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Sample records for absorb impact energy

  1. Nonlinear modeling of magnetorheological energy absorbers under impact conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Min; Hu, Wei; Choi, Young-Tai; Wereley, Norman M.; Browne, Alan L.; Ulicny, John; Johnson, Nancy

    2013-11-01

    Magnetorheological energy absorbers (MREAs) provide adaptive vibration and shock mitigation capabilities to accommodate varying payloads, vibration spectra, and shock pulses, as well as other environmental factors. A key performance metric is the dynamic range, which is defined as the ratio of the force at maximum field to the force in the absence of field. The off-state force is typically assumed to increase linearly with speed, but at the higher shaft speeds occurring in impact events, the off-state damping exhibits nonlinear velocity squared damping effects. To improve understanding of MREA behavior under high-speed impact conditions, this study focuses on nonlinear MREA models that can more accurately predict MREA dynamic behavior for nominal impact speeds of up to 6 m s-1. Three models were examined in this study. First, a nonlinear Bingham-plastic (BP) model incorporating Darcy friction and fluid inertia (Unsteady-BP) was formulated where the force is proportional to the velocity. Second, a Bingham-plastic model incorporating minor loss factors and fluid inertia (Unsteady-BPM) to better account for high-speed behavior was formulated. Third, a hydromechanical (HM) analysis was developed to account for fluid compressibility and inertia as well as minor loss factors. These models were validated using drop test data obtained using the drop tower facility at GM R&D Center for nominal drop speeds of up to 6 m s-1.

  2. Nonlinear modeling of magnetorheological energy absorbers under impact conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Min; Hu, Wei; Choi, Young-Tai; Wereley, Norman M; Browne, Alan L; Ulicny, John; Johnson, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Magnetorheological energy absorbers (MREAs) provide adaptive vibration and shock mitigation capabilities to accommodate varying payloads, vibration spectra, and shock pulses, as well as other environmental factors. A key performance metric is the dynamic range, which is defined as the ratio of the force at maximum field to the force in the absence of field. The off-state force is typically assumed to increase linearly with speed, but at the higher shaft speeds occurring in impact events, the off-state damping exhibits nonlinear velocity squared damping effects. To improve understanding of MREA behavior under high-speed impact conditions, this study focuses on nonlinear MREA models that can more accurately predict MREA dynamic behavior for nominal impact speeds of up to 6 m s −1 . Three models were examined in this study. First, a nonlinear Bingham-plastic (BP) model incorporating Darcy friction and fluid inertia (Unsteady-BP) was formulated where the force is proportional to the velocity. Second, a Bingham-plastic model incorporating minor loss factors and fluid inertia (Unsteady-BPM) to better account for high-speed behavior was formulated. Third, a hydromechanical (HM) analysis was developed to account for fluid compressibility and inertia as well as minor loss factors. These models were validated using drop test data obtained using the drop tower facility at GM R and D Center for nominal drop speeds of up to 6 m s −1 . (paper)

  3. Impact Energy Absorbing Capability of Metal/Polymer Hybrid Sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Kyungil; Kwon, O Bum; Park, Hyung Wook [Ulsan Nat’l Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Recently, the reduction of vehicle weight has been increasingly studied, in order to enhance the fuel efficiency of passenger cars. In particular, the seat frame is being studied actively, owing to considerations of driver safety from external impact damage. Therefore, this study focuses on high strength steel sheet (SPFC980)/polymer heterojunction hybrid materials, and their performance in regards to impact energy absorption. The ratio of impact energy absorption was observed to be relatively higher in the SPFC980/polymer hybrid materials under the impact load. This was found by calculating the equivalent flexural rigidity, which is the bending effect, according to the Castigliano theorem. An efficient wire-web structure was investigated through the simulation of different wire-web designs such as triangular, rectangular, octagonal, and hexagonal structures. The hexagonal wire-web structure was shown to have the least impact damage, according to the simulations. This study can be utilized for seat frame design for passengers’ safety, owing to efficient impact absorption.

  4. Kinetic energy absorbing pad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bricmont, R.J.; Hamilton, P.A.; Ming Long Ting, R.

    1981-01-01

    Reactors, fuel processing plants etc incorporate pipes and conduits for fluids under high pressure. Fractures, particularly adjacent to conduit elbows, produce a jet of liquid which whips the broken conduit at an extremely high velocity. An enormous impact load would be applied to any stationary object in the conduit's path. The design of cellular, corrugated metal impact pads to absorb the kinetic energy of the high velocity conduits is given. (U.K.)

  5. Crush Can Behaviour as an Energy Absorber in a Frontal Impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhuyan, Atanu; Ganilova, Olga

    2012-01-01

    The work presented is devoted to the investigation of a state-of-the-art technological solution for the design of a crush-can characterized by optimal energy absorbing properties. The work is focused on the theoretical background of the square tubes, circular tubes and inverbucktube performance under impact with the purpose of design of a novel optimized structure. The main system under consideration is based on the patent US 2008/0185851 A1 and includes a base flange with elongated crush boxes and back straps for stabilization of the crush boxes with the purpose of improvement of the energy-absorbing functionality. The modelling of this system is carried out applying both a theoretical approach and finite element analysis concentrating on the energy absorbing abilities of the crumple zones. The optimization process is validated under dynamic and quasi-static loading conditions whilst considering various modes of deformation and stress distribution along the tubular components. Energy absorbing behaviour of the crush-cans is studied concentrating on their geometrical properties and their diamond or concertina modes of deformation. Moreover, structures made of different materials, steel, aluminium and polymer composites are considered for the material effect analysis and optimization through their combination. Optimization of the crush-can behaviour is done within the limits of the frontal impact scenario with the purpose of improvement of the structural performance in the Euro NCAP tests.

  6. Crush Can Behaviour as an Energy Absorber in a Frontal Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuyan, Atanu; Ganilova, Olga

    2012-08-01

    The work presented is devoted to the investigation of a state-of-the-art technological solution for the design of a crush-can characterized by optimal energy absorbing properties. The work is focused on the theoretical background of the square tubes, circular tubes and inverbucktube performance under impact with the purpose of design of a novel optimized structure. The main system under consideration is based on the patent US 2008/0185851 A1 and includes a base flange with elongated crush boxes and back straps for stabilization of the crush boxes with the purpose of improvement of the energy-absorbing functionality. The modelling of this system is carried out applying both a theoretical approach and finite element analysis concentrating on the energy absorbing abilities of the crumple zones. The optimization process is validated under dynamic and quasi-static loading conditions whilst considering various modes of deformation and stress distribution along the tubular components. Energy absorbing behaviour of the crush-cans is studied concentrating on their geometrical properties and their diamond or concertina modes of deformation. Moreover, structures made of different materials, steel, aluminium and polymer composites are considered for the material effect analysis and optimization through their combination. Optimization of the crush-can behaviour is done within the limits of the frontal impact scenario with the purpose of improvement of the structural performance in the Euro NCAP tests.

  7. An Overview on Impact Behaviour and Energy Absorption of Collapsible Metallic and Non-Metallic Energy Absorbers used in Automotive Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, R. B.; Mali, K. D.

    2018-04-01

    Collapsible impact energy absorbers play an important role of protecting automotive components from damage during collision. Collision of the two objects results into the damage to one or both of them. Damage may be in the form of crack, fracture and scratch. Designers must know about how the material and object behave under impact event. Owing to above reasons different types of collapsible impact energy absorbers are developed. In the past different studies were undertaken to improve such collapsible impact energy absorbers. This article highlights such studies on common shapes of collapsible impact energy absorber and their impact behaviour under the axial compression. The literature based on studies and analyses of effects of different geometrical parameters on the crushing behaviour of impact energy absorbers is presented in detail. The energy absorber can be of different shape such as circular tube, square tube, and frustums of cone and pyramids. The crushing behaviour of energy absorbers includes studies on crushing mechanics, modes of deformation, energy absorbing capacity, effect on peak and mean crushing load. In this work efforts are made to cover major outcomes from past studies on such behavioural parameters. Even though the major literature reviewed is related to metallic energy absorbers, emphasis is also laid on covering literature on use of composite tube, fiber metal lamination (FML) member, honeycomb plate and functionally graded thickness (FGT) tube as a collapsible impact energy absorber.

  8. Experimental validation of a magnetorheological energy absorber design optimized for shock and impact loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Harinder J; Hu, Wei; Wereley, Norman M; Glass, William

    2014-01-01

    A linear stroke adaptive magnetorheological energy absorber (MREA) was designed, fabricated and tested for intense impact conditions with piston velocities up to 8 m s −1 . The performance of the MREA was characterized using dynamic range, which is defined as the ratio of maximum on-state MREA force to the off-state MREA force. Design optimization techniques were employed in order to maximize the dynamic range at high impact velocities such that MREA maintained good control authority. Geometrical parameters of the MREA were optimized by evaluating MREA performance on the basis of a Bingham-plastic analysis incorporating minor losses (BPM analysis). Computational fluid dynamics and magnetic FE analysis were conducted to verify the performance of passive and controllable MREA force, respectively. Subsequently, high-speed drop testing (0–4.5 m s −1 at 0 A) was conducted for quantitative comparison with the numerical simulations. Refinements to the nonlinear BPM analysis were carried out to improve prediction of MREA performance. (paper)

  9. Experimental validation of a magnetorheological energy absorber design optimized for shock and impact loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harinder J.; Hu, Wei; Wereley, Norman M.; Glass, William

    2014-12-01

    A linear stroke adaptive magnetorheological energy absorber (MREA) was designed, fabricated and tested for intense impact conditions with piston velocities up to 8 m s-1. The performance of the MREA was characterized using dynamic range, which is defined as the ratio of maximum on-state MREA force to the off-state MREA force. Design optimization techniques were employed in order to maximize the dynamic range at high impact velocities such that MREA maintained good control authority. Geometrical parameters of the MREA were optimized by evaluating MREA performance on the basis of a Bingham-plastic analysis incorporating minor losses (BPM analysis). Computational fluid dynamics and magnetic FE analysis were conducted to verify the performance of passive and controllable MREA force, respectively. Subsequently, high-speed drop testing (0-4.5 m s-1 at 0 A) was conducted for quantitative comparison with the numerical simulations. Refinements to the nonlinear BPM analysis were carried out to improve prediction of MREA performance.

  10. Impact Testing and Simulation of a Sinusoid Foam Sandwich Energy Absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Karen E.; Fasanella, Edwin L; Littell, Justin D.

    2015-01-01

    A sinusoidal-shaped foam sandwich energy absorber was developed and evaluated at NASA Langley Research Center through multi-level testing and simulation performed under the Transport Rotorcraft Airframe Crash Testbed (TRACT) research project. The energy absorber, designated the "sinusoid," consisted of hybrid carbon- Kevlar® plain weave fabric face sheets, two layers for each face sheet oriented at +/-45deg with respect to the vertical or crush direction, and a closed-cell ELFOAM(TradeMark) P200 polyisocyanurate (2.0-lb/ft3) foam core. The design goal for the energy absorber was to achieve an average floor-level acceleration of between 25- and 40-g during the full-scale crash test of a retrofitted CH-46E helicopter airframe, designated TRACT 2. Variations in the design were assessed through quasi-static and dynamic crush testing of component specimens. Once the design was finalized, a 5-ft-long subfloor beam was fabricated and retrofitted into a barrel section of a CH-46E helicopter. A vertical drop test of the barrel section was conducted onto concrete to evaluate the performance of the energy absorber prior to retrofit into TRACT 2. Finite element models were developed of all test articles and simulations were performed using LSDYNA ®, a commercial nonlinear explicit transient dynamic finite element code. Test analysis results are presented for the sinusoid foam sandwich energy absorber as comparisons of load-displacement and acceleration-time-history responses, as well as predicted and experimental structural deformations and progressive damage for each evaluation level (component testing through barrel section drop testing).

  11. Absorbed impact energy and mode of fracture: A statistical description of the micro-structural dispersion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontikis, V., E-mail: Vassilis.Pontikis@cea.f [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, IRAMIS, Laboratoire des Solides Irradies, CNRS UMR 7642, Ecole Polytechnique, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Gorse, D. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, IRAMIS, Laboratoire des Solides Irradies, CNRS UMR 7642, Ecole Polytechnique, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France)

    2009-10-01

    A statistical model is proposed to account for the influence of the dispersion of the microstructure on the ductile-to-brittle transition in body centered cubic (bcc) metals and their alloys. In this model, the dispersion of the microstructure is expressed via a normal distribution of transition temperatures whereas a simple relation exists between the values of absorbed, lower and upper shelf energies, the ductile area fraction and the distribution parameters. It is shown that via an appropriate renormalization of energies and temperatures, experimental data for different materials and ageing conditions align all together on a master curve, guaranteeing thereby the effectiveness of the proposed statistical description.

  12. Absorbed impact energy and mode of fracture: A statistical description of the micro-structural dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontikis, V.; Gorse, D.

    2009-01-01

    A statistical model is proposed to account for the influence of the dispersion of the microstructure on the ductile-to-brittle transition in body centered cubic (bcc) metals and their alloys. In this model, the dispersion of the microstructure is expressed via a normal distribution of transition temperatures whereas a simple relation exists between the values of absorbed, lower and upper shelf energies, the ductile area fraction and the distribution parameters. It is shown that via an appropriate renormalization of energies and temperatures, experimental data for different materials and ageing conditions align all together on a master curve, guaranteeing thereby the effectiveness of the proposed statistical description.

  13. Energy Absorbing Effectiveness – Different Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotełko Maria

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the study of different crashworthiness indicators used to evaluate energy absorbing effectiveness of thin-walled energy absorbers is presented. Several different indicators are used to assess an effectiveness of two types of absorbing structures, namely thin-walled prismatic column with flaws and thin-walled prismatic frustum (hollow or foam filled in both cases subjected to axial compressive impact load. The indicators are calculated for different materials and different geometrical parameters. The problem of selection of the most appropriate and general indicators is discussed.

  14. Moving core beam energy absorber and converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degtiarenko, Pavel V.

    2012-12-18

    A method and apparatus for the prevention of overheating of laser or particle beam impact zones through the use of a moving-in-the-coolant-flow arrangement for the energy absorbing core of the device. Moving of the core spreads the energy deposition in it in 1, 2, or 3 dimensions, thus increasing the effective cooling area of the device.

  15. Energy absorbers as pipe supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khlafallah, M.Z.; Lee, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    With the exception of springs, pipe supports currently in use are designed with the intent of maintaining their rigidity under load. Energy dissipation mechanisms in these pipe supports result in system damping on the order presented by Code Case N-411 of ASME Section III code. Examples of these energy dissipation mechanisms are fluids and gaps in snubbers, gaps in frame supports, and friction in springs and frame supports. If energy absorbing supports designed in accordance with Code Case N-420 are used, higher additional damping will result

  16. Development of a Continuum Damage Mechanics Material Model of a Graphite-Kevlar(Registered Trademark) Hybrid Fabric for Simulating the Impact Response of Energy Absorbing Kevlar(Registered Trademark) Hybrid Fabric for Simulating the Impact Response of Energy Absorbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Karen E.; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Littell, Justin D.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the development of input properties for a continuum damage mechanics based material model, Mat 58, within LS-DYNA(Registered Trademark) to simulate the response of a graphite-Kevlar(Registered Trademark) hybrid plain weave fabric. A limited set of material characterization tests were performed on the hybrid graphite-Kevlar(Registered Trademark) fabric. Simple finite element models were executed in LS-DYNA(Registered Trademark) to simulate the material characterization tests and to verify the Mat 58 material model. Once verified, the Mat 58 model was used in finite element models of two composite energy absorbers: a conical-shaped design, designated the "conusoid," fabricated of four layers of hybrid graphite-Kevlar(Registered Trademark) fabric; and, a sinusoidal-shaped foam sandwich design, designated the "sinusoid," fabricated of the same hybrid fabric face sheets with a foam core. Dynamic crush tests were performed on components of the two energy absorbers, which were designed to limit average vertical accelerations to 25- to 40-g, to minimize peak crush loads, and to generate relatively long crush stroke values under dynamic loading conditions. Finite element models of the two energy absorbers utilized the Mat 58 model that had been verified through material characterization testing. Excellent predictions of the dynamic crushing response were obtained.

  17. TPX/TFTR Neutral Beam energy absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlgren, F.; Wright, K.; Kamperschroer, J.; Grisham, L.; Lontai, L.; Peters, C.; VonHalle, A.

    1993-01-01

    The present beam energy absorbing surfaces on the TFTR Neutral Beams such as Ion Dumps, Calorimeters, beam defining apertures, and scrapers, are simple water cooled copper plates which wee designed to absorb (via their thermal inertia) the incident beam power for two seconds with a five minute coal down interval between pulses. These components are not capable of absorbing the anticipated beam power loading for 1000 second TPX pulses and will have to be replaced with an actively cooled design. While several actively cooled energy absorbing designs were considered,, the hypervapotron elements currently being used on the JET beamlines were chosen due to their lower cooling water demands and reliable performance on JET

  18. Absorbed Energy in Ship Collisions and Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming

    1998-01-01

    is that the absorbed energy does not depend on the arrangement of the structure, the material properties, and the damage mode.The purpose of the present paper is to establish a new simple relation between the absorbed energy and the destroyed material volume, which can be used as a design tool for analysis of ship...... collisions and grounding. The developed expressions reflect the structural arrangement, the material properties and different damage patterns.The present method is validated against a large number of existing experimental results and detailed numerical simulation results. Applications to full-sale ship...

  19. Can polar bear hairs absorb environmental energy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Ji-Huan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A polar bear (Ursus maritimus has superior ability to survive in harsh Arctic regions, why does the animal have such an excellent thermal protection? The present paper finds that the unique labyrinth cavity structure of the polar bear hair plays an important role. The hair can not only prevent body temperature loss but can also absorb energy from the environment.

  20. Energy-harvesting shock absorber with a mechanical motion rectifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongjie; Zuo, Lei; Kuang, Jian; Luhrs, George

    2013-02-01

    Energy-harvesting shock absorbers are able to recover the energy otherwise dissipated in the suspension vibration while simultaneously suppressing the vibration induced by road roughness. They can work as a controllable damper as well as an energy generator. An innovative design of regenerative shock absorbers is proposed in this paper, with the advantage of significantly improving the energy harvesting efficiency and reducing the impact forces caused by oscillation. The key component is a unique motion mechanism, which we called ‘mechanical motion rectifier (MMR)’, to convert the oscillatory vibration into unidirectional rotation of the generator. An implementation of a MMR-based harvester with high compactness is introduced and prototyped. A dynamic model is created to analyze the general properties of the motion rectifier by making an analogy between mechanical systems and electrical circuits. The model is capable of analyzing electrical and mechanical components at the same time. Both simulation and experiments are carried out to verify the modeling and the advantages. The prototype achieved over 60% efficiency at high frequency, much better than conventional regenerative shock absorbers in oscillatory motion. Furthermore, road tests are done to demonstrate the feasibility of the MMR shock absorber, in which more than 15 Watts of electricity is harvested while driving at 15 mph on a smooth paved road. The MMR-based design can also be used for other applications of vibration energy harvesting, such as from tall buildings or long bridges.

  1. Energy-harvesting shock absorber with a mechanical motion rectifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhongjie; Zuo, Lei; Kuang, Jian; Luhrs, George

    2013-01-01

    Energy-harvesting shock absorbers are able to recover the energy otherwise dissipated in the suspension vibration while simultaneously suppressing the vibration induced by road roughness. They can work as a controllable damper as well as an energy generator. An innovative design of regenerative shock absorbers is proposed in this paper, with the advantage of significantly improving the energy harvesting efficiency and reducing the impact forces caused by oscillation. The key component is a unique motion mechanism, which we called ‘mechanical motion rectifier (MMR)’, to convert the oscillatory vibration into unidirectional rotation of the generator. An implementation of a MMR-based harvester with high compactness is introduced and prototyped. A dynamic model is created to analyze the general properties of the motion rectifier by making an analogy between mechanical systems and electrical circuits. The model is capable of analyzing electrical and mechanical components at the same time. Both simulation and experiments are carried out to verify the modeling and the advantages. The prototype achieved over 60% efficiency at high frequency, much better than conventional regenerative shock absorbers in oscillatory motion. Furthermore, road tests are done to demonstrate the feasibility of the MMR shock absorber, in which more than 15 Watts of electricity is harvested while driving at 15 mph on a smooth paved road. The MMR-based design can also be used for other applications of vibration energy harvesting, such as from tall buildings or long bridges. (paper)

  2. High energy model for irregular absorbing particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiappetta, Pierre.

    1979-05-01

    In the framework of a high energy formulation of relativistic quantum scattering a model is presented which describes the scattering functions and polarization of irregular absorbing particles, whose dimensions are greater than the incident wavelength. More precisely in the forward direction an amplitude parametrization of eikonal type is defined which generalizes the usual diffraction theory, and in the backward direction a reflective model is used including a shadow function. The model predictions are in good agreement with the scattering measurements off irregular compact and fluffy particles performed by Zerull, Giese and Weiss (1977)

  3. Wave energy extraction by coupled resonant absorbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, D V; Porter, R

    2012-01-28

    In this article, a range of problems and theories will be introduced that will build towards a new wave energy converter (WEC) concept, with the acronym 'ROTA' standing for resonant over-topping absorber. First, classical results for wave power absorption for WECs constrained to operate in a single degree of freedom will be reviewed and the role of resonance in their operation highlighted. Emphasis will then be placed on how the introduction of further resonances can improve power take-off characteristics by extending the range of frequencies over which the efficiency is close to a theoretical maximum. Methods for doing this in different types of WECs will be demonstrated. Coupled resonant absorbers achieve this by connecting a WEC device equipped with its own resonance (determined from a hydrodynamic analysis) to a new system having separate mass/spring/damper characteristics. It is shown that a coupled resonant effect can be realized by inserting a water tank into a WEC, and this idea forms the basis of the ROTA device. In essence, the idea is to exploit the coupling between the natural sloshing frequencies of the water in the internal tank and the natural resonance of a submerged buoyant circular cylinder device that is tethered to the sea floor, allowing a rotary motion about its axis of attachment.

  4. A novel energy absorber based on magnetorheological gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Haoming; Xuan, Shouhu; Sun, Chuanlin; Gong, Xinglong

    2017-10-01

    In this work, a novel magnetorheological energy absorber (MREA) was designed by using magnetorheological gel (MRG) as the damping medium. The proposed MREA had tunable piston gap distances and variable inner magnetic flux density distribution. The piston gap distance could be varied from 7-2 mm and the magnetic flux density at the gap increased from 120-860 mT, respectively. Under both low velocity compression and high speed impact, the damping could be divided into three parts. In the impact test, the velocity of a drop hammer could be reduced from to 3.4-0 m s-1 within a very short time (13 ms) and distance (17 mm). The maximum damping force of the MREA reached to as high as 8 kN. The damping force could also be adjusted by changing the current input. Under a 2 A current, the energy absorption ratio increased about 23% (from 4.13-5.07 J mm-1).

  5. Shock absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Housman, J.J.

    1978-01-01

    A shock absorber is described for use in a hostile environment at the end of a blind passage for absorbing impact loads. The shock absorber includes at least one element which occupies the passage and which is comprised of a porous brittle material which is substantially non-degradable in the hostile environment. A void volume is provided in the element to enable the element to absorb a predetermined level of energy upon being crushed due to impact loading

  6. Energy analysis of vehicle-to-cable barrier impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    An accident reconstruction technique was developed for estimating the energy absorbed during an impact with a cable barrier system as well as the initial impact velocity. The kinetic energy absorbed during a cable barrier system impact is comprised o...

  7. Absorbed energy for radiation crosslinking in stabilized PE systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakovic, Lj.; Gal, O.; Charlesby, A.

    1990-01-01

    A quantitative consideration on the absorbed energy consumption in various γ-irradiated polyethylene systems is given. On the base of the increased gel dose values for the PE systems containing antioxidant, relative to the gel doses for the pure polymers, the surplus of the absorbed energy due to the presence of the particular antioxidant is calculated. The increasing of the energy consumption in the stabilized systems depends on both the type and the content of the basic polymer. The surplus in the absorbed energy decreases with the radiation dose increasing, reflecting both the diminishing of the antioxidant concentration in the irradiating PE systems and the crosslinking level. The findings can be of interest in the estimation of the absorbed doses for the specific radiation crosslinking processes. (author)

  8. Absorbed energy for radiation crosslinking in stabilized PE systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novakovic, Lj; Gal, O [Institut za Nuklearne Nauke Boris Kidric, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Charlesby, A

    1990-01-01

    A quantitative consideration on the absorbed energy consumption in various {gamma}-irradiated polyethylene systems is given. On the base of the increased gel dose values for the PE systems containing antioxidant, relative to the gel doses for the pure polymers, the surplus of the absorbed energy due to the presence of the particular antioxidant is calculated. The increasing of the energy consumption in the stabilized systems depends on both the type and the content of the basic polymer. The surplus in the absorbed energy decreases with the radiation dose increasing, reflecting both the diminishing of the antioxidant concentration in the irradiating PE systems and the crosslinking level. The findings can be of interest in the estimation of the absorbed doses for the specific radiation crosslinking processes. (author).

  9. Energy deposition studies for the LBNE beam absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakhno, Igor L.; Mokhov, Nikolai V.; Tropin, Igor S.

    2015-01-01

    Results of detailed Monte Carlo energy deposition studies performed for the LBNE absorber core and the surrounding shielding with the MARS15 code are described. The model of the entire facility that includes a pion-production target, focusing horns, target chase, decay channel, hadron absorber system - all with corresponding radiation shielding - was developed using the recently implemented ROOT-based geometry option in the MARS15 code. This option provides substantial flexibility and automation when developing complex geometry models. Both normal operation and accidental conditions were studied. Various design options were considered, in particular the following: (i) filling the decay pipe with air or helium; (ii) the absorber mask material and shape; (iii) the beam spoiler material and size. Results of detailed thermal calculations with the ANSYS code helped to select the most viable absorber design options. (authors)

  10. Energy Analysis of Solar Collector With perforated Absorber Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar A. Farhan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The thermal performance of three solar collectors with 3, 6 mm and without perforation absorber plate was assessed experimentally. The experimental tests were implemented in Baghdad during the January and February 2017. Five values of airflow rates range between 0.01 – 0.1 m3/s were used through the test with a constant airflow rate during the test day. The variation of the following parameters air temperature difference, useful energy, absorber plate temperature, and collector efficiency was recorded every 15 minutes. The experimental data reports that the increases the number of absorber plate perforations with a small diameter is more efficient rather than increasing the hole diameter of the absorber plate with decreasing the perforation numbers. Maximum air temperature difference throughout the solar collector with 3, 6 mm perforations and without perforations are 17, 15, and 12 oC, respectively. Also, it can be concluded that the energy gained from the solar collector with 3 mm perforation absorber plate is 28.2 % more than the energy gained from solar collector without holes per day for 0.1 m3/s airflow rate. The maximum values of the thermal performance curves are 0.67, 0.64, and 0.56 for the solar collector with 3, 6 mm, and without perforations, respectively.

  11. Numerical Modeling of a Wave Energy Point Absorber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez, Lorenzo Banos; Frigaard, Peter; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2009-01-01

    The present study deals with numerical modelling of the Wave Star Energy WSE device. Hereby, linear potential theory is applied via a BEM code on the wave hydrodynamics exciting the floaters. Time and frequency domain solutions of the floater response are determined for regular and irregular seas....... Furthermore, these results are used to estimate the power and the energy absorbed by a single oscillating floater. Finally, a latching control strategy is analysed in open-loop configuration for energy maximization....

  12. Design considerations for application of metallic honeycomb as an energy absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.H.; Roemer, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    Design for postulated accidents in nuclear power plants often requires mitigation of impact to safety-related structures. Plastically designed, energy absorbing mechanisms are often used in the design of such mitigating structures. Metallic honeycomb is the most efficient, practical, energy-absorbing material currently in use. Recent tests indicate that its use in this application, however, presents some unique design and fabrication problems. The paper presents the results of static and dynamic crush tests concerned with the effect of impact velocity, material properties, cell density, loading configuration, and overall pad geometry. Specific design recommendations are made in each area, and suggestions are provided to improve fabrication techniques and minimize subsequent problems

  13. Simulation of a Local Collision of SC Wall Using High Energy Absorbing Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, H. K.; Chung, C. H.; Park, J.; Lee, J. W. [Dankook University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, S. Y. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Local damage evaluations for nuclear power plant(NPP) design are performed against turbine impact, tornado impact, airplane engine impact, etc., where turbine is a internal source of impact, whereas tornado and airplane engine are external sources of impact. The thickness of NPP wall structure is determined at initial design stage not to be penetrated by local impacts. This study investigated the local damage of NPP substructure against internal turbine impact. Simulation of local collisions of SC wall in NPP structure, which consists of two models: one using general steel and the other using high energy absorbing steel, were performed. The performance of SC wall using ductile high energy absorbing steel can be greatly improved on local collisions when compared with that of general steel

  14. Simulation of a Local Collision of SC Wall Using High Energy Absorbing Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, H. K.; Chung, C. H.; Park, J.; Lee, J. W.; Kim, S. Y.

    2011-01-01

    Local damage evaluations for nuclear power plant(NPP) design are performed against turbine impact, tornado impact, airplane engine impact, etc., where turbine is a internal source of impact, whereas tornado and airplane engine are external sources of impact. The thickness of NPP wall structure is determined at initial design stage not to be penetrated by local impacts. This study investigated the local damage of NPP substructure against internal turbine impact. Simulation of local collisions of SC wall in NPP structure, which consists of two models: one using general steel and the other using high energy absorbing steel, were performed. The performance of SC wall using ductile high energy absorbing steel can be greatly improved on local collisions when compared with that of general steel

  15. Solar energy utilization by solar cells and superblack absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnet, D; Selders, M

    1975-10-31

    A review is presented of the physical principles responsible for the characteristics of solar cells, with particular reference to Si homojunction and CdS--Cu/sub 2/S thin film devices. Electric power generation from solar cells still appears uncompetitive economically except in special circumstances, but heating from solar energy using selective absorbers with low reemission is more promising.

  16. Impacts of Snow Darkening by Absorbing Aerosols on Eurasian Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyu-Myong; Lau, William K M.; Yasunari, Teppei J.; Kim, Maeng-Ki; Koster, Randal D.

    2016-01-01

    The deposition of absorbing aerosols on snow surfaces reduces snow-albedo and allows snowpack to absorb more sunlight. This so-called snow darkening effect (SDE) accelerates snow melting and leads to surface warming in spring. To examine the impact of SDE on weather and climate during late spring and early summer, two sets of NASA GEOS-5 model simulations with and without SDE are conducted. Results show that SDE-induced surface heating is particularly pronounced in Eurasian regions where significant depositions of dust transported from the North African deserts, and black carbon from biomass burning from Asia and Europe occur. In these regions, the surface heating due to SDE increases surface skin temperature by 3-6 degrees Kelvin near the snowline in spring. Surface energy budget analysis indicates that SDE-induced excess heating is associated with a large increase in surface evaporation, subsequently leading to a significant reduction in soil moisture, and increased risks of drought and heat waves in late spring to early summer. Overall, we find that rainfall deficit combined with SDE-induced dry soil in spring provide favorable condition for summertime heat waves over large regions of Eurasia. Increased frequency of summer heat waves with SDE and the region of maximum increase in heat-wave frequency are found along the snow line, providing evidence that early snowmelt by SDE may increase the risks of extreme summer heat wave. Our results suggest that climate models that do not include SDE may significantly underestimate the effect of global warming over extra-tropical continental regions.

  17. Optimized Latching Control of Floating Point Absorber Wave Energy Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadodia, Chaitanya; Shandilya, Shubham; Bansal, Hari Om

    2018-03-01

    There is an increasing demand for energy in today’s world. Currently main energy resources are fossil fuels, which will eventually drain out, also the emissions produced from them contribute to global warming. For a sustainable future, these fossil fuels should be replaced with renewable and green energy sources. Sea waves are a gigantic and undiscovered vitality asset. The potential for extricating energy from waves is extensive. To trap this energy, wave energy converters (WEC) are needed. There is a need for increasing the energy output and decreasing the cost requirement of these existing WECs. This paper presents a method which uses prediction as a part of the control scheme to increase the energy efficiency of the floating-point absorber WECs. Kalman Filter is used for estimation, coupled with latching control in regular as well as irregular sea waves. Modelling and Simulation results for the same are also included.

  18. Innovative energy absorbing devices based on composite tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Chandrashekhar

    Analytical and experimental study of innovative load limiting and energy absorbing devices are presented here. The devices are based on composite tubes and can be categorized in to two groups based upon the energy absorbing mechanisms exhibited by them, namely: foam crushing and foam fracturing. The device based on foam crushing as the energy absorbing mechanism is composed of light weight elastic-plastic foam filling inside an angle ply composite tube. The tube is tailored to have a high Poisson’s ratio (>20). Upon being loaded the device experiences large transverse contraction resulting in rapid decrease in diameter. At a certain axial load the foam core begins to crush and energy is dissipated. This device is termed as crush tube device. The device based upon foam shear fracture as the energy absorbing mechanism involves an elastic-plastic core foam in annulus of two concentric extension-twist coupled composite tubes with opposite angles of fibers. The core foam is bonded to the inner and outer tube walls. Upon being loaded axially, the tubes twist in opposite directions and fracture the core foam in out of plane shear and thus dissipate the energy stored. The device is termed as sandwich core device (SCD). The devices exhibit variations in force-displacement characteristics with changes in design and material parameters, resulting in wide range of energy absorption capabilities. A flexible matrix composite system was selected, which was composed of high stiffness carbon fibers as reinforcements in relatively low stiffness polyurethane matrix, based upon large strain to failure capabilities and large beneficial elastic couplings. Linear and non-linear analytical models were developed encapsulating large deformation theory of the laminated composite shells (using non-linear strain energy formulation) to the fracture mechanics of core foam and elastic-plastic deformation theory of the foam filling. The non-linear model is capable of including material and

  19. Characterization and MCNP simulation of neutron energy spectrum shift after transmission through strong absorbing materials and its impact on tomography reconstructed image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachouf, N; Kharfi, F; Boucenna, A

    2012-10-01

    An ideal neutron radiograph, for quantification and 3D tomographic image reconstruction, should be a transmission image which exactly obeys to the exponential attenuation law of a monochromatic neutron beam. There are many reasons for which this assumption does not hold for high neutron absorbing materials. The main deviations from the ideal are due essentially to neutron beam hardening effect. The main challenges of this work are the characterization of neutron transmission through boron enriched steel materials and the observation of beam hardening. Then, in our work, the influence of beam hardening effect on neutron tomographic image, for samples based on these materials, is studied. MCNP and FBP simulation are performed to adjust linear attenuation coefficients data and to perform 2D tomographic image reconstruction with and without beam hardening corrections. A beam hardening correction procedure is developed and applied based on qualitative and quantitative analyses of the projections data. Results from original and corrected 2D reconstructed images obtained shows the efficiency of the proposed correction procedure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Study of absorbed dose distribution to high energy electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecatti, E.R.

    1983-01-01

    The depth absorbed dose distribution by electron beams was studied. The influence of the beam energy, the energy spread, field size and design characteristics of the accelerator was relieved. Three accelerators with different scattering and collimation systems were studied leading todifferent depth dose distributions. A theoretical model was constructed in order to explain the increase in the depth dose in the build-up region with the increase of the energy. The model utilizes a three-dimensional formalism based on the Fermi-Eyges multiple scattering theory, with the introduction of modifications that takes into account the criation of secondary electrons. (Author) [pt

  1. Energy scavenging strain absorber: application to kinetic dielectric elastomer generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Mistral, C.; Beaune, M.; Vu-Cong, T.; Sylvestre, A.

    2014-03-01

    Dielectric elastomer generators (DEGs) are light, compliant, silent energy scavengers. They can easily be incorporated into clothing where they could scavenge energy from the human kinetic movements for biomedical applications. Nevertheless, scavengers based on dielectric elastomers are soft electrostatic generators requiring a high voltage source to polarize them and high external strain, which constitutes the two major disadvantages of these transducers. We propose here a complete structure made up of a strain absorber, a DEG and a simple electronic power circuit. This new structure looks like a patch, can be attached on human's wear and located on the chest, knee, elbow… Our original strain absorber, inspired from a sailing boat winch, is able to heighten the external available strain with a minimal factor of 2. The DEG is made of silicone Danfoss Polypower and it has a total area of 6cm per 2.5cm sustaining a maximal strain of 50% at 1Hz. A complete electromechanical analytical model was developed for the DEG associated to this strain absorber. With a poling voltage of 800V, a scavenged energy of 0.57mJ per cycle is achieved with our complete structure. The performance of the DEG can further be improved by enhancing the imposed strain, by designing a stack structure, by using a dielectric elastomer with high dielectric permittivity.

  2. Multi-Level Experimental and Analytical Evaluation of Two Composite Energy Absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Karen E.; Littell, Justin D.; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Annett, Martin S.; Seal, Michael D., II

    2015-01-01

    Two composite energy absorbers were developed and evaluated at NASA Langley Research Center through multi-level testing and simulation performed under the Transport Rotorcraft Airframe Crash Testbed (TRACT) research program. A conical-shaped energy absorber, designated the conusoid, was evaluated that consisted of four layers of hybrid carbon-Kevlar plain weave fabric oriented at [+45 deg/-45 deg/-45 deg/+45 deg] with respect to the vertical, or crush, direction. A sinusoidal-shaped energy absorber, designated the sinusoid, was developed that consisted of hybrid carbon-Kevlar plain weave fabric face sheets, two layers for each face sheet oriented at +/-45deg with respect to the vertical direction and a closed-cell ELFOAM P200 polyisocyanurate (2.0-lb/cu ft) foam core. The design goal for the energy absorbers was to achieve average floor-level accelerations of between 25- and 40-g during the full-scale crash test of a retrofitted CH-46E helicopter airframe, designated TRACT 2. Variations in both designs were assessed through dynamic crush testing of component specimens. Once the designs were finalized, subfloor beams of each configuration were fabricated and retrofitted into a barrel section of a CH-46E helicopter. A vertical drop test of the barrel section was conducted onto concrete to evaluate the performance of the energy absorbers prior to retrofit into TRACT 2. The retrofitted airframe was crash tested under combined forward and vertical velocity conditions onto soil, which is characterized as a sand/clay mixture. Finite element models were developed of all test articles and simulations were performed using LS-DYNA, a commercial nonlinear explicit transient dynamic finite element code. Test-analysis results are presented for each energy absorber as comparisons of time-history responses, as well as predicted and experimental structural deformations and progressive damage under impact loading for each evaluation level.

  3. Absorbing phase transitions in deterministic fixed-energy sandpile models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Su-Chan

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the origin of the difference, which was noticed by Fey et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 145703 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.145703], between the steady state density of an Abelian sandpile model (ASM) and the transition point of its corresponding deterministic fixed-energy sandpile model (DFES). Being deterministic, the configuration space of a DFES can be divided into two disjoint classes such that every configuration in one class should evolve into one of absorbing states, whereas no configurations in the other class can reach an absorbing state. Since the two classes are separated in terms of toppling dynamics, the system can be made to exhibit an absorbing phase transition (APT) at various points that depend on the initial probability distribution of the configurations. Furthermore, we show that in general the transition point also depends on whether an infinite-size limit is taken before or after the infinite-time limit. To demonstrate, we numerically study the two-dimensional DFES with Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld toppling rule (BTW-FES). We confirm that there are indeed many thresholds. Nonetheless, the critical phenomena at various transition points are found to be universal. We furthermore discuss a microscopic absorbing phase transition, or a so-called spreading dynamics, of the BTW-FES, to find that the phase transition in this setting is related to the dynamical isotropic percolation process rather than self-organized criticality. In particular, we argue that choosing recurrent configurations of the corresponding ASM as an initial configuration does not allow for a nontrivial APT in the DFES.

  4. Bottom Slamming on Heaving Point Absorber Wave Energy Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Backer, Griet; Vantorre, Marc; Frigaard, Peter

    2010-01-01

    shapes are considered: a hemisphere and two conical shapes with deadrise angles of 30 and 45, with a waterline diameter of 5 m. The simulations indicate that the risk of rising out of the water is largely dependent on the buoy draft and sea state. Although associated with power losses, emergence......Oscillating point absorber buoys may rise out of the water and be subjected to bottom slamming upon re-entering the water. Numerical simulations are performed to estimate the power absorption, the impact velocities and the corresponding slamming forces for various slamming constraints. Three buoy...... occurrence probabilities can be significantly reduced by adapting the control parameters. The magnitude of the slamming load is severely influenced by the buoy shape. The ratio between the peak impact load on the hemisphere and that on the 45 cone is approximately 2, whereas the power absorption is only 4...

  5. Energy-donor phosphorescence quenching study of triplet–triplet energy transfer between UV absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Azusa; Nakabai, Yuya; Oguchi-Fujiyama, Nozomi; Miyazawa, Kazuyuki; Yagi, Mikio

    2015-01-01

    The intermolecular triplet–triplet energy transfer from a photounstable UV-A absorber, 4-tert-butyl-4′-methoxydibenzoylmethane (BMDBM), to UV-B absorbers, 2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxycinnamate (octyl methoxycinnamate, OMC), octocrylene (OCR) and dioctyl 4-methoxybenzylidenemalonate (DOMBM) has been observed using a 355 nm laser excitation in rigid solutions at 77 K. The decay curves of the energy-donor phosphorescence in the presence of the UV-B absorbers deviate from the exponential decay at the initial stage of the decay. The Stern–Volmer formulation is not valid in rigid solutions because molecular diffusion is impossible. The experimental results indicate that the rate constant of triplet–triplet energy transfer from BMDBM to the UV-B absorbers, k T–T , decreases in the following order: k T–T (BMDBM–DOMBM)>k T–T (BMDBM–OMC)≥k T–T (BMDBM–OCR). The presence of DOMBM enhances the photostability of the widely used combination of UV-A and UV-B absorbers, BMDBM and OCR. The effects of the triplet–triplet energy transfer on the photostability of BMDBM are discussed. - Highlights: • The intermolecular triplet–triplet energy transfer between UV absorbers was observed. • The phosphorescence decay deviates from exponential at the initial stage of decay. • The effects of triplet–triplet energy transfer on the photostability are discussed

  6. Design and fabrication of an energy-harvesting device using vibration absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Hamidreza; Afifi, Arash

    2017-05-01

    Energy-harvesting devices collect energy that is being wasted and convert to the electrical energy. For this reason, this type of devices is considered as a convenient alternative to traditional batteries. In this paper, experimental examinations were performed to investigate the application of harvesting device for the reduction of the vibration amplitude in a vibration system and also increase the efficiency of energy-harvesting device. This study focuses on the energy-harvesting device as both producing electrical device and a vibration disabled absorber. In this regard, a motion-based energy-harvesting device is designed to produce electrical energy and also eliminate vibrations of a two joint-end beam which is located under the harmonic excitation force. Then, the governing equations of the forced motion on the main beam are derived and energy-harvesting system are simulated. In addition, the system designed by MATLAB simulation is explained and its results are expressed. Finally, a prototype of the system was made and the ability of the energy-harvesting device to absorb the original system vibrations, as well as parameters impact on the efficiency of energy harvesting is investigated. Experimental results show that the energy-harvesting device, in addition to producing electric current with a maximum value of 1.5V, reduces 94% of the original system vibrations.

  7. Improvement of dynamic response in an impact absorber by frictional elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedolla, Jorge; Szwedowicz, Dariusz; Cortes, Claudia; Gutierrezwing, Enrique S.; Jimenez, Juan; Majewski, Tadeusz

    2014-01-01

    A novel device that uses friction between one or more pairs of elastic conical rings to dissipate the energy from an impacting body is presented. The device consists of one moving and one stationary cylinders coupled to each other using two pairs of conical rings and a spring. The spring is used to restore the system to its original configuration after the impact. The dynamic response of the system to the impact forces during impact events is analysed numerically and experimentally. The effects of several governing parameters, such as the mass ratio between the cylinders, the duration of the transient response of the device, the magnitude of the rest zone of the moving element and the peak impact force are investigated. The proposed system is applicable in sequential impact scenarios, in which remarkable improvements were observed over traditional solid-rod impact absorbers. The present study may serve as a guide for the design of improved damping devices for impact applications.

  8. Prompt-gamma detection towards absorbed energy monitoring during hadrontherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krimmer, J.; Balleyguier, L.; Dauvergne, D.; Mathez, H.; Pinto, M.; Testa, E.; Zoccarato, Y. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Universite de Lyon, Universite de Lyon 1, IN2P3/CNRS, UMR 5822, F-69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Krimmer, J.; Freud, N.; L' etang, J.M. [Universite de Lyon, CREATIS, CNRS UMR 5220, Inserm U1044, INSA - Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Centre Leon Berard (France); Herault, J.; Amblard, R.; Angellier, G. [Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Cyclotron Biomedical, 227 Avenue de la Lanterne, 06200 Nice (France)

    2015-07-01

    Hadrontherapy is an emerging technique which exploits the fact that a large quantity of the energy of the incident particles is deposited at the end of their flight path. This allows a conformation of the applied dose to the tumor volume and a simultaneous sparing of surrounding healthy tissue. A real-time control of the ion range during the treatment is possible via the detection of prompt secondary radiation (gamma rays or charged particles). Besides a monitoring of the ion range, the knowledge of the total energy absorbed inside the patient is also of importance for an improvement of the treatment quality. It has been shown that the ambient dose in a treatment room is correlated to the monitoring units, i.e. the number of protons of the beam delivery system. The present study consists in applying time-of-flight (TOF) information to identify prompt gamma-rays generated by interactions inside the patient which provides a direct information on the energy imparted. Results from test measurements will be given, which show that events generated in the nozzle and the target phantom can be discriminated. Furthermore, a standalone detection system is being developed which will be read out by a standard PC. The status of the developments for the corresponding electronics will be presented. (authors)

  9. Research on temperature characteristics of laser energy meter absorber irradiated by ms magnitude long pulse laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Qiao, Chunhong; Fan, Chengyu; Zhang, Jinghui; Yang, Gaochao

    2017-10-01

    The research on temperature characteristics for large-energy laser energy meter absorber is about continuous wave (CW) laser before. For the measuring requirements of millisecond magnitude long pulse laser energy, the temperature characteristics for absorber are numerically calculated and analyzed. In calculation, the temperature field distributions are described by heat conduction equations, and the metal cylinder cavity is used for absorber model. The results show that, the temperature of absorber inwall appears periodic oscillation with pulse structure, the oscillation period and amplitude respectively relate to the pulse repetition frequency and single pulse energy. With the wall deep increasing, the oscillation amplitude decreases rapidly. The temperature of absorber outerwall is without periodism, and rises gradually with time. The factors to affect the temperature rise of absorber are single pulse energy, pulse width and repetition frequency. When the laser irradiation stops, the temperature between absorber inwall and outerwall will reach agreement rapidly. After special technology processing to enhance the capacity of resisting laser damage for absorber inwall, the ms magnitude long pulse laser energy can be obtained with the method of measuring the temperature of absorber outerwall. Meanwhile, by optimization design of absorber structure, when the repetition frequency of ms magnitude pulse laser is less than 10Hz, the energy of every pulse for low repetition frequency pulse sequence can be measured. The work offers valuable references for the design of ms magnitude large-energy pulse laser energy meter.

  10. Estimation of RF energy absorbed in the brain from mobile phones in the Interphone Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varsier, N; Bowman, J D; Deltour, I; Figuerola, J; Mann, S; Moissonnier, M; Taki, M; Vecchia, P; Villegas, R; Vrijheid, M; Wake, K; Wiart, J

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to develop an estimate of a radio frequency (RF) dose as the amount of mobile phone RF energy absorbed at the location of a brain tumour, for use in the Interphone Epidemiological Study. Methods We systematically evaluated and quantified all the main parameters thought to influence the amount of specific RF energy absorbed in the brain from mobile telephone use. For this, we identified the likely important determinants of RF specific energy absorption rate during protocol and questionnaire design, we collected information from study subjects, network operators and laboratories involved in specific energy absorption rate measurements and we studied potential modifiers of phone output through the use of software-modified phones. Data collected were analysed to assess the relative importance of the different factors, leading to the development of an algorithm to evaluate the total cumulative specific RF energy (in joules per kilogram), or dose, absorbed at a particular location in the brain. This algorithm was applied to Interphone Study subjects in five countries. Results The main determinants of total cumulative specific RF energy from mobile phones were communication system and frequency band, location in the brain and amount and duration of mobile phone use. Though there was substantial agreement between categorisation of subjects by cumulative specific RF energy and cumulative call time, misclassification was non-negligible, particularly at higher frequency bands. Factors such as adaptive power control (except in Code Division Multiple Access networks), discontinuous transmission and conditions of phone use were found to have a relatively minor influence on total cumulative specific RF energy. Conclusions While amount and duration of use are important determinants of RF dose in the brain, their impact can be substantially modified by communication system, frequency band and location in the brain. It is important to take

  11. Estimation of RF energy absorbed in the brain from mobile phones in the Interphone Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardis, E; Varsier, N; Bowman, J D; Deltour, I; Figuerola, J; Mann, S; Moissonnier, M; Taki, M; Vecchia, P; Villegas, R; Vrijheid, M; Wake, K; Wiart, J

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this study was to develop an estimate of a radio frequency (RF) dose as the amount of mobile phone RF energy absorbed at the location of a brain tumour, for use in the Interphone Epidemiological Study. We systematically evaluated and quantified all the main parameters thought to influence the amount of specific RF energy absorbed in the brain from mobile telephone use. For this, we identified the likely important determinants of RF specific energy absorption rate during protocol and questionnaire design, we collected information from study subjects, network operators and laboratories involved in specific energy absorption rate measurements and we studied potential modifiers of phone output through the use of software-modified phones. Data collected were analysed to assess the relative importance of the different factors, leading to the development of an algorithm to evaluate the total cumulative specific RF energy (in joules per kilogram), or dose, absorbed at a particular location in the brain. This algorithm was applied to Interphone Study subjects in five countries. The main determinants of total cumulative specific RF energy from mobile phones were communication system and frequency band, location in the brain and amount and duration of mobile phone use. Though there was substantial agreement between categorisation of subjects by cumulative specific RF energy and cumulative call time, misclassification was non-negligible, particularly at higher frequency bands. Factors such as adaptive power control (except in Code Division Multiple Access networks), discontinuous transmission and conditions of phone use were found to have a relatively minor influence on total cumulative specific RF energy. While amount and duration of use are important determinants of RF dose in the brain, their impact can be substantially modified by communication system, frequency band and location in the brain. It is important to take these into account in analyses of risk

  12. Triplet-triplet energy transfer from a UV-A absorber butylmethoxydibenzoylmethane to UV-B absorbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Azusa; Oguchi-Fujiyama, Nozomi; Miyazawa, Kazuyuki; Yagi, Mikio

    2014-01-01

    The phosphorescence decay of a UV-A absorber, 4-tert-butyl-4'-methoxydibenzolymethane (BMDBM) has been observed following a 355 nm laser excitation in the absence and presence of UV-B absorbers, 2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxycinnamate (octyl methoxycinnamate, OMC) and octocrylene (OCR) in ethanol at 77 K. The lifetime of the lowest excited triplet (T1) state of BMDBM is significantly reduced in the presence of OMC and OCR. The observed quenching of BMDBM triplet by OMC and OCR suggests that the intermolecular triplet-triplet energy transfer occurs from BMDBM to OMC and OCR. The T1 state of OCR is nonphosphorescent or very weakly phosphorescent. However, we have shown that the energy level of the T1 state of OCR is lower than that of the enol form of BMDBM. Our methodology of energy-donor phosphorescence decay measurements can be applied to the study of the triplet-triplet energy transfer between UV absorbers even if the energy acceptor is nonphosphorescent. In addition, the delayed fluorescence of BMDBM due to triplet-triplet annihilation was observed in the BMDBM-OMC and BMDBM-OCR mixtures in ethanol at 77 K. Delayed fluorescence is one of the deactivation processes of the excited states of BMDBM under our experimental conditions. © 2013 The American Society of Photobiology.

  13. DETERMINATION OF ENERGY LOSSES BY SHOCK ABSORBER IN A FREIGHT CAR AT CRASH MODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya. V. Bolzhelarskyi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this work is to determine the energy losses in the shock absorber of the freight car whose wheel-set moves in the derailed state on the track panel depending on the axle load and structural parameters of spring suspension. Methodology. On the basis of spring suspension construction analysis and operating principle of the friction shock absorber of the freight car bogie the authors provide the method for determining the energy absorbed by it. The calculations take the maximum values of the absorber elements displacement and the regulatory values of spring suspension parameters. Findings. The authors obtained the calculated formula for determining the energy absorbed by shock absorber for regulation-set mounting schemes of elastic bogie elements depending on the axial load. The mentioned curves are parabolic. Originality. The work examines the crash mode of the wheel-set movement on the track panels after its derailment. It is shown that the energy dissipation in the shock absorbers is the reason for increase in resistance to rolling stock movement. The formulas for calculating the amount of energy dissipated in the shock absorber with a maximum displacement of its elements are derived. This energy depends on the axle load and structural parameters of spring suspension. Practical value. The proposed method allows setting the value of the additional resistance to motion that occurs in crash mode which makes it possible to increase the accuracy of traction calculations.

  14. Reducing heat loss from the energy absorber of a solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Bei Tse; Rabl, Ari

    1976-01-01

    A device is provided for reducing convective heat loss in a cylindrical radiant energy collector. It includes a curved reflective wall in the shape of the arc of a circle positioned on the opposite side of the exit aperture from the reflective side walls of the collector. Radiant energy exiting the exit aperture is directed by the curved wall onto an energy absorber such that the portion of the absorber upon which the energy is directed faces downward to reduce convective heat loss from the absorber.

  15. Crash Test of an MD-500 Helicopter with a Deployable Energy Absorber Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littell, Justin D.; Jackson, Karen E.; Kellas, Sotiris

    2010-01-01

    On December 2, 2009, a full scale crash test was successfully conducted of a MD-500 helicopter at the NASA Langley Research Center Landing and Impact Research Facility . The purpose of this test was to evaluate a novel composite honeycomb deployable energy absorbing (DEA) concept for attenuation of structural and crew loads during helicopter crashes under realistic crash conditions. The DEA concept is an alternative to external airbags, and absorbs impact energy through crushing. In the test, the helicopter impacted the concrete surface with 11.83 m/s (38.8 ft/s) horizontal, 7.80 m/s (25.6 ft/s) vertical and 0.15 m/s (0.5 ft/s) lateral velocities; corresponding to a resultant velocity of 14.2 m/s (46.5 ft/s). The airframe and skid gear were instrumented with accelerometers and strain gages to determine structural integrity and load attenuation, while the skin of the airframe was covered with targets for use by photogrammetry to record gross vehicle motion before, during, and after the impact. Along with the collection of airframe data, one Hybrid III 50th percentile anthropomorphic test device (ATD), two Hybrid II 50th percentile ATDs and a specialized human surrogate torso model (HSTM) occupant were seated in the airframe and instrumented for the collection of occupant loads. Resultant occupant data showed that by using the DEA, the loads on the Hybrid II and Hybrid III ATDs were in the Low Risk regime for the injury criteria, while structural data showed the airframe retained its structural integrity post crash. Preliminary results show that the DEA is a viable concept for the attenuation of impact loads.

  16. A new energy-absorbing bolt for rock support in high stress rock masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charlie Chunlin Li [Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) (Norway)

    2010-04-15

    An energy-absorbing rock support device, called a D bolt, has been recently developed to counteract both burst-prone and squeezing rock conditions that occur during underground excavation. The bolt is a smooth steel bar with a number of anchors along its length. The anchors are firmly fixed within a borehole using either cement grout or resin, while the smooth sections of the bolt between the anchors may freely deform in response to rock dilation. Failure of one section does not affect the reinforcement performance of the other sections. The bolt is designed to fully use both the strength and the deformation capacity of the bolt material along the entire length. The bolt has large load-bearing and deformation capacities. Static pull tests and dynamic drop tests show that the bolt length elongates by 14-20% at a load level equal to the strength of the bolt material, thereby absorbing a large amount of energy. The impact average load of a 20 mm D bolt is 200-230 kN, with only a small portion of the load transferred to the bolt plate. The cumulative dynamic energy absorption of the bolt is measured to be 47 kJ/m. D bolts were tested in three deep mines. Filed measurements show that D bolts are loaded less than rebar bolts. This paper presents the layout and principle of the D bolt, and corresponding results from static, dynamic, and field tests.

  17. Development of methodology for assessment of absorbed dose and stopping power for low energy conversion electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Ivan Pedro Salati de

    1995-08-01

    The evaluation of absorbed dose in the case of external and internal contamination due to radionuclides is sometimes hard, because of the difficulties in the assessment of the absorbed dose caused by electrons with energy less than 100 KeV in mucous membrane. In this work, a methodology for assessment of absorbed dose and stopping power in VYNS (co-polymer of polivinyl chloride - acetate) absorbers, for the 62.5 KeV and 84-88 KeV energy 109 Cd conversion electrons, working with a 4 π proportional pressurized detector, is presented. In order to assure the reproducibility of measurement conditions, one of the detector halves has been used to obtain a spectrum of a thin 109 Cd source, without absorber. The other half of the detector was used in concomitance to obtain spectra with different thicknesses if absorber. The absorbed energy was obtained subtracting each spectrum with absorber from the spectrum without absorber, which were stored in a microcomputer connected to signal processing systems by ACE type interface. The VYNS weight and thickness were evaluated using common radionuclide metrology procedures. As VYNS has characteristics similar to a tissue equivalent material, the results obtained are consistent with dosimetric concepts and have a good agreement with those of the literature. (author)

  18. LOCAL COLLISION SIMULATION OF AN SC WALL USING ENERGY ABSORBING STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHUL-HUN CHUNG

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the local damage of a turbine in an auxiliary building of a nuclear power plant due to an external impact by using the LS-DYNA finite element program. The wall of the auxiliary building is SC structure and the material of the SC wall plate is high manganese steel, which has superior ductility and energy absorbance compared to the ordinary steel used for other SC wall plates. The effects of the material of the wall, collision speed, and angle on the magnitude of the local damage were evaluated by local collision analysis. The analysis revealed that the SC wall made of manganese steel had significantly less damage than the SC wall made of ordinary steel. In conclusion, an SC wall made of manganese steel can have higher effective resistance than an SC wall made of ordinary steel against the local collision of an airplane engine or against a turbine impact.

  19. Local Collision Simulation of an SC Wall Using Energy Absorbing Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chulhun; Choi, Hyun; Park, Jaegyun [Dankook Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    This study evaluates the local damage of a turbine in an auxiliary building of a nuclear power plant due to an external impact by using the LS-DYNA finite element program. The wall of the auxiliary building is SC structure and the material of the SC wall plate is high manganese steel, which has superior ductility and energy absorbance compared to the ordinary steel used for other SC wall plates. The effects of the material of the wall, collision speed, and angle on the magnitude of the local damage were evaluated by local collision analysis. The analysis revealed that the SC wall made of manganese steel had significantly less damage than the SC wall made of ordinary steel. In conclusion, an SC wall made of manganese steel can have higher effective resistance than an SC wall made of ordinary steel against the local collision of an airplane engine or against a turbine impact.

  20. Impact of burnable absorber Gd on nuclide composition for VVER-440 fuel (Gd-2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajac, R.; Chrapciak, V.

    2010-01-01

    The latest version of Russian fuel VVER-440 includes burnable absorber in 6 pins. In this article is impact of burnable absorber on nuclide composition and criticality analyzed. In part 1 was analyzed whole burnup interval 0-50 MWd/kgU. In present part 2 are detailed analysis only for first cycle (burnup 0-10 MWd/kgU). (Authors)

  1. A multilayer physically based snowpack model simulating direct and indirect radiative impacts of light-absorbing impurities in snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzet, Francois; Dumont, Marie; Lafaysse, Matthieu; Picard, Ghislain; Arnaud, Laurent; Voisin, Didier; Lejeune, Yves; Charrois, Luc; Nabat, Pierre; Morin, Samuel

    2017-11-01

    Light-absorbing impurities (LAIs) decrease snow albedo, increasing the amount of solar energy absorbed by the snowpack. Its most intuitive and direct impact is to accelerate snowmelt. Enhanced energy absorption in snow also modifies snow metamorphism, which can indirectly drive further variations of snow albedo in the near-infrared part of the solar spectrum because of the evolution of the near-surface snow microstructure. New capabilities have been implemented in the detailed snowpack model SURFEX/ISBA-Crocus (referred to as Crocus) to account for impurities' deposition and evolution within the snowpack and their direct and indirect impacts. Once deposited, the model computes impurities' mass evolution until snow melts out, accounting for scavenging by meltwater. Taking advantage of the recent inclusion of the spectral radiative transfer model TARTES (Two-stream Analytical Radiative TransfEr in Snow model) in Crocus, the model explicitly represents the radiative impacts of light-absorbing impurities in snow. The model was evaluated at the Col de Porte experimental site (French Alps) during the 2013-2014 snow season against in situ standard snow measurements and spectral albedo measurements. In situ meteorological measurements were used to drive the snowpack model, except for aerosol deposition fluxes. Black carbon (BC) and dust deposition fluxes used to drive the model were extracted from simulations of the atmospheric model ALADIN-Climate. The model simulates snowpack evolution reasonably, providing similar performances to our reference Crocus version in terms of snow depth, snow water equivalent (SWE), near-surface specific surface area (SSA) and shortwave albedo. Since the reference empirical albedo scheme was calibrated at the Col de Porte, improvements were not expected to be significant in this study. We show that the deposition fluxes from the ALADIN-Climate model provide a reasonable estimate of the amount of light-absorbing impurities deposited on the

  2. Experimental and Analytical Evaluation of a Composite Honeycomb Deployable Energy Absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Karen E.; Kellas, Sotiris; Horta, Lucas G.; Annett, Martin S.; Polanco, Michael A.; Littell, Justin D.; Fasanella, Edwin L.

