Sample records for absolutely normal bone

  1. Absolute cross-section normalization of magnetic neutron scattering data (United States)

    Xu, Guangyong; Xu, Zhijun; Tranquada, J. M.


    We discuss various methods to obtain the resolution volume for neutron scattering experiments, in order to perform absolute normalization on inelastic magnetic neutron scattering data. Examples from previous experiments are given. We also try to provide clear definitions of a number of physical quantities which are commonly used to describe neutron magnetic scattering results, including the dynamic spin correlation function and the imaginary part of the dynamic susceptibility. Formulas that can be used for general purposes are provided and the advantages of the different normalization processes are discussed.

  2. Cosmic backgrounds of relic gravitons and their absolute normalization

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo


    Provided the consistency relations are not violated, the recent Bicep2 observations pin down the absolute normalization, the spectral slope and the maximal frequency of the cosmic graviton background produced during inflation. The properly normalized spectra are hereby computed from the lowest frequencies (of the order of the present Hubble rate) up to the highest frequency range in the GHz region. Deviations from the conventional paradigm cannot be excluded and are examined by allowing for different physical possibilities including, in particular, a running of the tensor spectral index, an explicit breaking of the consistency relations and a spike in the high-frequency tail of the spectrum coming either from a post-inflationary phase dominated by a stiff fluid of from the contribution of waterfall fields in a hybrid inflationary context. The direct determinations of the tensor to scalar ratio at low frequencies, if confirmed by the forthcoming observations, will also affect and constrain the high-frequencies...

  3. Cosmic backgrounds of relic gravitons and their absolute normalization (United States)

    Giovannini, Massimo


    Provided the consistency relations are not violated, the recent BICEP2 observations pin down the absolute normalization, the spectral slope and the maximal frequency of the cosmic graviton background produced during inflation. The properly normalized spectra are hereby computed from the lowest frequencies (of the order of the present Hubble rate) up to the highest frequency range in the GHz region. Deviations from the conventional paradigm cannot be excluded and are examined by allowing for different physical possibilities including, in particular, a running of the tensor spectral index, an explicit breaking of the consistency relations and a spike in the high-frequency tail of the spectrum coming either from a post-inflationary phase dominated by a stiff fluid or from the contribution of waterfall fields in a hybrid inflationary context. The direct determinations of the tensor to scalar ratio at low frequencies, if confirmed by the forthcoming observations, will also affect and constrain the high-frequency uncertainties. The limits on the cosmic graviton backgrounds coming from wide-band interferometers (such as LIGO/Virgo, LISA and BBO/DECIGO) together with a more accurate scrutiny of the tensor B-mode polarization at low frequencies will set direct bounds on the post-inflationary evolution and on other unconventional completions of the standard lore.

  4. Evaluation of Two Absolute Radiometric Normalization Algorithms for Pre-processing of Landsat Imagery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Hanqiu


    In order to evaluate radiometric normalization techniques, two image normalization algorithms for absolute radiometric correction of Landsat imagery were quantitatively compared in this paper, which are the Illumination Correction Model proposed by Markham and Irish and the Illumination and Atmospheric Correction Model developed by the Remote Sensing and GIS Laboratory of the Utah State University. Relative noise, correlation coefficient and slope value were used as the criteria for the evaluation and comparison, which were derived from pseudo-invariant features identified from multitemtween the normalized multitemporal images were significantly reduced when the seasons of multitemporal images were different. However, there was no significant difference between the normalized and unnormalized images with a similar seasonal condition. Furthermore, the correction results of two algorithms are similar when the images are relatively clear with a uniform atmospheric condition. Therefore, the radiometric normalization procedures should be carried out if the multitemporal images have a significant seasonal difference.

  5. Normal bone mineral density in cystic fibrosis


    Hardin, D.; R. Arumugam; Seilheimer, D.; Leblanc, A.; Ellis, K.


    BACKGROUND—Osteoporosis has been reported as a complication of cystic fibrosis (CF).
AIMS—To measure bone mineral density (BMD) in non-acutely ill adults and bone mineral content (BMC) in children with CF.
METHODS—We analysed data from 28 adults and 13 children with CF. Corticosteroid use was minimal for the year prior to study in both groups. Dual x ray absorptiometry was used to measure total body and regional bone mineral density in adults. In children, whole body BMC was...

  6. Derivation of the Limits for Control Chart Using the Median Absolute Deviation for Monitoring Non-Normal Process

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    P. I. Azubuike


    Full Text Available Problem statement: The Shewhart and S control charts, in the literature, were combined to evaluate the stability of a process. These charts were based on the fundamental assumption of normality of the quality characteristics under investigation. Approach: In practice, the normality assumption was often violated by real life data, therefore, use of the Shewhart and S control charts on real life data might leads to misplacement of control limits. There were many alternatives in the literature to handle non-normality of quality characteristics. The Median Absolute Deviation (MAD claimed in the literature to be the best estimate when the data under consideration is non-normal. Thus in this study, we derived the control limits for the-control chart using the median absolute deviation for monitoring process stability when the quality characteristic under investigation was non-normal. Results: The derived control limits were compared with the control limits when the sample standard deviation was used as a measure of controlling the process variability using manufacturing process (real life data. Furthermore, a simulation study was carried out to evaluate the performance of the proposed MAD based control charts on both normal and non-normal process. Conclusion: The obtained results show that the derived control limit is an improvement on the control limit of the Shewhart and that the MAD control charts performed better for non-normal process than for normal process.

  7. Bone marrow blood vessels: normal and neoplastic niche

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    Saeid Shahrabi


    Full Text Available Blood vessels are among the most important factors in the transport of materials such as nutrients and oxygen. This study will review the role of blood vessels in normal bone marrow hematopoiesis as well as pathological conditions like leukemia and metastasis. Relevant literature was identified by a Pubmed search (1992-2016 of English-language papers using the terms bone marrow, leukemia, metastasis, and vessel. Given that blood vessels are conduits for the transfer of nutrients, they create a favorable situation for cancer cells and cause their growth and development. On the other hand, blood vessels protect leukemia cells against chemotherapy drugs. Finally, it may be concluded that the vessels are an important factor in the development of malignant diseases.

  8. Normal tempo of bone formation in Turner syndrome despite signs of accelerated bone resorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleemann, Line Hartvig; Holm, Kirsten Bagge; Kobbernagel, Hanne;


    Aims: To evaluate area bone mineral density (aBMD) and volumetric BMD (vBMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and relations to bone markers and hormones in adolescent women with Turner syndrome (TS). Methods: Cross-sectional study in TS patients (n = 37, 16.7 ± 3.4 years) and control group (n......' TS, compared to controls. vBMD(hip) was lower in 'ongoing GH' TS, but similar in 'previous GH'. z scores for aBMD were uniformly reduced in 'ongoing TS', but near-normalized in 'previous GH' TS. Bone formation and resorption markers were increased in 'ongoing GH' TS, while 'previous GH' TS had...

  9. Normal Tempo of Bone Formation in Turner Syndrome despite Signs of Accelerated Bone Resorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleemann, Line; Holm, Kirsten; Kobbernagel, Hanne;


    Aims: To evaluate area bone mineral density (aBMD) and volumetric BMD (vBMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and relations to bone markers and hormones in adolescent women with Turner syndrome (TS). Methods: Cross-sectional study in TS patients (n = 37, 16.7 ± 3.4 years) and control group (n......' TS, compared to controls. vBMD(hip) was lower in 'ongoing GH' TS, but similar in 'previous GH'. z scores for aBMD were uniformly reduced in 'ongoing TS', but near-normalized in 'previous GH' TS. Bone formation and resorption markers were increased in 'ongoing GH' TS, while 'previous GH' TS had...

  10. Mice deficient in 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 lack bone marrow adipocytes, but maintain normal bone formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jeannette; Mosekilde, Lis; Holmes, Megan


    and regenerates active cortisol (corticosterone) from circulating inert 11-keto forms. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of this intracrine activation of GCs on normal bone physiology in vivo using mice deficient in 11betaHSD1 (HSD1(-/-)). The HSD1(-/-) mice exhibited no significant changes...... in cortical or trabecular bone mass compared with wild-type (Wt) mice. Aged HSD1(-/-) mice showed age-related bone loss similar to that observed in Wt mice. Histomorphometric analysis showed similar bone formation and bone resorption parameters in HSD1(-/-) and Wt mice. However, examination of bone marrow...

  11. (99m)Tc-DMSA absolute and relative renal uptake in cats: procedure and normal values. (United States)

    Vandermeulen, Eva; Ham, Hamphrey R; Dobbeleir, André A; De Sadeleer, Carlos; Piepsz, Amy; Waelbers, Tim; Vermeire, Simon T; Slegers, Guido; Peremans, Kathelijne Y


    In this study we investigated the influence of technical factors (positioning, background (BG) correction and attenuation correction) on qualitative and quantitative (absolute (AU) and relative (RU) uptake) assessment of feline kidneys with (99m)technetium labelled dimercaptosuccinic acid ((99m)Tc-DMSA). Eleven healthy adult cats were included. Influence of BG and depth correction on quantitative assessment was evaluated. Depth correction was based on the geometric mean method (using dorsal and ventral images) and the use of two standards placed over each individual kidney. Visual evaluation showed superiority of dorsal and ventral over lateral positioning due to increased separation of the kidneys permitting region of interest (ROI) placement without overlap. No apparent influence of BG correction was found for RU. However, AU was systematically overestimated without BG correction. Depth correction did not seem to affect RU in most cases, however, in some cats the differences were not negligible. The values for AU without depth correction were lower compared to depth corrected values.

  12. Mechanical properties of the normal human cartilage-bone complex in relation to age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Dalstra, M; Linde, F


    OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the age-related variations in the mechanical properties of the normal human tibial cartilage-bone complex and the relationships between cartilage and bone. DESIGN: A novel technique was applied to assess the mechanical properties of the cartilage and bone by means...... normal donors aged 16-83 years were tested in compression. The deformation was measured simultaneously in bone and cartilage to obtain the mechanical properties of both tissues. RESULTS: The stiffnesses and elastic energies of both cartilage and bone showed an initial increase, with maxima at 40 years......, followed by a steady decline. The viscoelastic energy was maximal at younger ages (16-29 years), followed by a steady decline. The energy absorption capacity did not vary with age. Stiffnesses and elastic energies were correlated significantly between cartilage and bone. CONCLUSIONS: The present study...

  13. Normal SUV values measured from NaF18- PET/CT bone scan studies.

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    Aung Zaw Win

    Full Text Available Cancer and metabolic bone diseases can alter the SUV. SUV values have never been measured from healthy skeletons in NaF18-PET/CT bone scans. The primary aim of this study was to measure the SUV values from normal skeletons in NaF18-PET/CT bone scans.A retrospective study was carried out involving NaF18- PET/CT bone scans that were done at our institution between January 2010 to May 2012. Our excluding criteria was patients with abnormal real function and patients with past history of cancer and metabolic bone diseases including but not limited to osteoporosis, osteopenia and Paget's disease. Eleven studies met all the criteria.The average normal SUVmax values from 11 patients were: cervical vertebrae 6.84 (range 4.38-8.64, thoracic vertebrae 7.36 (range 6.99-7.66, lumbar vertebrae 7.27 (range 7.04-7.72, femoral head 2.22 (range 1.1-4.3, humeral head 1.82 (range 1.2-2.9, mid sternum 5.51 (range 2.6-8.1, parietal bone 1.71 (range 1.3-2.4.According to our study, various skeletal sites have different normal SUV values. SUV values can be different between the normal bones and bones with tumor or metabolic bone disease. SUV can be used to quantify NaF-18 PET/CT studies. If the SUV values of the normal skeleton are known, they can be used in the characterization of bone lesions and in the assessment of treatment response to bone diseases.

  14. Computer modelling of bone's adaptation: the role of normal strain, shear strain and fluid flow. (United States)

    Tiwari, Abhishek Kumar; Prasad, Jitendra


    Bone loss is a serious health problem. In vivo studies have found that mechanical stimulation may inhibit bone loss as elevated strain in bone induces osteogenesis, i.e. new bone formation. However, the exact relationship between mechanical environment and osteogenesis is less clear. Normal strain is considered as a prime stimulus of osteogenic activity; however, there are some instances in the literature where osteogenesis is observed in the vicinity of minimal normal strain, specifically near the neutral axis of bending in long bones. It suggests that osteogenesis may also be induced by other or secondary components of mechanical environment such as shear strain or canalicular fluid flow. As it is evident from the literature, shear strain and fluid flow can be potent stimuli of osteogenesis. This study presents a computational model to investigate the roles of these stimuli in bone adaptation. The model assumes that bone formation rate is roughly proportional to the normal, shear and fluid shear strain energy density above their osteogenic thresholds. In vivo osteogenesis due to cyclic cantilever bending of a murine tibia has been simulated. The model predicts results close to experimental findings when normal strain, and shear strain or fluid shear were combined. This study also gives a new perspective on the relation between osteogenic potential of micro-level fluid shear and that of macro-level bending shear. Attempts to establish such relations among the components of mechanical environment and corresponding osteogenesis may ultimately aid in the development of effective approaches to mitigating bone loss.

  15. No evidence for a bone phenotype in GPRC6A knockout mice under normal physiological conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wellendorph, Petrine; Johansen, Lars Dan; Jensen, Anders Asbjørn;


    . Analogously to the closely related calcium-sensing receptor, GPRC6A has been proposed to function as a metabolic sensor of Ca2+ and amino acids in bone and other tissues. In the present study, we have generated the first GPRC6A knockout mice and studied their phenotype with particular focus on bone...... homeostasis. The generated GPRC6A knockout mice are viable and fertile, develop normally and exhibit no significant differences in body weight compared to wild type littermates. Assessment of bone mineral density, histomorphometry and bone metabolism demonstrated no significant differences between 13-week......-old knockout and wild type mice. In conclusion, our data do not support a role for GPRC6A in normal bone physiology....

  16. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging of the water fraction of normal bone marrow and diffuse bone marrow disease

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    Katsuya, Tomoo; Inoue, Tomio; Ishizaka, Hiroshi; Aoki, Jun; Endo, Keigo [Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine


    To clarify the contrast-enhancement pattern of the normal hematopoietic element by isolating the signal of the water fraction in vertebral bone marrow and to investigate whether this approach can be used to characterize bone marrow pathology in several diffuse bone marrow diseases. Two groups were examined: 30 normal healthy volunteers and 19 patients with primary diffuse bone marrow disease (aplastic anemia [n=8], myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) [n=5], chronic myelogenic leukemia (CML) [n=4], polycythemia vera [n=2]). Isolation of the signal of hematopoietic tissue was done by the chemical-shift misregistration effect. Twenty consecutive T1-weighted midsagittal lumber vertebral images were obtained immediately after the intravenous administration of Gd-DTPA of 0.1 mmol/kg body weight, and the pattern of the time-intensity curve, the peak contrast-enhancement (CE) ratio, and the washout rate (%/min) of bone marrow in normal volunteers were compared with those in patients suffering from primary diffuse bone marrow disease. The pattern of the time-intensity curve of patients with aplastic anemia showed a low peak value followed by a slow washout. However, the pattern of time-intensity curves in patients with MDS, CML, and polycythemia vera was similar to that of normal volunteers. The peak CE ratio of the water fraction in normal marrow ranged from 0.45 to 1.26 (mean {+-}S.D.: 0.87{+-}0.18). Patients with aplastic anemia showed an abnormally lower peak CE ratio of the water fraction (mean {+-}S.D.: 0.34{+-}0.19, p<0.0001). On the other hand, the peak CE ratio of the water fraction in patients with MDS was significantly higher than that of normal volunteers (mean {+-}S.D. 1.35{+-}0.39, p<0.05). In contrast, the peak CE ratio of patients with CML or polycythemia vera did not differ significantly from that of normal volunteers. The mean washout rate of patients with aplastic anemia was significantly lower than that of normal volunteers (mean {+-}S.D.: 3.50{+-}2.51 %/min

  17. Noninvasive markers of bone metabolism in the rhesus monkey: normal effects of age and gender (United States)

    Cahoon, S.; Boden, S. D.; Gould, K. G.; Vailas, A. C.


    Measurement of bone turnover in conditions such as osteoporosis has been limited by the need for invasive iliac bone biopsy to reliably determine parameters of bone metabolism. Recent advances in the area of serum and urinary markers of bone metabolism have raised the possibility for noninvasive measurements; however, little nonhuman primate data exist for these parameters. The purpose of this experiment was to define the normal range and variability of several of the newer noninvasive bone markers which are currently under investigation in humans. The primary intent was to determine age and gender variability, as well as provide some normative data for future experiments in nonhuman primates. Twenty-four rhesus macaques were divided into equal groups of male and female according to the following age groupings: 3 years, 5-10 years, 15-20 years, and > 25 years. Urine was collected three times daily for a four-day period and measured for several markers of bone turnoverm including pyridinoline (PYD), deoxypyrodinoline (DPD), hydroxyproline, and creatinine. Bone mineral density measurements of the lumbar spine were performed at the beginning and end of the study period. Serum was also obtained at the time of bone densitometry for measurement of osteocalcin levels by radioimmunoassay. There were no significant differences in bone mineral density, urine PYD, or urine DPD based on gender. Bone density was lowest in the youngest animals, peaked in the 15-20-year group, but again decreased in the oldest animals. The osteocalcin, PYD, and DPD levels followed an inversely related pattern to bone density. The most important result was the relative age insensitivity of the ratio of PYD:DPD in monkeys up to age 20 years. Since bone density changes take months or years to become measurable and iliac biopsies are invasive, the PYD/DPD marker ratio may have important implications for rapid noninvasive measurement of the effects of potential treatments for osteoporosis in the non

  18. Paget’s Disease of Bone Presented as Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus: A Case Report and Review of Literature

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    Abbas Tafakhori


    Full Text Available Background: Paget’s disease is a focal bone disorder manifested as bone overgrowth and disrupted bone integrity as a result of accelerated bone remodelling rate. Rarely, Paget’s disease of the base of the skull results in hydrocephalic dementia, and the triad of normal pressure hydrocephalus syndrome is a much more scarce entity.Case Report: Herein, we report an elderly woman who presented in Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran, Iran, with normal pressure hydrocephalus syndrome due to Paget’s bone disease. Furthermore, we have reviewed relevant previous studiesConclusion: Paget’s disease can be presented as normal pressure hydrocephalus syndrome

  19. Nrf2 is required for normal postnatal bone acquisition in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jung-Hyun Kim; Vandana Singhal; Shyam Biswal; Rajesh K Thimmulappa; Douglas J DiGirolamo


    A large body of literature suggests that bone metabolism is susceptible to the ill effects of reactive species that accumulate in the body and cause cellular dysfunction. One of the body’s front lines in defense against such damage is the transcription factor, Nrf2. This transcription factor regulates a plethora of antioxidant and cellular defense pathways to protect cells from such damage. Despite the breadth of knowledge of both the function of Nrf2 and the effects of reactive species in bone metabolism, the direct role of Nrf2 in skeletal biology has yet to be thoroughly examined. Thus, in the current study, we have examined the role of Nrf2 in postnatal bone metabolism in mice. Mice lacking Nrf2 (Nrf22/2) exhibited a marked deficit in postnatal bone acquisition, which was most severe at 3 weeks of age when osteoblast numbers were 12-fold less than observed in control animals. While primary osteoblasts from Nrf22/2 mice functioned normally in vitro, the colony forming capacity of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) from these mice was significantly reduced compared to controls. This defect could be rescued through treatment with the radical scavenger N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), suggesting that increased reactive species stress might impair early osteoblastogenesis in BMSCs and lead to the failure of bone acquisition observed in Nrf22/2 animals. Taken together, these studies suggest Nrf2 represents a key pathway in regulating bone metabolism, which may provide future therapeutic targets to treat osteoporosis.

  20. Effects of hyperbaric oxygen at 1.25 atmospheres absolute with normal air on macrophage number and infiltration during rat skeletal muscle regeneration. (United States)

    Fujita, Naoto; Ono, Miharu; Tomioka, Tomoka; Deie, Masataka


    Use of mild hyperbaric oxygen less than 2 atmospheres absolute (2026.54 hPa) with normal air is emerging as a common complementary treatment for severe muscle injury. Although hyperbaric oxygen at over 2 atmospheres absolute with 100% O2 promotes healing of skeletal muscle injury, it is not clear whether mild hyperbaric oxygen is equally effective. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of hyperbaric oxygen at 1.25 atmospheres absolute (1266.59 hPa) with normal air on muscle regeneration. The tibialis anterior muscle of male Wistar rats was injured by injection of bupivacaine hydrochloride, and rats were randomly assigned to a hyperbaric oxygen experimental group or to a non-hyperbaric oxygen control group. Immediately after the injection, rats were exposed to hyperbaric oxygen, and the treatment was continued for 28 days. The cross-sectional area of centrally nucleated muscle fibers was significantly larger in rats exposed to hyperbaric oxygen than in controls 5 and 7 days after injury. The number of CD68- or CD68- and CD206-positive cells was significantly higher in rats exposed to hyperbaric oxygen than in controls 24 h after injury. Additionally, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-10 mRNA expression levels were significantly higher in rats exposed to hyperbaric oxygen than in controls 24 h after injury. The number of Pax7- and MyoD- or MyoD- and myogenin-positive nuclei per mm2 and the expression levels of these proteins were significantly higher in rats exposed to hyperbaric oxygen than in controls 5 days after injury. These results suggest that mild hyperbaric oxygen promotes skeletal muscle regeneration in the early phase after injury, possibly due to reduced hypoxic conditions leading to accelerated macrophage infiltration and phenotype transition. In conclusion, mild hyperbaric oxygen less than 2 atmospheres absolute with normal air is an appropriate support therapy for severe muscle injuries.

  1. Easy Absolute Values? Absolutely (United States)

    Taylor, Sharon E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage


    The authors teach a problem-solving course for preservice middle-grades education majors that includes concepts dealing with absolute-value computations, equations, and inequalities. Many of these students like mathematics and plan to teach it, so they are adept at symbolic manipulations. Getting them to think differently about a concept that they…

  2. Bone Marrow Cells in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Create a Proinflammatory Microenvironment Influencing Normal Hematopoietic Differentiation Fates

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    Armando Vilchis-Ordoñez


    Full Text Available B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL is a serious public health problem in the pediatric population worldwide, contributing to 85% of deaths from childhood cancers. Understanding the biology of the disease is crucial for its clinical management and the development of therapeutic strategies. In line with that observed in other malignancies, chronic inflammation may contribute to a tumor microenvironment resulting in the damage of normal processes, concomitant to development and maintenance of neoplastic cells. We report here that hematopoietic cells from bone marrow B-ALL have the ability to produce proinflammatory and growth factors, including TNFα, IL-1β, IL-12, and GM-CSF that stimulate proliferation and differentiation of normal stem and progenitor cells. Our findings suggest an apparently distinct CD13+CD33+ population of leukemic cells contributing to a proinflammatory microenvironment that may be detrimental to long-term normal hematopoiesis within B-ALL bone marrow.

  3. Identification and characterization of plasma cells in normal human bone marrow by high-resolution flow cytometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terstappen, Leon W.M.M.; Johnsen, Steen; Segers-Nolten, Ine M.J.; Loken, Michael R.


    The low frequency of plasma cells and the lack of specific cell surface markers has been a major obstacle for a detailed characterization of plasma cells in normal human bone marrow. Multiparameter flow cytometry enabled the identification of plasma cells in normal bone marrow aspirates. The plasma

  4. Tocotrienols are needed for normal bone calcification in growing female rats. (United States)

    Norazlina, Mohamed; Ima-Nirwana, Soelaiman; Abul Gapor, Mohd Top; Abdul Kadir Khalid, B


    In this study the effects of vitamin E deficiency and supplementation on bone calcification were determined using 4-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats weighed between 180 and 200 g. The study was divided in three parts. In experiment I the rats were given normal rat chow (RC, control group), a vitamin E deficient (VED) diet or a 50% vitamin E deficient (50%VED) diet. In experiment 2 the rats were given VED supplemented with 30 mg/kg palm vitamin E (PVE30), 60 mg/kg palm vitamin E (PVE60) or 30 mg/kg pure alpha-tocopherol (ATF). In experiment 3 the rats were fed RC and given the same supplements as in experiment 2. The treatment lasted 8 months. Vitamin E derived from palm oil contained a mixture of ATF and tocotrienols. Rats on the VED and 50%VED diets had lower bone calcium content in the left femur compared to the RC group (91.6 +/- 13.3 mg and 118.3 +/- 26.0 mg cf 165.7 +/- 15.2 mg; P VED group with PVE60 improved bone calcification in the left femur (133.6 +/- 5.0 mg compared with 91.6 +/- 13.3 mg; P VED group. Supplementing the RC group with PVE30, PVE60 or ATF did not cause any significant changes in bone calcium content. In conclusion, vitamin E deficiency impaired bone calcification. Supplementation with the higher dose of palm vitamin E improved bone calcium content, but supplementation with pure ATF alone did not. This effect may be attributed to the tocotrienol content of palm vitamin E. Therefore, tocotrienols play an important role in bone calcification.

  5. Stimulation of Mucosal Mast Cell Growth in Normal and Nude Rat Bone Marrow Cultures (United States)

    Haig, David M.; McMenamin, Christine; Gunneberg, Christian; Woodbury, Richard; Jarrett, Ellen E. E.


    Mast cells with the morphological and biochemical properties of mucosal mast cells (MMC) appear and proliferate to form the predominant cell type in rat bone marrow cultures stimulated with factors from antigen- or mitogen-activated lymphocytes. Conditioned media causing a selective proliferation of MMC were derived from mesenteric lymph node cells of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis-infected rats restimulated in vitro with specific antigen or from normal or infected rat mesenteric lymph node cells stimulated with concanavalin A. MMC growth factor is not produced by T-cell-depleted mesenteric lymph node cells or by the mesenteric lymph node cells of athymic rats. By contrast, MMC precursors are present in the bone marrow of athymic rats and are normally receptive to the growth factor produced by the lymphocytes of thymus-intact rats. The thymus dependence of MMC hyperplasia is thus based on the requirement of a thymus-independent precursor for a T-cell-derived growth promoter.

  6. Cytological Evaluation of Bone Marrow in Normal Laying Hens and those With Lymphoid Leukosis

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    H.I. Al-Sadi and E.Y. Hussein

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate cytologically the bone marrow (and peripheral blood of adult laying hens affected with lymphoid leukosis. Diagnosis of the neoplasm was made on the basis of clinical history, signs and symptoms and pathology. Only histologically confirmed cases were included in the study. Examination of blood smears revealed +2 heterophil toxicity and the presence of large numbers of reactive (blast – transformed lymphocytes. Smears that were prepared from the bone marrow showed increased numbers of hemopoietic cells. The total erythrocyte count (TEC, hemoglobin percentage (Hb% , hemoglobin concentration (Hb conc., packed cell volume (PCV and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC values were significantly higher (P<0.01 in hens with lymphoid leukosis than in apparently normal hens. The mean corpuscular volume (MCV and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH were significantly lower (P< 0.01 in hens with lymphoid leukosis than in apparently normal hens. Results of the leukogram indicated that the total leukocyte count (TLC and the percentage (% of lymphocytes were significantly higher (P < 0.01 in hens with lymphoid leukosis than in apparently normal hens. From results of this study it was concluded that cytological evaluation of bone marrow may prove to be a simple , rapid , and useful tool in the diagnosis of lymphoid leukosis in laying hens. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(11.000: 497-499

  7. [Comparative investigations of osteotropic radionucleides. IV. The dynamics of uptake in normal and abnormal bone (author's transl)]. (United States)

    Creutzig, H; Gerdts, K G; Creutzig, A


    The dynamics of uptake of osteotropic radionucleides in normal and abnormal bone were studied by means of sequential and functional scans. Various phosphate and phosphonate complexes were compared in vivo and in vitro. Only phosphonates were considered as suitable for bone scanning. In normal bones in beagles, radioactivity after HEDP fell to 65% after two hours, but was 105% with 18F. In relation to healing fractures, the curves differ quantitatively and qualitatively. In this situation, functional curves derived from dynamic scans provide a better parallel with histological findings than does static scintigraphy with an uptake quotient. Sequential and functional scanning are able to document the therapeutic effect of irradiation of bone metastases.

  8. Effects of Electrical Stimulation During Absolute Refractory Period on Contraction and Relaxation of Cardiomyocytes from Normal Guinea-pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓静; 崔长琮; 张海柱


    Objectives To investi- gate the effect of electrical stimulation during absoluterefractory period on contraction and relaxation of ven-tricular myocytes from normal guinea-pigs. MethodsThe guinea -pig ventricular myocytes were obtainedby enzyme digesting, and the extent of its contractionand relaxation and Ca2+ transient were recordedthrough the motion edge detection system. Resultsmyocytes increased 15.45±6.48%, and the peakvelocity of shorting (contraction) and the peak velocity of relengthening (relaxation) increased 15.97±8.37% and 21.63 ± 8.06% respectively ( n = 10 );tio(360/380) (F360/F380) increased 22. 55 ± 9.08%,and the peak velocity of ventricular myocytes F360/F380 increased 36.75 ± 9.77% and 23.62 ± 4.47%during shorting and relengthening respectively (n =6) . Conclusions Appropriate electrical stimulationmay strengthen the contracting and relaxing function ofnormal guinea- pig ventricular myocytes.

  9. Catch up in bone acquisition in young adult men with late normal puberty. (United States)

    Darelid, Anna; Ohlsson, Claes; Nilsson, Martin; Kindblom, Jenny M; Mellström, Dan; Lorentzon, Mattias


    The aim of this study was to investigate the development of bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in relation to peak height velocity (PHV), and to investigate whether late normal puberty was associated with remaining low BMD and BMC in early adulthood in men. In total, 501 men (mean ± SD, 18.9 ± 0.5 years of age at baseline) were included in this 5-year longitudinal study. Areal BMD (aBMD) and BMC, volumetric BMD (vBMD) and cortical bone size were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and pQCT. Detailed growth and weight charts were used to calculate age at PHV, an objective assessment of pubertal timing. Age at PHV was a strong positive predictor of the increase in aBMD and BMC of the total body (R(2) aBMD 11.7%; BMC 4.3%), radius (R(2) aBMD 23.5%; BMC 22.3%), and lumbar spine (R(2) aBMD 11.9%; BMC 10.5%) between 19 and 24 years (p bone size, whereas cortical and trabecular vBMD were 0.7% (p males was associated with a substantial catch up in aBMD and BMC in young adulthood, leaving no deficits of the lumbar spine, femoral neck, or total body at age 24 years.

  10. Determining Normal Range of Vitamin D Based on PTH and Bone Mineral Density Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Larijani


    Full Text Available PTH is the most important factor which control calcium homeostasis in the body in this study we tried to determine the normal range of PTH and Vitamin D with examining the relation between PTH and bone density and Vitamin D on the base of bones biological changes. Our subjects were, 20 to 69 years-old men and women of Tehran. Serum volume of PTH and vitamin D in different decades of life had significant difference. Range of serum PTH in osteporotic persons was 29.7-38 pgr/lit (95% SD. This range for non osteporotic persons was 24.33-30.2 pgr/lit. In this study ranges below 18 nmol/lit was considered as severe vitamin D deficiency and 23-36nmol/lit as mild deficiency. So the volume more than 36 nmol/lit volumes was normal range of vitamin D. it seems that biological changes of bones associate more with ranges of vitamin D which causes significant changes in PTH.

  11. Determining Normal Range of Vitamin D Based on PTH and Bone Mineral Density Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Larijani


    Full Text Available PTH is the most important factor which control calcium homeostasis in the body in this study we tried to determine the normal range of PTH and Vitamin D with examining the relation between PTH and bone density and Vitamin D on the base of bones biological changes. Our subjects were, 20 to 69 years-old men and women of Tehran. Serum volume of PTH and vitamin D in different decades of life had significant difference. Range of serum PTH in osteporotic persons was 29.7-38 pgr/lit (95% SD. This range for non osteporotic persons was 24.33-30.2 pgr/lit. In this study ranges below 18 nmol/lit was considered as severe vitamin D deficiency and 23-36nmol/lit as mild deficiency. So the volume more than 36 nmol/lit volumes was normal range of vitamin D. it seems that biological changes of bones associate more with ranges of vitamin D which causes significant changes in PTH.

  12. Time course of 25(OHD3 vitamin D3 as well as PTH (parathyroid hormone during fracture healing of patients with normal and low bone mineral density (BMD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wöfl Christoph


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Until now the exact biochemical processes during healing of metaphyseal fractures of healthy and osteoporotic bone remain unclear. Especially the physiological time courses of 25(OHD3 (Vitamin D as well as PTH (Parathyroid Hormone the most important modulators of calcium and bone homeostasis are not yet examined sufficiently. The purpose of this study was to focus on the time course of these parameters during fracture healing. Methods In the presented study, we analyse the time course of 25(OHD3 and PTH during fracture healing of low BMD level fractures versus normal BMD level fractures in a matched pair analysis. Between March 2007 and February 2009 30 patients older than 50 years of age who had suffered a metaphyseal fracture of the proximal humerus, the distal radius or the proximal femur were included in our study. Osteoporosis was verified by DEXA measuring. The time courses of 25(OHD3 and PTH were examined over an eight week period. Friedmann test, the Wilcoxon signed rank test and the Mann-Withney U test were used as post-hoc tests. A p-value ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. Results Serum levels of 25(OHD3 showed no differences in both groups. In the first phase of fracture healing PTH levels in the low BMD level group remained below those of the normal BMD group in absolute figures. Over all no significant differences between low BMD level bone and normal BMD level bone could be detected in our study. Conclusions The time course of 25(OHD3 and PTH during fracture healing of patients with normal and low bone mineral density were examined for the first time in humans in this setting and allowing molecular biological insights into fracture healing in metaphyseal bones on a molecural level. There were no significant differences between patients with normal and low BMD levels. Hence further studies will be necessary to obtain more detailed insight into fracture healing in order to provide reliable decision criteria for

  13. Pediatric and adult MRI atlas of bone marrow. Normal appearances, variants and diffuse disease states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilaslan, Hakan; Sundaram, Murali [Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine, OH (United States); Cleveland Clinic Department of Radiology, OH (United States)


    This comprehensive atlas is unique in being devoted to the MRI appearances of bone marrow in the axial and appendicular skeleton of adults and children. Normal MRI findings, including common variants and degenerative changes, are first documented. MRI appearances in the entire spectrum of neoplastic and non-neoplastic infiltrative marrow disorders are then presented, with accompanying explanatory text. Among the conditions considered are multiple myeloma, the acute and chronic leukemias, diffuse metastases, diffuse lymphomas, the anemias, polycythemia vera, myelofibrosis, storage disorders, and infections. Characteristic changes to bone marrow following various forms of treatment are also displayed and discussed. The selected images reflect the use of a variety of sequences and techniques, such as fat suppression, and contrast-enhanced imaging.

  14. Synthesis, characterization and evaluation of bone targeting salmon calcitonin analogs in normal and osteoporotic rats. (United States)

    Bhandari, Krishna Hari; Newa, Madhuri; Chapman, Jillian; Doschak, Michael R


    In order to assess the therapeutic efficacy of an antiresorptive drug with imparted bone targeting potential using bisphosphonate (BP) conjugation and an improved pharmacokinetic profile using PEGylation, we synthesized, characterized and evaluated in vivo efficacy of bone-targeting PEGylated salmon calcitonin (sCT) analog (sCT-PEG-BP). sCT-PEG-BP was compared with non-PEGylated bone targeting sCT analog (sCT-BP) and unmodified, commercially available sCT. sCT-PEG-BP conjugates were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) analysis. The effect of PEG-BP or BP upon sCT secondary structure was examined by Circular Dichroism and sCT-PEG-BP was evaluated for in vitro bone mineral Hydroxyapatite (HA) binding ability and calcium salts specificity using a binding assay for bone HA and several calcium salts. Anti-calcitonin antibody binding ability of these analogs was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), by reacting bone targeting sCT analogs with calcium phosphate coated Osteologic® plates and detecting the bound sCT using anti-sCT antibody. Potential cytotoxicity of these compounds was evaluated in monocytic RAW 264.7 cells, and sCT bioactivity was evaluated using an in vitro intracellular cAMP stimulation assay in human T47D breast cancer cells. Finally, in vivo efficacy of each compound was evaluated by determining the plasma levels of calcium after s.c. administration in normal rats, and in a rat model of Osteoporosis, secondary to ovariectomy (OVX). In vivo micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) was used to temporally map and quantify alterations in bone volume and bone mineral density (BMD) in the same animals at 1, 4, 8 and 12 weeks after OVX surgery. Sixteen 6 week old virgin female rats underwent OVX surgery followed by the daily s.c. injection of 2.5IU/kg/day sCT or equivalent analogs, and compared to four sham-operated, placebo treated control rats. Our results showed the chemical coupling of

  15. Wielandt-type absolute perturbation upper bound for eigenvalues of normal matrices%正规矩阵特征值的Wielandt型绝对扰动上界

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    研究了一类特殊矩阵特征值的绝对扰动上界问题,利用矩阵的奇异值分解和矩阵计算方面的技巧,探讨了正规矩阵特征值的扰动问题,得到了正规矩阵特征值的Wielandt型绝对扰动上界。本文得到的结论还进一步推广了Wielandt-Hoffman定理.是比Wielandt-Hoffman定理更一般的形式。%This paper studies the absolute perturbation upper bounds for a class of special matrix eigenvalues. By using the techniques of singular value decomposition and matrix calculation, it discusses the perturbation for eigenvalues of normal matrices and obtai

  16. Relation Between Ghrelin Hormone Levels and Bone Mineral Density in Normal Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Naghiaee


    Full Text Available Introduction: Ghrelin hormone is a polypeptide with 28 amino acids that is secreted along the gastrointestinal tract, mainly in fundus of stomach. Some physiological functions of ghrelin include increase of appetite and food intake, energy balance, stimulation of growth hormone secretion and heart output and decrease in blood pressure. Recently, relation of ghrelin and bone mineral density has been considered. Methods: This descriptive study included 33 adult persons above 20 years of age. Bone mineral density was determined with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry in femur and lumbar regions. T-score over than -1 was considered as normal case. Ghrelin levels were determined by ELISA method. Results: The mean of age, body mass index and serum ghrelin were 40±10.6years, 27±3.6 kg/m² and 100.5±128 pg/ml, respectively. Correlation of ghrelin and variables was not statistically significant except weight (p=0.05. Conclusion: Range of serum ghrelin levels varies with age. In the present research, there was no relationship between ghrelin levels and bone mineral density in femur and lumbar regions. More studies with larger number of samples are proposed.

  17. Dexamethasone-Induced Oxidative Stress Enhances Myeloma Cell Radiosensitization While Sparing Normal Bone Marrow Hematopoiesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumen Bera


    Full Text Available Dexamethasone (Dex and radiation therapy are established modalities in multiple myeloma. In this study, we propose a novel combination of Dex plus radiation that shows superior clonogenic cell killing and apoptosis of myeloma cells and selectively eliminates myeloma cells when cocultured with bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs. Dex was found to inhibit the release of interleukin-6 from irradiated BMSCs, which is an established myeloma cell proproliferative cytokine. In 5TGM1 model, the combination of Dex with skeletal targeted radiotherapy (153-Sm-EDTMP prolonged median survival time and inhibited radiation-induced myelosuppression. A two-cycle treatment of Dex plus 153-Sm-EDTMP was well tolerated and further improved median survival time. Mechanistically, Dex increased superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production and augmented radiation-induced oxidative stress and cell death of myeloma cells. In contrast, Dex inhibited radiation-induced increase in pro-oxidant levels and enhanced the clonogenic survival in normal hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Treatment with either N-acetylcysteine or the combination of polyethylene glycol (PEG-conjugated copper, zinc-superoxide dismutase, and PEG-catalase significantly protected myeloma cells from Dex-induced clonogenic death. Overall, these results demonstrate that Dex in combination with radiotherapy enhances the killing of myeloma cells while protecting normal bone marrow hematopoiesis through a mechanism that involves selective increases in oxidative stress.

  18. HSP10 selective preference for myeloid and megakaryocytic precursors in normal human bone marrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Cappello


    Full Text Available Heat shock proteins (HSPs constitute a heterogeneous family of proteins involved in cell homeostasis. During cell life they are involved in harmful insults, as well as in immune and inflammatory reactions. It is known that they regulate gene expression, and cell proliferation, differentiation and death. HSP60 is a mitochondrial chaperonin, highly preserved during evolution, responsible of protein folding. Its function is strictly dependent on HSP10 in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic elements. We investigated the presence and the expression of HSP60 and HSP10 in a series of 20 normal human bone marrow specimens (NHBM by the means of immunohistochemistry. NHBM showed no expression of HSP60, probably due to its being below the detectable threshold, as already demonstrated in other normal human tissues. By contrast, HSP10 showed a selective positivity for myeloid and megakaryocytic lineages. The positivity was restricted to precursor cells, while mature elements were constantly negative.We postulate that HSP10 plays a role in bone marrow cell differentiation other than being a mitochondrial co-chaperonin. The present data emphasize the role of HSP10 during cellular homeostasis and encourage further investigations in this field.

  19. Pegvisomant-induced serum insulin-like growth factor-I normalization in patients with acromegaly returns elevated markers of bone turnover to normal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parkinson, C; Kassem, M; Heickendorff, Lene


    . Pegvisomant-induced normalization of serum IGF-I results in a decrease in markers of bone and soft tissue turnover to levels observed in age-matched controls, and these changes are accompanied by an increase in PTH and a decrease in 1,25-(OH)(2) vit D. These data provide further evidence of the effectiveness...... cross-linked N-telopeptide/creatinine ratio, and urinary calcium (24 h collection) were measured (single-batch analysis) at study entry and after IGF-I normalization, along with sera from 32 age- and sex-matched controls. Compared with controls, PIIINP, OC, and CTx were significantly elevated......Active acromegaly is associated with increased biochemical markers of bone turnover. Pegvisomant is a GH receptor antagonist that normalizes serum IGF-I in 97% of patients with active acromegaly. We evaluated the effects of pegvisomant-induced serum IGF-I normalization on biochemical markers...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-yan Zhang; Rong Rong; Xiao-ying Wang


    Objective To investigate the signal intensity and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of bone marrow of normal adult man on diffusion weighted imaging (DWI).Methods Fifteen healthy volunteers and thirty-eight patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia or normal prostate were enrolled in this study, with age range 28-82 years old (mean 55.26 ± 18.05 years). All people were examined with large field DWI on a 3.0T magnetic resonance scanner, which ranges from the top of head to the lower limb. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on the DWI and ADC of lumber vertebra at renal hilum level, left ilium and superior segment of left femur were measured. The measured SNR and ADC value of the above sites were compared by one way analysis of variance and their correlations with age were investigated by Pearson's correlation analysis. Results The SNR of lumber vertebra, left ilium and left femur showed no significant difference (F = 0.271, P = 0.763). The SNR of lumber vertebra (r = 0.309, P = 0.024) and left ilium (r = 0.359, P = 0.008) showed positive correlation with age, while the SNR of left femur showed no correlation with age (r = -0.163, P = 0.283). The ADC of lumber vertebra [(0.617 ± 0.177) ×10-3 mm2/s] was significantly higher than that of left ilium [(0.404 ± 0.112)×10-3 mm2/ P < 0.001] and left femur [(0.362 ± 0.092)×10-3mm2/s, P < 0.001], while the ADC of left ilium and left femur had no significant difference. The ADC of lumber vertebra, left ilium and left femur showed no correlation with age. Conclusion Understanding of age-related changes of normal adult bone marrow on DWI is very important to differentiate the normal bone marrow and abnormal lesions.

  1. The effects of twelve weeks of bed rest on bone histology, biochemical markers of bone turnover, and calcium homeostasis in eleven normal subjects (United States)

    Zerwekh, J. E.; Ruml, L. A.; Gottschalk, F.; Pak, C. Y.; Blomqvist, C. G. (Principal Investigator)


    This study was undertaken to examine the effects of 12 weeks of skeletal unloading on parameters of calcium homeostasis, calcitropic hormones, bone histology, and biochemical markers of bone turnover in 11 normal subjects (9 men, 2 women; 34 +/- 11 years of age). Following an ambulatory control evaluation, all subjects underwent 12 weeks of bed rest. An additional metabolic evaluation was performed after 12 days of reambulation. Bone mineral density declined at the spine (-2.9%, p = 0.092) and at the hip (-3.8%, p = 0.002 for the trochanter). Bed rest prompted a rapid, sustained, significant increase in urinary calcium and phosphorus as well as a significant increase in serum calcium. Urinary calcium increased from a pre-bed rest value of 5.3 mmol/day to values as high as 73 mmol/day during bed rest. Immunoreactive parathyroid hormone and serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D declined significantly during bed rest, although the mean values remained within normal limits. Significant changes in bone histology included a suppression of osteoblastic surface for cancellous bone (3.1 +/- 1.3% to 1.9 +/- 1.5%, p = 0.0142) and increased bone resorption for both cancellous and cortical bone. Cortical eroded surface increased from 3.5 +/- 1.1% to 7.3 +/- 4.0% (p = 0.018) as did active osteoclastic surface (0.2 +/- 0.3% to 0.7 +/- 0.7%, p = 0.021). Cancellous eroded surface increased from 2.1 +/- 1.1% to 4.7 +/- 2.2% (p = 0.002), while mean active osteoclastic surface doubled (0.2 +/- 0.2% to 0.4 +/- 0.3%, p = 0.020). Serum biochemical markers of bone formation (osteocalcin, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, and type I procollagen extension peptide) did not change significantly during bed rest. Urinary biochemical markers of bone resorption (hydroxyproline, deoxypyridinoline, and N-telopeptide of type I collagen) as well as a serum marker of bone resorption (type I collagen carboxytelopeptide) all demonstrated significant increases during bed rest which declined toward normal

  2. Normal Parathyroid Function with Decreased Bone Mineral Density in Treated Celiac Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Lemieux


    Full Text Available Decreased bone mineral density (BMD has been reported in patients with celiac disease in association with secondary hyperparathyroidism. The present study investigated whether basal parathyroid hormone (PTH remained elevated and whether abnormalities of parathyroid function were still present in celiac disease patients treated with a gluten-free diet. Basal seric measurements of calcium and phosphate homeostasis and BMD were obtained in 17 biopsy-proven patients under treatment for a mean period of 5.7±3.7 years (range 1.1 to 15.9. In addition, parathyroid function was studied with calcium chloride and sodium citrate infusions in seven patients. Basal measurements of patients were compared with those of 26 normal individuals, while parathyroid function results were compared with those of seven sex- and age-matched controls. Basal results were similar in patients and controls except for intact PTH (I-PTH (3.77±0.88 pmol/L versus 2.28±0.63 pmol/L, P<0.001, which was higher in the former group but still within normal limits. Mean 25-hydroxy vitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D values were normal in patients. Parathyroid function results were also found to be similar in both groups. Compared with a reference population of the same age (Z score, patients had significantly lower BMDs of the hip (-0.60±0.96 SDs, P<0.05 and lumbar spine (-0.76±1.15 SDs, P<0.05. T scores were also decreased for the hip (-1.3±0.9 SDs, P<0.0001 and lumbar spine (-1.4±1.35 SDs, P<0.0001, with two to three patients being osteoporotic (T score less than -2.5 SDs and seven to eight osteopenic (T score less than -1 SDs but greater than or equal to -2.5 SDs in at least one site. Height and weight were the only important determinants of BMD values by multivariate or logistical regression analysis in these patients. The results show higher basal I-PTH values with normal parathyroid function in treated celiac disease. Height and weight values are, but I-PTH values are not

  3. Absolute advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)


    textabstractA country is said to have an absolute advantage over another country in the production of a good or service if it can produce that good or service using fewer real resources. Equivalently, using the same inputs, the country can produce more output. The concept of absolute advantage can a

  4. Patients with Van Buchem disease, an osteosclerotic genetic disease, have elevated bone formation markers, higher bone density, and greater derived polar moment of inertia than normal. (United States)

    Wergedal, Jon E; Veskovic, Katarina; Hellan, Minea; Nyght, Christine; Balemans, Wendy; Libanati, Cesar; Vanhoenacker, Filip M; Tan, Johan; Baylink, David J; Van Hul, Wim


    Van Buchem disease is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by overgrowth of the skeleton. In a group of Dutch patients the disease is thought to be due to a 52-kb deletion that results in decreased expression of the SOST gene. To further characterize the disease, the morphology of the metacarpals of six adult subjects and two juveniles with Van Buchem disease were measured on hand x-rays along with nine normal adults and nine adult carriers of the disease. Serum bone formation markers, alkaline phosphatase, type I procollagen peptide, and osteocalcin, and the urinary bone resorption marker, cross-linked N-telopeptide, were determined. Van Buchem patients had increased metacarpal outer diameter, inner diameter, cortical thickness, and bone mineral density. Calculated bone volume and derived polar moment of inertia were markedly elevated (elevations of 158 +/- 33% and 497 +/- 95%, respectively) consistent with increased bone strength. Serum procollagen peptide and osteocalcin were significantly higher in Van Buchem patients. Urinary cross-linked N-telopeptide was significantly elevated in Van Buchem patients. None of these changes was found in Van Buchem carriers. These observations indicate that decreased expression of the SOST gene can lead to increased bone formation and to stronger bones.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦明伟; 余卫; 徐苓; 田均平; 邢小平; 孟迅吾


    Objective. To study the whole body bone mineral changes in normal subjects.Methods. Bone mineral was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry(DXA) in 292 normal subjectsaged 10~79 years, including 152 females and 140 males. They were divided into age-groups by decade.Results. In males, the ages with peak value of total bone mineral content (TBMC), total bone min-eral density (TBMD), anteroposterior spine BMD(L2-4 BMD) were in the 30~39,20~39, 20~29 age-groups respectively. In females, they were all in the 30~39 age-group. Peak values of TBMC, TBMD,L2-4 BMD were higher in males than those in females. Loss of bone mineral for females was more pro-nounced than that for males. Loss of L2-4 BMD was more pronounced than TBMD.Conclusion. This study provides the normal bone mineral data of whole body for males and females,and the characteristic of changes.

  6. Thermal effects generated by high-intensity focused ultrasound beams at normal incidence to a bone surface. (United States)

    Nell, Diane M; Myers, Matthew R


    Experiments and computations were performed to study factors affecting thermal safety when high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) beams are normally incident (i.e., beam axis normal to the interface) upon a bone/soft-tissue interface. In particular, the temperature rise and thermal dose were determined as a function of separation between the beam focus and the interface. Under conditions representative of clinical HIFU procedures, it was found that the thermal dose at the bone surface can exceed the threshold for necrosis even when the beam focus is more than 4 cm from the bone. Experiments showed that reflection of the HIFU beam from the bone back into the transducer introduced temperature fluctuations of as much as +/-15% and may be an important consideration for safety analyses at sufficiently high acoustic power. The applicability of linear propagation models in predicting thermal dose near the interface was also addressed. Linear models, while underpredicting thermal dose at the focus, provided a conservative (slight overprediction) estimate of thermal dose at the bone surface. Finally, temperature rise due to absorption of shear waves generated by the HIFU beam in the bone was computed. Modeling shear-wave propagation in the thermal analysis showed that the predicted temperature rise off axis was as much as 30% higher when absorption of shear waves is included, indicating that enhanced heating due to shear-wave absorption is potentially important, even for normally incident HIFU beams.

  7. Evaluation of the mineral content of peripheral bones (radius) by photon-absorption technique in normals as well as in patients with various types of bone diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runge, H.; Fengler, F.; Franke, J.; Koall, W.


    The evaluation of the mineral content of peripheral bones by measuring the photon absorption of the radius has proven to be a valuable method for routine clinical work: for diagnosis, follow-up and control of therapy. While there was a significant difference in the findings of normal persons compared with those of patients suffering from osteoporosis, renal osteodystrophy, osteogenesis imperfecta and skeletal fluorosis, there was no difference between normals and these patients suffering from Bechterew, Scheuermann, coxarthrosis, spondylosis, skoliosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Normal values for the mineral content and the width of the radius at the junction of the middle and lower third - based on 8000 examinations - are mentioned.

  8. Periosteal reaction with normal-appearing underlying bone: a child abuse mimicker. (United States)

    Ved, Nipa; Haller, Jack O


    Any irritation or disruption to the underlying bone will cause a periosteal reaction and result in new periosteal bone deposition. Periosteal bone formation may be due to either physiologic or pathologic causes. Pathologic bone formation generally results from an adjacent inflammatory process or a hypoxic or toxic stimulus. Common causes of pathologic periosteal reaction in children include trauma to the underlying bone. However, other causes such as hypervitaminosis A, prostaglandin therapy, cortical hyperostosis (Caffey's disease), hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (primary and secondary), osteomyelitis, leukemia, trauma, and syphilis must also be considered. The last four are usually associated with some degree of bone destruction, while in the first four diseases the underlying bone is left radiologically intact. This paper will concentrate on those diseases that appear to leave the underlying bone intact. The clinical and radiological features that help to differentiate some of these entities are presented.

