gantry angle zero, have been made to estimate the thermal characteristics of the device, and to assess its performance in use. The standard deviation (estimated repeatability) of the reference absorbed dose measurements was 0.02 Gy (0.6%). (authors)

  11. Thermal expansion absorbing structure for pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Takashi; Yamashita, Takuya.

    1995-01-01

    A thermal expansion absorbing structure for a pipeline is disposed to the end of pipelines to form a U-shaped cross section connecting a semi-circular torus shell and a short double-walled cylindrical tube. The U-shaped longitudinal cross-section is deformed in accordance with the shrinking deformation of the pipeline and absorbs thermal expansion. Namely, since the central lines of the outer and inner tubes of the double-walled cylindrical tube deform so as to incline, when the pipeline is deformed by thermal expansion, thermal expansion can be absorbed by a simple configuration thereby enabling to contribute to ensure the safety. Then, the entire length of the pipeline can greatly be shortened by applying it to the pipeline disposed in a high temperature state compared with a method of laying around a pipeline using only elbows, which has been conducted so far. Especially, when it is applied to a pipeline for an FBR-type reactor, the cost for the construction of a facility of a primary systems can greater be reduced. In addition, it can be applied to a pipeline for usual chemical plants and any other structures requiring absorption of deformation. (N.H.)

  12. CO2 Absorbing Capacity of MEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José I. Huertas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the use of a gas bubbler apparatus in which the gas phase is bubbled into a fixed amount of absorbent under standard conditions as a uniform procedure for determining the absorption capacity of solvents. The method was systematically applied to determine the CO2 absorbing capacity of MEA (Ac at several aqueous MEA (β and gas-phase CO2 concentrations. Ac approached the nominal CO2 absorbing capacity of MEA (720 g CO2/kg MEA at very low β levels, increasing from 447.9±18.1 to 581.3±32.3 g CO2/kg MEA as β was reduced from 30 to 2.5% (w/w. Ac did not depend on the CO2 concentration in the inlet gas stream as long as the gas stream did not include other amine sensitive components. During the bubbling tests the outlet CO2 concentration profiles exhibited a sigmoidal shape that could be described by an exponential equation characterized by an efficiency factor (a and a form factor (n. Statistical analysis based on correlation analysis indicated that in all cases the experimental data fit the equation well when a was 6.1±0.35 and n was 2.5±0.12. The results of these experiments may be used to optimize scrubber designs for CO2 sequestration from fossil fuel derived flue gases.

  13. Wide band cryogenic ultra-high vacuum microwave absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campisi, I.E.

    1992-05-12

    An absorber waveguide assembly for absorbing higher order modes of microwave energy under cryogenic ultra-high vacuum conditions, that absorbs wide-band multi-mode energy. The absorber is of a special triangular shape, made from flat tiles of silicon carbide and aluminum nitride. The leading sharp end of the absorber is located in a corner of the waveguide and tapers to a larger cross-sectional area whose center is located approximately in the center of the wave guide. The absorber is relatively short, being of less height than the maximum width of the waveguide. 11 figs.

  14. The role of local heating in the formation process of UV written optical waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalgaard, Mikael; Harpøth, Anders; Andersen, Marc

    2005-01-01

    . We suggest that these events are controlled by a coupling between UV absorption, local heating and the D2-GeO2 reaction rate. From our findings we predict, and confirm experimentally, that strong waveguides can not be fabricated under normal UV writing conditions in thin core layers with a low...... initial UV absorption. Our findings show that an improved understanding of the waveguide formation process and future process development requires that thermal effects are taken into account....

  15. Near UV Aerosol Group Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Omar

    2013-01-01

    2012-13 Report of research on aerosol and cloud remote sensing using UV observations. The document was presented at the 2013 AEROCENTER Annual Meeting held at the GSFC Visitors Center, May 31, 2013. The Organizers of the meeting are posting the talks to the public Aerocentr website, after the meeting.