    2011-01-01

    In 2006, the NASA Subsonic Rotary Wing Aeronautics Program sponsored the experimental and analytical evaluation of an externally deployable composite honeycomb structure that is designed to attenuate impact energy during helicopter crashes. The concept, which is designated the Deployable Energy Absorber (DEA), utilizes an expandable Kevlar honeycomb structure to dissipate kinetic energy through crushing. The DEA incorporates a unique flexible hinge design that allows the honeycomb to be packaged and stowed flat until needed for deployment. A variety of deployment options such as linear, radial, and/or hybrid methods can be used. Experimental evaluation of the DEA utilized a building block approach that included material characterization testing of its constituent, Kevlar -129 fabric/epoxy, and flexural testing of single hexagonal cells. In addition, the energy attenuation capabilities of the DEA were demonstrated through multi-cell component dynamic crush tests, and vertical drop tests of a composite fuselage section, retrofitted with DEA blocks, onto concrete, water, and soft soil. During each stage of the DEA evaluation process, finite element models of the test articles were developed and simulations were performed using the explicit, nonlinear transient dynamic finite element code, LS-DYNA. This report documents the results of the experimental evaluation that was conducted to assess the energy absorption capabilities of the DEA.

  3. A review on the performance of conventional and energy-absorbing rockbolts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlie C. Li

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This is a review paper on the performances of both conventional and energy-absorbing rockbolts manifested in laboratory tests. Characteristic parameters such as ultimate load, displacement and energy absorption are reported, in addition to load–displacement graphs for every type of rockbolt. Conventional rockbolts refer to mechanical rockbolts, fully-grouted rebars and frictional rockbolts. According to the test results, under static pull loading a mechanical rockbolt usually fails at the plate; a fully-grouted rebar bolt fails in the bolt shank at an ultimate load equal to the strength of the steel after a small amount of displacement; and a frictional rockbolt is subjected to large displacement at a low yield load. Under shear loading, all types of bolts fail in the shank. Energy-absorbing rockbolts are developed aiming to combat instability problems in burst-prone and squeezing rock conditions. They absorb deformation energy either through ploughing/slippage at predefined load levels or through stretching of the steel bolt. An energy-absorbing rockbolt can carry a high load and also accommodate significant rock displacement, and thus its energy-absorbing capacity is high. The test results show that the energy absorption of the energy-absorbing bolts is much larger than that of all conventional bolts. The dynamic load capacity is smaller than the static load capacity for the energy-absorbing bolts displacing based on ploughing/slippage while they are approximately the same for the D-Bolt that displaces based on steel stretching.

  4. Excellent solar energy absorbing and retaining fabric material. Chikunetsu hoon sen'i sozai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuta, T. (Unitika Ltd., Osaka (Japan). Central Research Lab.)

    1993-11-10

    Carbides of group IV transition metals such as ZrC, which are used as solar energy selective absorption film for solar energy collectors, has characteristics of absorbing light with a high energy of 0.6eV or more and of converting it to heat when exposed to light, and of not absorbing but reflecting light with a low energy of less than 0.6eV. By using ZrC as fabric materials, therefore, portable and durable heat absorbing and retaining materials can be produced. The authors have developed a solar energy absorbing and retaining fabric material, 'Solar [alpha]' (registered trade mark), which absorbs visible and near infrared rays and converts them to heat, and reflects heat from a human body and confines it. The use of Solar [alpha] has been found in various fields such as clothing as a new material for winter-sportswear, slacks, coats, and swimming suits. In this report, the heat absorbing and retaining mechanisms, basic properties of Solar [alpha], and the results of wearing tests are described. 12 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. System for determining absorbed dose and its distribution for high-energy electron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegewald, H.; Wulff, W.

    1977-01-01

    Taking into account the polarization effect, the dose determination for high-energy electron radiation from particle accelerators depends on the knowledge of the energy dependence of the mass stopping power. Results obtained with thermoluminescent dosemeters agree with theoretical values. For absorbed dose measurements the primary energy of electron radiation has been determined by nuclear photoreactions, and the calculation of the absorbed dose from charge measurements by means of the mass stopping power is described. Thus the calibration of ionization chambers for high-energy electron radiation by absolute measurements with the Faraday cage and chemical dosemeters has become possible. (author)

  6. Gyroscopic power take-off wave energy point absorber in irregular sea states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zili; Chen, Bei; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights •A GyroPTO wave energy point absorber with magnetic coupling mechanism is proposed. •A 4DOF nonlinear model of the GyroPTO absorber has been derived. •Rational approximations are performed on the radiation damping moments. •Synchronization of the device is more easily maintained...... in narrow-banded sea waves. •The generator gain and the magnetic coupling constant influence the performance of the device....

  7. Role of the calcaneal heel pad and polymeric shock absorbers in attenuation of heel strike impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noe, D A; Voto, S J; Hoffmann, M S; Askew, M J; Gradisar, I A

    1993-01-01

    The capacity of the calcaneal heel pad, with and without augmentation by a polymeric shock absorbing material (Sorbothane 0050), to attenuate heel strike impulses has been studied using five fresh human cadaveric lower leg specimens. The specimens, instrumented with an accelerometer, were suspended and impacted with a hammer; a steel rod was similarly suspended and impacted. The calcaneal heel pad attenuated the peak accelerations by 80%. Attenuations of up to 93% were achieved by the shock absorbing material when tested against the steel rod; however, when tested in series with the calcaneal heel pad, the reduction in peak acceleration due to the shock absorbing material dropped to 18%. Any evaluation of the effectiveness of shock absorbing shoe materials must take into account their mechanical interaction with the body.

  8. An experimental study of an energy absorbing restrainer for piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sone, A.; Suzuki, K.

    1989-01-01

    Recently, in the seismic design methodology of the piping systems in nuclear power plants, new and improved design criteria and calculation techniques which will lead to more reliable and cost saving design products have been investigated. For instance, problems for reducing the snubbers in nuclear power plants which provide high costs for their inspections and maintenances and related flexible design problems for the dynamic piping systems have been investigated. Thus, in order to replace snubbers, various types of alternative supporting devices such as dynamic absorbers, gapped support and energy absorbing support devices have been proposed. A number of energy absorbing restrainers have been designed in Japan and United-States by allowing yield to occur during strong earthquakes. Advantages and disadvantages of these restrainers were examined analytically and experimentally. In order to overcome the disadvantages, the authors introduced new absorbing material LSPZ (laminated super plastic zinc) in which SPZ is expected to have reliable ductility and also efficient energy absorbability still under the normal temperature condition. This paper is devoted to an experimental works for this updated absorbing restrainer

  9. Synthesis of Numerical Methods for Modeling Wave Energy Converter-Point Absorbers: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y.; Yu, Y. H.

    2012-05-01

    During the past few decades, wave energy has received significant attention among all ocean energy formats. Industry has proposed hundreds of prototypes such as an oscillating water column, a point absorber, an overtopping system, and a bottom-hinged system. In particular, many researchers have focused on modeling the floating-point absorber as the technology to extract wave energy. Several modeling methods have been used such as the analytical method, the boundary-integral equation method, the Navier-Stokes equations method, and the empirical method. However, no standardized method has been decided. To assist the development of wave energy conversion technologies, this report reviews the methods for modeling the floating-point absorber.

  10. Extension of the Commonwealth standard of absorbed dose from cobalt-60 energy to 25 MV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherlock, S.L.

    1986-01-01

    With the introduction of high energy linear accelerators in hospitals, there is a need for direct measurement of absorbed dose for energies to 25 MV for photons and 20 MeV electrons. The present Australian standard for absorbed dose at cobalt-60 energy is a graphite micro-calorimeter maintained at the AAEC Lucas Heights Research Laboratories. A thorough theoretical analysis of calorimeter operation suggests that computer control and monitoring techniques are appropriate. Solution of Newton's law of cooling for a four-body calorimeter allows development of a computer simulation model. Different temperature control algorithms may then be run and assessed using this model. In particular, the application of a simple differencer is examined. Successful implementation of the calorimeter for energies up to 25 MV could lead to the introduction of an Australian absorbed dose protocol based on calorimetry, therby reducing the uncertainties associated with exposure-based protocols

  11. CONSIDERATIONS ON FLUID DYNAMICS INSIDE A HYDRAULIC SEISMIC ENERGY ABSORBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ȘCHEAUA Fănel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a method for obtaining a simplified model of a seismic energy dissipation device whose operating principle is based on viscous fluid as a solution for structural isolation against seismic actions. The device operation is based on the resistance force developed by the working fluid when the piston tends to move due to occurrence of a seismic motion. A 3D model achieved is introduced in CFD analysis for emphasize dynamic fluid flow inside the device dissipation cylinder.

  12. The design of impact absorbing structures for additive manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan-Craddock, J; Brackett, D; Wildman, R; Hague, R

    2012-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is increasingly becoming a viable manufacturing process due to dramatic advantages that it facilitates in the area of design complexity. This paper investigates the potential of additively manufactured lattice structures for the application of tailored impact absorption specifically for conformal body protection. It explores lattice cell types based on foam microstructures and assesses their suitability for impact absorption. The effect of varying the cell strut edge design is also investigated. The implications of scaling these cells up for AM are discussed as well as the design issues regarding the handling of geometric complexity and the requirement for body conformity. The suitability of AM materials for this application is also discussed.

  13. Modeling and prediction of extraction profile for microwave-assisted extraction based on absorbed microwave energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chung-Hung; Yusoff, Rozita; Ngoh, Gek-Cheng

    2013-09-01

    A modeling technique based on absorbed microwave energy was proposed to model microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of antioxidant compounds from cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) leaves. By adapting suitable extraction model at the basis of microwave energy absorbed during extraction, the model can be developed to predict extraction profile of MAE at various microwave irradiation power (100-600 W) and solvent loading (100-300 ml). Verification with experimental data confirmed that the prediction was accurate in capturing the extraction profile of MAE (R-square value greater than 0.87). Besides, the predicted yields from the model showed good agreement with the experimental results with less than 10% deviation observed. Furthermore, suitable extraction times to ensure high extraction yield at various MAE conditions can be estimated based on absorbed microwave energy. The estimation is feasible as more than 85% of active compounds can be extracted when compared with the conventional extraction technique. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. High strength semi-active energy absorbers using shear- and mixedmode operation at high shear rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becnel, Andrew C.

    This body of research expands the design space of semi-active energy absorbers for shock isolation and crash safety by investigating and characterizing magnetorheological fluids (MRFs) at high shear rates ( > 25,000 1/s) under shear and mixed-mode operation. Magnetorheological energy absorbers (MREAs) work well as adaptive isolators due to their ability to quickly and controllably adjust to changes in system mass or impact speed while providing fail-safe operation. However, typical linear stroking MREAs using pressure-driven flows have been shown to exhibit reduced controllability as impact speed (shear rate) increases. The objective of this work is to develop MREAs that improve controllability at high shear rates by using pure shear and mixed shear-squeeze modes of operation, and to present the fundamental theory and models of MR fluids under these conditions. A proof of concept instrument verified that the MR effect persists in shear mode devices at shear rates corresponding to low speed impacts. This instrument, a concentric cylinder Searle cell magnetorheometer, was then used to characterize three commercially available MRFs across a wide range of shear rates, applied magnetic fields, and temperatures. Characterization results are presented both as flow curves according to established practice, and as an alternate nondimensionalized analysis based on Mason number. The Mason number plots show that, with appropriate correction coefficients for operating temperature, the varied flow curve data can be collapsed to a single master curve. This work represents the first shear mode characterization of MRFs at shear rates over 10 times greater than available with commercial rheometers, as well as the first validation of Mason number analysis to high shear rate flows in MRFs. Using the results from the magnetorheometer, a full scale rotary vane MREA was developed as part of the Lightweight Magnetorheological Energy Absorber System (LMEAS) for an SH-60 Seahawk helicopter

  15. Optimisation of energy absorbing liner for equestrian helmets. Part II: Functionally graded foam liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, L.; Forero Rueda, M.A.; Gilchrist, M.D.

    2009-01-01

    The energy absorbing liner of safety helmets was optimised using finite element modelling. In this present paper, a functionally graded foam (FGF) liner was modelled, while keeping the average liner density the same as in a corresponding reference single uniform density liner model. Use of a functionally graded foam liner would eliminate issues regarding delamination and crack propagation between interfaces of different density layers which could arise in liners with discrete density variations. As in our companion Part I paper [Forero Rueda MA, Cui L, Gilchrist MD. Optimisation of energy absorbing liner for equestrian helmets. Part I: Layered foam liner. Mater Des [submitted for publication

  16. Modelling the cost-effectiveness of impact-absorbing flooring in Swedish residential care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryen, Linda; Svensson, Mikael

    2016-06-01

    Fall-related injuries among the elderly, specifically hip fractures, cause significant morbidity and mortality as well as imposing a substantial financial cost on the health care system. Impact-absorbing flooring has been advocated as an effective method for preventing hip fractures resulting from falls. This study identifies the cost-effectiveness of impact-absorbing flooring compared to standard flooring in residential care facilities for the elderly in a Swedish setting. An incremental cost-effectiveness analysis was performed comparing impact-absorbing flooring to standard flooring using a Markov decision model. A societal perspective was adopted and incremental costs were compared to incremental gains in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Data on costs, probability transitions and health-related quality of life measures were retrieved from the published literature and from Swedish register data. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed through a Monte Carlo simulation. The base-case analysis indicates that the impact-absorbing flooring reduces costs and increases QALYs. When allowing for uncertainty we find that 60% of the simulations indicate that impact-absorbing flooring is cost-saving compared to standard flooring and an additional 20% that it has a cost per QALY below a commonly used threshold value : Using a modelling approach, we find that impact-absorbing flooring is a dominant strategy at the societal level considering that it can save resources and improve health in a vulnerable population. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  17. Light-absorbing Particles in Snow and Ice: Measurement and Modeling of Climatic and Hydrological Impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Yun; Yasunari, Teppei J.; Doherty, Sarah J.; Flanner, M. G.; Lau, William K.; Ming, J.; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Mo; Warren, Stephen G.; Zhang, Rudong

    2015-01-01

    Light absorbing particles (LAP, e.g., black carbon, brown carbon, and dust) influence water and energy budgets of the atmosphere and snowpack in multiple ways. In addition to their effects associated with atmospheric heating by absorption of solar radiation and interactions with clouds, LAP in snow on land and ice can reduce the surface reflectance (a.k.a., surface darkening), which is likely to accelerate the snow aging process and further reduces snow albedo and increases the speed of snowpack melt. LAP in snow and ice (LAPSI) has been identified as one of major forcings affecting climate change, e.g. in the fourth and fifth assessment reports of IPCC. However, the uncertainty level in quantifying this effect remains very high. In this review paper, we document various technical methods of measuring LAPSI and review the progress made in measuring the LAPSI in Arctic, Tibetan Plateau and other mid-latitude regions. We also report the progress in modeling the mass concentrations, albedo reduction, radiative forcing, andclimatic and hydrological impact of LAPSI at global and regional scales. Finally we identify some research needs for reducing the uncertainties in the impact of LAPSI on global and regional climate and the hydrological cycle.

  18. Design and testing of an energy-absorbing crewseat for the F/FB-111 aircraft. Volume 3: Data from crew module testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shane, S. J.

    1985-01-01

    Over the past years, several papers and reports have documented the unacceptably high injury rate during the escape sequence (including the ejection and ground impact) of the crew module for F/FB-111 aircraft. This report documents a program to determine if the injury potential could be reduced by replacing the existing crewseats with energy absorbing crewseats. An energy absorbing test seat was designed using much of the existing seat hardware. An extensive dynamic seat test series, designed to duplicate various crew module ground impact conditions, was conducted at a sled test facility. Comparative tests with operational F-111 crewseats were also conducted. After successful dynamic testing of the seat, more testing was conducted with the seats mounted in an F-111 crew module. Both swing tests and vertical drop tests werre conducted. The vertical drop tests were used to obtain comparative data between the energy absorbing and operational seats.

  19. The METAS absorbed dose to water calibration service for high energy photon and electron beam radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stucki, G.; Muench, W.; Quintel, H.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The Swiss Federal Office of Metrology and Accreditation (METAS) provides an absorbed dose to water calibration service for reference dosimeters using 60 Co γ radiation, ten X-ray beam qualities between TPR 20,10 =0.639 and 0.802 and ten electron beam qualities between R 50 =1.75 gcm -2 and 8.54 gcm -2 . A 22 MeV microtron accelerator with a conventional treatment head is used as radiation source for the high energy photon and electron beams. The treatment head produces clinical beams. The METAS absorbed dose calibration service for high energy photons is based on a primary standard sealed water calorimeter of the Domen type, that is used to calibrate several METAS transfer standards of type NE2611A and NE2571A in terms of absorbed dose to water in the energy range from 60 Co to TPR 20,10 = 0.802. User reference dosimeters are compared with the transfer standards to give calibration factors in absorbed dose to water with an uncertainty of 1.0% for 60 Co γ radiation and 1.4% for higher energies (coverage factor k=2). The calibration service was launched in 1997. The calibration factors measured by METAS have been compared with those derived from the Code of Practice of the International Atomic Energy Agency using the calculated k Q factors listed in table 14. The comparison showed a maximum difference of 0.8% for the NE25611A and NE 2571A chambers. At 60 Co γ radiation the METAS primary standard of absorbed dose to water was bilaterally compared with the primary standards of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures BIPM (Sevres) as well as of the National Research Council NRC (Canada). In either case the standards were in agreement within the comparison uncertainties. The METAS absorbed dose calibration service for high energy electron beams is based on a primary standard chemical dosimeter. A monoenergetic electron beam of precisely known particle energy and beam charge is totally absorbed in Fricke solution (ferrous ammonium sulphate) of a given

  20. Selective solar absorbers: A cost effective solution for access to clean energy in rural Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Katumba, G

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available by inadequate grid electricity infrastructure. This state of affairs has culminated in massive deforestation and desertification of some parts of Africa. One technology solution is to harness the energy from the sun through solar absorbers. This has applications...

  1. Assessment criteria for assessing energy-absorbing front underrun protection on trucks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, R.; Leneman, F.J.W.; Zweep, C. van der; Wismans, J.S.H.M.; Witteman, W.J.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this article is to investigate the possibilities to assess (energy-absorbing) front underrun protection (FUP) devices with respect to injuries of the car occupant without using a car and dummy in the test procedure. A large number of different crash configurations are simulated to

  2. Stability analysis of the Gyroscopic Power Take-Off wave energy point absorber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Zhang, Zili; Kramer, Morten Mejlhede

    2015-01-01

    The Gyroscopic Power Take-Off (GyroPTO) wave energy point absorber consists of a float rigidly connected to a lever. The operational principle is somewhat similar to that of the so-called gyroscopic hand wrist exercisers, where the rotation of the float is brought forward by the rotational particle...

  3. Design and control of a point absorber wave energy converter with an open loop hydraulic transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, YaJun; Mu, AnLe; Ma, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Point absorber wave energy converter is presented. • Piston pump module captures and converts wave energy. • Hydraulic accumulator stores/releases the surplus energy. • Fuzzy controller adjusts the displacement of hydraulic motor. • Generator outputs meet the electricity demand precisely. - Abstract: In this paper, a point absorber wave energy converter combined with offshore wind turbine is proposed. In the system, the wave energy is captured and converted into hydraulic energy by a piston pump module, which is combined with a wind turbine floating platform, and then the hydraulic energy is converted into electricity energy by a variable displacement hydraulic motor and induction generator. In order to smooth and stabilize the captured wave energy, a hydraulic accumulator is applied to store and release the excess energy. In order to meet the demand power a fuzzy controller is designed to adjust the displacement of hydraulic motor and controlled the output power. Simulation under irregular wave condition has been carried out to verify the validity of the mathematical model and the effectiveness of the controller strategy. The results show that the wave energy converter system could deliver the required electricity power precisely as the motor output torque is controlled. The accumulator could damp out all the fluctuations in output power, so the wave energy would become a dispatchable power source.

  4. Dynamic tuning of optical absorbers for accelerated solar-thermal energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongyong; Tong, Zhen; Ye, Qinxian; Hu, Hang; Nie, Xiao; Yan, Chen; Shang, Wen; Song, Chengyi; Wu, Jianbo; Wang, Jun; Bao, Hua; Tao, Peng; Deng, Tao

    2017-11-14

    Currently, solar-thermal energy storage within phase-change materials relies on adding high thermal-conductivity fillers to improve the thermal-diffusion-based charging rate, which often leads to limited enhancement of charging speed and sacrificed energy storage capacity. Here we report the exploration of a magnetically enhanced photon-transport-based charging approach, which enables the dynamic tuning of the distribution of optical absorbers dispersed within phase-change materials, to simultaneously achieve fast charging rates, large phase-change enthalpy, and high solar-thermal energy conversion efficiency. Compared with conventional thermal charging, the optical charging strategy improves the charging rate by more than 270% and triples the amount of overall stored thermal energy. This superior performance results from the distinct step-by-step photon-transport charging mechanism and the increased latent heat storage through magnetic manipulation of the dynamic distribution of optical absorbers.

  5. Power maximization of a point absorber wave energy converter using improved model predictive control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Farideh; Moghaddam, Reihaneh Kardehi

    2017-08-01

    This paper considers controlling and maximizing the absorbed power of wave energy converters for irregular waves. With respect to physical constraints of the system, a model predictive control is applied. Irregular waves' behavior is predicted by Kalman filter method. Owing to the great influence of controller parameters on the absorbed power, these parameters are optimized by imperialist competitive algorithm. The results illustrate the method's efficiency in maximizing the extracted power in the presence of unknown excitation force which should be predicted by Kalman filter.

  6. On the absorbed dose determination method in high energy electrons beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarlat, F.; Scarisoreanu, A.; Oane, M.; Mitru, E.; Avadanei, C.

    2008-01-01

    The absorbed dose determination method in water for electron beams with energies in the range from 1 MeV to 50 MeV is presented herein. The dosimetry equipment for measurements is composed of an UNIDOS.PTW electrometer and different ionization chambers calibrated in air kerma in a Co 60 beam. Starting from the code of practice for high energy electron beams, this paper describes the method adopted by the secondary standard dosimetry laboratory (SSDL) in NILPRP - Bucharest

  7. Performance evaluation and parameter sensitivity of energy-harvesting shock absorbers on different vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Sijing; Liu, Yilun; Xu, Lin; Guo, Xuexun; Zuo, Lei

    2016-07-01

    Traditional shock absorbers provide favourable ride comfort and road handling by dissipating the suspension vibration energy into heat waste. In order to harvest this dissipated energy and improve the vehicle fuel efficiency, many energy-harvesting shock absorbers (EHSAs) have been proposed in recent years. Among them, two types of EHSAs have attracted much attention. One is a traditional EHSA which converts the oscillatory vibration into bidirectional rotation using rack-pinion, ball-screw or other mechanisms. The other EHSA is equipped with a mechanical motion rectifier (MMR) that transforms the bidirectional vibration into unidirectional rotation. Hereinafter, they are referred to as NonMMR-EHSA and MMR-EHSA, respectively. This paper compares their performances with the corresponding traditional shock absorber by using closed-form analysis and numerical simulations on various types of vehicles, including passenger cars, buses and trucks. Results suggest that MMR-EHSA provides better ride performances than NonMMR-EHSA, and that MMR-EHSA is able to improve both the ride comfort and road handling simultaneously over the traditional shock absorber when installed on light-damped, heavy-duty vehicles. Additionally, the optimal parameters of MMR-EHSA are obtained for ride comfort. The optimal solutions ('Pareto-optimal solutions') are also obtained by considering the trade-off between ride comfort and road handling.

  8. On the absorbed dose determination method in high energy photon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarlat, F.; Scarisoreanu, A.; Oane, M.; Mitru, E.; Avadanei, C.

    2008-01-01

    The absorbed dose determination method in water, based on standards of air kerma or exposure in high energy photon beams generated by electron with energies in the range of 1 MeV to 50 MeV is presented herein. The method is based on IAEA-398, AAPM TG-51, DIN 6800-2, IAEA-381, IAEA-277 and NACP-80 recommendations. The dosimetry equipment is composed of UNIDOS T 10005 electrometer and different ionization chambers calibrated in air kerma method in a Co 60 beam. Starting from the general formalism showed in IAEA-381, the determination of absorbed dose in water, under reference conditions in high energy photon beams, is given. This method was adopted for the secondary standard dosimetry laboratory (SSDL) in NILPRP-Bucharest

  9. The influence of mammographic X-ray spectra on absorbed energy distribution in breast: Monte Carlo simulation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delis, H.; Spyrou, G.; Tzanakos, G.; Panayiotakis, G.

    2005-01-01

    A mathematical model, based on Monte Carlo simulation, is proposed for deriving absorbed energy and dose distribution in mammography utilizing a mathematical water-like phantom. The model was validated for its accuracy against experimental and published data. The main factor discriminating absorbed energy distribution characteristics among different mammographic techniques was considered the X-ray spectrum. The absorbed energy distribution inside the phantom was investigated via percentage depth dose and isodose curves. The influence of the factors affecting X-ray spectrum (tube voltage, anode material, filter material and thickness) on absorbed energy distribution was examined. The hardness of the beam, due to increase of tube voltage or filtration, was found to be the major factor affecting absorbed energy distribution inside the phantom. In general, Mo and W anode systems demonstrated superior dosimetric characteristics against those of W-Mo or Rh. The model presented can be used for estimating absolute and relative breast dose values and their spatial distributions

  10. An Investigation into Power from Pitch-Surge Point-Absorber Wave Energy Converters.

    OpenAIRE

    Chaplin, R. V.; Aggidis, George A.

    2007-01-01

    There is a worldwide opportunity for clean renewable power. The results from the UK Government's "Marine Energy Challenge" showed that marine energy has the potential to become competitive with other forms of energy. The key to success in this lies in a low lifetime-cost of power as delivered to the user. Pitch-surge point-absorber WECs have the potential to do this with average annual powers of around 2 MW in North Atlantic conditions from relatively small devices that would be economically ...

  11. Influence of Striking Edge Radius (2 mm versus 8 mm) on Instrumented Charpy Data and Absorbed Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucon, E.

    2008-08-15

    The most commonly used test standards for performing Charpy impact tests (ISO 148 and ASTM E 23) envisage the use of strikers having different radii of the striking edge, i.e. 2 mm (ISO) and 8 mm (ASTM). The effect of striker geometry on Charpy results was extensively studied in the past in terms of absorbed energy measured by the machine encoder, but few investigations are available on the influence of striker configuration on the results of instrumented Charpy tests (characteristic forces, displacements and integrated energy). In this paper, these effects are investigated based on the analysis of published results from three interlaboratory studies and some unpublished Charpy data obtained at SCK-CEN. The instrumented variables which are the most sensitive to the radius of the striking edge are the maximum force and its corresponding displacement, with 8mm-strikers providing systematically higher values. Absorbed energies, obtained both from the instrumented trace and from the pendulum encoder, are almost insensitive to the type of striker up to 200 J. For higher energy levels, the values obtained from 8mm strikers become progressively larger. Data scatter is generally higher for 2mm-strikers.

  12. Absorbed dose determination in water in medium energy x-ray beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisevic, G.; Spasic-Jokic, V.

    1998-01-01

    Absorbed dose determination in water phantom in medium energy X-ray beam, according to IAEA recommendations is given. This method is applied on Radiotherapy department of Military Academy Hospital in Belgrade. Reference points of measurements are on depth of 5 cm and 2 cm as it recommended in ref. Experimental results are shown in aim to introduce new dosimetric concept based on air kerma calibration factor recommended for application in our radiotherapy centers (author)

  13. Thermoluminescent dosemeters for determining the energy absorbed during X-ray radiography of the vertebral column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebl, R.

    1983-01-01

    The dose and absorbed energy during normal diagnostic X-ray of various sections of the vertebral column were determined with LiF-dosemeters in a phantom. The paper describes a method to be used to determine integral doses from the dose measurements. The energy absorbed for one X-ray picture of the vertebral column is between 5 and 30 mJ. Compared to other diagnostical X-rays the quantity of the energy absorbed during X-ray of the vertebral column is rather high and is only reached by X-rays in the pelvic region. The speculations on the rate of incidence of malignent neoplasms on the basis of diagnostical X-ray of the vertebral column reveal a value of 50 per 60 x 10 6 persons. This value is likely to overestimate the risk, seems, however, to be low in comparison to other risks of every day life (traffic accident, mountainering, etc). (orig./HP) [de

  14. BRIGITTE, Dose Rate and Heat Source and Energy Flux for Self-Absorbing Rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jegu, M.; Clement, M.

    1978-01-01

    1 - Nature of physical problem solved: Calculation of dose rate, heat sources or energy flux. The sources are self-absorbing radioactive rods. The shielding consists of blocks of which the cross section can be defined. 2 - Method of solution: Exponential attenuation and build-up factor between source points and detector points. Source integration with error estimate. Automatic or controlled build-up with monitor print-out. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Number of energy points, regions, detector points, abscissa points of the rod, vertical position of the rod, are all limited to ten. The maximum total number of vertical steps is 124

  15. Measurements of absorbed energy distributions in water from pulsed electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devanney, J.A.

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation of the use of a holographic interferometer to measure the energy deposition as a function of depth in water from pulsed electron beams, together with a brief description of the interferometer and the technique of generating a hologram are presented. The holographic interferometer is used to measure the energy deposition as a function of depth in water from various pulsed beams of monoenergetic electrons in the energy range from 1.0 to 2.5 MeV. These results are compared to those computed by using a Monte Carlo radiation transport code, ETRAN-15, for the same electron energies. After the discrepancies between the measured and computed results are evaluated, reasonable agreement is found between the measured and computed absorbed energy distributions as a function of depth in water. An evalutation of the response of the interferometer as a function of electron intensities is performed. A comparison among four energy deposition curves that result from the irradiation of water with pulsed electron beams from a Febetron accelerator, model 705, is presented. These pulsed beams were produced by the same vacuum diode with the same charging voltage. The results indicate that the energy distribution of the electrons in the pulsed beam is not always constant. A comparison of the energy deposition curves that result from the irradiation of water with electron pulses from different vacuum diodes but the same charging voltage is presented. These results indicate again that the energy distribution of the electrons in the pulsed beam may vary between vacuum diodes. These differences would not be realized by using a totally absorbing metal calorimeter and Faraday Cup

  16. Design and testing of an energy-absorbing crewseat for the F/FB-111 aircraft. Volume 2: Data from seat testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shane, S. J.

    1985-01-01

    The unacceptably high injury rate during the escape sequence (including the ejection and ground impact) of the crew module for F/FB-111 aircraft is reviewed. A program to determine if the injury potential could be reduced by replacing the existing crewseats with energy absorbing crewseats is presented. An energy absorbing test seat is designed using much of the existing seat hardware. An extensive dynamic seat test series, designed to duplicate various crew module ground impact conditions is conducted at a sled test facility. Comparative tests with operational F-111 crewseats are also conducted. After successful dynamic testing of the seat, more testing is conducted with the seats mounted in an F-111 crew module. Both swing tests and vertical drop tests are conducted. The vertical drop tests are used to obtain comparative data between the energy absorbing and operational seats. Volume 1 describes the energy absorbing test seat and testing conducted, and evaluates the data from both test series. Volume 2 presents the data obtained during the seat test series, while Volume 3 presents the data from the crew module test series.

  17. Investigating the fall-injury reducing effect of impact absorbing flooring among female nursing home residents: initial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Johanna; Bonander, Carl; Andersson, Ragnar; Nilson, Finn

    2015-10-01

    Fall-related injuries affect the lives of elderly to a substantial degree. This quasi-experimental study investigates the fall-injury reducing effect of impact absorbing flooring among female nursing home residents. The intervention site is a nursing home in Sweden where impact absorbing flooring was installed in parts of one of six wards (six out of 10 apartments (excluding bathrooms), the communal dining-room and parts of the corridor). The impact absorbing flooring is a 12 mm thick closed cell flexible polyurethane/polyurea composite tile (500×500 mm) with an exterior surface of polyurethane/polyurea. A generalised linear model (log-binomial) was used to calculate the RR of injury from falls on impact absorbing flooring compared to falls on regular flooring, adjusted for age, body mass index, visual and cognitive impairments. During the study period (1 October 2011 to 31 March 2014), 254 falls occurred on regular flooring and 77 falls on impact absorbing flooring. The injury/fall rate was 30.3% for falls on regular flooring and 16.9% for falls on impact absorbing flooring. Adjusted for covariates, the impact absorbing flooring significantly reduced the RR of injury in the event of a fall by 59% (RR 0.41 (95% Cl 0.20 to 0.80)). This is, to our knowledge, the first study evaluating the injury-reducing effect of impact absorbing flooring in a nursing home showing statistically significant effect. The results from this study are promising, indicating the considerable potential of impact absorbing flooring as a fall-related injury intervention among frail elderly. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. The Development of Two Composite Energy Absorbers for Use in a Transport Rotorcraft Airframe Crash Testbed (TRACT 2) Full-Scale Crash Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littell, Justin D.; Jackson, Karen E.; Annett, Martin S.; Seal, Michael D.; Fasanella, Edwin L.

    2015-01-01

    Two composite energy absorbers were developed and evaluated at NASA Langley Research Center through multi-level testing and simulation performed under the Transport Rotorcraft Airframe Crash Testbed (TRACT) research program. A conical-shaped energy absorber, designated the conusoid, was evaluated that consisted of four layers of hybrid carbon-Kevlar plain weave fabric oriented at [+45deg/-45deg/-45deg/+45deg] with respect to the vertical direction. A sinusoidal-shaped energy absorber, designated the sinusoid, was developed that consisted of hybrid carbon-Kevlar plain weave fabric face sheets, two layers for each face sheet oriented at +/-45deg with respect to the vertical direction, and a closed-cell ELFOAM P200 polyisocyanurate (2.0-lb/cu ft) foam core. The design goal for the energy absorbers was to achieve average floor-level accelerations of between 25- and 40-g during the full-scale crash test of a retrofitted CH-46E helicopter airframe, designated TRACT 2. Variations in both designs were assessed through dynamic crush testing of component specimens. Once the designs were finalized, subfloor beams of each configuration were fabricated and retrofitted into a barrel section of a CH-46E helicopter. A vertical drop test of the barrel section was conducted onto concrete to evaluate the performance of the energy absorbers prior to retrofit into TRACT 2. The retrofitted airframe was crash tested under combined forward and vertical velocity conditions onto soft soil. Finite element models were developed of all test articles and simulations were performed using LS-DYNA, a commercial nonlinear explicit transient dynamic finite element code. Test-analysis results are presented for each energy absorber as comparisons of time-history responses, as well as predicted and experimental structural deformations and progressive damage under impact loading for each evaluation level.

  19. Absorbent products for incontinence: 'treatment effects' and impact on quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getliffe, Kathryn; Fader, Mandy; Cottenden, Alan; Jamieson, Katharine; Green, Nicholas

    2007-10-01

    This study aimed to determine how the use and characteristics of absorbent products for incontinence impact on women's quality of life, and to examine the concept of 'treatment effects' in the context of pad use. Key pad performance characteristics were identified from the literature and focus group work. Semi-structured interviews with 99 women with light incontinence were used to investigate the impact of pad use on women's quality of life, including both positive and negative 'treatment effects', and to rank pad characteristics by their importance. Achieving effective and discrete containment of urine was the dominant factor impacting on women's lives. Sub-themes embraced physical effects, psychological impact and social functioning. The five pad characteristics ranked most important for day time use were: 'to hold urine, to contain smell, to stay in place, discreteness, and comfort when wet. For night use discreteness was replaced by to keep skin dry'. High levels of reported anxiety were associated with perceived risk of poor pad performance, lack of discreteness and need for complex regimes for pad management. Insufficient attention has been paid to the balance between the beneficial and negative treatment effects of absorbent pads to date. Existing continence-related quality of life measures are not designed for conditions where change in symptoms is not an outcome measure. The study findings provide the basis for developing a more sensitive, patient-oriented, quality of life measure for pad-users which can aid product selection, new product development and inform future evaluative comparisons between products/products and treatments. This paper illustrates the complex influence on quality of life caused by using absorbent pads to contain incontinence. It raises awareness of the importance of careful selection of the most appropriate pad for each individual to minimize unfavourable side effects, and the need for a new quality of life measure designed for pad-users.

  20. Mechanical Design of a High Energy Beam Absorber for the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baffes, C.; Church, M.; Leibfritz, J.; Oplt, S.; Rakhno, I.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-10

    A high energy beam absorber has been built for the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) at Fermilab. In the facility's initial configuration, an electron beam will be accelerated through 3 TTF-type or ILC-type SRF cryomodules to an energy of 750MeV. The electron beam will be directed to one of multiple downstream experimental and diagnostic beam lines and then deposited in one of two beam absorbers. The facility is designed to accommodate up to 6 cryomodules, which would produce a 75kW beam at 1.5GeV; this is the driving design condition for the beam absorbers. The beam absorbers consist of water-cooled graphite, aluminum and copper layers contained in a helium-filled enclosure. This paper describes the mechanical implementation of the beam absorbers, with a focus on thermal design and analysis. The potential for radiation-induced degradation of the graphite is discussed.

  1. Diamond detector in absorbed dose measurements in high-energy linear accelerator photon and electron beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, Ramamoorthy; Binukumar, John Pichy; Al Amri, Iqbal; Davis, Cheriyathmanjiyil Antony

    2016-03-08

    Diamond detectors (DD) are preferred in small field dosimetry of radiation beams because of small dose profile penumbras, better spatial resolution, and tissue-equivalent properties. We investigated a commercially available 'microdiamond' detector in realizing absorbed dose from first principles. A microdiamond detector, type TM 60019 with tandem electrometer is used to measure absorbed doses in water, nylon, and PMMA phantoms. With sensitive volume 0.004 mm3, radius 1.1mm, thickness 1 x10(-3) mm, the nominal response is 1 nC/Gy. It is assumed that the diamond detector could collect total electric charge (nC) developed during irradiation at 0 V bias. We found that dose rate effect is less than 0.7% for changing dose rate by 500 MU/min. The reproducibility in obtaining readings with diamond detector is found to be ± 0.17% (1 SD) (n = 11). The measured absorbed doses for 6 MV and 15 MV photons arrived at using mass energy absorption coefficients and stop-ping power ratios compared well with Nd, water calibrated ion chamber measured absorbed doses within 3% in water, PMMA, and nylon media. The calibration factor obtained for diamond detector confirmed response variation is due to sensitivity due to difference in manufacturing process. For electron beams, we had to apply ratio of electron densities of water to carbon. Our results qualify diamond dosimeter as a transfer standard, based on long-term stability and reproducibility. Based on micro-dimensions, we recommend these detectors for pretreatment dose verifications in small field irradiations like stereotactic treatments with image guidance.

  2. Parameters Analysis of Hydraulic-Electrical Energy Regenerative Absorber on Suspension Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Zhang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To recycle the vibration energy of vehicles over rough roads, a hydraulic-electricity energy regenerative suspension (HEERS was designed in the present work, and simulations were performed with focus on its performance. On the basis of the system principle, the mathematical model of hydraulic-electrical energy regenerative absorber (HEERA and two degrees of freedom (DOF suspension dynamic model were constructed. Using the model of HEERA, simulations on force-displacement and force-velocity characteristics were performed with a 1.67 Hz frequency and a sinusoidal input adopted. And then in combination with HEERA model and two DOF suspension models, simulations on the performance of HEERS also were carried out. Finally, the influences of charging pressure and volume of the accumulator, hydraulic motor displacement, orifice area of check valve, and inner diameter of hydraulic pipelines on the performance of HEERA and HEERS were investigated in depth. The simulation results indicated that (i the damping characteristic of HEERA was coincident with the damping characteristics of traditional absorber; (ii the most remarkable influencing factor on the performance of HEERS was the hydraulic motor displacement, followed by orifice area of check valve, inner diameter of pipelines, and charging pressure of accumulator, while the effects of charging volume of accumulator were quite limited.

  3. Aluminum ''egg-box'' panel as an energy absorber for pedestrian protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowpada, Sravanthi; Chirwa, Efford C.; Myler, Peter; Matsika, Emmanuel [Bolton Automotive and Aerospace Research Group (BAARG), School of Built Environment and Engineering, University of Bolton (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    This paper evaluates the quasi-static performance of lightweight aluminum ''egg-box'' panels which have an improved architecture specifically designed to increase the energy absorption capability. In its entirety, the egg-box panel structure investigated herein is made up of arrays of positive and negative frusta. To understand the collapse mechanism and the factors influencing the energy absorption thereof, compressive tests were conducted under similar test conditions on two single frusta, one constrained in situ and the other separated from the egg-box panel exposing the free-free edges. Their load-displacement histories show characteristics that are similar, with a rise in load to a point where they plateau at a steady state load for the entire collapse time. But the energy absorbed by the in situ constrained frustum is 80% greater than that separated from the egg-box panel with free-free edges. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  4. ANALYSIS OF IMPACT OF CHANGING THE SHOCK ABSORBER RESISTANCE FACTOR ON ACCELERATING THE VEHICLE SPRUNG MASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Rozhkov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The change of acceleration of the vehicle sprung mass while changing the coefficient of resistance of the adaptive pendant shock absorber has been analyzed. Presentation of disturbing influence is taken as a harmonic function containing the initial phase. Solution of the system of differential equations is carried out taking into account the initial conditions. The mathematical modeling of the impact of the vehicle sprung mass vibrations at various moments of time of forming the actuating signal on the change of the coefficient of resistance allowed to formulate requirements to the system of adaptive suspension control.

  5. Control of base-excited dynamical systems through piezoelectric energy harvesting absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmoula, H.; Dai, H. L.; Abdelkefi, A.; Wang, L.

    2017-09-01

    The spring-mass absorber usually offers a good control to dynamical systems under direct base excitations for a specific value of the excitation frequency. As the vibrational energy of a primary dynamical system is transferred to the absorber, it gets dissipated. In this study, this energy is no longer dissipated but converted to available electrical power by designing efficient energy harvesters. A novel design of a piezoelectric beam installed inside an elastically-mounted dynamical system undergoing base excitations is considered. A design is carried out in order to determine the properties and dimensions of the energy harvester with the constraint of simultaneously decreasing the oscillating amplitudes of the primary dynamical system and increasing the harvested power of the energy harvesting absorber. An analytical model for the coupled system is constructed using Euler-Lagrange principle and Galerkin discretization. Different strategies for controlling the primary structure displacement and enhancing the harvested power as functions of the electrical load resistance and thickness of the beam substrate are performed. The linear polynomial approximation of the system’s key parameters as a function of the beam’s substrate thickness is first carried out. Then, the gradient method is applied to determine the adequate values of the electrical load resistance and thickness of the substrate under the constraints of minimizing the amplitudes of the primary structure or maximizing the levels of the harvested power. After that, an iterative strategy is considered in order to simultaneously minimize the amplitudes of the primary structure and maximize the levels of the harvested power as functions of the thickness of the substrate and electrical load resistance. In addition to harmonic excitations, the coupled system subjected to a white noise is explored. Through this analysis, the load resistance and thickness of the substrate of the piezoelectric energy harvester

  6. The series elastic shock absorber: tendon elasticity modulates energy dissipation by muscle during burst deceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konow, Nicolai; Roberts, Thomas J

    2015-04-07

    During downhill running, manoeuvring, negotiation of obstacles and landings from a jump, mechanical energy is dissipated via active lengthening of limb muscles. Tendon compliance provides a 'shock-absorber' mechanism that rapidly absorbs mechanical energy and releases it more slowly as the recoil of the tendon does work to stretch muscle fascicles. By lowering the rate of muscular energy dissipation, tendon compliance likely reduces the risk of muscle injury that can result from rapid and forceful muscle lengthening. Here, we examine how muscle-tendon mechanics are modulated in response to changes in demand for energy dissipation. We measured lateral gastrocnemius (LG) muscle activity, force and fascicle length, as well as leg joint kinematics and ground-reaction force, as turkeys performed drop-landings from three heights (0.5-1.5 m centre-of-mass elevation). Negative work by the LG muscle-tendon unit during landing increased with drop height, mainly owing to greater muscle recruitment and force as drop height increased. Although muscle strain did not increase with landing height, ankle flexion increased owing to increased tendon strain at higher muscle forces. Measurements of the length-tension relationship of the muscle indicated that the muscle reached peak force at shorter and likely safer operating lengths as drop height increased. Our results indicate that tendon compliance is important to the modulation of energy dissipation by active muscle with changes in demand and may provide a mechanism for rapid adjustment of function during deceleration tasks of unpredictable intensity. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Semiconductor-based Multilayer Selective Solar Absorber for Unconcentrated Solar Thermal Energy Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Nathan H; Chen, Zhen; Fan, Shanhui; Minnich, Austin J

    2017-07-13

    Solar thermal energy conversion has attracted substantial renewed interest due to its applications in industrial heating, air conditioning, and electricity generation. Achieving stagnation temperatures exceeding 200 °C, pertinent to these technologies, with unconcentrated sunlight requires spectrally selective absorbers with exceptionally low emissivity in the thermal wavelength range and high visible absorptivity for the solar spectrum. In this Communication, we report a semiconductor-based multilayer selective absorber that exploits the sharp drop in optical absorption at the bandgap energy to achieve a measured absorptance of 76% at solar wavelengths and a low emittance of approximately 5% at thermal wavelengths. In field tests, we obtain a peak temperature of 225 °C, comparable to that achieved with state-of-the-art selective surfaces. With straightforward optimization to improve solar absorption, our work shows the potential for unconcentrated solar thermal systems to reach stagnation temperatures exceeding 300 °C, thereby eliminating the need for solar concentrators for mid-temperature solar applications such as supplying process heat.

  8. Laboratory testing of a long expansion rock bolt support for energy-absorbing applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrzypkowski Krzysztof

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of rock support and reinforcement in underground mining is to maintain excavations safe and open for their intended lifespan. The basic type of rock mass reinforcement method both in ore and hard coal mining is rock bolt support. Very often, existing bolt support systems are not always capable of providing a reliable controlled performance. Therefore, in recent years energy-absorbing bolts which are exposed to dynamic loading, for example from rock burst caused by high rock stresses, earthquakes, or blasting have appeared. In this article particular attention was paid to short and long expansion bolts. Quasi-static tests of expansion bolts were carried out at the laboratory test facility in simulated mining conditions, especially for the KGHM Polska Miedź S.A. mines. In the underground mines of the Legnica-Głogów Copper District (LGOM the main way to protect the room excavation is rock bolt support with a length from 1.2 m to 2.6 m. Rock bolt support longer than 2.6 m is considered as additional support of excavations and is increasingly being used to reinforce the roofs. The comparisons of energy-absorbing short and long expansion bolts with a length of 1.8m, 3.6m and 5.2m were presented. In addition, for elastic and plastic range of each bolts were determined.

  9. Laboratory testing of a long expansion rock bolt support for energy-absorbing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypkowski, Krzysztof

    2018-01-01

    The main purpose of rock support and reinforcement in underground mining is to maintain excavations safe and open for their intended lifespan. The basic type of rock mass reinforcement method both in ore and hard coal mining is rock bolt support. Very often, existing bolt support systems are not always capable of providing a reliable controlled performance. Therefore, in recent years energy-absorbing bolts which are exposed to dynamic loading, for example from rock burst caused by high rock stresses, earthquakes, or blasting have appeared. In this article particular attention was paid to short and long expansion bolts. Quasi-static tests of expansion bolts were carried out at the laboratory test facility in simulated mining conditions, especially for the KGHM Polska Miedź S.A. mines. In the underground mines of the Legnica-Głogów Copper District (LGOM) the main way to protect the room excavation is rock bolt support with a length from 1.2 m to 2.6 m. Rock bolt support longer than 2.6 m is considered as additional support of excavations and is increasingly being used to reinforce the roofs. The comparisons of energy-absorbing short and long expansion bolts with a length of 1.8m, 3.6m and 5.2m were presented. In addition, for elastic and plastic range of each bolts were determined.

  10. Absorbed-dose beam quality conversion factors for cylindrical chambers in high energy photon beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seuntjens, J P; Ross, C K; Shortt, K R; Rogers, D W

    2000-12-01

    Recent working groups of the AAPM [Almond et al., Med. Phys. 26, 1847 (1999)] and the IAEA (Andreo et al., Draft V.7 of "An International Code of Practice for Dosimetry based on Standards of Absorbed Dose to Water," IAEA, 2000) have described guidelines to base reference dosimetry of high energy photon beams on absorbed dose to water standards. In these protocols use is made of the absorbed-dose beam quality conversion factor, kQ which scales an absorbed-dose calibration factor at the reference quality 60Co to a quality Q, and which is calculated based on state-of-the-art ion chamber theory and data. In this paper we present the measurement and analysis of beam quality conversion factors kQ for cylindrical chambers in high-energy photon beams. At least three chambers of six different types were calibrated against the Canadian primary standard for absorbed dose based on a sealed water calorimeter at 60Co [TPR10(20)=0.572, %dd(10)x=58.4], 10 MV [TPR10(20)=0.682, %dd(10)x=69.6), 20 MV (TPR10(20)=0.758, %dd(10)x= 80.5] and 30 MV [TPR10(20) = 0.794, %dd(10)x= 88.4]. The uncertainty on the calorimetric determination of kQ for a single chamber is typically 0.36% and the overall 1sigma uncertainty on a set of chambers of the same type is typically 0.45%. The maximum deviation between a measured kQ and the TG-51 protocol value is 0.8%. The overall rms deviation between measurement and the TG-51 values, based on 20 chambers at the three energies, is 0.41%. When the effect of a 1 mm PMMA waterproofing sleeve is taken into account in the calculations, the maximum deviation is 1.1% and the overall rms deviation between measurement and calculation 0.48%. When the beam is specified using TPR10(20), and measurements are compared with kQ values calculated using the version of TG-21 with corrected formalism and data, differences are up to 1.6% when no sleeve corrections are taken into account. For the NE2571 and the NE2611A chamber types, for which the most literature data are

  11. Study on Ballistic Absorbing Energy Character of High Performance Polyethylene Needle Felt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kailiang, Zhu; Jianqiao, Fu

    2017-11-01

    The ballistic performance of polyethylene needle felt is tested and the failure morphology after test is also observed. The results showed that when the non-dimensionally non-stressed fibers in polyethylene needles are subjected to high-speed projectile, secondary movement such as stretching and twisting occurs first. This secondary movement is very full, it is the main way of ballistic absorbing energy of the polyethylene needle felt which can avoid the polyethylene fiber short-term rapid heating-up and destroyed. Analysis results show that under normal temperature and humidity conditions, the V50 of 6-layer forded polyethylene needle felt sample is 250m/s. At (450 ± 50) m/s speed range of the target missile, the mean value of the penetrative specific energy absorption for 3-layer forded polyethylene needle felt anti-1.1g simulated projectiles (tapered column) reaches 24.1J·m2/kg.

  12. Designing a point-absorber wave energy converter for the Mediterranean Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archetti, Renata; Moreno Miquel, Adria; Antonini, Alessandro; Passoni, Giuseppe; Bozzi, Silvia; Gruosso, Giambattista; Scarpa, Francesca; Bizzozero, Federica; Giassi, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    This work aims to assess the potential for wave energy production in the Italian seas by the deployment of arrays of heaving point absorbers, specifically optimized for mild climates. We model a single-body WEC, consisting of a cylindrical heaving buoy, attached to a linear electric generator placed on the seabed. The model includes both hydrodynamic and electromechanical forces. The results show that the best buoy-generator configuration at the selected sites (Alghero and Mazara del Vallo) is given by a 6 to 10 kW device and with a buoy with diameter between 4 and 5 m. This device can be brought to resonance, increasing the performances, by adding a submerged sphere. These results are encouraging and enlarge the perspective on wave energy production in the Italian seas. [it

  13. Vibration Suppression of Electronic Box by a Dual Function Piezoelectric Energy Harvester-Tuned Vibration Absorber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajid Rafique

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, remarkable developments in piezoelectric materials have motivated many researchers to work in the field of vibration energy harvesting by using piezoelectric beam like smart structures. This paper aimed to present the most recent application of a dual function piezoelectric device which can suppress vibration and harvest vibration energy simultaneously and a brief illustration of conventional mechanical and electrical TVAs (Tuned Vibration Absorber. It is shown that the proposed dual function device combines the benefits of conventional mechanical and electrical TVAs and reduces their relative disadvantages. Conversion of mechanical energy into electrical energy introduces damping and, hence, the optimal damping required by this TVA is generated by the energy harvesting effects. This paper presents the methodology of implementing the theory of 'electromechanical' TVAs to suppress the response of any real world structure. The work also illustrates the prospect of extensive applications of such novel "electromechanical" TVAs in defence and industry. The results show that the optimum degree of vibration suppression of an electronic box is achieved by this dual function TVA through suitable tuning of the attached electrical circuitry

  14. Vibration suppression of electronic box by a dual function piezoelectric energy harvester-tuned vibration absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafique, S.; Shah, S.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few years, remarkable developments in piezoelectric materials have motivated many researchers to work in the field of vibration energy harvesting by using piezoelectric beam like smart structures. This paper aimed to present the most recent application of a dual function piezoelectric device which can suppress vibration and harvest vibration energy simultaneously and a brief illustration of conventional mechanical and electrical TVAs (Tuned Vibration Absorber). It is shown that the proposed dual function device combines the benefits of conventional mechanical and electrical TVAs and reduces their relative disadvantages. Conversion of mechanical energy into electrical energy introduces damping and, hence, the optimal damping required by this TVA is generated by the energy harvesting effects. This paper presents the methodology of implementing the theory of electromechanical TVAs to suppress the response of any real world structure. The work also illustrates the prospect of extensive applications of such novel electromechanical TVAs in defence and industry. The results show that the optimum degree of vibration suppression of an electronic box is achieved by this dual function TVA through suitable tuning of the attached electrical circuitry. (author)

  15. Clinical dosimetry with plastic scintillators - Almost energy independent, direct absorbed dose reading with high resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quast, U; Fluehs, D [Department of Radiotherapy, Essen (Germany). Div. of Clinical Radiation Physics; Fluehs, D; Kolanoski, H [Dortmund Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik

    1996-08-01

    Clinical dosimetry is still far behind the goal to measure any spatial or temporal distribution of absorbed dose fast and precise without disturbing the physical situation by the dosimetry procedure. NE 102A plastic scintillators overcome this border. These tissue substituting dosemeter probes open a wide range of new clinical applications of dosimetry. This versatile new dosimetry system enables fast measurement of the absorbed dose to water in water also in regions with a steep dose gradient, close to interfaces, or in partly shielded regions. It allows direct reading dosimetry in the energy range of all clinically used external photon and electron beams, or around all branchytherapy sources. Thin detector arrays permit fast and high resolution measurements in quality assurance, such as in-vivo dosimetry or even afterloading dose monitoring. A main field of application is the dosimetric treatment planning, the individual optimization of brachytherapy applicators. Thus, plastic scintillator dosemeters cover optimally all difficult fields of clinical dosimetry. An overview about its characteristics and applications is given here. 20 refs, 1 fig.

  16. Electric vehicle energy impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this research project was to evaluate the impacts of electric vehicles (EVs) and : renewable wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) power generation on reducing petroleum imports : and greenhouse gas emissions to Hawaii. In 2015, the state...

  17. Dynamics and control of the GyroPTO wave energy point absorber under sea waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zili; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Basu, Biswajit

    2017-01-01

    The Gyroscopic Power Take-Off (GyroPTO) wave energy point absorber has the operational principle somewhat similar to the so-called gyroscopic hand wrist exerciser. Inside the float of GyroPTO, there is a mechanical system made up of a spinning flywheel with its spin axis in rolling contact...... to a ring. At certain conditions, the ring starts to rotate at a frequency equal to the excitation angular frequency. In this synchronized state, the generator is running at almost constant speed and the generated power becomes constant. In this paper, theoretical modeling of the GyroPTO device is carried...... out based on analytical rigid body dynamics, and a 3-DOF nonlinear model is established. Simulation results show that synchronization of the device is maintained under harmonic sea wave, but is lost easily under non-harmonic sea waves.To overcome this problem, a magnetic coupling mechanism is added...

  18. Development of Lead Free Energy Absorber for Space Shuttle Blast Container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balles, Donald; Ingram, Thomas; Novak, Howard; Schricker, Albert

    1999-01-01

    The Space Shuttle is connected to the mobile launch platform (MLP) by four aft skirt hold down studs on each solid rocket booster (SRB). Prior to lift-off, the frangible nuts inside the aft skirt blast containers are severed into two nut halves by two pyrotechnic booster cartridges. This action releases the Space Shuttle and allows the hold down studs to eject through the aft skirt bore and then down into the MLP. USBI has been tasked to upgrade the blast container for two specific reasons: (1) To eliminate lead for environmental concerns, and (2) To reduce the chance of nut recontact with the holddown stud. Nut recontact with the stud has been identified as a likely contributor to stud hang-ups. This upgrade will replace the lead liner with a unique open cell aluminum foam material, that has commercial and military uses. The aluminum foam used as an energy absorber is a proven design in many other aerospace/defense applications. Additional benefits of using the open cell, energy absorbent aluminum foam in place of the solid lead liner are: (1) Lead handling / exposure and possible contamination, along with hazardous waste disposal, will be eliminated; (2) Approximately 200 lbs. weight savings will be contributed to each Space Shuttle flight by using aluminum foam instead of lead; (3) The new aluminum liner is designed to catch all shrapnel from frangible nuts, thus virtually eliminating chance of debris exiting the HDP and causing potential damage to the vehicle; (4) Using the lighter aluminum liner instead of lead, allows for easier assembly and disassembly of blast container elements, which also improves safety, operator handling, and the efficiency of operations.

  19. Adaptive inertial shock-absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faraj, Rami; Holnicki-Szulc, Jan; Knap, Lech; Seńko, Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces and discusses a new concept of impact absorption by means of impact energy management and storage in dedicated rotating inertial discs. The effectiveness of the concept is demonstrated in a selected case-study involving spinning management, a recently developed novel impact-absorber. A specific control technique performed on this device is demonstrated to be the main source of significant improvement in the overall efficiency of impact damping process. The influence of various parameters on the performance of the shock-absorber is investigated. Design and manufacturing challenges and directions of further research are formulated. (paper)

  20. Considering linear generator copper losses on model predictive control for a point absorber wave energy converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya Andrade, Dan-El; Villa Jaén, Antonio de la; García Santana, Agustín

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We considered the linear generator copper losses in the proposed MPC strategy. • We maximized the power transferred to the generator side power converter. • The proposed MPC increases the useful average power injected into the grid. • The stress level of the PTO system can be reduced by the proposed MPC. - Abstract: The amount of energy that a wave energy converter can extract depends strongly on the control strategy applied to the power take-off system. It is well known that, ideally, the reactive control allows for maximum energy extraction from waves. However, the reactive control is intrinsically noncausal in practice and requires some kind of causal approach to be applied. Moreover, this strategy does not consider physical constraints and this could be a problem because the system could achieve unacceptable dynamic values. These, and other control techniques have focused on the wave energy extraction problem in order to maximize the energy absorbed by the power take-off device without considering the possible losses in intermediate devices. In this sense, a reactive control that considers the linear generator copper losses has been recently proposed to increase the useful power injected into the grid. Among the control techniques that have emerged recently, the model predictive control represents a promising strategy. This approach performs an optimization process on a time prediction horizon incorporating dynamic constraints associated with the physical features of the power take-off system. This paper proposes a model predictive control technique that considers the copper losses in the control optimization process of point absorbers with direct drive linear generators. This proposal makes the most of reactive control as it considers the copper losses, and it makes the most of the model predictive control, as it considers the system constraints. This means that the useful power transferred from the linear generator to the power

  1. Performance of a Tethered Point Wave-Energy Absorber in Regular and Irregular Waves

    KAUST Repository

    Bachynski, Erin E.; Young, Yin Lu; Yeung, Ronald W.

    2010-01-01

    The importance of the mooring system on the dynamic response of a point-absorber type ocean-wave energy converter (WEC) is investigated using a frequency-domain approach. In order to ensure the safety of WECs, careful consideration of the response and resonance frequencies in all motions must be evaluated, including the effects of the mooring system. In this study, a WEC floater with a closed, flat bottom is modeled as a rigid vertical cylinder tethered by elastic mooring lines. The WEC hydrodynamic added mass and damping are obtained using established potential-flow methods, with additional damping provided by the energy-extraction system. The results show that the response of the WEC, and the corresponding power takeoff, varies with the diameter-to-draft (D=T) ratio, mooring system stiffness, and mass distribution. For a given wave climate in Northern California, near San Francisco, the heave energy extraction is found to be best for a shallow WEC with a soft mooring system, compared to other systems that were examined. This result assumes a physical limit (cap) on the motion which is related to the significant wave height to draft ratio. Shallow draft designs, however, may experience excessive pitch motions and relatively larger viscous damping. In order to mitigate the pitch response, the pitch radius of gyration should be small and the center of mass should be low. Copyright © 2010 by ASME.

  2. Nearshore Tests of the Tidal Compensation System for Point-Absorbing Wave Energy Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Castellucci

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The power production of the linear generator wave energy converter developed at Uppsala University is affected by variations of mean sea level. The reason is that these variations change the distance between the point absorber located on the surface and the linear generator located on the seabed. This shifts the average position of the translator with respect to the center of the stator, thereby reducing the generator output power. A device mounted on the point absorber that compensates for tides of small range by regulating the length of the connection line between the buoy at the surface and the linear generator has been constructed and tested. This paper describes the electro-mechanical, measurement, communication and control systems installed on the buoy and shows the results obtained before its connection to the generator. The adjustment of the line was achieved through a linear actuator, which shortens the line during low tides and vice versa. The motor that drives the mechanical device was activated remotely via SMS. The measurement system that was mounted on the buoy consisted of current and voltage sensors, accelerometers, strain gauges and inductive and laser sensors. The data collected were transferred via Internet to a Dropbox server. As described within the paper, after the calibration of the sensors, the buoy was assembled and tested in the waters of Lysekil harbor, a few kilometers from the Uppsala University research site. Moreover, the performance of the sensors, the motion of the mechanical device, the power consumption, the current control strategy and the communication system are discussed.

  3. Absorbed dose calibration factors for parallel-plate chambers in high energy photon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwen, M.R.; Duane, S.; Thomas, R.A.S.

