WorldWideScience

Sample records for absorbed light energy

  1. Visible light broadband perfect absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, X. L.; Meng, Q. X.; Yuan, C. X.; Zhou, Z. X.; Wang, X. O., E-mail: wxo@hit.edu.cn [School of Science, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2016-03-15

    The visible light broadband perfect absorbers based on the silver (Ag) nano elliptical disks and holes array are studied using finite difference time domain simulations. The semiconducting indium silicon dioxide thin film is introduced as the space layer in this sandwiched structure. Utilizing the asymmetrical geometry of the structures, polarization sensitivity for transverse electric wave (TE)/transverse magnetic wave (TM) and left circular polarization wave (LCP)/right circular polarization wave (RCP) of the broadband absorption are gained. The absorbers with Ag nano disks and holes array show several peaks absorbance of 100% by numerical simulation. These simple and flexible perfect absorbers are particularly desirable for various potential applications including the solar energy absorber.

  2. On the radiative effects of light-absorbing impurities on snowpack evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, M.; Tuzet, F.; Lafaysse, M.; Arnaud, L.; Picard, G.; Lejeune, Y.; Lamare, M.; Morin, S.; Voisin, D.; Di Mauro, B.

    2017-12-01

    The presence of light absorbing impurities in snow strongly decreases snow reflectance leading to an increase in the amount of solar energy absorbed by the snowpack. This effect is also known as impurities direct radiative effect. The change in the amount of energy absorbed by the snowpack modifies the temperature profile inside the snowpack and in turn snow metamorphism (impurities indirect radiative effects). In this work, we used the detailed snowpack model SURFEX/ISBA-Crocus with an explicit representation of snow light-absorbing impurities content (Tuzet et al., 2017) fed by medium-resolution ALADIN-Climate atmospheric model to represent dust and black carbon atmospheric deposition fluxes. The model is used at two sites: Col de Porte (medium elevation site in the French Alps) and Torgnon (high elevation site in the Italian Alps). The simulations are compared to in-situ observations and used to quantify the effects of light-absorbing impurities on snow melt rate and timing. The respective parts of the direct and indirect radiative effects of light-absorbing impurities in snow are also computed for the two sites, emphasizing the need to account for the interactions between snow metamorphism and LAI radiative properties, to accurately predict the effects of light-absorbing impurities in snow. Moreover, we describe how automated hyperspectral reflectance can be used to estimate effective impurities surface content in snow. Finally we demonstrate how these reflectances measurements either from in situ or satellite data can be used via an assimilation scheme to constrain snowpack ensemble simulations and better predict the snowpack state and evolution.

  3. Excellent solar energy absorbing and retaining fabric material. Chikunetsu hoon sen'i sozai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuta, T. (Unitika Ltd., Osaka (Japan). Central Research Lab.)

    1993-11-10

    Carbides of group IV transition metals such as ZrC, which are used as solar energy selective absorption film for solar energy collectors, has characteristics of absorbing light with a high energy of 0.6eV or more and of converting it to heat when exposed to light, and of not absorbing but reflecting light with a low energy of less than 0.6eV. By using ZrC as fabric materials, therefore, portable and durable heat absorbing and retaining materials can be produced. The authors have developed a solar energy absorbing and retaining fabric material, 'Solar [alpha]' (registered trade mark), which absorbs visible and near infrared rays and converts them to heat, and reflects heat from a human body and confines it. The use of Solar [alpha] has been found in various fields such as clothing as a new material for winter-sportswear, slacks, coats, and swimming suits. In this report, the heat absorbing and retaining mechanisms, basic properties of Solar [alpha], and the results of wearing tests are described. 12 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Measurements of a prototype synchrotron radiation pumped absorber for future light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, T.S.; Foerster, C.L.; Halama, H.; Lanni, C.

    1988-01-01

    In the new generation of advanced synchrotron light sources, the conventional concept of distributed pumping is no longer suitable for removing the gas load caused by photon stimulated desorption (PSD). A new concept using a combination of photon absorber and pumping station has been designed, constructed, and installed in the U1OB beam line at the VUV ring of the National Synchrotron Light Source. The system consists of an electrically insulated water cooled copper block, a titanium sublimation pump, calibrated BA gauges, a calibrated RGA, and a known conductance. A photon beam 10 milliradian wide and 3.26 milliradian high, having critical energy of 500 eV, is directed on the absorber. PSD yield is studied as a function of total beam dose and absorber surface preparation. The results from this experiment, pump characteristics, design of an absorber pump for future light sources, and the pressure improvement factors will be presented. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  5. Conversion and conservation of light energy in a photosynthetic microbial mat ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Najjar, A. A.; de Beer, Dirk; Jørgensen, Bo Barker

    2010-01-01

    : in light-limiting conditions, 95.5% of the absorbed light energy dissipated as heat and 4.5% was channeled into photosynthesis. This energy disproportionation changed in favor of heat dissipation at increasing irradiance, with >99% of the absorbed light energy being dissipated as heat and 700 micromol...

  6. Energy, Electron Transfer and Photocatalytic Reactions of Visible Light Absorbing Transition Metal Complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmehl, Russell H. [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States)

    2016-03-02

    This is the final technical report for a project carried out at Tulane University of New Orleans that describes the development of light induced (solar) reactions geared toward decomposing water into its component elements : hydrogen and oxygen. Much of the work involved optimizing systems for absorbing visible light and undergoing light promoted reactions to generate very strong reducing agents that are capable of reacting with water to produce hydrogen. Additional portions of the research were collaborative efforts to put the strong reducing agents to work in reaction with hydrogen generation catalysts prepared elsewhere. Time resolved laser spectroscopic methods were used to evaluate the light induced reactions and characterize very reactive intermediate substances formed during the reactions.

  7. Tailored Buckling Microlattices as Reusable Light-Weight Shock Absorbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenzel, Tobias; Findeisen, Claudio; Kadic, Muamer; Gumbsch, Peter; Wegener, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Structures and materials absorbing mechanical (shock) energy commonly exploit either viscoelasticity or destructive modifications. Based on a class of uniaxial light-weight geometrically nonlinear mechanical microlattices and using buckling of inner elements, either a sequence of snap-ins followed by irreversible hysteretic - yet repeatable - self-recovery or multistability is achieved, enabling programmable behavior. Proof-of-principle experiments on three-dimensional polymer microstructures are presented. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Shining light on radiation detection and energy transfer : Triazole ligands used for detection of radiation and lanthanide binding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Some substances, fluorophores, absorb light and then emit that light again as fluorescence. Apart from absorption of light, some of these substances can also emit light after having absorbed energy from radiation. A substance which can absorb radiation and emit the energy as light is called a

  9. Enhancing Localized Evaporation through Separated Light Absorbing Centers and Scattering Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dengwu; Duan, Haoze; Yu, Shengtao; Zhang, Yao; He, Jiaqing; Quan, Xiaojun; Tao, Peng; Shang, Wen; Wu, Jianbo; Song, Chengyi; Deng, Tao

    2015-01-01

    This report investigates the enhancement of localized evaporation via separated light absorbing particles (plasmonic absorbers) and scattering particles (polystyrene nanoparticles). Evaporation has been considered as one of the most important phase-change processes in modern industries. To improve the efficiency of evaporation, one of the most feasible methods is to localize heat at the top water layer rather than heating the bulk water. In this work, the mixture of purely light absorptive plasmonic nanostructures such as gold nanoparticles and purely scattering particles (polystyrene nanoparticles) are employed to confine the incident light at the top of the solution and convert light to heat. Different concentrations of both the light absorbing centers and the light scattering centers were evaluated and the evaporation performance can be largely enhanced with the balance between absorbing centers and scattering centers. The findings in this study not only provide a new way to improve evaporation efficiency in plasmonic particle-based solution, but also shed lights on the design of new solar-driven localized evaporation systems. PMID:26606898

  10. Innovative energy absorbing devices based on composite tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Chandrashekhar

    Analytical and experimental study of innovative load limiting and energy absorbing devices are presented here. The devices are based on composite tubes and can be categorized in to two groups based upon the energy absorbing mechanisms exhibited by them, namely: foam crushing and foam fracturing. The device based on foam crushing as the energy absorbing mechanism is composed of light weight elastic-plastic foam filling inside an angle ply composite tube. The tube is tailored to have a high Poisson’s ratio (>20). Upon being loaded the device experiences large transverse contraction resulting in rapid decrease in diameter. At a certain axial load the foam core begins to crush and energy is dissipated. This device is termed as crush tube device. The device based upon foam shear fracture as the energy absorbing mechanism involves an elastic-plastic core foam in annulus of two concentric extension-twist coupled composite tubes with opposite angles of fibers. The core foam is bonded to the inner and outer tube walls. Upon being loaded axially, the tubes twist in opposite directions and fracture the core foam in out of plane shear and thus dissipate the energy stored. The device is termed as sandwich core device (SCD). The devices exhibit variations in force-displacement characteristics with changes in design and material parameters, resulting in wide range of energy absorption capabilities. A flexible matrix composite system was selected, which was composed of high stiffness carbon fibers as reinforcements in relatively low stiffness polyurethane matrix, based upon large strain to failure capabilities and large beneficial elastic couplings. Linear and non-linear analytical models were developed encapsulating large deformation theory of the laminated composite shells (using non-linear strain energy formulation) to the fracture mechanics of core foam and elastic-plastic deformation theory of the foam filling. The non-linear model is capable of including material and

  11. Photophoretic trampoline—Interaction of single airborne absorbing droplets with light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esseling, Michael; Rose, Patrick; Alpmann, Christina; Denz, Cornelia

    2012-09-01

    We present the light-induced manipulation of absorbing liquid droplets in air. Ink droplets from a printer cartridge are used to demonstrate that absorbing liquids—just like their solid counterparts—can interact with regions of high light intensity due to the photophoretic force. It is shown that droplets follow a quasi-ballistic trajectory after bouncing off a high intensity light sheet. We estimate the intensities necessary for this rebound of airborne droplets and change the droplet trajectories through a variation of the manipulating light field.

  12. Exploring Light’s Interactions with Bubbles and Light Absorbers in Photoelectrochemical Devices using Ray Tracing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, John Colby [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). The Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2012-12-01

    Ray tracing was used to perform optical optimization of arrays of photovoltaic microrods and explore the interaction between light and bubbles of oxygen gas on the surface of the microrods. The incident angle of light was varied over a wide range. The percent of incident light absorbed by the microrods and reflected by the bubbles was computed over this range. It was found that, for the 10 μm diameter, 100 μm tall SrTiO3 microrods simulated in the model, the optimal center-­to-­center spacing was 14 μm for a square grid. This geometry produced 75% average and 90% maximum absorbance. For a triangular grid using the same microrods, the optimal center-­to-­center spacing was 14 μm. This geometry produced 67% average and 85% maximum absorbance. For a randomly laid out grid of 5 μm diameter, 100 μm tall SrTiO3 microrods with an average center-­to-­center spacing of 20 μm, the average absorption was 23% and the maximum absorption was 43%. For a 50% areal coverage fraction of bubbles on the absorber surface, between 2%-­20% of the incident light energy was reflected away from the rods by the bubbles, depending upon incident angle and bubble morphology.

  13. How to distinguish scattered and absorbed light from re-emitted light for white LEDs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meretska, Maryna; Lagendijk, Aart; Thyrrestrup Nielsen, Henri; Mosk, Allard; IJzerman, Wilbert; Vos, Willem L.

    2017-01-01

    We have studied the light transport through phosphor diffuser plates that are used in commercial solid-state lighting modules (Fortimo). These polymer plates contain YAG:Ce+3 phosphor particles that scatter, absorb and re-emit incident light in the visible wavelength range (400-700 nm). To

  14. TPX/TFTR Neutral Beam energy absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlgren, F.; Wright, K.; Kamperschroer, J.; Grisham, L.; Lontai, L.; Peters, C.; VonHalle, A.

    1993-01-01

    The present beam energy absorbing surfaces on the TFTR Neutral Beams such as Ion Dumps, Calorimeters, beam defining apertures, and scrapers, are simple water cooled copper plates which wee designed to absorb (via their thermal inertia) the incident beam power for two seconds with a five minute coal down interval between pulses. These components are not capable of absorbing the anticipated beam power loading for 1000 second TPX pulses and will have to be replaced with an actively cooled design. While several actively cooled energy absorbing designs were considered,, the hypervapotron elements currently being used on the JET beamlines were chosen due to their lower cooling water demands and reliable performance on JET

  15. Energy Absorbing Effectiveness – Different Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotełko Maria

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the study of different crashworthiness indicators used to evaluate energy absorbing effectiveness of thin-walled energy absorbers is presented. Several different indicators are used to assess an effectiveness of two types of absorbing structures, namely thin-walled prismatic column with flaws and thin-walled prismatic frustum (hollow or foam filled in both cases subjected to axial compressive impact load. The indicators are calculated for different materials and different geometrical parameters. The problem of selection of the most appropriate and general indicators is discussed.

  16. Energy scavenging strain absorber: application to kinetic dielectric elastomer generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Mistral, C.; Beaune, M.; Vu-Cong, T.; Sylvestre, A.

    2014-03-01

    Dielectric elastomer generators (DEGs) are light, compliant, silent energy scavengers. They can easily be incorporated into clothing where they could scavenge energy from the human kinetic movements for biomedical applications. Nevertheless, scavengers based on dielectric elastomers are soft electrostatic generators requiring a high voltage source to polarize them and high external strain, which constitutes the two major disadvantages of these transducers. We propose here a complete structure made up of a strain absorber, a DEG and a simple electronic power circuit. This new structure looks like a patch, can be attached on human's wear and located on the chest, knee, elbow… Our original strain absorber, inspired from a sailing boat winch, is able to heighten the external available strain with a minimal factor of 2. The DEG is made of silicone Danfoss Polypower and it has a total area of 6cm per 2.5cm sustaining a maximal strain of 50% at 1Hz. A complete electromechanical analytical model was developed for the DEG associated to this strain absorber. With a poling voltage of 800V, a scavenged energy of 0.57mJ per cycle is achieved with our complete structure. The performance of the DEG can further be improved by enhancing the imposed strain, by designing a stack structure, by using a dielectric elastomer with high dielectric permittivity.

  17. Metal–insulator–metal light absorber: a continuous structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, M

    2013-01-01

    A type of light absorber made of continuous layers of metal and dielectric films is studied. The metal films can have thicknesses close to their skin depths in the wavelength range concerned, which allows for both light transmission and reflection. Resonances induced by multiple reflections in the structure, when combined with the inherent lossy nature of metals, result in strong absorption spectral features. An eigen-mode analysis is carried out for the plasmonic multilayer nanostructures which provides a generic understanding of the absorption features. Experimentally, the calculation is verified by a reflection measurement with a representative structure. Such an absorber is simple to fabricate. The highly efficient absorption characteristics can be potentially deployed for optical filter designs, sensors, accurate photothermal temperature control in a micro-environment and even for backscattering reduction of small particles, etc. (paper)

  18. A multilayer physically based snowpack model simulating direct and indirect radiative impacts of light-absorbing impurities in snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzet, Francois; Dumont, Marie; Lafaysse, Matthieu; Picard, Ghislain; Arnaud, Laurent; Voisin, Didier; Lejeune, Yves; Charrois, Luc; Nabat, Pierre; Morin, Samuel

    2017-11-01

    Light-absorbing impurities (LAIs) decrease snow albedo, increasing the amount of solar energy absorbed by the snowpack. Its most intuitive and direct impact is to accelerate snowmelt. Enhanced energy absorption in snow also modifies snow metamorphism, which can indirectly drive further variations of snow albedo in the near-infrared part of the solar spectrum because of the evolution of the near-surface snow microstructure. New capabilities have been implemented in the detailed snowpack model SURFEX/ISBA-Crocus (referred to as Crocus) to account for impurities' deposition and evolution within the snowpack and their direct and indirect impacts. Once deposited, the model computes impurities' mass evolution until snow melts out, accounting for scavenging by meltwater. Taking advantage of the recent inclusion of the spectral radiative transfer model TARTES (Two-stream Analytical Radiative TransfEr in Snow model) in Crocus, the model explicitly represents the radiative impacts of light-absorbing impurities in snow. The model was evaluated at the Col de Porte experimental site (French Alps) during the 2013-2014 snow season against in situ standard snow measurements and spectral albedo measurements. In situ meteorological measurements were used to drive the snowpack model, except for aerosol deposition fluxes. Black carbon (BC) and dust deposition fluxes used to drive the model were extracted from simulations of the atmospheric model ALADIN-Climate. The model simulates snowpack evolution reasonably, providing similar performances to our reference Crocus version in terms of snow depth, snow water equivalent (SWE), near-surface specific surface area (SSA) and shortwave albedo. Since the reference empirical albedo scheme was calibrated at the Col de Porte, improvements were not expected to be significant in this study. We show that the deposition fluxes from the ALADIN-Climate model provide a reasonable estimate of the amount of light-absorbing impurities deposited on the

  19. Optical Properties and Aging of Light Absorbing Secondary Organic Aerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jiumeng; Lin, Peng; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia; Kathmann, Shawn M.; Wise, Matthew E.; Caylor, Ryan; Imholt, Felisha; Selimovic, Vanessa; Shilling, John E.

    2016-10-14

    The light-absorbing organic aerosol (OA), commonly referred to as “brown carbon (BrC)”, has attracted considerable attention in recent years because of its potential to affect atmospheric radiation balance, especially in the ultraviolet region and thus impact photochemical processes. A growing amount of data has indicated that BrC is prevalent in the atmosphere, which has motivated numerous laboratory and field studies; however, our understanding of the relationship between the chemical composition and optical properties of BrC remains limited. We conducted chamber experiments to investigate the effect of various VOC precursors, NOx concentrations, photolysis time and relative humidity (RH) on the light absorption of selected secondary organic aerosols (SOA). Light absorption of chamber generated SOA samples, especially aromatic SOA, was found to increase with NOx concentration, at moderate RH, and for the shortest photolysis aging times. The highest mass absorption coefficients (MAC) value is observed from toluene SOA products formed under high NOx conditions at moderate RH, in which nitro-aromatics were previously identified as the major light absorbing compounds. BrC light absorption is observed to decrease with photolysis time, correlated with a decline of the organonitrate fraction of SOA. SOA formed from mixtures of aromatics and isoprene absorb less visible and UV light than SOA formed from aromatic precursors alone on a mass basis. However, the mixed-SOA absorption was underestimated when optical properties were predicted using a two-product SOA formation model, as done in many current climate models. Further investigation, including analysis on detailed mechanisms, are required to explain the discrepancy.

  20. Performance evaluation and parameter sensitivity of energy-harvesting shock absorbers on different vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Sijing; Liu, Yilun; Xu, Lin; Guo, Xuexun; Zuo, Lei

    2016-07-01

    Traditional shock absorbers provide favourable ride comfort and road handling by dissipating the suspension vibration energy into heat waste. In order to harvest this dissipated energy and improve the vehicle fuel efficiency, many energy-harvesting shock absorbers (EHSAs) have been proposed in recent years. Among them, two types of EHSAs have attracted much attention. One is a traditional EHSA which converts the oscillatory vibration into bidirectional rotation using rack-pinion, ball-screw or other mechanisms. The other EHSA is equipped with a mechanical motion rectifier (MMR) that transforms the bidirectional vibration into unidirectional rotation. Hereinafter, they are referred to as NonMMR-EHSA and MMR-EHSA, respectively. This paper compares their performances with the corresponding traditional shock absorber by using closed-form analysis and numerical simulations on various types of vehicles, including passenger cars, buses and trucks. Results suggest that MMR-EHSA provides better ride performances than NonMMR-EHSA, and that MMR-EHSA is able to improve both the ride comfort and road handling simultaneously over the traditional shock absorber when installed on light-damped, heavy-duty vehicles. Additionally, the optimal parameters of MMR-EHSA are obtained for ride comfort. The optimal solutions ('Pareto-optimal solutions') are also obtained by considering the trade-off between ride comfort and road handling.

  1. Optical properties and aging of light-absorbing secondary organic aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The light-absorbing organic aerosol (OA commonly referred to as “brown carbon” (BrC has attracted considerable attention in recent years because of its potential to affect atmospheric radiation balance, especially in the ultraviolet region and thus impact photochemical processes. A growing amount of data has indicated that BrC is prevalent in the atmosphere, which has motivated numerous laboratory and field studies; however, our understanding of the relationship between the chemical composition and optical properties of BrC remains limited. We conducted chamber experiments to investigate the effect of various volatile organic carbon (VOC precursors, NOx concentrations, photolysis time, and relative humidity (RH on the light absorption of selected secondary organic aerosols (SOA. Light absorption of chamber-generated SOA samples, especially aromatic SOA, was found to increase with NOx concentration, at moderate RH, and for the shortest photolysis aging times. The highest mass absorption coefficient (MAC value is observed from toluene SOA products formed under high-NOx conditions at moderate RH, in which nitro-aromatics were previously identified as the major light-absorbing compounds. BrC light absorption is observed to decrease with photolysis time, correlated with a decline of the organic nitrate fraction of SOA. SOA formed from mixtures of aromatics and isoprene absorb less visible (Vis and ultraviolet (UV light than SOA formed from aromatic precursors alone on a mass basis. However, the mixed SOA absorption was underestimated when optical properties were predicted using a two-product SOA formation model, as done in many current climate models. Further investigation, including analysis on detailed mechanisms, are required to explain the discrepancy.

  2. Hybrid sunlight/LED illumination and renewable solar energy saving concepts for indoor lighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuei, Chih-Hsuan; Sun, Wen-Shing; Kuo, Chien-Cheng

    2010-11-08

    A hybrid method for using sunlight and light-emitting diode (LED) illumination powered by renewable solar energy for indoor lighting is simulated and presented in this study. We can illuminate an indoor space and collect the solar energy using an optical switching system. When the system is turned off, the full spectrum of the sunlight is concentrated by a concentrator, to be absorbed by solar photovoltaic devices that provide the electricity to power the LEDs. When the system is turned on, the sunlight collected by the concentrator is split into visible and non-visible rays by a beam splitter. The visible rays pass through the light guide into a light box where it is mixed with LED light to ultimately provide uniform illumination by a diffuser. The non-visible rays are absorbed by the solar photovoltaic devices to provide electrical power for the LEDs. Simulation results show that the efficiency of the hybrid sunlight/LED illumination with the renewable solar energy saving design is better than that of LED and traditional lighting systems.

  3. Light energy partitioning, photosynthetic efficiency and biomass allocation in invasive Prunus serotina and native Quercus petraea in relation to light environment, competition and allelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robakowski, Piotr; Bielinis, Ernest; Sendall, Kerrie

    2018-05-01

    This study addressed whether competition under different light environments was reflected by changes in leaf absorbed light energy partitioning, photosynthetic efficiency, relative growth rate and biomass allocation in invasive and native competitors. Additionally, a potential allelopathic effect of mulching with invasive Prunus serotina leaves on native Quercus petraea growth and photosynthesis was tested. The effect of light environment on leaf absorbed light energy partitioning and photosynthetic characteristics was more pronounced than the effects of interspecific competition and allelopathy. The quantum yield of PSII of invasive P. serotina increased in the presence of a competitor, indicating a higher plasticity in energy partitioning for the invasive over the native Q. petraea, giving it a competitive advantage. The most striking difference between the two study species was the higher crown-level net CO 2 assimilation rates (A crown ) of P. serotina compared with Q. petraea. At the juvenile life stage, higher relative growth rate and higher biomass allocation to foliage allowed P. serotina to absorb and use light energy for photosynthesis more efficiently than Q. petraea. Species-specific strategies of growth, biomass allocation, light energy partitioning and photosynthetic efficiency varied with the light environment and gave an advantage to the invader over its native competitor in competition for light. However, higher biomass allocation to roots in Q. petraea allows for greater belowground competition for water and nutrients as compared to P. serotina. This niche differentiation may compensate for the lower aboveground competitiveness of the native species and explain its ability to co-occur with the invasive competitor in natural forest settings.

  4. Energy-donor phosphorescence quenching study of triplet–triplet energy transfer between UV absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Azusa; Nakabai, Yuya; Oguchi-Fujiyama, Nozomi; Miyazawa, Kazuyuki; Yagi, Mikio

    2015-01-01

    The intermolecular triplet–triplet energy transfer from a photounstable UV-A absorber, 4-tert-butyl-4′-methoxydibenzoylmethane (BMDBM), to UV-B absorbers, 2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxycinnamate (octyl methoxycinnamate, OMC), octocrylene (OCR) and dioctyl 4-methoxybenzylidenemalonate (DOMBM) has been observed using a 355 nm laser excitation in rigid solutions at 77 K. The decay curves of the energy-donor phosphorescence in the presence of the UV-B absorbers deviate from the exponential decay at the initial stage of the decay. The Stern–Volmer formulation is not valid in rigid solutions because molecular diffusion is impossible. The experimental results indicate that the rate constant of triplet–triplet energy transfer from BMDBM to the UV-B absorbers, k T–T , decreases in the following order: k T–T (BMDBM–DOMBM)>k T–T (BMDBM–OMC)≥k T–T (BMDBM–OCR). The presence of DOMBM enhances the photostability of the widely used combination of UV-A and UV-B absorbers, BMDBM and OCR. The effects of the triplet–triplet energy transfer on the photostability of BMDBM are discussed. - Highlights: • The intermolecular triplet–triplet energy transfer between UV absorbers was observed. • The phosphorescence decay deviates from exponential at the initial stage of decay. • The effects of triplet–triplet energy transfer on the photostability are discussed

  5. Absorbed energy for radiation crosslinking in stabilized PE systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakovic, Lj.; Gal, O.; Charlesby, A.

    1990-01-01

    A quantitative consideration on the absorbed energy consumption in various γ-irradiated polyethylene systems is given. On the base of the increased gel dose values for the PE systems containing antioxidant, relative to the gel doses for the pure polymers, the surplus of the absorbed energy due to the presence of the particular antioxidant is calculated. The increasing of the energy consumption in the stabilized systems depends on both the type and the content of the basic polymer. The surplus in the absorbed energy decreases with the radiation dose increasing, reflecting both the diminishing of the antioxidant concentration in the irradiating PE systems and the crosslinking level. The findings can be of interest in the estimation of the absorbed doses for the specific radiation crosslinking processes. (author)

  6. Absorbed energy for radiation crosslinking in stabilized PE systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novakovic, Lj; Gal, O [Institut za Nuklearne Nauke Boris Kidric, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Charlesby, A

    1990-01-01

    A quantitative consideration on the absorbed energy consumption in various {gamma}-irradiated polyethylene systems is given. On the base of the increased gel dose values for the PE systems containing antioxidant, relative to the gel doses for the pure polymers, the surplus of the absorbed energy due to the presence of the particular antioxidant is calculated. The increasing of the energy consumption in the stabilized systems depends on both the type and the content of the basic polymer. The surplus in the absorbed energy decreases with the radiation dose increasing, reflecting both the diminishing of the antioxidant concentration in the irradiating PE systems and the crosslinking level. The findings can be of interest in the estimation of the absorbed doses for the specific radiation crosslinking processes. (author).

  7. Super-hydrophilic copper sulfide films as light absorbers for efficient solar steam generation under one sun illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhenzhen; Ming, Xin; Wang, Gang; Hou, Baofei; Liu, Xinghang; Mei, Tao; Li, Jinhua; Wang, Jianying; Wang, Xianbao

    2018-02-01

    Solar steam technology is one of the simplest, most direct and effective ways to harness solar energy through water evaporation. Here, we report the development using super-hydrophilic copper sulfide (CuS) films with double-layer structures as light absorbers for solar steam generation. In the double-layer structure system, a porous mixed cellulose ester (MCE) membrane is used as a supporting layer, which enables water to get into the CuS light absorbers through a capillary action to provide continuous water during solar steam generation. The super-hydrophilic property of the double-layer system (CuS/MCE) leads to a thinner water film close to the air-water interface where the surface temperature is sufficiently high, leading to more efficient evaporation (˜80 ± 2.5%) under one sun illumination. Furthermore, the evaporation efficiencies still keep a steady value after 15 cycles of testing. The super-hydrophilic CuS film is promising for practical application in water purification and evaporation as a light absorption material.

  8. Energy transfer in light-adapted photosynthetic membranes: from active to saturated photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassioli, Francesca; Olaya-Castro, Alexandra; Scheuring, Simon; Sturgis, James N; Johnson, Neil F

    2009-11-04

    In bacterial photosynthesis light-harvesting complexes, LH2 and LH1 absorb sunlight energy and deliver it to reaction centers (RCs) with extraordinarily high efficiency. Submolecular resolution images have revealed that both the LH2:LH1 ratio, and the architecture of the photosynthetic membrane itself, adapt to light intensity. We investigate the functional implications of structural adaptations in the energy transfer performance in natural in vivo low- and high-light-adapted membrane architectures of Rhodospirillum photometricum. A model is presented to describe excitation migration across the full range of light intensities that cover states from active photosynthesis, where all RCs are available for charge separation, to saturated photosynthesis where all RCs are unavailable. Our study outlines three key findings. First, there is a critical light-energy density, below which the low-light adapted membrane is more efficient at absorbing photons and generating a charge separation at RCs, than the high-light-adapted membrane. Second, connectivity of core complexes is similar in both membranes, suggesting that, despite different growth conditions, a preferred transfer pathway is through core-core contacts. Third, there may be minimal subareas on the membrane which, containing the same LH2:LH1 ratio, behave as minimal functional units as far as excitation transfer efficiency is concerned.

  9. Conversion and conservation of light energy in a photosynthetic microbial mat ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Najjar, A.A.; De Beer, D.; Jørgensen, B. B.

    2011-01-01

    approach uses microscale measurements of the rates of heat dissipation, gross photosynthesis and light absorption in the system, and a model describing light propagation and conversion in a scattering-absorbing medium. The energy budget was dominated by heat dissipation on the expense of photosynthesis...

  10. Broadband plasmonic perfect light absorber in the visible spectrum for solar cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudachathi, Renilkumar; Tanaka, Takuo

    2018-03-01

    The coupling of electromagnetic waves with subwavelength metal structures results in the perfect light absorption and has been extensively explored in the recent years for many possible applications like photovoltaics, sensing, photodetectors, emitters and camouflaging systems to name a few. Herein we present the design and fabrication of a broadband plasmonic light absorber using aluminum as functional material for operation in the visible frequency range. The metal structures can be tuned in size to manipulate the plasmonic resonance; thereby light absorption at any desired wavelengths could be realized. Thus the broadband light absorber in the visible spectrum is designed using metal structures of different sizes supporting non-overlapping individual resonances at regular intervals of wavelengths. The metal structures of different sizes are grouped in to a single unit cell and the absorber is fabricated by periodically arranging these unit cells in a square lattice. Light absorption of more than 90% for over a broad wavelength range of 200 nm from 425 nm to 650 nm in the visible spectrum is demonstrated.

  11. SU-F-J-56: The Connection Between Cherenkov Light Emission and Radiation Absorbed Dose in Proton Irradiated Phantoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darafsheh, A; Kassaee, A; Finlay, J [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Taleei, R [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Range verification in proton therapy is of great importance. Cherenkov light follows the photon and electron energy deposition in water phantom. The purpose of this study is to investigate the connection between Cherenkov light generation and radiation absorbed dose in a water phantom irradiated with proton beams. Methods: Monte Carlo simulation was performed by employing FLUKA Monte Carlo code to stochastically simulate radiation transport, ionizing radiation dose deposition, and Cherenkov radiation in water phantoms. The simulations were performed for proton beams with energies in the range 50–600 MeV to cover a wide range of proton energies. Results: The mechanism of Cherenkov light production depends on the initial energy of protons. For proton energy with 50–400 MeV energy that is below the threshold (∼483 MeV in water) for Cherenkov light production directly from incident protons, Cherenkov light is produced mainly from the secondary electrons liberated as a result of columbic interactions with the incident protons. For proton beams with energy above 500 MeV, in the initial depth that incident protons have higher energy than the Cherenkov light production threshold, the light has higher intensity. As the slowing down process results in lower energy protons in larger depths in the water phantom, there is a knee point in the Cherenkov light curve vs. depth due to switching the Cherenkov light production mechanism from primary protons to secondary electrons. At the end of the depth dose curve the Cherenkov light intensity does not follow the dose peak because of the lack of high energy protons to produce Cherenkov light either directly or through secondary electrons. Conclusion: In contrast to photon and electron beams, Cherenkov light generation induced by proton beams does not follow the proton energy deposition specially close to the end of the proton range near the Bragg peak.

  12. Light-absorbing carbon from prescribed and laboratory biomass burning and gasoline vehicle emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonaceous aerosols are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and can directly affect Earth’s climate by absorbing and scattering incoming solar radiation. Both field and laboratory measurements have confirmed that biomass burning (BB) is an important primary source of light absorbing o...

  13. Absorbed Energy in Ship Collisions and Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming

    1998-01-01

    is that the absorbed energy does not depend on the arrangement of the structure, the material properties, and the damage mode.The purpose of the present paper is to establish a new simple relation between the absorbed energy and the destroyed material volume, which can be used as a design tool for analysis of ship...... collisions and grounding. The developed expressions reflect the structural arrangement, the material properties and different damage patterns.The present method is validated against a large number of existing experimental results and detailed numerical simulation results. Applications to full-sale ship...

  14. Synthesis of dumbbell-like Au nanostructure and its light-absorbance study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Jianlei; Xu Yan; Li Kun; Song Shiping; Fan Chunhai

    2013-01-01

    Background: By changing the size or the morphology of Au nanostructure, they can absorb different wavelength light due to the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). Because Au nanorods show good ability to transform light into heat (photothermal effect), they have been wildly used to deliver the drugs and release them controllably. However, when applying such nanostructure for in vivo treatments, Au nanorods must have long aspect ratio which often make it hard to prepare heterogeneous nanostructure. Purpose: A new method to synthesize Au nanostructure with uniform size and to achieve long wavelength light absorbance is needed. This work attempts to synthesize such Au nanostructure by using bio-nano techniques. Methods: New nanostructures are prepared by growing Au nanoparticles on the surface of Au nanorods modified with DNA molecules. Results: Dumbbell-Ikea Au nanostructures were prepared firstly. Its maximum absorbance locates at near ultraviolet region, which means that it can be used as a potential tool for the deep-skin photothermal treatment. Moreover, other two kinds of nanostructures, i.e. Au nanorods with Au splinter at two ends and sea urchin-like nanostructures, are also studied. Conclusions: We successfully fabricated novel Au nanostructures which can be used for drug delivery, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and catalysis. (authors)

  15. A review on the performance of conventional and energy-absorbing rockbolts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlie C. Li

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This is a review paper on the performances of both conventional and energy-absorbing rockbolts manifested in laboratory tests. Characteristic parameters such as ultimate load, displacement and energy absorption are reported, in addition to load–displacement graphs for every type of rockbolt. Conventional rockbolts refer to mechanical rockbolts, fully-grouted rebars and frictional rockbolts. According to the test results, under static pull loading a mechanical rockbolt usually fails at the plate; a fully-grouted rebar bolt fails in the bolt shank at an ultimate load equal to the strength of the steel after a small amount of displacement; and a frictional rockbolt is subjected to large displacement at a low yield load. Under shear loading, all types of bolts fail in the shank. Energy-absorbing rockbolts are developed aiming to combat instability problems in burst-prone and squeezing rock conditions. They absorb deformation energy either through ploughing/slippage at predefined load levels or through stretching of the steel bolt. An energy-absorbing rockbolt can carry a high load and also accommodate significant rock displacement, and thus its energy-absorbing capacity is high. The test results show that the energy absorption of the energy-absorbing bolts is much larger than that of all conventional bolts. The dynamic load capacity is smaller than the static load capacity for the energy-absorbing bolts displacing based on ploughing/slippage while they are approximately the same for the D-Bolt that displaces based on steel stretching.

  16. Solar Photothermal Disinfection using Broadband-Light Absorbing Gold Nanoparticles and Carbon Black.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Stephanie; Li, Chuanhao; Kim, Jae-Hong

    2018-01-02

    A simple heat treatment, perhaps the most globally recognized point-of-use water sterilization method, is seemingly effective against all major pathogens of concern, but bulk water boiling is not energy efficient or sustainable. Herein, we present the first application of solar-to-thermal converting nanomaterials for the direct inactivation of bacteria and viruses in drinking water through the application of Au nanorods, carbon black, and Au nanorod-carbon black composite materials as light absorbers. With broad absorption bands spanning the visible and near-infrared wavelengths, at sufficient concentrations, these nanoparticles induce multiple scattering events, increasing photon absorption probability and concentrating the light within a small spatial domain, leading to localized, intense heating that inactivates microorganisms in close proximity. Moving toward practical device design, we have developed a facile silane immobilization approach to fabricate films with densely packed layers of photothermal nanomaterials. Our results suggest that upon irraditaion with simulated solar light, these films can thermally inactivate bacteria and viruses, as demonstrated through the inactivation of surrogate organisms Escherichia coli K-12, and bacteriophages MS2 and PR772.

  17. Energy absorbers as pipe supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khlafallah, M.Z.; Lee, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    With the exception of springs, pipe supports currently in use are designed with the intent of maintaining their rigidity under load. Energy dissipation mechanisms in these pipe supports result in system damping on the order presented by Code Case N-411 of ASME Section III code. Examples of these energy dissipation mechanisms are fluids and gaps in snubbers, gaps in frame supports, and friction in springs and frame supports. If energy absorbing supports designed in accordance with Code Case N-420 are used, higher additional damping will result

  18. Triplet-triplet energy transfer from a UV-A absorber butylmethoxydibenzoylmethane to UV-B absorbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Azusa; Oguchi-Fujiyama, Nozomi; Miyazawa, Kazuyuki; Yagi, Mikio

    2014-01-01

    The phosphorescence decay of a UV-A absorber, 4-tert-butyl-4'-methoxydibenzolymethane (BMDBM) has been observed following a 355 nm laser excitation in the absence and presence of UV-B absorbers, 2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxycinnamate (octyl methoxycinnamate, OMC) and octocrylene (OCR) in ethanol at 77 K. The lifetime of the lowest excited triplet (T1) state of BMDBM is significantly reduced in the presence of OMC and OCR. The observed quenching of BMDBM triplet by OMC and OCR suggests that the intermolecular triplet-triplet energy transfer occurs from BMDBM to OMC and OCR. The T1 state of OCR is nonphosphorescent or very weakly phosphorescent. However, we have shown that the energy level of the T1 state of OCR is lower than that of the enol form of BMDBM. Our methodology of energy-donor phosphorescence decay measurements can be applied to the study of the triplet-triplet energy transfer between UV absorbers even if the energy acceptor is nonphosphorescent. In addition, the delayed fluorescence of BMDBM due to triplet-triplet annihilation was observed in the BMDBM-OMC and BMDBM-OCR mixtures in ethanol at 77 K. Delayed fluorescence is one of the deactivation processes of the excited states of BMDBM under our experimental conditions. © 2013 The American Society of Photobiology.

  19. Novel multi-chromophor light absorber concepts for DSSCs for efficient electron injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuetz, Robert; Strothkaemper, Christian; Bartelt, Andreas; Hannappel, Thomas; Eichberger, Rainer [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Fasting, Carlo [Institut fuer Organische Chemie, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Takustrasse 3, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Thomas, Inara [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Institut fuer Organische Chemie, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Takustrasse 3, 14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) operate by injecting electrons from the excited state of a light-harvesting dye into the continuum of conduction band states of a wide bandgap semiconductor. The light harvesting efficiency of pure organic dyes is limited by a narrow spectral electronic transition. A beneficial broad ground state absorption in the VIS region can be achieved by applying a single molecular dye system with multiple chromophors involving a Foerster resonance energy transfer (FRET) mechanism for an efficient electron injection. A model donor acceptor dye system capable for FRET chemically linked to colloidal TiO{sub 2} and ZnO nanorod surfaces was investigated in UHV environment. We used VIS/NIR femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy and optical pump terahertz probe spectroscopy to study the charge injection dynamics of the antenna system. Different chromophors attached to a novel scaffold/anchor system connecting the organic absorber unit to the metal oxide semiconductor were probed.

  20. Reducing heat loss from the energy absorber of a solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Bei Tse; Rabl, Ari

    1976-01-01

    A device is provided for reducing convective heat loss in a cylindrical radiant energy collector. It includes a curved reflective wall in the shape of the arc of a circle positioned on the opposite side of the exit aperture from the reflective side walls of the collector. Radiant energy exiting the exit aperture is directed by the curved wall onto an energy absorber such that the portion of the absorber upon which the energy is directed faces downward to reduce convective heat loss from the absorber.

  1. Kinetic energy absorbing pad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bricmont, R.J.; Hamilton, P.A.; Ming Long Ting, R.

    1981-01-01

    Reactors, fuel processing plants etc incorporate pipes and conduits for fluids under high pressure. Fractures, particularly adjacent to conduit elbows, produce a jet of liquid which whips the broken conduit at an extremely high velocity. An enormous impact load would be applied to any stationary object in the conduit's path. The design of cellular, corrugated metal impact pads to absorb the kinetic energy of the high velocity conduits is given. (U.K.)

  2. Light-Absorbing Brown Carbon Aerosol Constituents from Combustion of Indonesian Peat and Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budisulistiorini, Sri Hapsari; Riva, Matthieu; Williams, Michael; Chen, Jing; Itoh, Masayuki; Surratt, Jason D; Kuwata, Mikinori

    2017-04-18

    Light-absorbing brown carbon (BrC) constituents of organic aerosol (OA) have been shown to significantly absorb ultraviolet (UV) and visible light and thus impact radiative forcing. However, molecular identification of the BrC constituents is still limited. In this study, we characterize BrC constituents at the molecular level in (i) aerosols emitted by combustion of peat, fern/leaf, and charcoal from Indonesia and (ii) ambient aerosols collected in Singapore during the 2015 haze episode. Aerosols were analyzed using ultra performance liquid chromatography instrument interfaced to a diode array detector and electrospray ionization high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer operated in the negative ion mode. In the laboratory-generated aerosols, we identified 41 compounds that can potentially absorb near-UV and visible wavelengths, such as oxygenated-conjugated compounds, nitroaromatics, and S-containing compounds. The sum of BrC constituents in peat, fern/leaf, and charcoal burning aerosols are 16%, 35%, and 28% of the OA mass, respectively, giving an average contribution of 24%. On average, the BrC constituents account for 0.4% of the ambient OA mass; however, large uncertainties in mass closure remain because of the lack of authentic standards. This study highlights the potential of light-absorbing BrC OA constituents from peat, fern/leaf, and charcoal burning and their importance in the atmosphere.

  3. Influence of the variation potential on photosynthetic flows of light energy and electrons in pea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhova, Ekaterina; Mudrilov, Maxim; Vodeneev, Vladimir; Sukhov, Vladimir

    2018-05-01

    Local damage (mainly burning, heating, and mechanical wounding) induces propagation of electrical signals, namely, variation potentials, which are important signals during the life of plants that regulate different physiological processes, including photosynthesis. It is known that the variation potential decreases the rate of CO 2 assimilation by the Calvin-Benson cycle; however, its influence on light reactions has been poorly investigated. The aim of our work was to investigate the influence of the variation potential on the light energy flow that is absorbed, trapped and dissipated per active reaction centre in photosystem II and on the flow of electrons through the chloroplast electron transport chain. We analysed chlorophyll fluorescence in pea leaves using JIP-test and PAM-fluorometry; we also investigated delayed fluorescence. The electrical signals were registered using extracellular electrodes. We showed that the burning-induced variation potential stimulated a nonphotochemical loss of energy in photosystem II under dark conditions. It was also shown that the variation potential gradually increased the flow of light energy absorbed, trapped and dissipated by photosystem II. These changes were likely caused by an increase in the fraction of absorbed light distributed to photosystem II. In addition, the variation potential induced a transient increase in electron flow through the photosynthetic electron transport chain. Some probable mechanisms for the influence of the variation potential on the light reactions of photosynthesis (including the potential role of intracellular pH decrease) are discussed in the work.

  4. Energy Analysis of Solar Collector With perforated Absorber Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar A. Farhan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The thermal performance of three solar collectors with 3, 6 mm and without perforation absorber plate was assessed experimentally. The experimental tests were implemented in Baghdad during the January and February 2017. Five values of airflow rates range between 0.01 – 0.1 m3/s were used through the test with a constant airflow rate during the test day. The variation of the following parameters air temperature difference, useful energy, absorber plate temperature, and collector efficiency was recorded every 15 minutes. The experimental data reports that the increases the number of absorber plate perforations with a small diameter is more efficient rather than increasing the hole diameter of the absorber plate with decreasing the perforation numbers. Maximum air temperature difference throughout the solar collector with 3, 6 mm perforations and without perforations are 17, 15, and 12 oC, respectively. Also, it can be concluded that the energy gained from the solar collector with 3 mm perforation absorber plate is 28.2 % more than the energy gained from solar collector without holes per day for 0.1 m3/s airflow rate. The maximum values of the thermal performance curves are 0.67, 0.64, and 0.56 for the solar collector with 3, 6 mm, and without perforations, respectively.

  5. Source attribution of light-absorbing impurities in seasonal snow across northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R.; Hegg, D. A.; Huang, J.; Fu, Q.

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal snow samples obtained at 46 sites in 6 provinces of China in January and February 2010 were analyzed for a suite of chemical species and these data are combined with previously determined concentrations of light-absorbing impurities (LAI), including all particles that absorb light in the 650-700 nm wavelength interval. The LAI, together with 14 other analytes, are used as input to a positive matrix factorization (PMF) receptor model to explore the sources of the LAI in the snow. The PMF analysis for the LAI sources is augmented with backward trajectory cluster analysis and the geographic locations of major source areas for the three source types. The two analyses are consistent and indicate that three factors/sources were responsible for the measured snow light absorption: a soil dust source, an industrial pollution source, and a biomass and biofuels burning source. Soil dust was the main source of the LAI, accounting for ~ 53% of the LAI on average.

  6. Toward understanding as photosynthetic biosignatures: light harvesting and energy transfer calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Y.; Umemura, M.; Shoji, M.; Shiraishi, K.; Kayanuma, M.; Yabana, K.

    2014-03-01

    Among several proposed biosignatures, red edge is a direct evidence of photosynthetic life if it is detected (Kiang et al 2007). Red edge is a sharp change in reflectance spectra of vegetation in NIR region (about 700-750 nm). The sign of red edge is observed by Earthshine or remote sensing (Wolstencroft & Raven 2002, Woolf et al 2002). But, why around 700-750 nm? The photosynthetic organisms on Earth have evolved to optimize the sunlight condition. However, if we consider about photosynthetic organism on extrasolar planets, they should have developed to utilize the spectra of its principal star. Thus, it is not strange even if it shows different vegetation spectra. In this study, we focused on the light absorption mechanism of photosynthetic organisms on Earth and investigated the fundamental properties of the light harvesting mechanisms, which is the first stage for the light absorption. Light harvesting complexes contain photosynthetic pigments like chlorophylls. Effective light absorption and the energy transfer are accomplished by the electronic excitations of collective photosynthetic pigments. In order to investigate this mechanism, we constructed an energy transfer model by using a dipole-dipole approximation for the interactions between electronic excitations. Transition moments and transition energies of each pigment are calculated at the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) level (Marques & Gross 2004). Quantum dynamics simulation for the excitation energy transfer was calculated by the Liouvelle's equation. We adopted the model to purple bacteria, which has been studied experimentally and known to absorb lower energy. It is meaningful to focus on the mechanism of this bacteria, since in the future mission, M planets will become a important target. We calculated the oscillator strengths in one light harvesting complex and confirmed the validity by comparing to the experimental data. This complex is made of an inner and an outer ring. The

  7. Black carbon or brown carbon? The nature of light-absorbing carbonaceous aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Andreae

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the definition and measurement techniques for atmospheric 'black carbon' ('BC' or 'elemental carbon'' ('EC' have long been subjects of scientific controversy, the recent discovery of light-absorbing carbon that is not black ('brown carbon, Cbrown' makes it imperative to reassess and redefine the components that make up light-absorbing carbonaceous matter (LAC in the atmosphere. Evidence for the atmospheric presence of Cbrown comes from (1 spectral aerosol light absorption measurements near specific combustion sources, (2 observations of spectral properties of water extracts of continental aerosol, (3 laboratory studies indicating the formation of light-absorbing organic matter in the atmosphere, and (4 indirectly from the chemical analogy of aerosol species to colored natural humic substances. We show that brown carbon may severely bias measurements of 'BC' and 'EC' over vast parts of the troposphere, especially those strongly polluted by biomass burning, where the mass concentration of Cbrown is high relative to that of soot carbon. Chemical measurements to determine 'EC' are biased by the refractory nature of Cbrown as well as by complex matrix interferences. Optical measurements of 'BC' suffer from a number of problems: (1 many of the presently used instruments introduce a substantial bias into the determination of aerosol light absorption, (2 there is no unique conversion factor between light absorption and 'EC' or 'BC' concentration in ambient aerosols, and (3 the difference in spectral properties between the different types of LAC, as well as the chemical complexity of Cbrown, lead to several conceptual as well as practical complications. We also suggest that due to the sharply increasing absorption of Cbrown towards the UV, single-wavelength light absorption measurements may not be adequate for the assessment of absorption of solar radiation in the troposphere. We discuss the possible consequences of these effects for our

  8. An experimental study of an energy absorbing restrainer for piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sone, A.; Suzuki, K.

    1989-01-01

    Recently, in the seismic design methodology of the piping systems in nuclear power plants, new and improved design criteria and calculation techniques which will lead to more reliable and cost saving design products have been investigated. For instance, problems for reducing the snubbers in nuclear power plants which provide high costs for their inspections and maintenances and related flexible design problems for the dynamic piping systems have been investigated. Thus, in order to replace snubbers, various types of alternative supporting devices such as dynamic absorbers, gapped support and energy absorbing support devices have been proposed. A number of energy absorbing restrainers have been designed in Japan and United-States by allowing yield to occur during strong earthquakes. Advantages and disadvantages of these restrainers were examined analytically and experimentally. In order to overcome the disadvantages, the authors introduced new absorbing material LSPZ (laminated super plastic zinc) in which SPZ is expected to have reliable ductility and also efficient energy absorbability still under the normal temperature condition. This paper is devoted to an experimental works for this updated absorbing restrainer

  9. Porphyrin Based Near Infrared-Absorbing Materials for Organic Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Qiwen

    The conservation and transformation of energy is essential to the survival of mankind, and thus concerns every modern society. Solar energy, as an everlasting source of energy, holds one of the key solutions to some of the most urgent problems the world now faces, such as global warming and the oil crisis. Advances in technologies utilizing clean, abundant solar energy, could be the steering wheel of our societies. Solar cells, one of the major advances in converting solar energy into electricity, are now capturing people's interest all over the globe. While solar cells have been commercially available for many years, the manufacturing of solar cells is quite expensive, limiting their broad based implementation. The cost of solar cell based electricity is 15-50 cents per kilowatt hour (¢/kwh), depending on the type of solar cell, compared to 0.7 ¢/kwh for fossil fuel based electricity. Clearly, decreasing the cost of electricity from solar cells is critical for their wide spread deployment. This will require a decrease in the cost of light absorbing materials and material processing used in fabricating the cells. Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) utilize organic materials such as polymers and small molecules. These devices have the advantage of being flexible and lower cost than conventional solar cells built from inorganic semiconductors (e.g. silicon). The low cost of OPVs is tied to lower materials and fabrication costs of organic cells. However, the current power conversion efficiencies of OPVs are still below 15%, while convention crystalline Si cells have efficiencies of 20-25%. A key limitation in OPVs today is their inability to utilize the near infrared (NIR) portion of the solar spectrum. This part of the spectrum comprises nearly half of the energy in sunlight that could be used to make electricity. The first and foremost step in conversion solar energy conversion is the absorption of light, which nature has provided us optimal model of, which is

  10. An Overview on Impact Behaviour and Energy Absorption of Collapsible Metallic and Non-Metallic Energy Absorbers used in Automotive Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, R. B.; Mali, K. D.

    2018-04-01

    Collapsible impact energy absorbers play an important role of protecting automotive components from damage during collision. Collision of the two objects results into the damage to one or both of them. Damage may be in the form of crack, fracture and scratch. Designers must know about how the material and object behave under impact event. Owing to above reasons different types of collapsible impact energy absorbers are developed. In the past different studies were undertaken to improve such collapsible impact energy absorbers. This article highlights such studies on common shapes of collapsible impact energy absorber and their impact behaviour under the axial compression. The literature based on studies and analyses of effects of different geometrical parameters on the crushing behaviour of impact energy absorbers is presented in detail. The energy absorber can be of different shape such as circular tube, square tube, and frustums of cone and pyramids. The crushing behaviour of energy absorbers includes studies on crushing mechanics, modes of deformation, energy absorbing capacity, effect on peak and mean crushing load. In this work efforts are made to cover major outcomes from past studies on such behavioural parameters. Even though the major literature reviewed is related to metallic energy absorbers, emphasis is also laid on covering literature on use of composite tube, fiber metal lamination (FML) member, honeycomb plate and functionally graded thickness (FGT) tube as a collapsible impact energy absorber.

  11. Energy-harvesting shock absorber with a mechanical motion rectifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongjie; Zuo, Lei; Kuang, Jian; Luhrs, George

    2013-02-01

    Energy-harvesting shock absorbers are able to recover the energy otherwise dissipated in the suspension vibration while simultaneously suppressing the vibration induced by road roughness. They can work as a controllable damper as well as an energy generator. An innovative design of regenerative shock absorbers is proposed in this paper, with the advantage of significantly improving the energy harvesting efficiency and reducing the impact forces caused by oscillation. The key component is a unique motion mechanism, which we called ‘mechanical motion rectifier (MMR)’, to convert the oscillatory vibration into unidirectional rotation of the generator. An implementation of a MMR-based harvester with high compactness is introduced and prototyped. A dynamic model is created to analyze the general properties of the motion rectifier by making an analogy between mechanical systems and electrical circuits. The model is capable of analyzing electrical and mechanical components at the same time. Both simulation and experiments are carried out to verify the modeling and the advantages. The prototype achieved over 60% efficiency at high frequency, much better than conventional regenerative shock absorbers in oscillatory motion. Furthermore, road tests are done to demonstrate the feasibility of the MMR shock absorber, in which more than 15 Watts of electricity is harvested while driving at 15 mph on a smooth paved road. The MMR-based design can also be used for other applications of vibration energy harvesting, such as from tall buildings or long bridges.

  12. Energy-harvesting shock absorber with a mechanical motion rectifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhongjie; Zuo, Lei; Kuang, Jian; Luhrs, George

    2013-01-01

    Energy-harvesting shock absorbers are able to recover the energy otherwise dissipated in the suspension vibration while simultaneously suppressing the vibration induced by road roughness. They can work as a controllable damper as well as an energy generator. An innovative design of regenerative shock absorbers is proposed in this paper, with the advantage of significantly improving the energy harvesting efficiency and reducing the impact forces caused by oscillation. The key component is a unique motion mechanism, which we called ‘mechanical motion rectifier (MMR)’, to convert the oscillatory vibration into unidirectional rotation of the generator. An implementation of a MMR-based harvester with high compactness is introduced and prototyped. A dynamic model is created to analyze the general properties of the motion rectifier by making an analogy between mechanical systems and electrical circuits. The model is capable of analyzing electrical and mechanical components at the same time. Both simulation and experiments are carried out to verify the modeling and the advantages. The prototype achieved over 60% efficiency at high frequency, much better than conventional regenerative shock absorbers in oscillatory motion. Furthermore, road tests are done to demonstrate the feasibility of the MMR shock absorber, in which more than 15 Watts of electricity is harvested while driving at 15 mph on a smooth paved road. The MMR-based design can also be used for other applications of vibration energy harvesting, such as from tall buildings or long bridges. (paper)

  13. Light-absorbent liquid immersion angled exposure for patterning 3D samples with vertical sidewalls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Shinya; Kubo, Hironori; Sasaki, Minoru

    2017-01-01

    To make photolithography patterns on 3D samples, the angled (inclined) exposure technique has been used so far. However, technological issues have emerged in making photolithography patterns on the surface of trench structures. The surface of the trench structures can be covered with a photoresist film by spray-coating but the photoresist film deposited on the sidewalls and bottom of the trench is generally thin. The thin photoresist film deposited inside the trench has been easily overdosed. Moreover, irregular patterns have frequently been formed by the light reflected inside the trench. In this study, we have developed liquid immersion photolithography using a light-absorbent material. The light-reflection inside the trench was suppressed. Various patterns were transferred in the photoresist film deposited on the trench structures which had an aspect ratio of 0.74. Compared to immersion photolithography using pure water under p -polarization light control, the light-absorbent liquid immersion photolithography developed here patterned well the surfaces of the trench sidewalls and bottom. (paper)

  14. Light absorbing organic carbon from prescribed and laboratory biomass burning and gasoline vehicle emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The light absorption of carbonaceous aerosols plays an important role in the atmospheric radiation balance. Light-absorbing organic carbon (OC), also called brown carbon (BrC), from laboratory-based biomass burning (BB) has been studied intensively to understand the contribution ...

  15. Measurements of light absorbing particulates on the glaciers in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, C. G.; All, J. D.; Schwarz, J. P.; Arnott, W. P.; Cole, R. J.; Lapham, E.; Celestian, A.

    2014-10-01

    Glaciers in the tropical Andes have been rapidly losing mass since the 1970s. In addition to the documented increase in air temperature, increases in light absorbing particulates deposited on glaciers could be contributing to the observed glacier loss. Here we report on measurements of light absorbing particulates sampled from glaciers during three surveys in the Cordillera Blanca in Peru. During three research expeditions in the dry seasons (May-August) of 2011, 2012 and 2013, two hundred and forty snow samples were collected from fifteen mountain peaks over altitudes ranging from 4800 to nearly 6800 m. Several mountains were sampled each of the three expeditions and some mountains were sampled multiple times during the same expedition. Collected snow samples were melted and filtered in the field then later analyzed using the Light Absorption Heating Method (LAHM), a new technique that measures the ability of particulates on filters to absorb visible light. LAHM results have been calibrated using filters with known amounts of fullerene soot, a common industrial surrogate for black carbon (BC). As sample filters often contain dust in addition to BC, results are presented in terms of effective Black Carbon (eBC). During the 2013 survey, snow samples were collected and kept frozen for analysis with a Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2). Calculated eBC mass from the filter analysis and the SP2 refractory Black Carbon (rBC) results were well correlated (r2 = 0.92). These results indicate that a substantial portion of the light absorbing particulates in the more polluted areas were likely BC. The three years of data show that glaciers in the Cordillera Blanca Mountains close to human population centers have substantially higher levels of eBC (as high as 70 ng g-1) than remote glaciers (as low as 2.0 ng g-1 eBC), indicating that population centers can influence local glaciers by sourcing BC.

  16. Measurements of light-absorbing particles on the glaciers in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, C. G.; All, J. D.; Schwarz, J. P.; Arnott, W. P.; Cole, R. J.; Lapham, E.; Celestian, A.

    2015-02-01

    Glaciers in the tropical Andes have been rapidly losing mass since the 1970s. In addition to the documented increase in temperature, increases in light-absorbing particles deposited on glaciers could be contributing to the observed glacier loss. Here we report on measurements of light-absorbing particles sampled from glaciers during three surveys in the Cordillera Blanca Mountains in Peru. During three research expeditions in the dry seasons (May-August) of 2011, 2012 and 2013, 240 snow samples were collected from 15 mountain peaks over altitudes ranging from 4800 to nearly 6800 m. Several mountains were sampled each of the 3 years and some mountains were sampled multiple times during the same year. Collected snow samples were melted and filtered in the field then later analyzed using the Light Absorption Heating Method (LAHM), a new technique that measures the ability of particles on filters to absorb visible light. LAHM results have been calibrated using filters with known amounts of fullerene soot, a common industrial surrogate for black carbon (BC). As sample filters often contain dust in addition to BC, results are presented in terms of effective black carbon (eBC). During the 2013 survey, snow samples were collected and kept frozen for analysis with a Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2). Calculated eBC mass from the LAHM analysis and the SP2 refractory black carbon (rBC) results were well correlated (r2 = 0.92). These results indicate that a substantial portion of the light-absorbing particles in the more polluted regions were likely BC. The 3 years of data show that glaciers in the Cordillera Blanca Mountains close to human population centers have substantially higher levels of eBC (as high as 70 ng g-1) than remote glaciers (as low as 2.0 ng g-1 eBC), indicating that population centers can influence local glaciers by sourcing BC.

  17. Wideband perfect coherent absorber based on white-light cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotlicki, Omer; Scheuer, Jacob

    2015-03-01

    Coherent Perfect Absorbers (CPAs) are optical cavities which can be described as time-reversed lasers where light waves that enter the cavity, coherently interfere and react with the intra-cavity losses to yield perfect absorption. In contrast to lasers, which benefit from high coherency and narrow spectral linewidths, for absorbers these properties are often undesirable as absorption at a single frequency is highly susceptible to spectral noise and inappropriate for most practical applications. Recently, a new class of cavities, characterized by a spectrally wide resonance has been proposed. Such resonators, often referred to as White Light Cavities (WLCs), include an intra-cavity superluminal phase element, designed to provide a phase response with a slope that is opposite in sign and equal in magnitude to that of light propagation through the empty cavity. Consequently, the resonance phase condition in WLCs is satisfied over a band of frequencies providing a spectrally wide resonance. WLCs have drawn much attention due to their attractiveness for various applications such as ultra-sensitive sensors and optical buffering components. Nevertheless, WLCs exhibit inherent losses that are often undesirable. Here we introduce a simple wideband CPA device that is based on the WLC concept along with a complete analytical analysis. We present analytical and FDTD simulations of a practical, highly compact (12µm), Silicon based WLC-CPA that exhibits a flat and wide absorption profile (40nm) and demonstrate its usefulness as an optical pulse terminator (>35db isolation) and an all optical modulator that span the entire C-Band and exhibit high immunity to spectral noise.

  18. Flow of light energy in benthic photosynthetic microbial mats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Najjar, Mohammad Ahmad A.

    2010-12-15

    The work in this thesis demonstrates the assessment of the energy budget inside microbial mat ecosystems, and the factors affecting light utilization efficiency. It presents the first balanced light energy budget for benthic microbial mat ecosystems, and shows how the budget and the spatial distribution of the local photosynthetic efficiencies within the euphotic zone depend on the absorbed irradiance (Jabs). The energy budget was dominated by heat dissipation on the expense of photosynthesis. The maximum efficiency of photosynthesis was at light limiting conditions When comparing three different marine benthic photosynthetic ecosystems (originated from Abu-Dhabi, Arctic, and Exmouth Gulf in Western Australia), differences in the efficiencies were calculated. The results demonstrated that the maximum efficiency depended on mat characteristics affecting light absorption and scattering; such as, photopigments ratio and distribution, and the structural organization of the photosynthetic organisms relative to other absorbing components of the ecosystem (i.e., EPS, mineral particles, detritus, etc.). The maximum efficiency decreased with increasing light penetration depth, and increased with increasing the accessory pigments (phycocyanin and fucoxanthin)/chlorophyll ratio. Spatial heterogeneity in photosynthetic efficiency, pigment distribution, as well as light acclimation in microbial mats originating from different geographical locations was investigated. We used a combined pigment imaging approach (variable chlorophyll fluorescence and hyperspectral imaging), and fingerprinting approach. For each mat, the photosynthetic activity was proportional to the local pigment concentration in the photic zone, but not for the deeper layers and between different mats. In each mat, yield of PSII and E1/2 (light acclimation) generally decreased in parallel with depth, but the gradients in both parameters varied greatly between samples. This mismatch between pigments concentration

  19. Moving core beam energy absorber and converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degtiarenko, Pavel V.