  9. Expression of Neuropilin-1 Gene in Bone Marrow Stromal Cells from Patients with Myeloid Leukemia and Normal Individuals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUYing; WANGZhen; WUXiuli; HUANGMeijuan; CHENShaohua; YANGLijian; LIYangqiu


    Objective: To investigate the expression of neuropilin-1 (NP-1) gene in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) from myeloid leukemia (AML and CML) and normal individuals. Methods: Mononuclear cells were isolated from bone marrow (BM) of CML (14 cases), AML (12 cases) and normal individuals (20 cases). Adherent cells (i.e. BMSCs) were collected after long-term culture in vitro. The expression of NP-1 gene in three groups was detected respectively by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results: The long-term culture of BMSCs was successfully established. The expression level of NP-1 gene was significantly lower in BMSCs from AML (47.1%) and CML (50%) than in normal individuals (85%). Conclusion: NP-1 gene is expressed in BMSCs from some AML or CML patients and most normal individuals. The low-expression of NP-1 gene in BMSCs from AML or CML patients might be related with abnormality of regulation in hematopoiesis.

  10. An integrative approach for comparing microcirculation between normal and alveolar cleft gingiva in children scheduled for secondary bone grafting procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.M.J. Milstein; Y.W. Cheung; L. Ziukaite; C. Ince; H.P. van den Akker; J.A.H. Lindeboom


    Objective The aim of this study was to compare microcirculatory parameters in normal versus alveolar cleft gingiva in children selected for secondary bone grafting procedures. Study Design This study included 11 consecutive patients with complete unilateral alveolar clefts who required secondary bon

  11. Multiparameter MRI assessment of normal-appearing and diseased vertebral bone marrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biffar, Andreas; Dietrich, Olaf [LMU University Hospitals Munich-Grosshadern, Josef Lissner Laboratory for Biomedical Imaging, Institute of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Baur-Melnyk, Andrea; Schmidt, Gerwin P. [LMU University Hospitals Munich-Grosshadern, Institute of Clinical Radiology, Munich 81377 (Germany); Reiser, Maximilian F. [LMU University Hospitals Munich-Grosshadern, Josef Lissner Laboratory for Biomedical Imaging, Institute of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); LMU University Hospitals Munich-Grosshadern, Institute of Clinical Radiology, Munich 81377 (Germany)


    To evaluate spin-lattice (T1) and spin-spin (T2) relaxation times as well as apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) of the fat and water components in the vertebral bone marrow (vBM) of patients with benign and malignant lesions. Forty-four patients were examined at 1.5 T: there were 24 osteoporotic vertebral fractures (15 women, 9 men; median age: 73, 48-86 years) and 20 malignant vertebral infiltrations (9 women, 11 men; median age: 60, 25-87). Relaxation times were determined separately for the water and the fat component using a saturation-recovery technique for T1 and measurements with variable echo times for T2. ADCs were determined with a diffusion-weighted (DW) echo-planar imaging (EPI) and a single-shot turbo-spin-echo (ssTSE) sequence. T1 of the water component and ADCs were significantly increased in the lesions compared with normal-appearing vBM (malignant: 1,252 vs. 828 ms, osteoporotic: 1,315 vs. 872 ms). ADCs determined with the DW-ssTSE were significantly increased compared with the DW-EPI. ADCs determined with the DW-ssTSE differed significantly between osteoporotic and malignant lesions (1.74vs1.35 x 10{sup -3}mm{sup 2}/s). All parameters exhibit significant differences between normal-appearing vBM and the lesions. However, only the ADCs determined with the DW-ssTSE differed significantly between osteoporotic fractures and malignant lesions, potentially allowing for a differential diagnosis of these two entities. (orig.)

  12. Differential Effects of Dabigatran and Warfarin on Bone Volume and Structure in Rats with Normal Renal Function (United States)

    Fusaro, Maria; Dalle Carbonare, Luca; Dusso, Adriana; Arcidiacono, Maria Vittoria; Valenti, Maria Teresa; Aghi, Andrea; Pasho, Sabina; Gallieni, Maurizio


    Background Warfarin, a widely used anticoagulant, is a vitamin K antagonist impairing the activity of vitamin K-dependent Bone Gla Protein (BGP or Osteocalcin) and Matrix Gla Protein (MGP). Because dabigatran, a new anticoagulant, has no effect on vitamin K metabolism, the aim of this study was to compare the impact of warfarin and dabigatran administration on bone structure and vascular calcification. Methods Rats with normal renal function received for 6 weeks warfarin, dabigatran or placebo. Bone was evaluated immuno-histochemically and hystomorphometrically after double labelling with declomycin and calcein. Aorta and iliac arteries were examined histologically. Results Histomorphometric analysis of femur and vertebrae showed significantly decreased bone volume and increased trabecular separation in rats treated with warfarin. Vertebra analysis showed that the trabecular number was higher in dabigatran treated rats. Osteoblast activity and resorption parameters were similar among groups, except for maximum erosion depth, which was higher in warfarin treated rats, suggesting a higher osteoclastic activity. Therefore, warfarin treatment was also associated with higher bone formation rate/bone surface and activation frequency. Warfarin treatment may cause an increased bone turnover characterized by increased remodelling cycles, with stronger osteoclast activity compared to the other groups. There were no differences among experimental groups in calcium deposition either in aortic or iliac arteries. Conclusions These findings suggest for the first time that dabigatran has a better bone safety profile than warfarin, as warfarin treatment affects bone by reducing trabecular size and structure, increasing turnover and reducing mineralization. These differences could potentially result in a lower incidence of fractures in dabigatran treated patients. PMID:26241483

  13. Differential Effects of Dabigatran and Warfarin on Bone Volume and Structure in Rats with Normal Renal Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fusaro

    Full Text Available Warfarin, a widely used anticoagulant, is a vitamin K antagonist impairing the activity of vitamin K-dependent Bone Gla Protein (BGP or Osteocalcin and Matrix Gla Protein (MGP. Because dabigatran, a new anticoagulant, has no effect on vitamin K metabolism, the aim of this study was to compare the impact of warfarin and dabigatran administration on bone structure and vascular calcification.Rats with normal renal function received for 6 weeks warfarin, dabigatran or placebo. Bone was evaluated immuno-histochemically and hystomorphometrically after double labelling with declomycin and calcein. Aorta and iliac arteries were examined histologically.Histomorphometric analysis of femur and vertebrae showed significantly decreased bone volume and increased trabecular separation in rats treated with warfarin. Vertebra analysis showed that the trabecular number was higher in dabigatran treated rats. Osteoblast activity and resorption parameters were similar among groups, except for maximum erosion depth, which was higher in warfarin treated rats, suggesting a higher osteoclastic activity. Therefore, warfarin treatment was also associated with higher bone formation rate/bone surface and activation frequency. Warfarin treatment may cause an increased bone turnover characterized by increased remodelling cycles, with stronger osteoclast activity compared to the other groups. There were no differences among experimental groups in calcium deposition either in aortic or iliac arteries.These findings suggest for the first time that dabigatran has a better bone safety profile than warfarin, as warfarin treatment affects bone by reducing trabecular size and structure, increasing turnover and reducing mineralization. These differences could potentially result in a lower incidence of fractures in dabigatran treated patients.

  14. Study on Biologic Activity for Membrane of Normal Bone Marrow Cells with Infection of Epidemic Hemorrhagic Fever Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Using DPH fluorescence probe, the membrane of normal bone marrow cells with infection of epidemic hemorrhagic fever virus (EHFV) was labeled. The membrane lipid fluidity was obviously decreased from the membrane lipid fluorescence polarization. The membrane lipid fluidity of lymphocyte, monocyte and neutrophilic granulocyte was dynamically observed. After culturing the cells for 1, 6, 24 and 72 h, it was found that all the membrane lipid fluidity of the infected cells was decreased obviously with the longer the culturing time, the more obvious it. Compared with the normal control groups, there was a significant difference statistically (P<0. 05-0. 01). It was suggested that the decrease of the membrane lipid fluidity of normal bone marrow cell with infection of EHFV had correlation with the degree of virus invading and cellfunction injury.

  15. Increased survival of normal cells during laser photodynamic therapy: implications for ex vivo autologous bone marrow purging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulliya, K.S.; Matthews, J.L.; Fay, J.W.; Dowben, R.M.


    Laser light-induced, dye-mediated photolysis of leukemic cells was tested in an in vitro model for its efficacy in eliminating occult tumor cells for ex vivo autologous bone marrow purging. Merocyanine 540 (MC540) was mixed with acute promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cells in the presence of human albumin. This cell-dye mixture was irradiated with 514 nm argon laser light. Results show that in the presence of 0.1%, 0.25% and 0.5% albumin, laser light doses of 62.4 J/cm/sup 2/, 93.6 J/cm/sup 2/ and 109.2 J/cm/sup 2/, respectively, were required for a 5 log reduction in the survival of leukemic cells. Under identical conditions, 80% to 84% of the normal bone marrow cells and 41% of the granulocyte-macrophage colony forming cells survived. The number of surviving stromal cells was reduced (1+) compared to the untreated control (4+). Mixing of irradiated bone marrow cells with equal number of HL-60 cells did not interfere with the killing of HL-60 cells treated with MC540 and laser light. The non-specific cytotoxicity of laser light alone was less than 6% for normal bone marrow cells. These results suggest that the concentration of human albumin plays an important role in laser light-induced phototoxicity. This laser light-induced selective photolysis of leukemic cells can be used in ex vivo purging of tumor cell-contaminated bone marrow grafts to achieve very high survival rates of normal bone marrow cells and granulocyte-macrophage colony forming cells.

  16. Bone mass in schizophrenia and normal populations across different decades of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chueh Ching-Mo


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic schizophrenic patients have been reported as having higher osteoporosis prevalence. Survey the bone mass among schizophrenic patients and compare with that of the local community population and reported data of the same country to figure out the distribution of bone mass among schizophrenic patients. Methods 965 schizophrenic patients aged 20 years and over in Yuli Veterans Hospital and 405 members aged 20 and over of the community living in the same town as the institute received bone mass examination by a heel qualitative ultrasound (QUS device. Bone mass distribution was stratified to analyzed and compared with community population. Results Schizophrenic patients have lower bone mass while they are young. But aging effect on bone mass cannot be seen. Accelerated bone mass loss during menopausal transition was not observed in the female schizophrenic patients as in the subjects of the community female population. Conclusion Schizophrenic patients have lower bone mass than community population since they are young. Further study to investigate the pathophysiological process is necessary to delay or avoid the lower bone mass in schizophrenia patients.

  17. Effects of whole body exposure to electromagnetic field on normal and osteoporotic bone metabolism in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, S.; Iida, H. [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)


    The biological effects of the exposure to the electromagnetic field particularly on bone metabolism in growing rats that were ovariectomized (OVX) and fed different calcium diets were determined. Female Wistar rats, 8 weeks old, were divided into four groups; OVX fed standardized (1.2%) calcium diet (StCa), OVX fed low (0.02%) Ca diet (LCa), no-OVX+StCa and no-OVX+LCa groups. Half of rats in each group were exposed to electromagnetic field (100 mG, 50 Hz). Rats (n=5) in each group were sacrificed 1, 2, and 3 month after the exposure. Analyses of bone and serum were performed. Compared to the corresponding control groups, the body weights in the exposure groups, decreased at each measured point. The bone mineral density in the total and trabecular bone in the tibia and femur decreased 2 month after the exposure. In the histomorphometric measurement using the tibial proximal metaphysis at 3 months later, the decreases in bone volume, bone formation rate, eroded surface and depth, and the increases in trabecular separation were observed in the exposure groups. The bone fragility (femur) also was observed. Simultaneously the decreases in the weights of adrenal gland and skeletal muscles, and value in serum rat-PTH and BGP were observed. The results indicate that the bone growth and metabolism in the growth process are inhibited and enlarged with low Ca intakes by the long-term exposure in an electromagnetic field in rats. (author)

  18. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and bone turnover markers in Palestinian postmenopausal osteoporosis and normal women. (United States)

    Kharroubi, Akram; Saba, Elias; Smoom, Riham; Bader, Khaldoun; Darwish, Hisham


    This study evaluated the association of vitamin D and bone markers with the development osteoporosis in Palestinian postmenopausal women. Even though vitamin D deficiency was very high for the recruited subjects, it was not associated with osteoporosis except for bones of the hip. Age and obesity were the strongest determining factors of the disease.

  19. Multi-axial fatigue of trabecular bone with respect to normal walking

    CERN Document Server

    Mostakhdemin, Mohammad; Syahrom, Ardiyansyah


    This book focuses on the analysis and treatment of osteoporotic bone based on drug administration, tracking fatigue behavior and taking into consideration the mechanical interaction of implants with trabecular bone. Weak trabeculae are one of the most important clinical features that need to be addressed in order to prevent hip joint fractures.

  20. Differentiation potential of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into retina in normal and laser-injured rat eye

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jie; SHAN Qing; MA Ping; JIANG Yanming; CHEN Peng; WEN Jingxia; ZHOU You; QIAN Huanwen; PEI Xuetao


    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can develop into hematopoietic and mesenchymal lineages but have not been known to participate in the production of retina. Here we report that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, after being subretinally transplanted into normal or Nd: YAG laser-injured rat eye, can integrate into RPE layer, photoreceptor layer, bipolar cell layer and ganglion layer. DAPI-labeling detection was used to trace the origin of the repopulating cells. DAPI fluorescence was used to identify retina cells of bone marrow origin 10, 20, 35 and 50 days after transplantation. No formation of rosettes was found but some random cells were found at the end of the observation. MSCs-originated cells spread more widely in the injured retinas than in the normal ones. Immunohistochemical detection showed that though the cells could express neuronal nuclei (NeuN), neuron specific enolase (NSE), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and cytokeratin (CK), the proteins expression in the injured transplantation group was abnormal in some region compared with that in the normal transplantation group. Electroretinogram (ERG) showed that ERG-b wave of the injured transplantation group is significantly higher than that of the two laser-injured control groups. These results suggest that a proportion of MSCs can differentiate into retina-like structure in vivo and the differentiation differs in normal and laser-injured retinas.

  1. Bi-iliac distance and iliac bone position compared to the vertebral column in normal fetal development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartling, U B; Fischer Hansen, B; Skovgaard, L T;


    Prenatal standards of bi-iliac width were not found in the literature based on autopsy investigations, nor was the caudo-cranial position of the ilia compared to the vertebral column. The first purpose of the present study was to establish normal standard values for the bi-iliac distance in fetal...... life, the second to evaluate the level of the iliac bones proportional to the ossified vertebral column. Whole body radiographs in antero-posterior projections from 98 human fetuses (36 female and 44 male fetuses, as well as 18 fetuses on which the sex had not been determined) were analyzed...... caliper. The caudo-cranial position of the iliac bones was evaluated. The present study shows that in normal fetal development there is a continuous linear enlargement of the pelvic region in the transverse and vertical planes. The upper iliac contour stays at the level of the first sacral vertebral body...

  2. Normal bone mineral content but unfavourable muscle/fat ratio in Klinefelter syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglaede, L.; Mølgaard, Christian; Skakkebaek, N.E.;


    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate body composition and bone mineral content (BMC) in children and adolescents with Klinefelter syndrome (KS). DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: Tertiary endocrine clinic at the University Hospital, Copenhagen. PATIENTS: Eighteen untreated boys with KS and ...

  3. Microstructural, densitometric and metabolic variations in bones from rats with normal or altered skeletal states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew N Luu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High resolution μCT, and combined μPET/CT have emerged as non-invasive techniques to enhance or even replace dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA as the current preferred approach for fragility fracture risk assessment. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of µPET/CT imaging to differentiate changes in rat bone tissue density and microstructure induced by metabolic bone diseases more accurately than current available methods. METHODS: Thirty three rats were divided into three groups of control, ovariectomy and vitamin-D deficiency. At the conclusion of the study, animals were subjected to glucose ((18FDG and sodium fluoride (Na(18F PET/CT scanning. Then, specimens were subjected to µCT imaging and tensile mechanical testing. RESULTS: Compared to control, those allocated to ovariectomy and vitamin D deficiency groups showed 4% and 22% (significant increase in (18FDG uptake values, respectively. DXA-based bone mineral density was higher in the vitamin D deficiency group when compared to the other groups (cortical bone, yet μCT-based apparent and mineral density results were not different between groups. DXA-based bone mineral density was lower in the ovariectomy group when compared to the other groups (cancellous bone; yet μCT-based mineral density results were not different between groups, and the μCT-based apparent density results were lower in the ovariectomy group compared to the other groups. CONCLUSION: PET and micro-CT provide an accurate three-dimensional measurement of the changes in bone tissue mineral density, as well as microstructure for cortical and cancellous bone and metabolic activity. As osteomalacia is characterized by impaired bone mineralization, the use of densitometric analyses may lead to misinterpretation of the condition as osteoporosis. In contrast, µCT alone and in combination with the PET component certainly provides an accurate three-dimensional measurement of the changes in both bone

  4. Absolute Summ (United States)

    Phillips, Alfred, Jr.

    Summ means the entirety of the multiverse. It seems clear, from the inflation theories of A. Guth and others, that the creation of many universes is plausible. We argue that Absolute cosmological ideas, not unlike those of I. Newton, may be consistent with dynamic multiverse creations. As suggested in W. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and with the Anthropic Principle defended by S. Hawking, et al., human consciousness, buttressed by findings of neuroscience, may have to be considered in our models. Predictability, as A. Einstein realized with Invariants and General Relativity, may be required for new ideas to be part of physics. We present here a two postulate model geared to an Absolute Summ. The seedbed of this work is part of Akhnaton's philosophy (see S. Freud, Moses and Monotheism). Most important, however, is that the structure of human consciousness, manifest in Kenya's Rift Valley 200,000 years ago as Homo sapiens, who were the culmination of the six million year co-creation process of Hominins and Nature in Africa, allows us to do the physics that we do. .

  5. Immunophenotypic Characterization of Human Bone Marrow Mast Cells. A Flow Cytometric Study of Normal and Pathological Bone Marrow Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Escribano


    Full Text Available The goal of the present paper was to define the immunophenotype of bone marrow mast cells (BMMC from healthy controls and patients with hematologic malignancies (HM based on the use of multiple stainings with monoclonal antibodies analyzed by flow cytometry. Our results show that BMMC from both groups of individuals display a similar but heterogenous immunophenotype. The overall numbers of BMMC are higher in the HM group of individuals (p = 0.08. Three patterns of antigen expression were detected: (1 markers constantly positive in all cases analyzed (CD9, CD29, CD33, CD43, CD44, CD49d, CD49e, CD51, CD71, CD117, and FcεRI, (2 antigens that were constantly negative (CD1a, CD2, CD3, CD5, CD6, CD11a, CD14, CD15, CD16, CD19, CD20, CD21, CD23, CD25, CD30, CD34, CD38, CD41a, CD42b, CD65, CD66b, HLA-DR, and CD138, and (3 markers that were positive in a variable proportion of cases – CD11b (50%, CD11c (77%, CD13 (40%, CD18 (20%, CD22 (68%, CD35 (27%, CD40 (67%, CD54 (88% and CD61 (40%. In addition, BMMC from all cases explored were CD45+, and this antigen was expressed at an intensity similar to that of mature granulocytes.

  6. Bone (United States)

    Helmberger, Thomas K.; Hoffmann, Ralf-Thorsten

    The typical clinical signs in bone tumours are pain, destruction and destabilization, immobilization, neurologic deficits, and finally functional impairment. Primary malignant bone tumours are a rare entity, accounting for about 0.2% of all malignancies. Also benign primary bone tumours are in total rare and mostly asymptomatic. The most common symptomatic benign bone tumour is osteoid osteoma with an incidence of 1:2000.

  7. Photoelastic stress analysis of endodontically treated teeth restored with different post systems: normal and alveolar bone resorption cases. (United States)

    Ma, Jinbao; Miura, Hiroyuki; Okada, Daizo; Yusa, Koichiro


    The present study examined the influence of different post materials and their lengths on the mechanical stress of endodontically treated incisor roots in two alveolar bone conditions. Two-dimensional photoelastic models were fabricated to simulate the endodontically treated maxillary central incisors restored with three kinds of posts materials (low Young's modulus glass fiber post, high Young's modulus glass fiber post, and prefabricated stainless steel post) and two post lengths (8 and 4 mm). Completed models were placed in a transmission polariscope and loaded with a static force of 150 N at 45° to the tooth axis. Photoelastic photographs and the magnitudes of fringe order revealed stress distribution in the root, and suggest that the glass fiber post with a low Young's modulus and long length can reduce the stress concentration both in normal and alveolar bone resorption conditions.

  8. Bone marrow stromal elements in murine leukemia; Decreased CSF-producing fibroblasts and normal IL-1 expression by macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Ishay, Z. (Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical School (Israel)); Barak, V. (Laboratory of Immunology, Department of Oncology, Hadassah University Hospital (Israel)); Shoshan, S. (Faculty of Dental Medicine, Connective Tissue Research Laboratory, Hebrew University, Jerusalem (Israel)); Prindull, G. (Department of Pediatrics, University of Gottingen, Gottingen (Germany, F.R.))


    A study of bone marrow stromal elements in murine acute myeloid leukemia (AML) was carried out. Our previous studies had indicated marrow stromal deficiency in murine AML. In the current investigation, separate stromal cells were cultured and the results obtained have shown that, while marrow stromal macrophages are normal in leukemia and express adequate amounts of IL-1, the fibroblasts are markedly reduced. However, if sufficient fibroblasts are pooled in vitro, they produce adequate amounts of CSF. Test of TNF{alpha} in leukemic cells CM, as possible cause of marrow stromal inhibition in leukemia, had not disclosed this cytokine. Further, it was observed that total body lethal irradiation of leukemic mice aggravates the stromal deficiency, confirming results of our previous investigations. It is concluded that bone marrow stromal deficiency in murine AML is due to decreased fibroblasts and, implicity, reduced CSF production. (author).

  9. Maturation disparity between hand-wrist bones in a Chinese sample of normal children: An analysis based on automatic boneXpert and manual Greulich and Pyle atlas assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ji; Dig, Xiao Yi [Dept. of Radiology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Lin, Fang Qin [Dept. of Radiology, Shanghai Children' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China)


    To assess the maturation disparity of hand-wrist bones using the BoneXpert system and Greulich and Pyle (GP) atlas in a sample of normal children from China. Our study included 229 boys and 168 girls aged 2 - 14 years. The bones in the hand and wrist were divided into five groups: distal radius and ulna, metacarpals, proximal phalanges, middle phalanges and distal phalanges. Bone age (BA) was assessed separately using the automatic BoneXpert and GP atlas by two raters. Differences in the BA between the most advanced and retarded individual bones and bone groups were analyzed. In 75.8% of children assessed with the BoneXpert and 59.4% of children assessed with the GP atlas, the BA difference between the most advanced and most retarded individual bones exceeded 2.0 years. The BA mean differences between the most advanced and most retarded individual bones were 2.58 and 2.25 years for the BoneXpert and GP atlas methods, respectively. Furthermore, for both methods, the middle phalanges were the most advanced group. The most retarded group was metacarpals for BoneXpert, while metacarpals and the distal radius and ulna were the most retarded groups according to the GP atlas. Overall, the BAs of the proximal and distal phalanges were closer to the chronological ages than those of the other bone groups. Obvious and regular maturation disparities are common in normal children. Overall, the BAs of the proximal and distal phalanges are more useful for BA estimation than those of the other bone groups.

  10. Deceptive appearance of normal variant of scaphoid bone in a teenage patient: a diagnostic challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjad N. Bhatti


    Full Text Available Scaphoid fractures are a common injury in late teens and mid twenties with a peak period in skeletally immature children at about 15 years of age, although considered to be rare in first decade of life, its exact incidence in early teen age remains to be a subject of debate. We report an unusual case of anatomical variation of scaphoid bone at the level of waist which could potentially cause diagnostic confusion. A 14-years-old boy presented in the fracture clinic 2 weeks after injury to his Right wrist which was managed in a scaphoid cast. X-ray examinations, both at the time of injury and later on in the fracture clinic revealed features suspicious of a fracture at the level of waist of the scaphoid bone, however the clinical examination did not correlate with imaging, in view of that radiological imaging of the unaffected side was performed for comparison, which revealed it to be an anatomical variant of scaphoid at this age. To our knowledge there are very few cases of such variation reported in literature in this age group of patients. This case highlights the importance of anatomical variants in scaphoid bone in this age group, which might pose a diagnostic challenge and the need for appropriate management plan and reassurance to avoid unnecessary anxiety.

  11. I-Xe systematics of the impact plume produced chondrules from the CB carbonaceous chondrites: Implications for the half-life value of 129I and absolute age normalization of 129I-129Xe chronometer (United States)

    Pravdivtseva, O.; Meshik, A.; Hohenberg, C. M.; Krot, A. N.


    It is inferred that magnesian non-porphyritic chondrules in the CB (Bencubbin-type) carbonaceous chondrites formed in an impact generated plume of gas and melt at 4562.49 ± 0.21 Ma (Bollard et al., 2015) and could be suitable for the absolute age normalization of relative chronometers. Here xenon isotopic compositions of neutron irradiated chondrules from the CB chondrites Gujba and Hammadah al Hamra (HH) 237 have been analyzed in an attempt to determine closure time of their I-Xe isotope systematics. One of the HH 237 chondrules, #1, yielded a well-defined I-Xe isochron that corresponds to a closure time of 0.29 ± 0.16 Ma after the Shallowater aubrite standard. Release profiles and diffusion properties of radiogenic 129*Xe and 128*Xe, extracted from this chondrule by step-wise pyrolysis, indicate presence of two iodine host phases with distinct activation energies of 73 and 120 kcal/mol. In spite of the activation energy differences, the I-Xe isotope systematics of these two phases closed simultaneously, suggesting rapid heating and cooling (possibly quenching) of the CB chondrules. The release profiles of U-fission Xe and I-derived Xe correlate in the high temperature host phase supporting simultaneous closure of 129I-129Xe and 207Pb-206Pb systematics. The absolute I-Xe age of Shallowater standard is derived from the observed correlation between I-Xe and Pb-Pb ages in a number of samples. It is re-evaluated here using Pb-Pb ages adjusted for an updated 238U/235U ratio of 137.794 and meteorite specific U-isotope ratios. With the addition of the new data for HH 237 chondrule #1, the re-evaluated absolute I-Xe age of Shallowater is 4562.4 ± 0.2 Ma. The absolute I-Xe age of the HH 237 chondrule #1 is 4562.1 ± 0.3 Ma, in good agreement with U-corrected Pb-Pb ages of the Gujba chondrules (Bollard et al., 2015) and HH 237 silicates (Krot et al., 2005). All I-Xe data used here, and in previous estimates of the absolute age of Shallowater, are calculated using 15.7

  12. The normal human chondro-osseous junctional region: evidence for contact of uncalcified cartilage with subchondral bone and marrow spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoddart Robert W


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The chondro-osseous junctional region of diarthrodial joints is peculiarly complex and may be considered to consist of the deepest layer of non-calcified cartilage, the tidemark, the layer of calcified cartilage, a thin cement line (between the calcified cartilage and the subchondral bone and the subchondral bone. A detailed knowledge of the structure, function and pathophysiology of the normal chondro-osseous junction is essential for an understanding of the pathogenesis of osteoarthrosis. Methods Full thickness samples from human knee joints were processed and embedded in paraffin wax. One hundred serial sections (10 μm thick were taken from the chondro-osseous junctional region of a block from the medial tibial plateau of a normal joint. They were stained with haematoxylin and eosin and photographed. For a simple physical reconstruction images of each 10th sequential tissue section were printed and the areas of the photomicrographs containing the chondro-osseous junctional region were cut out and then overlaid so as to create a three-dimensional (3D model of this region. A 3D reconstruction was also made using computer modelling. Results Histochemical staining revealed some instances where prolongations of uncalcified cartilage, delineated by the tidemark, dipped into the calcified cartilage and, in places, abutted onto subchondral bone and marrow spaces. Small areas of uncalcified cartilage containing chondrocytes (virtual islands were seen, in two-dimensional (2D sections, to be apparently entombed in calcified matrix. The simple physical 3D reconstruction confirmed that these prolongations of uncalcified cartilage were continuous with the cartilage of zone IV and demonstrated that the virtual islands of uncalcified cartilage were cross-sections of these prolongations. The computer-generated 3D reconstructions clearly demonstrated that the uncalcified prolongations ran through the calcified cartilage to touch bone and

  13. Bone mineral density of normal people by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The bone minearl density(BMD) determination is performed for 210 selected Shanghai residents of both sexes across the age range 15-50 using Hologic QDR-2000 dual energy X-ray absorptiometry(DEXA).The results whow that in female groups the peak value of L1-L4 BMD is 1.023±0.103g/cm2 at the ages of 31-35,but in male groups it is 0.971±0.118g/cm2 aged 26-30 and the peak period can last he ages 46-50,The similarconclusion is also obtained by further statistics.

  14. Association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and bone mineral density in normal postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasundhara Kamineni


    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted with the objective of assessing serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD in postmenopausal women (PMW, to detect osteopenia or osteoporosis in PMW and to establish a correlation between serum 25(OHD levels and bone mineral density (BMD. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 healthy PMW were selected, and a prospective observational study was conducted to correlate the BMD with serum 25(OHD levels. Their laboratory investigations along with serum 25(OHD levels were done. Their BMD was assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at lumbar spine and neck of femur; T-scores were derived. Correlation analysis was done to investigate the relationship between serum 25(OHD levels and BMD. Results: The proportion of osteoporosis at the hip was 31.9% in deficient group, 16.1% in insufficient, and 18.2% in sufficient group and at lumbar spine, it was 27.7%, 16.1%, and 22.7%, respectively. Forty-seven percent of PMW had deficient (<20 ng/ml serum 25(OHD levels and 31% had insufficiency. T-score at hip in deficient group was −2.05 ± 0.25, and in an insufficient group, it was −1.79 ± 0.13; T-score at lumbar spine was −1.92 ± 0.12 and −1.79 ± 0.12, respectively, but both were not statistically significant. Osteoporosis was seen in 24%, osteopenia in 55% at hip level and 23% and 59% respectively at lumbar spine. There was no association between serum 25(OHD levels and BMD neither at hip nor at lumbar spine ( P = 0.51 and P = 0.79 respectively. Conclusion: In this study, among our cohort of patients there was no correlation between serum 25(OHD levels and BMD. However, Vitamin D deficiency coexists with low BMD. Vitamin D insufficiency is a common risk factor for osteoporosis associated with increased bone remodeling and low bone mass.

  15. Normal bone density in male pseudohermaphroditism due to 5alpha- reductase 2 deficiency Pseudohermafroditas masculinos por deficiência de 5alfa-redutase 2 apresentam densidade óssea normal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Maria Frade Costa


    Full Text Available Bone is an androgen-dependent tissue, but it is not clear whether the androgen action in bone depends on testosterone or on dihydrotestosterone. Patients with 5alpha-reductase 2 deficiency present normal levels of testosterone and low levels of dihydrotestosterone, providing an in vivo human model for the analysis of the effect of testosterone on bone. OBJECTIVE: To analyze bone mineral density in 4 adult patients with male pseudohermaphroditism due to 5alpha-reductase 2 deficiency. RESULTS: Three patients presented normal bone mineral density of the lumbar column (L1-L4 and femur neck, and the other patient presented a slight osteopenia in the lumbar column. CONCLUSION: Patients with dihydrotestosterone deficiency present normal bone mineral density, suggesting that dihydrotestosterone is not the main androgen acting in bone.O tecido ósseo é um tecido andrógeno-dependente porém não está claro se a ação androgênica depende da testosterona ou da diidrotestosterona. Os pacientes portadores de deficiência de 5alfa-redutase tipo 2, constituem um modelo natural para avaliar o efeito isolado da testosterona sobre a massa óssea. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a densidade mineral óssea em quatro pacientes adultos portadores de pseudohermafroditismo masculino por deficiência da 5alfa-redutase tipo 2. RESULTADOS: Três pacientes apresentaram densidade mineral óssea normal na coluna lombar e fêmur e o quarto paciente apresentou osteopenia leve em coluna lombar. CONCLUSÃO: Pacientes com deficiência de diidrotestosterona apresentam densidade mineral óssea normal sugerindo que a diidrotestosterona não é o andrógeno que age sobre o osso.

  16. Bone Marrow Cells in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Create a Proinflammatory Microenvironment Influencing Normal Hematopoietic Differentiation Fates



    B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) is a serious public health problem in the pediatric population worldwide, contributing to 85% of deaths from childhood cancers. Understanding the biology of the disease is crucial for its clinical management and the development of therapeutic strategies. In line with that observed in other malignancies, chronic inflammation may contribute to a tumor microenvironment resulting in the damage of normal processes, concomitant to development and maintena...

  17. Mechanics and mechano-biology of fracture healing in normal and osteoporotic bone. (United States)

    Augat, Peter; Simon, Ulrich; Liedert, Astrid; Claes, Lutz


    Fracture repair, which aims at regaining the functional competence of a bone, is a complex and multifactorial process. For the success of fracture repair biology and mechanics are of immense importance. The biological and mechanical environments must be compatible with the processes of cell and tissue proliferation and differentiation. The biological environment is characterized by the vascular supply and by many biochemical components, the biochemical milieu. A good vascular supply is a prerequisite for the initiation of the fracture repair process. The biochemical milieu involves complex interactions among local and systemic regulatory factors such as growth factors or cytokines. The mechanical environment is determined by the local stress and strain within the fracture. However, the local stress and strain is not accessible, and the mechanical environment, therefore, is described by global mechanical factors, e.g., gap size or interfragmentary movement. The relationship between local stress and strain and the global mechanical factors can be obtained by numerical models (Finite Element Model). Moreover, there is considerable interaction between biological factors and mechanical factors, creating a biomechanical environment for the fracture healing process. The biomechanical environment is characterized by osteoblasts and osteocytes that sense the mechanical signal and express biological markers, which effect the repair process. This review will focus on the effects of biomechanical factors on fracture repair as well as the effects of age and osteoporosis.

  18. Sarcopenia in premenopausal and postmenopausal women with osteopenia, osteoporosis and normal bone mineral density. (United States)

    Walsh, Marianne C; Hunter, Gary R; Livingstone, Margaret Barbara


    Sarcopenia, the decline of muscle mass with age, causes impaired gait, disability and falls. It may therefore increase the risk of fracture for osteoporotic women. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia in osteopenic and osteoporotic women, and to determine if hormone replacement therapy (HRT), diet, or physical activity (PA) has a role in the prevention of sarcopenia. One hundred and thirty-one premenopausal and 82 postmenopausal (54 taking HRT) healthy women (17-77 years) volunteered for the study. Body composition was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Sarcopenia was defined as a relative skeletal muscle index (RSMI) (appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by height) below 5.45 kg/m2. Osteopenia was defined by a densitometric t-score for bone mineral density (BMD) (g/cm2) below -1.0 and osteoporosis by a t-score below -2.5. Nutrient intake was assessed using 3-day food records and physical activity (PA) was measured using the Baecke Physical Activity Questionnaire. Pearson chi-squared, independent t-tests, simple correlation and multiple regression were used to analyze the data. In premenopausal osteopenic women the prevalence of sarcopenia was 12.5%. In postmenopausal women it was 25% for those with osteopenia, and 50% for those with osteoporosis. PA was independently related to RSMI (beta=0.222, p=0.0001), but diet and HRT were not. After adjusting for PA, RSMI was not significantly related to BMD. These data suggest that the relationship between RSMI, BMD and risk of osteoporosis may largely be mediated through participation in PA. Sarcopenia screening simultaneous to BMD examinations by DXA, may be of value in identifying osteoporotic women with sarcopenia, a group that may be most in need of exercise interventions to increase muscle and BMD.

  19. Nasal turbinate enlargement due to cartilage and bone proliferation: a normal developmental finding in young ferrets. (United States)

    Funk, Kathleen A; Frantz, Christopher; Dyke, Amy S; Ryan, Patricia C; Jin, Hong; Kemble, George; Dixit, Rakesh; Leininger, Joel R


    Toxicity studies of intranasally administered, live attenuated influenza virus vaccine candidates conducted in male and female ferrets led to the microscopic observation of individual differences in the size of nasal turbinates, especially in the dorsal aspect of the nasal cavity. The association of these enlarged turbinates with acute to subacute inflammation, which is sometimes common in ferrets given live attenuated influenza virus vaccine candidates, led to this detailed microscopic evaluation of turbinate enlargement (cartilaginous and osseous thickening, or COT) in control animals dosed intranasally with saline. Results of this evaluation led to the conclusion that COT is a normal developmental feature of growing ferrets, irrespective of inflammation in nasal tissues or inflammatory exudate in the nasal cavity.

  20. Is It Necessary to Do Temporal Bone Computed Tomography of the Internal Auditory Canal in Tinnitus with Normal Hearing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolgar Lutfi Kumral


    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the compression of the vestibulocochlear nerve in the etiology of the tinnitus in the normal hearing ears with temporal bone computed tomography scans. Methods. A prospective nonrandomized study of 30 bilateral tinnitus and 30 normal hearing patients enrolled in this study. Results. A total of 60 patients (ages ranged from 16 to 87 were included. The tinnitus group comprised 11 males and 19 females (mean age 49,50 ± 12,008 and the control group comprised 6 males and 24 females (mean age 39,47 ± 12,544. Regarding the right and left internal acoustic canals measurements (inlet, midcanal, and outlet canal lengths, there were no significant differences between the measurements of the control and tinnitus groups (P>0.005. There was no narrowness in the internal acoustic canal of the tinnitus group compared with the control group. High-frequency audiometric measurements of the right and left ears tinnitus group at 8000, 9000, 10000, 11200, 12500, 14000, 16000, and 18000 Hz frequencies were significantly lower than the control group thresholds (P<0.05. There was high-frequency hearing loss in the tinnitus group. Conclusion. There were no anatomical differences in the etiology of tinnitus rather than physiological degeneration in the nerves.

  1. Teaching Absolute Value Meaningfully (United States)

    Wade, Angela


    What is the meaning of absolute value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve absolute value equations? Absolute value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching absolute value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…

  2. Histomorphometric Assessment of Cancellous and Cortical Bone Material Distribution in the Proximal Humerus of Normal and Osteoporotic Individuals: Significantly Reduced Bone Stock in the Metaphyseal and Subcapital Regions of Osteoporotic Individuals. (United States)

    Sprecher, Christoph M; Schmidutz, Florian; Helfen, Tobias; Richards, R Geoff; Blauth, Michael; Milz, Stefan


    Osteoporosis is a systemic disorder predominantly affecting postmenopausal women but also men at an advanced age. Both genders may suffer from low-energy fractures of, for example, the proximal humerus when reduction of the bone stock or/and quality has occurred.The aim of the current study was to compare the amount of bone in typical fracture zones of the proximal humerus in osteoporotic and non-osteoporotic individuals.The amount of bone in the proximal humerus was determined histomorphometrically in frontal plane sections. The donor bones were allocated to normal and osteoporotic groups using the T-score from distal radius DXA measurements of the same extremities. The T-score evaluation was done according to WHO criteria. Regional thickness of the subchondral plate and the metaphyseal cortical bone were measured using interactive image analysis.At all measured locations the amount of cancellous bone was significantly lower in individuals from the osteoporotic group compared to the non-osteoporotic one. The osteoporotic group showed more significant differences between regions of the same bone than the non-osteoporotic group. In both groups the subchondral cancellous bone and the subchondral plate were least affected by bone loss. In contrast, the medial metaphyseal region in the osteoporotic group exhibited higher bone loss in comparison to the lateral side.This observation may explain prevailing fracture patterns, which frequently involve compression fractures and certainly has an influence on the stability of implants placed in this medial region. It should be considered when planning the anchoring of osteosynthesis materials in osteoporotic patients with fractures of the proximal humerus.

  3. Age-predicted values for lumbar spine, proximal femur, and whole-body bone mineral density: results from a population of normal children aged 3 to 18 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webber, C.E. [Hamilton Health Sciences, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); McMaster Univ., Dept. of Radiology, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail:; Beaumont, L.F. [Hamilton Health Sciences, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Morrison, J. [McMaster Children' s Hospital, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Sala, A. [McMaster Children' s Hospital, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); McMaster Univ., Dept. of Pediatrics, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Univ. of Milan-Bicocca, Monza (Italy); Barr, R.D. [McMaster Children' s Hospital, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); McMaster Univ., Dept. of Pediatrics, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)


    We measured areal bone mineral density (BMD) with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the lumbar spine and the proximal femur and for the total body in 179 subjects (91 girls and 88 boys) with no known disorders that might affect calcium metabolism. Results are also reported for lumbar spine bone mineral content (BMC) and for the derived variable, bone mineral apparent density (BMAD). Expected-for-age values for each variable were derived for boys and girls by using an expression that represented the sum of a steady increase due to growth plus a rapid increase associated with puberty. Normal ranges were derived by assuming that at least 95% of children would be included within 1.96 population standard deviations (SD) of the expected-for-age value. The normal range for lumbar spine BMD derived from our population of children was compared with previously published normal ranges based on results obtained from different bone densitometers in diverse geographic locations. The extent of agreement between the various normal ranges indicates that the derived expressions can be used for reporting routine spine, femur, and whole-body BMD measurements in children and adolescents. The greatest difference in expected-for-age values among the various studies was that arising from intermanufacturer variability. The application of published conversion factors derived from DXA measurements in adults did not account fully for these differences, especially in younger children. (author)

  4. Vitamin D-3 and vitamin K-1 supplementation of Dutch postmenopausal women with normal and low bone mineral densities : effects on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and carboxylated osteocalcin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, A; Muskiet, FAJ; Storm, H; Hofstede, GJH; Pakan, [No Value; Van der Veer, E


    Objective: Improvement of vitamin D and K status of about 60-y-old postmenopausal Dutch women. Design: In a randomized study postmenopausal women with normal (T-score >-1; n = 96) and low (T-score less than or equal to-1; n = 45) bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine, were supplemented with

  5. High-resolution computed tomography of the temporal bone. Part 1.: normal anatomy; Kosc skroniowa w tomografii komputerowej wysokiej rozdzielczosci. Czesc 1.: anatomia prawidlowa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grzegorzewski, M.; Boron, Z.; Burzynska-Makuch, M. [Katedra i Zaklad Radiologii i Diagnostyki Narzadowej, Akademia Medyczna, Bydgoszcz (Poland)


    Normal anatomy of the temporal bone in transverse and coronal sections was presented. CT studies were performed using high-resolution program. The images of an asymptomatic ear of 2 patients were selected from 68 cases examined on account of various otological diseases. All the sections showed as many as 68 anatomic structures. (author) 5 refs, 2 figs

  6. In Vivo Tracking of Systemically Administered Allogeneic Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Normal Rats through Bioluminescence Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Cao


    Full Text Available Recently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are increasingly used as a panacea for multiple types of disease short of effective treatment. Dozens of clinical trials published demonstrated strikingly positive therapeutic effects of MSCs. However, as a specific agent, little research has focused on the dynamic distribution of MSCs after in vivo administration. In this study, we track systemically transplanted allogeneic bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs in normal rats through bioluminescence imaging (BLI in real time. Ex vivo organ imaging, immunohistochemistry (IHC, and RT-PCR were conducted to verify the histological distribution of BMSCs. Our results showed that BMSCs home to the dorsal skin apart from the lungs and kidneys after tail vein injection and could not be detected 14 days later. Allogeneic BMSCs mainly appeared not at the parenchymatous organs but at the subepidermal connective tissue and adipose tissue in healthy rats. There were no significant MSCs-related adverse effects except for transient decrease in neutrophils. These findings will provide experimental evidences for a better understanding of the biocharacteristics of BMSCs.

  7. Extended flow cytometry characterization of normal bone marrow progenitor cells by simultaneous detection of aldehyde dehydrogenase and early hematopoietic antigens: implication for erythroid differentiation studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascariello Caterina


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH is a cytosolic enzyme highly expressed in hematopoietic precursors from cord blood and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor mobilized peripheral blood, as well as in bone marrow from patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia. As regards human normal bone marrow, detailed characterization of ALDH+ cells has been addressed by one single study (Gentry et al, 2007. The goal of our work was to provide new information about the dissection of normal bone marrow progenitor cells based upon the simultaneous detection by flow cytometry of ALDH and early hematopoietic antigens, with particular attention to the expression of ALDH on erythroid precursors. To this aim, we used three kinds of approach: i multidimensional analytical flow cytometry, detecting ALDH and early hematopoietic antigens in normal bone marrow; ii fluorescence activated cell sorting of distinct subpopulations of progenitor cells, followed by in vitro induction of erythroid differentiation; iii detection of ALDH+ cellular subsets in bone marrow from pure red cell aplasia patients. Results In normal bone marrow, we identified three populations of cells, namely ALDH+CD34+, ALDH-CD34+ and ALDH+CD34- (median percentages were 0.52, 0.53 and 0.57, respectively. As compared to ALDH-CD34+ cells, ALDH+CD34+ cells expressed the phenotypic profile of primitive hematopoietic progenitor cells, with brighter expression of CD117 and CD133, accompanied by lower display of CD38 and CD45RA. Of interest, ALDH+CD34- population disclosed a straightforward erythroid commitment, on the basis of three orders of evidences. First of all, ALDH+CD34- cells showed a CD71bright, CD105+, CD45- phenotype. Secondly, induction of differentiation experiments evidenced a clear-cut expression of glycophorin A (CD235a. Finally, ALDH+CD34- precursors were not detectable in patients with pure red cell aplasia (PRCA. Conclusion Our study, comparing surface antigen expression of

  8. Low Bone Density (United States)

    ... Information › Bone Density Exam/Testing › Low Bone Density Low Bone Density Low bone density is when your ... compared to people with normal bone density. Detecting Low Bone Density A bone density test will determine ...

  9. Recovery of neurological function of ischemic stroke by application of conditioned medium of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells derived from normal and cerebral ischemia rats



    Background Several lines of evidence have demonstrated that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC) release bioactive factors and provide neuroprotection for CNS injury. However, it remains elusive whether BM-MSC derived from healthy donors or stroke patients provides equal therapeutic potential. The present work aims to characterize BM-MSC prepared from normal healthy rats (NormBM-MSC) and cerebral ischemia rats (IschBM-MSC), and examine the effects of their conditioned medium (C...

  10. Evaluation of temporal bone pneumatization on high resolution CT (HRCT) measurements of the temporal bone in normal and otitis media group and their correlation to measurements of internal auditory meatus, vestibular or cochlear aqueduct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Miyako


    High resolution CT axial scans were made at the three levels of the temoral bone 91 cases. These cases consisted of 109 sides of normal pneumatization (NR group) and 73 of poor pneumatization resulted by chronic otitis (OM group). NR group included sensorineural hearing loss cases and/or sudden deafness on the side. Three levels of continuous slicing were chosen at the internal auditory meatus, the vestibular and the cochlear aqueduct, respectively. In each slice two sagittal and two horizontal measurements were done on the outer contour of the temporal bone. At the proper level, diameter as well as length of the internal acoustic meatus, the vestibular or the cochlear aqueduct were measured. Measurements of the temporal bone showed statistically significant difference between NR and OM groups. Correlation of both diameter and length of the internal auditory meatus to the temporal bone measurements were statistically significant. Neither of measurements on the vestibular or the cochlear aqueduct showed any significant correlation to that of the temporal bone.

  11. Lack of Association between Body Weight, Bone Mineral Density and Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphism in Normal and Osteoporotic Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Poggi


    Full Text Available In an ethnically homogeneous population of women living in Tuscany, Italy, the relationships between age, body weight, bone mineral density and the vitamin D receptor (VDR gene polymorphism were studied, with the objective of recognizing patients at risk for osteoporosis. In 275 women bone mineral density was measured by Dual Energy X-rays Absorptiometry (DEXA. In 50 of them the individual genetic pattern for VDR was evaluated by DNA extraction followed by PCR amplification of the VDR gene, and digestion with the restriction enzyme BsmI. Age and bone mineral density were inversely related (R2 = 0.298. Body weight was associated with bone mineral density (R2 = 0.059, but not with age. In osteoporotic women, mean (± SD body weight was 59.9 ± 6.5 Kg, lower than that recorded in non osteoporotic women (64.2 ± 9.4 Kg, even though not significantly different (p = 0.18. No association was found between VDR gene polymorphism, bone density or body weight. The performance of anthropometric and genetic components appear to be poor, and, at least for the time being, bone mineral density measurement by means of MOC-DEXA represents the optimal method to detect women at risk for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  12. Absolute nuclear material assay (United States)

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA


    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  13. Absolute neutrino mass update

    CERN Document Server

    Päs, H; P\\"as, Heinrich; Weiler, Thomas J.


    The determination of absolute neutrino masses is crucial for the understanding of theories underlying the standard model, such as SUSY. We review the experimental prospects to determine absolute neutrino masses and the correlations among approaches, using the Delta m^2's inferred from neutrino oscillation experiments and assuming a three neutrino Universe.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schechter, J.; Shahid, M. N.


    We discuss the possibility of using experiments timing the propagation of neutrino beams over large distances to help determine the absolute masses of the three neutrinos.......We discuss the possibility of using experiments timing the propagation of neutrino beams over large distances to help determine the absolute masses of the three neutrinos....

  15. Phospholipase C signaling via the parathyroid hormone (PTH)/PTH-related peptide receptor is essential for normal bone responses to PTH. (United States)

    Guo, Jun; Liu, Minlin; Yang, Dehong; Bouxsein, Mary L; Thomas, Clare C; Schipani, Ernestina; Bringhurst, F Richard; Kronenberg, Henry M


    We have previously shown that differentiation of hypertrophic chondrocytes is delayed in mice expressing a mutated PTH/PTHrP receptor (PTHR) (called DSEL here) that stimulates adenylyl cyclase normally but fails to activate phospholipase C (PLC). To better understand the role of PLC signaling via the PTHR in skeletal and mineral homeostasis, we examined these mice fed a normal or calcium-deficient diet. On a standard diet, DSEL mice displayed a modest decrease in bone mass. Remarkably, when fed a low-calcium diet or infused with PTH, DSEL mice exhibited strikingly curtailed peritrabecular stromal cell responses and attenuated new bone formation when compared with Wt mice. Attenuated in vitro colony formation was also observed in bone marrow cells derived from DSEL mice fed a low-calcium diet. Furthermore, PTH stimulated proliferation and increased mRNAs encoding cyclin D1 in primary osteoblasts derived from Wt but not from DSEL mice. Our data indicate that PLC signaling through the PTHR is required for skeletal homeostasis.

  16. Normal bone mineral density and lean body mass, but increased fat mass, in young adult patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stikkelbroeck, M.M.L.; Oyen, W.J.G.; Wilt, G.J. van der; Hermus, A.R.M.M.; Otten, B.J.


    Patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia attributable to 21-hydroxylase deficiency are treated with glucocorticoids. Glucocorticoid administration, even in substitution doses, may cause decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and obesity. The purpose of this study was to determine BMD, lean mass, a

  17. Pyridinium cross-links in bone of patients with osteogenesis imperfecta: Evidence of a normal intrafibrillar collagen packing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bank, R.A.; Tekoppele, J.M.; Janus, G.J.M.; Wassen, M.H.M.; Pruijs, H.E.H.; Sluijs, H.A.H. van der; Sakkers, R.J.B.


    The brittleness of bone in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) has been attributed to an aberrant collagen network. However, the role of collagen in the loss of tissue integrity has not been well established. To gain an insight into the biochemistry and structure of the collagen network, the

  18. NGS Absolute Gravity Data (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NGS Absolute Gravity data (78 stations) was received in July 1993. Principal gravity parameters include Gravity Value, Uncertainty, and Vertical Gradient. The...

  19. Decoherence at absolute zero


    Sinha, Supurna


    We present an analytical study of the loss of quantum coherence at absolute zero. Our model consists of a harmonic oscillator coupled to an environment of harmonic oscillators at absolute zero. We find that for an Ohmic bath, the offdiagonal elements of the density matrix in the position representation decay as a power law in time at late times. This slow loss of coherence in the quantum domain is qualitatively different from the exponential decay observed in studies of high temperature envir...

  20. Absolute biological needs. (United States)

    McLeod, Stephen


    Absolute needs (as against instrumental needs) are independent of the ends, goals and purposes of personal agents. Against the view that the only needs are instrumental needs, David Wiggins and Garrett Thomson have defended absolute needs on the grounds that the verb 'need' has instrumental and absolute senses. While remaining neutral about it, this article does not adopt that approach. Instead, it suggests that there are absolute biological needs. The absolute nature of these needs is defended by appeal to: their objectivity (as against mind-dependence); the universality of the phenomenon of needing across the plant and animal kingdoms; the impossibility that biological needs depend wholly upon the exercise of the abilities characteristic of personal agency; the contention that the possession of biological needs is prior to the possession of the abilities characteristic of personal agency. Finally, three philosophical usages of 'normative' are distinguished. On two of these, to describe a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' is to describe it as value-dependent. A description of a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' in the third sense does not entail such value-dependency, though it leaves open the possibility that value depends upon the phenomenon or upon the truth of the claim. It is argued that while survival needs (or claims about them) may well be normative in this third sense, they are normative in neither of the first two. Thus, the idea of absolute need is not inherently normative in either of the first two senses.