    2002-01-01

    An investigation was carried out into the performance of parallel-plate chambers in 60 Co and MV photon beams. The aim was to derive calibration factors, investigate chamber-to-chamber variability and provide much-needed information on the use of parallel-plate chambers in high-energy X-ray beams. A set of NE2561/NE2611 reference chambers, calibrated against the primary standard graphite calorimeter is used for the dissemination of absorbed dose to water. The parallel-plate chambers were calibrated by comparison with the NPL reference chambers in a water phantom. Two types of parallel-plate chamber were investigated - the NACP -02 and Roos and measurements were made at 60 C0 and 6 linac photon energies (6-19 MV). Calibration factors were derived together with polarity corrections. The standard uncertainty in the calibration of a chamber in terms of absorbed dose to water is estimated to be ±0.75%. The results of the polarity measurements were somewhat confusing. One would expect the correction to be small and previous measurements in electron beams have indicated that there is little variation between chambers of these types. However, some chambers gave unexpectedly large polarity corrections, up to 0.8%. By contrast the measured polarity correction for a NE2611 chamber was less than 0.13% at all energies. The reason for these large polarity corrections is not clear, but experimental error and linac variations have been ruled out. By combining the calibration data for the different chambers it was possible to obtain experimental k Q factors for the two chamber types. It would appear from the data that the variations between chambers of the same type are random and one can therefore define a generic curve for each chamber type. These are presented in Figure 1, together with equivalent data for two cylindrical chamber types - NE2561/NE2611 and NE2571. As can be seen, there is a clear difference between the curves for the cylindrical chambers and those for the

  4. Sound Absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, H. V.; Möser, M.

    Sound absorption indicates the transformation of sound energy into heat. It is, for instance, employed to design the acoustics in rooms. The noise emitted by machinery and plants shall be reduced before arriving at a workplace; auditoria such as lecture rooms or concert halls require a certain reverberation time. Such design goals are realised by installing absorbing components at the walls with well-defined absorption characteristics, which are adjusted for corresponding demands. Sound absorbers also play an important role in acoustic capsules, ducts and screens to avoid sound immission from noise intensive environments into the neighbourhood.

  5. Design and performance simulation of a segmented-absorber based muon detection system for high energy heavy ion collision experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.; Bhaduri, P.P.; Jahan, H.; Senger, A.; Adak, R.; Samanta, S.; Prakash, A.; Dey, K.; Lebedev, A.; Kryshen, E.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Senger, P.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Ghosh, S.K.; Raha, S.; Irfan, M.; Ahmad, N.; Farooq, M.; Singh, B.

    2015-01-01

    A muon detection system (MUCH) based on a novel concept using a segmented and instrumented absorber has been designed for high-energy heavy-ion collision experiments. The system consists of 6 hadron absorber blocks and 6 tracking detector triplets. Behind each absorber block a detector triplet is located which measures the tracks of charged particles traversing the absorber. The performance of such a system has been simulated for the CBM experiment at FAIR (Germany) that is scheduled to start taking data in heavy ion collisions in the beam energy range of 6–45 A GeV from 2019. The muon detection system is mounted downstream to a Silicon Tracking System (STS) that is located in a large aperture dipole magnet which provides momentum information of the charged particle tracks. The reconstructed tracks from the STS are to be matched to the hits measured by the muon detector triplets behind the absorber segments. This method allows the identification of muon tracks over a broad range of momenta including tracks of soft muons which do not pass through all the absorber layers. Pairs of oppositely charged muons identified by MUCH could therefore be combined to measure the invariant masses in a wide range starting from low mass vector mesons (LMVM) up to charmonia. The properties of the absorber (material, thickness, position) and of the tracking chambers (granularity, geometry) have been varied in simulations of heavy-ion collision events generated with the UrQMD generator and propagated through the setup using the GEANT3, the particle transport code. The tracks are reconstructed by a Cellular Automaton algorithm followed by a Kalman Filter. The simulations demonstrate that low mass vector mesons and charmonia can be clearly identified in central Au+Au collisions at beam energies provided by the international Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR)

  6. Light absorbing organic aerosols (brown carbon) over the tropical Indian Ocean: impact of biomass burning emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivas, Bikkina; Sarin, M M

    2013-01-01

    The first field measurements of light absorbing water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), referred as brown carbon (BrC), have been made in the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) during the continental outflow to the Bay of Bengal (BoB) and the Arabian Sea (ARS). The absorption signal measured at 365 nm in aqueous extracts of aerosols shows a systematic linear increase with WSOC concentration, suggesting a significant contribution from BrC to the absorption properties of organic aerosols. The mass absorption coefficient (b abs ) of BrC shows an inverse hyperbolic relation with wavelength (from ∼300 to 700 nm), providing an estimate of the Angstrom exponent (α P , range: 3–19; Av: 9 ± 3). The mass absorption efficiency of brown carbon (σ abs−BrC ) in the MABL varies from 0.17 to 0.72 m 2  g −1 (Av: 0.45 ± 0.14 m 2  g −1 ). The α P and σ abs−BrC over the BoB are quite similar to that studied from a sampling site in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), suggesting the dominant impact of organic aerosols associated with the continental outflow. A comparison of the mass absorption efficiency of BrC and elemental carbon (EC) brings to focus the significant role of light absorbing organic aerosols (from biomass burning emissions) in atmospheric radiative forcing over oceanic regions located downwind of the pollution sources. (letter)

  7. Radiation-absorbed doses and energy imparted from panoramic tomography, cephalometric radiography, and occlusal film radiography in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bankvall, G.; Hakansson, H.A.

    1982-01-01

    The absorbed doses and energy imparted from radiographic examinations of children, using panoramic tomography (PTG), cephalometric radiography (CPR), and maxillary frontal occlusal overview (FOO), were examined. The absorbed dose at various sites of the head were measured with TL dosimeters in a phantom and in patients. The energy imparted was calculated from measurements of areal exposure using a planparallel ionization chamber. The maximum absorbed doses for panoramic tomography were located around the lateral rotation center, for cephalometric radiography in the left (tube side) parotid region, and for frontal occlusal radiography in the nose. The absorbed doses in the eyes, thyroid gland, and skin are discussed and compared with previous reports and, for the most part, are found to be in agreement. The mean energy imparted from all three examination methods is 5 mJ with about 57 percent from panoramic, 33 percent from cephalometric, and 10 percent from frontal occlusal examinations. The energy imparted from cephalometric radiography can be reduced to about 10 percent with the use of an improved examination technique, leaving panoramic tomography responsible for contributing about 80 percent of the total energy imparted

  8. Energy generation x environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Thalles Rodrigues

    2011-01-01

    This work aims: to analyze the various sources of energy giving a general idea of the good and bad points for each power generation model, and its impact in the environment, with the purpose of considering the best available options; research on alternative sources of energy production as well as Brazil's resources in a particular source of energy and point out their strengths and weaknesses; report the best options to take advantage of the available resources for energy production in Triangulo Mineiro, a region within Minas Gerais state

  9. Skeletal muscle contraction in protecting joints and bones by absorbing mechanical impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudenko, O. V.; Tsyuryupa, S.; Sarvazyan, A.

    2016-09-01

    We have previously hypothesized that the dissipation of mechanical energy of external impact is a fundamental function of skeletal muscle in addition to its primary function to convert chemical energy into mechanical energy. In this paper, a mathematical justification of this hypothesis is presented. First, a simple mechanical model, in which the muscle is considered as a simple Hookean spring, is considered. This analysis serves as an introduction to the consideration of a biomechanical model taking into account the molecular mechanism of muscle contraction, kinetics of myosin bridges, sarcomere dynamics, and tension of muscle fibers. It is shown that a muscle behaves like a nonlinear and adaptive spring tempering the force of impact and increasing the duration of the collision. The temporal profiles of muscle reaction to the impact as functions of the levels of muscle contraction, durations of the impact front, and the time constants of myosin bridges closing, are obtained. The absorption of mechanical shock energy is achieved due to the increased viscoelasticity of the contracting skeletal muscle. Controlling the contraction level allows for the optimization of the stiffness and viscosity of the muscle necessary for the protection of the joints and bones.

  10. Experimental Study of Heat Energy Absorber with Porous Medium for Thermoelectric Conversion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzer-Ming Jeng

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The thermoelectric conversion system usually consists of the heat absorber, the thermoelectric generator (TEG and the heat sink, while the heat absorber collects the heat to increase the temperature on the hot surface of TEG and enhances the generating electricity. This study experimentally investigated the performance of the brass-beads packed-bed heat absorber for the thermoelectric conversion system. The packed-bed heat absorber is installed in a square channel with the various flow orientation systems and the small ratio of channel width to bead diameter. The flow orientation systems included the straight flow and jet flow systems. This study showed the local and average heat transfer characteristics for various parameters. The experimental results can be the base of designs for the novel porous heat absorber of the thermoelectric conversion system.

  11. Specific absorbed fractions of energy at various ages from internal photon sources: 7, Adult male

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristy, M.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1987-04-01

    Specific absorbed fractions (PHI's) in various organs of the body (target organs) from sources of monoenergetic photons in various other organs (source organs) are tabulated. In this volume PHI-values are tabulated for an adult male (70-kg Reference Man). These PHI-values can be used in calculating the photon component of the dose-equivalent rate in a given target organ from a given radionuclide that is present in a given source organ. The International Commission on Radiological Protection recognizes that the endosteal, or bone surface, cells are the tissue at risk for bone cancer. We have applied the dosimetry methods developed for beta-emitting radionuclides deposited in bone to follow the transport of secondary electrons that were freed by photon interactions through the microscopic structure of the skeleton. With these methods we can estimate PHI in the endosteal cells and can better estimate PHI in the active marrow; the latter is overestimated with other methods at photon energies below 200 keV. 12 refs., 2 tabs

  12. Analysis of absorbed energy and efficiency of a solar flat plate collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Miguel Lenz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The highest percentage in home electricity demands in Brazil lies with the water heating systems, where the electric shower has a great contribution in consumption. The use of solar thermal panels is an alternative to minimize the strain on the electrical system by heating water. Current study evaluates a water heating system built with materials commonly used in home constructions. The tested collector is a 1 m² flat plate. Experiments were conducted at the State University of Western Paraná (UNIOESTE, campus Cascavel, Paraná State, Brazil. Temperature data were collected by PT100 sensors and solar radiation was measured with a pyranometer, coupled to a CR-1000 datalogger, with readings and collection every 5 minutes for 1 year. Data collection and analysis showed that the system presented monthly efficiency ranging between 33.7 and 53.54%, and energy absorbed between 30.79 and 75.29 kWh m-².month. Results show the system is a good option for use in residential or rural water heating due to decrease in the electric bill.

  13. Study of gelatin as an effective energy absorbing layer for laser bioprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Ruitong; Zhang, Zhengyi; Chai, Wenxuan; Chrisey, Douglas B; Huang, Yong

    2017-06-09

    Laser-induced forward transfer printing, also commonly known as laser printing, has been widely implemented for three-dimensional bioprinting due to its unique orifice-free nature during printing. However, the printing quality has the potential to be further improved for various laser bioprinting applications. The objectives of this study are to investigate the feasibility of using gelatin as an energy absorbing layer (EAL) material for laser bioprinting and its effects on the quality of printed constructs, bioink printability, and post-printing cell viability and process-induced DNA damage. The gelatin EAL is applied between the quartz support and the coating of build material, which is to be printed. Printing quality can be improved by EAL-assisted laser printing when using various alginate solutions (1%, 2%, and 4%) and cell-laden bioinks (2% alginate and 5 × 10 6 cells ml -1 in cell culture medium). The required laser fluence is also reduced due to a higher absorption coefficient of gelatin gel, in particular when to achieve the best printing type/quality. The post-printing cell viability is improved by ∼10% and DNA double-strand breaks are reduced by ∼50%. For all the build materials investigated, the gelatin EAL helps reduce the droplet size and average jet velocity.

  14. CFD Simulations of Floating Point Absorber Wave Energy Converter Arrays Subjected to Regular Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brecht Devolder

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we use the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD toolbox OpenFOAM to perform numerical simulations of multiple floating point absorber wave energy converters (WECs arranged in a geometrical array configuration inside a numerical wave tank (NWT. The two-phase Navier-Stokes fluid solver is coupled with a motion solver to simulate the hydrodynamic flow field around the WECs and the wave-induced rigid body heave motion of each WEC within the array. In this study, the numerical simulations of a single WEC unit are extended to multiple WECs and the complexity of modelling individual floating objects close to each other in an array layout is tackled. The NWT is validated for fluid-structure interaction (FSI simulations by using experimental measurements for an array of two, five and up to nine heaving WECs subjected to regular waves. The validation is achieved by using mathematical models to include frictional forces observed during the experimental tests. For all the simulations presented, a good agreement is found between the numerical and the experimental results for the WECs’ heave motions, the surge forces on the WECs and the perturbed wave field around the WECs. As a result, our coupled CFD–motion solver proves to be a suitable and accurate toolbox for the study of fluid-structure interaction problems of WEC arrays.

  15. Specific absorbed fractions of energy at various ages from internal photon sources: 1, Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristy, M.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1987-04-01

    Specific absorbed fractions (PHI's) in various organs of the body (target organs) from sources of monoenergetic photons in various other organs (source organs) are tabulated. This volume outlines various methods used to compute the PHI-values and describes how the ''best'' estimates recommended by us are chosen. These PHI-values can be used in calculating the photon component of the dose-equivalent rate in a given target organ from a given radionuclide that is present in a given source organ. The International Commission on Radiological Protection recognizes that the endosteal, or bone surface, cells are the tissue at risk for bone cancer. We have applied the dosimetry methods that Spiers and co-workers developed for beta-emitting radionuclides deposited in bone to follow the transport of secondary electrons that were freed by photon interactions through the microscopic structure of the skeleton. With these methods we can estimate PHI in the endosteal cells and can better estimate PHI in the active marrow; the latter is overestimated with the methods at photon energies below 200 keV. 41 refs., 25 figs., 23 tabs

  16. Theory of Covalent Adsorbate Frontier Orbital Energies on Functionalized Light-Absorbing Semiconductor Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Min; Doak, Peter; Tamblyn, Isaac; Neaton, Jeffrey B

    2013-05-16

    Functional hybrid interfaces between organic molecules and semiconductors are central to many emerging information and solar energy conversion technologies. Here we demonstrate a general, empirical parameter-free approach for computing and understanding frontier orbital energies - or redox levels - of a broad class of covalently bonded organic-semiconductor surfaces. We develop this framework in the context of specific density functional theory (DFT) and many-body perturbation theory calculations, within the GW approximation, of an exemplar interface, thiophene-functionalized silicon (111). Through detailed calculations taking into account structural and binding energetics of mixed-monolayers consisting of both covalently attached thiophene and hydrogen, chlorine, methyl, and other passivating groups, we quantify the impact of coverage, nonlocal polarization, and interface dipole effects on the alignment of the thiophene frontier orbital energies with the silicon band edges. For thiophene adsorbate frontier orbital energies, we observe significant corrections to standard DFT (∼1 eV), including large nonlocal electrostatic polarization effects (∼1.6 eV). Importantly, both results can be rationalized from knowledge of the electronic structure of the isolated thiophene molecule and silicon substrate systems. Silicon band edge energies are predicted to vary by more than 2.5 eV, while molecular orbital energies stay similar, with the different functional groups studied, suggesting the prospect of tuning energy alignment over a wide range for photoelectrochemistry and other applications.

  17. Energy Education Incentives: Evaluating the Impact of Consumer Energy Kits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Sarah D.; Guin, Autumn; Langham, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Measuring the energy and environmental impact of residential energy education efforts is difficult. The E-Conservation residential energy management program uses consumer energy kits to document the impact of energy-efficient improvements. The consumer energy kit provides an incentive for individuals attending energy education workshop, helps…

  18. Absorbed dose calculation of the energy deposition close to bone, lung and soft tissue interfaces in molecular radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, M.; Lassman, M.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Aim: for voxel-based dosimetry in molecular radiotherapy (MRT) based on tabulated voxel S-values these values are usually obtained only for soft tissue. In order to study the changes in the dose deposition patterns at interfaces between different materials we have performed Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: the deposited energy patterns were obtained using the Monte-Carlo radiation code MCNPX v2.7 for Lu 177 (medium-energy) and Y 90 (high-energy). The following interfaces were studied: soft tissue-bone and soft tissue-lungs. For this purpose a volume of soft tissue homogeneously filled with Lu 177 or Y 90 was simulated at the interface to 3 different volumes containing no activity: soft tissue, lungs and bone. The emission was considered to be isotropic. The dimensions were chosen to ensure that the energy deposited by all generated particles was scored. The materials were defined as recommended by ICPR46; the decay schemes of Eckerman and Endo were used. With these data the absorbed dose patterns normalized to the maximum absorbed dose in the source region (soft tissue) were calculated. Results: the absorbed dose fractions in the boundary with soft tissue, bone and lungs are 50%, 47% and 57%, respectively, for Lu 177 and 50%, 47% and 51% for Y 90 . The distances to the interface at which the absorbed fractions are at 0.1% are 1.0, 0.6 and 3.0 mm for Lu 177 and 7.0, 4.0 and 24 mm for Y 90 , for soft tissue, bone and lungs respectively. Conclusions: in MRT, the changes in the absorbed doses at interfaces between soft tissue and bone/lungs need to be considered for isotopes emitting high energy particles. (authors)

  19. Feasibility Study for Using a Linear Transverse Flux Machine as part of the Structure of Point Absorber Wave Energy Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Pereira da Costa Cunha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This is a feasibility study for the generation of wave energy by means of a transverse flux machine connected to a device for converting wave energy known as Point Absorber. The article contains literature review on the topic and analysis of data obtained by means of a prototype built in the laboratory. Based on the results, the study concludes that this use is feasible.

  20. Wind energy impact of turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Hölling, Michae; Ivanell, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the results of the seminar ""Wind Energy and the Impact of Turbulence on the Conversion Process"" which was supported from three societies, namely the EUROMech, EAWE and ERCOFATC and took place in Oldenburg, Germany in spring 2012.The seminar was one of the first scientific meetings devoted to the common topic of wind energy and basic turbulence. The established community of researchers working on the challenging puzzle of turbulence for decades met the quite young community of researchers, who face the upcoming challenges in the fast growing field of wind energy application

  1. Differential impact of five coronary devices on plaque size: insights from the ABSORB and SPIRIT trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-García, Héctor M; Serruys, Patrick W; Campos, Carlos M; Onuma, Yoshinobu

    2014-08-20

    Coronary plaque size modification, by either local (device) or systemic treatments, has been the target for many years. From ABSORB Cohort A (Absorb BVS 1.0), ABSORB Cohort B (Absorb BVS 1.1), SPIRIT FIRST (Multi-Link Vision vs. Xience V) & SPIRIT II (Xience V vs. Taxus), we calculated the total plaque area (vessel minus lumen area - thus it comprises both compartments - the plaque behind struts and the neointima.) changes by IVUS. A total of 313 patients were included. Comparison-at-6-month follow-up: All devices induced an increase in the total plaque area. The largest increase occurred with Vision and Taxus stents as compared to other devices [Absorb BVS (1.0 and 1.1) and Xience V], (p=0.0002). Comparison-at-2-year follow-up: Absorb BVS 1.1 had a larger increase from post procedure in total plaque compared to Absorb BVS 1.0, Xience V and Taxus (p=0.0499). However, in Absorb BVS 1.1 total plaque showed a reduction of 2.2% from 1 to 3 years. Specifically, the total plaque in the sequential cohorts of Absorb BVS 1.1 increased 16.2% from baseline to 2 years (Cohort B1) while at 3 years this increase is only 5% compared to baseline (Cohort B2). Local devices affect coronary plaque size differently and it depends on the platform (metallic vs. polymeric) and on whether it is a bare - or drug eluting stent. Coronary scaffolds appear to be a promising alternative to metallic stents since they allow plaque regression at long-term follow-up. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A bi-annular-gap magnetorheological energy absorber for shock and vibration mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xian-Xu; Wereley, Norman M.; Choi, Young-Tai; Wang, Dai-Hua

    2012-04-01

    For semi-active shock and vibration mitigation systems using magnetorheological energy absorbers (MREAs), the minimization of the field-off damper force of the MREA at high speed is of particular significance because the damper force due to the viscous damping at high speed becomes too excessive and thus the controllable dynamic force range that is defined by the ratio of the field-on damper force to the field-off damper force is significantly reduced. In this paper, a bi-annular-gap MREA with an inner-set permanent magnet is proposed to decrease the field-off damper force at high speed while keeping appropriate dynamic force range for improving shock and vibration mitigation performance. In the bi-annular-gap MREA, two concentric annular gaps are configured in parallel so as to decrease the baseline damper force and both magnetic activation methods using the electromagnetic coil winding and the permanent magnet are used to keep holding appropriate magnetic intensity in these two concentric annular gaps in the consideration of failure of the electric power supply. An initial field-on damper force is produced by the magnetic field bias generated from the inner-set permanent magnet. The initial damper force of the MREA can be increased (or decreased) through applying positive (or negative) current to the electromagnetic coil winding inside the bi-annular-gap MREA. After establishing the analytical damper force model of the bi-annular-gap MREA using a Bingham-plastic nonlinear fluid model, the principle and magnetic properties of the MREA are analytically validated and analyzed via electromagnetic finite element analysis (FEA). The performance of the bi-annular-gap MREA is also theoretically compared with that of a traditional single-annular- gap MREA with the constraints of an identical volume by the performance matrix, such as the damper force, dynamic force range, and Bingham number with respect to different excitation velocities.

  3. A robust method for determining the absorbed dose to water in a phantom for low-energy photon radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, T, E-mail: thorsten.schneider@ptb.de [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), 38116 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2011-06-07

    The application of more and more low-energy photon radiation in brachytherapy-either in the form of low-dose-rate radioactive seeds such as Pd-103 or I-125 or in the form of miniature x-ray tubes-has induced greater interest in determining the absorbed dose to water in water in this energy range. As it seems to be hardly feasible to measure the absorbed dose with calorimetric methods in this low energy range, ionometric methods are the preferred choice. However, the determination of the absorbed dose to water in water by ionometric methods is difficult in this energy range. With decreasing energy, the relative uncertainty of the photon cross sections increases and as the mass energy transfer coefficients show a steep gradient, the spectra of the radiation field must be known precisely. In this work two ionometric methods to determine the absorbed dose to water are evaluated with respect to their sensitivity to the uncertainties of the spectra and of the atomic database. The first is the measurement of the air kerma free in air and the application of an MC-based conversion factor to the absorbed dose to water. The second is the determination of the absorbed dose to water by means of an extrapolation chamber as an integral part of a phantom. In the complementing MC-calculations, two assortments of spectra each of which is based on a separate unfolding procedure were used as well as two kinds of databases: the standard PEGS and the recently implemented NIST database of EGSnrc. Experimental results were obtained by using a parallel-plate graphite extrapolation chamber and a free-air chamber. In the case when the water kerma in a phantom is determined from the measurements of air kerma free in air, differences in the order of 10% were found, according to which the database or the kind of spectrum is used. In contrast to this, for the second method, the differences found were about 0.5%.

  4. Factors affecting sound energy absorbance in acute otitis media model of chinchilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xiying; Seale, Thomas W; Gan, Rong Z

    2017-07-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM) is a rapid-onset infection of the middle ear which results in middle ear pressure (MEP), middle ear effusion (MEE), and structural changes in middle ear tissues. Previous studies from our laboratory have identified that MEP, MEE, and middle ear structural changes are three factors affecting tympanic membrane (TM) mobility and hearing levels (Guan et al., 2014, 2013). Sound energy reflectance or absorbance (EA) is a diagnostic tool increasingly used in clinical settings for the identification of middle ear diseases. However, it is unclear whether EA can differentiate these three factors in an AOM ear. Here we report wideband EA measurements in the AOM model of chinchilla at three experimental stages: unopened, pressure released, and effusion removed. These correspond to the combined and individual effects of the three factors on sound energy transmission. AOM was produced by transbullar injection of Haemophilus influenzae in two treatment groups: 4 days (4D) and 8 days (8D) post inoculation. These time points represent the relatively early and later phase of AOM. In each group of chinchillas, EA at 250-8000 Hz was measured using a wideband tympanometer at three experimental stages. Results show that the effects of MEP, MEE, and tissue structural changes over the frequency range varied with the disease time course. MEP was the primary contributor to reduction of EA in 4D AOM ears and had a smaller effect in 8D ears. MEE reduced the EA at 6-8 kHz in 4D ears and 2-8 kHz in 8D ears and was responsible for the EA peak in both 4D and 8D ears. The residual EA loss due to structural changes was observed over the frequency range in 8D ears and only at high frequencies in 4D ears. The EA measurements were also compared with the published TM mobility loss in chinchilla AOM ears. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Spectroscopic ellipsometry on metallic gratings and the energy density in absorbing media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmair, M.

    2011-01-01

    compared. Deviations in the structure are identified and it is shown that RCWA and SE are a powerful combination to analyze nanostructures. Further the surface plasmonic excitation frequencies for metallic structures are identified in the SE spectra and calculated with a simple theoretical model. It is shown that one can distinguish vertical and horizontal surface plasmons. The characterization of metallic gratings is essential e.g. for solar cells to enhance absorption of incoming photons or for sensing features due to the field enhancement of surface plasmons. The second part of this thesis focuses on the calculation of the energy density in absorbing systems which is necessary to derive the energy velocity. In physics, this problem was only solved for transparent media, i.e. the absorption of the material was neglected. As all metamaterials described before exhibit a strong dispersion which is always connected to a non-zero absorption this approximation does not hold especially in the operating frequency regions of nano structures. Therefore in the beginning simple approximations as monochromatic plane waves exciting a material with an arbitrary response are presented. The obtained results are generalized for bi- and multichromatic fields and the results are compared with the ones from textbooks and literature. Finally the expression for the energy density and the loss is explicitly derived for a material with a retarded response and a material whose polarizability is described by a damped harmonic oscillator. By these calculations it is shown that the energy density depends on the kind of excitation and material properties. It is possible to determine the expressions analytically for several cases. Further the energy balance can be evaluated numerically even for metamaterials whose response function consists of numerical data. (author) [de

  6. In-phantom measurement of absorbed dose to water in medium energy x-ray beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohlfeld, K.

    1996-01-01

    Absorbed dose values in a water phantom derived by the formalism of the IAEA Code of Practice of Absorbed Dose Determination in Photon and Electron Beams are a few per cent higher than those based on the procedure following e.g. ICRU Report 23. The maximum deviation exceeds 10% at 100 kV tube potential. The correction factor needed to take into account the differences at the calibration in terms of air kerma free in air and at the measurement in the water phantom can be determined in different ways: In comparing the result of the absorbed dose measurement by means of the ionization chambers with an other, preferably fundamental method of measurement of absorbed dose in the water phantom or by evaluating all component parts of the correction factor separately. The values of the perturbation correction factor in the IAEA Code were determined in the former way by comparing against a graphite extrapolation chamber. A review is given on a recent re-evaluation using former values of the extrapolation chamber measurements and on new determinations using an absorbed dose water calorimeter, a method based on calculated and measured air kerma values and a method of combining the component factors to the overall correction factor. Recent results achieved by the different methods are compared and a change of the data of the IAEA Code is recommended. (author). 31 refs, 14 figs, 3 tabs

  7. Analysis of energy flow during playground surface impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Peter L; Wilson, Suzanne J; Chalmers, David J; Wilson, Barry D; Eager, David; McIntosh, Andrew S

    2013-10-01

    The amount of energy dissipated away from or returned to a child falling onto a surface will influence fracture risk but is not considered in current standards for playground impact-attenuating surfaces. A two-mass rheological computer simulation was used to model energy flow within the wrist and surface during hand impact with playground surfaces, and the potential of this approach to provide insights into such impacts and predict injury risk examined. Acceleration data collected on-site from typical playground surfaces and previously obtained data from children performing an exercise involving freefalling with a fully extended arm provided input. The model identified differences in energy flow properties between playground surfaces and two potentially harmful surface characteristics: more energy was absorbed by (work done on) the wrist during both impact and rebound on rubber surfaces than on bark, and rubber surfaces started to rebound (return energy to the wrist) while the upper limb was still moving downward. Energy flow analysis thus provides information on playground surface characteristics and the impact process, and has the potential to identify fracture risks, inform the development of safer impact-attenuating surfaces, and contribute to development of new energy-based arm fracture injury criteria and tests for use in conjunction with current methods.

  8. Environmental impact of wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Jakob; Teilmann, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    One purpose of wind turbines is to provide pollution-free electric power at a reasonable price in an environmentally sound way. In this focus issue the latest research on the environmental impact of wind farms is presented. Offshore wind farms affect the marine fauna in both positive and negative...... ways. For example, some farms are safe havens for porpoises while other farms show fewer harbor porpoises even after ten years. Atmospheric computer experiments are carried out to investigate the possible impact and resource of future massive installations of wind turbines. The following questions...... are treated. What is the global capacity for energy production by the wind? Will the added turbulence and reduced wind speeds generated by massive wind farms cool or heat the surface? Can wind farms affect precipitation? It is also shown through life-cycle analysis how wind energy can reduce the atmospheric...

  9. Impact Vibration Attenuation for a Flexible Robotic Manipulator through Transfer and Dissipation of Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushu Bian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the presence of system flexibility, impact can excite severe large amplitude vibration responses of the flexible robotic manipulator. This impact vibration exhibits characteristics of remarkable nonlinearity and strong energy. The main goal of this study is to put forward an energy-based control method to absorb and attenuate large amplitude impact vibration of the flexible robotic manipulator. The method takes advantage of internal resonance and is implemented through a vibration absorber based on the transfer and dissipation of energy. The addition of the vibration absorber to the flexible arm generates a coupling effect between vibration modes of the system. By means of analysis on 2:1 internal resonance, the exchange of energy is proven to be existent. The impact vibrational energy can be transferred from the arm to the absorber and dissipated through the damping of the absorber. The results of numerical simulations are promising and preliminarily verify that the method is feasible and can be used to combat large amplitude impact vibration of the flexible manipulator undergoing rigid motion.

  10. Absorbed dose determination in high energy photon beams using new IAEA TRS - 398 Code of Practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suriyapee, S.; Srimanoroath, S.; Jumpangern, C.

    2002-01-01

    The absorbed dose calibration of 6 and 10 MV X-ray beams from Varian Clinac 1800 at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital Bangkok, Thailand were performed using cylindrical chamber 0.6 cc NE2571 Serial No. 1633 with graphite wall and Delrin build up cap and lonex Dosemaster NE 2590 Serial No. 223. The absorbed dose determination followed the IAEA code of practice TRS-277. The new IAEA code of practice TRS-398 have been studied to compare the result with the IAEA TRS-277

  11. Measurement of absorbed dose for high energy electron using CaSO4: Tm-PTFE TLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Myeong Hwan; Kim, Do Sung

    2000-01-01

    In this study, the highly sensitive CaSO 4 : Tm-PTFE TLDs has been fabricated for the purpose of measurement of high energy electron. CaSO 4 : Tm phosphor powder was mixed with polytetrafluoroethylene(PTFE) powder and moulded in a disk type(diameter 8.5mm, thickness 90mg/cm 2 ) by cold pressing. The absorbed dose distribution and ranges for high energy electron were measured by using the CaSO 4 : Tm-PTFE TLDs. The ranges determined were R 100 =3D14.5mm, R 50 =3D24.1mm and R p =3D31.8mm, respectively and the beam flatness, the variation of relative dose in 80% of the field size, was 4.5%. The fabricated CaSO 4 : Tm-PTFE TLDs may be utilized in radiation dosimetry for personal, absorbed dose and environmental monitoring.=20

  12. Mechanically Robust, Stretchable Solar Absorbers with Submicron-Thick Multilayer Sheets for Wearable and Energy Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Jin; Jung, Dae-Han; Kil, Tae-Hyeon; Kim, Sang Hyeon; Lee, Ki-Suk; Baek, Seung-Hyub; Choi, Won Jun; Baik, Jeong Min

    2017-05-31

    A facile method to fabricate a mechanically robust, stretchable solar absorber for stretchable heat generation and an enhanced thermoelectric generator (TEG) is demonstrated. This strategy is very simple: it uses a multilayer film made of titanium and magnesium fluoride optimized by a two-dimensional finite element frequency-domain simulation, followed by the application of mechanical stresses such as bending and stretching to the film. This process produces many microsized sheets with submicron thickness (∼500 nm), showing great adhesion to any substrates such as fabrics and polydimethylsiloxane. It exhibits a quite high light absorption of approximately 85% over a wavelength range of 0.2-4.0 μm. Under 1 sun illumination, the solar absorber on various stretchable substrates increased the substrate temperature to approximately 60 °C, irrespective of various mechanical stresses such as bending, stretching, rubbing, and even washing. The TEG with the absorber on the top surface also showed an enhanced output power of 60%, compared with that without the absorber. With an incident solar radiation flux of 38.3 kW/m 2 , the output power significantly increased to 24 mW/cm 2 because of the increase in the surface temperature to 141 °C.

  13. Experiments with Point Absorber Type Wave Energy Converters in a Large-Scale Wave Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stratigaki, Vasiliki; Troch, Peter; Stallard, Tim

    2014-01-01

    climate at an installation site, as well as on the overall power absorption of the WEC array. Experiments have been performed in the Shallow Water Wave Basin of DHI (Denmark) to study such "WEC array effects". Large arrays of up to 25 heaving point absorber type WECs have been tested for a range...

  14. Methodology for calibration of ionization chambers for X-ray of low energy in absorbed dose to water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, C.T.; Vivolo, V.; Potiens, M.P.A.

    2015-01-01

    The beams of low energy X-ray (10 to 150 kV) are used in several places in the world to treat a wide variety of surface disorders, and between these malignancies. As in Brazil, at this moment, there is no calibration laboratory providing the control service or calibration of parallel plate ionization chambers, the aim of this project was to establish a methodology for calibration of this kind of ionization chambers at low energy X-ray beams in terms of absorbed dose to water using simulators in the LCI. (author)

  15. Influence of the electron energy and number of beams on the absorbed dose distributions in radiotherapy of deep seated targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnica-Garza, H M

    2014-12-01

    With the advent of compact laser-based electron accelerators, there has been some renewed interest on the use of such charged particles for radiotherapy purposes. Traditionally, electrons have been used for the treatment of fairly superficial lesions located at depths of no more than 4cm inside the patient, but lately it has been proposed that by using very high energy electrons, i.e. those with an energy in the order of 200-250MeV it should be possible to safely reach deeper targets. In this paper, we used a realistic patient model coupled with detailed Monte Carlo simulations of the electron transport in such a patient model to examine the characteristics of the resultant absorbed dose distributions as a function of both the electron beam energy as well as the number of beams for a particular type of treatment, namely, a prostate radiotherapy treatment. Each treatment is modeled as consisting of nine, five or three beam ports isocentrically distributed around the patient. An optimization algorithm is then applied to obtain the beam weights in each treatment plan. It is shown that for this particularly challenging case, both excellent target coverage and critical structure sparing can be obtained for energies in the order of 150MeV and for as few as three treatment ports, while significantly reducing the total energy absorbed by the patient with respect to a conventional megavoltage x-ray treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Large-Scale Nanophotonic Solar Selective Absorbers for High-Efficiency Solar Thermal Energy Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengfei; Liu, Baoan; Ni, Yizhou; Liew, Kaiyang Kevin; Sze, Jeff; Chen, Shuo; Shen, Sheng

    2015-08-19

    An omnidirectional nanophotonic solar selective absorber is fabricated on a large scale using a template-stripping method. The nanopyramid nickel structure achieves an average absorptance of 95% at a wavelength range below 1.3 μm and a low emittance less than 10% at wavelength >2.5 μm. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Energy and Exergy Analysis of Dual Channel Solar Air Collector with Different Absorber Plates Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najim A. Jassim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Flat-plate collector considers most common types of collectors, for ease of manufacturing and low price compared with other collectors. The main aim of the present work is to increase the efficiency of the collector, which can be achieved by improving the heat transfer and minimize heat loss experimentally. Five types of solar air collectors have been tested, which conventional channel with a smooth absorber plate (model I, dual channel with a smooth absorber plate (model II, dual channel with perforating “V” corrugated absorber plate (model III, dual channel with internal attached wire mesh (model Ⅳ, and dual channel with absorber sheet of transparent honeycomb, (model Ⅴ. The dual channel collector used for increasing heat transfer area and heat removal factor to improve thermal performance. The outdoor test was conducted during the period December (2016 to February (2017 at different mass flow rates 0.0217 kg/s, 0.0271 kg/s and 0.0325 kg/s. The experiments were carried out from 8:30 AM to 3:00 PM for clear days. Experimental results show that the average thermal efficiency was (72.2 % for model (III, (40.2 % for model (I, (51.6 % for model (II, (65.1 % for model (Ⅳ and (59.7 % for model (Ⅴ. At the last part of the study, the exergy analyses were derived for both collectors. The results of this part showed that the conventional channel model (I is having largest irreversibility, and the dual channel collector model (III is having a greatest exergetic efficiency.

  18. The Silting-Up Prevention in the Geothermal Absorbent Openings of Geothermal Energy Plant Pyrzyce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noga Bogdan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents precipitation results from cold thermal water deposits that are the main cause of clogging in absorbent geothermal wells and borehole areas. As a result of physical and chemical analysis, laboratory tests and observation of the operation of a geothermal installation, a new method was developed to prevent the precipitation of sludge from cooled thermal water. The method being a modification of soft acidising was tentatively named as a super soft acidising method

  19. Determination of Atomic Number Exponent for Elemental Absorber at Am-241 Energy in X-Ray Attenuation Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najim, L.A.; Shamoon, S.K.; Atalah, S.T.

    2012-01-01

    In X-ray absorption experiment, the dependence of the photoelectric absorption cross-section varied with atomic number Z.In this paper, the dependence on Z of the cross-section or coefficient of photoelectric absorption is first evaluated from published data for (20) elements ranging from Al-Sn, and then the cross-section for Fe is obtained experimentally by measuring the X-ray intensity with and without the Fe absorber and compared with the theoretical value, the variation of the photoelectric absorption coefficient (μ/ρ m ) showed less dependence on Z for the two tested of Z regions.This is because of the inclusion of mass density (ρ m ) of the absorber in the coefficient.The values of m obtained in the present work increases linearly with energy for both ranges of elements

  20. Quantitative impact of small angle forward scatter on whole blood oximetry using a Beer-Lambert absorbance model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Serge Emile; Atanya, Monica; Burns, Kevin; Munger, Rejean

    2011-04-21

    It is well known that red blood cell scattering has an impact on whole blood oximetry as well as in vivo retinal oxygen saturation measurements. The goal of this study was to quantify the impact of small angle forward scatter on whole blood oximetry for scattering angles found in retinal oximetry light paths. Transmittance spectra of whole blood were measured in two different experimental setups: one that included small angle scatter in the transmitted signal and one that measured the transmitted signal only, at absorbance path lengths of 25, 50, 100, 250 and 500 µm. Oxygen saturation was determined by multiple linear regression in the 520-600 nm wavelength range and compared between path lengths and experimental setups. Mean calculated oxygen saturation differences between setups were greater than 10% at every absorbance path length. The deviations to the Beer-Lambert absorbance model had different spectral dependences between experimental setups, with the highest deviations found in the 520-540 nm range when scatter was added to the transmitted signal. These results are consistent with other models of forward scatter that predict different spectral dependences of the red blood cell scattering cross-section and haemoglobin extinction coefficients in this wavelength range.

  1. A closed-form formulation for the build-up factor and absorbed energy for photons and electrons in the Compton energy range in Cartesian geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Volnei; Vilhena, Marco Tullio, E-mail: borges@ufrgs.b, E-mail: vilhena@pq.cnpq.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (PROMEC/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica; Fernandes, Julio Cesar Lombaldo, E-mail: julio.lombaldo@ufrgs.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (DMPA/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Matematica Pura e Aplicada. Programa de Pos Graduacao em Matematica Aplicada

    2011-07-01

    In this work, we report on a closed-form formulation for the build-up factor and absorbed energy, in one and two dimensional Cartesian geometry for photons and electrons, in the Compton energy range. For the one-dimensional case we use the LTS{sub N} method, assuming the Klein-Nishina scattering kernel for the determination of the angular radiation intensity for photons. We apply the two-dimensional LTS{sub N} nodal solution for the averaged angular radiation evaluation for the two-dimensional case, using the Klein-Nishina kernel for photons and the Compton kernel for electrons. From the angular radiation intensity we construct a closed-form solution for the build-up factor and evaluate the absorbed energy. We present numerical simulations and comparisons against results from the literature. (author)

  2. A closed-form formulation for the build-up factor and absorbed energy for photons and electrons in the Compton energy range in Cartesian geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Volnei; Vilhena, Marco Tullio; Fernandes, Julio Cesar Lombaldo

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we report on a closed-form formulation for the build-up factor and absorbed energy, in one and two dimensional Cartesian geometry for photons and electrons, in the Compton energy range. For the one-dimensional case we use the LTS N method, assuming the Klein-Nishina scattering kernel for the determination of the angular radiation intensity for photons. We apply the two-dimensional LTS N nodal solution for the averaged angular radiation evaluation for the two-dimensional case, using the Klein-Nishina kernel for photons and the Compton kernel for electrons. From the angular radiation intensity we construct a closed-form solution for the build-up factor and evaluate the absorbed energy. We present numerical simulations and comparisons against results from the literature. (author)

  3. Seasonal Evolution and Interannual Variability of the Local Solar Energy Absorbed by the Arctic Sea Ice-Ocean System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perovich, Donald K.; Nghiem, Son V.; Markus, Thorsten; Schwieger, Axel

    2007-01-01

    The melt season of the Arctic sea ice cover is greatly affected by the partitioning of the incident solar radiation between reflection to the atmosphere and absorption in the ice and ocean. This partitioning exhibits a strong seasonal cycle and significant interannual variability. Data in the period 1998, 2000-2004 were analyzed in this study. Observations made during the 1997-1998 SHEBA (Surface HEat Budget of the Arctic Ocean) field experiment showed a strong seasonal dependence of the partitioning, dominated by a five-phase albedo evolution. QuikSCAT scatterometer data from the SHEBA region in 1999-2004 were used to further investigate solar partitioning in summer. The time series of scatterometer data were used to determine the onset of melt and the beginning of freezeup. This information was combined with SSM/I-derived ice concentration, TOVS-based estimates of incident solar irradiance, and SHEBA results to estimate the amount of solar energy absorbed in the ice-ocean system for these years. The average total solar energy absorbed in the ice-ocean system from April through September was 900 MJ m(sup -2). There was considerable interannual variability, with a range of 826 to 1044 MJ m(sup -2). The total amount of solar energy absorbed by the ice and ocean was strongly related to the date of melt onset, but only weakly related to the total duration of the melt season or the onset of freezeup. The timing of melt onset is significant because the incident solar energy is large and a change at this time propagates through the entire melt season, affecting the albedo every day throughout melt and freezeup.

  4. Organometal Halide Perovskite Solar Absorbers and Ferroelectric Nanocomposites for Harvesting Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettiarachchi, Chaminda Lakmal

    Organometal halide perovskite absorbers such as methylammonium lead iodide chloride (CH3NH3PbI3-xClx), have emerged as an exciting new material family for photovoltaics due to its appealing features that include suitable direct bandgap with intense light absorbance, band gap tunability, ultra-fast charge carrier generation, slow electron-hole recombination rates, long electron and hole diffusion lengths, microsecond-long balanced carrier mobilities, and ambipolarity. The standard method of preparing CH3NH3PbI3-xClx perovskite precursors is a tedious process involving multiple synthesis steps and, the chemicals being used (hydroiodic acid and methylamine) are quite expensive. This work describes a novel, single-step, simple, and cost-effective solution approach to prepare CH3NH3PbI3-xClx thin films by the direct reaction of the commercially available CH3NH 3Cl (or MACl) and PbI2. A detailed analysis of the structural and optical properties of CH3NH3PbI3-xCl x thin films deposited by aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition is presented. Optimum growth conditions have been identified. It is shown that the deposited thin films are highly crystalline with intense optical absorbance. Charge carrier separation of these thin films can be enhanced by establishing a local internal electric field that can reduce electron-hole recombination resulting in increased photo current. The intrinsic ferroelectricity in nanoparticles of Barium Titanate (BaTiO3 -BTO) embedded in the solar absorber can generate such an internal field. A hybrid structure of CH3NH 3PbI3-xClx perovskite and ferroelectric BTO nanocomposite FTO/TiO2/CH3NH3PbI3-xClx : BTO/P3HT/Cu as a new type of photovoltaic device is investigated. Aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition process that is scalable to large-scale manufacturing was used for the growth of the multilayer structure. TiO 2 and P3HT with additives were used as ETL and HTL respectively. The growth process of the solar absorber layer includes the

  5. Effect of FRP on the Energy Absorbed by Steel Shear Walls with Openings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Ghasemzadeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It’s for more than three decades that Steel Shear Walls are being used as lateral load resisting system. Definitely,the actual behavior of steel shear walls can be assessed using experimental results. However, solve many of phenomenon like this one should be done using mathematical and theoretical methods due to their special characteristics such as high expenses, lack of laboratory facilities and time limitations. In this study, the behavior of steel plate shear walls with openings in a one-story frame were evaluated and compared in various conditions. For this purpose, different values ​​for the opening in shear wall was considered and exposed to lateral displacement in ABAQUS as a comprehensive finite element software. Then, the impact of FRP arrangement on shear wall was evaluated to represent the structural behavior under various conditions. Result shows that, use of FRP sheets as parallel layers on both sides of shear wall has the best response on energy absorption, so that performance of the model was better than shear wall fully covered with FRP.

  6. Absorbed doses and energy imparted from radiographic examination of velopharyngeal function during speech

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isberg, A.; Julin, P.; Kraepelien, T.; Henrikson, C.O.

    1989-01-01

    Absorbed doses of radiation were measured by thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) using a skull phantom during simulated cinefluorographic and videofluorographic examination of velopharyngeal function in frontal and lateral projections. Dosages to the thyroid gland, the parotid gland, the pituitary gland, and ocular lens were measured. Radiation dosage was found to be approximately 10 times less for videofluoroscopy when compared with that of cinefluoroscopy. In addition, precautionary measures were found to reduce further the exposure of radiation-sensitive tissues. Head fixation and shielding resulted in dose reduction for both video- and cinefluoroscopy. Pulsing exposure for cinefluoroscopy also reduced the dosage

  7. Correction: An unsymmetrical non-fullerene acceptor: synthesis via direct heteroarylation, self-assembly, and utility as a low energy absorber in organic photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Abby-Jo; Li, Shi; Dayneko, Sergey V; Risko, Chad; Welch, Gregory C

    2017-09-21

    Correction for 'An unsymmetrical non-fullerene acceptor: synthesis via direct heteroarylation, self-assembly, and utility as a low energy absorber in organic photovoltaic cells' by Abby-Jo Payne et al., Chem. Commun., 2017, 53, 10168-10171.

  8. Design of steel energy-absorbing restrainers and their incorporation into nuclear power plants for enhanced safety. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-03-01

    This program for the development of steel energy-absorbing restrainers originated as a five year multi-institutional, interdisciplinary program. The resources of the University of California, Berkeley (UCB), the Earthquake Engineering Research Center, Richmond (EERC), Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), and Battelle Pacific Northwestern Laboratories (BPNL) are utilized as well as advisors from industry, the utilities and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The present progress report involves the areas of experimental testing on the shaking table at the EERC, restrainer device design and testing, structural analyses and materials testing

  9. Microwave energy harvesting based on metamaterial absorbers with multi-layered square split rings for wireless communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaaslan, Muharrem; Bağmancı, Mehmet; Ünal, Emin; Akgol, Oguzhan; Sabah, Cumali

    2017-06-01

    We propose the design of a multiband absorber based on multi-layered square split ring (MSSR) structure. The multi-layered metamaterial structure is designed to be used in the frequency bands such as WIMAX, WLAN and satellite communication region. The absorption levels of the proposed structure are higher than 90% for all resonance frequencies. In addition, the incident angle and polarization dependence of the multi-layered metamaterial absorber and harvester is also investigated and it is observed that the structure has polarization angle independent frequency response with good absorption characteristics in the entire working frequency band. The energy harvesting ratios of the structure is investigated especially for the resonance frequencies at which the maximum absorption occurs. The energy harvesting potential of the proposed MSSRs is as good as those of the structures given in the literature. Therefore, the suggested design having good absorption, polarization and angle independent characteristics with a wide bandwidth is a potential candidate for future energy harvesting applications in commonly used wireless communication bands, namely WIMAX, WLAN and satellite communication bands.

  10. Implementation of a physically-based scheme representing light-absorbing impurities deposition, evolution and radiative impacts in the SURFEX/Crocus model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzet, F.; Dumont, M.; Lafaysse, M.; Hagenmuller, P.; Arnaud, L.; Picard, G.; Morin, S.

    2017-12-01

    Light-absorbing impurities decrease snow albedo, increasing the amount of solar energy absorbed by the snowpack. Its most intuitive impact is to accelerate snow melt. However the presence of a layer highly concentrated in light-absorbing impurities in the snowpack also modify its temperature profile affecting snow metamorphism. New capabilities have been implemented in the detailed snowpack model SURFEX/ISBA-Crocus (referred to as Crocus) to account for impurities deposition and evolution within the snowpack (Tuzet et al., 2017, TCD). Once deposited, the model computes impurities mass evolution until snow melts out. Taking benefits of the recent inclusion of the spectral radiative transfer model TARTES in Crocus, the model explicitly represents the radiative impacts of light-absorbing impurities in snow. In the Pyrenees mountain range, strong sporadic Saharan dust deposition (referred to as dust outbreaks) can occur during the snow season leading some snow layers in the snowpack to contain high concentrations of mineral dust. One of the major events of the past years occurred on February 2014, affecting the whole southern Europe. During the weeks following this dust outbreak a strong avalanche activity was reported in the Aran valley (Pyrenees, Spain). For now, the link between the dust outbreak and the avalanche activity is not demonstrated.We investigate the impact of this dust outbreak on the snowpack stability in the Aran valley using the Crocus model, trying to determine whether the snowpack instability observed after the dust outbreak can be related to the presence of dust. SAFRAN-reanalysis meteorological data are used to drive the model on several altitudes, slopes and aspects. For each slope configuration two different simulations are run; one without dust and one simulating the dust outbreak of February 2014.The two corresponding simulations are then compared to assess the role of impurities on snow metamorphism and stability.On this example, we

  11. Energy, Electron Transfer and Photocatalytic Reactions of Visible Light Absorbing Transition Metal Complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmehl, Russell H. [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States)

    2016-03-02

    This is the final technical report for a project carried out at Tulane University of New Orleans that describes the development of light induced (solar) reactions geared toward decomposing water into its component elements : hydrogen and oxygen. Much of the work involved optimizing systems for absorbing visible light and undergoing light promoted reactions to generate very strong reducing agents that are capable of reacting with water to produce hydrogen. Additional portions of the research were collaborative efforts to put the strong reducing agents to work in reaction with hydrogen generation catalysts prepared elsewhere. Time resolved laser spectroscopic methods were used to evaluate the light induced reactions and characterize very reactive intermediate substances formed during the reactions.

  12. Predicting the biological effects of mobile phone radiation absorbed energy linked to the MRI-obtained structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstić, Dejan; Zigar, Darko; Petković, Dejan; Sokolović, Dušan; Dinđić, Boris; Cvetković, Nenad; Jovanović, Jovica; Dinđić, Nataša

    2013-01-01

    The nature of an electromagnetic field is not the same outside and inside a biological subject. Numerical bioelectromagnetic simulation methods for penetrating electromagnetic fields facilitate the calculation of field components in biological entities. Calculating energy absorbed from known sources, such as mobile phones when placed near the head, is a prerequisite for studying the biological influence of an electromagnetic field. Such research requires approximate anatomical models which are used to calculate the field components and absorbed energy. In order to explore the biological effects in organs and tissues, it is necessary to establish a relationship between an analogous anatomical model and the real structure. We propose a new approach in exploring biological effects through combining two different techniques: 1) numerical electromagnetic simulation, which is used to calculate the field components in a similar anatomical model and 2) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), which is used to accurately locate sites with increased absorption. By overlapping images obtained by both methods, we can precisely locate the spots with maximum absorption effects. This way, we can detect the site where the most pronounced biological effects are to be expected. This novel approach successfully overcomes the standard limitations of working with analogous anatomical models.

  13. Impact of absorbing aerosols on the simulation of climate over the Indian region in an atmospheric general circulation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chakraborty

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The impact of anthropogenic absorbing aerosols (such as soot on the climate over the Indian region has been studied using the NCMRWF general circulation model. The absorbing aerosols increase shortwave radiative heating of the lower troposphere and reduce the heating at the surface. These effects have been incorporated as heating of the lower troposphere (up to 700hPa and cooling over the continental surface based on INDOEX measurements. The heating effect is constant in the pre-monsoon season and reduces to zero during the monsoon season. It is shown that even in the monsoon season when the aerosol forcing is zero, there is an overall increase in rainfall and a reduction in surface temperature over the Indian region. The rainfall averaged over the Tropics shows a small reduction in most of the months during the January to September period. The impact of aerosol forcing, the model's sensitivity to this forcing and its interaction with model-physics has been studied by changing the cumulus parameterization from the Simplified Arakawa-Schubert (SAS scheme to the Kuo scheme. During the pre-monsoon season the major changes in precipitation occur in the oceanic Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ, where both the schemes show an increase in precipitation. This result is similar to that reported in Chung2002. On the other hand, during the monsoon season the changes in precipitation in the continental region are different in the SAS and Kuo schemes. It is shown that the heating due to absorbing aerosols changes the vertical moist-static stability of the atmosphere. The difference in the precipitation changes in the two cumulus schemes is on account of the different responses in the two parameterization schemes to changes in vertical stability. Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (aerosols and particles – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (tropical meteorology; precipitation

  14. Air box shock absorber for a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, A.V.; George, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    Disclosed is an air box type shock absorber primarily for use in an ice condenser compartment of a nuclear reactor. The shock absorber includes a back plate member and sheet metal top, bottom, and front members. The front member is prefolded, and controlled clearances are provided among the members for predetermined escape of air under impact and compression. Prefolded internal sheet metal stiffeners also absorb a portion of the kinetic energy imparted to the shock absorber, and limit rebound. An external restraining rod guided by restraining straps insures that the sheet metal front member compresses inward upon impact. 6 claims, 11 figures

  15. Environmental impacts of energy alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, P.K.

    1998-01-01

    Indian society today is concerned about the health and environmental risks of technologies. The major environmental issues of concern for technologies available for electricity generation are air emissions, management of wastes generated and land requirements. The production of electricity in India is primarily composed of a mix of thermal and hydroelectric power plants with nuclear energy currently contributing to an extent of slightly above 2.0%. For maintaining a decent living standard the present electricity generation has to be increased manifold and with the existing commercially available technologies this can lead to a greater impact on the environment in the immediate vicinity of plant unless a judicious mix is chosen. India which hardly contributed 1 of the global pollution in the year 1950 contributes about 20% now and with the growth in electricity generation its contribution will also be slightly increasing and hence environment will have to be one of the guiding factors in future choice of technologies for the growth of electric power generation. Indian coal has a very high ash content (30 - 50 %) and hence the fly ash problem in India can be severe. During the year 1993-94 approximately 33 million tonnes of fly ash was generated in India from the coal fired thermal power stations. The land requirement for disposal of this ash is continuously increasing. The disposal of fly ash near water bodies will also create difficulties as in addition to radionuclides, toxic trace elements may also get washed out. Pollution from the use of coal will have a definite effect on the environment in addition to depletion of the energy source

  16. Evaluation of absorbents for an absorption heat pump using natural organic working fluids (eco-energy city project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hisajima, Daisuke; Sakiyama, Ryoko; Nishiguchi, Akira [Hitachi Ltd., Tsuchiura (Japan). Mechanical Engineering Research Lab.

    1999-07-01

    The present situation of electric power supply and energy consumption in Japan has made it necessary to develop a new absorption air conditioning system which has low electric energy consumption, uses natural organic refrigerants, and can work as a heat pump in winter. Estimating vapor and liquid equilibrium of new pairs of working fluids is prerequisite to developing the new absorption heat pump system. In this phase of the work, methods for estimating vapor and liquid equilibrium that take into account intermolecular force were investigated. Experimental and calculated data on natural organic materials mixtures were considered to find optimum candidates, and then a procedure for evaluation was chosen. Several candidate absorbents were selected that used isobutane and dimethyl ether as refrigerants. (orig.)

  17. Impacts of solar-absorbing aerosol layers on the transition of stratocumulus to trade cumulus clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Zhou

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of an initially overlying layer of solar-absorbing aerosol on the transition of stratocumulus to trade cumulus clouds are examined using large-eddy simulations. For lightly drizzling cloud the transition is generally hastened, resulting mainly from increased cloud droplet number concentration (Nc induced by entrained aerosol. The increased Nc slows sedimentation of cloud droplets and shortens their relaxation time for diffusional growth, both of which accelerate entrainment of overlying air and thereby stratocumulus breakup. However, the decrease in albedo from cloud breakup is more than offset by redistributing cloud water over a greater number of droplets, such that the diurnal-average shortwave forcing at the top of the atmosphere is negative. The negative radiative forcing is enhanced by sizable longwave contributions, which result from the greater cloud breakup and a reduced boundary layer height associated with aerosol heating. A perturbation of moisture instead of aerosol aloft leads to a greater liquid water path and a more gradual transition. Adding absorbing aerosol to that atmosphere results in substantial reductions in liquid water path (LWP and cloud cover that lead to positive shortwave and negative longwave forcings on average canceling each other. Only for heavily drizzling clouds is the breakup delayed, as inhibition of precipitation overcomes cloud water loss from enhanced entrainment. Considering these simulations as an imperfect proxy for biomass burning plumes influencing Namibian stratocumulus, we expect regional indirect plus semi-direct forcings to be substantially negative to negligible at the top of the atmosphere, with its magnitude sensitive to background and perturbation properties.

  18. Iowa's renewable energy and infrastructure impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Objectives : Estimate traffic growth and pavement deterioration due to Iowas growing renewable energy industries in a multi-county area. : Develop a traffic and fiscal impact model to help assess the impact of additional biofuels plants on...

  19. Dependency of non-homogeneity energy dispersion on absorbance line-shape of luminescent polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcelo Castanheira da, E-mail: mar_castanheira@yahoo.com.br [Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Natureza, Universidade Federal do Acre, CP 500, 69915-900 Rio Branco, AC (Brazil); Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, CP 593, 38400-902 Uberlândia, MG (Brazil); Santos Silva, H.; Silva, R.A.; Marletta, Alexandre [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, CP 593, 38400-902 Uberlândia, MG (Brazil)

    2013-01-16

    In this paper, we study the importance of the non-homogeneity energy dispersion on absorption line-shape of luminescent polymers. The optical transition probability was calculated based on the molecular exciton model, Franck–Condon states, Gaussian distribution of non-entangled chains with conjugate degree n, semi-empirical parameterization of energy gap, electric dipole moment, and electron-vibrational mode coupling. Based on the approach of the energy gap functional dependence 1/n, the inclusion of the non-homogeneity energy dispersion 1/n{sup 2} is essential to obtain good experimental data agreement, mainly, where the absorption spectra display peaks width of about 65 meV. For unresolved absorption spectra, such as those observed for a large number of conjugated polymers processed via spin-coating technique, for example, the non-homogeneity energy dispersion parameterization is not significant. Results were supported by the application of the model for poly (p-phenylene vinylene) films.

  20. Environmental impacts of wind-energy projects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Environmental Impacts of Wind Energy Projects; National Research Council; Division on Earth and Life Studies; National Research Council

    2007-01-01

    .... Environmental Impacts of Wind-Energy Projects offers an analysis of the environmental benefits and drawbacks of wind energy, along with an evaluation guide to aid decision-making about projects...

  1. Performance of Closely Spaced Point Absorbers with Constrained Floater Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Backer, G.; Vantorre, M.; Beels, C.

    2009-01-01

    The performance of a wave energy converter array of twelve heaving point absorbers has been assessed numerically in a frequency domain model. Each point absorber is assumed to have its own linear power take-off. The impact of slamming, stroke and force restrictions on the power absorption...

  2. Towards a determination of the absorbed dose to water in water for low-energy photon-emitting brachytherapy seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, T.; Lange, B.; Selbach, H.J.

    2007-01-01

    An accurate determination of the dose produced by brachytherapy seeds emitting low-energy photons is an important component of the radiotherapeutic process. As yet, the output of these seeds has usually been specified in terms of the air kerma rate. The desired quantity in radiation therapy is, however, the absorbed dose to water inside a water phantom, for which primary standards are not available. For this reason, developments are under way in the Physikalisch - Technische Bundesanstalt to establish a primary standard to determine the absorbed dose to water within a phantom. As a fundamental step towards this aim, a method will be introduced in this publication to determine the water kerma inside a graphite phantom housing an extrapolation chamber. Experimental results will be presented and compared with water kerma values obtained from air kerma measurements in free air and applying a conversion factor to water kerma for the conditions of the experiment. First estimates indicate that the relative uncertainty is of the order of 1% (k 1). (authors)

  3. Impacts of light-absorbing impurities on snow and their quantification with bidirectional reflectance measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsevich, Maria; Peltoniemi, Jouni; Meinander, Outi; Dagsson-Waldhauserová, Pavla; Zubko, Nataliya; Hakala, Teemu; Virkkula, Aki; Svensson, Jonas; de Leeuw, Gerrit

    2017-04-01

    In order to quantify the effects of absorbing impurities on snow and define their contribution to the climate change, we have conducted a series of dedicated bidirectional reflectance measurements. Chimney soot, volcanic sand, and glaciogenic silt have been deposited on the snow in the controlled way. The bidirectional reflectance factors of these targets and untouched snow have been measured using the Finnish Geodetic Institute's field goniospectrometer FIGIFIGO, see, e.g., [1, 2] and references therein. It has been found that the contaminants darken the snow, and modify its appearance mostly as expected, with clear directional signal and modest spectral signal. A remarkable feature is the fact that any absorbing contaminant on snow enhances the metamorphosis under strong sunlight [3, 4]. Immediately after deposition, the contaminated snow surface appears darker than the pure snow in all viewing directions, but the heated soot particles start sinking down deeply into the snow in minutes. The nadir measurement remains darkest, but at larger zenith angles the surface of the soot-contaminated snow changes back to almost as white as clean snow. Thus, for on ground observer the darkening by impurities can be completely invisible, overestimating the albedo, but a nadir looking satellite sees the darkest points, now underestimating the albedo. After more time, also the nadir view brightens, and the remaining impurities may be biased towards more shadowed locations or less absorbing orientations by natural selection. This suggests that at noon the albedo should be lower than in the morning or afternoon. When sunlight stimulates more sinking than melting, albedo should be higher in the afternoon than in the morning, and vice versa when melting is dominating. Thus to estimate the effects caused by black carbon (BC) deposited on snow on climate changes may one need to take into account possible rapid diffusion of the BC inside the snow from its surface. When the snow melt

  4. Performance evaluation of CFRP-rubber shock absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamanna, Giuseppe; Sepe, Raffaele

    2014-05-01

    In the present work a numerical investigation on the energy absorbing capability of dedicated structural components made of a carbon fiber reinforced polymer and an emulsion polymerised styrene butadiene rubber is reported. The shock absorbers are devices designed to absorb large amounts of energy by sacrificing their own structural integrity. Their aim is to cushion the effects of an impact phenomenon with the intent to preserve other structures from global failure or local damaging. Another important role of shock absorbers is reducing the peak of the acceleration showed during an impact phenomenon. This effect is of considerable interest in the case of vehicles to preserve passengers' safety. Static and dynamic numerical results are compared with experimental ones in terms of mean crushing forces, energy and peak crushing. The global performance of the absorbers has been evaluated by referencing to a proposed quality index.