    2012-12-18

    A method and apparatus for the prevention of overheating of laser or particle beam impact zones through the use of a moving-in-the-coolant-flow arrangement for the energy absorbing core of the device. Moving of the core spreads the energy deposition in it in 1, 2, or 3 dimensions, thus increasing the effective cooling area of the device.

  20. Energy deposition studies for the LBNE beam absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakhno, Igor L.; Mokhov, Nikolai V.; Tropin, Igor S.

    2015-01-01

    Results of detailed Monte Carlo energy deposition studies performed for the LBNE absorber core and the surrounding shielding with the MARS15 code are described. The model of the entire facility that includes a pion-production target, focusing horns, target chase, decay channel, hadron absorber system - all with corresponding radiation shielding - was developed using the recently implemented ROOT-based geometry option in the MARS15 code. This option provides substantial flexibility and automation when developing complex geometry models. Both normal operation and accidental conditions were studied. Various design options were considered, in particular the following: (i) filling the decay pipe with air or helium; (ii) the absorber mask material and shape; (iii) the beam spoiler material and size. Results of detailed thermal calculations with the ANSYS code helped to select the most viable absorber design options. (authors)

  1. Source attribution of insoluble light-absorbing particles in seasonal snow across northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R.; Hegg, D. A.; Huang, J.; Fu, Q.

    2013-06-01

    Seasonal snow samples obtained at 46 sites in 6 provinces of China in January and February 2010 were analyzed for a suite of chemical species and these data are combined with previously determined concentrations of insoluble light-absorbing particles (ILAP), including all particles that absorb light in the 650-700 nm wavelength interval. The ILAP, together with 14 other analytes, are used as input to a positive matrix factorization (PMF) receptor model to explore the sources of ILAP in the snow. The PMF analysis for ILAP sources is augmented with backward trajectory cluster analysis and the geographic locations of major source areas for the three source types. The two analyses are consistent and indicate that three factors/sources were responsible for the measured light absorption of snow: a soil dust source, an industrial pollution source, and a biomass and / or biofuel burning source. Soil dust was the main source of the ILAP, accounting for ~53% of ILAP on average.

  2. Source attribution of insoluble light-absorbing particles in seasonal snow across northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zhang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal snow samples obtained at 46 sites in 6 provinces of China in January and February 2010 were analyzed for a suite of chemical species and these data are combined with previously determined concentrations of insoluble light-absorbing particles (ILAP, including all particles that absorb light in the 650–700 nm wavelength interval. The ILAP, together with 14 other analytes, are used as input to a positive matrix factorization (PMF receptor model to explore the sources of ILAP in the snow. The PMF analysis for ILAP sources is augmented with backward trajectory cluster analysis and the geographic locations of major source areas for the three source types. The two analyses are consistent and indicate that three factors/sources were responsible for the measured light absorption of snow: a soil dust source, an industrial pollution source, and a biomass and / or biofuel burning source. Soil dust was the main source of the ILAP, accounting for ~53% of ILAP on average.

  3. Multi-Level Experimental and Analytical Evaluation of Two Composite Energy Absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Karen E.; Littell, Justin D.; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Annett, Martin S.; Seal, Michael D., II

    2015-01-01

    Two composite energy absorbers were developed and evaluated at NASA Langley Research Center through multi-level testing and simulation performed under the Transport Rotorcraft Airframe Crash Testbed (TRACT) research program. A conical-shaped energy absorber, designated the conusoid, was evaluated that consisted of four layers of hybrid carbon-Kevlar plain weave fabric oriented at [+45 deg/-45 deg/-45 deg/+45 deg] with respect to the vertical, or crush, direction. A sinusoidal-shaped energy absorber, designated the sinusoid, was developed that consisted of hybrid carbon-Kevlar plain weave fabric face sheets, two layers for each face sheet oriented at +/-45deg with respect to the vertical direction and a closed-cell ELFOAM P200 polyisocyanurate (2.0-lb/cu ft) foam core. The design goal for the energy absorbers was to achieve average floor-level accelerations of between 25- and 40-g during the full-scale crash test of a retrofitted CH-46E helicopter airframe, designated TRACT 2. Variations in both designs were assessed through dynamic crush testing of component specimens. Once the designs were finalized, subfloor beams of each configuration were fabricated and retrofitted into a barrel section of a CH-46E helicopter. A vertical drop test of the barrel section was conducted onto concrete to evaluate the performance of the energy absorbers prior to retrofit into TRACT 2. The retrofitted airframe was crash tested under combined forward and vertical velocity conditions onto soil, which is characterized as a sand/clay mixture. Finite element models were developed of all test articles and simulations were performed using LS-DYNA, a commercial nonlinear explicit transient dynamic finite element code. Test-analysis results are presented for each energy absorber as comparisons of time-history responses, as well as predicted and experimental structural deformations and progressive damage under impact loading for each evaluation level.

  4. Synthesis of Numerical Methods for Modeling Wave Energy Converter-Point Absorbers: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y.; Yu, Y. H.

    2012-05-01

    During the past few decades, wave energy has received significant attention among all ocean energy formats. Industry has proposed hundreds of prototypes such as an oscillating water column, a point absorber, an overtopping system, and a bottom-hinged system. In particular, many researchers have focused on modeling the floating-point absorber as the technology to extract wave energy. Several modeling methods have been used such as the analytical method, the boundary-integral equation method, the Navier-Stokes equations method, and the empirical method. However, no standardized method has been decided. To assist the development of wave energy conversion technologies, this report reviews the methods for modeling the floating-point absorber.

  5. Estimation of snow albedo reduction by light absorbing impurities using Monte Carlo radiative transfer model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, D.; Gao, L.; Wilcox, E. M.; Beres, N. D.; Moosmüller, H.; Khlystov, A.

    2017-12-01

    Radiative forcing and climate change greatly depends on earth's surface albedo and its temporal and spatial variation. The surface albedo varies greatly depending on the surface characteristics ranging from 5-10% for calm ocean waters to 80% for some snow-covered areas. Clean and fresh snow surfaces have the highest albedo and are most sensitive to contamination with light absorbing impurities that can greatly reduce surface albedo and change overall radiative forcing estimates. Accurate estimation of snow albedo as well as understanding of feedbacks on climate from changes in snow-covered areas is important for radiative forcing, snow energy balance, predicting seasonal snowmelt, and run off rates. Such information is essential to inform timely decision making of stakeholders and policy makers. Light absorbing particles deposited onto the snow surface can greatly alter snow albedo and have been identified as a major contributor to regional climate forcing if seasonal snow cover is involved. However, uncertainty associated with quantification of albedo reduction by these light absorbing particles is high. Here, we use Mie theory (under the assumption of spherical snow grains) to reconstruct the single scattering parameters of snow (i.e., single scattering albedo ῶ and asymmetry parameter g) from observation-based size distribution information and retrieved refractive index values. The single scattering parameters of impurities are extracted with the same approach from datasets obtained during laboratory combustion of biomass samples. Instead of using plane-parallel approximation methods to account for multiple scattering, we have used the simple "Monte Carlo ray/photon tracing approach" to calculate the snow albedo. This simple approach considers multiple scattering to be the "collection" of single scattering events. Using this approach, we vary the effective snow grain size and impurity concentrations to explore the evolution of snow albedo over a wide

  6. Multireference excitation energies for bacteriochlorophylls A within light harvesting system 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anda, Andre; Hansen, Thorsten; De Vico, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Light-harvesting system 2 (LH2) of purple bacteria is one of the most popular antenna complexes used to study Nature's way of collecting and channeling solar energy. The dynamics of the absorbed energy is probed by ultrafast spectroscopy. Simulation of these experiments relies on fitting a range...... bacteriochlorophylls in LH2. We find that the excitation energies vary among the bacteriochlorophyll monomers and that they are regulated by the curvature of the macrocycle ring and the dihedral angle of an acetyl moiety. Increasing the curvature lifts the ground state energy, which causes a red shift...

  7. Perovskite oxides for visible-light-absorbing ferroelectric and photovoltaic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinberg, Ilya; West, D Vincent; Torres, Maria; Gou, Gaoyang; Stein, David M; Wu, Liyan; Chen, Guannan; Gallo, Eric M; Akbashev, Andrew R; Davies, Peter K; Spanier, Jonathan E; Rappe, Andrew M

    2013-11-28

    Ferroelectrics have recently attracted attention as a candidate class of materials for use in photovoltaic devices, and for the coupling of light absorption with other functional properties. In these materials, the strong inversion symmetry breaking that is due to spontaneous electric polarization promotes the desirable separation of photo-excited carriers and allows voltages higher than the bandgap, which may enable efficiencies beyond the maximum possible in a conventional p-n junction solar cell. Ferroelectric oxides are also stable in a wide range of mechanical, chemical and thermal conditions and can be fabricated using low-cost methods such as sol-gel thin-film deposition and sputtering. Recent work has shown how a decrease in ferroelectric layer thickness and judicious engineering of domain structures and ferroelectric-electrode interfaces can greatly increase the current harvested from ferroelectric absorber materials, increasing the power conversion efficiency from about 10(-4) to about 0.5 per cent. Further improvements in photovoltaic efficiency have been inhibited by the wide bandgaps (2.7-4 electronvolts) of ferroelectric oxides, which allow the use of only 8-20 per cent of the solar spectrum. Here we describe a family of single-phase solid oxide solutions made from low-cost and non-toxic elements using conventional solid-state methods: [KNbO3]1 - x[BaNi1/2Nb1/2O3 - δ]x (KBNNO). These oxides exhibit both ferroelectricity and a wide variation of direct bandgaps in the range 1.1-3.8 electronvolts. In particular, the x = 0.1 composition is polar at room temperature, has a direct bandgap of 1.39 electronvolts and has a photocurrent density approximately 50 times larger than that of the classic ferroelectric (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti)O3 material. The ability of KBNNO to absorb three to six times more solar energy than the current ferroelectric materials suggests a route to viable ferroelectric semiconductor-based cells for solar energy conversion and

  8. DETERMINATION OF ENERGY LOSSES BY SHOCK ABSORBER IN A FREIGHT CAR AT CRASH MODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya. V. Bolzhelarskyi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this work is to determine the energy losses in the shock absorber of the freight car whose wheel-set moves in the derailed state on the track panel depending on the axle load and structural parameters of spring suspension. Methodology. On the basis of spring suspension construction analysis and operating principle of the friction shock absorber of the freight car bogie the authors provide the method for determining the energy absorbed by it. The calculations take the maximum values of the absorber elements displacement and the regulatory values of spring suspension parameters. Findings. The authors obtained the calculated formula for determining the energy absorbed by shock absorber for regulation-set mounting schemes of elastic bogie elements depending on the axial load. The mentioned curves are parabolic. Originality. The work examines the crash mode of the wheel-set movement on the track panels after its derailment. It is shown that the energy dissipation in the shock absorbers is the reason for increase in resistance to rolling stock movement. The formulas for calculating the amount of energy dissipated in the shock absorber with a maximum displacement of its elements are derived. This energy depends on the axle load and structural parameters of spring suspension. Practical value. The proposed method allows setting the value of the additional resistance to motion that occurs in crash mode which makes it possible to increase the accuracy of traction calculations.

  9. Research on temperature characteristics of laser energy meter absorber irradiated by ms magnitude long pulse laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Qiao, Chunhong; Fan, Chengyu; Zhang, Jinghui; Yang, Gaochao

    2017-10-01

    The research on temperature characteristics for large-energy laser energy meter absorber is about continuous wave (CW) laser before. For the measuring requirements of millisecond magnitude long pulse laser energy, the temperature characteristics for absorber are numerically calculated and analyzed. In calculation, the temperature field distributions are described by heat conduction equations, and the metal cylinder cavity is used for absorber model. The results show that, the temperature of absorber inwall appears periodic oscillation with pulse structure, the oscillation period and amplitude respectively relate to the pulse repetition frequency and single pulse energy. With the wall deep increasing, the oscillation amplitude decreases rapidly. The temperature of absorber outerwall is without periodism, and rises gradually with time. The factors to affect the temperature rise of absorber are single pulse energy, pulse width and repetition frequency. When the laser irradiation stops, the temperature between absorber inwall and outerwall will reach agreement rapidly. After special technology processing to enhance the capacity of resisting laser damage for absorber inwall, the ms magnitude long pulse laser energy can be obtained with the method of measuring the temperature of absorber outerwall. Meanwhile, by optimization design of absorber structure, when the repetition frequency of ms magnitude pulse laser is less than 10Hz, the energy of every pulse for low repetition frequency pulse sequence can be measured. The work offers valuable references for the design of ms magnitude large-energy pulse laser energy meter.

  10. Impact Testing and Simulation of a Sinusoid Foam Sandwich Energy Absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Karen E.; Fasanella, Edwin L; Littell, Justin D.

    2015-01-01

    A sinusoidal-shaped foam sandwich energy absorber was developed and evaluated at NASA Langley Research Center through multi-level testing and simulation performed under the Transport Rotorcraft Airframe Crash Testbed (TRACT) research project. The energy absorber, designated the "sinusoid," consisted of hybrid carbon- Kevlar® plain weave fabric face sheets, two layers for each face sheet oriented at +/-45deg with respect to the vertical or crush direction, and a closed-cell ELFOAM(TradeMark) P200 polyisocyanurate (2.0-lb/ft3) foam core. The design goal for the energy absorber was to achieve an average floor-level acceleration of between 25- and 40-g during the full-scale crash test of a retrofitted CH-46E helicopter airframe, designated TRACT 2. Variations in the design were assessed through quasi-static and dynamic crush testing of component specimens. Once the design was finalized, a 5-ft-long subfloor beam was fabricated and retrofitted into a barrel section of a CH-46E helicopter. A vertical drop test of the barrel section was conducted onto concrete to evaluate the performance of the energy absorber prior to retrofit into TRACT 2. Finite element models were developed of all test articles and simulations were performed using LSDYNA ®, a commercial nonlinear explicit transient dynamic finite element code. Test analysis results are presented for the sinusoid foam sandwich energy absorber as comparisons of load-displacement and acceleration-time-history responses, as well as predicted and experimental structural deformations and progressive damage for each evaluation level (component testing through barrel section drop testing).

  11. The Investigation of Property of Radiation and Absorbed of Infrared Lights of the Biological Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xiao-Feng; Deng, Bo; Xiao, He-Lan; Cai, Guo-Ping

    2010-04-01

    The properties of absorption of infrared light for collagen, hemoglobin, bivine serum albumen (BSA) protein molecules with α- helix structure and water in the living systems as well as the infrared transmission spectra for person’s skins and finger hands of human body in the region of 400-4000 cm-1 (i.e., wavelengths of 2-20 μm) have been collected and determined by using a Nicolet Nexus 670 FT-IR Spectrometer, a Perkin Elmer GX FT-IR spectrometer, an OMA (optical multichannel analysis) and an infrared probe systems, respectively. The experimental results obtained show that the protein molecules and water can all absorb the infrared lights in the ranges of 600-1900 cm-1 and 2900-3900 cm-l, but their properties of absorption are somewhat different due to distinctions of their structure and conformation and molecular weight. We know from the transmission spectra of person’s finger hands and skin that the infrared lights with wavelengths of 2 μm-7 μm can not only transmit over the person’s skin and finger hands, but also be absorbed by the above proteins and water in the living systems. Thus, we can conclude from this study that the human beings and animals can absorb the infrared lights with wavelengths of 2 μm-7 μm.

  12. Robust sensor for turbidity measurement from light scattering and absorbing liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontturi, Ville; Turunen, Petri; Uozumi, Jun; Peiponen, Kai-Erik

    2009-12-01

    Internationally standardized turbidity measurements for probing solid particles in liquid are problematic in the case of simultaneous light scattering and absorption. A method and a sensor to determine the turbidity in the presence of light absorption are presented. The developed sensor makes use of the total internal reflection of a laser beam at the liquid-prism interface, and the turbidity is assessed using the concept of laser speckle pattern. Using average filtering in speckle data analyzing the observed dynamic speckle pattern, which is due to light scattering from particles and the static speckle due to stray light of the sensor, can be separated from each other. Good correlation between the standard deviation of dynamic speckle and turbidity value for nonabsorbing and for absorbing liquids was observed. The sensor is suggested, for instance, for the measurement of ill-behaved as well as small-volume turbid liquids in both medicine and process industry.

  13. Numerical Modeling of a Wave Energy Point Absorber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez, Lorenzo Banos; Frigaard, Peter; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2009-01-01

    The present study deals with numerical modelling of the Wave Star Energy WSE device. Hereby, linear potential theory is applied via a BEM code on the wave hydrodynamics exciting the floaters. Time and frequency domain solutions of the floater response are determined for regular and irregular seas....... Furthermore, these results are used to estimate the power and the energy absorbed by a single oscillating floater. Finally, a latching control strategy is analysed in open-loop configuration for energy maximization....

  14. Sources of light-absorbing aerosol in arctic snow and their seasonal variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean A. Hegg

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Two data sets consisting of measurements of light absorbing aerosols (LAA in arctic snow together with suites of other corresponding chemical constituents are presented; the first from Siberia, Greenland and near the North Pole obtained in 2008, and the second from the Canadian arctic obtained in 2009. A preliminary differentiation of the LAA into black carbon (BC and non-BC LAA is done. Source attribution of the light absorbing aerosols was done using a positive matrix factorization (PMF model. Four sources were found for each data set (crop and grass burning, boreal biomass burning, pollution and marine. For both data sets, the crops and grass biomass burning was the main source of both LAA species, suggesting the non-BC LAA was brown carbon. Depth profiles at most of the sites allowed assessment of the seasonal variation in the source strengths. The biomass burning sources dominated in the spring but pollution played a more significant (though rarely dominant role in the fall, winter and, for Greenland, summer. The PMF analysis is consistent with trajectory analysis and satellite fire maps.

  15. Grey Tienshan Urumqi Glacier No.1 and light-absorbing impurities

    OpenAIRE

    Ming, Jing; Xiao, Cunde; Wang, Feiteng; Li, Zhongqin; Li, Yamin

    2016-01-01

    The Tienshan Urumqi Glacier No.1 (TUG1) usually shows ?grey? surfaces in summers. Besides known regional warming, what should be responsible for largely reducing its surface albedo and making it look ?grey?? A field campaign was conducted on the TUG1 on a selected cloud-free day of 2013 after a snow fall at night. Fresh and aged snow samples were collected in the field, and snow densities, grain sizes, and spectral reflectances were measured. Light-absorbing impurities (LAIs) including black ...

  16. Crush Can Behaviour as an Energy Absorber in a Frontal Impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhuyan, Atanu; Ganilova, Olga

    2012-01-01

    The work presented is devoted to the investigation of a state-of-the-art technological solution for the design of a crush-can characterized by optimal energy absorbing properties. The work is focused on the theoretical background of the square tubes, circular tubes and inverbucktube performance under impact with the purpose of design of a novel optimized structure. The main system under consideration is based on the patent US 2008/0185851 A1 and includes a base flange with elongated crush boxes and back straps for stabilization of the crush boxes with the purpose of improvement of the energy-absorbing functionality. The modelling of this system is carried out applying both a theoretical approach and finite element analysis concentrating on the energy absorbing abilities of the crumple zones. The optimization process is validated under dynamic and quasi-static loading conditions whilst considering various modes of deformation and stress distribution along the tubular components. Energy absorbing behaviour of the crush-cans is studied concentrating on their geometrical properties and their diamond or concertina modes of deformation. Moreover, structures made of different materials, steel, aluminium and polymer composites are considered for the material effect analysis and optimization through their combination. Optimization of the crush-can behaviour is done within the limits of the frontal impact scenario with the purpose of improvement of the structural performance in the Euro NCAP tests.

  17. Crush Can Behaviour as an Energy Absorber in a Frontal Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuyan, Atanu; Ganilova, Olga

    2012-08-01

    The work presented is devoted to the investigation of a state-of-the-art technological solution for the design of a crush-can characterized by optimal energy absorbing properties. The work is focused on the theoretical background of the square tubes, circular tubes and inverbucktube performance under impact with the purpose of design of a novel optimized structure. The main system under consideration is based on the patent US 2008/0185851 A1 and includes a base flange with elongated crush boxes and back straps for stabilization of the crush boxes with the purpose of improvement of the energy-absorbing functionality. The modelling of this system is carried out applying both a theoretical approach and finite element analysis concentrating on the energy absorbing abilities of the crumple zones. The optimization process is validated under dynamic and quasi-static loading conditions whilst considering various modes of deformation and stress distribution along the tubular components. Energy absorbing behaviour of the crush-cans is studied concentrating on their geometrical properties and their diamond or concertina modes of deformation. Moreover, structures made of different materials, steel, aluminium and polymer composites are considered for the material effect analysis and optimization through their combination. Optimization of the crush-can behaviour is done within the limits of the frontal impact scenario with the purpose of improvement of the structural performance in the Euro NCAP tests.

  18. ASCA observations of the composite warm absorber in NGC 3516

    OpenAIRE

    ESPEY, BRIAN RUSSELL

    1996-01-01

    PUBLISHED We obtained X-ray spectra of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 3516 in 1995 March using the Japanese X-ray satellite, ASCA. Simultaneous far-UV observations were obtained with the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope on the Astro-2 shuttle mission. The ASCA spectrum shows a lightly absorbed power law of energy index 0.78. The low-energy absorbing column is significantly less than previously seen. Prominent O VII and O VIII absorption edges are visible, but, consistent with the much lower total a...

  19. Two photon absorption energy transfer in the light-harvesting complex of photosystem II (LHC-II) modified with organic boron dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Liu, Cheng; Hu, Rui; Feng, Jiao; Wang, Shuangqing; Li, Shayu; Yang, Chunhong; Yang, Guoqiang

    2014-07-01

    The plant light-harvesting complexes of photosystem II (LHC-II) play important roles in collecting solar energy and transferring the energy to the reaction centers of photosystems I and II. A two photon absorption compound, 4-(bromomethyl)-N-(4-(dimesitylboryl)phenyl)-N-phenylaniline (DMDP-CH2Br), was synthesized and covalently linked to the LHC-II in formation of a LHC-II-dye complex, which still maintained the biological activity of LHC-II system. Under irradiation with femtosecond laser pulses at 754 nm, the LHC-II-dye complex can absorb two photons of the laser light effectively compared with the wild type LHC-II. The absorbed excitation energy is then transferred to chlorophyll a with an obvious fluorescence enhancement. The results may be interesting and give potentials for developing hybrid photosystems.

  20. Can polar bear hairs absorb environmental energy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Ji-Huan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A polar bear (Ursus maritimus has superior ability to survive in harsh Arctic regions, why does the animal have such an excellent thermal protection? The present paper finds that the unique labyrinth cavity structure of the polar bear hair plays an important role. The hair can not only prevent body temperature loss but can also absorb energy from the environment.

  1. Triazolobithiophene Light Absorbing Self-Assembled Monolayers: Synthesis and Mass Spectrometry Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Séraphin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of five light absorbing triazolobithiophenic thiols, which were utilized for producing self-assembled monolayers (SAMs on gold surfaces, is presented. The monolayer formation was monitored by cyclic voltammetry, indicating excellent surface coverage. The new triazolobithiophenic compounds exhibited an absorption maximum around 340 nm, which is close to the emission wavelength of a standard nitrogen laser. Consequently these compounds could be used to aid ionization in laser desorption mass spectrometry (MS.

  2. Energy transfer dynamics from individual semiconductor nanoantennae to dye molecules with implication to light-harvesting nanosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Guangcun; Hu, Mingjun; Yan, Ze; Li, Xin; Huang, Wei

    2018-03-01

    Semiconductor nanocrystals can be used as nanoscale optical antennae to photoexcite individual dye molecules in an ensemble via energy transfer mechanism. The theoretical framework developed by Förster and others describes how electronic excitation migrates in the photosynthetic apparatus of plants, algae, and bacteria from light absorbing pigments to reaction centers where light energy is utilized for the eventual conversion into chemical energy. Herein we investigate the effect of the average donor-acceptor spacing on the time-resolved fluorescence intensity and dynamics of single donor-acceptor pairs with the dye acceptor concentration decreasing by using quantum Monte-Carlo simulation of FRET dynamics. Our results validated that the spatial disorder controlling the microscopic energy transfer rates accounts for the scatter in donor fluorescence lifetimes and intensities, which provides a new design guideline for artificial light-harvesting nanosystems.

  3. Method of absorbance correction in a spectroscopic heating value sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saveliev, Alexei; Jangale, Vilas Vyankatrao; Zelepouga, Sergeui; Pratapas, John

    2013-09-17

    A method and apparatus for absorbance correction in a spectroscopic heating value sensor in which a reference light intensity measurement is made on a non-absorbing reference fluid, a light intensity measurement is made on a sample fluid, and a measured light absorbance of the sample fluid is determined. A corrective light intensity measurement at a non-absorbing wavelength of the sample fluid is made on the sample fluid from which an absorbance correction factor is determined. The absorbance correction factor is then applied to the measured light absorbance of the sample fluid to arrive at a true or accurate absorbance for the sample fluid.

  4. Slow and Fast Light in an Electro-Absorber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öhman, Filip; Bermejo Ramirez, Andres; Sales, Salvador

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate controllable and large time delay in cascaded semiconductor saturable absorbers and amplifiers. The possibility of further increasing the tuneable phase shift by utilizing field screening effects in the quantum well absorber is demonstrated.......We demonstrate controllable and large time delay in cascaded semiconductor saturable absorbers and amplifiers. The possibility of further increasing the tuneable phase shift by utilizing field screening effects in the quantum well absorber is demonstrated....

  5. On the absorbed dose determination method in high energy photon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarlat, F.; Scarisoreanu, A.; Oane, M.; Mitru, E.; Avadanei, C.

    2008-01-01

    The absorbed dose determination method in water, based on standards of air kerma or exposure in high energy photon beams generated by electron with energies in the range of 1 MeV to 50 MeV is presented herein. The method is based on IAEA-398, AAPM TG-51, DIN 6800-2, IAEA-381, IAEA-277 and NACP-80 recommendations. The dosimetry equipment is composed of UNIDOS T 10005 electrometer and different ionization chambers calibrated in air kerma method in a Co 60 beam. Starting from the general formalism showed in IAEA-381, the determination of absorbed dose in water, under reference conditions in high energy photon beams, is given. This method was adopted for the secondary standard dosimetry laboratory (SSDL) in NILPRP-Bucharest

  6. Dynamic tuning of optical absorbers for accelerated solar-thermal energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongyong; Tong, Zhen; Ye, Qinxian; Hu, Hang; Nie, Xiao; Yan, Chen; Shang, Wen; Song, Chengyi; Wu, Jianbo; Wang, Jun; Bao, Hua; Tao, Peng; Deng, Tao

    2017-11-14

    Currently, solar-thermal energy storage within phase-change materials relies on adding high thermal-conductivity fillers to improve the thermal-diffusion-based charging rate, which often leads to limited enhancement of charging speed and sacrificed energy storage capacity. Here we report the exploration of a magnetically enhanced photon-transport-based charging approach, which enables the dynamic tuning of the distribution of optical absorbers dispersed within phase-change materials, to simultaneously achieve fast charging rates, large phase-change enthalpy, and high solar-thermal energy conversion efficiency. Compared with conventional thermal charging, the optical charging strategy improves the charging rate by more than 270% and triples the amount of overall stored thermal energy. This superior performance results from the distinct step-by-step photon-transport charging mechanism and the increased latent heat storage through magnetic manipulation of the dynamic distribution of optical absorbers.

  7. Reducing uncertainties associated with filter-based optical measurements of light absorbing carbon particles with chemical information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engström, J. E.; Leck, C.

    2011-08-01

    The presented filter-based optical method for determination of soot (light absorbing carbon or Black Carbon, BC) can be implemented in the field under primitive conditions and at low cost. This enables researchers with small economical means to perform monitoring at remote locations, especially in the Asia where it is much needed. One concern when applying filter-based optical measurements of BC is that they suffer from systematic errors due to the light scattering of non-absorbing particles co-deposited on the filter, such as inorganic salts and mineral dust. In addition to an optical correction of the non-absorbing material this study provides a protocol for correction of light scattering based on the chemical quantification of the material, which is a novelty. A newly designed photometer was implemented to measure light transmission on particle accumulating filters, which includes an additional sensor recording backscattered light. The choice of polycarbonate membrane filters avoided high chemical blank values and reduced errors associated with length of the light path through the filter. Two protocols for corrections were applied to aerosol samples collected at the Maldives Climate Observatory Hanimaadhoo during episodes with either continentally influenced air from the Indian/Arabian subcontinents (winter season) or pristine air from the Southern Indian Ocean (summer monsoon). The two ways of correction (optical and chemical) lowered the particle light absorption of BC by 63 to 61 %, respectively, for data from the Arabian Sea sourced group, resulting in median BC absorption coefficients of 4.2 and 3.5 Mm-1. Corresponding values for the South Indian Ocean data were 69 and 97 % (0.38 and 0.02 Mm-1). A comparison with other studies in the area indicated an overestimation of their BC levels, by up to two orders of magnitude. This raises the necessity for chemical correction protocols on optical filter-based determinations of BC, before even the sign on the

  8. Reducing uncertainties associated with filter-based optical measurements of light absorbing carbon particles with chemical information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Engström

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The presented filter-based optical method for determination of soot (light absorbing carbon or Black Carbon, BC can be implemented in the field under primitive conditions and at low cost. This enables researchers with small economical means to perform monitoring at remote locations, especially in the Asia where it is much needed.

    One concern when applying filter-based optical measurements of BC is that they suffer from systematic errors due to the light scattering of non-absorbing particles co-deposited on the filter, such as inorganic salts and mineral dust. In addition to an optical correction of the non-absorbing material this study provides a protocol for correction of light scattering based on the chemical quantification of the material, which is a novelty. A newly designed photometer was implemented to measure light transmission on particle accumulating filters, which includes an additional sensor recording backscattered light. The choice of polycarbonate membrane filters avoided high chemical blank values and reduced errors associated with length of the light path through the filter.

    Two protocols for corrections were applied to aerosol samples collected at the Maldives Climate Observatory Hanimaadhoo during episodes with either continentally influenced air from the Indian/Arabian subcontinents (winter season or pristine air from the Southern Indian Ocean (summer monsoon. The two ways of correction (optical and chemical lowered the particle light absorption of BC by 63 to 61 %, respectively, for data from the Arabian Sea sourced group, resulting in median BC absorption coefficients of 4.2 and 3.5 Mm−1. Corresponding values for the South Indian Ocean data were 69 and 97 % (0.38 and 0.02 Mm−1. A comparison with other studies in the area indicated an overestimation of their BC levels, by up to two orders of magnitude. This raises the necessity for chemical correction protocols on optical filter

  9. System for determining absorbed dose and its distribution for high-energy electron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegewald, H.; Wulff, W.

    1977-01-01

    Taking into account the polarization effect, the dose determination for high-energy electron radiation from particle accelerators depends on the knowledge of the energy dependence of the mass stopping power. Results obtained with thermoluminescent dosemeters agree with theoretical values. For absorbed dose measurements the primary energy of electron radiation has been determined by nuclear photoreactions, and the calculation of the absorbed dose from charge measurements by means of the mass stopping power is described. Thus the calibration of ionization chambers for high-energy electron radiation by absolute measurements with the Faraday cage and chemical dosemeters has become possible. (author)

  10. Design considerations for application of metallic honeycomb as an energy absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.H.; Roemer, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    Design for postulated accidents in nuclear power plants often requires mitigation of impact to safety-related structures. Plastically designed, energy absorbing mechanisms are often used in the design of such mitigating structures. Metallic honeycomb is the most efficient, practical, energy-absorbing material currently in use. Recent tests indicate that its use in this application, however, presents some unique design and fabrication problems. The paper presents the results of static and dynamic crush tests concerned with the effect of impact velocity, material properties, cell density, loading configuration, and overall pad geometry. Specific design recommendations are made in each area, and suggestions are provided to improve fabrication techniques and minimize subsequent problems

  11. Development of methodology for assessment of absorbed dose and stopping power for low energy conversion electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Ivan Pedro Salati de

    1995-08-01

    The evaluation of absorbed dose in the case of external and internal contamination due to radionuclides is sometimes hard, because of the difficulties in the assessment of the absorbed dose caused by electrons with energy less than 100 KeV in mucous membrane. In this work, a methodology for assessment of absorbed dose and stopping power in VYNS (co-polymer of polivinyl chloride - acetate) absorbers, for the 62.5 KeV and 84-88 KeV energy 109 Cd conversion electrons, working with a 4 π proportional pressurized detector, is presented. In order to assure the reproducibility of measurement conditions, one of the detector halves has been used to obtain a spectrum of a thin 109 Cd source, without absorber. The other half of the detector was used in concomitance to obtain spectra with different thicknesses if absorber. The absorbed energy was obtained subtracting each spectrum with absorber from the spectrum without absorber, which were stored in a microcomputer connected to signal processing systems by ACE type interface. The VYNS weight and thickness were evaluated using common radionuclide metrology procedures. As VYNS has characteristics similar to a tissue equivalent material, the results obtained are consistent with dosimetric concepts and have a good agreement with those of the literature. (author)

  12. Photoluminescence-based quality control for thin film absorber layers of photovoltaic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repins, Ingrid L.; Kuciauskas, Darius

    2015-07-07

    A time-resolved photoluminescence-based system providing quality control during manufacture of thin film absorber layers for photovoltaic devices. The system includes a laser generating excitation beams and an optical fiber with an end used both for directing each excitation beam onto a thin film absorber layer and for collecting photoluminescence from the absorber layer. The system includes a processor determining a quality control parameter such as minority carrier lifetime of the thin film absorber layer based on the collected photoluminescence. In some implementations, the laser is a low power, pulsed diode laser having photon energy at least great enough to excite electron hole pairs in the thin film absorber layer. The scattered light may be filterable from the collected photoluminescence, and the system may include a dichroic beam splitter and a filter that transmit the photoluminescence and remove scattered laser light prior to delivery to a photodetector and a digital oscilloscope.

  13. Perovskite semiconductor La(Ni{sub 0.75}W{sub 0.25})O{sub 3} nanoparticles for visible-light-absorbing photocatalytic material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Lei; Xie, Hongde, E-mail: xiehongde@suda.edu.cn; Pu, Yinfu; Huang, Yanlin [Soochow University, State and Local Joint Engineering Laboratory for Novel Functional Polymeric Materials, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science (China); Qin, Lin; Seo, Hyo Jin, E-mail: hjseo@pknu.ac.kr [Pukyong National University, Department of Physics and Interdisciplinary Program of Biomedical, Mechanical & Electrical Engineering (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    La(Ni{sub 0.75}W{sub 0.25})O{sub 3} perovskite oxide was prepared via the sol–gel Pechini route. The pure crystalline phase was verified via X-ray diffraction measurements and Rietveld structure refinements. Some measurements were applied to characterize the surface of the nanoparticles such as transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, specific surface area, and X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy measurements. The optical measurement confirmed that this perovskite oxide can absorb the visible light presenting low band energy of 2.41 eV. The d–d allowed transitions in Ni{sup 2+}-O octahedral have great contributions to the narrow band-gap. The Ni{sup 2+}-containing perovskite was applied as a photocatalyst showing the desirable photodegradation ability for methylene blue solutions under the excitation of visible-light. The photocatalysis activities were discussed in the relationship with its special perovskite-type structure such as the NiO{sub 6} color centers and multivalent cation ions etc.

  14. Design and fabrication of an energy-harvesting device using vibration absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Hamidreza; Afifi, Arash

    2017-05-01

    Energy-harvesting devices collect energy that is being wasted and convert to the electrical energy. For this reason, this type of devices is considered as a convenient alternative to traditional batteries. In this paper, experimental examinations were performed to investigate the application of harvesting device for the reduction of the vibration amplitude in a vibration system and also increase the efficiency of energy-harvesting device. This study focuses on the energy-harvesting device as both producing electrical device and a vibration disabled absorber. In this regard, a motion-based energy-harvesting device is designed to produce electrical energy and also eliminate vibrations of a two joint-end beam which is located under the harmonic excitation force. Then, the governing equations of the forced motion on the main beam are derived and energy-harvesting system are simulated. In addition, the system designed by MATLAB simulation is explained and its results are expressed. Finally, a prototype of the system was made and the ability of the energy-harvesting device to absorb the original system vibrations, as well as parameters impact on the efficiency of energy harvesting is investigated. Experimental results show that the energy-harvesting device, in addition to producing electric current with a maximum value of 1.5V, reduces 94% of the original system vibrations.

  15. The influence of mammographic X-ray spectra on absorbed energy distribution in breast: Monte Carlo simulation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delis, H.; Spyrou, G.; Tzanakos, G.; Panayiotakis, G.

    2005-01-01

    A mathematical model, based on Monte Carlo simulation, is proposed for deriving absorbed energy and dose distribution in mammography utilizing a mathematical water-like phantom. The model was validated for its accuracy against experimental and published data. The main factor discriminating absorbed energy distribution characteristics among different mammographic techniques was considered the X-ray spectrum. The absorbed energy distribution inside the phantom was investigated via percentage depth dose and isodose curves. The influence of the factors affecting X-ray spectrum (tube voltage, anode material, filter material and thickness) on absorbed energy distribution was examined. The hardness of the beam, due to increase of tube voltage or filtration, was found to be the major factor affecting absorbed energy distribution inside the phantom. In general, Mo and W anode systems demonstrated superior dosimetric characteristics against those of W-Mo or Rh. The model presented can be used for estimating absolute and relative breast dose values and their spatial distributions

  16. Implementation of a physically-based scheme representing light-absorbing impurities deposition, evolution and radiative impacts in the SURFEX/Crocus model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzet, F.; Dumont, M.; Lafaysse, M.; Hagenmuller, P.; Arnaud, L.; Picard, G.; Morin, S.

    2017-12-01

    Light-absorbing impurities decrease snow albedo, increasing the amount of solar energy absorbed by the snowpack. Its most intuitive impact is to accelerate snow melt. However the presence of a layer highly concentrated in light-absorbing impurities in the snowpack also modify its temperature profile affecting snow metamorphism. New capabilities have been implemented in the detailed snowpack model SURFEX/ISBA-Crocus (referred to as Crocus) to account for impurities deposition and evolution within the snowpack (Tuzet et al., 2017, TCD). Once deposited, the model computes impurities mass evolution until snow melts out. Taking benefits of the recent inclusion of the spectral radiative transfer model TARTES in Crocus, the model explicitly represents the radiative impacts of light-absorbing impurities in snow. In the Pyrenees mountain range, strong sporadic Saharan dust deposition (referred to as dust outbreaks) can occur during the snow season leading some snow layers in the snowpack to contain high concentrations of mineral dust. One of the major events of the past years occurred on February 2014, affecting the whole southern Europe. During the weeks following this dust outbreak a strong avalanche activity was reported in the Aran valley (Pyrenees, Spain). For now, the link between the dust outbreak and the avalanche activity is not demonstrated.We investigate the impact of this dust outbreak on the snowpack stability in the Aran valley using the Crocus model, trying to determine whether the snowpack instability observed after the dust outbreak can be related to the presence of dust. SAFRAN-reanalysis meteorological data are used to drive the model on several altitudes, slopes and aspects. For each slope configuration two different simulations are run; one without dust and one simulating the dust outbreak of February 2014.The two corresponding simulations are then compared to assess the role of impurities on snow metamorphism and stability.On this example, we

  17. Panchromatic response composed of hybrid visible-light absorbing polymers and near-IR absorbing dyes for nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2}-based solid-state solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyo Joong; Graetzel, Michael; Nazeeruddin, Md. Khaja [Laboratory for Photonics and Interfaces, Institute of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, School of Basic Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Leventis, Henry C.; Haque, Saif A. [Department of Chemistry, Imperial College of Science Technology and Medicine, London SW72AZ (United Kingdom); Torres, Tomas [Departamento de Quimica Organica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (UAM), 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-01-01

    In pursuit of panchromatic sensitizers for mesoporous TiO{sub 2}-based solid-state solar cells, a near-IR absorbing zinc phthalocyanine dye (coded TT1) was firstly adsorbed over relatively thin ({proportional_to}1 {mu}m) TiO{sub 2} mesoporous films and then a visible-light absorbing polymer [regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene), P3HT] was incorporated into the mesopores as both a second sensitizer and a solid hole conductor. After optimizing some experimental parameters, these hybrid solid-state cells exhibited a clear panchromatic response, and an overall conversion efficiency of around 1% at full sun intensity. (author)

  18. (C6H13N)2BiI5: A One-Dimensional Lead-Free Perovskite-Derivative Photoconductive Light Absorber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weichuan; Tao, Kewen; Ji, Chengmin; Sun, Zhihua; Han, Shiguo; Zhang, Jing; Wu, Zhenyue; Luo, Junhua

    2018-04-16

    Lead-free organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have recently attracted intense interest as environmentally friendly, low-cost, chemically stable light absorbers. Here, we reported a new one-dimensional (1D) zigzag chainlike light-absorbing hybrid material of (C 6 H 13 N) 2 BiI 5 , in which the corner-sharing octahedral bismuth halide chains are surrounded by organic cations of tetramethylpiperidinium. This unique zigzag 1D hybrid perovskite-derivative material shows a narrow direct band gap of 2.02 eV and long-lived photoluminescence, which is encouraging for optoelectronic applications. Importantly, it behaves as a typical semiconducting material and displays obvious photoresponse in the visible-light range. This work opens a potential pathway for the further application of 1D lead-free hybrids.

  19. A computational model for heterogeneous heating during pulsed laser irradiation of polymers doped with light-absorbing microparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marla, Deepak; Zhang, Yang; Jabbaribehnam, Mirmasoud

    2016-01-01

    characteristics. This work presents a study based on a computational model of laser heating of polymer doped with light-absorbing microparticles accounting for the heterogeneous nature of heating. The work aims at gaining a fundamental insight into the nature of the heating process and to understand the role......Doping of polymers with light-absorbing microparticles to increase their optical properties is a commonly used pre-treatment technique in laser processing of polymers. The presence of these particles plays an important role during laser heating of the polymer that influences its surface...... of microparticles. The results suggest that apart from the laser intensity and pulse duration, the properties of the microparticles including their size and distribution also play an important role during the laser heating of polymers....

  20. Rigorous modelling of light's intensity angular-profile in Abbe refractometers with absorbing homogeneous fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Valenzuela, A; Contreras-Tello, H; Márquez-Islas, R; Sánchez-Pérez, C

    2013-01-01

    We derive an optical model for the light intensity distribution around the critical angle in a standard Abbe refractometer when used on absorbing homogenous fluids. The model is developed using rigorous electromagnetic optics. The obtained formula is very simple and can be used suitably in the analysis and design of optical sensors relying on Abbe type refractometry.

  1. The METAS absorbed dose to water calibration service for high energy photon and electron beam radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stucki, G.; Muench, W.; Quintel, H.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The Swiss Federal Office of Metrology and Accreditation (METAS) provides an absorbed dose to water calibration service for reference dosimeters using 60 Co γ radiation, ten X-ray beam qualities between TPR 20,10 =0.639 and 0.802 and ten electron beam qualities between R 50 =1.75 gcm -2 and 8.54 gcm -2 . A 22 MeV microtron accelerator with a conventional treatment head is used as radiation source for the high energy photon and electron beams. The treatment head produces clinical beams. The METAS absorbed dose calibration service for high energy photons is based on a primary standard sealed water calorimeter of the Domen type, that is used to calibrate several METAS transfer standards of type NE2611A and NE2571A in terms of absorbed dose to water in the energy range from 60 Co to TPR 20,10 = 0.802. User reference dosimeters are compared with the transfer standards to give calibration factors in absorbed dose to water with an uncertainty of 1.0% for 60 Co γ radiation and 1.4% for higher energies (coverage factor k=2). The calibration service was launched in 1997. The calibration factors measured by METAS have been compared with those derived from the Code of Practice of the International Atomic Energy Agency using the calculated k Q factors listed in table 14. The comparison showed a maximum difference of 0.8% for the NE25611A and NE 2571A chambers. At 60 Co γ radiation the METAS primary standard of absorbed dose to water was bilaterally compared with the primary standards of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures BIPM (Sevres) as well as of the National Research Council NRC (Canada). In either case the standards were in agreement within the comparison uncertainties. The METAS absorbed dose calibration service for high energy electron beams is based on a primary standard chemical dosimeter. A monoenergetic electron beam of precisely known particle energy and beam charge is totally absorbed in Fricke solution (ferrous ammonium sulphate) of a given

  2. High energy model for irregular absorbing particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiappetta, Pierre.

    1979-05-01

    In the framework of a high energy formulation of relativistic quantum scattering a model is presented which describes the scattering functions and polarization of irregular absorbing particles, whose dimensions are greater than the incident wavelength. More precisely in the forward direction an amplitude parametrization of eikonal type is defined which generalizes the usual diffraction theory, and in the backward direction a reflective model is used including a shadow function. The model predictions are in good agreement with the scattering measurements off irregular compact and fluffy particles performed by Zerull, Giese and Weiss (1977)

  3. Solar energy utilization by solar cells and superblack absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnet, D; Selders, M

    1975-10-31

    A review is presented of the physical principles responsible for the characteristics of solar cells, with particular reference to Si homojunction and CdS--Cu/sub 2/S thin film devices. Electric power generation from solar cells still appears uncompetitive economically except in special circumstances, but heating from solar energy using selective absorbers with low reemission is more promising.

  4. Gyroscopic power take-off wave energy point absorber in irregular sea states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zili; Chen, Bei; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights •A GyroPTO wave energy point absorber with magnetic coupling mechanism is proposed. •A 4DOF nonlinear model of the GyroPTO absorber has been derived. •Rational approximations are performed on the radiation damping moments. •Synchronization of the device is more easily maintained...... in narrow-banded sea waves. •The generator gain and the magnetic coupling constant influence the performance of the device....

  5. Shock absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Housman, J.J.

    1978-01-01

    A shock absorber is described for use in a hostile environment at the end of a blind passage for absorbing impact loads. The shock absorber includes at least one element which occupies the passage and which is comprised of a porous brittle material which is substantially non-degradable in the hostile environment. A void volume is provided in the element to enable the element to absorb a predetermined level of energy upon being crushed due to impact loading

  6. Extension of the Commonwealth standard of absorbed dose from cobalt-60 energy to 25 MV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherlock, S.L.

    1986-01-01

    With the introduction of high energy linear accelerators in hospitals, there is a need for direct measurement of absorbed dose for energies to 25 MV for photons and 20 MeV electrons. The present Australian standard for absorbed dose at cobalt-60 energy is a graphite micro-calorimeter maintained at the AAEC Lucas Heights Research Laboratories. A thorough theoretical analysis of calorimeter operation suggests that computer control and monitoring techniques are appropriate. Solution of Newton's law of cooling for a four-body calorimeter allows development of a computer simulation model. Different temperature control algorithms may then be run and assessed using this model. In particular, the application of a simple differencer is examined. Successful implementation of the calorimeter for energies up to 25 MV could lead to the introduction of an Australian absorbed dose protocol based on calorimetry, therby reducing the uncertainties associated with exposure-based protocols

  7. Light-absorbing Aerosol Properties in the Kathmandu Valley during SusKat-ABC Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S.; Yoon, S.; Kim, J.; Cho, C.; Jung, J.

    2013-12-01

    Light-absorbing aerosols, such as black carbon (BC), are major contributors to the atmospheric heating and the reduction of solar radiation reaching at the earth's surface. In this study, we investigate light-absorption and scattering properties of aerosols (i.e., BC mass concentration, aerosol solar-absorption/scattering efficiency) in the Kathmandu valley during Sustainable atmosphere for the Kathmandu valley (SusKat)-ABC campaign, from December 2012 to February 2013. Kathmandu City is among the most polluted cities in the world. However, there are only few past studies that provide basic understanding of air pollution in the Kathmandu Valley, which is not sufficient for designing effective mitigation measures (e.g., technological, financial, regulatory, legal and political measures, planning strategies). A distinct diurnal variation of BC mass concentration with two high peaks observed during wintertime dry monsoon period. BC mass concentration was found to be maximum around 09:00 and 20:00 local standard time (LST). Increased cars and cooking activities including substantial burning of wood and other biomass in the morning and in the evening contributed to high BC concentration. Low BC concentrations during the daytime can be explain by reduced vehicular movement and cooking activities. Also, the developmements of the boundary layer height and mountain-valley winds in the Kathmandu Valley paly a crucial role in the temproal variation of BC mass concentrations. Detailed radiative effects of light-absorbing aerosols will be presented.

  8. Black carbon and other light-absorbing impurities in the Andes of Northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, P. M.; Cordero, R.; Warren, S. G.; Pankow, A.; Jorquera, J.; Schrempf, M.; Doherty, S. J.; Cabellero, M.; Carrasco, J. F.; Neshyba, S.

    2015-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) and other light-absorbing impurities in snow absorb solar radiation and thus have the potential to accelerate glacial retreat and snowmelt. In Chile, glaciers and seasonal snow are important sources of water for irrigation and domestic uses. In July 2015 (Austral winter) we sampled snow in the western Andes in a north-south transect of Chile from 18 S to 34 S. Most of the sampled snow had fallen during a single synoptic event, during 11-13 July. The snow was melted and passed through 0.4 micrometer nuclepore filters. Preliminary estimates indicate that (1) the ratio of BC to dust in snow increases going south from Northern to Central Chile, and (2) in snow sampled during the two weeks following the snowstorm, the impurities were concentrated in the upper 5 cm of snow, indicating that the surface layer became polluted over time by dry deposition.

  9. Integrity of neutron-absorbing components of LWR fuel systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, W.J.; Berting, F.M.

    1991-03-01

    A study of the integrity and behavior of neutron-absorbing components of light-water (LWR) fuel systems was performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The components studies include control blades (cruciforms) for boiling-water reactors (BWRs) and rod cluster control assemblies for pressurized-water reactors (PWRs). The results of this study can be useful for understanding the degradation of neutron-absorbing components and for waste management planning and repository design. The report includes examples of the types of degradation, damage, or failures that have been encountered. Conclusions and recommendations are listed. 84 refs

  10. Fluorescence enhancement and nonreciprocal transmission of light waves by nanomaterial interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, M.; Shevchenko, A.; Kaivola, M.

    2017-11-01

    In an optically absorbing or amplifying linear medium, the energy flow density of interfering optical waves is in general periodically modulated in space. This makes the wave transmission through a material boundary, as described by the Fresnel transmission coefficients, nonreciprocal and apparently violating the energy conservation law. The modulation has been previously described in connection to ordinary homogeneous nonmagnetic materials. In this work, we extend the description to nanomaterials with designed structural units that can be magnetic at optical frequencies. We find that in such a "metamaterial" the modulation in energy flow can be used to enhance optical far-field emission in spite of the fact that the material is highly absorbing. We also demonstrate a nanomaterial design that absorbs light, but simultaneously eliminates the power flow modulation and returns the reciprocity, which is impossible to achieve with a nonmagnetic material. We anticipate that these unusual optical effects can be used to increase the efficiency of nanostructured light emitters and absorbers, such as light-emitting diodes and solar cells.

  11. Low Absorbance Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, T. D.; Williams, A. M.

    1983-10-01

    The application of low absorption measurements to dilute solute determination requires specific instrumental characteristics. The use of laser intracavity absorption and thermal lens calorimetry to measure concentration is shown. The specific operating parameters that determine sensitivity are delineated along with the limits different measurement strategies impose. Finally areas of improvement in components that would result in improve sensitivity, accuracy, and reliability are discussed. During the past decade, a large number of methods have been developed for measuring the light absorbed by transparent materials. These include measurements on gases, liquids, and solids. The activity has been prompted by a variety of applications and a similar variety of disciplines. In Table 1 some representative examples of these methods is shown along with their published detection limits.1 It is clear that extraordinarily small absorbances can be measured. Most of the methods can be conveniently divided into two groups. These groups are those that measure the transmission of the sample and those that measure the light absorbed by the sample. The light absorbed methods are calorimetric in character. The advantages and disadvantages of each method varies depending on the principal application for which they were developed. The most prevalent motivation has been to characterize the bulk optical properties of transparent materials. Two examples are the development of extremely transparent glasses for use as fiber optic materials and the development of substrates for high power laser operation.

  12. Control of base-excited dynamical systems through piezoelectric energy harvesting absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmoula, H.; Dai, H. L.; Abdelkefi, A.; Wang, L.

    2017-09-01

    The spring-mass absorber usually offers a good control to dynamical systems under direct base excitations for a specific value of the excitation frequency. As the vibrational energy of a primary dynamical system is transferred to the absorber, it gets dissipated. In this study, this energy is no longer dissipated but converted to available electrical power by designing efficient energy harvesters. A novel design of a piezoelectric beam installed inside an elastically-mounted dynamical system undergoing base excitations is considered. A design is carried out in order to determine the properties and dimensions of the energy harvester with the constraint of simultaneously decreasing the oscillating amplitudes of the primary dynamical system and increasing the harvested power of the energy harvesting absorber. An analytical model for the coupled system is constructed using Euler-Lagrange principle and Galerkin discretization. Different strategies for controlling the primary structure displacement and enhancing the harvested power as functions of the electrical load resistance and thickness of the beam substrate are performed. The linear polynomial approximation of the system’s key parameters as a function of the beam’s substrate thickness is first carried out. Then, the gradient method is applied to determine the adequate values of the electrical load resistance and thickness of the substrate under the constraints of minimizing the amplitudes of the primary structure or maximizing the levels of the harvested power. After that, an iterative strategy is considered in order to simultaneously minimize the amplitudes of the primary structure and maximize the levels of the harvested power as functions of the thickness of the substrate and electrical load resistance. In addition to harmonic excitations, the coupled system subjected to a white noise is explored. Through this analysis, the load resistance and thickness of the substrate of the piezoelectric energy harvester

  13. Study of absorbed dose distribution to high energy electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecatti, E.R.

    1983-01-01

    The depth absorbed dose distribution by electron beams was studied. The influence of the beam energy, the energy spread, field size and design characteristics of the accelerator was relieved. Three accelerators with different scattering and collimation systems were studied leading todifferent depth dose distributions. A theoretical model was constructed in order to explain the increase in the depth dose in the build-up region with the increase of the energy. The model utilizes a three-dimensional formalism based on the Fermi-Eyges multiple scattering theory, with the introduction of modifications that takes into account the criation of secondary electrons. (Author) [pt

  14. An analysis of energy-efficient light fittings and lighting controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Danny H.W.; Cheung, K.L.; Wong, S.L.; Lam, Tony N.T.

    2010-01-01

    Electric lighting is one of the major energy consuming items in many non-domestic buildings. Using appropriate energy-efficient light fittings with dimming controls and proper daylighting schemes can help reduce the electrical demand and contribute to visual comfort and green building development. This paper presents a study on the energy and lighting performances for energy-efficient fluorescent lamps associated with electronic ballasts and high frequency photoelectric dimming controls installed in a school building. Electricity expenditures and indoor illuminance levels for a workshop and a classroom employing high frequency dimming controls were analyzed. Simple prediction methods were used to illustrate the lighting savings. The findings provide the operational and performance information, which would be applicable to other spaces with similar building layouts and lighting schemes.

  15. Harnessing structural darkness in the visible and infrared wavelengths for a new source of light

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jianfeng

    2015-10-19

    Engineering broadband light absorbers is crucial to many applications, including energy-harvesting devices and optical interconnects. The performances of an ideal absorber are that of a black body, a dark material that absorbs radiation at all angles and polarizations. Despite advances in micrometre-thick films, the absorbers available to date are still far from an ideal black body. Here, we describe a disordered nanostructured material that shows an almost ideal black-body absorption of 98-99% between 400 and 1,400 nm that is insensitive to the angle and polarization of the incident light. The material comprises nanoparticles composed of a nanorod with a nanosphere of 30 nm diameter attached. When diluted into liquids, a small concentration of nanoparticles absorbs on average 26% more than carbon nanotubes, the darkest material available to date. By pumping a dye optical amplifier with nanosecond pulses of 100 mW power, we harness the structural darkness of the material and create a new type of light source, which generates monochromatic emission (5 nm wide) without the need for any resonance. This is achieved through the dynamics of light condensation in which all absorbed electromagnetic energy spontaneously generates single-colour energy pulses. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  16. High potential oxidation-reduction titration of absorbance changes induced by pulsed laser and continuous light in chromatophores of photosynthesizing bacteria Rhodospirillum rubrum and Ectothiorhodospira shaposhnikovii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remennikov, S.M.; Chamorovsky, S.K.; Kononenko, A.A.; Venediktov, P.S.; Rubin, A.B.

    1975-01-01

    The photoreactions, activated both by pulsed laser and continuous light were studied in the membranes of isolated bacterial chromatophores poised at different oxidation-reduction potentials over a range of +200 mV to +500 mV. In Rhodospirillum rubrum a midpoint potential of oxidation-reduction curves for the laser-induced positive absorbance changes centred around 430 nm and carotenoid red shifts coincides with that for continuous light-induced absorbance changes, bleaching at 865 nm and blue shift at 800 nm, of the photosynthetic reaction centre bacteriochlorophyll. In Ectothiorhodospira shaposhnikovii the photosynthetic reaction centre bacteriochlorophyll, its photooxidation can be seen as light-induced absorbance changes, bleaching at 890 nm, blue shift at 800 nm and broad band appearance near 440 nm, has a midpoint oxidation-reduction potential of +390 mV at pH 7.4. The analysis of the oxidation-reduction titration curves for the high-potential c-type cytochrome absorbance changes induced both by pulsed laser and continuous light allowed to show that at least two haems of this cytochrome with a midpoint potential of +290 mV (pH 7.4), associated with each reaction centre bacteriochlorophyll, can donate electrons to the oxidized pigment directly

  17. Impedance matched thin metamaterials make metals absorbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiucci, N; Bloemer, M J; Aközbek, N; D'Aguanno, G

    2013-11-13

    Metals are generally considered good reflectors over the entire electromagnetic spectrum up to their plasma frequency. Here we demonstrate an approach to tailor their absorbing characteristics based on the effective metamaterial properties of thin, periodic metallo-dielectric multilayers by exploiting a broadband, inherently non-resonant, surface impedance matching mechanism. Based on this mechanism, we design, fabricate and test omnidirectional, thin ( 99%) over a frequency range spanning from the UV to the IR. Our approach opens new venues to design cost effective materials for many applications such as thermo-photovoltaic energy conversion devices, light harvesting for solar cells, flat panel display, infrared detectors, stray light reduction, stealth and others.

  18. Principles of light energy management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, N.

    1994-01-01

    Six methods used to minimize excess energy effects associated with lighting systems for plant growth chambers are reviewed in this report. The energy associated with wall transmission and chamber operating equipment and the experimental requirements, such as fresh air and internal equipment, are not considered here. Only the energy associated with providing and removing the energy for lighting is considered.

  19. Absorbing phase transitions in deterministic fixed-energy sandpile models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Su-Chan

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the origin of the difference, which was noticed by Fey et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 145703 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.145703], between the steady state density of an Abelian sandpile model (ASM) and the transition point of its corresponding deterministic fixed-energy sandpile model (DFES). Being deterministic, the configuration space of a DFES can be divided into two disjoint classes such that every configuration in one class should evolve into one of absorbing states, whereas no configurations in the other class can reach an absorbing state. Since the two classes are separated in terms of toppling dynamics, the system can be made to exhibit an absorbing phase transition (APT) at various points that depend on the initial probability distribution of the configurations. Furthermore, we show that in general the transition point also depends on whether an infinite-size limit is taken before or after the infinite-time limit. To demonstrate, we numerically study the two-dimensional DFES with Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld toppling rule (BTW-FES). We confirm that there are indeed many thresholds. Nonetheless, the critical phenomena at various transition points are found to be universal. We furthermore discuss a microscopic absorbing phase transition, or a so-called spreading dynamics, of the BTW-FES, to find that the phase transition in this setting is related to the dynamical isotropic percolation process rather than self-organized criticality. In particular, we argue that choosing recurrent configurations of the corresponding ASM as an initial configuration does not allow for a nontrivial APT in the DFES.

  20. Reflection and Refraction of Light in Absorbing Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsumata, Koichi; Sasaki, Shosuke

    2018-05-01

    The results of a rigorous calculation of optical phenomena in absorbing media based on Maxwell's equations are reported. In the case of an absorbing dielectric, we assume a complex dielectric constant. We find an expression for the angle of refraction as a function of the incident angle and the real and imaginary parts of the complex dielectric constant, all of which are real. The amplitudes of the reflected and transmitted waves are calculated on the same footing. These amplitudes are shown to be complex, from which we deduce the magnitude and phase change of the reflection and transmission coefficients. The same argument applies to an absorbing magnetic material if we replace the complex dielectric constant by a complex magnetic permeability.

  1. Radiation-absorbed doses and energy imparted from panoramic tomography, cephalometric radiography, and occlusal film radiography in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bankvall, G.; Hakansson, H.A.

    1982-01-01

    The absorbed doses and energy imparted from radiographic examinations of children, using panoramic tomography (PTG), cephalometric radiography (CPR), and maxillary frontal occlusal overview (FOO), were examined. The absorbed dose at various sites of the head were measured with TL dosimeters in a phantom and in patients. The energy imparted was calculated from measurements of areal exposure using a planparallel ionization chamber. The maximum absorbed doses for panoramic tomography were located around the lateral rotation center, for cephalometric radiography in the left (tube side) parotid region, and for frontal occlusal radiography in the nose. The absorbed doses in the eyes, thyroid gland, and skin are discussed and compared with previous reports and, for the most part, are found to be in agreement. The mean energy imparted from all three examination methods is 5 mJ with about 57 percent from panoramic, 33 percent from cephalometric, and 10 percent from frontal occlusal examinations. The energy imparted from cephalometric radiography can be reduced to about 10 percent with the use of an improved examination technique, leaving panoramic tomography responsible for contributing about 80 percent of the total energy imparted

  2. Optimized Latching Control of Floating Point Absorber Wave Energy Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadodia, Chaitanya; Shandilya, Shubham; Bansal, Hari Om

    2018-03-01

    There is an increasing demand for energy in today’s world. Currently main energy resources are fossil fuels, which will eventually drain out, also the emissions produced from them contribute to global warming. For a sustainable future, these fossil fuels should be replaced with renewable and green energy sources. Sea waves are a gigantic and undiscovered vitality asset. The potential for extricating energy from waves is extensive. To trap this energy, wave energy converters (WEC) are needed. There is a need for increasing the energy output and decreasing the cost requirement of these existing WECs. This paper presents a method which uses prediction as a part of the control scheme to increase the energy efficiency of the floating-point absorber WECs. Kalman Filter is used for estimation, coupled with latching control in regular as well as irregular sea waves. Modelling and Simulation results for the same are also included.

  3. Assessment criteria for assessing energy-absorbing front underrun protection on trucks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, R.; Leneman, F.J.W.; Zweep, C. van der; Wismans, J.S.H.M.; Witteman, W.J.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this article is to investigate the possibilities to assess (energy-absorbing) front underrun protection (FUP) devices with respect to injuries of the car occupant without using a car and dummy in the test procedure. A large number of different crash configurations are simulated to

  4. Measurements of absorbed energy distributions in water from pulsed electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devanney, J.A.