  1. Hyoid bone position in open bite and normal individuals in adults%成人前牙开(牙合)患者舌骨位置的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余兴华; 王增全


    Objective To compare the hyoid bone position between open bite and normal individuals. Methods Cephalograms of 30 open bite and 30 normal individuals in permanent dentition were retrospectively investigated by computerized cephalometric analysis, and the position of hyoid bone was evaluated in vertical and horizontal dimensions. Results Comparing with normal group, the position of open bite group was in line with normal group in vertical dimension. But in horizontal dimension, the hyoid bone was more backward in items of HA-C3 and HA-CVP. Conclusion There were statistical differences in hyoid position in horizontal dimensions between open bite and normal individuals.%目的 探讨开(牙合)患者舌骨位置特征.方法 60例患者分为两组,开验组30例,对照组30例.通过头颅侧位X线片研究两组患者舌骨位置的差异.结果 与对照组比较,开(牙合)组舌骨位置在垂直向上无差异.矢状向上,开(牙合)患者舌骨前上点HA与第三颈椎前下点C3的距离(HA-C3)为(31.10±4.27) mm,舌骨前上点HA与颈椎前平面的距离(HA-CVP)为(30.30±4.70) mm;对照组HA-C3和HA-CVP分别为(33.66±4.50) mm和(32.95±4.27) mm,开(牙合)组的HA-C3和HA-CVP小于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 开(牙合)患者舌骨位置矢状向上较对照组正常(牙合)群体相对颈椎更靠后.

  2. 1,25(OH2D3 alters growth plate maturation and bone architecture in young rats with normal renal function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Idelevich

    Full Text Available Whereas detrimental effects of vitamin D deficiency are known over century, the effects of vitamin D receptor activation by 1,25(OH(2D(3, the principal hormonal form of vitamin D, on the growing bone and its growth plate are less clear. Currently, 1,25(OH(2D(3 is used in pediatric patients with chronic kidney disease and mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD and is strongly associated with growth retardation. Here, we investigate the effect of 1,25(OH(2D(3 treatment on bone development in normal young rats, unrelated to renal insufficiency. Young rats received daily i.p. injections of 1 µg/kg 1,25(OH(2D(3 for one week, or intermittent 3 µg/kg 1,25(OH(2D(3 for one month. Histological analysis revealed narrower tibial growth plates, predominantly in the hypertrophic zone of 1,25(OH(2D(3-treated animals in both experimental protocols. This phenotype was supported by narrower distribution of aggrecan, collagens II and X mRNA, shown by in situ hybridization. Concomitant with altered chondrocyte maturation, 1,25(OH(2D(3 increased chondrocyte proliferation and apoptosis in terminal hypertrophic cells. In vitro treatment of the chondrocytic cell line ATDC5 with 1,25(OH(2D(3 lowered differentiation and increased proliferation dose and time-dependently. Micro-CT analysis of femurs from 1-week 1,25(OH(2D(3-treated group revealed reduced cortical thickness, elevated cortical porosity, and higher trabecular number and thickness. 1-month administration resulted in a similar cortical phenotype but without effect on trabecular bone. Evaluation of fluorochrome binding with confocal microscopy revealed inhibiting effects of 1,25(OH(2D(3 on intracortical bone formation. This study shows negative effects of 1,25(OH(2D(3 on growth plate and bone which may contribute to the exacerbation of MBD in the CKD pediatric patients.

  3. 1,25(OH)2D3 alters growth plate maturation and bone architecture in young rats with normal renal function. (United States)

    Idelevich, Anna; Kerschnitzki, Michael; Shahar, Ron; Monsonego-Ornan, Efrat


    Whereas detrimental effects of vitamin D deficiency are known over century, the effects of vitamin D receptor activation by 1,25(OH)(2)D(3), the principal hormonal form of vitamin D, on the growing bone and its growth plate are less clear. Currently, 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) is used in pediatric patients with chronic kidney disease and mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) and is strongly associated with growth retardation. Here, we investigate the effect of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) treatment on bone development in normal young rats, unrelated to renal insufficiency. Young rats received daily i.p. injections of 1 µg/kg 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) for one week, or intermittent 3 µg/kg 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) for one month. Histological analysis revealed narrower tibial growth plates, predominantly in the hypertrophic zone of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3)-treated animals in both experimental protocols. This phenotype was supported by narrower distribution of aggrecan, collagens II and X mRNA, shown by in situ hybridization. Concomitant with altered chondrocyte maturation, 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) increased chondrocyte proliferation and apoptosis in terminal hypertrophic cells. In vitro treatment of the chondrocytic cell line ATDC5 with 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) lowered differentiation and increased proliferation dose and time-dependently. Micro-CT analysis of femurs from 1-week 1,25(OH)(2)D(3)-treated group revealed reduced cortical thickness, elevated cortical porosity, and higher trabecular number and thickness. 1-month administration resulted in a similar cortical phenotype but without effect on trabecular bone. Evaluation of fluorochrome binding with confocal microscopy revealed inhibiting effects of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) on intracortical bone formation. This study shows negative effects of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) on growth plate and bone which may contribute to the exacerbation of MBD in the CKD pediatric patients.

  4. Biomechanical evaluation of dynamic hip screw with bone cement augmentation in normal bone%骨水泥强化正常骨质DHS固定的生物力学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎宁; 彭阿钦; 聂喜增; 李锋; 赵永涛; 毕靖博; 韩长伶


    背景:DHS是治疗股骨转子间骨折的标准内固定,对于伴有骨质疏松的骨折,容易发生拉力螺钉切割.国内外文献建议骨水泥强化DHS以达到坚强内固定,但是对于正常骨质,骨水泥强化是否有效还缺少报道.目的:选取正常骨密度的股骨转子间骨折标本,观察骨水泥强化对DHS固定的生物力学影响.设计、时间及地点:同一标本两侧对比观察实验,于2005-03/05在河北省骨科研究所生物力学实验室完成.材料:选取河北医科大学解剖教研室提供的成年男性防腐尸体双侧股骨上段标本.X射线证实无结核、畸形、肿瘤.方法:取成年男性防腐尸体双侧股骨上段标本24对48侧,制备A2型股骨转子间骨折模型.右侧标本行骨水泥强化DHS固定(在股骨头近端钉道用刮匙扩大.股骨头朝下,注入2mL低黏稠度骨水泥,拧入拉力螺钉,保持位置不变直至骨水泥凝固.置入套筒,拧紧尾钉适当加压,皮质骨螺钉固定钢板),为强化组;左侧行DHS常规固定,为对照组.两组标本进行弯曲强度试验及扭转强度试验.主要观察指标:两组标本的最大负荷及最大扭矩.结果:强化组最大负荷及最大扭矩与对照组比较,差异均无统计学意义[最大负荷分别为:(3852.1602±143.6031)N和(3702.9667±133.8601)N;最大扭矩分别为(15.5±2.6)N·m,(14.7±3.4)N·m, P>0.0⑤.结论:对于正常骨密度的股骨转子间骨折,骨水泥强化对DHS固定强度及骨折整体稳定性无显著的影响.%BACKGROUND: Dynamic hip screw (DHS) is a standard internal fixation for intertrochanteric fracture, whereas the patient combined with osteoporosis, cut-out incidence of lag screw is common. The articles in China and abroad indicate bone cement augmentation of DHS to achieve firm fixation. As for normal bone, no reports is published that whether bone cement augmentation is effective.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the biomechanics of DHS with bone cement augmentation for

  5. The proximal hamstring muscle–tendon–bone unit: A review of the normal anatomy, biomechanics, and pathophysiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran, Luis, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Hospital for Joint Diseases, NYU, New York, NY (United States); Ghazikhanian, Varand, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Maimonides Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY (United States); Padron, Mario, E-mail: [Clinica CEMTRO, Avenida del Ventisquero de la Condesa 42, 28035 Madrid (Spain); Beltran, Javier, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Maimonides Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY (United States)


    Proximal hamstring injuries occur during eccentric contraction with the hip and the knee on extension; hence they are relatively frequent lesions in specific sports such as water skiing and hurdle jumping. Additionally, the trend toward increasing activity and fitness training in the general population has resulted in similar injuries. Myotendinous strains are more frequent than avulsion injuries. Discrimination between the two types of lesions is relevant for patient management, since the former is treated conservatively and the latter surgically. MRI and Ultrasonography are both well suited techniques for the diagnosis and evaluation of hamstring tendon injuries. Each one has its advantages and disadvantages. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of the anatomy and biomechanics of the proximal hamstring muscle–tendon–bone unit and the varied imaging appearances of hamstring injury, which is vital for optimizing patient care. This will enable the musculoskeletal radiologist to contribute accurate and useful information in the treatment of athletes at all levels of participation.

  6. Absolute Neutrino Mass Determination

    CERN Document Server

    Päs, H


    We discuss four approaches to the determination of absolute neutrino mass. These are the measurement of the zero-neutrino double beta decay rate, of the tritium decay end-point spectrum, of the cosmic ray spectrum above the GZK cutoff, and the cosmological measurement of the power spectrum governing the CMB and large scale structure. The first two approaches are sensitive to the mass eigenstates coupling to the electron neutrino, whereas the latter two are sensitive to the heavy component of the cosmic neutrino background. All mass eigenstates are related by the $\\Delta m^2$'s inferred from neutrino oscillation data. Consequently, the potential for absolute mass determination of each of the four approaches is correlated with the other three, in ways that we point out.

  7. of the stomach (ID 345), neutralisation of gastric acid (ID 345), contribution to normal formation of collagen and connective tissue (ID 287, 288, 333, 334, 335, 1405, 1652, 1718, 1719, 1945), maintenance of normal bone (ID 287, 335, 1652, 1718, 1945), maintenance of normal joints (ID 1405, 1652, 1945, ), maintenance of normal appearance and elasticity of the skin (ID 288, 333), and contribution to normal formation of hair and nails (ID 334, 1652, 1719) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to silicon and protection against aluminium accumulation in the brain, cardiovascular health, forming a protective coat on the mucous membrane of the stomach, neutralisation of gastric acid, contribution to normal formation of collagen and connective tissue, maintenance of normal bone......, maintenance of normal joints, maintenance of normal appearance and elasticity of the skin, and contribution to normal formation of hair and nails. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references...

  8. Absolute-Magnitude Distributions of Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, Dean; Wright, John; Maddox, Larry


    The absolute-magnitude distributions of seven supernova types are presented. The data used here were primarily taken from the Asiago Supernova Catalogue, but were supplemented with additional data. We accounted for both foreground and host-galaxy extinction. A bootstrap method is used to correct the samples for Malmquist bias. Separately, we generate volume-limited samples, restricted to events within 100 Mpc. We find that the superluminous events (M_B -15) make up about 3%. The normal Ia distribution was the brightest with a mean absolute blue magnitude of -19.25. The IIP distribution was the dimmest at -16.75.

  9. Research for Proteomics Discrepancies between Osteosarcoma and Normal Bone Tissue%骨肉瘤与正常骨组织的蛋白质组学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卿海辉; 贺茂林; 葛洪亮; 王哲


    Objective To compare the proteomics discrepancies between osteosarcomas and normal tissue of bone for discovering specific markers for osteosarcoma. Methods Total protein was extracted from five samples of osteosarcoma and five samples of normal bone, respectively. Then dielectrophoresis was conducted three times.repeatedly. The differential proteins were found out by ImageMaster 2-DE software a-nalysis after silver staining and scanning. Then. MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometric identification of differential protein spots was conducted. Get access to the peptide mass fingerprints and query to find out matching proteins in the .\\(.'BI database. Results Dielectrophoresis silver staining map had good repeat ability. Protein spots of osteosarcomas and normal bone were approximately^ 1 296 ± 179).( 1 108 ± 162) . respectively .and 25 significant different proteins were discovered, of which 10 spots were identified successfully. Six proteins were significantly up-regulated in osteosarcom. especially the level of glutathiones transferases( GST). Four down - regulated proteins were observed, especially the level of nudeoside diphosphate kinase( NDPK). Conclusion The different proteins between osteosarcoma and normal tissue can be found by proteomics analysis which provide the basis for searching the specific marker for osteosarcoma.%目的 比较骨肉瘤与正常骨组织蛋白质组学的差异,探寻骨肉瘤特异性标志物.方法 分别提取5例骨肉瘤肿瘤标本和5例正常骨组织总蛋白,进行双向电泳,重复3次;银染、扫描后进行ImageMaster 2-DE Platinum 6.0软件分析以发现差异蛋白并对差异蛋白质点进行MALDI-TOE TOF质谱鉴定,获取肽质指纹图谱后应用NCBI数据库查找匹配蛋白质.结果 获得重复性较好的双向电泳银染图谱,骨肉瘤组织蛋白质点数约为(1 296±179),正常骨组织蛋白质点数约为(1108±162),明显差异的蛋白质点25个,其中10个被成功鉴定,6个蛋白质在骨

  10. Absolute airborne gravimetry (United States)

    Baumann, Henri

    This work consists of a feasibility study of a first stage prototype airborne absolute gravimeter system. In contrast to relative systems, which are using spring gravimeters, the measurements acquired by absolute systems are uncorrelated and the instrument is not suffering from problems like instrumental drift, frequency response of the spring and possible variation of the calibration factor. The major problem we had to resolve were to reduce the influence of the non-gravitational accelerations included in the measurements. We studied two different approaches to resolve it: direct mechanical filtering, and post-processing digital compensation. The first part of the work describes in detail the different mechanical passive filters of vibrations, which were studied and tested in the laboratory and later in a small truck in movement. For these tests as well as for the airborne measurements an absolute gravimeter FG5-L from Micro-G Ltd was used together with an Inertial navigation system Litton-200, a vertical accelerometer EpiSensor, and GPS receivers for positioning. These tests showed that only the use of an optical table gives acceptable results. However, it is unable to compensate for the effects of the accelerations of the drag free chamber. The second part describes the strategy of the data processing. It is based on modeling the perturbing accelerations by means of GPS, EpiSensor and INS data. In the third part the airborne experiment is described in detail, from the mounting in the aircraft and data processing to the different problems encountered during the evaluation of the quality and accuracy of the results. In the part of data processing the different steps conducted from the raw apparent gravity data and the trajectories to the estimation of the true gravity are explained. A comparison between the estimated airborne data and those obtained by ground upward continuation at flight altitude allows to state that airborne absolute gravimetry is feasible and

  11. Absolutely Indecomposable Modules

    CERN Document Server

    Göbel, Rüdiger


    A module is called absolutely indecomposable if it is directly indecomposable in every generic extension of the universe. We want to show the existence of large abelian groups that are absolutely indecomposable. This will follow from a more general result about R-modules over a large class of commutative rings R with endomorphism ring R which remains the same when passing to a generic extension of the universe. It turns out that `large' in this context has the precise meaning, namely being smaller then the first omega-Erdos cardinal defined below. We will first apply result on large rigid trees with a similar property established by Shelah in 1982, and will prove the existence of related ` R_omega-modules' (R-modules with countably many distinguished submodules) and finally pass to R-modules. The passage through R_omega-modules has the great advantage that the proofs become very transparent essentially using a few `linear algebra' arguments accessible also for graduate students. The result gives a new constru...

  12. On the Mean Absolute Error in Inverse Binomial Sampling


    Mendo, Luis


    A closed-form expression and an upper bound are obtained for the mean absolute error of the unbiased estimator of a probability in inverse binomial sampling. The results given permit the estimation of an arbitrary probability with a prescribed level of the normalized mean absolute error.

  13. Absolute Gravimetry in Fennoscandia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettersen, B. R; TImmen, L.; Gitlein, O.

    The Fennoscandian postglacial uplift has been mapped geometrically using precise levelling, tide gauges, and networks of permanent GPS stations. The results identify major uplift rates at sites located around the northern part of the Gulf of Bothnia. The vertical motions decay in all directions...... motions) has its major axis in the direction of southwest to northeast and covers a distance of about 2000 km. Absolute gravimetry was made in Finland and Norway in 1976 with a rise-and fall instrument. A decade later the number of gravity stations was expanded by JILAg-5, in Finland from 1988, in Norway...... from 1991, and in Sweden from 1992. FG5 was introduced in these three countries in 1993 (7 stations) and continued with an extended campaign in 1995 (12 stations). In 2003 a project was initiated by IfE, Hannover to collect observations simultaneously with GRACE on an annual cycle. New instruments were...

  14. Optical tweezers absolute calibration

    CERN Document Server

    Dutra, R S; Neto, P A Maia; Nussenzveig, H M


    Optical tweezers are highly versatile laser traps for neutral microparticles, with fundamental applications in physics and in single molecule cell biology. Force measurements are performed by converting the stiffness response to displacement of trapped transparent microspheres, employed as force transducers. Usually, calibration is indirect, by comparison with fluid drag forces. This can lead to discrepancies by sizable factors. Progress achieved in a program aiming at absolute calibration, conducted over the past fifteen years, is briefly reviewed. Here we overcome its last major obstacle, a theoretical overestimation of the peak stiffness, within the most employed range for applications, and we perform experimental validation. The discrepancy is traced to the effect of primary aberrations of the optical system, which are now included in the theory. All required experimental parameters are readily accessible. Astigmatism, the dominant effect, is measured by analyzing reflected images of the focused laser spo...

  15. Absolute multilateration between spheres (United States)

    Muelaner, Jody; Wadsworth, William; Azini, Maria; Mullineux, Glen; Hughes, Ben; Reichold, Armin


    Environmental effects typically limit the accuracy of large scale coordinate measurements in applications such as aircraft production and particle accelerator alignment. This paper presents an initial design for a novel measurement technique with analysis and simulation showing that that it could overcome the environmental limitations to provide a step change in large scale coordinate measurement accuracy. Referred to as absolute multilateration between spheres (AMS), it involves using absolute distance interferometry to directly measure the distances between pairs of plain steel spheres. A large portion of each sphere remains accessible as a reference datum, while the laser path can be shielded from environmental disturbances. As a single scale bar this can provide accurate scale information to be used for instrument verification or network measurement scaling. Since spheres can be simultaneously measured from multiple directions, it also allows highly accurate multilateration-based coordinate measurements to act as a large scale datum structure for localized measurements, or to be integrated within assembly tooling, coordinate measurement machines or robotic machinery. Analysis and simulation show that AMS can be self-aligned to achieve a theoretical combined standard uncertainty for the independent uncertainties of an individual 1 m scale bar of approximately 0.49 µm. It is also shown that combined with a 1 µm m‑1 standard uncertainty in the central reference system this could result in coordinate standard uncertainty magnitudes of 42 µm over a slender 1 m by 20 m network. This would be a sufficient step change in accuracy to enable next generation aerospace structures with natural laminar flow and part-to-part interchangeability.

  16. Bone grafting: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Joshi


    Full Text Available Bone grafting is the process by which bone is transferred from a source (donor to site (recipient. Due to trauma from accidents by speedy vehicles, falling down from height or gunshot injury particularly in human being, acquired or developmental diseases like rickets, congenital defects like abnormal bone development, wearing out because of age and overuse; lead to bone loss and to replace the loss we need the bone grafting. Osteogenesis, osteoinduction, osteoconduction, mechanical supports are the four basic mechanisms of bone graft. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. An ideal bone graft material is biologically inert, source of osteogenic, act as a mechanical support, readily available, easily adaptable in terms of size, shape, length and replaced by the host bone. Except blood, bone is grafted with greater frequency. Bone graft indicated for variety of orthopedic abnormalities, comminuted fractures, delayed unions, non-unions, arthrodesis and osteomyelitis. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. By adopting different procedure of graft preservation its antigenicity can be minimized. The concept of bone banking for obtaining bone grafts and implants is very useful for clinical application. Absolute stability require for successful incorporation. Ideal bone graft must possess osteogenic, osteoinductive and osteocon-ductive properties. Cancellous bone graft is superior to cortical bone graft. Usually autologous cancellous bone graft are used as fresh grafts where as allografts are employed as an alloimplant. None of the available type of bone grafts possesses all these properties therefore, a single type of graft cannot be recomm-ended for all types of orthopedic abnormalities. Bone grafts and implants can be selected as per clinical problems, the equipments available and preference of

  17. The 18 kDa translocator protein (peripheral benzodiazepine receptor) expression in the bone of normal, osteoprotegerin or low calcium diet treated mice. (United States)

    Kam, Winnie Wai-Ying; Meikle, Steven R; Zhou, Hong; Zheng, Yu; Blair, Julie M; Seibel, Marcus; Dunstan, Colin R; Banati, Richard B


    The presence of the translocator protein (TSPO), previously named as the mitochondrial or peripheral benzodiazepine receptor, in bone cells was studied in vitro and in situ using RT-qPCR, and receptor autoradiography using the selective TSPO ligand PK11195.In vitro, the TSPO is highly expressed in osteoblastic and osteoclastic cells.In situ, constitutive expression of TSPO is found in bone marrow and trabecular bone, e.g., spongiosa. Mice with a reduction of bone turnover induced by a 4-day treatment of osteoprotegerin reduces [(3)H]PK11195 binding in the spongiosa (320±128 Bq x mg(-1), 499±106 Bq x mg(-1) in saline-treated controls). In contrast, mice with an increase in bone turnover caused by a 4-day low calcium diet increases [(3)H]PK11195 binding in the spongiosa (615±90 Bq x mg(-1)). Further, our study includes technical feasibility data on [(18)F]fluoride microPET imaging of rodent bone with altered turnover. Despite [(18)F]fluoride having high uptake, the in vivo signal differences were small. Using a phantom model, we describe the spillover effect and partial volume loss that affect the quantitative microPET imaging of the small bone structures in experimental mouse models. In summary, we demonstrate the expression of TSPO in small rodent bone tissues, including osteoblasts and osteoclasts. A trend increase in TSPO expression was observed in the spongiosa from low to high bone turnover conditions. However, despite the potential utility of TSPO expression as an in vivo biomarker of bone turnover in experimental rodent models, our small animal PET imaging data using [(18)F]fluoride show that even under the condition of a good biological signal-to-noise ratio and high tracer uptake, the currently achievable instrument sensitivity and spatial resolution is unlikely to be sufficient to detect subtle differences in small structures, such as mouse bone.

  18. The 18 kDa translocator protein (peripheral benzodiazepine receptor expression in the bone of normal, osteoprotegerin or low calcium diet treated mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winnie Wai-Ying Kam

    Full Text Available The presence of the translocator protein (TSPO, previously named as the mitochondrial or peripheral benzodiazepine receptor, in bone cells was studied in vitro and in situ using RT-qPCR, and receptor autoradiography using the selective TSPO ligand PK11195.In vitro, the TSPO is highly expressed in osteoblastic and osteoclastic cells.In situ, constitutive expression of TSPO is found in bone marrow and trabecular bone, e.g., spongiosa. Mice with a reduction of bone turnover induced by a 4-day treatment of osteoprotegerin reduces [(3H]PK11195 binding in the spongiosa (320±128 Bq x mg(-1, 499±106 Bq x mg(-1 in saline-treated controls. In contrast, mice with an increase in bone turnover caused by a 4-day low calcium diet increases [(3H]PK11195 binding in the spongiosa (615±90 Bq x mg(-1. Further, our study includes technical feasibility data on [(18F]fluoride microPET imaging of rodent bone with altered turnover. Despite [(18F]fluoride having high uptake, the in vivo signal differences were small. Using a phantom model, we describe the spillover effect and partial volume loss that affect the quantitative microPET imaging of the small bone structures in experimental mouse models. In summary, we demonstrate the expression of TSPO in small rodent bone tissues, including osteoblasts and osteoclasts. A trend increase in TSPO expression was observed in the spongiosa from low to high bone turnover conditions. However, despite the potential utility of TSPO expression as an in vivo biomarker of bone turnover in experimental rodent models, our small animal PET imaging data using [(18F]fluoride show that even under the condition of a good biological signal-to-noise ratio and high tracer uptake, the currently achievable instrument sensitivity and spatial resolution is unlikely to be sufficient to detect subtle differences in small structures, such as mouse bone.

  19. Estimating Absolute Site Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malagnini, L; Mayeda, K M; Akinci, A; Bragato, P L


    The authors use previously determined direct-wave attenuation functions as well as stable, coda-derived source excitation spectra to isolate the absolute S-wave site effect for the horizontal and vertical components of weak ground motion. They used selected stations in the seismic network of the eastern Alps, and find the following: (1) all ''hard rock'' sites exhibited deamplification phenomena due to absorption at frequencies ranging between 0.5 and 12 Hz (the available bandwidth), on both the horizontal and vertical components; (2) ''hard rock'' site transfer functions showed large variability at high-frequency; (3) vertical-motion site transfer functions show strong frequency-dependence, and (4) H/V spectral ratios do not reproduce the characteristics of the true horizontal site transfer functions; (5) traditional, relative site terms obtained by using reference ''rock sites'' can be misleading in inferring the behaviors of true site transfer functions, since most rock sites have non-flat responses due to shallow heterogeneities resulting from varying degrees of weathering. They also use their stable source spectra to estimate total radiated seismic energy and compare against previous results. they find that the earthquakes in this region exhibit non-constant dynamic stress drop scaling which gives further support for a fundamental difference in rupture dynamics between small and large earthquakes. To correct the vertical and horizontal S-wave spectra for attenuation, they used detailed regional attenuation functions derived by Malagnini et al. (2002) who determined frequency-dependent geometrical spreading and Q for the region. These corrections account for the gross path effects (i.e., all distance-dependent effects), although the source and site effects are still present in the distance-corrected spectra. The main goal of this study is to isolate the absolute site effect (as a function of frequency

  20. How Is Bone Cancer Diagnosed? (United States)

    ... the x-ray, but only a biopsy can absolutely determine that. A chest x-ray is often ... may find disturbing. Some places provide headphones with music to block this out. Radionuclide bone scans This ...

  1. Notes on absolute Hodge classes

    CERN Document Server

    Charles, François


    We survey the theory of absolute Hodge classes. The notes include a full proof of Deligne's theorem on absolute Hodge classes on abelian varieties as well as a discussion of other topics, such as the field of definition of Hodge loci and the Kuga-Satake construction.

  2. Bone tumor (United States)

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor; Bone tumor - benign ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects ...

  3. Efeito da atividade física no osso normal e na prevenção e tratamento da osteoporose Efectos de la actividad física en huesos normales y en la prevención y tratamiento de osteoporosis Effect of the physical activity on normal bone and on the osteoporosis prevention and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália de Melo Ocarino


    Full Text Available A osteoporose é uma doença cada vez mais diagnosticada em mulheres e homens de todo o mundo. Embora os esteróides sexuais sejam importantes na gênese da osteoporose, a inatividade física constitui um fator de risco. O exercício físico atua no osso por efeito direto, via força mecânica, ou indireto, mediado por fatores hormonais. Mas os mecanismos pelos quais a atividade física melhora a massa óssea ainda não são totalmente conhecidos. Baseando-se nos resultados que demonstram os efeitos benéficos da atividade física no tecido ósseo, a prática de esportes vem sendo cada vez mais indicada na prevenção e até mesmo no tratamento da osteoporose. O objetivo desta revisão é descrever os efeitos da atividade física no tecido ósseo normal e na prevenção e tratamento da osteoporose.La osteoporosis es una enfermedad que cada vez más se diagnostica en mujeres y hombres de todo el mundo. Aunque los esteroides sexuales sean importantes en la génesis de la osteoporosis, la inactividad física constituye un factor de riesgo. El ejercicio físico actúa en el hueso de forma directa, vía fuerza mecánica, o indirecta, mediado por factores hormonales. Sin embargo la patogénesis por la que la actividad física mejora la masa ósea todavía no es totalmente conocida. Con base en los resultados que demuestran los efectos benéficos de la actividad física en el tejido óseo, la práctica de deportes viene siendo indicada cada vez más como medio de prevención y hasta incluso como tratamiento de la osteoporosis. El objetivo de esta revisión es describir los efectos de la actividad física en el tejido óseo normal y en la prevención y tratamiento de la osteoporosis.Osteoporosis has been increasingly diagnosed in women and men worldwide. Although the sexual steroids are important in the genesis of human osteoporosis, it is believed that the lack of physical activity constitutes a risk factor. Physical activity acts on the bone by direct

  4. Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP-4 and BMP-7 regulate differentially Transforming Growth Factor (TGF-β1 in normal human lung fibroblasts (NHLF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloyd Clare M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Airway remodelling is thought to be under the control of a complex group of molecules belonging to the Transforming Growth Factor (TGF-superfamily. The Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs belong to this family and have been shown to regulate fibrosis in kidney and liver diseases. However, the role of BMPs in lung remodelling remains unclear. BMPs may regulate tissue remodelling in asthma by controlling TGF-β-induced profibrotic functions in lung fibroblasts. Methods Cell cultures were exposed to TGF-β1 alone or in the presence of BMP-4 or BMP-7; control cultures were exposed to medium only. Cell proliferation was assessed by quantification of the incorporation of [3H]-thymidine. The expression of the mRNA encoding collagen type I and IV, tenascin C and fibronectin in normal human lung fibroblasts (NHLF was determined by real-time quantitative PCR and the main results were confirmed by ELISA. Cell differentiation was determined by the analysis of the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA by western blot and immunohistochemistry. The effect on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP activity was assessed by zymography. Results We have demonstrated TGF-β1 induced upregulation of mRNAs encoding the extracellular matrix proteins, tenascin C, fibronectin and collagen type I and IV when compared to unstimulated NHLF, and confirmed these results at the protein level. BMP-4, but not BMP-7, reduced TGF-β1-induced extracellular matrix protein production. TGF-β1 induced an increase in the activity of the pro-form of MMP-2 which was inhibited by BMP-7 but not BMP-4. Both BMP-4 and BMP-7 downregulated TGF-β1-induced MMP-13 release compared to untreated and TGF-β1-treated cells. TGF-β1 also induced a myofibroblast-like transformation which was partially inhibited by BMP-7 but not BMP-4. Conclusions Our study suggests that some regulatory properties of BMP-7 may be tissue or cell type specific and unveil a potential regulatory role for

  5. Thrombopoietin mobilizes CD34+ cell subsets into peripheral blood and expands multilineage progenitors in bone marrow of cancer patients with normal hematopoiesis. (United States)

    Murray, L J; Luens, K M; Estrada, M F; Bruno, E; Hoffman, R; Cohen, R L; Ashby, M A; Vadhan-Raj, S


    Thrombopoietin (TPO), the primary regulator of megakaryocytopoiesis, also mediates biologic effects in vitro on hematopoietic cells more primitive than those committed to the megakaryocyte (MK) lineage. To assess the spectrum of hematopoietic effects of recombinant human (rh)TPO in vivo, we evaluated its proliferative effect on bone marrow (BM) progenitor cells, its maturation effect on BM MKs, and its mobilizing effect on peripheral blood (PB) progenitor cells during a phase I clinical laboratory investigation in which rhTPO was administered to cancer patients with normal hematopoiesis. Twelve patients received a single dose of rhTPO (0.3, 0.6, 1.2, or 2.4 microg/kg of body weight) prior to chemotherapy. BM and PB samples from these patients were analyzed 1 to 2 days before (baseline) and 7 days after rhTPO administration. At higher doses (1.2-2.4 microg/kg), rhTPO produced increased concentrations of primitive CD34+Thy-1+Lin-cells (mean 2.1-fold), CD34+mpl+ cells (mean 5.2-fold), CD34+CD41+CD14- promegakaryoblasts (mean 2.9-fold), and myeloerythroid colony-forming cells (mean threefold) in BM. No significant increases in the frequency of BM colony-forming unit (CFU)-MK were observed. Elevated numbers of both immature (2N-8N) and more mature (64N and 128N) CD41+ MKs were detected in BM, with modal ploidy remaining at 16N. Higher doses of rhTPO (1.2-2.4 microg/kg) also induced increased concentrations of CD34+ cell subsets in PB, including both primitive CD34+Thy-1+Lin- (mean 8.8-fold) and MK lineage-committed CD34+CD41+CD14- cells (mean 14.6-fold) as well as various myeloerythroid colony-forming cells (mean 3.6- to 5.5-fold). These results demonstrate that rhTPO given as a single dose not only promotes proliferation and maturation of cells of the MK lineage, but also expands the pool of BM primitive hematopoietic cells. In addition, rhTPO induces mobilization of hematopoietic progenitors into peripheral circulation. The extent to which such multilineage effects on


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Dvornichenko


    Full Text Available Activities of total alkaline phosphatase (TALP and its bone isoform (BALP was greater in groups of children and adolescents in the late posttraumatic period (pattern of reparative bone remodeling and scoliosis (pathological bone remodeling, than in the control (healthy children and adolescents. The content of collagen type I degradation products (CrossLaps peripheral blood practically was unchanged. Examined group with posttraumatic period had high activity of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase form (TRACP. TALP activity reached minimum values in all the studied groups. In the process of children growing to 15–18 years old, as compared to 7–10 years old, reducing activity of remodeling was observed under physiological (healthy donors and reparative osteogenesis. It’s changes was recorded by significant decrease of the studied indicators. On the contrary, children 15–18 years old with scoliosis had maximum of the imbalance (activation/inhibition of various signs of osteogenesis of resorptive/synthetic bone processes. Also, for this group we discovered decrease osteocalcin concentration of 4 times in comparison with the group children of 7–10 years old. The detected growth of the correlations number in the correlation matrix of bone remodeling markers in case of scoliosis proposes the reduction of adaptation reserve of 15–18 years old adolescents, suffering from dysplasia of connective tissue. Thus, the pathophysiological and clinical significance of distant markers of bone metabolism screening in peripheral blood the is ambiguous. The interpretation of these indicators is difficult and largely depends on the clinical situation and age of patients. This requires improving the diagnostic approach to assess physiological and pathological remodeling of bone tissue by means of biochemical blood indicators. 

  7. The Establishment of Anatomy Database of Chinese Normal Lower Limb Bones and Joints%国人下肢正常骨与关节周围解剖数据库的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李钧; 陈爱民; 郭清河; 江曦; 郭永飞; 叶添文; 赵良瑜


    Objective To acquire the anatomic parameters of Chinese normal lower limb bones and joints, and then establish the database, so as to provide reference for designing orthopedic fixations of the lower limb bones. Methods One hundred and fifty volunteers' anteroposterior and lateral X-ray plain film of the lower limb bones were obtained, and the three-dimensional images of lower limb joints were setted up by mimics 10.01. Finally, the parameters of limb bone (the length of femur, the width of tibial plateau and the diameter of talus on tibial astragaloid joint etc) were measured and the data were inputted into database software. Results When taken the measured value of TP-TSA and PS which were compared with westerner's for example (P <0.05), there was significant deviation between them. Conclusion Because the morphology and anatomic feature of Chinese lower limb bones are different from westerner's, establishing the database of normal lower limb bones and joints is of great significance for designing domestic orthopedic fixations of the lower limb bones.%目的 初步获得国人下肢正常骨与关节解剖学参数,并建立数据库,为国产下肢接骨板和螺钉的设计提供参考依据.方法 对150例志愿者.行下肢骨骼全长正侧位X线平片及关节周围CT平扫,利用Mimics 10.01软件将原始CT扫描图像重建关节周围骨骼三维图像,并测量下肢骨骼参数(股骨长度、胫骨平台宽度、胫距关节面距骨横径等),将数据输入数据库软件中.结果 以胫骨平台内翻角及后倾角测得值为例与西方人比较,有统计学差异(P<0.05).结论 国人下肢骨骼形态及解剖特点与西方人有明显区别,国人下肢正常骨与关节周围数据库的建立对国产下肢接骨板和螺钉的设计有重要意义.

  8. Database applicaton for absolute spectrophotometry (United States)

    Bochkov, Valery V.; Shumko, Sergiy


    32-bit database application with multidocument interface for Windows has been developed to calculate absolute energy distributions of observed spectra. The original database contains wavelength calibrated observed spectra which had been already passed through apparatus reductions such as flatfielding, background and apparatus noise subtracting. Absolute energy distributions of observed spectra are defined in unique scale by means of registering them simultaneously with artificial intensity standard. Observations of sequence of spectrophotometric standards are used to define absolute energy of the artificial standard. Observations of spectrophotometric standards are used to define optical extinction in selected moments. FFT algorithm implemented in the application allows performing convolution (deconvolution) spectra with user-defined PSF. The object-oriented interface has been created using facilities of C++ libraries. Client/server model with Windows Socket functionality based on TCP/IP protocol is used to develop the application. It supports Dynamic Data Exchange conversation in server mode and uses Microsoft Exchange communication facilities.

  9. Relativistic Absolutism in Moral Education. (United States)

    Vogt, W. Paul


    Discusses Emile Durkheim's "Moral Education: A Study in the Theory and Application of the Sociology of Education," which holds that morally healthy societies may vary in culture and organization but must possess absolute rules of moral behavior. Compares this moral theory with current theory and practice of American educators. (MJL)

  10. Absolute luminosity measurements at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Hopchev, Plamen


    Absolute luminosity measurements are of general interest for colliding-beam experiments at storage rings. These measurements are necessary to determine the absolute cross-sections of reaction processes and are valuable to quantify the performance of the accelerator. LHCb has applied two methods to determine the absolute scale of its luminosity measurements for proton-proton collisions at the LHC running at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. In addition to the classic ``van der Meer'' scan method a novel technique has been developed which makes use of direct imaging of the individual beams using both proton-gas and proton-proton interactions. The beam imaging method is made possible by the high resolution of the LHCb vertex detector and the close proximity of the detector to the beams, and allows beam parameters such as positions, angles and widths to be determined. We describe both methods and compare the two results. In addition, we present the techniques used to transport the absolute luminosity measurement ...

  11. Absolute Standards for Climate Measurements (United States)

    Leckey, J.


    In a world of changing climate, political uncertainty, and ever-changing budgets, the benefit of measurements traceable to SI standards increases by the day. To truly resolve climate change trends on a decadal time scale, on-orbit measurements need to be referenced to something that is both absolute and unchanging. One such mission is the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) that will measure a variety of climate variables with an unprecedented accuracy to definitively quantify climate change. In the CLARREO mission, we will utilize phase change cells in which a material is melted to calibrate the temperature of a blackbody that can then be observed by a spectrometer. A material's melting point is an unchanging physical constant that, through a series of transfers, can ultimately calibrate a spectrometer on an absolute scale. CLARREO consists of two primary instruments: an infrared (IR) spectrometer and a reflected solar (RS) spectrometer. The mission will contain orbiting radiometers with sufficient accuracy to calibrate other space-based instrumentation and thus transferring the absolute traceability. The status of various mission options will be presented.

  12. A-raf and B-raf are dispensable for normal endochondral bone development, and parathyroid hormone-related peptide suppresses extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation in hypertrophic chondrocytes. (United States)

    Provot, Sylvain; Nachtrab, Gregory; Paruch, Jennifer; Chen, Adele Pin; Silva, Alcino; Kronenberg, Henry M


    Parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) and the parathyroid hormone-PTHrP receptor increase chondrocyte proliferation and delay chondrocyte maturation in endochondral bone development at least partly through cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent signaling pathways. Because data suggest that the ability of cAMP to stimulate cell proliferation involves the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase B-Raf, we hypothesized that B-Raf might mediate the proliferative action of PTHrP in chondrocytes. Though B-Raf is expressed in proliferative chondrocytes, its conditional removal from cartilage did not affect chondrocyte proliferation and maturation or PTHrP-induced chondrocyte proliferation and PTHrP-delayed maturation. Similar results were obtained by conditionally removing B-Raf from osteoblasts. Because A-raf and B-raf are expressed similarly in cartilage, we speculated that they may fulfill redundant functions in this tissue. Surprisingly, mice with chondrocytes deficient in both A-Raf and B-Raf exhibited normal endochondral bone development. Activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) was detected primarily in hypertrophic chondrocytes, where C-raf is expressed, and the suppression of ERK activation in these cells by PTHrP or a MEK inhibitor coincided with a delay in chondrocyte maturation. Taken together, these results demonstrate that B-Raf and A-Raf are dispensable for endochondral bone development and they indicate that the main role of ERK in cartilage is to stimulate not cell proliferation, but rather chondrocyte maturation.

  13. Bone Biopsy (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Bone Biopsy Bone biopsy uses a needle and imaging ... the limitations of Bone Biopsy? What is a Bone Biopsy? A bone biopsy is an image-guided ...

  14. Absolute measurements of chlorine Cl+ cation single photoionization cross section

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez, E. M.; Juarez, A. M.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Aguilar, A.; Hernandez, L.; Antillon, A.; Macaluso, D.; Morales-Mori, A.; Gonzalez-Magana, O.; Hanstorp, D.; Covington, A. M.; Davis, V.; Calabrese, D.; Hinojosa, G.


    The photoionization of Cl+ leading to Cl2+ was measured in the photon energy range of 19.5-28.0 eV. A spectrum with a photon energy resolution of 15 meV normalized to absolute cross-section measurements is presented. The measurements were carried out by merging a Cl+ ion beam with a photon beam of h

  15. Can absolute and proportional anthropometric characteristics distinguish stronger and weaker powerlifters? (United States)

    Keogh, Justin W L; Hume, Patria A; Pearson, Simon N; Mellow, Peter J


    This study sought to compare the anthropometric profiles of 17 weaker and 17 stronger Australasian and Pacific powerlifters who had competed in a regional-, national-, or international-level powerlifting competition in New Zealand. Stronger lifters were defined as those having a Wilks score greater than 410, whereas those in the weaker group had a Wilks score less than 370. Each powerlifter was assessed for 37 anthropometric dimensions by International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK) level II and III accredited anthropometrists. Because all powerlifters were highly mesomorphic and possessed large girths and bone breadths, both in absolute terms and when expressed as Phantom-Z scores compared through the Phantom, relatively few significant anthropometric differences were observed. However, stronger lifters had significantly greater muscle mass and larger muscular girths in absolute terms as well as greater Brugsch Index (chest girth/height) and "Phantom"-normalized muscle mass, upper arm, chest, and forearm girths. In terms of the segment lengths and bone breadths, the only significant difference was that stronger lifters had a significantly shorter lower leg than weaker lifters. Because the majority of the significant differences were for muscle mass and muscular girths, it would appear likely that these differences contributed to the stronger lifters' superior performance. Powerlifters may therefore need to devote some of their training to the development of greater levels of muscular hypertrophy if they wish to continue to improve their performance. To better understand the anthropometric determinants of muscular strength, future research should recruit larger samples (particularly of elite lifters) and follow these subjects prospectively.

  16. Bone Densitometry (Bone Density Scan) (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Bone Densitometry (DEXA) Bone densitometry, also called dual-energy ... limitations of DEXA Bone Densitometry? What is a Bone Density Scan (DEXA)? Bone density scanning, also called ...

  17. Optomechanics for absolute rotation detection (United States)

    Davuluri, Sankar


    In this article, we present an application of optomechanical cavity for the absolute rotation detection. The optomechanical cavity is arranged in a Michelson interferometer in such a way that the classical centrifugal force due to rotation changes the length of the optomechanical cavity. The change in the cavity length induces a shift in the frequency of the cavity mode. The phase shift corresponding to the frequency shift in the cavity mode is measured at the interferometer output to estimate the angular velocity of absolute rotation. We derived an analytic expression to estimate the minimum detectable rotation rate in our scheme for a given optomechanical cavity. Temperature dependence of the rotation detection sensitivity is studied.

  18. Physics of negative absolute temperatures (United States)

    Abraham, Eitan; Penrose, Oliver


    Negative absolute temperatures were introduced into experimental physics by Purcell and Pound, who successfully applied this concept to nuclear spins; nevertheless, the concept has proved controversial: a recent article aroused considerable interest by its claim, based on a classical entropy formula (the "volume entropy") due to Gibbs, that negative temperatures violated basic principles of statistical thermodynamics. Here we give a thermodynamic analysis that confirms the negative-temperature interpretation of the Purcell-Pound experiments. We also examine the principal arguments that have been advanced against the negative temperature concept; we find that these arguments are not logically compelling, and moreover that the underlying "volume" entropy formula leads to predictions inconsistent with existing experimental results on nuclear spins. We conclude that, despite the counterarguments, negative absolute temperatures make good theoretical sense and did occur in the experiments designed to produce them.

  19. Chondrogenesis of periodontal ligament stem cells by transforming growth factor-β3 and bone morphogenetic protein-6 in a normal healthy impacted third molar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunyoung Choi; Tae-Jun Cho; Soon-Keun Kwon; Gene Lee; Jaejin Cho


    The periodontal ligament-derived mesenchymal stem cell is regarded as a source of adult stem cells due to its multipotency. However, the proof of chondrogenic potential of the cells is scarce. Therefore, we investigated the chondrogenic differentiation capacity of periodontal ligament derived mesenchymal stem cells induced by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β3 and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-6. After isolation of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) from human periodontal ligament, the cells were cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) with 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS). A mechanical force initiated chondrogenic differentiation of the cells. For chondrogenic differentiation, 10 μg ·L-1 TGF-β3 or 100 μg ·L-1 BMP-6 and the combination treating group for synergistic effect of the growth factors. We analyzed the PDLSCs by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and chondrogenesis were evaluated by glycosaminoglycans assay, histology, immunohistochemistry and genetic analysis. PDLSCs showed mesenchymal stem cell properties proved by FACS analysis. Glycosaminoglycans contents were increased 217% by TGF-β3 and 220% by BMP-6. The synergetic effect of TGF-β3 and BMP-6 were shown up to 281% compared to control. The combination treatment increased Sox9, aggrecan and collagen II expression compared with not only controls, but also TGF-β3 or BMP-6 single treatment dramatically. The histological analysis also indicated the chondrogenic differentiation of PDLSCs in our conditions. The results of the present study demonstrate the potential of the dental stem cell as a valuable cell source for chondrogenesis, which may be applicable for regeneration of cartilage and bone fracture in the field of cell therapy.

  20. Android Apps for Absolute Beginners

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Wallace


    Anybody can start building simple apps for the Android platform, and this book will show you how! Android Apps for Absolute Beginners takes you through the process of getting your first Android applications up and running using plain English and practical examples. It cuts through the fog of jargon and mystery that surrounds Android application development, and gives you simple, step-by-step instructions to get you started.* Teaches Android application development in language anyone can understand, giving you the best possible start in Android development * Provides simple, step-by-step exampl

  1. EF1α and RPL13a represent normalization genes suitable for RT-qPCR analysis of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis Kevin M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background RT-qPCR analysis is a widely used method for the analysis of mRNA expression throughout the field of mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC research. Comparison between MSC studies, both in vitro and in vivo, are challenging due to the varied methods of RT-qPCR data normalization and analysis. Therefore, this study focuses on putative housekeeping genes for the normalization of RT-qPCR data between heterogeneous commercially available human MSC, compared with more homogeneous populations of MSC such as MIAMI and RS-1 cells. Results Eight genes including; ACTB, B2M, EF1α, GAPDH, RPL13a, YWHAZ, UBC and HPRT1 were tested as possible housekeeping genes based on their expression level and variability. EF1α and RPL13a were validated for RT-qPCR analysis of MIAMI cells during expansion in varied oxygen tensions, endothelial differentiation, neural precursor enrichment, and during the comparison with RS-1 cells and commercially available MSC. RPL13a and YWHAZ were validated as normalization genes for the cross-species analysis of MIAMI cells in an animal model of focal ischemia. GAPDH, which is one of the most common housekeeping genes used for the normalization of RT-qPCR data in the field of MSC research, was found to have the highest variability and deemed not suitable for normalization of RT-qPCR data. Conclusions In order to make comparisons between heterogeneous MSC populations, as well as adult stem cell like MSC which are used in different laboratories throughout the world, it is important to have a standardized, reproducible set of housekeeping genes for RT-qPCR analysis. In this study we demonstrate that EF1α, RPL13a and YWHAZ are suitable genes for the RT-qPCR analysis and comparison of several sources of human MSC during in vitro characterization and differentiation as well as in an ex vivo animal model of global cerebral ischemia. This will allow for the comparative RT-qPCR analysis of multiple MSC populations with the goal of

  2. In vivo bone aluminum measurements in patients with renal disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, K.J.; Kelleher, S.P.


    Contamination of the dialysis solution with trace amounts of aluminum and long-term use of aluminum-based phosphate binders have led to increased body burden of aluminum in patients with end-stage renal disease. A significant clinical problem associated with aluminum-overload is the early diagnosis of aluminum-induced dialysis dementia and osteomalacic osteodystrophy. There are few, if any, blood or urine indices that provide an early monitor of this bone disease, especially in the asymptomatic patient. Although a bone biopsy is usually the basis for the final clinical diagnosis, this procedure is not recommended for routine monitoring of patients. The present technique demonstrates the direct in vivo measurement of bone aluminum levels in patients with renal failure. The interference normally present from activation of bone phosphorus is eliminated by using a thermal/epithermal neutron beam. For the clinical management of the patients, the Al/Ca ratio for the hand may be more useful than an absolute measurement of the total body or skeletal aluminum burden. The relationship between the increased serum Al levels following disferrioxamine infusion and the direct in vivo measurement of bone aluminum using the Al/Ca ratio are currently under investigation. The neutron activation procedure presented in this pilot study is a promising new technique with an immediate clinical application. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Bone within a bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, H.J.; Davies, A.M. E-mail:; Chapman, S


    The 'bone within a bone' appearance is a well-recognized radiological term with a variety of causes. It is important to recognize this appearance and also to be aware of the differential diagnosis. A number of common conditions infrequently cause this appearance. Other causes are rare and some remain primarily of historical interest, as they are no longer encountered in clinical practice. In this review we illustrate some of the conditions that can give the bone within a bone appearance and discuss the physiological and pathological aetiology of each where known.

  4. Absolute quantification of somatic DNA alterations in human cancer. (United States)

    Carter, Scott L; Cibulskis, Kristian; Helman, Elena; McKenna, Aaron; Shen, Hui; Zack, Travis; Laird, Peter W; Onofrio, Robert C; Winckler, Wendy; Weir, Barbara A; Beroukhim, Rameen; Pellman, David; Levine, Douglas A; Lander, Eric S; Meyerson, Matthew; Getz, Gad


    We describe a computational method that infers tumor purity and malignant cell ploidy directly from analysis of somatic DNA alterations. The method, named ABSOLUTE, can detect subclonal heterogeneity and somatic homozygosity, and it can calculate statistical sensitivity for detection of specific aberrations. We used ABSOLUTE to analyze exome sequencing data from 214 ovarian carcinoma tumor-normal pairs. This analysis identified both pervasive subclonal somatic point-mutations and a small subset of predominantly clonal and homozygous mutations, which were overrepresented in the tumor suppressor genes TP53 and NF1 and in a candidate tumor suppressor gene CDK12. We also used ABSOLUTE to infer absolute allelic copy-number profiles from 3,155 diverse cancer specimens, revealing that genome-doubling events are common in human cancer, likely occur in cells that are already aneuploid, and influence pathways of tumor progression (for example, with recessive inactivation of NF1 being less common after genome doubling). ABSOLUTE will facilitate the design of clinical sequencing studies and studies of cancer genome evolution and intra-tumor heterogeneity.

  5. TGF-β in cancer and bone: implications for treatment of bone metastases. (United States)

    Juárez, Patricia; Guise, Theresa A


    Bone metastases are common in patients with advanced breast, prostate and lung cancer. Tumor cells co-opt bone cells to drive a feed-forward cycle which disrupts normal bone remodeling to result in abnormal bone destruction or formation and tumor growth in bone. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) is a major bone-derived factor, which contributes to this vicious cycle of bone metastasis. TGF-β released from bone matrix during osteoclastic resorption stimulates tumor cells to produce osteolytic factors further increasing bone resorption adjacent to the tumor cells. TGF-β also regulates 1) key components of the metastatic cascade such as epithelial-mesenchymal transition, tumor cell invasion, angiogenesis and immunosuppression as well as 2) normal bone remodeling and coupling of bone resorption and formation. Preclinical models demonstrate that blockade of TGF-β signaling is effective to treat and prevent bone metastases as well as to increase bone mass.

  6. Cosmology with Negative Absolute Temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Vieira, J P P; Lewis, Antony


    Negative absolute temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al (2013) has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion ($w<-1$) with no Big Rip, and their contracting counterparts are forced to bounce after the energy density becomes sufficiently large. Both scenarios might be used to solve horizon and flatness problems analogously to standard inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.

  7. Cosmology with negative absolute temperatures (United States)

    Vieira, J. P. P.; Byrnes, Christian T.; Lewis, Antony


    Negative absolute temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al. [1] has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion (w inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.

  8. Combination of high-intensity focused ultrasound irradiation and hydroxyapatite nanoparticle injection to injure normal goat liver tissue in vivo without costal bone incision. (United States)

    Liu, L; Xiao, Z; Xiao, Y; Wang, Z; Li, F; Li, M; Peng, X


    The aims of this study were to evaluate the in vivo safety of intravenous nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HA), to explore how nano-HA might influence the effects of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) on normal liver tissue, and to investigate whether intravenous nano-HA could enhance HIFU for hepatocellular carcinoma ablation in a goat model. The present study, for the first time, indicated that the delivery of abundant nano-HA into the body over short periods of time could be assembled by the hepatic reticuloendothelial system, subsequently leading to a rapid rise of ultrasound-induced overheating, and ultimately resulting in enlargement of the coagulation necrotic area for ablated hepatocellular carcinoma in goats both in vivo and ex vivo. On the other hand, therapeutic doses of nano-HA were much lower than the lethal dose, and consequently presented transient and mild abnormalities of hepatic enzymes and renal function during the first 24 h after nano-HA injection. These results suggested that the combined application of nano-HA and HIFU is potentially a more effective alternative option compared to surgery for hepatocellular carcinoma local ablation in a safe and feasible manner.