  5. Performance evaluation of CFRP-rubber shock absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamanna, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe.lamanna@unina2.it; Sepe, Raffaele, E-mail: giuseppe.lamanna@unina2.it [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, via Roma, 29 - 81031 Aversa (Italy)

    2014-05-15

    In the present work a numerical investigation on the energy absorbing capability of dedicated structural components made of a carbon fiber reinforced polymer and an emulsion polymerised styrene butadiene rubber is reported. The shock absorbers are devices designed to absorb large amounts of energy by sacrificing their own structural integrity. Their aim is to cushion the effects of an impact phenomenon with the intent to preserve other structures from global failure or local damaging. Another important role of shock absorbers is reducing the peak of the acceleration showed during an impact phenomenon. This effect is of considerable interest in the case of vehicles to preserve passengers’ safety. Static and dynamic numerical results are compared with experimental ones in terms of mean crushing forces, energy and peak crushing. The global performance of the absorbers has been evaluated by referencing to a proposed quality index.

  6. Transport Energy Impact Analysis; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, J.

    2015-05-13

    Presented at the Sustainable Transportation Energy Pathways Spring 2015 Symposium on May 13, 2015, this presentation by Jeff Gonder of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provides information about NREL's transportation energy impact analysis of connected and automated vehicles.

  7. Absorbed dose in AgBr in direct film for photon energies (<150 keV): relation to optical density. Theoretical calculation and experimental evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmrot, E.; Alm Carlsson, G.

    1996-01-01

    Calculations of absorbed dose in the silver bromide were compared with measurements of optical densities in Ultra-speed and Ektaspeed films for a broad range (25-145 kV) of X-ray energy. The calculated absorbed dose values were appropriately averaged over the complete photon energy spectrum, which was determined experimentally using a Compton spectrometer. For the whole range of tube potentials used, the measured optical densities of the films were found to be proportional to the mean absorbed dose in the AgBr grains calculated according to GREENING's theory. They were also found to be proportional to the collision kerma in silver bromide (K c,AgBr ) indicating proportionality between K c,AgBr and the mean absorbed dose in silver bromide. While GREENING's theory shows that the quotient of the mean absorbed dose in silver bromide and K c,AgBr varies with photon energy, this is not apparent when averaged over the broad (diagnostic) X-ray energy spectra used here. Alternatively, proportionality between K c,AgBr and the mean absorbed dose in silver bromide can be interpreted as resulting from a combination of the SPIERS-CHARLTON theory, valid at low photon energies ( c,AgBr (at the position of the film) independent of photon energy. The importance of taking the complete X-ray energy spectrum into full account in deriving K c,AgBr is clearly demonstrated, showing that the concept of effective energy must be used with care. (orig./HP)

  8. Modeling of a Point Absorber for Energy Conversion in Italian Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Archetti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, we investigate the feasibility of wave electricity production in Italian seas by the deployment of the Seabased wave energy converter (WEC. A numerical model of the coupled buoy-generator system is presented, which simulates the behavior of the wave energy converter under regular waves of different wave heights and periods. The hydrodynamic forces, including excitation force, radiation impedance and hydrostatic force, are calculated by linear potential wave theory, and an analytical model is used for the linear generator. Two buoys of different radii are considered to explore the effect of buoy dimension on energy conversion and device efficiency. The power output is maximized by adding a submerged object to the floating buoy, in order to bring the system into resonance with the typical wave frequencies of the sites. The simulation results show a very good agreement with the published data on the Seabased WEC. The model is used to estimate energy production at eight Italian offshore locations. The results indicate that the degree of utilization of the device is higher than 20% at the two most energetic Italian sites (Alghero and Mazara del Vallo and that it can be considerably increased if the floating body is connected to a submerged object, thanks to the resonant behavior of the WEC. In this case, the degree of utilization of the device would be higher than 40% at most of the study sites, with the highest value at Mazara del Vallo. The work enlarges the perspective, to be confirmed by experimental tests and more accurate numerical modeling, on clean electric power production from ocean waves in the Italian seas.

  9. A METHOD OF DETERMINING THE ABILITY OF THE ARRESTER TO ABSORB ENERGY WITHOUT BREAKING THE HEAT BALANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Yu. Shevchenko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.The aim of this study is to obtain a method for determining the capacity surge arrester nonlinear absorb energy without breaking the heat balance in modes of long-term application of operating voltage, which allows for analysis of their work in terms of violations as electricity. Methodology. For values of the energy passing through the arrester must be able to determine the current value for the voltage value in the area of leakage current-voltage characteristics. We have carried out calculations of the energy passing everywhere arrester for certain periods of time based on the current-voltage characteristics obtained experimentally. Analysis of the experimental current-voltage characteristics of resistors and literature led to the important conclusion that the dielectric properties of the ceramic varistor affect the value of active power losses in the arrester only when the active component of the leakage current is very small. This is confirmed by the characteristics of different classes of varistor voltage. This property of varistors and surge arresters shows the need to consider how the dielectric and conductive properties of the varistor ceramics in the analysis of work in the area of the arrester leakage current-voltage characteristic. These results demonstrate the need to clarify the mathematical model and the method for determining the energy dissipates in the area of the arrester leakage current CVC with their account. Results. The study, an improved mathematical model for calculating energy affects surge arrester during its working life. The study obtained the method, of evaluation capacity surge arrester, maintains heat balance throughout working life. Based on experimentally obtained current-voltage characteristic of the varistors is defined voltage at which surge arrester starts conducting active current. This allowed to receive specified mathematical model for calculating energy affects surge arrester and develop a method

  10. Absorbant materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quetier, Monique.

    1978-11-01

    Absorbants play a very important part in the nuclear industry. They serve for the control, shut-down and neutron shielding of reactors and increase the capacity of spent fuel storage pools and of special transport containers. This paper surveys the usual absorbant materials, means of obtainment, their essential characteristics relating to their use and their behaviour under neutron irradiation [fr

  11. Constrained Optimal Stochastic Control of Non-Linear Wave Energy Point Absorbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sichani, Mahdi Teimouri; Chen, Jian-Bing; Kramer, Morten

    2014-01-01

    to extract energy. Constrains are enforced on the control force to prevent large structural stresses in the floater at specific hot spots with the risk of inducing fatigue damage, or because the demanded control force cannot be supplied by the actuator system due to saturation. Further, constraints...... are enforced on the motion of the floater to prevent it from hitting the bottom of the sea or to make unacceptable jumps out of the water. The applied control law, which is of the feedback type with feedback from the displacement, velocity, and acceleration of the floater, contains two unprovided gain...

  12. Non-Linear Numerical Modeling and Experimental Testing of a Point Absorber Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zurkinden, Andrew Stephen; Ferri, Francesco; Beatty, S.

    2014-01-01

    the calculation of the non-linear hydrostatic restoring moment by a cubic polynomial function fit to laboratory test results. Moreover, moments due to viscous drag are evaluated on the oscillating hemisphere considering the horizontal and vertical drag force components. The influence on the motions of this non.......e. H/λ≤0.02. For steep waves, H/λ≥0.04 however, the relative velocities between the body and the waves increase thus requiring inclusion of the non-linear hydrostatic restoring moment to effectively predict the dynamics of the wave energy converter. For operation of the device with a passively damping...

  13. Labor and energy impacts of energy-conservation measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Three papers are presented discussing the labor and energy impacts of energy-conservation measures, namely: Generation of the Industry/Occupation Wage Matrix and Related Matters, by Carole Green; Job Shifts from Energy Conservation (Salary Distribution Effects), by Robert A. Herendeen; and Energy and Labor Implication of Improving Thermal Integrity of New Houses, by John Joseph Nangle. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper.

  14. Environmental impacts of energy utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prado, C.P.C. do; Orsini, C.M.Q.; Rodrigues, D.; Barolli, E.; Nogueira, F.R.; Bosco, F.A.R.; Tabacniks, M.H.; Artaxo Netto, P.E.

    1981-04-01

    A survey is done of the available data on the physical environmental impacts in Brazil, derived from energetic systems such as: petroleum, hydroelectricity, firewood, coal, ethanol, methanol and hydrogen. A critical evalution of these data is done with respect to the preservation of the environment. The necessity of studying the environmental impact of the utilization of ethanol, nuclear fuels and coal is stressed. (M.A.) [pt

  15. ImBuild: Impact of building energy efficiency programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, M.J.; Hostick, D.J.; Belzer, D.B.

    1998-04-01

    As part of measuring the impact of government programs on improving the energy efficiency of the Nation`s building stock, the Department of Energy Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) is interested in assessing the economic impacts of its portfolio of programs, specifically the potential impact on national employment and income. The special-purpose version of the IMPLAN model used in this study is called ImBuild. In comparison with simple economic multiplier approaches, such as Department of Commerce RIMS 2 system, ImBuild allows for more complete and automated analysis of the economic impacts of energy efficiency investments in buildings. ImBuild is also easier to use than existing macroeconomic simulation models. The authors conducted an analysis of three sample BTS energy programs: the residential generator-absorber heat exchange gas heat pump (GAX heat pump), the low power sulfur lamp (LPSL) in residential and commercial applications, and the Building America program. The GAX heat pump would address the market for the high-efficiency residential combined heating and cooling systems. The LPSL would replace some highly efficient fluorescent commercial lighting. Building America seeks to improve the energy efficiency of new factory-built, modular, manufactured, and small-volume, site-built homes through use of systems engineering concepts and early incorporation of new products and processes, and by increasing the demand for more energy-efficient homes. The authors analyze a scenario for market penetration of each of these technologies devised for BTS programs reported in the BTS GPRA Metrics Estimates, FY99 Budget Request, December 19, 1997. 46 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Reconstructing the energy band electronic structure of pulsed laser deposited CZTS thin films intended for solar cell absorber applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandiyan, Rajesh; Oulad Elhmaidi, Zakaria; Sekkat, Zouheir; Abd-lefdil, Mohammed; El Khakani, My Ali

    2017-02-01

    We report here on the use of pulsed KrF-laser deposition (PLD) technique for the growth of high-quality Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films onto Si, and glass substrates without resorting to any post sulfurization process. The PLD-CZTS films were deposited at room temperature (RT) and then subjected to post annealing at different temperatures ranging from 200 to 500 °C in Argon atmosphere. The X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy confirmed that the PLD films crystallize in the characteristic kesterite CZTS structure regardless of their annealing temperature (Ta), but their crystallinity is much improved for Ta ≥ 400 °C. The PLD-CZTS films were found to exhibit a relatively dense morphology with a surface roughness (RMS) that increases with Ta (from ∼14 nm at RT to 70 nm at Ta = 500 °C with a value around 40 nm for Ta = 300-400 °C). The optical bandgap of the PLD-CZTS films, was derived from UV-vis transmission spectra analysis, and found to decrease from 1.73 eV for non-annealed films to ∼1.58 eV for those annealed at Ta = 300 °C. These band gap values are very close to the optimum value needed for an ideal solar cell absorber. In order to achieve a complete reconstruction of the one-dimensional energy band structure of these PLD-CZTS absorbers, we have combined both XPS and UPS spectroscopies to determine their chemical bondings, the position of their valence band maximum (relative to Fermi level), and their work function values. This enabled us to sketch out, as accurately as possible, the band alignment of the heterojunction interface formed between CZTS and both CdS and ZnS buffer layer materials.

  17. Higher-order-mode absorbers for energy recovery linac cryomodules at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hahn

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Several future accelerator projects at Brookhaven for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC are based on energy recovery linacs (ERLs with high-charge high-current electron beams. Their stable operation mandates effective higher-order-mode (HOM damping. The development of HOM dampers for these projects is pursued actively at this laboratory. Strong HOM damping was experimentally demonstrated both at room and at superconducting (SC temperatures in a prototype research and development (R&D five-cell niobium superconducting rf (SRF cavity with ferrite dampers. Two room-temperature mock-up five-cell copper cavities were used to study various damper configurations with emphasis on capacitive antenna dampers. An innovative type of ferrite damper over a ceramic break for an R&D SRF electron gun also was developed. For future SRF linacs longer cryomodules comprised of multiple superconducting cavities with reasonably short intercavity transitions are planned. In such a configuration, the dampers, located closer to the cavities, will be at cryogenic temperatures; this will impose additional constraints and complications. This paper presents the results of simulations and measurements of several damper configurations.

  18. Higher-order-mode absorbers for energy recovery linac cryomodules at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, H.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Calaga, R.; Hammons, L.; Johnson, E.C.; Kewisch, J.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Xu, W.

    2010-01-01

    Several future accelerator projects at Brookhaven for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are based on energy recovery linacs (ERLs) with high-charge high-current electron beams. Their stable operation mandates effective higher-order-mode (HOM) damping. The development of HOM dampers for these projects is pursued actively at this laboratory. Strong HOM damping was experimentally demonstrated both at room and at superconducting (SC) temperatures in a prototype research and development (R and D) five-cell niobium superconducting rf (SRF) cavity with ferrite dampers. Two room-temperature mock-up five-cell copper cavities were used to study various damper configurations with emphasis on capacitive antenna dampers. An innovative type of ferrite damper over a ceramic break for an R and D SRF electron gun also was developed. For future SRF linacs longer cryomodules comprised of multiple superconducting cavities with reasonably short intercavity transitions are planned. In such a configuration, the dampers, located closer to the cavities, will be at cryogenic temperatures; this will impose additional constraints and complications. This paper presents the results of simulations and measurements of several damper configurations.

  19. Higher-order-mode absorbers for energy recovery linac cryomodules at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, H.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Calaga, R.; Hammons, L.; Johnson, E. C.; Kewisch, J.; Litvinenko, V. N.; Xu, Wencan

    2010-12-01

    Several future accelerator projects at Brookhaven for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are based on energy recovery linacs (ERLs) with high-charge high-current electron beams. Their stable operation mandates effective higher-order-mode (HOM) damping. The development of HOM dampers for these projects is pursued actively at this laboratory. Strong HOM damping was experimentally demonstrated both at room and at superconducting (SC) temperatures in a prototype research and development (R&D) five-cell niobium superconducting rf (SRF) cavity with ferrite dampers. Two room-temperature mock-up five-cell copper cavities were used to study various damper configurations with emphasis on capacitive antenna dampers. An innovative type of ferrite damper over a ceramic break for an R&D SRF electron gun also was developed. For future SRF linacs longer cryomodules comprised of multiple superconducting cavities with reasonably short intercavity transitions are planned. In such a configuration, the dampers, located closer to the cavities, will be at cryogenic temperatures; this will impose additional constraints and complications. This paper presents the results of simulations and measurements of several damper configurations.

  20. Reconstructing the energy band electronic structure of pulsed laser deposited CZTS thin films intended for solar cell absorber applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandiyan, Rajesh [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre-Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, 1650 Blvd. Lionel–Boulet, C.P. 1020, Varennes, QC J3X-1S2 (Canada); Oulad Elhmaidi, Zakaria [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre-Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, 1650 Blvd. Lionel–Boulet, C.P. 1020, Varennes, QC J3X-1S2 (Canada); University of Mohammed V, Faculty of Sciences, Materials Physics Laboratory, B.P. 1014 Rabat (Morocco); Sekkat, Zouheir [Optics & Photonics Center, Moroccan Foundation for Advanced Science, Innovation and Research, Rabat (Morocco); Abd-lefdil, Mohammed [University of Mohammed V, Faculty of Sciences, Materials Physics Laboratory, B.P. 1014 Rabat (Morocco); El Khakani, My Ali, E-mail: elkhakani@emt.inrs.ca [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre-Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, 1650 Blvd. Lionel–Boulet, C.P. 1020, Varennes, QC J3X-1S2 (Canada)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • High quality CZTS thin films grown by means of PLD technique without resorting to any post sulfurization process. • Effect of thermal annealing treatments (in the 200–500 °C range) on the structural, morphological and optoelectronic properties of PLD-CZTS films. • Experimental determination of key optoelectronic parameters (i.e.; E{sub g}, VBM, ϕ, I{sub p}, and χ) enabling the reconstruction of energy band electronic structure of the PLD-CZTS films. • Investigation on the energy band alignments of the heterojunction interface formed between CZTS and both CdS and ZnS buffer layer materials. - Abstract: We report here on the use of pulsed KrF-laser deposition (PLD) technique for the growth of high-quality Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) thin films onto Si, and glass substrates without resorting to any post sulfurization process. The PLD-CZTS films were deposited at room temperature (RT) and then subjected to post annealing at different temperatures ranging from 200 to 500 °C in Argon atmosphere. The X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy confirmed that the PLD films crystallize in the characteristic kesterite CZTS structure regardless of their annealing temperature (T{sub a}), but their crystallinity is much improved for T{sub a} ≥ 400 °C. The PLD-CZTS films were found to exhibit a relatively dense morphology with a surface roughness (RMS) that increases with T{sub a} (from ∼14 nm at RT to 70 nm at T{sub a} = 500 °C with a value around 40 nm for T{sub a} = 300–400 °C). The optical bandgap of the PLD-CZTS films, was derived from UV–vis transmission spectra analysis, and found to decrease from 1.73 eV for non-annealed films to ∼1.58 eV for those annealed at T{sub a} = 300 °C. These band gap values are very close to the optimum value needed for an ideal solar cell absorber. In order to achieve a complete reconstruction of the one-dimensional energy band structure of these PLD-CZTS absorbers, we have combined both XPS and UPS

  1. U.S. energy outlook and future energy impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamburger, Randolph John

    2011-12-01

    Energy markets were not immune to the 2007 financial crisis. Growth in the Indian and Chinese economies is placing strains on global energy supplies that could force a repeat of the 2008 price spike of $145/bbl for crude oil. Emerging market growth coupled with inefficiencies, frictions, and speculation in the energy markets has the potential to create drastic economic shocks throughout the world. The 2007 economic crisis has pushed back investment in energy projects where a low-growth scenario in world GDP could create drastic price increases in world energy prices. Without a long-term energy supply plan, the U.S. is destined to see growth reduced and its trade imbalances continue to deteriorate with increasing energy costs. Analysis of the U.S. natural gas futures markets and the impact of financial speculation on natural gas market pricing determined that financial speculation adds to price movements in the energy markets, which could cause violent swings in energy prices.

  2. Nuclear energy and social impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpintero-Santamarsia, N.

    2010-01-01

    Economic development and population increase are boosting a new process of energy demand all around the world which implies also a protection of the environment and, consequently, the reduction of emissions of CO 2 , a challenge that has to be solved. Fossil fuels represent the cheapest costs in capital and have as common features that their exploitation is based on largely known technologies, having developed a big experience in construction, operation and maintenance. However they are big environment polluters. Nuclear energy fulfils three of the main objectives that should be pursued for a steady development: 1. It does not emit Greenhouse gases. 2. It is the cheapest produced energy. 3. It guarantees a security in its supply due to the fact, among others, that it is not conditioned by external factors. However, as any other energy source, nuclear power has its own drawbacks. Some are real and some are fictitious. For this reason it becomes necessary to improve the social image of this source of energy, so as to counteract the negative consequences of the antinuclear discourse, promoted late in the seventies that has permanently undermined public acceptance

  3. Conductive graphene as passive saturable absorber with high instantaneous peak power and pulse energy in Q-switched regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuikafly, Siti Nur Fatin; Khalifa, Ali; Ahmad, Fauzan; Shafie, Suhaidi; Harun, SulaimanWadi

    2018-06-01

    The Q-switched pulse regime is demonstrated by integrating conductive graphene as passive saturable absorber producing relatively high instantaneous peak power and pulse energy. The fabricated conductive graphene is investigated using Raman spectroscopy. The single wavelength Q-switching operates at 1558.28 nm at maximum input pump power of 151.47 mW. As the pump power is increased from threshold power of 51.6 mW to 151.47 mW, the pulse train repetition rate increases proportionally from 47.94 kHz to 67.8 kHz while the pulse width is reduced from 9.58 μs to 6.02 μs. The generated stable pulse produced maximum peak power and pulse energy of 32 mW and 206 nJ, respectively. The first beat node of the measured signal-to-noise ratio is about 62 dB indicating high pulse stability.

  4. The economic impact of renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    This report summarises the findings of a project investigating the economic impact of renewable energy. The background to the study is traced, and potential sources of public finance for renewable projects, sensitivity analysis of the employment estimates , estimates of demand met by renewable energy technologies, the expenditures involved in investment in renewable energy; and sectoral linkages are examined. Wealth creation through investment in renewable energy, and the economic and employment impacts are explored. Plant retirement and replacement analysis, and input-output models are considered in appendices

  5. The economic impact of renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This report summarises the findings of a project investigating the economic impact of renewable energy. The background to the study is traced, and potential sources of public finance for renewable projects, sensitivity analysis of the employment estimates , estimates of demand met by renewable energy technologies, the expenditures involved in investment in renewable energy; and sectoral linkages are examined. Wealth creation through investment in renewable energy, and the economic and employment impacts are explored. Plant retirement and replacement analysis, and input-output models are considered in appendices.

  6. Radiation studies in Lens culinaris: impact of absorbed polonium on microsporogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, V.K.; Tauheed, Nusrat; Jha, V.N.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2008-01-01

    The root systems of fully grown plants of Lens culinaris (2n=14) were exposed to solutions of different concentrations of polonium (mixture of 208 Po and 209 Po Energy of alpha being 5.1 MeV and 4.9 MeV respectively). Variability in duration of exposure was also maintained. The controlled samples showed normal behavior of chromosomes forming seven bivalents with varying numbers of chiasmata. However, the pollen grain mother cells (PMC) of treated plants harbored a broad spectrum of chromosomal aberrations viz. Clumped configurations, multivalent formation, sticky anaphase bridge and laggards. Clumped configurations following surface stickiness was the most prominent manifestation. It appeared that the alpha particles emitted by the polonium atoms, logged in different organs including the anthers, created a situation akin to chronic internal radiation and inflicting injuries of different extent on the chromosome surface. (author)

  7. Environmental impacts of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, S.A.; Abbasi, N.

    1997-01-01

    The global attention has always been focused on the adverse environmental impacts of conventional energy sources. In contrast nonconventional energy sources, particularly the renewable ones, have enjoyed a clean image vis a vis environmental impacts. The only major exception to this general trend has been large hydropower projects; experience has taught that they can be disastrous for the environment. The belief now is that mini hydro and microhydro projects are harmless alternatives. But are renewable energy sources really as benign as is widely believed? The present essay addresses this question in the background of Lovin's classical paradigm which had postulated the hard (malignant) and soft (benign) energy concepts in the first place. It then critically evaluates the environmental impacts of major renewable energy sources. It then comes up with the broad conclusion that renewable energy sources are not the panacea they are popularly perceived to be; indeed in some cases their adverse environmental impacts can be as strongly negative as the impacts of conventional energy sources. The paper also dwells on the steps needed to utilize renewable energy sources without facing environmental backlashes of the type experienced from hydropower projects

  8. Fibrous cartilage of human menisci is less shock-absorbing and energy-dissipating than hyaline cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaugler, Mario; Wirz, Dieter; Ronken, Sarah; Hafner, Mirjam; Göpfert, Beat; Friederich, Niklaus F; Elke, Reinhard

    2015-04-01

    To test meniscal mechanical properties such as the dynamic modulus of elasticity E* and the loss angle δ at two loading frequencies ω at different locations of the menisci and compare it to E* and δ of hyaline cartilage in indentation mode with spherical indenters. On nine pairs of human menisci, the dynamic E*-modulus and loss angle δ (as a measure of the energy dissipation) were determined. The measurements were performed at two different strain rates (slow sinusoidal and fast single impact) to show the strain rate dependence of the material. The measurements were compared to previous similar measurements with the same equipment on human hyaline cartilage. The resultant E* at fast indentation (median 1.16 MPa) was significantly higher, and the loss angle was significantly lower (median 10.2°) compared to slow-loading mode's E* and δ (median 0.18 MPa and 16.9°, respectively). Further, significant differences for different locations are shown. On the medial meniscus, the anterior horn shows the highest resultant dynamic modulus. In dynamic measurements with a spherical indenter, the menisci are much softer and less energy-dissipating than hyaline cartilage. Further, the menisci are stiffer and less energy-dissipating in the middle, intermediate part compared to the meniscal base. In compression, the energy dissipation of meniscus cartilage plays a minor role compared to hyaline cartilage. At high impacts, energy dissipation is less than on low impacts, similar to cartilage.

  9. Impacts of Model Building Energy Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sivaraman, Deepak [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Elliott, Douglas B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liu, Bing [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bartlett, Rosemarie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-10-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Energy Codes Program (BECP) periodically evaluates national and state-level impacts associated with energy codes in residential and commercial buildings. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), funded by DOE, conducted an assessment of the prospective impacts of national model building energy codes from 2010 through 2040. A previous PNNL study evaluated the impact of the Building Energy Codes Program; this study looked more broadly at overall code impacts. This report describes the methodology used for the assessment and presents the impacts in terms of energy savings, consumer cost savings, and reduced CO2 emissions at the state level and at aggregated levels. This analysis does not represent all potential savings from energy codes in the U.S. because it excludes several states which have codes which are fundamentally different from the national model energy codes or which do not have state-wide codes. Energy codes follow a three-phase cycle that starts with the development of a new model code, proceeds with the adoption of the new code by states and local jurisdictions, and finishes when buildings comply with the code. The development of new model code editions creates the potential for increased energy savings. After a new model code is adopted, potential savings are realized in the field when new buildings (or additions and alterations) are constructed to comply with the new code. Delayed adoption of a model code and incomplete compliance with the code’s requirements erode potential savings. The contributions of all three phases are crucial to the overall impact of codes, and are considered in this assessment.

  10. Health impacts of geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layton, D.W.; Anspaugh, L.R.

    1982-01-01

    Geothermal resources are used to produce electrical energy and to supply heat for non-electric applications like residential heating and crop drying. The utilization of geothermal energy consists of the extraction of hot water or steam from an underground reservoir followed by different methods of surface processing along with the disposal of liquid, gaseous, and even solid wastes. The focus of this paper is on electric power production using geothermal resources greater than 150 0 C because this form of geothermal energy utilization has the most serious health-related consequences. Based on measurements and experience at existing geothermal power plants, atmospheric emissions of non-condensing gases such as hydrogen sulphide and benzene pose the greatest hazards to public health. Surface and ground waters contaminated by discharges of spent geothermal fluids constitute another health hazard. In this paper it is shown that hydrogen sulphide emissions from most geothermal power plants are apt to cause odour annoyances among members of the exposed public -some of whom can detect this gas at concentrations as low as 0.002 ppmv. A risk-assessment model is used to estimate the lifetime risk of incurring leukaemia from atmospheric benzene caused by 2000 MW(e) of geothermal development in California's Imperial Valley. Also assessed is the risk of skin cancer due to the ingestion of river water in New Zealand that is contaminated by waste geothermal fluids containing arsenic. Finally, data on the occurrence of occupational disease in the geothermal industry is briefly summarized. (author)

  11. Environmental and social impacts of wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Kristian; Clausen, Niels-Erik; Ellis, Geraint

    2014-01-01

    The most common reasons for non- technical delays to wind energy projects are local resistance and poor strategic spatial planning. This chapter looks at the environmental and social impacts of wind energy and discusses how the public can gain trust in the public planning and private project...

  12. Energy system impacts of desalination in Jordan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2014-01-01

    and Multi Stage Flash (MSF) desalination driven by Cogeneration of Heat and Power (CHP). The two systems impact the energy systems in different ways due to the technologies’ particular characteristics. The systems are analyses in the energy systems analysis model EnergyPLAN to determine the impacts......Climate change mitigation calls for energy systems minimising end-use demands, optimising the fuel efficiency of conversion systems, increasing the use of renewable energy sources and exploiting synergies wherever possible. In parallel, global fresh water resources are strained due to amongst...... others population and wealth increase and competitive water uses from agriculture and industry is causing many nations to turn to desalination technologies. This article investigates a Jordanian energy scenario with two different desalination technologies; reverse osmosis (RO) driven by electricity...

  13. Growing energy demand - environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rama Rao, G.A.

    2012-01-01

    Scientists can bring information, insights, and analytical skills to bear on matters of public concern. Often they can help the public and its representatives to understand the likely causes of events (such as natural and technological disasters) and to estimate the possible effects of projected policies. Often they can testify to what is not possible. Even so, scientists can seldom bring definitive answers to matters of public debate. Some issues are too complex to fit within the current scope of science, or there may be little reliable information available, or the values involved may lie outside of science. Scientists and technologists strive to find an answer to the growing energy demand

  14. Environmental impact of energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidgate, David

    1992-01-01

    Care of the environment is set to be one of the growth industries of the 1990s. Unfortunately, information as to the effect current life styles are having on the environment and, therefore, what remedial action is necessary, varies from the full to the non-existent and, worst of all, from the misleading to the incorrect. For various reasons, some aspects of technology have received greater attention from the media and environmental pressure groups than others. Energy production and conversion technologies, of course, are very much in this category. Indeed, the problem in these areas is not lack of information but a positive surfeit. (author)

  15. Climatic impact of alternative energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, J

    1979-01-01

    Detailed evaluations have suggested that the order of magnitude of energy demand 50 yr from the present will be 25-40 TW compared with about 8 TW at the present day. Environmental impacts are discussed of three energy-supply sources that could be developed on a large-enough scale to satisfy a demand of this magnitude: solar and nuclear energy and fossil fuels. 14 refs.

  16. Specific absorbed fractions of energy at various ages from internal photon sources: 3, Five-year-old

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristy, M.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1987-04-01

    Specific absorbed fractions (PHI's) in various organs of the body (target organs) from sources of monoenergetic photons in various other organs (source organs) are tabulated. In this volume PHI-values are tabulated for a five-year-old or 19-kg person. These PHI-values can be used in calculating the photon component of the dose-equivalent rate in a given target organ from a given radionuclide that is present in a given source organ. The International Commission on Radiological Protection recognizes that the endosteal, or bone surface, cells are the tissue at risk for bone cancer. We have applied the dosimetry methods developed for beta-emitting radionuclides deposited in bone to follow the transport of secondary electrons that were freed by photon interactions through the microscopic structure of the skeleton. With these methods we can estimate PHI in the endosteal cells and can better estimate PHI in the active marrow; the latter is overestimated with other methods at photon energies below 200 keV. 12 refs., 2 tabs

  17. Energy and exergy analysis of a new flat-plate solar air heater having different obstacles on absorber plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akpinar, Ebru Kavak; Kocyigit, Fatih

    2010-01-01

    This study experimentally investigates performance analysis of a new flat-plate solar air heater (SAH) with several obstacles (Type I, Type II, Type III) and without obstacles (Type IV). Experiments were performed for two air mass flow rates of 0.0074 and 0.0052 kg/s. The first and second laws of efficiencies were determined for SAHs and comparisons were made among them. The values of first law efficiency varied between 20% and 82%. The values of second law efficiency changed from 8.32% to 44.00%. The highest efficiency were determined for the SAH with Type II absorbent plate in flow channel duct for all operating conditions, whereas the lowest values were obtained for the SAH without obstacles (Type IV). The results showed that the efficiency of the solar air collectors depends significantly on the solar radiation, surface geometry of the collectors and extension of the air flow line. The largest irreversibility was occurring at the SAH without obstacles (Type IV) collector in which collector efficiency is smallest. At the end of this study, the energy and exergy relationships are delivered for different SAHs.

  18. Cellular Energy Absorbing TRIP-Steel/Mg-PSZ Composite: Honeycomb Structures Fabricated by a New Extrusion Powder Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Martin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lightweight linear cellular composite materials on basis of austenite stainless TRIP- (TRansformation Induced Plasticity- steel as matrix with reinforcements of MgO partially stabilized zirconia (Mg-PSZ are described. Two-dimensional cellular materials for structural applications are conventionally produced by sheet expansion or corrugation processes. The presented composites are fabricated by a modified ceramic extrusion powder technology. Characterization of the microstructure in as-received and deformed conditions was carried out by optical and scanning electron microscopy. Magnetic balance measurements and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD were used to identify the deformation-induced martensite evolution in the cell wall material. The honeycomb composite samples exhibit an increased strain hardening up to a certain engineering compressive strain and an extraordinary high specific energy absorption per unit mass and unit volume, respectively. Based on improved property-to-weight ratio such linear cellular structures will be of interest as crash absorbers or stiffened core materials for aerospace, railway, or automotive applications.

  19. Scanning electron microscopical examination of the impact of laser patterning on microscopic inhomogeneities of Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 absorbers produced by rapid thermal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Künecke, U.; Hölzing, A.; Jost, S.; Lechner, R.; Vogt, H.; Heiß, A.; Palm, J.; Hock, R.; Wellmann, P.

    2013-01-01

    Laser scribing of the Mo back electrode is commonly applied to define the cell structure of Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S) 2 (CIGSSe) thin film solar cells. The patterning process was performed on laboratory samples using ns and ps pulse length laser processes. After structuring, CIGSSe absorbers were processed by rapid thermal processing (RTP) of stacked elemental layer precursors. Microscopic inhomogeneities were investigated on different sample positions. For samples structured with ns pulse, the absorber morphology in the laser line vicinity is different as compared to the morphology in the unstructured cell area. Scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy show significant changes in the absorber grain size and chemical composition. Close to the laser line, the typically observed Ga accumulation on the back contact is less pronounced and more Ga is incorporated closer to the surface leading to a smaller grain size. The observed changes are attributed to partial damaging of a diffusion barrier between glass and Mo induced by the ns laser process, which allows diffusion of sodium from the glass substrate into the absorber during RTP. The enhanced Ga incorporation closer to the surface is an indication for the influence of sodium on the local phase development during RTP. The damages of the diffusion barrier can be effectively prevented by the application of a ps laser scribing process. CIGSSe absorbers processed on samples structured with ps pulse length do not show the described microscopic inhomogeneities around the laser line. - Highlights: ► Scanning electron microscopy on Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S) 2 solar cell absorbers ► Laser patterning with ns laser pulse damages the sodium diffusion barrier. ► Improved laser patterning with ps laser pulse leaves diffusion barrier intact. ► Additional sodium changes phase development during absorber formation. ► Gallium content is increased at surface and decreased at backside of absorber

  20. Analisis Penyerapan Energi Crash Box Pola Origami pada Pengujian Frontal Impact Posisi Angular Frontal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redi Bintarto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the car, the body structure is designed in such a way so as to transfer and absorb energy. This serves to minimize the result of this accident related to kinetic energy. This needs a system to absorb the kinetic energy maximally, so as a result of a frontal collision events that can be reduced optimally and kinetic energy can be absorbed by a front body structure. Devices used for absorbing kinetic energy in the car is usually called a crash box, which is located between the main structure and bumper. Crash Box generally tubular thin shaped. It has been a lot of research about the crash box. In this study using crash box origami patterns and using methods taguchi orthogonal array L9 (34. AA7003-T7 aluminum material modeled as bilinear isotropic hardening, the loading method is Frontal Impact Frontal Angular Position with impact angles of 5, 15 and 30 degree by using the finite element software simulation methods. The simulation results showed that the crash box in the lowest possible energy absorption were happened at crash box with 5 degree, with 683 153 Joule energy absorbsion. The highest result was happened to crash box number 5 with the results of 3,140.778 Joule. Lowest absorption on impact of 15 degree and 30 degree were happened to crash box number 1 and number 3 with a value of 245 685 Joule and 174 845 Joule, while the highest absorption at mumber 3 with each value 1,708.521 Joule and 1,750.872 Joule.

  1. Electron absorbed fractions of energy and S-values in an adult human skeleton based on {mu}CT images of trabecular bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, R; Cassola, V F; Khoury, H J; De O Lira, C A B [Department of Nuclear Energy, Federal University of Pernambuco, Avenida Professor Luiz Freire, 1000, CEP 50740-540, Recife (Brazil); Richardson, R B [Radiation Protection Research and Instrumentation Branch, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, ON, K0J 1J0 (Canada); Vieira, J W [Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Pernambuco, Recife (Brazil); Brown, K Robson, E-mail: rkramer@uol.com.br [Imaging Laboratory, Department of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-21

    When the human body is exposed to ionizing radiation, among the soft tissues at risk are the active marrow (AM) and the bone endosteum (BE) located in tiny, irregular cavities of trabecular bone. Determination of absorbed fractions (AFs) of energy or absorbed dose in the AM and the BE represent one of the major challenges of dosimetry. Recently, at the Department of Nuclear Energy at the Federal University of Pernambuco, a skeletal dosimetry method based on {mu}CT images of trabecular bone introduced into the spongiosa voxels of human phantoms has been developed and applied mainly to external exposure to photons. This study uses the same method to calculate AFs of energy and S-values (absorbed dose per unit activity) for electron-emitting radionuclides known to concentrate in skeletal tissues. The modelling of the skeletal tissue regions follows ICRP110, which defines the BE as a 50 {mu}m thick sub-region of marrow next to the bone surfaces. The paper presents mono-energetic AFs for the AM and the BE for eight different skeletal regions for electron source energies between 1 keV and 10 MeV. The S-values are given for the beta emitters {sup 14}C, {sup 59}Fe, {sup 131}I, {sup 89}Sr, {sup 32}P and {sup 90}Y. Comparisons with results from other investigations showed good agreement provided that differences between methodologies and trabecular bone volume fractions were properly taken into account. Additionally, a comparison was made between specific AFs of energy in the BE calculated for the actual 50 {mu}m endosteum and the previously recommended 10 {mu}m endosteum. The increase in endosteum thickness leads to a decrease of the endosteum absorbed dose by up to 3.7 fold when bone is the source region, while absorbed dose increases by {approx}20% when the beta emitters are in marrow.

  2. 3.4 Environmental impacts: energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The subchapter 3.4 'Environmental impact of the energy industry' of the 7th state of the environment report analyzes the current situation in Austria and briefly describes the following aspects: environmental policy targets, uniform taxation of energy, use of renewable energy sources, efficient use of energy, energy input, electricity supply and input, energy input into space heating and air conditioning systems, and renewable energy. In 2002, the input of final energy was risen by about 5 % in comparison to 1998. During this period, the largest increments in final energy inputs were recorded in the mobility sector with + 9.4 %, and in the private households sector with + 8.3 % . The goods production sector showed a slight decrease of about 1.3 % between 1998 and 2002. The 'goods production', 'mobility' and 'private households' sectors combined require about 87 % of the total final energy input. The final energy input for space heating and hot water in 2001 was 5.7 % above the input in 1998. Energy supply from renewable energy sources rose by about 13.8 % in 2002 compared to 1998. Domestic electricity consumption (excluding consumption for pumped-storage systems) in 2002 was about 10.5 % above consumption in 1998. Physical imports and physical exports in 2002 increased about 32 % and 8.6 % correspondingly compared to 1999. (nevyjel)

  3. Chemical precursor impact on the properties of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} absorber layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vashistha, Indu B., E-mail: indu-139@yahoo.com; Sharma, S. K. [Department of Physics, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur 302017 (India); Sharma, Mahesh C. [National Institute of Solar Energy, Gurgaon 122003 (India)

    2016-04-13

    In present work impact of different chemical precursor on the deposition of solar absorber layer Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) were studied by Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) method without using expensive vacuum facilities and followed by annealing. As compared to the other deposition methods, CBD method is interesting one because it is simple, reproducible, non-hazardous, cost effective and well suited for producing large-area thin films at low temperatures, although effect of precursors and concentration plays a vital role in the deposition. So, the central theme of this work is optimizing and controlling of chemical reactions for different chemical precursors. Further Effect of different chemical precursors i.e. sulphate and chloride is analyzed by structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) of annealed CZTS thin film revealed that films were polycrystalline in nature with kestarite tetragonal crystal structure. The Atomic Force micrographs (AFM) images indicated total coverage compact film and as well as growth of crystals. The band gap of annealed CZTS films was found in the range of optimal band gap by absorption spectroscopy.

  4. Absorbed dose evaluation of Auger electron-emitting radionuclides: impact of input decay spectra on dose point kernels and S-values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falzone, Nadia; Lee, Boon Q; Fernández-Varea, José M; Kartsonaki, Christiana; Stuchbery, Andrew E; Kibédi, Tibor; Vallis, Katherine A

    2017-03-21

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of decay data provided by the newly developed stochastic atomic relaxation model BrIccEmis on dose point kernels (DPKs - radial dose distribution around a unit point source) and S-values (absorbed dose per unit cumulated activity) of 14 Auger electron (AE) emitting radionuclides, namely 67 Ga, 80m Br, 89 Zr, 90 Nb, 99m Tc, 111 In, 117m Sn, 119 Sb, 123 I, 124 I, 125 I, 135 La, 195m Pt and 201 Tl. Radiation spectra were based on the nuclear decay data from the medical internal radiation dose (MIRD) RADTABS program and the BrIccEmis code, assuming both an isolated-atom and condensed-phase approach. DPKs were simulated with the PENELOPE Monte Carlo (MC) code using event-by-event electron and photon transport. S-values for concentric spherical cells of various sizes were derived from these DPKs using appropriate geometric reduction factors. The number of Auger and Coster-Kronig (CK) electrons and x-ray photons released per nuclear decay (yield) from MIRD-RADTABS were consistently higher than those calculated using BrIccEmis. DPKs for the electron spectra from BrIccEmis were considerably different from MIRD-RADTABS in the first few hundred nanometres from a point source where most of the Auger electrons are stopped. S-values were, however, not significantly impacted as the differences in DPKs in the sub-micrometre dimension were quickly diminished in larger dimensions. Overestimation in the total AE energy output by MIRD-RADTABS leads to higher predicted energy deposition by AE emitting radionuclides, especially in the immediate vicinity of the decaying radionuclides. This should be taken into account when MIRD-RADTABS data are used to simulate biological damage at nanoscale dimensions.

  5. In Brief: Impacts of wind energy assessed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2007-05-01

    By 2020, greater use of wind energy could reduce carbon dioxide emissions by the U.S. energy sector by about 4.5%. However, greater effort is needed to address potentially negative impacts of this growing energy source, according to a new report from a committee of the U.S. National Research Council. Potential impacts of wind energy projects include deaths of birds and bats, reduced value of property located near a turbine, and habitat loss and fragmentation. However, because these are generally local projects, there is little information available to determine the cumulative effects of wind turbines over a whole region. The report makes several recommendations on how to improve regulation at the local, state, and federal levels. The report also sets out a guide for evaluating wind-energy projects, which includes questions about potential environmental, economic, cultural, and aesthetic impacts. The report, ``Environmental Impacts of Wind-Energy Projects,'' is available at http://books.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=11935

  6. PWR burnable absorber evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacciapouti, R.J.; Weader, R.J.; Malone, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relative neurotic efficiency and fuel cycle cost benefits of PWR burnable absorbers. Establishment of reference low-leakage equilibrium in-core fuel management plans for 12-, 18- and 24-month cycles. Review of the fuel management impact of the integral fuel burnable absorber (IFBA), erbium and gadolinium. Calculation of the U 3 O 8 , UF 6 , SWU, fuel fabrication, and burnable absorber requirements for the defined fuel management plans. Estimation of fuel cycle costs of each fuel management plan at spot market and long-term market fuel prices. Estimation of the comparative savings of the different burnable absorbers in dollar equivalent per kgU of fabricated fuel. (author)

  7. Energy system impacts of desalination in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poul Alberg Østergaard

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Climate change mitigation calls for energy systems minimising end-use demands, optimising the fuel efficiency of conversion systems, increasing the use of renewable energy sources and exploiting synergies wherever possible. In parallel, global fresh water resources are strained due to amongst others population and wealth increase and competitive water uses from agriculture and industry is causing many nations to turn to desalination technologies. This article investigates a Jordanian energy scenario with two different desalination technologies; reverse osmosis (RO driven by electricity and Multi Stage Flash (MSF desalination driven by Cogeneration of Heat and Power (CHP. The two systems impact the energy systems in different ways due to the technologies’ particular characteristics. The systems are analyses in the energy systems analysis model EnergyPLAN to determine the impacts on energy system performance. Results indicate that RO and MSF are similar in fuel use. While there is no use of waste heat from condensing mode plants, efficiencies for CHP and MSF are not sufficiently good to results in lower fuel usage than RO. The Jordanian energy system is somewhat inflexible giving cause to Critical Excess Electricity Production (CEEP even at relatively modest wind power penetrations. Here RO assists the energy system in decreasing CEEP – and even more if water storage is applied.

  8. Shock absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemeth, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    A shock absorber for the support of piping and components in a nuclear power plant is described. It combines a high degree of stiffness under sudden shocks, e.g. seismic disturbances, with the ability to allow for thermal expansion without resistance when so required. (JIW)

  9. Health impacts of different energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Energy is needed to sustain the economy, health and welfare of nations. As a consequence of this, energy consumption figures are frequently used as an index of a nation's advancement. As a result of the global energy crisis, almost every nation has had to develop all its available energy resources and plan its future use of energy. The planners of national and international energy policies are however often faced with a problem of 'public acceptance' arising from the potential health and environmental impacts of developing energy resources. The public's desire to preserve the quality of man's health and his environment frequently results in opposition to many industrial innovations, including the generation and use of energy. Reliable, quantitative data and information are needed on the risks to health and the environment of different contemporary energy systems, to improve public understanding, and to serve as the basis from which national planners can choose between different energy supply options. With the exception of nuclear energy, even in technologically advanced countries little systematic research and development has been done on the quantitative assessment of the effects on health and the environment of the conventional energy sources. The need for this information has only been realized over the past decade as the climate and environment in many regions of the world has deteriorated with the unabated release of pollutants from factories and energy generating plants in particular. A number of countries have started national environmental health research programmes to monitor and regulate toxic emissions from industry and energy plants. Energy-related environmental health research has been supported and co-ordinated by various international organizations such as the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). WHO has supported expert reviews on the potential health risks posed

  10. Savings impact of a corporate energy manager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikorski, B.D.; O'Donnell, B.A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the cost savings impact of employing an energy manager with a 16,000-employee corporation. The corporation, Canada's second largest airline, is currently operating nearly 3,000,000 ft 2 of mixed-use facilities spread across the country, with an annual energy budget for ground facilities of over Cdn $4,000,000. This paper outlines the methodology used by the energy manager to deploy an energy management program over a two-year period between April 1995 and May 1997. The paper examines the successes and the lessons learned during the period and summarizes the costs and benefits of the program. The energy manager position was responsible for developing an energy history database with more than 100 active accounts and for monitoring and verifying energy savings. The energy manager implemented many relatively low-cost energy conservation measures, as well as some capital projects, during the first two years of the program. In total, these measures provided energy cost savings of $210,000 per year, or 5% of the total budget. In each case, technologies installed as part of the energy retrofit projects provided not only cost savings but also better control, reduced maintenance, and improved working conditions for employees

  11. Impact of speciation on CO{sub 2} capture performance using blended absorbent containing ammonia, triethanolamine and 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hao-Yang; Jeon, Soo-Bin; Jang, Se-Yong; Oh, Kwang-Joong [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-Sup [Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Seong-Kuy [BK Environmental Construction, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    In our previous study, a high CO{sub 2} absorption rate was achieved using a blended absorbent containing AMP, NH{sub 3}, and TEA. The species of the blended absorbent was determined in this study using {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and a modified Kent-Eisenberg model. The carbamate formation constant was also regressed using the model. Bicarbonate and carbonate ions decrease the absorption efficiency and have a positive effect on CO{sub 2} stripping. Carbamate has a negative effect on regeneration; a regeneration temperature of 373 K minimized the energy needed. In conclusion, the prediction equation and NMR analysis provide an easy way of determining carbonate group species and carbamate species concentrations, and this method will be helpful in optimizing CO{sub 2} capture with blended absorbents.

  12. Anticipating PHEV Energy Impacts in California

    OpenAIRE

    Axsen, John; Kurani, Kenneth S.

    2009-01-01

    To explore the potential energy impacts of widespread PHEV use, an innovative, three-part survey instrument collected data from 877 new vehicle buyers in California. This analysis combines all the available information from each respondent—driving, recharge potential, and PHEV design priorities—to estimate the energy impacts of the respondents’ existing travel and understandings of PHEVs under a variety of recharging scenarios. Results suggest that the use of PHEV vehicles could halve g...

  13. Employment impacts of solar energy in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetin, Muejgan; Egrican, Niluefer

    2011-01-01

    Solar energy is considered a key source for the future, not only for Turkey, also for all of the world. Therefore the development and usage of solar energy technologies are increasingly becoming vital for sustainable economic development. The main objective of this study is investigating the employment effects of solar energy industry in Turkey. Some independent reports and studies, which analyze the economic and employment impacts of solar energy industry in the world have been reviewed. A wide range of methods have been used in those studies in order to calculate and to predict the employment effects. Using the capacity targets of the photovoltaic (PV) and concentrated solar power (CSP) plants in the solar Roadmap of Turkey, the prediction of the direct and indirect employment impacts to Turkey's economy is possible. As a result, solar energy in Turkey would be the primary source of energy demand and would have a big employment effects on the economics. That can only be achieved with the support of governmental feed-in tariff policies of solar energy and by increasing research-development funds. - Highlights: → The objective of the study, is investigating employment effects of solar energy. → Using the capacity targets of the PV and CSP plants in solar roadmap of Turkey. → Direct employment has been calculated by constructing of the solar power plant. → If multiplier effect is accepted as 2, total employment will be doubled. → Validity of the figures depends on the government's policies.

  14. Energy dissipation in fragmented geomaterials associated with impacting oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khudyakov, Maxim; Pasternak, Elena; Dyskin, Arcady

    2016-04-01

    In wave propagation through fragmented geomaterials forced by periodic loadings, the elements (fragments) strike against each other when passing through the neutral position (position with zero mutual rotation), quickly damping the oscillations. Essentially the impacts act as shock absorbers albeit localised at the neutral points. In order to analyse the vibrations of and wave propagation in such structures, a differential equation of a forced harmonic oscillator was investigated, where the each time the system passes through the neutral point the velocity gets reduced by multiplying it with the restitution coefficient which characterise the impact of the fragments. In forced vibrations the impact times depend on both the forced oscillations and the restitution coefficient and form an irregular sequence. Numerical solution of the differential equation was performed using Mathematica software. Along with vibration diagrams, the dependence of the energy dissipation on the ratio of the forcing frequency to the natural frequency was obtained. For small positive values of the restitution coefficient (less than 0.5), the asymmetric oscillations were found, and the phase of the forced vibrations determined the direction of the asymmetry. Also, at some values of the forcing frequencies and the restitution coefficient chaotic behaviour was found.

  15. Energy Impact Illinois - Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Daniel [Senior Energy Efficiency Planner; Plagman, Emily [Senior Energy Planner; Silberhorn, Joey-Lin [Energy Efficiency Program Assistant

    2014-02-18

    Energy Impact Illinois (EI2) is an alliance of government organizations, nonprofits, and regional utility companies led by the Chicago Metropolitan Agency for Planning (CMAP) that is dedicated to helping communities in the Chicago metropolitan area become more energy efficient. Originally organized as the Chicago Region Retrofit Ramp-Up (CR3), EI2 became part of the nationwide Better Buildings Neighborhood Program (BBNP) in May 2010 after receiving a $25 million award from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) authorized through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA). The program’s primary goal was to fund initiatives that mitigate barriers to energy efficiency retrofitting activities across residential, multifamily, and commercial building sectors in the seven-county CMAP region and to help to build a sustainable energy efficiency marketplace. The EI2 Final Technical Report provides a detailed review of the strategies, implementation methods, challenges, lessons learned, and final results of the EI2 program during the initial grant period from 2010-2013. During the program period, EI2 successfully increased direct retrofit activity in the region and was able to make a broader impact on the energy efficiency market in the Chicago region. As the period of performance for the initial grant comes to an end, EI2’s legacy raises the bar for the region in terms of helping homeowners and building owners to take action on the continually complex issue of energy efficiency.

  16. Environmental impact of energy systems in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jancauscas, V.; Mishkins, V.

    1994-04-01

    Environmental impact of energy systems and an improvement of environmental situation in Lithuania are discussed. The number of polluting plants exceeds 40 thousand, the most harmful are power plants and boilers. The non-homogenous distribution of power and industrial plants cause very different contamination in Lithuania. fig

  17. A piezoelectric device for impact energy harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquelin, E; Adhikari, S; Friswell, M I

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies a piezoelectric impact energy harvesting device consisting of two piezoelectric beams and a seismic mass. The aim of this work is to find the influence of several mechanical design parameters on the output power of such a harvester so as to optimize its performance; the electrical design parameters were not studied. To account for the dynamics of the beams, a model including the mechanical and piezoelectric properties of the system is proposed. The impacts involved in the energy harvesting process are described through a Hertzian contact law that requires a time domain simulation to solve the nonlinear equations. A transient regime and a steady-state regime have been identified and the performance of the device is characterized by the steady-state mean electrical power and the transient electrical power. The time simulations have been used to study the influence of various mechanical design parameters (seismic mass, beam length, gap, gliding length, impact location) on the performance of the system. It has been shown that the impact location is an important parameter and may be optimized only through simulation. The models and the simulation technique used in this work are general and may be used to assess any other impact energy harvesting device

  18. Muscle tension increases impact force but decreases energy absorption and pain during visco-elastic impacts to human thighs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Felix; Pain, Matthew T G

    2018-01-23

    Despite uncertainty of its exact role, muscle tension has shown an ability to alter human biomechanical response and may have the ability to reduce impact injury severity. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of muscle tension on human impact response in terms of force and energy absorbed and the subjects' perceptions of pain. Seven male martial artists had a 3.9 kg medicine ball dropped vertically from seven different heights, 1.0-1.6 m in equal increments, onto their right thigh. Subjects were instructed to either relax or tense the quadriceps via knee extension (≥60% MVC) prior to each impact. F-scan pressure insoles sampling at 500 Hz recorded impact force and video was recorded at 1000 Hz to determine energy loss from the medicine ball during impact. Across all impacts force was 11% higher, energy absorption was 15% lower and time to peak force was 11% lower whilst perceived impact intensity was significantly lower when tensed. Whether muscle is tensed or not had a significant and meaningful effect on perceived discomfort. However, it did not relate to impact force between conditions and so tensing may alter localised injury risk during human on human type impacts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Environmental impacts from the solar energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsoutsos, Theocharis; Frantzeskaki, Niki; Gekas, Vassilis

    2005-01-01

    Solar energy systems (photovoltaics, solar thermal, solar power) provide significant environmental benefits in comparison to the conventional energy sources, thus contributing, to the sustainable development of human activities. Sometimes however, their wide scale deployment has to face potential negative environmental implications. These potential problems seem to be a strong barrier for a further dissemination of these systems in some consumers. To cope with these problems this paper presents an overview of an Environmental Impact Assessment. We assess the potential environmental intrusions in order to ameliorate them with new technological innovations and good practices in the future power systems. The analysis provides the potential burdens to the environment, which include - during the construction, the installation and the demolition phases, as well as especially in the case of the central solar technologies - noise and visual intrusion, greenhouse gas emissions, water and soil pollution, energy consumption, labour accidents, impact on archaeological sites or on sensitive ecosystems, negative and positive socio-economic effects

  20. Vibration and Energy Dissipation of Nanocomposite Laminates for Below Ballistic Impact Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Balaganesan

    Full Text Available Abstract Composite laminates are made of glass woven roving mats of 610gsm, epoxy resin and nano clay which are subjected to projectile impact. Nano clay dispersion is varied from 1% to 5%. Impact tests are conducted in a gas gun setup with a spherical nose cylindrical projectile of diameter 9.5 mm of mass 7.6 g. The energy absorbed by the laminates when subjected to impact loading is studied, the velocity range is below ballistic limit. The effect of nano clay on energy absorption in vibration, delamination and matrix crack is studied for different weight % of nano clay and for different thickness values of the laminates. The natural frequencies and damping factors are obtained for the laminates during impact and the effect of nano clay is studied. The results show considerable improvement in energy absorption due to the presence of nano clay

  1. Shock absorber in combination with a nuclear reactor core structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Housman, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates to the provision of shock absorbers for use in blind control rod passages of a nuclear reactor core structure which are not subject to degradation. The shock absorber elements are made of a porous brittle carbonaceous material, a porous brittle ceramic material, or a porous brittle refractory oxide and have a void volume of between 30% and 70% of the total volume of the element for energy absorption by fracturing due to impact loading by a control rod. (UK)

  2. A graphite calorimeter for absolute measurements of absorbed dose to water: application in medium-energy x-ray filtered beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, M; Pimpinella, M; Quini, M; D'Arienzo, M; Astefanoaei, I; Loreti, S; Guerra, A S

    2016-02-21

    The Italian National Institute of Ionizing Radiation Metrology (ENEA-INMRI) has designed and built a graphite calorimeter that, in a water phantom, has allowed the determination of the absorbed dose to water in medium-energy x-rays with generating voltages from 180 to 250 kV. The new standard is a miniaturized three-bodies calorimeter, with a disc-shaped core of 21 mm diameter and 2 mm thickness weighing 1.134 g, sealed in a PMMA waterproof envelope with air-evacuated gaps. The measured absorbed dose to graphite is converted into absorbed dose to water by means of an energy-dependent conversion factor obtained from Monte Carlo simulations. Heat-transfer correction factors were determined by FEM calculations. At a source-to-detector distance of 100 cm, a depth in water of 2 g cm(-2), and at a dose rate of about 0.15 Gy min(-1), results of calorimetric measurements of absorbed dose to water, D(w), were compared to experimental determinations, D wK, obtained via an ionization chamber calibrated in terms of air kerma, according to established dosimetry protocols. The combined standard uncertainty of D(w) and D(wK) were estimated as 1.9% and 1.7%, respectively. The two absorbed dose to water determinations were in agreement within 1%, well below the stated measurement uncertainties. Advancements are in progress to extend the measurement capability of the new in-water-phantom graphite calorimeter to other filtered medium-energy x-ray qualities and to reduce the D(w) uncertainty to around 1%. The new calorimeter represents the first implementation of in-water-phantom graphite calorimetry in the kilovoltage range and, allowing independent determinations of D(w), it will contribute to establish a robust system of absorbed dose to water primary standards for medium-energy x-ray beams.

  3. Renewable energy investment: Policy and market impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, Wolf Heinrich; Szolgayová, Jana; Fuss, Sabine; Obersteiner, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Feedback of decisions to the market: large companies can have an impact on prices in the market. ► Multiple uncertainties: analysis of uncertainties emanating from both markets and environment. ► Policy analysis: impact of uncertainty about the durability of feed-in tariffs. -- Abstract: The liberalization of electricity markets in recent years has enhanced competition among power-generating firms facing uncertain decisions of competitors and thus uncertain prices. At the same time, promoting renewable energy has been a key ingredient in energy policy seeking to de-carbonize the energy mix. Public incentives for companies to invest in renewable technologies range from feed-in tariffs, to investment subsidies, tax credits, portfolio requirements and certificate systems. We use a real options model in discrete time with lumpy multiple investments to analyze the decisions of an electricity producer to invest into new power generating capacity, to select the type of technology and to optimize its operation under price uncertainty and with market effects. We account for both the specific characteristics of renewables and the market effects of investment decisions. The prices are determined endogenously by the supply of electricity in the market and by exogenous electricity price uncertainty. The framework is used to analyze energy policy, as well as the reaction of producers to uncertainty in the political and regulatory framework. In this way, we are able to compare different policies to foster investment into renewables and analyze their impacts on the market.