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation of the use of a holographic interferometer to measure the energy deposition as a function of depth in water from pulsed electron beams, together with a brief description of the interferometer and the technique of generating a hologram are presented. The holographic interferometer is used to measure the energy deposition as a function of depth in water from various pulsed beams of monoenergetic electrons in the energy range from 1.0 to 2.5 MeV. These results are compared to those computed by using a Monte Carlo radiation transport code, ETRAN-15, for the same electron energies. After the discrepancies between the measured and computed results are evaluated, reasonable agreement is found between the measured and computed absorbed energy distributions as a function of depth in water. An evalutation of the response of the interferometer as a function of electron intensities is performed. A comparison among four energy deposition curves that result from the irradiation of water with pulsed electron beams from a Febetron accelerator, model 705, is presented. These pulsed beams were produced by the same vacuum diode with the same charging voltage. The results indicate that the energy distribution of the electrons in the pulsed beam is not always constant. A comparison of the energy deposition curves that result from the irradiation of water with electron pulses from different vacuum diodes but the same charging voltage is presented. These results indicate again that the energy distribution of the electrons in the pulsed beam may vary between vacuum diodes. These differences would not be realized by using a totally absorbing metal calorimeter and Faraday Cup

  5. Modeling and prediction of extraction profile for microwave-assisted extraction based on absorbed microwave energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chung-Hung; Yusoff, Rozita; Ngoh, Gek-Cheng

    2013-09-01

    A modeling technique based on absorbed microwave energy was proposed to model microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of antioxidant compounds from cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) leaves. By adapting suitable extraction model at the basis of microwave energy absorbed during extraction, the model can be developed to predict extraction profile of MAE at various microwave irradiation power (100-600 W) and solvent loading (100-300 ml). Verification with experimental data confirmed that the prediction was accurate in capturing the extraction profile of MAE (R-square value greater than 0.87). Besides, the predicted yields from the model showed good agreement with the experimental results with less than 10% deviation observed. Furthermore, suitable extraction times to ensure high extraction yield at various MAE conditions can be estimated based on absorbed microwave energy. The estimation is feasible as more than 85% of active compounds can be extracted when compared with the conventional extraction technique. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Thermoluminescent dosemeters for determining the energy absorbed during X-ray radiography of the vertebral column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebl, R.

    1983-01-01

    The dose and absorbed energy during normal diagnostic X-ray of various sections of the vertebral column were determined with LiF-dosemeters in a phantom. The paper describes a method to be used to determine integral doses from the dose measurements. The energy absorbed for one X-ray picture of the vertebral column is between 5 and 30 mJ. Compared to other diagnostical X-rays the quantity of the energy absorbed during X-ray of the vertebral column is rather high and is only reached by X-rays in the pelvic region. The speculations on the rate of incidence of malignent neoplasms on the basis of diagnostical X-ray of the vertebral column reveal a value of 50 per 60 x 10 6 persons. This value is likely to overestimate the risk, seems, however, to be low in comparison to other risks of every day life (traffic accident, mountainering, etc). (orig./HP) [de

  7. Mechanical Design of a High Energy Beam Absorber for the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baffes, C.; Church, M.; Leibfritz, J.; Oplt, S.; Rakhno, I.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-10

    A high energy beam absorber has been built for the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) at Fermilab. In the facility's initial configuration, an electron beam will be accelerated through 3 TTF-type or ILC-type SRF cryomodules to an energy of 750MeV. The electron beam will be directed to one of multiple downstream experimental and diagnostic beam lines and then deposited in one of two beam absorbers. The facility is designed to accommodate up to 6 cryomodules, which would produce a 75kW beam at 1.5GeV; this is the driving design condition for the beam absorbers. The beam absorbers consist of water-cooled graphite, aluminum and copper layers contained in a helium-filled enclosure. This paper describes the mechanical implementation of the beam absorbers, with a focus on thermal design and analysis. The potential for radiation-induced degradation of the graphite is discussed.

  8. On the absorbed dose determination method in high energy electrons beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarlat, F.; Scarisoreanu, A.; Oane, M.; Mitru, E.; Avadanei, C.

    2008-01-01

    The absorbed dose determination method in water for electron beams with energies in the range from 1 MeV to 50 MeV is presented herein. The dosimetry equipment for measurements is composed of an UNIDOS.PTW electrometer and different ionization chambers calibrated in air kerma in a Co 60 beam. Starting from the code of practice for high energy electron beams, this paper describes the method adopted by the secondary standard dosimetry laboratory (SSDL) in NILPRP - Bucharest

  9. Literature search on Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel and absorber rod fabrication, 1960--1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sample, C.R.

    1977-02-01

    A literature search was conducted to provide information supporting the design of a conceptual Light Water Reactor (LWR) Fuel Fabrication plant. Emphasis was placed on fuel processing and pin bundle fabrication, effects of fuel impurities and microstructure on performance and densification, quality assurance, absorber and poison rod fabrication, and fuel pin welding. All data have been taken from publicly available documents, journals, and books. This work was sponsored by the Finishing Processes-Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Studies program at HEDL

  10. Literature search on Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel and absorber rod fabrication, 1960--1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sample, C R [comp.

    1977-02-01

    A literature search was conducted to provide information supporting the design of a conceptual Light Water Reactor (LWR) Fuel Fabrication plant. Emphasis was placed on fuel processing and pin bundle fabrication, effects of fuel impurities and microstructure on performance and densification, quality assurance, absorber and poison rod fabrication, and fuel pin welding. All data have been taken from publicly available documents, journals, and books. This work was sponsored by the Finishing Processes-Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Studies program at HEDL.

  11. Household transitions to energy efficient lighting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Bradford; Schleich, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    New energy efficient lighting technologies can significantly reduce household electricity consumption, but adoption has been slow. A unique dataset of German households is used in this paper to examine the factors associated with the replacement of old incandescent lamps (ILs) with new energy efficient compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) and light emitting diodes (LEDs). The ‘rebound’ effect of increased lamp luminosity in the transition to energy efficient bulbs is analyzed jointly with the replacement decision to account for household self-selection in bulb-type choice. Results indicate that the EU ban on ILs accelerated the pace of transition to CFLs and LEDs, while storage of bulbs significantly dampened the speed of the transition. Higher lighting needs and bulb attributes like energy efficiency, environmental friendliness, and durability spur IL replacement with CFLs or LEDs. Electricity gains from new energy efficient lighting are mitigated by 23% and 47% increases in luminosity for CFL and LED replacements, respectively. Model results suggest that taking the replacement bulb from storage and higher levels of education dampen the magnitude of these luminosity rebounds in IL to CFL transitions. - Highlights: • EU ban on ILs has fostered transitions to energy efficient lightingEnergy efficient, environmentally friendly, and durable lighting preferences make CFL and LED transitions more likely • Indicators of greater lighting needs are associated with higher propensities to replace ILs with CFLs and LEDs • For residential lighting, the rebound effect manifests itself through increases in luminosity • In IL to CLF transitions luminosity increases are lower with higher levels of education

  12. Simulation of a Local Collision of SC Wall Using High Energy Absorbing Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, H. K.; Chung, C. H.; Park, J.; Lee, J. W. [Dankook University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, S. Y. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Local damage evaluations for nuclear power plant(NPP) design are performed against turbine impact, tornado impact, airplane engine impact, etc., where turbine is a internal source of impact, whereas tornado and airplane engine are external sources of impact. The thickness of NPP wall structure is determined at initial design stage not to be penetrated by local impacts. This study investigated the local damage of NPP substructure against internal turbine impact. Simulation of local collisions of SC wall in NPP structure, which consists of two models: one using general steel and the other using high energy absorbing steel, were performed. The performance of SC wall using ductile high energy absorbing steel can be greatly improved on local collisions when compared with that of general steel

  13. Simulation of a Local Collision of SC Wall Using High Energy Absorbing Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, H. K.; Chung, C. H.; Park, J.; Lee, J. W.; Kim, S. Y.

    2011-01-01

    Local damage evaluations for nuclear power plant(NPP) design are performed against turbine impact, tornado impact, airplane engine impact, etc., where turbine is a internal source of impact, whereas tornado and airplane engine are external sources of impact. The thickness of NPP wall structure is determined at initial design stage not to be penetrated by local impacts. This study investigated the local damage of NPP substructure against internal turbine impact. Simulation of local collisions of SC wall in NPP structure, which consists of two models: one using general steel and the other using high energy absorbing steel, were performed. The performance of SC wall using ductile high energy absorbing steel can be greatly improved on local collisions when compared with that of general steel

  14. Optimisation of energy absorbing liner for equestrian helmets. Part II: Functionally graded foam liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, L.; Forero Rueda, M.A.; Gilchrist, M.D.

    2009-01-01

    The energy absorbing liner of safety helmets was optimised using finite element modelling. In this present paper, a functionally graded foam (FGF) liner was modelled, while keeping the average liner density the same as in a corresponding reference single uniform density liner model. Use of a functionally graded foam liner would eliminate issues regarding delamination and crack propagation between interfaces of different density layers which could arise in liners with discrete density variations. As in our companion Part I paper [Forero Rueda MA, Cui L, Gilchrist MD. Optimisation of energy absorbing liner for equestrian helmets. Part I: Layered foam liner. Mater Des [submitted for publication

  15. Wave energy extraction by coupled resonant absorbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, D V; Porter, R

    2012-01-28

    In this article, a range of problems and theories will be introduced that will build towards a new wave energy converter (WEC) concept, with the acronym 'ROTA' standing for resonant over-topping absorber. First, classical results for wave power absorption for WECs constrained to operate in a single degree of freedom will be reviewed and the role of resonance in their operation highlighted. Emphasis will then be placed on how the introduction of further resonances can improve power take-off characteristics by extending the range of frequencies over which the efficiency is close to a theoretical maximum. Methods for doing this in different types of WECs will be demonstrated. Coupled resonant absorbers achieve this by connecting a WEC device equipped with its own resonance (determined from a hydrodynamic analysis) to a new system having separate mass/spring/damper characteristics. It is shown that a coupled resonant effect can be realized by inserting a water tank into a WEC, and this idea forms the basis of the ROTA device. In essence, the idea is to exploit the coupling between the natural sloshing frequencies of the water in the internal tank and the natural resonance of a submerged buoyant circular cylinder device that is tethered to the sea floor, allowing a rotary motion about its axis of attachment.

  16. An Investigation into Power from Pitch-Surge Point-Absorber Wave Energy Converters.

    OpenAIRE

    Chaplin, R. V.; Aggidis, George A.

    2007-01-01

    There is a worldwide opportunity for clean renewable power. The results from the UK Government's "Marine Energy Challenge" showed that marine energy has the potential to become competitive with other forms of energy. The key to success in this lies in a low lifetime-cost of power as delivered to the user. Pitch-surge point-absorber WECs have the potential to do this with average annual powers of around 2 MW in North Atlantic conditions from relatively small devices that would be economically ...

  17. Dielectric-based subwavelength metallic meanders for wide-angle band absorbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Su; Qiao, Wen; Ye, Yan; Zhou, Yun; Chen, Linsen

    2015-01-26

    We propose nano-meanders that can achieve wide-angle band absorption in visible regime. The nano-meander consists of a subwavelength dielectric grating covered by continuous ultra-thin Aluminum film (less than one tenth of the incident wavelength). The excited photonic resonant modes, such as cavity mode, surface plasmonic mode and Rayleigh-Wood anomaly, are discussed in detail. Nearly total resonant absorption due to funneling mechanism in the air nano-groove is almost invariant with large incident angle in transverse magnetic polarization. From both the structural geometry and the nanofabrication point of view, the light absorber has a very simple geometrical structure and it is easy to be integrated into complex photonic devices. The highly efficient angle-robust light absorber can be potential candidate for a range of passive and active photonic applications, including solar-energy harvesting as well as producing artificial colors on a large scale substrate.

  18. Energy efficient lighting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, M.

    1992-01-01

    The main sources of Pakistan's energy supply are oil, natural gas, coal, hydro power, nuclear power and liquefied petroleum gas. At present 75 % of total energy delivered is met through oil and gas. The limited resources and financial constraints have proved to be stumbling block in the way of prosperity and economics stability. Lighting is a conspicuous consumer of energy and thus an easy prey for saving drives which is indeed a very promising target for energy saving. (A.B.)

  19. Parameters Analysis of Hydraulic-Electrical Energy Regenerative Absorber on Suspension Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Zhang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To recycle the vibration energy of vehicles over rough roads, a hydraulic-electricity energy regenerative suspension (HEERS was designed in the present work, and simulations were performed with focus on its performance. On the basis of the system principle, the mathematical model of hydraulic-electrical energy regenerative absorber (HEERA and two degrees of freedom (DOF suspension dynamic model were constructed. Using the model of HEERA, simulations on force-displacement and force-velocity characteristics were performed with a 1.67 Hz frequency and a sinusoidal input adopted. And then in combination with HEERA model and two DOF suspension models, simulations on the performance of HEERS also were carried out. Finally, the influences of charging pressure and volume of the accumulator, hydraulic motor displacement, orifice area of check valve, and inner diameter of hydraulic pipelines on the performance of HEERA and HEERS were investigated in depth. The simulation results indicated that (i the damping characteristic of HEERA was coincident with the damping characteristics of traditional absorber; (ii the most remarkable influencing factor on the performance of HEERS was the hydraulic motor displacement, followed by orifice area of check valve, inner diameter of pipelines, and charging pressure of accumulator, while the effects of charging volume of accumulator were quite limited.

  20. Structure and properties of visible-light absorbing homodisperse nanoparticle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedict, Jason

    2018-04-05

    Broadly, the scientific progress from this award focused in two main areas: developing time-resolved X-ray diffraction methods and the synthesis and characterization of molecular systems relevant to solar energy harvesting. The knowledge of photo‐induced non‐equilibrium states is central to our understanding of processes involved in solar‐energy capture. More specifically, knowledge of the geometry changes on excitation and their relation to lifetimes and variation with adsorption of chromophores on the substrates is of importance for the design of molecular devices used in light capture.

  1. Arctic climate response to forcing from light-absorbing particles in snow and sea ice in CESM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Goldenson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of light-absorbing aerosol particles deposited on arctic snow and sea ice influences the surface albedo, causing greater shortwave absorption, warming, and loss of snow and sea ice, lowering the albedo further. The Community Earth System Model version 1 (CESM1 now includes the radiative effects of light-absorbing particles in snow on land and sea ice and in sea ice itself. We investigate the model response to the deposition of black carbon and dust to both snow and sea ice. For these purposes we employ a slab ocean version of CESM1, using the Community Atmosphere Model version 4 (CAM4, run to equilibrium for year 2000 levels of CO2 and fixed aerosol deposition. We construct experiments with and without aerosol deposition, with dust or black carbon deposition alone, and with varying quantities of black carbon and dust to approximate year 1850 and 2000 deposition fluxes. The year 2000 deposition fluxes of both dust and black carbon cause 1–2 °C of surface warming over large areas of the Arctic Ocean and sub-Arctic seas in autumn and winter and in patches of Northern land in every season. Atmospheric circulation changes are a key component of the surface-warming pattern. Arctic sea ice thins by on average about 30 cm. Simulations with year 1850 aerosol deposition are not substantially different from those with year 2000 deposition, given constant levels of CO2. The climatic impact of particulate impurities deposited over land exceeds that of particles deposited over sea ice. Even the surface warming over the sea ice and sea ice thinning depends more upon light-absorbing particles deposited over land. For CO2 doubled relative to year 2000 levels, the climate impact of particulate impurities in snow and sea ice is substantially lower than for the year 2000 equilibrium simulation.

  2. Competitive light absorbers in photoactive dental resin-based materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadis, Mohammed A; Shortall, Adrian C; Palin, William M

    2012-08-01

    The absorbance profile of photoinitiators prior to, during and following polymerization of light curable resin-based materials will have a significant effect on the cure and color properties of the final material. So-called "colorless" photoinitiators are used in some light-activated resin-based composite restorative materials to lessen the yellowing effect of camphoroquinone (CQ) in order to improve the esthetic quality of dental restorations. This work characterizes absorption properties of commonly used photoinitiators, an acylphosphine oxide (TPO) and CQ, and assesses their influence on material discoloration. Dimethacrylate resin formulations contained low (0.0134 mol/dm(3)), intermediate (0.0405 mol/dm(3)) or high (0.0678 mol/dm(3)) concentrations of the photoinitiators and the inhibitor, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) at 0, 0.1 or 0.2% by mass. Disc shaped specimens (n = 3) of each resin were polymerized for 60s using a halogen light curing unit. Dynamic measurements of photoinitiator absorption, polymer conversion and reaction temperature were performed. A spectrophotometer was used to measure the color change before and after cure. GLM three-way analysis of variance revealed significant differences (pphotoinitiator type (df = 1; F = 176.12)>% BHT (df = 2, F = 13.17). BHT concentration affected the rate of polymerization and produced lower conversion in some of the CQ-based resins. Significant differences between photoinitiator type and concentrations were seen in color (where TPO resins became yellower and camphoroquinone resins became less yellow upon irradiation). Reaction temperature, kinetics and conversion also differed significantly for both initiators (presins producing a visually perceptible color change upon polymerization, the color change was significantly less than that produced with CQ-based resins. Although some photoinitiators such as TPO may be a more esthetic alternative to CQ, they may actually cause significant color contamination when

  3. Semiconductor-based Multilayer Selective Solar Absorber for Unconcentrated Solar Thermal Energy Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Nathan H; Chen, Zhen; Fan, Shanhui; Minnich, Austin J

    2017-07-13

    Solar thermal energy conversion has attracted substantial renewed interest due to its applications in industrial heating, air conditioning, and electricity generation. Achieving stagnation temperatures exceeding 200 °C, pertinent to these technologies, with unconcentrated sunlight requires spectrally selective absorbers with exceptionally low emissivity in the thermal wavelength range and high visible absorptivity for the solar spectrum. In this Communication, we report a semiconductor-based multilayer selective absorber that exploits the sharp drop in optical absorption at the bandgap energy to achieve a measured absorptance of 76% at solar wavelengths and a low emittance of approximately 5% at thermal wavelengths. In field tests, we obtain a peak temperature of 225 °C, comparable to that achieved with state-of-the-art selective surfaces. With straightforward optimization to improve solar absorption, our work shows the potential for unconcentrated solar thermal systems to reach stagnation temperatures exceeding 300 °C, thereby eliminating the need for solar concentrators for mid-temperature solar applications such as supplying process heat.

  4. Solar energy collector/storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettis, J.R.; Clearman, F.R.

    1983-05-24

    A solar energy collector/storage system which includes an insulated container having working fluid inlets and outlets and an opening, a light-transmitting member positioned over the opening, and a heat-absorbing member which is centrally situated, is supported in the container, and is made of a mixture of gypsum , lampblack, and water. A light-reflecting liner made of corrugated metal foil preferably is attached to the internal surface of the container. The opening of the container is positioned in optical alignment with a source of solar energy. A light-reflecting cover optionally can be hingedly attached to the container, and can be positioned such as to reflect solar energy rays into the container. The system is adaptable for use with a working gas (e.g., air) and/or a working liquid (e.g., water) in separated flows which absorb heat from the heat-absorbing member, and which are useable per se or in an associated storage and/or circulatory system that is not part of this invention. The heatabsorbing mixture can also contain glass fibers. The heatabsorbing member is of such great load-bearing strength that it can also be used simultaneously as a structural member, e.g., a wall or ceiling of a room; and, thereby, the system can be used to heat a room, if a window of the room is the light-transmitting member and is facing the sun, and if the heat-absorbing member is a wall and/or the ceiling of the room and receives solar energy through the window.

  5. Dose determination with nitro blue tetrazolium containing radiochromic dye films by measuring absorbed and reflected light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovács, A.; Baranyai, M.; Wojnárovits, L.

    2000-01-01

    determination in a wide dose range both by absorbance and reflectance measurements. The concept of measuring reflected light from dose labels has been discussed earlier and emerged recently due to the requirement of introducing semiquantitative label dose indicators for quarantine control. The usefulness...... of the method was studied using the newly developed radiochromic dye films as well as already existing ones. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  6. Self-diffraction of continuous laser radiation in a disperse medium with absorbing particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelsky, O. V.; Bekshaev, A. Ya.; Maksimyak, P. P.

    2013-01-01

    We study the self-action of light in a water suspension of absorbing subwavelength particles. Due to efficient accumulation of the light energy, this medium shows distinct non-linear properties even at moderate radiation power. In particular, by means of interference of two obliquely incident beams...... formation is shown to be thermal, which leads to the phase grating; a weak amplitude grating also emerges due to the particles' displacements caused by the light-induced gradient and photophoretic forces. These forces, together with the Brownian motion of the particles, are responsible for the grating...

  7. Recycled Thermal Energy from High Power Light Emitting Diode Light Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jae-Hoon; Jo, GaeHun; Ha, Jae-Geun; Koo, Sang-Mo; Kamiko, Masao; Hong, JunHee; Koh, Jung-Hyuk

    2018-09-01

    In this research, the recycled electrical energy from wasted thermal energy in high power Light Emitting Diode (LED) system will be investigated. The luminous efficiency of lights has been improved in recent years by employing the high power LED system, therefore energy efficiency was improved compared with that of typical lighting sources. To increase energy efficiency of high power LED system further, wasted thermal energy should be re-considered. Therefore, wasted thermal energy was collected and re-used them as electrical energy. The increased electrical efficiency of high power LED devices was accomplished by considering the recycled heat energy, which is wasted thermal energy from the LED. In this work, increased electrical efficiency will be considered and investigated by employing the high power LED system, which has high thermal loss during the operating time. For this research, well designed thermoelement with heat radiation system was employed to enhance the collecting thermal energy from the LED system, and then convert it as recycled electrical energy.

  8. Downtown Detroit Energy Efficient Street Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodwin, Malik [Detroit Economic Growth Corp, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2013-11-29

    Reliable public lighting remains a critically important and valuable public service in Detroit, Michigan. The Downtown Detroit Energy Efficiency Lighting Program (the, “Program”) was designed and implemented to bring the latest advancements in lighting technology, energy efficiency, public safety and reliability to Detroit’s Central Business District, and the Program accomplished those goals successfully. Downtown’s nighttime atmosphere has been upgraded as a result of the installation of over 1000 new LED roadway lighting fixtures that were installed as part of the Program. The reliability of the lighting system has also improved.

  9. Reuse of the Reflective Light and the Recycle Heat Energy in Concentrated Photovoltaic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Chien Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A complex solar unit with microcrystalline silicon solar cells placed around the centered GaAs triple junction solar cell has been proposed and carried out. With the same illumination area and intensity, the total resultant power shows that the excess microcrystalline silicon solar cells increase the total output power by 13.2% by absorbing the reflective light from the surface of optical collimators. Furthermore, reusing the residual heat energy generated from the above-mentioned mechanism helps to increase the output power by around 14.1%. This mechanism provides a simple method to enhance the utility rate of concentrated photovoltaic (CPV system. Such concept can be further applied to the aerospace industry and the development of more efficient CPV solar energy applications.

  10. Light scattering by coated sphere immersed in absorbing medium: a comparison between the FDTD and analytic solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Wenbo E-mail: w.sun@larc.nasa.gov; Loeb, Norman G.; Fu Qiang

    2004-02-01

    A recently developed finite-difference time domain scheme is examined using the exact analytic solutions for light scattering by a coated sphere immersed in an absorbing medium. The relative differences are less than 1% in the extinction, scattering, and absorption efficiencies and less than 5% in the scattering phase functions. The definition of apparent single-scattering properties is also discussed.

  11. Light-absorbing Particles in Snow and Ice: Measurement and Modeling of Climatic and Hydrological Impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Yun; Yasunari, Teppei J.; Doherty, Sarah J.; Flanner, M. G.; Lau, William K.; Ming, J.; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Mo; Warren, Stephen G.; Zhang, Rudong

    2015-01-01

    Light absorbing particles (LAP, e.g., black carbon, brown carbon, and dust) influence water and energy budgets of the atmosphere and snowpack in multiple ways. In addition to their effects associated with atmospheric heating by absorption of solar radiation and interactions with clouds, LAP in snow on land and ice can reduce the surface reflectance (a.k.a., surface darkening), which is likely to accelerate the snow aging process and further reduces snow albedo and increases the speed of snowpack melt. LAP in snow and ice (LAPSI) has been identified as one of major forcings affecting climate change, e.g. in the fourth and fifth assessment reports of IPCC. However, the uncertainty level in quantifying this effect remains very high. In this review paper, we document various technical methods of measuring LAPSI and review the progress made in measuring the LAPSI in Arctic, Tibetan Plateau and other mid-latitude regions. We also report the progress in modeling the mass concentrations, albedo reduction, radiative forcing, andclimatic and hydrological impact of LAPSI at global and regional scales. Finally we identify some research needs for reducing the uncertainties in the impact of LAPSI on global and regional climate and the hydrological cycle.

  12. Stability analysis of the Gyroscopic Power Take-Off wave energy point absorber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Zhang, Zili; Kramer, Morten Mejlhede

    2015-01-01

    The Gyroscopic Power Take-Off (GyroPTO) wave energy point absorber consists of a float rigidly connected to a lever. The operational principle is somewhat similar to that of the so-called gyroscopic hand wrist exercisers, where the rotation of the float is brought forward by the rotational particle...

  13. A robust method for determining the absorbed dose to water in a phantom for low-energy photon radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, T, E-mail: thorsten.schneider@ptb.de [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), 38116 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2011-06-07

    The application of more and more low-energy photon radiation in brachytherapy-either in the form of low-dose-rate radioactive seeds such as Pd-103 or I-125 or in the form of miniature x-ray tubes-has induced greater interest in determining the absorbed dose to water in water in this energy range. As it seems to be hardly feasible to measure the absorbed dose with calorimetric methods in this low energy range, ionometric methods are the preferred choice. However, the determination of the absorbed dose to water in water by ionometric methods is difficult in this energy range. With decreasing energy, the relative uncertainty of the photon cross sections increases and as the mass energy transfer coefficients show a steep gradient, the spectra of the radiation field must be known precisely. In this work two ionometric methods to determine the absorbed dose to water are evaluated with respect to their sensitivity to the uncertainties of the spectra and of the atomic database. The first is the measurement of the air kerma free in air and the application of an MC-based conversion factor to the absorbed dose to water. The second is the determination of the absorbed dose to water by means of an extrapolation chamber as an integral part of a phantom. In the complementing MC-calculations, two assortments of spectra each of which is based on a separate unfolding procedure were used as well as two kinds of databases: the standard PEGS and the recently implemented NIST database of EGSnrc. Experimental results were obtained by using a parallel-plate graphite extrapolation chamber and a free-air chamber. In the case when the water kerma in a phantom is determined from the measurements of air kerma free in air, differences in the order of 10% were found, according to which the database or the kind of spectrum is used. In contrast to this, for the second method, the differences found were about 0.5%.

  14. A novel energy absorber based on magnetorheological gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Haoming; Xuan, Shouhu; Sun, Chuanlin; Gong, Xinglong

    2017-10-01

    In this work, a novel magnetorheological energy absorber (MREA) was designed by using magnetorheological gel (MRG) as the damping medium. The proposed MREA had tunable piston gap distances and variable inner magnetic flux density distribution. The piston gap distance could be varied from 7-2 mm and the magnetic flux density at the gap increased from 120-860 mT, respectively. Under both low velocity compression and high speed impact, the damping could be divided into three parts. In the impact test, the velocity of a drop hammer could be reduced from to 3.4-0 m s-1 within a very short time (13 ms) and distance (17 mm). The maximum damping force of the MREA reached to as high as 8 kN. The damping force could also be adjusted by changing the current input. Under a 2 A current, the energy absorption ratio increased about 23% (from 4.13-5.07 J mm-1).

  15. Growth of micro-crystals in solution by in-situ heating via continuous wave infrared laser light and an absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Shashank; Dharmadhikari, Jayashree A.; Thamizhavel, A.; Mathur, Deepak; Dharmadhikari, Aditya K.

    2016-01-01

    We report on growth of micro-crystals such as sodium chloride (NaCl), copper sulphate (CuSO4), potassium di-hydrogen phosphate (KDP) and glycine (NH2CH2COOH) in solution by in-situ heating using continuous wave Nd:YVO4 laser light. Crystals are grown by adding single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT). The SWNTs absorb 1064 nm light and act as an in-situ heat source that vaporizes the solvent producing microcrystals. The temporal dynamics of micro-crystal growth is investigated by varying experimental parameters such as SWNT bundle size and incident laser power. We also report crystal growth without SWNT in an absorbing medium: copper sulphate in water. Even though the growth dynamics with SWNT and copper sulphate are significantly different, our results indicate that bubble formation is necessary for nucleation. Our simple method may open up new vistas for rapid growth of seed crystals especially for examining the crystallizability of inorganic and organic materials.

  16. Anomalous diffraction approximation for light scattering cross section: Case of random clusters of non-absorbent spheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquier, Sandra [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne, 158 Cours Fauriel, 42023 F-St. Etienne (France); Gruy, Frederic [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne, 158 Cours Fauriel, 42023 F-St. Etienne (France)], E-mail: fgruy@emse.fr

    2008-11-15

    We previously [Jacquier S, Gruy F. Approximation of the light scattering cross-section for aggregated spherical non-absorbent particles. JQSRT 2008;109:789-810] reformulated the anomalous diffraction (AD) approximation to calculate the light scattering cross section of aggregates by introducing their chord length distribution (CLD). It was applied to several ordered aggregates. This new method is entitled ADr, with the r for rapid because this one is at least 100 times faster than the standard AD method. In this article, we are searching for an approximated expression for CLD suitable all at once for ordered and disordered aggregates. The corresponding scattering cross-section values are compared to the ones coming from the standard AD approximation.

  17. Anomalous diffraction approximation for light scattering cross section: Case of random clusters of non-absorbent spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquier, Sandra; Gruy, Frederic

    2008-01-01

    We previously [Jacquier S, Gruy F. Approximation of the light scattering cross-section for aggregated spherical non-absorbent particles. JQSRT 2008;109:789-810] reformulated the anomalous diffraction (AD) approximation to calculate the light scattering cross section of aggregates by introducing their chord length distribution (CLD). It was applied to several ordered aggregates. This new method is entitled ADr, with the r for rapid because this one is at least 100 times faster than the standard AD method. In this article, we are searching for an approximated expression for CLD suitable all at once for ordered and disordered aggregates. The corresponding scattering cross-section values are compared to the ones coming from the standard AD approximation

  18. From fossil fuels to energies-of-light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, C.J. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany); Energon - Winter (C.J.) GmbH, Leonberg (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Energies-of-light are the final result on the ongoing decarbonisation of carbonaceous fuels, their hydrogenation and, thus, dematerialization (coal -> petroleum -> natural gas -> hydrogen). Energies-of-light utilise all sorts of renewable energies and the chemical secondary energy carrier hydrogen for energy storage and transport, as well as a transportation fuel.

  19. Self-assembly of highly efficient, broadband plasmonic absorbers for solar steam generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lin; Tan, Yingling; Ji, Dengxin; Zhu, Bin; Zhang, Pei; Xu, Jun; Gan, Qiaoqiang; Yu, Zongfu; Zhu, Jia

    2016-04-01

    The study of ideal absorbers, which can efficiently absorb light over a broad range of wavelengths, is of fundamental importance, as well as critical for many applications from solar steam generation and thermophotovoltaics to light/thermal detectors. As a result of recent advances in plasmonics, plasmonic absorbers have attracted a lot of attention. However, the performance and scalability of these absorbers, predominantly fabricated by the top-down approach, need to be further improved to enable widespread applications. We report a plasmonic absorber which can enable an average measured absorbance of ~99% across the wavelengths from 400 nm to 10 μm, the most efficient and broadband plasmonic absorber reported to date. The absorber is fabricated through self-assembly of metallic nanoparticles onto a nanoporous template by a one-step deposition process. Because of its efficient light absorption, strong field enhancement, and porous structures, which together enable not only efficient solar absorption but also significant local heating and continuous stream flow, plasmonic absorber-based solar steam generation has over 90% efficiency under solar irradiation of only 4-sun intensity (4 kW m(-2)). The pronounced light absorption effect coupled with the high-throughput self-assembly process could lead toward large-scale manufacturing of other nanophotonic structures and devices.

  20. Inferring absorbing organic carbon content from AERONET data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arola, A.; Schuster, G.; Myhre, G.; Kazadzis, S.; Dey, S.; Tripathi, S. N.

    2011-01-01

    Black carbon, light-absorbing organic carbon (often called "brown carbon") and mineral dust are the major light-absorbing aerosols. Currently the sources and formation of brown carbon aerosol in particular are not well understood. In this study we estimated the amount of light-absorbing organic carbon and black carbon from AERONET measurements. We find that the columnar absorbing organic carbon (brown carbon) levels in biomass burning regions of South America and Africa are relatively high (about 15-20 mg m-2 during biomass burning season), while the concentrations are significantly lower in urban areas in US and Europe. However, we estimated significant absorbing organic carbon amounts from the data of megacities of newly industrialized countries, particularly in India and China, showing also clear seasonality with peak values up to 30-35 mg m-2 during the coldest season, likely caused by the coal and biofuel burning used for heating. We also compared our retrievals with the modeled organic carbon by the global Oslo CTM for several sites. Model values are higher in biomass burning regions than AERONET-based retrievals, while the opposite is true in urban areas in India and China.

  1. Energy efficient lighting in the retail sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This Good Practice Guide gives details on how energy efficient lighting can be incorporated in the brief for a lighting consultant or contractor. The advantages of energy efficiency are highlighted, and the lighting of retail stores, the introduction of energy efficiency measures, and the application of good practice are discussed. Case studies of W H Smith, Cambridge, Tesco Stores, Boots plc, the Harvey Centre, Harlow, and the National Westminster Bank plc are presented. A guide for senior executives and specialists in lighting design is also included. (UK)

  2. Light Converting Inorganic Phosphors for White Light-Emitting Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiao-Wen Yeh

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available White light-emitting diodes (WLEDs have matched the emission efficiency of florescent lights and will rapidly spread as light source for homes and offices in the next 5 to 10 years. WLEDs provide a light element having a semiconductor light emitting layer (blue or near-ultraviolet (nUV LEDs and photoluminescence phosphors. These solid-state LED lamps, rather than organic light emitting diode (OLED or polymer light-emitting diode (PLED, have a number of advantages over conventional incandescent bulbs and halogen lamps, such as high efficiency to convert electrical energy into light, reliability and long operating lifetime. To meet with the further requirement of high color rendering index, warm light with low color temperature, high thermal stability and higher energy efficiency for WLEDs, new phosphors that can absorb excitation energy from blue or nUV LEDs and generate visible emissions efficiently are desired. The criteria of choosing the best phosphors, for blue (450-480 nm and nUV (380-400 nm LEDs, strongly depends on the absorption and emission of the phosphors. Moreover, the balance of light between the emission from blue-nUV LEDs and the emissions from phosphors (such as yellow from Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ is important to obtain white light with proper color rendering index and color temperature. Here, we will review the status of phosphors for LEDs and prospect the future development.

  3. Light Converting Inorganic Phosphors for White Light-Emitting Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Lin, Chun-Che; Yeh, Chiao-Wen; Liu, Ru-Shi

    2010-01-01

    White light-emitting diodes (WLEDs) have matched the emission efficiency of florescent lights and will rapidly spread as light source for homes and offices in the next 5 to 10 years. WLEDs provide a light element having a semiconductor light emitting layer (blue or near-ultraviolet (nUV) LEDs) and photoluminescence phosphors. These solid-state LED lamps, rather than organic light emitting diode (OLED) or polymer light-emitting diode (PLED), have a number of advantages over conventional incandescent bulbs and halogen lamps, such as high efficiency to convert electrical energy into light, reliability and long operating lifetime. To meet with the further requirement of high color rendering index, warm light with low color temperature, high thermal stability and higher energy efficiency for WLEDs, new phosphors that can absorb excitation energy from blue or nUV LEDs and generate visible emissions efficiently are desired. The criteria of choosing the best phosphors, for blue (450−480 nm) and nUV (380−400 nm) LEDs, strongly depends on the absorption and emission of the phosphors. Moreover, the balance of light between the emission from blue-nUV LEDs and the emissions from phosphors (such as yellow from Y3Al5O12:Ce3+) is important to obtain white light with proper color rendering index and color temperature. Here, we will review the status of phosphors for LEDs and prospect the future development.

  4. Power maximization of a point absorber wave energy converter using improved model predictive control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Farideh; Moghaddam, Reihaneh Kardehi

    2017-08-01

    This paper considers controlling and maximizing the absorbed power of wave energy converters for irregular waves. With respect to physical constraints of the system, a model predictive control is applied. Irregular waves' behavior is predicted by Kalman filter method. Owing to the great influence of controller parameters on the absorbed power, these parameters are optimized by imperialist competitive algorithm. The results illustrate the method's efficiency in maximizing the extracted power in the presence of unknown excitation force which should be predicted by Kalman filter.

  5. STUDY ON THE STRUCTURAL BASIS OF PERIPHERAL LIGHT HARVESTING COMPLEXES (LH2 IN PURPLE NON-SULPHUR PHOTOSYNTHETIC BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatas H.P. Brotosudarmo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthesis provides an example of a natural process that has been optimized during evolution to harness solar energy efficiently and safely, and finally to use it to produce a carbon-based fuel. Initially, solar energy is captured by the light harvesting pigment-protein complexes. In purple bacteria these antenna complexes are constructed on a rather simple modular basis. Light absorbed by these antenna complexes is funnelled downhill to reaction centres, where light drives a trans-membrane redox reaction. The light harvesting proteins not only provide the scaffolding that correctly positions the bacteriochlorophyll a and carotenoid pigments for optimal energy transfer but also creates an environment that can modulate the wavelength at which different bacteriochlorophyll molecules absorb light thereby creating the energy funnel. How these proteins can modulate the absorption spectra of the bacteriochlorophylls will be discussed in this review.

  6. Can Plant-Based Natural Flax Replace Basalt and E-Glass for Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Tubular Energy Absorbers? A Comparative Study on Quasi-Static Axial Crushing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libo Yan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Using plant-based natural fibers to substitute glass fibers as reinforcement of composite materials is of particular interest due to their economic, technical, and environmental significance. One potential application of plant-based natural fiber reinforced polymer (FRP composites is in automotive engineering as crushable energy absorbers. Current study experimentally investigated and compared the energy absorption efficiency of plant-based natural flax, mineral-based basalt, and glass FRP (GFRP composite tubular energy absorbers subjected to quasi-static axial crushing. The effects of number of flax fabric layer, the use of foam filler and the type of fiber materials on the crashworthiness characteristics, and energy absorption capacities were discussed. In addition, the failure mechanisms of the hollow and foam-filled flax, basalt, and GFRP tubes in quasi-static axial crushing were analyzed and compared. The test results showed that the energy absorption capabilities of both hollow and foam-filled energy absorbers made of flax were superior to the corresponding energy absorbers made of basalt and were close to energy absorbers made of glass. This study, therefore, indicated that flax fiber has the great potential to be suitable replacement of basalt and glass fibers for crushable energy absorber application.

  7. Design and testing of an energy-absorbing crewseat for the F/FB-111 aircraft. Volume 2: Data from seat testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shane, S. J.

    1985-01-01

    The unacceptably high injury rate during the escape sequence (including the ejection and ground impact) of the crew module for F/FB-111 aircraft is reviewed. A program to determine if the injury potential could be reduced by replacing the existing crewseats with energy absorbing crewseats is presented. An energy absorbing test seat is designed using much of the existing seat hardware. An extensive dynamic seat test series, designed to duplicate various crew module ground impact conditions is conducted at a sled test facility. Comparative tests with operational F-111 crewseats are also conducted. After successful dynamic testing of the seat, more testing is conducted with the seats mounted in an F-111 crew module. Both swing tests and vertical drop tests are conducted. The vertical drop tests are used to obtain comparative data between the energy absorbing and operational seats. Volume 1 describes the energy absorbing test seat and testing conducted, and evaluates the data from both test series. Volume 2 presents the data obtained during the seat test series, while Volume 3 presents the data from the crew module test series.

  8. Effect of heavy particles in low-energy light-particle processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, L.H.; Hagiwara, T.; Ovrut, B.

    1979-01-01

    The ''decoupling theorem'' of Appelquist and Carazzone is found not always to be applicable to light-scalar-particle processes in spontaneously broken theories. If the Higgs scalar is considered to be light, then Higgs-scalar processes see the effect of heavy fermions and heavy vector gauge bosons at the one-loop level. If there is more than one scalar multiplet in a spontaneously broken gauge theory, the effect of a heavy Higgs particle in light-scalar-particle processes is significant at the tree level. In the latter case, such an effect can be absorbed completely into an effective phi 4 coupling constant, lambda/sub eff/, of the light particle provided that lambda/sub eff/ is positive definite

  9. Gap-plasmon based broadband absorbers for enhanced hot-electron and photocurrent generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Yuhua; Dong, Wen; Chen, Zhuo

    2016-01-01

    Plasmonic hot-electron generation has recently come into focus as a new scheme for solar energy conversion. So far, however, due to the relatively narrow bandwidth of the surface plasmon resonances and the insufficient resonant light absorption, most of plasmonic photocatalysts show narrow......-band spectral responsivities and small solar energy conversion efficiencies. Here we experimentally demonstrate that a three-layered nanostructure, consisting of a monolayer gold-nanoparticles and a gold film separated by a TiO2 gap layer (Au-NPs/TiO2/Au-film), is capable of near-completely absorbing light...... within the whole visible region. We show that the Au-NPs/TiO2/Au-film device can take advantage of such strong and broadband light absorption to enhance the generation of hot electrons and thus the photocurrent under visible irradiation. As compared to conventional plasmonic photocatalysts such as Au...

  10. Absorbed dose in AgBr in direct film for photon energies (<150 keV): relation to optical density. Theoretical calculation and experimental evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmrot, E.; Alm Carlsson, G.

    1996-01-01

    Calculations of absorbed dose in the silver bromide were compared with measurements of optical densities in Ultra-speed and Ektaspeed films for a broad range (25-145 kV) of X-ray energy. The calculated absorbed dose values were appropriately averaged over the complete photon energy spectrum, which was determined experimentally using a Compton spectrometer. For the whole range of tube potentials used, the measured optical densities of the films were found to be proportional to the mean absorbed dose in the AgBr grains calculated according to GREENING's theory. They were also found to be proportional to the collision kerma in silver bromide (K c,AgBr ) indicating proportionality between K c,AgBr and the mean absorbed dose in silver bromide. While GREENING's theory shows that the quotient of the mean absorbed dose in silver bromide and K c,AgBr varies with photon energy, this is not apparent when averaged over the broad (diagnostic) X-ray energy spectra used here. Alternatively, proportionality between K c,AgBr and the mean absorbed dose in silver bromide can be interpreted as resulting from a combination of the SPIERS-CHARLTON theory, valid at low photon energies ( c,AgBr (at the position of the film) independent of photon energy. The importance of taking the complete X-ray energy spectrum into full account in deriving K c,AgBr is clearly demonstrated, showing that the concept of effective energy must be used with care. (orig./HP)

  11. Absorbed dose calculation of the energy deposition close to bone, lung and soft tissue interfaces in molecular radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, M.; Lassman, M.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Aim: for voxel-based dosimetry in molecular radiotherapy (MRT) based on tabulated voxel S-values these values are usually obtained only for soft tissue. In order to study the changes in the dose deposition patterns at interfaces between different materials we have performed Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: the deposited energy patterns were obtained using the Monte-Carlo radiation code MCNPX v2.7 for Lu 177 (medium-energy) and Y 90 (high-energy). The following interfaces were studied: soft tissue-bone and soft tissue-lungs. For this purpose a volume of soft tissue homogeneously filled with Lu 177 or Y 90 was simulated at the interface to 3 different volumes containing no activity: soft tissue, lungs and bone. The emission was considered to be isotropic. The dimensions were chosen to ensure that the energy deposited by all generated particles was scored. The materials were defined as recommended by ICPR46; the decay schemes of Eckerman and Endo were used. With these data the absorbed dose patterns normalized to the maximum absorbed dose in the source region (soft tissue) were calculated. Results: the absorbed dose fractions in the boundary with soft tissue, bone and lungs are 50%, 47% and 57%, respectively, for Lu 177 and 50%, 47% and 51% for Y 90 . The distances to the interface at which the absorbed fractions are at 0.1% are 1.0, 0.6 and 3.0 mm for Lu 177 and 7.0, 4.0 and 24 mm for Y 90 , for soft tissue, bone and lungs respectively. Conclusions: in MRT, the changes in the absorbed doses at interfaces between soft tissue and bone/lungs need to be considered for isotopes emitting high energy particles. (authors)

  12. Tungsten based anisotropic metamaterial as an ultra-broadband absorber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Yinyue; Cui, Yanxia; Ding, Fei

    2017-01-01

    : We show theoretically that an array of tungsten/germanium anisotropic nano-cones placed on top of a reflective substrate can absorb light at the wavelength range from 0.3 μm to 9 μm with an average absorption efficiency approaching 98%. It is found that the excitation of multiple orders of slow...... of the nano-cones and the interaction between neighboring nano-cones is quite weak. Our proposal has some potential applications in the areas of solar energy harvesting and thermal emitters....

  13. Mechanically Robust, Stretchable Solar Absorbers with Submicron-Thick Multilayer Sheets for Wearable and Energy Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Jin; Jung, Dae-Han; Kil, Tae-Hyeon; Kim, Sang Hyeon; Lee, Ki-Suk; Baek, Seung-Hyub; Choi, Won Jun; Baik, Jeong Min

    2017-05-31

    A facile method to fabricate a mechanically robust, stretchable solar absorber for stretchable heat generation and an enhanced thermoelectric generator (TEG) is demonstrated. This strategy is very simple: it uses a multilayer film made of titanium and magnesium fluoride optimized by a two-dimensional finite element frequency-domain simulation, followed by the application of mechanical stresses such as bending and stretching to the film. This process produces many microsized sheets with submicron thickness (∼500 nm), showing great adhesion to any substrates such as fabrics and polydimethylsiloxane. It exhibits a quite high light absorption of approximately 85% over a wavelength range of 0.2-4.0 μm. Under 1 sun illumination, the solar absorber on various stretchable substrates increased the substrate temperature to approximately 60 °C, irrespective of various mechanical stresses such as bending, stretching, rubbing, and even washing. The TEG with the absorber on the top surface also showed an enhanced output power of 60%, compared with that without the absorber. With an incident solar radiation flux of 38.3 kW/m 2 , the output power significantly increased to 24 mW/cm 2 because of the increase in the surface temperature to 141 °C.

  14. Effect of elevated manganese on the ultraviolet- and blue light-absorbing compounds of cucumber cotyledons and leaf tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, C.R.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of manganese [Mn(II)] on the pigments of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L., cv Poinsett 76) leaf and cotyledon tissues was investigated. Tissue disks (7 mm) were exposed to increasing Mn(II) concentrations from 100 micromolar to 2.5 mM. Acetone (carotenoid-rich fraction) and acidified methanol (flavonoid-rich fraction) extracts were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. Although none of the Mn(II)-treated tissues showed visible damage, Mn(II) at concentrations of 250 micromolar and above significantly reduced (60%) the beta-carotene levels of light-incubated leaf tissues. A major Mn(II)-induced, UV-absorbing compound was observed in methanol extracts of cotyledonary tissues exposed to Mn(II) in the dark. In leaf tissues, Mn(II) reduced the levels of certain UV-absorbing compounds under both light conditions. These results demonstrate that excess leaf Mn(II) can rapidly impair isoprenoid metabolism, altering tissue carotenoid composition. Furthermore, Mn(II) may also modify phenylpropanoid metabolism, changing the tissue flavonoid composition. Both situations could sensitize plant tissues to oxidative stresses, particularly enhanced solar UV-B radiation, and may reduce the nutritional quality of leafy vegetables

  15. Absorbed dose determination in water in medium energy x-ray beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisevic, G.; Spasic-Jokic, V.

    1998-01-01

    Absorbed dose determination in water phantom in medium energy X-ray beam, according to IAEA recommendations is given. This method is applied on Radiotherapy department of Military Academy Hospital in Belgrade. Reference points of measurements are on depth of 5 cm and 2 cm as it recommended in ref. Experimental results are shown in aim to introduce new dosimetric concept based on air kerma calibration factor recommended for application in our radiotherapy centers (author)

  16. A wide dynamic range experiment to measure high energy γ-showers in air by detecting Cherenkov light in the middle ultraviolet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apollinari, G.; Bedeschi, F.; Belforte, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bertolucci, E.; Cervelli, F.; Chiarelli, G.; Dell'Orso, M.; Giannetti, P.; Menzione, A.; Ristori, L.; Scribano, A.; Sestini, P.; Stefanini, A.; Zetti, F.; Pisa Univ.

    1988-01-01

    An experiment to study high energy γ rays from localized cosmic sources is described. A number of Al mirrors reflects the Cherenkov light emitted by the showers into photosensitive gas chambers on the mirror focal plane. The use of gas chambers with large active areas allows a sensitivity superior to existing experiments to be reached. Pad readout gives the required angular accuracy. The chamber is sensitive to the middle ultraviolet Cherenkov light produced by the showers in the atmosphere. Since the ozone in the upper atmosphere absorbs the direct ultraviolet light from any outer source, the lower level atmosphere provides a large dark volume in which the Cherenkov radiation from the showers can be isolated. (orig.)

  17. Passive and Active Vibration Control of Renewable Energy Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zili

    The present thesis deals with fundamental researches on passive and active vibration control of renewable energy structures, and provides useful models for practical applications. Effective and robust vibration control methods have been explored for mitigating the lightly damped edgewise blade...... solutions for wave energy point absorbers, in order to maximize the mean absorbed power and to deliver more smooth power to the grid. A novel suboptimal causal control law has been established for controlling the motion of the point absorber, and a new type of point absorber has also been proposed...

  18. General lighting requirements for photosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiger, D.R. [Univ. of Dayton, OH (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A review of the general lighting requirements for photosynthesis reveals that four aspects of light are important: irradiance, quality, timing and duration. These properties of light affect photosynthesis by providing the energy that drives carbon assimilation as well as by exerting control over physiology, structure and morphology of plants. Irradiance, expressed as energy flux, W m{sup -2}, or photon irradiance, {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}, determines the rate at which energy is being delivered to the photosynthetic reaction centers. Spectral quality, the wavelength composition of light, is important because photons differ in their probability of being absorbed by the light harvesting complex and hence their ability to drive carbon assimilation. Also the various light receptors for light-mediated regulation of plant form and physiology have characteristic absorption spectra and hence photons differ in their effectiveness for eliciting responses. Duration is important because both carbon assimilation and regulation are affected by the total energy or integrated irradiance delivered during a given period. Many processes associated with photosynthesis are time-dependent, increasing or decreasing with duration. Timing is important because the effectiveness of light in the regulation of plant processes varies with the phase of the diumal cycle as determined by the plant`s time-measuring mechanisms.

  19. Procedure to Measure Indoor Lighting Energy Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deru, M.; Blair, N.; Torcellini, P.

    2005-10-01

    This document provides standard definitions of performance metrics and methods to determine them for the energy performance of building interior lighting systems. It can be used for existing buildings and for proposed buildings. The primary users for whom these documents are intended are building energy analysts and technicians who design, install, and operate data acquisition systems, and who analyze and report building energy performance data. Typical results from the use of this procedure are the monthly and annual energy used for lighting, energy savings from occupancy or daylighting controls, and the percent of the total building energy use that is used by the lighting system. The document is not specifically intended for retrofit applications. However, it does complement Measurement and Verification protocols that do not provide detailed performance metrics or measurement procedures.

  20. Performance evaluation of CFRP-rubber shock absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamanna, Giuseppe; Sepe, Raffaele

    2014-05-01

    In the present work a numerical investigation on the energy absorbing capability of dedicated structural components made of a carbon fiber reinforced polymer and an emulsion polymerised styrene butadiene rubber is reported. The shock absorbers are devices designed to absorb large amounts of energy by sacrificing their own structural integrity. Their aim is to cushion the effects of an impact phenomenon with the intent to preserve other structures from global failure or local damaging. Another important role of shock absorbers is reducing the peak of the acceleration showed during an impact phenomenon. This effect is of considerable interest in the case of vehicles to preserve passengers' safety. Static and dynamic numerical results are compared with experimental ones in terms of mean crushing forces, energy and peak crushing. The global performance of the absorbers has been evaluated by referencing to a proposed quality index.

  1. Performance evaluation of CFRP-rubber shock absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamanna, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe.lamanna@unina2.it; Sepe, Raffaele, E-mail: giuseppe.lamanna@unina2.it [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, via Roma, 29 - 81031 Aversa (Italy)

    2014-05-15

    In the present work a numerical investigation on the energy absorbing capability of dedicated structural components made of a carbon fiber reinforced polymer and an emulsion polymerised styrene butadiene rubber is reported. The shock absorbers are devices designed to absorb large amounts of energy by sacrificing their own structural integrity. Their aim is to cushion the effects of an impact phenomenon with the intent to preserve other structures from global failure or local damaging. Another important role of shock absorbers is reducing the peak of the acceleration showed during an impact phenomenon. This effect is of considerable interest in the case of vehicles to preserve passengers’ safety. Static and dynamic numerical results are compared with experimental ones in terms of mean crushing forces, energy and peak crushing. The global performance of the absorbers has been evaluated by referencing to a proposed quality index.

  2. Estimation of RF energy absorbed in the brain from mobile phones in the Interphone Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varsier, N; Bowman, J D; Deltour, I; Figuerola, J; Mann, S; Moissonnier, M; Taki, M; Vecchia, P; Villegas, R; Vrijheid, M; Wake, K; Wiart, J

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to develop an estimate of a radio frequency (RF) dose as the amount of mobile phone RF energy absorbed at the location of a brain tumour, for use in the Interphone Epidemiological Study. Methods We systematically evaluated and quantified all the main parameters thought to influence the amount of specific RF energy absorbed in the brain from mobile telephone use. For this, we identified the likely important determinants of RF specific energy absorption rate during protocol and questionnaire design, we collected information from study subjects, network operators and laboratories involved in specific energy absorption rate measurements and we studied potential modifiers of phone output through the use of software-modified phones. Data collected were analysed to assess the relative importance of the different factors, leading to the development of an algorithm to evaluate the total cumulative specific RF energy (in joules per kilogram), or dose, absorbed at a particular location in the brain. This algorithm was applied to Interphone Study subjects in five countries. Results The main determinants of total cumulative specific RF energy from mobile phones were communication system and frequency band, location in the brain and amount and duration of mobile phone use. Though there was substantial agreement between categorisation of subjects by cumulative specific RF energy and cumulative call time, misclassification was non-negligible, particularly at higher frequency bands. Factors such as adaptive power control (except in Code Division Multiple Access networks), discontinuous transmission and conditions of phone use were found to have a relatively minor influence on total cumulative specific RF energy. Conclusions While amount and duration of use are important determinants of RF dose in the brain, their impact can be substantially modified by communication system, frequency band and location in the brain. It is important to take

  3. Estimation of RF energy absorbed in the brain from mobile phones in the Interphone Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardis, E; Varsier, N; Bowman, J D; Deltour, I; Figuerola, J; Mann, S; Moissonnier, M; Taki, M; Vecchia, P; Villegas, R; Vrijheid, M; Wake, K; Wiart, J

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this study was to develop an estimate of a radio frequency (RF) dose as the amount of mobile phone RF energy absorbed at the location of a brain tumour, for use in the Interphone Epidemiological Study. We systematically evaluated and quantified all the main parameters thought to influence the amount of specific RF energy absorbed in the brain from mobile telephone use. For this, we identified the likely important determinants of RF specific energy absorption rate during protocol and questionnaire design, we collected information from study subjects, network operators and laboratories involved in specific energy absorption rate measurements and we studied potential modifiers of phone output through the use of software-modified phones. Data collected were analysed to assess the relative importance of the different factors, leading to the development of an algorithm to evaluate the total cumulative specific RF energy (in joules per kilogram), or dose, absorbed at a particular location in the brain. This algorithm was applied to Interphone Study subjects in five countries. The main determinants of total cumulative specific RF energy from mobile phones were communication system and frequency band, location in the brain and amount and duration of mobile phone use. Though there was substantial agreement between categorisation of subjects by cumulative specific RF energy and cumulative call time, misclassification was non-negligible, particularly at higher frequency bands. Factors such as adaptive power control (except in Code Division Multiple Access networks), discontinuous transmission and conditions of phone use were found to have a relatively minor influence on total cumulative specific RF energy. While amount and duration of use are important determinants of RF dose in the brain, their impact can be substantially modified by communication system, frequency band and location in the brain. It is important to take these into account in analyses of risk

  4. A graphite calorimeter for absolute measurements of absorbed dose to water: application in medium-energy x-ray filtered beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, M; Pimpinella, M; Quini, M; D'Arienzo, M; Astefanoaei, I; Loreti, S; Guerra, A S

    2016-02-21

    The Italian National Institute of Ionizing Radiation Metrology (ENEA-INMRI) has designed and built a graphite calorimeter that, in a water phantom, has allowed the determination of the absorbed dose to water in medium-energy x-rays with generating voltages from 180 to 250 kV. The new standard is a miniaturized three-bodies calorimeter, with a disc-shaped core of 21 mm diameter and 2 mm thickness weighing 1.134 g, sealed in a PMMA waterproof envelope with air-evacuated gaps. The measured absorbed dose to graphite is converted into absorbed dose to water by means of an energy-dependent conversion factor obtained from Monte Carlo simulations. Heat-transfer correction factors were determined by FEM calculations. At a source-to-detector distance of 100 cm, a depth in water of 2 g cm(-2), and at a dose rate of about 0.15 Gy min(-1), results of calorimetric measurements of absorbed dose to water, D(w), were compared to experimental determinations, D wK, obtained via an ionization chamber calibrated in terms of air kerma, according to established dosimetry protocols. The combined standard uncertainty of D(w) and D(wK) were estimated as 1.9% and 1.7%, respectively. The two absorbed dose to water determinations were in agreement within 1%, well below the stated measurement uncertainties. Advancements are in progress to extend the measurement capability of the new in-water-phantom graphite calorimeter to other filtered medium-energy x-ray qualities and to reduce the D(w) uncertainty to around 1%. The new calorimeter represents the first implementation of in-water-phantom graphite calorimetry in the kilovoltage range and, allowing independent determinations of D(w), it will contribute to establish a robust system of absorbed dose to water primary standards for medium-energy x-ray beams.

  5. Scattered-field FDTD and PSTD algorithms with CPML absorbing boundary conditions for light scattering by aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Wenbo; Videen, Gorden; Fu, Qiang; Hu, Yongxiang

    2013-01-01

    As fundamental parameters for polarized-radiative-transfer calculations, the single-scattering phase matrix of irregularly shaped aerosol particles must be accurately modeled. In this study, a scattered-field finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) model and a scattered-field pseudo-spectral time-domain (PSTD) model are developed for light scattering by arbitrarily shaped dielectric aerosols. The convolutional perfectly matched layer (CPML) absorbing boundary condition (ABC) is used to truncate the computational domain. It is found that the PSTD method is generally more accurate than the FDTD in calculation of the single-scattering properties given similar spatial cell sizes. Since the PSTD can use a coarser grid for large particles, it can lower the memory requirement in the calculation. However, the Fourier transformations in the PSTD need significantly more CPU time than simple subtractions in the FDTD, and the fast Fourier transform requires a power of 2 elements in calculations, thus using the PSTD could not significantly reduce the CPU time required in the numerical modeling. Furthermore, because the scattered-field FDTD/PSTD equations include incident-wave source terms, the FDTD/PSTD model allows for the inclusion of an arbitrarily incident wave source, including a plane parallel wave or a Gaussian beam like those emitted by lasers usually used in laboratory particle characterizations, etc. The scattered-field FDTD and PSTD light-scattering models can be used to calculate single-scattering properties of arbitrarily shaped aerosol particles over broad size and wavelength ranges. -- Highlights: • Scattered-field FDTD and PSTD models are developed for light scattering by aerosols. • Convolutional perfectly matched layer absorbing boundary condition is used. • PSTD is generally more accurate than FDTD in calculating single-scattering properties. • Using same spatial resolution, PSTD requires much larger CPU time than FDTD

  6. Light-absorbing organic carbon from prescribed and laboratory biomass burning and gasoline vehicle emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Mingjie; Hays, Michael D; Holder, Amara L

    2017-08-04

    Light-absorbing organic carbon (OC), also termed brown carbon (BrC), from laboratory-based biomass burning (BB) has been studied intensively to understand the contribution of BB to radiative forcing. However, relatively few measurements have been conducted on field-based BB and even fewer measurements have examined BrC from anthropogenic combustion sources like motor vehicle emissions. In this work, the light absorption of methanol-extractable OC from prescribed and laboratory BB and gasoline vehicle emissions was examined using spectrophotometry. The light absorption of methanol extracts showed a strong wavelength dependence for both BB and gasoline vehicle emissions. The mass absorption coefficients at 365 nm (MAC 365 , m 2 g -1 C) - used as a measurement proxy for BrC - were significantly correlated (p burn conditions and fuel types may impact BB BrC characteristics. The average MAC 365 of gasoline vehicle emission samples is 0.62 ± 0.76 m 2  g -1 C, which is similar in magnitude to the BB samples (1.27 ± 0.76 m 2  g -1 C). These results suggest that in addition to BB, gasoline vehicle emissions may also be an important BrC source in urban areas.

  7. Light absorbing organic aerosols (brown carbon) over the tropical Indian Ocean: impact of biomass burning emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivas, Bikkina; Sarin, M M

    2013-01-01

    The first field measurements of light absorbing water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), referred as brown carbon (BrC), have been made in the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) during the continental outflow to the Bay of Bengal (BoB) and the Arabian Sea (ARS). The absorption signal measured at 365 nm in aqueous extracts of aerosols shows a systematic linear increase with WSOC concentration, suggesting a significant contribution from BrC to the absorption properties of organic aerosols. The mass absorption coefficient (b abs ) of BrC shows an inverse hyperbolic relation with wavelength (from ∼300 to 700 nm), providing an estimate of the Angstrom exponent (α P , range: 3–19; Av: 9 ± 3). The mass absorption efficiency of brown carbon (σ abs−BrC ) in the MABL varies from 0.17 to 0.72 m 2  g −1 (Av: 0.45 ± 0.14 m 2  g −1 ). The α P and σ abs−BrC over the BoB are quite similar to that studied from a sampling site in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), suggesting the dominant impact of organic aerosols associated with the continental outflow. A comparison of the mass absorption efficiency of BrC and elemental carbon (EC) brings to focus the significant role of light absorbing organic aerosols (from biomass burning emissions) in atmospheric radiative forcing over oceanic regions located downwind of the pollution sources. (letter)

  8. Photoluminescence and reflectivity studies of high energy light ions irradiated polymethyl methacrylate films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Madhu Lata; Singh, Fouran; Ramola, R. C.; Joshi, Veena

    2017-11-01

    The self-standing films of non-conducting polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) were irradiated in vacuum using high energy light ions (HELIs) of 50 MeV Lithium (Li+3) and 80 MeV Carbon (C+5) at various ion dose to induce the optical changes in the films. Upon HELI irradiation, films exhibit a significant enhancement in optical reflectivity at the highest dose. Interestingly, the photoluminescence (PL) emission band with green light at (514.5 nm) shows a noticeable increase in the intensity with increasing ion dose for both ions. However, the rate of increase in PL intensity is different for both HELI and can be correlated with the linear energy transfer by these ions in the films. Origin of PL is attributed to the formation of carbon cluster and hydrogenated amorphous carbon in the polymer films. HAC clusters act as PL active centres with optical reflectivity. Most of the harmful radiation like UV are absorbed by the material and is becoming opaque after irradiation and this PL active material are useful in fabrication of optoelectronic devices, UV-filter, back-lit components in liquid crystal display systems, micro-components for integrate optical circuits, diffractive elements, advanced materials and are also applicable to the post irradiation laser treatment by means of ion irradiation.

  9. Design and performance simulation of a segmented-absorber based muon detection system for high energy heavy ion collision experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.; Bhaduri, P.P.; Jahan, H.; Senger, A.; Adak, R.; Samanta, S.; Prakash, A.; Dey, K.; Lebedev, A.; Kryshen, E.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Senger, P.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Ghosh, S.K.; Raha, S.; Irfan, M.; Ahmad, N.; Farooq, M.; Singh, B.