  16. UV-LED photopolymerised monoliths

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abele, S.; Nie, F.; Foret, František; Paull, B.; Macka, M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 133, č. 7 (2008), s. 864-866 ISSN 0003-2654 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN400310651 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : photopolymerisation * UV-LED * polymethacrylate monolith Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.761, year: 2008

  17. Review of the Global Solar UV Index 2015 Workshop Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gies, Peter; van Deventer, Emilie; Green, Adèle C.; Sinclair, Craig; Tinker, Rick

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The Global Solar UV Index was developed as an easy-to-understand measure of the amount of biologically-effective ambient solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) at different locations on the earth’s surface. Over the past few years, questions have been raised about the global applicability of the UV Index, about the evidence base for exposure risk thresholds and related protective measures, and about whether the overall impact of the UV Index could be improved with modifications. An international workshop was organized by several organizations, including the World Health Organization, to assess if current evidence was sufficiently strong to modify the UV Index and to discuss different ways it might be improved in order to influence sun-protective behavior. While some animal research suggests there may be no threshold effect, the relative importance of sub-erythemal doses of sunlight in causing skin cancer in humans remains unknown. Evidence suggests that regular use of sunscreen can prevent skin cancer and that sunglasses are an effective method of protecting the eyes from solar UVR. The UV Index as a risk communication tool continues to be useful for raising awareness and to support sun-protection behavior. Although there was agreement that guidance on the use of the UV Index could be improved, the workshop participants identified that strong health outcome-based human evidence would be needed as the basis for a revision. For the UV Index to be relevant in as many countries as possible, it should continue to be adapted to suit local conditions.

  18. Cotton fabrics with UV blocking properties through metal salts deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emam, Hossam E.; Bechtold, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Introducing metal salt based UV-blocking properties into cotton fabric. • A quite simple technique used to produce wash resistant UV-absorbers using different Cu-, Zn- and Ti-salts. • Good UPF was obtained after treatment with Cu and Ti salts, and ranged between 11.6 and 14. • The efficiency of the deposited metal oxides is compared on molar basis. - Abstract: Exposure to sunlight is important for human health as this increases the resistance to diverse pathogens, but the higher doses cause skin problems and diseases. Hence, wearing of sunlight protective fabrics displays a good solution for people working in open atmosphere. The current study offered quite simple and technically feasible ways to prepare good UV protection fabrics based on cotton. Metal salts including Zn, Cu and Ti were immobilized into cotton and oxidized cotton fabrics by using pad-dry-cure technique. Metal contents on fabrics were determined by AAS; the highest metal content was recorded for Cu-fabric and it was 360.6 mmol/kg after treatment of oxidized cotton with 0.5 M of copper nitrate. Ti contents on fabrics were ranged between 168.0 and 200.8 mmol/kg and it showed the lowest release as only 38.1–46.4% leached out fabrics after five laundry washings. Metal containing deposits were specified by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. UV-transmission radiation over treated fabrics was measured and ultraviolet protection factor (UPF) was calculated. UPF was enhanced after treatment with Cu and Ti salts to be 11.6 and 14, respectively. After five washings, the amount of metal (Cu or Ti) retained indicates acceptable laundering durability.

  19. Possible values of UV index in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letić Milorad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION UV Index is an indicator of human exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV rays. The numerical values of the UV Index range from 1-11 and above. There are three levels of protection against UV radiation; low values of the UV Index - protection is not required, medium values of the UV Index - protection is recommended and high values of the UV Index - protection is obligatory. The value of the UV Index primarily depends on the elevation of the sun and total ozone column. OBJECTIVE The aim of the study is to determine the intervals of possible maximal annual values of the UV Index in Serbia in order to determine the necessary level of protection in a simple manner. METHOD For maximal and minimal expected values of total column ozone and for maximal elevation of the sun, the value of the UV Index was determined for each month in the Northern and Southern parts of Serbia. These values were compared with the forecast of the UV Index. RESULTS Maximal clear sky values of the UV Index in Serbia for altitudes up to 500m in May, June, July and August can be 9 or even 10, and not less than 5 or 6. During November, December, January and February the UV Index can be 4 at most. During March, April, September and October the expected values of the UV Index are maximally 7 and not less than 3. The forecast of the UV Index is within these limits in 98% of comparisons. CONCLUSION The described method of determination of possible UV Index values showed a high agreement with forecasts. The obtained results can be used for general recommendations in the protection against UV radiation.