  9. Stimulatory effects of androgens on normal children's bone marrow in culture: effects on BFU-E, CFU-E, and uroporphyrinogen I synthase activity. (United States)

    Claustres, M; Sultan, C


    We studied the effect of natural and synthetic androgens on children's erythropoietic precursor cells in culture. Cultures of normal marrow were carried out according to a miniaturized methylcellulose method in the presence of erythropoietin. We then evaluated the effects of testosterone, nortestosterone, fluoxymesterone and etiocholanolone (10(-9)-10(-6) M) on erythroid colony-forming units (CFU-E) and burst-forming units (BFU-E). Androgen-induced growth of erythroid progenitors was quantified by directly scoring colonies and by a biochemical determination of the uroporphyrinogen I synthase activity (UROS). We observed a significant increase (p less than or equal to 0.05) in the number of CFU-E and BFU-E and in the UROS activity of derived colonies in the presence of androgens (10(-8) or 10(-7)M). This microculture assay could be useful not only to study the effect of androgens on erythroid progenitor cells in culture, but also to predict the best androgenic treatment of anemia in children and adults.

  10. Efficient generation of transgene-free induced pluripotent stem cells from normal and neoplastic bone marrow and cord blood mononuclear cells. (United States)

    Hu, Kejin; Yu, Junying; Suknuntha, Kran; Tian, Shulan; Montgomery, Karen; Choi, Kyung-Dal; Stewart, Ron; Thomson, James A; Slukvin, Igor I


    Reprogramming blood cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provides a novel tool for modeling blood diseases in vitro. However, the well-known limitations of current reprogramming technologies include low efficiency, slow kinetics, and transgene integration and residual expression. In the present study, we have demonstrated that iPSCs free of transgene and vector sequences could be generated from human BM and CB mononuclear cells using non-integrating episomal vectors. The reprogramming described here is up to 100 times more efficient, occurs 1-3 weeks faster compared with the reprogramming of fibroblasts, and does not require isolation of progenitors or multiple rounds of transfection. Blood-derived iPSC lines lacked rearrangements of IGH and TCR, indicating that their origin is non-B- or non-T-lymphoid cells. When cocultured on OP9, blood-derived iPSCs could be differentiated back to the blood cells, albeit with lower efficiency compared to fibroblast-derived iPSCs. We also generated transgene-free iPSCs from the BM of a patient with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). CML iPSCs showed a unique complex chromosomal translocation identified in marrow sample while displaying typical embryonic stem cell phenotype and pluripotent differentiation potential. This approach provides an opportunity to explore banked normal and diseased CB and BM samples without the limitations associated with virus-based methods.

  11. Movement of the hyoid bone and ventriculus laryngis in normal swallowing%自然吞咽过程中舌骨及喉室移动度的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓翀; 林勤; 吴琼; 周雨霏; 饶明月; 王丽琛; 田野


    目的:测量自然吞咽过程中舌骨及喉室的最大移动度。方法选取40例志愿者为研究对象,使用普通X线模拟机采集自然吞咽视频,通过视频分析软件对吞咽视频进行连续快速截图,测量自然吞咽过程中舌骨及喉的最大移动度。采用单因素方差分析差异。结果40例志愿者平均吞咽时间为(1.13±0.28) s。吞咽过程中舌骨及喉室的移动是先向上,然后向外最后回到静息位置。舌骨前后方向最大移动度为(0.90±0.30) cm,垂直方向最大移动度(0.93±0.36) cm;喉室前后方向最大移动度为(0.69±0.25) cm,垂直方向最大移动度(1.04±0.45) cm。进一步研究发现年龄因素对吞咽时间有影响( P=0.03),男女之间相近( P=0.13)。性别、年龄因素对舌骨和喉室移动度无影响( P=0.28~0.81、0.20~0.88)。结论自然吞咽会引起舌骨及喉室向前上方移动,这种移动在头颈部放疗计划制定过程中值得考虑。%Objective To measure the maximum movement of the hyoid bone and ventriculus laryngis during normal swallowing. Methods Forty volunteers were selected as subjects, and an X⁃ray simulator was used to collect the videos of normal swallowing. Video analysis software was used to capture continuous and quick screenshots of these videos, and the maximum movement of the hyoid bone and ventriculus laryngis was measured. The difference in movement was analyzed by one⁃way analysis of variance. Results The mean time for swallowing in 40 volunteers was 1.13±0.28 s. During the process of swallowing, the hyoid bone and ventriculus laryngis moved upward first, then outward, and finally returned to the resting position. The maximum movement of the hyoid bone forward and backward was 0.90±0.30 cm;the maximum vertical movement of the hyoid bone was 0.93±0.36 cm. The maximum movement of the ventriculus laryngis forward and

  12. Normalization of nano-sized TiO2-induced clastogenicity, genotoxicity and mutagenicity by chlorophyllin administration in mice brain, liver, and bone marrow cells. (United States)

    El-Ghor, Akmal A; Noshy, Magda M; Galal, Ahmad; Mohamed, Hanan Ramadan H


    The intensive uses of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles in sunscreens, toothpaste, sweats, medications, etc. making humans exposed to it daily by not little amounts and also increased its risks including genotoxicity. Thus, the present study was designed as one way to reduce nano-titanium-induced clastogenicity, genotoxicity, and mutagenicity in mice by co-administration of the free radical scavenger chlorophyllin (CHL). In addition, markers of oxidative stress were detected to shed more light on mechanism(s) underlying nano-sized TiO2 genotoxicity. Male mice were exposed to multiple injection into the abdominal cavity for five consecutive days with either CHL (40 mg/kg bw/day), or each of three dose levels of nano-sized TiO2 (500, 1000, or 2000 mg/kg bw/day) alone, or both simultaneously and sacrificed by cervical dislocation 24 h after the last treatment. After CHL co-administration, the observed dose-dependent genotoxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles indicated by the significant elevations in frequencies of both micronuclei and DNA damage induction was significantly decreased and returned to the negative control level. The observed induced mutations in p53 exons 5, 7, & 8 and 5 & 8 in the liver and brain, respectively, were declined in most cases. Moreover, CHL significantly decreased hepatic malondialdehyde level and significantly increased glutathione level and superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities that were significantly disrupted in animal groups treated with nano-TiO2 alone. In conclusion, the evidenced in vivo genotoxicity of nano-TiO2 in the present study was normalized after CHL co-administration which supports the previously suggested oxidative stress as the possible mechanism for titanium toxicity.

  13. The effect of fat distribution on bone mineral density in normal subjects%脂肪分布对不同年龄正常人群骨密度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易波; 文重远; 孙永林; 蔡玉立


    The aim of [his stud) is to investigate [he effects of hod) mass index ( Bill), abdominal fat and hip fat on hone mineral densil)( HMD ) in normal people of different ages. Methods A total of 393 subjects were studied in this stud) conducted from 2010 to 2011. The subjects were divded into youth groups, middle-aged and elderly groups acearding to their ages, We measured the height, weight, waisl circumference and hip circumference, and then calculated Bill and WllR. BMD, abdominal fat and hip fat were measured by dual-energ) X-ray. The relationship of bone mineral densily and fat distribution were analyzed. Results 1, Fat mass increased with age, and the trends in women were more obvious than in men ( P < 0. 05 ) ; 2, In the middle-aged patients, Bill was posilivey correlated with BMD ( male: r = 0.237, P =0.018: female:r=0.279, P =0.024): 3, In old male subjects group, abdominal fat and hip fat were positiyely correlated with bone mineral densilj (P<(). 05 ). As for the aged female, abdominal fat mass was negalively correlated with BMD ( r = 0. 263 ,P < 0. 05). Conclusion The effect of fat distribution on bone mineral densil) in normal subjects is perplexing Lose weight should not be overly emphasized in middle-aged patients or elderl) people because it may led lo bone mass loss and osteoporosis formation.%目的 探讨体质指数(BMI)、腹部脂肪、臀部脂肪对不同年龄正常人群骨密度的影响.方法 采用双能X线BMD仪和医用身高体重测量仪测定393名正常体检人群腰椎松质骨密度、腹部脂肪含量、臀部脂肪含量、全身其他部位脂肪含量和身高、体重、腰围、臀围,并计算BMI和腰臀比.然后将人群按不同年龄分为青年组、中年组和老年组,分析骨密度与不同部位脂肪含量的关系.结果 (1)体内脂肪含量随年龄增加而增加,女性比男性的变化趋势更明显(P<0.05);(2)在中年患者中,BMI与骨密度成正相关(男性组r=0.237,P=0.018;女性组r=0

  14. Comparação do processo de reparo ósseo em tíbias de ratas normais e osteopênicas Bone repair process in normal and osteopenic female rats' tibiae: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Rossi Sartori


    Full Text Available O objetivo foi comparar a consolidação óssea em tíbias de ratas normais e osteopênicas. 49 ratas albinas fêmeas, linhagem Wistar, peso médio de 160 (± 20g e 100 dias foram distribuídas em 2 grupos: Ooforectomizado (OOF e Pseudo-ooforectomizado (Grupo controle - SHAM. 30 dias após a ooforectomia e/ou cirurgia simulada, todas foram submetidas à produção de lesão óssea cortical. Foram sacrificadas na 2ª, 4ª, 6ª e 8ª semanas. Os osteoblastos foram contados. O peso aumentou progressivamente, porém as OOF apresentaram maior peso (pThe purpose was to compare tibial bone union in normal and osteopenic female rats. Forty-nine Wistar albino female rats weighing 160 g (±20g and 100 days were distributed into 2 groups: Oophorectomized (OOF and Pseudo-oophorectomized (SHAM. Thirty days later, a cortical injury was produced in all the animals. They were sacrificed in the 2nd, 4th, 6th and 8th weeks. Osteoblasts count was performed. Progressive weight increase was observed, but the OOF group was shown to have gained more weight (p£0.05 than the SHAM group, at the time of the second surgery. After 15 days post-injury, the animals in the OOF group presented a higher number of osteoblasts (p£0.05 compared to the SHAM group. Thirty days after injury, the number of osteoblasts was reduced, but both groups showed similar amounts. Forty-five days after injury, despite a constant reduction, the number of osteoblasts in the OOF group remained high when compared to SHAM (p£0.05 group. After 60 days, we found less osteoblasts in the SHAM group, suggesting an advanced bone repair process. The osteopenic animals showed an early accelerated response, which became equivalent between both groups 30 days after injury. However, after that period, they showed a delayed osteoid mineralization, suggesting delayed late bone repair process.

  15. Evaluating the Normal Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Marsaglia


    Full Text Available This article provides a little table-free C function that evaluates the normal distribution with absolute error less than 8 x 10 -16 . A small extension provides relative error near the limit available in double precision: 14 to 16 digits, the limits determined mainly by the computer's ability to evaluate exp(-t for large t. Results are compared with those provided by calls to erf or erfc functions, the best of which compare favorably, others do not, and all appear to be much more complicated than need be to get either absolute accuracy less than 10-15 or relative accuracy to the exp(-limited 14 to 16 digits. Also provided: A short history of the error function erf and its intended use, as well as, in the "browse files" attachment, various erf or erfc versions used for comparison.

  16. Bone Markers (United States)

    ... markers may be seen in conditions such as: Osteoporosis Paget disease Cancer that has spread to the bone (metastatic bone disease) Hyperparathyroidism Hyperthyroidism Osteomalacia in adults and rickets in children—lack of bone mineralization, ...

  17. Bone scan (United States)

    ... legs, or spine fractures) Diagnose a bone infection (osteomyelitis) Diagnose or determine the cause of bone pain, ... 2015:chap 43. Read More Broken bone Metabolism Osteomyelitis Review Date 12/10/2015 Updated by: Jatin ...

  18. Bone Cancer (United States)

    Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another ... more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 and ...

  19. Bone Diseases (United States)

    Your bones help you move, give you shape and support your body. They are living tissues that rebuild constantly ... childhood and your teens, your body adds new bone faster than it removes old bone. After about ...

  20. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014 . Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to vitamin D and contribution to normal bone and tooth development pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Specialised Nutrition Europe (formerly IDACE), submitted pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of France, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific...... for infants and young children. A claim on vitamin D and maintenance of normal bones and teeth in the general population has already been assessed with a favourable outcome. The Panel considers that the role of vitamin D in bone and tooth mineralisation and homeostasis applies to all ages, including infants...... and young children (from birth to three years). The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has been established between the dietary intake of vitamin D and contribution to normal development of bones and teeth....

  1. Selections, Extensions and Collectionwise Normality

    CERN Document Server

    Gutev, Valentin


    We demonstrate that the classical Michael's selection theorem for l.s.c. mappings with a collectionwise normal domain can be reduced only to compact-valued mappings modulo the Dowker's extension theorem for such spaces. The technique developed to achieve this result is applied to construct selections for set-valued mappings whose point images are in completely metrizable absolute retracts.

  2. Newton On Absolute Space A Commentary

    CERN Document Server

    Adewole, A I A


    Newton seems to have stated a quantitative relationship between the position of a body in relative space and the position of the body in absolute space in the first scholium of his Principia. We show that if this suspected relationship is assumed to hold, it will dispel many errors and misrepresentations that have befallen Newton's ideas on absolute space.

  3. Monolithically integrated absolute frequency comb laser system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanke, Michael C.


    Rather than down-convert optical frequencies, a QCL laser system directly generates a THz frequency comb in a compact monolithically integrated chip that can be locked to an absolute frequency without the need of a frequency-comb synthesizer. The monolithic, absolute frequency comb can provide a THz frequency reference and tool for high-resolution broad band spectroscopy.

  4. Absolute Income, Relative Income, and Happiness (United States)

    Ball, Richard; Chernova, Kateryna


    This paper uses data from the World Values Survey to investigate how an individual's self-reported happiness is related to (i) the level of her income in absolute terms, and (ii) the level of her income relative to other people in her country. The main findings are that (i) both absolute and relative income are positively and significantly…

  5. Absolute V-R colors of trans-Neptunian objects (United States)

    Alvarez-Candal, Alvaro; Ayala-Loera, Carmen; Ortiz, Jose-Luis; Duffard, Rene; Estela, Fernandez-Valenzuela; Santos-Sanz, Pablo


    The absolute magnitude of a minor body is the apparent magnitude that the body would have if observed from the Sun at a distance of 1AU. Absolute magnitudes are measured using phase curves, showing the change of the magnitude, normalized to unit helio and geo-centric distance, vs. phase angle. The absolute magnitude is then the Y-intercept of the curve. Absolute magnitudes are related to the total reflecting surface of the body and thus bring information of its size, coupled with the reflecting properties.Since 2011 our team has been collecting data from several telescopes spread in Europe and South America. We complemented our data with those available in the literature in order to construct phase curves of trans-Neptunian objects with at least three points. In a first release (Alvarez-Candal et al. 2016, A&A, 586, A155) we showed results for 110 trans-Neptunian objects using V magnitudes only, assuming an overall linear trend and taking into consideration rotational effects, for objects with known light-curves.In this contribution we show results for more than 130 objects, about 100 of them with phase curves in two filters: V and R. We compute absolute magnitudes and phase coefficients in both filters, when available. The average values are HV = 6.39 ± 2.37, βV = (0.09 ± 0.32) mag per degree, HR = 5.38 ± 2.30, and βR = (0.08 ± 0.42) mag per degree.

  6. Absolute quantitation of protein posttranslational modification isoform. (United States)

    Yang, Zhu; Li, Ning


    Mass spectrometry has been widely applied in characterization and quantification of proteins from complex biological samples. Because the numbers of absolute amounts of proteins are needed in construction of mathematical models for molecular systems of various biological phenotypes and phenomena, a number of quantitative proteomic methods have been adopted to measure absolute quantities of proteins using mass spectrometry. The liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) coupled with internal peptide standards, i.e., the stable isotope-coded peptide dilution series, which was originated from the field of analytical chemistry, becomes a widely applied method in absolute quantitative proteomics research. This approach provides more and more absolute protein quantitation results of high confidence. As quantitative study of posttranslational modification (PTM) that modulates the biological activity of proteins is crucial for biological science and each isoform may contribute a unique biological function, degradation, and/or subcellular location, the absolute quantitation of protein PTM isoforms has become more relevant to its biological significance. In order to obtain the absolute cellular amount of a PTM isoform of a protein accurately, impacts of protein fractionation, protein enrichment, and proteolytic digestion yield should be taken into consideration and those effects before differentially stable isotope-coded PTM peptide standards are spiked into sample peptides have to be corrected. Assisted with stable isotope-labeled peptide standards, the absolute quantitation of isoforms of posttranslationally modified protein (AQUIP) method takes all these factors into account and determines the absolute amount of a protein PTM isoform from the absolute amount of the protein of interest and the PTM occupancy at the site of the protein. The absolute amount of the protein of interest is inferred by quantifying both the absolute amounts of a few PTM

  7. The measurement of bone mineral density of normal population in Jiaodong area using digital absorptiometry%胶东地区健康人群数字吸收法骨密度测量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建东; 楚庆速; 林治恩; 周武强; 刘心武; 岳述福; 余朝坤


    Objective: To find out the bone mineral density (BMD) of normal population in Jiaodong area, BM D distribution at different ages , and the prevalence of osteoporosis. To predict fracture risk by given BMD. Methods: Selected 3306 people of long-term healthy residence in Jiaodong area , including 1302 men and 2004 women. After systematically photographing the digital radiography by carestre health system , length , volume , bone mineral content , BMD index value , T value and Z value of the middle phalanx of the second , third and fourth hands were got using OsteoGram 2000 software system. Then the statistics was done by defining 5 years as an age group. Results: The results showed a BMD peak at age 30-35 for both genders. For women ,the BMD peak maintains at 20-45 years old. A rapid bone mineral loss occured at age 55-60 and a slight rebound occured after the age of 75. For men, BM D was decreasing year by year. According to the diagnostic criteria of osteoporosis approved by W HO in 1994, the prevalence of osteoporosis of normal population in Jiaodong area was 11. 07%, 14.87% for women and 5.22% for men. Conclusion: There is a relatively low prevalence rate of osteoporosis of normal population in Jiaodong area.Women's BMD peak remains for a relatively long time. The BMD peak and bone mineral loss of men in all ages comply with the general characieristics of a BMD normative database. To pay attention to women 's BMD after the age of 55 has important clinical significance.%目的:研究测定胶东地区健康人群手指骨密度(BMD),确定各年龄段骨密度分布情况以及骨质疏松患病率,并通过给定的骨密度值对骨折危险性进行预测.方法:选取长期居住胶东地区的健康人群共3 306例,其中男1 302例,女2 004例,由锐柯数字化放射成像系统摄片后经OsteoGram 2000软件系统处理,得到被检者非优势手第2、3、4指中节指骨的长度、体积、骨矿含量、BMD指数值以及T值和Z值,按5

  8. Clarifying Normalization (United States)

    Carpenter, Donald A.


    Confusion exists among database textbooks as to the goal of normalization as well as to which normal form a designer should aspire. This article discusses such discrepancies with the intention of simplifying normalization for both teacher and student. This author's industry and classroom experiences indicate such simplification yields quicker…

  9. Computerized geometric features of carpal bone for bone age estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chi-Wen Hsieh; Tai-Lang Jong; Yi-Hong Chou; Chui-Mei Tiu


    Background Bone age development is one of the significant indicators depicting the growth status of children.However, bone age assessment is an heuristic and tedious work for pediatricians. We developed a computerized bone age estimation system based on the analysis of geometric features of carpal bones.Methods The geometric features of carpals were extracted and analyzed to judge the bone age of children by computerized shape and area description. Four classifiers, linear, nearest neighbor, back-propagation neural network,and radial basis function neural network, were adopted to categorize bone age. Principal component and discriminate analyses were employed to improve assorting accuracy.Results The hand X-ray films of 465 boys and 444 girls served as our database. The features were extracted from carpal bone images, including shape, area, and sequence. The proposed normalization area ratio method was effective in bone age classification by simulation. Besides, features statistics showed similar results between the standard of the Greulich and Pyle atlas and our database.Conclusions The bone area has a higher discriminating power to judge bone age. The ossification sequence of trapezium and trapezoid bones between Taiwanese and the atlas of the GP method is quite different. These results also indicate that carpal bone assessment with classification of neural networks can be correct and practical.

  10. Bone Densitometry (Bone Density Scan) (United States)

    ... of DXA Bone Densitometry? What is a Bone Density Scan (DXA)? Bone density scanning, also called dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry ( ... is today's established standard for measuring bone mineral density (BMD). An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  11. Absolute instability in viscoelastic mixing layers (United States)

    Ray, Prasun K.; Zaki, Tamer A.


    The spatiotemporal linear stability of viscoelastic planar mixing layers is investigated. A one-parameter family of velocity profiles is used as the base state with the parameter, S, controlling the amount of shear and backflow. The influence of viscoelasticity in dilute polymer solutions is modeled with the Oldroyd-B and FENE-P constitutive equations. Both models require the specification of the ratio of the polymer-relaxation and convective time scales (the Weissenberg number, We) and the ratio of solvent and solution viscosities (β). The maximum polymer extensibility, L, must also be specified for the FENE-P model. We examine how the variation of these parameters along with the Reynolds number, Re, affects the minimum value of S at which the flow becomes locally absolutely unstable. With the Oldroyd-B model, the influence of viscoelasticity is shown to be almost fully captured by the elasticity, E^* equiv (1-β ) We/Re, and Scrit decreases as elasticity is increased, i.e., elasticity is destabilizing. A simple approximate dispersion relation obtained via long-wave asymptotic analysis is shown to accurately capture this destabilizing influence. Results obtained with the FENE-P model exhibit a rich variety of behavior. At large values of the extensibility, L, results are similar to those for the Oldroyd-B fluid as expected. However, when the extensibility is reduced to more realistic values (L ≈ 100), one must consider the scaled shear rate, η _c equiv We S/2L, in addition to the elasticity. When ηc is large, the base-state polymer stress obtained by the FENE-P model is reduced, and there is a corresponding reduction in the overall influence of viscoelasticity on stability. Additionally, elasticity exhibits a stabilizing effect which is driven by the streamwise-normal perturbation polymer stress. As ηc is reduced, the base-state and perturbation normal polymer stresses predicted by the FENE-P model move towards the Oldroyd-B values, and the destabilizing

  12. Bone marrow aspiration (United States)

    Iliac crest tap; Sternal tap; Leukemia - bone marrow aspiration; Aplastic anemia - bone marrow aspiration; Myelodysplastic syndrome - bone marrow aspiration; Thrombocytopenia - bone marrow aspiration; Myelofibrosis - bone marrow aspiration

  13. Magnifying absolute instruments for optically homogeneous regions

    CERN Document Server

    Tyc, Tomas


    We propose a class of magnifying absolute optical instruments with a positive isotropic refractive index. They create magnified stigmatic images, either virtual or real, of optically homogeneous three-dimensional spatial regions within geometrical optics.

  14. The Simplicity Argument and Absolute Morality (United States)

    Mijuskovic, Ben


    In this paper the author has maintained that there is a similarity of thought to be found in the writings of Cudworth, Emerson, and Husserl in his investigation of an absolute system of morality. (Author/RK)

  15. Vibrational Circular Dichroism Absolute Configuration of 9,12-Cyclomulin-13-ol, a Diterpene from Azorella and Laretia Species. (United States)

    Muñoz, Marcelo A; San-Martín, Aurelio; Joseph-Nathan, Pedro


    The absolute configuration of the diterpenoid 9,12-cyclomulin-13-ol (1), a constituent of Azorella and Laretia species, has been established by vibrational circular dichroism spectroscopy in combination with density functional theory calculations. The obtained normal diterpene absolute configuration confirms that of azorellanol (2), which was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction.

  16. Osteoclasts secrete non-bone derived signals that induce bone formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsdal, Morten A; Neutzsky-Wulff, Anita V; Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld


    Bone turnover is a highly regulated process, where bone resorption in the normal healthy individual always is followed by bone formation in a manner referred to as coupling. Patients with osteopetrosis caused by defective acidification of the resorption lacuna have severely decreased resorption, ...... secrete non-bone derived factors, which induce preosteoblasts to form bone-like nodules, potentially explaining the imbalanced coupling seen in osteopetrotic patients....

  17. The Absolute Magnitudes of Type Ia Supernovae in the Ultraviolet

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Peter J; Milne, Peter; Bufano, Filomena; Ciardullo, Robin; Elias-Rosa, Nancy; Filippenko, Alexei V; Foley, Ryan J; Gehrels, Neil; Gronwall, Caryl; Hicken, Malcolm; Holland, Stephen T; Hoversten, Erik A; Immler, Stefan; Kirshner, Robert P; Li, Weidong; Mazzali, Paolo; Phillips, Mark M; Pritchard, Tyler; Still, Martin; Turatto, Massimo; Berk, Daniel Vanden


    We examine the absolute magnitudes and light-curve shapes of 14 nearby(redshift z = 0.004--0.027) Type Ia supernovae (SNe~Ia) observed in the ultraviolet (UV) with the Swift Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope. Colors and absolute magnitudes are calculated using both a standard Milky Way (MW) extinction law and one for the Large Magellanic Cloud that has been modified by circumstellar scattering. We find very different behavior in the near-UV filters (uvw1_rc covering ~2600-3300 A after removing optical light, and u ~3000--4000 A) compared to a mid-UV filter (uvm2 ~2000-2400 A). The uvw1_rc-b colors show a scatter of ~0.3 mag while uvm2-b scatters by nearly 0.9 mag. Similarly, while the scatter in colors between neighboring filters is small in the optical and somewhat larger in the near-UV, the large scatter in the uvm2-uvw1 colors implies significantly larger spectral variability below 2600 A. We find that in the near-UV the absolute magnitudes at peak brightness of normal SNe Ia in our sample are correlated with ...

  18. The absolute infrared magnitudes of type Ia supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Meikle, W P S


    The absolute luminosities and homogeneity of early-time infrared (IR) light curves of type Ia supernovae are examined. Eight supernovae are considered. These are selected to have accurately known epochs of maximum blue light as well as having reliable distance estimates and/or good light curve coverage. Two approaches to extinction correction are considered. Owing to the low extinction in the IR, the differences in the corrections via the two methods are small. Absolute magnitude light curves in the J, H and K-bands are derived. Six of the events, including five established ``Branch-normal'' supernovae show similar coeval magnitudes. Two of these, SNe 1989B and 1998bu, were observed near maximum infrared light. This occurs about 5 days {\\it before} maximum blue light. Absolute peak magnitudes of about -19.0, -18.7 and -18.8 in J, H & K respectively were obtained. The two spectroscopically peculiar supernovae in the sample, SNe 1986G and 1991T, also show atypical IR behaviour. The light curves of the six s...

  19. Birkhoff normalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, H.; Hoveijn, I.; Lunter, G.; Vegter, G.


    The Birkhoff normal form procedure is a widely used tool for approximating a Hamiltonian systems by a simpler one. This chapter starts out with an introduction to Hamiltonian mechanics, followed by an explanation of the Birkhoff normal form procedure. Finally we discuss several algorithms for comput

  20. A global algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. McDougall


    Full Text Available The International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater – 2010 has defined the thermodynamic properties of seawater in terms of a new salinity variable, Absolute Salinity, which takes into account the spatial variation of the composition of seawater. Absolute Salinity more accurately reflects the effects of the dissolved material in seawater on the thermodynamic properties (particularly density than does Practical Salinity.

    When a seawater sample has standard composition (i.e. the ratios of the constituents of sea salt are the same as those of surface water of the North Atlantic, Practical Salinity can be used to accurately evaluate the thermodynamic properties of seawater. When seawater is not of standard composition, Practical Salinity alone is not sufficient and the Absolute Salinity Anomaly needs to be estimated; this anomaly is as large as 0.025 g kg−1 in the northernmost North Pacific. Here we provide an algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity Anomaly for any location (x, y, p in the world ocean.

    To develop this algorithm, we used the Absolute Salinity Anomaly that is found by comparing the density calculated from Practical Salinity to the density measured in the laboratory. These estimates of Absolute Salinity Anomaly however are limited to the number of available observations (namely 811. In order to provide a practical method that can be used at any location in the world ocean, we take advantage of approximate relationships between Absolute Salinity Anomaly and silicate concentrations (which are available globally.

  1. Bone scintigraphy in chondroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphry, A.; Gilday, D.L.; Brown, R.G.


    Scintigraphy in 3 patients with chondroblastoma showed that the tumors were hyperemic and avidly accumulated the radionuclide. These changes were also present in adjacent normal bone, but to a lesser degree. This suggests that radionuclide uptake in chondroblastoma is a function of the blood supply to the tumor rather than primary matrix extraction.

  2. Absolute photoacoustic thermometry in deep tissue. (United States)

    Yao, Junjie; Ke, Haixin; Tai, Stephen; Zhou, Yong; Wang, Lihong V


    Photoacoustic thermography is a promising tool for temperature measurement in deep tissue. Here we propose an absolute temperature measurement method based on the dual temperature dependences of the Grüneisen parameter and the speed of sound in tissue. By taking ratiometric measurements at two adjacent temperatures, we can eliminate the factors that are temperature irrelevant but difficult to correct for in deep tissue. To validate our method, absolute temperatures of blood-filled tubes embedded ~9 mm deep in chicken tissue were measured in a biologically relevant range from 28°C to 46°C. The temperature measurement accuracy was ~0.6°C. The results suggest that our method can be potentially used for absolute temperature monitoring in deep tissue during thermotherapy.

  3. Quantum theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality (United States)

    Amaral, Barbara; Cunha, Marcelo Terra; Cabello, Adán


    Contextuality is a fundamental feature of quantum theory and a necessary resource for quantum computation and communication. It is therefore important to investigate how large contextuality can be in quantum theory. Linear contextuality witnesses can be expressed as a sum S of n probabilities, and the independence number α and the Tsirelson-like number ϑ of the corresponding exclusivity graph are, respectively, the maximum of S for noncontextual theories and for the theory under consideration. A theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality if it has scenarios in which ϑ /α approaches n . Here we show that quantum theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality despite what is suggested by the examination of the quantum violations of Bell and noncontextuality inequalities considered in the past. Our proof is not constructive and does not single out explicit scenarios. Nevertheless, we identify scenarios in which quantum theory allows for almost-absolute-maximal contextuality.

  4. Bone disease of primary hyperoxaluria in infancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ring, E.; Wendler, H.; Zobel, G. (Graz Univ. (Austria). Abt. fuer Kinderheilkunde); Ratschek, M. (Graz Univ. (Austria). Abt. fuer Pathologie)


    A patient with primary hyperoxaluria type I in infancy is reported. He had renal insufficiency, but urolithiasis was absent. Demonstration of diffuse nephrocalcinosis by renal ultrasound contributed to early diagnosis. Prolonged survival leads to extensive extrarenal oxalate deposition. Repeated skeletal surveys showed the development and the progression of severe hyperoxaluria-related bone disease. Translucent metaphyseal bands with sclerotic margins, wide areas of rarefaction at the ends of the long bones, and translucent rims around the epiphyses and the tarsal bones were signs of disordered bone growth. Bone density generally increased with time indicating progressive sclerosis due to oxalate deposition in the previously normal bone structure. (orig.).

  5. Absolute Stability Limit for Relativistic Charged Spheres

    CERN Document Server

    Giuliani, Alessandro


    We find an exact solution for the stability limit of relativistic charged spheres for the case of constant gravitational mass density and constant charge density. We argue that this provides an absolute stability limit for any relativistic charged sphere in which the gravitational mass density decreases with radius and the charge density increases with radius. We then provide a cruder absolute stability limit that applies to any charged sphere with a spherically symmetric mass and charge distribution. We give numerical results for all cases. In addition, we discuss the example of a neutral sphere surrounded by a thin, charged shell.

  6. Absolute Asymmetric Synthesis Using A Cocrystal Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    1 Results Absolute asymmetric synthesis by means of solid-state reaction of chiral crystals self-assembled from achiral molecules is an attractive and promising methodology for asymmetric synthesis because it is not necessary to employ any external chiral source like a chiral catalyst.In order to design reliably absolute asymmetric syntheses in the solid state,it is inevitable to prepare and predict the formation of chiral crystals from achiral compounds.We have prepared a number of chiral cocrystals co...

  7. [Bone and Calcium Metabolisms Associated with Dental and Oral-Maxillofacial Diseases. Bone remodeling and alveolar bone homeostasis]. (United States)

    Nakashima, Tomoki


    Bone, which support motile organ and periodontal tissue, is renewing throughout our life. This restructuring process is called "bone remodeling" , and osteoclasts and osteoblasts play a crucial role in this process. Bone remodeling is important not only for normal bone mass and strength, but also for mineral homeostasis. Bone remodeling is stringently regulated by communication between bone component cells such as osteoclasts, osteoblasts and osteocytes. An imbalance of this process is often linked to various bone diseases. Alveolar bone remodeling is directly influenced by occlusal force from the teeth. Thus, the elucidation of the regulatory mechanisms involved in alveolar bone remodeling is critical for a deeper understanding of the maintenance of healthy tooth and dental disease.

  8. Bone health in cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coleman, R; Body, J J; Aapro, M


    There are three distinct areas of cancer management that make bone health in cancer patients of increasing clinical importance. First, bone metastases are common in many solid tumours, notably those arising from the breast, prostate and lung, as well as multiple myeloma, and may cause major...... morbidity including fractures, severe pain, nerve compression and hypercalcaemia. Through optimum multidisciplinary management of patients with bone metastases, including the use of bone-targeted treatments such as potent bisphosphonates or denosumab, it has been possible to transform the course of advanced...... cancer for many patients resulting in a major reduction in skeletal complications, reduced bone pain and improved quality of life. Secondly, many of the treatments we use to treat cancer patients have effects on reproductive hormones, which are critical for the maintenance of normal bone remodelling...

  9. Reduced vertebral bone density in hypercalciuric nephrolithiasis (United States)

    Pietschmann, F.; Breslau, N. A.; Pak, C. Y.


    Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and single-photon absorptiometry were used to determine bone density at the lumbar spine and radial shaft in 62 patients with absorptive hypercalciuria, 27 patients with fasting hypercalciuria, and 31 nonhypercalciuric stone formers. Lumbar bone density was significantly lower in patients with absorptive (-10%) as well as in those with fasting hypercalciuria (-12%), with 74 and 92% of patients displaying values below the normal mean, whereas only 48% of the nonhypercalciuric stone formers had bone density values below the normal mean. In contrast, radial bone density was similar in all three groups of renal stone formers investigated. The comparison of urinary chemistry in patients with absorptive hypercalciuria and low normal bone density compared to those with high normal bone density showed a significantly increased 24 h urinary calcium excretion on random diet and a trend toward a higher 24 h urinary uric acid excretion and a higher body mass index in patients with low normal bone density. Moreover, among the patients with absorptive hypercalciuria we found a statistically significant correlation between the spinal bone density and the 24 h sodium and sulfate excretion and the urinary pH. These results gave evidence for an additional role of environmental factors (sodium and animal proteins) in the pathogenesis of bone loss in absorptive hypercalciuria. In conclusion, our data suggest an osteopenia of trabecular-rich bone tissues in patients with fasting and absorptive hypercalciurias.

  10. Gonadal dysgenesis and bone metabolism. (United States)

    Breuil, V; Euller-Ziegler, L


    Gonadal dysgenesis is defined as congenital hypogonadism related to abnormalities of the sex chromosomes. Because sex steroids play a central role in the acquisition and maintenance of bone mass, studies have been done to investigate bone status in patients with gonadal dysgenesis, particularly Turner's syndrome and Klinefelter's syndrome, which are the two most common types. The severe estrogen deficiency characteristic of Turner's syndrome (44, X0) is associated with a significant bone mass decrease ascribable to increased bone turnover, as shown by histological studies and assays of bone turnover markers. Estrogen therapy is followed by a significant bone mass gain and a return to normal of bone turnover markers, suggesting that it is the estrogen deficiency rather than the chromosomal abnormality that causes the bone mass deficiency, although abnormalities in the renal metabolism of vitamin D have been reported. Combined therapy with estrogens and growth hormone seems beneficial during the prepubertal period. In Klinefelter's syndrome (47XXY), serum testosterone levels are at the lower end of the normal range and dihydrotestosterone levels are low. Histological studies show depressed osteoblast function and a decrease in 5-alpha-reductase activity responsible for partial tissue resistance to androgens. Assays of bone turnover markers show evidence of increased bone turnover. The bone deficiency is most marked at the femoral neck and seems correlated with serum testosterone and estradiol levels. Androgen therapy has favorable effects on the bone only if it is started before puberty. Recent data suggest that estrogens may contribute to the development of demineralization in KS and that bisphosphonate therapy may be beneficial.

  11. Thin-film magnetoresistive absolute position detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenland, Johannes Petrus Jacobus


    The subject of this thesis is the investigation of a digital absolute posi- tion-detection system, which is based on a position-information carrier (i.e. a magnetic tape) with one single code track on the one hand, and an array of magnetoresistive sensors for the detection of the informatio

  12. Det demokratiske argument for absolut ytringsfrihed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune


    Artiklen diskuterer den påstand, at absolut ytringsfrihed er en nødvendig forudsætning for demokratisk legitimitet med udgangspunkt i en rekonstruktion af et argument fremsat af Ronald Dworkin. Spørgsmålet er, hvorfor ytringsfrihed skulle være en forudsætning for demokratisk legitimitet, og hvorfor...

  13. New Techniques for Absolute Gravity Measurements. (United States)


    Hammond, J.A. (1978) Bollettino Di Geofisica Teorica ed Applicata Vol. XX. 8. Hammond, J. A., and Iliff, R. L. (1979) The AFGL absolute gravity system...International Gravimetric Bureau, No. L:I-43. 7. Hammond. J.A. (1978) Bollettino Di Geofisica Teorica ed Applicata Vol. XX. 8. Hammond, J.A., and

  14. Teaching Absolute Value Inequalities to Mature Students (United States)

    Sierpinska, Anna; Bobos, Georgeana; Pruncut, Andreea


    This paper gives an account of a teaching experiment on absolute value inequalities, whose aim was to identify characteristics of an approach that would realize the potential of the topic to develop theoretical thinking in students enrolled in prerequisite mathematics courses at a large, urban North American university. The potential is…

  15. Time Function and Absolute Black Hole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Hossein; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid


    Einstein’s theory of gravity is not consistent with quantum mechanics, because general relativity cannot be quantized. [1] But without conversion of force and energy, it is impossible to find a grand unified theory. A very important result of CPH theory is time function that allows we give a new ...... description of absolute black hole and before the big bang....

  16. Magnetoresistive sensor for absolute position detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenland, J.P.J.


    A digital measurement principle for absolute position is decscribed. The position data is recorded serially into a single track of a hard-magnetic layer with the help of longitudinal saturation recording. Detection is possible by means of an array of sensor elements which can be made of a substrate.

  17. Generalized Norms Inequalities for Absolute Value Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyas Ali


    Full Text Available In this article, we generalize some norms inequalities for sums, differences, and products of absolute value operators. Our results based on Minkowski type inequalities and generalized forms of the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality. Some other related inequalities are also discussed.

  18. Stimulus Probability Effects in Absolute Identification (United States)

    Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen


    This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an absolute identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of…

  19. Absolute Radiation Thermometry in the NIR (United States)

    Bünger, L.; Taubert, R. D.; Gutschwager, B.; Anhalt, K.; Briaudeau, S.; Sadli, M.


    A near infrared (NIR) radiation thermometer (RT) for temperature measurements in the range from 773 K up to 1235 K was characterized and calibrated in terms of the "Mise en Pratique for the definition of the Kelvin" (MeP-K) by measuring its absolute spectral radiance responsivity. Using Planck's law of thermal radiation allows the direct measurement of the thermodynamic temperature independently of any ITS-90 fixed-point. To determine the absolute spectral radiance responsivity of the radiation thermometer in the NIR spectral region, an existing PTB monochromator-based calibration setup was upgraded with a supercontinuum laser system (0.45 μm to 2.4 μm) resulting in a significantly improved signal-to-noise ratio. The RT was characterized with respect to its nonlinearity, size-of-source effect, distance effect, and the consistency of its individual temperature measuring ranges. To further improve the calibration setup, a new tool for the aperture alignment and distance measurement was developed. Furthermore, the diffraction correction as well as the impedance correction of the current-to-voltage converter is considered. The calibration scheme and the corresponding uncertainty budget of the absolute spectral responsivity are presented. A relative standard uncertainty of 0.1 % (k=1) for the absolute spectral radiance responsivity was achieved. The absolute radiometric calibration was validated at four temperature values with respect to the ITS-90 via a variable temperature heatpipe blackbody (773 K ...1235 K) and at a gold fixed-point blackbody radiator (1337.33 K).

  20. Bone cutting. (United States)

    Giraud, J Y; Villemin, S; Darmana, R; Cahuzac, J P; Autefage, A; Morucci, J P


    Bone cutting has always been a problem for surgeons because bone is a hard living material, and many osteotomes are still very crude tools. Technical improvement of these surgical tools has first been their motorization. Studies of the bone cutting process have indicated better features for conventional tools. Several non-conventional osteotomes, particularly ultrasonic osteotomes are described. Some studies on the possible use of lasers for bone cutting are also reported. Use of a pressurised water jet is also briefly examined. Despite their advantages, non-conventional tools still require improvement if they are to be used by surgeons.

  1. Experimental study of absolute instability over a rotating disk (United States)

    Othman Bekhit, Hesham Abdel Ghafar


    A series of experiments were performed to study the absolute instability of Type I traveling cross-flow modes in the boundary layer on a smooth disk rotating at constant speed. The basic flow agreed with analytic theory, and the growth of natural disturbances matched linear theory predictions. Controlled temporal disturbances were introduced by a short-duration air pulse from a hypodermic tube located above the disk and outside the boundary layer. The air pulse was positioned just outboard of the critical radius for Type I cross-flow modes. A hot-wire sensor primarily sensitive to the azirnuthal velocity component, was positioned at different spatial locations on the disk to document the growth of disturbances produced by the air pulses. Ensemble averages conditioned on the air pulses revealed wave packets that evolved in time and space. Two amplitudes of air pulses were used. The lower amplitude produced wave packets with linear amplitude characteristics that agreed with linear-theory wall-normal eigenfunction distributions and spatial growth rates. The higher amplitude pulse produced wave packets that had nonlinear amplitude characteristics. The space-time evolution of the leading and trailing edges of the wave packets were followed well past the critical radius for the absolute instability based on Lingwood (1995). With the linear amplitudes, the absolute instability was dominated by the convective modes, agreeing with the linear DNS simulations of Davies and Carpenter (2003). With the nonlinear amplitudes, larger temporal growth of the wave packets existed which supports the finite amplitude analysis of Pier (2003), and more closely resembles the wave packet evolution in the experimental study of Lingwood (1996). This suggests that the disturbance levels in the experiment that was intended to demonstrate the linear analysis, were likely fuite.

  2. Bone scintigraphy and osteo-articular tuberculosis in transplant patients: a study of 50 bone scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulaud, J.P.; Mechali, D.; Morau, G. (Hopital Claude-Bernard, Paris (France))


    Bone scintigraphy with 99 m technecium labelled phosphorus compounds was achieved in 50 west Africans migrant workers in Paris. Bone and joint tuberculosis was assumed in 20 cases. In 5 of these 20 cases, bone scan, but not X-ray, showed abnormalities, and in 4, bone scan disclosed more localisations than X-rays. In 7 cases, yet, bone scan was normal, with major osteolytic X-rays lesions in 3 cases, minor in 2 cases, and isolated cold abcesses in two more cases: these means 7 false-negative results. Among the 30 other cases, 29 were considered as mechanical vertebral pathology, and 1 sacro-iliitis Brucellosis. Bone scan was normal in 28 cases the 2 others are unexplained false-positive. Although non-specific and not completely reliable, we think that bone-scanning is useful in bone-tuberculosis check-up, especially to obtain early diagnosis and detect multifocal localisations.

  3. Assessment of bone loss with repeated bone mineral measurements: Application to measurements on the individual patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahner, H.W.


    Longitudinal measurements on lumbar spine and mid-radius were made by bone absorptiometry techniques in 139 normal women. Bone mineral was measured every 6 months over an median interval of 2.1 years. The results revealed that bone loss at different skeletal sites is non-uniform with equal bone loss patterns in all patients and relatively small variations in bone loss rate between normal women. For achieving these results there is strong demand on high precision and properly spaced measuring intervals for long-term rate of loss measurements. For exclusion of progressive degenerative disease a radiographic evaluation of the spine in the beginning and at the end of the study is mandatory as compression fractures or trauma reveal bone mineral changes independent from the agerelated bone loss. These repeated bone mineral measurements are useful for monitoring and follow-up studies during different therapeutic regimens.

  4. Effects of Spaceflight on Bone: The Rat as an Animal Model for Human Bone Loss (United States)

    Halloran, B.; Weider, T.; Morey-Holton, E.


    The loss of weight bearing during spaceflight results in osteopenia in humans. Decrements in bone mineral reach 3-10% after as little as 75-184 days in space. Loss of bone mineral during flight decreases bone strength and increases fracture risk. The mechanisms responsible for, and the factors contributing to, the changes in bone induced by spaceflight are poorly understood. The rat has been widely used as an animal model for human bone loss during spaceflight. Despite its potential usefulness, the results of bone studies performed in the rat in space have been inconsistent. In some flights bone formation is decreased and cancellous bone volume reduced, while in others no significant changes in bone occur. In June of 1996 Drs. T. Wronski, S. Miller and myself participated in a flight experiment (STS 78) to examine the effects of glucocorticoids on bone during weightlessness. Technically the 17 day flight experiment was flawless. The results, however, were surprising. Cancellous bone volume and osteoblast surface in the proximal tibial metaphysis were the same in flight and ground-based control rats. Normal levels of cancellous bone mass and bone formation were also detected in the lumbar vertebrae and femoral neck of flight rats. Furthermore, periosteal bone formation rate was found to be identical in flight and ground-based control rats. Spaceflight had little or no effect on bone metabolism! These results prompted us to carefully review the changes in bone observed in, and the flight conditions of previous spaceflight missions.

  5. An absolute measure for a key currency (United States)

    Oya, Shunsuke; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Hirata, Yoshito

    It is generally considered that the US dollar and the euro are the key currencies in the world and in Europe, respectively. However, there is no absolute general measure for a key currency. Here, we investigate the 24-hour periodicity of foreign exchange markets using a recurrence plot, and define an absolute measure for a key currency based on the strength of the periodicity. Moreover, we analyze the time evolution of this measure. The results show that the credibility of the US dollar has not decreased significantly since the Lehman shock, when the Lehman Brothers bankrupted and influenced the economic markets, and has increased even relatively better than that of the euro and that of the Japanese yen.

  6. From Hubble's NGSL to Absolute Fluxes (United States)

    Heap, Sara R.; Lindler, Don


    Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL) consists of R-l000 spectra of 374 stars of assorted temperature, gravity, and metallicity. Each spectrum covers the wavelength range, 0.18-1.00 microns. The library can be viewed and/or downloaded from the website, Stars in the NGSL are now being used as absolute flux standards at ground-based observatories. However, the uncertainty in the absolute flux is about 2%, which does not meet the requirements of dark-energy surveys. We are therefore developing an observing procedure that should yield fluxes with uncertainties less than 1 % and will take part in an HST proposal to observe up to 15 stars using this new procedure.

  7. Asteroid absolute magnitudes and slope parameters (United States)

    Tedesco, Edward F.


    A new listing of absolute magnitudes (H) and slope parameters (G) has been created and published in the Minor Planet Circulars; this same listing will appear in the 1992 Ephemerides of Minor Planets. Unlike previous listings, the values of the current list were derived from fits of data at the V band. All observations were reduced in the same fashion using, where appropriate, a single basis default value of 0.15 for the slope parameter. Distances and phase angles were computed for each observation. The data for 113 asteroids was of sufficiently high quality to permit derivation of their H and G. These improved absolute magnitudes and slope parameters will be used to deduce the most reliable bias-corrected asteroid size-frequency distribution yet made.

  8. Learning in a unidimensional absolute identification task. (United States)

    Rouder, Jeffrey N; Morey, Richard D; Cowan, Nelson; Pfaltz, Monique


    We tested whether there is long-term learning in the absolute identification of line lengths. Line lengths are unidimensional stimuli, and there is a common belief that learning of these stimuli quickly reaches a low-level asymptote of about seven items and progresses no more. We show that this is not the case. Our participants served in a 1.5-h session each day for over a week. Although they did not achieve perfect performance, they continued to improve day by day throughout the week and eventually learned to distinguish between 12 and 20 line lengths. These results are in contrast to common characterizations of learning in absolute identification tasks with unidimensional stimuli. We suggest that this learning reflects improvement in short-term processing.

  9. Absolute and relative dosimetry for ELIMED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirrone, G. A. P.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and Institute of Physics Czech Academy of Science, ELI-Beamlines project, Na Slovance 2, Prague (Czech Republic); Cuttone, G.; Candiano, G.; Musumarra, A.; Pisciotta, P.; Romano, F. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania (Italy); Carpinelli, M. [INFN Sezione di Cagliari, c/o Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy); Leonora, E.; Randazzo, N. [INFN-Sezione di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Presti, D. Lo [INFN-Sezione di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, Catania, Italy and Università di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Via S. Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Raffaele, L. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and INFN-Sezione di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Tramontana, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and Università di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Via S. Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Cirio, R.; Sacchi, R.; Monaco, V. [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via P.Giuria, 1 10125 Torino, Italy and Università di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via P.Giuria, 1 10125 Torino (Italy); Marchetto, F.; Giordanengo, S. [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via P.Giuria, 1 10125 Torino (Italy)


    The definition of detectors, methods and procedures for the absolute and relative dosimetry of laser-driven proton beams is a crucial step toward the clinical use of this new kind of beams. Hence, one of the ELIMED task, will be the definition of procedures aiming to obtain an absolute dose measure at the end of the transport beamline with an accuracy as close as possible to the one required for clinical applications (i.e. of the order of 5% or less). Relative dosimetry procedures must be established, as well: they are necessary in order to determine and verify the beam dose distributions and to monitor the beam fluence and the energetic spectra during irradiations. Radiochromic films, CR39, Faraday Cup, Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) and transmission ionization chamber will be considered, designed and studied in order to perform a fully dosimetric characterization of the ELIMED proton beam.

  10. Absolute and relative dosimetry for ELIMED (United States)

    Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Candiano, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Leonora, E.; Lo Presti, D.; Musumarra, A.; Pisciotta, P.; Raffaele, L.; Randazzo, N.; Romano, F.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V.; Tramontana, A.; Cirio, R.; Marchetto, F.; Sacchi, R.; Giordanengo, S.; Monaco, V.


    The definition of detectors, methods and procedures for the absolute and relative dosimetry of laser-driven proton beams is a crucial step toward the clinical use of this new kind of beams. Hence, one of the ELIMED task, will be the definition of procedures aiming to obtain an absolute dose measure at the end of the transport beamline with an accuracy as close as possible to the one required for clinical applications (i.e. of the order of 5% or less). Relative dosimetry procedures must be established, as well: they are necessary in order to determine and verify the beam dose distributions and to monitor the beam fluence and the energetic spectra during irradiations. Radiochromic films, CR39, Faraday Cup, Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) and transmission ionization chamber will be considered, designed and studied in order to perform a fully dosimetric characterization of the ELIMED proton beam.

  11. Absolute calibration of TFTR helium proportional counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strachan, J.D.; Diesso, M.; Jassby, D.; Johnson, L.; McCauley, S.; Munsat, T.; Roquemore, A.L. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.; Barnes, C.W. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.]|[Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Loughlin, M. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.]|[JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon (United Kingdom)


    The TFTR helium proportional counters are located in the central five (5) channels of the TFTR multichannel neutron collimator. These detectors were absolutely calibrated using a 14 MeV neutron generator positioned at the horizontal midplane of the TFTR vacuum vessel. The neutron generator position was scanned in centimeter steps to determine the collimator aperture width to 14 MeV neutrons and the absolute sensitivity of each channel. Neutron profiles were measured for TFTR plasmas with time resolution between 5 msec and 50 msec depending upon count rates. The He detectors were used to measure the burnup of 1 MeV tritons in deuterium plasmas, the transport of tritium in trace tritium experiments, and the residual tritium levels in plasmas following 50:50 DT experiments.

  12. Predicting vertebral bone strength by vertebral static histomorphometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Ebbesen, Ebbe Nils; Mosekilde, Lis


    The study investigates the relationship between static histomorphometry and bone strength of human lumbar vertebral bone. The ability of vertebral histomorphometry to predict vertebral bone strength was compared with that of vertebral densitometry, and also with histomorphometry and bone strength...... of the entire vertebral bodies (L-2) were used for histomorphometry. The other iliac crest biopsies and the L-3 were destructively tested by compression. High correlation was found between BV/TV or Tb.Sp and vertebral bone strength (absolute value of r = 0.86 in both cases). Addition of Tb.Th significantly...... of improving the prediction of bone strength of the vertebral body. The correlations between BV/TV of L-2 and bone strength of L-3 were comparable with the correlation obtained by quantitative computed tomography (QCT), peripheral QCT (pQCT), and dual-energy X-ray absorptrometry (DEXA) of L-3 and bone strength...