  4. Energy efficiency and load curve impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feilberg, Nicolai

    2002-01-01

    One of SINTEF Energy Research's European RTD projects is the two-year EFFLOCOM (Energy EFFiciency and LOad curve impacts of COMmercial development in competitive markets). This project will determine the end-user response of different market-related services offered in deregulated power markets. The project will investigate the possibility of influencing load curves by using different price signals and two-way communications via Internet. The partners are from Denmark. Finland, England, France and Norway. SINTEF Energy Research is in charge of the project management. During the project, the changes in load curves will he studied in the in the participating countries before and after deregulation. Specific issues are the use of ICT, time- and situation-dependent tariffs and smart-house technology. The project will consist of 5 work packages that will give recommendations about new methods, guidelines and tools to promote effective use of energy in the partner countries. The total budget is EUR 692 000. (author)

  5. Pemodelan dan Analisa Reduksi Respon Getaran Translasi pada Sistem Utama dan Energi Listrik yang Dihasilkan oleh Mekanisme Dynamic Vibration Absorber Metode Cantilever Piezoelectric (CPVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Rachma Efendy

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Getaran banyak terjadi pada mesin-mesin di industri. Salah satu solusi untuk mereduksi getaran berlebih adalah dengan menambahkan Dynamic Vibration Absorber (DVA. Prinsip kerja dari Dynamic Vibration Absorber adalah penambahan massa absorber dan pegas pada sistem utama. DVA akan mereduksi getaran sistem utama dengan menghasilkan getaran yang arahnya berlawanan dengan arah getar dari sistem utama. Berdasarkan penelitian yang dilakukan oleh Pachpute [1], penggunaan DVA telah terbukti dapat mereduksi getaran dari sistem utama yang dioperasikan di frekuensi natural secara signifikan. Dalam penelitian Tugas Akhir ini telah dirancang sebuah mekanisme alat vibration absorber dan energy harvesting metode Cantilever Piezoelectric Vibration Absorber (CPVA. Sistem utama yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah plat datar yang ditopang oleh empat pegas. Plat tersebut akan menerima gaya eksitasi dari pegas dibawahnya yang dihubungkan dengan massa eksentris pada motor DC. Koefisien pegas yang digunakan untuk menumpu plat datar memiliki nilai yang sama, yaitu sebesar 300 N/m. Sehingga eksitasi yang terjadi pada plat datar hanya ke arah translasi. Pada penelitian ini, dilakukan analisa dengan variasi amplitudo massa eksentris sebesar 0.025 m, 0.030 m, dan 0.035 m. Kecepatan putaran motor sebesar 20.61 rad/s (frekuensi natural, 22.05 rad/s (frekuensi panen, dan 25 rad/s (frekuensi lembah. Sedangkan variasi jumlah cantilever piezoelectric yang digunakan adalah 2600, 2800, dan 3000 buah. Dari simulasi yang telah dilakukan, daya bangkitan dan nilai persentase reduksi terbesar dari CPVA terjadi ketika sistem dioperasikan di frekuensi naturalnya, yaitu sebesar 3.52E-7 watt dan 20.36%. Selain itu, dari simulasi juga didapatkan karakteristik CPVA dengan memvariasikan jumlah piezoelectric, didapatkan rentang jumlah piezoelectric optimum adalah 1400 hingga 2400 buah. Pada rentang tersebut, daya bangkitan dan persentase reduksi perpindahan massa utama terbesar yang

  6. Development of methodology for assessment of absorbed dose and stopping power for low energy conversion electrons; Desenvolvimento de uma metodologia para estimativa da dose absorvida e do poder de freamento para eletrons de conversao de baixa energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Ivan Pedro Salati de

    1995-08-01

    The evaluation of absorbed dose in the case of external and internalcontamination due to radionuclides is sometimes hard, because of the difficulties in the assessment of the absorbed dose caused by electrons with energy less than 100 KeV in mucous membrane. In this work, a methodology for assessment of absorbed dose and stopping power in VYNS (co-polymer of polivinyl chloride - acetate) absorbers, for the 62.5 KeV and 84-88 KeV energy {sup 109} Cd conversion electrons, working with a 4 {pi} proportional pressurized detector, is presented. In order to assure the reproducibility of measurement conditions, one of the detector halves has been used to obtain a spectrum of a thin {sup 109} Cd source, without absorber. The other half of the detector was used in concomitance to obtain spectra with different thicknesses if absorber. The absorbed energy was obtained subtracting each spectrum with absorber from the spectrum without absorber, which were stored in a microcomputer connected to signal processing systems by ACE type interface. The VYNS weight and thickness were evaluated using common radionuclide metrology procedures. As VYNS has characteristics similar to a tissue equivalent material, the results obtained are consistent with dosimetric concepts and have a good agreement with those of the literature. (author)

  7. The analysis of impact of irregularity in radionuclide coating of scaffold on the distribution of absorbed dose produced by grid of microsources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Nerosin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of irregularity in radionuclide coating of scaffold on the distribution of absorbed dose produced by grid of microsources was analyzed. On engineering software MATHCAD the program for calculation of absorbed dose produced by grid of microsources was created. To verify this algorithm the calculation model for MCNP code was established and represented the area consisted of soft biological tissue or any other tissue in which the grid of microsources was incorporated. Using the developed system the value of possible systematic irregular coating of radioactivity on the microsource’s core was analyzed. The distribution of activity along the surface of microsource was simulated to create distribution of absorbed dose rate corresponding to experimental data on radiation injury. The obtained model of microsource with irregular distribution of activity was compared to conventional microsource with core coated regularly along the entire area of the silver stem by main dosimetry characteristics. The results showed that even for extremely irregular distribution of activity the distribution of dose rate produced by microsource in the tumor area was not substantially different from dose-rate field obtained for microsource with regularly coated activity. The differences in dose rates (up to 10% in areas which were the nearest to the center of the grid were significantly lower than its decline from center to periphery of the grid. For spatial distribution of absorbed dose for specific configuration of microsource set and tracing of curves of equal level by selected cut-off the program SEEDPLAN was developed. The developed program represents precisely enough the spatial distribution of selected configuration set of microsources using results of calculation data for absorbed dose around the single microsource as basic data and may be used for optimal planning of brachytherapy with microsources. 

  8. Can Plant-Based Natural Flax Replace Basalt and E-Glass for Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Tubular Energy Absorbers? A Comparative Study on Quasi-Static Axial Crushing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libo Yan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Using plant-based natural fibers to substitute glass fibers as reinforcement of composite materials is of particular interest due to their economic, technical, and environmental significance. One potential application of plant-based natural fiber reinforced polymer (FRP composites is in automotive engineering as crushable energy absorbers. Current study experimentally investigated and compared the energy absorption efficiency of plant-based natural flax, mineral-based basalt, and glass FRP (GFRP composite tubular energy absorbers subjected to quasi-static axial crushing. The effects of number of flax fabric layer, the use of foam filler and the type of fiber materials on the crashworthiness characteristics, and energy absorption capacities were discussed. In addition, the failure mechanisms of the hollow and foam-filled flax, basalt, and GFRP tubes in quasi-static axial crushing were analyzed and compared. The test results showed that the energy absorption capabilities of both hollow and foam-filled energy absorbers made of flax were superior to the corresponding energy absorbers made of basalt and were close to energy absorbers made of glass. This study, therefore, indicated that flax fiber has the great potential to be suitable replacement of basalt and glass fibers for crushable energy absorber application.

  9. Social impact assessment in energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koivujaervi, S.; Kantola, I.; Maekinen, P.

    1998-01-01

    The research report is based on literature and interviews on the social impact assessment (SIA) in energy projects in Finland, both before and after the EIA Act has been in force in Finland. The concept and content of SIA, the requirements set by the legislation, its relation with other environmental impacts, the assessment process and the used methods have been studied on the basis of the literature analysis. A total of 26 persons representing the coordination authorities, persons issuing statements, researchers, civil servants, consultants and project developers were interviewed for the research. The interviews were made by the University of Turku in the form of theme interviews, investigating the present status, practices and expectations of the SIA. The unestablished status was seen to be the problem in the SIA, which was reflected in the interviewers' varying views about the content of the SIA. Among the operators, the general character of the SIA criticism in the statements concerning the assessment programmes or reports was seen as a problem as well; the assessment of social impact has been considered to be insufficient, however, without any identification of the effects or how the effects should have been assessed. For the time preceding the EIA Act, the assessment of the social impact of hydraulic work, power plant and transmission line projects and the project of the fifth nuclear power plant have been studied. As to the power plant and transmission line projects after the validity of the EIA Act, all the 20 projects were gone through which had progressed during the spring 1998 at least to the assessment report stage. Of these projects, the assessment of the social impact of one transmission line and one power plant project was studied in detail. The report also studies the assessment of the social impact of the repository for nuclear waste on the basis of the experience gained in Finland and in other countries. On the basis of the literature study

  10. The economic impacts of energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean, R.

    1990-01-01

    Energy efficiency programs add to the costs incurred by electricity users in the short term and generate significant economic benefits in the medium and long term. Using the example of programs in development at Hydro-Quebec, it is shown that the net economic benefits surpass, in present value terms, the sums invested by the electric utility and the customer, corresponding to yields of over 100%. This benefit is the principal impact of energy conservation programs which also provide employment, for every dollar invested, of the same order as that provided by hydroelectric production (i.e. costs associated with construction of generating plants, transmission lines, and distribution facilities). This evaluation takes account of the structure of purchases of goods and services brought about by energy efficiency programs and their large import component. This result may be surprising since the hydroelectric industry is strongly integrated into the Quebec economy, but it is understandable when one takes into account the importance of distribution costs to small-scale users, which causes significant local activity even when imported products are involved, and the very intensive labor requirement for certain energy efficiency measures. In addition, the employment generated by energy efficiency investments is very diversified in terms of the range of skills used and its geographic dispersion. 2 figs., 4 tabs

  11. GEANT 4.8.2, 9.2 and 9.4 simulations versus experimental proton energy loss in thick absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evseev, Ivan; Schelin, Hugo R.; Ahmann, Francielle; Milhoretto, Edney; Paschuk, Sergei A., E-mail: evseev@utfpr.edu.b, E-mail: schelin@utfpr.edu.b, E-mail: sergei@utfpr.edu.b [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Yevseyeva, Olga; Assis, Joaquim T. de; Ievsieieva, Ievgeniia, E-mail: yevseveva@iprj.uerj.b, E-mail: joaquim@iprj.uerj.b [Instituto Politecnico do Rio de Janeiro (IPRJ/UERJ), Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Modelagem Computacional; Hormaza, Joel M., E-mail: jmesa@ibb.unesp.b [Universidade Estadual Paulista (IBB/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biociencias; Diaz, Katherin S. [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear, Havana (Cuba); Lopes, Ricardo T. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (LIN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear

    2011-07-01

    Monte Carlo simulations are a powerful tool to estimate the proton energy loss and straggling in medical applications. The physics of proton interaction with matter for thick absorbers (like a human body) has a well-established theory for the so-called Bethe-Bloch domain, and the basic principles of Monte Carlo simulation for such processes are well known since the middle of the past century. However, in spite of GEANT4 has been validated against proton stopping powers from the NIST PSTAR, the evolution of the code leads to some result instability within the various code releases. In this work, we present the recent results for the comparison of our GEANT4 simulations against experimental proton energy loss for some thick absorbers. All the simulations were performed using the GEANT4 Hadrontherapy Advanced Example. The GEANT4 versions 4.8.2, 4.9.2, and 4.9.4 were tested with different simulation parameters, such as varied cut values. In addition to the Standard model, some other models for the electromagnetic processes from the GEANT4 Low Energy Extension Pack were tested as well. Experimental data were taken from for polyethylene, and from for aluminum and gold absorbers. The theoretical predictions for the spectra were calculated using the self-consistent Gaussian solution of the Boltzmann kinetic equation in the Fokker-Plank form. In order to compare the GEANT4 simulations with other popular codes, the same spectra were simulated by TRIM/SRIM2011 and MCNPX2.4.0. The simultaneous comparison of the results obtained for different materials at various initial proton energies were done using the reduced calibration curve approach. (author)

  12. Preferential treatment and exemption policy impacts energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doelle, R.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the preferential treatment and exemption policy of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for State and State Agencies which creates an anticompetitive and restraint of trade attitude in California against the development of alternative energy resources by the private sector when such development competes directly with state owned power generation under the State Water and Central Valley Water Projects, particularly in the area of water and power supply. The existing state water policy fails to address the effects of global warming and the adverse potential of the greenhouse effect in California, i.e. rising tides can seriously impact sea water intrusion problems of the San Francisco Bay-Delta Area by not only flooding agricultural lands in the Delta and Central Valley, but impacting the supply of water to large population areas in Southern and Northern California, especially when coupled with drought conditions. The California investigative research results herein reported demonstrates the fallacy of a preferential treatment and exemption policy in a free market economy, especially when such policy creates the potential for excessive state budget burdens upon the public in the face of questionable subsidies to special interest, i.e., allowing the resulting windfall profits to be passed onto major utilities and commingled at the expense of public interest so as to undermine the financial means for development of alternative energy resources. The cited Congressional and State Legislative Laws which provide the ways and means to resolve any energy or water resource problems are only as good as the enforcement and the commitment by the executive branch of government and the lawmakers to up-hold existing laws

  13. Low-Velocity Impact Wear Behavior of Ball-to-Flat Contact Under Constant Kinetic Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhang; Cai, Zhen-bing; Chen, Zhi-qiang; Sun, Yang; Zhu, Min-hao

    2017-11-01

    The impact tests were conducted on metallic materials with different bulk hardness and Young's moduli. Analysis of the dynamics response during the tribological process showed that the tested materials had similar energy absorption, where the peak contact force increased as the tests continued. Moreover, wear volume decreased with the increase in Young's modulus of metals, except for Cr with a relatively low hardness. Wear rate was gradually reduced to a steady stage with increasing cycles, which was attributed to the decrease in contact stress and work-hardening effect. The main wear mechanism of impact was characterized by delamination, and the specific surface degradation mechanisms were depending on the mechanical properties of materials. The absorbed energy was used to the propagation of micro-cracks in the subsurface instead of plastic deformation, when resistance of friction wear and plastic behavior was improved. Hence, both the hardness and Young's modulus played important roles in the impact wear of metallic materials.

  14. Impact of alternative energy forms on public utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, F. W., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The investigation of alternative energy sources by the electric utility industry is discussed. Research projects are reviewed in each of the following areas; solar energy, wind energy conversion, photosynthesis of biomass, ocean thermal energy conversion, geothermal energy, fusion, and the environmental impact of alternative energy sources.

  15. Balance: Hydroelectricity impacts on energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baptista, V.; Baia, L.; Azevedo, H.

    1997-01-01

    The VALORAGUA (Value of Water in Portuguese) computer model was developed by Electricidade de Portugal (EDP) in order to determine the optimal operation strategy of a mixed hydro-thermal power system with an important share of hydroelectricity generation such as the one of Portugal. The model has become the main tool used by EDP for planning the development and operation of its power system. In recent years, EDP has acquired the ENPEP package and has become acquainted with its use for integrated energy and electricity planning. The main goal of this effort has been to incorporate in EDP's planning procedure an integrated approach for determining the possible role of electricity in meeting the overall requirements for energy of the country, with due account to the impacts (resource requirements and environmental emissions) of alternative energy and electricity systems. This paper concentrates on a comparison of the results of the BALANCE module of ENPEP for the electricity sector against the simulation results provided by VALORAGUA. Suggested improvements to the methodologies in order to overcome the divergences in results from these two models are also advanced in the paper. (author). 15 figs

  16. Balance: Hydroelectricity impacts on energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, V; Baia, L; Azevedo, H [Electricidade de Portugal, Porto (Portugal)

    1997-09-01

    The VALORAGUA (Value of Water in Portuguese) computer model was developed by Electricidade de Portugal (EDP) in order to determine the optimal operation strategy of a mixed hydro-thermal power system with an important share of hydroelectricity generation such as the one of Portugal. The model has become the main tool used by EDP for planning the development and operation of its power system. In recent years, EDP has acquired the ENPEP package and has become acquainted with its use for integrated energy and electricity planning. The main goal of this effort has been to incorporate in EDP`s planning procedure an integrated approach for determining the possible role of electricity in meeting the overall requirements for energy of the country, with due account to the impacts (resource requirements and environmental emissions) of alternative energy and electricity systems. This paper concentrates on a comparison of the results of the BALANCE module of ENPEP for the electricity sector against the simulation results provided by VALORAGUA. Suggested improvements to the methodologies in order to overcome the divergences in results from these two models are also advanced in the paper. (author). 15 figs.

  17. An inverse method for the design of energy absorbers in the frontend of passenger cars; Eine inverse Methode zur Auslegung von Energieabsorbern im Frontend von Personenkraftwagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetze, Dirk

    2011-07-01

    Mobility is one of the key factors of our society. The consequences for the environment and mankind can be seen every day. For example in 2009, about 35,500 people involved in traffic accidents in Europe died. The ambitious objective of the European Union, the reduction of the total number of road casualties in 2010, to 27,000 which is half of the road casualties in 2001, was not obtained. The enormous number of fatalities shows, that road safety will be an important issue in the future. Upcoming initiatives of the European Union will focus on accidents outside the city limits where about 60% of all road fatalities occur but also on vulnerable road users (such as children, pedestrians, cyclists and the elderly). The automotive industry has to assure that the vehicle structures are able to reduce the severity of injuries not only for vehicle occupants but also for the other people who are involved in an accident. This can be reached with active and passive safety systems. In this work an alternative design process for passive safety structures is introduced, which is based on the vehicle requirements. The so-called inverse design method is demonstrated for the design of energy absorbers in frontend systems used for pedestrian protection. It is based on a multi-stage optimization process. Compared to the classic design process, where the crash-pulse is usually based on vehicle stiffness and the deformation length, the inverse method focuses on the structural design based on a desired crash-pulse. Using virtual absorbers, which are not limited by any material behavior or geometry, legform to bumper testes can be simulated. Thus, the desired legform deceleration can be generated. The data obtained is used for the second step of the inverse design method, the generation of a ''real'' absorber. For the design of the ''real'' absorber small drop-tower simulations are sufficient. A parameterized finite element model is used. Both the

  18. Visible light broadband perfect absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, X. L.; Meng, Q. X.; Yuan, C. X.; Zhou, Z. X.; Wang, X. O., E-mail: wxo@hit.edu.cn [School of Science, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2016-03-15

    The visible light broadband perfect absorbers based on the silver (Ag) nano elliptical disks and holes array are studied using finite difference time domain simulations. The semiconducting indium silicon dioxide thin film is introduced as the space layer in this sandwiched structure. Utilizing the asymmetrical geometry of the structures, polarization sensitivity for transverse electric wave (TE)/transverse magnetic wave (TM) and left circular polarization wave (LCP)/right circular polarization wave (RCP) of the broadband absorption are gained. The absorbers with Ag nano disks and holes array show several peaks absorbance of 100% by numerical simulation. These simple and flexible perfect absorbers are particularly desirable for various potential applications including the solar energy absorber.

  19. Calculus of the fluence and the absorbed dose by the different head tissues before photons of distinct energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azorin V, C.; Rivera M, T.; Vega C, H. R.; Azorin N, J.

    2009-10-01

    Two models were used, in the first one the head was built with the scalp that includes the skin and the adipose tissue, the skull, the brain and the tumor, it is modeled as a sphere of 1 cm of radius that be places in the center of the head pattern. The spherical models of the scalp, the skull and the brain were built respectively with spheres of 8.5, 8 and 7 cm of radius. The tumor was irradiated with an unidirectional beam of photons, the calculated cases were photons of 6 0Co and monoenergetic photons beams of 6, 8, 10 and 15 MeV. For each case be calculated the total photons fluence to 5, 10 and 15 cm in air and to 20.5 cm that is the interface between the air and head. This calculus included values of photons fluence halfway the scalp, halfway the skull, halfway the brain and in the tumor center. Also is calculated the total absorbed dose by the scalp, the skull, the brain and the tumor. (author)

  20. SU-F-207-07: Dual-Energy Computed Tomography Detection Limit of Various Radiopaque Contrast Agents That Can Be Infused Within Absorbable Inferior Vena Cava Filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melancon, A; Jacobsen, M; Salatan, F; Jones, A; Cody, D; Nute, J; Melancon, M [U.T.M.D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Absorbable IVC filters are shown to be safe and efficacious in preventing pulmonary embolism. These absorbable filters disappear from the body after their required duration, alleviating costly removal procedures and downstream complications. Monitoring the positioning and integrity of absorbable devices using dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) would improve treatment efficacy. The purpose of this study is to determine the limit of detection and the energy dependence of DECT for various contrast agents that may be infused within the IVC filters including gold nanoparticles (AuNP) having diameters of 2 and 4 nm. Methods: All imaging studies were performed on a GE Discovery CT750 system in Gemstone Spectral Imaging (GSI) mode. Plastic vials containing the contrast agent solutions of water and blood were placed in a water bath, and images were acquired with the GSI-5 preset. The images were reformatted into the coronal plane and 5mm diameter ROIs were placed within each solution on a GE Advantage Workstation. Monoenergetic reconstructions were generated from 40 – 140 keV. Results: Mass attenuation (contrast per unit density) for AuNPs was greater than iron, but less than barium and iodine. Contrast was 10.2 (± 3.6) HU for 4 nm AuNP at 0.72 mg/ml and 12.1 (± 4.2) for 2 nm AuNP at 0.31 mg/ml at 70 keV suggesting reasonable chance of visualization at these concentrations for 70 keV reconstruction. The contrast as a function of CT energy is similar in both water and blood. Iodine is most dependent, followed closely by barium and iron, and trailed by a large margin by the AuNP. This was unexpected given Au’s large atomic number and the predominance of photoelectric effect at low energy. Conclusion: Infusion of IVC filters with AuNP is feasible. Discrimination of AuNP-infused IVC filters from surrounding anatomy warrants further investigation.

  1. Griffith energy project draft environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    Griffith Energy Limited Liability Corporation (Griffith) proposes to construct and operate the Griffith Energy Project (Project), a natural gas-fired, combined cycle power plant, on private lands south of Kingman, Arizona. The Project would be a merchant plant which means that it is not owned by a utility and there is currently no long-term commitment or obligation by any utility to purchase the capacity and energy generated by the power plant. Griffith applied to interconnect its proposed power plant with the Western Area Power Administration's (Western) Pacific Northwest-Pacific Southwest Intertie and Parker-Davis transmission systems. Western, as a major transmission system owner, needs to provide access to its transmission system when it is requested by an eligible organization per existing policies, regulations and laws. The proposed interconnection would integrate the power generated by the Project into the regional transmission grid and would allow Griffith to supply its power to the competitive electric wholesale market. Based on the application, Western's proposed action is to enter into an interconnection and construction agreement with Griffith for the requested interconnections. The proposed action includes the power plant, water wells and transmission line, natural gas pipelines, new electrical transmission lines and a substation, upgrade of an existing transmission line, and access road to the power plant. The existing environmental resource conditions in the Project area and the potential impacts on the resources by the proposed action and alternatives are described. Construction of segments of the transmission lines and a proposed natural gas pipeline also require a grant of right-of-way across Federal lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management

  2. Impact of Tidal Level Variations on Wave Energy Absorption at Wave Hub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Castellucci

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The energy absorption of the wave energy converters (WEC characterized by a limited stroke length —like the point absorbers developed at Uppsala University—depends on the sea level variation at the deployment site. In coastal areas characterized by high tidal ranges, the daily energy production of the generators is not optimal. The study presented in this paper quantifies the effects of the changing sea level at the Wave Hub test site, located at the south-west coast of England. This area is strongly affected by tides: the tidal height calculated as the difference between the Mean High Water Spring and the Mean Low Water Spring in 2014 was about 6.6 m. The results are obtained from a hydro-mechanic model that analyzes the behaviour of the point absorber at the Wave Hub, taking into account the sea state occurrence scatter diagram and the tidal time series at the site. It turns out that the impact of the tide decreases the energy absorption by 53%. For this reason, the need for a tidal compensation system to be included in the design of the WEC becomes compelling. The economic advantages are evaluated for different scenarios: the economic analysis proposed within the paper allows an educated guess to be made on the profits. The alternative of extending the stroke length of the WEC is investigated, and the gain in energy absorption is estimated.

  3. Review of personal monitoring techniques for the measurement of absorbed dose from external beta and low energy photon radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Poul

    1986-01-01

    The techniques available at present for personal monitoring of doses from external beta and low energy photon radiation are reviewed. The performance of currently used dosimetry systems is compared with that recommended internationally, and developments for improving the actual performance...

  4. The impact of climate change on the European energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowling, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Climate change can affect the economy via many different channels in many different sectors. The POLES global energy model has been modified to widen the coverage of climate change impacts on the European energy system. The impacts considered are changes in heating and cooling demand in the residential and services sector, changes in the efficiency of thermal power plants, and changes in hydro, wind (both on- and off-shore) and solar PV electricity output. Results of the impacts of six scenarios on the European energy system are presented, and the implications for European energy security and energy imports are presented. Main findings include: demand side impacts (heating and cooling in the residential and services sector) are larger than supply side impacts; power generation from fossil-fuel and nuclear sources decreases and renewable energy increases; and impacts are larger in Southern Europe than in Northern Europe. There remain many more climate change impacts on the energy sector that cannot currently be captured due to a variety of issues including: lack of climate data, difficulties translating climate data into energy-system-relevant data, lack of detail in energy system models where climate impacts act. This paper does not attempt to provide an exhaustive analysis of climate change impacts in the energy sector, it is rather another step towards an increasing coverage of possible impacts. - Highlights: • Expanded coverage of climate change impacts on European energy system. • Demand side impacts are larger than supply side impacts. • Power from fossil and nuclear sources decreases, renewable energy increases. • Impacts are larger in Southern Europe than in Northern Europe. • Synergies exist between climate change mitigation and climate change adaptation

  5. Energy Resources of Iran and Their Environmental Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Bubnov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of main sources of energy resource production and their sale  in the domestic and export markets. The authors have analyzed type of domestic energy consumers and estimated their environmental impacts. The paper shows that the shift to alternative energy sources will reduce an ecological impact on the environment.

  6. Dynamic testing of airplane shock-absorbing struts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, P; Thome, W

    1932-01-01

    Measurement of perpendicular impacts of a landing gear with different shock-absorbing struts against the drum testing stand. Tests were made with pneumatic shock absorbers having various degrees of damping, liquid shock absorbers, steel-spring shock absorbers and rigid struts. Falling tests and rolling tests. Maximum impact and gradual reduction of the impacts in number and time in the falling tests. Maximum impact and number of weaker impacts in rolling tests.

  7. Energy and environmental quality: case histories of impact management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-06-01

    A discussion of energy source devlopments and environmental protection dealing with impacts, and legal aspects of pollution controls and resource management, and case history studies of major energy projects is presented

  8. The impact of predicted demand on energy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    El kafazi, I.; Bannari, R.; Aboutafail, My. O.

    2018-05-01

    Energy is crucial for human life, a secure and accessible supply of power is essential for the sustainability of societies. Economic development and demographic progression increase energy demand, prompting countries to conduct research and studies on energy demand and production. Although, increasing in energy demand in the future requires a correct determination of the amount of energy supplied. Our article studies the impact of demand on energy production to find the relationship between the two latter and managing properly the production between the different energy sources. Historical data of demand and energy production since 2000 are used. The data are processed by the regression model to study the impact of demand on production. The obtained results indicate that demand has a positive and significant impact on production (high impact). Production is also increasing but at a slower pace. In this work, Morocco is considered as a case study.

  9. The impact of high energy prices in Central American households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuesta, Ana; Manzano, Osmel

    2010-09-15

    Central American countries have one the highest energy costs in Latin America. We look at the potential social impact of higher energy prices using household data. Depending on a portfolio of characteristics, higher energy prices could have significant impact on the poor purchasing power. In countries like Guatemala, the poorest could see a higher impact than the richest. In Mexico and Panama, the impact is higher for the 'lower middle class'. We measure indirect effects of lack of energy sources, we conclude that children that live in households that cook with fossil fuels are subject to attend less to school.

  10. The impact of high energy prices in Central American households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuesta, Ana; Manzano, Osmel

    2010-09-15

    Central American countries have one the highest energy costs in Latin America. We look at the potential social impact of higher energy prices using household data. Depending on a portfolio of characteristics, higher energy prices could have significant impact on the poor purchasing power. In countries like Guatemala, the poorest could see a higher impact than the richest. In Mexico and Panama, the impact is higher for the 'lower middle class'. We measure indirect effects of lack of energy sources, we conclude that children that live in households that cook with fossil fuels are subject to attend less to school.

  11. Energy and impacts of pressure vessel explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurttila, H.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the explosion energy is considered to be same as the energy of pressure vessel discharge. This is the maximum energy which can be obtained from the process. The energy can be used or it can cause the violence of an explosion accident. (orig.)

  12. Impact resistant battery enclosure systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Waterloo; Feng, Yuezhong; Chen, Weinong Wayne; Siegmund, Thomas Heinrich

    2017-10-31

    Battery enclosure arrangements for a vehicular battery system. The arrangements, capable of impact resistance include plurality of battery cells and a plurality of kinetic energy absorbing elements. The arrangements further include a frame configured to encase the plurality of the kinetic energy absorbing elements and the battery cells. In some arrangements the frame and/or the kinetic energy absorbing elements can be made of topologically interlocked materials.

  13. Solar radiation absorbing material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Googin, John M.; Schmitt, Charles R.; Schreyer, James M.; Whitehead, Harlan D.

    1977-01-01

    Solar energy absorbing means in solar collectors are provided by a solar selective carbon surface. A solar selective carbon surface is a microporous carbon surface having pores within the range of 0.2 to 2 micrometers. Such a surface is provided in a microporous carbon article by controlling the pore size. A thermally conductive substrate is provided with a solar selective surface by adhering an array of carbon particles in a suitable binder to the substrate, a majority of said particles having diameters within the range of about 0.2-10 microns.

  14. Implementation of an algorithm for absorbed dose calculation in high energy photon beams at off axis points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matos, M.F.; Alvarez, G.D.; Sanz, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: A semiempirical algorithm for absorbed dose calculation at off-axis points in irregular beams was implemented. It is well known that semiempirical methods are very useful because of their easy implementation and its helpfulness in dose calculation in the clinic. These methods can be used as independent tools for dosimetric calculation in many applications of quality assurance. However, the applicability of such methods has some limitations, even in homogeneous media, specially at off axis points, near beam fringes or outside the beam. Only methods derived from tissue-air-ratio (TAR) or scatter-maximum-ratio (SMR) have been devised for those situations, many years ago. Despite there have been improvements for these manual methods, like the Sc-Sp ones, no attempt has been made to extend their usage at off axis points. In this work, a semiempirical formalism was introduced, based on the works of Venselaar et al. (1999) and Sanz et al. (2004), aimed to the Sc-Sp separation. This new formalism relies on the separation of primary and secondary components of the beam although in a relative way. The data required by the algorithm are reduced to a minimal, allowing for experimental easy. According to modern recommendations, reference measurements in water phantom are performed at 10 cm depth, keeping away electron contamination. Air measurements are done using a mini phantom instead of the old equilibrium caps. Finally, the calculation at off-axis points are done using data measured on the central beam axis; but correcting the results with the introduction of a measured function which depends on the location of the off axis point. The measurements for testing the algorithm were performed in our Siemens MXE linear accelerator. The algorithm was used to determine specific dose profiles for a great number of different beam configurations, and the results were compared with direct measurements to validate the accuracy of the algorithm. Additionally, the results were

  15. A lightweight shoulder prosthesis with antagonistic impact-absorbing hybrid actuation for bimanual activities of daily living

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Sekine

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In developing a shoulder prosthesis, in addition to appropriate payload and range of motion under the constraints of weight and shape, impact absorption is very important for safe use. Hybridization of two different actuators (pneumatic elastic actuators with the features of lightness and intrinsic visco-elasticity, and servo motors that have stable torque and a large range of motion in combination with an antagonistic mechanism was employed to achieve the development of the shoulder prosthesis. A two-link, two-degree-of-freedom arm was used to test the different hybridization configurations in order to investigate the impact absorption. A dynamic simulation platform based on four bimanual activities of daily living was established to obtain the required range of motion and torque for joints of a two-link, four-degree-of-freedom arm. The number of pneumatic elastic actuators required and the dimension of the antagonistic mechanism mechanical structures were optimized using the dynamic simulation platform. The best configuration of the two types of actuators was determined using the dynamic simulation based on the impact absorption results and other criteria. Moreover, a simplified prototype driven by hybrid actuation was made. It was shown that the pneumatic elastic actuator joint could improve impact absorption, and the actuator configuration of shoulder prostheses is activity of daily living dependent. The prototype could reproduce a certain activity of daily living motion, indicating its feasibility in daily living.

  16. Adaptation of penelope Monte Carlo code system to the absorbed dose metrology: characterization of high energy photon beams and calculations of reference dosimeter correction factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurier, J.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis has been performed in the framework of national reference setting-up for absorbed dose in water and high energy photon beam provided with the SATURNE-43 medical accelerator of the BNM-LPRI (acronym for National Bureau of Metrology and Primary standard laboratory of ionising radiation). The aim of this work has been to develop and validate different user codes, based on PENELOPE Monte Carlo code system, to determine the photon beam characteristics and calculate the correction factors of reference dosimeters such as Fricke dosimeters and graphite calorimeter. In the first step, the developed user codes have permitted the influence study of different components constituting the irradiation head. Variance reduction techniques have been used to reduce the calculation time. The phase space has been calculated for 6, 12 and 25 MV at the output surface level of the accelerator head, then used for calculating energy spectra and dose distributions in the reference water phantom. Results obtained have been compared with experimental measurements. The second step has been devoted to develop an user code allowing calculation correction factors associated with both BNM-LPRI's graphite and Fricke dosimeters thanks to a correlated sampling method starting with energy spectra obtained in the first step. Then the calculated correction factors have been compared with experimental and calculated results obtained with the Monte Carlo EGS4 code system. The good agreement, between experimental and calculated results, leads to validate simulations performed with the PENELOPE code system. (author)

  17. Embedding of $^{163}$Ho and $^{166m}$ Ho in the energy absorbers of low temperature metallic magnetic calorimeters

    CERN Multimedia

    The calorimetric measurement of the $^{163}$Ho electron capture spectrum is a promising tool to investigate the electron neutrino mass. A suitable method to embed the source in the detectors is the ion-implantation. This process has already been used to embed $^{163}$Ho ions in micro-fabricated low temperature metallic magnetic prototypes. The $^{163}$Ho electron capture spectrum obtained with these first prototypes is presently the most precise with an energy resolution of $\\Delta$$\\textit{E}$$_{FWHM}$ = 7.6 eV. In order to test the performance of the new generation of low temperature metallic magnetic calorimeters, we propose to perform a $^{163}$Ho ion-implantation on the new chip having two arrays consisting of 32 pixels each. An activity of about 1 Bq per pixel is required. With this new detector array we will be able to achieve a better energy resolution and to acquire a higher statistics which allows for studying the $^{163}$Ho spectral shape. We propose also to perform an ion-implantation of $^{166m}$...

  18. Environmental impacts of wind-energy projects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Environmental Impacts of Wind Energy Projects, National Research Council

    2007-01-01

    .... Although the use of wind energy to generate electricity is increasing rapidly in the United States, government guidance to help communities and developers evaluate and plan proposed wind-energy projects is lacking...

  19. The environmental and community impacts of wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rand, M.; Clarke, A.

    1991-01-01

    Wind energy has now reached the stage where it is being included in the long-term energy policies of many countries. Both the degree of environmental impact and public acceptability will be limiting factors to its development. This paper reviews, in detail, the physical and community impacts of the technology. It proposes certain guidelines and procedures to minimize the physical impacts, such as noise and visual impact, as well as illustrating mechanisms to reduce the level of opposition to future wind energy developments

  20. Impact of wind farms with energy storage on transient stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Douglas Allen

    Today's energy infrastructure will need to rapidly expand in terms of reliability and flexibility due to aging infrastructure, changing energy market conditions, projected load increases, and system reliability requirements. Over the few decades, several states in the U.S. are now requiring an increase in wind penetration. These requirements will have impacts on grid reliability given the inherent intermittency of wind generation and much research has been completed on the impact of wind on grid reliability. Energy storage has been proposed as a tool to provide greater levels of reliability; however, little research has occurred in the area of wind with storage and its impact on stability given different possible scenarios. This thesis addresses the impact of wind farm penetration on transient stability when energy storage is added. The results show that battery energy storage located at the wind energy site can improve the stability response of the system.

  1. User behaviour impact on energy savings potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    and the residents' behaviour and if these defaults do not reflect actual circumstances, it can result in non-realisation of expected energy savings. Furthermore, a risk also exists that residents' behaviour change after the energy upgrading, e.g. to obtain improved comfort than what was possible before......, 3) Domestic hot water consumption and 4) Air change rate. Based on the analysis, a methodology is established that can be used to make more realistic and accurate predictions of expected energy savings associated with energy upgrading taking into account user behaviour....... the upgrading and this could lead to further discrepancies between the calculated and the actual energy savings. This paper presents an analysis on how residents’ behaviour and the use of standard assumptions may influence expected energy savings. The analysis is performed on two typical single-family houses...

  2. Selective solar absorber emittance measurement at elevated temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud, Philémon; Braillon, Julien; Raccurt, Olivier

    2017-06-01

    Durability of solar components for CSP (Concentrated Solar Power Plant) technologies is a key point to lower cost and ensure their large deployment. These technologies concentrated the solar radiation by means of mirrors on a receiver tube where it is collected as thermal energy. The absorbers are submitted to strong environmental constraints and the degradation of their optical properties (emittance and solar absorbance) have a direct impact on performance. The characterization of a material in such condition is complicated and requires advanced apparatuses, and different measurement methods exist for the determination of the two quantities of relevance regarding an absorber, which are its emittance and its solar absorbance. The objective is to develop new optical equipment for measure the emittance of this solar absorber at elevated temperature. In this paper, we present an optical bench developed for emittance measurement on absorbers is conditions of use. Results will be shown, with a discussion of some factors of influence over this measurement and how to control them.

  3. Energy system impacts of desalination in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Poul Alberg Østergaard; Henrik Lund; Brian Vad Mathiesen

    2014-01-01

    Climate change mitigation calls for energy systems minimising end-use demands, optimising the fuel efficiency of conversion systems, increasing the use of renewable energy sources and exploiting synergies wherever possible. In parallel, global fresh water resources are strained due to amongst others population and wealth increase and competitive water uses from agriculture and industry is causing many nations to turn to desalination technologies. This article investigatesa Jordanian energy sc...

  4. Greener energy systems energy production technologies with minimum environmental impact

    CERN Document Server

    Jeffs, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have seen acceleration in the development of cleaner energy systems. In Europe and North America, many old coal-fired power plants will be shut down in the next few years and will likely be replaced by combined cycle plants with higher-efficiency gas turbines that can start up and load quickly. With the revival of nuclear energy, designers are creating smaller nuclear reactors of a simpler integrated design that could expand the application of clean, emission-free energy to industry. And a number of manufacturers now offer hybrid cars with an electric motor and a gasoline engine t

  5. Regional profile, energy-impacted communities: Region VIII

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-03-01

    This report has data on population, administration, finance, housing, health and safety, human services, education, and water and sewage for 325 energy-impacted communities. A review of current and potential energy developments in the region shows over 900 energy resource impacts listed for the 325 impacted communities. Coal development represents over one-third of the developments listed. Communities reporting coal development are distributed as follows: Colorado (36), Montana (42), North Dakota (61), South Dakota (13), Utah (73), and Wyoming (35). Energy-conversion initiatives represent another high incidence of energy-resource impact, with uranium development following closely with 83 communities reporting uranium development impact in the region. These projections indicate continued development of regional energy resources to serve national energy requirements. The 325 impacted communities as reported: Colorado (46), Montana (73), North Dakota (62), South Dakota (21), Utah (80), and Wyoming (43) follow a distribution pattern similar to that of future projects which illustrates that no area of the region will escape the impacts of energy development. (ERA citation 04:041706)

  6. Impacts of FDI Renewable Energy Technology Spillover on China’s Energy Industry Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Environmental friendly renewable energy plays an indispensable role in energy industry development. Foreign direct investment (FDI in advanced renewable energy technology spillover is promising to improve technological capability and promote China’s energy industry performance growth. In this paper, the impacts of FDI renewable energy technology spillover on China’s energy industry performance are analyzed based on theoretical and empirical studies. Firstly, three hypotheses are proposed to illustrate the relationships between FDI renewable energy technology spillover and three energy industry performances including economic, environmental, and innovative performances. To verify the hypotheses, techniques including factor analysis and data envelopment analysis (DEA are employed to quantify the FDI renewable energy technology spillover and the energy industry performance of China, respectively. Furthermore, a panel data regression model is proposed to measure the impacts of FDI renewable energy technology spillover on China’s energy industry performance. Finally, energy industries of 30 different provinces in China based on the yearbook data from 2005 to 2011 are comparatively analyzed for evaluating the impacts through the empirical research. The results demonstrate that FDI renewable energy technology spillover has positive impacts on China’s energy industry performance. It can also be found that the technology spillover effects are more obvious in economic and technological developed regions. Finally, four suggestions are provided to enhance energy industry performance and promote renewable energy technology spillover in China.

  7. The impact of fiscal transfer on energy efficiency in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Syaifudin, N.; Sutrisno, A.; Setiawan, A.D.

    2015-01-01

    Conference and Exhibition Indonesia - New, Renewable Energy and Energy Conservation (The 3rd Indo-EBTKE ConEx 2014) IRSA-Indonesia 5, a bottom-up CGE model, was employed to analyze the impacts of fiscal support to the sub-national region to implement energy efficiency policy. By implementing several

  8. World energy needs and their impact on nuclear reactor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foell, W.K.

    1977-01-01

    This presentation will place primary emphasis upon energy demand. The presentation will cover the following areas: energy reserves and resources; energy demand: past and future (mid-and long-term); industrialized regions of the world; developing countries: Mexico and Iran as examples; and potential impact on nuclear development

  9. Emerging energy technologies impacts and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubb, M.

    1992-01-01

    Technical change is a key factor in the energy world. Failure to recognize the potential for technical change, and the pace at which it may occur, has limited the accuracy and usefulness of past energy projections. conversely, programs to develop and deploy advanced energy technologies have often proved disappointing in the face of technical and commercial obstacles. This book examines important new and emerging energy technologies, and the mechanisms by which they may develop and enter the market. The project concentrates on the potential and probable role of selected energy technologies-which are in existence and likely to be of rapidly growing importance over the next decade-and the way in which market conditions and policy environment may affect their implementation

  10. Gamma-ray energy absorption in absorbing homogeneous medium. Applications to Oceanography and Geophysics (Gamma-ray spectroscopy from 500 to 1500 keV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapicque, G.

    1980-01-01

    The aim of this study is to establish a general algebrical approach for the calculation, without any program, of the full energy peak efficiency of a detecting probe designed to measure the gamma activity of a radio-element in a (semi) infinite homogeneous absorbing medium such as the Sea. The radio-active source may be punctual or, most often, constitute an integral part of the medium. The proposed theory is valid for any purely absorptive process of particles moving along straight trajectories, diffusion effects being allowed for separately. The formulation assumes a spherical detector and calculations are made for models having the same volume as two standard phosphors (10 cm x8 cm and 5 cm x 4.5 cm) in the energy band 0.5 to 1.5 MeV. The parameters are the detector radius and, at energy E 0 , the absorption coefficients in the various media for gamma rays together with the 'peak/total' ratio in the detector. The fact that this latter factor, which varies with each trajectory, cannot be obtained with accuracy, constitutes the main limitation of the formulation. The comparison with experimental results obtained with a 10 cm x 8 cm phosphor at the C.F.R. (Centre des Faibles Radioactivites, Gif-sur-Yvette) and with various data indicates an error of about +-5% for a point source at contact and -30% for a homogeneously distributed source in an infinite medium. This latter value may be interpreted as a superiority of the spherical shape over the cylinder (used in practice), for detectors operating in infinite media. Calculations are made without allowing for the Compton effect, which is found to give an approximate correction of +5% in water for a band width of 10 keV in the MeV region. Finally, the shape of the detecting probe around the detector is shown to be indifferent in the assumption of a constant peak/total ratio [fr

  11. Environmental impact of non-conventional energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, S.A.; Abbasi, Naseema; Nipaney, P.C.; Ramasamy, E.V.

    1995-01-01

    Whereas the global attention has always been focused on the adverse environmental impacts of conventional energy sources, only a few studies have been conducted on the clean environment image of the non-conventional energy sources, particularly the renewable ones. The question whether the non-conventional sources are really as benign as they are made out to be is addressed in the present paper in the background of a classical paradigm developed by Lovin which had postulated the hard (malignant) and soft (benign) energy concepts in the first place. It then assesses the likely environmental impacts of several major non-conventional energy sources and comes up with the note of caution that in many cases the adverse impacts may not be insubstantial; indeed in some cases they can be as strongly negative as the impacts of the conventional energy sources. (author). 31 refs

  12. Axial focusing of energy from a hypervelocity impact on earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boslough, M.B.; Chael, E.P.; Trucano, T.G.; Crawford, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    We have performed computational simulations to determine how energy from a large hypervelocity impact on the Earth's surface would couple to its interior. Because of the first-order axial symmetry of both the impact energy source and the stress-wave velocity structure of the Earth, a disproportionate amount of energy is dissipated along the axis defined by the impact point and its antipode (point opposite the impact). For a symmetric and homogeneous Earth model, all the impact energy that is radiated as seismic waves into the Earth at a given takeoff angle (ray parameter), independent of azimuthal direction, is refocused (minus attenuation) on the axis of symmetry, regardless of the number of reflections and refractions it has experienced. Material on or near the axis of symmetry experiences more strain cycles with much greater amplitude than elsewhere, and therefore experiences more irreversible heating. The focusing is most intense in the upper mantle, within the asthenosphere, where seismic energy is most effectively converted to heat. For a sufficiently energetic impact, this mechanism might generate enough local heating to create an isostatic instability leading to uplift, possibly resulting in rifting, volcanism, or other rearrangement of the interior dynamics of the planet. These simulations demonstrate how hypervelocity impact energy can be transported to the Earth's interior, supporting the possibility of a causal link between large impacts on Earth and major internally-driven geophysical processes

  13. Axial focusing of energy from a hypervelocity impact on earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boslough, M.B.; Chael, E.P.; Trucano, T.G.; Crawford, D.A.

    1994-12-01

    We have performed computational simulations to determine how energy from a large hypervelocity impact on the Earth`s surface would couple to its interior. Because of the first-order axial symmetry of both the impact energy source and the stress-wave velocity structure of the Earth, a disproportionate amount of energy is dissipated along the axis defined by the impact point and its antipode (point opposite the impact). For a symmetric and homogeneous Earth model, all the impact energy that is radiated as seismic waves into the Earth at a given takeoff angle (ray parameter), independent of azimuthal direction, is refocused (minus attenuation) on the axis of symmetry, regardless of the number of reflections and refractions it has experienced. Material on or near the axis of symmetry experiences more strain cycles with much greater amplitude than elsewhere, and therefore experiences more irreversible heating. The focusing is most intense in the upper mantle, within the asthenosphere, where seismic energy is most effectively converted to heat. For a sufficiently energetic impact, this mechanism might generate enough local heating to create an isostatic instability leading to uplift, possibly resulting in rifting, volcanism, or other rearrangement of the interior dynamics of the planet. These simulations demonstrate how hypervelocity impact energy can be transported to the Earth`s interior, supporting the possibility of a causal link between large impacts on Earth and major internally-driven geophysical processes.

  14. Electrochromic absorbance changes in relation to electron transport and energy coupling in thylakoid membranes : [Electrochrome absorptie veranderingen in relatie tot elektronentransport en energiekoppeling in thylakoid membranen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooms, J.J.J.

    1990-01-01

    This thesis deals mainly with the analysis and interpretation of the flash-induced electrochromic absorbance changes in isolated chloroplasts of spinach and pea plants. The amplitude and kinetics of the flash-induced absorbance changes at 518 nm (P515) are discussed in relation to the

  15. Modelling the impact of energy taxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoedin, J.

    2002-01-01

    Energy taxation in Sweden is complicated and strongly guides and governs district energy production. Consequently, there is a need for methods for accurate calculation and analysis of effects that different energy tax schemes may have on district energy utilities. Here, a practicable method to analyse influence of such governmental policy measures is demonstrated. The Swedish Government has for some years now been working on a reform of energy taxation, and during this process, several interest groups have expressed their own proposals for improving and developing the system of energy taxation. Together with the present system of taxation, four new alternatives, including the proposed directive of the European Commission, are outlined in the paper. In a case study, an analysis is made of how the different tax alternatives may influence the choice of profitable investments and use of energy carriers in a medium-sized district-heating utility. The calculations are made with a linear-programming model framework. By calculating suitable types and sizes of new investments, if any, and the operation of existing and potential plants, total energy costs are minimized. Results of the analysis include the most profitable investments, which fuel should be used, roughly when during a year plants should be in operation, and at what output. In most scenarios, the most profitable measure is to invest in a waste incineration plant. However, a crucial assumption is, with reference to the new Swedish waste disposal act, a significant income from incinerating refuse. Without this income, different tax schemes result in different technical solutions being most profitable. An investment in cogeneration seems possible in only one scenario. It is also found that particular features of some alternatives seem to oppose both main governmental policy goals, and intentions of the district heating company. (Author)

  16. Shock absorbing structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Naoki; Matsushita, Kazuo.

    1992-01-01

    Small pieces of shock absorbers are filled in a space of a shock absorbing vessel which is divided into a plurality of sections by partitioning members. These sections function to prevent excess deformation or replacement of the fillers upon occurrence of falling accident. Since the shock absorbing small pieces in the shock absorbing vessel are filled irregularly, shock absorbing characteristics such as compression strength is not varied depending on the direction, but they exhibit excellent shock absorbing performance. They surely absorb shocks exerted on a transportation vessel upon falling or the like. If existing artificial fillers such as pole rings made of metal or ceramic and cut pieces such as alumium extrusion molding products are used as the shock absorbing pieces, they have excellent fire-proofness and cold resistance since the small pieces are inflammable and do not contain water. (T.M.)

  17. Estimation of absorbed dose of radiosensitive organs and effective sose in patients underwent abdominopelvic spiral CT scan using impact CT patient dosimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoub Amirnia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to the presence of radiosensitive organs in the abdominopelvic region and increasing the number of requests for CT scan examinations, concerns about increasing radiation doses in patients has been greatly elevated. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine the absorbed dose of radiosensitive organs and the effective dose in patients underwent abdominopelvic CT scan using ImPACT CT patient dosimetry Calculator (version 1.0.4, Imaging Performance Assessment on Computed Tomography, www.impactscan.org. Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in Imam Reza Hospital from November to February 2015 February 2015 in the Imam Reza Hospital, in Urmia, Iran. The demographic and dosimetric information of 100 patients who underwent abdominopelvic CT scan in a 6-slice CT scanner were obtained through the data collection forms. The demographic data of the patients included age, weight, gender, and BMI. The dosimetric parameters included pitch value, CT dose volume index (CTDIvol, dose-length product (DLP, tube voltage, tube current, exposure time, collimation size, scan length, and scan time. To determine the absorbed dose of radiosensitive organs and also the effective dose in patients, ImPACT CT patient dosimetry calculator was used. Results: The results of this study demonstrated that the mean and standard deviation (SD of patients' effective dose in abdominopelvic CT scan was 4.927±0.164 mSv. The bladder in both genders had the greatest mean organ dose, which was 64.71±17.15 mGy for men and 77.56±18.48 mGy for women (P<0.001. Conclusion: The effective dose values of this examination are in the same range as previous studies, as well as International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP recommendations. However, the radiation dose from CT scan has the largest contribution to the medical imaging. According to the ALARA principle, it is recommended that the scan parameters, especially mAs, should be

  18. Assessment of Brain absorbed X-ray dose during CT- Scan using ImPACT software in Tehran Univeristy hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalilpour M

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1":*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: CT scan was first introduced into clinical practice in 1972, and since then has grown into one of the predominant diagnostic procedures. In 1998, the UK National Radiological Protection Board reported that 20% of the national collective dose from medical X-ray examinations derived from CT-scans, although it represented only 2% of all X- ray examinations the aim of this study was to determine the X-ray dosage received by patients in brain CT scan."n"n Methods: In this work, we have estimated patient dose arising from CT examination of brain in five hospitals in Tehran. Organ and effective doses were estimated for 150 patients who underwent CT examination of brain. "ImPACT" version 0.99v was used to estimate organ and effective dose. Brain examinations were performed with fixed Kvp, mAs and T (slice thickness for each scanner. "n"n Results: Patients, who were scanned by CT of emam Khomeini center (Toshiba Xvision /EX Scanner, received maximum organ dose (brain and minimum organ dose was delivered to patients who were scanned by CT of amir alam center (Toshiba Xvision /EX Scanner. Maximum effective dose was 1.7 mSv acquired in this study for emam Khomeini haspital, smaller than

  19. Environmental impact directory system: preliminary implementation for geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, F.D.; Hall, R.T.; Fullenwider, E.D.

    1976-07-01

    An Environmental Impact Directory System (EIDS) was proposed as a method for a computerized search of the widely distributed data files and models pertaining to energy-related environmental effects. To define the scope and content of the system, an example was prepared for the case of geothermal energy. The resulting sub-directory is known as GEIDs (Geothermal Environmental Impact Directory System). In preparing or reviewing an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), the user may employ GEIDS as an extensive checklist to make sure he has taken into account all predictable impacts at any level of severity.

  20. Quantification of environmental impacts of various energy technologies. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selfors, A [ed.

    1994-10-01

    This report discusses problems related to economic assessment of the environmental impacts and abatement measures in connection with energy projects. Attention is called to the necessity of assessing environmental impacts both in the form of reduced economic welfare and in the form of costs of abatement measures to reduce the impact. In recent years, several methods for valuing environmental impacts have been developed, but the project shows that few empirical studies have been carried out. The final report indicates that some important factors are very difficult to evaluate. In addition environmental impacts of energy development in Norway vary considerably from project to project. This makes it difficult to obtain a good basis for comparing environmental impacts caused by different technologies, for instance hydroelectric power versus gas power or wind versus hydroelectric power. It might be feasible however to carry out more detailed economic assessments of environmental impacts of specific projects. 33 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  1. The likely adverse environmental impacts of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, S.A.; Abbasi, Naseema

    2000-01-01

    The global attention has always been focused on the adverse environmental impacts of conventional energy sources. In contrast nonconventional energy sources, particularly the renewable ones, have enjoyed a 'clean' image vis a vis environmental impacts. The only major exception to this general trend has been large hydropower projects; experience has taught us that they can be disastrous for the environment. The belief now is that minihydel and microhydel projects are harmless alternatives. But are renewable energy sources really as benign as is widely believed? The present essay addresses this question in the background of Lovin's classical paradigm, which had postulated the hard (malignant) and soft (benign) energy concepts in the first place. It critically evaluates the environmental impacts of major renewable energy sources. It then comes up with the broad conclusion that renewable energy sources are not the panacea they are popularly perceived to be; indeed in some cases their adverse environmental impacts can be as strongly negative as the impacts of conventional energy sources. The paper also dwells on the steps we need to take so that we can utilise renewable energy sources without facing environmental backlashes of the type we got from hydropower projects. (Author)

  2. Energy sustainability: consumption, efficiency, and environmental impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the critical challenges in achieving sustainability is finding a way to meet the energy consumption needs of a growing population in the face of increasing economic prosperity and finite resources. According to ecological footprint computations, the global resource consump...

  3. Microparticle impact sensor measures energy directly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, W. M.; Berg, O. E.

    1965-01-01

    Construction of a capacitor sensor consisting of a dielectric layer between two conductive surface layers and connected across a potential source through a sensing resistor permits measurement of energy of impinging particles without degradation of sensitivity. A measurable response is produced without penetration of the dielectric layer.

  4. Environmental impact tool to assess national energy scenarios

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Taviv, R

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ) in terms of environmental impacts. The system quantifies the national energy demand for the domestic, commercial, transport, industry and agriculture sectors, the supply of electricity and liquid fuels, and the resulting emissions. The South African...

  5. GLOBAL IMPACT OF SOLAR ENERGY, CASE STUDY - GERMANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Caralicea Marculescu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy is a socially and politically defined category of energy sources. Renewable energy is generally defined as energy that comes from resources which are continually replenished on a human timescale such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves and geothermal heat. About 16% of global final energy consumption comes from renewable resources, with 10% of all energy from traditional biomass, mainly used for heating, and 3.4% from hydroelectricity. New renewables (small hydro, modern biomass, wind, solar, geothermal, and biofuels accounted for another 3% and are growing rapidly. This paper seeks is aimed at presenting the impact solar energy could have on a world level given the finitude, reachability and ever increasing prices of fossil fuels. As a case study we will present the solar energy industry in Germany emphasizing the advantages and disadvantages this form of energy has in this country and worldwide.

  6. Nuclear energy: biological effects and environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonefaes, M.

    1987-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the large development of nuclear power plants and the recent nuclear catastrophe which has made clear how the hazards resulting from radioactivity affect public health and the environment. Environmental effects of nuclear power plants operating in normal conditions are small, but to obtain nuclear power plants of reduced radioactivity, optimization of their design, construction, operation and waste processing plays a decisive role. Biological effects of ionizing radiations and environmental impacts of Nuclear Power plants are developed [fr

  7. The economic impacts of energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean, R.

    1990-01-01

    Hydro Quebec's energy efficiency initiatives are reviewed and the economic benefits it expects to garner from such programs are described. Energy efficiency programs affect the cost of supplying electricity, and rates usually rise during the early years and are subsequently offset by the benefits the program generates. Energy efficiency programs should allow Hydro Quebec to avoid $6 billion in expenditures for electricity supply, while entailing contributions of $1.4 billion for the efficiency measures. Evaluation of the potential for efficiency has allowed Hydro Quebec to set a target of 12.9 TWh/y in 1999 on a potential estimated at 18% of regular sales in Quebec in 1989, namely 23.3 TWh. Customers, who contribute $1.4 billion of their own funds to efficiency programs will realize savings of $3.2 billion. Hydro Quebec programs insist strongly on replacement of appliances and motors of all sorts, and in the residential sector, purchases of slightly less than $0.5 billion will consist of electric lamps (3%), water heaters (2.4%), insulation products (32%), hardware (2.5%), and various electric appliances (33%). In the commercial sector, expenditures will be higher, reaching ca $650 million. These are allocated to purchases of electric lamps (18%), heating equipment (12%), insulation products (24%), street lighting (4%), and various electric devices such as controls (39%). 2 figs., 4 tabs

  8. Minimization of local impact of energy systems through exergy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassetti, Gabriele; Colombo, Emanuela

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The model proposed aims at minimizing local impact of energy systems. • The model is meant to minimize the impact starting from system thermodynamics. • The formulation combines exergy analysis and quantitative risk analysis. • The approach of the model is dual to Thermoeconomics. - Abstract: For the acceptability of energy systems, environmental impacts are becoming more and more important. One primary way for reducing impacts related to processes is by improving efficiency of plants. A key instrument currently used to verify such improvements is exergy analysis, extended to include also the environmental externalities generated by systems. Through exergy-based analyses, it is possible indeed to evaluate the overall amount of resources consumed along all the phases of the life cycle of a system, from construction to dismantling. However, resource consumption is a dimension of the impact of a system at global level, while it may not be considered a measure of its local impact. In the paper a complementary approach named Combined Risk and Exergy Analysis (CRExA) to assess impacts from major accidents in energy systems is proposed, based on the combination of classical exergy analysis and quantitative risk analysis (QRA). Impacts considered are focused on effects on human health. The approach leads to the identification of solutions to minimize damages of major accidents by acting on the energy system design

  9. Energy use and environmental impact of new residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adalberth, Karin

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to investigate the energy use and environmental impact of residential buildings. Seven authentic buildings built in the 1990s in Sweden are investigated. They are analysed according to energy use and environmental impact during their life cycle: manufacture of building materials, transport of building materials and components to the building site, erection to a building, occupancy, maintenance and renovation, and finally demolition and removal of debris. Results show that approx. 85 % of the total estimated energy use during the life cycle is used during the occupation phase. The energy used to manufacture building and installation materials constitutes approx. 15 % of the total energy use. 70-90 % of the total environmental impact arises during the occupation phase, while the manufacture of construction and installation materials constitutes 10-20 %. In conclusion, the energy use and environmental impact during the occupation phase make up a majority of the total. At the end of the thesis, a tool is presented which helps designers and clients predict the energy use during the occupation phase for a future multi-family building before any constructional or installation drawings are made. In this way, different thermal properties may be elaborated in order to receive an energy-efficient and environmentally adapted dwelling.

  10. Energy analysis and environmental impacts of microalgal biodiesel in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Yanfen; Huang Zehao; Ma Xiaoqian

    2012-01-01

    The entire life cycle of biodiesel produced by microalgal biomasses was evaluated using the method of life cycle assessment (LCA) to identify and quantify the fossil energy requirements and environmental impact loading of the system. The life cycle considers microalgae cultivation, harvesting, drying, oil extraction, anaerobic digestion, oil transportation, esterification, biodiesel transportation and biodiesel combustion. The investigation results show that the fossil energy requirement for the biodiesel production is 0.74 MJ/MJ biodiesel, indicating that 1 MJ of biodiesel requires an input of 0.74 MJ of fossil energy. Accordingly, biodiesel production is feasible as an energy producing process. The environmental impact loading of microalgal biodiesel is 3.69 PET 2010 (Person Equivalents, Targeted, in 2010) and the GWP is 0.16 kg CO 2-eq /MJ biodiesel. The effects of photochemical ozone formation were greatest among all calculated categorization impacts. The fossil energy requirement and GWP in this operation were found to be particularly sensitive to oil content, drying rate and esterification rate. Overall, the results presented herein indicate that the cultivation of microalgae has the potential to produce an environmentally sustainable feedstock for the production of biodiesel. - Highlights: ► Do energy analysis and environmental impacts of algal biodiesel in China. ► GWP and energy consumption are sensitive to lipid content and drying rate. ► Fossil energy consumption for algal biodiesel is 0.74 MJ/MJ. ► Microalgae are an environmentally sustainable feedstock for biodiesel production.