  20. Characterization of ZnO coated polyester fabrics for UV protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broasca, G.; Borcia, G.; Dumitrascu, N.; Vrinceanu, N.

    2013-08-01

    The textile industry aims to develop fabrics adapted to environmental conditions, in particular to UV radiation. Taking into account the demand for such materials, we prepare an inorganic-organic material, based on ZnO microparticles impregnation of polyester textiles, to perform combined UV-protection properties and high hydrophobicity. Scanning electron microscopy, UV reflectance, Impedance Spectroscopy, contact angle, air permeability, resistance to vapor transfer and tensile strength measurement are used for analysis of the surface and volume properties, related to the performance of the material under environmental conditions, as UV radiation, water and water vapors. The impregnation method ensures a good homogeneity and dispersion of ZnO microparticles into the textile polymeric matrix. The optimum level of impregnation of the fabrics is established to 3-5% ZnO, yielding stable properties, without overloading the fabric. The response of the coated polymer indicates better absorbing the UV radiation and dissipating the surface charge, time stability against UV and higher hydrophobic character, without modification of the mechanical properties, offering enhanced performance and comfort under environmental conditions.

  1. Detection of UV Pulse from Insulators and Application in Estimating the Conditions of Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingang; Chong, Junlong; Yang, Jie

    2014-10-01

    Solar radiation in the band of 240-280 nm is absorbed by the ozone layer in the atmosphere, and corona discharges from high-voltage apparatus emit in air mainly in the 230-405 nm range of ultraviolet (UV), so the band of 240-280 nm is called UV Solar Blind Band. When the insulators in a string deteriorate or are contaminated, the voltage distribution along the string will change, which causes the electric fields in the vicinity of insulators change and corona discharge intensifies. An UV pulse detection method to check the conditions of insulators is presented based on detecting the UV pulse among the corona discharge, then it can be confirmed that whether there exist faulty insulators and whether the surface contamination of insulators is severe for the safe operation of power systems. An UV-I Insulator Detector has been developed, and both laboratory tests and field tests have been carried out which demonstrates the practical viability of UV-I Insulator Detector for online monitoring.

  2. Effect of interfacial state between pigment and binder on the UV curing proficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dehai; Chen Xiaofang

    2004-01-01

    Effects of pigment modification to change pigment/binder interfacial characteristics and UV curing behavior were studied. The results show that the air absorbed on surface of the pigment plays an important role in hindering UV curing. In addition, there obviously exists the interface coupling effect between the pigment and the binder via the modifier of the pigment (reagent TEA). ESEM studies revealed that wetting property of the pigment was improved and binding between the pigment and the resin was strengthened after the pigment modification. EDS data showed an obvious enrichment of O-containing group of modification agent (-OH) in the interface and a shift of binding energy of the modifier was also detected. This may also contribute to the increase of curing proficiency due to the priority of the absorption of UV energy by the modifier TEA to that of pigment. The work demonstrated that the pigment modification could be used as a method to improve the UV curing efficiency. In the case of TEA, the curing rate of blue pigmented UV curable coating (125 μm) could be improved greatly (from 45s to 14s). The study have shown a promising application of various kinds of fillers as well as pigment in UV coatings. (authors)

  3. A Novel UV-Shielding and Transparent Polymer Film: When Bioinspired Dopamine-Melanin Hollow Nanoparticles Join Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Su, Jing; Li, Ting; Ma, Piming; Bai, Huiyu; Xie, Yi; Chen, Mingqing; Dong, Weifu