    2015-01-01

    A muon detection system (MUCH) based on a novel concept using a segmented and instrumented absorber has been designed for high-energy heavy-ion collision experiments. The system consists of 6 hadron absorber blocks and 6 tracking detector triplets. Behind each absorber block a detector triplet is located which measures the tracks of charged particles traversing the absorber. The performance of such a system has been simulated for the CBM experiment at FAIR (Germany) that is scheduled to start taking data in heavy ion collisions in the beam energy range of 6–45 A GeV from 2019. The muon detection system is mounted downstream to a Silicon Tracking System (STS) that is located in a large aperture dipole magnet which provides momentum information of the charged particle tracks. The reconstructed tracks from the STS are to be matched to the hits measured by the muon detector triplets behind the absorber segments. This method allows the identification of muon tracks over a broad range of momenta including tracks of soft muons which do not pass through all the absorber layers. Pairs of oppositely charged muons identified by MUCH could therefore be combined to measure the invariant masses in a wide range starting from low mass vector mesons (LMVM) up to charmonia. The properties of the absorber (material, thickness, position) and of the tracking chambers (granularity, geometry) have been varied in simulations of heavy-ion collision events generated with the UrQMD generator and propagated through the setup using the GEANT3, the particle transport code. The tracks are reconstructed by a Cellular Automaton algorithm followed by a Kalman Filter. The simulations demonstrate that low mass vector mesons and charmonia can be clearly identified in central Au+Au collisions at beam energies provided by the international Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR)

  10. Design and control of a point absorber wave energy converter with an open loop hydraulic transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, YaJun; Mu, AnLe; Ma, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Point absorber wave energy converter is presented. • Piston pump module captures and converts wave energy. • Hydraulic accumulator stores/releases the surplus energy. • Fuzzy controller adjusts the displacement of hydraulic motor. • Generator outputs meet the electricity demand precisely. - Abstract: In this paper, a point absorber wave energy converter combined with offshore wind turbine is proposed. In the system, the wave energy is captured and converted into hydraulic energy by a piston pump module, which is combined with a wind turbine floating platform, and then the hydraulic energy is converted into electricity energy by a variable displacement hydraulic motor and induction generator. In order to smooth and stabilize the captured wave energy, a hydraulic accumulator is applied to store and release the excess energy. In order to meet the demand power a fuzzy controller is designed to adjust the displacement of hydraulic motor and controlled the output power. Simulation under irregular wave condition has been carried out to verify the validity of the mathematical model and the effectiveness of the controller strategy. The results show that the wave energy converter system could deliver the required electricity power precisely as the motor output torque is controlled. The accumulator could damp out all the fluctuations in output power, so the wave energy would become a dispatchable power source.

  11. Development of a Continuum Damage Mechanics Material Model of a Graphite-Kevlar(Registered Trademark) Hybrid Fabric for Simulating the Impact Response of Energy Absorbing Kevlar(Registered Trademark) Hybrid Fabric for Simulating the Impact Response of Energy Absorbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Karen E.; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Littell, Justin D.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the development of input properties for a continuum damage mechanics based material model, Mat 58, within LS-DYNA(Registered Trademark) to simulate the response of a graphite-Kevlar(Registered Trademark) hybrid plain weave fabric. A limited set of material characterization tests were performed on the hybrid graphite-Kevlar(Registered Trademark) fabric. Simple finite element models were executed in LS-DYNA(Registered Trademark) to simulate the material characterization tests and to verify the Mat 58 material model. Once verified, the Mat 58 model was used in finite element models of two composite energy absorbers: a conical-shaped design, designated the "conusoid," fabricated of four layers of hybrid graphite-Kevlar(Registered Trademark) fabric; and, a sinusoidal-shaped foam sandwich design, designated the "sinusoid," fabricated of the same hybrid fabric face sheets with a foam core. Dynamic crush tests were performed on components of the two energy absorbers, which were designed to limit average vertical accelerations to 25- to 40-g, to minimize peak crush loads, and to generate relatively long crush stroke values under dynamic loading conditions. Finite element models of the two energy absorbers utilized the Mat 58 model that had been verified through material characterization testing. Excellent predictions of the dynamic crushing response were obtained.

  12. Lighting consumption and buildings’ energy certifications in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaso, Laura; Loverso, Valerio R.M; Mutani, Guglielmina

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the procedure prescribed by Italian Standards to account the heat gains due to artificial lighting in the calculation of the energy performance indices for a building. A new procedure, based on the Lighting Energy Numerical Indicator (LENI), is proposed. This consists of three steps: i) internal gains from lighting are calculated accounting for day lighting and controls; ii) these gains are summed to the internal heat gains from occupants and appliances; iii) the global heat gains are used to calculate the energy performance indices (for lighting, cooling, heating and hot water production) for an office building following the Italian Technical Standards. The case-study used is the building hosting the Department of Energy at Politecnico di Torino. The building was assumed to be located in Turin and Palermo, and the use of a manual on/off switch and of a photo dimming sensor was also compared. For each configuration, all energy performance indices were calculated comparing standard and new approach [it

  13. Light harvesting tetrafullerene nanoarray for organic solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atienza, C.M.; Fernández, G.; Sánchez, L.; Martin, N.; Sá Dantas, I.; Wienk, M.M.; Janssen, R.A.J.; Rahman, A.G.M.; Guldi, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    A light absorbing -conjugated oligomer–tetrafullerene nanoarray has been synthesized and its photophysical study reveals the presence of an intramolecular energy transfer. A phototovoltaic device fabricated from this nanoarray and poly(3-hexylthiophene) shows an external quantum efficiency of 15% at

  14. A closed-form formulation for the build-up factor and absorbed energy for photons and electrons in the Compton energy range in Cartesian geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Volnei; Vilhena, Marco Tullio; Fernandes, Julio Cesar Lombaldo

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we report on a closed-form formulation for the build-up factor and absorbed energy, in one and two dimensional Cartesian geometry for photons and electrons, in the Compton energy range. For the one-dimensional case we use the LTS N method, assuming the Klein-Nishina scattering kernel for the determination of the angular radiation intensity for photons. We apply the two-dimensional LTS N nodal solution for the averaged angular radiation evaluation for the two-dimensional case, using the Klein-Nishina kernel for photons and the Compton kernel for electrons. From the angular radiation intensity we construct a closed-form solution for the build-up factor and evaluate the absorbed energy. We present numerical simulations and comparisons against results from the literature. (author)

  15. The precipitation synthesis of broad-spectrum UV absorber nanoceria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurhasanah, Iis; Sutanto, Heri; Puspaningrum, Nurul Wahyu

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the possibility of nanoceria as broad-spectrum UV absorber was evaluated. Nanoceria were synthesized by precipitation process from cerium nitrate solution and ammonium hydroxide as precipitant agent. Isopropanol was mixed with water as solvent to prevent hard agglomeration. The structure of resulting nanoceria was characterized by x-ray diffractometer (XRD). The transparency in the visible light and efficiency of protection in UV A region were studied using ultraviolet-visible (UV - Vis) spectrophotometer. The results show that nanoceria possess good tranparency in visible light and high UV light absorption. The critical absorption wavelenght of 368 nm was obtained which is desirable for excellent broad-spectrum protection absorbers. Moreover, analysis of photodegradation nanoceria to methylene blue solution shows poor photocatalytic activity. It indicates that nanoceria suitable for used as UV absorber in personal care products

  16. Solid-state lighting: an energy-economics perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsao, J Y; Creighton, J R; Coltrin, M E; Simmons, J A; Saunders, H D

    2010-01-01

    Artificial light has long been a significant factor contributing to the quality and productivity of human life. As a consequence, we are willing to use huge amounts of energy to produce it. Solid-state lighting (SSL) is an emerging technology that promises performance features and efficiencies well beyond those of traditional artificial lighting, accompanied by potentially massive shifts in (a) the consumption of light, (b) the human productivity and energy use associated with that consumption and (c) the semiconductor chip area inventory and turnover required to support that consumption. In this paper, we provide estimates of the baseline magnitudes of these shifts using simple extrapolations of past behaviour into the future. For past behaviour, we use recent studies of historical and contemporary consumption patterns analysed within a simple energy-economics framework (a Cobb-Douglas production function and profit maximization). For extrapolations into the future, we use recent reviews of believed-achievable long-term performance targets for SSL. We also discuss ways in which the actual magnitudes could differ from the baseline magnitudes of these shifts. These include: changes in human societal demand for light; possible demand for features beyond lumens; and guidelines and regulations aimed at economizing on consumption of light and associated energy.

  17. Solid-state lighting: an energy-economics perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsao, J Y; Creighton, J R; Coltrin, M E; Simmons, J A [Physical, Chemical and Nano Sciences Center, Sandia National Laboratories, PO Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185-0601 (United States); Saunders, H D, E-mail: jytsao@sandia.go, E-mail: jrcreig@sandia.go, E-mail: mecoltr@sandia.go, E-mail: jsimmon@sandia.go, E-mail: hsaunders@decisionprocessesinc.co [Decision Processes Incorporated, 2308 Saddleback Drive, Danville, CA 94506 (United States)

    2010-09-08

    Artificial light has long been a significant factor contributing to the quality and productivity of human life. As a consequence, we are willing to use huge amounts of energy to produce it. Solid-state lighting (SSL) is an emerging technology that promises performance features and efficiencies well beyond those of traditional artificial lighting, accompanied by potentially massive shifts in (a) the consumption of light, (b) the human productivity and energy use associated with that consumption and (c) the semiconductor chip area inventory and turnover required to support that consumption. In this paper, we provide estimates of the baseline magnitudes of these shifts using simple extrapolations of past behaviour into the future. For past behaviour, we use recent studies of historical and contemporary consumption patterns analysed within a simple energy-economics framework (a Cobb-Douglas production function and profit maximization). For extrapolations into the future, we use recent reviews of believed-achievable long-term performance targets for SSL. We also discuss ways in which the actual magnitudes could differ from the baseline magnitudes of these shifts. These include: changes in human societal demand for light; possible demand for features beyond lumens; and guidelines and regulations aimed at economizing on consumption of light and associated energy.

  18. Opportunities of energy saving in lighting systems for public buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Abd El-khalek

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The lighting system provides many options for cost-effective energy saving with low or no inconvenience. Lighting improvements are excellent investments in most public buildings, it is usually cost-effective to address because lighting improvements are often easier to make than many process upgrades.For public buildings, the easy no and low cost options to help save money and improve the energy performance are:Understand energy use.Identify optionsPrioritize actionsMake the changes and measure the savings.Continue managing energy efficiency.The challenge is to retrofit traditional lamps with LED lamps of good quality. The benefits of LED light bulbs are long-lasting, durable, cool, mercury free, more efficient, and cost effective.The light Emitting Diode (LED bulb uses a semiconductor as its light source, and is currently one of the most energy efficient and quickly developing types of bulbs for lighting. LEDs increasingly are being purchased to replace traditional bulbs. LEDs are relatively more expensive than other types of bulbs, but are very cost-effective because they use only a fraction of electricity of traditional lighting methods nd can last for longer.Benchmarking guides decision makers to policies aimed at the energy sector through better understanding of energy consumption trends nationwide, e.g.: energy price, moderating, peak demand, and encouraging sectors, low energy expansions.The “Improving Energy Efficiency Project of Lighting and Appliances” carried out energy audits and implemented opportunities of energy saving in lighting for different type of public buildings.To rationalize the use of energy by giving guidelines to consumers, the IEEL&A project prepared some brochures.This paper leads with the results of case studies as energy audits, opportunities in lighting systems, energy saving and CO2 reduction.

  19. Monte Carlo simulation of reflection spectra of random multilayer media strongly scattering and absorbing light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meglinskii, I V

    2001-01-01

    The reflection spectra of a multilayer random medium - the human skin - strongly scattering and absorbing light are numerically simulated. The propagation of light in the medium and the absorption spectra are simulated by the stochastic Monte Carlo method, which combines schemes for calculations of real photon trajectories and the statistical weight method. The model takes into account the inhomogeneous spatial distribution of blood vessels, water, and melanin, the degree of blood oxygenation, and the hematocrit index. The attenuation of the incident radiation caused by reflection and refraction at Fresnel boundaries of layers inside the medium is also considered. The simulated reflection spectra are compared with the experimental reflection spectra of the human skin. It is shown that a set of parameters that was used to describe the optical properties of skin layers and their possible variations, despite being far from complete, is nevertheless sufficient for the simulation of the reflection spectra of the human skin and their quantitative analysis. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  20. Light's labour's lost - policies for energy-efficient lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-29

    When William Shakepeare wrote Love's Labour's Lost he would have used light from tallow candles at a cost (today) of 12,000 British pounds per million-lumen hours. The same amount of light from electric lamps now costs only 2 pounds! But today's low-cost illumination still has a dark side. Globally, lighting consumes more electricity than is produced by either hydro or nuclear power and results in CO2 emissions equivalent to two thirds of the world's cars. A standard incandescent lamp may be much more efficient than a tallow candle, but it is far less efficient than a high-pressure sodium lamp. Were inefficient light sources to be replaced by the equivalent efficient ones, global lighting energy demand would be up to 40% less at a lower overall cost. Larger savings still could be realised through the intelligent use of controls, lighting levels and daylight. But achieving efficient lighting is not just a question of technology; it requires policies to transform current practice. This book documents the broad range of policy measures to stimulate efficient lighting that have already been implemented around the world and suggests new ways these could be strengthened to prevent light's labour's from being lost.

  1. Light's labour's lost - policies for energy-efficient lighting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    When William Shakepeare wrote Love's Labour's Lost he would have used light from tallow candles at a cost (today) of 12,000 British pounds per million-lumen hours. The same amount of light from electric lamps now costs only 2 pounds. But today's low-cost illumination still has a dark side. Globally, lighting consumes more electricity than is produced by either hydro or nuclear power and results in CO2 emissions equivalent to two thirds of the world's cars. A standard incandescent lamp may be much more efficient than a tallow candle, but it is far less efficient than a high-pressure sodium lamp. Were inefficient light sources to be replaced by the equivalent efficient ones, global lighting energy demand would be up to 40% less at a lower overall cost. Larger savings still could be realised through the intelligent use of controls, lighting levels and daylight. But achieving efficient lighting is not just a question of technology; it requires policies to transform current practice. This book documents the broad range of policy measures to stimulate efficient lighting that have already been implemented around the world and suggests new ways these could be strengthened to prevent light's labour's from being lost

  2. Measurement of absorbed dose for high energy electron using CaSO4: Tm-PTFE TLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Myeong Hwan; Kim, Do Sung

    2000-01-01

    In this study, the highly sensitive CaSO 4 : Tm-PTFE TLDs has been fabricated for the purpose of measurement of high energy electron. CaSO 4 : Tm phosphor powder was mixed with polytetrafluoroethylene(PTFE) powder and moulded in a disk type(diameter 8.5mm, thickness 90mg/cm 2 ) by cold pressing. The absorbed dose distribution and ranges for high energy electron were measured by using the CaSO 4 : Tm-PTFE TLDs. The ranges determined were R 100 =3D14.5mm, R 50 =3D24.1mm and R p =3D31.8mm, respectively and the beam flatness, the variation of relative dose in 80% of the field size, was 4.5%. The fabricated CaSO 4 : Tm-PTFE TLDs may be utilized in radiation dosimetry for personal, absorbed dose and environmental monitoring.=20

  3. Design of a nonlinear torsional vibration absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Ammaar Bin

    Tuned mass dampers (TMD) utilizing linear spring mechanisms to mitigate destructive vibrations are commonly used in practice. A TMD is usually tuned for a specific resonant frequency or an operating frequency of a system. Recently, nonlinear vibration absorbers attracted attention of researchers due to some potential advantages they possess over the TMDs. The nonlinear vibration absorber, or the nonlinear energy sink (NES), has an advantage of being effective over a broad range of excitation frequencies, which makes it more suitable for systems with several resonant frequencies, or for a system with varying excitation frequency. Vibration dissipation mechanism in an NES is passive and ensures that there is no energy backflow to the primary system. In this study, an experimental setup of a rotational system has been designed for validation of the concept of nonlinear torsional vibration absorber with geometrically induced cubic stiffness nonlinearity. Dimensions of the primary system have been optimized so as to get the first natural frequency of the system to be fairly low. This was done in order to excite the dynamic system for torsional vibration response by the available motor. Experiments have been performed to obtain the modal parameters of the system. Based on the obtained modal parameters, the design optimization of the nonlinear torsional vibration absorber was carried out using an equivalent 2-DOF modal model. The optimality criterion was chosen to be maximization of energy dissipation in the nonlinear absorber attached to the equivalent 2-DOF system. The optimized design parameters of the nonlinear absorber were tested on the original 5-DOF system numerically. A comparison was made between the performance of linear and nonlinear absorbers using the numerical models. The comparison showed the superiority of the nonlinear absorber over its linear counterpart for the given set of primary system parameters as the vibration energy dissipation in the former is

  4. Photocatalytic oxidation of organic compounds in a hybrid system composed of a molecular catalyst and visible light-absorbing semiconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xu; Li, Fei; Li, Xiaona; Li, Hua; Wang, Yong; Sun, Licheng

    2015-01-14

    Photocatalytic oxidation of organic compounds proceeded efficiently in a hybrid system with ruthenium aqua complexes as catalysts, BiVO4 as a light absorber, [Co(NH3)5Cl](2+) as a sacrificial electron acceptor and water as an oxygen source. The photogenerated holes in the semiconductor are used to oxidize molecular catalysts into the high-valent Ru(IV)=O intermediates for 2e(-) oxidation.

  5. On the definition of absorbed dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grusell, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The quantity absorbed dose is used extensively in all areas concerning the interaction of ionizing radiation with biological organisms, as well as with matter in general. The most recent and authoritative definition of absorbed dose is given by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) in ICRU Report 85. However, that definition is incomplete. The purpose of the present work is to give a rigorous definition of absorbed dose. Methods: Absorbed dose is defined in terms of the random variable specific energy imparted. A random variable is a mathematical function, and it cannot be defined without specifying its domain of definition which is a probability space. This is not done in report 85 by the ICRU, mentioned above. Results: In the present work a definition of a suitable probability space is given, so that a rigorous definition of absorbed dose is possible. This necessarily includes the specification of the experiment which the probability space describes. In this case this is an irradiation, which is specified by the initial particles released and by the material objects which can interact with the radiation. Some consequences are discussed. Specific energy imparted is defined for a volume, and the definition of absorbed dose as a point function involves the specific energy imparted for a small mass contained in a volume surrounding the point. A possible more precise definition of this volume is suggested and discussed. Conclusions: The importance of absorbed dose motivates a proper definition, and one is given in the present work. No rigorous definition has been presented before. - Highlights: • A stringent definition of absorbed dose is given. • This requires the definition of an irradiation and a suitable probability space. • A stringent definition is important for an understanding of the concept absorbed dose

  6. A black body absorber from vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Kohei; Ishii, Juntaro; Kishida, Hideo; Hayamizu, Yuhei; Yasuda, Satoshi; Futaba, Don N.; Yumura, Motoo; Hata, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    Among all known materials, we found that a forest of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes behaves most similarly to a black body, a theoretical material that absorbs all incident light. A requirement for an object to behave as a black body is to perfectly absorb light of all wavelengths. This important feature has not been observed for real materials because materials intrinsically have specific absorption bands because of their structure and composition. We found a material that can absorb light almost perfectly across a very wide spectral range (0.2–200 μm). We attribute this black body behavior to stem from the sparseness and imperfect alignment of the vertical single-walled carbon nanotubes. PMID:19339498

  7. The Development of Two Composite Energy Absorbers for Use in a Transport Rotorcraft Airframe Crash Testbed (TRACT 2) Full-Scale Crash Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littell, Justin D.; Jackson, Karen E.; Annett, Martin S.; Seal, Michael D.; Fasanella, Edwin L.

    2015-01-01

    Two composite energy absorbers were developed and evaluated at NASA Langley Research Center through multi-level testing and simulation performed under the Transport Rotorcraft Airframe Crash Testbed (TRACT) research program. A conical-shaped energy absorber, designated the conusoid, was evaluated that consisted of four layers of hybrid carbon-Kevlar plain weave fabric oriented at [+45deg/-45deg/-45deg/+45deg] with respect to the vertical direction. A sinusoidal-shaped energy absorber, designated the sinusoid, was developed that consisted of hybrid carbon-Kevlar plain weave fabric face sheets, two layers for each face sheet oriented at +/-45deg with respect to the vertical direction, and a closed-cell ELFOAM P200 polyisocyanurate (2.0-lb/cu ft) foam core. The design goal for the energy absorbers was to achieve average floor-level accelerations of between 25- and 40-g during the full-scale crash test of a retrofitted CH-46E helicopter airframe, designated TRACT 2. Variations in both designs were assessed through dynamic crush testing of component specimens. Once the designs were finalized, subfloor beams of each configuration were fabricated and retrofitted into a barrel section of a CH-46E helicopter. A vertical drop test of the barrel section was conducted onto concrete to evaluate the performance of the energy absorbers prior to retrofit into TRACT 2. The retrofitted airframe was crash tested under combined forward and vertical velocity conditions onto soft soil. Finite element models were developed of all test articles and simulations were performed using LS-DYNA, a commercial nonlinear explicit transient dynamic finite element code. Test-analysis results are presented for each energy absorber as comparisons of time-history responses, as well as predicted and experimental structural deformations and progressive damage under impact loading for each evaluation level.

  8. Selective solar absorbers: A cost effective solution for access to clean energy in rural Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Katumba, G

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available by inadequate grid electricity infrastructure. This state of affairs has culminated in massive deforestation and desertification of some parts of Africa. One technology solution is to harness the energy from the sun through solar absorbers. This has applications...

  9. A closed-form formulation for the build-up factor and absorbed energy for photons and electrons in the Compton energy range in Cartesian geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Volnei; Vilhena, Marco Tullio, E-mail: borges@ufrgs.b, E-mail: vilhena@pq.cnpq.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (PROMEC/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica; Fernandes, Julio Cesar Lombaldo, E-mail: julio.lombaldo@ufrgs.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (DMPA/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Matematica Pura e Aplicada. Programa de Pos Graduacao em Matematica Aplicada

    2011-07-01

    In this work, we report on a closed-form formulation for the build-up factor and absorbed energy, in one and two dimensional Cartesian geometry for photons and electrons, in the Compton energy range. For the one-dimensional case we use the LTS{sub N} method, assuming the Klein-Nishina scattering kernel for the determination of the angular radiation intensity for photons. We apply the two-dimensional LTS{sub N} nodal solution for the averaged angular radiation evaluation for the two-dimensional case, using the Klein-Nishina kernel for photons and the Compton kernel for electrons. From the angular radiation intensity we construct a closed-form solution for the build-up factor and evaluate the absorbed energy. We present numerical simulations and comparisons against results from the literature. (author)

  10. Modeling of light absorbing particles in atmosphere, snow and ice in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhani, N.; Kulkarni, S.; Carmichael, G. R.

    2015-12-01

    Long-range transport of atmospheric particles from mid-latitude sources to the Arctic is the main contributor to the Arctic aerosol loadings and deposition. Black Carbon (BC), Brown Carbon (BrC) and dust are considered of great climatic importance and are the main absorbers of sunlight in the atmosphere. Furthermore, wet and dry deposition of light absorbing particles (LAPs) on snow and ice cause reduction of snow and ice albedo. LAPs have significant radiative forcing and effect on snow albedo. There are high uncertainties in estimating radiative forcing of LAPs. We studied the potential effect of LAPs from different emission source regions and sectors on snow albedo in the Arctic. The transport pathway of LAPs to the Arctic is studies for different high pollution episodes. In this study a modeling framework including Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) and the University of Iowa's Sulfur Transport and dEpostion model(STEM) is used to predict the transport of LAPs from different geographical sources and sectors (i.e. transportation, residential, industry, biomass burning and power) to the Arctic. For assessing the effect of LAP deposition on snow single-layer simulator of the SNow, Ice, and Aerosol Radiation (SNICAR-Online) model was used to derive snow albedo values for snow albedo reduction causes by BC deposition. To evaluate the simulated values we compared the BC concentration in snow with observed values from previous studies including Doherty et al. 2010.

  11. Tunneling and reflection in unimolecular reaction kinetic energy release distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, K.

    2018-02-01

    The kinetic energy release distributions in unimolecular reactions is calculated with detailed balance theory, taking into account the tunneling and the reflection coefficient in three different types of transition states; (i) a saddle point corresponding to a standard RRKM-type theory, (ii) an attachment Langevin cross section, and (iii) an absorbing sphere potential at short range, without long range interactions. Corrections are significant in the one dimensional saddle point states. Very light and lightly bound absorbing systems will show measurable effects in decays from the absorbing sphere, whereas the Langevin cross section is essentially unchanged.

  12. Photonic Color Filters Integrated with Organic Solar Cells for Energy Harvesting

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Hui Joon

    2011-09-27

    Color filters are indispensable in most color display applications. In most cases, they are chemical pigment-based filters, which produce a particular color by absorbing its complementary color, and the absorbed energy is totally wasted. If the absorbed and wasted energy can be utilized, e.g., to generate electricity, innovative energy-efficient electronic media could be envisioned. Here we show photonic nanostructures incorporated with photovoltaics capable of producing desirable colors in the visible band and utilize the absorbed light to simultaneously generate electrical powers. In contrast to the traditional colorant-based filters, these devices offer great advantages for electro-optic applications. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  13. Sound Absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, H. V.; Möser, M.

    Sound absorption indicates the transformation of sound energy into heat. It is, for instance, employed to design the acoustics in rooms. The noise emitted by machinery and plants shall be reduced before arriving at a workplace; auditoria such as lecture rooms or concert halls require a certain reverberation time. Such design goals are realised by installing absorbing components at the walls with well-defined absorption characteristics, which are adjusted for corresponding demands. Sound absorbers also play an important role in acoustic capsules, ducts and screens to avoid sound immission from noise intensive environments into the neighbourhood.

  14. The role of energy losses in photosynthetic light harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, T. P. J.; van Grondelle, R.

    2017-07-01

    Photosynthesis operates at the bottom of the food chain to convert the energy of light into carbohydrates at a remarkable global rate of about 130 TW. Nonetheless, the overall photosynthetic process has a conversion efficiency of a few percent at best, significantly less than bottom-up photovoltaic cells. The primary photosynthetic steps, consisting of light harvesting and charge separation, are often presented as having near-unity quantum efficiency but this holds only true under ideal conditions. In this review, we discuss the importance of energy loss mechanisms to establish robustness in photosynthetic light harvesting. Thermal energy dissipation of light-harvesting complexes (LHCs) in different environments is investigated and the relationships and contrasts between concentration quenching of high pigment concentrations, photoprotection (non-photochemical quenching), quenching due to protein aggregation, and fluorescence blinking are discussed. The role of charge-transfer states in light harvesting and energy dissipation is highlighted and the importance of controlled protein structural disorder to switch the light-harvesting antennae between effective light harvesters and efficient energy quenchers is underscored. The main LHC of plants, LHCII, is used as a prime example.

  15. Prompt-gamma detection towards absorbed energy monitoring during hadrontherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krimmer, J.; Balleyguier, L.; Dauvergne, D.; Mathez, H.; Pinto, M.; Testa, E.; Zoccarato, Y. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Universite de Lyon, Universite de Lyon 1, IN2P3/CNRS, UMR 5822, F-69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Krimmer, J.; Freud, N.; L' etang, J.M. [Universite de Lyon, CREATIS, CNRS UMR 5220, Inserm U1044, INSA - Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Centre Leon Berard (France); Herault, J.; Amblard, R.; Angellier, G. [Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Cyclotron Biomedical, 227 Avenue de la Lanterne, 06200 Nice (France)

    2015-07-01

    Hadrontherapy is an emerging technique which exploits the fact that a large quantity of the energy of the incident particles is deposited at the end of their flight path. This allows a conformation of the applied dose to the tumor volume and a simultaneous sparing of surrounding healthy tissue. A real-time control of the ion range during the treatment is possible via the detection of prompt secondary radiation (gamma rays or charged particles). Besides a monitoring of the ion range, the knowledge of the total energy absorbed inside the patient is also of importance for an improvement of the treatment quality. It has been shown that the ambient dose in a treatment room is correlated to the monitoring units, i.e. the number of protons of the beam delivery system. The present study consists in applying time-of-flight (TOF) information to identify prompt gamma-rays generated by interactions inside the patient which provides a direct information on the energy imparted. Results from test measurements will be given, which show that events generated in the nozzle and the target phantom can be discriminated. Furthermore, a standalone detection system is being developed which will be read out by a standard PC. The status of the developments for the corresponding electronics will be presented. (authors)

  16. Methods for applying microchannels to separate methane using liquid absorbents, especially ionic liquid absorbents from a mixture comprising methane and nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y [Dublin, OH; Litt, Robert D [Westerville, OH; Dongming, Qiu [Dublin, OH; Silva, Laura J [Plain City, OH; Lamont, Micheal Jay [Plain City, OH; Fanelli, Maddalena [Plain City, OH; Simmons, Wayne W [Plain city, OH; Perry, Steven [Galloway, OH

    2011-10-04

    Methods of using microchannel separation systems including absorbents to improve thermal efficiency and reduce parasitic power loss. Energy is typically added to desorb methane and then energy or heat is removed to absorb methane using a working solution. The working solution or absorbent may comprise an ionic liquid, or other fluids that demonstrate a difference in affinity between methane and nitrogen in a solution.

  17. Light energy dissipation under water stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuhlfauth, T.; Scheuermann, R.; Fock, H.P.

    1990-01-01

    Using 14 CO 2 gas exchange and metabolite analyses, stomatal as well as total internal CO 2 uptake and evolution were estimated. Pulse modulated fluorescence was measured during induction and steady state of photosynthesis. Leaf water potential of Digitalis lanata EHRH. plants decreased to -2.5 megapascals after withholding irrigation. By osmotic adjustment, leaves remained turgid and fully exposed to irradiance even at severe water stress. Due to the stress-induced reduction of stomatal conductance, the stomatal CO 2 exchange was drastically reduced, whereas the total CO 2 uptake and evolution were less affected. Stomatal closure induced an increase in the reassimilation of internally evolved CO 2 . This CO 2 -recycling consumes a significant amount of light energy in the form of ATP and reducing equivalents. As a consequence, the metabolic demand for light energy is only reduced by about 40%, whereas net photosynthesis is diminished by about 70% under severe stress conditions. By CO 2 recycling, carbon flux, enzymatic substrate turnover and consumption of light energy were maintained at high levels, which enabled the plant to recover rapidly after rewatering. In stressed D. lanata plants a variable fluorescence quenching mechanism, termed coefficient of actinic light quenching, was observed. Besides water conservation, light energy dissipation is essential and involves regulated metabolic variations

  18. Harnessing structural darkness in the visible and infrared wavelengths for a new source of light

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jianfeng; Liu, Changxu; Zhu, Yihan; Masala, Silvia; Alarousu, Erkki; Han, Yu; Fratalocchi, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    source, which generates monochromatic emission (5 nm wide) without the need for any resonance. This is achieved through the dynamics of light condensation in which all absorbed electromagnetic energy spontaneously generates single-colour energy pulses

  19. Direct Energy Centre underground parking integrated light control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-10-15

    LightSavers is a project undertaken by the Toronto Atmospheric Fund to accelerate the use of lighting technologies. As part of the project a pilot test has been carried out in the Direct Energy Center in Toronto. The aim of this report is to present the study and its results. The Direct Energy Center is a large event facility with an large underground parking facility. A lighting energy management system, the energy control system (ECS), capable of adjusting lighting levels based on occupancy was implemented in the centre and data was collected during over one year. Results showed that the ECS permitted a reduction in energy consumption and thus greenhouse gas emissions by 47% and the payback will take less than 6 years. This project demonstrated that the energy control system provides better energy, environmental and economic performance than a traditional automation system.

  20. Lighting Energy Saving with Light Pipe in Farm Animal Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans von Wachenfelt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Swedish animal production sector has potential for saving electric lighting of €4-9 million per year using efficient daylight utilisation. To demonstrate this, two light pipe systems, Velux® (house 1 and Solatube® (house 2, are installed in two identical pig houses to determine if the required light intensity, daylight autonomy (DA, and reduced electricity use for illumination can be achieved. In each house, three light sensors continuously measure the indoor daylight relative to an outdoor sensor. If the horizontal illuminance at pig height decreases below 40 lux between 08.00 and 16.00 hours, an automatic control system activates the lights, and electricity use is measured. The daylight factor (DF and DA are determined for each house, based on annual climate data. The mean annual DA of 48% and 55% is achieved for house 1 and house 2, respectively. Light pipes in house 2 have delivered significantly more DA than those in house 1. The most common illuminance range between 0 and 160 lux is recorded in both houses, corresponding to approximately 82% and 83% of daylight time for house 1 and house 2, respectively. Further, the daylighting system for house 2 has produced a uniform DF distribution between 0.05 and 0.59. The results demonstrate that considerable electric energy savings can be achieved in the animal production sector using light pipes. Saving 50% of electric lighting would correspond to 36 GWh or 2520 t CO2 per year for Sweden, but currently the energy savings are not making the investment profitable.

  1. Designing a point-absorber wave energy converter for the Mediterranean Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archetti, Renata; Moreno Miquel, Adria; Antonini, Alessandro; Passoni, Giuseppe; Bozzi, Silvia; Gruosso, Giambattista; Scarpa, Francesca; Bizzozero, Federica; Giassi, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    This work aims to assess the potential for wave energy production in the Italian seas by the deployment of arrays of heaving point absorbers, specifically optimized for mild climates. We model a single-body WEC, consisting of a cylindrical heaving buoy, attached to a linear electric generator placed on the seabed. The model includes both hydrodynamic and electromechanical forces. The results show that the best buoy-generator configuration at the selected sites (Alghero and Mazara del Vallo) is given by a 6 to 10 kW device and with a buoy with diameter between 4 and 5 m. This device can be brought to resonance, increasing the performances, by adding a submerged sphere. These results are encouraging and enlarge the perspective on wave energy production in the Italian seas. [it

  2. ENERGY STAR Certified Light Commercial HVAC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Light Commercial HVAC that are effective as of...

  3. Theory of Covalent Adsorbate Frontier Orbital Energies on Functionalized Light-Absorbing Semiconductor Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Min; Doak, Peter; Tamblyn, Isaac; Neaton, Jeffrey B

    2013-05-16

    Functional hybrid interfaces between organic molecules and semiconductors are central to many emerging information and solar energy conversion technologies. Here we demonstrate a general, empirical parameter-free approach for computing and understanding frontier orbital energies - or redox levels - of a broad class of covalently bonded organic-semiconductor surfaces. We develop this framework in the context of specific density functional theory (DFT) and many-body perturbation theory calculations, within the GW approximation, of an exemplar interface, thiophene-functionalized silicon (111). Through detailed calculations taking into account structural and binding energetics of mixed-monolayers consisting of both covalently attached thiophene and hydrogen, chlorine, methyl, and other passivating groups, we quantify the impact of coverage, nonlocal polarization, and interface dipole effects on the alignment of the thiophene frontier orbital energies with the silicon band edges. For thiophene adsorbate frontier orbital energies, we observe significant corrections to standard DFT (∼1 eV), including large nonlocal electrostatic polarization effects (∼1.6 eV). Importantly, both results can be rationalized from knowledge of the electronic structure of the isolated thiophene molecule and silicon substrate systems. Silicon band edge energies are predicted to vary by more than 2.5 eV, while molecular orbital energies stay similar, with the different functional groups studied, suggesting the prospect of tuning energy alignment over a wide range for photoelectrochemistry and other applications.

  4. The role of energy losses in photosynthetic light harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krüger, T P J; Van Grondelle, R

    2017-01-01

    Photosynthesis operates at the bottom of the food chain to convert the energy of light into carbohydrates at a remarkable global rate of about 130 TW. Nonetheless, the overall photosynthetic process has a conversion efficiency of a few percent at best, significantly less than bottom-up photovoltaic cells. The primary photosynthetic steps, consisting of light harvesting and charge separation, are often presented as having near-unity quantum efficiency but this holds only true under ideal conditions. In this review, we discuss the importance of energy loss mechanisms to establish robustness in photosynthetic light harvesting. Thermal energy dissipation of light-harvesting complexes (LHCs) in different environments is investigated and the relationships and contrasts between concentration quenching of high pigment concentrations, photoprotection (non-photochemical quenching), quenching due to protein aggregation, and fluorescence blinking are discussed. The role of charge-transfer states in light harvesting and energy dissipation is highlighted and the importance of controlled protein structural disorder to switch the light-harvesting antennae between effective light harvesters and efficient energy quenchers is underscored. The main LHC of plants, LHCII, is used as a prime example. (topical review)

  5. Bistability By Self-Reflection In A Saturable Absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roso-Franco, Luis

    1987-01-01

    Propagation of laser light through a saturable absorber is theoretically studied. Computed steady state solutions of the Maxwell equations describing the unidimensional propagation of a plane monochromatic wave without introducing the slowly-varying envelope approximation are presented showing how saturation effects can influence the absorption of the field. At a certain range of refractive index and extintion coefficients, computed solutions display a very susprising behaviour, and a self-reflected wave appears inside the absorber. This can be useful for a new kind of biestable device, similar to a standard bistable cavity but with the back mirror self-induced by the light.

  6. An omnidirectional electromagnetic absorber made of metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Qiang; Cui Tiejun; Jiang Weixiang; Cai Bengeng

    2010-01-01

    In a recent theoretical work by Narimanov and Kildishev (2009 Appl. Phys. Lett. 95 041106) an optical omnidirectional light absorber based on metamaterials was proposed, in which theoretical analysis and numerical simulations showed that all optical waves hitting the absorber are trapped and absorbed. Here we report the first experimental demonstration of an omnidirectional electromagnetic absorber in the microwave frequency. The proposed device is composed of non-resonant and resonant metamaterial structures, which can trap and absorb electromagnetic waves coming from all directions spirally inwards without any reflections due to the local control of electromagnetic fields. It is shown that the absorption rate can reach 99 per cent in the microwave frequency. The all-directional full absorption property makes the device behave like an 'electromagnetic black body', and the wave trapping and absorbing properties simulate, to some extent, an 'electromagnetic black hole.' We expect that such a device could be used as a thermal emitting source and to harvest electromagnetic waves.

  7. Light energy dissipation under water stress conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuhlfauth, T.; Scheuermann, R.; Fock, H.P. (Universitaet Kaiserslautern (West Germany))

    1990-04-01

    Using {sup 14}CO{sub 2} gas exchange and metabolite analyses, stomatal as well as total internal CO{sub 2} uptake and evolution were estimated. Pulse modulated fluorescence was measured during induction and steady state of photosynthesis. Leaf water potential of Digitalis lanata EHRH. plants decreased to {minus}2.5 megapascals after withholding irrigation. By osmotic adjustment, leaves remained turgid and fully exposed to irradiance even at severe water stress. Due to the stress-induced reduction of stomatal conductance, the stomatal CO{sub 2} exchange was drastically reduced, whereas the total CO{sub 2} uptake and evolution were less affected. Stomatal closure induced an increase in the reassimilation of internally evolved CO{sub 2}. This CO{sub 2}-recycling consumes a significant amount of light energy in the form of ATP and reducing equivalents. As a consequence, the metabolic demand for light energy is only reduced by about 40%, whereas net photosynthesis is diminished by about 70% under severe stress conditions. By CO{sub 2} recycling, carbon flux, enzymatic substrate turnover and consumption of light energy were maintained at high levels, which enabled the plant to recover rapidly after rewatering. In stressed D. lanata plants a variable fluorescence quenching mechanism, termed coefficient of actinic light quenching, was observed. Besides water conservation, light energy dissipation is essential and involves regulated metabolic variations.

  8. Inferring absorbing organic carbon content from AERONET data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arola

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Black carbon, light-absorbing organic carbon (often called "brown carbon" and mineral dust are the major light-absorbing aerosols. Currently the sources and formation of brown carbon aerosol in particular are not well understood. In this study we estimated the amount of light–absorbing organic carbon and black carbon from AERONET measurements. We find that the columnar absorbing organic carbon (brown carbon levels in biomass burning regions of South America and Africa are relatively high (about 15–20 mg m−2 during biomass burning season, while the concentrations are significantly lower in urban areas in US and Europe. However, we estimated significant absorbing organic carbon amounts from the data of megacities of newly industrialized countries, particularly in India and China, showing also clear seasonality with peak values up to 30–35 mg m−2 during the coldest season, likely caused by the coal and biofuel burning used for heating. We also compared our retrievals with the modeled organic carbon by the global Oslo CTM for several sites. Model values are higher in biomass burning regions than AERONET-based retrievals, while the opposite is true in urban areas in India and China.

  9. A new energy-absorbing bolt for rock support in high stress rock masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charlie Chunlin Li [Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) (Norway)

    2010-04-15

    An energy-absorbing rock support device, called a D bolt, has been recently developed to counteract both burst-prone and squeezing rock conditions that occur during underground excavation. The bolt is a smooth steel bar with a number of anchors along its length. The anchors are firmly fixed within a borehole using either cement grout or resin, while the smooth sections of the bolt between the anchors may freely deform in response to rock dilation. Failure of one section does not affect the reinforcement performance of the other sections. The bolt is designed to fully use both the strength and the deformation capacity of the bolt material along the entire length. The bolt has large load-bearing and deformation capacities. Static pull tests and dynamic drop tests show that the bolt length elongates by 14-20% at a load level equal to the strength of the bolt material, thereby absorbing a large amount of energy. The impact average load of a 20 mm D bolt is 200-230 kN, with only a small portion of the load transferred to the bolt plate. The cumulative dynamic energy absorption of the bolt is measured to be 47 kJ/m. D bolts were tested in three deep mines. Filed measurements show that D bolts are loaded less than rebar bolts. This paper presents the layout and principle of the D bolt, and corresponding results from static, dynamic, and field tests.

  10. Questions asked concerning energy savings in lighting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernet, J.

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the question why information on the power consumption of lighting fixtures is not often to be found in articles in lifestyle magazines or in the displays of designer-boutiques. The efficiency of various types of lighting is discussed. In particular, the differences between traditional incandescent bulbs and energy-saving lighting systems are examined from the aesthetical, colour-reproduction and energy-consumption points of view. Further information presented includes details on colour-reproduction indexes and colour temperature. The lighting needs of various types of room are looked at and the influence of the physical form of the lighting fixtures on purchasing decisions is examined

  11. Measuring thermo-luminescence efficiency of TLD-2000 detectors to different energy photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Wei Min; Chen, Bao Wei; Han, Yi; Yang, Zhong Jian [China Institute for Radiation Protection, Taiyuan (China)

    2016-06-15

    As an important detecting device, TLD is a widely used in the radiation monitoring. It is essential for us to study the property of detecting element. The aim of this study is to calculate the thermo-luminescence efficiency of TL elements. A batch of thermo-luminescence elements were irradiated by the filtered X-ray beams of average energies in the range 40-200 kVp, 662 keV {sup 137}Cs gamma rays and then the amounts of lights were measured by the TL reader. The deposition energies in elements were calculated by theory formula and Monte Carlo simulation. The unit absorbed dose in elements by photons with different energies corresponding to the amounts of lights was calculated, which is called the thermo luminescent efficiency (η(E)). Because of the amounts of lights can be calculated by the absorbed dose in elements multiply η(E), the η(E) can be calculated by the experimental data (the amounts of lights) divided by absorbed dose. The deviation of simulation results compared with theoretical calculation results were less than 5%, so the absorbed dose in elements was calculated by simulation results in here. The change range of η(E) value, relative to 662 keV {sup 137}Cs gamma rays, is about 30% in the energy range of 33 keV to 662 keV, is in accordance by the comparison with relevant foreign literatures. The η(E) values can be used for updating the amounts of lights that are got by the direct ratio assumed relations with deposition energy in TL elements, which can largely reduce the error of calculation results of the amounts of lights. These data can be used for the design of individual dosimeter which used TLD-2000 thermo-luminescence elements, also have a certain reference value for manufacturer to improve the energy-response performance of TL elements by formulation adjustment.

  12. Design and testing of an energy-absorbing crewseat for the F/FB-111 aircraft. Volume 3: Data from crew module testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shane, S. J.

    1985-01-01

    Over the past years, several papers and reports have documented the unacceptably high injury rate during the escape sequence (including the ejection and ground impact) of the crew module for F/FB-111 aircraft. This report documents a program to determine if the injury potential could be reduced by replacing the existing crewseats with energy absorbing crewseats. An energy absorbing test seat was designed using much of the existing seat hardware. An extensive dynamic seat test series, designed to duplicate various crew module ground impact conditions, was conducted at a sled test facility. Comparative tests with operational F-111 crewseats were also conducted. After successful dynamic testing of the seat, more testing was conducted with the seats mounted in an F-111 crew module. Both swing tests and vertical drop tests werre conducted. The vertical drop tests were used to obtain comparative data between the energy absorbing and operational seats.

  13. Microwave energy harvesting based on metamaterial absorbers with multi-layered square split rings for wireless communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaaslan, Muharrem; Bağmancı, Mehmet; Ünal, Emin; Akgol, Oguzhan; Sabah, Cumali

    2017-06-01

    We propose the design of a multiband absorber based on multi-layered square split ring (MSSR) structure. The multi-layered metamaterial structure is designed to be used in the frequency bands such as WIMAX, WLAN and satellite communication region. The absorption levels of the proposed structure are higher than 90% for all resonance frequencies. In addition, the incident angle and polarization dependence of the multi-layered metamaterial absorber and harvester is also investigated and it is observed that the structure has polarization angle independent frequency response with good absorption characteristics in the entire working frequency band. The energy harvesting ratios of the structure is investigated especially for the resonance frequencies at which the maximum absorption occurs. The energy harvesting potential of the proposed MSSRs is as good as those of the structures given in the literature. Therefore, the suggested design having good absorption, polarization and angle independent characteristics with a wide bandwidth is a potential candidate for future energy harvesting applications in commonly used wireless communication bands, namely WIMAX, WLAN and satellite communication bands.

  14. ENERGY STAR Certified Products - Lighting

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data set contains a simplified list of all currently certified ENERGY STAR Lighting models with basic model information collected across all product categories...

  15. Electron absorbed fractions of energy and S-values in an adult human skeleton based on {mu}CT images of trabecular bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, R; Cassola, V F; Khoury, H J; De O Lira, C A B [Department of Nuclear Energy, Federal University of Pernambuco, Avenida Professor Luiz Freire, 1000, CEP 50740-540, Recife (Brazil); Richardson, R B [Radiation Protection Research and Instrumentation Branch, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, ON, K0J 1J0 (Canada); Vieira, J W [Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Pernambuco, Recife (Brazil); Brown, K Robson, E-mail: rkramer@uol.com.br [Imaging Laboratory, Department of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-21

    When the human body is exposed to ionizing radiation, among the soft tissues at risk are the active marrow (AM) and the bone endosteum (BE) located in tiny, irregular cavities of trabecular bone. Determination of absorbed fractions (AFs) of energy or absorbed dose in the AM and the BE represent one of the major challenges of dosimetry. Recently, at the Department of Nuclear Energy at the Federal University of Pernambuco, a skeletal dosimetry method based on {mu}CT images of trabecular bone introduced into the spongiosa voxels of human phantoms has been developed and applied mainly to external exposure to photons. This study uses the same method to calculate AFs of energy and S-values (absorbed dose per unit activity) for electron-emitting radionuclides known to concentrate in skeletal tissues. The modelling of the skeletal tissue regions follows ICRP110, which defines the BE as a 50 {mu}m thick sub-region of marrow next to the bone surfaces. The paper presents mono-energetic AFs for the AM and the BE for eight different skeletal regions for electron source energies between 1 keV and 10 MeV. The S-values are given for the beta emitters {sup 14}C, {sup 59}Fe, {sup 131}I, {sup 89}Sr, {sup 32}P and {sup 90}Y. Comparisons with results from other investigations showed good agreement provided that differences between methodologies and trabecular bone volume fractions were properly taken into account. Additionally, a comparison was made between specific AFs of energy in the BE calculated for the actual 50 {mu}m endosteum and the previously recommended 10 {mu}m endosteum. The increase in endosteum thickness leads to a decrease of the endosteum absorbed dose by up to 3.7 fold when bone is the source region, while absorbed dose increases by {approx}20% when the beta emitters are in marrow.

  16. Intermediate energy proton and light-ion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    A review is presented of recent (1979-81) developments in the field of intermediate-energy proton and light-ion scattering from nuclei. New theoretical and calculational techniques of particular interest to experimentalists are discussed. Emphasis is placed on topics in nuclear structure physics - giant resonances, pion-condensation precursor phenomena, and polarization transfer (spin-flip) experiments - where intermediate energy proton and light-ion scattering has made new and unique contributions

  17. BRIGITTE, Dose Rate and Heat Source and Energy Flux for Self-Absorbing Rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jegu, M.; Clement, M.

    1978-01-01

    1 - Nature of physical problem solved: Calculation of dose rate, heat sources or energy flux. The sources are self-absorbing radioactive rods. The shielding consists of blocks of which the cross section can be defined. 2 - Method of solution: Exponential attenuation and build-up factor between source points and detector points. Source integration with error estimate. Automatic or controlled build-up with monitor print-out. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Number of energy points, regions, detector points, abscissa points of the rod, vertical position of the rod, are all limited to ten. The maximum total number of vertical steps is 124

  18. Dye solar cells: a different approach to solar energy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Roux, Lukas J

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available An attractive and cheaper alternative to siliconbased photovoltaic (PV) cells for the conversion of solar light into electrical energy is to utilise dyeadsorbed, large-band-gap metal oxide materials such as TiO2 to absorb the solar light...

  19. Experimental and Analytical Evaluation of a Composite Honeycomb Deployable Energy Absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Karen E.; Kellas, Sotiris; Horta, Lucas G.; Annett, Martin S.; Polanco, Michael A.; Littell, Justin D.; Fasanella, Edwin L.

    2011-01-01

    In 2006, the NASA Subsonic Rotary Wing Aeronautics Program sponsored the experimental and analytical evaluation of an externally deployable composite honeycomb structure that is designed to attenuate impact energy during helicopter crashes. The concept, which is designated the Deployable Energy Absorber (DEA), utilizes an expandable Kevlar honeycomb structure to dissipate kinetic energy through crushing. The DEA incorporates a unique flexible hinge design that allows the honeycomb to be packaged and stowed flat until needed for deployment. A variety of deployment options such as linear, radial, and/or hybrid methods can be used. Experimental evaluation of the DEA utilized a building block approach that included material characterization testing of its constituent, Kevlar -129 fabric/epoxy, and flexural testing of single hexagonal cells. In addition, the energy attenuation capabilities of the DEA were demonstrated through multi-cell component dynamic crush tests, and vertical drop tests of a composite fuselage section, retrofitted with DEA blocks, onto concrete, water, and soft soil. During each stage of the DEA evaluation process, finite element models of the test articles were developed and simulations were performed using the explicit, nonlinear transient dynamic finite element code, LS-DYNA. This report documents the results of the experimental evaluation that was conducted to assess the energy absorption capabilities of the DEA.

  20. The prospect for fusion energy with light ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehlhorn, T.A.; Adams, R.G.; Bailey, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    Intense ion beams may be the best option for an Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) driver. While light ions may be the long-term pulsed power approach to IFE, the current economic climate is such that there is no urgency in developing fusion energy sources. Research on light ion beams at Sandia will be suspended at the end of this fiscal year in favor of z-pinches studying ICF target physics, high yield fusion, and stewardship issues. The authors document the status of light ion research and the understanding of the feasibility of scaling light ions to IFE

  1. Absorbed-dose beam quality conversion factors for cylindrical chambers in high energy photon beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seuntjens, J P; Ross, C K; Shortt, K R; Rogers, D W

    2000-12-01

    Recent working groups of the AAPM [Almond et al., Med. Phys. 26, 1847 (1999)] and the IAEA (Andreo et al., Draft V.7 of "An International Code of Practice for Dosimetry based on Standards of Absorbed Dose to Water," IAEA, 2000) have described guidelines to base reference dosimetry of high energy photon beams on absorbed dose to water standards. In these protocols use is made of the absorbed-dose beam quality conversion factor, kQ which scales an absorbed-dose calibration factor at the reference quality 60Co to a quality Q, and which is calculated based on state-of-the-art ion chamber theory and data. In this paper we present the measurement and analysis of beam quality conversion factors kQ for cylindrical chambers in high-energy photon beams. At least three chambers of six different types were calibrated against the Canadian primary standard for absorbed dose based on a sealed water calorimeter at 60Co [TPR10(20)=0.572, %dd(10)x=58.4], 10 MV [TPR10(20)=0.682, %dd(10)x=69.6), 20 MV (TPR10(20)=0.758, %dd(10)x= 80.5] and 30 MV [TPR10(20) = 0.794, %dd(10)x= 88.4]. The uncertainty on the calorimetric determination of kQ for a single chamber is typically 0.36% and the overall 1sigma uncertainty on a set of chambers of the same type is typically 0.45%. The maximum deviation between a measured kQ and the TG-51 protocol value is 0.8%. The overall rms deviation between measurement and the TG-51 values, based on 20 chambers at the three energies, is 0.41%. When the effect of a 1 mm PMMA waterproofing sleeve is taken into account in the calculations, the maximum deviation is 1.1% and the overall rms deviation between measurement and calculation 0.48%. When the beam is specified using TPR10(20), and measurements are compared with kQ values calculated using the version of TG-21 with corrected formalism and data, differences are up to 1.6% when no sleeve corrections are taken into account. For the NE2571 and the NE2611A chamber types, for which the most literature data are

  2. Ultra high benefits system for electric energy saving and management of lighting energy in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathabadi, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Presenting a novel multi channel smart system to manage lighting energy in buildings. • Saving considerable electric energy which is converted to lighting in buildings. • Providing desired constant and adjustable luminance for each location in buildings. • Capability of working with all AC electric power sources. • To automatically control and manage lighting energy in buildings. - Abstract: This paper presents a smart system, including a multi channel dimmer and a central process unit (CPU) together with an exact multi channel feedback mechanism, which automatically regulates and manages lighting in buildings. Based on a multi channel luminance feedback, a high benefits technique is utilized to convert the electric energy to lighting energy. Saving a lot of the electric energy which should be converted to lighting energy in buildings, managing the lighting energy in buildings, providing desired constant and adjustable luminance for each room (location), and the capability of working with all AC electric power sources regardless of frequency and voltage amplitude are some advantages of using the proposed system and technique, thus it will be widely used in buildings. An experimental prototype of the proposed smart system has been constructed to validate the theoretical results and to carry out the experimental tests. Experimental results earned by utilizing the proposed smart system in a sample building are presented to prove the benefits of using the system. The experimental results explicitly show a considerable electric energy saving (about 27%) in the sample building while the proposed system has provided desired constant and adjustable luminance for each location of the building

  3. Reverse-absorbance-modulation-optical lithography for optical nanopatterning at low light levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majumder, Apratim, E-mail: apratim.majumder@utah.edu; Wan, Xiaowen; Masid, Farhana; Menon, Rajesh [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Pollock, Benjamin J.; Andrew, Trisha L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Soppera, Olivier [Mulhouse Institute for Material Sciences, CNRS LRC 7228, BP2488, Mulhouse 68200 (France)

    2016-06-15

    Absorbance-Modulation-Optical Lithography (AMOL) has been previously demonstrated to be able to confine light to deep sub-wavelength dimensions and thereby, enable patterning of features beyond the diffraction limit. In AMOL, a thin photochromic layer that converts between two states via light exposure is placed on top of the photoresist layer. The long wavelength photons render the photochromic layer opaque, while the short-wavelength photons render it transparent. By simultaneously illuminating a ring-shaped spot at the long wavelength and a round spot at the short wavelength, the photochromic layer transmits only a highly confined beam at the short wavelength, which then exposes the underlying photoresist. Many photochromic molecules suffer from a giant mismatch in quantum yields for the opposing reactions such that the reaction initiated by the absorption of the short-wavelength photon is orders of magnitude more efficient than that initiated by the absorption of the long-wavelength photon. As a result, large intensities in the ring-shaped spot are required for deep sub-wavelength nanopatterning. In this article, we overcome this problem by using the long-wavelength photons to expose the photoresist, and the short-wavelength photons to confine the “exposing” beam. Thereby, we demonstrate the patterning of features as thin as λ/4.7 (137 nm for λ = 647 nm) using extremely low intensities (4-30 W/m{sup 2}, which is 34 times lower than that required in conventional AMOL). We further apply a rigorous model to explain our experiments and discuss the scope of the reverse-AMOL process.

  4. Principles of light energy management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, N. [Growth Chambers, Chagrin Falls, OH (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A review is presented on methods to minimize the effects of excess energy associated with lighting systems for plant growth. Information on lamp efficiencies and methods for separating and collecting unwanted heat is included.

  5. Absorber Materials for Transition-Edge Sensor X-ray Microcalorimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ari-David; Bandler, Simon; Brekosky, Regis; Chervenak, James; Figueroa-Feliciano, Enectali; Finkbeiner, Fred; Sadleir, Jack; Iyomoto, Naoko; Kelley, Richard; Kilbourne, Caroline; hide

    2007-01-01

    Arrays of superconducting transition-edge sensors (TES) can provide high spatial and energy resolution necessary for x-ray astronomy. High quantum efficiency and uniformity of response can be achieved with a suitable absorber material, in which absorber x-ray stopping power, heat capacity, and thermal conductivity are relevant parameters. Here we compare these parameters for bismuth and gold. We have fabricated electroplated gold, electroplated gold/electroplated bismuth, and evaporated gold/evaporated bismuth 8x8 absorber arrays and find that a correlation exists between the residual resistance ratio (RRR) and thin film microstructure. This finding indicates that we can tailor absorber material conductivity via microstructure alteration, so as to permit absorber thermalization on timescales suitable for high energy resolution x-ray microcalorimetry. We show that by incorporating absorbers possessing large grain size, including electroplated gold and electroplated gold/electroplated bismuth, into our current Mo/Au TES, devices with tunable heat capacity and energy resolution of 2.3 eV (gold) and 2.1 eV (gold/bismuth) FWHM at 6 keV have been fabricated.

  6. Organometal Halide Perovskite Solar Absorbers and Ferroelectric Nanocomposites for Harvesting Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettiarachchi, Chaminda Lakmal

    Organometal halide perovskite absorbers such as methylammonium lead iodide chloride (CH3NH3PbI3-xClx), have emerged as an exciting new material family for photovoltaics due to its appealing features that include suitable direct bandgap with intense light absorbance, band gap tunability, ultra-fast charge carrier generation, slow electron-hole recombination rates, long electron and hole diffusion lengths, microsecond-long balanced carrier mobilities, and ambipolarity. The standard method of preparing CH3NH3PbI3-xClx perovskite precursors is a tedious process involving multiple synthesis steps and, the chemicals being used (hydroiodic acid and methylamine) are quite expensive. This work describes a novel, single-step, simple, and cost-effective solution approach to prepare CH3NH3PbI3-xClx thin films by the direct reaction of the commercially available CH3NH 3Cl (or MACl) and PbI2. A detailed analysis of the structural and optical properties of CH3NH3PbI3-xCl x thin films deposited by aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition is presented. Optimum growth conditions have been identified. It is shown that the deposited thin films are highly crystalline with intense optical absorbance. Charge carrier separation of these thin films can be enhanced by establishing a local internal electric field that can reduce electron-hole recombination resulting in increased photo current. The intrinsic ferroelectricity in nanoparticles of Barium Titanate (BaTiO3 -BTO) embedded in the solar absorber can generate such an internal field. A hybrid structure of CH3NH 3PbI3-xClx perovskite and ferroelectric BTO nanocomposite FTO/TiO2/CH3NH3PbI3-xClx : BTO/P3HT/Cu as a new type of photovoltaic device is investigated. Aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition process that is scalable to large-scale manufacturing was used for the growth of the multilayer structure. TiO 2 and P3HT with additives were used as ETL and HTL respectively. The growth process of the solar absorber layer includes the

  7. The Effects of UV Light on the Chemical and Mechanical Properties of a Transparent Epoxy-Diamine System in the Presence of an Organic UV Absorber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Nikafshar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite several excellent properties including low shrinkage, good chemical resistance, curable at low temperatures and the absence of byproducts or volatiles, epoxy resins are susceptible to ultra violet (UV damage and their durability is reduced substantially when exposed to outdoor environments. To overcome this drawback, UV absorbers have been usually used to decrease the rate of UV degradation. In this present study, the effects of UV light on the chemical, mechanical and physical properties of cured epoxy structure, as well as the effect of an organic UV absorber, Tinuvin 1130, on the epoxy properties were investigated. Chemical changes in a cured epoxy system as a result of the presence and absence of Tinuvin 1130 were determined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR analyses. The effect of Tinuvin 1130 on the surface morphology of the epoxy systems was also investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM imaging. Additionally, the glass transition temperatures (Tg before and during UV radiation were measured. After an 800 h UV radiation, mechanical test results revealed that the lack of the UV absorber can lead to a ~30% reduction in tensile strength. However, in the presence of Tinuvin 1130, the tensile strength was reduced only by ~11%. It was hypothesized that the use of Tinuvin 1130, as an organic UV absorber in the epoxy-amine system, could decrease the undesirable effects, arising from exposure to UV light.

  8. Review of Plasmonic Nanocomposite Metamaterial Absorber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Keshavarz Hedayati

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Plasmonic metamaterials are artificial materials typically composed of noble metals in which the features of photonics and electronics are linked by coupling photons to conduction electrons of metal (known as surface plasmon. These rationally designed structures have spurred interest noticeably since they demonstrate some fascinating properties which are unattainable with naturally occurring materials. Complete absorption of light is one of the recent exotic properties of plasmonic metamaterials which has broadened its application area considerably. This is realized by designing a medium whose impedance matches that of free space while being opaque. If such a medium is filled with some lossy medium, the resulting structure can absorb light totally in a sharp or broad frequency range. Although several types of metamaterials perfect absorber have been demonstrated so far, in the current paper we overview (and focus on perfect absorbers based on nanocomposites where the total thickness is a few tens of nanometer and the absorption band is broad, tunable and insensitive to the angle of incidence. The nanocomposites consist of metal nanoparticles embedded in a dielectric matrix with a high filling factor close to the percolation threshold. The filling factor can be tailored by the vapor phase co-deposition of the metallic and dielectric components. In addition, novel wet chemical approaches are discussed which are bio-inspired or involve synthesis within levitating Leidenfrost drops, for instance. Moreover, theoretical considerations, optical properties, and potential application of perfect absorbers will be presented.

  9. Development of Lead Free Energy Absorber for Space Shuttle Blast Container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balles, Donald; Ingram, Thomas; Novak, Howard; Schricker, Albert

    1999-01-01

    The Space Shuttle is connected to the mobile launch platform (MLP) by four aft skirt hold down studs on each solid rocket booster (SRB). Prior to lift-off, the frangible nuts inside the aft skirt blast containers are severed into two nut halves by two pyrotechnic booster cartridges. This action releases the Space Shuttle and allows the hold down studs to eject through the aft skirt bore and then down into the MLP. USBI has been tasked to upgrade the blast container for two specific reasons: (1) To eliminate lead for environmental concerns, and (2) To reduce the chance of nut recontact with the holddown stud. Nut recontact with the stud has been identified as a likely contributor to stud hang-ups. This upgrade will replace the lead liner with a unique open cell aluminum foam material, that has commercial and military uses. The aluminum foam used as an energy absorber is a proven design in many other aerospace/defense applications. Additional benefits of using the open cell, energy absorbent aluminum foam in place of the solid lead liner are: (1) Lead handling / exposure and possible contamination, along with hazardous waste disposal, will be eliminated; (2) Approximately 200 lbs. weight savings will be contributed to each Space Shuttle flight by using aluminum foam instead of lead; (3) The new aluminum liner is designed to catch all shrapnel from frangible nuts, thus virtually eliminating chance of debris exiting the HDP and causing potential damage to the vehicle; (4) Using the lighter aluminum liner instead of lead, allows for easier assembly and disassembly of blast container elements, which also improves safety, operator handling, and the efficiency of operations.