  11. Evaluating the environmental impacts of the energy system: The ENPEP [ENergy and Power Evaluation Program] approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, B.P.; Sapinski, P.F.; Cirillo, R.R.; Buehring, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has developed the ENergy and Power Evaluation Program (ENPEP), a PC-based energy planning package intended for energy/environmental analysis in developing countries. The IMPACTS module of ENPEP examines environmental implications of overall energy and electricity supply strategies that can be developed with other ENPEP modules, including ELECTRIC, the International Atomic Energy Agency's Wien Automatic System Planning Package (WASP-III). The paper presents the status and characteristics of a new IMPACTS module that is now under development at ANL. 3 figs

  12. Griffith energy project final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-03-01

    Griffith Energy Limited Liability Corporation (Griffith) proposes to construct and operate the Griffith Energy Project (Project), a natural gas-fired, combined cycle power plant, on private lands south of Kingman, Arizona. The Project would be a merchant plant which means that it is not owned by a utility and there is currently no long-term commitment or obligation by any utility to purchase the capacity and energy generated by the power plant. Griffith applied to interconnect its proposed power plant with the Western Area Power Administration's (Western) Pacific Northwest-Pacific Southwest Intertie and Parker-Davis transmission systems. Western, as a major transmission system owner, needs to provide access to its transmission system when it is requested by an eligible organization per existing policies, regulations and laws. The proposed interconnection would integrate the power generated by the Project into the regional transmission grid and would allow Griffith to supply its power to the competitive electric wholesale market. Based on the application, Western's proposed action is to enter into an interconnection and construction agreement with Griffith for the requested interconnections. The proposed action includes the power plant, water wells and transmission line, natural gas pipelines, new electrical transmission lines and a substation, upgrade of an existing transmission line, and access road to the power plant. Construction of segments of the transmission lines and a proposed natural gas pipeline also require a grant of right-of-way across Federal lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management. Public comments on the Draft EIS are addressed in the Final EIS, including addenda and modifications made as a result of the comments and/or new information

  13. Griffith Energy Project Final Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1999-04-02

    Griffith Energy Limited Liability Corporation (Griffith) proposes to construct and operate the Griffith Energy Project (Project), a natural gas-fuel, combined cycle power plant, on private lands south of Kingman, Ariz. The Project would be a ''merchant plant'' which means that it is not owned by a utility and there is currently no long-term commitment or obligation by any utility to purchase the capacity and energy generated by the power plant. Griffith applied to interconnect its proposed power plant with the Western Area Power Administration's (Western) Pacific Northwest-Pacific Southwest Intertie and Parker-Davis transmission systems. Western, as a major transmission system owner, needs to provide access to its transmission system when it is requested by an eligible organization per existing policies, regulations and laws. The proposed interconnection would integrate the power generated by the Project into the regional transmission grid and would allow Griffith to supply its power to the competitive electric wholesale market. Based on the application, Western's proposed action is to enter into an interconnection and construction agreement with Griffith for the requested interconnections. The proposed action includes the power plant, water wells and transmission line, natural gas pipelines, new electrical transmission lines and a substation, upgrade of an existing transmission line, and access road to the power plant. Construction of segments of the transmission lines and a proposed natural gas pipeline also require a grant of right-of-way across Federal lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management. Public comments on the Draft EIS are addressed in the Final EIS, including addenda and modifications made as a result of the comments and/or new information.

  14. Impact of neighborhood design on energy performance and GHG emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hachem, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy use and GHG emissions of different neighborhood designs are investigated. • Improving buildings energy performance reduces energy use and GHG emissions by 75%. • Density as isolated factor has limited effect on transport on per capita basis. • Distance to central business district impacts transport GHG emission significantly. - Abstract: This paper presents an innovative and holistic approach to the analysis of the impact of selected design parameters of a new solar community on its environmental performance, in terms of energy efficiency and carbon footprint (green-house gas (GHG) emissions). The design parameters include energy performance level of buildings, density, type of the neighborhood (mixed-use vs residential), location of the commercial center relative to residential areas and the design of the streets. Energy performance is measured as the balance between overall energy consumption for building operations (assuming an all-electric neighborhood) and electricity generation potential through integration of PV panels on available roof surfaces. Greenhouse gas emissions are those associated with building operations and transport. Results of simulations carried out on prototype neighborhoods located in the vicinity of Calgary, Alberta, Canada indicate that, while adopting high-energy efficiency measures can reduce the buildings’ impact by up to 75% in terms of energy consumption and GHG emissions, transport still has a large environmental impact. The parameters of highest impact on transport and its associated GHG emissions are the design of the neighborhood and the distance to the business center. Density, as isolated parameter, has a modest effect on the selected mode of transportation, in terms of using private or public transportation. While this study relates to a specific location and a range of design assumptions, the methodology employed can serve as a template for evaluating design alternatives of new sustainable

  15. Environmental impacts of of energy exploitation and utilization in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adewoye, R. O.

    1999-01-01

    This is the lead paper of the conference and presented by the Permanent Secretary, Federal Ministry of the Environment. It highlights the significant role of energy in the affairs of mankind, present available energy resources and their contributions to global energy supply. The particular case of Nigeria with its high dependence on fossil fuel, whose development and usage has proved to have significant environmental consequences necessitating the development of adequate strategies for mitigating environmental impacts

  16. Impact of energy on industrial growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuemmel, R

    1981-02-01

    The equation of growth relates the growth of output Q to the growth of the production factors capital K, labor L, and energy flow E. It can be solved in zero order approximation with respect to time, if one assumes that the characteristic properties of the industrial system are not changed by human creativity and that the economy is far from its thermodynamic limits to growth. Then Q must be a unique function of K, L and E. The integral of the equation of growth with the calculated, factor-dependent elasticities of production yields the production function q.e*exp/left brace/a/sub o/(2-(l+e)/k)+a/sub o/c/sub t/(l/e-1)/right brace/, with q, k, l and e being the relative values of Q, K, L, and E; a/sub o/ and c/sub t/ are the two free parameters of the theory. For given factor inputs, the GNP and the output of the industrial sector of West Germany and the output of the sector ''Industries'' of the United States are calculated for the years 1960-78. Deviations of theory from reality are generally less than 5%. The influence of energy prices on factor inputs and growth is discussed.

  17. Impact of external conditions on energy consumption in industrial halls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żabnieńśka-Góra, Alina

    2017-11-01

    The energy demand for heating the halls buildings is high. The impact on this may have the technology of production, building construction and technology requirements (HVAC systems). The isolation of the external partitions, the location of the object in relation to the surrounding buildings and the degree of the interior insolation (windows and skylights) are important in the context of energy consumption. The article discusses the impact of external conditions, wind and sunlight on energy demand in the industrial hall. The building model was prepared in IDA ICE 4.0 simulation software. Model validation was done based on measurements taken in the analyzed building.

  18. Impacts of Large Scale Wind Penetration on Energy Supply Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kabouris

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Large penetration of Renewable Energy Sources (RES impacts Energy Supply Industry (ESI in many aspects leading to a fundamental change in electric power systems. It raises a number of technical challenges to the Transmission System Operators (TSOs, Distribution System Operators (DSOs and Wind Turbine Generators (WTG constructors. This paper aims to present in a thorough and coherent way the redrawn picture for Energy Systems under these conditions. Topics related to emergent technical challenges, technical solutions required and finally the impact on ESI due to large wind power penetration, are analyzed. Finally, general conclusions are extracted about the ESI current and future state and general directions are recommended.

  19. Environmental impact and benefit from hydro-energy: Bulgarian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesselinov, V.; Iotova, A.

    1996-01-01

    The present hydro energy system in Bulgaria has been constructed mainly in the period 1950-1965. The currently utilized hydro-power potential, only 33% of the estimated technical potential, includes 87 HPP operating in 1991. A complex assessment of the environmental impact of the hydro energy objects as well as a comparative analysis of all energy sources in Bulgaria is made in the framework of Bulgarian Case Study of the DECADES Inter-Agency Project. The main types of environmental impact related to HPP operation are presented in 7 specific categories: land requirements, changes in the landscape, hydrological changes, micro-climatic changes, geodynamic changes, risk from man-made activities; generation of new ecosystems. A technique of expertise in ball is proposed as a suitable quantitative approach for more precise assessment of impact on climate factors from different energy sources. 2 tabs., 5 refs

  20. Clean Energy Policy Analysis: Impact Analysis of Potential Clean Energy Policy Options for the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, S.; Doris, E.; Braccio, R.; Lippert, D.; Finch, P.; O' Toole, D.; Fetter, J.

    2010-04-01

    This report provides detailed analyses of 21 clean energy policy options considered by the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative working groups for recommendation to the 2010 Hawaii State Legislature. The report considers the impact each policy may have on ratepayers, businesses, and the state in terms of energy saved, clean energy generated, and the financial costs and benefits. The analyses provide insight into the possible impacts, both qualitative and quantitative, that these policies may have in Hawaii based on the experience with these policies elsewhere. As much as possible, the analyses incorporate Hawaii-specific context to reflect the many unique aspects of energy use in the State of Hawaii.

  1. The impact of future energy demand on renewable energy production – Case of Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, Eva; Lind, Arne; Espegren, Kari Aamodt

    2013-01-01

    Projections of energy demand are an important part of analyses of policies to promote conservation, efficiency, technology implementation and renewable energy production. The development of energy demand is a key driver of the future energy system. This paper presents long-term projections of the Norwegian energy demand as a two-step methodology of first using activities and intensities to calculate a demand of energy services, and secondly use this as input to the energy system model TIMES-Norway to optimize the Norwegian energy system. Long-term energy demand projections are uncertain and the purpose of this paper is to illustrate the impact of different projections on the energy system. The results of the analyses show that decreased energy demand results in a higher renewable fraction compared to an increased demand, and the renewable energy production increases with increased energy demand. The most profitable solution to cover increased demand is to increase the use of bio energy and to implement energy efficiency measures. To increase the wind power production, an increased renewable target or higher electricity export prices have to be fulfilled, in combination with more electricity export. - Highlights: • Projections to 2050 of Norwegian energy demand services, carriers and technologies. • Energy demand services calculated based on intensities and activities. • Energy carriers and technologies analysed by TIMES-Norway. • High renewable target results in more wind power production and electricity export. • Increased energy efficiency is important for a high renewable fraction

  2. Financing investments in renewable energy: the impacts of policy design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiser, Ryan H.; Pickle, Steven J.

    1998-01-01

    The costs of electric power projects utilising renewable energy technologies (RETs) are highly sensitive to financing terms. Consequently, as the electricity industry is restructured and new renewables policies are created, it is important for policymakers to consider the impacts of renewables policy design on RET financing. This paper reviews the power plant financing process for renewable energy projects, estimates the impact of financing terms on levelised energy costs, and provides insights to policymakers on the important nexus between renewables policy design and financing. We review five case studies of renewable energy policies, and find that one of the key reasons that RET policies are not more effective is that project development and financing processes are frequently ignored or misunderstood when designing and implementing renewable energy policies. The case studies specifically show that policies that do no provide long-term stability or that have negative secondary impacts on investment decisions will increase financing costs, sometimes dramatically reducing the effectiveness of the program. Within U.S. electricity restructuring proceedings, new renewable energy policies are being created, and restructuring itself is changing the way RETs are financed. As these new policies are created and implemented, it is essential that policymakers acknowledge the financing difficulties faced by renewables developer and pay special attention to the impacts of renewables policy design on financing. As shown in this paper, a renewables policy that is carefully designed can reduce renewable energy costs dramatically by providing revenue certainty that will, in turn, reduce financing risk premiums. (Author)

  3. Energy absorption during impact on the proximal femur is affected by body mass index and flooring surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhan, Shivam; Levine, Iris C; Laing, Andrew C

    2014-07-18

    Impact mechanics theory suggests that peak loads should decrease with increase in system energy absorption. In light of the reduced hip fracture risk for persons with high body mass index (BMI) and for falls on soft surfaces, the purpose of this study was to characterize the effects of participant BMI, gender, and flooring surface on system energy absorption during lateral falls on the hip with human volunteers. Twenty university-aged participants completed the study with five men and five women in both low BMI (27.5 kg/m(2)) groups. Participants underwent lateral pelvis release experiments from a height of 5 cm onto two common floors and four safety floors mounted on a force plate. A motion-capture system measured pelvic deflection. The energy absorbed during the initial compressive phase of impact was calculated as the area under the force-deflection curve. System energy absorption was (on average) 3-fold greater for high compared to low BMI participants, but no effects of gender were observed. Even after normalizing for body mass, high BMI participants absorbed 1.8-fold more energy per unit mass. Additionally, three of four safety floors demonstrated significantly increased energy absorption compared to a baseline resilient-rolled-sheeting system (% increases ranging from 20.7 to 28.3). Peak system deflection was larger for high BMI persons and for impacts on several safety floors. This study indicates that energy absorption may be a common mechanism underlying the reduced risk of hip fracture for persons with high BMI and for those who fall on soft surfaces. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Methods for absorbing neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillen, Donna P [Idaho Falls, ID; Longhurst, Glen R [Idaho Falls, ID; Porter, Douglas L [Idaho Falls, ID; Parry, James R [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-07-24

    A conduction cooled neutron absorber may include a metal matrix composite that comprises a metal having a thermal neutron cross-section of at least about 50 barns and a metal having a thermal conductivity of at least about 1 W/cmK. Apparatus for providing a neutron flux having a high fast-to-thermal neutron ratio may include a source of neutrons that produces fast neutrons and thermal neutrons. A neutron absorber positioned adjacent the neutron source absorbs at least some of the thermal neutrons so that a region adjacent the neutron absorber has a fast-to-thermal neutron ratio of at least about 15. A coolant in thermal contact with the neutron absorber removes heat from the neutron absorber.

  5. Cross-impacts analysis development and energy policy analysis applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roop, J.M.; Scheer, R.M.; Stacey, G.S.

    1986-12-01

    Purpose of this report is to describe the cross-impact analysis process and microcomputer software developed for the Office of Policy, Planning, and Analysis (PPA) of DOE. First introduced in 1968, cross-impact analysis is a technique that produces scenarios of future conditions and possibilities. Cross-impact analysis has several unique attributes that make it a tool worth examining, especially in the current climate when the outlook for the economy and several of the key energy markets is uncertain. Cross-impact analysis complements the econometric, engineering, systems dynamics, or trend approaches already in use at DOE. Cross-impact analysis produces self-consistent scenarios in the broadest sense and can include interaction between the economy, technology, society and the environment. Energy policy analyses that couple broad scenarios of the future with detailed forecasting can produce more powerful results than scenario analysis or forecasts can produce alone.

  6. The impacts of wind technology advancement on future global energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiaochun; Ma, Chun; Song, Xia; Zhou, Yuyu; Chen, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Integrated assessment model perform a series of scenarios of technology advances. • Explore the potential roles of wind energy technology advance in global energy. • Technology advance impacts on energy consumption and global low carbon market. • Technology advance influences on global energy security and stability. - Abstract: To avoid additional global warming and environmental damage, energy systems need to rely on the use of low carbon technologies like wind energy. However, supply uncertainties, production costs, and energy security are the main factors considered by the global economies when reshaping their energy systems. Here, we explore the potential roles of wind energy technology advancement in future global electricity generations, costs, and energy security. We use an integrated assessment model performing a series of technology advancement scenarios. The results show that double of the capital cost reduction causes 40% of generation increase and 10% of cost ​decrease on average in the long-term global wind electricity market. Today’s technology advancement could bring us the benefit of increasing electricity production in the future 40–50 years, and decreasing electricity cost in the future 90–100 years. The technology advancement of wind energy can help to keep global energy security and stability. An aggressive development and deployment of wind energy could in the long-term avoid 1/3 of gas and 1/28 of coal burned, and keep 1/2 biomass and 1/20 nuclear fuel saved from the global electricity system. The key is that wind resources are free and carbon-free. The results of this study are useful in broad coverage ranges from innovative technologies and systems of renewable energy to the economic industrial and domestic use of energy with no or minor impact on the environment.

  7. Use of national metrological references of dose absorbed in water and application of the IAEA TRS nr 398 dosimetry protocol to high energy photon beams. BNM-LNHB-LCIE-SFPM working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvenet, B.; Delaunay, F.; Dolo, J.M.; Le Roy, G.; Bridier, A.; Francois, P.; Sabattier, R.

    2003-01-01

    Metrological references of dose absorbed in water for high energy photon beams used in radiotherapy have been elaborated during the past years by national calibration laboratories, and these new references are the basis of recent dosimetry protocols. However, the passage from metrological references of air kerma to dose absorbed in water, as well as the practical application of new calibration opportunities for dosemeters in high energy X ray beams requires a specific attention to maintain the consistency of dose measurement references over the hospital site. In this respect, this guide aims at the application of these metrological references. It proposes recommendations for the application of metrological references in terms of dose absorbed in water on the hospital site with reference to their determination conditions and to the implementation of the new IAEA dosimetry protocol (TRS nr 398). Thus, this guide proposes an overview of metrological references in French calibration laboratories, presents calibration methods (air kerma in a cobalt 60 gamma photon beam, dose absorbed in water) and a comparison with the IAEA TRS 277 dosimetry protocol. It addresses various practical aspects, and discusses uncertainties

  8. Missile impacts as sources of seismic energy on the moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, G.V.; McDonald, W.G.; Moore, H.J.

    1970-01-01

    Seismic signals recorded from impacts of missiles at the White Sands Missile Range are radically different from the signal recorded from the Apollo 12 lunar module impact. This implies that lunar structure to depths of at least 10 to 20 kilometers is quite different from the typical structure of the earth's crust. Results obtained from this study can be used to predict seismic wave amplitudes from future man-made lunar impacts. Seismic energy and crater dimensions from impacts are compared with measurements from chemical explosions.

  9. The Energy Burden and Environmental Impact of Health Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buettner, Petra G.; Canyon, Deon V.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We reviewed the English-language literature on the energy burden and environmental impact of health services. Methods. We searched all years of the PubMed, CINAHL, and ScienceDirect databases for publications reporting energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, or the environmental impact of health-related activities. We extracted and tabulated data to enable cross-comparisons among different activities and services; where possible, we calculated per patient or per event emissions. Results. We identified 38 relevant publications. Per patient or per event, health-related energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions are quite modest; in the aggregate, however, they are considerable. In England and the United States, health-related emissions account for 3% and 8% of total national emissions, respectively. Conclusions. Although reducing health-related energy consumption and emissions alone will not resolve all of the problems of energy scarcity and climate change, it could make a meaningful contribution. PMID:23078475

  10. The impact of energy price shocks on the UK economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the results of six scenarios considering the impact of energy price shocks on the UK economy. The six scenarios considered are: UK aggregate energy price scenario; pan-Europe aggregate energy price; global aggregate energy price; UK temporary gas price; UK permanent gas price; crude (Brent) oil price. As expected, shocks to aggregate energy prices cause the largest macroeconomic and energy demand effects (in terms of growth rate volatility). Shocks to gas prices produce a greater growth volatility for macroeconomic and energy demand than shocks to oil prices. In general terms, shocks specific to the UK market tend to produce more growth rate volatility than wider ranging price shocks (global or pan-European). All of the price shocks considered have a recursive effect on the main indicators, which tend to stabilise around the baseline level in the long run. The report summarises the results obtained in the different scenarios

  11. THE IMPACT OF THE NEW EU LEGISLATION ON ENERGY EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Ligia Dumitrescu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the Energy Union from the perspective of energy efficiency. The research has a multidisciplinary character, which implies an economic analysis of an empirical type, but also a theoretical approach to the benefits of energy efficiency. The author analyzes the impact of the new energy regulations on efficiency in the European Union (EU, namely the in-depth review of the Directive on Buildings Energy Performance, the new heating and cooling strategy for the intelligent transformation of this sector, as well as the strategy for protecting vulnerable consumers. The effects of the new energy efficiency regulations are more significant in a number of Member States, but as soon as these will be applied throughout the EU, the beneficial effects of increased energy efficiency are likely to be felt in the entire EU area.

  12. Energy security impacts of a severe drought on the future Finnish energy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jääskeläinen, Jaakko; Veijalainen, Noora; Syri, Sanna; Marttunen, Mika; Zakeri, Behnam

    2018-07-01

    Finland updated its Energy and Climate Strategy in late 2016 with the aim of increasing the share of renewable energy sources, increasing energy self-sufficiency and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Concurrently, the issue of generation adequacy has grown more topical, especially since the record-high demand peak in Finland in January 2016. This paper analyses the Finnish energy system in years 2020 and 2030 by using the EnergyPLAN simulation tool to model whether different energy policy scenarios result in a plausible generation inadequacy. Moreover, as the Nordic energy system is so heavily dependent on hydropower production, we model and analyse the impacts of a severe drought on the Finnish energy system. We simulate hydropower availability according to the weather of the worst drought of the last century (in 1939-1942) with Finnish Environment Institute's Watershed Simulation and Forecasting System and we analyse the indirect impacts via reduced availability of electricity imports based on recent realised dry periods. Moreover, we analyse the environmental impacts of hydropower production during the drought and peak demand period and the impacts of climate change on generation adequacy in Finland. The results show that the scenarios of the new Energy and Climate Strategy result in an improved generation adequacy comparing to the current situation. However, a severe drought similar to that experienced in 1940s could cause a serious energy security threat. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Environmental impacts of high penetration renewable energy scenarios for Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrill, Peter; Arvesen, Anders; Scholz, Yvonne; Gils, Hans Christian; Hertwich, Edgar G.

    2016-01-01

    The prospect of irreversible environmental alterations and an increasingly volatile climate pressurises societies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, thereby mitigating climate change impacts. As global electricity demand continues to grow, particularly if considering a future with increased electrification of heat and transport sectors, the imperative to decarbonise our electricity supply becomes more urgent. This letter implements outputs of a detailed power system optimisation model into a prospective life cycle analysis framework in order to present a life cycle analysis of 44 electricity scenarios for Europe in 2050, including analyses of systems based largely on low-carbon fossil energy options (natural gas, and coal with carbon capture and storage (CCS)) as well as systems with high shares of variable renewable energy (VRE) (wind and solar). VRE curtailments and impacts caused by extra energy storage and transmission capabilities necessary in systems based on VRE are taken into account. The results show that systems based largely on VRE perform much better regarding climate change and other impact categories than the investigated systems based on fossil fuels. The climate change impacts from Europe for the year 2050 in a scenario using primarily natural gas are 1400 Tg CO2-eq while in a scenario using mostly coal with CCS the impacts are 480 Tg CO2-eq. Systems based on renewables with an even mix of wind and solar capacity generate impacts of 120-140 Tg CO2-eq. Impacts arising as a result of wind and solar variability do not significantly compromise the climate benefits of utilising these energy resources. VRE systems require more infrastructure leading to much larger mineral resource depletion impacts than fossil fuel systems, and greater land occupation impacts than systems based on natural gas. Emissions and resource requirements from wind power are smaller than from solar power.

  14. Environmental impacts of high penetration renewable energy scenarios for Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berrill, Peter; Arvesen, Anders; Hertwich, Edgar G; Scholz, Yvonne; Gils, Hans Christian

    2016-01-01

    The prospect of irreversible environmental alterations and an increasingly volatile climate pressurises societies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, thereby mitigating climate change impacts. As global electricity demand continues to grow, particularly if considering a future with increased electrification of heat and transport sectors, the imperative to decarbonise our electricity supply becomes more urgent. This letter implements outputs of a detailed power system optimisation model into a prospective life cycle analysis framework in order to present a life cycle analysis of 44 electricity scenarios for Europe in 2050, including analyses of systems based largely on low-carbon fossil energy options (natural gas, and coal with carbon capture and storage (CCS)) as well as systems with high shares of variable renewable energy (VRE) (wind and solar). VRE curtailments and impacts caused by extra energy storage and transmission capabilities necessary in systems based on VRE are taken into account. The results show that systems based largely on VRE perform much better regarding climate change and other impact categories than the investigated systems based on fossil fuels. The climate change impacts from Europe for the year 2050 in a scenario using primarily natural gas are 1400 Tg CO 2 -eq while in a scenario using mostly coal with CCS the impacts are 480 Tg CO 2 -eq. Systems based on renewables with an even mix of wind and solar capacity generate impacts of 120–140 Tg CO 2 -eq. Impacts arising as a result of wind and solar variability do not significantly compromise the climate benefits of utilising these energy resources. VRE systems require more infrastructure leading to much larger mineral resource depletion impacts than fossil fuel systems, and greater land occupation impacts than systems based on natural gas. Emissions and resource requirements from wind power are smaller than from solar power. (letter)

  15. Mathematical models and specific absorbed fractions of photon energy in the nonpregnant adult female and at the end of each trimester of pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stabin, M.G.; Watson, E.E.; Cristy, M.; Ryman, J.C.; Eckerman, K.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Davis, J.L. [Tennessee Univ., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Marshall, D. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Gehlen, M.K. [San Diego State Univ., CA (United States)

    1995-05-08

    Mathematical phantoms representing the adult female at three, six, and nine months of gestation are described. They are modifications of the 15-year-old male/adult female phantom (15-AF phantom) of Cristy and Eckerman (1987). The model of uterine contents includes the fetus, fetal skeleton, and placenta. The model is suitable for dose calculations for the fetus as a whole; individual organs within the fetus (other than the skeleton) are not modeled. A new model for the nonpregnant adult female is also described, comprising (1) the 15-AF phantom; (2) an adjustment to specific absorbed fractions for organ self-dose from photons to better match Reference Woman masses; and (3) computation of specific absorbed fractions with Reference Woman masses from ICRP Publication 23 for both penetrating and nonpenetrating radiations. Specific absorbed fractions for photons emitted from various source regions are tabulated for the new non;pregnant adult female model and the three pregnancy models.

  16. Climate Change in Environmental Impact Assessment of Renewable Energy Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen

    2012-01-01

    Many renewable energy projects are subject to EIA. However a question that surfaces is what use an impact assessment is when the project is ‘good for the environment’? One of the current topics receiving much attention in impact assessment is climate change and how this factor is integrated...... in impact assessments. This warrants the question: How do we assess the climate change related impacts of a project that inherently has a positive effect on climate? This paper is based on a document study of EIA reports from Denmark. The results show that climate change is included in most of the EIA...... reports reviewed, and that only climate change mitigation is in focus while adaptation is absent. Also the results point to focus on positive impacts, while the indirect negative impacts are less apparent. This leads to a discussion of the results in the light of the purpose of EIA....

  17. Asymmetric impacts of international energy shocks on macroeconomic activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, Fang-Yu; Hu, Jin-Li; Lin, Cheng-Hsun

    2012-01-01

    While limited by its scarcity of natural resources, the impacts of energy price changes on Taiwan's economic activities have been an important issue for social public and government authorities. This study applies the multivariate threshold model to investigate the effects of various international energy price shocks on Taiwan's macroeconomic activity. By separating energy price changes into the so-called decrease and increase regimes, we can realize different impacts of energy price changes and their shocks on economic output. The results confirm that there is an asymmetric threshold effect for the energy-output nexus. The optimal threshold levels are exactly where the oil price change is at 2.48%, the natural gas price change is at 0.66%, and the coal price change is at 0.25%. The impulse response analysis suggests that oil price and natural gas shocks have a delayed negative impact on macroeconomic activities. - Highlights: ► This study applies multivariate threshold model to investigate the effects of various international energy price shocks on Taiwan's macroeconomic activity. ► The results confirm that there is an asymmetric threshold effect for energy-output nexus. ► The optimal threshold levels are exactly found where oil price change is at 2.48%, natural gas price change is at 0.66%, and coal price change is at 0.25%.

  18. Energy Sources Management and Future Automotive Technologies: Environmental Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Mariasiu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the environmental impact created through the introduction of introducing new technologies in transportation domain. New electric vehicles are considered zero-emission vehicles (ZEV. However, electricity produced in power plants is still predominantly based on fossil fuel usage (required for recharge electric vehicle batteries and thus directly affects the quantity of pollutant emissions and greenhouse gases (CO2, NOx and SOx. Given the structure of EU-wide energy sources used for electricity generation, the potential pollutant emissions stemming from these energy sources, related to energy consumption of an electric vehicle, was determined under the projected environmental impact of specific market penetration of electric vehicles. In addition to the overall impact at the EU level, were identified the countries for which the use of electric vehicles is (or not feasible in terms of reaching the lower values ​​of future emissions compared to the present and future European standards.

  19. The impacts of energy prices on energy intensity: Evidence from China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hang, Leiming; Tu, Meizeng

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present a review of the deregulation of energy prices in China between 1985 and 2004 and assess the impacts of changes in energy prices on aggregate energy intensity and coal/oil/electricity intensity. We used time series data to provide estimates of energy price elasticities. Empirical results showed that: (1) The own-price elasticities of coal, oil, and aggregate energy were negative in periods both before and after 1995, implying that higher relative prices of different energy types lead to the decrease in coal, oil, and aggregate energy intensities. However, the positive own-price elasticity of electricity after 1995 probably indicates that the price effect was weaker than other factors such as income effect and population effect. (2) The impacts of energy prices were asymmetric over time. (3) Sectoral adjustment also drove the decrease in aggregate energy intensity. Although raising energy prices to boost efficiency of energy use seems to be an effective policy tool, other policy implications concerned with energy prices, such as energy supply security and fuel poverty, must also be considered

  20. Design of a nonlinear torsional vibration absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Ammaar Bin

    Tuned mass dampers (TMD) utilizing linear spring mechanisms to mitigate destructive vibrations are commonly used in practice. A TMD is usually tuned for a specific resonant frequency or an operating frequency of a system. Recently, nonlinear vibration absorbers attracted attention of researchers due to some potential advantages they possess over the TMDs. The nonlinear vibration absorber, or the nonlinear energy sink (NES), has an advantage of being effective over a broad range of excitation frequencies, which makes it more suitable for systems with several resonant frequencies, or for a system with varying excitation frequency. Vibration dissipation mechanism in an NES is passive and ensures that there is no energy backflow to the primary system. In this study, an experimental setup of a rotational system has been designed for validation of the concept of nonlinear torsional vibration absorber with geometrically induced cubic stiffness nonlinearity. Dimensions of the primary system have been optimized so as to get the first natural frequency of the system to be fairly low. This was done in order to excite the dynamic system for torsional vibration response by the available motor. Experiments have been performed to obtain the modal parameters of the system. Based on the obtained modal parameters, the design optimization of the nonlinear torsional vibration absorber was carried out using an equivalent 2-DOF modal model. The optimality criterion was chosen to be maximization of energy dissipation in the nonlinear absorber attached to the equivalent 2-DOF system. The optimized design parameters of the nonlinear absorber were tested on the original 5-DOF system numerically. A comparison was made between the performance of linear and nonlinear absorbers using the numerical models. The comparison showed the superiority of the nonlinear absorber over its linear counterpart for the given set of primary system parameters as the vibration energy dissipation in the former is

  1. Environmental impact assessment for energy pathways: an integrated methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommereux-Blanc, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    This document presents the synthesis of my research work contributing to the development of an integrated methodology of environmental impact assessment for energy pathways. In the context of world globalization, environmental impact assessments issues are highly linked with the following questioning: Which environmental impacts? for which demand? at which location? at which temporal scale? My work is built upon the definition of a conceptual framework able to handle these issues and upon its progressive implementation. The integration of the spatial and temporal issues within the methodology are key elements. Fundamental cornerstones of this framework are presented along the DPSIR concept (Driving forces, Pressures, State, Impacts, Responses). They cover a comprehensive analysis of the limits and the relevance of life cycle analysis and the development of a geo-spatialized environmental performance approach for an electrical production pathway. Perspectives linked with the development of this integrated methodology are detailed for energy pathways. (author)

  2. Hydraulic shock absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thatcher, G.; Davidson, D. F.

    1984-01-01

    A hydraulic shock absorber of the dash pot kind for use with electrically conducting liquid such as sodium, has magnet means for electro magnetically braking a stream of liquid discharged from the cylinder. The shock absorber finds use in a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor for arresting control rods

  3. Economic impact of the energy price increase in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uri, N.D.; Boyd, R.

    1997-01-01

    One unknown with regard to the price increases for gasoline and electricity is what will be the expected impact as the Mexican economy struggles to rebound. This is of more than spurious concern since many Mexican industries rely both intensively and extensively on gasoline and electricity to produce their goods and services. For example, the petrochemical and steel manufacturing industries are major consumers in Mexico's industrial sector which accounts for 55% of total energy consumption. Mexico's steel industry is one of the most electricity intensive in the world, with heavy reliance on electric arc furnace technology. Mexico's transportation sector accounts for about 30% of total energy consumption. Higher energy prices are expected to affect significantly the price and quantity of the goods and services produced. The nature and extent of this effect is the subject of this article. Also the modelling approach to be used in assessing the impact of higher energy prices will be discussed. 2 tabs., 20 refs

  4. Evaluating the impacts of energy supply technology options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peachey, B.R.

    2009-01-01

    The newly formed Chemical Institute of Canada (CIC)/Canadian Society for Chemical Engineering (CSChE) Energy Subject Division is working to develop a methodology for assessing and communicating to governments, regulators and the public the relative merits of different technologies for meeting energy demand requirements or reducing energy consumption. The focus is on developing a process that considers a broader range of issues than basic economics, or greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The 12 assessment criteria proposed would address five major areas of concerns including: a) how well assumptions have been tested against the scientific method over the life cycle of an energy development, b) impacts on the availability of the basic requirements for life, c) maintaining the quality of human life, d) maintaining the quality of the local environment (air, land and water), in the area where a specific technology is used, and e) considers the potential global impacts of GHG emissions. (author)

  5. Targeted Energy Transfer Phenomena in Vibro-Impact Oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young S.; McFarland, D. Michael; Bergman, Lawrence A.; Nucera, Francesco; Vakakis, Alexander F.

    2008-01-01

    We study targeted energy transfer (TET) in a coupled oscillator, consisting of a single-degree-of-freedom primary linear oscillator coupled to a vibro-impact nonlinear energy sink (VI NES). For this purpose, we first compute the VI periodic orbits of the underlying hamiltonian VI system, and construct the corresponding frequency-energy plot (FEP). Then, considering inelastic impacts and viscous dissipation, we examine VI damped transitions on the FEP to identify a TET phenomenon by exciting a VI impulsive orbit, which is the most efficient mechanism for TET. Not only can the VI TET involve passive absorption and local dissipation of significant portions of the energy from the primary systems, but it occurs at sufficiently fast time scales. This renders VI NESs suitable for applications, like seismic mitigation, where shock elimination in the early, highly energetic regime of the motion is a critical requirement

  6. Health and safety impacts of renewable, geothermal, and rusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdren, J.P.; Anderson, K.B.; Deibler, P.M.; Gleick, P.H.; Mintzer, I.M.; Morris, G.P.

    1983-01-01

    The public may view many renewable energy sources as having no direct public impacts because they produce no pollutants during normal operation. However, these energy technologies produce health impacts during their fabricatin and construction, and also through the materials-supply sectors required to support them. This survey of the health risks associated with renewable energy technologies concludes that some of the renewable options have particular promise for reducing health and environmental costs per unit of energy delivered to well below levels associated with the use of oil and coal; Holdren and his co-authors feel that few, if any, pose the indirect threats of fossil fuels and nuclear fission. 46 references, 7 tables

  7. Luminescence model with quantum impact parameter for low energy ions

    CERN Document Server

    Cruz-Galindo, H S; Martínez-Davalos, A; Belmont-Moreno, E; Galindo, S

    2002-01-01

    We have modified an analytical model of induced light production by energetic ions interacting in scintillating materials. The original model is based on the distribution of energy deposited by secondary electrons produced along the ion's track. The range of scattered electrons, and thus the energy distribution, depends on a classical impact parameter between the electron and the ion's track. The only adjustable parameter of the model is the quenching density rho sub q. The modification here presented, consists in proposing a quantum impact parameter that leads to a better fit of the model to the experimental data at low incident ion energies. The light output response of CsI(Tl) detectors to low energy ions (<3 MeV/A) is fitted with the modified model and comparison is made to the original model.

  8. Solar energy collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brin, Raymond L.; Pace, Thomas L.

    1978-01-01

    The invention relates to a solar energy collector comprising solar energy absorbing material within chamber having a transparent wall, solar energy being transmitted through the transparent wall, and efficiently absorbed by the absorbing material, for transfer to a heat transfer fluid. The solar energy absorbing material, of generally foraminous nature, absorbs and transmits the solar energy with improved efficiency.

  9. Evaluation the potential economic impacts of Taiwanese biomass energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chi-Chung; McCarl, Bruce; Chang, Ching-Cheng; Tso, Chunto

    2011-01-01

    The Taiwanese rice paddy land set-aside program diverts a substantial land area. Given today's high energy prices and interests in energy security, that set-aside area could be converted to produce bioenergy feedstocks. This study evaluates the economic and environmental impacts of such a policy change using a Taiwanese agricultural sector model. The results show that such a strategy provides increased farm revenue, increased rural employment, increased energy sufficiency and reduced greenhouse gas emissions but also increased government expenditures. These outcomes indicate that the agricultural sector could play a positive role by producing renewable energy. -- Highlights: → This paper evaluates the economic and environmental impacts of converting set-aside area to produce bioenergy feedstocks. → Taiwanese agricultural sector model is built and applied to evaluate such impacts. → The empirical results show that producing bioenergy using set-aside area could provide increased farm revenue, increased rural employment, increased energy sufficiency and reduced greenhouse gas emissions but also increased government expenditures. → Agricultural sector in Taiwan could play a positive role by producing renewable energy.

  10. Environmental impacts of utility-scale solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, R.R.; Easter, S.B.; Murphy-Mariscal, M. L.; Maestre, F.T.; Tavassoli, M.; Allen, E.B.; Barrows, C.W.; Belnap, J.; Ochoa-Hueso, R.; Ravi, S.; Allen, M.F.

    2014-01-01

    Renewable energy is a promising alternative to fossil fuel-based energy, but its development can require a complex set of environmental tradeoffs. A recent increase in solar energy systems, especially large, centralized installations, underscores the urgency of understanding their environmental interactions. Synthesizing literature across numerous disciplines, we review direct and indirect environmental impacts – both beneficial and adverse – of utility-scale solar energy (USSE) development, including impacts on biodiversity, land-use and land-cover change, soils, water resources, and human health. Additionally, we review feedbacks between USSE infrastructure and land-atmosphere interactions and the potential for USSE systems to mitigate climate change. Several characteristics and development strategies of USSE systems have low environmental impacts relative to other energy systems, including other renewables. We show opportunities to increase USSE environmental co-benefits, the permitting and regulatory constraints and opportunities of USSE, and highlight future research directions to better understand the nexus between USSE and the environment. Increasing the environmental compatibility of USSE systems will maximize the efficacy of this key renewable energy source in mitigating climatic and global environmental change.

  11. Renewable biomass energy: Understanding regional scale environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, R.L.; Downing, M.

    1993-12-31

    If biomass energy is to become a significant component of the US energy sector, millions of acres of farmland must be converted to energy crops. The environmental implications of this change in land use must be quantitatively evaluated. The land use changes will be largely driven by economic considerations. Farmers will grow energy crops when it is profitable to do so. Thus, models which purport to predict environmental changes induced by energy crop production must take into account those economic features which will influence land use change. In this paper, we present an approach for projecting the probable environmental impacts of growing energy crops at the regional scale. The approach takes into account both economic and environmental factors. We demonstrate the approach by analyzing, at a county-level the probable impact of switchgrass production on erosion, evapotranspiration, nitrate in runoff, and phosphorous fertilizer use in multi-county subregions within the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) region. Our results show that the adoption of switchgrass production will have different impacts in each subregion as a result of differences in the initial land use and soil conditions in the subregions. Erosion, evapotranspiration, and nitrate in runoff are projected to decrease in both subregions as switchgrass displaces the current crops. Phosphorous fertilizer applications are likely to increase in one subregion and decrease in the other due to initial differences in the types of conventional crops grown in each subregion. Overall these changes portend an improvement in water quality in the subregions with the increasing adoption of switchgrass.

  12. Renewable biomass energy: Understanding regional scale environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, R.L.; Downing, M.

    1993-01-01

    If biomass energy is to become a significant component of the US energy sector, millions of acres of farmland must be converted to energy crops. The environmental implications of this change in land use must be quantitatively evaluated. The land use changes will be largely driven by economic considerations. Farmers will grow energy crops when it is profitable to do so. Thus, models which purport to predict environmental changes induced by energy crop production must take into account those economic features which will influence land use change. In this paper, we present an approach for projecting the probable environmental impacts of growing energy crops at the regional scale. The approach takes into account both economic and environmental factors. We demonstrate the approach by analyzing, at a county-level, the probable impact of switchgrass production on erosion, evapotranspiration, nitrate in runoff, and phosphorous fertilizer use in two multi-county subregions within the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) region. Our results show that the adoption of switchgrass production will have different impacts in each subregion as a result of differences in the initial land use and soil conditions in the subregions. Erosion, evapotranspiration, and nitrate in runoff are projected to decrease in both subregions as switchgrass displaces the current crops. Phosphorous fertilizer applications are likely to increase in one subregion and decrease in the other due to initial differences in the types of conventional crops grown in each subregion. Overall these changes portend an improvement in water quality in the subregions with the increasing adoption of switchgrass

  13. Normalization of Impact Energy by Laminate Thickness for Compression After Impact Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, A. T.; Hromisin, S. M.

    2013-01-01

    The amount of impact energy used to damage a composite laminate is a critical parameter when assessing residual strength properties. The compression after impact (CAI) strength of impacted laminates is dependent upon how thick the laminate is and this has traditionally been accounted for by normalizing (dividing) the impact energy by the laminate's thickness. However, when comparing CAI strength values for a given lay-up sequence and fiber/resin system, dividing the impact energy by the specimen thickness has been noted by the author to give higher CAI strength values for thicker laminates. A study was thus undertaken to assess the comparability of CAI strength data by normalizing the impact energy by the specimen thickness raised to a power to account for the higher strength of thicker laminates. One set of data from the literature and two generated in this study were analyzed by dividing the impact energy by the specimen thickness to the 1, 1.5, 2, and 2.5 powers. Results show that as laminate thickness and damage severity decreased, the value which the laminate thickness needs to be raised to in order to yield more comparable CAI data increases.

  14. Benefits of the S/F cask impact limiter weldment imperfection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ku, Jeong Hoe; Lee, Ju Chan; Kim, Jong Hun; Park, Seong Won; Park, Hyun Soo

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the beneficial effect of weldment imperfection of the cask impact limiter, by applying intermittent-weld, for impact energy absorbing behavior. From the point of view of energy absorbing efficiency of an energy absorber, it is desirable to reduce the crush load resistance and increase the deformation of the energy absorber within certain limit. This paper presents the test results of intermittent-weldment and the analysis results of cask impacts and the discussions of the improvement of impact mitigating effect by the imperfect-weldment. The rupture of imperfect weldment of an impact limiter improves the energy-absorbing efficiency by reducing the crush load amplitude without loss of total energy absorption. The beneficial effect of weldment imperfection should be considered to the cask impact limiter design. (author)

  15. World energy outlook in 2020 focusing on China's energy impacts on the world and Northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komiyama, R.; Ito, K.; Li Zhidong

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a consistent international energy projection developed by an integrated econometric model for the purpose of analysing China's energy impacts on the energy markets in the world and Northeast Asia to 2020. Vigorous economic growth, soaring electricity demand and progressive motorisation are going to expand the primary energy demand in China, which accounts for a large part of the world primary energy increase, eventually positioning China as an important player in the world energy market and in terms of CO 2 emissions. Focusing on Northeast Asia, considerable oil demand growth in China, which has only a limited oil production, would increase the regional reliance on Middle Eastern oil thereby underlining a serious energy security problem of oil importing countries in this region. It is becoming increasingly important for the energy issue to be addressed as one where all Northeast Asian countries have a common stake and can commit themselves. (author)

  16. Environmental impacts evaluation associated to renewable sources of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Vinicius Verna M.; Aronne, Ivan D.; Santos, Rosana A.M.

    2009-01-01

    As time goes by, the need for electricity increases and creates several problems to mankind. Health and environmental problems happens wherever a power plant arises. For many people the best option for these problems is to invest in energy alternative sources, such as solar and wind. But unfortunately this sources also generates some environmental and health damages. The objective of this work is to analyze the impacts of these energy sources, to review their utilization all over the world and to discuss its relevance in the global energy market. To make a comparative evaluation, the nuclear option will also be analyzed. (author)

  17. Evaluating the landscape impact of renewable energy plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidis, Romanos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2017-04-01

    Different types of renewable energy have been on an ongoing competition with each other. There has been a lot of research comparing the most common types of renewable energy plants in relation with their efficiency, cost and environmental impact. However, few papers so far have attempted to analyse their impact on landscape and there has never been in depth research on which type of renewable energy causes the least impact on the natural, cultural and aesthetic characteristics of a landscape. This seems to be a significant omission given the vast areas of land already covered with renewable energy plants and the worldwide plans for many more renewable energy projects in the future. Meanwhile, the low aesthetic quality of renewable energy plants has already been an obstacle to their further development, with several relevant examples from countries such as Spain and the Netherlands. There have even been cases where aesthetic degradation is the primary or even the single argument of the opposition to proposed plants. In any case, the aesthetic design and the integration of renewable energy plants into the landscape should really be important design parameters if we plan those projects to truly be sustainable and to be considered complete works of engineering. To initiate dialogue over those aspects of renewable energy, we provide a first comparison on hydro, solar and wind energy. To materialize this comparison, we use data from existing dams, photovoltaic and wind farms. Initially, the average area per MW covered by each type of energy plant is calculated and then evaluated qualitatively from a landscape-impact perspective. Although the area affected is comparable in these three cases, the analysis of the data suggests that dams offer a considerable amount of advantages compared to the other two types of plants. This conclusion arises from the fact that dams, whose basic impact to the landscape is the creation of an artificial lake, contribute much less to the

  18. Impact of Dust on Mars Surface Albedo and Energy Flux with LMD General Circulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, D.; Flanner, M.; Millour, E.; Martinez, G.

    2015-12-01

    Mars, just like Earth experience different seasons because of its axial tilt (about 25°). This causes growth and retreat of snow cover (primarily CO2) in Martian Polar regions. The perennial caps are the only place on the planet where condensed H2O is available at surface. On Mars, as much as 30% atmospheric CO2 deposits in each hemisphere depending upon the season. This leads to a significant variation on planet's surface albedo and hence effecting the amount of solar flux absorbed or reflected at the surface. General Circulation Model (GCM) of Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique (LMD) currently uses observationally derived surface albedo from Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) instrument for the polar caps. These TES albedo values do not have any inter-annual variability, and are independent of presence of any dust/impurity on surface. Presence of dust or other surface impurities can significantly reduce the surface albedo especially during and right after a dust storm. This change will also be evident in the surface energy flux interactions. Our work focuses on combining earth based Snow, Ice, and Aerosol Radiation (SNICAR) model with current state of GCM to incorporate the impact of dust on Martian surface albedo, and hence the energy flux. Inter-annual variability of surface albedo and planet's top of atmosphere (TOA) energy budget along with their correlation with currently available mission data will be presented.

  19. Water as a source of renewable energy. Environmental impacts of six energy techniques; Water als bron van duurzame energie. Omgevingseffecten van zes energietechnologieen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Berg, M.; De Bie, Y.; Geurts, F.; Van Iersel, S.; Ritzen, A.; Stolk, N.

    2010-03-15

    This report describes the environmental impact of six energy technologies using water: thermal energy storage, tidal current, tidal energy with height of fall, wave energy, aquatic biomass and osmosis energy (blue energy) [Dutch] In dit rapport zijn de omgevingseffecten van zes energietechnologieen met water beschreven: warmte koude opslag, getijdenstroming, getijdenenergie op verval, golfenergie, aquatische biomassa en osmose-energie (blue energy)

  20. Air quality and energy impacts of NYSDOT highway ROW management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Mowing the highway right-of-way is important for the safety of roadway users and maintaining the highway infrastructure. However, little quantitative data are available on the energy use and air quality impacts of highway mowing activities. In this r...

  1. Energy Frontier Research Centers: Impact Report, January 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-01-31

    Since its inception in 2009, the U. S. Department of Energy’s Energy Frontier Research Center (EFRC) program has become an important research modality in the Department’s portfolio, enabling high impact research that addresses key scientific challenges for energy technologies. Funded by the Office of Science’s Basic Energy Sciences program, the EFRCs are located across the United States and are led by universities, national laboratories, and private research institutions. These multi-investigator, multidisciplinary centers bring together world-class teams of researchers, often from multiple institutions, to tackle the toughest scientific challenges preventing advances in energy technologies. The EFRCs’ fundamental scientific advances are having a significant impact that is being translated to industry. In 2009 five-year awards were made to 46 EFRCs, including 16 that were fully funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). An open recompetition of the program in 2014 resulted in fouryear awards to 32 centers, 22 of which are renewals of existing EFRCs and 10 of which are new EFRCs. In 2016, DOE added four new centers to accelerate the scientific breakthroughs needed to support the Department’s environmental management and nuclear cleanup mission, bringing the total number of active EFRCs to 36. The impact reports in this document describe some of the many scientific accomplishments and greater impacts of the class of 2009 – 2018 EFRCs and early outcomes from a few of the class of 2014 – 2018 EFRCs.

  2. Modelling the impact of social network on energy savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Feng; Zhang, Jiangfeng; Li, Hailong; Yan, Jinyue; Galloway, Stuart; Lo, Kwok L.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy saving propagation along a social network is modelled. • This model consists of a time evolving weighted directed network. • Network weights and information decay are applied in savings calculation. - Abstract: It is noted that human behaviour changes can have a significant impact on energy consumption, however, qualitative study on such an impact is still very limited, and it is necessary to develop the corresponding mathematical models to describe how much energy savings can be achieved through human engagement. In this paper a mathematical model of human behavioural dynamic interactions on a social network is derived to calculate energy savings. This model consists of a weighted directed network with time evolving information on each node. Energy savings from the whole network is expressed as mathematical expectation from probability theory. This expected energy savings model includes both direct and indirect energy savings of individuals in the network. The savings model is obtained by network weights and modified by the decay of information. Expected energy savings are calculated for cases where individuals in the social network are treated as a single information source or multiple sources. This model is tested on a social network consisting of 40 people. The results show that the strength of relations between individuals is more important to information diffusion than the number of connections individuals have. The expected energy savings of optimally chosen node can be 25.32% more than randomly chosen nodes at the end of the second month for the case of single information source in the network, and 16.96% more than random nodes for the case of multiple information sources. This illustrates that the model presented in this paper can be used to determine which individuals will have the most influence on the social network, which in turn provides a useful guide to identify targeted customers in energy efficiency technology rollout

  3. Comparing the health impacts of different energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, L.D.

    1982-01-01

    Assessing health impacts of different energy sources requires synthesis of research results from many different disciplines into a rational framework. Information is often scanty; qualitatively different risks, or energy systems with substantially different end uses, must be put on a common footing. Historically institutional constraints have inhibited agencies from making incisive intercomparisons necessary for formulating energy policy; this has exacerbated public controversy over appropriate energy sources. Risk assessment methods reviewed include examples drawn from work of the Biomedical and Environmental Assessment Division at Brookhaven National Laboratory and elsewhere. Uncertainty over the mechanism and size of air pollution health damage is addressed through a probabilistic health-damage function, using sulphate-particle exposure as an indicator. This facilitates intercomparison through analysis of each step in the whole fuel cycle between a typical coal and nuclear power plant. Occupational health impacts, a significant fraction of overall damage, are illustrated by accident trends in coal-mining. In broadening comparisons to include new technologies, one must include the impact of manufacturing the energy-producing device as part of an expanded fuel cycle, via input/output methods. Throughout the analysis, uncertainties must be made explicit in the results, including uncertainty of data and uncertainty in choice of appropriate models and methods. No single method of comparative risk assessment is fully satisfactory; each has its limitations. Several methods must be compared if decision-making is to be realistic. (author)

  4. Autonomous Vehicles Have a Wide Range of Possible Energy Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austin Brown, Brittany Repac, Jeff Gonder

    2013-07-15

    Self-driving or “autonomous” vehicles (AVs) have leapt from science fiction into the forefront of transportation technology news. The technology is likely still years away from widespread commercial adoption, but the recent progress makes it worth considering the potential national impacts of widespread implementation. This poster makes an initial assessment of the energy impacts of AV adoptionon a per-vehicle basis and on total personal vehicle fuel use. While AVs offer numerous potential advantages in energy use, there are significant factors that could decrease or even eliminate the energy benefits under some circumstances. This analysis attempts to describe, quantify, and combine many of the possible effects. The nature and magnitude of these effects remain highly uncertain. This set of effects is very unlikely to be exhaustive, but this analysis approach can serve as a base for future estimates.

  5. Asia energy outlook to 2030: Impacts of energy outlook in China and India on the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komiyama, R.

    2007-07-01

    This paper presents an international energy outlook, focusing on an analysis of energy impacts of Asia, particularly China and India, on the world energy markets to 2030. Based on vigorous economic growth, soaring electricity demand and progressive motorisation in China and India, Asia's primary energy demand is expected to double, eventually positioning Asia as the largest energy-consuming region with largest CO{sub 2} emissions in the world. This paper also discusses energy security challenges for Asia, in particular East Asian region, where steady oil demand growth will lead to increasing dependency on imported oil from Middle East and sea lane security in the Malacca Strait. Furthermore, this paper explores various future scenarios for Asia including 'Technological Advanced Scenario' to highlight the differences in possible energy futures in Asia and its implication to the global energy market. In Technological Advanced Scenario, which assumes the stepped-up implementation of energy and environmental policies in Asian countries, Asia's primary energy demand in 2030 is expected to be 15%, or 943 Mtoe, lower than the Reference Scenario. The paper concludes that successful implementation of such an energy strategy will decrease the energy demand and greatly mitigate the growth of CO{sub 2} emissions from the energy sector. (auth)

  6. Environmental impacts of biomass energy resource production and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterly, J.L.; Dunn, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a broad overview of the environmental impacts associated with the production, conversion and utilization of biomass energy resources and compare them with the impacts of conventional fuels. The use of sustainable biomass resources can play an important role in helping developing nations meet their rapidly growing energy needs, while providing significant environmental advantages over the use of fossil fuels. Two of the most important environmental benefits biomass energy offers are reduced net emissions of greenhouse gases, particularly CO 2 , and reduced emissions of SO 2 , the primary contributor to acid rain. The paper also addresses the environmental impacts of supplying a range of specific biomass resources, including forest-based resources, numerous types of biomass residues and energy crops. Some of the benefits offered by the various biomass supplies include support for improved forest management, improved waste management, reduced air emissions (by eliminating the need for open-field burning of residues) and reduced soil erosion (for example, where perennial energy crops are planted on degraded or deforested land). The environmental impacts of a range of biomass conversion technologies are also addressed, including those from the thermochemical processing of biomass (including direct combustion in residential wood stoves and industrial-scale boilers, gasification and pyrolysis); biochemical processing (anaerobic digestion and fermentation); and chemical processing (extraction of organic oils). In addition to reducing CO 2 and SO 2 , other environmental benefits of biomass conversion technologies include the distinctly lower toxicity of the ash compared to coal ash, reduced odours and pathogens from manure, reduced vehicle emissions of CO 2 , with the use of ethanol fuel blends, and reduced particulate and hydrocarbon emissions where biodiesel is used as a substitute for diesel fuel. In general, the key elements for

  7. Impact of Weather and Occupancy on Energy Flexibility Potential of a Low-energy Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zilio, Emanuele; Foteinaki, Kyriaki; Gianniou, Panagiota

    The introduction of renewable energy sources in the energy market leads to instability of the energy system itself; therefore, new solutions to increase its flexibility will become more common in the coming years. In this context the implementation of energy flexibility in buildings is evaluated...... solar radiation and the outdoor temperature appeared to have the larger impact on the thermal flexibility of the building. Specifically, the energy flexibility potential of the examined apartment can ensure its thermal autonomy up to 200 h in a typical sunny winter day......., using heat storage in the building mass. This study focuses on the influence of weather conditions and internal gains on the energy flexibility potential of a nearly-zero-energy building in Denmark. A specific six hours heating program is used to reach the scope. The main findings showed that the direct...

  8. Energy drink consumption and impact on caffeine risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Barbara M; Campbell, Donald M; Cressey, Peter; Egan, Ursula; Horn, Beverley

    2014-01-01

    The impact of caffeine from energy drinks occurs against a background exposure from naturally occurring caffeine (coffee, tea, cocoa and foods containing these ingredients) and caffeinated beverages (kola-type soft drinks). Background caffeine exposure, excluding energy drinks, was assessed for six New Zealand population groups aged 15 years and over (n = 4503) by combining concentration data for 53 caffeine-containing foods with consumption information from the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey (ANS). Caffeine exposure for those who consumed energy drinks (n = 138) was similarly assessed, with inclusion of energy drinks. Forty-seven energy drink products were identified on the New Zealand market in 2010. Product volumes ranged from 30 to 600 ml per unit, resulting in exposures of 10-300 mg caffeine per retail unit consumed. A small percentage, 3.1%, of New Zealanders reported consuming energy drinks, with most energy drink consumers (110/138) drinking one serving per 24 h. The maximum number of energy drinks consumed per 24 h was 14 (total caffeine of 390 mg). A high degree of brand loyalty was evident. Since only a minor proportion of New Zealanders reported consuming energy drinks, a greater number of New Zealanders exceeded a potentially adverse effect level (AEL) of 3 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for caffeine from caffeine-containing foods than from energy drinks. Energy drink consumption is not a risk at a population level because of the low prevalence of consumption. At an individual level, however, teenagers, adults (20-64 years) and females (16-44 years) were more likely to exceed the AEL by consuming energy drinks in combination with caffeine-containing foods.

  9. TOMS Absorbing Aerosol Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Washington University St Louis — TOMS_AI_G is an aerosol related dataset derived from the Total Ozone Monitoring Satellite (TOMS) Sensor. The TOMS aerosol index arises from absorbing aerosols such...

  10. ImSET: Impact of Sector Energy Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roop, Joseph M.; Scott, Michael J.; Schultz, Robert W.

    2005-07-19

    This version of the Impact of Sector Energy Technologies (ImSET) model represents the ''next generation'' of the previously developed Visual Basic model (ImBUILD 2.0) that was developed in 2003 to estimate the macroeconomic impacts of energy-efficient technology in buildings. More specifically, a special-purpose version of the 1997 benchmark national Input-Output (I-O) model was designed specifically to estimate the national employment and income effects of the deployment of Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) -developed energy-saving technologies. In comparison with the previous versions of the model, this version allows for more complete and automated analysis of the essential features of energy efficiency investments in buildings, industry, transportation, and the electric power sectors. This version also incorporates improvements in the treatment of operations and maintenance costs, and improves the treatment of financing of investment options. ImSET is also easier to use than extant macroeconomic simulation models and incorporates information developed by each of the EERE offices as part of the requirements of the Government Performance and Results Act.

  11. 77 FR 44267 - Notice of Availability of the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Solar Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ...] Notice of Availability of the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Solar Energy... Environmental Impact Statement for Solar Energy Development in Six Southwestern States (Final Programmatic EIS... RMP Amendments, references, and additional information regarding solar energy development are...

  12. 75 FR 78980 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Solar Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ...] Notice of Availability of the Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Solar Energy... Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for Solar Energy Development in Six Southwestern... preferred method of commenting. Mail: Addressed to: Solar Energy Draft Programmatic EIS, Argonne National...

  13. Comparison of absorbed-dose-to-water units for Co-60 and high-energy x-rays between PTB and LNE-LNHB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaunay, F.; Gouriou, J.; Le Roy, M.; Ostrowsky, A.; Sommier, L.; Vermesse, D.; Kapsch, R.P.; Illemann, J.; Krauss, A.

    2012-01-01

    During the Euramet project JRP7 'External Beam Cancer Therapy', PTB and LNE-LNHB used primary standards to determine the absorbed dose to water under IMRT conditions (in small fields). PTB used a water calorimeter to determine the absorbed-dose-to-water references in 6 MV and 10 MV beams for field sizes of 10 cm * 10 cm and 3 cm * 3 cm while LNE-LNHB used graphite calorimeters in 6MV and 12MV beams for field sizes of 10 cm * 10 cm, 4 cm * 4 cm and 2 cm * 2 cm. The purpose of this study is to compare PTB and LNE-LNHB new absorbed-dose-to-water references. LNE-LNHB sent an Exradin A1SL ionization chamber traceable to its primary standard to the PTB for calibration in 60 Co and in linac beams and PTB sent a PTW 31010 ionization chamber traceable to its primary standard to LNE-LNHB for calibration in 60 Co and in linac beams. Calculated Sw,air will be used as beam quality specifier for the ionization chamber comparison at different field sizes. The standard uncertainties (k = 1) of PTB and LNE-LNHB calibration coefficients lie respectively between 0.25% ( 60 Co) and 0.40% (linac) and between 0.29% and 0.46%. PTB and LNE-LNHB absorbed-dose-to-water references developed for this project, based respectively on water calorimetry and on graphite calorimetry, agree within 1.5 standard deviations for field size of 10 cm * 10 cm down to 2 cm * 2 cm and for beams of 6 MV to 10 MV. (authors)

  14. On the definition of absorbed dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grusell, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The quantity absorbed dose is used extensively in all areas concerning the interaction of ionizing radiation with biological organisms, as well as with matter in general. The most recent and authoritative definition of absorbed dose is given by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) in ICRU Report 85. However, that definition is incomplete. The purpose of the present work is to give a rigorous definition of absorbed dose. Methods: Absorbed dose is defined in terms of the random variable specific energy imparted. A random variable is a mathematical function, and it cannot be defined without specifying its domain of definition which is a probability space. This is not done in report 85 by the ICRU, mentioned above. Results: In the present work a definition of a suitable probability space is given, so that a rigorous definition of absorbed dose is possible. This necessarily includes the specification of the experiment which the probability space describes. In this case this is an irradiation, which is specified by the initial particles released and by the material objects which can interact with the radiation. Some consequences are discussed. Specific energy imparted is defined for a volume, and the definition of absorbed dose as a point function involves the specific energy imparted for a small mass contained in a volume surrounding the point. A possible more precise definition of this volume is suggested and discussed. Conclusions: The importance of absorbed dose motivates a proper definition, and one is given in the present work. No rigorous definition has been presented before. - Highlights: • A stringent definition of absorbed dose is given. • This requires the definition of an irradiation and a suitable probability space. • A stringent definition is important for an understanding of the concept absorbed dose

  15. Scalable, "Dip-and-Dry" Fabrication of a Wide-Angle Plasmonic Selective Absorber for High-Efficiency Solar-Thermal Energy Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Jyotirmoy; Wang, Derek; Overvig, Adam C; Shi, Norman N; Paley, Daniel; Zangiabadi, Amirali; Cheng, Qian; Barmak, Katayun; Yu, Nanfang; Yang, Yuan

    2017-11-01

    A galvanic-displacement-reaction-based, room-temperature "dip-and-dry" technique is demonstrated for fabricating selectively solar-absorbing plasmonic-nanoparticle-coated foils (PNFs). The technique, which allows for facile tuning of the PNFs' spectral reflectance to suit different radiative and thermal environments, yields PNFs which exhibit excellent, wide-angle solar absorptance (0.96 at 15°, to 0.97 at 35°, to 0.79 at 80°), and low hemispherical thermal emittance (0.10) without the aid of antireflection coatings. The thermal emittance is on par with those of notable selective solar absorbers (SSAs) in the literature, while the wide-angle solar absorptance surpasses those of previously reported SSAs with comparable optical selectivities. In addition, the PNFs show promising mechanical and thermal stabilities at temperatures of up to 200 °C. Along with the performance of the PNFs, the simplicity, inexpensiveness, and environmental friendliness of the "dip-and-dry" technique makes it an appealing alternative to current methods for fabricating selective solar absorbers. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Hydrodynamics of triangular-grid arrays of floating point-absorber wave energy converters with inter-body and bottom slack-mooring connections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicente, Pedro C.; Falcao, Antonio F. de O.; Gato, Luiz M.C. [IDMEC, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Justino, Paulo A.P. [Laboratorio Nacional de Energia e Geologia, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2009-07-01

    It may be convenient that dense arrays of floating point absorbers are spread-moored to the sea bottom through only some of their elements (possibly located in the periphery), while the other array elements are prevented from drifting and colliding with each other by connections to adjacent elements. An array of identical floating point absorbers located at the grid points of an equilateral triangular grid is considered in the paper. A spread set of slack-mooring lines connect the peripheric floaters to the bottom. A weight is located at the centre of each triangle whose function is o pull the three floaters towards each other and keep the inter-body moorings lines under tension. The whole system - buoys, moorings and power take-off systems - is assumed linear, so that a frequency domain analysis may be employed. Hydrodynamic interference between the oscillating bodies is neglected. Equations are presented for a set of three identical point absorbers. This is then extended to more complex equilateral iriangular grid arrays. Results from numerical simulations, with regular and irregular waves, are presented for the motions and power absorption of hemispherical converters in arrays of three and seven elements and different mooring and power take-off parameters, and wave incidence angles. Comparisons are given with the unmoored and independently-moored buoy situations.