    2017-10-18

    Ultraviolet (UV) light is known to be harmful to human health and cause organic materials to undergo photodegradation. In this Research Article, bioinspired dopamine-melanin solid nanoparticles (Dpa-s NPs) and hollow nanoparticles (Dpa-h NPs) as UV-absorbers were introduced to enhance the UV-shielding performance of polymer. First, Dpa-s NPs were synthesized through autoxidation of dopamine in alkaline aqueous solution. Dpa-h NPs were prepared by the spontaneous oxidative polymerization of dopamine solution onto polystyrene (PS) nanospheres template, followed by removal of the template. Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/Dpa nanocomposite films were subsequently fabricated by a simple casting solvent. UV irradiation protocols were set up, allowing selective study of the extra-shielding effects of Dpa-s versus Dpa-h NPs. In contrast to PVA/Dpa-s films, PVA/Dpa-h films exhibit stronger UV-shielding capabilities and can almost block the complete UV region (200-400 nm). The excellent UV-shielding performance of the PVA/Dpa-h films mainly arises from multiple absorption because of the hollow structure and large specific area of Dpa-h NPs. Moreover, the wall thickness of Dpa-h NPs can be simply controlled from 28 to 8 nm, depending on the ratio between PS and dopamine. The resulting films with Dpa-h NPs (wall thickness = ∼8 nm) maintained relatively high transparency to visible light because of the thinner wall thickness. The results indicate that the prepared Dpa-h NPs can be used as a novel UV absorber for next-generation transparent UV-shielding materials.

  4. Wideband acoustic absorbance in children with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Alessandra Spada; Santos, Mayara; Roque, Nayara M C de F; Gameiro, Marcella S; Almeida, Katia de; Sousa Neto, Osmar Mesquita de

    2018-01-10

    Tympanometry is currently the most frequently used tool for assessing the status of the middle ear, commonly assessed using a single 226Hz tone. However, the use of the Acoustic Immittance Measures with a wideband stimulus is a promising high-resolution evaluation, especially in individuals known to have middle ear alterations, such as Down syndrome patients. The aim of this study was to analyze the acoustic absorbance measurements in children with Down syndrome. Cross-sectional study, approved by the institution's ethics committee. Data were collected from 30 children, with a mean age of 8.4 years, 15 with Down syndrome (DS-study group) and 15 children with typical development and no hearing complaints (control group). Energy absorbance was measured at frequencies of 226-8000Hz at ambient pressure and at peak pressure as a function of frequency using TITAN equipment. Statistical analysis was performed using the established level of statistical significance of 5%. With the 226Hz probe tone, 30 ears of the control group and 22 of the study group exhibited Type A tympanograms, whereas Type B was observed in eight children in the study group. The mean acoustic absorbance ratio of the study group was lower than that of the control group at frequencies centered at 2520Hz (p=0.008) for those with normal tympanometry results, and 226-4000Hz (pDown syndrome may suggest middle ear abnormalities. Copyright © 2018 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. The Effect of a Vibration Absorber on the Damping Properties of Alpine Skis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Schwanitz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Coupled bending-torsion vibrations at the shovel are a severe problem when running an alpine ski at high velocities on hard or icy slopes. Thus, a major goal for ski manufacturers is to dampen vibrations through a proper multi-material design and/or additional absorbers. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a particular vibration absorber on a commercial slalom ski through a series of laboratory tests as well as a subjective field evaluation. Therefore, two identical pairs of ski were used and the absorber was deactivated on one pair. Laboratory tests revealed reductions of 5% to 49% of bending vibrations on skis with activated absorber. Subjective evaluation by 6 subjects suggested minor differences in the mean of the evaluated criteria turnablity, edge grip, steering behavior and stability towards a better performance of the skis with activated absorber. Subjects were able to identify the absorber mode with a success rate of 61.1%.

  6. Mean winds at the cloud top of Venus obtained from two-wavelength UV imaging by Akatsuki

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horinouchi, Takeshi; Kouyama, Toru; Lee, Yeon Joo; Murakami, Shin-ya; Ogohara, Kazunori; Takagi, Masahiro; Imamura, Takeshi; Nakajima, Kensuke; Peralta, Javier; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Yamada, Manabu; Watanabe, Shigeto