  10. Assessment of photobiological safety of energy-efficiency urban lighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Stanisław Pierzchała

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Exceeding the safe threshold for exposure on high energy radiation (UV and blue light could cause the emergence of a number of diseases. Eyesight is particularly sensitive to excessive lighting. This paper presents the laboratory research on the assessment of the photobiological risk generated by the energy-efficiency urban lighting. The results show that LED lighting systems can be a source of radiation that significantly negatively affects the eyesight and could contribute to circadian rhythm disorders.

  11. Energy transfer dynamics in Light-Harvesting Dendrimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melinger, Joseph S.; McMorrow, Dale; Kleiman, Valeria D.

    2002-03-01

    We explore energy transfer dynamics in light-harvesting phenylacetylene symmetric and asymmetric dendrimers. Femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy is used to probe the ultrafast dynamics of electronic excitations in these dendrimers. The backbone of the macromolecule consists of branches of increasing conjugation length, creating an energy gradient, which funnels energy to an accepting perylene trap. In the case of the symmetric dendrimer (nanostar), the energy transfer efficiency is known to approach nearly unity, although the nature and timescale of the energy transfer process is still unknown. For the asymmetric dendrimers, energy transfer efficiencies are very high, with the possibility of more complex transfer processes. We experimentally monitor the transport of excitons through the light-harvesting dendrimer. The transients show a number of components, with timescales ranging from <300fs to several tens of picoseconds, revealing the complex photophysics taking place in these macromolecules. We interpret our results in terms of the Förster mechanism in which energy transfer occurs through dipole-dipole interactions.

  12. Conceptual basis for calculations of absorbed-dose distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, W.K.; Rossi, H.H.; Alsmiller, R.G.; Berger, M.J.; Kellerer, A.M.; Roesch, W.C.; Spencer, L.V.; Zaider, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of radiation on matter are initiated by processes in which atoms and molecules of the medium are ionized or excited. Over a wide range of conditions, it is an excellent approximation to assume that the average number of ionizations and excitations is proportional to the amount of energy imparted to the medium by ionizing radiation in the volume of interest. The absorbed dose, that is, the average amount of energy imparted to the medium per unit mass, is therefore of central importance for the production of radiation effects, and the calculation of absorbed-dose distributions in irradiated media is the focus of interest of the present report. It should be pointed out, however, that even though absorbed dose is useful as an index relating absorbed energy to radiation effects, it is almost never sufficient; it may have to be supplemented by other information, such as the distributions of the amounts of energy imparted to small sites, the correlation of the amounts of energy imparted to adjacent sites, and so on. Such quantities are termed stochastic quantities. Unless otherwise stated, all quantities considered in this report are non-stochastic. 266 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Casino Rama hits the jackpot with energy-efficient lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2007-10-15

    A lighting retrofit program was conducted by Casino Rama in an effort to improve quality while reducing costs and environmental impacts. Casino Rama, Ontario's only commercial First Nation's casino, was opened in July 1996. With over 25,000 bulbs in use, the facility had a lot to gain by reducing energy costs. Toronto Hydro (TH) Energy Services evaluated the facility's current usage level and recommended ways to increase energy efficiency. The casino used mostly incandescent and fluorescent lights which provided adequate light, but which required a great deal of upkeep. The operators wanted to relamp the lighting package that consumed the most electricity with high-efficiency lighting systems that would maintain a consistent look with that of the warm-glow provided by incandescent light bulbs. In order to benefit from energy savings, an efficient, non-invasive system was needed with minimal construction costs to retrofit the lighting system. TH Energy concluded that high-quality, longer-lasting lamps were required. TCP Inc. provided energy-efficient compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) that have an average life of 10,000 hours and use a quarter of the energy of standard incandescent bulbs, resulting in increased energy savings, lower utility costs and greenhouse gas reduction. The retrofit involved the replacement of more than 5,000 bulbs with over 4,000 CFLs being installed on the 3 massive canopies over the casino entrance. Long-life LED products lasting up to 50,000 hours were also used for the glass elevator shaft, which minimized maintenance costs. Cold-cathode lamps that last an average 25,000 hours were recommended for rapid cycle applications such as signage. The relamping process was completed in 7 working days with minimal disruption to business activity. The casino has saved $200,000 from its annual hydro bill and has freed up valuable manpower for other maintenance-related tasks. The relamping is reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 7 to 8

  14. Casino Rama hits the jackpot with energy-efficient lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    2007-10-15

    A lighting retrofit program was conducted by Casino Rama in an effort to improve quality while reducing costs and environmental impacts. Casino Rama, Ontario's only commercial First Nation's casino, was opened in July 1996. With over 25,000 bulbs in use, the facility had a lot to gain by reducing energy costs. Toronto Hydro (TH) Energy Services evaluated the facility's current usage level and recommended ways to increase energy efficiency. The casino used mostly incandescent and fluorescent lights which provided adequate light, but which required a great deal of upkeep. The operators wanted to relamp the lighting package that consumed the most electricity with high-efficiency lighting systems that would maintain a consistent look with that of the warm-glow provided by incandescent light bulbs. In order to benefit from energy savings, an efficient, non-invasive system was needed with minimal construction costs to retrofit the lighting system. TH Energy concluded that high-quality, longer-lasting lamps were required. TCP Inc. provided energy-efficient compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) that have an average life of 10,000 hours and use a quarter of the energy of standard incandescent bulbs, resulting in increased energy savings, lower utility costs and greenhouse gas reduction. The retrofit involved the replacement of more than 5,000 bulbs with over 4,000 CFLs being installed on the 3 massive canopies over the casino entrance. Long-life LED products lasting up to 50,000 hours were also used for the glass elevator shaft, which minimized maintenance costs. Cold-cathode lamps that last an average 25,000 hours were recommended for rapid cycle applications such as signage. The relamping process was completed in 7 working days with minimal disruption to business activity. The casino has saved $200,000 from its annual hydro bill and has freed up valuable manpower for other maintenance-related tasks. The relamping is reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 7 to 8 per cent, based

  15. Performance of an absorbing concentrating solar collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imadojemu, H.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a comparison of the efficiency of an absorbing fluid parabolic trough concentrating solar collector and a traditional concentrating collector that was made. In the absorbing fluid collector, black liquid flows through a glass tube absorber while the same black liquid flows through a selective black coated copper tube absorber while the same black fluid flows through a selective black coated copper tube absorber in the traditional collector. After a careful study of the properties of available black liquids, a mixture of water and black ink was chosen as the black absorbing medium or transfer fluid. In the black liquid glass collector there is a slightly improved efficiency based on beam radiation as a result of the direct absorption process and an increase in the effective transmittance absorptance. At worst the efficiency of this collector equals that of the traditional concentrating collector when the efficiency is based on total radiation. The collector's reflecting surfaces were made of aluminum sheet, parabolic line focus and with cylindrical receivers. The ease of manufacture and reduced cost per unit energy collected, in addition to the clean and pollution free mode of energy conversion, makes it very attractive

  16. Influence of Striking Edge Radius (2 mm versus 8 mm) on Instrumented Charpy Data and Absorbed Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucon, E.

    2008-08-15

    The most commonly used test standards for performing Charpy impact tests (ISO 148 and ASTM E 23) envisage the use of strikers having different radii of the striking edge, i.e. 2 mm (ISO) and 8 mm (ASTM). The effect of striker geometry on Charpy results was extensively studied in the past in terms of absorbed energy measured by the machine encoder, but few investigations are available on the influence of striker configuration on the results of instrumented Charpy tests (characteristic forces, displacements and integrated energy). In this paper, these effects are investigated based on the analysis of published results from three interlaboratory studies and some unpublished Charpy data obtained at SCK-CEN. The instrumented variables which are the most sensitive to the radius of the striking edge are the maximum force and its corresponding displacement, with 8mm-strikers providing systematically higher values. Absorbed energies, obtained both from the instrumented trace and from the pendulum encoder, are almost insensitive to the type of striker up to 200 J. For higher energy levels, the values obtained from 8mm strikers become progressively larger. Data scatter is generally higher for 2mm-strikers.

  17. The family of light-harvesting-related proteins (LHCs, ELIPs, HLIPs): was the harvesting of light their primary function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montané, M H; Kloppstech, K

    2000-11-27

    Light-harvesting complex proteins (LHCs) and early light-induced proteins (ELIPs) are essential pigment-binding components of the thylakoid membrane and are encoded by one of the largest and most complex higher plant gene families. The functional diversification of these proteins corresponded to the transition from extrinsic (phycobilisome-based) to intrinsic (LHC-based) light-harvesting antenna systems during the evolution of chloroplasts from cyanobacteria, yet the functional basis of this diversification has been elusive. Here, we propose that the original function of LHCs and ELIPs was not to collect light and to transfer its energy content to the reaction centers but to disperse the absorbed energy of light in the form of heat or fluorescence. These energy-dispersing proteins are believed to have originated in cyanobacteria as one-helix, highly light-inducible proteins (HLIPs) that later acquired four helices through two successive gene duplication steps. We suggest that the ELIPs arose first in this succession, with a primary function in energy dispersion for protection of photosynthetic pigments from photo-oxidation. We consider the LHC I and II families as more recent and very successful evolutionary additions to this family that ultimately attained a new function, thereby replacing the ancestral extrinsic light-harvesting system. Our model accounts for the non-photochemical quenching role recently shown for higher plant psbS proteins.

  18. Energy efficiency public lighting management in the cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radulovic, Dusko; Skok, Srdjan; Kirincic, Vedran

    2011-01-01

    Cities all around the world are faced with a rapid increase of urban population, and their crucial sustainable development issue becomes energy management. Moreover, the national energy management sector is slowly passing from government surveillance to the responsibility of local municipalities. The energy efficiency management in cities helps local governments to focus on important energy projects that have strong environmental aspects and financial feasibility. This paper analyzes the public lighting energy management in the Croatian city of Rijeka in order to determine the connection of the energy market liberalization and sustainable development in urban areas. Research results indicate a significant connection between investments in energy management of public lighting and its influence on lower emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ).

  19. Energy utilization of light and heavy weaned piglets subjected to different dietary energy levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Machado Leal Ribeiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary metabolisable energy (ME: 3.25, 3.40, 3.55, or 3.70 Mcal kg−1 and weaning weight (WW: light 4.0±0.7 kg, and heavy: 6.3±0.6 kg on productive response and energy utilization of weaned piglets. Sixty-four male piglets were housed in 32 metabolic cages (two animals per cage during the first 14 d postweaning. At day 15, only one animal per cage was kept until day 28. Body composition, energy, and nutrient deposition rates and energy utilization efficiency were measured through a comparative slaughter procedure. Piglets with light WW had a poorer feed conversion ratio and lower weight gain and feed intake when expressed per live weight. Increased ME led to greater daily fat deposition in the empty bodies (defined as weighted mean of the carcass + organs + blood, no intestinal content, while light WW piglets had a reduced protein deposition. Light WW piglets increased heat production with increased ME, but no effect was seen for the heavy WW piglets. By contrast, heavy WW piglets increased empty body gross energy as ME increased, while no influence was observed on light WW piglets. Increasing dietary energy levels did not contribute to the subsequent growth performance of piglets that were lighter at weaning. The lack of interaction between weaning weight and dietary ME content on growth performance does not support the hypothesis that light piglets at weaning do not exhibit compensatory growth because of limitations in energy intake.

  20. Thin absorbers for large-area soft X-ray microcalorimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocks, L. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)]. E-mail: rocks@wisp.physics.wisc.edu; Anderson, M.B. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Bilgri, N. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Brekosky, R. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Gwynne Crowder, S. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Figueroa-Feliciano, E. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kelley, R. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kilbourne, C.A. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Lai, T. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Lindeman, M.A. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Man, J. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); McCammon, D. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Nelms, K.L. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Porter, F.S. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Sivananthan, S. [University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Vidugiris, G. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Zhao, J. [University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    The X-ray Quantum Calorimeter (XQC) sounding rocket experiment utilizes a microcalorimeter array for observing the diffuse soft X-ray background. Observations of such low surface-brightness targets require a large-area detector. We will be using an array of large absorbers. Good absorbers must rapidly and completely thermalize photons, have small heat capacity for high stopping efficiency and have good lateral thermal transport. For observing the soft X-ray background (energies <1 keV), the volume and heat capacity of absorber material can be kept to a minimum by making the absorbers only as thick as needed for high quantum efficiency at these low energies. These thin, large-area absorbers are not self-supporting and have poor lateral heat transport. Depositing the absorber material on a Si substrate provides support and improves lateral thermal conduction. We present heat capacity results for thin HgTe and thin Bi, each on Si substrates. We also describe the HgTe absorber fabrication.

  1. SU-E-T-782: Using Light Output From Doped Plastic Scintillators to Resolve the Linear Energy Transfer Spectrum of Clinical Electron Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nusrat, H; Pang, G; Ahmad, S; Keller, B; Sarfehnia, A

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This research seeks to develop a portable, clinically-suitable linear energy transfer (LET) detector. In radiotherapy, absorbed dose is commonly used to measure the amount of delivered radiation, though, it is not a good indicator of actual biological damage. LET is the energy absorbed per unit length by a medium along charged particle’s pathway; studies have shown that LET correlates well with relative biological effectiveness (RBE). Methods: According to Birks’ law, light output of plastic scintillators is stopping-power dependent. This dependency can be varied through doping by various high-Z elements. By measuring light output signals of differently doped plastic scintillators (represented by column vector S, where each row corresponds to different scintillator material), the fluence of charged particles of a given LET (represented by column vector Φ, where each row corresponds to different LET bins) can be unfolded by S=R*Φ where R is system response matrix (each row represents a different scintillator, each column corresponds to different electron LET). Monte Carlo (MC) GEANT4.10.1 was used to evaluate ideal detector response of BC408 scintillating material doped with various concentrations of several high Z dopants. Measurements were performed to validate MC. Results: Signal for 1%-lead doped BC408 and the non-doped scintillator was measured experimentally by guiding light emitted by the scintillator (via in-house made taper, fiber system) to a PMT and then an electrometer. Simulations of 1%Pb-doped scintillator to non-doped scintillator revealed 9.3% reduction in light output for 6 MeV electrons which compared well (within uncertainty) with measurements showing 10% reduction (6MeV electrons). Conclusion: Measurements were used to validate MC simulation of light output from doped scintillators. The doping of scintillators is a viable technique to induce LET dependence. Our goal is to use this effect to resolve the LET spectrum of an incident

  2. The series elastic shock absorber: tendon elasticity modulates energy dissipation by muscle during burst deceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konow, Nicolai; Roberts, Thomas J

    2015-04-07

    During downhill running, manoeuvring, negotiation of obstacles and landings from a jump, mechanical energy is dissipated via active lengthening of limb muscles. Tendon compliance provides a 'shock-absorber' mechanism that rapidly absorbs mechanical energy and releases it more slowly as the recoil of the tendon does work to stretch muscle fascicles. By lowering the rate of muscular energy dissipation, tendon compliance likely reduces the risk of muscle injury that can result from rapid and forceful muscle lengthening. Here, we examine how muscle-tendon mechanics are modulated in response to changes in demand for energy dissipation. We measured lateral gastrocnemius (LG) muscle activity, force and fascicle length, as well as leg joint kinematics and ground-reaction force, as turkeys performed drop-landings from three heights (0.5-1.5 m centre-of-mass elevation). Negative work by the LG muscle-tendon unit during landing increased with drop height, mainly owing to greater muscle recruitment and force as drop height increased. Although muscle strain did not increase with landing height, ankle flexion increased owing to increased tendon strain at higher muscle forces. Measurements of the length-tension relationship of the muscle indicated that the muscle reached peak force at shorter and likely safer operating lengths as drop height increased. Our results indicate that tendon compliance is important to the modulation of energy dissipation by active muscle with changes in demand and may provide a mechanism for rapid adjustment of function during deceleration tasks of unpredictable intensity. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  3. Visual indicator of absorbed radiation doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Generalova, V V; Krasovitskii, B M; Vainshtok, B A; Gurskii, M N

    1968-10-15

    A visual indicator of the absorbed doses of ionizing radiation is proposed. The indicator has a polymer base with the addition of a dye. A distinctive feature of the indicator consists of the use of polystyrene as its polymer base with the addition of halogen-containing hydrocarbon and the light-proof dye. Such combination of the radiation-resistant polymer of polystyrene and the light-proof dyestuff makes the proposed indicator highly stable.

  4. Graphene-based absorber exploiting guided mode resonances in one-dimensional gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, M; Vincenti, M A; Stomeo, T; Bianco, G V; de Ceglia, D; Aközbek, N; Petruzzelli, V; Bruno, G; De Vittorio, M; Scalora, M; D'Orazio, A

    2014-12-15

    A one-dimensional dielectric grating, based on a simple geometry, is proposed and investigated to enhance light absorption in a monolayer graphene exploiting guided mode resonances. Numerical findings reveal that the optimized configuration is able to absorb up to 60% of the impinging light at normal incidence for both TE and TM polarizations resulting in a theoretical enhancement factor of about 26 with respect to the monolayer graphene absorption (≈2.3%). Experimental results confirm this behavior showing CVD graphene absorbance peaks up to about 40% over narrow bands of a few nanometers. The simple and flexible design points to a way to realize innovative, scalable and easy-to-fabricate graphene-based optical absorbers.

  5. Laboratory testing of a long expansion rock bolt support for energy-absorbing applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrzypkowski Krzysztof

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of rock support and reinforcement in underground mining is to maintain excavations safe and open for their intended lifespan. The basic type of rock mass reinforcement method both in ore and hard coal mining is rock bolt support. Very often, existing bolt support systems are not always capable of providing a reliable controlled performance. Therefore, in recent years energy-absorbing bolts which are exposed to dynamic loading, for example from rock burst caused by high rock stresses, earthquakes, or blasting have appeared. In this article particular attention was paid to short and long expansion bolts. Quasi-static tests of expansion bolts were carried out at the laboratory test facility in simulated mining conditions, especially for the KGHM Polska Miedź S.A. mines. In the underground mines of the Legnica-Głogów Copper District (LGOM the main way to protect the room excavation is rock bolt support with a length from 1.2 m to 2.6 m. Rock bolt support longer than 2.6 m is considered as additional support of excavations and is increasingly being used to reinforce the roofs. The comparisons of energy-absorbing short and long expansion bolts with a length of 1.8m, 3.6m and 5.2m were presented. In addition, for elastic and plastic range of each bolts were determined.

  6. Laboratory testing of a long expansion rock bolt support for energy-absorbing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypkowski, Krzysztof

    2018-01-01

    The main purpose of rock support and reinforcement in underground mining is to maintain excavations safe and open for their intended lifespan. The basic type of rock mass reinforcement method both in ore and hard coal mining is rock bolt support. Very often, existing bolt support systems are not always capable of providing a reliable controlled performance. Therefore, in recent years energy-absorbing bolts which are exposed to dynamic loading, for example from rock burst caused by high rock stresses, earthquakes, or blasting have appeared. In this article particular attention was paid to short and long expansion bolts. Quasi-static tests of expansion bolts were carried out at the laboratory test facility in simulated mining conditions, especially for the KGHM Polska Miedź S.A. mines. In the underground mines of the Legnica-Głogów Copper District (LGOM) the main way to protect the room excavation is rock bolt support with a length from 1.2 m to 2.6 m. Rock bolt support longer than 2.6 m is considered as additional support of excavations and is increasingly being used to reinforce the roofs. The comparisons of energy-absorbing short and long expansion bolts with a length of 1.8m, 3.6m and 5.2m were presented. In addition, for elastic and plastic range of each bolts were determined.

  7. Highly efficient energy transfer from a carbonyl carotenoid to chlorophyll a in the main light harvesting complex of Chromera velia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durchan, Milan; Keşan, Gürkan; Slouf, Václav; Fuciman, Marcel; Staleva, Hristina; Tichý, Josef; Litvín, Radek; Bína, David; Vácha, František; Polívka, Tomáš

    2014-10-01

    We report on energy transfer pathways in the main light-harvesting complex of photosynthetic relative of apicomplexan parasites, Chromera velia. This complex, denoted CLH, belongs to the family of FCP proteins and contains chlorophyll (Chl) a, violaxanthin, and the so far unidentified carbonyl carotenoid related to isofucoxanthin. The overall carotenoid-to-Chl-a energy transfer exhibits efficiency over 90% which is the largest among the FCP-like proteins studied so far. Three spectroscopically different isofucoxanthin-like molecules were identified in CLH, each having slightly different energy transfer efficiency that increases from isofucoxanthin-like molecules absorbing in the blue part of the spectrum to those absorbing in the reddest part of spectrum. Part of the energy transfer from carotenoids proceeds via the ultrafast S2 channel of both the violaxanthin and isofucoxanthin-like carotenoid, but major energy transfer pathway proceeds via the S1/ICT state of the isofucoxanthin-like carotenoid. Two S1/ICT-mediated channels characterized by time constants of ~0.5 and ~4ps were found. For the isofucoxanthin-like carotenoid excited at 480nm the slower channel dominates, while those excited at 540nm employs predominantly the fast 0.5ps channel. Comparing these data with the excited-state properties of the isofucoxanthin-like carotenoid in solution we conclude that, contrary to other members of the FCP family employing carbonyl carotenoids, CLH complex suppresses the charge transfer character of the S1/ICT state of the isofucoxanthin-like carotenoid to achieve the high carotenoid-to-Chl-a energy transfer efficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Day-light-controlled artificial lighting a potential energy saver": right interior light by sky luninance trracking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, A.J.F.; Mills, Evan

    1991-01-01

    The energy consumption in office buildings can considerably be cut, if daylight is used as task lighting. A conservative estimate - starting from existing knowledge and calculation methods - gives a potential saving of 460 GWh a year or 46 % of the electricity costs for artificial lighting in Dutch

  9. Nuclear structure studies with low-energy light ions: fundamental and applied

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazumdar, I.

    2016-01-01

    Studies in low and medium energy nuclear physics have been dominated by heavy-ion induced reactions for last five decades. Heavy-ion induced nuclear reactions have enriched our knowledge of the structural evolutions and intricacies of reaction dynamics of the nuclear many-body systems. However, the emergence and rise of heavy-ion physics have seen a general decline in studies with low- and medium-energy light-ion beams. The harsh reality of dwindling number of low-energy light ion facilities adversely affect research in nuclear physics. Very low-energy and high current light-ion facilities immediately conjures up in our minds the studies in nuclear astrophysics. Measurements of light-ion capture cross sections and astrophysical S factors are the major themes of research at most of the light-ion facilities. However, the importance low energy light-ion beams is multifarious. A variety of measurements providing vital support and inputs to heavy-ion research can only be carried out at the low-energy, light-ion facilities. Light-ion beams are also useful for generation of mono-energetic neutron beams. In this talk I will draw from some of our recent measurements to show the importance of light-ion beams in nuclear astrophysics and also in applied nuclear physics. (author)

  10. Study of light-absorbing crystal birefringence and electrical modulation mechanisms for coupled thermal-optical effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ji; He, Zhihong; Ma, Yu; Dong, Shikui

    2014-09-20

    This paper discusses Gaussian laser transmission in double-refraction crystal whose incident light wavelength is within its absorption wave band. Two scenarios for coupled radiation and heat conduction are considered: one is provided with an applied external electric field, the other is not. A circular heat source with a Gaussian energy distribution is introduced to present the crystal's light-absorption process. The electromagnetic field frequency domain analysis equation and energy equation are solved to simulate the phenomenon by using the finite element method. It focuses on the influence of different values such as wavelength, incident light intensity, heat transfer coefficient, ambient temperature, crystal thickness, and applied electric field strength. The results show that the refraction index of polarized light increases with the increase of crystal temperature. It decreases as the strength of the applied electric field increases if it is positive. The mechanism of electrical modulation for the thermo-optical effect is used to keep the polarized light's index of refraction constant in our simulation. The quantitative relation between thermal boundary condition and strength of applied electric field during electrical modulation is determined. Numerical results indicate a possible approach to removing adverse thermal effects such as depolarization and wavefront distortion, which are caused by thermal deposition during linear laser absorption.

  11. Absorbed dose rate meter for β-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingo, K.

    1977-01-01

    The absorbed dose of β-ray depends on the energy of β-rays and the epidermal thickness of tissue in interest. In order to measure the absorbed dose rate at the interested tissue directly, the ratio of counting rate to absorbed dose should be constant independent of β-ray energy. In this purpose, a thin plastic scintillator was used as a detector with a single channel analyzer. The pulse height distribution, obtained using the scintillator whose thickness is less than the range of β-rays, shows a peak at a particular pulse height depending on the thickness of scintillator used. This means an increase of the number of pulses at lower pulse height. The lower level of discrimination and window width of the single channel analyzer are chosen according to the epidermal thickness of the tissue. In the experiment, scintillators of 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5 and 10 mm thick were tested. It was found that desirable pulse height distribution, to obtain a constant dose sensitivity, could be obtained using the 2 mm thick scintillator. The sensitivity of the absorbed dose rate meter is constant within +-15% for β-ray with maximum energy from 0.4 to 3.5 MeV, when the absorbed dose rate for skin (epidermal thickness 7mg/cm 2 ) is measured. In order to measure the dose rate for a hand (epithermal thickness 40mg/cm 2 ) the lower level of discrimination is changed to be higher and at the same time the window width is also changed. Combining these techniques, one can get an absorbed dose rate meter for the tissue dose of various thickness, which has the constant dose sensitivity within +-15% for β-rays with maximum energy from 0.4 to 3.5 MeV

  12. LINEAR MODEL FOR NON ISOSCELES ABSORBERS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERG,J.S.

    2003-05-12

    Previous analyses have assumed that wedge absorbers are triangularly shaped with equal angles for the two faces. In this case, to linear order, the energy loss depends only on the position in the direction of the face tilt, and is independent of the incoming angle. One can instead construct an absorber with entrance and exit faces facing rather general directions. In this case, the energy loss can depend on both the position and the angle of the particle in question. This paper demonstrates that and computes the effect to linear order.

  13. Light-Absorbing Aerosol during NASA GRIP: Overview of Observations in the Free Troposphere and Associated with Tropical Storm Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemba, L. D.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Chen, G.; Corr, C. A.; Craig, L.; Dhaniyala, S.; Dibb, J. E.; Hudgins, C. H.; Ismail, S.; Latham, T.; Nenes, A.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E.; Anderson, B. E.

    2010-12-01

    Aerosols play a significant role in regulating Earth’s climate. Absorbing aerosols typically constitute a small fraction of ambient particle mass but can contribute significantly to direct and indirect climate forcing depending on size, mixing state, concentration, chemical composition, and vertical and spatial distribution. Aerosols may also significantly affect tropical storm/hurricane dynamics through direct light absorption and activation as cloud nuclei. An extensive suite of instrumentation measuring aerosol chemical, physical, and optical properties was deployed aboard the NASA DC-8 to characterize aerosol during the NASA GRIP (Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes; August-September 2010) mission. The majority of flight time was spent at high altitude (greater than 9 km) and thus much of the sampling was done in the free troposphere, including extensive sampling in the vicinity of tropical storm systems and more diffuse cirrus clouds. With operations based in Fort Lauderdale, FL and St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, a large geographic region was sampled including much of the Gulf of Mexico and tropical Atlantic Ocean. Observations are reported for light-absorbing carbon aerosol (mainly black carbon, BC) primarily using a single particle soot photometer (SP2). The SP2 employs single-particle laser-induced incandescence to provide a mass-specific measurement not subject to scattering interference that is optimal for the low concentration environments like those encountered during GRIP. BC mass concentrations, 100-500 nm size distributions, and mixing state (i.e. coating thickness of scattering material) are presented. Total and sub-micron aerosol absorption coefficients (principally from BC and dust aerosol) are reported using a particle soot absorption photometer (PSAP) along with comparisons with calculated absorption coefficients derived from SP2 observations in various conditions. In addition, dust aerosol is specifically identified using optical and

  14. Computational screening of perovskite metal oxides for optimal solar light capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castelli, Ivano Eligio; Olsen, Thomas; Datta, Soumendu

    2012-01-01

    One of the possible solutions to the world’s rapidly increasing energy demand is the development of new photoelectrochemical cells with improved light absorption. This requires development of semiconductor materials which have appropriate bandgaps to absorb a large part of the solar spectrum at t...

  15. Absorbed fractions for alpha particles in ellipsoidal volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amato, Ernesto; Baldari, Sergio; Italiano, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Internal dosimetry of alpha particles is gaining attention due to the increasing applications in cancer treatment and also for the assessment of environmental contamination from radionuclides. We developed a Monte Carlo simulation in GEANT4 in order to calculate the absorbed fractions for monoenergetic alpha particles in the energy interval between 0.1 and 10 MeV, uniformly distributed in ellipsoids made of soft tissue. For each volume, we simulated a spherical shape, three oblate and three prolate ellipsoids, and one scalene shape. For each energy and for every geometrical configuration, an analytical relationship between the absorbed fraction and a ‘generalized radius’ was found; and the dependence of the fit parameters on the alpha energy is discussed and fitted by parametric functions. With the proposed formulation, the absorbed fraction for alpha particles in the energy range explored can be calculated for volumes and for ellipsoidal shapes of practical interest. This method can be applied to the evaluation of absorbed fraction from alpha-emitting radionuclides. The contribution to the deposited energy coming from electron and photon emissions can be accounted for exploiting the specific formulations previously introduced. As an example of application, the dosimetry of 213 Bi and its decay chain in ellipsoids is reported. (paper)

  16. UV emissions from low energy artificial light sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Leona; Moseley, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Energy efficient light sources have been introduced across Europe and many other countries world wide. The most common of these is the Compact Fluorescent Lamp (CFL), which has been shown to emit ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) are an alternative technology that has minimal UV emissions. This brief review summarises the different energy efficient light sources available on the market and compares the UV levels and the subsequent effects on the skin of normal individuals and those who suffer from photodermatoses. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Spectroscopic ellipsometry on metallic gratings and the energy density in absorbing media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmair, M.

    2011-01-01

    compared. Deviations in the structure are identified and it is shown that RCWA and SE are a powerful combination to analyze nanostructures. Further the surface plasmonic excitation frequencies for metallic structures are identified in the SE spectra and calculated with a simple theoretical model. It is shown that one can distinguish vertical and horizontal surface plasmons. The characterization of metallic gratings is essential e.g. for solar cells to enhance absorption of incoming photons or for sensing features due to the field enhancement of surface plasmons. The second part of this thesis focuses on the calculation of the energy density in absorbing systems which is necessary to derive the energy velocity. In physics, this problem was only solved for transparent media, i.e. the absorption of the material was neglected. As all metamaterials described before exhibit a strong dispersion which is always connected to a non-zero absorption this approximation does not hold especially in the operating frequency regions of nano structures. Therefore in the beginning simple approximations as monochromatic plane waves exciting a material with an arbitrary response are presented. The obtained results are generalized for bi- and multichromatic fields and the results are compared with the ones from textbooks and literature. Finally the expression for the energy density and the loss is explicitly derived for a material with a retarded response and a material whose polarizability is described by a damped harmonic oscillator. By these calculations it is shown that the energy density depends on the kind of excitation and material properties. It is possible to determine the expressions analytically for several cases. Further the energy balance can be evaluated numerically even for metamaterials whose response function consists of numerical data. (author) [de

  18. Optical design of a reaction chamber for weakly absorbed light. II. Parallel mirrors, multitravel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devaney, J.J.; Finch, F.T.

    1975-06-01

    This report outlines the possibilities to be found using one or more diffraction-limited high-quality light beams to activate a weakly absorbing gas in a regime where the diffraction spread can be controlled by converging optical devices to within a ratio of √2 of the minimum at the beam waist (corresponding lengths between converging elements are within twice the Rayleigh range). Our designs use plane or cylindrical parallel mirrors down which a light beam is repeatedly reflected. In the first design variation, the beam is re-reflected up the parallel mirrors to the entrance aperture where it can be returned repeatedly for a number of multiply reflecting ''travels'' up and down the parallel mirror reaction chamber. In the second variation, the return of the beam after each multiply reflecting ''travel'' down the chamber is external to the chamber and is achieved by two mirror reflections. For diffraction control the return mirrors can be made converging. For multiple laser excitation, any of the external return mirrors can be replaced by a laser. The advantage of these designs is a high degree of uniformity of chamber illumination with a reasonably high number of passes. Drawbacks of the designs are the large space needed for beam return (many tens of meters for some parameters) and (common to all high optical quality chambers) the figuring and reflectivity demands on the mirrors. (U.S.)

  19. Blue light hazards for ocular lesions; Risques oculaires du rayonnement bleu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesarini, J.P. [INSERM, Fondation Ophtalmologique A. de Rothschild, 75 - Paris (France); CES, Agents physique, AFSSET (France)

    2009-10-15

    The blue light range (400-500 nm) of visible radiation stimulates specifically cones and rods of the retina. The carried energy by these wavelengths is absorbed and transferred to specific pigments. Their energy is sufficient to produce free radicals and singlet form of oxygen. Intense sources, rich in blue light radiation, may induce, in the retina, photo-toxic lesions either limited or short-lived or photothermal lesions more or less definitive. Repeated photo-toxic lesions should be the root for the age-related maculo-pathy (A.R.M.) also called late macular degeneration (A.M.D.). As a consequence, the attention should be drawn on the potential risk linked to modern lighting as 'daylight' lamp, compact fluorescent lamps, energy saving (C.F.L.) and light-emitting diodes (L.E.D.) for which a specific vigilance should be enforced. (author)

  20. Energy efficient solid state lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dam-Hansen, C.; Petersen, Poul Michael

    2012-11-15

    Even though vast improvements have been made on efficiency and light quality, SSL is still in its infancy. One of the barriers for a market introduction is the price, which still is around 5 times higher than traditional lighting technologies. In order to fulfil the potential of SSL, further research and development needs to increase the light extraction from semiconductor materials, provide better and cheaper production and packaging, and advanced optical systems for optimized light distribution and new thermal solutions for SSL lamps and luminaires. Nanotechnology and applied research at DTU Fotonik in close collaboration with industry are essential parts in the development of new enhanced LED optical systems and LEDs with higher light extraction efficiency. Photonic crystals can help to efficiently extract light from LEDs and to form a desired emission profile. Future directions are devoted to the next generation of LEDs, in which the spontaneous emission is photon enhanced. One realization of this idea is using LEDs with a layer of nanocrystals, which are coupled to the quantum well of the LED. Such R and D work is ongoing all over the world and DOE roadmaps foresee luminous efficiencies by 2020 that are close to 250 lm/W for both cold and warm white light from LEDs, and prices in the order of one dollar per kilolumen. Such figures will drastically reduce the energy consumption worldwide for lighting, and hence a marked reduction in carbon emissions. (Author)

  1. Energy Optimization of Road Tunnel Lighting Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinando Salata

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A road tunnel is an enclosed and covered infrastructure for the vehicular traffic. Its lighting system provides 24 h of artificial sources only, with a higher amount of electric power used during the day. Due to safety reasons, when there is natural lighting outside the tunnel, the lighting levels in the stretches right after the entrance and before the exit must be high, in order to guide the driver’s eye towards the middle of the tunnel where the luminance must guarantee safe driving, avoid any over-dimensioning of the lighting systems, and produce energy savings. Such effects can be reached not only through the technological advances in the field of artificial lighting sources with high luminous efficiency, but also through new materials for road paving characterized by a higher reflection coefficient than other ordinary asphalts. This case study examines different technical scenarios, analyzing and comparing possible energy and economic savings. Traditional solutions are thus compared with scenarios suggesting the solutions previously mentioned. Special asphalts are interesting from an economic point of view, whereas the high costs of LED sources nowadays represent an obstacle for their implementation.

  2. Photosynthetic Properties and Potentials for Improvement of Photosynthesis in Pale Green Leaf Rice under High Light Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfei Gu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Light is the driving force of plant growth, providing the energy required for photosynthesis. However, photosynthesis is also vulnerable to light-induced damage caused by the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Plants have therefore evolved various protective mechanisms such as non-photochemical quenching (NPQ to dissipate excessively absorbed solar energy as heat; however, photoinhibition and NPQ represent a significant loss in solar energy and photosynthetic efficiency, which lowers the yield potential in crops. To estimate light capture and light energy conversion in rice, a genotype with pale green leaves (pgl and a normally pigmented control (Z802 were subjected to high (HL and low light (LL. Chlorophyll content, light absorption, chloroplast micrographs, abundance of light-harvesting complex (LHC binding proteins, electron transport rates (ETR, photochemical and non-photochemical quenching, and generation of ROS were subsequently examined. Pgl had a smaller size of light-harvesting chlorophyll antenna and absorbed less photons than Z802. NPQ and the generation of ROS were also low, while photosystem II efficiency and ETR were high, resulting in improved photosynthesis and less photoinhibition in pgl than Z802. Chlorophyll synthesis and solar conversion efficiency were higher in pgl under HL compared to LL treatment, while Z802 showed an opposite trend due to the high level of photoinhibition under HL. In Z802, excessive absorption of solar energy not only increased the generation of ROS and NPQ, but also exacerbated the effects of increases in temperature, causing midday depression in photosynthesis. These results suggest that photosynthesis and yield potential in rice could be enhanced by truncated light-harvesting chlorophyll antenna size.

  3. Photosynthetic Properties and Potentials for Improvement of Photosynthesis in Pale Green Leaf Rice under High Light Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Junfei; Zhou, Zhenxiang; Li, Zhikang; Chen, Ying; Wang, Zhiqin; Zhang, Hao; Yang, Jianchang

    2017-01-01

    Light is the driving force of plant growth, providing the energy required for photosynthesis. However, photosynthesis is also vulnerable to light-induced damage caused by the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Plants have therefore evolved various protective mechanisms such as non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) to dissipate excessively absorbed solar energy as heat; however, photoinhibition and NPQ represent a significant loss in solar energy and photosynthetic efficiency, which lowers the yield potential in crops. To estimate light capture and light energy conversion in rice, a genotype with pale green leaves (pgl) and a normally pigmented control (Z802) were subjected to high (HL) and low light (LL). Chlorophyll content, light absorption, chloroplast micrographs, abundance of light-harvesting complex (LHC) binding proteins, electron transport rates (ETR), photochemical and non-photochemical quenching, and generation of ROS were subsequently examined. Pgl had a smaller size of light-harvesting chlorophyll antenna and absorbed less photons than Z802. NPQ and the generation of ROS were also low, while photosystem II efficiency and ETR were high, resulting in improved photosynthesis and less photoinhibition in pgl than Z802. Chlorophyll synthesis and solar conversion efficiency were higher in pgl under HL compared to LL treatment, while Z802 showed an opposite trend due to the high level of photoinhibition under HL. In Z802, excessive absorption of solar energy not only increased the generation of ROS and NPQ, but also exacerbated the effects of increases in temperature, causing midday depression in photosynthesis. These results suggest that photosynthesis and yield potential in rice could be enhanced by truncated light-harvesting chlorophyll antenna size. PMID:28676818

  4. Electrochemically synthesized visible light absorbing vertically aligned N-doped TiO2 nanotube array films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antony, Rajini P.; Mathews, Tom; Ajikumar, P.K.; Krishna, D. Nandagopala; Dash, S.; Tyagi, A.K.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Single step electrochemical synthesis of N-doped TiO 2 nanotube array films. ► Effective substitutional N-doping achieved. ► Different N-concentrations were achieved by varying the N-precursor concentration in the electrolyte. ► Visible light absorption observed at high N-doping. -- Abstract: Visible light absorbing vertically aligned N-doped anatase nanotube array thin films were synthesized by anodizing Ti foils in ethylene glycol + NH 4 F + water mixture containing urea as nitrogen source. Different nitrogen concentrations were achieved by varying the urea content in the electrolyte. The structure, morphology, composition and optical band gap of the nanotube arrays were determined by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, respectively. The substitution of O 2− ions by N 3− ions in the anion sublattice as well as the formulae of the doped samples was confirmed from the results of XPS. The optical band gap of the nanotube arrays was found to decrease with N-concentration. The sample with the highest concentration corresponding to the formula TiO 1.83 N 0.14 showed two regions in the Tauc's plot indicating the presence of interband states.

  5. Report on the evaluation of the tritium producing burnable absorber rod lead test assembly. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    This report describes the design and fabrication requirements for a tritium-producing burnable absorber rod lead test assembly and evaluates the safety issues associated with tritium-producing burnable absorber rod irradiation on the operation of a commercial light water reactor. The report provides an evaluation of the tritium-producing burnable absorber rod design and concludes that irradiation can be performed within U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations applicable to a commercial pressurized light water reactor

  6. GEANT 4.8.2, 9.2 and 9.4 simulations versus experimental proton energy loss in thick absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evseev, Ivan; Schelin, Hugo R.; Ahmann, Francielle; Milhoretto, Edney; Paschuk, Sergei A., E-mail: evseev@utfpr.edu.b, E-mail: schelin@utfpr.edu.b, E-mail: sergei@utfpr.edu.b [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Yevseyeva, Olga; Assis, Joaquim T. de; Ievsieieva, Ievgeniia, E-mail: yevseveva@iprj.uerj.b, E-mail: joaquim@iprj.uerj.b [Instituto Politecnico do Rio de Janeiro (IPRJ/UERJ), Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Modelagem Computacional; Hormaza, Joel M., E-mail: jmesa@ibb.unesp.b [Universidade Estadual Paulista (IBB/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biociencias; Diaz, Katherin S. [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear, Havana (Cuba); Lopes, Ricardo T. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (LIN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear

    2011-07-01

    Monte Carlo simulations are a powerful tool to estimate the proton energy loss and straggling in medical applications. The physics of proton interaction with matter for thick absorbers (like a human body) has a well-established theory for the so-called Bethe-Bloch domain, and the basic principles of Monte Carlo simulation for such processes are well known since the middle of the past century. However, in spite of GEANT4 has been validated against proton stopping powers from the NIST PSTAR, the evolution of the code leads to some result instability within the various code releases. In this work, we present the recent results for the comparison of our GEANT4 simulations against experimental proton energy loss for some thick absorbers. All the simulations were performed using the GEANT4 Hadrontherapy Advanced Example. The GEANT4 versions 4.8.2, 4.9.2, and 4.9.4 were tested with different simulation parameters, such as varied cut values. In addition to the Standard model, some other models for the electromagnetic processes from the GEANT4 Low Energy Extension Pack were tested as well. Experimental data were taken from for polyethylene, and from for aluminum and gold absorbers. The theoretical predictions for the spectra were calculated using the self-consistent Gaussian solution of the Boltzmann kinetic equation in the Fokker-Plank form. In order to compare the GEANT4 simulations with other popular codes, the same spectra were simulated by TRIM/SRIM2011 and MCNPX2.4.0. The simultaneous comparison of the results obtained for different materials at various initial proton energies were done using the reduced calibration curve approach. (author)

  7. Seasonal Evolution and Interannual Variability of the Local Solar Energy Absorbed by the Arctic Sea Ice-Ocean System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perovich, Donald K.; Nghiem, Son V.; Markus, Thorsten; Schwieger, Axel

    2007-01-01

    The melt season of the Arctic sea ice cover is greatly affected by the partitioning of the incident solar radiation between reflection to the atmosphere and absorption in the ice and ocean. This partitioning exhibits a strong seasonal cycle and significant interannual variability. Data in the period 1998, 2000-2004 were analyzed in this study. Observations made during the 1997-1998 SHEBA (Surface HEat Budget of the Arctic Ocean) field experiment showed a strong seasonal dependence of the partitioning, dominated by a five-phase albedo evolution. QuikSCAT scatterometer data from the SHEBA region in 1999-2004 were used to further investigate solar partitioning in summer. The time series of scatterometer data were used to determine the onset of melt and the beginning of freezeup. This information was combined with SSM/I-derived ice concentration, TOVS-based estimates of incident solar irradiance, and SHEBA results to estimate the amount of solar energy absorbed in the ice-ocean system for these years. The average total solar energy absorbed in the ice-ocean system from April through September was 900 MJ m(sup -2). There was considerable interannual variability, with a range of 826 to 1044 MJ m(sup -2). The total amount of solar energy absorbed by the ice and ocean was strongly related to the date of melt onset, but only weakly related to the total duration of the melt season or the onset of freezeup. The timing of melt onset is significant because the incident solar energy is large and a change at this time propagates through the entire melt season, affecting the albedo every day throughout melt and freezeup.

  8. High-Energy Compton Scattering Light Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Hartemann, Fred V; Barty, C; Crane, John; Gibson, David J; Hartouni, E P; Tremaine, Aaron M

    2005-01-01

    No monochromatic, high-brightness, tunable light sources currently exist above 100 keV. Important applications that would benefit from such new hard x-ray sources include: nuclear resonance fluorescence spectroscopy, time-resolved positron annihilation spectroscopy, and MeV flash radiography. The peak brightness of Compton scattering light sources is derived for head-on collisions and found to scale with the electron beam brightness and the drive laser pulse energy. This gamma 2

  9. Integrated light in direct excitation and energy transfer luminescence

    OpenAIRE

    Chimczak, Eugeniusz

    2007-01-01

    Integrated light in direct excitation and energy transfer luminescence has been investigated. In the investigations reported here, monomolecular centers were taken into account. It was found that the integrated light is equal to the product of generation rate and time of duration of excitation pulse for both direct excitation and energy transfer luminescence.

  10. A randomised controlled trial of absorbable versus non-absorbable sutures for skin closure after open carpal tunnel release.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Theopold, C

    2012-05-01

    We compared the aesthetic outcome of scars after closure of open carpal tunnel incisions with either absorbable 4-0 Vicryl Rapide or non-absorbable 4-0 Novafil. Patients were recruited in a randomized controlled trial and scars were scored at 6 weeks using a modified Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale. Scores demonstrated differences only for pain, vascularity and cross-hatching between both groups, though none of these were statistically significant. The dissolving and falling out of Vicryl Rapide was significantly more comfortable than removal of 4-0 Novafil sutures, assessed on a numerical analogue scale. There was no difference in infection rate between both study groups, supporting overall the use of Vicryl Rapide for the closure of palmar hand incisions, in light of the convenience and cost savings associated with absorbable sutures.

  11. Energy-saving approaches to solid state street lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitta, Pranciškus; Stanikūnas, Rytis; Tuzikas, Arūnas; Reklaitis, Ignas; Stonkus, Andrius; Petrulis, Andrius; Vaitkevičius, Henrikas; Žukauskas, Artūras

    2011-10-01

    We consider the energy-saving potential of solid-state street lighting due to improved visual performance, weather sensitive luminance control and tracking of pedestrians and vehicles. A psychophysical experiment on the measurement of reaction time with a decision making task was performed under mesopic levels of illumination provided by a highpressure sodium (HPS) lamp and different solid-state light sources, such as daylight and warm-white phosphor converted light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and red-green-blue LED clusters. The results of the experiment imply that photopic luminances of road surface provided by solid-state light sources with an optimized spectral power distribution might be up to twice as low as those provided by the HPS lamp. Dynamical correction of road luminance against road surface conditions typical of Lithuanian climate was estimated to save about 20% of energy in comparison with constant-level illumination. The estimated energy savings due to the tracking of pedestrians and vehicles amount at least 25% with the cumulative effect of intelligent control of at least 40%. A solid-state street lighting system with intelligent control was demonstrated using a 300 m long test ground consisting of 10 solid-state street luminaires, a meteorological station and microwave motion sensor network operated via power line communication.

  12. Methods and compositions for the upconversion of light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldo, Marc A.; Congreve, Daniel N.; Thompson, Nicholas John; Wilson, Mark W.B.; Wu, Mengfei; Bawendi, Moungi G.; Bulovic, Vladimir

    2018-04-17

    The present invention generally relates to composition and methods for upconverting light. In some embodiments, the composition and methods comprise an organic material, a nanocrystal, and a ligand capable of facilitating energy transfer between the nanocrystal and the organic material. In certain embodiments, the nanocrystal has a first excited energy state with an energy greater than a triplet state of the organic material. The organic material, in some embodiments, may be aromatic and/or include one or more pi-conjugated carbon-carbon double bonds. In some cases, incident light may be absorbed by the nanocrystal to produce triplet excitons. The triplet excitons may then transfer from the nanocrystal to the organic material and undergo triplet-triplet annihilation, creating a singlet state of approximately twice the energy of the triplet exciton. In certain embodiments, the singlet state fluoresces, resulting in the formation of a high energy photon.

  13. Photon induced facile synthesis and growth of CuInS{sub 2} absorber thin film for photovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Manjeet, E-mail: msitbhu@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Incheon National University, 12-1, Songdo-dong, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon 406-772 (Korea, Republic of); Jiu, Jinting; Suganuma, Katsuaki [Department of Advanced Interconnection Materials, Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, Mihogaoka 8-1, Ibaraki, Osaka, 567-0047 (Japan)

    2016-04-30

    Graphical abstract: The thin film containing CuS and In{sub 2}S{sub 3} can be converted into CuInS{sub 2} by irradiation of intense pulses of light. - Highlights: • Photonic sintering technique is demonstrated for CuInS{sub 2} (CIS) thin film preparation. • The binary sulfides CuS and In{sub 2}S{sub 3} are converted into CIS using intense light pulses. • The light energy of 706 mJ/cm{sup 2} is found best for phase pure CIS film formation. - Abstract: In this paper, we demonstrate the use of high intensity pulsed light technique for the synthesis of phase pure CuInS{sub 2} (CIS) thin film at room temperature. The intense pulse of light is used to induce sintering of binary sulfides CuS and In{sub 2}S{sub 3} to produce CIS phase without any direct thermal treatment. Light energy equivalent to the 706 mJ/cm{sup 2} is found to be the best energy to convert the CIS precursor film deposited at room temperature into CIS pure phase and well crystalline film. The CIS absorber film thus prepared is useful in making printed solar cell at room temperature on substrate with large area.

  14. Study on Ballistic Absorbing Energy Character of High Performance Polyethylene Needle Felt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kailiang, Zhu; Jianqiao, Fu

    2017-11-01

    The ballistic performance of polyethylene needle felt is tested and the failure morphology after test is also observed. The results showed that when the non-dimensionally non-stressed fibers in polyethylene needles are subjected to high-speed projectile, secondary movement such as stretching and twisting occurs first. This secondary movement is very full, it is the main way of ballistic absorbing energy of the polyethylene needle felt which can avoid the polyethylene fiber short-term rapid heating-up and destroyed. Analysis results show that under normal temperature and humidity conditions, the V50 of 6-layer forded polyethylene needle felt sample is 250m/s. At (450 ± 50) m/s speed range of the target missile, the mean value of the penetrative specific energy absorption for 3-layer forded polyethylene needle felt anti-1.1g simulated projectiles (tapered column) reaches 24.1J·m2/kg.

  15. Non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis with red light emitting diode absorbance detection for the analysis of basic dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhari, Ali Reza; Breadmore, Michael C; Macka, Miroslav; Haddad, Paul R

    2006-11-24

    Non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis was evaluated for the separation of five hydrophobic basic blue dyes for application in forensic dye analysis. The use of a red light emitting diode as a high intensity, low-noise light source provided sensitive detection of the blue dyes while also allowing the evaluation of solvents that absorb strongly in the UV region. Excellent peak shapes and separation selectivity were obtained in methanol, ethanol, acetonitrile and dimethylsulfoxide, however water, tetrahydrofuran, dimethylformamide and acetone were unsuitable as solvents due to poor peak shapes and a lack of sensitivity, most likely due to adsorption onto the capillary wall. Due to the known compatibility of methanol with capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry, this solvent was examined further with the relative acidity/basicity of the electrolyte being optimised with an artificial neural network. The optimised method was examined for the separation of ink samples from 6 fibre tip and 2 ball point blue or black pens and showed that a unique migration time for the main dye component in seven of the eight pens could be obtained.

  16. The dynamics analysis of a ferrofluid shock absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Jie; Chang, Jianjun; Li, Decai; Yang, Xiaolong

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a shock absorber using three magnets as the inertial mass. Movement of the inertial mass inside a cylindrical body filled with ferrofluid will lead to a viscous dissipation of the oscillating system energy. The influence of a dumbbell-like ferrofluid structure on the energy dissipation is considered and the magnetic restoring force is investigated by experiment and theoretical calculation. A theoretical model of the hydrodynamics and energy dissipation processes is developed, which includes the geometrical characteristics of the body, the fluid viscosity, and the external magnetic field. The theory predicts the experimental results well under some condition. The shock absorber can be used in spacecraft technology. - Highlights: • We study a ferrofluid shock absorber. • The mechanical model of the flow of the ferrofluid has been built. • The theoretical model of the energy dissipation processes is developed. • The magnetic restoring force between the body and the magnets has been measured.

  17. The dynamics analysis of a ferrofluid shock absorber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Jie; Chang, Jianjun [School of Mechanical, Electronic and Control Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Li, Decai, E-mail: dcli@bjtu.edu.cn [School of Mechanical, Electronic and Control Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Yang, Xiaolong [School of Mechanical Engineering, Guangxi University of Science and Technology, Liuzhou, Guangxi 545006 (China)

    2016-03-15

    The paper presents a shock absorber using three magnets as the inertial mass. Movement of the inertial mass inside a cylindrical body filled with ferrofluid will lead to a viscous dissipation of the oscillating system energy. The influence of a dumbbell-like ferrofluid structure on the energy dissipation is considered and the magnetic restoring force is investigated by experiment and theoretical calculation. A theoretical model of the hydrodynamics and energy dissipation processes is developed, which includes the geometrical characteristics of the body, the fluid viscosity, and the external magnetic field. The theory predicts the experimental results well under some condition. The shock absorber can be used in spacecraft technology. - Highlights: • We study a ferrofluid shock absorber. • The mechanical model of the flow of the ferrofluid has been built. • The theoretical model of the energy dissipation processes is developed. • The magnetic restoring force between the body and the magnets has been measured.

  18. CMOS indoor light energy harvesting system for wireless sensing applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira Carvalho, Carlos Manuel

    2016-01-01

    This book discusses in detail the CMOS implementation of energy harvesting.  The authors describe an integrated, indoor light energy harvesting system, based on a controller circuit that dynamically and automatically adjusts its operation to meet the actual light circumstances of the environment where the system is placed.  The system is intended to power a sensor node, enabling an autonomous wireless sensor network (WSN). Although designed to cope with indoor light levels, the system is also able to work with higher levels, making it an all-round light energy harvesting system.  The discussion includes experimental data obtained from an integrated manufactured prototype, which in conjunction with a photovoltaic (PV) cell, serves as a proof of concept of the desired energy harvesting system.  ·         Discusses several energy sources which can be used to power energy harvesting systems and includes an overview of PV cell technologies  ·         Includes an introduction to voltage step-...

  19. A feasibility study of mapping light-absorbing carbon using a taxi fleet as a mobile platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Krecl

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbon-containing particles are associated with adverse health effects, and their light-absorbing fractions were recently estimated to be the second largest contributor to global warming after carbon dioxide. Knowledge on the spatiotemporal variability of light-absorbing carbon (LAC particles in urban areas is relevant for air quality management and to better diagnose the population exposure to these particles. This work reports on the first mobile LAC mass concentrations (MLAC measured on-board four taxis in the Stockholm metropolitan area in November 2011. On average, concentrations were higher and more variable during daytime (median of 1.9 µg m−3 and median absolute deviation of 2.3 µg m−3. Night-time (21:00–05:00 measurements were very similar for all road types and also compared to levels monitored at an urban background fixed site (median of 0.9 µg m−3. We observed a large intra-urban variability in concentrations, with maxima levels inside road tunnels (median and 95th percentile of 7.5 and 40.1 µg m−3, respectively. Highways presented the second ranked concentrations (median and 95th percentile of 3.2 and 9.7 µg m−3, respectively associated with highest vehicle speed (median of 65 km h−1, traffic rates (median of 62 000 vehicles day−1 and 1500 vehicles h−1 and diesel vehicles share (7–10% when compared to main roads, canyon streets, and local roads. Multiple regression modelling identified hourly traffic rate and MLAC concentration measured at an urban background site as the best predictors of on-road concentrations, but explained only 25% of the observed variability. This feasibility study proved to be a time- and cost-effective approach to map out ambient MLAC concentrations in Stockholm and more research is required to represent the distribution in other periods of the year. Simultaneous monitoring of other pollutants, closely correlated to MLAC levels in traffic-polluted environments, and including video

  20. Increased light harvesting in dye-sensitized solar cells with energy relay dyes

    KAUST Repository

    Hardin, Brian E.

    2009-06-21

    Conventional dye-sensitized solar cells have excellent charge collection efficiencies, high open-circuit voltages and good fill factors. However, dye-sensitized solar cells do not completely absorb all of the photons from the visible and near-infrared domain and consequently have lower short-circuit photocurrent densities than inorganic photovoltaic devices. Here, we present a new design where high-energy photons are absorbed by highly photoluminescent chromophores unattached to the titania and undergo Förster resonant energy transfer to the sensitizing dye. This novel architecture allows for broader spectral absorption, an increase in dye loading, and relaxes the design requirements for the sensitizing dye. We demonstrate a 26% increase in power conversion efficiency when using an energy relay dye (PTCDI) with an organic sensitizing dye (TT1). We estimate the average excitation transfer efficiency in this system to be at least 47%. This system offers a viable pathway to develop more efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.

  1. Instrumentation and method for measuring NIR light absorbed in tissue during MR imaging in medical NIRS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myllylä, Teemu S.; Sorvoja, Hannu S. S.; Nikkinen, Juha; Tervonen, Osmo; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Myllylä, Risto A.

    2011-07-01

    Our goal is to provide a cost-effective method for examining human tissue, particularly the brain, by the simultaneous use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Due to its compatibility requirements, MRI poses a demanding challenge for NIRS measurements. This paper focuses particularly on presenting the instrumentation and a method for the non-invasive measurement of NIR light absorbed in human tissue during MR imaging. One practical method to avoid disturbances in MR imaging involves using long fibre bundles to enable conducting the measurements at some distance from the MRI scanner. This setup serves in fact a dual purpose, since also the NIRS device will be less disturbed by the MRI scanner. However, measurements based on long fibre bundles suffer from light attenuation. Furthermore, because one of our primary goals was to make the measuring method as cost-effective as possible, we used high-power light emitting diodes instead of more expensive lasers. The use of LEDs, however, limits the maximum output power which can be extracted to illuminate the tissue. To meet these requirements, we improved methods of emitting light sufficiently deep into tissue. We also show how to measure NIR light of a very small power level that scatters from the tissue in the MRI environment, which is characterized by strong electromagnetic interference. In this paper, we present the implemented instrumentation and measuring method and report on test measurements conducted during MRI scanning. These measurements were performed in MRI operating rooms housing 1.5 Tesla-strength closed MRI scanners (manufactured by GE) in the Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology at the Oulu University Hospital.

  2. Effect of ultraviolet light absorbers on photostabilization of azadirachtin-A in solution (part: II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deota, P T; Upadhyay, P R; Valodkar, V B

    2003-01-01

    The effect of photostabilization of azadirachtin-A (Aza-A) was examined in solutions when exposed to UV radiation, in the presence of four structurally different UV absorbers namely, p-aminobenzoic acid, 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone, 4,4'-dihydroxybenzophenone and phenyl salicylate. The percentages of Aza-A recovered from the solutions after 6 h exposed to UV radiation in the presence and absence of UV absorbers indicated that the order of stabilization of Aza-A by these absorbers was similar to that obtained in the solid phase experiments in accordance with our previous observations. It is observed that the addition of phenyl salicylate in Aza-A (in 1:1 mole ratio) provides the excellent photostabilization of Aza-A molecule in solid phase as well as in solution among the four absorbers studied.

  3. Ferrite HOM Absorber for the RHIC ERL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn,H.; Choi, E.M.; Hammons, L.

    2008-10-01

    A superconducting Energy Recovery Linac is under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory to serve as test bed for RHIC upgrades. The damping of higher-order modes in the superconducting five-cell cavity for the Energy-Recovery linac at RHIC is performed exclusively by two ferrite absorbers. The ferrite properties have been measured in ferrite-loaded pill box cavities resulting in the permeability values given by a first-order Debye model for the tiled absorber structure and an equivalent permeability value for computer simulations with solid ring dampers. Measured and simulated results for the higher-order modes in the prototype copper cavity are discussed. First room-temperature measurements of the finished niobium cavity are presented which confirm the effective damping of higher-order modes in the ERL. by the ferrite absorbers.

  4. Adaptive inertial shock-absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faraj, Rami; Holnicki-Szulc, Jan; Knap, Lech; Seńko, Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces and discusses a new concept of impact absorption by means of impact energy management and storage in dedicated rotating inertial discs. The effectiveness of the concept is demonstrated in a selected case-study involving spinning management, a recently developed novel impact-absorber. A specific control technique performed on this device is demonstrated to be the main source of significant improvement in the overall efficiency of impact damping process. The influence of various parameters on the performance of the shock-absorber is investigated. Design and manufacturing challenges and directions of further research are formulated. (paper)

  5. Measuring and evaluating energy consumption in street lighting networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janiga, P.; Gasparovsky, D.

    2012-01-01

    Smart metering and smart grid are incoming technologies that provide new opportunities in various fields. In connection with the issue of evaluation of the energy aspects of public lighting networks opens up the possibility of evaluating and measuring consumption. Based on the obtained values would be possible to determine energy consumption of lighting systems. This obtained value could serve as a basis for comparing the relevant networks and thus the optimality assessment of lighting designs. Currently, the measure placed in the switchboard of public lighting. If we have considered sections parametramim same lighting, it is necessary to obtain more value from the measured or determined to assess the consumption of time. Proposal of such methods is still under construction but the basic methods have already been outlined. (Authors)

  6. Light Absorption Enhancement of Silicon-Based Photovoltaic Devices with Multiple Bandgap Structures of Porous Silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuen-Hsien Wu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Porous-silicon (PS multi-layered structures with three stacked PS layers of different porosity were prepared on silicon (Si substrates by successively tuning the electrochemical-etching parameters in an anodization process. The three PS layers have different optical bandgap energy and construct a triple-layered PS (TLPS structure with multiple bandgap energy. Photovoltaic devices were fabricated by depositing aluminum electrodes of Schottky contacts on the surfaces of the developed TLPS structures. The TLPS-based devices exhibit broadband photoresponses within the spectrum of the solar irradiation and get high photocurrent for the incident light of a tungsten lamp. The improved spectral responses of devices are owing to the multi-bandgap structures of TLPS, which are designed with a layered configuration analog to a tandem cell for absorbing a wider energy range of the incidental sun light. The large photocurrent is mainly ascribed to an enhanced light-absorption ability as a result of applying nanoporous-Si thin films as the surface layers to absorb the short-wavelength light and to improve the Schottky contacts of devices. Experimental results reveal that the multi-bandgap PS structures produced from electrochemical-etching of Si wafers are potentially promising for development of highly efficient Si-based solar cells.