  13. Absolute vs. Relative Notion of Wealth Changes



    This paper discusses solutions derived from lottery experiments using two alternative assumptions: that people perceive wealth changes as absolute amounts of money; and that people consider wealth changes as a proportion of some reference value dependant on the context of the problem under consideration. The former assumption leads to the design of Prospect Theory, the latter - to a solution closely resembling the utility function hypothesized by Markowitz (1952B). This paper presents several...

  14. The absolute differential calculus (calculus of tensors)

    CERN Document Server

    Levi-Civita, Tullio


    Written by a towering figure of twentieth-century mathematics, this classic examines the mathematical background necessary for a grasp of relativity theory. Tullio Levi-Civita provides a thorough treatment of the introductory theories that form the basis for discussions of fundamental quadratic forms and absolute differential calculus, and he further explores physical applications.Part one opens with considerations of functional determinants and matrices, advancing to systems of total differential equations, linear partial differential equations, algebraic foundations, and a geometrical intro

  15. Measurement of absolute gravity acceleration in Firenze (United States)

    de Angelis, M.; Greco, F.; Pistorio, A.; Poli, N.; Prevedelli, M.; Saccorotti, G.; Sorrentino, F.; Tino, G. M.


    This paper reports the results from the accurate measurement of the acceleration of gravity g taken at two separate premises in the Polo Scientifico of the University of Firenze (Italy). In these laboratories, two separate experiments aiming at measuring the Newtonian constant and testing the Newtonian law at short distances are in progress. Both experiments require an independent knowledge on the local value of g. The only available datum, pertaining to the italian zero-order gravity network, was taken more than 20 years ago at a distance of more than 60 km from the study site. Gravity measurements were conducted using an FG5 absolute gravimeter, and accompanied by seismic recordings for evaluating the noise condition at the site. The absolute accelerations of gravity at the two laboratories are (980 492 160.6 ± 4.0) μGal and (980 492 048.3 ± 3.0) μGal for the European Laboratory for Non-Linear Spectroscopy (LENS) and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, respectively. Other than for the two referenced experiments, the data here presented will serve as a benchmark for any future study requiring an accurate knowledge of the absolute value of the acceleration of gravity in the study region.

  16. Measurement of absolute gravity acceleration in Firenze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. de Angelis


    Full Text Available This paper reports the results from the accurate measurement of the acceleration of gravity g taken at two separate premises in the Polo Scientifico of the University of Firenze (Italy. In these laboratories, two separate experiments aiming at measuring the Newtonian constant and testing the Newtonian law at short distances are in progress. Both experiments require an independent knowledge on the local value of g. The only available datum, pertaining to the italian zero-order gravity network, was taken more than 20 years ago at a distance of more than 60 km from the study site. Gravity measurements were conducted using an FG5 absolute gravimeter, and accompanied by seismic recordings for evaluating the noise condition at the site. The absolute accelerations of gravity at the two laboratories are (980 492 160.6 ± 4.0 μGal and (980 492 048.3 ± 3.0 μGal for the European Laboratory for Non-Linear Spectroscopy (LENS and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, respectively. Other than for the two referenced experiments, the data here presented will serve as a benchmark for any future study requiring an accurate knowledge of the absolute value of the acceleration of gravity in the study region.

  17. Temporal bone imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemmerling, Marc [Algemeen Ziekenhuis Sint-Lucas, Gent (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology; Foer, Bert de (ed.) [Sint-Augustinus Ziekenhuis, Wilrijk (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology


    Complete overview of imaging of normal and diseased temporal bone. Straightforward structure to facilitate learning. Detailed consideration of newer imaging techniques, including the hot topic of diffusion-weighted imaging. Includes a chapter on anatomy that will be of great help to the novice interpreter of imaging findings. Excellent illustrations throughout. This book provides a complete overview of imaging of normal and diseased temporal bone. After description of indications for imaging and the cross-sectional imaging anatomy of the area, subsequent chapters address the various diseases and conditions that affect the temporal bone and are likely to be encountered regularly in clinical practice. The classic imaging methods are described and discussed in detail, and individual chapters are included on newer techniques such as functional imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging. There is also a strong focus on postoperative imaging. Throughout, imaging findings are documented with the aid of numerous informative, high-quality illustrations. Temporal Bone Imaging, with its straightforward structure based essentially on topography, will prove of immense value in daily practice.

  18. The healing of fractured bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacon, G.E. [Central Electricity Generating Board, Cheltenham (United Kingdom)


    A method utilising neutron beams of width 1 mm, used on D1B (2.4 A) and D20 (1.3 A) to study the healing of fractured bones is presented. It is found that the callus bone uniting the fractured tibia of a sheep, whose healing had been encouraged by daily mechanical vibration over a period of three months, showed no trace of the large preferential vertical orientation of the apatite crystals which is characteristic of the normal bone. Nevertheless the bone had regained about 60% of its mechanical strength and the callus bone, although not oriented, was well crystallized. It is considered that the new monochromator for D20, expected to give increased intensity at 2.5 A, will be of considerable advantage. (author). 2 refs.

  19. Bone x-ray (United States)

    ... or broken bone Bone tumors Degenerative bone conditions Osteomyelitis (inflammation of the bone caused by an infection) ... Multiple myeloma Osgood-Schlatter disease Osteogenesis imperfecta Osteomalacia Osteomyelitis Paget disease of the bone Rickets X-ray ...

  20. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells from diabetic versus normal rats for treatment of myocardial infarction%糖尿病与正常大鼠骨髓间充质干细胞移植治疗心肌梗死的比较★

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨忠路; 王辉山


    BACKGROUND: Current studies have shown that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells from normal or young people usual y serve as a source of transplanted cells in stem cel transplantation treatment of myocardial infarction. OBJECTIVE: To compare the therapeutic effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells from diabetic and normal rats on myocardial infarction. METHODS: Under sterile conditions, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells from normal and diabetic rats were harvested. Then, rat models of myocardial infarction were established and randomly divided into three groups:100 μL cellsuspension containing 105-106 bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells from F2 normal or diabetic rats was injected into myocardial infarction lesions, and 100 μL Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium containing 20%fetal bovine serum was injected serving as blank control. After 1 month, hematoxylin-eosin staining for myocardial infarction lesions was performed for histomorphological observation. Bcl-2 expression was detected by immunohistochemistry method. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Based on cel morphology observation and flow cytometry identification, high-purity bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells could be obtained using rat femoral bone marrow adherent culture. Cel growth curve showed that normal rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells grew faster than those from diabetic rats. At 1 month after transplantation, histomorphological improvement was seen in the infarcted area after transplantation of normal rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells as compared with the other two groups. In addition, the Bcl-2 expression in the infarcted area was higher in the normal rat cel group than the the other two groups. These findings indicate that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells from normal rats grow faster than those from diabetic rats, and the cells from normal rats have better therapeutic effects on myocardial infarction.%  背景:目前国内外在干细胞移植治疗心肌梗死的研究中,大

  1. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to sodium and potassium salts of citric acid and maintenance of normal bone (ID 330) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health...... claims in relation to sodium and potassium salts of citric acid and maintenance of normal bone. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly...

  2. Bone imaging in sports medicine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikare S


    Full Text Available Increased participation in sports by the general public leads to increase in sports induced injuries including stress fractures, shin splints, arthritis and host of musculotendenous maladies. We have studied twenty patients referred from sports clinic for bone scanning to evaluate clinically difficult problems. It showed stress fracture in twelve patients, bilateral shin splint in five patients and normal bone scan in three patients. Present study highlights the utility of bone imaging for the diagnosis of various sports injuries in sports medicine.

  3. Existing conditions of full bandgaps and absolute negative refraction in metallic-dielectric photonic crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Jian-Wen; Hu Xin-Hua; Wang He-Zhou


    This paper has theoretically studied the characteristic frequencies of band structures in two-dimensional metallicdielectric photonic crystals. It is demonstrated that a large filling fraction benefits the existence of absolute photonic band gap, while a smaller filling fraction benefits an absolute negative refraction band. In addition, it also finds that the relation between the cut-off frequency of E-polarized wave and the filling fraction exceeding 10% is content with a linear increasing function, whose coefficients are exponential to the normalized lattice constant. These investigations have significant implications for tuning the operational frequencies to desired applications and manufacturing photonic crystals.

  4. The Effect of Estrogen on the Restoration of Bone Mass and Bone Quality in Ovariectomized Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    To evaluate the effect of estrogen on its ability to restore the bone mass and bone quality in ovariectomized rats by examining the changes of bone morphology and histomorphometry, 3month-old rats were divided randomly into 4 groups: normal control, ovariectomized (OVX), shamoperated (Sham-O) and OVX plus estrogen (OVX+E2). Treatment initiated from the day 8 weeks after operation and continued for 12 weeks. Bone morphology and histomorphometry were examined afterwards. Results showed that comparing to control group, the trabecular bone in OVX appeared thinner and reduced in the amount. The connectivity between trabecula was decreased and the structure disordered. The free-end of trabecula was increased. The cavity of bone marrow enlarged. After treatment with estrogen, above changes improved remarkably by different degree, although did not reach the normal face. The bone histomorphometry results damonstrated that estrogen treatment increased bone mass and the amount of trabecula by 129% and 132% respectively (P<0. 05). The activity of bone resorption decreased significantly and the rate of bone formation increased to 203 %. These results suggest that treatment of ovariectomized rats with estrogen can not only increase bone mass, also improve the bone structure and enhance the property of bone mechanics.

  5. Bone loss during simulated weightlessness - Is it glucocorticoid mediated? (United States)

    Bikle, D. D.; Halloran, B. P.; Cone, C. M.; Morey-Holton, E.


    Elevating the hindquarters of a rat by the tail unweights the hind limbs but maintains normal weight-bearing by the forelimbs. This maneuver leads to a decrease in bone mass and calcium content in the unweighted bones (e.g., tibia and L1 vertebra), but not in the normally weighted bones (e.g., humerus and mandible). Potentially, the stress of the maneuver, mediated by increased glucocorticoid production and secretion, could explain the decreased bone formation, rather than the skeletal unweighting per se. To test this possibility, the effects of adrenalectomy on the response of bone to the unweighting of the hind limbs of normal rats were evaluated.

  6. Achieving Climate Change Absolute Accuracy in Orbit (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Thome, K. J; Leroy, S.; Corliss, J.; Anderson, J. G.; Ao, C. O.; Bantges, R.; Best, F.; Bowman, K.; Brindley, H.; Butler, J. J.; Collins, W.; Dykema, J. A.; Doelling, D. R.; Feldman, D. R.; Fox, N.; Huang, X.; Holz, R.; Huang, Y.; Jennings, D.; Jin, Z.; Johnson, D. G.; Jucks, K.; Kato, S.; Kratz, D. P.; Liu, X.; Lukashin, C.; Mannucci, A. J.; Phojanamongkolkij, N.; Roithmayr, C. M.; Sandford, S.; Taylor, P. C.; Xiong, X.


    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission will provide a calibration laboratory in orbit for the purpose of accurately measuring and attributing climate change. CLARREO measurements establish new climate change benchmarks with high absolute radiometric accuracy and high statistical confidence across a wide range of essential climate variables. CLARREO's inherently high absolute accuracy will be verified and traceable on orbit to Système Internationale (SI) units. The benchmarks established by CLARREO will be critical for assessing changes in the Earth system and climate model predictive capabilities for decades into the future as society works to meet the challenge of optimizing strategies for mitigating and adapting to climate change. The CLARREO benchmarks are derived from measurements of the Earth's thermal infrared spectrum (5-50 micron), the spectrum of solar radiation reflected by the Earth and its atmosphere (320-2300 nm), and radio occultation refractivity from which accurate temperature profiles are derived. The mission has the ability to provide new spectral fingerprints of climate change, as well as to provide the first orbiting radiometer with accuracy sufficient to serve as the reference transfer standard for other space sensors, in essence serving as a "NIST [National Institute of Standards and Technology] in orbit." CLARREO will greatly improve the accuracy and relevance of a wide range of space-borne instruments for decadal climate change. Finally, CLARREO has developed new metrics and methods for determining the accuracy requirements of climate observations for a wide range of climate variables and uncertainty sources. These methods should be useful for improving our understanding of observing requirements for most climate change observations.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    ABSOLUT与创意素来有着不解之缘。由Andy Warhal的ABSOLUT WARHOL至今,已有超过400位不同领域的创意大师为ABSOLUT的当代艺术宝库贡献了自己的得意之作。ABSOLUT的创意仿佛永远不会枯竭,而一系列的作品也让惊喜从未落空。

  8. Absolute quantification of myocardial blood flow. (United States)

    Yoshinaga, Keiichiro; Manabe, Osamu; Tamaki, Nagara


    With the increasing availability of positron emission tomography (PET) myocardial perfusion imaging, the absolute quantification of myocardial blood flow (MBF) has become popular in clinical settings. Quantitative MBF provides an important additional diagnostic or prognostic information over conventional visual assessment. The success of MBF quantification using PET/computed tomography (CT) has increased the demand for this quantitative diagnostic approach to be more accessible. In this regard, MBF quantification approaches have been developed using several other diagnostic imaging modalities including single-photon emission computed tomography, CT, and cardiac magnetic resonance. This review will address the clinical aspects of PET MBF quantification and the new approaches to MBF quantification.

  9. Absolute calibration of the Auger fluorescence detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauleo, P.; Brack, J.; Garrard, L.; Harton, J.; Knapik, R.; Meyhandan, R.; Rovero, A.C.; /Buenos Aires, IAFE; Tamashiro, A.; Warner, D.


    Absolute calibration of the Pierre Auger Observatory fluorescence detectors uses a light source at the telescope aperture. The technique accounts for the combined effects of all detector components in a single measurement. The calibrated 2.5 m diameter light source fills the aperture, providing uniform illumination to each pixel. The known flux from the light source and the response of the acquisition system give the required calibration for each pixel. In the lab, light source uniformity is studied using CCD images and the intensity is measured relative to NIST-calibrated photodiodes. Overall uncertainties are presently 12%, and are dominated by systematics.

  10. Development of an absolute neutron dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acevedo, C; Birstein, L; Loyola, H [Section de Desarrollos Innovativos, Comision Chilena de EnergIa Nuclear (CCHEN), Casilla 188-D, Santiago (Chile)], E-mail:


    An Absolute Neutron Dosimeter was developed to be used as a calibration standard for the Radiation Metrology Laboratory at CCHEN. The main component of the Dosimeter consists of a Proportional Counter of cylindrical shape, with Polyethylene walls and Ethylene gas in its interior. It includes a cage shaped arrangement of graphite bars that operates like the Proportional Counter cathode and a tungsten wire of 25 {mu}m in diameter {mu}m as the anode. Results of a Montecarlo modeling for the Dosimeter operation and results of tests and measurements performed with a radioactive source are presented.

  11. Musical Activity Tunes Up Absolute Pitch Ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Ribe, Lars Riisgaard


    Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify or produce pitches of musical tones without an external reference. Active AP (i.e., pitch production or pitch adjustment) and passive AP (i.e., pitch identification) are considered to not necessarily coincide, although no study has properly compared...... that APs generally undershoot when adjusting musical pitch, a tendency that decreases when musical activity increases. Finally, APs are less accurate when adjusting the pitch to black key targets than to white key targets. Hence, AP ability may be partly practice-dependent and we speculate that APs may...

  12. Evaluation of bone mineral density in urban girls of Kawar-Fars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Jeddi


    Full Text Available Background: Normal bone structure is formed in childhood and adolescence. Any problem of bone formation at these stages will lead to significant osteoporosis and its complications in adulthood. Genetic factors are the most important factors in skeletal development. This study aimed to evaluate the bone mineral density and it's interfering factors in Iranian girls of Kawar of Fars. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study 235 healthy girls of Kawar of Fars aged 9-18 years old participated and they underwent Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA scanning of lumbar spine, femoral neck and total body. The LMS method was applied to calculate smoothed BMC, BMD and BMAD for age related centiles. Results: Maximum accretion of BMC and BMD was at ages of 11 to 13 and according to 3rd, 25th, 50th, 75th and 97th percentile, BMC and BMD of all sites were increasing with a rather fixed rate up to the age of 15 and then after it increased very slowly. Conclusion: This study is the first study for normative data of BMC and BMD of Iranian girls and showed that BMC accretion of these girls was slower, but BMD accretion was greater than the girls of the other parts of the world. Absolute amount of bone mineral content in Iranian girls was lower than Indian, Lebanese and Asian girls of USA. Also weight and puberty were the two most important factors efficacious on BMD of the Iranian girls (of Kawar. Further research to evaluate the evolution of bone mineral density in Iranian children and adolescents is needed to identify the reasons for the significant differences in bone density values between our Iranian population and their Asian counterparts.

  13. Infant bone age estimation based on fibular shaft length: model development and clinical validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Andy; Stamoulis, Catherine; Bixby, Sarah D.; Breen, Micheal A.; Connolly, Susan A.; Kleinman, Paul K. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)


    Bone age in infants (<1 year old) is generally estimated using hand/wrist or knee radiographs, or by counting ossification centers. The accuracy and reproducibility of these techniques are largely unknown. To develop and validate an infant bone age estimation technique using fibular shaft length and compare it to conventional methods. We retrospectively reviewed negative skeletal surveys of 247 term-born low-risk-of-abuse infants (no persistent child protection team concerns) from July 2005 to February 2013, and randomized them into two datasets: (1) model development (n = 123) and (2) model testing (n = 124). Three pediatric radiologists measured all fibular shaft lengths. An ordinary linear regression model was fitted to dataset 1, and the model was evaluated using dataset 2. Readers also estimated infant bone ages in dataset 2 using (1) the hemiskeleton method of Sontag, (2) the hemiskeleton method of Elgenmark, (3) the hand/wrist atlas of Greulich and Pyle, and (4) the knee atlas of Pyle and Hoerr. For validation, we selected lower-extremity radiographs of 114 normal infants with no suspicion of abuse. Readers measured the fibulas and also estimated bone ages using the knee atlas. Bone age estimates from the proposed method were compared to the other methods. The proposed method outperformed all other methods in accuracy and reproducibility. Its accuracy was similar for the testing and validating datasets, with root-mean-square error of 36 days and 37 days; mean absolute error of 28 days and 31 days; and error variability of 22 days and 20 days, respectively. This study provides strong support for an infant bone age estimation technique based on fibular shaft length as a more accurate alternative to conventional methods. (orig.)

  14. Raman spectroscopy of bone metastasis (United States)

    Esmonde-White, Karen A.; Sottnik, Joseph; Morris, Michael; Keller, Evan


    Raman spectroscopy of bone has been used to characterize chemical changes occurring in diseases such as osteoporosis, osteoarthritis and osteomyelitis. Metastasis of cancer into bone causes changes to bone quality that are similar to those observed in osteoporosis, such as decreased bone strength, but with an accelerated timeframe. In particular, osteolytic (bone degrading) lesions in bone metastasis have a marked effect on patient quality of life because of increased risk of fractures, pain, and hypercalcemia. We use Raman spectroscopy to examine bone from two different mouse models of osteolytic bone metastasis. Raman spectroscopy measures physicochemical information which cannot be obtained through standard biochemical and histological measurements. This study was reviewed and approved by the University of Michigan University Committee on the Care and Use of Animals. Two mouse models of prostate cancer bone metastasis, RM1 (n=3) and PC3-luc (n=4) were examined. Tibiae were injected with RM1 or PC3-luc cancer cells, while the contralateral tibiae received a placebo injection for use as controls. After 2 weeks of incubation, the mice were sacrificed and the tibiae were examined by Raman microspectroscopy (λ=785 nm). Spectroscopic markers corresponding to mineral stoichiometry, bone mineralization, and mineral crystallinity were compared in spectra from the cancerous and control tibiae. X-ray imaging of the tibia confirmed extensive osteolysis in the RM1 mice, with tumor invasion into adjoining soft tissue and moderate osteolysis in the PC3-luc mice. Raman spectroscopic markers indicate that osteolytic lesions are less mineralized than normal bone tissue, with an altered mineral stoichiometry and crystallinity.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘作新; 葛渭高; 赵素霞; 仵永先


    In this paper, by introducing a new concept of absolute stability for a certain argument, necessary and sufficient conditions for absolute stability of general Lurie indirect control systems are obtained, and some practical sufficient conditions are also given.

  16. Bone pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Charlotte Ørsted; Hansen, Rikke Rie; Heegaard, Anne-Marie


    Skeletal conditions are common causes of chronic pain and there is an unmet medical need for improved treatment options. Bone pain is currently managed with disease modifying agents and/or analgesics depending on the condition. Disease modifying agents affect the underlying pathophysiology...... of the disease and reduce as a secondary effect bone pain. Antiresorptive and anabolic agents, such as bisphosphonates and intermittent parathyroid hormone (1-34), respectively, have proven effective as pain relieving agents. Cathepsin K inhibitors and anti-sclerostin antibodies hold, due to their disease...... modifying effects, promise of a pain relieving effect. NSAIDs and opioids are widely employed in the treatment of bone pain. However, recent preclinical findings demonstrating a unique neuronal innervation of bone tissue and sprouting of sensory nerve fibers open for new treatment possibilities....

  17. Bone graft (United States)

    ... around the area. The bone graft can be held in place with pins, plates, or screws. Why ... Orthopaedic Surgery, San Francosco, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the ...

  18. Absolute stereochemistry of altersolanol A and alterporriols. (United States)

    Kanamaru, Saki; Honma, Miho; Murakami, Takanori; Tsushima, Taro; Kudo, Shinji; Tanaka, Kazuaki; Nihei, Ken-Ichi; Nehira, Tatsuo; Hashimoto, Masaru


    The absolute stereochemistry of altersolanol A (1) was established by observing a positive exciton couplet in the circular dichroism (CD) spectrum of the C3,C4-O-bis(2-naphthoyl) derivative 10 and by chemical correlations with known compound 8. Before the discussion, the relative stereochemistry of 1 was confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. The shielding effect at C7'-OMe group by C1-O-benzoylation established the relative stereochemical relationship between the C8-C8' axial bonding and the C1-C4/C1'-C4' polyol moieties of alterporriols E (3), an atropisomer of the C8-C8' dimer of 1. As 3 could be obtained by dimerization of 1 in vitro, the absolute configuration of its central chirality elements (C1-C4) must be identical to those of 1. Spectral comparison between the experimental and theoretical CD spectra supported the above conclusion. Axial stereochemistry of novel C4-O-deoxy dimeric derivatives, alterporriols F (4) and G (5), were also revealed by comparison of their CD spectra to those of 2 and 3.

  19. Absolute Electron Extraction Efficiency of Liquid Xenon (United States)

    Kamdin, Katayun; Mizrachi, Eli; Morad, James; Sorensen, Peter


    Dual phase liquid/gas xenon time projection chambers (TPCs) currently set the world's most sensitive limits on weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), a favored dark matter candidate. These detectors rely on extracting electrons from liquid xenon into gaseous xenon, where they produce proportional scintillation. The proportional scintillation from the extracted electrons serves to internally amplify the WIMP signal; even a single extracted electron is detectable. Credible dark matter searches can proceed with electron extraction efficiency (EEE) lower than 100%. However, electrons systematically left at the liquid/gas boundary are a concern. Possible effects include spontaneous single or multi-electron proportional scintillation signals in the gas, or charging of the liquid/gas interface or detector materials. Understanding EEE is consequently a serious concern for this class of rare event search detectors. Previous EEE measurements have mostly been relative, not absolute, assuming efficiency plateaus at 100%. I will present an absolute EEE measurement with a small liquid/gas xenon TPC test bed located at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  20. Absolute Orientation Based on Distance Kernel Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbiao Sun


    Full Text Available The classical absolute orientation method is capable of transforming tie points (TPs from a local coordinate system to a global (geodetic coordinate system. The method is based only on a unique set of similarity transformation parameters estimated by minimizing the total difference between all ground control points (GCPs and the fitted points. Nevertheless, it often yields a transformation with poor accuracy, especially in large-scale study cases. To address this problem, this study proposes a novel absolute orientation method based on distance kernel functions, in which various sets of similarity transformation parameters instead of only one set are calculated. When estimating the similarity transformation parameters for TPs using the iterative solution of a non-linear least squares problem, we assigned larger weighting matrices for the GCPs for which the distances from the point are short. The weighting matrices can be evaluated using the distance kernel function as a function of the distances between the GCPs and the TPs. Furthermore, we used the exponential function and the Gaussian function to describe distance kernel functions in this study. To validate and verify the proposed method, six synthetic and two real datasets were tested. The accuracy was significantly improved by the proposed method when compared to the classical method, although a higher computational complexity is experienced.

  1. A Conceptual Approach to Absolute Value Equations and Inequalities (United States)

    Ellis, Mark W.; Bryson, Janet L.


    The absolute value learning objective in high school mathematics requires students to solve far more complex absolute value equations and inequalities. When absolute value problems become more complex, students often do not have sufficient conceptual understanding to make any sense of what is happening mathematically. The authors suggest that the…

  2. Invariant and Absolute Invariant Means of Double Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Alotaibi


    Full Text Available We examine some properties of the invariant mean, define the concepts of strong σ-convergence and absolute σ-convergence for double sequences, and determine the associated sublinear functionals. We also define the absolute invariant mean through which the space of absolutely σ-convergent double sequences is characterized.

  3. Muscle-bone Interactions During Fracture Healing (United States)


    physical trauma31, orthopaedic surgery32, or due to disease like fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva, which has been identified to be a result of a...responsible for bone healing may provide opportunities to develop therapies to augment normal physiologic mechanisms underlying bone regeneration. Current... osteoporosis in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. J Bone Miner Metab 2008; 26:159-64. 70. Hill M, Goldspink G. Expression and splicing of the in- sulin

  4. Blocking antibody to the beta-subunit of FSH prevents bone loss by inhibiting bone resorption and stimulating bone synthesis (United States)

    Low estrogen levels undoubtedly underlie menopausal bone thinning. However, rapid and profuse bone loss begins three years prior to the last menstrual period, when serum estrogen is relatively normal. We have shown that the pituitary hormone FSH, the levels of which are high during the late peri-men...

  5. Use of Absolute and Comparative Performance Feedback in Absolute and Comparative Judgments and Decisions (United States)

    Moore, Don A.; Klein, William M. P.


    Which matters more--beliefs about absolute ability or ability relative to others? This study set out to compare the effects of such beliefs on satisfaction with performance, self-evaluations, and bets on future performance. In Experiment 1, undergraduate participants were told they had answered 20% correct, 80% correct, or were not given their…

  6. Bone marrow transplant (United States)

    Transplant - bone marrow; Stem cell transplant; Hematopoietic stem cell transplant; Reduced intensity nonmyeloablative transplant; Mini transplant; Allogenic bone marrow transplant; Autologous bone marrow transplant; Umbilical ...

  7. High-dose therapy improved the bone remodelling compartment canopy and bone formation in multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinge, Maja; Delaissé, Jean-Marie; Plesner, Torben;


    . Loss of this canopy has been associated with bone loss. This study addresses whether the bone remodelling in MM is improved by high-dose therapy. Bone marrow biopsies obtained from 20 MM patients, before and after first-line treatment with high-dose melphalan followed by autologous stem cell...... transplantation, and from 20 control patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance were histomorphometrically investigated. This investigation confirmed that MM patients exhibited uncoupled bone formation to resorption and reduced canopy coverage. More importantly, this study revealed......Bone loss in multiple myeloma (MM) is caused by an uncoupling of bone formation to resorption trigged by malignant plasma cells. Increasing evidence indicates that the bone remodelling compartment (BRC) canopy, which normally covers the remodelling sites, is important for coupled bone remodelling...

  8. Variance computations for functional of absolute risk estimates. (United States)

    Pfeiffer, R M; Petracci, E


    We present a simple influence function based approach to compute the variances of estimates of absolute risk and functions of absolute risk. We apply this approach to criteria that assess the impact of changes in the risk factor distribution on absolute risk for an individual and at the population level. As an illustration we use an absolute risk prediction model for breast cancer that includes modifiable risk factors in addition to standard breast cancer risk factors. Influence function based variance estimates for absolute risk and the criteria are compared to bootstrap variance estimates.

  9. Bone cell mechanosensitivity, estrogen deficiency, and osteoporosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein-Nulend, J.; van Oers, R.F.M.; Bakker, A.D.; Bacabac, R.G.


    Adaptation of bone to mechanical stresses normally produces a bone architecture that combines a proper resistance against failure with a minimal use of material. This adaptive process is governed by mechanosensitive osteocytes that transduce the mechanical signals into chemical responses, i.e. the o

  10. How is an absolute democracy possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Bednarek


    Full Text Available In the last part of the Empire trilogy, Commonwealth, Negri and Hardt ask about the possibility of the self-governance of the multitude. When answering, they argue that absolute democracy, understood as the political articulation of the multitude that does not entail its unification (construction of the people is possible. As Negri states, this way of thinking about political articulation is rooted in the tradition of democratic materialism and constitutes the alternative to the dominant current of modern political philosophy that identifies political power with sovereignty. The multitude organizes itself politically by means of the constitutive power, identical with the ontological creativity or productivity of the multitude. To state the problem of political organization means to state the problem of class composition: political democracy is at the same time economic democracy.

  11. Absolute geostrophic currents in global tropical oceans (United States)

    Yang, Lina; Yuan, Dongliang


    A set of absolute geostrophic current (AGC) data for the period January 2004 to December 2012 are calculated using the P-vector method based on monthly gridded Argo profiles in the world tropical oceans. The AGCs agree well with altimeter geostrophic currents, Ocean Surface Current Analysis-Real time currents, and moored current-meter measurements at 10-m depth, based on which the classical Sverdrup circulation theory is evaluated. Calculations have shown that errors of wind stress calculation, AGC transport, and depth ranges of vertical integration cannot explain non-Sverdrup transport, which is mainly in the subtropical western ocean basins and equatorial currents near the Equator in each ocean basin (except the North Indian Ocean, where the circulation is dominated by monsoons). The identified non-Sverdrup transport is thereby robust and attributed to the joint effect of baroclinicity and relief of the bottom (JEBAR) and mesoscale eddy nonlinearity.

  12. Differences in Bone Quality between High versus Low Turnover Renal Osteodystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Daniel S. [University of Kentucky, Lexington; Pienkowski, David [University of Kentucky, Lexington; Faugere, Marie-Claude [Albert B. Chandler Medical Center; Malluche, Hartmut H. [Albert B. Chandler Medical Center


    Abnormal bone turnover is common in chronic kidney disease (CKD), but its effects on bone quality remain unclear. This study sought to quantify the relationship between abnormal bone turnover and bone quality. Iliac crest bone biopsies were obtained from CKD-5 patients on dialysis with low (n=18) or high (n=17) turnover, and from volunteers (n=12) with normal turnover and normal kidney function. Histomorphometric methods were used to quantify the microstructural parameters; Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nanoindentation were used to quantify the material and mechanical properties in bone. Reduced mineral-to-matrix ratio, mineral crystal size, stiffness and hardness were observed in bone with high turnover compared to bone with normal or low turnover. Decreased cancellous bone volume and trabecular thickness were seen in bone with low turnover compared to bone with normal or high turnover. Bone quality, as defined by its microstructural, material, and mechanical properties, is related to bone turnover. These data suggest that turnover related alterations in bone quality may contribute to the known diminished mechanical competence of bone in CKD patients, albeit from different mechanisms for bone with high (material abnormality) vs. low (microstructural alteration) turnover. The present findings suggest that improved treatments for renal osteodystrophy should seek to avoid low or high bone turnover and aim for turnover rates as close to normal as possible.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Resumen: En este ensayo pongo en contraposición dos doctrinas conspicuamenteleibnicianas: la doctrina del tiempo relacional e ideal, y la doctrina de la armonía preestablecida. Argumentaré que si todas las substancias están necesariamentecoordinadas, entonces no tiene sentido negar el carácter absoluto y real del tiempo. En la primera sección describiré la concepción newtoniana y clarkeana del tiempo absoluto; en la segunda discutiré la crítica leibniciana a dicha concepción, crítica sobre la que se erige su doctrina relacional e ideal del tiempo; en la tercera sección daré un vistazo a la metafísica monádica madura de Leibniz, haciendo especial énfasis en la doctrina de la armonía preestablecida; finalmente, en la última sección sugeriré la existencia de una tensión irreconciliable entre estas dos doctrinas.Abstract: In this paper I bring together two characteristically Leibnizean doctrines:the doctrine of relational and ideal time, and the doctrine of preestablished harmony. I will argue that, if every substance is necessarily connected with another, then it makes no sense to deny absolute and real time. In the first section, I will describe Newton’s and Clarke’s conception of absolute time; then, in the second section, I will consider Leibniz’s critique of that conception, on which he bases his ideal and relational doctrine of time. In the third section I will look briefly at Leibniz’s mature monadic metaphysics, taking special account of his doctrine of preestablished harmony. In the last section, I will suggest that there is an irreconcilable tension between these two doctrines.

  14. Bone and bone marrow function of reconstructed chest wall after surgical correction of pectus excavatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Yoh; Magara, Tatsuo; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Ichihashi, Takumi; Hikishima, Hiroshi (Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)


    Bone and bone marrow functions of the reconstructed chest wall after surgical correction of the funnel chest deformities were evaluated by scanning method. In our series, three kinds of operative procedures were employed; strut method for adult cases, sternal turnover method with and without muscle pedicle for infant cases. Bone function was scanned by sup(99m)Tc-methylene-diphosphonate and bone marrow function was evaluated by sup(99m)Tc-sulfur-colloid. For the cases undergone each surgical procedure, bone and bone marrow scan were done at short term after surgery (within 30 days), at intermediate stage (one month to 12 months), and at long term stage (beyond one year). The results were as follows: By the evaluation at the long term stage of the cases undergoing strut method, bone as well as bone marrow scan visualized normal view of the reconstructed sternum. Regarding the cases undergone sternal turnover method without muscle pedicle, or free graft implantation of the plastron, the bone scan at the long term follow-up stage showed abnormal finding, i.e. hypo-, or defect-visualization of the inverted sternum, in 11.5% of the cases. Furthermore, bone marrow scan showed abnormality in 33.3% of the cases. On the other hand, the cases undergone sternal turnover method with muscle pedicle, in which blood supply to the plastron were preserved by the connection from superior epigastric artery to internal mammary artery, showed no abnormality as far as at the long term follow-up study neither in bone scan nor bone marrow scan. However, in the evaluation at short term after surgery, 50% of the cases undergoing bone scan showed abnormality. In addition, in this stage 85.7% of the bone marrow scan showed abnormal finding. These abnormality, however, normalized within 6 months for bone scan and 12 months for bone marrow scan, in contrast to the results of the cases undergone sternal turnover without pedicle.

  15. Bone mineral content and bone metabolism in young adults with severe periodontitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wowern von, N.; Westergaard, J.; Kollerup, G.


    Bone loss, bone markers, bone metabolism, bone mineral content, osteoporosis, severe periodontitis......Bone loss, bone markers, bone metabolism, bone mineral content, osteoporosis, severe periodontitis...

  16. Three-dimensional microarchitecture of adolescent cancellous bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Danielsen, Carl Christian; Hvid, Ivan;


    This study investigated microarchitectural, mechanical, collagen and mineral properties of normal adolescent cancellous bone, and compared them with adult and aging cancellous bone, to obtain more insight into the subchondral bone adaptations during development and growth. Twenty-three human...... proximal tibiae were harvested and divided into 3 groups according to their ages: adolescence (9 to 17years, n=6), young adult (18 to 24years, n=9), and adult (25 to 30years, n=8). Twelve cubic cancellous bone samples with dimensions of 8×8×8mm(3) were produced from each tibia, 6 from each medial......, the adolescent cancellous bone had similar bone volume fraction (BV/TV), structure type (plate, rod or mixtures), and connectivity (3-D trabecular networks) as the adult cancellous bone. The adolescent cancellous bone had significantly lower bone surface density (bone surface per total volume of specimen...

  17. Bone scintigraphy in ankylosing spondylitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuka, Nobuaki; Fukunaga, Masao; Tomomitsu, Tatsushi (Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan)); Morita, Rikushi


    Twelve patients with ankylosing spondylitis (11 males and one female) were examined by both bone scintigraphy and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Bone scintigraphy revealed increased accumulation in the sacroiliac joint in 6 patients, the spines in 10, and the other joints, including the sternoclavicular joint, in 8 patients. Each one patient had an intense tracer uptake in the finger and toe joints. In 4 patients in whom DEXA was concurrently performed at the level of 2nd to 4th lumbar vertebrae, there was no consistent tendency for mean bone mineral density. In 2 of 3 patients receiving DEXA for the radius, bone marrow density was within the normal range. (N.K.).

  18. 肱骨骨内髓脂肪瘤的形态学特征及与肾上腺髓脂肪瘤和正常骨髓组织的比较%Intraosseous myelolipoma of humerus: clinicopathologic features and comparison between adrenal myelolipoma and normal bone marrow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李剑; 尹为华; 刘远健


    Objective To investigate the clinicopathologic features of intraosseous myelolipoma and its morphologic similarities and/or differences with adrenal myelolipoma and normal bone marrow. Methods With the application of hematoxylin-eosin, TUNEL labeling and reticulin fibrosis staining, the histologic characteristics of a case of humeral myelolipoma as well as its reticular levels and apoptotic index were demonstrated. In the meanwhile, the links and distinctions of the intraosseous lesion with 4 cases of adrenal myelolipoma and 8 cases of normal bone marrow were illustrated. In addition, detailed literature review was performed. Results Most of the bone trabeculae in intraosseous myelolipoma were disappeared. There was a widened variation of the hematopoietic cellularity in different areas (range from 0 to 50% ). Foci of mature lymphocytes and a few thickened blood vessels with tortuous walls presented in the lesion. Furthermore, enhanced reticulin fibers" (3 + ) were observed. The above features could be also found in adrenal myelolipoma, whereas those usually did not show up in normal bone marrow. There were no differences of the apoptotic index among the three groups. Conclusions Intraosseous myelolipoma is an extraordinarily rare tumor and diminished bony trabeculae are a convincing indicator. There exist overt overlaps in morphologic features between intraosseous and adrenal myelolipoma, and present some nuanced distinctions from normal bone marrow. The correct diagnosis could only be drawn reassuringly on combination of clinic, imaging and pathologic studies.%目的 探讨骨内髓脂肪瘤的临床病理特征,并与肾上腺髓脂肪瘤和正常骨髓组织的形态比较.方法 采用HE染色、Gomori银染及TUNEL凋亡检测方法,观察1例原发于肱骨的骨内髓脂肪瘤的组织学特点、网状纤维程度及造血细胞凋亡比率,并与4例典型的肾上腺髓脂肪瘤和8例正常骨髓组织标本比较.结果 骨内髓脂肪瘤骨小梁萎

  19. Effect of graded levels of iron, zinc, and copper supplementation in diets with low-phytate or normal barley on growth performance, bone characteristics, hematocrit volume, and zinc and copper balance of young swine (United States)

    Fifty crossbred barrows with an average initial age of 31 d and BW of 9.94 kg were used in a 28-d experiment to evaluate the effect of a low-phytic acid (LPA) barley mutant (M) M955, a near-isogenic progeny of the normal barley (NB) cultivar Harrington with about 90% less phytate than NB, to increas...

  20. [Bone transplant]. (United States)

    San Julián, M; Valentí, A


    We describe the methodology of the Bone and Soft Tissue Bank, from extraction and storage until use. Since the year 1986, with the creation of the Bone Bank in the University Clinic of Navarra, more than 3,000 grafts have been used for very different types of surgery. Bone grafts can be classified into cortical and spongy; the former are principally used in surgery to save tumour patients, in large post-traumatic reconstructions and in replacement surgery where there are massive bone defects and a structural support is required. The spongy grafts are the most used due to their numerous indications; they are especially useful in filling cavities that require a significant quantity of graft when the autograft is insufficient, or as a complement. They are also of special help in treating fractures when there is bone loss and in the treatment of delays in consolidation and pseudoarthrosis in little vascularized and atrophic zones. They are also used in prosthetic surgery against the presence of cavity type defects. Allografts of soft tissues are specially recognised in multiple ligament injuries that require reconstructions. Nowadays, the most utilised are those employed in surgery of the anterior cruciate ligament although they can be used for filling any ligament or tendon defect. The principal difficulties of the cortical allografts are in the consolidation of the ends with the bone itself and in tumour surgery, given that these are patients immunodepressed by the treatment, the incidence of infection is increased with respect to spongy grafts and soft tissues, which is irrelevant. In short, the increasingly widespread use of allografts is an essential therapeutic weapon in orthopaedic surgery and traumatology. It must be used by expert hands.



    Vasanthi; Adinarayana; Pujitha


    Wormian bones are accessory bones are not normally present in skull . They may or may not be associated with clinical abnormalities . In the present study a significant number of wormian bones were identified at the Department of Anatomy , Andhra Medical College , Visakhapatnam . Their incidence with other population were done in the presen t study

  2. Bone biopsy (image) (United States)

    A bone biopsy is performed by making a small incision into the skin. A biopsy needle retrieves a sample of bone and it ... examination. The most common reasons for bone lesion biopsy are to distinguish between benign and malignant bone ...

  3. Bone lesion biopsy (United States)

    Bone biopsy; Biopsy - bone ... needle is gently pushed and twisted into the bone. Once the sample is obtained, the needle is ... sample is sent to a lab for examination. Bone biopsy may also be done under general anesthesia ...

  4. Facts about Broken Bones (United States)

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Broken Bones KidsHealth > For Kids > Broken Bones Print A A ... sticking through the skin . What Happens When a Bone Breaks? It hurts to break a bone! It's ...

  5. Calcium and bones (United States)

    Bone strength and calcium ... calcium (as well as phosphorus) to make healthy bones. Bones are the main storage site of calcium in ... your body does not absorb enough calcium, your bones can get weak or will not grow properly. ...

  6. Broken Bones (For Parents) (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Broken Bones KidsHealth > For Parents > Broken Bones Print A A ... bone fragments in place. When Will a Broken Bone Heal? Fractures heal at different rates, depending upon ...

  7. MicroRNA genes diversity analysis between bone tissue of alcohol avascular necrosis femoral head and normal femoral head%酒精性与正常股骨头骨组织中微小RNA基因的多态性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玉宝; 刘省臣; 宋扬; 高忠礼; 李林; 阚金庆


    目的 观察微小RNA(miRNA)在酒精缺血坏死性与正常股骨头骨组织的表达变化,探讨miRNA基因在两者中的变化关系.方法 分别对5例酒精性股骨头与5例正常股骨头骨组织进行miRNA基因芯片检测,可见有上调基因has-miR-29a-st和下调基因has-miR-486-5p-st,分别对上调和下调基因行逆转录-聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR).结果 miRNA基因芯片共检测酒精缺血坏死性与正常股骨头骨组织400条基因,对明显上调has-miR-29a-st和下调has-miR-486-5p-st基因片段行RT-PCR检测,正常股骨头和酒精坏死性股骨头上调基因的2-△△Ct平均值为1.06±0.09和1.93±1.12,下调基因的2-△△Ct平均值为1.88±25.37和1.70 ±0.98(变化>2倍且P<0.05).结论 酒精缺血坏死性与正常股骨头骨组织存在明显miRNA变化,其可能在股骨头坏死发生过程中可能起着重要的调控作用.%Objective To observe expression variation of microRNA (miRNA) between bone tissue of alcohol avascular necrosis femoral head and normal femoral head and discuss miRNA change relation between them.Methods It is tested for miRNA for five normal femoral head tissue and alcohol avascular necrosis femoral head is thus clear that there are up regulation has-miR-29a-st and downregulation genes has-miR-486-5p-st.they are went on reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).Results Four hundred genes were analysed between between bone tissue of alcohol avascular necrosis femoral head and normal femoral head with miRNA gene chip.clear down regulation has-miR-486-5p-st and up regulation has-miR-29a-st were went on PCR,the average value of has-miR-29a-st 2-~Ct is 1.06 ±0.09 and 1.93 ± 1.12 for bone tissue of alcohol avascular necrosis femoral head and normal femoral head; the average value of has-miR-486-5p-st2-~Ct is 1.88 ± 25.37 and 1.70 ± 0.98 (variation > 2 times moreover P < 0.05).Conclusion There is obvious up regulation and down regulation miRNA genes

  8. Prevent and cure disuse bone loss (United States)

    Jee, Webster S. S.


    Anabolic agents like parathyroid hormone and postagladin E-like substances were studied in dogs and rats to determine their effectiveness in the prevention and cure of bone loss due to immobilization. It was determined that postagladin E2 administration prevented immobilization while at the same time it added extra bone in a dose responsive manner. Although bone mass returns, poor trabecular architecture remains after normal ambulation recovery from immobilization. Disuse related bone loss and poor trabecular architecture were cured by post-immobilization postagladin E2 treatment.

  9. Bone densitometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Alexandersen, P; Møllgaard, A


    The bisphosphonates have been introduced as alternatives to hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for the treatment and prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. The expected increasing application in at clinical practice demands cost-effective and easily handled methods to monitor the effect on bone...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela SIMTION


    Full Text Available Profitability of an economic unit is expressed through a system of indicators, because "no index or economic category can reflect the total, perfect, complex reality of economic phenomena or processes. Each expresses a side of concrete, essential details (indexes, but a full one (economic category. This system of indexes for profitability is characterized by a higher degree of consolidation, of reflection of the economic-financial results. They must be correlated to the other indexes of economic efficiency from the various subsystems that constitute the factors which determine the actual amount of profit and the rate of return. Each indicator has a certain form of expression according to the phenomena to which it refers. Thus, they can be expressed in relative sizes as medium sizes or indexes. They can also be expressed in physical, conventional or value units. The ability to develop monetary results can not be judged independently to the employed means for achieving them. Therefore, the profitability analysis is not limited to investigating its absolute indexes but also the relative ones, obtained by comparing the results to the means employed or consumed for developing the specific activity

  11. Gyrokinetic Statistical Absolute Equilibrium and Turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jian-Zhou Zhu and Gregory W. Hammett


    A paradigm based on the absolute equilibrium of Galerkin-truncated inviscid systems to aid in understanding turbulence [T.-D. Lee, "On some statistical properties of hydrodynamical and magnetohydrodynamical fields," Q. Appl. Math. 10, 69 (1952)] is taken to study gyrokinetic plasma turbulence: A finite set of Fourier modes of the collisionless gyrokinetic equations are kept and the statistical equilibria are calculated; possible implications for plasma turbulence in various situations are discussed. For the case of two spatial and one velocity dimension, in the calculation with discretization also of velocity v with N grid points (where N + 1 quantities are conserved, corresponding to an energy invariant and N entropy-related invariants), the negative temperature states, corresponding to the condensation of the generalized energy into the lowest modes, are found. This indicates a generic feature of inverse energy cascade. Comparisons are made with some classical results, such as those of Charney-Hasegawa-Mima in the cold-ion limit. There is a universal shape for statistical equilibrium of gyrokinetics in three spatial and two velocity dimensions with just one conserved quantity. Possible physical relevance to turbulence, such as ITG zonal flows, and to a critical balance hypothesis are also discussed.

  12. Impact of the Oral Commensal Flora on Alveolar Bone Homeostasis


    Irie, K; Novince, C.M.; Darveau, R. P.


    Homeostasis of healthy periodontal tissues is affected by innate and adaptive immunosurveillance mechanisms in response to the normal oral flora. Recent comparisons of germ-free (GF) and normal specific-pathogen-free (SPF) mice have revealed the impact of host immunosurveillance mechanisms in response to the normal oral flora on alveolar bone height. Prior reports that alveolar bone height is significantly less in normal SPF mice compared with their age- and strain-matched GF counterparts sug...

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging of the bone marrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baur-Melnyk, Andrea (ed.) [Klinikum der Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie


    The first book devoted to MRI of the bone marrow. Describes the MRI appearances of normal bone marrows and the full range of bone marrow disorders. Discusses the role of advanced MRI techniques and contrast enhancement. On account of its unrivalled imaging capabilities and sensitivity, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered the modality of choice for the investigation of physiologic and pathologic processes affecting the bone marrow. This book describes the MRI appearances of both the normal bone marrow, including variants, and the full range of bone marrow disorders. Detailed discussion is devoted to malignancies, including multiple myeloma, lymphoma, chronic myeloproliferative disorders, leukemia, and bone metastases. Among the other conditions covered are benign and malignant compression fractures, osteonecrosis, hemolytic anemia, Gaucher's disease, bone marrow edema syndrome, trauma, and infective and non-infective inflammatory disease. Further chapters address the role of MRI in assessing treatment response, the use of contrast media, and advanced MRI techniques. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Bone Marrow represents an ideal reference for both novice and experienced practitioners.

  14. Bone regeneration: current concepts and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGonagle Dennis


    Full Text Available Abstract Bone regeneration is a complex, well-orchestrated physiological process of bone formation, which can be seen during normal fracture healing, and is involved in continuous remodelling throughout adult life. However, there are complex clinical conditions in which bone regeneration is required in large quantity, such as for skeletal reconstruction of large bone defects created by trauma, infection, tumour resection and skeletal abnormalities, or cases in which the regenerative process is compromised, including avascular necrosis, atrophic non-unions and osteoporosis. Currently, there is a plethora of different strategies to augment the impaired or 'insufficient' bone-regeneration process, including the 'gold standard' autologous bone graft, free fibula vascularised graft, allograft implantation, and use of growth factors, osteoconductive scaffolds, osteoprogenitor cells and distraction osteogenesis. Improved 'local' strategies in terms of tissue engineering and gene therapy, or even 'systemic' enhancement of bone repair, are under intense investigation, in an effort to overcome the limitations of the current methods, to produce bone-graft substitutes with biomechanical properties that are as identical to normal bone as possible, to accelerate the overall regeneration process, or even to address systemic conditions, such as skeletal disorders and osteoporosis.

  15. Bone mineral density in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sušić Gordana


    Full Text Available Introduction. It is well known that juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA as a chronic inflammatory disease with onset during the childhood, beside other complication, can lead to bone metabolism disturbance and osteoporosis. Objective. To assess bone mineral density (BMD in children with JIA and to identify factors playing role in bone mineral disturbance. Methods. Seventy-five patients (26 male and 49 female average disease duration 7.2 (2.4-16.8 years, and 73 age matched healthy control subjects (29 male and 44 female participated in the study. Mean age of the groups was about 14.5 years. BMD was determined by dual x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA of the lumbar spine (L2-L4. For further analysis we used the absolute value of BMD, expressed as g/cm2, Z score expressed as SD (relative value as standard deviation decline of normal BMD values of referent Italian population with identical age and gender, bone mineral content (BMC as g/cm, and corrected BMD - BMDv as g/cm3. Results. Z score in the group of patients was significantly lower (-1.02±1.6 in comparison to the control group (-0.09±1.4; p<0.001. BMD, BMDv and BMC were also statistically lower in patients with JIA. The lowest Z score was found in patients with systemic onset (-2.63 SD. Z score showed a statistically significant positive correlation with arthritis course (polyarticular course had lower Z score, body mass index and standard deviation score for height and weight. Statistically significant negative correlation was detected in regard to Z score and glucocorticoid (GC treatment duration, GC cumulative dose, number of joints with limited range of motion, radiological stage and functional class. Conclusion. The results showed a decreased BMD in patients with JIA in comparison to the control group. Systemic onset, polyarthritis, longer treatment with GC and higher cumulative dosage, as well as higher damage level (functional status and radiological stage are factors playing negative role

  16. Absolute quantification of somatic DNA alterations in human cancer


    Carter, Scott L.; Cibulskis, Kristian; Helman, Elena; McKenna, Aaron; Shen, Hui; Zack, Travis; Laird, Peter W.; Onofrio, Robert C.; Winckler, Wendy; Weir, Barbara A; Beroukhim, Rameen; Pellman, David; Levine, Douglas A.; Lander, Eric S.; Meyerson, Matthew


    We developed a computational method (ABSOLUTE) that infers tumor purity and malignant cell ploidy directly from analysis of somatic DNA alterations. ABSOLUTE can detect subclonal heterogeneity, somatic homozygosity, and calculate statistical sensitivity to detect specific aberrations. We used ABSOLUTE to analyze ovarian cancer data and identified pervasive subclonal somatic point mutations. In contrast, mutations occurring in key tumor suppressor genes, TP53 and NF1 were predominantly clonal ...

  17. Absolute quantification of somatic DNA alterations in human cancer


    Carter, Scott L.; Cibulskis, Kristian; Helman, Elena; McKenna, Aaron; Shen, Hui; Zack, Travis; Laird, Peter W.; Onofrio, Robert C.; Winckler, Wendy; Weir, Barbara A; Beroukhim, Rameen; Pellman, David; Levine, Douglas A.; Lander, Eric S.; Meyerson, Matthew


    We developed a computational method (ABSOLUTE) that infers tumor purity and malignant cell ploidy directly from analysis of somatic DNA alterations. ABSOLUTE can detect subclonal heterogeneity, somatic homozygosity, and calculate statistical sensitivity to detect specific aberrations. We used ABSOLUTE to analyze ovarian cancer data and identified pervasive subclonal somatic point mutations. In contrast, mutations occurring in key tumor suppressor genes, TP53 and NF1 were predominantly clonal ...