  17. Economic and Environmental Impact of Energy Saving in Healthcare Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justo García-Sanz-Calcedo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to estimate the economic and environmental impacts of energy consumption derived from healthcare buildings and proposes several energy-saving options in the sector. An experimental energy consumption study was development between 2005 and 2013 in 12 hospitals and 70 healthcare centres in Spain, built between 1980 and 2005 through audits carried out between 2005 and 2012, performed by the Extremadura Energy Agency. The study focused on electric energy, HVAC, DWH, lighting systems, renewable energies, maintenance strategy, thermal insulation, and optimal building size. Specifically, the following parameters were evaluated: energy savings, investment emission of CO2, NO2, and SO2 gases, and payback. The results revealed that through an appropriate energy management of healthcare buildings it is possible to save up to 8.60 kWh/m2 per year, for buildings of less than 5000 m2 (with no beds, which represents an expense of 1.55 €/m2. In healthcare buildings larger than 5000 m2 (with beds, it was possible to save up to 6.88 kWh/m2 per year, which represents an expense of 1.25 €/m2.

  18. The climate impact of future energy peat production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagberg, Linus; Holmgren, Kristina

    2008-09-15

    The aim of this study was to estimate total greenhouse gas emissions and climate impact of different peat utilisation scenarios, using a life cycle perspective. This and previous studies show that the climate impact from energy peat utilisation is more complex than just considering the emissions at the combustion stage. There are important emissions and uptake of greenhouse gases that occur on the peatland before, during and after peat harvest. The results show that the climate impact of future peat utilisation can be significantly reduced compared to current utilisation and will be lower than the climate impact resulting from only the combustion phase. This can be achieved by choosing already drained peatlands with high greenhouse gas emissions, using a more efficient production method and by securing a low-emission after-treatment of the cutaway (e.g. afforestation)

  19. The potential impact of hydrogen energy use on the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ruijven, B. J.; Lamarque, J. F.; van Vuuren, D. P.; Kram, T.; Eerens, H.

    2009-04-01

    Energy models show very different trajectories for future energy systems (partly as function of future climate policy). One possible option is a transition towards a hydrogen-based energy system. The potential impact of such hydrogen economy on atmospheric emissions is highly uncertain. On the one hand, application of hydrogen in clean fuel cells reduces emissions of local air pollutants, like SOx and NOx. On the other hand, emissions of hydrogen from system leakages are expected to change the atmospheric concentrations and behaviour (see also Price et al., 2007; Sanderson et al., 2003; Schultz et al., 2003; Tromp et al., 2003). The uncertainty arises from several sources: the expected use of hydrogen, the intensity of leakages and emissions, and the atmospheric chemical behaviour of hydrogen. Existing studies to the potential impacts of a hydrogen economy on the atmosphere mostly use hydrogen emission scenarios that are based on simple assumptions. This research combines two different modelling efforts to explore the range of impacts of hydrogen on atmospheric chemistry. First, the potential role of hydrogen in the global energy system and the related emissions of hydrogen and other air pollutants are derived from the global energy system simulation model TIMER (van Vuuren, 2007). A set of dedicated scenarios on hydrogen technology development explores the most pessimistic and optimistic cases for hydrogen deployment (van Ruijven et al., 2008; van Ruijven et al., 2007). These scenarios are combined with different assumptions on hydrogen emission factors. Second, the emissions from the TIMER model are linked to the NCAR atmospheric model (Lamarque et al., 2005; Lamarque et al., 2008), in order to determine the impacts on atmospheric chemistry. By combining an energy system model and an atmospheric model, we are able to consistently explore the boundaries of both hydrogen use, emissions and impacts on atmospheric chemistry. References: Lamarque, J.-F., Kiehl, J. T

  20. Critical impact energy for the perforation of metallic plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, S.Y.; Li, Q.M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the empirical formulae used in engineering practice to predict the critical perforation energy of metallic plates struck by rigid projectiles in the sub-ordnance regime. Main factors affecting the critical perforation energy are identified and valid conditions for each empirical formula are compared. Dimensional analysis is conducted to show the dependence of the non-dimensional critical impact energy on other influential non-dimensional numbers. Available empirical formulae are re-expressed in non-dimensional forms. A modified Jowett/AEA equation is proposed to predict the critical perforation energy of a flat-ended short projectile. The present work increases the confidence of using these empirical formulae and can be regarded as a quick guide for ballistic protection design of metallic shields and steel armour plates

  1. Actual behaviour of a ball vibration absorber

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pirner, Miroš

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 8 (2002), s. 987-1005 ISSN 0167-6105 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GV103/96/K034 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : TV towers * wind-excited vibrations * vibration absorbers * pendulum absorber Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering Impact factor: 0.513, year: 2002 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167610502002155#

  2. Environmental impact assessments of wind energy projects: An Alberta example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.K.

    1993-01-01

    A description is presented of the environmental impact assessment for an Alberta windfarm, summarizing the rationale, process and results of the assessment, costs involved, and recommendations made. The Pe-kun-nee windfarm was designed as a 44 turbine, 9.9 kW windfarm. The assessment included consideration of the complete range of environmental impacts of the windfarm, including reviews of impacts associated with similar developments elsewhere. From an environmental perspective, the proposed site and transmission line route were exceedingly suitable for development. No major potential impacts were identified. Most impacts that could occur, including terrain and vegetation disturbance, were associated with the construction phase of the project. A series of mitigation measures were developed to minimize each identified impact. Monitoring during the operations phase of the development was recommended to: ensure that the revegetation of disturbed areas was adequate; verify the sound level model; and document the incidence of bird strikes. Potential aesthetic impacts were addressed through a proposed interpretive project designed to educate visitors, enhance the profile of the wind-energy industry, and provide local employment. The assessment was completed within 8 months of initiation at a cost less than $200,000

  3. Potential impacts of nanotechnology on energy transmission applications and needs.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-11-30

    The application of nanotechnologies to energy transmission has the potential to significantly impact both the deployed transmission technologies and the need for additional development. This could be a factor in assessing environmental impacts of right-of-way (ROW) development and use. For example, some nanotechnology applications may produce materials (e.g., cables) that are much stronger per unit volume than existing materials, enabling reduced footprints for construction and maintenance of electricity transmission lines. Other applications, such as more efficient lighting, lighter-weight materials for vehicle construction, and smaller batteries having greater storage capacities may reduce the need for long-distance transport of energy, and possibly reduce the need for extensive future ROW development and many attendant environmental impacts. This report introduces the field of nanotechnology, describes some of the ways in which processes and products developed with or incorporating nanomaterials differ from traditional processes and products, and identifies some examples of how nanotechnology may be used to reduce potential ROW impacts. Potential environmental, safety, and health impacts are also discussed.

  4. Climate change impacts on chosen activities from the energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonte Hernandez, Aramis; Rivero Vega, Roger

    2006-01-01

    The present work, results of a study carried out about the possible impact of climate change on the energy sector in the province Camaguey are shown. First of all, the main activities in companies, utilities, and farms related to the most significant energy consumption were chosen in order to model corresponding equivalent fuel consumption. Impacts were determined taking into account differences between present and future consumptions for each kind of energy. In developed countries, this kind of work is done using well-known empirical-statistical models, which usually require a lot of data at a nation-wide scale, but to attempt it in an undeveloped country demands the use of specific methodology, which in this case was non-existent and required us to create it. This resulted in a carefully posed question since we had to take into consideration that the spatial scale is only that of a province, and so it was necessary, above all, to study specific characteristics of provincial fuel consumption. We used the Magic-Scengen system and SRES scenarios, and outputs of general circulation models like HadCM2 to obtain values of chosen climatic variables for use in energy consumption regression models, previously developed for each kind of activity in the corresponding companies, firm, and facilities included in the present research. It made possible to estimate energy consumption in each activity at the selected time periods centered at 2020, 2050, and 2080. The study shows that impact could rise the consumption by 2,5% of the present energy level in this territory

  5. Phipps Bend Nuclear Energy Project. Community impact assessment. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snapp, P.C.; Teilhet, A.; Newsom, R.; Bond, M.; Garland, M.

    1977-01-01

    In late 1977, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) proposed to build a 2 unit nuclear plant at Phipps Bend on the Holston River east of Surgoinsville, Tennessee. Total estimated cost is 1.6 billion dollars, with a generating capacity of 2,600,000 kilowatts. The facility will have an impact on Hawkins, Greene and Sullivan counties with 2,500 construction employees, a permanent work force of 300, increased availability of energy to stimulate new capital investment and the local government will need to deal with these. This report analyzed the facilities of each community in the impacted area and recommended certain action for infrastructure acquisition or improvements

  6. Estimating the energy consumption impact of casual carpooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minett, P. [Trip Convergence Ltd, Epsom, Auckland (New Zealand); Pearce, J. [Trip Convergence Ltd, Remuera, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2011-07-01

    Some of the transportation energy consumed during peak commuter periods is wasted through slow running in congested traffic. Strategies to increase average vehicle occupancy (and reduce vehicle counts and congestion) could be expected to be at the forefront of energy conservation policies. Casual carpooling (also called 'slugging') is a system of carpooling without trip-by-trip pre-arrangement. It operates in three US cities, and has been suggested in New Zealand as a strategy for managing transportation challenges when oil prices rise. The objective of the paper is to find out if casual carpooling reduces energy consumption, and if so, how much. Energy consumption by single occupant vehicles; casual carpool vehicles; and a mix of buses and single occupant vehicles; are estimated and compared, and the impact on the rest of the traffic is calculated. The paper estimates that casual carpooling in San Francisco is conserving in the order of 1.7 to 3.5 million liters of gasoline per year, or 200-400 liters for each participant, much of which comes from the impact on the rest of the traffic. The paper concludes by calling for applied research to discover how to catalyze casual carpooling in other cities as a means of reducing transportation energy consumption. (authors)

  7. Estimating the Energy Consumption Impact of Casual Carpooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Minett

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Some of the transportation energy consumed during peak commuter periods is wasted through slow running in congested traffic. Strategies to increase average vehicle occupancy (and reduce vehicle counts and congestion could be expected to be at the forefront of energy conservation policies. Casual carpooling (also called “slugging” is a system of carpooling without trip-by-trip pre-arrangement. It operates in three US cities, and has been suggested in New Zealand as a strategy for managing transportation challenges when oil prices rise. The objective of the paper is to find out if casual carpooling reduces energy consumption, and if so, how much. Energy consumption by single occupant vehicles; casual carpool vehicles; and a mix of buses and single occupant vehicles; are estimated and compared, and the impact on the rest of the traffic is calculated. The paper estimates that casual carpooling in San Francisco is conserving in the order of 1.7 to 3.5 million liters of gasoline per year, or 200-400 liters for each participant, much of which comes from the impact on the rest of the traffic. The paper concludes by calling for applied research to discover how to catalyze casual carpooling in other cities as a means of reducing transportation energy consumption.

  8. Phase Space Exchange in Thick Wedge Absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuffer, David [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The problem of phase space exchange in wedge absorbers with ionization cooling is discussed. The wedge absorber exchanges transverse and longitudinal phase space by introducing a position-dependent energy loss. In this paper we note that the wedges used with ionization cooling are relatively thick, so that single wedges cause relatively large changes in beam phase space. Calculation methods adapted to such “thick wedge” cases are presented, and beam phase-space transformations through such wedges are discussed.

  9. A Wedge Absorber Experiment at MICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuffer, David [Fermilab; Mohayai, Tanaz [IIT, Chicago; Rogers, Chris [Rutherford; Snopok, Pavel [IIT, Chicago; Summers, Don [Mississippi U.

    2017-05-01

    Emittance exchange mediated by wedge absorbers is required for longitudinal ionization cooling and for final transverse emittance minimization for a muon collider. A wedge absorber within the MICE beam line could serve as a demonstration of the type of emittance exchange needed for 6-D cooling, including the configurations needed for muon colliders, as well as configurations for low-energy muon sources. Parameters for this test are explored in simulation and possible experimental configurations with simulated results are presented.

  10. Food processing and structure impact the metabolizable energy of almonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, Sarah K; Novotny, Janet A; Bornhorst, Gail M; Baer, David J

    2016-10-12

    The measured metabolizable energy (ME) of whole almonds has been shown to be less than predicted by Atwater factors. However, data are lacking on the effects of processing (roasting, chopping or grinding) on the ME of almonds. A 5-period randomized, crossover study in healthy individuals (n = 18) was conducted to measure the ME of different forms of almonds (42 g per day), as part of a controlled diet: whole, natural almonds; whole, roasted almonds; chopped almonds; almond butter; and control (0 g per day). After 9 days of adaptation to each diet, participants collected all urine and fecal samples for 9 days. Diets, urine, and feces were analyzed to determine ME. Fracture force and fracture properties of whole and chopped almonds were measured. Measured ME (kcal g -1 ) of whole natural almonds (4.42), whole roasted almonds (4.86), and chopped almonds (5.04) was significantly lower than predicted with Atwater factors (P almond butter (6.53 kcal g -1 ) was similar to predicted (P = 0.08). The ME of whole roasted and chopped almonds was lower than almond butter (P almonds was lower than whole roasted almonds (P almonds (345 ± 1.6 N) (P almonds fracturing into fewer, larger particles, thus inhibiting the release of lipids. Atwater factors overestimate the ME of whole (natural and roasted) and chopped almonds. The amount of calories absorbed from almonds is dependent on the form in which they are consumed.

  11. The impact of energy audits on energy efficiency investment of public owners. Evidence from Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbetta, Gian Paolo; Canino, Paolo; Cima, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Buildings are a promising area of energy savings, but a difference exists between actual and optimal investment in this field. The so called ‘information gap’ about the costs and benefits of energy-saving activities could explain the difference. Audit programs have been undertaken to overcome the ‘information gap’ but, surprisingly, most papers analyzing the impact of audits on the adoption of energy-saving measures use faulty methods that could provide biased results. In this paper we fill this gap of the energy literature. First, we introduce robust counterfactual methods to analyze the impact of energy-saving policies; second, we apply these methods to investigate the impact of the free-funding of audits on the energy-saving investments of local public administrations, a neglected area of investigation. As opposite to most of the literature, we cannot identify any statistically significant effect of the audits either on the number of energy-saving interventions or on the resources devoted to these activities by local public administrations. We believe that, in the field of public non-residential buildings, information is not sufficient to fostering public investments aimed at increasing energy efficiency. As a policy consequence, public resources should consider different tools, including those aimed at reducing the cost of investments. - Highlights: • Authors examining energy audits find positive effects, but use faulty methods. • We examine audits using un-biased methods of counterfactual analysis. • We use a unique set of data of audits in public non-residential facilities. • We cannot identify any effect of audits on energy-saving activities and investments. • In the field of public buildings, information is not enough to raising investments.

  12. Impact of energy efficiency gains on output and energy use with Cobb-Douglas production function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Taoyuan

    2007-01-01

    A special issue of Energy Policy-28 (2000)-was devoted to a collection of papers, edited by Dr. Lee Schipper. The collection included a paper entitled 'A view from the macro side: rebound, backfire, and Khazzoom-Brookes' in which it was argued that the impact of fuel efficiency gains on output (roughly, GDP) is likely to be relatively small by Cobb-Douglas production function. However, an error in the analysis leads to under-estimation of the long-term impact. This paper first provides a partial equilibrium analysis by an alternative method for the same case and then proceeds to an analysis on the issue in a two-sector general equilibrium system. In the latter analysis, energy price is internalized. Both energy use efficiency and energy production efficiency are involved

  13. China's conception of energy security : sources and international impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantin, C.

    2005-01-01

    The unique challenges and opportunities associated with China's rapid economic growth were discussed with reference to the potential risk of political disruption or destabilizing international markets. The author notes that two common mistakes are typically made when assessing the evolution of China's energy policy. The first is that China's future path is assimilated with that of developed countries, thereby dismissing evidence that might point toward a different relationship with energy. Second, analysts tend to focus on the external expression of China's energy needs, its oil imports, while overlooking other energy-related issues such as insufficient electricity supplies or environmental degradation. The author argues that Chinese leadership is redefining its understanding of what constitutes energy security for the country. This report assesses the international impacts of such a redefinition along with the international aspects of a business-as-usual scenario in which China pursues its traditional model of energy security. It was emphasized that two different views of energy security lead to different sets of challenges and opportunities for western governments and businesses. 101 refs., 2 figs

  14. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigeland, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    The proposed Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) Program, which is part of the President's Advanced Energy Initiative, is intended to support a safe, secure, and sustainable expansion of nuclear energy, both domestically and internationally. Domestically, the GNEP Program would promote technologies that support economic, sustained production of nuclear-generated electricity, while reducing the impacts associated with spent nuclear fuel disposal and reducing proliferation risks. The Department of Energy (DOE) proposed action envisions changing the United States nuclear energy fuel cycle from an open (or once-through) fuel cycle - in which nuclear fuel is used in a power plant one time and the resulting spent nuclear fuel is stored for eventual disposal in a geologic repository - to a closed fuel cycle in which spent nuclear fuel would be recycled to recover energy-bearing components for use in new nuclear fuel. At this time, DOE has no specific proposed actions for the international component of the GNEP Program. Rather, the United States, through the GNEP Program, is considering various initiatives to work cooperatively with other nations. Such initiatives include the development of grid-appropriate reactors and the development of reliable fuel services (to provide an assured supply of fresh nuclear fuel and assist with the management of the used fuel) for nations who agree to employ nuclear energy only for peaceful purposes, such as electricity generation.

  15. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.A. Wigeland

    2008-10-01

    Abstract: The proposed Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) Program, which is part of the President’s Advanced Energy Initiative, is intended to support a safe, secure, and sustainable expansion of nuclear energy, both domestically and internationally. Domestically, the GNEP Program would promote technologies that support economic, sustained production of nuclear-generated electricity, while reducing the impacts associated with spent nuclear fuel disposal and reducing proliferation risks. The Department of Energy (DOE) proposed action envisions changing the United States nuclear energy fuel cycle from an open (or once-through) fuel cycle—in which nuclear fuel is used in a power plant one time and the resulting spent nuclear fuel is stored for eventual disposal in a geologic repository—to a closed fuel cycle in which spent nuclear fuel would be recycled to recover energy-bearing components for use in new nuclear fuel. At this time, DOE has no specific proposed actions for the international component of the GNEP Program. Rather, the United States, through the GNEP Program, is considering various initiatives to work cooperatively with other nations. Such initiatives include the development of grid-appropriate reactors and the development of reliable fuel services (to provide an assured supply of fresh nuclear fuel and assist with the management of the used fuel) for nations who agree to employ nuclear energy only for peaceful purposes, such as electricity generation.

  16. Economic effect of fusion in energy market. Economic impact of fusion deployment in energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Satoshi

    2002-01-01

    Energy model analysis estimates the significant contribution of fusion in the latter half of the century under the global environment constraints if it will be successfully developed and introduced into the market. The total possible economical impact of fusion is investigated from the aspect of energy cost savings, sales, and its effects on Gross Domestic Products. Considerable economical possibility will be found in the markets for fusion related devices, of currently developing countries, and for synthesized fuel. The value of fusion development could be evaluated from these possible economic impact in comparison with its necessary investment. (author)

  17. The health cost of energy. The health impacts of the different energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masse, Roland

    2017-01-01

    This publication proposes an assessment of impacts of the different energy sources on public health. After a discussion of general aspects regarding this issue, the author addresses the identification and assessment of risks. While referring to different statistical data, he discusses the impacts of accidents in terms of dead, injured or evacuated people. He also addresses health impacts during a normal operation of power plants, i.e. in the case of nuclear plants (issue of exposure to various levels of radiation at the different steps of fuel cycle), of carbon-based plants (health risks and impacts during coal extraction, due to CO 2 emissions and to other toxic emissions, due to atmospheric pollution, identified risks, modelling attempts, assessment of a loss in life expectancy), and of other energies. While acknowledging that there are still many unknowns to assess these health impacts, the author compares these assessments. A summarized version of this article is proposed, in which the author briefly comments data regarding severe accidents related to energy production, discusses health consequences of electric power production and use, and makes a distinction between the most and less hazardous energies as far as public health is concerned

  18. Multi-Absorber Transition-Edge Sensors for X-Ray Astronomy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. J.; Adams, J. S.; Bandler, S. R.; Busch, S. E.; Chervenak, J. A.; Eckart, M. E.; Ewin, A. J.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Kelley, R. L.; Kelly, D. P.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We are developing multi-absorber Transition-Edge Sensors (TESs) for applications in x-ray astronomy. These position-sensitive devices consist of multiple x-ray absorbers each with a different thermal coupling to a single readout TES. Heat diffusion between the absorbers and the TES gives rise to a characteristic pulse shape corresponding to each absorber element and enables position discrimination. The development of these detectors is motivated by a desire to maximize focal plane arrays with the fewest number of readout channels. In this contribution we report on the first results from devices consisting of nine) 65 X 65 sq. microns Au x-ray absorbers) 5 microns thick. These are coupled to a single 35 X 35 sq. microns Mo/Au bilayer TES. These devices have demonstrated full-width-half-maximum (FWHM) energy resolution of 2.1 eV at 1.5 keV) 2.5 eV at 5.9 keV and 3.3 eV at 8 keV. This is coupled with position discrimination from pulse shape over the same energy range. We use a finite-element model to reproduce the measured pulse shapes and investigate the detector non-linearity with energy) which impacts on the devices position sensitivity and energy resolution.

  19. The prospective environmental impacts of Iran nuclear energy expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beheshti, Hamed, E-mail: Beheshti@zedat.fu-berlin.de [Renewable Energy Policy Planning, Freie Universitaet Berlin BC CARE, Berlin Center for Caspian Region Energy and Environment Studies, Ihnestrasse 22, 14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Nuclear energy has direct impacts on the environment. Uranium mining, milling, and enrichment affect the livelihoods around and stress on the water resources. In addition, nuclear power plants consume huge amount of water and elevate the water temperature of the ambient water resources. The Iranian nuclear program has pledged for 20,000 MW of nuclear energy by 2025. The fulfillment of such ambitious target stresses the environment and increases the environmental degradation cost of the country. Iran central semi-arid area and the Persian Gulf are the major regions with high risk of impacts from the current nuclear program. - Highlights: > Fragile ecosystem of the Persian Gulf would not tolerate the ambitious nuclear programs of its coastal countries. > Water resources in Iran inland area are depleting fast due to the unsustainable development on the past. > Iranian nuclear program is going to put an additional serious stress on the water resources of the country.

  20. The prospective environmental impacts of Iran nuclear energy expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beheshti, Hamed

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear energy has direct impacts on the environment. Uranium mining, milling, and enrichment affect the livelihoods around and stress on the water resources. In addition, nuclear power plants consume huge amount of water and elevate the water temperature of the ambient water resources. The Iranian nuclear program has pledged for 20,000 MW of nuclear energy by 2025. The fulfillment of such ambitious target stresses the environment and increases the environmental degradation cost of the country. Iran central semi-arid area and the Persian Gulf are the major regions with high risk of impacts from the current nuclear program. - Highlights: → Fragile ecosystem of the Persian Gulf would not tolerate the ambitious nuclear programs of its coastal countries. → Water resources in Iran inland area are depleting fast due to the unsustainable development on the past. → Iranian nuclear program is going to put an additional serious stress on the water resources of the country.

  1. Impact of exercise on energy metabolism in anorexia nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Zipfel, Stephan; Mack, Isabelle; Baur, Louise A; Hebebrand, Johannes; Touyz, Stephen; Herzog, Wolfgang; Abraham, Suzanne; Davies, Peter SW; Russell, Janice

    2013-01-01

    Background Excessive physical activity is one of the most paradoxical features of anorexia nervosa (AN). However, there is individual variation in the degree of physical activity found in AN-patients. As a result, marked differences in energy expenditure may be expected. Furthermore, exercise has a positive impact on a variety of psychological disorders and the psychopathology may be different in AN displaying high exercise levels versus AN displaying low exercise levels. We analyzed the ener...

  2. Energy Drinks and the Neurophysiological Impact of Caffeine

    OpenAIRE

    Persad, Leeana Aarthi Bagwath

    2011-01-01

    Caffeine is the most widely used psychoactive stimulant with prevalent use across all age groups. It is a naturally occurring substance found in the coffee bean, tea leaf, the kola nut, cocoa bean. Recently there has been an increase in energy drink consumption leading to caffeine abuse, with aggressive marketing and poor awareness on the consequences of high caffeine use. With caffeine consumption being so common, it is vital to know the impact caffeine has on the body, as its effects can in...

  3. Energy drinks and the neurophysiological impacts of caffeine

    OpenAIRE

    Leeana eBagwath Persad

    2011-01-01

    Caffeine is the most widely used psychoactive stimulant with prevalent use across all age groups. It is a naturally occurring substance found in the coffee bean, tea leaf, the kola nut, cocoa bean. Recently there has been an increase in energy drink consumption leading to caffeine abuse, with aggressive marketing and poor awareness on the consequences of high caffeine use. With caffeine consumption being so common, it is vital to know the impact caffeine has on the body, as its effects can in...

  4. Environmental impacts of energy gases. A factual handbook. Third edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-11-01

    This handbook gives a thorough review of gas fuels, their properties, production, environmental impacts, uses as well as comparisons with other fuels (Biofuels, Petroleum, Coal, Peat). Legislation and rules for Sweden and the European Union are also treated. The book is made up of the following chapters: Introduction, Pollutants, Facts on liquid and solid fuels, Facts on gas fuels, Environmental impacts, Regulations, Air quality, Emission limits, Licensing and permits, Economic incentives, Pollution control technology, Appliances, boilers, engines and power plants, Environmental impacts of the full fuel cycle (LCA), Case studies: heating plants, cogeneration, power plants, power production systems, heavy vehicles, Environmental advantages from introduction of gas fuels, R and D needs, Energy and environmental statistics

  5. The economic, energy, and environmental impacts of the Energy-Related Inventions Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.A.; Wilson, C.R.; Franchuk, C.A.; Cohn, S.M.; Jones, D.

    1994-07-01

    This report provides information on the economic, energy, and environmental impacts of inventions supported by the Energy-Related Inventions Program (ERIP) -- a program jointly operated by the US Department of Energy and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). It describes the results of the latest in a series of ERIP evaluation projects that have been completed since 1980. The period of interest is 1980 through 1992. The evaluation is based on data collected in 1993 through mail and telephone surveys of 253 program participants, and historical data collected during previous evaluations for an additional 189 participants

  6. The economic, energy, and environmental impacts of the Energy-Related Inventions Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Wilson, C.R.; Franchuk, C.A.; Cohn, S.M.; Jones, D.

    1994-07-01

    This report provides information on the economic, energy, and environmental impacts of inventions supported by the Energy-Related Inventions Program (ERIP) -- a program jointly operated by the US Department of Energy and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). It describes the results of the latest in a series of ERIP evaluation projects that have been completed since 1980. The period of interest is 1980 through 1992. The evaluation is based on data collected in 1993 through mail and telephone surveys of 253 program participants, and historical data collected during previous evaluations for an additional 189 participants.

  7. World Energy Scenarios 2050: Impact of the Energy Governance Models to the Future of the European Energy Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisel, E.

    2014-01-01

    World Energy Council has explored the impact of two extreme governance models of energy sector to the global economic and climate developments. Scenario 'Jazz' describes the world, where investments in the energy markets are made by the companies on the purely economic basis. Scenario 'Symphony' describes the world, where decisions about the energy investments are made by the governments. It appears that in case of Scenario 'Jazz' we would reach lower energy prices, but it would also bring along higher and wider consumption of energy, and much higher environmental impact. In case of Scenario 'Symphony' energy prices would be somewhat higher, but environmental and energy efficiency would deliver better results, and there will be more energy-poor people around the world. It can also be observed, that resulting energy mixes of these two scenarios are very different. When Scenario 'Jazz' would leave the share of fossil fuels nearly to the current levels, then Scenario 'Symphony' supports strongly development of Solar and Carbon Capture, Utilisation and Sequestration Technologies. The modelling was also made separately for different regions of the world, the results for Europe can be observed from the report as well. This provides a fruit for thought about the role of the governments in the implementation of the EU 2030 Energy and Climate Strategy. The presentation would describe shortly the methodology of the study, clarifies the assumptions of the scenarios and highlights the main outcomes of the study in for the world and for European energy sector. (author).

  8. Market-oriented Energy Revolution in China and Impacts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhen; Xue Qing

    2015-01-01

    China has been undergoing a new round ofambitious reform in its energy sectors after presidentXi's call for“energy revolution”in June 2014. Thistop-down strategy paves a way to market-oriented transition for Chinese energy govern system on both industrial level and corporation level. This paper analyzes the newtrends of China's energy policy and its impacts on crude oil market as well as on Chinese state-owned petroleum enterprises. Thisrevolutionwill reshapethe managementsystemof Chinese energyindustryto cope with rising energy demand, supply restraints, huge environmental costs and backward technologies.With the deepening reform of oil and gas pricing mechanism and the opening-up of petroleum industry, Chinese domestic energy market will be upgraded towards a more rationalized and competitive system. Mixed ownerships will be introduced to stimulate the vitality, creativity and brandinfluence of state-owned petroleum corporations, pushing Chinese national oil majors to collaboratejointly withvarious foreign oil and gas companies and the emerging domestic private companies with great entrepreneurship.

  9. Neutron absorbing article

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naum, R.G.; Owens, D.P.; Dooher, G.I.

    1979-01-01

    A neutron absorbing article, in flat plate form and suitable for use in a storage rack for spent fuel, includes boron carbide particles, diluent particles and a solid, irreversibly cured phenolic polymer cured to a continuous matrix binding the boron carbide and diluent particles. The total conent of boron carbide and diluent particles is a major proportion of the article and the content of cured phenolic polymer present is a minor proportion. By regulation of the ratio of boron carbide particles to diluent particles, normally within the range of 1:9 and 9:1 and preferably within the range of 1:5 to 5:1, the neutron absorbing activity of the product may be controlled, which facilitates the manufacture of articles of particular absorbing activities best suitable for specific applications

  10. Burnable neutron absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radford, K.C.; Carlson, W.G.

    1983-01-01

    A neutron-absorber body for use in burnable poison rods in a nuclear reactor. The body is composed of a matrix of Al 2 O 3 containing B 4 C, the neutron absorber. Areas of high density polycrystalline Al 2 O 3 particles are predominantly encircled by pores in some of which there are B 4 C particles. This body is produced by initially spray drying a slurry of A1 2 O 3 powder to which a binder has been added. The powder of agglomerated spheres of the A1 2 O 3 with the binder are dry mixed with B 4 C powder. The mixed powder is formed into a green body by isostatic pressure and the green body is sintered. The sintered body is processed to form the neutron-absorber body. In this case the B 4 C particles are separate from the spheres resulting from the spray drying instead of being embedded in the sphere

  11. Impacts of US federal energy efficiency standards for residential appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, S.; McMahon, J.E.; McNeil, M.; Liu, X.

    2003-01-01

    This study estimated energy, environmental, and consumer impacts of US federal residential energy efficiency standards taking effect in the 1988-2007 period. These standards have been the subject of in-depth analyses conducted as part of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) standards rulemaking process. This study drew on those analyses, but updated key data and developed a common framework and assumptions for all of the products. We estimate that the considered standards will reduce residential primary energy consumption and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions by 8-9% in 2020 compared to the levels expected without any standards. The standards will save a cumulative total of 26-32 EJ (25-30 quads) by the year 2015, and 63 EJ (60 quads) by 2030. The estimated cumulative net present value of consumer benefit amounts to nearly US$80 billion by 2015, and grows to US$130 billion by 2030. The overall benefit/cost ratio of cumulative consumer impacts in the 1987-2050 period is 2.75:1. The cumulative cost of the DOE's program to establish and implement the standards is in the range of US$200-US$250 million. (author)

  12. Impact of Financial Structure on the Cost of Solar Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendelsohn, M.; Kreycik, C.; Bird, L.; Schwabe, P.; Cory, K.

    2012-03-01

    To stimulate investment in renewable energy generation projects, the federal government developed a series of support structures that reduce taxes for eligible investors--the investment tax credit, the production tax credit, and accelerated depreciation. The nature of these tax incentives often requires an outside investor and a complex financial arrangement to allocate risk and reward among the parties. These financial arrangements are generally categorized as 'advanced financial structures.' Among renewable energy technologies, advanced financial structures were first widely deployed by the wind industry and are now being explored by the solar industry to support significant scale-up in project development. This report describes four of the most prevalent financial structures used by the renewable sector and evaluates the impact of financial structure on energy costs for utility-scale solar projects that use photovoltaic and concentrating solar power technologies.

  13. Vulnerability, impacts and adaptation : climate information needs for energy managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirza, M. [Environment Canada, Fredericton, NB (Canada). Adaptation and Impacts Research Division

    2007-07-01

    The future potential of hydropower and the vulnerability of the energy sector in Canada and North America was discussed with particular reference to climate information needs for managers regarding vulnerability, impacts and adaptation. The presentation discussed power line climate design criteria as well as a case study of the 1998 ice storm. Power output at Niagara Falls and on the St. Lawrence River were presented. Fossil fuels, electricity, renewable energy, transmission and transportation, and extreme climate and energy were discussed. Charts were provided to depict the 2001 heat wave and power demand; a summary of climate scenario requirements; the mean electricity demand and mean temperature during 1994 to 2000 in Ontario; runoff sensitivity; and accumulated freezing rain and transmission lines during the January ice storm of 1998. A chart on sources of uncertainty was also provided with reference to measurement error; variability; model structure; and scaling and aggregation. tabs., figs.

  14. Vulnerability, impacts and adaptation : climate information needs for energy managers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, M.

    2007-01-01

    The future potential of hydropower and the vulnerability of the energy sector in Canada and North America was discussed with particular reference to climate information needs for managers regarding vulnerability, impacts and adaptation. The presentation discussed power line climate design criteria as well as a case study of the 1998 ice storm. Power output at Niagara Falls and on the St. Lawrence River were presented. Fossil fuels, electricity, renewable energy, transmission and transportation, and extreme climate and energy were discussed. Charts were provided to depict the 2001 heat wave and power demand; a summary of climate scenario requirements; the mean electricity demand and mean temperature during 1994 to 2000 in Ontario; runoff sensitivity; and accumulated freezing rain and transmission lines during the January ice storm of 1998. A chart on sources of uncertainty was also provided with reference to measurement error; variability; model structure; and scaling and aggregation. tabs., figs

  15. Luminescence model with quantum impact parameter for low energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz G, H.S.; Michaelian, K.; Galindo U, S.; Martinez D, A.; Belmont M, E.

    2000-01-01

    The analytical model of induced light production in scintillator materials by energetic ions proposed by Michaelian and Menchaca (M-M) adjusts very well the luminescence substance data in a wide energy interval of the incident ions (10-100 MeV). However at low energies, that is, under to 10 MeV, the experimental deviations of the predictions of M-M model, show that the causes may be certain physical effects, all they important at low energies, which were not considered. We have modified lightly the M-M model using the basic fact that the Quantum mechanics gives to a different limit for the quantum impact parameter instead of the classic approximation. (Author)

  16. A study on the Charpy-V impact energy and impact properties of stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Gill Young

    1988-01-01

    It has been thought that by analyzing and considering the shock strength and fracture of impact load. We can accurtely determine strength and thus it will be helpful in optimum design. In this experimental study the following results were obtained by using the instrumented impact test for SUS 316 1) The total charpy impact energy is progressively decreased by increasing the shock pressure. 2) The dynamic yield strength is increased by increasing the shock pressure for all test temperatures. 3) The ratio of dynamic yield to static yield strength was found to decrease with increasing shock pressure. (Author)

  17. Problems of Technology of Energy-Saving Buildings and Their Impact on Energy Efficiency in Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwasnowski, Pawel; Fedorczak-Cisak, Malgorzata; Knap, Katarzyna

    2017-10-01

    Introduction of EPBD in legislation of the EU member states caused that buildings must meet very stringent requirements of thermal protection and energy efficiency. On the basis of EPBD provisions, EU Member States introduce standard of NZEB (Nearly Zero-Energy Buildings). Such activities cause a need for new, innovative materials and technologies, and new approaches to design, construction and retrofitting of buildings. Indispensable is the precise coordination of the design of structure and technical installations of building, which may be provided in an integrated design process in the system BIM. Good coordination and cooperation of all contractors during the construction phase is also necessary. The article presents the problems and the new methodology for the design, construction and use of energy efficient buildings in terms of energy saving technologies, including discussion of the significant impact of the automation of technical installations on the building energy efficiency.

  18. Mechanical shock absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrillon, Bernard.

    1973-01-01

    The mechanical shock absorber described is made of a constant thickness plate pierced with circular holes regularly distributed in such a manner that for all the directions along which the strain is applied during the shock, the same section of the substance forming the plate is achieved. The shock absorber is made in a metal standing up to extensive deformation before breaking, selected from a group comprising mild steels and austenitic stainless steels. This apparatus is used for handling pots of fast neutron reactor fuel elements [fr

  19. Neutron absorbing article

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naum, R.G.; Owens, D.P.; Dooker, G.I.

    1981-01-01

    A neutron-absorbing article suitable for use in spent fuel racks is described. It comprises boron carbide particles, diluent particles, and a phenolic polymer cured to a continuous matrix. The diluent may be silicon carbide, graphite, amorphous carbon, alumina, or silica. The combined boron carbide-diluent phase contains no more than 2 percent B 2 O 3 , and the neutron-absorbing article contains from 20 to 40 percent phenol resin. The ratio of boron carbide to diluent particles is in the range 1:9 to 9:1

  20. Differential cross sections for electron-impact vibrational-excitation of tetrahydrofuran at intermediate impact energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Do, T. P. T. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); School of Education, Can Tho University, Campus II, 3/2 Street, Xuan Khanh, Ninh Kieu, Can Tho City (Viet Nam); Duque, H. V. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 36036-330 Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Lopes, M. C. A. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 36036-330 Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Konovalov, D. A.; White, R. D. [College of Science, Technology and Engineering, James Cook University, Townsville (Australia); Brunger, M. J., E-mail: michael.brunger@flinders.edu.au, E-mail: darryl.jones@flinders.edu.au [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Jones, D. B., E-mail: michael.brunger@flinders.edu.au, E-mail: darryl.jones@flinders.edu.au [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia)

    2015-03-28

    We report differential cross sections (DCSs) for electron-impact vibrational-excitation of tetrahydrofuran, at intermediate incident electron energies (15-50 eV) and over the 10°-90° scattered electron angular range. These measurements extend the available DCS data for vibrational excitation for this species, which have previously been obtained at lower incident electron energies (≤20 eV). Where possible, our data are compared to the earlier measurements in the overlapping energy ranges. Here, quite good agreement was generally observed where the measurements overlapped.

  1. Environmental impacts of biomass energy resource production and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Easterly, J L; Dunn, S M [DynCorp, Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a broad overview of the environmental impacts associated with the production, conversion and utilization of biomass energy resources and compare them with the impacts of conventional fuels. The use of sustainable biomass resources can play an important role in helping developing nations meet their rapidly growing energy needs, while providing significant environmental advantages over the use of fossil fuels. Two of the most important environmental benefits biomass energy offers are reduced net emissions of greenhouse gases, particularly CO{sub 2}, and reduced emissions of SO{sub 2}, the primary contributor to acid rain. The paper also addresses the environmental impacts of supplying a range of specific biomass resources, including forest-based resources, numerous types of biomass residues and energy crops. Some of the benefits offered by the various biomass supplies include support for improved forest management, improved waste management, reduced air emissions (by eliminating the need for open-field burning of residues) and reduced soil erosion (for example, where perennial energy crops are planted on degraded or deforested land). The environmental impacts of a range of biomass conversion technologies are also addressed, including those from the thermochemical processing of biomass (including direct combustion in residential wood stoves and industrial-scale boilers, gasification and pyrolysis); biochemical processing (anaerobic digestion and fermentation); and chemical processing (extraction of organic oils). In addition to reducing CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2}, other environmental benefits of biomass conversion technologies include the distinctly lower toxicity of the ash compared to coal ash, reduced odours and pathogens from manure, reduced vehicle emissions of CO{sub 2}, with the use of ethanol fuel blends, and reduced particulate and hydrocarbon emissions where biodiesel is used as a substitute for diesel fuel. In general

  2. The employment impacts of economy-wide investments in renewable energy and energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett-Peltier, Heidi

    This dissertation examines the employment impacts of investments in renewable energy and energy efficiency in the U.S. A broad expansion of the use of renewable energy in place of carbon-based energy, in addition to investments in energy efficiency, comprise a prominent strategy to slow or reverse the effects of anthropogenic climate change. This study first explores the literature on the employment impacts of these investments. This literature to date consists mainly of input-output (I-O) studies or case studies of renewable energy and energy efficiency (REEE). Researchers are constrained, however, by their ability to use the I-O model to study REEE, since currently industrial codes do not recognize this industry as such. I develop and present two methods to use the I-O framework to overcome this constraint: the synthetic and integrated approaches. In the former, I proxy the REEE industry by creating a vector of final demand based on the industrial spending patterns of REEE firms as found in the secondary literature. In the integrated approach, I collect primary data through a nationwide survey of REEE firms and integrate these data into the existing I-O tables to explicitly identify the REEE industry and estimate the employment impacts resulting from both upstream and downstream linkages with other industries. The size of the REEE employment multiplier is sensitive to the choice of method, and is higher using the synthetic approach than using the integrated approach. I find that using both methods, the employment level per $1 million demand is approximately three times greater for the REEE industry than for fossil fuel (FF) industries. This implies that a shift to clean energy will result in positive net employment impacts. The positive effects stem mainly from the higher labor intensity of REEE in relation to FF, as well as from higher domestic content and lower average wages. The findings suggest that as we transition away from a carbon-based energy system to

  3. Evaluation as a function of age of the effective energy absorbed in any gram (ε/m) of organs except the gastrointestinal tract by the principal radionuclides which are most likely to contaminate food and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnier, A.

    1965-01-01

    In order to evaluate internal radiation doses it is necessary to know the effective energy dissipated in any gram of the organ of reference, which depends, for any radionuclide, on the physical energy (E) absorbed in the body organ, on the relative biological effectiveness (RBE), on the relative damage factor (n) and on the mass of the organ (m). This effective energy may be evaluated as a function of the size and of the mass of the organs, from birth to adult age. This work is done for the principal radionuclides which are most likely to contaminate the food and the environment, it concerns 44 nuclides from 3 H to 242 Cm. (author) [fr

  4. Projected wood energy impact on US forest wood resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skog, K.E. [USDA Forest Service, Madison, WI (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The USDA Forest Service has developed long-term projections of wood energy use as part of a 1993 assessment of demand for and supply of resources from forest and range lands in the United States. To assess the impact of wood energy demand on timber resources, a market equilibrium model based on linear programming was developed to project residential, industrial, commercial, and utility wood energy use from various wood energy sources: roundwood from various land sources, primary wood products mill residue, other wood residue, and black liquor. Baseline projections are driven by projected price of fossil fuels compared to price of wood fuels and the projected increase in total energy use in various end uses. Wood energy use is projected to increase from 2.67 quad in 1986 to 3.5 quad in 2030 and 3.7 quad in 2040. This is less than the DOE National Energy Strategy projection of 5.5 quad in 2030. Wood energy from forest sources (roundwood) is projected to increase from 3.1 billion (10{sup 9}) ft{sup 3} in 1986 to 4.4. billion ft{sup 3} in 2030 and 4.8 billion ft{sup 3} in 2040 (88, 124 and 136 million m{sup 3}, respectively). This rate of increase of roundwood use for fuel -- 0.8 percent per year -- is virtually the same as the projected increase rate for roundwood for pulpwood. Pulpwood roundwood is projected to increase from 4.2 billion ft{sup 3} in 1986 to 6.0 billion ft{sup 3} in 2030 and 6.4 billion ft{sup 3} in 2040 (119, 170 and 183 million m{sup 3}, respectively).

  5. Appetite control and energy balance: impact of exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundell, J E; Gibbons, C; Caudwell, P; Finlayson, G; Hopkins, M

    2015-02-01

    Exercise is widely regarded as one of the most valuable components of behaviour that can influence body weight and therefore help in the prevention and management of obesity. Indeed, long-term controlled trials show a clear dose-related effect of exercise on body weight. However, there is a suspicion, particularly fuelled by media reports, that exercise serves to increase hunger and drive up food intake thereby nullifying the energy expended through activity. Not everyone performing regular exercise will lose weight and several investigations have demonstrated a huge individual variability in the response to exercise regimes. What accounts for this heterogeneous response? First, exercise (or physical activity) through the expenditure of energy will influence the energy balance equation with the potential to generate an energy deficit. However, energy expenditure also influences the control of appetite (i.e. the physiological and psychological regulatory processes underpinning feeding) and energy intake. This dynamic interaction means that the prediction of a resultant shift in energy balance, and therefore weight change, will be complicated. In changing energy intake, exercise will impact on the biological mechanisms controlling appetite. It is becoming recognized that the major influences on the expression of appetite arise from fat-free mass and fat mass, resting metabolic rate, gastric adjustment to ingested food, changes in episodic peptides including insulin, ghrelin, cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide-1 and tyrosine-tyrosine, as well as tonic peptides such as leptin. Moreover, there is evidence that exercise will influence all of these components that, in turn, will influence the drive to eat through the modulation of hunger (a conscious sensation reflecting a mental urge to eat) and adjustments in postprandial satiety via an interaction with food composition. The specific actions of exercise on each physiological component will vary in strength from

  6. Distributional and regional economic impact of energy taxes in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandyck, Toon; Van Regemorter, Denise

    2014-01-01

    We analyse the macroeconomic and distributional effects of increased oil excises in Belgium by combining a regional Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model with a microsimulation framework that exploits the rich detail of household-level data. The link between the CGE model and the microlevel is top–down, feeding changes in commodity prices, factor returns and employment by sector into a microsimulation model. The results suggest that policymakers face an equity-efficiency trade-off driven by the choice of revenue recycling options. When the additional revenue is used to raise welfare transfers to households, the reform is beneficial for lower income groups, but output levels decrease in all regions. However, when the energy tax revenue is used to lower distortionary labour taxes, the tax shift is slightly regressive. In this case, national GDP is hardly affected but regional production levels diverge. The impact of the environmental tax reform on income distribution depends strongly on changes in factor prices and welfare payments, whereas sector composition is an important determinant for regional impact variation. - Highlights: • We study the impact of oil excises across regions and households in Belgium. • Lower income groups gain if the revenue is used to raise welfare payments. • If labour taxes are reduced, the reform is only slightly regressive. • The differential impact across households is driven by factor price changes. • Sector composition is a crucial determinant for impact variation across regions

  7. Performance of an absorbing concentrating solar collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imadojemu, H.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a comparison of the efficiency of an absorbing fluid parabolic trough concentrating solar collector and a traditional concentrating collector that was made. In the absorbing fluid collector, black liquid flows through a glass tube absorber while the same black liquid flows through a selective black coated copper tube absorber while the same black fluid flows through a selective black coated copper tube absorber in the traditional collector. After a careful study of the properties of available black liquids, a mixture of water and black ink was chosen as the black absorbing medium or transfer fluid. In the black liquid glass collector there is a slightly improved efficiency based on beam radiation as a result of the direct absorption process and an increase in the effective transmittance absorptance. At worst the efficiency of this collector equals that of the traditional concentrating collector when the efficiency is based on total radiation. The collector's reflecting surfaces were made of aluminum sheet, parabolic line focus and with cylindrical receivers. The ease of manufacture and reduced cost per unit energy collected, in addition to the clean and pollution free mode of energy conversion, makes it very attractive

  8. Water-energy nexus: Impact on electrical energy conversion and mitigation by smart water resources management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjorgiev, Blaže; Sansavini, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The issues to energy conversion stemming from the water-energy nexus are investigated. • The objective is to minimize power curtailments caused by critical river water conditions. • A water-energy nexus model for smart management of water resources is developed. • Systemic risks to energy conversion stem from critical temperature and flow regimes. • Full coordination of the hydrologically-linked units provides the most effective strategy. - Abstract: The water-energy nexus refers to the water used to generate electricity and to the electric energy used to collect, clean, move, store, and dispose of water. Water is used in all stages of electric energy conversion making power systems vulnerable to water scarcity and warming. In particular, a water flow decrease and temperature increase in rivers can significantly limit the generation of electricity. This paper investigates the issues to energy conversion stemming from the water-energy nexus and mitigates them by developing a model for the smart utilization of water resources. The objective is to minimize power curtailments caused by a river water flow decrease and a temperature increase. The developed water-energy nexus model integrates the operational characteristics of hydro power plants, the environmental conditions, the river water temperature prediction and thermal load release in river bodies. The application to a hydraulic cascade of hydro and a thermal power plants under drought conditions shows that smart water management entails a significant reduction of power curtailments. In general, the full coordination of the power outputs of the units affected by the hydrological link provides the most effective mitigations of the potential issues stemming from the water-energy nexus. Finally, critical temperature and flow regimes are identified which severely impact the energy conversion and may cause systemic risks in case the generators in one region must be simultaneously curtailed.

  9. The impact on energy consumption of daylight saving clock changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, S.I.; Desobry, F. [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Garnsey, E.W. [Institute for Manufacturing, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Chong, Y.-F. [IPA Energy and Water Consulting (United Kingdom)

    2010-09-15

    The focus of this work is an investigation of the effect of prevailing time regime on energy consumption. In particular we perform analysis demonstrating potential energy savings which could be obtained were Great Britain to maintain daylight savings time (DST) over winter, instead of reverting to Greenwich mean time (GMT). We review the literature on the effect of DST on energy consumption and show that this indicates a justification for considering the issue. Our headline result is in agreement with many related studies in that advancing the clock by an hour in winter would lead to energy savings of at least 0.3% of daily demand in Great Britain. In deriving this result we have adopted methodologies currently used in load prediction, in particular Support Vector Regression, to estimate energy demand on a half-hourly basis. Corresponding cost savings are found to be higher (due to the nonlinear increase of costs) and we find them to be on the order of 0.6% over the months considered. In terms of environmental impact we find the saving to be approximately equivalent to 450,000 ton of CO{sub 2}. In deriving these results we adopt a conservative approach such that we consider them lower bounds on any true savings. (author)

  10. The impact on energy consumption of daylight saving clock changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, S.I.; Desobry, F.; Garnsey, E.W.; Chong, Y.-F.

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this work is an investigation of the effect of prevailing time regime on energy consumption. In particular we perform analysis demonstrating potential energy savings which could be obtained were Great Britain to maintain daylight savings time (DST) over winter, instead of reverting to Greenwich mean time (GMT). We review the literature on the effect of DST on energy consumption and show that this indicates a justification for considering the issue. Our headline result is in agreement with many related studies in that advancing the clock by an hour in winter would lead to energy savings of at least 0.3% of daily demand in Great Britain. In deriving this result we have adopted methodologies currently used in load prediction, in particular Support Vector Regression, to estimate energy demand on a half-hourly basis. Corresponding cost savings are found to be higher (due to the nonlinear increase of costs) and we find them to be on the order of 0.6% over the months considered. In terms of environmental impact we find the saving to be approximately equivalent to 450,000 ton of CO 2 . In deriving these results we adopt a conservative approach such that we consider them lower bounds on any true savings.

  11. Low Absorbance Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, T. D.; Williams, A. M.

    1983-10-01

    The application of low absorption measurements to dilute solute determination requires specific instrumental characteristics. The use of laser intracavity absorption and thermal lens calorimetry to measure concentration is shown. The specific operating parameters that determine sensitivity are delineated along with the limits different measurement strategies impose. Finally areas of improvement in components that would result in improve sensitivity, accuracy, and reliability are discussed. During the past decade, a large number of methods have been developed for measuring the light absorbed by transparent materials. These include measurements on gases, liquids, and solids. The activity has been prompted by a variety of applications and a similar variety of disciplines. In Table 1 some representative examples of these methods is shown along with their published detection limits.1 It is clear that extraordinarily small absorbances can be measured. Most of the methods can be conveniently divided into two groups. These groups are those that measure the transmission of the sample and those that measure the light absorbed by the sample. The light absorbed methods are calorimetric in character. The advantages and disadvantages of each method varies depending on the principal application for which they were developed. The most prevalent motivation has been to characterize the bulk optical properties of transparent materials. Two examples are the development of extremely transparent glasses for use as fiber optic materials and the development of substrates for high power laser operation.

  12. Impact of Sustainable Cool Roof Technology on Building Energy Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuppuluri, Prem Kiran

    Highly reflective roofing systems have been analyzed over several decades to evaluate their ability to meet sustainability goals, including reducing building energy consumption and mitigating the urban heat island. Studies have isolated and evaluated the effects of climate, surface reflectivity, and roof insulation on energy savings, thermal load mitigation and also ameliorating the urban heat island. Other sustainable roofing systems, like green-roofs and solar panels have been similarly evaluated. The motivation for the present study is twofold: the first goal is to present a method for simultaneous evaluation and inter-comparison of multiple roofing systems, and the second goal is to quantitatively evaluate the realized heating and cooling energy savings associated with a white roof system compared to the reduction in roof-top heat flux. To address the first research goal a field experiment was conducted at the International Harvester Building located in Portland, OR. Thermal data was collected for a white roof, vegetated roof, and a solar panel shaded vegetated roof, and the heat flux through these roofing systems was compared against a control patch of conventional dark roof membrane. The second research goal was accomplished using a building energy simulation program to determine the impact of roof area and roof insulation on the savings from a white roof, in both Portland and Phoenix. The ratio of cooling energy savings to roof heat flux reduction from replacing a dark roof with a white roof was 1:4 for the month of July, and 1:5 annually in Portland. The COP of the associated chillers ranges from 2.8-4.2, indicating that the ratio of cooling energy savings to heat flux reduction is not accounted for solely by the COP of the chillers. The results of the building simulation indicate that based on energy savings alone, white roofs are not an optimal choice for Portland. The benefits associated with cooling energy savings relative to a black roof are offset by

  13. Energy analysis of a diffusion absorption cooling system using lithium nitrate, sodium thiocyanate and water as absorbent substances and ammonia as the refrigerant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acuña, A.; Velázquez, N.; Cerezo, J.

    2013-01-01

    A diffusion absorption cooling system is analyzed to determine the appropriate fluid for the unit, based on the coefficient of performance (COP) and operating conditions, by comparing lithium nitrate (LiNO 3 ), sodium thiocyanate (NaSCN) and water (H 2 O) as absorbent substances and by using ammonia (NH 3 ) as the refrigerant. The presence of crystallization in the system is analyzed as a function of the generator and absorber temperatures. Additionally, the effects on the efficiency of the system from adding the inert gas helium (He) or hydrogen (H 2 ) are studied. A mathematical model is developed and compared to experimental studies reported in the literature. At an evaporator temperature of −15 °C, a generator temperature of 120 °C and absorber and condenser temperatures of 40 °C, the results show that the best performance is achieved by the NH 3 –LiNO 3 –He mixture, with a COP of 0.48. This mixture performs 27–46% more efficient than the NH 3 –NaSCN mixture. The NH 3 –H 2 O mixture is 52–69% less efficient than the NH 3 –LiNO 3 mixture. However, when the evaporator runs at 7.5 °C, the NH 3 –H 2 O–He mixture achieves a more efficient COP than does the NH 3 –LiNO 3 –He mixture, and the NH 3 –NaSCN–He and NH 3 –LiNO 3 –He mixtures achieve the same COP when the evaporator is at 10 °C. At temperatures below 7.5 °C, the NH 3 –NaSCN–He mixture achieves a higher COP than does the NH 3 –H 2 O–He mixture. The NH 3 –LiNO 3 mixture shows crystallization at higher temperatures in the generator than does the NH 3 –NaSCN mixture. Moreover, at the same evaporator temperature, the NH 3 –LiNO 3 mixture works at activation temperatures lower than does the NH 3 –NaSCN mixture. -- Highlights: ► We studied a diffusion absorption cooling system with different working mixtures. ► The NH 3 –LiNO 3 mixture showed more efficiency than NH 3 –H 2 O mixture and NH 3 –NaSCN mixture. ► The generator and absorber temperature

  14. Review of the environmental impact of nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Hinnawi, E E [United Nations Environment Programme, Policy Planning, Nairobi (Kenya)

    1978-04-15

    The increasing global demand for energy has hitherto been met to an increasing extent by the use of fossil fuels and hydro power. Nuclear energy has been developed and used commercially for about two decades to meet a fraction of the electrical energy needs. The total installed nuclear generating capacity in the world in 1976 was 79.9 GWe from 187 power reactors operating in 19 countries. At the local and in some cases regional level, the environmental aspects of energy production and use have become of paramount importance and have served as warnings of what could be in store on a wider scale if serious consideration is not given to the environmental implications of man's demands for energy. From recent examinations of the impact of energy on the environment, it has become apparent that individual nations are not isolated in this respect and that the actions of one country may well result in environmental damage in a neighbouring State. Against this background, an awakened public awareness of the issues has demanded that an attempt be made to examine rationally the environmental aspects of the energy-related society. Although nuclear power stations do not emit fly-ash or noxious gases into the atmosphere as fossil-fuel-operated plants do, the radioactivity released from the products of nuclear fission has been the main focus of public concern about the expansion in the use of nuclear power despite the stringent control measures and precautions taken There have been many attempts to set up acceptable levels for radioactivity in the environment or in man, and although the ICRP recommendations are generally accepted in evaluating occupational hazards, their extension to large populations and the environment as a whole has been subjected to extensive criticism.

  15. Green jobs? Economic impacts of renewable energy in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehr, Ulrike; Lutz, Christian; Edler, Dietmar

    2012-01-01

    The labor market implications of large investment into renewable energy (RE) are analyzed in this text. Although a growing RE industry can be observed in Germany the overall effect of large increases of RE based electricity and heat generating technologies on the German economy require a careful model based analysis. The applied model PANTA RHEI has been used among others to evaluate the German energy concept in 2010. It takes positive and negative impacts of RE into account. The paper shows the overall effects under different assumptions for fossil fuel prices, domestic installations and international trade. The results are sensitive to assumptions on the development of RE world markets and German exports to these markets. Almost all of these scenarios exhibit positive net employment effects. Under medium assumptions net employment of RE expansion will reach around 150 thousand in 2030. Only with assumptions for German RE exports below today's level, net impacts are slightly negative. Gross employment will increase from 340 thousand in 2009 to between 500 and 600 thousand in 2030. - Highlights: ► This paper analyzes labor market implications of large investment into renewable energy (RE) in Germany. ► It shows the overall effects under different assumptions. ► The development of world markets and German RE exports are very important. ► Net employment of RE expansion will reach around 150 thousand in 2030. ► Gross employment will increase to between 500 and 600 thousand in 2030.

  16. LINEAR MODEL FOR NON ISOSCELES ABSORBERS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERG,J.S.

    2003-05-12

    Previous analyses have assumed that wedge absorbers are triangularly shaped with equal angles for the two faces. In this case, to linear order, the energy loss depends only on the position in the direction of the face tilt, and is independent of the incoming angle. One can instead construct an absorber with entrance and exit faces facing rather general directions. In this case, the energy loss can depend on both the position and the angle of the particle in question. This paper demonstrates that and computes the effect to linear order.

  17. Energy drinks and the neurophysiological impact of caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persad, Leeana Aarthi Bagwath

    2011-01-01

    Caffeine is the most widely used psychoactive stimulant with prevalent use across all age groups. It is a naturally occurring substance found in the coffee bean, tea leaf, the kola nut, cocoa bean. Recently there has been an increase in energy drink consumption leading to caffeine abuse, with aggressive marketing and poor awareness on the consequences of high caffeine use. With caffeine consumption being so common, it is vital to know the impact caffeine has on the body, as its effects can influence cardio-respiratory, endocrine, and perhaps most importantly neurological systems. Detrimental effects have being described especially since an over consumption of caffeine has being noted. This review focuses on the neurophysiological impact of caffeine and its biochemical pathways in the human body.

  18. Energy drinks and the neurophysiological impacts of caffeine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leeana eBagwath Persad

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine is the most widely used psychoactive stimulant with prevalent use across all age groups. It is a naturally occurring substance found in the coffee bean, tea leaf, the kola nut, cocoa bean. Recently there has been an increase in energy drink consumption leading to caffeine abuse, with aggressive marketing and poor awareness on the consequences of high caffeine use. With caffeine consumption being so common, it is vital to know the impact caffeine has on the body, as its effects can influence cardio-respiratory, endocrine and perhaps most importantly neurological systems. Detrimental effects have being described especially since an over consumption of caffeine has being noted. This review focuses on the neurophysiological impact of caffeine and its biochemical pathways in the human body.