  7. Diamond detector in absorbed dose measurements in high-energy linear accelerator photon and electron beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, Ramamoorthy; Binukumar, John Pichy; Al Amri, Iqbal; Davis, Cheriyathmanjiyil Antony

    2016-03-08

    Diamond detectors (DD) are preferred in small field dosimetry of radiation beams because of small dose profile penumbras, better spatial resolution, and tissue-equivalent properties. We investigated a commercially available 'microdiamond' detector in realizing absorbed dose from first principles. A microdiamond detector, type TM 60019 with tandem electrometer is used to measure absorbed doses in water, nylon, and PMMA phantoms. With sensitive volume 0.004 mm3, radius 1.1mm, thickness 1 x10(-3) mm, the nominal response is 1 nC/Gy. It is assumed that the diamond detector could collect total electric charge (nC) developed during irradiation at 0 V bias. We found that dose rate effect is less than 0.7% for changing dose rate by 500 MU/min. The reproducibility in obtaining readings with diamond detector is found to be ± 0.17% (1 SD) (n = 11). The measured absorbed doses for 6 MV and 15 MV photons arrived at using mass energy absorption coefficients and stop-ping power ratios compared well with Nd, water calibrated ion chamber measured absorbed doses within 3% in water, PMMA, and nylon media. The calibration factor obtained for diamond detector confirmed response variation is due to sensitivity due to difference in manufacturing process. For electron beams, we had to apply ratio of electron densities of water to carbon. Our results qualify diamond dosimeter as a transfer standard, based on long-term stability and reproducibility. Based on micro-dimensions, we recommend these detectors for pretreatment dose verifications in small field irradiations like stereotactic treatments with image guidance.

  8. Wireless sensor and actuator networks for lighting energy efficiency and user satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yao-Jung

    Buildings consume more than one third of the primary energy generated in the U.S., and lighting alone accounts for approximately 30% of the energy usage in commercial buildings. As the largest electricity consumer of all building electrical systems, lighting harbors the greatest potential for energy savings in the commercial sector. Fifty percent of current energy consumption could be reduced with energy-efficient lighting management strategies. While commercial products do exist, they are poorly received due to exorbitant retrofitting cost and unsatisfactory performance. As a result, most commercial buildings, especially legacy buildings, have not taken advantage of the opportunity to generate savings from lighting. The emergence of wireless sensor and actuator network (WSAN) technologies presents an alternative that circumvents costly rewiring and promises better performance than existing commercial lighting systems. The goal of this dissertation research is to develop a framework for wireless-networked lighting systems with increased cost effectiveness, energy efficiency, and user satisfaction. This research is realized through both theoretical developments and implementations. The theoretical research aims at developing techniques for harnessing WSAN technologies to lighting hardware and control strategies. Leveraging redundancy, a sensor validation and fusion algorithm is developed for extracting pertinent lighting information from the disturbance-prone desktop-mounted photosensors. An adaptive sensing strategy optimizes the timing of data acquisition and power-hungry wireless transmission of sensory feedback in real-time lighting control. Exploiting the individual addressability of wireless-enabled luminaires, a lighting optimization algorithm is developed to create the optimal lighting that minimizes energy usage while satisfying occupants' diverse lighting preferences. The wireless-networked lighting system was implemented and tested in a number of real

  9. Mirror-backed Dark Alumina: A Nearly Perfect Absorber for Thermoelectronics and Thermophotovotaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, Mohamed; Cheng, Tsung-Chieh; Le, Khai. Q.; Cheng, Mark Ming-Cheng; Bağcı, Hakan; Chen, Pai-Yen

    2016-01-01

    We present here a broadband, wide-angle, and polarization-independent nearly perfect absorber consisting of mirror-backed nanoporous alumina. By electrochemically anodizing the disordered multicomponent aluminum and properly tailoring the thickness and air-filling fraction of nanoporous alumina, according to the Maxwell-Garnet mixture theory, a large-area dark alumina can be made with excellent photothermal properties and absorption larger than 93% over a wide wavelength range spanning from near-infrared to ultraviolet light, i.e. 250 nm-2500 nm. The measured absorption is orders of magnitude greater than other reported anodized porous alumina, typically semi-transparent at similar wavelengths. This simple yet effective approach, however, does not require any lithography, nano-mixture deposition, pre- and post-treatment. Here, we also envisage and theoretically investigate the practical use of proposed absorbers and/or photothermal converters in integrated thermoelectronic and/or thermophotovoltaic energy conversion devices, which make efficient use of the entire spectrum of ambient visible to near-infrared radiation.

  10. Mirror-backed Dark Alumina: A Nearly Perfect Absorber for Thermoelectronics and Thermophotovotaics

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, Mohamed

    2016-01-28

    We present here a broadband, wide-angle, and polarization-independent nearly perfect absorber consisting of mirror-backed nanoporous alumina. By electrochemically anodizing the disordered multicomponent aluminum and properly tailoring the thickness and air-filling fraction of nanoporous alumina, according to the Maxwell-Garnet mixture theory, a large-area dark alumina can be made with excellent photothermal properties and absorption larger than 93% over a wide wavelength range spanning from near-infrared to ultraviolet light, i.e. 250 nm–2500 nm. The measured absorption is orders of magnitude greater than other reported anodized porous alumina, typically semi-transparent at similar wavelengths. This simple yet effective approach, however, does not require any lithography, nano-mixture deposition, pre- and post-treatment. Here, we also envisage and theoretically investigate the practical use of proposed absorbers and/or photothermal converters in integrated thermoelectronic and/or thermophotovoltaic energy conversion devices, which make efficient use of the entire spectrum of ambient visible to near-infrared radiation.

  11. ABSORBENCY CHARACTERISTICS OF PESHTAMALS: TRADITIONAL TURKISH WOVEN CLOTHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KESKIN Reyhan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Absorbency of textiles is defined as the ability of taking in a fluid in the manner of a sponge. Absorbency is required for comfort properties in so me clothes such as sportswear and underwear clothing, for drying properties in napkins, towels and bathrobes, for health concerns in some medical textiles such as bandages, gauze and absorbent cotton, and for cleaning properties in washclothes and mops. In this study five different fabric samples (three woven 100% cotton fabrics A, B and P respectively at plain, twill, and peshtamal weaving patterns and two 100% cotton terry towels T1 and T2 were tested. The absorbency properties of the samples were evaluated according to the droplet test, sinking time test and wicking height tests (pottasium chromate test. Peshtamal samples showed better absorbency results than plain and twill weaves and lower but close results to towel samples according to the droplet test, sinking time test and wicking height tests. The absorbency properties of peshtamals showed results close to towel samples. The void content of peshtamals is higher than plain and twill samples but closer and lower than towel samples. The good absorbency results of peshtamals might be due to the void content of peshtamals which is higher than plain and twill samples but closer and lower than towel samples. Peshtamals which are good in absorbency and light in weight might be used widespreadly in daily life for their high absorbency, and on travel for weight saving purposes.

  12. Absorbed impact energy and mode of fracture: A statistical description of the micro-structural dispersion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontikis, V., E-mail: Vassilis.Pontikis@cea.f [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, IRAMIS, Laboratoire des Solides Irradies, CNRS UMR 7642, Ecole Polytechnique, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Gorse, D. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, IRAMIS, Laboratoire des Solides Irradies, CNRS UMR 7642, Ecole Polytechnique, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France)

    2009-10-01

    A statistical model is proposed to account for the influence of the dispersion of the microstructure on the ductile-to-brittle transition in body centered cubic (bcc) metals and their alloys. In this model, the dispersion of the microstructure is expressed via a normal distribution of transition temperatures whereas a simple relation exists between the values of absorbed, lower and upper shelf energies, the ductile area fraction and the distribution parameters. It is shown that via an appropriate renormalization of energies and temperatures, experimental data for different materials and ageing conditions align all together on a master curve, guaranteeing thereby the effectiveness of the proposed statistical description.

  13. Absorbed impact energy and mode of fracture: A statistical description of the micro-structural dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontikis, V.; Gorse, D.

    2009-01-01

    A statistical model is proposed to account for the influence of the dispersion of the microstructure on the ductile-to-brittle transition in body centered cubic (bcc) metals and their alloys. In this model, the dispersion of the microstructure is expressed via a normal distribution of transition temperatures whereas a simple relation exists between the values of absorbed, lower and upper shelf energies, the ductile area fraction and the distribution parameters. It is shown that via an appropriate renormalization of energies and temperatures, experimental data for different materials and ageing conditions align all together on a master curve, guaranteeing thereby the effectiveness of the proposed statistical description.

  14. Light sheet microscopy reveals more gradual light attenuation in light green versus dark green soybean leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light wavelengths preferentially absorbed by chlorophyll (chl) often display steep absorption gradients. This oversaturates photosynthesis in upper chloroplasts and deprives lower chloroplasts of blue and red light, causing a steep gradient in carbon fixation. Reducing chl content could create a mor...

  15. Mechanisms of Light Energy Harvesting in Dendrimers and Hyperbranched Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Andrews

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Since their earliest synthesis, much interest has arisen in the use of dendritic and structurally allied forms of polymer for light energy harvesting, especially as organic adjuncts for solar energy devices. With the facility to accommodate a proliferation of antenna chromophores, such materials can capture and channel light energy with a high degree of efficiency, each polymer unit potentially delivering the energy of one photon—or more, when optical nonlinearity is involved. To ensure the highest efficiency of operation, it is essential to understand the processes responsible for photon capture and channelling of the resulting electronic excitation. Highlighting the latest theoretical advances, this paper reviews the principal mechanisms, which prove to involve a complex interplay of structural, spectroscopic and electrodynamic properties. Designing materials with the capacity to capture and control light energy facilitates applications that now extend from solar energy to medical photonics.

  16. Warm Absorber Diagnostics of AGN Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallman, Timothy

    Warm absorbers and related phenomena are observable manifestations of outflows or winds from active galactic nuclei (AGN) that have great potential value. Understanding AGN outflows is important for explaining the mass budgets of the central accreting black hole, and also for understanding feedback and the apparent co-evolution of black holes and their host galaxies. In the X-ray band warm absorbers are observed as photoelectric absorption and resonance line scattering features in the 0.5-10 keV energy band; the UV band also shows resonance line absorption. Warm absorbers are common in low luminosity AGN and they have been extensively studied observationally. They may play an important role in AGN feedback, regulating the net accretion onto the black hole and providing mechanical energy to the surroundings. However, fundamental properties of the warm absorbers are not known: What is the mechanism which drives the outflow?; what is the gas density in the flow and the geometrical distribution of the outflow?; what is the explanation for the apparent relation between warm absorbers and the surprising quasi-relativistic 'ultrafast outflows' (UFOs)? We propose a focused set of model calculations that are aimed at synthesizing observable properties of warm absorber flows and associated quantities. These will be used to explore various scenarios for warm absorber dynamics in order to answer the questions in the previous paragraph. The guiding principle will be to examine as wide a range as possible of warm absorber driving mechanisms, geometry and other properties, but with as careful consideration as possible to physical consistency. We will build on our previous work, which was a systematic campaign for testing important class of scenarios for driving the outflows. We have developed a set of tools that are unique and well suited for dynamical calculations including radiation in this context. We also have state-of-the-art tools for generating synthetic spectra, which are

  17. Green Lighting. Energy-efficient integrated lighting systems - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linhart, F.; Scartezzini, J.-L.

    2009-10-15

    The objective of the Green Lighting project was to develop a High Performance Integrated Lighting System, based on advanced technologies for day- and electric lighting, achieving a Lighting Power Density (LPD) that does not exceed 3 W/m{sup 2}. The project has revealed that Anidolic Daylighting Systems (ADS) are an ideal basis for High Performance Integrated Lighting Systems. Not only are they able to provide adequate illumination (i.e. sufficiently high illuminance) in office rooms during large fractions of normal office hours, under various sky conditions and over the entire year, but they are also highly appreciated by office occupants at the condition that glare control mechanisms are available. Complementary electric lighting is, however, still necessary to back up the ADS at times when there is insufficient daylight flux available. It was shown during this project, that the most interesting trade-offs between energy-efficiency and visual comfort are obtained by using a combination of ceiling-mounted directly emitting luminaires with very high optical efficiencies for ambient lighting and portable desk lamps for temporary task lighting. The most appropriate lamps for the ceiling-mounted luminaires are currently highly efficient fluorescent tubes, but white LED tubes can be considered a realistic option for the future. The most suitable light sources for desk lamps for temporary task lighting are Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFLs) and white LED light bulbs. Based on the above-mentioned technologies, a High Performance Integrated Lighting System with a very low LPD has been developed over the last three years. The system has been set up in an office room of the LESO solar experimental building located on the EPFL campus; it has been tested intensively during a Post-Occupancy Evaluation (POE) study involving twenty human subjects. This study has revealed that the subjects' performance and subjective visual comfort was improved by the new system, compared to

  18. Multi-Absorber Transition-Edge Sensors for X-Ray Astronomy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. J.; Adams, J. S.; Bandler, S. R.; Busch, S. E.; Chervenak, J. A.; Eckart, M. E.; Ewin, A. J.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Kelley, R. L.; Kelly, D. P.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We are developing multi-absorber Transition-Edge Sensors (TESs) for applications in x-ray astronomy. These position-sensitive devices consist of multiple x-ray absorbers each with a different thermal coupling to a single readout TES. Heat diffusion between the absorbers and the TES gives rise to a characteristic pulse shape corresponding to each absorber element and enables position discrimination. The development of these detectors is motivated by a desire to maximize focal plane arrays with the fewest number of readout channels. In this contribution we report on the first results from devices consisting of nine) 65 X 65 sq. microns Au x-ray absorbers) 5 microns thick. These are coupled to a single 35 X 35 sq. microns Mo/Au bilayer TES. These devices have demonstrated full-width-half-maximum (FWHM) energy resolution of 2.1 eV at 1.5 keV) 2.5 eV at 5.9 keV and 3.3 eV at 8 keV. This is coupled with position discrimination from pulse shape over the same energy range. We use a finite-element model to reproduce the measured pulse shapes and investigate the detector non-linearity with energy) which impacts on the devices position sensitivity and energy resolution.

  19. Predicting the biological effects of mobile phone radiation absorbed energy linked to the MRI-obtained structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstić, Dejan; Zigar, Darko; Petković, Dejan; Sokolović, Dušan; Dinđić, Boris; Cvetković, Nenad; Jovanović, Jovica; Dinđić, Nataša

    2013-01-01

    The nature of an electromagnetic field is not the same outside and inside a biological subject. Numerical bioelectromagnetic simulation methods for penetrating electromagnetic fields facilitate the calculation of field components in biological entities. Calculating energy absorbed from known sources, such as mobile phones when placed near the head, is a prerequisite for studying the biological influence of an electromagnetic field. Such research requires approximate anatomical models which are used to calculate the field components and absorbed energy. In order to explore the biological effects in organs and tissues, it is necessary to establish a relationship between an analogous anatomical model and the real structure. We propose a new approach in exploring biological effects through combining two different techniques: 1) numerical electromagnetic simulation, which is used to calculate the field components in a similar anatomical model and 2) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), which is used to accurately locate sites with increased absorption. By overlapping images obtained by both methods, we can precisely locate the spots with maximum absorption effects. This way, we can detect the site where the most pronounced biological effects are to be expected. This novel approach successfully overcomes the standard limitations of working with analogous anatomical models.

  20. Advances in absorbed dose measurement standards at the australian radiation laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boas, J.F.; Hargrave, N.J.; Huntley, R.B.; Kotler, L.H.; Webb, D.V.; Wise, K.N.

    1996-01-01

    The applications of ionising radiation in the medical and industrial fields require both an accurate knowledge of the amount of ionising radiation absorbed by the medium in question and the capability of relating this to National and International standards. The most useful measure of the amount of radiation is the absorbed dose which is defined as the energy absorbed per unit mass. For radiotherapy, the reference medium is water, even though the measurement of the absorbed dose to water is not straightforward. Two methods are commonly used to provide calibrations in absorbed dose to water. The first is the calibration of the chamber in terms of exposure in a Cobalt-60 beam, followed by the conversion by a protocol into dose to water in this and higher energy beams. The other route is via the use of a graphite calorimeter as a primary standard device, where the conversion from absorbed dose to graphite to absorbed dose in water is performed either by theoretical means making use of cavity ionisation theory, or by experiment where the graphite calorimeter and secondary standard ionisation chamber are placed at scaled distances from the source of the radiation beam (known as the Dose-Ratio method). Extensive measurements have been made at Cobalt-60 at ARL using both the exposure and absorbed dose to graphite routes. Agreement between the ARL measurements and those based on standards maintained by ANSTO and NPL is within ± 0.3%. Absorbed dose measurements have also been performed at ARL with photon beams of nominal energy 16 and 19 MeV obtained from the ARL linac. The validity of the protocols at high photon energies, the validity of the methods used to convert from absorbed dose in graphite to absorbed dose in water and the validity of the indices used to specify the beams are discussed. Brief mention will also be made of the establishment of a calibration facility for neutron monitors at ARL and of progress in the development of ERP dosimetry

  1. Advances in absorbed dose measurement standards at the australian radiation laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boas, J.F.; Hargrave, N.J.; Huntley, R.B.; Kotler, L.H.; Webb, D.V.; Wise, K.N. [Australian Radiation Laboratory, Yallambie, VIC (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    The applications of ionising radiation in the medical and industrial fields require both an accurate knowledge of the amount of ionising radiation absorbed by the medium in question and the capability of relating this to National and International standards. The most useful measure of the amount of radiation is the absorbed dose which is defined as the energy absorbed per unit mass. For radiotherapy, the reference medium is water, even though the measurement of the absorbed dose to water is not straightforward. Two methods are commonly used to provide calibrations in absorbed dose to water. The first is the calibration of the chamber in terms of exposure in a Cobalt-60 beam, followed by the conversion by a protocol into dose to water in this and higher energy beams. The other route is via the use of a graphite calorimeter as a primary standard device, where the conversion from absorbed dose to graphite to absorbed dose in water is performed either by theoretical means making use of cavity ionisation theory, or by experiment where the graphite calorimeter and secondary standard ionisation chamber are placed at scaled distances from the source of the radiation beam (known as the Dose-Ratio method). Extensive measurements have been made at Cobalt-60 at ARL using both the exposure and absorbed dose to graphite routes. Agreement between the ARL measurements and those based on standards maintained by ANSTO and NPL is within {+-} 0.3%. Absorbed dose measurements have also been performed at ARL with photon beams of nominal energy 16 and 19 MeV obtained from the ARL linac. The validity of the protocols at high photon energies, the validity of the methods used to convert from absorbed dose in graphite to absorbed dose in water and the validity of the indices used to specify the beams are discussed. Brief mention will also be made of the establishment of a calibration facility for neutron monitors at ARL and of progress in the development of ERP dosimetry.

  2. MCNP6 fragmentation of light nuclei at intermediate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashnik, Stepan G., E-mail: mashnik@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Kerby, Leslie M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844 (United States)

    2014-11-11

    Fragmentation reactions induced on light target nuclei by protons and light nuclei of energies around 1 GeV/nucleon and below are studied with the latest Los Alamos Monte Carlo transport code MCNP6 and with its cascade-exciton model (CEM) and Los Alamos version of the quark-gluon string model (LAQGSM) event generators, version 03.03, used as stand-alone codes. Such reactions are involved in different applications, like cosmic-ray-induced single event upsets (SEU's), radiation protection, and cancer therapy with proton and ion beams, among others; therefore, it is important that MCNP6 simulates them as well as possible. CEM and LAQGSM assume that intermediate-energy fragmentation reactions on light nuclei occur generally in two stages. The first stage is the intranuclear cascade (INC), followed by the second, Fermi breakup disintegration of light excited residual nuclei produced after the INC. Both CEM and LAQGSM account also for coalescence of light fragments (complex particles) up to {sup 4}He from energetic nucleons emitted during INC. We investigate the validity and performance of MCNP6, CEM, and LAQGSM in simulating fragmentation reactions at intermediate energies and discuss possible ways of further improving these codes.

  3. Shock absorber system for nuclear reactor ice condenser compartment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, J.F.; Rudd, G.E.; Pradhan, A.V.; George, J.A.; Lippincott, H.W.; Sutherland, J.D.

    1979-01-01

    A shock absorber system was designed to absorb the energy imparted to doors in a nuclear reactor ice condenser compartment as they swing rapidly to an open position. Each shock absorber which is installed on a wall adjacent to each door is large and must absorb up to about 40,000 foot pounds of energy. The basic shock absorber component comprises foam enclosed in a synthetic fabric bag having a volume about twice the foam volume. A stainless steel knitted mesh bag of the same volume as the fabric bag, contains the fabric bag and its enclosed foam. To protect the foam and bags during construction activities at the reactor site and from the shearing action of the doors, a protective sheet metal cover is installed over the shock absorber ends and the surface to be contacted by the moving door. With the above shock absorber mounted on a wall behind each door, as the door is forcibly opened by steam pressure and air resulting from a pipe break in the reactor compartment, it swings at a high velocity into contact with the shock absorber, crushes the foam and forces it into the fabric bag excess material thus containing the foam fragmented particles, and minimizes build-up of pressure in the bag as a result of the applied compressive force

  4. Effectiveness of the light absorber on different parts of beta-spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakovets, N.V.; Gorshkov, D.V.; Zhukovskij, A.M.; Khadzhinov, E.M.

    2005-01-01

    This work describes the researches of absorbent characteristics of integument tissues. This question is dominant on the stage of elaboration of algorithm of determination of physical characteristics of heterogeneous system - humans skull. (authors)

  5. Absorbance and fluorescence studies on porphyrin Nanostructures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this work was to study some photophysical properties of PNR for application as light harvester in dye sensitized solar cells. These properties included absorbance, fluorescence, and fluorescence quantum yield and lifetime. The results of Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) images showed the formation of ...

  6. Study on the fabrication of silicon nanoparticles in an amorphous silicon light absorbing layer for solar cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Joo Hyung; Song, Jin Soo; Lee, Jae Hee; Lee, Jeong Chul

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous-silicon (a-Si:H) thin-film solar cells have advantages of relatively simple technology, less material consumption, higher absorption ratio compared to crystalline silicon, and low cost due to the use of cheaper substrates rather than silicon wafers. However, together with those advantages, amorphous-silicon thin-film solar cells face several issues such as a relatively lower efficiency, a relatively wider bandgap, and the Staebler-Wronski effect (SWE) compared to other competing materials (i.e., crystalline silicon, CdTe, Cu(In x Ga (1-x) )Se 2 (CIGS), etc.). As a remedy for those drawbacks and a way to enhance the cell conversion efficiency at the same time, the employment of crystalline silicon nanoparticles (Si-NPs) in the a-Si matrix is proposed to organize the quantum-dot (QD) structure as the light-absorbing layer. This structure of the light absorbing layer consists of single-crystal Si-NPs in an a-Si:H thin-film matrix. The single-crystal Si-NPs are synthesized by using SiH 4 gas decomposition with CO 2 laser pyrolysis, and the sizes of Si-NPs are calibrated to control their bandgaps. The synthesized size-controlled Si-NPs are directly transferred to another chamber to form a QD structure by using co-deposition of the Si-NPs and the a-Si:H matrix. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses are employed to verify the sizes and the crystalline properties of the Si-NPs alone and of the Si-NPs in the a-Si:H matrix. The TEM results show successful co-deposition of size-controlled Si-NPs in the a-Si:H matrix, which is meaningful because it suggests the possibility of further enhancement of the a-Si:H solar-cell structure and of tandem structure applications by using a single element.

  7. The renewable energy household lighting for Chibayish inhabitant’s in Iraq★

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawood Furat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Affordable and clean energy is one of the major goals for global sustainable development. Lighting is a major aspect of human energy consumption and access to quality lighting is one of the most important indicators of human development. Like other countries around the world, the Iraqi government has realized the importance of climate change and the necessity for clean energy which has led them to officially ratifying the Kyoto Protocol in January 2008. However, it is challenging to implement a clean and renewable energy lighting system for a small community like Chibayish in the Iraqi marshes. The Chibayish unique house building technique of man-made islands (floating baskets, results that these floating houses are not connected to the Iraqi national grid. The villagers in Chibayish require artificial light for their indoor living areas after dark and also for night fishing, which is a common practice. In this research study, various renewable energy resources have been examined in order to identify the most locally practical renewable energy technology for household lighting needs. The solar irradiance profile in the area showed the viability of solar energy in comparison to other renewable energy sources considered within these specific environmental conditions. An analysis carried out using HOMER Pro simulator shows that the solar photovoltaic is an affordable and reliable option for this community.

  8. Air box shock absorber for a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, A.V.; George, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    Disclosed is an air box type shock absorber primarily for use in an ice condenser compartment of a nuclear reactor. The shock absorber includes a back plate member and sheet metal top, bottom, and front members. The front member is prefolded, and controlled clearances are provided among the members for predetermined escape of air under impact and compression. Prefolded internal sheet metal stiffeners also absorb a portion of the kinetic energy imparted to the shock absorber, and limit rebound. An external restraining rod guided by restraining straps insures that the sheet metal front member compresses inward upon impact. 6 claims, 11 figures

  9. Green lights program in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadi, Zhuo; Hong, Liu [Beijing Energy Efficiency Center (China)

    1996-12-31

    In China`s 9th 5-year plan (1996-2000), the Chinese government has placed high priority on energy conservation. The China Green Lights Program (CGLP) is listed as one of the key projects of energy conservation. The basic strategy of the CGLP is to mobilise all of the potential contributors to participate in the program, and to use market signals and supplementary non-market instruments to facilitate its implementation. Governmental funds and loans will be used as seed money to attract private participation in the program. The program contains the following elements: (1) Information dissemination to educate the public on the economic and other values of the program and to provide CGLP information to increase consumer awareness and, as a result, increase the demand for energy-efficient lighting systems. (2) Development of standards and codes for lighting systems, establishment of product specifications, and enforcement of product standards. (3) Development of quality certification and labelling system to provide assurances to consumers that the products they are purchasing will meet their performance and cost saving expectations. (4) Highlighted support and financing for production technology development and production capacity expansion. (5) Demonstration and pilot projects to boost consumer confidence in green lighting systems and to demonstrate new production technologies and processes. (6) International co-operation to expand the international exchange and absorb advanced technology and experience for implementation of the China Green Lights Program.

  10. Energy-saving control strategy for lighting system based on multivariate extremum seeking with Newton algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Chun; Dadras, Sara; Huang, Xuegang; Mei, Jun; Malek, Hadi; Cheng, Yuhua

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An energy-saving control strategy is proposed for multi-group lighting sources. • The proposed controller is designed to minimize the light-energy consumption. • It is designed to speed up the convergence rate without increasing the oscillation. • The minimal energy usage is guaranteed, while keeping the desired lighting level. • Experimental results shows the superiorities of the energy-saving control strategy. - Abstract: In recent years, the energy problem has been a universal concern. In order to improve the lighting energy efficiency and reduce the electric energy consumption, this paper develops an energy-saving control strategy for the lighting system with multiple lighting sources. The control strategy presented in this paper includes two parts: a new multivariate extremum seeking control method with Newton algorithm is developed to minimize the light-energy consumption by separately manipulating the brightness of multiple lighting sources, and a proportion-integration-differentiation control approach is adopted to realize the desired lighting level. The proposed scheme can increase the convergence speed of the closed loop system toward the minimum light-energy consumption, meanwhile, the accuracy of the control strategy will be improved. Experimental results illustrate that the light-energy consumption via the proposed method can reach more rapidly to a smaller vicinity of the minimum energy point, so, the lighting energy efficiency is greatly increased accordingly.

  11. Properties of black carbon and other insoluble light-absorbing particles in seasonal snow of northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Wei; Wang, Xin; Wei, Hailun; Zhou, Yue; Shi, Jinsen; Hu, Zhiyuan; Jin, Hongchun; Chen, Quanliang

    2017-05-01

    A large field campaign was conducted and 284 snow samples were collected at 38 sites in Xinjiang Province and 6 sites in Qinghai Province across northwestern China from January to February 2012. A spectrophotometer combined with chemical analysis was used to measure the insoluble light-absorbing particles (ILAPs) and chemical components in seasonal snow. The results indicate that the cleanest snow was found in northeastern Xinjiang along the border of China, and it presented an estimated black carbon (CBCest) of approximately 5 ng g-1. The dirtiest snow presented a CBCest of approximately 450 ng g-1 near industrial cities in Xinjiang. Overall, the CBCest of most of the snow samples collected in this campaign was in the range of 10-150 ng g-1. Vertical variations in the snowpack ILAPs indicated a probable shift in emission sources with the progression of winter. An analysis of the fractional contributions to absorption implied that organic carbon (OC) dominated the 450 nm absorption in Qinghai, while the contributions from BC and OC were comparable in Xinjiang. Finally, a positive matrix factorization (PMF) model was run to explore the sources of particulate light absorption, and the results indicated an optimal three-factor/source solution that included industrial pollution, biomass burning, and soil dust.

  12. Energy Savings Forecast of Solid-State Lighting in General Illumination Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-08-29

    With declining production costs and increasing technical capabilities, LED adoption has recently gained momentum in general illumination applications. This is a positive development for our energy infrastructure, as LEDs use significantly less electricity per lumen produced than many traditional lighting technologies. The U.S. Department of Energy’s Energy Savings Forecast of Solid-State Lighting in General Illumination Applications examines the expected market penetration and resulting energy savings of light-emitting diode, or LED, lamps and luminaires from today through 2030.

  13. Light ion beam approach to ICF ignition, gain, and energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.; Allshouse, G.; Cook, D.

    1993-01-01

    The US Department of Energy is supporting research oriented toward both near-term defense applications as well as long-term energy applications of inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The ICF programs at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is directed toward validating light ions as an efficient driver for these applications. The light ion laboratory microfusion facility (LMF) is envisioned as a facility in which high gain ICF targets could be developed and utilized in defense-related experiments. The LIBRA light ion beam commercial reactor study provides a baseline approach towards the use of the high gain light ion ICF technology as a source of commercial electrical energy

  14. Light ion beam approach to ICF ignition, gain, and energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.; Allshouse, G.; Cook, D.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is supporting research oriented toward both near-term defense applications as well as long-term energy applications of inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The ICF program at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is directed toward validating light ions as an efficient driver for these applications. The light ion laboratory microfusion facility (LMF) is envisioned as a facility in which high gain ICF targets could be developed and utilized in defense-related experiments. The LIBRA light ion beam commercial reactor study provides a baseline approach towards the use of the high gain light ion ICF technology as a source of commercial electrical energy. (author)

  15. Measurements and analyses on reactivity effects of absorber rods in a light-water moderated UO2 lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Kiyonobu; Miyoshi, Yoshinori; Hirose, Hideyuki; Suzaki, Takenori

    1985-03-01

    Reactivity effects and reactivity-interference effects of absorber rods were measured with a cylindrical core aiming to obtain bench-marks for verification of the calculational methods. The core consisted of 2.6 w/o enriched UO 2 fuel rods lattice of which water-to-fuel volume ratio was 1.83. In the experiment, the critical water levels were measured changing neutron absorber content of absorber rods and the distance between two absorber rods in the core center. Monte Calro codes KENO-IV and MULTI-KENO were used to calculate reactivity worthes of absorber rods. The calculational results of effective multiplication factors ranged from 0.978 to 0.999 for the 60 cases of critical cores with inserted absorber rods. The calculational results of absorber worthes agreed to the experimental results within twice of the standerd deviation accompanied with the Monte Calro calculation. (author)

  16. Tunable enhanced optical absorption of graphene using plasmonic perfect absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yijun [Institute of Optoelectronic Technology, Department of Electronic Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Institute of Electromagnetics and Acoustics, Department of Electronic Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Zhu, Jinfeng, E-mail: nanoantenna@hotmail.com [Institute of Electromagnetics and Acoustics, Department of Electronic Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Liu, Qing Huo [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    2015-01-26

    Enhancement and manipulation of light absorption in graphene is a significant issue for applications of graphene-based optoelectronic devices. In order to achieve this purpose in the visible region, we demonstrate a design of a graphene optical absorber inspired by metal-dielectric-metal metamaterial for perfect absorption of electromagnetic waves. The optical absorbance ratios of single and three atomic layer graphene are enhanced up to 37.5% and 64.8%, respectively. The graphene absorber shows polarization-dependence and tolerates a wide range of incident angles. Furthermore, the peak position and bandwidth of graphene absorption spectra are tunable in a wide wavelength range through a specific structural configuration. These results imply that graphene in combination with plasmonic perfect absorbers have a promising potential for developing advanced nanophotonic devices.

  17. Cherenkov light as a source of photochemical reactions in irradiated solutions of nitrile of malachite green

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuglik, Z; Grodkowski, J

    1986-10-01

    Experimental data on photochemical activity of Cherenkov light are presented. Malachite green leucocyanide was used to detect the photochemical effects. The G value of Cherenkov light from the region 200-330 nm (number of quanta formed per 100 eV absorbed energy of ionizing radiation) in ethanol was estimated to be in the range of 0.0027-0.049. 14 references.

  18. Cherenkov light as a source of photochemical reactions in irradiated solutions of nitrile of malachite green

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuglik, Z.; Grodkowski, J.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental data on photochemical activity of Cherenkov light are presented. Malachite green leucocyanide was used to detect the photochemical effects. The G value of Cherenkov light from the region 200-330 nm (number of quanta formed per 100 eV absorbed energy of ionizing radiation) in ethanol was estimated to be in the range of 0.0027-0.049. (author)

  19. Some features of light propagation through layers with a complex refractive index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efimov, V.V.; Sementsov, D.I.

    1994-01-01

    By solving Maxwell's equations, expressions are obtained for the energy fluxes both inside and outside a layer with a complex refractive index at normal incidence of light. It is shown that inside the layer, along with fluxes of forward and backward waves, an interference flux can be distinguished whose magnitude is proportional to the imaginary part of the refractive index. A detailed numerical analysis of the energy transmission (T) and reflection (R) coefficients versus the thickness of the layer with negative absorption is performed for normal incidence of light onto the layer surface. Total distribution of the energy flux over the layer thickness is considered both for absorbing and amplifying layers. 13 refs., 4 figs

  20. Slow-light enhanced optical detection in liquid-infiltrated photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Martin Erland Vestergaard; Rishøj, Lars Søgaard; Steffensen, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    Slow-light enhanced optical detection in liquid-infiltrated photonic crystals is theoretically studied. Using a scattering-matrix approach and the Wigner–Smith delay time concept, we show that optical absorbance benefits both from slow-light phenomena as well as a high filling factor of the energy...... residing in the liquid. Utilizing strongly dispersive photonic crystal structures, we numerically demonstrate how liquid-infiltrated photonic crystals facilitate enhanced light–matter interactions, by potentially up to an order of magnitude. The proposed concept provides strong opportunities for improving...

  1. Solar energy collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brin, Raymond L.; Pace, Thomas L.

    1978-01-01

    The invention relates to a solar energy collector comprising solar energy absorbing material within chamber having a transparent wall, solar energy being transmitted through the transparent wall, and efficiently absorbed by the absorbing material, for transfer to a heat transfer fluid. The solar energy absorbing material, of generally foraminous nature, absorbs and transmits the solar energy with improved efficiency.

  2. Light's labour's lost - policies for energy-efficient lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-29

    When William Shakepeare wrote Love's Labour's Lost he would have used light from tallow candles at a cost (today) of 12,000 British pounds per million-lumen hours. The same amount of light from electric lamps now costs only 2 pounds! But today's low-cost illumination still has a dark side. Globally, lighting consumes more electricity than is produced by either hydro or nuclear power and results in CO2 emissions equivalent to two thirds of the world's cars. A standard incandescent lamp may be much more efficient than a tallow candle, but it is far less efficient than a high-pressure sodium lamp. Were inefficient light sources to be replaced by the equivalent efficient ones, global lighting energy demand would be up to 40% less at a lower overall cost. Larger savings still could be realised through the intelligent use of controls, lighting levels and daylight. But achieving efficient lighting is not just a question of technology; it requires policies to transform current practice. This book documents the broad range of policy measures to stimulate efficient lighting that have already been implemented around the world and suggests new ways these could be strengthened to prevent light's labour's from being lost.

  3. Experimental Study of Heat Energy Absorber with Porous Medium for Thermoelectric Conversion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzer-Ming Jeng

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The thermoelectric conversion system usually consists of the heat absorber, the thermoelectric generator (TEG and the heat sink, while the heat absorber collects the heat to increase the temperature on the hot surface of TEG and enhances the generating electricity. This study experimentally investigated the performance of the brass-beads packed-bed heat absorber for the thermoelectric conversion system. The packed-bed heat absorber is installed in a square channel with the various flow orientation systems and the small ratio of channel width to bead diameter. The flow orientation systems included the straight flow and jet flow systems. This study showed the local and average heat transfer characteristics for various parameters. The experimental results can be the base of designs for the novel porous heat absorber of the thermoelectric conversion system.

  4. Methodology for calibration of ionization chambers for X-ray of low energy in absorbed dose to water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, C.T.; Vivolo, V.; Potiens, M.P.A.

    2015-01-01

    The beams of low energy X-ray (10 to 150 kV) are used in several places in the world to treat a wide variety of surface disorders, and between these malignancies. As in Brazil, at this moment, there is no calibration laboratory providing the control service or calibration of parallel plate ionization chambers, the aim of this project was to establish a methodology for calibration of this kind of ionization chambers at low energy X-ray beams in terms of absorbed dose to water using simulators in the LCI. (author)

  5. Crash Test of an MD-500 Helicopter with a Deployable Energy Absorber Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littell, Justin D.; Jackson, Karen E.; Kellas, Sotiris

    2010-01-01

    On December 2, 2009, a full scale crash test was successfully conducted of a MD-500 helicopter at the NASA Langley Research Center Landing and Impact Research Facility . The purpose of this test was to evaluate a novel composite honeycomb deployable energy absorbing (DEA) concept for attenuation of structural and crew loads during helicopter crashes under realistic crash conditions. The DEA concept is an alternative to external airbags, and absorbs impact energy through crushing. In the test, the helicopter impacted the concrete surface with 11.83 m/s (38.8 ft/s) horizontal, 7.80 m/s (25.6 ft/s) vertical and 0.15 m/s (0.5 ft/s) lateral velocities; corresponding to a resultant velocity of 14.2 m/s (46.5 ft/s). The airframe and skid gear were instrumented with accelerometers and strain gages to determine structural integrity and load attenuation, while the skin of the airframe was covered with targets for use by photogrammetry to record gross vehicle motion before, during, and after the impact. Along with the collection of airframe data, one Hybrid III 50th percentile anthropomorphic test device (ATD), two Hybrid II 50th percentile ATDs and a specialized human surrogate torso model (HSTM) occupant were seated in the airframe and instrumented for the collection of occupant loads. Resultant occupant data showed that by using the DEA, the loads on the Hybrid II and Hybrid III ATDs were in the Low Risk regime for the injury criteria, while structural data showed the airframe retained its structural integrity post crash. Preliminary results show that the DEA is a viable concept for the attenuation of impact loads.

  6. A Wedge Absorber Experiment at MICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuffer, David [Fermilab; Mohayai, Tanaz [IIT, Chicago; Rogers, Chris [Rutherford; Snopok, Pavel [IIT, Chicago; Summers, Don [Mississippi U.

    2017-05-01

    Emittance exchange mediated by wedge absorbers is required for longitudinal ionization cooling and for final transverse emittance minimization for a muon collider. A wedge absorber within the MICE beam line could serve as a demonstration of the type of emittance exchange needed for 6-D cooling, including the configurations needed for muon colliders, as well as configurations for low-energy muon sources. Parameters for this test are explored in simulation and possible experimental configurations with simulated results are presented.

  7. Synthesis, Photoluminescence Behavior of Green Light Emitting Tb(III) Complexes and Mechanistic Investigation of Energy Transfer Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Manju; Kumar, Satish; Devi, Rekha; Khatkar, Avni; Taxak, V B; Boora, Priti; Khatkar, S P

    2018-06-04

    A series of five new terbium(III) ion complexes with 4,4-difluoro-1-phenylbutane-1,3-dione (HDPBD) and anciliary ligands was synthesized. The composition and properties of complexes were analyzed by elemental analysis, IR, NMR, powder X-ray diffaraction, TG-DTG and photoluminescence spectroscopy. These complexes exhibited ligand sensitized green emission at 546 nm associated with 5 D 4  →  7 F 5 transitions of terbium ion in the emission spectra. The photoluminescence study manifested that the organic ligands act as antenna and facilitate the absorbed energy to emitting levels of Tb(III) ion efficiently. The enhanced luminescence intensity and decay time of ternary C2-C5 complexes observed due to synergistic effect of anciliary ligands. The CIE color coordinates of complexes came under the green region of chromaticity diagram. The mechanistic investigation of intramolecular energy transfer in the complexes was discussed in detail. These terbium(III) complexes can be thrivingly used as one of the green component in light emitting material and in display devices. Graphical Abstract Illustrate the sensitization process of the Tb ion and intramolecular energy transfer process in the Tb 3+ complex.

  8. Mechanisms of energy transfer and conversion in plant Light-Harvesting Complex II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Tiago Ferreira de

    2009-09-24

    The light-harvesting complex of photosystem II (LHC-II) is the major antenna complex in plant photosynthesis. It accounts for roughly 30% of the total protein in plant chloroplasts, which makes it arguably the most abundant membrane protein on Earth, and binds about half of plant chlorophyll (Chl). The complex assembles as a trimer in the thylakoid membrane and binds a total of 54 pigment molecules, including 24 Chl a, 18 Chl b, 6 lutein (Lut), 3 neoxanthin (Neo) and 3 violaxanthin (Vio). LHC-II has five key roles in plant photosynthesis. It: (1) harvests sunlight and transmits excitation energy to the reaction centres of photosystems II and I, (2) regulates the amount of excitation energy reaching each of the two photosystems, (3) has a structural role in the architecture of the photosynthetic supercomplexes, (4) contributes to the tight appression of thylakoid membranes in chloroplast grana, and (5) protects the photosynthetic apparatus from photo damage by non photochemical quenching (NPQ). A major fraction of NPQ is accounted for its energy-dependent component qE. Despite being critical for plant survival and having been studied for decades, the exact details of how excess absorbed light energy is dissipated under qE conditions remain enigmatic. Today it is accepted that qE is regulated by the magnitude of the pH gradient ({delta}pH) across the thylakoid membrane. It is also well documented that the drop in pH in the thylakoid lumen during high-light conditions activates the enzyme violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE), which converts the carotenoid Vio into zeaxanthin (Zea) as part of the xanthophyll cycle. Additionally, studies with Arabidopsis mutants revealed that the photosystem II subunit PsbS is necessary for qE. How these physiological responses switch LHC-II from the active, energy transmitting to the quenched, energy-dissipating state, in which the solar energy is not transmitted to the photosystems but instead dissipated as heat, remains unclear and is the

  9. Emission of high-energy, light particles from intermediate-energy heavy-ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, J.B.; Auble, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    One of the early surprises in examining reaction products from heavy ion reactions at 10 MeV/nucleon and above was the large yield of light particles emitted and the high energies to which the spectra of these particles extended. The interpretation of the origin of the high energy light ions has evolved from a picture of projectile excitation and subsequent evaporation to one of pre-equilibrium (or nonequilibrium) emission. The time scale for particle emission has thus moved from one that occurs following the initial collision to one that occurs at the very early stages of the collision. Research at ORNL on this phenomenon is reviewed

  10. Preparation and characterization of functional poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membranes with ultraviolet-absorbing property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Li; Liu, Xiangdong; Xiong, Zhengrong; Sheng, Dekun; Lin, Changhong; Zhou, Yan; Yang, Yuming

    2018-06-01

    We first reported a strategy to prepare functional poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membranes with excellent ultraviolet-absorbing property through chemically induced grafting. Herein, the polymerizable ultraviolet (UV) absorber 2-hydroxy-4-(3-methacryloxy-2-hydroxylpropoxy) benzophenone (BPMA) made by ourselves was grafted onto the PVDF chains that have been pretreated with tetraethylammonium hydroxide (TEAH) alkaline solution. Moreover, the effect of experiment conditions such as the alkali and monomer concentrations, alkali treatment time on the UV-absorbing property of the obtained PVDF-g-PBPMA membranes were studied in detail. The chemical structure of the modified membranes was confirmed by 1H NMR, FT-IR and XPS measurements. Meanwhile, the thermal and UV-absorbing properties were characterized by TGA, DSC and UV-Vis spectrophotometer, respectively. The results indicated that BPMA side chains were successfully introduced onto PVDF backbones. Most importantly, the obtained PVDF-g-PBPMA membranes exhibited excellent UV-absorbing property. The transmittance of UV light at 300 nm decreased to as low as 0.02% and the UV light below 388 nm could be completely absorbed by the PVDF-g-PBPMA membrane made under optimal condition.

  11. Plant Growth Absorption Spectrum Mimicking Light Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jwo-Huei Jou

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Plant factories have attracted increasing attention because they can produce fresh fruits and vegetables free from pesticides in all weather. However, the emission spectra from current light sources significantly mismatch the spectra absorbed by plants. We demonstrate a concept of using multiple broad-band as well as narrow-band solid-state lighting technologies to design plant-growth light sources. Take an organic light-emitting diode (OLED, for example; the resulting light source shows an 84% resemblance with the photosynthetic action spectrum as a twin-peak blue dye and a diffused mono-peak red dye are employed. This OLED can also show a greater than 90% resemblance as an additional deeper red emitter is added. For a typical LED, the resemblance can be improved to 91% if two additional blue and red LEDs are incorporated. The approach may facilitate either an ideal use of the energy applied for plant growth and/or the design of better light sources for growing different plants.

  12. Focusing of light energy inside a scattering medium by controlling the time-gated multiple light scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seungwon; Lee, Ye-Ryoung; Choi, Wonjun; Kang, Sungsam; Hong, Jin Hee; Park, Jin-Sung; Lim, Yong-Sik; Park, Hong-Gyu; Choi, Wonshik

    2018-05-01

    The efficient delivery of light energy is a prerequisite for the non-invasive imaging and stimulating of target objects embedded deep within a scattering medium. However, the injected waves experience random diffusion by multiple light scattering, and only a small fraction reaches the target object. Here, we present a method to counteract wave diffusion and to focus multiple-scattered waves at the deeply embedded target. To realize this, we experimentally inject light into the reflection eigenchannels of a specific flight time to preferably enhance the intensity of those multiple-scattered waves that have interacted with the target object. For targets that are too deep to be visible by optical imaging, we demonstrate a more than tenfold enhancement in light energy delivery in comparison with ordinary wave diffusion cases. This work will lay a foundation to enhance the working depth of imaging, sensing and light stimulation.

  13. Slow-light enhancement of Beer-Lambert-Bouguer absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Asger; Xiao, Sanshui

    2007-01-01

    We theoretically show how slow light in an optofluidic environment facilitates enhanced light-matter interactions, by orders of magnitude. The proposed concept provides strong opportunities for improving existing miniaturized chemical absorbance cells for Beer-Lambert-Bouguer absorption measureme......We theoretically show how slow light in an optofluidic environment facilitates enhanced light-matter interactions, by orders of magnitude. The proposed concept provides strong opportunities for improving existing miniaturized chemical absorbance cells for Beer-Lambert-Bouguer absorption...

  14. Muon Intensity Increase by Wedge Absorbers for Low-E Muon Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuffer, D. V. [Fermilab; Stratakis, D. [Fermilab; Bradley, J. [Fermilab

    2017-09-01

    Low energy muon experiments such as mu2e and g-2 have a limited energy spread acceptance. Following techniques developed in muon cooling studies and the MICE experiment, the number of muons within the desired energy spread can be increased by the matched use of wedge absorbers. More generally, the phase space of muon beams can be manipulated by absorbers in beam transport lines. Applications with simulation results are presented.

  15. Determination of Atomic Number Exponent for Elemental Absorber at Am-241 Energy in X-Ray Attenuation Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najim, L.A.; Shamoon, S.K.; Atalah, S.T.

    2012-01-01

    In X-ray absorption experiment, the dependence of the photoelectric absorption cross-section varied with atomic number Z.In this paper, the dependence on Z of the cross-section or coefficient of photoelectric absorption is first evaluated from published data for (20) elements ranging from Al-Sn, and then the cross-section for Fe is obtained experimentally by measuring the X-ray intensity with and without the Fe absorber and compared with the theoretical value, the variation of the photoelectric absorption coefficient (μ/ρ m ) showed less dependence on Z for the two tested of Z regions.This is because of the inclusion of mass density (ρ m ) of the absorber in the coefficient.The values of m obtained in the present work increases linearly with energy for both ranges of elements

  16. Design of UV-absorbing PVDF membrane via surface-initiated AGET ATRP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Li; Liu, Xiangdong; Xiong, Zhengrong; Sheng, Dekun; Zhou, Yan; Lin, Changhong; Yang, Yuming

    2018-03-01

    Herein, PVDF membranes with excellent UV-absorbing property were first synthesized through grafting the polymerizable low-molecular-weight organic UV-absorber 2-hydroxy-4-(3-methacryloxy-2-hydroxylpropoxy) benzophenone (BPMA) onto α-bromoester-functionalized PVDF membranes via the surface-initiated activator generated by electron transfer atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-AGET ATRP). The surface initiators were immobilized by the reaction between 2-bromoisobutyryl bromide (BIBB) and the hydroxylated PVDF membranes. PVDF-g-PBPMA membranes with different grafting densities were obtained by tuning the polymerization time and the modified membranes were characterized by 1H-NMR, FT-IR, XPS, SEM, UV-vis Spectrophotometer, TGA and DSC. The experimental results indicated that PBPMA chains were successfully introduced onto PVDF membranes. Most importantly, the PVDF-g-PBPMA membranes exhibited outstanding UV-shielding property. UV-vis transmittance spectra showed that most UV light below 360 nm could be absorbed by PVDF-g-PBPMA membranes and the whole UV light region (200-400 nm) can be blocked with the reaction time increased.

  17. Persuasive lighting : the influence of feedback through lighting on energy conservation behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, J.R.C.; Midden, C.J.H.; Maan, S.J.; Merkus, B.; Kort, de Y.A.W.; et al, xx

    2009-01-01

    Earlier research has investigated persuasive technology: Technology designed to influence human behavior or attitudes. The current research investigates lighting as persuasive technology. In an experimental study, participants could conserve energy while carrying out tasks and received feedback

  18. Feasibility Study for Using a Linear Transverse Flux Machine as part of the Structure of Point Absorber Wave Energy Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Pereira da Costa Cunha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This is a feasibility study for the generation of wave energy by means of a transverse flux machine connected to a device for converting wave energy known as Point Absorber. The article contains literature review on the topic and analysis of data obtained by means of a prototype built in the laboratory. Based on the results, the study concludes that this use is feasible.

  19. Degradation of Polymers by Ultra-Violet Light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, D. T. [Camille Dreyfus Laboratory, Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1968-10-15

    To reach an understanding of the complex processes which occur when polymers are degraded by ultra-violet light under service conditions it is first judicious to try to elucidate the photochemistry of relatively simple polymer reactions. For this reason, emphasis is given to studies in which purified polymers, in bulk, were exposed to monochromatic radiations in the absence of oxygen. In respect of product analysis, emphasis is given to methods for estimating quantum yields for fractures and crosslinks. Photochemical mechanisms are illustrated by discussion of polystyrene, polytethylene terephthalate) and cellulose. Special emphasis is given to the role of free radicals. Attention is drawn to reports that the course of photolysis may be changed by application of an external pressure of a chemically inert gas, such as nitrogen. The explanation suggested in the literature is that this depends on the ease of escape of hydrogen atoms which, alternatively, might react with trapped polymer radicals. The course of photolysis may also be affected by polymer radicals acting as strongly absorbing chromophores and consequently undergoing further chemical reaction. This is illustrated by reference to the conversion of allyl radicals to alkyl radicals in polyethylene and also by changes observed in the ESR spectrum of polymer radicals trapped in poly (ethylene terephthalate) as a result of exposure to light. It is suggested that this effect is primarily responsible for the evolution of hydrocarbon gases on photolysis of polyethylene or natural rubber. In contrast, radiolysis of these polymers yields almost pure hydrogen because, in this case, energy is absorbed by relatively non-selective processes, i.e. free radicals do not absorb high energy radiation much more strongly than does their polymeric environment. (author)

  20. Light Collection in the High Energy X-ray Detector with the Pixelated CdWO4 Scintillator using Monte Carlo Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Chang Hwy; Moon, Myung-Kook; Lee, Suhyun; Kim, Jongyul; Kim, Jeongho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jong Won [Korea Research Institute of Ships and Ocean Engineering, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The performance of indirect detectors, which use the scintillator as CdWO{sub 4}, BGO, CsI, NaI, etc., are effected by optical properties of scintillator and geometrical condition of scintillator. Some of generated lights by interaction between x-ray photons and scintillator are collected at the photo-sensor and others are absorbed in scintillator or escape out of detector. In order to make the high performance image detector, detector should be able to gather the generated lights as much as possible. To minimize the loss of generated lights, thickness of scintillator is to be chosen appropriately. Therefore, the quality of the image detector using the pixelated scintillator is determined by scintillator size, reflectance of scintillator surface, electric noise, etc. In this study, we carried out a study the correlation between the number of collected light and the change of thickness of scintillator using Monte Carlo method. As shown in results, the optimal thickness of a scintillator should be properly selected depending on the incident x-ray energy. In case of without reflector, the scintillator thickness range for x-ray detection is thinner than other cases (with reflector). In the case of a scintillator with reflector, number of collected light and the optima thickness of a scintillator is higher and thicker than scintillator without reflector.

  1. Materials science for solar energy conversion systems

    CERN Document Server

    Granqvist, CG

    1991-01-01

    Rapid advances in materials technology are creating many novel forms of coatings for energy efficient applications in solar energy. Insulating heat mirrors, selective absorbers, transparent insulation and fluorescent concentrators are already available commercially. Radiative cooling, electrochromic windows and polymeric light pipes hold promise for future development, while chemical and photochemical processes are being considered for energy storage. This book investigates new material advances as well as applications, costs, reliability and industrial production of existing materials. Each c

  2. Ni-Al Alloys as Alternative EUV Mask Absorber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu Luong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Extreme ultraviolet (EUV lithography is being industrialized as the next candidate printing technique for high-volume manufacturing of scaled down integrated circuits. At mask level, the combination of EUV light at oblique incidence, absorber thickness, and non-uniform mirror reflectance through incidence angle, creates photomask-induced imaging aberrations, known as mask 3D (M3D effects. A possible mitigation for the M3D effects in the EUV binary intensity mask (BIM, is to use mask absorber materials with high extinction coefficient κ and refractive coefficient n close to unity. We propose nickel aluminide alloys as a candidate BIM absorber material, and characterize them versus a set of specifications that a novel EUV mask absorber must meet. The nickel aluminide samples have reduced crystallinity as compared to metallic nickel, and form a passivating surface oxide layer in neutral solutions. Composition and density profile are investigated to estimate the optical constants, which are then validated with EUV reflectometry. An oxidation-induced Al L2 absorption edge shift is observed, which significantly impacts the value of n at 13.5 nm wavelength and moves it closer to unity. The measured optical constants are incorporated in an accurate mask model for rigorous simulations. The M3D imaging impact of the nickel aluminide alloy mask absorbers, which predict significant M3D reduction in comparison to reference absorber materials. In this paper, we present an extensive experimental methodology flow to evaluate candidate mask absorber materials.

  3. Detection of novel visible-light region absorbance peaks in the urine after alkalization in patients with alkaptonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuhara, Yasunori; Shukuya, Kenichi; Tanaka, Masami; Mouri, Mariko; Ohkawa, Ryunosuke; Fujishiro, Midori; Takahashi, Tomoo; Okubo, Shigeo; Yokota, Hiromitsu; Kurano, Makoto; Ikeda, Hitoshi; Yamaguchi, Seiji; Inagaki, Shinobu; Ishige-Wada, Mika; Usui, Hiromi; Yatomi, Yutaka; Shimosawa, Tatsuo

    2014-01-01

    Alkaptonuria, caused by a deficiency of homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase, results in the accumulation of homogentisic acid (2,5-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, HGA) in the urine. Alkaptonuria is suspected when the urine changes color after it is left to stand at room temperature for several hours to days; oxidation of homogentisic acid to benzoquinone acetic acid underlies this color change, which is accelerated by the addition of alkali. In an attempt to develop a facile screening test for alkaptonuria, we added alkali to urine samples obtained from patients with alkaptonuria and measured the absorbance spectra in the visible light region. We evaluated the characteristics of the absorption spectra of urine samples obtained from patients with alkaptonuria (n = 2) and compared them with those of urine specimens obtained from healthy volunteers (n = 5) and patients with phenylketonuria (n = 3), and also of synthetic homogentisic acid solution after alkalization. Alkalization of the urine samples and HGA solution was carried out by the addition of NaOH, KOH or NH4OH. The sample solutions were incubated at room temperature for 1 min, followed by measurement of the absorption spectra. Addition of alkali to alkaptonuric urine yielded characteristic absorption peaks at 406 nm and 430 nm; an identical result was obtained from HGA solution after alkalization. The absorbance values at both 406 nm and 430 nm increased in a time-dependent manner. In addition, the absorbance values at these peaks were greater in strongly alkaline samples (NaOH- KOH-added) as compared with those in weakly alkaline samples (NH4OH-added). In addition, the peaks disappeared following the addition of ascorbic acid to the samples. We found two characteristic peaks at 406 nm and 430 nm in both alkaptonuric urine and HGA solution after alkalization. This new quick and easy method may pave the way for the development of an easy method for the diagnosis of alkaptonuria.

  4. Detection of novel visible-light region absorbance peaks in the urine after alkalization in patients with alkaptonuria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasunori Tokuhara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alkaptonuria, caused by a deficiency of homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase, results in the accumulation of homogentisic acid (2,5-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, HGA in the urine. Alkaptonuria is suspected when the urine changes color after it is left to stand at room temperature for several hours to days; oxidation of homogentisic acid to benzoquinone acetic acid underlies this color change, which is accelerated by the addition of alkali. In an attempt to develop a facile screening test for alkaptonuria, we added alkali to urine samples obtained from patients with alkaptonuria and measured the absorbance spectra in the visible light region. METHODS: We evaluated the characteristics of the absorption spectra of urine samples obtained from patients with alkaptonuria (n = 2 and compared them with those of urine specimens obtained from healthy volunteers (n = 5 and patients with phenylketonuria (n = 3, and also of synthetic homogentisic acid solution after alkalization. Alkalization of the urine samples and HGA solution was carried out by the addition of NaOH, KOH or NH4OH. The sample solutions were incubated at room temperature for 1 min, followed by measurement of the absorption spectra. RESULTS: Addition of alkali to alkaptonuric urine yielded characteristic absorption peaks at 406 nm and 430 nm; an identical result was obtained from HGA solution after alkalization. The absorbance values at both 406 nm and 430 nm increased in a time-dependent manner. In addition, the absorbance values at these peaks were greater in strongly alkaline samples (NaOH- KOH-added as compared with those in weakly alkaline samples (NH4OH-added. In addition, the peaks disappeared following the addition of ascorbic acid to the samples. CONCLUSIONS: We found two characteristic peaks at 406 nm and 430 nm in both alkaptonuric urine and HGA solution after alkalization. This new quick and easy method may pave the way for the development of an easy method for the

  5. Selective solar absorber emittance measurement at elevated temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud, Philémon; Braillon, Julien; Raccurt, Olivier

    2017-06-01

    Durability of solar components for CSP (Concentrated Solar Power Plant) technologies is a key point to lower cost and ensure their large deployment. These technologies concentrated the solar radiation by means of mirrors on a receiver tube where it is collected as thermal energy. The absorbers are submitted to strong environmental constraints and the degradation of their optical properties (emittance and solar absorbance) have a direct impact on performance. The characterization of a material in such condition is complicated and requires advanced apparatuses, and different measurement methods exist for the determination of the two quantities of relevance regarding an absorber, which are its emittance and its solar absorbance. The objective is to develop new optical equipment for measure the emittance of this solar absorber at elevated temperature. In this paper, we present an optical bench developed for emittance measurement on absorbers is conditions of use. Results will be shown, with a discussion of some factors of influence over this measurement and how to control them.

  6. Solar-energy production and energy-efficient lighting: photovoltaic devices and white-light-emitting diodes using poly(2,7-fluorene), poly(2,7-carbazole), and poly(2,7-dibenzosilole) derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaupré, Serge; Boudreault, Pierre-Luc T; Leclerc, Mario

    2010-02-23

    World energy needs grow each year. To address global warming and climate changes the search for renewable energy sources with limited greenhouse gas emissions and the development of energy-efficient lighting devices are underway. This Review reports recent progress made in the synthesis and characterization of conjugated polymers based on bridged phenylenes, namely, poly(2,7-fluorene)s, poly(2,7-carbazole)s, and poly(2,7-dibenzosilole)s, for applications in solar cells and white-light-emitting diodes. The main strategies and remaining challenges in the development of reliable and low-cost renewable sources of energy and energy-saving lighting devices are discussed.

  7. Energy savings due to daylight and artificial lighting integration in office buildings in hot climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ashwal, Nagib T. [Sana' a University, Sana' a (Yemen); Budaiwi, Ismail M. [King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2011-07-01

    Reducing energy consumption while maintaining acceptable environmental quality in buildings has been a challenging task for building professionals. In office buildings, artificial lighting systems are a major consumer of energy and can significantly contribute to building cooling load. Furthermore, although reliable, artificial lighting does not necessarily provide the required quality of lighting. Significant improvement in lighting quality and energy consumption can be achieved by proper integration of daylight and artificial lighting. The objective of this study is to investigate the energy performance of office buildings resulting from daylight and artificial lighting integration in hot climates. A parametric analysis is conducted to find the impact of different window design parameters, including window area, height and glazing type, on building energy performance. Results have shown that as much as 35% reduction in lighting energy consumption and 13% reduction in total energy consumption can be obtained when proper daylighting and artificial lighting integration is achieved.

  8. Transmission line model and fields analysis of metamaterial absorber in the terahertz band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Qi-Ye; Xie, Yun-Song; Zhang, Huai-Wu; Yang, Qing-Hui; Li, Yuan-Xun; Liu, Ying-Li

    2009-10-26

    Metamaterial (MM) absorber is a novel device to provide near-unity absorption to electromagnetic wave, which is especially important in the terahertz (THz) band. However, the principal physics of MM absorber is still far from being understood. In this work, a transmission line (TL) model for MM absorber was proposed, and with this model the S-parameters, energy consumption, and the power loss density of the absorber were calculated. By this TL model, the asymmetric phenomenon of THz absorption in MM absorber is unambiguously demonstrated, and it clarifies that strong absorption of this absorber under studied is mainly related to the LC resonance of the split-ring-resonator structure. The distribution of power loss density in the absorber indicates that the electromagnetic wave is firstly concentrated into some specific locations of the absorber and then be strongly consumed. This feature as electromagnetic wave trapper renders MM absorber a potential energy converter. Based on TL model, some design strategies to widen the absorption band were also proposed for the purposes to extend its application areas.