  18. Positioning, alignment and absolute pointing of the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehr, F [Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1 (Germany); Distefano, C, E-mail: fehr@physik.uni-erlangen.d [INFN Laboratori Nazional del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy)


    A precise detector alignment and absolute pointing is crucial for point-source searches. The ANTARES neutrino telescope utilises an array of hydrophones, tiltmeters and compasses for the relative positioning of the optical sensors. The absolute calibration is accomplished by long-baseline low-frequency triangulation of the acoustic reference devices in the deep-sea with a differential GPS system at the sea surface. The absolute pointing can be independently verified by detecting the shadow of the Moon in cosmic rays.

  19. Nonlinear Absolute Nodal Coordinate Formulation of a Flexible Beam Considering Shear Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jin-yang; SHEN Ling-jie; HONG Jia-zhen


    Nonlinear modeling of a flexible beam with large deformation was investigated. Absolute nodal cooridnate formulation is employed to describe the motion, and Lagrange equations of motion of a flexible beam are derived based on the geometric nonlinear theory. Different from the previous nonlinear formulation with EulerBernoulli assumption, the shear strain and transverse normal strain are taken into account. Computational example of a flexible pendulum with a tip mass is given to show the effects of the shear strain and transverse normal strain. The constant total energy verifies the correctness of the present formulation.

  20. Cross-correlative 3D micro-structural investigation of human bone processed into bone allografts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Atul Kumar [Centre for Research in Nanotechnology & Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Gajiwala, Astrid Lobo [Tissue Bank, Tata Memorial Hospital, Parel, Mumbai 400012 (India); Rai, Ratan Kumar [Centre of Biomedical Research, SGPGIMS Campus, Lucknow 226014 (India); Khan, Mohd Parvez [Division of Endocrinology, Center for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Targets in Health and Illness (ASTHI) CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Singh, Chandan [Centre of Biomedical Research, SGPGIMS Campus, Lucknow 226014 (India); Barbhuyan, Tarun [Division of Endocrinology, Center for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Targets in Health and Illness (ASTHI) CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Vijayalakshmi, S. [Centre for Research in Nanotechnology & Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Chattopadhyay, Naibedya [Division of Endocrinology, Center for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Targets in Health and Illness (ASTHI) CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Sinha, Neeraj, E-mail: [Centre of Biomedical Research, SGPGIMS Campus, Lucknow 226014 (India); Kumar, Ashutosh, E-mail: [Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Bellare, Jayesh R., E-mail: [Centre for Research in Nanotechnology & Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India)


    Bone allografts (BA) are a cost-effective and sustainable alternative in orthopedic practice as they provide a permanent solution for preserving skeletal architecture and function. Such BA however, must be processed to be disease free and immunologically safe as well as biologically and clinically useful. Here, we have demonstrated a processing protocol for bone allografts and investigated the micro-structural properties of bone collected from osteoporotic and normal human donor samples. In order to characterize BA at different microscopic levels, a combination of techniques such as Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (ssNMR), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), micro-computed tomography (μCT) and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) were used for delineating the ultra-structural property of bone. ssNMR revealed the extent of water, collagen fine structure and crystalline order in the bone. These were greatly perturbed in the bone taken from osteoporotic bone donor. Among the processing methods analyzed, pasteurization at 60 °C and radiation treatment appeared to substantially alter the bone integrity. SEM study showed a reduction in Ca/P ratio and non-uniform distribution of elements in osteoporotic bones. μ-CT and MIMICS® (Materialize Interactive Medical Image Control System) demonstrated that pasteurization and radiation treatment affects the BA morphology and cause a shift in the HU unit. However, the combination of all these processes restored all-important parameters that are critical for BA integrity and sustainability. Cross-correlation between the various probes we used quantitatively demonstrated differences in morphological and micro-structural properties between BA taken from normal and osteoporotic human donor. Such details could also be instrumental in designing an appropriate bone scaffold. For the best restoration of bone microstructure and to be used as a biomaterial allograft, a step-wise processing method is recommended that preserves all

  1. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to carbonate and bicarbonate salts of sodium and potassium and maintenance of normal bone (ID 331, 1402) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health...... claims in relation to carbonate and bicarbonate salts of sodium and potassium and maintenance of normal bone. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member...... States or directly from stakeholders. The food constituents that are the subject of the health claim are carbonate and bicarbonate salts of sodium and potassium. The Panel considers that carbonate and bicarbonate salts of sodium and potassium are sufficiently characterised. The claimed effects are “acid...

  2. Effect of Physical Forces on the Metastatic Bone Microenvironment (United States)


    of the extracellular matrix. MMPs are known to be secreted from cells during bone remodeling [7]. Furthermore, MMPs are known to be important for...Rodan et al., 1987; Czekanska et al., 2012]. However, due to their presence in the bone and bone- remodeling ability, it is plausible that OCy may also...persist, but it is plausible that these are primarily lytic lesions masked by the normal bone architecture . OCys do not secrete components of

  3. The absolute disparity anomaly and the mechanism of relative disparities. (United States)

    Chopin, Adrien; Levi, Dennis; Knill, David; Bavelier, Daphne


    There has been a long-standing debate about the mechanisms underlying the perception of stereoscopic depth and the computation of the relative disparities that it relies on. Relative disparities between visual objects could be computed in two ways: (a) using the difference in the object's absolute disparities (Hypothesis 1) or (b) using relative disparities based on the differences in the monocular separations between objects (Hypothesis 2). To differentiate between these hypotheses, we measured stereoscopic discrimination thresholds for lines with different absolute and relative disparities. Participants were asked to judge the depth of two lines presented at the same distance from the fixation plane (absolute disparity) or the depth between two lines presented at different distances (relative disparity). We used a single stimulus method involving a unique memory component for both conditions, and no extraneous references were available. We also measured vergence noise using Nonius lines. Stereo thresholds were substantially worse for absolute disparities than for relative disparities, and the difference could not be explained by vergence noise. We attribute this difference to an absence of conscious readout of absolute disparities, termed the absolute disparity anomaly. We further show that the pattern of correlations between vergence noise and absolute and relative disparity acuities can be explained jointly by the existence of the absolute disparity anomaly and by the assumption that relative disparity information is computed from absolute disparities (Hypothesis 1).

  4. Comparison of available measurements of the absolute fluorescence yield

    CERN Document Server

    Rosado, J; Arqueros, F


    The uncertainty in the absolute value of the fluorescence yield is still one of the main contributions to the total error in the reconstruction of the primary energy of ultra-energetic air showers using the fluorescence technique. A significant number of experimental values of the fluorescence yield have been published in the last years, however reported results are given very often in different units (photons/MeV or photons/m) and for different wavelength intervals. In this work we present a comparison of available results normalized to its value in photons/MeV for the 337 nm band at 800 hPa and 293 K. Possible sources of systematic errors on these measurements are discussed. In particular, the conversion of photons/m to photons/MeV requires an accurate determination of the energy deposited by the electrons in the field of view of the experimental setup. We have calculated the energy deposition for each experiment by means of a detailed Monte Carlo simulation including when possible the geometrical details o...

  5. Bone Material Properties in Osteogenesis Imperfecta. (United States)

    Bishop, Nick


    Osteogenesis imperfecta entrains changes at every level in bone tissue, from the disorganization of the collagen molecules and mineral platelets within and between collagen fibrils to the macroarchitecture of the whole skeleton. Investigations using an array of sophisticated instruments at multiple scale levels have now determined many aspects of the effect of the disease on the material properties of bone tissue. The brittle nature of bone in osteogenesis imperfecta reflects both increased bone mineralization density-the quantity of mineral in relation to the quantity of matrix within a specific bone volume-and altered matrix-matrix and matrix mineral interactions. Contributions to fracture resistance at multiple scale lengths are discussed, comparing normal and brittle bone. Integrating the available information provides both a better understanding of the effect of current approaches to treatment-largely improved architecture and possibly some macroscale toughening-and indicates potential opportunities for alternative strategies that can influence fracture resistance at longer-length scales.

  6. Evaluation of the absolute regional temperature potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Shindell


    Full Text Available The Absolute Regional Temperature Potential (ARTP is one of the few climate metrics that provides estimates of impacts at a sub-global scale. The ARTP presented here gives the time-dependent temperature response in four latitude bands (90–28° S, 28° S–28° N, 28–60° N and 60–90° N as a function of emissions based on the forcing in those bands caused by the emissions. It is based on a large set of simulations performed with a single atmosphere-ocean climate model to derive regional forcing/response relationships. Here I evaluate the robustness of those relationships using the forcing/response portion of the ARTP to estimate regional temperature responses to the historic aerosol forcing in three independent climate models. These ARTP results are in good accord with the actual responses in those models. Nearly all ARTP estimates fall within ±20% of the actual responses, though there are some exceptions for 90–28° S and the Arctic, and in the latter the ARTP may vary with forcing agent. However, for the tropics and the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes in particular, the ±20% range appears to be roughly consistent with the 95% confidence interval. Land areas within these two bands respond 39–45% and 9–39% more than the latitude band as a whole. The ARTP, presented here in a slightly revised form, thus appears to provide a relatively robust estimate for the responses of large-scale latitude bands and land areas within those bands to inhomogeneous radiative forcing and thus potentially to emissions as well. Hence this metric could allow rapid evaluation of the effects of emissions policies at a finer scale than global metrics without requiring use of a full climate model.

  7. Absolute Radiometric Calibration of KOMPSAT-3A (United States)

    Ahn, H. Y.; Shin, D. Y.; Kim, J. S.; Seo, D. C.; Choi, C. U.


    This paper presents a vicarious radiometric calibration of the Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite-3A (KOMPSAT-3A) performed by the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) and the Pukyong National University Remote Sensing Group (PKNU RSG) in 2015.The primary stages of this study are summarized as follows: (1) A field campaign to determine radiometric calibrated target fields was undertaken in Mongolia and South Korea. Surface reflectance data obtained in the campaign were input to a radiative transfer code that predicted at-sensor radiance. Through this process, equations and parameters were derived for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor to enable the conversion of calibrated DN to physical units, such as at-sensor radiance or TOA reflectance. (2) To validate the absolute calibration coefficients for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor, we performed a radiometric validation with a comparison of KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 TOA reflectance using one of the six PICS (Libya 4). Correlations between top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiances and the spectral band responses of the KOMPSAT-3A sensors at the Zuunmod, Mongolia and Goheung, South Korea sites were significant for multispectral bands. The average difference in TOA reflectance between KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 image over the Libya 4, Libya site in the red-green-blue (RGB) region was under 3%, whereas in the NIR band, the TOA reflectance of KOMPSAT-3A was lower than the that of Landsat-8 due to the difference in the band passes of two sensors. The KOMPSAT-3Aensor includes a band pass near 940 nm that can be strongly absorbed by water vapor and therefore displayed low reflectance. Toovercome this, we need to undertake a detailed analysis using rescale methods, such as the spectral bandwidth adjustment factor.

  8. Normalizing the causality between time series

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, X San


    Recently, a rigorous yet concise formula has been derived to evaluate the information flow, and hence the causality in a quantitative sense, between time series. To assess the importance of a resulting causality, it needs to be normalized. The normalization is achieved through distinguishing three types of fundamental mechanisms that govern the marginal entropy change of the flow recipient. A normalized or relative flow measures its importance relative to other mechanisms. In analyzing realistic series, both absolute and relative information flows need to be taken into account, since the normalizers for a pair of reverse flows belong to two different entropy balances; it is quite normal that two identical flows may differ a lot in relative importance in their respective balances. We have reproduced these results with several autoregressive models. We have also shown applications to a climate change problem and a financial analysis problem. For the former, reconfirmed is the role of the Indian Ocean Dipole as ...

  9. Vitamin D and Bone Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Christodoulou


    Full Text Available Vitamin D is important for normal development and maintenance of the skeleton. Hypovitaminosis D adversely affects calcium metabolism, osteoblastic activity, matrix ossification, bone remodeling and bone density. It is well known that Vit. D deficiency in the developing skeleton is related to rickets, while in adults is related to osteomalacia. The causes of rickets include conditions that lead to hypocalcemia and/or hypophosphatemia, either isolated or secondary to vitamin D deficiency. In osteomalacia, Vit. D deficiency leads to impairment of the mineralisation phase of bone remodeling and thus an increasing amount of the skeleton being replaced by unmineralized osteoid. The relationship between Vit. D and bone mineral density and osteoporosis are still controversial while new evidence suggests that Vit. D may play a role in other bone conditions such as osteoarthritis and stress fractures. In order to maintain a “good bone health” guidelines concerning the recommended dietary intakes should be followed and screening for Vit. D deficiency in individuals at risk for deficiency is required, followed by the appropriate action.

  10. Bone health in disorders of sex differentiation. (United States)

    Bertelloni, S; Baroncelli, G I; Mora, S


    Sex steroids are main regulators of skeletal growth, maturation and mass in both men and women. People with disorders of sex development (DSD) may experience problems in developing normal bone growth, structure and mass, because abnormal sex steroid secretion or action may be operative. In complete androgen insensitivity syndrome several reports documented reduced bone mineral density (BMD). Reduced BMD is evident in patients with not removed or removed gonads, but it is poorer in the latter, mainly when compliance with estrogen replacement therapy is not guaranteed. Large impairment of BMD does not seem to be present in patients with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome or 5alpha-reductase-2 deficiency, providing that gonads are not removed or that substitutive therapy is optimized. In congenital adrenal hyperplasia, BMD may be impaired as a result of not optimal glucocorticoid administration. In Turner syndrome, impaired BMD may result from the combined actions of estrogen deficiency, low bone dimensions, altered bone geometry, deficient cortical bone, and trabecular bone loss. Optimal estrogen administration seems to be important in preserving bone mass and enhancing trabecular bone volume. On the whole, bone health represents a main clinical issue for the management of persons with disorders of sex differentiation, and well designed longitudinal studies should be developed to improve their bone health and well-being.

  11. The temporal response of bone to unloading (United States)

    Globus, R. K.; Bikle, D. D.; Morey-Holton, E.


    Rats were suspended by their tails with the forelimbs bearing the weight load to simulate the weightlessness of space flight. Growth in bone mass ceased by 1 week in the hindlimbs and lumbar vertebrae in growing rats, while growth in the forelimbs and cervical vertebrae remained unaffected. The effects of selective skeletal unloading on bone formation during 2 weeks of suspension was investigated using radio iostope incorporation (with Ca-45 and H-3 proline) and histomorphometry (with tetracycline labeling). The results of these studies were confirmed by histomorphometric measurements of bone formation using triple tetracycline labeling. This model of simulated weightlessness results in an initial inhibition of bone formation in the unloaded bones. This temporary cessation of bone formation is followed in the accretion of bone mass, which then resumes at a normal rate by 14 days, despite continued skeletal unloading. This cycle of inhibition and resumption of bone formation has profound implication for understanding bone dynamics durng space flight, immobilization, or bed rest and offers an opportunity to study the hormonal and mechanical factors that regulate bone formation.

  12. Bone regeneration and stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvidson, K; Abdallah, B M; Applegate, L A


    This invited review covers research areas of central importance for orthopedic and maxillofacial bone tissue repair, including normal fracture healing and healing problems, biomaterial scaffolds for tissue engineering, mesenchymal and fetal stem cells, effects of sex steroids on mesenchymal stem...... cells, use of platelet rich plasma for tissue repair, osteogenesis and its molecular markers. A variety of cells in addition to stem cells, as well as advances in materials science to meet specific requirements for bone and soft tissue regeneration by addition of bioactive molecules, are discussed....


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAN Zuoxin; HAN Jingqing; ZHAO Suxia; WU Yongxian


    In the present paper, the absolute stability of general Lurie discrete nonlinear control systems has been discussed by Lyapunov function approach. A sufficient condition of absolute stability for the general Lurie discrete nonlinear control systems is derived, and some necessary and sufficient conditions are obtained in special cases. Meanwhile, we give a simple example to illustrate the effectiveness of the results.

  14. A Global Forecast of Absolute Poverty and Employment. (United States)

    Hopkins, M. J. D.


    Estimates are made of absolute poverty and employment under the hypothesis that existing trends continue. Concludes that while the number of people in absolute poverty is not likely to decline by 2000, the proportion will fall. Jobs will have to grow 3.9% per year in developing countries to achieve full employment. (JOW)

  15. Absolute Humidity and the Seasonality of Influenza (Invited) (United States)

    Shaman, J. L.; Pitzer, V.; Viboud, C.; Grenfell, B.; Goldstein, E.; Lipsitch, M.


    Much of the observed wintertime increase of mortality in temperate regions is attributed to seasonal influenza. A recent re-analysis of laboratory experiments indicates that absolute humidity strongly modulates the airborne survival and transmission of the influenza virus. Here we show that the onset of increased wintertime influenza-related mortality in the United States is associated with anomalously low absolute humidity levels during the prior weeks. We then use an epidemiological model, in which observed absolute humidity conditions temper influenza transmission rates, to successfully simulate the seasonal cycle of observed influenza-related mortality. The model results indicate that direct modulation of influenza transmissibility by absolute humidity alone is sufficient to produce this observed seasonality. These findings provide epidemiological support for the hypothesis that absolute humidity drives seasonal variations of influenza transmission in temperate regions. In addition, we show that variations of the basic and effective reproductive numbers for influenza, caused by seasonal changes in absolute humidity, are consistent with the general timing of pandemic influenza outbreaks observed for 2009 A/H1N1 in temperate regions. Indeed, absolute humidity conditions correctly identify the region of the United States vulnerable to a third, wintertime wave of pandemic influenza. These findings suggest that the timing of pandemic influenza outbreaks is controlled by a combination of absolute humidity conditions, levels of susceptibility and changes in population mixing and contact rates.

  16. Novalis' Poetic Uncertainty: A "Bildung" with the Absolute (United States)

    Mika, Carl


    Novalis, the Early German Romantic poet and philosopher, had at the core of his work a mysterious depiction of the "absolute." The absolute is Novalis' name for a substance that defies precise knowledge yet calls for a tentative and sensitive speculation. How one asserts a truth, represents an object, and sets about encountering things…

  17. Determination of Absolute Zero Using a Computer-Based Laboratory (United States)

    Amrani, D.


    We present a simple computer-based laboratory experiment for evaluating absolute zero in degrees Celsius, which can be performed in college and undergraduate physical sciences laboratory courses. With a computer, absolute zero apparatus can help demonstrators or students to observe the relationship between temperature and pressure and use…

  18. Absolute instruments and perfect imaging in geometrical optics

    CERN Document Server

    Tyc, Tomas; Sarbort, Martin; Bering, Klaus


    We investigate imaging by spherically symmetric absolute instruments that provide perfect imaging in the sense of geometrical optics. We derive a number of properties of such devices, present a general method for designing them and use this method to propose several new absolute instruments, in particular a lens providing a stigmatic image of an optically homogeneous region and having a moderate refractive index range.

  19. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH) (United States)

    ... local chapter Join our online community Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH) Normal pressure hydrocephalus is a brain disorder ... Symptoms Diagnosis Causes & risks Treatments About Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Normal pressure hydrocephalus occurs when excess cerebrospinal fluid ...

  20. Bone mineral density, Bone mineral contents, MMP-8 and MMP-9 levels in Human Mandible and alveolar bone: Simulated microgravity (United States)

    Rai, Balwant; Kaur, Jasdeep; Catalina, Maria

    Exposure to microgravity has been associated with several physiological changes in astronauts and cosmonauts, including an osteoporosis-like loss of bone mass. It has been reported that head-down tilt bed-rest studies mimic many of the observations seen in flights. There is no study on the correlation on effects of mandibular bone and alveolar bone loss in both sex in simulating microgravity. This study was designed to determine the Bone mineral density and GCF MMP-8 MMP-9 in normal healthy subject of both sexes in simulated microgravity condition of -6 head-down-tilt (HDT) bed rest. The subjects of this investigation were 10 male and 10 female volunteers participated in three weeks 6 HDT bed-rest exposure. The Bone density and bone mineral contents were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry before and in simulated microgravity. The GCF MMP-8 MMP-8 were measured by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (Human Quantikine MMP-8,-9 ELISA kit). The bone mineral density and bone mineral contents levels were significantly decreased in simulated microgravity condition in both genders, although insignificantly loss was higher in females as compared to males. MMP-8 MMP-9 levels were significantly increased in simulated microgravity as compared to normal condition although insignificantly higher in females as compared to males. Further study is required on large samples size including all factors effecting in simulated microgravity and microgravity. Keys words-Simulated microgravity condition, head-down-tilt, Bone loss, MMP-8, MMP-9, Bone density, Bone mineral contents.

  1. Dating of cremated bones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanting, JN; Aerts-Bijma, AT; van der Plicht, J; Boaretto, E.; Carmi, I.


    When dating unburnt bone, bone collagen, the organic fraction of the bone, is used. Collagen does not survive the heat of the cremation pyre, so dating of cremated bone has been considered impossible. Structural carbonate in the mineral fraction of the bone, however, survives the cremation process.

  2. Cannabinoids and bone: friend or foe? (United States)

    Idris, Aymen I; Ralston, Stuart H


    The endocannabinoid system is recognized to play an important role in regulating a variety of physiological processes, including appetite control and energy balance, pain perception, and immune responses. The endocannabinoid system has also recently been implicated in the regulation of bone metabolism. Endogenously produced cannabinoids are hydrophobic molecules derived from hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids. These substances, along with plant-derived and synthetic cannabinoids, interact with the type 1 (CB(1)) and 2 (CB(2)) cannabinoid receptors and the GPR55 receptor to regulate cellular function through a variety of signaling pathways. Endocannabinoids are produced in bone, but the mechanisms that regulate their production are unclear. Skeletal phenotyping of mice with targeted inactivation of cannabinoid receptors and pharmacological studies have shown that cannabinoids play a key role in the regulation of bone metabolism. Mice with CB(1) deficiency have high peak bone mass as a result of an osteoclast defect but develop age-related osteoporosis as a result of impaired bone formation and accumulation of bone marrow fat. Mice with CB(2) deficiency have relatively normal peak bone mass but develop age-related osteoporosis as a result of increased bone turnover with uncoupling of bone resorption from bone formation. Mice with GPR55 deficiency have increased bone mass as a result of a defect in the resorptive activity of osteoclasts, but bone formation is unaffected. Cannabinoids are also produced within synovial tissues, and preclinical studies have shown that cannabinoid receptor ligands are effective in the treatment of inflammatory arthritis. These data indicate that cannabinoid receptors and the enzymes responsible for ligand synthesis and breakdown play important roles in bone remodeling and in the pathogenesis of joint disease.

  3. The impact of methods for estimating bone health and the global burden of bone disease. (United States)

    Cole, Zoë A; Dennison, Elaine M; Cooper, Cyrus


    Osteoporosis constitutes a major public health problem through its association with age related fractures. Fracture rates are generally higher in caucasian women than in other populations. Important determinants include estrogen deficiency in women, low body mass index, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, poor dietary calcium intake, physical inactivity, certain drugs and illnesses. Thus, modification of physical activity and dietary calcium/vitamin D nutrition should complement high risk approaches. In addition, the recently developed WHO algorithm for evaluation of 10-year absolute risk of fracture provides a means whereby various therapies can be targeted cost-effectively to those at risk. Risk factors, together with bone mineral density (BMD) and biochemical indices of bone turnover, can be utilised to derive absolute risks of fracture and cost-utility thresholds at which treatment is justified. These data will provide the basis for translation into coherent public health strategies aiming to prevent osteoporosis both in individuals and in the general population.

  4. Effect of chronic metabolic acidosis on bone density and bone architecture in vivo in rats. (United States)

    Gasser, Jürg A; Hulter, Henry N; Imboden, Peter; Krapf, Reto


    Chronic metabolic acidosis (CMA) might result in a decrease in vivo in bone mass based on its reported in vitro inhibition of bone mineralization, bone formation, or stimulation of bone resorption, but such data, in the absence of other disorders, have not been reported. CMA also results in negative nitrogen balance, which might decrease skeletal muscle mass. This study analyzed the net in vivo effects of CMA's cellular and physicochemical processes on bone turnover, trabecular and cortical bone density, and bone microarchitecture using both peripheral quantitative computed tomography and μCT. CMA induced by NH4Cl administration (15 mEq/kg body wt/day) in intact and ovariectomized (OVX) rats resulted in stable CMA (mean Δ[HCO3(-)]p = 10 mmol/l). CMA decreased plasma osteocalcin and increased TRAP5b in intact and OVX animals. CMA decreased total volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) after 6 and 10 wk (week 10: intact normal +2.1 ± 0.9% vs. intact acidosis -3.6 ± 1.2%, P metabolic acidosis induces a large decrease in cortical bone mass (a prime determinant of bone fragility) in intact and OVX rats and impairs bone microarchitecture characterized by a decrease in trabecular number.

  5. Characterization of bone quality in prostate cancer bone metastases using Raman spectroscopy (United States)

    Bi, Xiaohong; Patil, Chetan; Morrissey, Colm; Roudier, Martine P.; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita; Nyman, Jeffry


    Prostate cancer is the most common primary tumor in men, with a high propensity to metastasize to bone. Bone metastases in prostate cancer are associated with active pathologic bone remodeling, leading to increased mortality and morbidity. Detailed characterization of bone metastases is important in the management of prostate cancer. Raman spectroscopy was applied in this study to investigate the structure and composition of metastatic bone in prostate cancer with the ultimate goal of identifying spectral features that are related to the alterations in bone quality as the bone metastases develop. Osteoblastic-, osteolytic- and tumor-absent bone specimens from prostate cancer patients were investigated using bench-top Raman microspectroscopy. Raman derived measurements of collagen mineralization, mineral crystallinity, and carbonate substitution were calculated. The osteolytic lesions demonstrated significantly lower collagen mineralization, determined by phosphate ν1/proline, and higher carbonate substitution than normal and osteoblastic bones. Mineral crystallinity was significantly lower in both blastic and lytic specimens. In addition, a significant increase in the ratio of hydroxyproine: proline was observed in the osteoblastic specimen, indicating an increase in the content of hydroxyproline at the blastic lesions. This study demonstrate that Raman spectroscopy shows promise in determining alterations in osteoblastic and osteolytic bone metastases as well as assessing the response of metastatic bone to therapies.

  6. Biological characteristics of cell lines cultured in vitro from alveolar bone tissue in normal persons and patients with chronic periodontitis complicated by osteoporosis%正常人与慢性牙周炎伴有骨质疏松患者牙槽骨组织体外培养细胞系的生物学特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈世璋; 黄靖香; 孙明学; 赵斌; 余征


    alveolar bone cell line are from alveolar bone, which is in oral cavity,and easily polluted, so laboratory study is often unsuccessful. Because the samples are from adults, so cell division index and the successful rate of culture are low.OBJECTIVE: To compare the biological characteristics of survived cell line established through passage,cryopreservation and revitalization following in vitro culturing the alveolar bone tissue obtained from normal persons and patients with chronic periodontitis accompanied with osteoporosis in aseptic operation; To compare the biological characteristics of two kinds of cells so as to provide theoretical and related experimental evidence for defect, repair and treatment of alveolar bone.DESIGN: Controlled observation.SETTING: Department of Stomatology, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University; Institute of Orthopaedics,General Hospital of Chinese PLA.MATERIALS: Alveolar bone tissue obtained from normal persons and patients with chronic periodontitis confirmed in clinic was used in aseptic operation.METHODS: Alveolar bone tissue from normal persons and chronic periodontitis accompanied with osteoporosis were cultured in vitro. In the four cell lines (H-171, H-258, 261, 262) cultured primarily, cell lines H-171 and H-258 were chosen from periodonitis patients group and normal group respectively, and stained with histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. Cell morphology was observed. Doubling time and division index of two kinds of cells were calculated with cytometry. After several circles of passage, cryopreservation and revitalization, growth and aging rule of cells were compared.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Passage and biological characteristics of two groups of cell lines.RESULTS: ①In the abnormal alveolar bone group, there was one successful primary culture and cells presented short-spindle shape. There were 3 times of cryopreservation and 3 times of revitalization. Its doubling time was 53.4 hours. The average division

  7. Numerical analysis of an osseointegrated prosthesis fixation with reduced bone failure risk and periprosthetic bone loss. (United States)

    Tomaszewski, P K; van Diest, M; Bulstra, S K; Verdonschot, N; Verkerke, G J


    Currently available implants for direct attachment of prosthesis to the skeletal system after transfemoral amputation (OPRA system, Integrum AB, Sweden and ISP Endo/Exo prosthesis, ESKA Implants AG, Germany) show many advantages over the conventional socket fixation. However, restraining biomechanical issues such as considerable bone loss around the stem and peri-prosthetic bone fractures are present. To overcome these limiting issues a new concept of the direct intramedullary fixation was developed. We hypothesize that the new design will reduce the peri-prosthetic bone failure risk and adverse bone remodeling by restoring the natural load transfer in the femur. Generic CT-based finite element models of an intact femur and amputated bones implanted with 3 analyzed implants were created and loaded with a normal walking and a forward fall load. The strain adaptive bone remodeling theory was used to predict long-term bone changes around the implants and the periprosthetic bone failure risk was evaluated by the von Mises stress criterion. The results show that the new design provides close to physiological distribution of stresses in the bone and lower bone failure risk for the normal walking as compared to the OPRA and the ISP implants. The bone remodeling simulations did not reveal any overall bone loss around the new design, as opposed to the OPRA and the ISP implants, which induce considerable bone loss in the distal end of the femur. This positive outcome shows that the presented concept has a potential to considerably improve safety of the rehabilitation with the direct fixation implants.

  8. Pathophysiology of bone loss in the female athlete. (United States)

    Lambrinoudaki, Irene; Papadimitriou, Dimitra


    Low bone mass is frequent among female athletes. The "female athlete triad" is a term that describes the interaction among energy availability, menstrual function, and bone metabolism that may lead to amenorrhea and osteopenia or osteoporosis. The main pathophysiologic mechanisms that lead to low bone mass in female athletes are low energy availability and functional hypothalamic amenorrhea. Increased energy expenditure and/or decreased energy intake, as well as the presence of eating disorders, are associated with low bone mass. In addition, menstrual dysfunction is quite common, especially among athletes competing in sports favoring leanness, and also associates with low bone mass. Screening for bone loss in female athletes should take place in the presence of amenorrhea or body mass index <18 kg/m(2) . Management of low bone mass aims to restore normal energy availability and nutritional habits. Hormone replacement therapy has no effect in abnormally underweight patients unless normal eating behaviors are restored.

  9. Brown Tumor Shown Flare Phenomenon On Bone Scan After Parathyroidectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Kwang Ho; Park, Seol Hoon; Baek, So Ra; Chae, Sun Young; Koh, Jung Min; Kim, Jae Seung; Moon, Dae Hyuk; Ryu, Jin Sook [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Brown tumor is the benign bone lesion consists of woven bone and fibrous tissue without matrix, which develop due to chronic excessive osteoclastic activity such as hyperparathyroidism. Usually they appear with normal uptake or occasionally focally increased uptake on bone scan. We present a case with brown tumor shown more increased uptake and more number of lesions on bone scan after parathyroidectomy, and lesser increased uptake on serial bone scans without any other treatment through several months. This finding is thought to be similar to 'flare phenomenon' which is occasionally seen after treatment of metastatic bone lesions of malignant cancer, and may represent curative process of brown tumor with rapid normal bone formation.

  10. Environmental Factors Impacting Bone-Relevant Chemokines (United States)

    Smith, Justin T.; Schneider, Andrew D.; Katchko, Karina M.; Yun, Chawon; Hsu, Erin L.


    Chemokines play an important role in normal bone physiology and the pathophysiology of many bone diseases. The recent increased focus on the individual roles of this class of proteins in the context of bone has shown that members of the two major chemokine subfamilies—CC and CXC—support or promote the formation of new bone and the remodeling of existing bone in response to a myriad of stimuli. These chemotactic molecules are crucial in orchestrating appropriate cellular homing, osteoblastogenesis, and osteoclastogenesis during normal bone repair. Bone healing is a complex cascade of carefully regulated processes, including inflammation, progenitor cell recruitment, differentiation, and remodeling. The extensive role of chemokines in these processes and the known links between environmental contaminants and chemokine expression/activity leaves ample opportunity for disruption of bone healing by environmental factors. However, despite increased clinical awareness, the potential impact of many of these environmental factors on bone-related chemokines is still ill defined. A great deal of focus has been placed on environmental exposure to various endocrine disruptors (bisphenol A, phthalate esters, etc.), volatile organic compounds, dioxins, and heavy metals, though mainly in other tissues. Awareness of the impact of other less well-studied bone toxicants, such as fluoride, mold and fungal toxins, asbestos, and chlorine, is also reviewed. In many cases, the literature on these toxins in osteogenic models is lacking. However, research focused on their effects in other tissues and cell lines provides clues for where future resources could be best utilized. This review aims to serve as a current and exhaustive resource detailing the known links between several classes of high-interest environmental pollutants and their interaction with the chemokines relevant to bone healing. PMID:28261155

  11. Measuring Absolute RNA Copy Numbers at High Temporal Resolution Reveals Transcriptome Kinetics in Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick D.L. Owens


    Full Text Available Transcript regulation is essential for cell function, and misregulation can lead to disease. Despite technologies to survey the transcriptome, we lack a comprehensive understanding of transcript kinetics, which limits quantitative biology. This is an acute challenge in embryonic development, where rapid changes in gene expression dictate cell fate decisions. By ultra-high-frequency sampling of Xenopus embryos and absolute normalization of sequence reads, we present smooth gene expression trajectories in absolute transcript numbers. During a developmental period approximating the first 8 weeks of human gestation, transcript kinetics vary by eight orders of magnitude. Ordering genes by expression dynamics, we find that “temporal synexpression” predicts common gene function. Remarkably, a single parameter, the characteristic timescale, can classify transcript kinetics globally and distinguish genes regulating development from those involved in cellular metabolism. Overall, our analysis provides unprecedented insight into the reorganization of maternal and embryonic transcripts and redefines our ability to perform quantitative biology.

  12. Absolute measurement of the nitrogen fluorescence yield in air between 300 and 430 nm

    CERN Document Server

    Lefeuvre, G; Gorodetzky, P; Patzak, T; Salin, P


    The nitrogen fluorescence induced in air is used to detect ultra-high energy cosmic rays and to measure their energy. The precise knowledge of the absolute fluorescence yield is the key quantity to improve the accuracy on the cosmic ray energy. The total yield has been measured in dry air using a 90Sr source and a [300-430 nm] filter. The fluorescence yield in air is 4.23 $\\pm$ 0.20 photons per meter when normalized to 760 mmHg, 15 degrees C and with an electron energy of 0.85 MeV. This result is consistent with previous experiments made at various energies, but with an accuracy improved by a factor of about 3. For the first time, the absolute continuous spectrum of nitrogen excited by 90Sr electrons has also been measured with a spectrometer. Details of this experiment are given in one of the author's PhD thesis [32].

  13. The Absolute, Relative and Multi-Wavelength Calibration of the Pierre Auger Observatory Fluorescence Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapik, R.; Bauleo, P.; Becker, B.R.; Brack, J.; Caruso, R.; Fratte, C.Delle; Dorofeev, A.; Harton, J.; Insolia, A.; Matthews, J.A.J.; Menshikov, A.


    Absolute calibration of the Pierre Auger Observatory fluorescence detectors uses a 375 nm light source at the telescope aperture. This end-to-end technique accounts for the combined effects of all detector components in a single measurement. The relative response has been measured at wavelengths of 320, 337, 355, 380 and 405 nm, defining a spectral response curve which has been normalized to the absolute calibration. Before and after each night of data taking a relative calibration of the phototubes is performed. This relative calibration is used to track both short and long term changes in the detector's response. A cross check of the calibration in some phototubes is performed using an independent laser technique. Overall uncertainties, current results and future plans are discussed.

  14. Bone growth and turnover in progesterone receptor knockout mice.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rickard, David J.; Iwaniec, Urszula T.; Evans, Glenda; Hefferan, Theresa E.; Hunter, Jaime C.; Waters, Katrina M.; Lydon, John P.; O' Malley, Bert W.; Khosla, Sundeep; Spelsberg, Thomas C.; Turner, Russell T.


    The role of progesterone receptor (PR) signaling in skeletal metabolism is controversial. To address whether signaling through the PR is necessary for normal bone growth and turnover, we performed histomorphometric and mCT analyses of bone from homozygous female PR knockout (PRKO) mice at 6, 12, and 26 weeks of age. These mice possess a null mutation of the PR locus, which blocks the gene expression of A and B isoforms of PR. Body weight gain, uterine weight gain and tibia longitudinal bone growth was normal in PRKO mice. In contrast, total and cortical bone mass were increased in long bones of post-pubertal (12 and 26-week-old) PRKO mice, whereas cancellous bone mass was normal in the tibia but increased in the humerus. The striking 57% decrease in cancellous bone from the proximal tibia metaphysis which occurred between 6 and 26 weeks in WT mice was abolished in PRKO mice. The improved bone balance in aging PRKO mice was associated with elevated bone formation and a tendency toward reduced osteoclast perimeter. Taken together, these findings suggest that PR signaling in mice attenuates the accumulation of cortical bone mass during adolescence and is required for early age-related loss of cancellous bone.

  15. 骨生化指标在骨肿瘤中的临床应用进展%Clinical application progress of bone biochemical markers in bone tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周定; 张琪琪; 胡勇


    Bone tumors refer to benign and malignant tumors which originate from mesenchymal stem cells and occur in bone tissues and their accessory structures. The pathogenesis and etiology of bone tumors still remain unclear, and the diagnosis methods of bone tumors are stagnating now. X-ray, computed tomography ( CT ) and magnetic resonance imaging ( MRI ) are important in diagnosing and evaluating bone tumors, but they cannot detect the lesions until the bone destruction reaches a certain degree. Isotope bone scan can detect the microscopic lesions of bone, whereas it is too expensive and the speciifcity is poor, with high false positive rates. At present, the golden standard for the diagnosis of bone tumors is the histopathological examination of bone. However, it is dififcult to achieve early diagnosis, and it is likely to miss the best treatment period. Every disease is inevitably accompanied by molecular biological changes in the body. Biochemical markers can promptly detect the property changes of bone tumor cells, including unlimited proliferation, apoptosis, active neoangiogenesis, inifltrative growth, metastatic growth and so on. Therefore, it is of great signiifcance for the diagnosis of bone tumors to detect appropriate biochemical markers in the patients. The normal bone metabolism is maintained by the dynamic balance of bone resorption and bone formation. When bone tumors occur, the balance will be disturbed. The bone biochemical markers which relfect bone resorption and bone formation are sensitive indicators of early abnormal bone metabolism. Recently, a large number of studies have explored the significance of bone biochemical markers in patients with bone tumors. The functions of bone biochemical markers in patients with bone tumors mainly include making an early detection of microscopic tumor lesions to start early treatment ( diagnostic effects ), evaluating the effects ( therapeutic monitoring ), evaluating the prognosis and predicting the risk of

  16. Smoking and Bone Health (United States)

    ... supported by your browser. Home Bone Basics Lifestyle Smoking and Bone Health Publication available in: PDF (85 ... late to adopt new habits for healthy bones. Smoking and Osteoporosis Cigarette smoking was first identified as ...

  17. Normalization: A Preprocessing Stage


    Patro, S. Gopal Krishna; Sahu, Kishore Kumar


    As we know that the normalization is a pre-processing stage of any type problem statement. Especially normalization takes important role in the field of soft computing, cloud computing etc. for manipulation of data like scale down or scale up the range of data before it becomes used for further stage. There are so many normalization techniques are there namely Min-Max normalization, Z-score normalization and Decimal scaling normalization. So by referring these normalization techniques we are ...

  18. Preliminary fsLIBS study on bone tumors. (United States)

    Gill, Ruby K; Smith, Zachary J; Panchal, Ripul R; Bishop, John W; Gandour-Edwards, Regina; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian


    The aim of this study is to evaluate the capability of femtosecond Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (fsLIBS) to discriminate between normal and cancerous bone, with implications to femtosecond laser surgery procedures. The main advantage of using femtosecond lasers for surgery is that the same laser that is being used to ablate can also be used for a feedback system to prevent ablation of certain tissues. For bone tumor removal, this technique has the potential to reduce the number of repeat surgeries that currently must be performed due to incomplete removal of the tumor mass. In this paper, we performed fsLIBS on primary bone tumor, secondary tumor in bone, and normal bone. These tissues were excised from consenting patients and processed through the UC Davis Cancer Center Biorepository. For comparison, each tumor sample had a matched normal bone sample. fsLIBS was performed to characterize the spectral signatures of each tissue type. A minimum of 20 spectra were acquired for each sample. We did not detect significant differences between the fsLIBS spectra of secondary bone tumors and their matched normal bone samples, likely due to the heterogeneous nature of secondary bone tumors, with normal and cancerous tissue intermingling. However, we did observe an increase in the fsLIBS magnesium peak intensity relative to the calcium peak intensity for the primary bone tumor samples compared to the normal bone samples. These results show the potential of using femtosecond lasers for both ablation and a real-time feedback control system for treatment of primary bone tumors.

  19. Altering the Microenvironment to Promote Dormancy of Metastatic Breast Cancer Cell in a 3D Bone Culture System (United States)


    1138-1148. Carlsten, H. 2005. Immune responses and bone loss: the estrogen connection. Immunological reviews . 208:194- 206. 28 Gehler, S., S.M...factors to be considered in cancer recurrence ( reviewed by [6]). Das Roy et al. found an increase in lung and bone marrow metastasis using an...activation of COX-2, plays an important role in normal bone physiology as well as in cancer and bone metastasis ( review [43]). In the normal bone, PGE2 is the

  20. Monosodium glutamate-sensitive hypothalamic neurons contribute to the control of bone mass (United States)

    Elefteriou, Florent; Takeda, Shu; Liu, Xiuyun; Armstrong, Dawna; Karsenty, Gerard


    Using chemical lesioning we previously identified hypothalamic neurons that are required for leptin antiosteogenic function. In the course of these studies we observed that destruction of neurons sensitive to monosodium glutamate (MSG) in arcuate nuclei did not affect bone mass. However MSG treatment leads to hypogonadism, a condition inducing bone loss. Therefore the normal bone mass of MSG-treated mice suggested that MSG-sensitive neurons may be implicated in the control of bone mass. To test this hypothesis we assessed bone resorption and bone formation parameters in MSG-treated mice. We show here that MSG-treated mice display the expected increase in bone resorption and that their normal bone mass is due to a concomitant increase in bone formation. Correction of MSG-induced hypogonadism by physiological doses of estradiol corrected the abnormal bone resorptive activity in MSG-treated mice and uncovered their high bone mass phenotype. Because neuropeptide Y (NPY) is highly expressed in MSG-sensitive neurons we tested whether NPY regulates bone formation. Surprisingly, NPY-deficient mice had a normal bone mass. This study reveals that distinct populations of hypothalamic neurons are involved in the control of bone mass and demonstrates that MSG-sensitive neurons control bone formation in a leptin-independent manner. It also indicates that NPY deficiency does not affect bone mass.

  1. Chondroblastoma of the patella with aneurysmal bone cyst. (United States)

    Tan, Honglue; Yan, Mengning; Yue, Bing; Zeng, Yiming; Wang, You


    Chondroblastoma of the patella is rare. Aneurysmal bone cysts, which develop from a prior lesion such as a chondroblastoma, are seldom seen in the patella. The authors report a case of a 36-year-old man who presented with 2 years of right knee pain without calor, erythema, pain on palpation, or abnormal range of motion. Radiological studies suggested aneurysmal bone cyst. The lesion was excised with curettage and the residual cavity filled with autogenous bone graft. Histopathology revealed chondroblastoma associated with a secondary aneurysmal bone cyst. In the follow-up period, the patient demonstrated normal joint activities with no pain. Normal configuration of the patella and bone union were shown on plain radiographs. The authors present a review of the literature of all cases of patellar chondroblastoma with aneurysmal bone cyst. This case is the 14th report of aneurysmal bone cyst arising in a chondroblastoma of the patella. According to the literature, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are useful in the study of these lesions. The pathologic diagnosis is based on the presence of chondroblastoma and aneurysmal bone cyst. Treatment of this lesion includes patellectomy, curettage alone, and curettage with bone grafting. Despite the risk of recurrence of this lesion in the patella, the authors first recommend curettage followed by filling the cavity with bone graft. To protect the anterior tension of the patella intraoperatively, the bone window should be made at the medial edge of the patella to perform the curettage and bone grafting.

  2. Absolute homogeneity test of Kelantan catchment precipitation series (United States)

    Ros, Faizah Che; Tosaka, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Kenji; Sidek, Lariyah Mohd; Basri, Hidayah


    Along the Kelantan River in north east of Malaysia Peninsular, there are several areas often damaged by flood during north-east monsoon season every year. It is vital to predict the expected behavior of precipitation and river runoff for reducing flood damages of the area under rapid urbanization and future planning. Nevertheless, the accuracy and reliability of any hydrological and climate studies vary based on the quality of the data used. The factors causing variations on these data are the method of gauging and data collection, stations environment, station relocation and the reliability of the measurement tool affect the homogenous precipitation records. Hence in this study, homogeneity of long precipitation data series is checked via the absolute homogeneity test consisting of four methods namely Pettitt test, standard normal homogeneity test (SNHT), Buishand range test and Von Neumann ratio test. For homogeneity test, the annual rainfall amount from the daily precipitation records at stations located in Kelantan operated by Department of Irrigation and Drainage Malaysia were considered in this study. The missing values were completed using the correlation and regression and inverse distance method. The data network consists of 103 precipitation gauging stations where 31 points are inactive, 6 gauging stations had missing precipitation values more than five years in a row and 16 stations have records less than twenty years. So total of 50 stations gauging stations were evaluated in this analysis. With the application of the mentioned methods and further graphical analysis, inhomogeneity was detected at 4 stations and 46 stations are found to be homogeneous.

  3. Chondroblastoma of the sphenoid bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrocíni, Tomas Gomes


    Full Text Available Introduction: Chondroblastoma is an uncommon cartilaginous benign neoplasm, highly destructive, which specifically appears in the epiphysis of long bones in young patients. Its occurrence is extremely rare in the cranial base, normally occurring in the temporal bone. Objective: To describe a rare case in a patient presenting with a sphenoid bone chondroblastoma that invaded the middle cranial cavity, submitted to a successful surgical resection, without recurrence after 2 years. Case Report: W.J.S, 37 years old, male, forwarded to the otorhinolaryngology service with persistent and strong otalgia for 3 months. He had normal otoscopy and without visible tumorations. The computerized tomography confirmed tumor mass in the left infra-temporal cavity, invading the middle cranial cavity. The biopsy suggested giant cells tumor. After wide resection by frontal approach via orbitozygomatic osteotomy. During the surgery, we confirmed tomographic statements and didn't find temporal bone involvement. The histopathological exam confirmed chondroblastoma. After 18 months after the surgery, he doesn't present with complaints, without motor, sensitive deficits or of cranial nerves and without recurrence tomographic signals. Conclusion: The importance of differential diagnosis of chondroblastoma is remarkable in the cranial base lesions and its therapeutic approach, whose objective must always be the major possible resection with the maximum function conservation.

  4. An All Fiber White Light Interferometric Absolute Temperature Measurement System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeonggon Harrison Kim


    Full Text Available Recently the author of this article proposed a new signal processing algorithm for an all fiber white light interferometer. In this article, an all fiber white light interferometric absolute temperature measurement system is presented using the previously proposed signal processing algorithm. Stability and absolute temperature measurement were demonstrated. These two tests demonstrated the feasibility of absolute temperature measurement with an accuracy of 0.015 fringe and 0.0005 fringe, respectively. A hysteresis test from 373K to 873K was also presented. Finally, robustness of the sensor system towards laser diode temperature drift, AFMZI temperature drift and PZT non-linearity was demonstrated.

  5. Hyoid bone fusion and bone density across the lifespan: prediction of age and sex. (United States)

    Fisher, Ellie; Austin, Diane; Werner, Helen M; Chuang, Ying Ji; Bersu, Edward; Vorperian, Houri K


    The hyoid bone supports the important functions of swallowing and speech. At birth, the hyoid bone consists of a central body and pairs of right and left lesser and greater cornua. Fusion of the greater cornua with the body normally occurs in adulthood, but may not occur at all in some individuals. The aim of this study was to quantify hyoid bone fusion across the lifespan, as well as assess developmental changes in hyoid bone density. Using a computed tomography imaging studies database, 136 hyoid bones (66 male, 70 female, ages 1-to-94) were examined. Fusion was ranked on each side and hyoid bones were classified into one of four fusion categories based on their bilateral ranks: bilateral distant non-fusion, bilateral non-fusion, partial or unilateral fusion, and bilateral fusion. Three-dimensional hyoid bone models were created and used to calculate bone density in Hounsfield units. Results showed a wide range of variability in the timing and degree of hyoid bone fusion, with a trend for bilateral non-fusion to decrease after age 20. Hyoid bone density was significantly lower in adult female scans than adult male scans and decreased with age in adulthood. In sex and age estimation models, bone density was a significant predictor of sex. Both fusion category and bone density were significant predictors of age group for adult females. This study provides a developmental baseline for understanding hyoid bone fusion and bone density in typically developing individuals. Findings have implications for the disciplines of forensics, anatomy, speech pathology, and anthropology.

  6. Investigations into Changes in Bone Turnover with Acute, Weight-Bearing Exercise in Healthy, Young Men (United States)


    after the menopause . Subsequently, in the newly increased number of resorption spaces, bone formation occurs that is reflected by an increase in...specific BTM, new insights into the acute effects of exercise on bone resorption and formation are possible. 1.4 Nutrition , energy availability and...normal bone metabolism While the importance of appropriate nutrition in maintaining normal bone turnover has long been recognised, it is only with the

  7. Crystal bones. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Torres Molina


    Full Text Available There is a case still on milk with clinical and radiological manifestations with the diagnosis of imperfect osteogenesis. There was a study with the clinical description of the external habit, detecting triangular facie, slight blue sclera, ligamentous hypelaxitud in hands and feet, pectus excavatum, arrosariated ribs, legs in abduction, keeping a right angle and diafisiary fractures of long bones. The parents clinical study was normal. The typification was according Sillence criteria of Type III.

  8. Bone development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatara, M.R.; Tygesen, Malin Plumhoff; Sawa-Wojtanowicz, B.


    The objective of this study was to determine the long-term effect of alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) administration during early neonatal life on skeletal development and function, with emphasis on bone exposed to regular stress and used to serve for systemic changes monitoring, the rib. Shropshire ram...... lambs were randomly assigned to two weight-matched groups at birth. During the first 14 days of life AKG was administered orally to the experimental group (n=12) at the dosage of 0.1 g/kg body weight per day, while the control group (n=11) received an equal dose of the vehicle. Lambs were slaughtered...... has a long-term effect on skeletal development when given early in neonatal life, and that changes in rib properties serve to improve chest mechanics and functioning in young animals. Moreover, neonatal administration of AKG may be considered as an effective factor enhancing proper development...

  9. Mineral bone density comparative assessment in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus treated and not treated with glucocorticoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L A Archakova


    Full Text Available Objective. To compare bone mineral density (BMD in pts with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, treated and untreated by glucocorticoids (GC. Matherial and Methods. 30 females with reliable SLE were examined (APA, 1982, 15 had GC (prednisolone 7.5-60mg/day, median cumulative dose 10.7±6.6g (1st group, 15 others did not take GC (2nd group. Groups were comparable by age, SLE course duration, body weight. All were females with normal menses period. BMD was assessed in low back vertebral region and femoral neck in standard projections on dichromatic X-ray densitometer QDR-1000 Plus (Hologic, USA in absolute values (g/cm2 and T-index. Results. BMD in low back was statistically reliably lower in the 1st group as compared with the 2nd (0,918±0,118 and 1,036±0,156; p=0,027. In the left femoral neck there were no differences in mineralization of bone tissue (0,769±0,167 and 0,807±0,227; p=0,568, BMD decreasing in the studied bone region reliably prevailed among pts of the 1st group (n=ll as compared with the 2nd (n=2 (p=0.003. Conclusion. SLE pis treated by GC demonstrated reliably lower indices of BMD in LI-L4 as compared with pts who were not treated by GC.

  10. Changes in Absolute Sea Level Along U.S. Coasts (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map shows changes in absolute sea level from 1960 to 2016 based on satellite measurements. Data were adjusted by applying an inverted barometer (air pressure)...

  11. Monochromator-Based Absolute Calibration of Radiation Thermometers (United States)

    Keawprasert, T.; Anhalt, K.; Taubert, D. R.; Hartmann, J.


    A monochromator integrating-sphere-based spectral comparator facility has been developed to calibrate standard radiation thermometers in terms of the absolute spectral radiance responsivity, traceable to the PTB cryogenic radiometer. The absolute responsivity calibration has been improved using a 75 W xenon lamp with a reflective mirror and imaging optics to a relative standard uncertainty at the peak wavelength of approximately 0.17 % ( k = 1). Via a relative measurement of the out-of-band responsivity, the spectral responsivity of radiation thermometers can be fully characterized. To verify the calibration accuracy, the absolutely calibrated radiation thermometer is used to measure Au and Cu freezing-point temperatures and then to compare the obtained results with the values obtained by absolute methods, resulting in T - T 90 values of +52 mK and -50 mK for the gold and copper fixed points, respectively.