  19. Experimental measures of the energy rate absorbed in the aluminium and the comparison with the calculation using factors of dose and carrier of electrons by means of MCNP code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federico, Claudio A.; Vieira, Wilson J.; Rigolon, Leda S.Y.; Geraldo, Luiz P.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper are presented the results of a Monte Carlo calculation for the energy deposition rate in aluminum plates, when a collimated beam of gamma-rays produced by thermal neutrons capture in nickel target passes through them. The absorbed dose rate as a function of the aluminum thickness crossed by the gamma beam has been measured by using CaSO e :Dy thermoluminescent dosimeters. The capture gamma ray beam was extracted from a tangential beam tube of the IPEN's IEA-R1 2MW research reactor. The absorbed dose calculation was performed employing the Monte Carlo N-particle transport code (MCNP) and two methods of calculation: the simulated gamma ray flux multiplied by a dose conversion factor, and the simulated electron flux multiplied by the collision linear energy loss. The calculation results obtained by the electron transport have shown a good agreement with the experimental measurements. For deeper layers (more than 10 mm aluminum thickness), the calculation using the gamma ray flux multiplied by dose conversion factors, as well the calculation employing the electron transport, exhibit the same decreasing trade observed in experimental data, differing by a normalization factor of approximately 1.4. However, for layers nearer the material surface, the calculation using photon flux produces an overestimation of that using the electron transport as well as of the experimental results. (author)

  20. Monetary and social macroeconomic impact of equivalent energy production strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lattes, Robert; Thiriet, Lucien

    1981-01-01

    This current report updates a previous report (February 1979) and brings to light many new factors; a comparative analysis of global impacts is presented, particular emphasis being given to large scale equilibria, and equivalent, but different energy strategies and policies. The way in which different energy strategies might reduce externally imposed constraints is examined in detail, i.e. enabling higher economic growth to be achieved, and unemployment to be reduced without increasing or even with a decrease in the external balance-of-payments deficit. A reference electricity generating program (realized with coal, oil or uranium) similar to the medium and long term French nuclear program was retained. Attention was given to ensure that the ratio between the amount of electricity generated and the total electricity requirements remained realistic. This was also true for the ratio between the amount of nuclear origin generated electricity and the total amount of electricity generated [fr

  1. Energy technology impacts on agriculture with a bibliography of models for impact assessment on crop ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rupp, E.M.; Luxmoore, R.J.; Parzyck, D.C.

    1979-09-01

    Possible impacts of energy technologies on agriculture are evaluated, and some of the available simulation models that can be used for predictive purposes are identified. An overview of energy technologies and impacts on the environment is presented to provide a framework for the commentary on the models. Coal combustion is shown to have major impacts on the environment and these will continue into the next century according to current Department of Energy projections. Air pollution effects will thus remain as the major impacts on crop ecosystems. Two hundred reports were evaluated, representing a wide range of models increasing in complexity from mathematical functions (fitted to data) through parametric models (which represent phenomena without describing the mechanisms) to mechanistic models (based on physical, chemical, and physiological principles). Many models were viewed as suitable for adaptation to technology assessment through the incorporation of representative dose-response relationships. It is clear that in many cases available models cannot be taken and directly applied in technology assessment. Very few models of air pollutant-crop interactions were identified, even though there is a considerable data base of pollutant effects on crops.

  2. Propensity to obesity impacts the neuronal response to energy imbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc-Andre eCornier

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms responsible for the propensity to gain weight or remain normal weight are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to study the neuronal response to visual food cues during short-term energy imbalance in healthy adults recruited as obesity-resistant (OR or obesity-prone (OP based on self-identification, BMI, and personal/family weight history. 25 OR and 28 OP subjects were studied in underfed (UF and overfed (OF as compared to eucaloric (EU conditions in a randomized crossover design. Each study phase included a 3 day run-in diet, 1 day of controlled feeding (basal energy needs for EU, 40% above/below basal energy needs for OF/UF, and a test day. On the test day fMRI was performed in the acute fed stated (30 minutes after a test meal while subjects viewed images of foods of high hedonic value and neutral non-food objects. Measures of appetite and hormones were also performed before and every 30 minutes after the test meal. UF was associated with significantly increased activation of insula, somatosensory cortex, inferior and medial prefrontal cortex, parahippocampus, precuneus, cingulate and visual cortex in OR. However, UF had no impact in OP. As a result, UF was associated with significantly greater activation, specifically in the insula, inferior prefrontal cortex, and somatosensory cortex in OR as compared to OP. While OF was overall associated with reduced activation of inferior visual cortex, no group interaction was observed with OF. In summary, these findings suggest that individuals resistant to weight gain and obesity are more sensitive to short-term energy imbalance, particularly with UF, than those prone to weight gain. The inability to sense or adapt to changes in energy balance may represent an important mechanism contributing to excess energy intake and risk for obesity.

  3. Propensity to obesity impacts the neuronal response to energy imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornier, Marc-Andre; McFadden, Kristina L; Thomas, Elizabeth A; Bechtell, Jamie L; Bessesen, Daniel H; Tregellas, Jason R

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for the propensity to gain weight or remain normal weight are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to study the neuronal response to visual food cues during short-term energy imbalance in healthy adults recruited as obesity-resistant (OR) or obesity-prone (OP) based on self-identification, body mass index, and personal/family weight history. Twenty-five OR and 28 OP subjects were studied in underfed (UF) and overfed (OF) as compared to eucaloric (EU) conditions in a randomized crossover design. Each study phase included a 3-day run-in diet, 1 day of controlled feeding (basal energy needs for EU, 40% above/below basal energy needs for OF/UF), and a test day. On the test day, fMRI was performed in the acute fed stated (30 min after a test meal) while subjects viewed images of foods of high hedonic value and neutral non-food objects. Measures of appetite and hormones were also performed before and every 30 min after the test meal. UF was associated with significantly increased activation of insula, somatosensory cortex, inferior and medial prefrontal cortex (PFC), parahippocampus, precuneus, cingulate, and visual cortex in OR. However, UF had no impact in OP. As a result, UF was associated with significantly greater activation, specifically in the insula, inferior PFC, and somatosensory cortex in OR as compared to OP. While OF was overall associated with reduced activation of inferior visual cortex, no group interaction was observed with OF. In summary, these findings suggest that individuals resistant to weight gain and obesity are more sensitive to short-term energy imbalance, particularly with UF, than those prone to weight gain. The inability to sense or adapt to changes in energy balance may represent an important mechanism contributing to excess energy intake and risk for obesity.

  4. Assessment of Energy Impact of Window Technologies for Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Tianzhen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Selkowitz, Stephen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Yazdanian, Mehry [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division

    2009-10-01

    Windows play a significant role in commercial buildings targeting the goal of net zero energy. This report summarizes research methodology and findings in evaluating the energy impact of windows technologies for commercial buildings. The large office prototypical building, chosen from the DOE commercial building benchmarks, was used as the baseline model which met the prescriptive requirements of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004. The building simulations were performed with EnergyPlus and TMY3 weather data for five typical US climates to calculate the energy savings potentials of six windows technologies when compared with the ASHRAE 90.1-2004 baseline windows. The six windows cover existing, new, and emerging technologies, including ASHRAE 189.1 baseline windows, triple pane low-e windows, clear and tinted double pane highly insulating low-e windows, electrochromic (EC) windows, and highly insulating EC windows representing the hypothetically feasible optimum windows. The existing stocks based on average commercial windows sales are included in the analysis for benchmarking purposes.

  5. Economic Impact of CDM Implementation through Alternate Energy Resource Substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.J. Sreekanth

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the Kyoto protocol agreement, Clean Development Mechanism (CDM hasgarnered large emphasis in terms of certified emission reductions (CER not only amidst the globalcarbon market but also in India. This paper attempts to assess the impact of CDM towardssustainable development particularly in rural domestic utility sector that mainly includes lightingand cooking applications, with electricity as the source of energy. A detailed survey has undertakenin the state of Kerala, in southern part of India to study the rural domestic energy consumptionpattern. The data collected was analyzed that throws insight into the interrelationships of thevarious parameters that influence domestic utility sector pertaining to energy consumption byusing electricity as the source of energy. The interrelationships between the different parameterswere modeled that optimizes the contribution of electricity on domestic utility sector. The resultswere used to estimate the feasible extent of CO2 emission reduction through use of electricity as theenergy resources, vis-à-vis its economic viability through cost effectiveness. The analysis alsoprovides a platform for implementing CDM projects in the sector and related prospects withrespects to the Indian scenario.

  6. Energy and global warming impacts of CFC alternative technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, S.K.; Fairchild, P.D.; Hughes, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are used in a number of applications, and volumes of CFCs used grew at a tremendous pace during the 1960s and 1970s. However, in the mid-1980s, it was confirmed that these extremely useful chemicals contribute to the destruction of stratospheric ozone. These chemicals are being phased out of use rapidly to protect the ozone layer and it is very important that the replacements for CFSs do not result in a net increase in global warming by introducing less efficient processes that lead to higher energy use and increased carbon dioxide emissions. A study was conducted to identify those alternative chemicals and technologies that could replace CFCs in energy related applications before the year 2000, and to assess the total potential impact of these alternatives on global warming. The analysis for this project included an estimate of the direct effects from the release of blowing agents, refrigerants, and solvents into the atmosphere and the indirect effects in the form of carbon dioxide emissions resulting from energy use for commercial and residential heating and cooling, household and commercial refrigeration, building and automobile air-conditioning, and general metal and electronics solvent cleaning. The discussion in this paper focuses on those aspects of the study relevant to refrigeration and air-conditioning. In general the use of hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) and hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) alternatives for CFCs lead to large and sometimes dramatic reduction in total equivalent warming impact (TEWI), lifetime equivalent CO 2 emission. Most of the reductions result from decreased direct effects without significant changes in energy use. 3 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  7. Impact of energy policy instruments on the estimated level of underlying energy efficiency in the EU residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippini, Massimo; Hunt, Lester C.; Zorić, Jelena

    2014-01-01

    The promotion of energy efficiency is seen as one of the top priorities of EU energy policy (EC, 2010). In order to design and implement effective energy policy instruments, it is necessary to have information on energy demand price and income elasticities in addition to sound indicators of energy efficiency. This research combines the approaches taken in energy demand modelling and frontier analysis in order to econometrically estimate the level of energy efficiency for the residential sector in the EU-27 member states for the period 1996 to 2009. The estimates for the energy efficiency confirm that the EU residential sector indeed holds a relatively high potential for energy savings from reduced inefficiency. Therefore, despite the common objective to decrease ‘wasteful’ energy consumption, considerable variation in energy efficiency between the EU member states is established. Furthermore, an attempt is made to evaluate the impact of energy-efficiency measures undertaken in the EU residential sector by introducing an additional set of variables into the model and the results suggest that financial incentives and energy performance standards play an important role in promoting energy efficiency improvements, whereas informative measures do not have a significant impact. - Highlights: • The level of energy efficiency of the EU residential sector is estimated. • Considerable potential for energy savings from reduced inefficiency is established. • The impact of introduced energy-efficiency policy measures is also evaluated. • Financial incentives are found to promote energy efficiency improvements. • Energy performance standards also play an important role

  8. Developing effective rockfall protection barriers for low energy impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentani, Alessio; Giacomini, Anna; Buzzi, Olivier; Govoni, Laura; Gottardi, Guido; Fityus, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    Recently, important progresses have been made towards the development of high capacity rockfall barriers (100 kJ - 8000 kJ). The interest of researchers and practitioners is now turning to the development of fences of minor capacity, whose use becomes essential in areas where rockfall events generally have low intensity and the use of high capacity barriers would be accompanied by excessive costs and high environmental impact. Low energy barriers can also provide a cost-effective solution even in areas where high energies events are expected. Results of full-scale tests are vital to any investigation on the behaviour of these structures. An experimental set-up has been developed at The University of Newcastle (AUS), to investigate the response of low energy rockfall barrier prototypes to low energy impacts. The Australian territory, and in particular New South Wales, is in fact characterised by rockfall events of low-to-medium intensity (50 kJ - 500 kJ) and the need of protection structures working within such energy range, is particularly felt [1]. The experiments involved the impact of a test block onto three spans, low energy barrier prototypes, made of steel structural posts, fully fixed at the base, side cables and a steel meshwork constituted by a double twist hexagonal wire net [2]. Test data enabled the development, calibration and assessment of FE models [3], on which non-linear and dynamic analyses have been performed addressing the effect of the block size. Results have shown that the response of the structure is strongly governed by the net. Data from tests conducted on the sole net and on the entire barrier showed in fact a similar trend, different to what typically observed for high capacity barriers, whose behaviour is also led by the presence of uphill cables and brakes. In particular, the numerical analyses have demonstrated a dependence of the net performance on the block size. In particular, a loss of capacity in the order of 50% occurred as the

  9. Development of optical tools for the characterization of selective solar absorber at elevated temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud, Philemon; Braillon, Julien; Delord, Christine; Raccurt, Olivier

    2016-05-01

    Durability of solar components for CSP (Concentrated Solar Power Plant) technologies is a key point to lower cost and ensure their large deployment. These technologies concentrated the solar radiation by means of mirrors on a receiver tube where it is collected as thermal energy. The absorbers are submitted to strong environmental constraints and the degradation of their optical properties (emittance and solar absorbance) have a direct impact on performance. The objective is to develop new optical equipment for characterization of this solar absorber in condition of use that is to say in air and at elevated temperature. In this paper we present two new optical test benches developed for optical characterization of solar absorbers in condition of use up to 800°C. The first equipment is an integrated sphere with heated sample holder which measures the hemispherical reflectance between 280 and 2500 nm to calculate the solar absorbance at high temperature. The second optical test bench measures the emittance of samples up to 1000°C in the range of 1.25 to 28.57 µm. Results of high temperature measurements on a series of metallic absorbers with selective coating and refractory material for high thermal receiver are presented.

  10. Adjustable Shock Absorbers

    OpenAIRE

    Adamiec, Radek

    2012-01-01

    Bakalářská práce obsahuje přehled používaných tlumičů osobních automobilů, závodních automobilů a motocyklů. Jsou zde popsány systémy t lumením, konstrukce tlumičů a vidlic používaných u motocyklů. Dále je zde přehled prvků používaných u podvozků automobilů. This bachelor´s thesis contains the survey of the shock absorbers of passenger cars, racing cars and motorcycles. Are described damping systems, the design used shock absorbers and forks for motorcycles. Then there is the list of the e...

  11. Potential impacts of the energy industry on invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMont, E. [Saint Francis Xavier Univ., Antigonish, NS (Canada). Dept. of Biology

    2006-07-01

    This presentation provided a literature review of seismic activity impacts on invertebrates. A summary of recent research on the effects of seismic noise on female snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio) was evaluated by comparison with a caging study conducted off western Cape Breton Island in 2003-2004 which examined mortality and external damages to crabs, as well as the conditions of appendices and organs. Details of a study examining the mobility of lobsters over pipelines were presented, as well as recent research conducted by the St. Francis Xavier Biomechanics Laboratory. It was noted that studies on the effects of marine noise on invertebrate species are limited and incomplete. However, the impacts of marine noise on invertebrates is a critical issue for major fisheries based on invertebrates. The snow crab study showed swelling of hepatopancreatic walls to crabs in areas of seismic activity. Abundance and distribution of the crabs fell from 30 per cent before seismic activity to 23 per cent after seismic exploration began. Evidence of immediate impacts on antennules, gill and statocysts which lasted less than 5 months was observed. The impacts of the abnormalities on the life cycle of the crabs is unknown. Exposure to seismic energy did not kill snow crab embryos. However, rates of development were slower in seismic than control embryos. Results suggested that further research on normal crab health and environmental conditions is needed. Current research at the St. Francis Xavier Biomechanics Laboratory included a fluid mechanics study paddle-assisted walking for lobsters; jet-assisted walking in lobsters; the effects of temperature on the activity of lobsters; and, the impact of mechanical vibrations on lobsters. Details of sponsors for the various studies were also provided. refs., tabs., figs.

  12. Absorbable and biodegradable polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Shalaby, Shalaby W

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION NOTES: Absorbable/Biodegradable Polymers: Technology Evolution. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATIONOF NEW SYSTEMS: Segmented Copolyesters with Prolonged Strength Retention Profiles. Polyaxial Crystalline Fiber-Forming Copolyester. Polyethylene Glycol-Based Copolyesters. Cyanoacrylate-Based Systems as Tissue Adhesives. Chitosan-Based Systems. Hyaluronic Acid-Based Systems. DEVELOPMENTS IN PREPARATIVE, PROCESSING, AND EVALUATION METHODS: New Approaches to the Synthesis of Crystalline. Fiber-Forming Aliphatic Copolyesters. Advances in Morphological Development to Tailor the Performance of Me

  13. Burnable neutron absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radford, K.C.; Carlson, W.G.

    1985-01-01

    This patent deals with the fabrication of pellets for neutron absorber rods. Such a pellet includes a matrix of a refractory material which may be aluminum or zirconium oxide, and a burnable poison distributed throughout the matrix. The neutron absorber material may consist of one or more elements or compounds of the metals boron, gadolinium, samarium, cadmium, europium, hafnium, dysprosium and indium. The method of fabricating pellets of these materials outlined in this patent is designed to produce pores or voids in the pellets that can be used to take up the expansion of the burnable poison and to absorb the helium gas generated. In the practice of this invention a slurry of Al 2 O 3 is produced. A hard binder is added and the slurry and binder are spray dried. This powder is mixed with dry B 4 C powder, forming a homogeneous mixture. This mixture is pressed into green tubes which are then sintered. During sintering the binder volatilizes leaving a ceramic with nearly spherical high-density regions of

  14. Variability of consumer impacts from energy efficiency standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, James E.; Liu, Xiaomin

    2000-06-15

    A typical prospective analysis of the expected impact of energy efficiency standards on consumers is based on average economic conditions (e.g., energy price) and operating characteristics. In fact, different consumers face different economic conditions and exhibit different behaviors when using an appliance. A method has been developed to characterize the variability among individual households and to calculate the life-cycle cost of appliances taking into account those differences. Using survey data, this method is applied to a distribution of consumers representing the U.S. Examples of clothes washer standards are shown for which 70-90% of the population benefit, compared to 10-30% who are expected to bear increased costs due to new standards. In some cases, sufficient data exist to distinguish among demographic subgroups (for example, low income or elderly households) who are impacted differently from the general population. Rank order correlations between the sampled input distributions and the sampled output distributions are calculated to determine which variability inputs are main factors. This ''importance analysis'' identifies the key drivers contributing to the range of results. Conversely, the importance analysis identifies variables that, while uncertain, make so little difference as to be irrelevant in deciding a particular policy. Examples will be given from analysis of water heaters to illustrate the dominance of the policy implications by a few key variables.

  15. Ferrite HOM Absorber for the RHIC ERL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn,H.; Choi, E.M.; Hammons, L.

    2008-10-01

    A superconducting Energy Recovery Linac is under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory to serve as test bed for RHIC upgrades. The damping of higher-order modes in the superconducting five-cell cavity for the Energy-Recovery linac at RHIC is performed exclusively by two ferrite absorbers. The ferrite properties have been measured in ferrite-loaded pill box cavities resulting in the permeability values given by a first-order Debye model for the tiled absorber structure and an equivalent permeability value for computer simulations with solid ring dampers. Measured and simulated results for the higher-order modes in the prototype copper cavity are discussed. First room-temperature measurements of the finished niobium cavity are presented which confirm the effective damping of higher-order modes in the ERL. by the ferrite absorbers.

  16. Methods for applying microchannels to separate methane using liquid absorbents, especially ionic liquid absorbents from a mixture comprising methane and nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y [Dublin, OH; Litt, Robert D [Westerville, OH; Dongming, Qiu [Dublin, OH; Silva, Laura J [Plain City, OH; Lamont, Micheal Jay [Plain City, OH; Fanelli, Maddalena [Plain City, OH; Simmons, Wayne W [Plain city, OH; Perry, Steven [Galloway, OH

    2011-10-04

    Methods of using microchannel separation systems including absorbents to improve thermal efficiency and reduce parasitic power loss. Energy is typically added to desorb methane and then energy or heat is removed to absorb methane using a working solution. The working solution or absorbent may comprise an ionic liquid, or other fluids that demonstrate a difference in affinity between methane and nitrogen in a solution.

  17. Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Torriti, Jacopo

    2016-01-01

    The impact of energy policy measures has been assessed with various appraisal and evaluation tools since the 1960s. Decision analysis, environmental impact assessment and strategic environmental assessment are all notable examples of progenitors of Regulatory Impact Assessment (RIA) in the assessment of energy policies, programmes and projects. This chapter provides overview of policy tools which have been historically applied to assess the impacts of energy policies, programmes and projects....

  18. Impact of information and communications technologies on residental customer energy services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, C.; Kempton, W.; Eide, A.; Iyer, M. [and others

    1996-10-01

    This study analyzes the potential impact of information and communications technologies on utility delivery of residential customer energy services. Many utilities are conducting trials which test energy-related and non-energy services using advanced communications systems.

  19. 3D, wideband vibro-impacting-based piezoelectric energy harvester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Qiangmo; Yang, Jin; Yue, Xihai; Yang, Aichao; Zhao, Jiangxin; Zhao, Nian; Wen, Yumei; Li, Ping

    2015-01-01

    An impacting-based piezoelectric energy harvester was developed to address the limitations of the existing approaches in single-dimensional operation as well as a narrow working bandwidth. In the harvester, a spiral cylindrical spring rather than the conventional thin cantilever beam was utilized to extract the external vibration with arbitrary directions, which has the capability to impact the surrounding piezoelectric beams to generate electricity. And the introduced vibro-impacting between the spiral cylindrical spring and multi-piezoelectric-beams resulted in not only a three-dimensional response to external vibration, but also a bandwidth-broadening behavior. The experimental results showed that each piezoelectric beam exhibited a maximum bandwidth of 8 Hz and power of 41 μW with acceleration of 1 g (with g=9.8 ms −2 ) along the z-axis, and corresponding average values of 5 Hz and 45 μW with acceleration of 0.6 g in the x-y plane. 

  20. 3D, wideband vibro-impacting-based piezoelectric energy harvester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Qiangmo; Yang, Jin, E-mail: yangjin@cqu.edu.cn; Yue, Xihai; Yang, Aichao; Zhao, Jiangxin; Zhao, Nian; Wen, Yumei; Li, Ping [Department of Optoelectronic Engineering, Research Center of Sensors and Instruments, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2015-04-15

    An impacting-based piezoelectric energy harvester was developed to address the limitations of the existing approaches in single-dimensional operation as well as a narrow working bandwidth. In the harvester, a spiral cylindrical spring rather than the conventional thin cantilever beam was utilized to extract the external vibration with arbitrary directions, which has the capability to impact the surrounding piezoelectric beams to generate electricity. And the introduced vibro-impacting between the spiral cylindrical spring and multi-piezoelectric-beams resulted in not only a three-dimensional response to external vibration, but also a bandwidth-broadening behavior. The experimental results showed that each piezoelectric beam exhibited a maximum bandwidth of 8 Hz and power of 41 μW with acceleration of 1 g (with g=9.8 ms{sup −2}) along the z-axis, and corresponding average values of 5 Hz and 45 μW with acceleration of 0.6 g in the x-y plane. .

  1. The influence of multiscale fillers reinforcement into impact resistance and energy absorption properties of polyamide 6 and polypropylene nanocomposite structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Francesco; Njuguna, James; Sachse, Sophia; Pielichowski, Krzysztof; Leszczynska, Agnieszka; Giacomelli, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Significant improvement in PA composites impact resistance performance. ► Decrease in energy absorption capabilities of PP, this phenomenon is explained. ► Positive effects on mechanical and interphase properties of the matrix material. ► Transition from brittle to ductile fracture mode established. ► Two different toughening mechanisms were observed and explained. - Abstract: Three-phase composites (thermoplastic polymer, glass-fibres and nano-particles) were investigated as an alternative to two-phase (polymer and glass-fibres) composites. The effect of matrix and reinforcement material on the energy absorption capabilities of composite structures was studied in details in this paper. Dynamic and quasi-static axial collapse of conical structures was conducted using a high energy drop tower, as well as Instron universal testing machine. The impact event was recorded using a high-speed camera and the fracture surface was investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Attention was directed towards the relation between micro and macro fracture process with crack propagation mechanism and energy absorbed by the structure. The obtained results indicated an important influence of filler and matrix material on the energy absorption capabilities of the polymer composites. A significant increase in specific energy absorption (SEA) was observed in polyamide 6 (PA6) reinforced with nano-silica particles and glass-spheres, whereas addition of montmorillonite (MMT) caused a decrease in that property. On the other hand, very little influence of the secondary reinforcement on the energy absorption capabilities of polypropylene (PP) composites was found

  2. Recycling energy taxes. Impacts on a disaggregated labour market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosello, F.; Carraro, C.

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyses the impacts of energy taxes whose revenue is recycled to reduce gross wages and increase employment. The main novel feature of this paper, is the attempt to assess the effectiveness of this fiscal reform by using a labour market model in which both skilled and unskilled workers are used in the production process. This segmentation enables us to compare a policy which aims at reducing unskilled workers' wages, as in the original Delors' White book, with a policy in which the environmental fiscal revenue is used to reduce the gross wage of all workers. Moreover, two policy scenarios will be considered. A non-co-operative one in which each country determines the optimal domestic energy tax to achieve a given employment target and a co-operative one, in which the energy taxes are harmonised to equalise marginal abatement costs in the EU and in which the employment target is set for the EU. Our results show that: (1) an employment double dividend can be achieved in the short run only, even if a trade-off between environment and employment always exists; (2) the effect on employment is larger when the fiscal revenue is recycled into all workers' gross wages rather than into unskilled workers only; (3) a co-operative policy leads to even larger benefits in terms of employment provided that an adequate redistribution of fiscal revenues is adopted by EU countries

  3. Impacts of energy utilization in a tropical environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleemann, M.; Penner, K.; Seele, U.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the approach and the interim results of the Indonesian-German scientific co-operation on environmental impacts of future energy utilization in Indonesia. The aim of the planning study is to provide decision support for Indonesian authorities in order to develop environmentally compatible energy supply strategies. The environmental problems will focus on the island of Java with a population density of more than 800 inhabitants/km 2 which might reach 1200 within the next 25 years. Due to the further economic growth and the population increase the energy consumption of the industry, the traffic, and the household sector will increase significantly. In particular the polluting coal utilization will grow overproportionally because of declining oil reserves. Additionally, the industrial development is concentrated on the island of Java which covers only 8% of the land area of the country. A serious pollution of the sensitive tropical ecosystems in the future would be the consequence of this unbalanced developments if no efforts are made to reduce the pollutant emissions. Even today the air quality has already reached critical levels in many parts of Java. 3 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Land use and environmental impacts of decentralized solar energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twiss, R.H.; Smith, P.L.; Gatzke, A.E.; McCreary, S.T.

    1980-01-01

    The physical, spatial and land-use impacts of decentralized solar technologies applied at the community level by the year 2000 are examined. The results of the study are intended to provide a basis for evaluating the way in which a shift toward reliance on decentralized energy technologies may eventually alter community form. Six land-use types representative of those found in most US cities are analyzed according to solar penetration levels identified in the maximum solar scenario for the year 2000. The scenario is translated into shares of end use demand in the residential, commercial and industrial sectors. These proportions become the scenario goals to be met by the use of decentralized solar energy systems. The percentage of total energy demand is assumed to be 36.5 percent, 18.8 percent and 22.6 percent in the residential, commercial and industrial sectors respectively. The community level scenario stipulated that a certain percentage of the total demand be met by on-site solar collection, i.e. photovoltaic and thermal collectors, and by passive design. This on-site solar goal is 31.9 percent (residential), 16.8 percent (commercial) and 13.1 percent (industrial).

  5. Impacts of high energy prices on long-term energy-economic scenarios for Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krey, V.; Markewitz, P. [Research Center Juelich, Inst. of Energy Res., Systems Analysis and Technology Evaluation, Juelich (Germany); Horn, M. [DIW Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Matthes, C.; Graichen, V.; Harthan, R.O.; Repenning, J. [Oeko-Institut, Berlin (Germany)

    2007-05-15

    Prices of oil and other fossil fuels on global markets have reached a high level in recent years. These levels were not able to be reproduced on the basis of scenarios and prognoses that were published in the past. New scenarios, based on higher energy price trajectories, have appeared only recently. The future role of various energy carriers and technologies in energy-economic scenarios will greatly depend on the level of energy prices. Therefore, an analysis of the impact of high energy prices on long-term scenarios for Germany was undertaken. Based on a reference scenario with moderate prices, a series of consistent high price scenarios for primary and secondary energy carriers were developed. Two scenarios with (i) continuously rising price trajectories and (ii) a price shock with a price peak during the period 2010-15 and a subsequent decline to the reference level are analysed. Two types of models have been applied in the analysis. The IKARUS energy systems optimisation model covers the whole of the German energy system from primary energy supply down to the end-use sectors. Key results in both high price scenarios include a replacement of natural gas by hard coal and renewable energy sources in electricity and heat generation. Backstop technologies like coal liquefaction begin to play a role under such conditions. Up to 10% of final energy consumption is saved in the end-use sectors, with the residential and transport sector being the greatest contributors. Even without additional restrictions, CO{sub 2} emissions significantly drop in comparison to the reference scenario. The ELIAS electricity investment analysis model focuses on the power sector. In the reference scenario with current allocation rules in the emissions trading scheme, the CO{sub 2} emissions decrease relatively steadily. The development is characterised by the phaseout of nuclear energy which is counterweighted by the increase of renewable. In the high price scenario, the CO{sub 2

  6. Design and testing of a shock absorber for a type 1 container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sappok, M.; Beine, B.; Rittscher, D.

    1993-01-01

    A shock-absorber will be required for a rad. waste 'Konrad' type 1 container made of ductile cast iron whenever it will be used as a type B container according to the IAEA-Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive materials. The shock-absorber has to protect the type B container during shipping such as to withstand the accident scenarios that are covered by the IAEA-Regulation tests without substantial loss of its shielding and tightness functions. The designation as type 1 container originates from German regulations for the intermediate storage site Gorleben and the final depository Konrad-mine. These regulations call for the limits on outside dimensions of 1700 mm in length, 1600 mm in width and 1450 mm in height as well as for a limit of 20 Mg on total weight without shock-absorber. The relatively simple design method for the shock-absorber has been validated by the test results. It can be extended to other materials and designs for shock-absorbers if reliable force-displacement-diagrams are available for the structural elements from which the absorbed energy and the displacements can be calculated by integration. In order to account for the dynamic effects, the better approximation of the true duration of the impact would be helpful. The present limit of 0.5 R p0,2 on the nominal stresses should be discussed because the large number of tests on containers made of ductile cast iron that have been performed up to now have shown a substantial level of conservatism on this respect. The sharply tapered pipes on edge Kl of the shock-absorbers should be replaced by pipe bends. This will result in smaller accelerations and in an even higher level of protection of the container than effected by the tested shock-absorber

  7. Review of the environmental impact of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hinnawi, E.E.

    1977-01-01

    Nuclear power is one of the alternative sources for meeting the increasing world requirements for energy production. The world's nuclear electrical power production has been increasing at a rapid rate and is expected to reach about 620 GWe by 1985 and about 3300 GWe by the year 2000. This continuing increase would be impossible without an equivalent expansion of available fuel supplies, enrichment capacity, fuel fabrication capacity, irradiated fuel reprocessing capacity, and finally appropriate facilities for dealing with the nuclear wastes which will arise in due course. The present report reviews the environmental impacts encountered at each step of the nuclear fuel cycle which consists of the processes of mining and milling of uranium ores, conversion to fuel material and fabrication of fuel elements, reactor design and operation, reprocessing of spent fuel, and disposal of radioactive wastes. It also includes a review of the environmental impact of transportation of radioactive material between installations handling different steps of the cycle. Although the environmental impacts arising at certain stages in the nuclear fuel cycle are similar to some of those encountered in the fossil-fuel cycle (for example, the ecological effects of strip mining of ores and/or thermal discharges), there are some unique impacts related to nuclear power generation. Perhaps the most important of these is the radioactivity released from the decay products of nuclear fission. Although most of the radionuclides released into the environment are of local or regional concern, because their half-lives are short compared to the time involved in their dispersion, some radionuclides have long half-lives and can, therefore, become widely distributed. This has been the main focus of public concern and debate with respect to the expansion in nuclear power utilisation, in spite of the strict regulations and safety measures undertaken

  8. Shock absorber in Ignalina NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulavas, A.; Muralis, J.

    1996-09-01

    Theoretical calculation and experimental analysis of models of shock absorber in Ignalina NPP is presented. The results obtained from the investigation with model of shock absorber coincide with the theoretical calculation. (author). 2 figs., 3 refs

  9. Absorber for terahertz radiation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biallas, George Herman; Apeldoorn, Cornelis; Williams, Gwyn P.; Benson, Stephen V.; Shinn, Michelle D.; Heckman, John D.

    2015-12-08

    A method and apparatus for minimizing the degradation of power in a free electron laser (FEL) generating terahertz (THz) radiation. The method includes inserting an absorber ring in the FEL beam path for absorbing any irregular THz radiation and thus minimizes the degradation of downstream optics and the resulting degradation of the FEL output power. The absorber ring includes an upstream side, a downstream side, and a plurality of wedges spaced radially around the absorber ring. The wedges form a scallop-like feature on the innermost edges of the absorber ring that acts as an apodizer, stopping diffractive focusing of the THz radiation that is not intercepted by the absorber. Spacing between the scallop-like features and the shape of the features approximates the Bartlett apodization function. The absorber ring provides a smooth intensity distribution, rather than one that is peaked on-center, thereby eliminating minor distortion downstream of the absorber.

  10. Corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jor-Shan [El Cerrito, CA; Farmer, Joseph C [Tracy, CA; Lee, Chuck K [Hayward, CA; Walker, Jeffrey [Gaithersburg, MD; Russell, Paige [Las Vegas, NV; Kirkwood, Jon [Saint Leonard, MD; Yang, Nancy [Lafayette, CA; Champagne, Victor [Oxford, PA

    2012-05-29

    A method of forming a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising the steps of spray or deposition or sputtering or welding processing to form a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material. Also a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material.

  11. Feynman Integrals with Absorbing Boundaries

    OpenAIRE

    Marchewka, A.; Schuss, Z.

    1997-01-01

    We propose a formulation of an absorbing boundary for a quantum particle. The formulation is based on a Feynman-type integral over trajectories that are confined to the non-absorbing region. Trajectories that reach the absorbing wall are discounted from the population of the surviving trajectories with a certain weighting factor. Under the assumption that absorbed trajectories do not interfere with the surviving trajectories, we obtain a time dependent absorption law. Two examples are worked ...

  12. Impact of Generator Stroke Length on Energy Production for a Direct Drive Wave Energy Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Hong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Lysekil wave energy converter (WEC, developed by the wave energy research group of Uppsala University, has evolved through a variety of mechanical designs since the first prototype was installed in 2006. The hundreds of engineering decisions made throughout the design processes have been based on a combination of theory, know-how from previous experiments, and educated guesses. One key parameter in the design of the WECs linear generator is the stroke length. A long stroke requires a taller WEC with associated economical and mechanical challenges, but a short stroke limits the power production. The 2-m stroke of the current WECs has been an educated guess for the Swedish wave climate, though the consequences of this choice on energy absorption have not been studied. When the WEC technology is considered for international waters, with larger waves and challenges of energy absorption and survivability, the subject of stroke length becomes even more relevant. This paper studies the impact of generator stroke length on energy absorption for three sites off the coasts of Sweden, Chile and Scotland. 2-m, 4-m, and unlimited stroke are considered. Power matrices for the studied WEC prototype are presented for each of the studied stroke lengths. Presented results quantify the losses incurred by a limited stroke. The results indicate that a 2-m stroke length is likely to be a good choice for Sweden, but 4-m is likely to be necessary in more energetic international waters.

  13. Simulation of MeV electron energy deposition in CdS quantum dots absorbed in silicate glass for radiation dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baharin, R; Hobson, P R; Smith, D R, E-mail: ruzalina.baharin@brunel.ac.u [Centre for Sensors and Instrumentation, School of Engineering and Design, Brunel University, Uxbridge UB8 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2010-09-01

    We are currently developing 2D dosimeters with optical readout based on CdS or CdS/CdSe core-shell quantum-dots using commercially available materials. In order to understand the limitations on the measurement of a 2D radiation profile the 3D deposited energy profile of MeV energy electrons in CdS quantum-dot-doped silica glass have been studied by Monte Carlo simulation using the CASINO and PENELOPE codes. Profiles for silica glass and CdS quantum-dot-doped silica glass were then compared.

  14. Simulation of MeV electron energy deposition in CdS quantum dots absorbed in silicate glass for radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baharin, R; Hobson, P R; Smith, D R

    2010-01-01

    We are currently developing 2D dosimeters with optical readout based on CdS or CdS/CdSe core-shell quantum-dots using commercially available materials. In order to understand the limitations on the measurement of a 2D radiation profile the 3D deposited energy profile of MeV energy electrons in CdS quantum-dot-doped silica glass have been studied by Monte Carlo simulation using the CASINO and PENELOPE codes. Profiles for silica glass and CdS quantum-dot-doped silica glass were then compared.

  15. Neutron Absorbing Ability Variation in Neutron Absorbing Material Caused by the Neutron Irradiation in Spent Fuel Storage Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Hee Dong; Han, Seul Gi; Lee, Sang Dong; Kim, Ki Hong; Ryu, Eag Hyang; Park, Hwa Gyu [Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    In spent fuel storage facility like high density spent fuel storage racks and dry storage casks, spent fuels are stored with neutron absorbing materials installed as a part of those facilities, and they are used for absorbing neutrons emitted from spent fuels. Usually structural material with neutron absorbing material of racks and casks are located around spent fuels, so it is irradiated by neutrons for long time. Neutron absorbing ability could be changed by the variation of nuclide composition in neutron absorbing material caused by the irradiation of neutrons. So, neutron absorbing materials are continuously faced with spent fuels with boric acid solution or inert gas environment. Major nuclides in neutron absorbing material are Al{sup 27}, C{sup 12}, B{sup 11}, B{sup 10} and they are changed to numerous other ones as radioactive decay or neutron absorption reaction. The B{sup 10} content in neutron absorbing material dominates the neutron absorbing ability, so, the variation of nuclide composition including the decrease of B{sup 10} content is the critical factor on neutron absorbing ability. In this study, neutron flux in spent fuel, the activation of neutron absorbing material and the variation of nuclide composition are calculated. And, the minimum neutron flux causing the decrease of B{sup 10} content is calculated in spent fuel storage facility. Finally, the variation of neutron multiplication factor is identified according to the one of B{sup 10} content in neutron absorbing material. The minimum neutron flux to impact the neutron absorbing ability is 10{sup 10} order, however, usual neutron flux from spent fuel is 10{sup 8} order. Therefore, even though neutron absorbing material is irradiated for over 40 years, B{sup 10} content is little decreased, so, initial neutron absorbing ability could be kept continuously.

  16. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, F.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of energy production, energy conversion, atomic energy and renewable energy. The development of the energy consumption in Austria for the years 1993 to 1999 is given for the different energy types. The development of the use of renewable energy sources in Austria is given, different domestic heat-systems are compared, life cycles and environmental balance are outlined. (a.n.)

  17. Climate change, renewable energy and population impact on future energy demand for Burkina Faso build environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouedraogo, B. I.

    This research addresses the dual challenge faced by Burkina Faso engineers to design sustainable low-energy cost public buildings and domestic dwellings while still providing the required thermal comfort under warmer temperature conditions caused by climate change. It was found base don climate change SRES scenario A2 that predicted mean temperature in Burkina Faso will increase by 2oC between 2010 and 2050. Therefore, in order to maintain a thermally comfortable 25oC inside public buildings, the projected annual energy consumption for cooling load will increase by 15%, 36% and 100% respectively for the period between 2020 to 2039, 2040 to 2059 and 2070 to 2089 when compared to the control case. It has also been found that a 1% increase in population growth will result in a 1.38% and 2.03% increase in carbon emission from primary energy consumption and future electricity consumption respectively. Furthermore, this research has investigated possible solutions for adaptation to the severe climate change and population growth impact on energy demand in Burkina Faso. Shading devices could potentially reduce the cooling load by up to 40%. Computer simulation programming of building energy consumption and a field study has shown that adobe houses have the potential of significantly reducing energy demand for cooling and offer a formidable method for climate change adaptation. Based on the Net Present Cost, hybrid photovoltaic (PV) and Diesel generator energy production configuration is the most cost effective local electricity supply system, for areas without electricity at present, with a payback time of 8 years when compared to diesel generator stand-alone configuration. It is therefore a viable solution to increase electricity access to the majority of the population.

  18. Energie-Nederland. Financial and economic impact of a changing energy market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    A detailed study of the Dutch power market has been carried out, including an assessment of the financial implications for conventional power plants. This study is to provide insight into the potential implications of the 16% RES (renewable energy sources) target without prescribing a particular scenario or outcome, or suggesting possible solutions. The study focuses on the potential financial and economic impact of meeting the RES target under different market scenarios. Also, the potential impact on security of supply and the need for flexible back-up capacity in the period 2013-2020 are assessed. Furthermore, an analysis is performed of potential market prices that are required for the economic feasibility of flexible back-up generation capacity with a very limited load factor. For the assessment of the financial impact of a changing energy market, the Dutch power market is modelled under various scenarios. Use has been made of a detailed model of Northwest Europe, in which all power stations, interconnections, and constraints (i.e. RES potential) are accounted for. In all scenarios, the 16% RES target is a binding constraint in that model. This means the model determines the least-cost option to meet this target, including wind onshore and offshore (up to the limit estimated by ECN), dedicated biomass and co-firing of biomass, and other sources such as solar.

  19. The Impact of Process Scaling on Scratchpad Memory Energy Savings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennion Redd

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Scratchpad memories have been shown to reduce power consumption, but the different characteristics of nanometer scale processes, such as increased leakage power, motivate an examination of how the benefits of these memories change with process scaling. Process and application characteristics affect the amount of energy saved by a scratchpad memory. Increases in leakage as a percentage of total power particularly impact applications that rarely access memory. This study examines how the benefits of scratchpad memories have changed in newer processes, based on the measured performance of the WIMS (Wireless Integrated MicroSystems microcontroller implemented in 180- and 65-nm processes and upon simulations of this microcontroller implemented in a 32-nm process. The results demonstrate that scratchpad memories will continue to improve the power dissipation of many applications, given the leakage anticipated in the foreseeable future.

  20. Collision cross sections of N2 by H+ impact at keV energies within time-dependent density-functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, W.; Gao, C.-Z.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, F. S.; Hutton, R.; Zou, Y.; Wei, B.

    2018-03-01

    We calculate electron capture and ionization cross sections of N2 impacted by the H+ projectile at keV energies. To this end, we employ the time-dependent density-functional theory coupled nonadiabatically to molecular dynamics. To avoid the explicit treatment of the complex density matrix in the calculation of cross sections, we propose an approximate method based on the assumption of constant ionization rate over the period of the projectile passing the absorbing boundary. Our results agree reasonably well with experimental data and semi-empirical results within the measurement uncertainties in the considered energy range. The discrepancies are mainly attributed to the inadequate description of exchange-correlation functional and the crude approximation for constant ionization rate. Although the present approach does not predict the experiments quantitatively for collision energies below 10 keV, it is still helpful to calculate total cross sections of ion-molecule collisions within a certain energy range.

  1. Optimization of Perfect Absorbers with Multilayer Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li Voti, Roberto

    2018-02-01

    We study wide-angle and broadband perfect absorbers with compact multilayer structures made of a sequence of ITO and TiN layers deposited onto a silver thick layer. An optimization procedure is introduced for searching the optimal thicknesses of the layers so as to design a perfect broadband absorber from 400 nm to 750 nm, for a wide range of angles of incidence from 0{°} to 50{°}, for both polarizations and with a low emissivity in the mid-infrared. We eventually compare the performances of several optimal structures that can be very promising for solar thermal energy harvesting and collectors.

  2. Device for absorbing seismic effects on buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xercavins, Pierre; Pompei, Michel.

    1979-01-01

    Device for absorbing seismic effects. The construction or structure to be protected rests on its foundations through at least one footing formed of a stack of metal plates interlinked by layers of adhesive material, over at least a part of their extent, this material being an elastomer that can distort, characterized in that at least part of the area of some metal plates works in association with components which are able to absorb at least some of the energy resulting from friction during the relative movements of the metal plates against the distortion of the elastomer [fr

  3. 78 FR 17653 - Upper Great Plains Wind Energy Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS-0408)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... Wildlife Service Upper Great Plains Wind Energy Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS... Plains Wind Energy Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (Draft [[Page 17654

  4. Why muscle is an efficient shock absorber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Ferenczi

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscles power body movement by converting free energy of ATP hydrolysis into mechanical work. During the landing phase of running or jumping some activated skeletal muscles are subjected to stretch. Upon stretch they absorb body energy quickly and effectively thus protecting joints and bones from impact damage. This is achieved because during lengthening, skeletal muscle bears higher force and has higher instantaneous stiffness than during isometric contraction, and yet consumes very little ATP. We wish to understand how the actomyosin molecules change their structure and interaction to implement these physiologically useful mechanical and thermodynamical properties. We monitored changes in the low angle x-ray diffraction pattern of rabbit skeletal muscle fibers during ramp stretch compared to those during isometric contraction at physiological temperature using synchrotron radiation. The intensities of the off-meridional layer lines and fine interference structure of the meridional M3 myosin x-ray reflection were resolved. Mechanical and structural data show that upon stretch the fraction of actin-bound myosin heads is higher than during isometric contraction. On the other hand, the intensities of the actin layer lines are lower than during isometric contraction. Taken together, these results suggest that during stretch, a significant fraction of actin-bound heads is bound non-stereo-specifically, i.e. they are disordered azimuthally although stiff axially. As the strong or stereo-specific myosin binding to actin is necessary for actin activation of the myosin ATPase, this finding explains the low metabolic cost of energy absorption by muscle during the landing phase of locomotion.

  5. Climate impacts on the cost of solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flowers, Mallory E.; Smith, Matthew K.; Parsekian, Ara W.; Boyuk, Dmitriy S.; McGrath, Jenna K.; Yates, Luke

    2016-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) estimates are widely utilized by decision makers to predict the long-term cost and benefits of solar PV installations, but fail to consider local climate, which impacts PV panel lifetime and performance. Specific types of solar PV panels are known to respond to climate factors differently. Mono-, poly-, and amorphous-silicon (Si) PV technologies are known to exhibit varying degradation rates and instantaneous power losses as a function of operating temperature, humidity, thermal cycling, and panel soiling. We formulate an extended LCOE calculation, which considers PV module performance and lifespan as a function of local climate. The LCOE is then calculated for crystalline and amorphous Si PV technologies across several climates. Finally, we assess the impact of various policy incentives on reducing the firm's cost of solar deployment when controlling for climate. This assessment is the first to quantify tradeoffs between technologies, geographies, and policies in a unified manner. Results suggest crystalline Si solar panels as the most promising candidate for commercial-scale PV systems due to their low degradation rates compared to amorphous technologies. Across technologies, we note the strong ability of investment subsidies in removing uncertainty and reducing the LCOE, compared to production incentives. - Highlights: •We integrate local climate into the Levelized Cost of photovoltaic technology. •Climate dictates panel degradation rates and the impact of temperature on efficiency. •We compare LCOE under policy scenarios for three technologies in four U. S. states. •Degradation is highly variable, increasing costs by shortening panel life in many regions. •Incentives targeting investment are most effective at reducing solar deployment costs.

  6. Cloud Impacts on Pavement Temperature in Energy Balance Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, C. L.

    2013-12-01

    Forecast systems provide decision support for end-users ranging from the solar energy industry to municipalities concerned with road safety. Pavement temperature is an important variable when considering vehicle response to various weather conditions. A complex, yet direct relationship exists between tire and pavement temperatures. Literature has shown that as tire temperature increases, friction decreases which affects vehicle performance. Many forecast systems suffer from inaccurate radiation forecasts resulting in part from the inability to model different types of clouds and their influence on radiation. This research focused on forecast improvement by determining how cloud type impacts the amount of shortwave radiation reaching the surface and subsequent pavement temperatures. The study region was the Great Plains where surface solar radiation data were obtained from the High Plains Regional Climate Center's Automated Weather Data Network stations. Road pavement temperature data were obtained from the Meteorological Assimilation Data Ingest System. Cloud properties and radiative transfer quantities were obtained from the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System mission via Aqua and Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer satellite products. An additional cloud data set was incorporated from the Naval Research Laboratory Cloud Classification algorithm. Statistical analyses using a modified nearest neighbor approach were first performed relating shortwave radiation variability with road pavement temperature fluctuations. Then statistical associations were determined between the shortwave radiation and cloud property data sets. Preliminary results suggest that substantial pavement forecasting improvement is possible with the inclusion of cloud-specific information. Future model sensitivity testing seeks to quantify the magnitude of forecast improvement.

  7. Biogas technology in Cienfuegos: energy, environmental, economic and social impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa Pérez, Inocente; Gutiérrez Benítez, Omar; Martínez Bermúdez, Guillermo; Padrón Padrón, Wilfredo; Águila Cabrera, Cira

    2015-01-01

    Promote the use of biogas is endorsed in the Guidelines 131 and 247 of the Economic and Social Policy of the Party and the Revolution element. The aim was to promote the construction and good practices in the use, operation and maintenance of biogas digesters in the province of Cienfuegos. The study of the design features of each type of digester, according to criteria of constructability, amount of manure, energy demand and geometry was performed. Un-practical theory for the design and construction of various types of biogas digesters compendium was prepared. Calculations for the conceptual and basic design fixed dome biogas digesters Circular Square and engineering were performed. The detailed engineering projects of different capacities biodigesters were developed. The results showed a progression of exponential growth in the number biodigesters for the past 4 years. This growth was accompanied by strong job training, technical advice and disclosure. Energy, environmental, economic and social impacts of the use of biogas in Cienfuegos were significant. At year end 2013, 80 biogas digesters in operation produced 429.1 m3 / day of biogas, which allowed replacing 78.3 t / year of fossil fuel equivalent disburse stop 43563.55 USD / year, stop pouring 3488.8 t / year of residual polluting the environment and stop emitting into the atmosphere 46.5 t / year of methane, equivalent to 1069.5 of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) equivalent dioxide. (full text)

  8. Biomass District Energy Trigeneration Systems: Emissions Reduction and Financial Impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rentizelas, A.; Tolis, A.; Tatsiopoulos, I.

    2009-01-01

    Biomass cogeneration is widely used for district heating applications in central and northern Europe. Biomass trigeneration on the other hand, constitutes an innovative renewable energy application. In this work, an approved United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change baseline methodology has been extended to allow the examination of biomass trigeneration applications. The methodology is applied to a case study in Greece to investigate various environmental and financial aspects of this type of applications. The results suggest that trigeneration may lead to significant emissions reduction compared to using fossil fuels or even biomass cogeneration and electricity generation. The emissions reduction achieved may be materialized into a considerable revenue stream for the project, if traded through a trading mechanism such as the European Union Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading Scheme. A sensitivity analysis has been performed to compensate for the high volatility of the emission allowances' value and the immaturity of the EU Trading Scheme, which prevent a reliable estimation of the related revenue. The work concludes that emission allowances trading may develop into one of the major revenue streams of biomass trigeneration projects, significantly increasing their financial yield and attractiveness. The impact on the yield is significant even for low future values of emission allowances and could become the main income revenue source of such projects, if emission allowances increase their value substantially. The application of trigeneration for district energy proves to lead to increased environmental and financial benefits compared to the cogeneration or electricity generation cases

  9. Structural Analysis of Shipping Casks, Vol. 9. Energy Absorption Capabilities of Plastically Deformed Struts Under Specified Impact Loading Conditions (Thesis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, F.C.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the energy absorption characteristics of plastically deformed inclined struts under impact loading. This information is needed to provide a usable method by which designers and analysts of shipping casks for radioactive or fissile materials can determine the energy absorption capabilities of external longitudinal fins on cylindrical casks under specified impact conditions. A survey of technical literature related to experimental determination of the dynamic plastic behavior of struts revealed no information directly applicable to the immediate problem, especially in the impact velocity ranges desired, and an experimental program was conducted to obtain the needed data. Mild-steel struts with rectangular cross sections were impacted by free-falling weights dropped from known heights. These struts or fin specimens were inclined at five different angles to simulate different angles of impact that fins on a shipping cask could experience under certain accident conditions. The resisting force of the deforming strut was measured and recorded as a function of time by using load cells instrumented with resistance strain gage bridges, signal conditioning equipment, an oscilloscope, and a Polaroid camera. The acceleration of the impacting weight was measured and recorded as a function of time during the latter portion of the testing program by using an accelerometer attached to the drop hammer, appropriate signal conditioning equipment, the oscilloscope, and the camera. A digital computer program was prepared to numerically integrate the force-time and acceleration-time data recorded during the tests to obtain deformation-time data. The force-displacement relationships were then integrated to obtain values of absorbed energy with respect to deformation or time. The results for various fin specimen geometries and impact angles are presented graphically, and these curves may be used to compute the energy absorption capacity of

  10. Warm Absorber Diagnostics of AGN Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallman, Timothy

    Warm absorbers and related phenomena are observable manifestations of outflows or winds from active galactic nuclei (AGN) that have great potential value. Understanding AGN outflows is important for explaining the mass budgets of the central accreting black hole, and also for understanding feedback and the apparent co-evolution of black holes and their host galaxies. In the X-ray band warm absorbers are observed as photoelectric absorption and resonance line scattering features in the 0.5-10 keV energy band; the UV band also shows resonance line absorption. Warm absorbers are common in low luminosity AGN and they have been extensively studied observationally. They may play an important role in AGN feedback, regulating the net accretion onto the black hole and providing mechanical energy to the surroundings. However, fundamental properties of the warm absorbers are not known: What is the mechanism which drives the outflow?; what is the gas density in the flow and the geometrical distribution of the outflow?; what is the explanation for the apparent relation between warm absorbers and the surprising quasi-relativistic 'ultrafast outflows' (UFOs)? We propose a focused set of model calculations that are aimed at synthesizing observable properties of warm absorber flows and associated quantities. These will be used to explore various scenarios for warm absorber dynamics in order to answer the questions in the previous paragraph. The guiding principle will be to examine as wide a range as possible of warm absorber driving mechanisms, geometry and other properties, but with as careful consideration as possible to physical consistency. We will build on our previous work, which was a systematic campaign for testing important class of scenarios for driving the outflows. We have developed a set of tools that are unique and well suited for dynamical calculations including radiation in this context. We also have state-of-the-art tools for generating synthetic spectra, which are

  11. The impact of Zero Energy Buildings on the Scandinavian energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seljom, Pernille; Lindberg, Karen Byskov; Tomasgard, Asgeir; Doorman, Gerard; Sartori, Igor

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates how an extensive implementation of net Zero Energy Buildings (ZEBs) affects cost-optimal investments in the Scandinavian energy system towards 2050. Analyses are done by a stochastic TIMES model with an explicit representation of the short-term uncertainty related to electricity supply and heat demand in buildings. We define a nearly ZEB to be a highly efficient building with on-site PV production. To evaluate the flexibility requirement of the surrounding energy system, we consider no use of energy storage within the ZEBs. The results show that ZEBs reduce the investments in non-flexible hydropower, wind power and Combined Heat and Power, and increase the use of direct electric heating and electric boilers. With building integrated PV production of 53 TWh in 2050, ZEBs increase the Scandinavian electricity generation by 16 TWh and increase the net electricity export by 19 TWh. Although the increased production reduces the electricity prices, the low heat demand in ZEBs gives a drop in the electricity consumption by 4 TWh in 2050. Finally, the results demonstrate that the Scandinavian energy system is capable of integrating a large amount of ZEBs with intermittent PV production due to the flexible hydropower in Norway and Sweden. - Highlights: • We analyse cost-optimal integration of ZEBs in the Scandinavian energy system. • We capture impact of short-term uncertainty on long-term investment decisions. • ZEBs reduce the investments in the electricity and heating sector. • The Scandinavian electricity sector is capable of integrating ZEBs with PV. • The operation of the flexible hydropower is changed with ZEBs.

  12. Deregulation in an energy market and its impact on R and D for low-carbon energy technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakada, Minoru

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of deregulation in an energy market on R and D activities for new energy technology when climate policy is implemented. A model of growth with vertical innovation is modified by including an oligopolistic energy supply sector for demonstrating to what extent deregulation in the energy supply sector will affect R and D activities for low-carbon energy technology, provided that carbon taxation is implemented. The analysis shows that, when the elasticity of substitution between input factors is less than unity, deregulation will drive energy R and D activities and reduce CO 2 accumulation if the energy market is highly concentrated in the beginning. (author)

  13. Analysis of Light Absorbing Aerosols in Northern Pakistan: Concentration on Snow/Ice, their Source Regions and Impacts on Snow Albedo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, C.; Praveen, P. S.; Shichang, K.; Adhikary, B.; Zhang, Y.; Ali, S.

    2016-12-01

    Elemental carbon (EC) and light absorbing organic carbon (OC) are important particulate impurities in snow and ice which significantly reduce the albedo of glaciers and accelerate their melting. Snow and ice samples were collected from Karakorum-Himalayan region of North Pakistan during the summer campaign (May-Jun) 2015 and only snow samples were collected during winter (Dec 2015- Jan 2016). Total 41 surface snow/ice samples were collected during summer campaign along different elevation ranges (2569 to 3895 a.m.s.l) from six glaciers: Sachin, Henarche, Barpu, Mear, Gulkin and Passu. Similarly 18 snow samples were collected from Sust, Hoper, Tawas, Astore, Shangla, and Kalam regions during the winter campaign. Quartz filters were used for filtering of melted snow and ice samples which were then analyzed by thermal optical reflectance (TOR) method to determine the concentration of EC and OC. The average concentration of EC (ng/g), OC (ng/g) and dust (ppm) were found as follows: Passu (249.5, 536.8, 475), Barpu (1190, 397.6, 1288), Gulkin (412, 793, 761), Sachin (911, 2130, 358), Mear (678, 2067, 83) and Henarche (755, 1868, 241) respectively during summer campaign. Similarly, average concentration of EC (ng/g), OC (ng/g) and dust (ppm) was found in the samples of Sust (2506, 1039, 131), Hoper (646, 1153, 76), Tawas (650, 1320, 16), Astore (1305, 2161, 97), Shangla (739, 2079, 31) and Kalam (107, 347, 5) respectively during winter campaign. Two methods were adopted to identify the source regions: one coupled emissions inventory with back trajectories, second with a simple region tagged chemical transport modeling analysis. In addition, CALIPSO subtype aerosol composition indicated that frequency of smoke in the atmosphere over the region was highest followed by dust and then polluted dust. SNICAR model was used to estimate the snow albedo reduction from our in-situ measurements. Snow albedo reduction was observed to be 0.3% to 27.6%. The derived results were used

  14. A long-term, integrated impact assessment of alternative building energy code scenarios in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Sha; Eom, Jiyong; Evans, Meredydd; Clarke, Leon

    2014-01-01

    China is the second largest building energy user in the world, ranking first and third in residential and commercial energy consumption. Beginning in the early 1980s, the Chinese government has developed a variety of building energy codes to improve building energy efficiency and reduce total energy demand. This paper studies the impact of building energy codes on energy use and CO 2 emissions by using a detailed building energy model that represents four distinct climate zones each with three building types, nested in a long-term integrated assessment framework GCAM. An advanced building stock module, coupled with the building energy model, is developed to reflect the characteristics of future building stock and its interaction with the development of building energy codes in China. This paper also evaluates the impacts of building codes on building energy demand in the presence of economy-wide carbon policy. We find that building energy codes would reduce Chinese building energy use by 13–22% depending on building code scenarios, with a similar effect preserved even under the carbon policy. The impact of building energy codes shows regional and sectoral variation due to regionally differentiated responses of heating and cooling services to shell efficiency improvement. - Highlights: • We assessed long-term impacts of building codes and climate policy using GCAM. • Building energy codes would reduce Chinese building energy use by 13–22%. • The impacts of codes on building energy use vary by climate region and sub-sector

  15. Drop Weight Device Fabrication and Tests for a Dynamic Material Property of Shock-Absorbing Material and Structure in Transportation Package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Woo Seok; Jeon, Jea Eon; Han, Sang Hyeok; Lee, Sang Hoon; Seo, Ki Seok

    2009-01-01

    A radioactive material transportation package consists of canister and impact limiters. IAEA Safety Standard Series No. TS-R-1 recommends a drop test to evaluate the structural integrity of a transportation package under a hypothetical accident condition. The free drop test of a transportation package from 9 m height simulates one of accident conditions. The transportation package has a potential energy corresponding to 9 m drop height, and this energy changes to a kinetic energy when it impacts on the target. The energy is absorbed by a deformation of shock-absorbing material so that the minimum energy is transferred to canister. Accordingly, the shock-absorbing material is a very important part in transportation package design. Since the data for shock-absorbing material characteristics is acquired by a static test in general, it is quite different to that of dynamic characteristics. And the dynamic characteristics data is hardly found in literature. In this study, a drop weight facility was designed and fabricated which produces an impact speed like that of free drop of 9 m height. Several materials considered for an impact limiter and impact limiter structures were tested by a drop weight facility to acquire a dynamic material characteristics data

  16. Drop Weight Device Fabrication and Tests for a Dynamic Material Property of Shock-Absorbing Material and Structure in Transportation Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Woo Seok; Jeon, Jea Eon; Han, Sang Hyeok; Lee, Sang Hoon; Seo, Ki Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    A radioactive material transportation package consists of canister and impact limiters. IAEA Safety Standard Series No. TS-R-1 recommends a drop test to evaluate the structural integrity of a transportation package under a hypothetical accident condition. The free drop test of a transportation package from 9 m height simulates one of accident conditions. The transportation package has a potential energy corresponding to 9 m drop height, and this energy changes to a kinetic energy when it impacts on the target. The energy is absorbed by a deformation of shock-absorbing material so that the minimum energy is transferred to canister. Accordingly, the shock-absorbing material is a very important part in transportation package design. Since the data for shock-absorbing material characteristics is acquired by a static test in general, it is quite different to that of dynamic characteristics. And the dynamic characteristics data is hardly found in literature. In this study, a drop weight facility was designed and fabricated which produces an impact speed like that of free drop of 9 m height. Several materials considered for an impact limiter and impact limiter structures were tested by a drop weight facility to acquire a dynamic material characteristics data.