  9. Structural dynamics of phenylisothiocyanate in the light-absorbing excited states: Resonance Raman and complete active space self-consistent field calculation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Bing; Xue, Jia-Dan; Zheng, Xuming; Fang, Wei-Hai

    2014-01-01

    The excited state structural dynamics of phenyl isothiocyanate (PITC) after excitation to the light absorbing S 2 (A′), S 6 (A′), and S 7 (A′) excited states were studied by using the resonance Raman spectroscopy and complete active space self-consistent field method calculations. The UV absorption bands of PITC were assigned. The vibrational assignments were done on the basis of the Fourier transform (FT)-Raman and FT-infrared measurements, the density-functional theory computations, and the normal mode analysis. The A-, B-, and C-bands resonance Raman spectra in cyclohexane, acetonitrile, and methanol solvents were, respectively, obtained at 299.1, 282.4, 266.0, 252.7, 228.7, 217.8, and 208.8 nm excitation wavelengths to probe the corresponding structural dynamics of PITC. The results indicated that the structural dynamics in the S 2 (A′), S 6 (A′), and S 7 (A′) excited states were very different. The conical intersection point CI(S 2 /S 1 ) were predicted to play important role in the low-lying excited state decay dynamics. Two major decay channels were predicted for PITC upon excitation to the S 2 (A′) state: the radiative S 2,min → S 0 transition and the nonradiative S 2 → S 1 internal conversion via CI(S 2 /S 1 ). The differences in the decay dynamics between methyl isothiocyanate and PITC in the first light absorbing excited state were discussed. The role of the intersystem crossing point ISC(S 1 /T 1 ) in the excited state decay dynamics of PITC is evaluated

  10. Absorbance detector for high performance liquid chromatography based on a deep-UV light-emitting diode at 235nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silveira Petruci, João Flavio; Liebetanz, Michael G; Cardoso, Arnaldo Alves; Hauser, Peter C

    2017-08-25

    In this communication, we describe a flow-through optical absorption detector for HPLC using for the first time a deep-UV light-emitting diode with an emission band at 235nm as light source. The detector is also comprised of a UV-sensitive photodiode positioned to enable measurement of radiation through a flow-through cuvette with round aperture of 1mm diameter and optical path length of 10mm, and a second one positioned as reference photodiode; a beam splitter and a power supply. The absorbance was measured and related to the analyte concentration by emulating the Lambert-Beer law with a log-ratio amplifier circuitry. This detector showed noise levels of 0.30mAU, which is comparable with our previous LED-based detectors employing LEDs at 280 and 255nm. The detector was coupled to a HPLC system and successfully evaluated for the determination of the anti-diabetic drugs pioglitazone and glimepiride in an isocratic separation and the benzodiazepines flurazepam, oxazepam and clobazam in a gradient elution. Good linearities (r>0.99), a precision better than 0.85% and limits of detection at sub-ppm levels were achieved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Capability of Several Plant Species in Absorbing Gas Pollutant (NO2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astra Dwi Patra; Nizar Nasrullah; EIsje L Sisworo

    2004-01-01

    Increasing pollutant from vehicles, especially NO 2 , could cause environmental quality degradation. NO 2 is disastrous for human health due to its capability to trigger long diseases. Due to this, it is important to reduce this pollutant, which could be done among others by plants. The objectives of this experiment was to find plants which have the highest capacity to absorb NO 2 and factors affecting this such as, stomata density, chlorophyll, leave thickness, leave specific density, light and dark condition. The plants exposure to NO 2 used 15 N - labelled NO 2 ( 15 NO 2 ). Twelve plant species were exposed to 15 NO 2 at a rate of 3 ppm in a gas chamber for 60 minutes. The environmental conditions in the chamber were controlled at 30 o C, 1000 lux light intensity, and 60% initial relative humidity. The total nitrogen of each plant part was analysed using the Kjeldahl method, while the 15 N content of these parts was done by emission spectrometer (YASCO - N 151). The results of this experiment showed that all the plants used in this experiment has the capacity in absorbing the pollutant gas at dark as well as light conditions. The evident showed that stomata density, leave thickness, and leave specific density affect the absorbing capacity of the pollutant gas. The higher the stomata density, the thinner the leaves, and the lower the leave specific density, the higher the capacity of plants to absorb NO 2 . It is recommended to use these 12 plants as an element of roadside green belt in towns. (author)

  12. Clinical dosimetry with plastic scintillators - Almost energy independent, direct absorbed dose reading with high resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quast, U; Fluehs, D [Department of Radiotherapy, Essen (Germany). Div. of Clinical Radiation Physics; Fluehs, D; Kolanoski, H [Dortmund Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik

    1996-08-01

    Clinical dosimetry is still far behind the goal to measure any spatial or temporal distribution of absorbed dose fast and precise without disturbing the physical situation by the dosimetry procedure. NE 102A plastic scintillators overcome this border. These tissue substituting dosemeter probes open a wide range of new clinical applications of dosimetry. This versatile new dosimetry system enables fast measurement of the absorbed dose to water in water also in regions with a steep dose gradient, close to interfaces, or in partly shielded regions. It allows direct reading dosimetry in the energy range of all clinically used external photon and electron beams, or around all branchytherapy sources. Thin detector arrays permit fast and high resolution measurements in quality assurance, such as in-vivo dosimetry or even afterloading dose monitoring. A main field of application is the dosimetric treatment planning, the individual optimization of brachytherapy applicators. Thus, plastic scintillator dosemeters cover optimally all difficult fields of clinical dosimetry. An overview about its characteristics and applications is given here. 20 refs, 1 fig.

  13. Solution of the Boltzmann equation for primary light ions and the transport of their fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kempe

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Boltzmann equation for the transport of pencil beams of light ions in semi-infinite uniform media has been calculated. The equation is solved for the practically important generalized 3D case of Gaussian incident primary light ion beams of arbitrary mean square radius, mean square angular spread, and covariance. The transport of the associated fragments in three dimensions is derived based on the known transport of the primary particles, taking the mean square angular spread of their production processes, as well as their energy loss and multiple scattering, into account. The analytical pencil and broad beam depth fluence and absorbed dose distributions are accurately expressed using recently derived analytical energy and range formulas. The contributions from low and high linear energy transfer (LET dose components were separately identified using analytical expressions. The analytical results are compared with SHIELD-HIT Monte Carlo (MC calculations and found to be in very good agreement. The pencil beam fluence and absorbed dose distributions of the primary particles are mainly influenced by an exponential loss of the primary ions combined with an increasing lateral spread due to multiple scattering and energy loss with increasing penetration depth. The associated fluence of heavy fragments is concentrated at small radii and so is the LET and absorbed dose distribution. Their transport is also characterized by the buildup of a slowing down spectrum which is quite similar to that of the primaries but with a wider energy and angular spread at increasing penetration depths. The range of the fragments is shorter or longer depending on their nuclear mass to charge ratio relative to that of the primary ions. The absorbed dose of the heavier fragments is fairly similar to that of the primary ions and also influenced by a rapidly increasing energy loss towards the end of their ranges. The present analytical solution of the Boltzmann equation

  14. Identification of light absorbing oligomers from glyoxal and methylglyoxal aqueous processing: a comparative study at the molecular level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finessi, Emanuela; Hamilton, Jacqueline; Rickard, Andrew; Baeza-Romero, Maria; Healy, Robert; Peppe, Salvatore; Adams, Tom; Daniels, Mark; Ball, Stephen; Goodall, Iain; Monks, Paul; Borras, Esther; Munoz, Amalia

    2014-05-01

    Numerous studies point to the reactive uptake of gaseous low molecular weight carbonyls onto atmospheric waters (clouds/fog droplets and wet aerosols) as an important SOA formation route not yet included in current models. However, the evaluation of these processes is challenging because water provides a medium for a complex array of reactions to take place such as self-oligomerization, aldol condensation and Maillard-type browning reactions in the presence of ammonium salts. In addition to adding to SOA mass, aqueous chemistry products have been shown to include light absorbing, surface-active and high molecular weight oligomeric species, and can therefore affect climatically relevant aerosol properties such as light absorption and hygroscopicity. Glyoxal (GLY) and methylglyoxal (MGLY) are the gaseous carbonyls that have perhaps received the most attention to date owing to their ubiquity, abundance and reactivity in water, with the majority of studies focussing on bulk physical properties. However, very little is known at the molecular level, in particular for MGLY, and the relative potential of these species as aqueous SOA precursors in ambient air is still unclear. We have conducted experiments with both laboratory solutions and chamber-generated particles to simulate the aqueous processing of GLY and MGLY with ammonium sulphate (AS) under typical atmospheric conditions and investigated their respective aging products. Both high performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV-Vis detection and ion trap mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MSn) and high resolution mass spectrometry (FTICRMS) have been used for molecular identification purposes. Comprehensive gas chromatography with nitrogen chemiluminescence detection (GCxGC-NCD) has been applied for the first time to these systems, revealing a surprisingly high number of nitrogen-containing organics (ONs), with a large extent of polarities. GCxGC-NCD proved to be a valuable tool to determine overall amount and rates of

  15. Spectroscopic refractometer for transparent and absorbing liquids by reflection of white light near the critical angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez-Pérez, C.; García-Valenzuela, A.

    2012-01-01

    We propose and evaluate a spectroscopic refractometer device to measure the refractive index dispersion of transparent and absorbing solutions. The angle-dependent reflectivity of a white beam of light in an internal reflection configuration around the critical angle is spectrally analyzed. The refractive index in a wavelength range from 400 nm to 900 nm is obtained from the angle-reflectivity curve around the critical angle at each wavelength. The device does not use angle scanning mechanisms, decreasing considerably the complexity of the instrument in comparison to previous proposals. As a result, the measurements are obtained relatively fast. Nevertheless, a good experimental resolution in refractive index of about Δn ≈ 10 −4 at all the wavelengths is achieved in the case of transparent solutions. The calibration procedure of the device is discussed in detail. We also present measurements of the refractive index dispersion of rhodamine 6G-methanol solutions, which has a strong absorption band in the visible spectra.

  16. Absorbed dose determination in external beam radiotherapy. An international code of practice for dosimetry based on standards of absorbed dose to water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency published in 1987 an International Code of Practice entitled 'Absorbed Dose Determination in Photon and Electron Beams' (IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 277 (TRS-277)), recommending procedures to obtain the absorbed dose in water from measurements made with an ionization chamber in external beam radiotherapy. A second edition of TRS-277 was published in 1997 updating the dosimetry of photon beams, mainly kilovoltage X rays. Another International Code of Practice for radiotherapy dosimetry entitled 'The Use of Plane-Parallel Ionization Chambers in High Energy Electron and Photon Beams' (IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 381 (TRS-381)) was published in 1997 to further update TRS-277 and complement it with respect to the area of parallel-plate ionization chambers. Both codes have proven extremely valuable for users involved in the dosimetry of the radiation beams used in radiotherapy. In TRS-277 the calibration of the ionization chambers was based on primary standards of air kerma; this procedure was also used in TRS-381, but the new trend of calibrating ionization chambers directly in a water phantom in terms of absorbed dose to water was introduced. The development of primary standards of absorbed dose to water for high energy photon and electron beams, and improvements in radiation dosimetry concepts, offer the possibility of reducing the uncertainty in the dosimetry of radiotherapy beams. The dosimetry of kilovoltage X rays, as well as that of proton and heavy ion beams, interest in which has grown considerably in recent years, can also be based on these standards. Thus a coherent dosimetry system based on standards of absorbed dose to water is possible for practically all radiotherapy beams. Many Primary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (PSDLs) already provide calibrations in terms of absorbed dose to water at the radiation quality of 60 Co gamma rays. Some laboratories have extended calibrations to high energy photon and

  17. Light Absorptive Properties of Articular Cartilage, ECM Molecules, Synovial Fluid, and Photoinitiators as Potential Barriers to Light-Initiated Polymer Scaffolding Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Anthony J; Benson, Jamie M; Donnelly, Patrick E; Torzilli, Peter A

    2017-06-01

    Objective Many in vivo procedures to repair chondral defects use ultraviolet (UV)-photoinitiated in situ polymerization within the cartilage matrix. Chemical species that absorb UV light might reduce the effectiveness of these procedures by acting as light absorption barriers. This study evaluated whether any of the individual native biochemical components in cartilage and synovial fluid interfered with the absorption of light by common scaffolding photosensitizers. Materials UV-visible spectroscopy was performed on each major component of cartilage in solution, on bovine synovial fluid, and on four photosensitizers, riboflavin, Irgacure 2959, quinine, and riboflavin-5'-phosphate. Molar extinction and absorption coefficients were calculated at wavelengths of maximum absorbance and 365 nm. Intact articular cartilage was also examined. Results The individual major biochemical components of cartilage, Irgacure 2959, and quinine did not exhibit a significant absorption at 365 nm. Riboflavin and riboflavin-5'-phosphate were more effectual light absorbers at 365 nm, compared with the individual native species. Intact cartilage absorbed a significantly greater amount of UV light in comparison with the native species. Conclusion Our results indicate that none of the individual native species in cartilage will interfere with the absorption of UV light at 365 nm by these commonly used photoinitiators. Intact cartilage slices exhibited significant light absorption at 365 nm, while also having distinct absorbance peaks at wavelengths less than 300 nm. Determining the UV absorptive properties of the biomolecules native to articular cartilage and synovial fluid will aid in optimizing scaffolding procedures to ensure sufficient scaffold polymerization at a minimum UV intensity.

  18. Deriving mass-energy equivalence and mass-velocity relation without light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Youshan; Dai, Liang

    2018-04-01

    Relativity requires that a particle's momentum and energy are the same functions of the particle's velocity in all inertial frames. Using the fact that momentum and energy must transform linearly between reference frames, we present a novel derivation of the mass-energy equivalence, namely, the relation that the energy is proportional to the moving mass, with no postulate about the existence of light or its properties. We further prove the mass-velocity relation without relying on momentum and energy conservation or on the Lorentz transformation. It is demonstrated that neither conservation laws nor the Lorentz transformation are necessary to establish those relations, and that those relations have a wider scope of validity than that of the conservation laws and the invariance of the speed of light.

  19. The regulation of the chloroplast proton motive force plays a key role for photosynthesis in fluctuating light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbruster, Ute; Correa Galvis, Viviana; Kunz, Hans-Henning; Strand, Deserah D

    2017-06-01

    Plants use sunlight as their primary energy source. During photosynthesis, absorbed light energy generates reducing power by driving electron transfer reactions. These are coupled to the transfer of protons into the thylakoid lumen, generating a proton motive force (pmf) required for ATP synthesis. Sudden alterations in light availability have to be met by regulatory mechanisms to avoid the over-accumulation of reactive intermediates and maximize energy efficiency. Here, the acidification of the lumen, as an intermediate product of photosynthesis, plays an important role by regulating photosynthesis in response to excitation energy levels. Recent findings reveal pmf regulation and the modulation of its composition as key determinants for efficient photosynthesis, plant growth, and survival in fluctuating light environments. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Aluminum ''egg-box'' panel as an energy absorber for pedestrian protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowpada, Sravanthi; Chirwa, Efford C.; Myler, Peter; Matsika, Emmanuel [Bolton Automotive and Aerospace Research Group (BAARG), School of Built Environment and Engineering, University of Bolton (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    This paper evaluates the quasi-static performance of lightweight aluminum ''egg-box'' panels which have an improved architecture specifically designed to increase the energy absorption capability. In its entirety, the egg-box panel structure investigated herein is made up of arrays of positive and negative frusta. To understand the collapse mechanism and the factors influencing the energy absorption thereof, compressive tests were conducted under similar test conditions on two single frusta, one constrained in situ and the other separated from the egg-box panel exposing the free-free edges. Their load-displacement histories show characteristics that are similar, with a rise in load to a point where they plateau at a steady state load for the entire collapse time. But the energy absorbed by the in situ constrained frustum is 80% greater than that separated from the egg-box panel with free-free edges. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  1. Light absorption by primary particle emissions from a lignite burning plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, T.C.; Bussemer, M.; Wehner, B.; Keller, S.; Charlson, R.J.; Heintzenberg, J.

    1999-01-01

    Anthropogenic aerosols from the burning of fossil fuels contribute to climate forcing by both scattering and absorbing solar radiation, and estimates of climate forcing by light-absorbing primary particles have recently been published. While the mass and optical properties of emissions are needed for these studies, the available measurements do not characterize the low-technology burning that is thought to contribute a large fraction of light-absorbing material to the global budget. The authors have measured characteristics of particulate matter (PM) emitted from a small, low-technology lignite-burning plant. The PM emission factor is comparable to those used to calculate emission inventories of light-absorbing particles. However, the fine fraction, the absorbing fraction, and the absorption efficiency of the emissions are substantially below assumptions that have been made in inventories of black carbon emissions and calculations of climate forcing. The measurements suggest that nonblack, light-absorbing particles are emitted from low-technology coal burning. As the burning rate increases, the emitted absorption cross-section decreases, and the wavelength dependence of absorption becomes closer to that of black particles

  2. Vibration Suppression of Electronic Box by a Dual Function Piezoelectric Energy Harvester-Tuned Vibration Absorber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajid Rafique

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, remarkable developments in piezoelectric materials have motivated many researchers to work in the field of vibration energy harvesting by using piezoelectric beam like smart structures. This paper aimed to present the most recent application of a dual function piezoelectric device which can suppress vibration and harvest vibration energy simultaneously and a brief illustration of conventional mechanical and electrical TVAs (Tuned Vibration Absorber. It is shown that the proposed dual function device combines the benefits of conventional mechanical and electrical TVAs and reduces their relative disadvantages. Conversion of mechanical energy into electrical energy introduces damping and, hence, the optimal damping required by this TVA is generated by the energy harvesting effects. This paper presents the methodology of implementing the theory of 'electromechanical' TVAs to suppress the response of any real world structure. The work also illustrates the prospect of extensive applications of such novel "electromechanical" TVAs in defence and industry. The results show that the optimum degree of vibration suppression of an electronic box is achieved by this dual function TVA through suitable tuning of the attached electrical circuitry

  3. Vibration suppression of electronic box by a dual function piezoelectric energy harvester-tuned vibration absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafique, S.; Shah, S.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few years, remarkable developments in piezoelectric materials have motivated many researchers to work in the field of vibration energy harvesting by using piezoelectric beam like smart structures. This paper aimed to present the most recent application of a dual function piezoelectric device which can suppress vibration and harvest vibration energy simultaneously and a brief illustration of conventional mechanical and electrical TVAs (Tuned Vibration Absorber). It is shown that the proposed dual function device combines the benefits of conventional mechanical and electrical TVAs and reduces their relative disadvantages. Conversion of mechanical energy into electrical energy introduces damping and, hence, the optimal damping required by this TVA is generated by the energy harvesting effects. This paper presents the methodology of implementing the theory of electromechanical TVAs to suppress the response of any real world structure. The work also illustrates the prospect of extensive applications of such novel electromechanical TVAs in defence and industry. The results show that the optimum degree of vibration suppression of an electronic box is achieved by this dual function TVA through suitable tuning of the attached electrical circuitry. (author)

  4. Apo-bacteriophytochromes modulate bacterial photosynthesis in response to low light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fixen, Kathryn R; Baker, Anna W; Stojkovic, Emina A; Beatty, J Thomas; Harwood, Caroline S

    2014-01-14

    Bacteriophytochromes (BphPs) are light-sensing regulatory proteins encoded by photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic bacteria. This protein class has been characterized structurally, but its biological activities remain relatively unexplored. Two BphPs in the anoxygenic photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris, designated regulatory proteins RpBphP2 and RpBphP3, are configured as light-regulated histidine kinases, which initiate a signal transduction system that controls expression of genes for the low light harvesting 4 (LH4) antenna complex. In vitro, RpBphP2 and RpBphP3 respond to light quality by reversible photoconversion, a property that requires the light-absorbing chromophore biliverdin. In vivo, RpBphP2 and RpBphP3 are both required for the expression of the LH4 antenna complex under anaerobic conditions, but biliverdin requires oxygen for its synthesis by heme oxygenase. On further investigation, we found that the apo-bacteriophytochrome forms of RpBphP2 and RpBphP3 are necessary and sufficient to control LH4 expression in response to light intensity in conjunction with other signal transduction proteins. One possibility is that the system senses a reduced quinone pool generated when light energy is absorbed by bacteriochlorophyll. The biliverdin-bound forms of the BphPs have the additional property of being able to fine-tune LH4 expression in response to light quality. These observations support the concept that some bacteriophytochromes can function with or without a chromophore and may be involved in regulating physiological processes not directly related to light sensing.

  5. Illumination properties and energy savings of a solar fiber optic lighting system balanced by artificial lights

    OpenAIRE

    Lingfors, David

    2013-01-01

    A solar fiber optic lighting system, SP3 from the Swedish company Parans Solar Lighting AB, has been installed in a study area/corridor test site. A collector is tracking the sun during daytime, focusing the direct sun irradiance via Fresnel lenses into optical fibers, which guide the solar light into the building. The illumination properties of the system have been characterized. The energy saving due to reduced need of artificial lighting have been calculated and methods for balancing the a...

  6. LOCAL COLLISION SIMULATION OF AN SC WALL USING ENERGY ABSORBING STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHUL-HUN CHUNG

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the local damage of a turbine in an auxiliary building of a nuclear power plant due to an external impact by using the LS-DYNA finite element program. The wall of the auxiliary building is SC structure and the material of the SC wall plate is high manganese steel, which has superior ductility and energy absorbance compared to the ordinary steel used for other SC wall plates. The effects of the material of the wall, collision speed, and angle on the magnitude of the local damage were evaluated by local collision analysis. The analysis revealed that the SC wall made of manganese steel had significantly less damage than the SC wall made of ordinary steel. In conclusion, an SC wall made of manganese steel can have higher effective resistance than an SC wall made of ordinary steel against the local collision of an airplane engine or against a turbine impact.

  7. Local Collision Simulation of an SC Wall Using Energy Absorbing Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chulhun; Choi, Hyun; Park, Jaegyun [Dankook Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    This study evaluates the local damage of a turbine in an auxiliary building of a nuclear power plant due to an external impact by using the LS-DYNA finite element program. The wall of the auxiliary building is SC structure and the material of the SC wall plate is high manganese steel, which has superior ductility and energy absorbance compared to the ordinary steel used for other SC wall plates. The effects of the material of the wall, collision speed, and angle on the magnitude of the local damage were evaluated by local collision analysis. The analysis revealed that the SC wall made of manganese steel had significantly less damage than the SC wall made of ordinary steel. In conclusion, an SC wall made of manganese steel can have higher effective resistance than an SC wall made of ordinary steel against the local collision of an airplane engine or against a turbine impact.

  8. Phase Space Exchange in Thick Wedge Absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuffer, David [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The problem of phase space exchange in wedge absorbers with ionization cooling is discussed. The wedge absorber exchanges transverse and longitudinal phase space by introducing a position-dependent energy loss. In this paper we note that the wedges used with ionization cooling are relatively thick, so that single wedges cause relatively large changes in beam phase space. Calculation methods adapted to such “thick wedge” cases are presented, and beam phase-space transformations through such wedges are discussed.

  9. Light energy conversion by photocatalytic reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujishima, Akira; Yamagata, Sadamu [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)

    1989-01-01

    The photocatalytic reaction, to be made to a suspended semiconductor powder system, was explained in summary. By using semiconductor as an electrode for the electrolyzation, etc. and projecting light on it to generate photoelectromotive force, a photocell can be composed. eg., by composing titanium oxide electrode, n-type semiconductor and platinum electrode, and irradiating light on the former electrode to generate electric current, oxygen and hydrogen are produced from the titanium oxide electrode and platinum electrode, respectively, which means the possibility of obtainment of clean energy from water as raw material. Such a wet type photocell, easy to produce, is active also in research. With white titanium oxide powder being suspended in water solution, hydrogen is produced by projecting light into it. Such a semiconductor is called photocatalyst, in which the research has been widely developed, mainly by taking notice of the hydrogen production on reduction side, since 1972. The photocatalysis using colloid and, differently, that doing heteropolyacid are also taken notice of. 24 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Nanosecond laser-induced back side wet etching of fused silica with a copper-based absorber liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Pierre; Zehnder, Sarah; Ehrhardt, Martin; Frost, Frank; Zimmer, Klaus; Schwaller, Patrick

    2014-03-01

    Cost-efficient machining of dielectric surfaces with high-precision and low-roughness for industrial applications is still challenging if using laser-patterning processes. Laser induced back side wet etching (LIBWE) using UV laser pulses with liquid heavy metals or aromatic hydrocarbons as absorber allows the fabrication of well-defined, nm precise, free-form surfaces with low surface roughness, e.g., needed for optical applications. The copper-sulphatebased absorber CuSO4/K-Na-Tartrate/NaOH/formaldehyde in water is used for laser-induced deposition of copper. If this absorber can also be used as precursor for laser-induced ablation, promising industrial applications combining surface structuring and deposition within the same setup could be possible. The etching results applying a KrF excimer (248 nm, 25 ns) and a Nd:YAG (1064 nm, 20 ns) laser are compared. The topography of the etched surfaces were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), white light interferometry (WLI) as well as laser scanning microscopy (LSM). The chemical composition of the irradiated surface was studied by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). For the discussion of the etching mechanism the laser-induced heating was simulated with finite element method (FEM). The results indicate that the UV and IR radiation allows micro structuring of fused silica with the copper-based absorber where the etching process can be explained by the laser-induced formation of a copper-based absorber layer.

  11. MCNP6 Simulation of Light and Medium Nuclei Fragmentation at Intermediate Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashnik, Stepan Georgievich [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kerby, Leslie Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States)

    2015-08-24

    Fragmentation reactions induced on light and medium nuclei by protons and light nuclei of energies around 1 GeV/nucleon and below are studied with the Los Alamos transport code MCNP6 and with its CEM03.03 and LAQGSM03.03 event generators. CEM and LAQGSM assume that intermediate-energy fragmentation reactions on light nuclei occur generally in two stages. The first stage is the intranuclear cascade (INC), followed by the second, Fermi breakup disintegration of light excited residual nuclei produced after the INC. CEM and LAQGSM account also for coalescence of light fragments (complex particles) up to sup>4He from energetic nucleons emitted during INC. We investigate the validity and performance of MCNP6, CEM, and LAQGSM in simulating fragmentation reactions at intermediate energies and discuss possible ways of further improving these codes.

  12. Evaluation and Optimization of a Traditional North-Light Roof on Industrial Plant Energy Consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adriaenssens, Sigrid [Form-Finding Lab, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, School of Engineering and Applied Science, Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Hao Liu [Center for Intelligent and Networked Systems, Department of Automation, Tsinghua National Laboratory for Information Science and Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Wahed, Miriam [Form-Finding Lab, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, School of Engineering and Applied Science, Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Qianchuan Zhao [Center for Intelligent and Networked Systems, Department of Automation, Tsinghua National Laboratory for Information Science and Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China)

    2013-04-15

    Increasingly strict energy policies, rising energy prices, and a desire for a positive corporate image currently serve as incentives for multinational corporations to reduce their plants’ energy consumption. This paper quantitatively investigates and discusses the value of a traditional north-light roof using a complete building energy simulation and optimization framework. The findings indicate that the north-light system yields positive building energy performance for several climate zones, including: (i) Humid Subtropical; (ii) Semiarid Continental; (iii) Mediterranean; and (iv) Subtropical Highland. In the Subtropical Highland climate zone, for example, the building energy consumption of a north-light roof is up to 54% less than that of a conventional flat roof. Based on these positive findings, this paper further presents an optimization framework that alters the north-light roof shape to further improve its energy performance. To quantitatively guarantee a high probability of finding satisfactory designs while reducing the computational processing time, ordinal optimization is introduced into the scheme. The Subtropical Highland case study shows further energy building consumption reduction of 26% for an optimized north-light roof shape. The presented evaluation and optimization framework could be used in designing a plant with integrated north-lights roof that aim at energy efficiency while maintaining environmental occupant comfort levels.

  13. Study on light and thermal energy of illumination device for plant factory design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, A.; Moriuchi, K.; Ueda, Y.; Kinoshita, S.

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the effect of illumination devices on the yield of crops cultivated in a plant factory, it is necessary to measure the actual cultivation environmental factors related to the plant growth and understand the distribution ratio of light and thermal energy to the electrical energy injected into the illumination device. Based on cultivation results, we found that light intensity greatly affected the growth of plant weight. Regarding the selection of illumination device, its spectral components also affected the morphological change. Lighting experiments using a high frequency (Hf) fluorescent lamp and a light emitting diode (LED) bulb were performed. A certain difference was found in the distribution ratio of light energy to electrical energy between Hf and LED. It was showed that by placing the safety equipment or internal circuits outside the cultivated site, the air conditioning load could be reduced.

  14. Lighting energy efficiency in office buildings: Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijayatunga, Priyantha D.C.; Fernando, W.J.L.S.; Ranasinghe, S.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a study conducted in the lighting sector of office buildings as a part of a broader research study aimed at developing building codes for Sri Lanka addressing lighting as well as thermal comfort in order to optimise the use of electricity within these buildings. The study covered different tasks performed in office buildings and the optimum lighting levels required to perform these tasks in the office environment in Sri Lanka. Also, it included assessing the visual performance of people involved in different activities under varying illumination levels in a controlled environment and a comparison of these optimum lighting levels with international standards. It can be seen that the required optimum lighting levels are generally lower in Sri Lanka in comparison to specified standard levels, and this scenario is likely to be similar in other developing countries too. These findings clearly emphasise the need to adopt lighting standards most appropriate to local conditions, in turn helping improve the energy efficiency within buildings

  15. Radiative effects of light-absorbing particles deposited in snow over Himalayas using WRF-Chem simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarangi, C.; Qian, Y.; Painter, T. H.; Liu, Y.; Lin, G.; Wang, H.

    2017-12-01

    Radiative forcing induced by light-absorbing particles (LAP) deposited on snow is an important surface forcing. It has been debated that an aerosol-induced increase in atmospheric and surface warming over Tibetan Plateau (TP) prior to the South Asian summer monsoon can have a significant effect on the regional thermodynamics and South Asian monsoon circulation. However, knowledge about the radiative effects due to deposition of LAP in snow over TP is limited. In this study we have used a high-resolution WRF-Chem (coupled with online chemistry and snow-LAP-radiation model) simulations during 2013-2014 to estimate the spatio-temporal variation in LAP deposition on snow, specifically black carbon (BC) and dust particles, in Himalayas. Simulated distributions in meteorology, aerosol concentrations, snow albedo, snow grain size and snow depth are evaluated against satellite and in-situ measurements. The spatio-temporal change in snow albedo and snow grain size with variation in LAP deposition is investigated and the resulting shortwave LAP radiative forcing at surface is calculated. The LAP-radiative forcing due to aerosol deposition, both BC and dust, is higher in magnitude over Himalayan slopes (terrain height below 4 km) compared to that over TP (terrain height above 4 km). We found that the shortwave aerosol radiative forcing efficiency at surface due to increase in deposited mass of BC particles in snow layer ( 25 (W/m2)/ (mg/m2)) is manifold higher than the efficiency of dust particles ( 0.1 (W/m2)/ (mg/m2)) over TP. However, the radiative forcing of dust deposited in snow is similar in magnitude (maximum 20-30 W/m2) to that of BC deposited in snow over TP. This is mainly because the amount of dust deposited in snow over TP can be about 100 times greater than the amount of BC deposited in snow during polluted conditions. The impact of LAP on surface energy balance, snow melting and atmospheric thermodynamics is also examined.

  16. Performance of Closely Spaced Point Absorbers with Constrained Floater Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Backer, G.; Vantorre, M.; Beels, C.

    2009-01-01

    The performance of a wave energy converter array of twelve heaving point absorbers has been assessed numerically in a frequency domain model. Each point absorber is assumed to have its own linear power take-off. The impact of slamming, stroke and force restrictions on the power absorption...

  17. Errors in measuring absorbed radiation and computing crop radiation use efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallo, K.P.; Daughtry, C.S.T.; Wiegand, C.L.

    1993-01-01

    Radiation use efficiency (RUE) is often a crucial component of crop growth models that relate dry matter production to energy received by the crop. RUE is a ratio that has units g J -1 , if defined as phytomass per unit of energy received, and units J J -1 , if defined as the energy content of phytomass per unit of energy received. Both the numerator and denominator in computation of RUE can vary with experimental assumptions and methodologies. The objectives of this study were to examine the effect that different methods of measuring the numerator and denominator have on the RUE of corn (Zea mays L.) and to illustrate this variation with experimental data. Computational methods examined included (i) direct measurements of the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed (f A ), (ii) estimates of f A derived from leaf area index (LAI), and (iii) estimates of f A derived from spectral vegetation indices. Direct measurements of absorbed PAR from planting to physiological maturity of corn were consistently greater than the indirect estimates based on green LAI or the spectral vegetation indices. Consequently, the RUE calculated using directly measured absorbed PAR was lower than the RUE calculated using the indirect measures of absorbed PAR. For crops that contain senesced vegetation, green LAI and the spectral vegetation indices provide appropriate estimates of the fraction of PAR absorbed by a crop canopy and, thus, accurate estimates of crop radiation use efficiency

  18. Absorbed dose calibration factors for parallel-plate chambers in high energy photon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwen, M.R.; Duane, S.; Thomas, R.A.S.

    2002-01-01

    An investigation was carried out into the performance of parallel-plate chambers in 60 Co and MV photon beams. The aim was to derive calibration factors, investigate chamber-to-chamber variability and provide much-needed information on the use of parallel-plate chambers in high-energy X-ray beams. A set of NE2561/NE2611 reference chambers, calibrated against the primary standard graphite calorimeter is used for the dissemination of absorbed dose to water. The parallel-plate chambers were calibrated by comparison with the NPL reference chambers in a water phantom. Two types of parallel-plate chamber were investigated - the NACP -02 and Roos and measurements were made at 60 C0 and 6 linac photon energies (6-19 MV). Calibration factors were derived together with polarity corrections. The standard uncertainty in the calibration of a chamber in terms of absorbed dose to water is estimated to be ±0.75%. The results of the polarity measurements were somewhat confusing. One would expect the correction to be small and previous measurements in electron beams have indicated that there is little variation between chambers of these types. However, some chambers gave unexpectedly large polarity corrections, up to 0.8%. By contrast the measured polarity correction for a NE2611 chamber was less than 0.13% at all energies. The reason for these large polarity corrections is not clear, but experimental error and linac variations have been ruled out. By combining the calibration data for the different chambers it was possible to obtain experimental k Q factors for the two chamber types. It would appear from the data that the variations between chambers of the same type are random and one can therefore define a generic curve for each chamber type. These are presented in Figure 1, together with equivalent data for two cylindrical chamber types - NE2561/NE2611 and NE2571. As can be seen, there is a clear difference between the curves for the cylindrical chambers and those for the

  19. Energy Savings Forecast of Solid-State Lighting in General Illumination Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penning, Julie [Navigant Consulting Inc., Washington, DC (United States); Stober, Kelsey [Navigant Consulting Inc., Washington, DC (United States); Taylor, Victor [Navigant Consulting Inc., Washington, DC (United States); Yamada, Mary [Navigant Consulting Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The DOE report, Energy Savings Forecast of Solid-State Lighting in General Illumination Applications, is a biannual report which models the adoption of LEDs in the U.S. general-lighting market, along with associated energy savings, based on the full potential DOE has determined to be technically feasible over time. This version of the report uses an updated 2016 U.S. lighting-market model that is more finely calibrated and granular than previous models, and extends the forecast period to 2035 from the 2030 limit that was used in previous editions.

  20. Polarized light modulates light-dependent magnetic compass orientation in birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muheim, Rachel; Sjöberg, Sissel; Pinzon-Rodriguez, Atticus

    2016-01-01

    Magnetoreception of the light-dependent magnetic compass in birds is suggested to be mediated by a radical-pair mechanism taking place in the avian retina. Biophysical models on magnetic field effects on radical pairs generally assume that the light activating the magnetoreceptor molecules is nondirectional and unpolarized, and that light absorption is isotropic. However, natural skylight enters the avian retina unidirectionally, through the cornea and the lens, and is often partially polarized. In addition, cryptochromes, the putative magnetoreceptor molecules, absorb light anisotropically, i.e., they preferentially absorb light of a specific direction and polarization, implying that the light-dependent magnetic compass is intrinsically polarization sensitive. To test putative interactions between the avian magnetic compass and polarized light, we developed a spatial orientation assay and trained zebra finches to magnetic and/or overhead polarized light cues in a four-arm “plus” maze. The birds did not use overhead polarized light near the zenith for sky compass orientation. Instead, overhead polarized light modulated light-dependent magnetic compass orientation, i.e., how the birds perceive the magnetic field. Birds were well oriented when tested with the polarized light axis aligned parallel to the magnetic field. When the polarized light axis was aligned perpendicular to the magnetic field, the birds became disoriented. These findings are the first behavioral evidence to our knowledge for a direct interaction between polarized light and the light-dependent magnetic compass in an animal. They reveal a fundamentally new property of the radical pair-based magnetoreceptor with key implications for how birds and other animals perceive the Earth’s magnetic field. PMID:26811473

  1. Electrophoresis microchip with integrated waveguides for simultaneous native UV fluorescence and absorbance detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohlsson, Pelle Daniel; Sala, Olga Ordeig; Mogensen, Klaus Bo

    2009-01-01

    Simultaneous label-free detection of UV absorbance and native UV-excited fluorescence in an electrophoresis microchip is presented. UV transparent integrated waveguides launch light at a wavelength of 254 nm from a mercury lamp along the length of a 1-mm. long detection cell. Transmitted UV light...

  2. The Australian Commonwealth standard of measurement for absorbed radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherlock, S.L.

    1990-06-01

    This report documents the absorbed dose standard for photon beams in the range from 1 to 25 MeV. Measurements of absorbed dose in graphite irradiated by a beam of cobalt-60 gamma rays from an Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) E1 Dorado 6 teletherapy unit are reported. The measurements were performed using a graphite calorimeter, which is the primary standard for absorbed dose. The measurements are used to calibrate a working standard ion chamber in terms of absorbed dose in graphite. Details of the methods, results and correction factors applied are given in Appendices. 13 refs., 6 tabs., 6 figs

  3. Measurements of light absorption efficiency in InSb nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jurgilaitis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on measurements of the light absorption efficiency of InSb nanowires. The absorbed 70 fs light pulse generates carriers, which equilibrate with the lattice via electron-phonon coupling. The increase in lattice temperature is manifested as a strain that can be measured with X-ray diffraction. The diffracted X-ray signal from the excited sample was measured using a streak camera. The amount of absorbed light was deduced by comparing X-ray diffraction measurements with simulations. It was found that 3.0(6% of the radiation incident on the sample was absorbed by the nanowires, which cover 2.5% of the sample.

  4. Light-absorbing impurities enhance glacier albedo reduction in the southeastern Tibetan plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yulan; Kang, Shichang; Cong, Zhiyuan; Schmale, Julia; Sprenger, Michael; Li, Chaoliu; Yang, Wei; Gao, Tanguang; Sillanpää, Mika; Li, Xiaofei; Liu, Yajun; Chen, Pengfei; Zhang, Xuelei

    2017-07-01

    Light-absorbing impurities (LAIs) in snow of the southeastern Tibetan Plateau (TP) and their climatic impacts are of interest not only because this region borders areas affected by the South Asian atmospheric brown clouds but also because the seasonal snow and glacier melt from this region form important headwaters of large rivers. In this study, we collected surface snow and snowpit samples from four glaciers in the southeastern TP in June 2015 to investigate the comprehensive observational data set of LAIs. Results showed that the LAI concentrations were much higher in the aged snow and granular ice than in the fresh snow and snowpits due to postdepositional processes. Impurity concentrations fluctuated across snowpits, with maximum LAI concentrations frequently occurring toward the bottom of snowpits. Based on the SNow ICe Aerosol Radiative model, the albedo simulation indicated that black carbon and dust account for approximately 20% of the albedo reduction relative to clean snow. The radiative forcing caused by black carbon and dust deposition on the glaciers were between 1.0-141 W m-2 and 1.5-120 W m-2, respectively. Black carbon (BC) played a larger role in albedo reduction and radiative forcing than dust in the study area, enhancing approximately 15% of glacier melt. Analysis based on the Fire INventory from NCAR indicated that nonbiomass-burning sources of BC played an important role in the total BC deposition, especially during the monsoon season. This study suggests that eliminating anthropogenic BC could mitigate glacier melt in the future of the southeastern TP.

  5. Broadband near-infrared metamaterial absorbers utilizing highly lossy metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Fei; Dai, Jin; Chen, Yiting

    2016-01-01

    Radiation absorbers have increasingly been attracting attention as crucial components for controllable thermal emission, energy harvesting, modulators, etc. However, it is still challenging to realize thin absorbers which can operate over a wide spectrum range. Here, we propose and experimentally...... demonstrate thin, broadband, polarization-insensitive and omnidirectional absorbers working in the near-infrared range. We choose titanium (Ti) instead of the commonly used gold (Au) to construct nano-disk arrays on the top of a silicon dioxide (SiO2) coated Au substrate, with the quality (Q) factor...

  6. Energy transfer and clustering of photosynthetic light-harvesting complexes in reconstituted lipid membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewa, Takehisa; Sumino, Ayumi; Watanabe, Natsuko; Noji, Tomoyasu; Nango, Mamoru

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Photosynthetic light-harvesting complexes were reconstituted into lipid membranes. ► Energy transfers between light-harvesting complexes were examined. ► Atomic force microscopy indicated cluster formation of light-harvesting complexes. ► Efficient energy transfer was observed for the clustered complexes in the membranes. - Abstract: In purple photosynthetic bacteria, light-harvesting complex 2 (LH2) and light harvesting/reaction centre core complex (LH1-RC) play the key roles of capturing and transferring light energy and subsequent charge separation. These photosynthetic apparatuses form a supramolecular assembly; however, how the assembly influences the efficiency of energy conversion is not yet clear. We addressed this issue by evaluating the energy transfer in reconstituted photosynthetic protein complexes LH2 and LH1-RC and studying the structures and the membrane environment of the LH2/LH1-RC assemblies, which had been embedded into various lipid bilayers. Thus, LH2 and LH1-RC from Rhodopseudomonas palustris 2.1.6 were reconstituted in phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylcholine (PC), and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE)/PG/cardiolipin (CL). Efficient energy transfer from LH2 to LH1-RC was observed in the PC and PE/PG/CL membranes. Atomic force microscopy revealed that LH2 and LH1-RC were heterogeneously distributed to form clusters in the PC and PE/PG/CL membranes. The results indicated that the phospholipid species influenced the cluster formation of LH2 and LH1-RC as well as the energy transfer efficiency

  7. Energy transfer and clustering of photosynthetic light-harvesting complexes in reconstituted lipid membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewa, Takehisa, E-mail: takedewa@nitech.ac.jp [Department of Frontier Materials, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology, PRESTO, 4-1-8 Honcho Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Sumino, Ayumi; Watanabe, Natsuko; Noji, Tomoyasu [Department of Frontier Materials, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Nango, Mamoru, E-mail: nango@nitech.ac.jp [Department of Frontier Materials, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan)

    2013-06-20

    Highlights: ► Photosynthetic light-harvesting complexes were reconstituted into lipid membranes. ► Energy transfers between light-harvesting complexes were examined. ► Atomic force microscopy indicated cluster formation of light-harvesting complexes. ► Efficient energy transfer was observed for the clustered complexes in the membranes. - Abstract: In purple photosynthetic bacteria, light-harvesting complex 2 (LH2) and light harvesting/reaction centre core complex (LH1-RC) play the key roles of capturing and transferring light energy and subsequent charge separation. These photosynthetic apparatuses form a supramolecular assembly; however, how the assembly influences the efficiency of energy conversion is not yet clear. We addressed this issue by evaluating the energy transfer in reconstituted photosynthetic protein complexes LH2 and LH1-RC and studying the structures and the membrane environment of the LH2/LH1-RC assemblies, which had been embedded into various lipid bilayers. Thus, LH2 and LH1-RC from Rhodopseudomonas palustris 2.1.6 were reconstituted in phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylcholine (PC), and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE)/PG/cardiolipin (CL). Efficient energy transfer from LH2 to LH1-RC was observed in the PC and PE/PG/CL membranes. Atomic force microscopy revealed that LH2 and LH1-RC were heterogeneously distributed to form clusters in the PC and PE/PG/CL membranes. The results indicated that the phospholipid species influenced the cluster formation of LH2 and LH1-RC as well as the energy transfer efficiency.

  8. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Potential for Energy Efficiency Improvement Beyond the Light-Duty-Vehicle Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyas, A. D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Patel, D. M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bertram, K. M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Considerable research has focused on energy efficiency and fuel substitution options for light-duty vehicles, while much less attention has been given to medium- and heavy-duty trucks, buses, aircraft, marine vessels, trains, pipeline, and off-road equipment. This report brings together the salient findings from an extensive review of literature on future energy efficiency options for these non-light-duty modes. Projected activity increases to 2050 are combined with forecasts of overall fuel efficiency improvement potential to estimate the future total petroleum and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to current levels. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  9. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Potential for Energy Efficiency Improvement Beyond the Light-Duty-Vehicle Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyas, A. D.; Patel, D. M.; Bertram, K. M.

    2013-03-01

    Considerable research has focused on energy efficiency and fuel substitution options for light-duty vehicles, while much less attention has been given to medium- and heavy-duty trucks, buses, aircraft, marine vessels, trains, pipeline, and off-road equipment. This report brings together the salient findings from an extensive review of literature on future energy efficiency options for these non-light-duty modes. Projected activity increases to 2050 are combined with forecasts of overall fuel efficiency improvement potential to estimate the future total petroleum and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to current levels. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  10. India : Energy-Efficient Street Lighting--Implementation and Financing Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2015-01-01

    There has been a clear need for energy-efficient (EE) technologies that can be applicable in the municipal street lighting sector. The objective of this manual is to support the preparation and implementation of street lighting projects in India, using performance contracting and other public private partnership-based delivery approaches. This manual draws upon global best practices, inclu...

  11. Clinical light damage to the eye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains four sections: The Nature of Light and of Light Damage to Biological Tissues; Light Damage to the Eye; Protecting the Eye from Light Damage; and Overview of Light Damage to the Eye. Some of the paper titles are: Ultraviolet-Absorbing Intraocular Lens Implants; Phototoxic Changes in the Retina; Light Damage to the Lens; and Radiation, Light, and Sight

  12. Influence of the electron energy and number of beams on the absorbed dose distributions in radiotherapy of deep seated targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnica-Garza, H M

    2014-12-01

    With the advent of compact laser-based electron accelerators, there has been some renewed interest on the use of such charged particles for radiotherapy purposes. Traditionally, electrons have been used for the treatment of fairly superficial lesions located at depths of no more than 4cm inside the patient, but lately it has been proposed that by using very high energy electrons, i.e. those with an energy in the order of 200-250MeV it should be possible to safely reach deeper targets. In this paper, we used a realistic patient model coupled with detailed Monte Carlo simulations of the electron transport in such a patient model to examine the characteristics of the resultant absorbed dose distributions as a function of both the electron beam energy as well as the number of beams for a particular type of treatment, namely, a prostate radiotherapy treatment. Each treatment is modeled as consisting of nine, five or three beam ports isocentrically distributed around the patient. An optimization algorithm is then applied to obtain the beam weights in each treatment plan. It is shown that for this particularly challenging case, both excellent target coverage and critical structure sparing can be obtained for energies in the order of 150MeV and for as few as three treatment ports, while significantly reducing the total energy absorbed by the patient with respect to a conventional megavoltage x-ray treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Microscopic analysis of saturable absorbers: Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors versus graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hader, J.; Moloney, J. V. [Nonlinear Control Strategies, Inc., 3542 N. Geronimo Ave., Tucson, Arizona 85705 (United States); College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Yang, H.-J.; Scheller, M. [College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Koch, S. W. [Department of Physics and Materials Sciences Center, Philipps Universität Marburg, Renthof 5, 35032 Marburg (Germany)

    2016-02-07

    Fully microscopic many-body calculations are used to study the influence of strong sub-picosecond pulses on the carrier distributions and corresponding optical response in saturable absorbers used for mode-locking—semiconductor (quantum well) saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) and single layer graphene based saturable absorber mirrors (GSAMs). Unlike in GSAMs, the saturation fluence and recovery time in SESAMs show a strong spectral dependence. While the saturation fluence in the SESAM is minimal at the excitonic bandgap, the optimal recovery time and least pulse distortion due to group delay dispersion are found for excitation higher in the first subband. For excitation near the SESAM bandgap, the saturation fluence is about one tenth of that in the GSAM. At energies above the bandgap, the fluences in both systems become similar. A strong dependence of the saturation fluence on the pulse width in both systems is caused by carrier relaxation during the pulse. The recovery time in graphene is found to be about two to four times faster than that in the SESAMs. The occurrence of negative differential transmission in graphene is shown to be caused by dopant related carriers. In SESAMs, a negative differential transmission is found when exciting below the excitonic resonance where excitation induced dephasing leads to an enhancement of the absorption. Comparisons of the simulation data to the experiment show a very good quantitative agreement.

  14. Absorbed power distribution in the whole-body system of a tractor operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Kromulski

    2016-06-01

    The concept of absorbed power as a measurement for evaluation of WBV exposure opens a new area for research. The important character of absorbed power is that it has physical significance and therefore can be measured as well as computed analytically. The absorbed power relates to dissipation of energy attributed to relative motions of the visco-elastic tissues, muscles and skeletal system, which under prolonged exposures could lead to physical damage in the musculoskeletal system. A structural model of the human operator allows determination of the dynamic characteristics of the model, and study of the energy flow between the elements of the model.

  15. Light-harvesting features revealed by the structure of plant Photosystem I

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Shem, A; Nelson, N; 10.1023/B:PRES.0000036881.23512.42

    2004-01-01

    Oxygenic photosynthesis is driven by two multi-subunit membrane protein complexes, Photosystem I and Photosystem II. In plants and green algae, both complexes are composed of two moieties: a reaction center (RC), where light-induced charge translocation occurs, and a peripheral antenna that absorbs light and funnels its energy to the reaction center. The peripheral antenna of PS I (LHC I) is composed of four gene products (Lhca 1-4) that are unique among the chlorophyll a/b binding proteins in their pronounced long-wavelength absorbance and in their assembly into dimers. The recently determined structure of plant Photosystem I provides the first relatively high- resolution structural model of a super-complex containing a reaction center and its peripheral antenna. We describe some of the structural features responsible for the unique properties of LHC I and discuss the advantages of the particular LHC I dimerization mode over monomeric or trimeric forms. In addition, we delineate some of the interactions betw...

  16. Neutron absorption spectroscopy for identification of light elements in actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hau, I.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Advanced Detector Group, 7000 East Ave., L-270, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States) and Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)]. E-mail: hau2@llnl.gov; Niedermayr, T.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Advanced Detector Group, 7000 East Ave., L-270, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Drury, O.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Advanced Detector Group, 7000 East Ave., L-270, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Burger, A. [Fisk University, 1000 17th Ave. North, Nashville, TN 37208 (United States); Bell, Z. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Friedrich, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Advanced Detector Group, 7000 East Ave., L-270, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)]. E-mail: friedrich1@llnl.gov

    2006-04-15

    We are developing cryogenic high-energy resolution fast-neutron spectrometers using superconducting transition-edge sensors (TES) for nuclear science and non-proliferation applications. Fast neutrons are absorbed in 94% enriched {sup 6}LiF single crystals with volumes of {approx}1 cm{sup 3} in an exothermic {sup 6}Li(n,{alpha}){sup 3}H capture reaction. The neutron energy is measured from the subsequent temperature rise with a Mo/Cu multilayer TES. Fast-neutron spectra from a {sup 252}Cf source show an energy resolution of 55 kev. Here, we discuss the instrument performance, with emphasis on the identification of light elements in actinide matrices.

  17. Evaluation of energy efficiency in street lighting: model proposition considering climate variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaury Caruzzo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the impacts of climate variability on efficient electricity consumption in street lighting in Brazil. The Climate Demand Method (CDM was applied, and the energy savings achieved by Brazil’s National Efficient Street Lighting Program (ReLuz in 2005 were calculated, considering the monthly climatology of sunshine duration, disaggregated by county in Brazil. The total energy savings in street lighting in 2005 were estimated at 63 GWh/year or 1.39% higher than the value determined by ReLuz/Eletrobrás and there was a 15 MW reduction in demand in Brazil, considering the nearly 393,000 points in ReLuz served in 2005. The results indicate that, besides the difference in latitude, climate variability in different county increases the daily usage of street lighting up to 19%. Furthermore, Brazil’s large size means that seasonality patterns in energy savings are not homogeneous, and there is a correlation between the monthly variability in sunshine duration and the latitude of mesoregions. The CDM was also shown to be suitable for ranking mesoregions with the highest levels of energy saving lighting.

  18. Visible Light Photocatalytic Properties of Modified Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles via Aluminium Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dessy Ariyanti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide (TiO2 has gained much attentions for the last few decades due to its remarkable performance in photocatalysis and some other related properties. However, its wide bandgap (~3.2 eV can only absorb UV energy which is only ~5% of solar light spectrum. The objective of this research was to improve the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 by improving the optical absorption to the visible light range. Here, colored TiO2 nanoparticles range from light to dark grey were prepared via aluminium treatment at the temperatures ranging from 400 to 600 oC. The modified TiO2 is able to absorb up to 50% of visible light (400-700 nm and shows a relatively good photocatalytic activity in organic dye (Rhodamine B degradation under visible light irradiation compared with the commercial TiO2. Copyright © 2016 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved Received: 10th November 2015; Revised: 7th January 2016; Accepted: 7th January 20 How to Cite: Ariyanti, D., Dong, J.Z., Dong, J.Y., Gao, W. (2016. Visible Light Photocatalytic Properties of Modified Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles via Aluminium Treatment. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 11 (1: 40-47. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.11.1.414.40-47 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.11.1.414.40-47

  19. ARCHITECTURE OF A CHARGE-TRANSFER STATE REGULATING LIGHT HARVESTING IN A PLANT ANTENNA PROTEIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, Graham; Ahn, Tae Kyu; Avenson, Thomas J.; Ballottari, Matteo; Cheng, Yuan-Chung; Niyogi, Krishna K.; Bassi, Roberto; Fleming, Graham R.

    2008-04-02

    Energy-dependent quenching of excess absorbed light energy (qE) is a vital mechanism for regulating photosynthetic light harvesting in higher plants. All of the physiological characteristics of qE have been positively correlated with charge-transfer between coupled chlorophyll and zeaxanthin molecules in the light-harvesting antenna of photosystem II (PSII). In this work, we present evidence for charge-transfer quenching in all three of the individual minor antenna complexes of PSII (CP29, CP26, and CP24), and we conclude that charge-transfer quenching in CP29 involves a de-localized state of an excitonically coupled chlorophyll dimer. We propose that reversible conformational changes in CP29 can `tune? the electronic coupling between the chlorophylls in this dimer, thereby modulating the energy of the chlorophylls-zeaxanthin charge-transfer state and switching on and off the charge-transfer quenching during qE.

  20. Optimum angle of incidence for monochromatic interference in transparent films on absorbing substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, R.H.; Sand, M.L.

    1980-01-01

    Angles of incidence for s- and p-polarized light have been computed and confirmed experimentally for which monochromatic interference in transparent thin films on absorbing substrates results in optimum interference fringe contrast (visibility=1). Under these angles of incidence and with polarized light, film thickness determinations which are not possible at normal incidence or with unpolarized light can be carried out by use of thin-film interference

  1. Nonlinear modeling of magnetorheological energy absorbers under impact conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Min; Hu, Wei; Choi, Young-Tai; Wereley, Norman M.; Browne, Alan L.; Ulicny, John; Johnson, Nancy

    2013-11-01

    Magnetorheological energy absorbers (MREAs) provide adaptive vibration and shock mitigation capabilities to accommodate varying payloads, vibration spectra, and shock pulses, as well as other environmental factors. A key performance metric is the dynamic range, which is defined as the ratio of the force at maximum field to the force in the absence of field. The off-state force is typically assumed to increase linearly with speed, but at the higher shaft speeds occurring in impact events, the off-state damping exhibits nonlinear velocity squared damping effects. To improve understanding of MREA behavior under high-speed impact conditions, this study focuses on nonlinear MREA models that can more accurately predict MREA dynamic behavior for nominal impact speeds of up to 6 m s-1. Three models were examined in this study. First, a nonlinear Bingham-plastic (BP) model incorporating Darcy friction and fluid inertia (Unsteady-BP) was formulated where the force is proportional to the velocity. Second, a Bingham-plastic model incorporating minor loss factors and fluid inertia (Unsteady-BPM) to better account for high-speed behavior was formulated. Third, a hydromechanical (HM) analysis was developed to account for fluid compressibility and inertia as well as minor loss factors. These models were validated using drop test data obtained using the drop tower facility at GM R&D Center for nominal drop speeds of up to 6 m s-1.

  2. Understanding energy efficient lighting as an outcome of dynamics of social practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte Louise

    2017-01-01

    In policy-making, reducing energy consumption from lighting is largely treated as a matter of optimizing products. However, since lighting is a highly cultural and socio-material phenomenon, this article argues that current ways of using light cannot be attributed to the properties of the light s...

  3. Piezooptic effect of absorbing environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ю. А. Рудяк

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Application of piezooptic effect of absorbing environment for the definition of the parameter of stress deformation state was examined. The analysis of dielectric permeability tensor of imaginary parts was done. It is shown that changes in the real part dielectric permeability tensor mainly the indicator of fracture was fixed by means of mechanics interference methods and the changes in the imaginary part (α – real rate of absorption can be measured by means of analysis of light absorption and thus stress deformation state can be determined

  4. Energy efficiency effect on the public street lighting by using LED light replacement and kwh-meter installation at DKI Jakarta Province, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarmono, Panggih; Deendarlianto; Widyaparaga, Adhika

    2018-05-01

    Public street lighting consumes large energy for the public interest, but many street lights still do not use energy-saving technologies. In 2014, Provincial Government of DKI Jakarta operated 179,305 units of street lights. Of the number of installed armature, 92 % of them or 166,441 units are HPS (High-Pressure Sodium) armatures which are inefficient. In 2016, the Provincial Government of DKI Jakarta cut down the energy used for street lighting, by implementing the programs of kWh-meter installation in every street lighting panel and use energy-saving lamps equipped with the smart system. The Provincial Government of DKI Jakarta is registered with 6,399 customer IDs in PLN (State Owned Electric Company), and gradually carried out the kWh Meter installation and changes to the contract. The program to use energy-saving lights done by replacing the HPS armature that is not energy efficient to LED armature which is known to be energy efficient. Until the end of 2016, the number of armatures that has been replaced was 89,417 units. The research results on 25 samples of PLN customer IDs and the replacement of 2,162 units armature, showed that the energy efficiency through kWh meter installation and armature replacement reduce the power consumption from 330,414 kWh to 71,278 kWh or by 78.43%. Generally, there was a decrease in the value of electricity bill compared to the before the replacement. The program of kWh-meter installations and replacement of the armature has a payback period of 2.66 years.

  5. Shock absorbing structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Naoki; Matsushita, Kazuo.

    1992-01-01

    Small pieces of shock absorbers are filled in a space of a shock absorbing vessel which is divided into a plurality of sections by partitioning members. These sections function to prevent excess deformation or replacement of the fillers upon occurrence of falling accident. Since the shock absorbing small pieces in the shock absorbing vessel are filled irregularly, shock absorbing characteristics such as compression strength is not varied depending on the direction, but they exhibit excellent shock absorbing performance. They surely absorb shocks exerted on a transportation vessel upon falling or the like. If existing artificial fillers such as pole rings made of metal or ceramic and cut pieces such as alumium extrusion molding products are used as the shock absorbing pieces, they have excellent fire-proofness and cold resistance since the small pieces are inflammable and do not contain water. (T.M.)

  6. Integration of regenerative shock absorber into vehicle electric system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chongxiao; Li, Peng; Xing, Shaoxu; Kim, Junyoung; Yu, Liangyao; Zuo, Lei

    2014-03-01

    Regenerative/Energy harvesting shock absorbers have a great potential to increase fuel efficiency and provide suspension damping simultaneously. In recent years there's intensive work on this topic, but most researches focus on electricity extraction from vibration and harvesting efficiency improvement. The integration of electricity generated from regenerative shock absorbers into vehicle electric system, which is very important to realize the fuel efficiency benefit, has not been investigated. This paper is to study and demonstrate the integration of regenerative shock absorber with vehicle alternator, battery and in-vehicle electrical load together. In the presented system, the shock absorber is excited by a shaker and it converts kinetic energy into electricity. The harvested electricity flows into a DC/DC converter which realizes two functions: controlling the shock absorber's damping and regulating the output voltage. The damping is tuned by controlling shock absorber's output current, which is also the input current of DC/DC converter. By adjusting the duty cycles of switches in the converter, its input impedance together with input current can be adjusted according to dynamic damping requirements. An automotive lead-acid battery is charged by the DC/DC converter's output. To simulate the working condition of combustion engine, an AC motor is used to drive a truck alternator, which also charges the battery. Power resistors are used as battery's electrical load to simulate in-vehicle electrical devices. Experimental results show that the proposed integration strategy can effectively utilize the harvested electricity and power consumption of the AC motor is decreased accordingly. This proves the combustion engine's load reduction and fuel efficiency improvement.

  7. Pore-Confined Light Metal Hydrides for Energy Storage and Catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bramwell, P.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371685117

    2017-01-01

    Light metal hydrides have enjoyed several decades of attention in the field of hydrogen storage, but their applications have recently begun to diversify more and more into the broader field of energy storage. For example, light metal hydrides have shown great promise as battery materials, in sensors

  8. Energy efficiency of lighting systems in residential buildings; Energieeffizienzsteigerung der Beleuchtungstechnik in Wohngebaeuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troeger, Andreas [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Elektrotechnisches Inst.; Wittig, Michael; Schlosser, Roman; Wuerfel, Matthias [Westsaechsische Hochschule Zwickau (Germany). Fakultaet Elektrotechnik

    2011-07-01

    Due to political demands such as the law of an eco-friendly-design of Energy Using Products (EBPG), the production and thus the long-term use of conventional light bulbs is no longer possible within the European Union. Energy saving light bulbs are preferred as replacement for those bulbs. However, these lighting systems have unfavourable properties for certain areas of applications, such as low luminance during the heating phase or a low lifetime if used under strongly fluctuating stress. Therefore, using conventional light bulbs in stairwells, their properties are of great disadvantage. The paper examines possible applications for LED lighting systems (Light Emitting Diode), meeting the standards. Investigations of possible on-demand switching or dimming of LED lighting have been executed with the help of presence or movement sensors and by using smart grids such as the KNX-compliant components. Furthermore, technical requirements, economic viability and energetic advantages and disadvantages of separate DC power networks for the operating of the LED lights have been tested. Since energy storage increased in rental buildings, the storage system DC supply can be used for DC power of such consumers. In this way, the AC and the rectifier losses can be avoided and thus the energy efficiency of lighting can be increased in rental buildings. To implement the project a model of a staircase has been created by using the simulation software DIALux. Furthermore the given lighting conditions have been measured in the stairwell. Thus, the staircase model yields comparative results. (orig.)

  9. Development of methodology for assessment of absorbed dose and stopping power for low energy conversion electrons; Desenvolvimento de uma metodologia para estimativa da dose absorvida e do poder de freamento para eletrons de conversao de baixa energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Ivan Pedro Salati de

    1995-08-01

    The evaluation of absorbed dose in the case of external and internalcontamination due to radionuclides is sometimes hard, because of the difficulties in the assessment of the absorbed dose caused by electrons with energy less than 100 KeV in mucous membrane. In this work, a methodology for assessment of absorbed dose and stopping power in VYNS (co-polymer of polivinyl chloride - acetate) absorbers, for the 62.5 KeV and 84-88 KeV energy {sup 109} Cd conversion electrons, working with a 4 {pi} proportional pressurized detector, is presented. In order to assure the reproducibility of measurement conditions, one of the detector halves has been used to obtain a spectrum of a thin {sup 109} Cd source, without absorber. The other half of the detector was used in concomitance to obtain spectra with different thicknesses if absorber. The absorbed energy was obtained subtracting each spectrum with absorber from the spectrum without absorber, which were stored in a microcomputer connected to signal processing systems by ACE type interface. The VYNS weight and thickness were evaluated using common radionuclide metrology procedures. As VYNS has characteristics similar to a tissue equivalent material, the results obtained are consistent with dosimetric concepts and have a good agreement with those of the literature. (author)

  10. Data mining application in industrial energy audit for lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maricar, N.M.; Kim, G.C.; Jamal, N. [Kolej Univ., Melaka (Malaysia). Faculty of Electrical Engineering

    2005-07-01

    A data mining application for lighting energy audits at industrial sites was presented. Data collection was based on the parameters needed for the analysis part of the audit. Data collection included the activity for which the room was used; its dimension; light level readings in lux; the number of luminaries; the number of lamps per luminaries; lamp fixtures; and lamp wattage. The lumen method was used to calculate the recommended numbers of luminaries in the room. The number was then compared with the existing system's luminaries. The installed load efficacy ratio (ILER) was then used to determine proper retrofit action to maximize energy usage. The difference between the calculated lux and the standard lux was used to create data subsets. A data mining algorithm was used to determine that the ILER plays an important role in calculating the efficiency of lighting systems. It was also concluded that the method can be used to minimize the time needed to analyze large amounts of lighting data. The results of case studies were also used to show that the combined data mining algorithm provided accurate assessments using existing calculated data. 7 refs., 8 tabs., 5 figs.