  12. Significance of absolute energy scale for physics at BESⅢ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Cheng-Dong; MO Xiao-Hu


    The effects of absolute energy calibration on BESⅢ physics are discussed in detail,which mainly involve the effects on τ mass measurement,cross section scan measurement,and generic error determination in other measurements.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhat Iqbal


    Full Text Available In this paper the asymptotic distribution of the absolute residual autocorrelations from generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedastic (GARCH models is derived. The correct asymptotic standard errors for the absolute residual autocorrelations are also obtained and based on these results, a diagnostic test for checking the adequacy of GARCH-type models are developed. Our results do not depend on the existence of higher moments and is therefore robust under heavy-tailed distributions.

  14. Absolute Free Energies for Biomolecules in Implicit or Explicit Solvent (United States)

    Berryman, Joshua T.; Schilling, Tanja

    Methods for absolute free energy calculation by alchemical transformation of a quantitative model to an analytically tractable one are discussed. These absolute free energy methods are placed in the context of other methods, and an attempt is made to describe the best practice for such calculations given the current state of the art. Calculations of the equilibria between the four free energy basins of the dialanine molecule and the two right- and left-twisted basins of DNA are discussed as examples.

  15. Spectra of absolute instruments from the WKB approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Tyc, Tomas


    We calculate frequency spectra of absolute optical instruments using the WKB approximation. The resulting eigenfrequencies approximate the actual values very accurately, in some cases they even give the exact values. Our calculations confirm results obtained previously by a completely different method. In particular, the eigenfrequencies of absolute instruments form tight groups that are almost equidistantly spaced. We demonstrate our method and its results on several examples.

  16. Global trends in relative and absolute wealth concentrations



    This paper compares changes in relative and absolute wealth concentrations to establish if both processes have followed similar trajectories. The findings indicate that while the level of relative wealth concentration has increased recently, it is not extraordinarily high in an historical perspective. On the contrary, the level of absolute wealth concentration is most likely higher than that previously occurred because of the increase in the wealth holdings and population size of high net wor...

  17. The biomechanical effect of artificial and human bone density on stopping and stripping torque during screw insertion. (United States)

    Tsuji, Matthew; Crookshank, Meghan; Olsen, Michael; Schemitsch, Emil H; Zdero, Rad


    Orthopedic surgeons apply torque to metal screws manually by "subjective feel" to obtain adequate fracture fixation, i.e. stopping torque, and attempt to avoid accidental over-tightening that leads to screw-bone interface failure, i.e. stripping torque. Few studies have quantified stripping torque in human bone, and only one older study from 1980 reported stopping/ stripping torque ratio. The present aim was to measure stopping and stripping torque of cortical and cancellous screws in artificial and human bone over a wide range of densities. Sawbone blocks were obtained having densities from 0.08 to 0.80g/cm(3). Sixteen fresh-frozen human femurs of known standardized bone mineral density (sBMD) were also used. Using a torque screwdriver, 3.5-mm diameter cortical screws and 6.5-mm diameter cancellous screws were inserted for adequate tightening as determined subjectively by an orthopedic surgeon, i.e. stopping torque, and then further tightened until failure of the screw-bone interface, i.e. stripping torque. There were weak (R=0.25) to strong (R=0.99) linear correlations of absolute and normalized torque vs. density or sBMD. Maximum stopping torques normalized by screw thread area engaged by the host material were 15.2N/mm (cortical screws) and 13.4N/mm (cancellous screws) in sawbone blocks and 20.9N/mm (cortical screws) and 6.1N/mm (cancellous screws) in human femurs. Maximum stripping torques normalized by screw thread area engaged by the host material were 23.4N/mm (cortical screws) and 16.8N/mm (cancellous screws) in sawbone blocks and 29.3N/mm (cortical screws) and 8.3N/mm (cancellous screws) in human femurs. Combined average stopping/ stripping torque ratios were 80.8% (cortical screws) and 76.8% (cancellous screws) in sawbone blocks, as well as 66.6% (cortical screws) and 84.5% (cancellous screws) in human femurs. Surgeons should be aware of stripping torque limits for human femurs and monitor stopping torque during surgery. This is the first study of the

  18. Impact of statistical learning methods on the predictive power of multivariate normal tissue complication probability models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Cheng-Jian; van der Schaaf, Arjen; Schilstra, Cornelis; Langendijk, Johannes A.; van t Veld, Aart A.


    PURPOSE: To study the impact of different statistical learning methods on the prediction performance of multivariate normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models. METHODS AND MATERIALS: In this study, three learning methods, stepwise selection, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator

  19. Biomechanical researches on tissue engineering bone constructed by deproteinated bone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAN Yue-kui; TIAN Xiao-bin; LI Qi-hong; LI Bo; PENG Zhi; ZHAO Wei-feng; WANG Yuan-zheng; YANG Zhen


    Objective:To study biomechanical changes of newly formed bones 24 weeks after repairing large defects of long bones of goats using heterogeneous deproteinated bone(DPB)prepared by modified methods as an engineering scaffold.Methods:According to a fully randomized design,18 goats were evenly divided into three groups:normal bone control group(Group A),autologous bone group(Group B)and experimental group(Group C).Each goat in Groups B and C were subjected to the periosteum and bone defect at middle-lower part of the fight tibia(20% of the whole tibia in length),followed by autologous bone or DPB plus autologous MSCs + rhBMP2 implantation,respectively and semiring slot fixation;while goats in Group A did not perform osteotomy.At 24 weeks after surgery,biomechanical tests were carried out on the tibias.Results:At 24 weeks after surgery,the results of anticompression test on tibias in three groups were recorded by a functional recorder presented as linear pressure-deformation curve.The shapes of the curves and their change tendency were similar among three groups.The ultimate pressure values were 10.74 Mpa±1.23 Mpa,10.11 Mpa±1.35 Mpa and 10.22 Mpa±1.32 Mpa and fracture compression rates were 26.82%±0.87%,27.17%±0.75% and 28.22%±1.12% in Groups A,B and C,respectively.Comparisons of anti-compression ultimate pressures and fracture compression rates among three groups demonstrated no significant difference(P_(AB)=0.415,P_(BC)=0.494).Three-point antibend test on tibias was recorded as load-deformation curves,and the shapes of the curves and their change tendency were similar among three groups.The ultimate pressure values of the anti-bend test were 481.52 N±12.45 N,478.34 N±14.68 N and 475.62 N±13.41 N and the fracture bend rates were 2.62 mm±0.12 mm,2.61 mm±0.15 mm and 2.81 mm±0.13 mm in Groups A,B and C,respectively.There was no significant difference between groups(P_(AB)=0.7,P_(BC)=0.448).The ultirates were 29.51°±1.64°,28.88°±1.46° and 28.81°±1.33

  20. Absolute Measurement of Hadronic Branching Fractions of the D_s^+ Meson

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, J; Cassel, D G; Duboscq, J E; Ehrlich, R; Fields, L; Gibbons, L; Gray, R; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hertz, D; Jones, C D; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Mohapatra, D; Onyisi, P U E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W M; Wilksen, T; Athar, S B; Patel, R; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Eisenstein, B I; Karliner, I; Mehrabyan, S; Lowrey, N; Selen, M; White, E J; Wiss, J; Mitchell, R E; Shepherd, M R; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Gao, K Y; Hietala, J; Kubota, Y; Klein, T; Lang, B W; Poling, R; Scott, A W; Zweber, P; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A G; Libby, J; Powell, A; Wilkinson, G; Ecklund, K M; Love, W; Savinov, V; López, A; Méndez, H; Ramírez, J; Ge, J Y; Miller, D H; Sanghi, B; Shipsey, I P J; Xin, B; Adams, G S; Anderson, M; Cummings, J P; Danko, I; Hu, D; Moziak, B; Napolitano, J; He, Q; Insler, J; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Thorndike, E H; Yang, F; Artuso, M; Blusk, S; Khalil, S; Li, J; Mountain, R; Nisar, S; Randrianarivony, K; Sultana, N; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Zhang, L M; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Dubrovin, M; Lincoln, A; Rademacker, J; Asner, D M; Edwards, K W; Naik, P; Briere, R A; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G; Vogel, H; Watkins, M E; Rosner, J L


    The branching fractions of D_s meson decays serve to normalize many measurements of processes involving charm quarks. Using 298 /pb of e+ e- collisions recorded at a center of mass energy of 4.17 GeV, we determine absolute branching fractions for eight D_s decays with a double tag technique. In particular we determine the branching fraction B(D_s -> K- K+ pi+) = (5.50 +- 0.23 +- 0.16)%, where the uncertainties are statistical and systematic respectively. We also provide partial branching fractions for kinematic subsets of the K- K+ pi+ decay mode.

  1. Cytogenetic, cytotoxic and GC-MS studies on concrete and absolute oils from Taif rose, Saudi Arabia. (United States)

    Hagag, Heba A; Bazaid, Salih A; Abdel-Hameed, El-Sayed S; Salman, Mahmood


    Taif rose (Rosa damascena trigintipetala Dieck) is a sort of damask rose, which is considered as one of the most important economic products of Taif. In this study, the authors investigated the possible cytotoxic, genotoxic, antimutagenic and anticancer effect of concrete and absolute rose oils. The results showed that both concrete and absolute rose oils were cytotoxically and genotoxically safe at a dose of 10 μg/ml when tested on cultures of normal human blood lymphocytes. Also, the results showed significant antimutagenic activity at p concrete and absolute oils exerted a cytotoxic activity against two kinds of human cancer cell lines: HepG2 and MCF7. Concrete oil showed cytotoxic activity against HepG2 and MCF7 with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 16.28 and 18.09 μg/ml, respectively, whereas absolute rose oil showed its cytotoxic activity against HepG2 and MCF7 with an IC50 of 24.94 and 19.69, respectively. From this study, it is concluded that concrete and absolute rose oils are cytotoxically and genotoxically safe at a dose of 10 μg/ml when tested on cultures of normal human blood lymphocytes. In addition, absolute oil has an antimutagenic activity at the same dose. Further investigations are needed to study the activity of higher doses of both oils in vitro and in vivo in experimental animals in order to evaluate the capability of using these oils as therapeutic for treatment of some kinds of cancers.

  2. Differential Inequalities, Normality and Quasi-Normality

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xiaojun; Pang, Xuecheng


    We prove that if D is a domain in C, alpha>1 and c>0, then the family F of functions meromorphic in D such that |f'(z)|/(1+|f(z)|^alpha)>c for every z in D is normalin D. For alpha=1, the same assumptions imply quasi-normality but not necessarily normality.

  3. Method to obtain absolute impurity density profiles combining charge exchange and beam emission spectroscopy without absolute intensity calibrationa) (United States)

    Kappatou, A.; Jaspers, R. J. E.; Delabie, E.; Marchuk, O.; Biel, W.; Jakobs, M. A.


    Investigation of impurity transport properties in tokamak plasmas is essential and a diagnostic that can provide information on the impurity content is required. Combining charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) and beam emission spectroscopy (BES), absolute radial profiles of impurity densities can be obtained from the CXRS and BES intensities, electron density and CXRS and BES emission rates, without requiring any absolute calibration of the spectra. The technique is demonstrated here with absolute impurity density radial profiles obtained in TEXTOR plasmas, using a high efficiency charge exchange spectrometer with high etendue, that measures the CXRS and BES spectra along the same lines-of-sight, offering an additional advantage for the determination of absolute impurity densities.

  4. Method to obtain absolute impurity density profiles combining charge exchange and beam emission spectroscopy without absolute intensity calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappatou, A.; Delabie, E. [FOM Institute DIFFER - Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Association EURATOM-FOM, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Jaspers, R. J. E.; Jakobs, M. A. [Science and Technology of Nuclear Fusion, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Marchuk, O.; Biel, W. [Institute for Energy and Climate Research, Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, 52425 Julich (Germany)


    Investigation of impurity transport properties in tokamak plasmas is essential and a diagnostic that can provide information on the impurity content is required. Combining charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) and beam emission spectroscopy (BES), absolute radial profiles of impurity densities can be obtained from the CXRS and BES intensities, electron density and CXRS and BES emission rates, without requiring any absolute calibration of the spectra. The technique is demonstrated here with absolute impurity density radial profiles obtained in TEXTOR plasmas, using a high efficiency charge exchange spectrometer with high etendue, that measures the CXRS and BES spectra along the same lines-of-sight, offering an additional advantage for the determination of absolute impurity densities.

  5. Bone assessment via thermal photoacoustic measurements (United States)

    Feng, Ting; Kozloff, Kenneth M.; Hsiao, Yi-Sing; Tian, Chao; Perosky, Joseph; Du, Sidan; Yuan, Jie; Deng, Cheri X.; Wang, Xueding


    The feasibility of an innovative biomedical diagnostic technique, thermal photoacoustic (TPA) measurement, for nonionizing and non-invasive assessment of bone health is investigated. Unlike conventional photoacoustic PA methods which are mostly focused on the measurement of absolute signal intensity, TPA targets the change in PA signal intensity as a function of the sample temperature, i.e. the temperature dependent Grueneisen parameter which is closely relevant to the chemical and molecular properties in the sample. Based on the differentiation measurement, the results from TPA technique is less susceptible to the variations associated with sample and system, and could be quantified with improved accurately. Due to the fact that the PA signal intensity from organic components such as blood changes faster than that from non-organic mineral under the same modulation of temperature, TPA measurement is able to objectively evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) and its loss as a result of osteoporosis. In an experiment on well established rat models of bone loss and preservation, PA measurements of rat tibia bones were conducted over a temperature range from 370 C to 440 C. The slope of PA signal intensity verses temperature was quantified for each specimen. The comparison among three groups of specimens with different BMD shows that bones with lower BMD have higher slopes, demonstrating the potential of the proposed TPA technique in future clinical management of osteoporosis.

  6. Orchestration of bone remodeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moester, Martiene Johanna Catharina


    In healthy individuals, a balance exists between bone formation and resorption. Disruption of this balance can lead to higher or lower bone mass, and disease such as osteoporosis. Treatment for osteoporosis generally inhibits bone resorption, but does not rebuild bone to a healthy strength. More kno

  7. Bone grafts in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Kumar


    Full Text Available Bone grafts are used as a filler and scaffold to facilitate bone formation and promote wound healing. These grafts are bioresorbable and have no antigen-antibody reaction. These bone grafts act as a mineral reservoir which induces new bone formation.

  8. Bone Marrow Diseases (United States)

    Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of your bones, such as your hip and thigh bones. It contains stem cells. The stem cells can ... the platelets that help with blood clotting. With bone marrow disease, there are problems with the stem ...

  9. Commissioning of the Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Jakobsen, Sune; Hansen, Peter; Hansen, Jørgen Beck

    The startup of the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) has initialized a new era in particle physics. The standard model of particle physics has for the last 40 years with tremendous success described all measurements with phenomenal precision. The experiments at the LHC are testing the standard model in a new energy regime. To normalize the measurements and understand the potential discoveries of the LHC experiments it is often crucial to know the interaction rate - the absolute luminosity. The ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS) detector will measure luminosity by numerous methods. But for most of the methods only the relative luminosity is measured with good precision. The absolute scale has to be provided from elsewhere. ATLAS is like the other LHC experiments mainly relying of absolute luminosity calibration from van der Meer scans (beam separation scans). To cross check and maybe even improve the precision; ATLAS has built a sub-detector to measure the flux of protons scattered under very small angles as this flux...

  10. Absolutely nondestructive discrimination of Huoshan Dendrobium nobile species with miniature near-infrared (NIR) spectrometer engine. (United States)

    Hu, Tian; Yang, Hai-Long; Tang, Qing; Zhang, Hui; Nie, Lei; Li, Lian; Wang, Jin-Feng; Liu, Dong-Ming; Jiang, Wei; Wang, Fei; Zang, Heng-Chang


    As one very precious traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Huoshan Dendrobium has not only high price, but also significant pharmaceutical efficacy. However, different species of Huoshan Dendrobium exhibit considerable difference in pharmaceutical efficacy, so rapid and absolutely non-destructive discrimination of Huoshan Dendrobium nobile according to different species is crucial to quality control and pharmaceutical effect. In this study, as one type of miniature near-infrared (NIR) spectrometer, MicroNIR 1700 was used for absolutely nondestructive determination of NIR spectra of 90 batches of Dendrobium from five species of differ- ent commodity grades. The samples were intact and not smashed. Soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) pattern recognition based on principal component analysis (PCA) was used to classify and recognize different species of Dendrobium samples. The results indicated that the SIMCA qualitative models established with pretreatment method of standard normal variate transformation (SNV) in the spectra range selected by Qs method had 100% recognition rates and 100% rejection rates. This study demonstrated that a rapid and absolutely non-destructive analytical technique based on MicroNIR 1700 spectrometer was developed for successful discrimination of five different species of Huoshan Dendrobium with acceptable accuracy.

  11. Bone Health and Osteoporosis. (United States)

    Lupsa, Beatrice C; Insogna, Karl


    Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue leading to decreased bone strength and an increased risk of low-energy fractures. Central dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements are the gold standard for determining bone mineral density. Bone loss is an inevitable consequence of the decrease in estrogen levels during and following menopause, but additional risk factors for bone loss can also contribute to osteoporosis in older women. A well-balanced diet, exercise, and smoking cessation are key to maintaining bone health as women age. Pharmacologic agents should be recommended in patients at high risk for fracture.

  12. Role of bone biopsy in renal osteodystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Badr Wisam


    Full Text Available Renal osteodystrophy (ROD, the abnormal bone histology that occurs in the context of kidney disease, is a disease spectrum and not a uniform progressive bone disease. It is an important component of the broad disturbances of bone and mineral metabolism associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD. There are multiple pathogenetic factors which contribute to the histological abnormalities seen on bone biopsy. The patients with ROD are rarely symp-tomatic in the early stages of CKD. It is also noteworthy that the clinical manifestations are usually preceded by biochemical changes that are insidious and subtle. This makes it difficult for the clinician to suspect the presence of bone and mineral metabolism abnormalities without direct testing. The serum calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase levels are usually normal until late in the course of CKD. The main screening test for abnormal bone and mineral metabolism is the measurement of parathyroid hormone which is also somewhat delayed. The clinical signs and symptoms are also challenging to interpret because of their slow and non-specific nature which may include vague, ill-defined, bone aches and pains, and muscle weakness. The gold standard for diagnosis of ROD is bone biopsy with mineralized bone histology after double tetracycline labeling, iron staining and aluminum staining. The currently used histomorphometric descriptions of bone histology are not well integrated clinically and a new nomenclature that is clinically more relevant and useful has been proposed. Additional studies are required to define the spectrum of ROD in the current therapeutic era, and to find clinically useful non-invasive biomarkers to improve the treatment and monitoring of the abnormal bone in the setting of CKD.

  13. Interesting bone scans - unusual findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobson, M.; Wadhwa, S.S.; Mansberg, R.; Fernandes, V.B. [Wollongong Hospital, Wollongong, NSW (Australia)


    A 59-year-old female with carcinoma of the colon and known liver metastatic disease was referred for bone scan to evaluate for bone metastases. Although no bone metastases were found, there was abnormal uptake noted in the liver corresponding to a metastatic calcified lesion. The only other findings were of degenerative disease in the cervical spine, right shoulder and small joints of the hands. A 69-year-old male with carcinoma of the prostate and right side low back pain was referred for bone scan. No focal abnormalities to suggest metastatic disease were identified; findings within the cervical spine, lumber spine and knees were presumed secondary to degenerative disease. Intermittent pain persisted and the patient was referred for a repeat bone scan six months later. Previous scan findings of degenerative disease and no metastatic disease were confirmed; however, closer inspection revealed an enlarged right kidney with significant retention of tracer in the pelvicalyceal system suggesting possible obstruction. A Retrograde pyelogram was performed, and no obvious obstruction demonstrated. As bone scan findings were very suggestive of obstruction, a DTPA scan with lasix was performed showing a dilated right collecting system with no functional obstruction. Given the degree of dilation, it is possible that the patient experiences intermittent PUJ obstruction causing his symptoms. A 33-year-old male with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and viral arthritis was referred for a bone scan. A three phase revealed increased uptake in the region of the knee and leR proximal tibia. Delayed whole body images revealed multiple focal areas of osteoblastic activity in the leR tibia. Abnormal uptake was also seen in the upper third of the leR femur. The remainder of the skeletal survey was normal. X-ray correlation of the leR tibia and femoral findings was undertaken. Combinating unilateral changes on bone scan and X-ray although very suggestive of sclerotic polyostotic


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Osteopetrosis, a generalized developmental bone disease due to genetic disturbances, characterized by failure of bone re sorption and continuous bone formation making the bone hard, dense and brittle. Bones of intramembranous ossification and enchondrial ossification are affected genetically and symmetrically. During the process of disease the excess bone formation obliterates the cranial foramina and presses the optic, auditory and facial nerves resulting in defective vision, impaired hearing and facial paralysis. The bone formation in osteopetrosis affects bone marrow function leading to severe anemia and deficient of blood cells. The bone devoid of blood supply due to compression of blood vessels by excess formation of bone are prone to osteomyelitic changes with suppuration and pathological fracture if exposed to infection. Though the condition is chronic progressive, it produces changes leading to fatal condition, it should be studied thoroughly by everyone and hence this article presents a classical case of osteopetrosis with detailed description and discussion for the benefit of readers

  15. Normalization of periodontal tissues in osteopetrotic mib mutant rats, treated with CSF-1 (United States)

    Wojtowicz, A.; Yamauchi, M.; Sotowski, R.; Ostrowski, K.


    The osteopetrotic mib mutation in rats causes defects in the skeletal bone tissue in young animals. These defects, i.e. slow bone remodelling, changes in both crystallinity and mineral content, are transient and undergo normalization, even without any treatment in 6-wk-old animals. Treatment with CSF-1 (colony stimulating factor-1) accelerates the normalization process in skeletal bones. The periodontal tissues around the apices of incisors show abnormalities caused by the slow remodelling process of the mandible bone tissue, the deficiency of osteoclasts and their abnormal morphology, as well as the disorganization of periodontal ligament fibres. In contrast to the skeletal tissues, these abnormalities would not undergo spontaneous normalization. Under treatment with colony stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1), the primitive bone trabeculae of mandible are resorbed and the normalization of the number of osteoclasts and their cytology occurs. The organization of the periodontal ligament fibres is partially restored, resembling the histological structure of the normal one.

  16. Image analysis for dental bone quality assessment using CBCT imaging (United States)

    Suprijanto; Epsilawati, L.; Hajarini, M. S.; Juliastuti, E.; Susanti, H.


    Cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT) is one of X-ray imaging modalities that are applied in dentistry. Its modality can visualize the oral region in 3D and in a high resolution. CBCT jaw image has potential information for the assessment of bone quality that often used for pre-operative implant planning. We propose comparison method based on normalized histogram (NH) on the region of inter-dental septum and premolar teeth. Furthermore, the NH characteristic from normal and abnormal bone condition are compared and analyzed. Four test parameters are proposed, i.e. the difference between teeth and bone average intensity (s), the ratio between bone and teeth average intensity (n) of NH, the difference between teeth and bone peak value (Δp) of NH, and the ratio between teeth and bone of NH range (r). The results showed that n, s, and Δp have potential to be the classification parameters of dental calcium density.

  17. Bone marrow invasion in multiple myeloma and metastatic disease. (United States)

    Vilanova, J C; Luna, A


    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spine is the imaging study of choice for the management of bone marrow disease. MRI sequences enable us to integrate structural and functional information for detecting, staging, and monitoring the response the treatment of multiple myeloma and bone metastases in the spine. Whole-body MRI has been incorporated into different guidelines as the technique of choice for managing multiple myeloma and metastatic bone disease. Normal physiological changes in the yellow and red bone marrow represent a challenge in analyses to differentiate clinically significant findings from those that are not clinically significant. This article describes the findings for normal bone marrow, variants, and invasive processes in multiple myeloma and bone metastases.

  18. Multiscale Modeling of Bone (United States)


    DISEASE Both age and disease can affect the structure of bone, the effects of which are often similar. The most common bone disease is osteoporosis ... Osteoporosis is a disease that results in reduced bone mass and density. This reduction of bone mass and density has a greater impact on trabecular...Bone loss in females is linked to a decrease in estrogen ; the decrease of estrogen associated with menopause increases osteoclast activity [89]. This

  19. New insights to the role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor in bone phenotype and in dioxin-induced modulation of bone microarchitecture and material properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herlin, Maria, E-mail: [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Finnilä, Mikko A.J., E-mail: [Department of Medical Technology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Zioupos, Peter, E-mail: [Biomechanics Laboratories, Department of Engineering and Applied Science, Cranfield University, Shrivenham SN6 8LA (United Kingdom); Aula, Antti, E-mail: [Department of Medical Physics, Imaging Centre, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere (Finland); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere (Finland); Risteli, Juha, E-mail: [Department of Clinical Chemistry, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu (Finland); Miettinen, Hanna M., E-mail: [Department of Environmental Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Kuopio (Finland); Jämsä, Timo, E-mail: [Department of Medical Technology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu (Finland); Tuukkanen, Juha, E-mail: [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Korkalainen, Merja, E-mail: [Department of Environmental Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Kuopio (Finland); Håkansson, Helen, E-mail: [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Viluksela, Matti, E-mail: [Department of Environmental Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Kuopio (Finland); Department of Environmental Science, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio (Finland)


    Bone is a target for high affinity aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) ligands, such as dioxins. Although bone morphology, mineral density and strength are sensitive endpoints of dioxin toxicity, less is known about effects on bone microarchitecture and material properties. This study characterizes TCDD-induced modulations of bone tissue, and the role of AHR in dioxin-induced bone toxicity and for normal bone phenotype. Six AHR-knockout (Ahr{sup −/−}) and wild-type (Ahr{sup +/+}) mice of both genders were exposed to TCDD weekly for 10 weeks, at a total dose of 200 μg/kg bw. Bones were examined with micro-computed tomography, nanoindentation and biomechanical testing. Serum levels of bone remodeling markers were analyzed, and the expression of genes related to osteogenic differentiation was profiled using PCR array. In Ahr{sup +/+} mice, TCDD-exposure resulted in harder bone matrix, thinner and more porous cortical bone, and a more compact trabecular bone compartment. Bone remodeling markers and altered expression of a number of osteogenesis related genes indicated imbalanced bone remodeling. Untreated Ahr{sup −/−} mice displayed a slightly modified bone phenotype as compared with untreated Ahr{sup +/+} mice, while TCDD exposure caused only a few changes in bones of Ahr{sup −/−} mice. Part of the effects of both TCDD-exposure and AHR-deficiency were gender dependent. In conclusion, exposure of adult mice to TCDD resulted in harder bone matrix, thinner cortical bone, mechanically weaker bones and most notably, increased trabecular bone volume fraction in Ahr{sup +/+} mice. AHR is involved in bone development of a normal bone phenotype, and is crucial for manifestation of TCDD-induced bone alterations. - Highlights: • TCDD disrupts bone remodeling resulting in altered cortical and trabecular bone. • In trabecular bone an anabolic effect is observed. • Cortical bone is thinner, more porous, harder, stiffer and mechanically weaker. • AHR ablation

  20. Pseudo-absolute quantitative analysis using gas chromatography - Vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy - A tutorial. (United States)

    Bai, Ling; Smuts, Jonathan; Walsh, Phillip; Qiu, Changling; McNair, Harold M; Schug, Kevin A


    The vacuum ultraviolet detector (VUV) is a new non-destructive mass sensitive detector for gas chromatography that continuously and rapidly collects full wavelength range absorption between 120 and 240 nm. In addition to conventional methods of quantification (internal and external standard), gas chromatography - vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy has the potential for pseudo-absolute quantification of analytes based on pre-recorded cross sections (well-defined absorptivity across the 120-240 nm wavelength range recorded by the detector) without the need for traditional calibration. The pseudo-absolute method was used in this research to experimentally evaluate the sources of sample loss and gain associated with sample introduction into a typical gas chromatograph. Standard samples of benzene and natural gas were used to assess precision and accuracy for the analysis of liquid and gaseous samples, respectively, based on the amount of analyte loaded on-column. Results indicate that injection volume, split ratio, and sampling times for splitless analysis can all contribute to inaccurate, yet precise sample introduction. For instance, an autosampler can very reproducibly inject a designated volume, but there are significant systematic errors (here, a consistently larger volume than that designated) in the actual volume introduced. The pseudo-absolute quantification capability of the vacuum ultraviolet detector provides a new means for carrying out system performance checks and potentially for solving challenging quantitative analytical problems. For practical purposes, an internal standardized approach to normalize systematic errors can be used to perform quantitative analysis with the pseudo-absolute method.

  1. Parathyroid and bone imaging in primary hyperparathyroidism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Rui-Sen; LU Han-Kui; LUO Quan-Yong; CHEN Li-Bo; MA Ji-Xiao


    Skeletal derangements occur quite often in patient with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). We investigated parathyroid and bone imagings in 59 cases of pathologically proven PHPT. Forty-nine cases were pathologically proven parathyroid adenomas; 8 presented hyperplasia and the other 2 were adenocarcinomas. Parathyroid imaging (early phase imaging, EPI) was conducted at 30 min after injecting 740~925MBq 99mTc-MIBI and 2~3h later (delayed phase imaging, DPI) separately. The following thyroid imagings were performed at the same posture 10 min after intravenous injection of 74~111MBq 99mTcO4-. The 99mTc- MIBI subtraction imaging data were obtained by subtracting thyroid imaging from that of DPI. Among 49 cases of proven hyperparathyroid adenoma 45 yielded positive imagings. Eight cases with hyperplasia gave negative results. The results were positive in 2 cases of parathyroid adenocarcinoma. Results of 99mTc-MDP/bone imaging: 35 cases of hyperparathyroid adenocarcinoma (disease duration 1-6 months) showed normal bone images, while 14 cases showed superscan images, course being 4-12 months. Bone imaging for 2 cases of adenocarcinoma showed multiple, radioactive aggregated foci (brown tumor imaging); course lasting 10-24 months. The results of bone imaging in 8 cases of hyperplasia/ hyperparathyroidism were normal. It was concluded that diagnostic accuracy for parathyroid was 79.6% and for parathyroid adenoma was 91.8%, and the technique has no diagnostic value for hyperplasia. The 99mTc-MDP / bone imaging results for PHPT can be classified into three categories, i.e. normal, superscan and brown tumor. The imaging results correlated well with the different categories and degrees of bone damage, the duration of clinical course and the pathological types. Therefore, it's important to use bone imaging data in association with therapy to reflect the stage and progress of PHPT.

  2. Bone cysts: unicameral and aneurysmal bone cyst. (United States)

    Mascard, E; Gomez-Brouchet, A; Lambot, K


    Simple and aneurysmal bone cysts are benign lytic bone lesions, usually encountered in children and adolescents. Simple bone cyst is a cystic, fluid-filled lesion, which may be unicameral (UBC) or partially separated. UBC can involve all bones, but usually the long bone metaphysis and otherwise primarily the proximal humerus and proximal femur. The classic aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is an expansive and hemorrhagic tumor, usually showing characteristic translocation. About 30% of ABCs are secondary, without translocation; they occur in reaction to another, usually benign, bone lesion. ABCs are metaphyseal, excentric, bulging, fluid-filled and multicameral, and may develop in all bones of the skeleton. On MRI, the fluid level is evocative. It is mandatory to distinguish ABC from UBC, as prognosis and treatment are different. UBCs resolve spontaneously between adolescence and adulthood; the main concern is the risk of pathologic fracture. Treatment in non-threatening forms consists in intracystic injection of methylprednisolone. When there is a risk of fracture, especially of the femoral neck, surgery with curettage, filling with bone substitute or graft and osteosynthesis may be required. ABCs are potentially more aggressive, with a risk of bone destruction. Diagnosis must systematically be confirmed by biopsy, identifying soft-tissue parts, as telangiectatic sarcoma can mimic ABC. Intra-lesional sclerotherapy with alcohol is an effective treatment. In spinal ABC and in aggressive lesions with a risk of fracture, surgical treatment should be preferred, possibly after preoperative embolization. The risk of malignant transformation is very low, except in case of radiation therapy.

  3. New simulation model for bone formation markers in osteoporosis patients treated with once-weekly teriparatide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sakae Tanaka; Taiji Adachi; Tatsuhiko Kuroda; Toshitaka Nakamura; Masataka Shiraki; Toshitsugu Sugimoto; Yasuhiro Takeuchi; Mitsuru Saito; John P Bilezikian


    Daily 20-mg and once-weekly 56.5-mg teriparatide (parathyroid hormone 1–34) treatment regimens increase bone mineral density (BMD) and prevent fractures, but changes in bone turnover markers differ between the two regimens. The aim of the present study was to explain changes in bone turnover markers using once-weekly teriparatide with a simulation model. Temporary increases in bone formation markers and subsequent decreases were observed during once-weekly teriparatide treatment for 72 weeks. These observations support the hypothesis that repeated weekly teriparatide administration stimulates bone remodeling, replacing old bone with new bone and leading to a reduction in the active remodeling surface. A simulation model was developed based on the iterative remodeling cycle that occurs on residual old bone. An increase in bone formation and a subsequent decrease were observed in the preliminary simulation. For each fitted time point, the predicted value was compared to the absolute values of the bone formation and resorption markers and lumbar BMD. The simulation model strongly matched actual changes in bone turnover markers and BMD. This simulation model indicates increased bone formation marker levels in the early stage and a subsequent decrease. It is therefore concluded that remodeling-based bone formation persisted during the entire treatment period with once-weekly teriparatide.

  4. Bone marrow granulomas in infiltrating lobular breast cancer.


    Kettle, P.; Allen, D C


    A 50 year old woman with a history of infiltrating lobular breast carcinoma presented with back pain. Bone scan and magnetic resonance imaging were not conclusive. A bone marrow aspirate appeared normal. A routine trephine biopsy specimen showed granulomas but no obvious infiltration by carcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining with epithelial markers demonstrated carcinoma cells in the trephine specimen. This case illustrates the difficulty of detecting infiltrating lobular carcinoma in bone m...

  5. Morphological Study of Wormian Bones in Dried Human Skulls


    Divyesh Patel; Ketan Chauhan; Dhananjay Patil


    Background: Wormian bones may be defined as a those accidental bones found in the cranium having no regular relation to their normal ossification centre. They are assocated with cranial and central nervous system abnormalities. Knowledge of these bones is important for anthropo-logists, forensic experts, radiologists, orthopedic and neurosurgeons to avoid misleading for multiple fractures of the skull. Materials and Methods: Adult dry human skulls (n= 27) of unknown age and sex availablei...

  6. Absolute neutrophil values in malignant patients on cytotoxic chemotherapy. (United States)

    Madu, A J; Ibegbulam, O G; Ocheni, S; Madu, K A; Aguwa, E N


    A total of eighty patients with various malignancies seen between September 2008 and April 2009 at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) Ituku Ozalla, Enugu, Nigeria, had their absolute neutrophil counts, done at Days 0 and 12 of the first cycle of their various chemotherapeutic regimens. They were adult patients who had been diagnosed of various malignancies, consisting of Breast cancer 36 (45%), Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma 8 (10%), Hodgkin's lymphoma 13 (16.25%), Colorectal carcinoma 6 (7.5%), Multiple myeloma 7 (8.75%), Cervical carcinoma 1 (1.25%) and other malignancies 9 (11.25%), Manual counting of absolute neutrophil count was done using Turks solution and improved Neubauer counting chamber and Galen 2000 Olympus microscope. The socio demographic data of the patients were assessed from a questionnaire. There were 27 males (33.75%) and 53 females (66.25%). Their ages ranged from 18 - 80 years with a median of 45 years. The mean absolute neutrophil count of the respondents pre-and post chemotherapy was 3.7 +/- 2.1 x 10(9)/L and 2.5 +/- 1.6 x 10(9)/L respectively. There were significant differences in both the absolute neutrophil count (p=0.00) compared to the pre-chemotherapy values. Chemotherapeutic combinations containing cyclophosphamide and Adriamycin were observed to cause significant reduction in absolute neutrophil.

  7. Fibrous dysplasia of bone: craniofacial and dental implications. (United States)

    Burke, A B; Collins, M T; Boyce, A M


    Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a rare bone disease caused by postzygotic somatic activating mutations in the GNAS gene, which lead to constitutive activation of adenylyl cyclase and elevated levels of cyclic AMP, which act on downstream signaling pathways and cause normal bone to be replaced with fibrous tissue and abnormal (woven) bone. The bone disease may occur in one bone (monostotic), multiple bones (polyostotic), or in combination with hyperfunctioning endocrinopathies and hyperpigmented skin lesions (in the setting of McCune-Albright Syndrome). FD is common in the craniofacial skeleton, causing significant dysmorphic features, bone pain, and dental anomalies. This review summarizes the pathophysiology, clinical findings, and treatment of FD, with an emphasis on the craniofacial and oral manifestations of the disease.

  8. Bone Mineralization in Celiac Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Larussa


    Full Text Available Evidence indicates a well-established relationship between low bone mineral density (BMD and celiac disease (CD, but data on the pathogenesis of bone derangement in this setting are still inconclusive. In patients with symptomatic CD, low BMD appears to be directly related to the intestinal malabsorption. Adherence to a strict gluten-free diet (GFD will reverse the histological changes in the intestine and also the biochemical evidence of calcium malabsorption, resulting in rapid increase of BMD. Nevertheless, GFD improves BMD but does not normalize it in all patients, even after the recovery of intestinal mucosa. Other mechanisms of bone injury than calcium and vitamin D malabsorption are thought to be involved, such as proinflammatory cytokines, parathyroid function abnormalities, and misbalanced bone remodeling factors, most of all represented by the receptor activator of nuclear factor B/receptor activator of nuclear factor B-ligand/osteoprotegerin system. By means of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, it is now rapid and easy to obtain semiquantitative values of BMD. However, the question is still open about who and when submit to DXA evaluation in CD, in order to estimate risk of fractures. Furthermore, additional information on the role of nutritional supplements and alternative therapies is needed.

  9. Mathematical model for bone mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V Komarova


    Full Text Available Defective bone mineralization has serious clinical manifestations, including deformities and fractures, but the regulation of this extracellular process is not fully understood. We have developed a mathematical model consisting of ordinary differential equations that describe collagen maturation, production and degradation of inhibitors, and mineral nucleation and growth. We examined the roles of individual processes in generating normal and abnormal mineralization patterns characterized using two outcome measures: mineralization lag time and degree of mineralization. Model parameters describing the formation of hydroxyapatite mineral on the nucleating centers most potently affected the degree of mineralization, while the parameters describing inhibitor homeostasis most effectively changed the mineralization lag time. Of interest, a parameter describing the rate of matrix maturation emerged as being capable of counter-intuitively increasing both the mineralization lag time and the degree of mineralization. We validated the accuracy of model predictions using known diseases of bone mineralization such as osteogenesis imperfecta and X-linked hypophosphatemia. The model successfully describes the highly non-linear mineralization dynamics, which includes an initial lag phase when osteoid is present but no mineralization is evident, then fast primary mineralization, followed by secondary mineralization characterized by a continuous slow increase in bone mineral content. The developed model can potentially predict the function for a mutated protein based on the histology of pathologic bone samples from mineralization disorders of unknown etiology.

  10. Using Natural Stable Calcium Isotopes to Rapidly Assess Changes in Bone Mineral Balance Using a Bed Rest Model to Induce Bone Loss (United States)

    Morgan, J. L. L.; Skulan, J. L.; Gordon, G. E.; Smith, Scott M.; Romaniello, S. J.; Anbar, A. D.


    Metabolic bone diseases like osteoporosis result from the disruption of normal bone mineral balance (BMB) resulting in bone loss. During spaceflight astronauts lose substantial bone. Bed rest provides an analog to simulate some of the effects of spaceflight; including bone and calcium loss and provides the opportunity to evaluate new methods to monitor BMB in healthy individuals undergoing environmentally induced-bone loss. Previous research showed that natural variations in the Ca isotope ratio occur because bone formation depletes soft tissue of light Ca isotopes while bone resorption releases that isotopically light Ca back into soft tissue (Skulan et al, 2007). Using a bed rest model, we demonstrate that the Ca isotope ratio of urine shifts in a direction consistent with bone loss after just 7 days of bed rest, long before detectable changes in bone mineral density (BMD) occur. The Ca isotope variations tracks changes observed in urinary N-teleopeptide, a bone resorption biomarker. Bone specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation biomarker, is unchanged. The established relationship between Ca isotopes and BMB can be used to quantitatively translate the changes in the Ca isotope ratio to changes in BMD using a simple mathematical model. This model predicts that subjects lost 0.25 0.07% ( SD) of their bone mass from day 7 to day 30 of bed rest. Given the rapid signal observed using Ca isotope measurements and the potential to quantitatively assess bone loss; this technique is well suited to study the short-term dynamics of bone metabolism.

  11. Data-driven intensity normalization of PET group comparison studies is superior to global mean normalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borghammer, Per; Aanerud, Joel; Gjedde, Albert


    BACKGROUND: Global mean (GM) normalization is one of the most commonly used methods of normalization in PET and SPECT group comparison studies of neurodegenerative disorders. It requires that no between-group GM difference is present, which may be strongly violated in neurodegenerative disorders....... Importantly, such GM differences often elude detection due to the large intrinsic variance in absolute values of cerebral blood flow or glucose consumption. Alternative methods of normalization are needed for this type of data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two types of simulation were performed using CBF images...... from 49 controls. Two homogeneous groups of 20 subjects were sampled repeatedly. In one group, cortical CBF was artificially decreased moderately (simulation I) or slightly (simulation II). The other group served as controls. Ratio normalization was performed using five reference regions: (1) Global...

  12. Regulation of Bone Metabolism. (United States)

    Shahi, Maryam; Peymani, Amir; Sahmani, Mehdi


    Bone is formed through the processes of endochondral and intramembranous ossification. In endochondral ossification primary mesenchymal cells differentiate to chondrocytes and then are progressively substituted by bone, while in intramembranous ossification mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) differentiate directly into osteoblasts to form bone. The steps of osteogenic proliferation, differentiation, and bone homeostasis are controlled by various markers and signaling pathways. Bone needs to be remodeled to maintain integrity with osteoblasts, which are bone-forming cells, and osteoclasts, which are bone-degrading cells.In this review we considered the major factors and signaling pathways in bone formation; these include fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), wingless-type (Wnt) genes, runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and osteoblast-specific transcription factor (osterix or OSX).

  13. Regulation of Bone Metabolism (United States)

    Shahi, Maryam; Peymani, Amir; Sahmani, Mehdi


    Bone is formed through the processes of endochondral and intramembranous ossification. In endochondral ossification primary mesenchymal cells differentiate to chondrocytes and then are progressively substituted by bone, while in intramembranous ossification mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) differentiate directly into osteoblasts to form bone. The steps of osteogenic proliferation, differentiation, and bone homeostasis are controlled by various markers and signaling pathways. Bone needs to be remodeled to maintain integrity with osteoblasts, which are bone-forming cells, and osteoclasts, which are bone-degrading cells.In this review we considered the major factors and signaling pathways in bone formation; these include fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), wingless-type (Wnt) genes, runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and osteoblast-specific transcription factor (osterix or OSX). PMID:28367467

  14. Absolute cerebral blood flow and blood volume measured by magnetic resonance imaging bolus tracking: comparison with positron emission tomography values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Leif; Smith, D F; Vestergaard-Poulsen, Peter;


    The authors determined cerebral blood flow (CBF) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of contrast agent bolus passage and compared the results with those obtained by O-15 labeled water (H215O) and positron emission tomography (PET). Six pigs were examined by MRI and PET under normo......- and hypercapnic conditions. After dose normalization and introduction of an empirical constant phi Gd, absolute regional CBF was calculated from MRI. The spatial resolution and the signal-to-noise ratio of CBF measurements by MRI were better than by the H215O-PET protocol. Magnetic resonance imaging cerebral...... blood volume (CBV) estimates obtained using this normalization constant correlated well with values obtained by O-15 labeled carbonmonooxide (C15O) PET. However, PET CBV values were approximately 2.5 times larger than absolute MRI CBV values, supporting the hypothesized sensitivity of MRI to small...

  15. Decreased bone turnover with balanced resorption and formation prevent cortical bone loss during disuse (hibernation) in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis). (United States)

    McGee, Meghan E; Maki, Aaron J; Johnson, Steven E; Nelson, O Lynne; Robbins, Charles T; Donahue, Seth W


    Disuse uncouples bone formation from resorption, leading to increased porosity, decreased bone geometrical properties, and decreased bone mineral content which compromises bone mechanical properties and increases fracture risk. However, black bear bone properties are not adversely affected by aging despite annual periods of disuse (i.e., hibernation), which suggests that bears either prevent bone loss during disuse or lose bone and subsequently recover it at a faster rate than other animals. Here we show decreased cortical bone turnover during hibernation with balanced formation and resorption in grizzly bear femurs. Hibernating grizzly bear femurs were less porous and more mineralized, and did not demonstrate any changes in cortical bone geometry or whole bone mechanical properties compared to active grizzly bear femurs. The activation frequency of intracortical remodeling was 75% lower during hibernation than during periods of physical activity, but the normalized mineral apposition rate was unchanged. These data indicate that bone turnover decreases during hibernation, but osteons continue to refill at normal rates. There were no changes in regional variation of porosity, geometry, or remodeling indices in femurs from hibernating bears, indicating that hibernation did not preferentially affect one region of the cortex. Thus, grizzly bears prevent bone loss during disuse by decreasing bone turnover and maintaining balanced formation and resorption, which preserves bone structure and strength. These results support the idea that bears possess a biological mechanism to prevent disuse osteoporosis.

  16. The mixed Littlewood conjecture for pseudo-absolute values

    CERN Document Server

    Harrap, Stephen


    In this paper we prove the mixed Littlewood conjecture for a p-adic absolute value and any pseudo-absolute value with bounded ratios. More precisely we show that if p is a prime and D is a pseudo-absolute value sequence with elements divisible by finitely many primes not equal to p, and if the terms of D grow more slowly than the exponential of a polynomial then the infimum over natural numbers n of the quantity n.|n|_p.|n|_D.||nx|| equals 0 for all real x. Our proof relies on two deep results, a measure rigidity theorem due to Lindenstrauss and lower bounds for linear forms in logarithms due to Baker and Wustholz. We also deduce the answer to the related metric question of how fast the infimum above tends to zero, for almost every x.

  17. Absolute Uniqueness of Phase Retrieval with Random Illumination

    CERN Document Server

    Fannjiang, Albert


    Random phase or amplitude illumination is proposed to remove at once all types of ambiguity, trivial or nontrivial, at once from phase retrieval. Almost sure irreducibility is proved for {\\em any} complex-valued object of arbitrary sparsity. While this irreducibility result can be viewed as a probabilistic version of the classical result by Bruck, Sodin and Hayes, it provides a new perspective and an effective method for achieving absolute uniqueness in phase retrieval for {\\em every} object, not just objects outside of a measure-zero set. In particular, almost sure absolute uniqueness is proved for complex-valued objects under a general two-point assumption. For objects of nonnegative real and imaginary parts, absolute uniqueness is proved to hold with probability exponentially close to unity as the object sparsity increases.

  18. Absolute distance sensing by two laser optical interferometry. (United States)

    Thurner, Klaus; Braun, Pierre-François; Karrai, Khaled


    We have developed a method for absolute distance sensing by two laser optical interferometry. A particularity of this technique is that a target distance is determined in absolute and is no longer limited to within an ambiguity range affecting usually multiple wavelength interferometers. We implemented the technique in a low-finesse Fabry-Pérot miniature fiber based interferometer. We used two diode lasers, both operating in the 1550 nm wavelength range. The wavelength difference is chosen to create a 25 μm long periodic beating interferometric pattern allowing a nanometer precise position measurement but limited to within an ambiguity range of 25 μm. The ambiguity is then eliminated by scanning one of the wavelengths over a small range (3.4 nm). We measured absolute distances in the sub-meter range and this with just few nanometer repeatability.

  19. The impact of morphology on light transport in cancellous bone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Margallo-Balbás, E.; Taroni, D.; Pifferi, A.; Koolstra, J.H.; Van Ruyven, L.J.; French, P.J.


    In recent years, optical techniques based on diffusion approximation have demonstrated their ability to gain rich spectral information about bone. However, these methods normally assume homogeneity, while cancellous bone and marrow form a highly heterogeneous two-phase medium. This paper studies the

  20. Word recognition in competing babble and the effects of age, temporal processing, and absolute sensitivity. (United States)

    Snell, Karen B; Mapes, Frances M; Hickman, Elizabeth D; Frisina, D Robert


    This study was designed to clarify whether speech understanding in a fluctuating background is related to temporal processing as measured by the detection of gaps in noise bursts. Fifty adults with normal hearing or mild high-frequency hearing loss served as subjects. Gap detection thresholds were obtained using a three-interval, forced-choice paradigm. A 150-ms noise burst was used as the gap carrier with the gap placed close to carrier onset. A high-frequency masker without a temporal gap was gated on and off with the noise bursts. A continuous white-noise floor was present in the background. Word scores for the subjects were obtained at a presentation level of 55 dB HL in competing babble levels of 50, 55, and 60 dB HL. A repeated measures analysis of covariance of the word scores examined the effects of age, absolute sensitivity, and temporal sensitivity. The results of the analysis indicated that word scores in competing babble decreased significantly with increases in babble level, age, and gap detection thresholds. The effects of absolute sensitivity on word scores in competing babble were not significant. These results suggest that age and temporal processing influence speech understanding in fluctuating backgrounds in adults with normal hearing or mild high-frequency hearing loss.

  1. Bone geometry, volumetric density, microarchitecture, and estimated bone strength assessed by HR-pQCT in adult patients with hypophosphatemic rickets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanbhogue, Vikram V; Hansen, Stinus; Folkestad, Lars;


    at the distal radius and tibia were placed in a constant proportion to the entire length of the bone in both patients and healthy volunteers. In age- and weight-adjusted models, HR patients had significantly higher total bone cross-sectional areas (radius 36%, tibia 20%; both p ... impact of lower vBMD and trabecular number on bone strength seems to be compensated by an increase in bone diameter, resulting in HR patients having normal estimates of bone strength. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Stefan


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to follow the changes that occur, in time, at DNA level and to establish an efficient and reliable protocol for ancestral DNA extraction from bones found in archaeological sites. To test whether the protocol is efficient and capable of yielding good quality DNA, extraction was first performed on fresh bones. The material consists of fresh pig (Sus scrofa and cow (Bos taurus bones that were grounded by using a drill operating at low speed. The bone powder was then incubated in lysis buffer in the presence of proteinase K. DNA isolation and purification were done by using the phenol:chloroform protocol and DNA was precipitated with absolute ethanol stored at -20oC. The extractions were carried out once every month for a total of four extractions

  3. Total Synthesis and Absolute Configuration of the Marine Norditerpenoid Xestenone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Miyaoka


    Full Text Available Xestenone is a marine norditerpenoid found in the northeastern Pacific sponge Xestospongia vanilla. The relative configuration of C-3 and C-7 in xestenone was determined by NOESY spectral analysis. However the relative configuration of C-12 and the absolute configuration of this compound were not determined. The authors have now achieved the total synthesis of xestenone using their developed one-pot synthesis of cyclopentane derivatives employing allyl phenyl sulfone and an epoxy iodide as a key step. The relative and absolute configurations of xestenone were thus successfully determined by this synthesis.

  4. Absolute cross-sections from X-{gamma} coincidence measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemasson, A. [GANIL, CEA/DSM - CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); Shrivastava, A. [Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Navin, A. [GANIL, CEA/DSM - CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France)], E-mail:; Rejmund, M. [GANIL, CEA/DSM - CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); Nanal, V. [Department of Nuclear and Atomic Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Bhattacharyya, S. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Chatterjee, A.; Kailas, S.; Mahata, K.; Parkar, V.V. [Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Pillay, R.G. [Department of Nuclear and Atomic Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Ramachandran, K.; Rout, P.C. [Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)


    An activation technique using coincidences between characteristic X-rays and {gamma}-rays to obtain absolute cross-sections is described. This method is particularly useful in the case of nuclei that decay by electron capture. In addition to the reduction of possible contamination, an improved detection sensitivity is achieved as compared to inclusive measurements, thereby allowing the extraction of absolute fusion cross-sections in the nano-barn range. Results of this technique for {sup 6}Li+{sup 198}Pt system, at energies around the Coulomb barrier are described. Future applications with low intensity radioactive ion beams are also discussed.

  5. Absolute gravimetry - for monitoring climate change and geodynamics in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Emil

    with the GPS data, it is possible to separate the different signals. The method used in this study is absolute gravimetry. An absolute gravimeter of the A10 type has been purchased by DTU Space for this purpose. This instrument can measure gravity changes as small as 6µGal (= 60nm=s2), which provides...... the studies of the instrument it is found that it performs better than the manufacture specifications. The presence of a noise signal in the data, which originates from the instrument itself, has been the motivation to investigate different processing schemes. This noise is called the system response...

  6. Absolute, Extreme-Ultraviolet, Solar Spectral Irradiance Monitor (AESSIM) (United States)

    Huber, Martin C. E.; Smith, Peter L.; Parkinson, W. H.; Kuehne, M.; Kock, M.