    2018-01-01

    Venus is covered with thick clouds. Ultraviolet (UV) images at 0.3-0.4 microns show detailed cloud features at the cloud-top level at about 70 km, which are created by an unknown UV-absorbing substance. Images acquired in this wavelength range have traditionally been used to measure winds at the cloud top. In this study, we report low-latitude winds obtained from the images taken by the UV imager, UVI, onboard the Akatsuki orbiter from December 2015 to March 2017. UVI provides images with two filters centered at 365 and 283 nm. While the 365-nm images enable continuation of traditional Venus observations, the 283-nm images visualize cloud features at an SO2 absorption band, which is novel. We used a sophisticated automated cloud-tracking method and thorough quality control to estimate winds with high precision. Horizontal winds obtained from the 283-nm images are generally similar to those from the 365-nm images, but in many cases, westward winds from the former are faster than the latter by a few m/s. From previous studies, one can argue that the 283-nm images likely reflect cloud features at higher altitude than the 365-nm images. If this is the case, the superrotation of the Venusian atmosphere generally increases with height at the cloud-top level, where it has been thought to roughly peak. The mean winds obtained from the 365-nm images exhibit local time dependence consistent with known tidal features. Mean zonal winds exhibit asymmetry with respect to the equator in the latter half of the analysis period, significantly at 365 nm and weakly at 283 nm. This contrast indicates that the relative altitude may vary with time and latitude, and so are the observed altitudes. In contrast, mean meridional winds do not exhibit much long-term variability. A previous study suggested that the geographic distribution of temporal mean zonal winds obtained from UV images from the Venus Express orbiter during 2006-2012 can be interpreted as forced by topographically induced

  7. Effect of inclusions' distribution on microwave absorbing properties of composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Siliang; Wang, Qingguo; Qu, Zhaoming

    2013-01-01

    Effect of inclusions' spatial distributions on the permeability and permittivity of composites is studied using the generalized Maxwell-Garnett equations. The result indicates that inclusions' orientation distribution can increase the longitudinal electromagnetic parameters. For inclusions' random and orientation distribution, single and three-layer absorbers are designed and optimized using genetic algorithm. The result shows that under a given absorbing requirement, absorber with inclusions' orientation distribution is lighter and thinner than absorber with inclusions' random distribution.

  8. Absorbent material for type a radioactive materials packaging containing liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, G.A.

    1989-11-01

    The application of absorbent materials to the packaging and transport of liquid radioactive materials in Type A packages has not been reported in the literature. However, a significant body of research exists on absorbent materials for personal hygiene products such as diapers. Absorption capacity is dependent on both the absorbent material and the liquid being absorbed. Theoretical principles for capillary absorption in both the horizontal and the vertical plane indicate that small contact angle between the absorbent fibre and the liquid, and a small inter-fibre pore size are important. Some fluid parameters such as viscosity affect the rate of absorption but not the final absorption capacity. There appears to be little comparability between results obtained for the same absorbent and fluid using different test procedures. Test samples of materials from several classes of potential absorbents have been evaluated in this study, and shown to have a wide range of absorbent capacities. Foams, natural fibres, artificial fibres and granular materials are all potentially useful absorbents, with capacities ranging from as little as 0.86 to as much as 40.6 grams of distilled water per gram of absorbent. Two experimental procedures for evaluating the absorbent capacity of these materials have been detailed in this report, and found suitable for evaluating granular, fibrous or foam materials. Compression of the absorbent material reduces its capacity, but parameters such as relative humidity, pH, temperature, and viscosity appear to have little significant influence on capacity. When the materials were loaded to 50% of their one-minute absorbency, subsequent loss of the absorbed liquid was generally minimal. All of the absorbent materials rapidly lost their absorbed water through evaporation within twenty-four hours in still air at 21 degrees C and 50% relative humidity

  9. On (m, n)-absorbing ideals of commutative rings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    with respect to various ring theoretic constructions and study (m, n)-absorbing ideals in several commutative rings. For example, in a Bézout ring or a Boolean ring, an ideal is an (m, n)-absorbing ideal if and only if it is an n-absorbing ideal, and in an almost. Dedekind domain every (m, n)-absorbing ideal is a product of at ...

  10. Structural and functional changes in catalase induced by near-UV radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zigman, S.; Schultz, J.B.; McDaniel, T.