  11. Energy-analysis of the total nuclear energy cycle based on light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kistemaker, J.

    1975-01-01

    The energy economy of the total nuclear energy cycle is investigated. Attention is paid to the importance of fossil fuel saving by using nuclear energy. The energy analysis is based on the construction and operation of power plants with an electric output of 1000MWe. Light water moderated reactors with a 2.7 - 3.2% enriched uranium core are considered. Additionally, the whole fuel cycle including ore winning and refining, enrichment and fuel element manufacturing and reprocessing has been taken into account. Neither radioactive waste storage problems nor safety problems related to the nuclear energy cycle and safeguarding have been dealt with, as exhaustive treatments can be found elswhere

  12. Considering linear generator copper losses on model predictive control for a point absorber wave energy converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya Andrade, Dan-El; Villa Jaén, Antonio de la; García Santana, Agustín

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We considered the linear generator copper losses in the proposed MPC strategy. • We maximized the power transferred to the generator side power converter. • The proposed MPC increases the useful average power injected into the grid. • The stress level of the PTO system can be reduced by the proposed MPC. - Abstract: The amount of energy that a wave energy converter can extract depends strongly on the control strategy applied to the power take-off system. It is well known that, ideally, the reactive control allows for maximum energy extraction from waves. However, the reactive control is intrinsically noncausal in practice and requires some kind of causal approach to be applied. Moreover, this strategy does not consider physical constraints and this could be a problem because the system could achieve unacceptable dynamic values. These, and other control techniques have focused on the wave energy extraction problem in order to maximize the energy absorbed by the power take-off device without considering the possible losses in intermediate devices. In this sense, a reactive control that considers the linear generator copper losses has been recently proposed to increase the useful power injected into the grid. Among the control techniques that have emerged recently, the model predictive control represents a promising strategy. This approach performs an optimization process on a time prediction horizon incorporating dynamic constraints associated with the physical features of the power take-off system. This paper proposes a model predictive control technique that considers the copper losses in the control optimization process of point absorbers with direct drive linear generators. This proposal makes the most of reactive control as it considers the copper losses, and it makes the most of the model predictive control, as it considers the system constraints. This means that the useful power transferred from the linear generator to the power

  13. Correction: An unsymmetrical non-fullerene acceptor: synthesis via direct heteroarylation, self-assembly, and utility as a low energy absorber in organic photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Abby-Jo; Li, Shi; Dayneko, Sergey V; Risko, Chad; Welch, Gregory C

    2017-09-21

    Correction for 'An unsymmetrical non-fullerene acceptor: synthesis via direct heteroarylation, self-assembly, and utility as a low energy absorber in organic photovoltaic cells' by Abby-Jo Payne et al., Chem. Commun., 2017, 53, 10168-10171.

  14. Performance of a Tethered Point Wave-Energy Absorber in Regular and Irregular Waves

    KAUST Repository

    Bachynski, Erin E.; Young, Yin Lu; Yeung, Ronald W.

    2010-01-01

    The importance of the mooring system on the dynamic response of a point-absorber type ocean-wave energy converter (WEC) is investigated using a frequency-domain approach. In order to ensure the safety of WECs, careful consideration of the response and resonance frequencies in all motions must be evaluated, including the effects of the mooring system. In this study, a WEC floater with a closed, flat bottom is modeled as a rigid vertical cylinder tethered by elastic mooring lines. The WEC hydrodynamic added mass and damping are obtained using established potential-flow methods, with additional damping provided by the energy-extraction system. The results show that the response of the WEC, and the corresponding power takeoff, varies with the diameter-to-draft (D=T) ratio, mooring system stiffness, and mass distribution. For a given wave climate in Northern California, near San Francisco, the heave energy extraction is found to be best for a shallow WEC with a soft mooring system, compared to other systems that were examined. This result assumes a physical limit (cap) on the motion which is related to the significant wave height to draft ratio. Shallow draft designs, however, may experience excessive pitch motions and relatively larger viscous damping. In order to mitigate the pitch response, the pitch radius of gyration should be small and the center of mass should be low. Copyright © 2010 by ASME.

  15. A THz plasmonics perfect absorber and Fabry-Perot cavity mechanism (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiangfeng; Bhattarai, Khagendra; Silva, Sinhara; Jeon, Jiyeon; Kim, Junoh; Lee, Sang Jun; Ku, Zahyun

    2016-10-01

    The plasmonic metamaterial perfect absorber (MPA) is a recently developed branch of metamaterial which exhibits nearly unity absorption within certain frequency range.[1-6] The optically thin MPA possesses characteristic features of angular-independence, high Q-factor and strong field localization that have inspired a wide range of applications including electromagnetic wave absorption,[3, 7, 8] spatial[6] and spectral[5] modulation of light,[9] selective thermal emission,[9] thermal detecting[10] and refractive index sensing for gas[11] and liquid[12, 13] targets. In this work, we demonstrate a MPA working at terahertz (THz) regime and characterize it using an ultrafast THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). Our study reveal an ultra-thin Fabry-Perot cavity mechanism compared to the impedance matching mechanism widely adopted in previous study [1-6]. Our results also shows higher-order resonances when the cavities length increases. These higher order modes exhibits much larger Q-factor that can benefit potential sensing and imaging applications. [1] C. M. Watts, X. L. Liu, and W. J. Padilla, "Metamaterial Electromagnetic Wave Absorbers," Advanced Materials, vol. 24, pp. 98-120, Jun 19 2012. [2] M. Hedayati, F. Faupel, and M. Elbahri, "Review of Plasmonic Nanocomposite Metamaterial Absorber," Materials, vol. 7, pp. 1221-1248, 2014. [3] N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, "Perfect metamaterial absorber," Physical Review Letters, vol. 100, p. 207402, May 23 2008. [4] H. R. Seren, G. R. Keiser, L. Cao, J. Zhang, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, et al., "Optically Modulated Multiband Terahertz Perfect Absorber," Advanced Optical Materials, vol. 2, pp. 1221-1226, 2014. [5] D. Shrekenhamer, J. Montoya, S. Krishna, and W. J. Padilla, "Four-Color Metamaterial Absorber THz Spatial Light Modulator," Advanced Optical Materials, vol. 1, pp. 905-909, 2013. [6] S. Savo, D. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, "Liquid Crystal Metamaterial Absorber Spatial

  16. Heating nuclei with light ions at GeV incident energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollacco, E.C.; Brzychczyk, J.; Volant, C.; Legrain, R.; Nalpas, L.; Bracken, D.S.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Morley, K.B.; Foxford, E.R.; Viola, V.E.; Yoder, N.R.

    1996-03-01

    Hot nuclei are studied, where through an appropriate choice of incident channel and event selection, dynamical effects are attenuated and multifragmentation is limited. Three preparatory results are discussed, the 3 He(1.8 GeV) + nat Ag can be described using and intranuclear cascade, INC, model; through a suitable selection of events a limit of the excitation energy that a nucleus can absorb without breaking into large pieces is given, it is shown, that corresponding alpha decay is consistent with an, evaporative process. (K.A.)

  17. Green light drives leaf photosynthesis more efficiently than red light in strong white light: revisiting the enigmatic question of why leaves are green.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terashima, Ichiro; Fujita, Takashi; Inoue, Takeshi; Chow, Wah Soon; Oguchi, Riichi

    2009-04-01

    The literature and our present examinations indicate that the intra-leaf light absorption profile is in most cases steeper than the photosynthetic capacity profile. In strong white light, therefore, the quantum yield of photosynthesis would be lower in the upper chloroplasts, located near the illuminated surface, than that in the lower chloroplasts. Because green light can penetrate further into the leaf than red or blue light, in strong white light, any additional green light absorbed by the lower chloroplasts would increase leaf photosynthesis to a greater extent than would additional red or blue light. Based on the assessment of effects of the additional monochromatic light on leaf photosynthesis, we developed the differential quantum yield method that quantifies efficiency of any monochromatic light in white light. Application of this method to sunflower leaves clearly showed that, in moderate to strong white light, green light drove photosynthesis more effectively than red light. The green leaf should have a considerable volume of chloroplasts to accommodate the inefficient carboxylation enzyme, Rubisco, and deliver appropriate light to all the chloroplasts. By using chlorophylls that absorb green light weakly, modifying mesophyll structure and adjusting the Rubisco/chlorophyll ratio, the leaf appears to satisfy two somewhat conflicting requirements: to increase the absorptance of photosynthetically active radiation, and to drive photosynthesis efficiently in all the chloroplasts. We also discuss some serious problems that are caused by neglecting these intra-leaf profiles when estimating whole leaf electron transport rates and assessing photoinhibition by fluorescence techniques.

  18. Effect of melatonin and lighting schedule on energy metabolism in broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apeldoorn, E.J.; Schrama, J.W.; Mashaly, M.M.; Parmentier, H.K.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of melatonin and lighting schedule on energy metabolism in broiler chickens was studied. Eight groups of six female broiler chickens each were assigned to a continuous lighting schedule [23 h light (L):1 h darkness (D)] or an intermittent lighting schedule (1L:3D), and were fed a diet

  19. Heaving buoys, point absorbers and arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falnes, Johannes; Hals, Jørgen

    2012-01-28

    Absorption of wave energy may be considered as a phenomenon of interference between incident and radiated waves generated by an oscillating object; a wave-energy converter (WEC) that displaces water. If a WEC is very small in comparison with one wavelength, it is classified as a point absorber (PA); otherwise, as a 'quasi-point absorber'. The latter may be a dipole-mode radiator, for instance an immersed body oscillating in the surge mode or pitch mode, while a PA is so small that it should preferably be a source-mode radiator, for instance a heaving semi-submerged buoy. The power take-off capacity, the WEC's maximum swept volume and preferably also its full physical volume should be reasonably matched to the wave climate. To discuss this matter, two different upper bounds for absorbed power are applied in a 'Budal diagram'. It appears that, for a single WEC unit, a power capacity of only about 0.3 MW matches well to a typical offshore wave climate, and the full physical volume has, unfortunately, to be significantly larger than the swept volume, unless phase control is used. An example of a phase-controlled PA is presented. For a sizeable wave-power plant, an array consisting of hundreds, or even thousands, of mass-produced WEC units is required.

  20. Laser post-processing of halide perovskites for enhanced photoluminescence and absorbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiguntseva, E. Y.; Saraeva, I. N.; Kudryashov, S. I.; Ushakova, E. V.; Komissarenko, F. E.; Ishteev, A. R.; Tsypkin, A. N.; Haroldson, R.; Milichko, V. A.; Zuev, D. A.; Makarov, S. V.; Zakhidov, A. A.

    2017-11-01

    Hybrid halide perovskites have emerged as one of the most promising type of materials for thin-film photovoltaic and light-emitting devices. Further boosting their performance is critically important for commercialization. Here we use femtosecond laser for post-processing of organo-metalic perovskite (MAPbI3) films. The high throughput laser approaches include both ablative silicon nanoparticles integration and laser-induced annealing. By using these techniques, we achieve strong enhancement of photoluminescence as well as useful light absorption. As a result, we observed experimentally 10-fold enhancement of absorbance in a perovskite layer with the silicon nanoparticles. Direct laser annealing allows for increasing of photoluminescence over 130%, and increase absorbance over 300% in near-IR range. We believe that the developed approaches pave the way to novel scalable and highly effective designs of perovskite based devices.

  1. Energy saved neon sign lighting power supply for photovoltaic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanitteerapan, T.; Dokpikul, S.; Arunrungrasmi, S. [King Mongkut Univ. of Technology Thonburi, Bangmod, Tungkru, Bangkok (Thailand). Dept. of Electrical Technology Education, Faculty of Industrial Education

    2007-07-01

    Petroleum oil, natural gas and fossil fuels are commonly used in power plants for electrical power generation. However, because of their negative environmental impacts, energy and environmental savings from renewable energy resources are necessary choices. Solar energy can be converted to the electrical voltage by using solar arrays. This process can be used in many electrical applications. This paper introduced a neon sign lighting power supply for a small photovoltaic powered stand-alone commercial advertising board for a remote area in Thailand. The circuit implementation was very simple, consisting of an active switch device, a resonant capacitor and high frequency transformer. The control also operated as a fixed frequency and fixed duty ratio controller. The paper discussed the principle of neon sign lighting, power circuit operation, and control circuit operation. To verify the proposed power supply, the circuit experiment of the proposed power supply for the neon sign lighting was applied to a 10 foot long, 10 millimeter diameter bulb. The neon sign was ignited smoothly with little power consumption. 2 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

  2. Lighting and social practices - what role does lighting play for low energy house (LEH) households and LED frontrunners?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte Louise

    As lighting in Danish households consume approximately 1.3 TWh every year, reducing electricity consumption from lighting is important. Studies have shown that a mere substitution of inefficient lighting technologies towards more efficient ones may not be possible, as many social and cultural...... dimensions influence how people use and relate to lighting. Assessing how very distinctive contexts of households (that diverge from an exemplary kind of household), such as low energy houses and LED frontrunner households, use and understand lighting, may give some insight into what may trigger or hamper...

  3. The Energy Audit Activity Focused on the Lighting Systems in Historical Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Salvadori

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The energy audit for a building is a procedure designed mainly to obtain adequate knowledge of the energy consumption profile, identify, and quantify opportunities for energy savings by a cost-benefit analysis and report, clearly and comprehensively, about the obtained results. If the audit is referred to a building with a significant historical and artistic value, a compatibility evaluation of the energy saving interventions with the architectural features should also be developed. In this paper, analysing the case study of a historical building used as public offices in Pisa (Italy, the authors describe how it is possible to conduct an energy audit activity (especially dedicated to the lighting system and they show how, for this type of buildings, it is possible to obtain significant energy savings with a refurbishment of the lighting system. A total number of seven interventions on indoor and outdoor lighting sub-systems were analysed in the paper. They are characterised by absolute compatibility with the historical and artistic value of the building and they show short payback times, variable between 4 and 34 months, allowing a reduction of the electrical energy consumption for the artificial indoor and outdoor lighting variable from 1.1 MWh/year to 39.0 MWh/year. The followed methodology and the evaluation results described in the paper, although based on a case study, can be extended to numerous historical buildings used as public offices, a recurring situation in the centres of Italian historical cities.

  4. Energy-saving quality road lighting with colloidal quantum dot nanophosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Talha; Kelestemur, Yusuf; Soran-Erdem, Zeliha; Ji, Yun; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2014-12-01

    Here the first photometric study of road-lighting white light-emitting diodes (WLEDs) integrated with semiconductor colloidal quantum dots (QDs) is reported enabling higher luminance than conventional light sources, specifically in mesopic vision regimes essential to street lighting. Investigating over 100 million designs uncovers that quality road-lighting QD-WLEDs, with a color quality scale and color rendering index ≥85, enables 13-35% higher mesopic luminance than the sources commonly used in street lighting. Furthermore, these QD-WLEDs were shown to be electrically more efficient than conventional sources with power conversion efficiencies ≥16-29%. Considering this fact, an experimental proof-of-concept QD-WLED was demonstrated, which is the first account of QD based color conversion custom designed for street lighting applications. The obtained white LED achieved the targeted mesopic luminance levels in accordance with the road lighting standards of the USA and the UK. These results indicate that road-lighting QD-WLEDs are strongly promising for energy-saving quality road lighting.

  5. Natural Regulation of Energy Flow in a Green Quantum Photocell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arp, Trevor B; Barlas, Yafis; Aji, Vivek; Gabor, Nathaniel M

    2016-12-14

    Manipulating the flow of energy in nanoscale and molecular photonic devices is of both fundamental interest and central importance for applications in light energy harvesting optoelectronics. Under erratic solar irradiance conditions, unregulated power fluctuations in a light-harvesting photocell lead to inefficient energy storage in conventional solar cells and potentially fatal oxidative damage in photosynthesis. Here, we compare the theoretical minimum energy fluctuations in nanoscale quantum heat engine photocells that incorporate one or two photon-absorbing channels and show that fluctuations are naturally suppressed in the two-channel photocell. This intrinsic suppression acts as a passive regulation mechanism that enables the efficient conversion of varying incident solar power into a steady output for absorption over a broad range of the solar spectrum on Earth. Remarkably, absorption in the green portion of the spectrum provides no inherent regulatory benefit, indicating that green light should be rejected in a photocell whose primary role is the regulation of energy flow.

  6. Energy Efficient Task Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Logadottir, Asta; Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Johnsen, Kjeld

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this work is to develop a task light for office lighting that fulfils the minimum requirements of the European standard EN12464 - 1 : Light and lightingLighting of work places, Part 1: Indoor workplaces and the Danish standard DS 700 : Lys og belysning I arbejdsrum , or more...... specifically the requirements that apply to the work area and the immediate surrounding area. By providing a task light that fulfils the requirements for task lighting and the immediate surrounding area, the general lighting only needs to provide the illuminance levels required for background lighting...... and thereby a reduction in installed power for general lighting of about 40 % compared to the way illuminance levels are designed in an office environment in Denmark today. This lighting strategy is useful when the placement of the task area is not defined in the space before the lighting is design ed...

  7. Laser pushing or pulling of absorbing airborne particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chuji, E-mail: cw175@msstate.edu; Gong, Zhiyong [Mississippi State University, Starkville, Mississippi 39759 (United States); Pan, Yong-Le; Videen, Gorden [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, 2800 Powder Mill Road, Adelphi, Maryland 20783 (United States)

    2016-07-04

    A single absorbing particle formed by carbon nanotubes in the size range of 10–50 μm is trapped in air by a laser trapping beam and concurrently illuminated by another laser manipulating beam. When the trapping beam is terminated, the movement of the particle controlled by the manipulating beam is investigated. We report our observations of light-controlled pushing and pulling motions. We show that the movement direction has little relationship with the particle size and manipulating beam's parameters but is dominated by the particle's orientation and morphology. With this observation, the controllable optical manipulation is now able to be generalized to arbitrary particles, including irregularly shaped absorbing particles that are shown in this work.

  8. Evaluation of absorbents for an absorption heat pump using natural organic working fluids (eco-energy city project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hisajima, Daisuke; Sakiyama, Ryoko; Nishiguchi, Akira [Hitachi Ltd., Tsuchiura (Japan). Mechanical Engineering Research Lab.

    1999-07-01

    The present situation of electric power supply and energy consumption in Japan has made it necessary to develop a new absorption air conditioning system which has low electric energy consumption, uses natural organic refrigerants, and can work as a heat pump in winter. Estimating vapor and liquid equilibrium of new pairs of working fluids is prerequisite to developing the new absorption heat pump system. In this phase of the work, methods for estimating vapor and liquid equilibrium that take into account intermolecular force were investigated. Experimental and calculated data on natural organic materials mixtures were considered to find optimum candidates, and then a procedure for evaluation was chosen. Several candidate absorbents were selected that used isobutane and dimethyl ether as refrigerants. (orig.)

  9. Overview of Light Hydrogen-Based Low Energy Nuclear Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miley, George H.; Shrestha, Prajakti J.

    This paper reviews light water and hydrogen-based low-energy nuclear reactions (LENRs) including the different methodologies used to study these reactions and the results obtained. Reports of excess heat production, transmutation reactions, and nuclear radiation emission are cited. An aim of this review is to present a summary of the present status of light water LENR research and provide some insight into where this research is heading.

  10. Positron Production in Multiphoton Light-by-Light Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koffas, Thomas

    2003-07-28

    We present the results of an experimental study on e{sup +}e{sup -} pair production during the collision of a low emittance 46.6 GeV electron beam with terawatt laser pulses from a Nd:glass laser at 527 nm wavelength and with linear polarization. The experiment was conducted at the Final Focus Test Beam facility in the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. Results with a 49.1 GeV electron beam are also included. A signal of 106 {+-} 14 positrons for the 46.6 GeV electron beam case and of 22 {+-} 10 positrons for the 49.1 GcV case above background, has been detected. We interpret the positrons as the products of a two-step process during which laser photons are backscattered to high energy gamma photons that absorb in their turn several laser photons in order to produce a e{sup +}e{sup -} pair. The data compare well with the existing theoretical models. This is the first observation in the laboratory of inelastic Light-by-Light scattering with only real photons. Alternatively, the data are interpreted as a manifestation of the spontaneous breakdown of the vacuum under the influence of an intense external alternating electric field.

  11. Saving energy by overriding automatic lighting control: A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lelkens, A.

    2011-01-01

    Modern office buildings are often equipped with automatic systems that turn on the lights if somebody enters a room and turn them off when everybody has left the room. This ensures that users do not leave the lights on during the night and thus avoids wasting energy. For cost reasons, most of these

  12. Optically nonlinear energy transfer in light-harvesting dendrimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, David L.; Bradshaw, David S.

    2004-08-01

    Dendrimeric polymers are the subject of intense research activity geared towards their implementation in nanodevice applications such as energy harvesting systems, organic light-emitting diodes, photosensitizers, low-threshold lasers, and quantum logic elements, etc. A recent development in this area has been the construction of dendrimers specifically designed to exhibit novel forms of optical nonlinearity, exploiting the unique properties of these materials at high levels of photon flux. Starting from a thorough treatment of the underlying theory based on the principles of molecular quantum electrodynamics, it is possible to identify and characterize several optically nonlinear mechanisms for directed energy transfer and energy pooling in multichromophore dendrimers. Such mechanisms fall into two classes: first, those where two-photon absorption by individual donors is followed by transfer of the net energy to an acceptor; second, those where the excitation of two electronically distinct but neighboring donor groups is followed by a collective migration of their energy to a suitable acceptor. Each transfer process is subject to minor dissipative losses. In this paper we describe in detail the balance of factors and the constraints that determines the favored mechanism, which include the excitation statistics, structure of the energy levels, laser coherence factors, chromophore selection rules and architecture, possibilities for the formation of delocalized excitons, spectral overlap, and the overall distribution of donors and acceptors. Furthermore, it transpires that quantum interference between different mechanisms can play an important role. Thus, as the relative importance of each mechanism determines the relevant nanophotonic characteristics, the results reported here afford the means for optimizing highly efficient light-harvesting dendrimer devices.

  13. Lighting and cooling energy consumption in an open-plan office using solar film coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Danny H.W.; Lam, Tony N.T.; Wong, S.L.; Tsang, Ernest K.W.

    2008-01-01

    In subtropical Hong Kong, solar heat gain via glazing contributes to a significant proportion of the building envelope cooling load. The principal fenestration design includes eliminating direct sunlight and reducing cooling requirements. Daylighting is an effective approach to allow a flexible building facade design strategy, and to enhance an energy-efficient and green building development. This paper studies the lighting and cooling energy performances for a fully air-conditioned open-plan office when solar control films together with daylight-linked lighting controls are being used. Measurements were undertaken at two stages including the electricity expenditures for the office using photoelectric dimming controls only (first stage) and together with the solar control film coatings on the windows (second stage). Electric lighting and cooling energy consumption, transmitted daylight illuminance and solar radiation were systematically recorded and analysed. The measured data were also used for conducting and validating the building energy simulations. The findings showed that the solar film coatings coupled with lighting dimming controls cut down 21.2% electric lighting and 6.9% cooling energy consumption for the open-plan office

  14. Nearshore Tests of the Tidal Compensation System for Point-Absorbing Wave Energy Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Castellucci

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The power production of the linear generator wave energy converter developed at Uppsala University is affected by variations of mean sea level. The reason is that these variations change the distance between the point absorber located on the surface and the linear generator located on the seabed. This shifts the average position of the translator with respect to the center of the stator, thereby reducing the generator output power. A device mounted on the point absorber that compensates for tides of small range by regulating the length of the connection line between the buoy at the surface and the linear generator has been constructed and tested. This paper describes the electro-mechanical, measurement, communication and control systems installed on the buoy and shows the results obtained before its connection to the generator. The adjustment of the line was achieved through a linear actuator, which shortens the line during low tides and vice versa. The motor that drives the mechanical device was activated remotely via SMS. The measurement system that was mounted on the buoy consisted of current and voltage sensors, accelerometers, strain gauges and inductive and laser sensors. The data collected were transferred via Internet to a Dropbox server. As described within the paper, after the calibration of the sensors, the buoy was assembled and tested in the waters of Lysekil harbor, a few kilometers from the Uppsala University research site. Moreover, the performance of the sensors, the motion of the mechanical device, the power consumption, the current control strategy and the communication system are discussed.

  15. Effect of light energy density on conversion degree and hardness of dual-cured resin cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komori, Paula Carolina de Paiva; de Paula, Andréia Bolzan; Martin, Airton Abrāo; Tango, Rubens Nisie; Sinhoreti, Mario Alexandre Coelho; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different light energy densities on conversion degree (CD) and Knoop hardness number (KHN) of RelyX ARC (RLX) resin cement. After manipulation according to the manufacturer's instructions, RLX was inserted into a rubber mold (0.8 mm x 5 mm) and covered with a Mylar strip. The tip of the light-curing unit (LCU) was positioned in contact with the Mylar surface. Quartz-tungsten-halogen (QTH) and light-emitting diode (LED) LCUs with light densities of 10, 20 and 30 J/cm2 were used to light-cure the specimens. After light curing, the specimens were stored dry in lightproof containers at 37 degrees C. After 24 hours, the CD was analyzed by FT-Raman and, after an additional 24-hours, samples were submitted to Knoop hardness testing. The data of the CD (%) and KHN were submitted to two-way ANOVA and the Tukey's test (alpha = 0.05). QTH and LED were effective light curing units. For QTH, there were no differences among the light energy densities for CD or KHN. For LED, there was a significant reduction in CD with the light energy density set at 10 J/cm2. KHN was not influenced by the light-curing unit and by its light energy density.

  16. Energy Efficient LED Spectrally Matched Smart Lighting, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Innovative Imaging and Research and the University of Houston Clear Lake have teamed to develop a widely extensible, affordable, energy efficient, smart lighting...

  17. Light + architecture. Daylight - artificial light - energy; Licht + Architektur. Tageslicht - Kunstlicht - Energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    The symposium intends to provide scientific and technical fundamentals for room lighting with daylight. Daylight deflection systems and artificial light control systems were analyzed for this purpose, and a catalogue of criteria was established. Planners were given tools for projecting daylight control systems. Builder-owners received the fundamentals for economic assessment of combined daylight and artificial light illumination systems, while industrial producers obtained information for further development to maturity and for marketing of daylight-dependent artificial light control systems. (GL)

  18. Light energy management in peach: utilization, photoprotection , photodamage and recovery. Maximizing light absorption in orchard is not always the best solution

    OpenAIRE

    Losciale, Pasquale

    2008-01-01

    The relation between the intercepted light and orchard productivity was considered linear, although this dependence seems to be more subordinate to planting system rather than light intensity. At whole plant level not always the increase of irradiance determines productivity improvement. One of the reasons can be the plant intrinsic un-efficiency in using energy. Generally in full light only the 5 – 10% of the total incoming energy is allocated to net photosynthesis. Therefore preserving or i...

  19. Absorbing Property of Multi-layered Short Carbon Fiber Absorbing Coating

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zhaohui; Tao, Rui; Ban, Guodong; Luo, Ping

    2018-01-01

    The radar absorbing coating was prepared with short carbon fiber asabsorbent and waterborne polyurethane (WPU) as matrix resin. The coating’s absorbing property was tested with vectornetwork analyzer, using aramid honeycomb as air layer which was matched withcarbon fiber coating. The results demonstrate that the single-layered carbonfiber absorbing coating presented relatively poor absorbing property when thelayer was thin, and the performance was slightly improved after the matched airlayer ...

  20. Impacts of light-absorbing impurities on snow and their quantification with bidirectional reflectance measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsevich, Maria; Peltoniemi, Jouni; Meinander, Outi; Dagsson-Waldhauserová, Pavla; Zubko, Nataliya; Hakala, Teemu; Virkkula, Aki; Svensson, Jonas; de Leeuw, Gerrit

    2017-04-01

    rate gets faster than the diffusion rate (under condition of warm outside temperatures), as it was observed at the end of the experiment reported here, dark material starts accumulating into the surface [5]. The BC deposited on snow at warm temperatures initiates rapid melting process and may cause dramatic changes on the snow surface. References 1 Peltoniemi J.I., Hakala T., Suomalainen J., Honkavaara E., Markelin L., Gritsevich M., Eskelinen J., Jaanson P., Ikonen E. (2014): Technical notes: A detailed study for the provision of measurement uncertainty and traceability for goniospectrometers. Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy & Radiative Transfer 146, 376-390, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jqsrt.2014.04.011 2 Zubko N., Gritsevich M., Zubko E., Hakala T., Peltoniemi J.I. (2016): Optical measurements of chemically heterogeneous particulate surfaces // Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, 178, 422-431, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jqsrt.2015.12.010 3 Peltoniemi J.I., Gritsevich M., Hakala T., Dagsson-Waldhauserová P., Arnalds Ó., Anttila K., Hannula H.-R., Kivekäs N., Lihavainen H., Meinander O., Svensson J., Virkkula A., de Leeuw G. (2015): Soot on snow exper- iment: bidirectional reflectance factor measurements of contaminated snow // The Cryosphere, 9, 2323-2337, http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/tc-9-2323-2015 4 Svensson J., Virkkula A., Meinander O., Kivekäs N., Hannula H.-R., Järvinen O., Peltoniemi J.I., Gritsevich M., Heikkilä A., Kontu A., Neitola K., Brus D., Dagsson-Waldhauserova P., Anttila K., Vehkamäki M., Hienola A., de Leeuw G. & Lihavainen H. (2016): Soot-doped natural snow and its albedo — results from field experiments. Boreal Environment Research, 21, 481-503, http://www.borenv.net/BER/pdfs/preprints/Svensson1498.pdf 5 Meinander O., Kontu A., Virkkula A., Arola A., Backman L., Dagsson-Waldhauserová P., Järvinen O., Manninen T., Svensson J., de Leeuw G., and Leppäranta M. (2014): Brief communication: Light-absorbing

  1. Nonlinear modeling of magnetorheological energy absorbers under impact conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Min; Hu, Wei; Choi, Young-Tai; Wereley, Norman M; Browne, Alan L; Ulicny, John; Johnson, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Magnetorheological energy absorbers (MREAs) provide adaptive vibration and shock mitigation capabilities to accommodate varying payloads, vibration spectra, and shock pulses, as well as other environmental factors. A key performance metric is the dynamic range, which is defined as the ratio of the force at maximum field to the force in the absence of field. The off-state force is typically assumed to increase linearly with speed, but at the higher shaft speeds occurring in impact events, the off-state damping exhibits nonlinear velocity squared damping effects. To improve understanding of MREA behavior under high-speed impact conditions, this study focuses on nonlinear MREA models that can more accurately predict MREA dynamic behavior for nominal impact speeds of up to 6 m s −1 . Three models were examined in this study. First, a nonlinear Bingham-plastic (BP) model incorporating Darcy friction and fluid inertia (Unsteady-BP) was formulated where the force is proportional to the velocity. Second, a Bingham-plastic model incorporating minor loss factors and fluid inertia (Unsteady-BPM) to better account for high-speed behavior was formulated. Third, a hydromechanical (HM) analysis was developed to account for fluid compressibility and inertia as well as minor loss factors. These models were validated using drop test data obtained using the drop tower facility at GM R and D Center for nominal drop speeds of up to 6 m s −1 . (paper)

  2. High-energy gamma-ray beams from Compton-backscattered laser light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandorfi, A.M.; LeVine, M.J.; Thorn, C.E.; Giordano, G.; Matone, G.

    1983-01-01

    Collisions of light photons with relativistic electrons have previously been used to produce polarized #betta#-ray beams with modest (-10%) resolution but relatively low intensity. In contrast, the LEGS project (Laser + Electron Gamma Source) at Brookhaven will produce a very high flux (>2 x 10 7 s - 1 ) of background-free polarized #betta# rays whose energy will be determined to a high accuracy (δE = 2.3 MeV). Initially, 300(420)-MeV #betta# rays will be produced by backscattering uv light from the new 2.5(3.0)-GeV X-ray storage ring of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). The LEGS facility will operate as one of many passive users of the NSLS. In a later stage of the project, a Free Electron Laser is expectred to extend the #betta#-ray energy up to 700 MeV

  3. High-energy gamma-ray beams from Compton-backscattered laser light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandorfi, A.M.; LeVine, M.J.; Thorn, C.E.; Giordano, G.; Matone, G.

    1983-01-01

    Collisions of light photons with relativistic electrons have previously been used to produce polarized ..gamma..-ray beams with modest (-10%) resolution but relatively low intensity. In contrast, the LEGS project (Laser + Electron Gamma Source) at Brookhaven will produce a very high flux (>2 x 10/sup 7/ s/sup -1/) of background-free polarized ..gamma.. rays whose energy will be determined to a high accuracy (..delta..E = 2.3 MeV). Initially, 300(420)-MeV ..gamma.. rays will be produced by backscattering uv light from the new 2.5(3.0)-GeV X-ray storage ring of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). The LEGS facility will operate as one of many passive users of the NSLS. In a later stage of the project, a Free Electron Laser is expectred to extend the ..gamma..-ray energy up to 700 MeV.

  4. Energy-saving modification on outdoor lighting in the nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Bo

    2010-01-01

    The outdoor lighting in the nuclear power plant don't automatically shut down,and cause lights to be long-light. It is proposed to install light-control switches in the electric circuit in order to achieve automatic control. The original outdoor lighting circuit uses the circuit breaker for over-current protection and short circuit fault protection, and use remote circuit breaker to manually operate the lamp on and off.Each circuit branch installs a light-control switch, and set the threshold of 100 lux for the light-control switch. When the natural illumination meet the minimum illumination requirement (> 100lux), the lights shut down the power.When natural illumination doesn't meet the lighting requirement (<100lux), the lighting automatically close.After the modification, it is resolved the outdoor lighting easily becoming a long light,and save energy. (authors)

  5. Analysis of federal policy options for improving US lighting energy efficiency: Commercial and residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, B.A.; McMahon, J.E.; Mills, E.; Chan, P.; Chan, T.W.; Eto, J.H.; Jennings, J.D.; Koomey, J.G.; Lo, K.W.; Lecar, M.; Price, L.; Rubinstein, F.; Sezgen, O.; Wenzel, T.

    1992-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized the opportunity to achieve energy, economic, and environmental benefits by promoting energy-efficient lighting through federal policies, including lighting standards, financial incentives, and information programs. To assist in this process, the Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy`s Office of Codes and Standards invited Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to assess prospective national impacts for a variety of policy options. Some progress has already been made in developing lighting policies at both the federal and state levels. The US DOE`s Office of Building Technologies has evaluated lighting efficiency incentives as part of its analysis for the National Energy Strategy. Fluorescent and incandescent lamp standards are included in the national Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486, October 24, 1992). A few states have analyzed or implemented lamp and luminaire standards. Many policy-related issues merit further investigation. For example, there is considerable debate over issues such as mandatory or voluntary standards versus component labeling and other education-oriented strategies. Several different technologies are involved that interact with each other-lamps (incandescent, compact fluorescent, and HID), ballasts (for fluorescent and HID lamps), and fixtures with reflectors and lenses. Control systems and operation patterns must also be considered (timers, automated dimming, or occupancy sensors). Lighting applications are diverse, ranging from offices, restaurants, hallways, hospital operating rooms, to exterior lights. Lighting energy use influences heating and cooling requirements in buildings. Successful lighting system design must also address interactions between architectural design elements and daylighting availability. Proper system installation and ongoing operation and maintenance are crucial. The economic aspects of the preceding points must also be considered for policy making.

  6. Test of the electronic structure of Fe(100) by absorbed current spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisker, E.; Kirby, R.E.; Garwin, E.L.; King, F.K.

    1984-10-01

    The absorbed electron current for a clean Fe(100) surface as a function of energy rises step-like at the vacuum-energy cutoff with an absorption close to 1. The smooth decrease of absorbed current at higher electron energy due to secondary electron emission is superimposed by a considerable amount of fine structure, the amplitude of which decreases with increasing energy. These features are found in good agreement with the results of a calculation of the elastic part of the electron reflection coefficient. Further, they are compared with the ferromagnetic electronic bulk bandstructure calculated above the vacuum energy. From the comparison with the experimental data, the energy dependence of the real and imaginary parts of the inner potential is determined

  7. Miniature photovoltaic energy system for lighting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awais, M.

    1999-01-01

    In this project a miniature photovoltaic energy system has been designed and developed, that may be used in remote areas and villages for lighting purposes. System sizing is the important part of the project because it affects the cost of the system. Therefore, first of all system sizing has been done. For conversion of dc voltage of the battery into ac voltage, an inverter has been designed. To charge the battery when the sun is not shining, a standby system has been developed using a bicycle and dynamo. To indicate the battery's state of charge and discharge, a battery monitoring circuit has also been developed. Similarly, to protect the battery from over discharging, a battery protection circuit has been designed. In order to measure how much energy is going from standby system to the battery, an efficient dc electronic energy meter has been designed and developed. The working of the overall system has been tested and found to give good performance. (author)

  8. Optimization of Perfect Absorbers with Multilayer Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li Voti, Roberto

    2018-02-01

    We study wide-angle and broadband perfect absorbers with compact multilayer structures made of a sequence of ITO and TiN layers deposited onto a silver thick layer. An optimization procedure is introduced for searching the optimal thicknesses of the layers so as to design a perfect broadband absorber from 400 nm to 750 nm, for a wide range of angles of incidence from 0{°} to 50{°}, for both polarizations and with a low emissivity in the mid-infrared. We eventually compare the performances of several optimal structures that can be very promising for solar thermal energy harvesting and collectors.

  9. Device for absorbing seismic effects on buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xercavins, Pierre; Pompei, Michel.

    1979-01-01

    Device for absorbing seismic effects. The construction or structure to be protected rests on its foundations through at least one footing formed of a stack of metal plates interlinked by layers of adhesive material, over at least a part of their extent, this material being an elastomer that can distort, characterized in that at least part of the area of some metal plates works in association with components which are able to absorb at least some of the energy resulting from friction during the relative movements of the metal plates against the distortion of the elastomer [fr

  10. Optical Pulsing in an Absorbing Liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jacob; Evans, Dean; Guha, Shekhar

    2003-03-01

    A continuous-wave laser can be converted into a series of repetitive pulses by focusing the laser beam into an absorbing liquid (e.g. nigrosine dissolved in a solvent), where the mechanism responsible for the pulses is the scattering of light off of photo-generated bubbles. The dependence of the pulsation frequency on the solvent, power, and cell thickness will be shown. The authors would like to acknowledge the contributions made by Prof. Daniel Lathrop (University of Maryland, Department of Physics) at the APS March 2002 meeting.

  11. Study on light output and energy resolution of PbWO4 crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Guanghui; Yue Ke; Sun Zhiyu

    2010-01-01

    The light output and energy resolution of PbWO 4 crystal are studied with different wrapping materials and methods. The Wrapping condition was optimized by analyzing the experimental data to gain higher light output and better energy resolution. A GEANT4-based package has been developed to simulate the corresponding features of PbWO 4 crystal, and the simulation results are consistent with the experimental data. (authors)

  12. Enhancement of near-infrared detectability from InGaZnO thin film transistor with MoS2 light absorbing layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Sang Woo; Chu, Dongil; Song, Da Ye; Kyo Lee, Seung; Kim, Eun Kyu

    2017-11-01

    We report an enhancement of near-infrared (NIR) detectability from amorphous InGaZnO (α-IGZO) thin film transistor in conjunction with randomly distributed molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) flakes. The electrical characteristics of the α-IGZO grown by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering exhibit high effective mobility exceeding 15 cm2 V-1 s-1 and current on/off ratio up to 107. By taking advantages of the high quality α-IGZO and MoS2 light absorbing layer, photodetection spectra are able to extend from ultra-violet to NIR range. The α-IGZO channel detector capped by MoS2 show a photo-responsivity of approximately 14.9 mA W-1 at 1100 nm wavelength, which is five times higher than of the α-IGZO device without MoS2 layer.

  13. High strength semi-active energy absorbers using shear- and mixedmode operation at high shear rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becnel, Andrew C.

    This body of research expands the design space of semi-active energy absorbers for shock isolation and crash safety by investigating and characterizing magnetorheological fluids (MRFs) at high shear rates ( > 25,000 1/s) under shear and mixed-mode operation. Magnetorheological energy absorbers (MREAs) work well as adaptive isolators due to their ability to quickly and controllably adjust to changes in system mass or impact speed while providing fail-safe operation. However, typical linear stroking MREAs using pressure-driven flows have been shown to exhibit reduced controllability as impact speed (shear rate) increases. The objective of this work is to develop MREAs that improve controllability at high shear rates by using pure shear and mixed shear-squeeze modes of operation, and to present the fundamental theory and models of MR fluids under these conditions. A proof of concept instrument verified that the MR effect persists in shear mode devices at shear rates corresponding to low speed impacts. This instrument, a concentric cylinder Searle cell magnetorheometer, was then used to characterize three commercially available MRFs across a wide range of shear rates, applied magnetic fields, and temperatures. Characterization results are presented both as flow curves according to established practice, and as an alternate nondimensionalized analysis based on Mason number. The Mason number plots show that, with appropriate correction coefficients for operating temperature, the varied flow curve data can be collapsed to a single master curve. This work represents the first shear mode characterization of MRFs at shear rates over 10 times greater than available with commercial rheometers, as well as the first validation of Mason number analysis to high shear rate flows in MRFs. Using the results from the magnetorheometer, a full scale rotary vane MREA was developed as part of the Lightweight Magnetorheological Energy Absorber System (LMEAS) for an SH-60 Seahawk helicopter

  14. Hybrid diffusion and two-flux approximation for multilayered tissue light propagation modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudovsky, Dmitry; Durkin, Anthony J.

    2011-07-01

    Accurate and rapid estimation of fluence, reflectance, and absorbance in multilayered biological media has been essential in many biophotonics applications that aim to diagnose, cure, or model in vivo tissue. The radiative transfer equation (RTE) rigorously models light transfer in absorbing and scattering media. However, analytical solutions to the RTE are limited even in simple homogeneous or plane media. Monte Carlo simulation has been used extensively to solve the RTE. However, Monte Carlo simulation is computationally intensive and may not be practical for applications that demand real-time results. Instead, the diffusion approximation has been shown to provide accurate estimates of light transport in strongly scattering tissue. The diffusion approximation is a greatly simplified model and produces analytical solutions for the reflectance and absorbance in tissue. However, the diffusion approximation breaks down if tissue is strongly absorbing, which is common in the visible part of the spectrum or in applications that involve darkly pigmented skin and/or high local volumes of blood such as port-wine stain therapy or reconstructive flap monitoring. In these cases, a model of light transfer that can accommodate both strongly and weakly absorbing regimes is required. Here we present a model of light transfer through layered biological media that represents skin with two strongly scattering and one strongly absorbing layer.

  15. Laser nanostructured Co nanocylinders-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} cermets for enhanced & flexible solar selective absorbers applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karoro, A., E-mail: angela@tlabs.ac.za [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure road, Somerset West 7129, PO Box 722, Western Cape (South Africa); Nuru, Z.Y.; Kotsedi, L.; Bouziane, Kh. [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure road, Somerset West 7129, PO Box 722, Western Cape (South Africa); Mothudi, B.M. [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Physics Dept., University of South Africa, Muckleneuk ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Maaza, M. [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure road, Somerset West 7129, PO Box 722, Western Cape (South Africa)

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • Co-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was synthesized by electrodeposition & femtosecond laser structuring. • The ultrafast laser structuring significantly increases the solar absorption. • Co-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} exhibited 0.98 solar absorptance and 0.03 thermal emittance. - Abstract: We report on the structural and optical properties of laser surface structured Co nanocylinders-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} cermets on flexible Aluminium substrate for enhanced solar selective absorbers applications. This new family of solar selective absorbers coating consisting of Co nanocylinders embedded into nanoporous alumina template which were produced by standard electrodeposition and thereafter submitted to femtosecond laser surface structuring. While their structural and chemical properties were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry and atomic force microscopy, their optical characteristics were investigated by specular & diffuse reflectance. The optimized samples exhibit an elevated optical absorptance α(λ) above 98% and an emittance ε(λ) ∼0.03 in the spectral range of 200–1100 nm. This set of values was suggested to be related to several surface and volume phenomena such as light trapping, plasmon surface effect as well as angular dependence of light reflection induced by the ultrafast laser multi-scale structuring.

  16. National award for energy-efficient town lighting. Compilation of energy-efficient town lighting techniques; Bundeswettbewerb Energieeffiziente Stadtbeleuchtung. Sammlung energieeffizienter Techniken fuer die Stadtbeleuchtung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piller, Sabine; Huebner, Vanessa; Barbre, Felix; Schaefer, Moritz [Berliner Energieagentur GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2009-02-11

    The national award for innovative urban lighting was initiated by the Federal Environmental Office. The resulting publication presents innovative techniques for urban lighting. While it is not a complete market survey, it provides an outline of modern, energy-efficient and environment-friendly technologies that are commercially available. Most systems are also available at comparatively low cost. For more information, interested users should refer to http://www.bmu.de/klimaschutzinitiative/aktuell/41708.php. (orig./AKB)

  17. Design and Analysis of Hybrid Solar Lighting and Full-Spectrum Solar Energy Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhs, J.D.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a systems-level design and analysis of a new approach for improving the energy efficiency and affordability of solar energy in buildings, namely, hybrid solar lighting and full-spectrum solar energy systems. By using different portions of the solar spectrum simultaneously for multiple end-use applications in buildings, the proposed system offers unique advantages over other alternatives for using sunlight to displace electricity (conventional topside daylighting and solar technologies). Our preliminary work indicates that hybrid solar lighting, a method of collecting and distributing direct sunlight for lighting purposes, will alleviate many of the problems with passive daylighting systems of today, such as spatial and temporal variability, glare, excess illumination, cost, and energy efficiency. Similarly, our work suggests that the most appropriate use of the visible portion of direct, nondiffuse sunlight from an energy-savings perspective is to displace electric light rather than generate electricity. Early estimates detailed in this paper suggest an anticipated system cost of well under$2.0/Wp and 5-11(cents)/kWh for displaced and generated electricity in single-story commercial building applications. Based on a number of factors discussed in the paper, including sunlight availability, building use scenarios, time-of-day electric utility rates, cost, and efficacy of the displaced electric lights, the simple payback of this approach in many applications could eventually be well under 5 years

  18. A Hybrid Indoor Ambient Light and Vibration Energy Harvester for Wireless Sensor Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Yu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To take advantage of applications where both light and vibration energy are available, a hybrid indoor ambient light and vibration energy harvesting scheme is proposed in this paper. This scheme uses only one power conditioning circuit to condition the combined output power harvested from both energy sources so as to reduce the power dissipation. In order to more accurately predict the instantaneous power harvested from the solar panel, an improved five-parameter model for small-scale solar panel applying in low light illumination is presented. The output voltage is increased by using the MEMS piezoelectric cantilever arrays architecture. It overcomes the disadvantage of traditional MEMS vibration energy harvester with low voltage output. The implementation of the maximum power point tracking (MPPT for indoor ambient light is implemented using analog discrete components, which improves the whole harvester efficiency significantly compared to the digital signal processor. The output power of the vibration energy harvester is improved by using the impedance matching technique. An efficient mechanism of energy accumulation and bleed-off is also discussed. Experiment results obtained from an amorphous-silicon (a-Si solar panel of 4.8 × 2.0 cm2 and a fabricated piezoelectric MEMS generator of 11 × 12.4 mm2 show that the hybrid energy harvester achieves a maximum efficiency around 76.7%.

  19. 76 FR 47178 - Energy Efficiency Program: Test Procedure for Lighting Systems (Luminaires)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [Docket Number EERE-2011-BT-TP-0041] RIN 1904-AC50 Energy Efficiency Program: Test Procedure for Lighting Systems (Luminaires) AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable... (``DOE'' or the ``Department'') is currently evaluating energy efficiency test procedures for luminaires...

  20. Future indoor light and associated energy consumption based on professionals' visions: A practice- and network-oriented analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franceschini, Simone; Borup, Mads; Rosales-Carreón, Jesús

    2018-01-01

    Through the insight and visions of Danish lighting experts, this manuscript investigates relationships between future lighting technologies and practices and the expected impacts on energy and lighting consumption. The light-emitting diode (LED) will be the dominant technology of the future smart...... light systems. Though, energy efficiency is expected to improve, new market players will appear and new lighting opportunites will be exploited that, in turn, will increase the demand for light. A rebound effect is expected. The overall impact on the future consumption of energy is uncertain, so we...

  1. Analysis of federal policy options for improving US lighting energy efficiency: Commercial and residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, B.A.; McMahon, J.E.; Mills, E.; Chan, P.; Chan, T.W.; Eto, J.H.; Jennings, J.D.; Koomey, J.G.; Lo, K.W.; Lecar, M.; Price, L.; Rubinstein, F.; Sezgen, O.; Wenzel, T.

    1992-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized the opportunity to achieve energy, economic, and environmental benefits by promoting energy-efficient lighting through federal policies, including lighting standards, financial incentives, and information programs. To assist in this process, the Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy's Office of Codes and Standards invited Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to assess prospective national impacts for a variety of policy options. Some progress has already been made in developing lighting policies at both the federal and state levels. The US DOE's Office of Building Technologies has evaluated lighting efficiency incentives as part of its analysis for the National Energy Strategy. Fluorescent and incandescent lamp standards are included in the national Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486, October 24, 1992). A few states have analyzed or implemented lamp and luminaire standards. Many policy-related issues merit further investigation. For example, there is considerable debate over issues such as mandatory or voluntary standards versus component labeling and other education-oriented strategies. Several different technologies are involved that interact with each other-lamps (incandescent, compact fluorescent, and HID), ballasts (for fluorescent and HID lamps), and fixtures with reflectors and lenses. Control systems and operation patterns must also be considered (timers, automated dimming, or occupancy sensors). Lighting applications are diverse, ranging from offices, restaurants, hallways, hospital operating rooms, to exterior lights. Lighting energy use influences heating and cooling requirements in buildings. Successful lighting system design must also address interactions between architectural design elements and daylighting availability. Proper system installation and ongoing operation and maintenance are crucial. The economic aspects of the preceding points must also be considered for policy making.

  2. Optical meta-atom for localization of light with quantized energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannebère, Sylvain; Silveirinha, Mário G

    2015-10-30

    The capacity to confine light into a small region of space is of paramount importance in many areas of modern science. Here we suggest a mechanism to store a quantized 'bit' of light--with a very precise amount of energy--in an open core-shell plasmonic structure ('meta-atom') with a nonlinear optical response. Notwithstanding the trapped light state is embedded in the radiation continuum, its lifetime is not limited by the radiation loss. Interestingly, it is shown that the interplay between the nonlinear response and volume plasmons enables breaking fundamental reciprocity restrictions, and coupling very efficiently an external light source to the meta-atom. The collision of an incident optical pulse with the meta-atom may be used to release the trapped light 'bit'.

  3. Light absorption of secondary organic aerosol: Composition and contribution of nitro-aromatic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) might affect the atmospheric radiation balance through absorbing light at shorter visible and UV wavelengths. However, the composition and optical properties of light-absorbing SOA is poorly understood. In this work, SOA filter samples were collect...

  4. Method of absorbing UF6 from gaseous mixtures in alkamine absorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafferty, R.H.; Smiley, S.H.; Radimer, K.J.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for recovering UF 6 from gaseous mixtures by absorption in a liquid. The liquid absorbent must have a relatively low viscosity and at least one component of the absorbent is an alkamine having less than 3 carbon atoms bonded to the amino nitrogen, less than 2 of the carbon atoms other than those bonded to the amino nitrogen are free of the hydroxy radical and precipitate the absorbed uranium from the absorbent. At least one component of the absorbent is chosen from the group consisting of ethanolamine, diethanolamine, and 3-methyl-3-amino-propane-diol-1,2

  5. Slow Light at High Frequencies in an Amplifying Semiconductor Waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öhman, Filip; Yvind, Kresten; Mørk, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate slow-down of a modulated light signal in a semiconductor waveguide. Concatenated amplifying and absorbing sections simultaneously achieve both amplification and a controllable time delay at 15 GHz.......We demonstrate slow-down of a modulated light signal in a semiconductor waveguide. Concatenated amplifying and absorbing sections simultaneously achieve both amplification and a controllable time delay at 15 GHz....

  6. Light Ion Beams for Energy Production in ADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraipan Mihaela

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of the energy efficiency of proton beams with an energy from 0.5 GeV to 4 GeV and light ion beams (7Li, 9Be, 11B, and 12C with energies from 0.25 AGeV to 1 AGeV in natural and enriched quasi-infinite U target is presented. The numerical results on the particle transport and interaction are obtained using the code Geant4. The following target optimization issues are addressed: the beam window dimensions, and the possibility to use a core from low Z materials. The best solution for ADS from the point of view of the energy gain and miniaturization is obtained for 7Li or 9Be beam with an energy of 0.3–0.4 AGeV and a target with Be core.

  7. The effects of emission control strategies on light-absorbing carbon emissions from a modern heavy-duty diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Michael A; Olson, Michael R; Liu, Z Gerald; Schauer, James J

    2015-06-01

    Control of atmospheric black carbon (BC) and brown carbon (BrC) has been proposed as an important pathway to climate change mitigation, but sources of BC and BrC are still not well understood. In order to better identify the role of modern heavy-duty diesel engines on the production of BC and BrC, emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine operating with different emission control strategies were examined using a source dilution sampling system. The effect of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particulate filter (DPF) on light-absorbing carbon (LAC) was evaluated at three steady-state engine operation modes: idle, 50% speed and load, and 100% speed and load. LAC was measured with four different engine configurations: engine out, DOC out, DPF out, and engine out with an altered combustion calibration. BC and BrC emission rates were measured with the Aethalometer (AE-31). EC and BC emission rates normalized to the mass of CO₂emitted increased with increasing engine speed and load. Emission rates normalized to brake-specific work did not exhibit similar trends with speed and load, but rather the highest emission rate was measured at idle. EC and OC emissions were reduced by 99% when the DOC and DPF architecture was applied. The application of a DPF was equally effective at removing 99% of the BC fraction of PM, proving to be an important control strategy for both LAC and PM. BC emissions were unexpectedly increased across the DOC, seemingly due to a change aerosol optical properties. Removal of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) flow due to simulated EGR cooler failure caused a large increase in OC and BrC emission rates at idle, but had limited influence during high load operation. LAC emissions proved to be sensitive to the same control strategies effective at controlling the total mass of diesel PM. In the context of black carbon emissions, very small emission rates of brown carbon were measured over a range of control technologies and engine operating

  8. Synthesis of CdSe-TiO_2 Photocatalyst and Their Enhanced Photocatalytic Activities under UV and Visible Light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Chang Sung; Chen, Ming Liang; Oh, Won Chun

    2011-01-01

    In this study, CdSe-TiO_2 photocatalyst were synthesized by a facile solvothermal method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectrophotometer. The photocatalytic activity was investigated by degrading methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution under irradiation of UV light as well as visible light. The absorbance of degraded MB solution was determined by UV-vis spectrophotometer. The results revealed that the CdSe- TiO_2 photocatalyst exhibited much higher photocatalytic activity than TiO_2 both under irradiation of UV light as well as visible light

  9. Carbon Nanomaterials for Optical Absorber Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama KAUL

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Optical absorbers based on vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs, synthesized using electric-field assisted growth, are described here that show an ultra-low reflectance, 100X lower compared to the benchmark, a diffuse metal black - Au-black - from wavelength l ~ 350 nm – 2500 nm. The reflectance of the MWCNT arrays was measured to be as low as 0.02 % at 2 mm in the infra-red (IR. Growth conditions were optimized for the realization of high-areal density arrays of MWCNTs using a plasma-based chemical vapor deposition (CVD process. Such high efficiency absorbers are particularly attractive for radiometry, as well as energy harnessing applications. Optical modeling calculations were conducted that enabled a determination of the extinction coefficient in the films.

  10. Photoelectrocatalytic activity of liquid phase deposited α-Fe2O3 films under visible light illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Man; Pu, Wenhong; Pan, Shichang; Okoth, Otieno Kevin; Yang, Changzhu; Zhang, Jingdong

    2015-01-01

    Liquid phase deposition (LPD) technique was employed to prepare α-Fe 2 O 3 films for photoelectrocatalytic degradation of pollutants. The obtained LPD films were characterized by various surface analysis techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicated that α-Fe 2 O 3 films with porous structure were successfully deposited on the titanium substrates by the LPD process. The UV–Visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopic (DRS) analysis showed that the obtained LPD α-Fe 2 O 3 film mainly absorbed visible light, which was advantageous to the utilization of solar energy. Under visible light illumination, the Fe 2 O 3 film electrodes exhibited sensitive photocurrent responses, which were affected by the calcination temperature. Consistent with the photocurrent analysis, the α-Fe 2 O 3 film calcined at 600 °C showed the best photoelectrocatalytic performance, and different organic pollutants such as methyl orange (MO) and p-nitrophenol (PNP) were effectively degraded over the LPD film electrode by photoelectrocatalytic treatment under visible light illumination. - Highlights: • α-Fe 2 O 3 film is prepared by liquid phase deposition process. • LPD α-Fe 2 O 3 film has a porous structure and absorbs visible light. • Calcination temperature shows a significant effect on the PEC performance of α-Fe 2 O 3 film. • α-Fe 2 O 3 film is efficient for photoelectrocatalytic degradation of pollutants

  11. Light Trapping with Silicon Light Funnel Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Prajapati

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Silicon light funnels are three-dimensional subwavelength structures in the shape of inverted cones with respect to the incoming illumination. Light funnel (LF arrays can serve as efficient absorbing layers on account of their light trapping capabilities, which are associated with the presence of high-density complex Mie modes. Specifically, light funnel arrays exhibit broadband absorption enhancement of the solar spectrum. In the current study, we numerically explore the optical coupling between surface light funnel arrays and the underlying substrates. We show that the absorption in the LF array-substrate complex is higher than the absorption in LF arrays of the same height (~10% increase. This, we suggest, implies that a LF array serves as an efficient surface element that imparts additional momentum components to the impinging illumination, and hence optically excites the substrate by near-field light concentration, excitation of traveling guided modes in the substrate, and mode hybridization.

  12. Lighting and energy performance for an office using high frequency dimming controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Danny H.W.; Lam, Tony N.T.; Wong, S.L.

    2006-01-01

    Artificial lighting is one of the major electricity consuming items in many non-domestic buildings. Recently, there has been an increasing interest in incorporating daylight in architectural and building designs to reduce the electricity use and enhance greener building developments. This paper presents field measurements for a fully air conditioned open plan office using a photoelectric dimming system. Electric lighting load, indoor illuminance levels and daylight availability were systematically measured and analyzed. The general features and characteristics of the results such as electric lighting energy savings and transmitted daylight illuminance in the forms of frequency distributions and cumulative frequency distributions are presented. Daylighting theories and regression models have been developed and discussed. It has been found that energy savings in electric lighting were over 30% using the high frequency dimming controls. The results from the study would be useful and applicable to other office spaces with similar architectural layouts and daylight linked lighting control systems

  13. Theoretical interpretations of enhanced laser light absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruer, W.L.

    1975-01-01

    Intense laser light is not efficiently absorbed classically but can be absorbed by its conversion to electron plasma waves near the critical density. The physical mechanisms for this conversion are discussed, and some simple estimates for heating by plasma waves are applied to some recent experiments. Several effects which strongly influence the absorption of high intensity light are emphasized, including a nonlinear steepening of the plasma density profile which is demonstrated in computer simulations. Finally the possibility of an induced reflection of laser light due to instabilities in the underdense plasma before the critical density is also discussed. Such stimulated reflection can be particularly important in plasmas with very long density gradients. (U.S.)

  14. Analysis of absorbed energy and efficiency of a solar flat plate collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Miguel Lenz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The highest percentage in home electricity demands in Brazil lies with the water heating systems, where the electric shower has a great contribution in consumption. The use of solar thermal panels is an alternative to minimize the strain on the electrical system by heating water. Current study evaluates a water heating system built with materials commonly used in home constructions. The tested collector is a 1 m² flat plate. Experiments were conducted at the State University of Western Paraná (UNIOESTE, campus Cascavel, Paraná State, Brazil. Temperature data were collected by PT100 sensors and solar radiation was measured with a pyranometer, coupled to a CR-1000 datalogger, with readings and collection every 5 minutes for 1 year. Data collection and analysis showed that the system presented monthly efficiency ranging between 33.7 and 53.54%, and energy absorbed between 30.79 and 75.29 kWh m-².month. Results show the system is a good option for use in residential or rural water heating due to decrease in the electric bill.

  15. Absorbed dose optimization in the microplanar beam radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Company, F.Z.; Jaric, J.; Allen, B.J.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: Recent advances in synchrotron generated X-ray beams with high fluence rate, small divergence and sharply defined microbeam margins permit investigation of the application of an array of closely spaced, parallel or converging microbeams for radiotherapy. The proposed technique takes advantage of the repair mechanism hypothesis of capillary endothelial cells between alternate microbeam zones, which regenerates the lethally irradiated capillaries. Unlike a pencil beam, more accurate dose calculation, beam width and spacing are essential to minimise radiation damage to normal tissue cells outside the target. The absorbed dose between microbeam zones should be kept below the threshold for irreversible radiation damage. Thus the peak-to-valley ratio for the dose distribution should be optimized. The absorbed dose profile depends on the energy of the incident beam and the composition and density of the medium. Using Monte Carlo computations, the radial absorbed dose of single 24 x 24 μm 2 cross-section X-ray beams of different energies in a tissue/lung/tissue phantom was investigated. The results indicated that at 100 keV, closely spaced square cross-sectional microbeams can be applied to the lung. A bundle of parallel 24 μm-wide planar microbeams spaced at 200 μm intervals provides much more irradiation coverage of tissue than is provided by a bundle of parallel, square cross-sectional microbeam, although the former is associated with much smaller Peak (maximum absorbed dose on the beam axis) -to-Valley ( minimum interbeam absorbed dose ) ratios than the latter. In this study the lateral and depth dose of single and multiple microplanar beams with beam dimensions of width 24 μm and 48 μm and height 2-20 cm with energy of 100 keV in a tissue/lung/tissue phantom are investigated. The EGS4 Monte Carlo code is used to calculate dose profiles at different depths and bundles of beams (2 x 2 cm 2 to 20 x 20 cm 2 square cross section) with a 150 μm 200 μm and

  16. Computation studies into architecture and energy transfer properties of photosynthetic units from filamentous anoxygenic phototrophs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linnanto, Juha Matti [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia 142, 51014 Tartu (Estonia); Freiberg, Arvi [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia 142, 51014 Tartu, Estonia and Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Tartu, Riia 23, 51010 Tartu (Estonia)

    2014-10-06

    We have used different computational methods to study structural architecture, and light-harvesting and energy transfer properties of the photosynthetic unit of filamentous anoxygenic phototrophs. Due to the huge number of atoms in the photosynthetic unit, a combination of atomistic and coarse methods was used for electronic structure calculations. The calculations reveal that the light energy