    1996-01-01

    Part one of this study shows that exposure of purified beef liver catalase in buffered solutions to BL lamps that provide a mixture of 99% UVA and 1% UVB (to be labeled UV A ) alters its chemistry and enzymatic activity. Thus, its spectral absorbance lose detail, it aggregated and exhibited a lower isoelectric point and its enzymatic activity was substantially reduced. These photochemically induced changes were increased by irradiation in phosphate buffer or in physiological medium (minimal essential medium) containing riboflavin and tryptophan. Neither α-tocopherol nor deferoxamine were protective against these UV A -induced changes in pure catalase. We further investigated the effect of UV A radiation on the activity of catalase in cultured lens epithelial cells and the protective effects of antioxidants. (Author)

  11. FTIR analysis on aging characteristics of ABS/PC blend under UV-irradiation in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiarong; Chen, Fu; Yang, Long; Jiang, Long; Dan, Yi

    2017-09-01

    Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) is adopted to study the aging characteristics of poly(acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene)/polycarbonate (ABS/PC) blend under UV-irradiation in air by analyzing the variation of the three main absorbance at about 967 cm- 1, 1720 cm- 1 and 3420 cm- 1 associated with carbon-hydrogen bonds belonging to 1,4 butadiene, carbonyl and hydroxyl groups, respectively. Results indicate that, under UV-irradiation in air, the photo-oxidation of the blend is not a simple combination of the photo-oxidation of corresponding ABS and PC themselves and takes place predominantly at the ABS component. Due to the interaction between the two components and the Fries rearrangement taken place in the PC component during the UV-irradiation in air, the ABS/PC blends behave higher photo-stability than ABS has.

  12. UV spectrophotometry of the Metronidazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Panasenko

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this research was to study the UV spectrum of Metronidazole in different polarity solvents (water, 95 % ethanol, 0,1 M sodium hydroxide, 0,1 M hydrochloric acid and 5 M sulfuric acid solution, to establish the relationship between chemical structure of the analyzed compounds and the nature of their electronic spectrum. In addition, a detailed study of the ultraviolet spectra of Metronidazole in different solutions enables to select the optimal wavelength and a thinner design for Metronidazole in substance and dosage forms. Materials and methods. Spectrophotometer SPECORD 200-222U214 has been used for study of the UV spectra of Metronidazole, the quantitative methods were used. Measuring of the absorption of Metronidazole solutions has been carried out in quartz cuvettes with a layer thickness of 10 mm. Due to the fact that the test material shows selective absorption in the ultraviolet spectra, model compounds were studied at a concentration of 1 mg%. Study of electronic spectra was performed in the range of 200 to 400 nm, and the curve has been constructed in coordinates A = f (λ. It has been used water, 95% ethanol, 0,1 M NaOH, 0,1 M HCl and 5 M H2SO4 as solvents. The content of Metronidazole in substance and dosage forms calculated with the equations according to SPU. The results. Study of the UV spectra of Metronidazole and its model compounds showed that in short-wave part of spectrum due to absorption and excitation electrons of imidazole ring were transferred, and in long-wave – conjugation chromophore imidazole cycle and nitro group as electron acceptor occurred. Analysis of the UV spectra of Metronidazole enables to determine a maximum of the analytical quantification of the medicine. Conclusions. Metronidazole UV spectra in water, 95% ethanol, 0,1 M solution of NaOH, 0,1 M solution of HCl and 5 M solution of H2SO4 have been studied. Metronidazole UV spectra are characterized by two absorption bands in the

  13. 21 CFR 880.5300 - Medical absorbent fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical absorbent fiber. 880.5300 Section 880.5300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Devices § 880.5300 Medical absorbent fiber. (a) Identification. A medical absorbent fiber is a device...

  14. 21 CFR 868.5310 - Carbon dioxide absorber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... breathing circuit as a container for carbon dioxide absorbent. It may include a canister and water drain. (b... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorber. 868.5310 Section 868.5310...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5310 Carbon dioxide absorber. (a...

  15. 21 CFR 886.3300 - Absorbable implant (scleral buckling method).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Absorbable implant (scleral buckling method). 886... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3300 Absorbable implant (scleral buckling method). (a) Identification. An absorbable implant (scleral buckling method) is a device...

  16. Effects of different light conditions on repair of UV-B-induced damage in carpospores of Chondrus ocellatus Holm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Qing; Xiao, Hui; Wang, You; Tang, Xuexi

    2015-05-01

    We evaluated the effects of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation and different light conditions on the repair of UV-B-induced damage in carpospores of Chondrus ocellatus Holm (Rhodophyta) in laboratory experiments. Carpospores were treated daily with different doses of UV-B radiation for 48 days, when vertical branches had formed in all treatments; after each daily treatment, the carpospores were subjected to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), darkness, red light, or blue light during a 2-h repair stage. Carpospore diameters were measured every 4 days. We measured the growth and cellular contents of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs), chlorophyll a, phycoerythrin, and UV-B-absorbing mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) in carpospores on Day 48. Low doses of UV-B radiation (36 and 72 J/m2) accelerated the growth of C. ocellatus. However, as the amount of UV-B radiation increased, the growth rate decreased and morphological changes occurred. UV-B radiation significant damaged DNA and photosynthetic pigments and induced three kind of MAAs, palythine, asterina-330, and shinorine. PAR conditions were best for repairing UV-B-induced damage. Darkness promoted the activity of the DNA darkrepair mechanism. Red light enhanced phycoerythrin synthesis but inhibited light repair of DNA. Although blue light, increased the activity of DNA photolyase, greatly improving remediation efficiency, the growth and development of C. ocellatus carpospores were slower than in other light treatments.

  17. UV light and urban pollution: Bad cocktail for mosquitoes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tetreau, Guillaume, E-mail: guillaume.tetreau@gmail.com [Laboratoire d’Ecologie Alpine, LECA-UMR 5553, Université de Grenoble 1, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble cedex 09 (France); Department of Entomology, Cornell University, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva, NY 14456 (United States); Chandor-Proust, Alexia; Faucon, Frédéric; Stalinski, Renaud; Akhouayri, Idir; Prud’homme, Sophie M.; Régent-Kloeckner, Myriam; Raveton, Muriel; Reynaud, Stéphane [Laboratoire d’Ecologie Alpine, LECA-UMR 5553, Université de Grenoble 1, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble cedex 09 (France)

    2014-01-15

    mosquitoes, including tolerance to three insecticides (imidacloprid, propoxur and temephos), cell damage and response to oxidative stress. Taken together, our results suggest that UV and pollution, individually or in combination, are abiotic parameters that can affect the physiology and insecticide tolerance of mosquitoes; but the complexity of their direct effect and of their interaction will require further investigation to know in which condition they can affect the efficacy of insecticide-based vector control strategies in the field.

  18. UV light and urban pollution: Bad cocktail for mosquitoes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetreau, Guillaume; Chandor-Proust, Alexia; Faucon, Frédéric; Stalinski, Renaud; Akhouayri, Idir; Prud’homme, Sophie M.; Régent-Kloeckner, Myriam; Raveton, Muriel; Reynaud, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    mosquitoes, including tolerance to three insecticides (imidacloprid, propoxur and temephos), cell damage and response to oxidative stress. Taken together, our results suggest that UV and pollution, individually or in combination, are abiotic parameters that can affect the physiology and insecticide tolerance of mosquitoes; but the complexity of their direct effect and of their interaction will require further investigation to know in which condition they can affect the efficacy of insecticide-based vector control strategies in the field

  19. UV DISINFECTION GUIDANCE MANUAL FOR THE ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides technical information on selection, design and operation of UV systems; provides regulatory agencies with guidance and the necessary tools to assess UV systems at the design, start-up, and routine operation phase; provides manufacturers with the testing and performance standards for UV components and systems for treating drinking water. Provide guidance to water systems, regulators and manufacturers on UV disinfection of drinking water.

  20. Organ absorbed doses in intraoral dental radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomber, A R; Faulkner, K

    1993-11-01

    A dental radiography unit operating at 70 kV (nominal) and 20 cm focus-skin distance was used to irradiate an anthropomorphic phantom loaded with lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosemeters, in order to assess the variation in organ absorbed dose with intraoral periapical radiographic view. 14 views using the bisecting-angle technique and four views using the paralleling technique were studied. The results are presented and the doses and dose distributions examined. Doses for the paralleling and bisecting-angle techniques are compared, and the effects of focus-skin distance and beam collimation upon patient dosimetry discussed. Sources of uncertainty in dental dosimetry studies using phantoms are also considered.