    AESSIM, the Absolute, Extreme-Ultraviolet, Solar Spectral Irradiance Monitor, is designed to measure the absolute solar spectral irradiance at extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) wavelengths. The data are required for studies of the processes that occur in the earth's upper atmosphere and for predictions of atmospheric drag on space vehicles. AESSIM is comprised of sun-pointed spectrometers and newly-developed, secondary standards of spectral irradiance for the EUV. Use of the in-orbit standard sources will eliminate the uncertainties caused by changes in spectrometer efficiency that have plagued all previous measurements of the solar spectral EUV flux.

  7. Properties of Absolute Stability in the Presence of Time Lags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. De la Sen


    Full Text Available This study is concerned with the properties of absolute stability independent of the delays of time-delay systems, possessing non commensurate internal point delays, for any nonlinearity satisfying a Popov’s- type time positivity inequality. That property holds if an associate delay-free system is absolutely stable and the size of the delayed dynamics is sufficiently small. The results are obtained for nonlinearities belonging to sectors [0, k] and [h, k+h], and are based on a parabola test type.

  8. Stability comparison of two absolute gravimeters: optical versus atomic interferometers

    CERN Document Server

    Gillot, Pierre; Landragin, Arnaud; Santos, Franck Pereira Dos; Merlet, Sébastien


    We report the direct comparison between the stabilities of two mobile absolute gravimeters of different technology: the LNE-SYRTE Cold Atom Gravimeter and FG5X\\#216 of the Universit\\'e du Luxembourg. These instruments rely on two different principles of operation: atomic and optical interferometry. The comparison took place in the Walferdange Underground Laboratory for Geodynamics in Luxembourg, at the beginning of the last International Comparison of Absolute Gravimeters, ICAG-2013. We analyse a 2h10 duration common measurement, and find that the CAG shows better immunity with respect to changes in the level of vibration noise, as well as a slightly better short term stability.

  9. Absolute small-angle measurement based on optical feedback interferometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingang Zhong; Xianhua Zhang; Zhixiang Ju


    We present a simple but effective method for small-angle measurement based on optical feedback inter-ferometry (or laser self-mixing interferometry). The absolute zero angle can be defined at the biggest fringe amplitude point, so this method can also achieve absolute angle measurement. In order to verify the method, we construct an angle measurement system. The Fourier-transform method is used to analysis the interference signal. Rotation angles are experimentally measured with a resolution of 10-6 rad and a measurement range of approximately from -0.0007 to +0.0007 rad.

  10. The usefulness of early whole body bone scintigraphy in the detection of bone metastasis from prostatic cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuka, Nobuaki; Fukunaga, Masao; Furukawa, Yohji; Tanaka, Hiroyoshi (Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan))


    Early whole body bone scintigraphy was performed on 25 patients with prostatic cancer (15 cases with bone metastases and 10 cases without bone metastasis) to obtain anterior and posterior whole body images five minutes after administration of [sup 99m]Tc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate(HMDP). The results were compared with the findings of routine bone scintigraphy after three hours, and the usefulness of the above method for the diagnosis of bone metastasis from prostatic cancer was evaluated. In cases in which increased activity was found in the upper and lower lumbar vertebrae by routine bone scintigraphy but no abnormality was seen by early whole body bone scintigraphy, senile degenerative bone changes such as spondylosis deformance were observed by bone radiography. In cases with multiple bone metastases, abnormal multiple accumulations were found by both early whole body bone scintigraphy and routine bone scintigraphy. In addition, in cases showing super bone scan, high accumulation in the skeletal system had already been detected by early whole body bone scintigraphy. When the courses before and after treatment in nine cases of multiple bone metastases were passaged from the results of early whole body bone scintigraphy and from changes in tumor markers (prostatic specific antigen, [gamma]-semino protein and prostatic acid phosphatase), increased activity and the appearance of new hot spots as well as an increase in tumor markers were detected by early whole body scintigraphy in three of the four advanced cases, whereas decreased accumulations and a decrease in and normalization of tumor markers were observed in five improved cases. (author).

  11. Bone Canopies in Pediatric Renal Osteodystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Renata C; Levin Andersen, Thomas; Friedman, Peter A;


    Pediatric renal osteodystrophy (ROD) is characterized by changes in bone turnover, mineralization, and volume that are brought about by alterations in bone resorption and formation. The resorptive and formative surfaces on the cancellous bone are separated from the marrow cavity by canopies...... and their association with biochemical and bone histomorphometric parameters in 106 pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients (stage 2-5) across the spectrum of ROD. Canopies in CKD patients often appeared as thickened multilayered canopies, similar to previous reports in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism....... This finding contrasts with the thin appearance reported in healthy individuals with normal kidney function. Furthermore, canopies in pediatric CKD patients showed immunoreactivity to the PTH receptor (PTHR1) as well as to the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL). The number of surfaces...

  12. Role of bone scan in rheumatic disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yun Young [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Rheumatic diseases can be categorized by pathology into several specific types of musculoskeletal problems, including synovitis (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis), enthesopathy (e.g. ankylosing spondylitis) and cartilage degeneration (e.g. osteoarthritis). Skeletal radiographs have contributed to the diagnosis of these articular diseases, and some disease entities need typical radiographic changes as a factor of the diagnostic criteria. However, they sometimes show normal radiographic findings in the early stage of disease, when there is demineralization of less than 30-50%. Bone scans have also been used in arthritis, but not widely because the findings are nonspecific and it is thought that bone scans do not add significant information to routine radiography. Bone scans do however play a different role than simple radiography, and it is a complementary imaging method in the course of management of arthritis. The image quality of bone scans can be improved by obtaining regional views and images under al pin-hole collimator, and through a variety of scintigraphic techniques including the three phase bone scan and bone SPECT. Therefore, bone scans could improve the diagnostic value, and answer multiple clinical questions, based on the pathophysiology of various forms of arthritis.

  13. What Is Bone Cancer? (United States)

    ... start in bone, muscle, fibrous tissue, blood vessels, fat tissue, as well as some other tissues. They can develop anywhere in the body. There are several different types of bone tumors. Their names are based on ...

  14. Osteochondroma (Bone Tumor) (United States)

    ... to be the most common benign bone tumor, accounting for 35% to 40% of all benign bone ... imaging scans. Doctors may also request computed tomography (CT) scans or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans to ...

  15. What causes bone loss? (United States)

    ... bone biology. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology . 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 29. Maes C, Kronenberg HM. Bone development and remodeling. In: Jameson JL, ...

  16. Bone mineral density test (United States)

    BMD test; Bone density test; Bone densitometry; DEXA scan; DXA; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; p-DEXA; Osteoporosis-BMD ... need to undress. This scan is the best test to predict your risk of fractures. Peripheral DEXA ( ...

  17. Multipliers for the Absolute Euler Summability of Fourier Series

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prem Chandra


    In this paper, the author has investigated necessary and sufficient conditions for the absolute Euler summability of the Fourier series with multipliers. These conditions are weaker than those obtained earlier by some workers. It is further shown that the multipliers are best possible in certain sense.

  18. Confirmation of the absolute configuration of (−)-aurantioclavine

    KAUST Repository

    Behenna, Douglas C.


    We confirm our previous assignment of the absolute configuration of (-)-aurantioclavine as 7R by crystallographically characterizing an advanced 3-bromoindole intermediate reported in our previous synthesis. This analysis also provides additional support for our model of enantioinduction in the palladium(II)-catalyzed oxidative kinetic resolution of secondary alcohols. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Absolute configurations of zingiberenols isolated from ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizomes (United States)

    The sesquiterpene alcohol zingiberenol, or 1,10-bisaboladien-3-ol, was isolated some time ago from ginger, Zingiber officinale, rhizomes, but its absolute configuration had not been determined. With three chiral centers present in the molecule, zingiberenol can exist in eight stereoisomeric forms. ...

  20. Two methods for absolute calibration of dynamic pressure transducers (United States)

    Swift, G. W.; Migliori, A.; Garrett, S. L.; Wheatley, J. C.


    Two techniques are described for absolute calibration of a dynamic pressure transducer from 0 to 400 Hz in 1-MPa helium gas. One technique is based on a comparison to a mercury manometer; the other is based on the principle of reciprocity. The two techniques agree within the instrumental uncertainties of 1%.

  1. Partial sums of arithmetical functions with absolutely convergent Ramanujan expansions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    For an arithmetical function $f$ with absolutely convergent Ramanujan expansion, we derive an asymptotic formula for the $\\sum_{n\\leq N}$ f(n)$ with explicit error term. As a corollary we obtain new results about sum-of-divisors functions and Jordan’s totient functions.

  2. Absolute Value Inequalities: High School Students' Solutions and Misconceptions (United States)

    Almog, Nava; Ilany, Bat-Sheva


    Inequalities are one of the foundational subjects in high school math curricula, but there is a lack of academic research into how students learn certain types of inequalities. This article fills part of the research gap by presenting the findings of a study that examined high school students' methods of approaching absolute value inequalities,…

  3. Individual Differences in Absolute and Relative Metacomprehension Accuracy (United States)

    Maki, Ruth H.; Shields, Micheal; Wheeler, Amanda Easton; Zacchilli, Tammy Lowery


    The authors investigated absolute and relative metacomprehension accuracy as a function of verbal ability in college students. Students read hard texts, revised texts, or a mixed set of texts. They then predicted their performance, took a multiple-choice test on the texts, and made posttest judgments about their performance. With hard texts,…

  4. Absolute configuration and antiprotozoal activity of minquartynoic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, H B; Christensen, Søren Brøgger; Kvist, L P;


    Minquartynoic acid (1) was isolated as an antimalarial and antileishmanial constituent of the Peruvian tree Minquartia guianensis and its absolute configuration at C-17 established to be (+)-S through conversion to the known (+)-(S)-17-hydroxystearic acid (2) and confirmed using Mosher's method....

  5. Fabricating the absolute fake: America in contemporary pop culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, J.


    Onze wereld wordt gedomineerd door de Amerikaanse popcultuur. Fabricating the Absolute Fake onderzoekt de dynamiek van Amerikanisering aan de hand van hedendaagse films, televisieprogramma's en popsterren die reflecteren op de vraag wat het betekent om Amerikaan in een mondiale popcultuur te zijn. J

  6. Ophthalmoplegic migraine. Two patients with an absolute response to indomethacin. (United States)

    Pareja, J A; Churruca, J; de la Casa Fages, B; de Silanes, C López; Sánchez, C; Barriga, F J


    Two patients suffering from ophthalmoplegic migraine had a strictly unilateral headache absolutely responsive to indomethacin, but not to other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, analgesics or corticosteroids. Such observations raise a therapeutic alternative and suggest that ophthalmoplegic migraine may present with different headache phenotypes.

  7. Absolute luminosity measurements with the LHCb detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderson, J; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Arrabito, L; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Bailey, D S; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bates, A; Bauer, C; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Bediaga, I; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Brisbane, S; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Büchler-Germann, A; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Caicedo Carvajal, J M; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chiapolini, N; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Collins, P; Constantin, F; Conti, G; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Corti, G; Cowan, G A; Currie, R; D'Almagne, B; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; De Bonis, I; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Lorenzi, F; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Degaudenzi, H; Deissenroth, M; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Diniz Batista, P; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Eames, C; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisele, F; Eisenhardt, S; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; Elsasser, Ch; d'Enterria, D G; Esperante Pereira, D; Estève, L; Falabella, A; Fanchini, E; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garnier, J-C; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauvin, N; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Gregson, S; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harji, R; Harnew, N; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Hofmann, W; Holubyev, K; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Huston, R S; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Imong, J; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jahjah Hussein, M; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jaton, P; Jean-Marie, B; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Keaveney, J; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kim, Y M; Knecht, M; Koblitz, S; Koppenburg, P; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kruzelecki, K; Kucharczyk, M; Kukulak, S; Kumar, R; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Li, L; Li Gioi, L; Lieng, M; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Luisier, J; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Magnin, J; Malde, S; Mamunur, R M D; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinez Santos, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Maynard, B; Mazurov, A; McGregor, G; McNulty, R; Mclean, C; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Merkel, J; Messi, R; Miglioranzi, S; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Musy, M; Mylroie-Smith, J; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nardulli, J; Nasteva, I; Nedos, M; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Nies, S; Niess, V; Nikitin, N; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, B; Palacios, J; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Paterson, S K; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petrella, A; Petrolini, A; Pie Valls, B; Pietrzyk, B; Pilar, T; Pinci, D; Plackett, R; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; du Pree, T; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Rinnert, K; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodrigues, F; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogers, G J; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santinelli, R; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schleich, S; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M -H; Schwemmer, R; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shao, B; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skottowe, H P; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, A C; Smith, N A; Sobczak, K; Soler, F J P; Solomin, A; Soomro, F; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Styles, N; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Topp-Joergensen, S; Tran, M T; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urquijo, P; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Vervink, K; Viaud, B; Videau, I; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Visniakov, J; Vollhardt, A; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Voss, H; Wacker, K; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Witzeling, W; Wotton, S A; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yushchenko, O; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhong, L; Zverev, E; Zvyagin, A


    Absolute luminosity measurements are of general interest for colliding-beam experiments at storage rings. These measurements are necessary to determine the absolute cross-sections of reaction processes and are valuable to quantify the performance of the accelerator. LHCb has applied two methods to determine the absolute scale of its luminosity measurements for proton-proton collisions at the LHC with a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. In addition to the classic ``van der Meer scan'' method a novel technique has been developed which makes use of direct imaging of the individual beams using beam-gas and beam-beam interactions. This beam imaging method is made possible by the high resolution of the LHCb vertex detector and the close proximity of the detector to the beams, and allows beam parameters such as positions, angles and widths to be determined. The results of the two methods have comparable precision and are in good agreement. Combining the two methods, an overall precision of 3.5\\% in the absolute lumi...

  8. Absolute Stability of Discrete-Time Systems with Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medina Rigoberto


    Full Text Available We investigate the stability of nonlinear nonautonomous discrete-time systems with delaying arguments, whose linear part has slowly varying coefficients, and the nonlinear part has linear majorants. Based on the "freezing" technique to discrete-time systems, we derive explicit conditions for the absolute stability of the zero solution of such systems.

  9. Absolute magnitudes and phase coefficients of trans-Neptunian objects

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez-Candal, A; Ortiz, J L; Duffard, R; Morales, N; Santos-Sanz, P; Thirouin, A; Silva, J S


    Context: Accurate measurements of diameters of trans-Neptunian objects are extremely complicated to obtain. Thermal modeling can provide good results, but accurate absolute magnitudes are needed to constrain the thermal models and derive diameters and geometric albedos. The absolute magnitude, Hv, is defined as the magnitude of the object reduced to unit helio- and geocentric distances and a zero solar phase angle and is determined using phase curves. Phase coefficients can also be obtained from phase curves. These are related to surface properties, yet not many are known. Aims: Our objective is to measure accurate V band absolute magnitudes and phase coefficients for a sample of trans-Neptunian objects, many of which have been observed, and modeled, within the 'TNOs are cool' program, one of Herschel Space Observatory key projects. Methods: We observed 56 objects using the V and R filters. These data, along with those available in the literature, were used to obtain phase curves and measure V band absolute m...

  10. Lyman alpha SMM/UVSP absolute calibration and geocoronal correction (United States)

    Fontenla, Juan M.; Reichmann, Edwin J.


    Lyman alpha observations from the Ultraviolet Spectrometer Polarimeter (UVSP) instrument of the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) spacecraft were analyzed and provide instrumental calibration details. Specific values of the instrument quantum efficiency, Lyman alpha absolute intensity, and correction for geocoronal absorption are presented.

  11. On absolute stability of nonlinear systems with small delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Gil


    Full Text Available Nonlinear nonautonomous retarded systems with separated autonomous linear parts and continuous nonlinear ones are considered. It is assumed that deviations of the argument are sufficiently small. Absolute stability conditions are derived. They are formulated in terms of eigenvalues of auxiliary matrices.

  12. Gray- and White-Matter Anatomy of Absolute Pitch Possessors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Chakravarty, Mallar


    Absolute pitch (AP), the ability to identify a musical pitch without a reference, has been examined behaviorally in numerous studies for more than a century, yet only a few studies have examined the neuroanatomical correlates of AP. Here, we used MRI and diffusion tensor imaging to investigate...

  13. Toward The Absolute Age of M92 With MIST (United States)

    Choi, Jieun; Conroy, Charlie; Dotter, Aaron; Weisz, Daniel; Rosenfield, Philip; Dolphin, Andrew


    Globular clusters provide a fundamental link between stars and galaxies. For example, it has been suggested that ultra faint dwarf galaxies formed all of their stars prior to the epoch of reionization, but this conclusion hinges entirely on the striking similarity of their stellar populations to the ancient, metal-poor globular cluster M92. The accurate measurement of absolute ages of ancient globular clusters therefore has direct implications for the formation histories of the smallest galaxies in the Universe. However, a reliable determination of the absolute ages of globular clusters has proven to be a challenge due to uncertainties in stellar physics and complications in how the models are compared to observations. I will present preliminary results from a comprehensive study to measure the absolute age of M92 using high-quality HST archival imaging data. We pair our new MESA Isochrones and Stellar Tracks (MIST) models with a full CMD fitting framework to jointly fit multi-color CMDs, taking into account the uncertainties in abundances, distance, and stellar physics. The goal of this project is two-fold. First, we aim to provide the most secure absolute age of M92 to date with robustly estimated uncertainties. Second, we explore and quantify the degeneracies between uncertain physical quantities and model variables, such as the distance, mixing-length-alpha parameter, and helium abundance, with the ultimate goal of better constraining these unknowns with data from ongoing and future surveys such as K2, Gaia, TESS, JWST, and WFIRST.

  14. Computed tomography analysis of guinea pig bone: architecture, bone thickness and dimensions throughout development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Witkowska


    Full Text Available The domestic guinea pig, Cavia aperea f. porcellus, belongs to the Caviidae family of rodents. It is an important species as a pet, a source of food and in medical research. Adult weight is achieved at 8–12 months and life expectancy is ∼5–6 years. Our aim was to map bone local thickness, structure and dimensions across developmental stages in the normal animal. Guinea pigs (n = 23 that had died of natural causes were collected and the bones manually extracted and cleaned. Institutional ethical permission was given under the UK Home Office guidelines and the Veterinary Surgeons Act. X-ray Micro Computed Tomography (microCT was undertaken on the left and right scapula, humerus and femur from each animal to ascertain bone local thickness. Images were also used to undertake manual and automated bone measurements, volumes and surface areas, identify and describe nutrient, supratrochlear and supracondylar foramina. Statistical analysis between groups was carried out using ANOVA with post-hoc testing. Our data mapped a number of dimensions, and mean and maximum bone thickness of the scapula, humerus and femur in guinea pigs aged 0–1 month, 1–3 months, 3–6 months, 6 months–1 year and 1–4 years. Bone dimensions, growth rates and local bone thicknesses differed between ages and between the scapula, humerus and femur. The microCT and imaging software technology showed very distinct differences between the relative local bone thickness across the structure of the bones. Only one bone showed a singular nutrient foramen, every other bone had between 2 and 5, and every nutrient canal ran in an oblique direction. In contrast to other species, a supratrochlear foramen was observed in every humerus whereas the supracondylar foramen was always absent. Our data showed the bone local thickness, bone structure and measurements of guinea pig bones from birth to 4 years old. Importantly it showed that bone development continued after 1 year, the point

  15. Computed tomography analysis of guinea pig bone: architecture, bone thickness and dimensions throughout development. (United States)

    Witkowska, Agata; Alibhai, Aziza; Hughes, Chloe; Price, Jennifer; Klisch, Karl; Sturrock, Craig J; Rutland, Catrin S


    The domestic guinea pig, Cavia aperea f. porcellus, belongs to the Caviidae family of rodents. It is an important species as a pet, a source of food and in medical research. Adult weight is achieved at 8-12 months and life expectancy is ∼5-6 years. Our aim was to map bone local thickness, structure and dimensions across developmental stages in the normal animal. Guinea pigs (n = 23) that had died of natural causes were collected and the bones manually extracted and cleaned. Institutional ethical permission was given under the UK Home Office guidelines and the Veterinary Surgeons Act. X-ray Micro Computed Tomography (microCT) was undertaken on the left and right scapula, humerus and femur from each animal to ascertain bone local thickness. Images were also used to undertake manual and automated bone measurements, volumes and surface areas, identify and describe nutrient, supratrochlear and supracondylar foramina. Statistical analysis between groups was carried out using ANOVA with post-hoc testing. Our data mapped a number of dimensions, and mean and maximum bone thickness of the scapula, humerus and femur in guinea pigs aged 0-1 month, 1-3 months, 3-6 months, 6 months-1 year and 1-4 years. Bone dimensions, growth rates and local bone thicknesses differed between ages and between the scapula, humerus and femur. The microCT and imaging software technology showed very distinct differences between the relative local bone thickness across the structure of the bones. Only one bone showed a singular nutrient foramen, every other bone had between 2 and 5, and every nutrient canal ran in an oblique direction. In contrast to other species, a supratrochlear foramen was observed in every humerus whereas the supracondylar foramen was always absent. Our data showed the bone local thickness, bone structure and measurements of guinea pig bones from birth to 4 years old. Importantly it showed that bone development continued after 1 year, the point at which most guinea pigs have

  16. Androgens and bone. (United States)

    Vanderschueren, Dirk; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Boonen, Steven; Lindberg, Marie K; Bouillon, Roger; Ohlsson, Claes


    Loss of estrogens or androgens increases the rate of bone remodeling by removing restraining effects on osteoblastogenesis and osteoclastogenesis, and also causes a focal imbalance between resorption and formation by prolonging the lifespan of osteoclasts and shortening the lifespan of osteoblasts. Conversely, androgens, as well as estrogens, maintain cancellous bone mass and integrity, regardless of age or sex. Although androgens, via the androgen receptor (AR), and estrogens, via the estrogen receptors (ERs), can exert these effects, their relative contribution remains uncertain. Recent studies suggest that androgen action on cancellous bone depends on (local) aromatization of androgens into estrogens. However, at least in rodents, androgen action on cancellous bone can be directly mediated via AR activation, even in the absence of ERs. Androgens also increase cortical bone size via stimulation of both longitudinal and radial growth. First, androgens, like estrogens, have a biphasic effect on endochondral bone formation: at the start of puberty, sex steroids stimulate endochondral bone formation, whereas they induce epiphyseal closure at the end of puberty. Androgen action on the growth plate is, however, clearly mediated via aromatization in estrogens and interaction with ERalpha. Androgens increase radial growth, whereas estrogens decrease periosteal bone formation. This effect of androgens may be important because bone strength in males seems to be determined by relatively higher periosteal bone formation and, therefore, greater bone dimensions, relative to muscle mass at older age. Experiments in mice again suggest that both the AR and ERalpha pathways are involved in androgen action on radial bone growth. ERbeta may mediate growth-limiting effects of estrogens in the female but does not seem to be involved in the regulation of bone size in males. In conclusion, androgens may protect men against osteoporosis via maintenance of cancellous bone mass and

  17. Gracile bone dysplasias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, Kazimierz [Department of Medical Imaging, The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Locked Bag 4001, Westmead 2145, NSW (Australia); Masel, John [Department of Radiology, Royal Children' s Hospital, Brisbane (Australia); Sillence, David O. [Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, The University of Sydney (Australia); Arbuckle, Susan [Department of Anatomical Pathology, The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, NSW (Australia); Juttnerova, Vera [Oddeleni Lekarske Genetiky, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)


    Gracile bone dysplasias constitute a group of disorders characterised by extremely slender bones with or without fractures. We report four newborns, two of whom showed multiple fractures. Two babies had osteocraniostenosis and one had features of oligohydramnios sequence. The diagnosis in the fourth newborn, which showed thin long bones and clavicles and extremely thin, poorly ossified ribs, is uncertain. Exact diagnosis of a gracile bone dysplasia is important for genetic counselling and medico-legal reasons. (orig.)

  18. Automated bone age assessment of older children using the radius (United States)

    Tsao, Sinchai; Gertych, Arkadiusz; Zhang, Aifeng; Liu, Brent J.; Huang, Han K.


    The Digital Hand Atlas in Assessment of Skeletal Development is a large-scale Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) project for automating the process of grading Skeletal Development of children from 0-18 years of age. It includes a complete collection of 1,400 normal hand X-rays of children between the ages of 0-18 years of age. Bone Age Assessment is used as an index of skeletal development for detection of growth pathologies that can be related to endocrine, malnutrition and other disease types. Previous work at the Image Processing and Informatics Lab (IPILab) allowed the bone age CAD algorithm to accurately assess bone age of children from 1 to 16 (male) or 14 (female) years of age using the Phalanges as well as the Carpal Bones. At the older ages (16(male) or 14(female) -19 years of age) the Phalanges as well as the Carpal Bones are fully developed and do not provide well-defined features for accurate bone age assessment. Therefore integration of the Radius Bone as a region of interest (ROI) is greatly needed and will significantly improve the ability to accurately assess the bone age of older children. Preliminary studies show that an integrated Bone Age CAD that utilizes the Phalanges, Carpal Bones and Radius forms a robust method for automatic bone age assessment throughout the entire age range (1-19 years of age).

  19. [Numerical variants and congenital fusions of carpal bones]. (United States)

    Senecail, B; Perruez, H; Colin, D


    The number of carpal bones may be increased or decreased by the fact of anatomical variants or true congenital anomalies. Numerical increment arises from additional or from split bones. Over twenty accessory carpal bones have been described but the commonest are the os centrale carpi, the os radiale externum, the triangular bone and the styloideum bone. Additional carpal bones usually result from a failure of fusion of their ossification centers. A congenital origin is not clearly established for all these ossicles. The scaphoid and lunate may split into two or three bones and several cases of bipartite hamulus of the hamatum have been reported. A carpus with only seven bones results from the congenital absence of a normal bone, which mainly affects the scaphoid, lunate and triquetrum, or from a synostosis between two carpal bones, usually the lunate and triquetrum. Congenital fusions originate from an absence of joint cavitation into the embryo and chondrification of the joint interzone. Numerical carpal variants are uncommon as independent entities but occur with a relative high frequency in association with complex malformations of the hand. These anomalies are detectable on plain radiographs of the wrist, but CT-scan and MR-Imaging are useful to differentiate bipartite and accessory bones from carpal fractures or posttraumatic injuries, carpal fusions having to be distinguished from bony ankylosis.

  20. Morphometrical variations of the carpal bones in thoroughbreds and ponies. (United States)

    Abdunnabi, A H; Ahmed, Y A; Philip, C J; Davies, H M S


    There is scant morphological data for equine carpal bones despite the frequent pathology in Thoroughbreds (TB). This study aimed to identify morphological and morphometrical variations and similarities in carpal bones between and within TB and Ponies (Po). Carpal bones from nine TB and 13 Po were prepared by boiling and drying. Lateromedial width, dorsopalmar depth, proximodistal height, relative density and volume of each bone were measured. Normalized measurements of the radial (Cr) and third (C3) carpal bones were significantly different in all dimensions, and there were significant variations in relative sizes of articular facets of the ulnar (Cu), C3 and fourth (C4) carpal bones between the groups. Bilaterally, the proportionate volume of the intermediate carpal bone (Ci) was significantly greater in Po while that of Cu and C4 were significantly greater in TB. Relative density of most bones was greater in Po. The palmar tuberosity of the proximal surface of Ci and palmar tubercle on the palmar surface of Cu were more prominent and relatively larger in TB. In the second carpal bone (C2), the distal extent of the proximal articular surface on the palmar surface was greater in Po. The inconsistent first carpal bone (C1) was relatively larger in Po. Morphometrical similarities and differences in carpal bones between TB and Po indicate potential effects of selection for body size or fast exercise.

  1. Absolute Gravity Datum in the Age of Cold Atom Gravimeters (United States)

    Childers, V. A.; Eckl, M. C.


    The international gravity datum is defined today by the International Gravity Standardization Net of 1971 (IGSN-71). The data supporting this network was measured in the 1950s and 60s using pendulum and spring-based gravimeter ties (plus some new ballistic absolute meters) to replace the prior protocol of referencing all gravity values to the earlier Potsdam value. Since this time, gravimeter technology has advanced significantly with the development and refinement of the FG-5 (the current standard of the industry) and again with the soon-to-be-available cold atom interferometric absolute gravimeters. This latest development is anticipated to provide improvement in the range of two orders of magnitude as compared to the measurement accuracy of technology utilized to develop ISGN-71. In this presentation, we will explore how the IGSN-71 might best be "modernized" given today's requirements and available instruments and resources. The National Geodetic Survey (NGS), along with other relevant US Government agencies, is concerned about establishing gravity control to establish and maintain high order geodetic networks as part of the nation's essential infrastructure. The need to modernize the nation's geodetic infrastructure was highlighted in "Precise Geodetic Infrastructure, National Requirements for a Shared Resource" National Academy of Science, 2010. The NGS mission, as dictated by Congress, is to establish and maintain the National Spatial Reference System, which includes gravity measurements. Absolute gravimeters measure the total gravity field directly and do not involve ties to other measurements. Periodic "intercomparisons" of multiple absolute gravimeters at reference gravity sites are used to constrain the behavior of the instruments to ensure that each would yield reasonably similar measurements of the same location (i.e. yield a sufficiently consistent datum when measured in disparate locales). New atomic interferometric gravimeters promise a significant

  2. Networks of Absolute Calibration Stars for SST, AKARI, and WISE (United States)

    Cohen, M.


    I describe the Cohen-Walker-Witteborn (CWW) network of absolute calibration stars built to support ground-based, airborne, and space-based sensors, and how they are used to calibrate instruments on the SPITZER Space Telescope (SST and Japan's AKARI (formerly ASTRO-F), and to support NASA's planned MidEx WISE (the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer). All missions using this common calibration share a self-consistent framework embracing photometry and low-resolution spectroscopy. CWW also underpins COBE/DIRBE several instruments used on the Kuiper Airborne Observatory ({KAO}), the joint Japan-USA ``IR Telescope in Space" (IRTS) Near-IR and Mid-IR spectrometers, the European Space Agency's IR Space Observatory (ISO), and the US Department of Defense's Midcourse Space eXperiment (MSX). This calibration now spans the far-UV to mid-infrared range with Sirius (one specific Kurucz synthetic spectrum) as basis, and zero magnitude defined from another Kurucz spectrum intended to represent an ideal Vega (not the actual star with its pole-on orientation and mid-infrared dust excess emission). Precision 4-29 μm radiometric measurements on MSX validate CWW's absolute Kurucz spectrum of Sirius, the primary, and a set of bright K/MIII secondary standards. Sirius is measured to be 1.0% higher than predicted. CWW's definitions of IR zero magnitudes lie within 1.1% absolute of MSX measurements. The US Air Force Research Laboratory's independent analysis of on-orbit {MSX} stellar observations compared with emissive reference spheres show CWW primary and empirical secondary spectra lie well within the ±1.45% absolute uncertainty associated with this 15-year effort. Our associated absolute calibration for the InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) on the SST lies within ˜2% of the recent extension of the calibration of the Hubble Space Telescope's STIS instrument to NICMOS (Bohlin, these Proceedings), showing the closeness of these two independent approaches to calibration.

  3. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation combined with core decompression and bone grafting in the repair of osteonecrosis of femoral head

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yang; Wang Nan; Yang Li-feng; Ma Ji; Li Zhi


    BACKGROUND: Core decompression alone for osteonecrosis of femoral head easily causes fovea of femoral head and colapse of inner microstructure. Therefore, autologous bone is needed for filing and supporting. Moreover, bone marrow stem cel transplantation can decrease the incidence of femoral head colapse. OBJECTIVE:To discuss the clinical effects of core decompression and bone grafting combined with autotransplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cels for osteonecrosis of femoral head. METHODS: A total of 33 patients were treated by core decompression and bone grafting combined with autotransplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cels in the Fourth Department of Bone Surgery, Central Hospital Affiliated to Shenyang Medical Colege in China from December 2012 to May 2013. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:After the treatment by core decompression and bone grafting combined with autotransplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cels, Harris hip function score increased and pain disappeared in patients with osteonecrosis of femoral head. They could do various labors. Radiographs or CT examination displayed normal femoral head in 30 hips, accounting for 79%. Pain significantly reduced. Normal or slight limp walking was found in 15 hips, accounting for 40%. There were 35 hips in patients, whose walking distance was extended, accounting for 92%. 24 hips dysfunction was improved markedly, accounting for 63%. Al results suggested that core decompression and bone grafting combined with autotransplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cels improved the local blood supply of femoral head, and played a positive role in promoting the necrotic bone absorption and bone repairing.

  4. Simulating Bone Loss in Microgravity Using Mathematical Formulations of Bone Remodeling (United States)

    Pennline, James A.


    Most mathematical models of bone remodeling are used to simulate a specific bone disease, by disrupting the steady state or balance in the normal remodeling process, and to simulate a therapeutic strategy. In this work, the ability of a mathematical model of bone remodeling to simulate bone loss as a function of time under the conditions of microgravity is investigated. The model is formed by combining a previously developed set of biochemical, cellular dynamics, and mechanical stimulus equations in the literature with two newly proposed equations; one governing the rate of change of the area of cortical bone tissue in a cross section of a cylindrical section of bone and one governing the rate of change of calcium in the bone fluid. The mechanical stimulus comes from a simple model of stress due to a compressive force on a cylindrical section of bone which can be reduced to zero to mimic the effects of skeletal unloading in microgravity. The complete set of equations formed is a system of first order ordinary differential equations. The results of selected simulations are displayed and discussed. Limitations and deficiencies of the model are also discussed as well as suggestions for further research.

  5. Enzymatic maceration of bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhre, Marie-Louise; Eriksen, Anne Marie; Simonsen, Kim Pilkjær;


    the bones. The DNA analysis showed that DNA was preserved on all the pieces of bones which were examined. Finally, the investigation suggests that enzyme maceration could be gentler on the bones, as the edges appeared less frayed. The enzyme maceration was also a quicker method; it took three hours compared...

  6. Use of Bioresorbable Hydrogels and Genetic Engineering to Accomplish Rapid Stabilization and Healing in Segmental Long Bone Defects (United States)


    also suggests that the lymphatics play a critical role in fracture repair. With normal healing of tibial fracture, foci of ossification are...Effectiveness in segmental tibial defects in rats. Tissue Eng 12:489–497. Finkemeier CG. 2002. Bone-grafting and bone-graft substitutes. J Bone Joint...Vogelin E, Brekke JH, Jones NF. 2000. Heterotopic and orthotopic bone formation with a vascularized periosteal flap, a matrix and rh-BMP- 2 (bone

  7. Impact of breakfast on daily energy intake - an analysis of absolute versus relative breakfast calories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagenpfeil Stefan


    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The role of breakfast energy in total daily energy intake is a matter of debate. Acute feeding experiments demonstrated that high breakfast energy leads to greater overall intake supported by cross-sectional data of a free-living population. On the other hand, a large intraindividual analysis has indicated that a high proportion of breakfast to overall intake is associated with lower daily energy intake. To evaluate these apparently contradictory results in greater detail both ways of analysis were applied to the same data set of dietary records. Methods On an intraindividual basis total daily energy intake was related to the absolute values of breakfast energy intake or to the ratio of breakfast to overall intake, respectively. Food intake of 280 obese and 100 normal weight subjects was analyzed who recorded over 10 (obese or 14 (normal weight consecutive days, respectively. Results Increasing breakfast energy was associated with greater overall intake in normal weight and obese subjects. The increasing ratio of breakfast to total daily energy intake was associated with a significant reduction of overall intake on days where post-breakfast energy was significantly reduced. Correlational and multiple regression analysis support the concept that absolute breakfast calories have the strongest influence on daily energy intake. Conclusion Reduced breakfast energy intake is associated with lower total daily intake. The influence of the ratio of breakfast to overall energy intake largely depends on the post-breakfast rather than breakfast intake pattern. Therefore, overweight and obese subjects should consider the reduction of breakfast calories as a simple option to improve their daily energy balance.

  8. Oxytocin and bone (United States)

    Sun, Li; Zaidi, Mone; Zallone, Alberta


    One of the most meaningful results recently achieved in bone research has been to reveal that the pituitary hormones have profound effect on bone, so that the pituitary-bone axis has become one of the major topics in skeletal physiology. Here, we discuss the relevant evidence about the posterior pituitary hormone oxytocin (OT), previously thought to exclusively regulate parturition and breastfeeding, which has recently been established to directly regulate bone mass. Both osteoblasts and osteoclasts express OT receptors (OTR), whose stimulation enhances bone mass. Consistent with this, mice deficient in OT or OTR display profoundly impaired bone formation. In contrast, bone resorption remains unaffected in OT deficiency because, even while OT stimulates the genesis of osteoclasts, it inhibits their resorptive function. Furthermore, in addition to its origin from the pituitary, OT is also produced by bone marrow osteoblasts acting as paracrine-autocrine regulator of bone formation modulated by estrogens. In turn, the power of estrogen to increase bone mass is OTR-dependent. Therefore, OTR−/− mice injected with 17β-estradiol do not show any effects on bone formation parameters, while the same treatment increases bone mass in wild-type mice. These findings together provide evidence for an anabolic action of OT in regulating bone mass and suggest that bone marrow OT may enhance the bone-forming action of estrogen through an autocrine circuit. This established new physiological role for OT in the maintenance of skeletal integrity further suggests the potential use of this hormone for the treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:25209411

  9. Statistical normalization techniques for magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell T. Shinohara


    Full Text Available While computed tomography and other imaging techniques are measured in absolute units with physical meaning, magnetic resonance images are expressed in arbitrary units that are difficult to interpret and differ between study visits and subjects. Much work in the image processing literature on intensity normalization has focused on histogram matching and other histogram mapping techniques, with little emphasis on normalizing images to have biologically interpretable units. Furthermore, there are no formalized principles or goals for the crucial comparability of image intensities within and across subjects. To address this, we propose a set of criteria necessary for the normalization of images. We further propose simple and robust biologically motivated normalization techniques for multisequence brain imaging that have the same interpretation across acquisitions and satisfy the proposed criteria. We compare the performance of different normalization methods in thousands of images of patients with Alzheimer's disease, hundreds of patients with multiple sclerosis, and hundreds of healthy subjects obtained in several different studies at dozens of imaging centers.

  10. Three-dimensional Microarchitecture of Adolescent Cancellous Bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Hvid, I; Overgaard, Søren

    regarding three-dimensional (3-D) microarchitecture of normal adolescent cancellous bone. The objective of this study was to investigate 3-D microarchitecture of normal adolescent cancellous bone, and compared them with adult cancellous bone, thus seeking more insight into the subchondral bone adaptations...... of lateral condyle in the young adult. There were no statistical significances in the mechanical properties apart from the Young’s modulus of adolescent in anterior-posterior direction was significantly lower than the other groups. DISCUSSION: This is the first study on the 3-D microarchitecture of human...... of Orthopaedics & Traumatology and Institute of Forensic Medicine, Odense and Aarhus University Hospitals, Denmark. RESULTS: Three-dimensional reconstructions of cancellous bone from micro-CT imaging are shown in Figure 1. Our data showed that trabecular separation was significantly greater in the adolescence...

  11. Bone regeneration with cultured human bone grafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, T.; Nakajima, H. [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara City (Japan). Dept. of Pathology; Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara City (Japan). Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery; Ohgushi, H.; Ueda, Y.; Takakura, Y. [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara City (Japan). Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery; Uemura, T.; Tateishi, T. [National Inst. for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research (NAIR), Ibaraki (Japan). Tsukuba Research Center; Enomoto, Y.; Ichijima, K. [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara City (Japan). Dept. of Pathology


    From 73 year old female patient, 3 ml of bone marrow was collected from the ilium. The marrow was cultured to concentrate and expand the marrow mesenchymal cells on a culture dish. The cultured cells were then subculturedeither on another culture dish or in porous areas of hydroxyapatite ceramics in the presence of dexamethasone and beta-glycerophosphate (osteo genic medium). The subculturedtissues on the dishes were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and subculturedtissues in the ceramics were implanted intraperitoneally into athymic nude mice. Vigorous growth of spindle-shaped cells and a marked formation of bone matrix beneath the cell layers was observed on the subculture dishes by SEM. The intraperitoneally implanted ceramics with cultured tissues revealed thick layer of lamellar bone together with active osteoblasts lining in many pore areas of the ceramics after 8 weeks. The in vitro bone formations on the culture dishes and in vivo bone formation in porous ceramics were detected. These results indicate that we can assemble an in vitro bone/ceramic construct, and due to the porous framework of the ceramic, the construct has osteogenic potential similar to that of autologous cancellous bone. A significant benefit of this method is that the construct can be made with only a small amount of aspirated marrow cells from aged patients with little host morbidity. (orig.)

  12. Normalization in econometrics


    Hamilton, James D.; Daniel F. Waggoner; Zha, Tao


    The issue of normalization arises whenever two different values for a vector of unknown parameters imply the identical economic model. A normalization does not just imply a rule for selecting which point, among equivalent ones, to call the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE). It also governs the topography of the set of points that go into a small-sample confidence interval associated with that MLE. A poor normalization can lead to multimodal distributions, disjoint confidence intervals, and v...

  13. Measurements of normal inner ear on computed tomography in children with congenital sensorineural hearing loss. (United States)

    Lan, Ming-Ying; Shiao, Jiun-Yih; Ho, Ching-Yin; Hung, Hao-Chun


    The objective of this study is to use standardized measurements of the inner ear to see whether there are subtle bony malformations in children with congenital sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) whose temporal bone computed tomography (CT) are grossly normal. The study includes 45 ears with congenital SNHL and grossly normal temporal bone CT scans and 45 ears with normal inner ear structures and normal hearing. Standardized measurements of the inner ear structures were made on axial temporal bone CT scans. Student's t test was performed to compare the measurements of the two groups. There were significant differences in the measurements of the bony island width of the superior semicircular canal, bony island width of the lateral semicircular canal and maximal height of cochlea between two groups (P inner ear on temporal bone CT can identify subtle abnormalities of inner ear in patients with congenital SNHL having grossly normal radiological images.

  14. Normalizers of Irreducible Subfactors

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Roger R; Wiggins, Alan D


    We consider normalizers of an irreducible inclusion $N\\subseteq M$ of $\\mathrm{II}_1$ factors. In the infinite index setting an inclusion $uNu^*\\subseteq N$ can be strict, forcing us to also investigate the semigroup of one-sided normalizers. We relate these normalizers of $N$ in $M$ to projections in the basic construction and show that every trace one projection in the relative commutant $N'\\cap $ is of the form $u^*e_Nu$ for some unitary $u\\in M$ with $uNu^*\\subseteq N$. This enables us to identify the normalizers and the algebras they generate in several situations. In particular each normalizer of a tensor product of irreducible subfactors is a tensor product of normalizers modulo a unitary. We also examine normalizers of irreducible subfactors arising from subgroup--group inclusions $H\\subseteq G$. Here the normalizers are the normalizing group elements modulo a unitary from $L(H)$. We are also able to identify the finite trace $L(H)$-bimodules in $\\ell^2(G)$ as double cosets which are also finite union...

  15. Normal cognitive aging. (United States)

    Harada, Caroline N; Natelson Love, Marissa C; Triebel, Kristen L


    Even those who do not experience dementia or mild cognitive impairment may experience subtle cognitive changes associated with aging. Normal cognitive changes can affect an older adult's everyday function and quality of life, and a better understanding of this process may help clinicians distinguish normal from disease states. This article describes the neurocognitive changes observed in normal aging, followed by a description of the structural and functional alterations seen in aging brains. Practical implications of normal cognitive aging are then discussed, followed by a discussion of what is known about factors that may mitigate age-associated cognitive decline.

  16. Bone mineral density and markers of bone turnover in patients with renal transplantation and regular hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir M. Ibrahim,. Khalid H Abdel-Mageed, Magdi M El-Sharkawy


    Full Text Available Background: Decreased bone mineral density (BMD is a known complication for the uremic state antedating dialysis / renal transplantation (RTx. The issue of stabilized versus continued decrease of BMD especially on long-term basis, continues to be unresolved. Patients and Methods: !"#"hemodialysis (HD-#" $% " &'( &'(-group had been evaluated for metabolic bone changes by calcium homeostasis parameters (serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase "ALP" and vitamin D "calcitriol", markers of bone formation (bone alkaline phosphatase "BAP", osteocalcin "OC", N-terminal propeptide of collagen type I "PINP", bone resorption markers (pyridoline "PYL" and deoxypyridoline "DPYL", and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH. Also, BMD had been assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA twice, at inclusion time and * ! "" Results: comparing both groups regarding calcium homeostasis, markers of bone turnover and iPTH showed non significant difference. However, there was a significant drop of BMD (as evidenced by T-score at follow up in the HD group, compared to stabilization of T-score for the RTx-group. Furthermore, annual T-score change was significantly more in HD-group, compared to RTx-group. Results also showed that, the best marker correlating with T-score annual changes and iPTH to be PINP. Irrespective of normal calcium homeostasis parameters, low BMD is a prevalent disorder among patients on regular HD and renal transplants.Conclusion: Follow up for * ! " %+ ,- ." % """"!to continued bone loss in patients on regular HD. This could raise recommendation for calcium and calcitriol supplementation, especially in the predialysis period, early post transplantation period, and continued guided replacement for those on maintenance HD. Serum PINP showed best correlations with BMD changes and iPTH and could be considered a reliable marker reflecting bone formation in those patients. Keywords: hemodialysis, renal transplantation, markers of bone

  17. Changes in biochemical markers and bone mass after withdrawal of ibandronate treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Christensen, J O; Baumann, M


    :527-533;1996). In this study, we analyzed the biochemical markers as predictors of response in bone mass during ibandronate treatment, and report withdrawal data from the last year of the study, when ibandronate was discontinued. The relative change in the biochemical markers was significantly correlated to the response...... the response in bone mass during ibandronate treatment. The bone loss that resumes after withdrawal of ibandronate treatment is of a magnitude similar to that of normal postmenopausal bone loss....

  18. A novel approach for absolute radar calibration: formulation and theoretical validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Merker


    Full Text Available The theoretical framework of a novel approach for absolute radar calibration is presented and its potential analysed by means of synthetic data to lay out a solid basis for future practical application. The method presents the advantage of an absolute calibration with respect to the directly measured reflectivity, without needing a previously calibrated reference device. It requires a setup comprising three radars: two devices oriented towards each other, measuring reflectivity along the same horizontal beam and operating within a strongly attenuated frequency range (e.g. K or X band, and one vertical reflectivity and drop size distribution (DSD profiler below this connecting line, which is to be calibrated. The absolute determination of the calibration factor is based on attenuation estimates. Using synthetic, smooth and geometrically idealised data, calibration is found to perform best using homogeneous precipitation events with rain rates high enough to ensure a distinct attenuation signal (reflectivity above ca. 30 dBZ. Furthermore, the choice of the interval width (in measuring range gates around the vertically pointing radar, needed for attenuation estimation, is found to have an impact on the calibration results. Further analysis is done by means of synthetic data with realistic, inhomogeneous precipitation fields taken from measurements. A calibration factor is calculated for each considered case using the presented method. Based on the distribution of the calculated calibration factors, the most probable value is determined by estimating the mode of a fitted shifted logarithmic normal distribution function. After filtering the data set with respect to rain rate and inhomogeneity and choosing an appropriate length of the considered attenuation path, the estimated uncertainty of the calibration factor is of the order of 1 to 11 %, depending on the chosen interval width. Considering stability and accuracy of the method, an interval of

  19. Acquired absolute vitamin K deficiency in a patient undergoing warfarin therapy. (United States)

    Takada, Hiroaki; Toru, Hifumi; Bunya, Naofumi; Kiriu, Nobuaki; Kato, Hiroshi; Koido, Yuichi; Yasuhiro, Kuroda


    We report a case of absolute vitamin K deficiency (VKD) diagnosed by measuring serum VK levels in an elderly woman undergoing warfarin therapy. A 78-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of dyspnea and sore throat diagnosed as pharyngitis 1 week before admission. On admission, the sore throat had exacerbated and dyspnea developed. She had history of atrial fibrillation, for which warfarin 1.5 mg/d was started approximately 10 years prior and her international normalized ratio (INR) had been maintained at an acceptable therapeutic level. Blood results revealed unmeasurable INR and abnormally prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT). She was diagnosed with adenoiditis and warfarin-related coagulopathy and administered intravenous VK (20 mg) and fresh frozen plasma (FFP; 4 U), which improved INR and APTT. Since the coagulopathy responded to intravenous VK administration, the patient was clinically diagnosed with warfarin-related relative VKD. Approximately 1 month later, she returned with complaints of sore throat. Blood results indicated abnormal INR (7.22) and APTT (N80.0 s). She was diagnosed with recurrent adenoiditis and VK deficient coagulopathy. The patient’s serum VK levels were low (VK1 level, 0.13 ng/mL; VK2 levels, 0.85 ng/mL). Initial treatment of VK (20 mg) and FFP followed by intravenous VK (20 mg/d) for 6 days, her symptoms dissipated. Warfarin was suspected to have caused absolute VKD. Severe coagulopathy in patients undergoing warfarin therapy is primarily caused by, relative VKD. However, the possibility of warfarin-related absolute VKD should be suspected when INRis not sufficiently improved by intravenous VK administration.

  20. Mesenchymal stem cells from cortical bone demonstrate increased clonal incidence, potency, and developmental capacity compared to their bone marrow–derived counterparts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Blashki


    Full Text Available In this study, we show that matrix dense cortical bone is the more potent compartment of bone than bone marrow as a stromal source for mesenchymal stem cells as isolated from adult rats. Lineage-depleted cortical bone-mesenchymal stem cells demonstrated >150-fold enrichment of colony forming unit–fibroblasts per cell incidence. compared to lineage-depleted bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells, corresponding to a 70-fold increase in absolute recovered colony forming unit–fibroblasts. The composite phenotype Lin−/CD45−/CD31−/VLA-1+/Thy-1+ enriched for clonogenic mesenchymal stem cells solely from cortical bone–derived cells from which 70% of clones spontaneously differentiated into all lineages of bone, cartilage, and adipose. Both populations generated vascularized bone tissue within subcutaneous implanted collagen scaffolds; however, cortical bone–derived cells formed significantly more osteoid than bone marrow counterparts, quantified by histology. The data demonstrate that our isolation protocol identifies and validates mesenchymal stem cells with superior clonal, proliferative, and developmental potential from cortical bone compared to the bone marrow niche although marrow persists as the typical source for mesenchymal stem cells both in the literature and current pre-clinical therapies.

  1. Mesenchymal stem cells from cortical bone demonstrate increased clonal incidence, potency, and developmental capacity compared to their bone marrow–derived counterparts (United States)

    Blashki, Daniel; Murphy, Matthew B; Ferrari, Mauro; Simmons, Paul J; Tasciotti, Ennio


    In this study, we show that matrix dense cortical bone is the more potent compartment of bone than bone marrow as a stromal source for mesenchymal stem cells as isolated from adult rats. Lineage-depleted cortical bone-mesenchymal stem cells demonstrated >150-fold enrichment of colony forming unit–fibroblasts per cell incidence. compared to lineage-depleted bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells, corresponding to a 70-fold increase in absolute recovered colony forming unit–fibroblasts. The composite phenotype Lin−/CD45−/CD31−/VLA-1+/Thy-1+ enriched for clonogenic mesenchymal stem cells solely from cortical bone–derived cells from which 70% of clones spontaneously differentiated into all lineages of bone, cartilage, and adipose. Both populations generated vascularized bone tissue within subcutaneous implanted collagen scaffolds; however, cortical bone–derived cells formed significantly more osteoid than bone marrow counterparts, quantified by histology. The data demonstrate that our isolation protocol identifies and validates mesenchymal stem cells with superior clonal, proliferative, and developmental potential from cortical bone compared to the bone marrow niche although marrow persists as the typical source for mesenchymal stem cells both in the literature and current pre-clinical therapies. PMID:27579159

  2. Bone scintiscanning updated. (United States)

    Lentle, B C; Russell, A S; Percy, J S; Scott, J R; Jackson, F I


    Use of modern materials and methods has given bone scintiscanning a larger role in clinical medicine, The safety and ready availability of newer agents have led to its greater use in investigating both benign and malignant disease of bone and joint. Present evidence suggests that abnormal accumulation of 99mTc-polyphosphate and its analogues results from ionic deposition at crystal surfaces in immature bone, this process being facilitated by an increase in bone vascularity. There is, also, a component of matrix localization. These factors are in keeping with the concept that abnormal scintiscan sites represent areas of increased osteoblastic activity, although this may be an oversimplification. Increasing evidence shows that the bone scintiscan is more sensitive than conventional radiography in detecting focal disease of bone, and its ability to reflect the immediate status of bone further complements radiographic findings. The main limitation of this method relates to nonspecificity of the results obtained.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijianto Wijianto


    Full Text Available This paper discuss about ceramics in application as bone implant. Bioceramics for instance Hydroxyapatite, usually is abbreviated with HA or HAp, is a mineral that is very good physical properties as bone replacement in human body. To produce Hydroxyapatite, coating process is used which have good potential as they can exploit the biocompatible and bone bonding properties of the ceramic. There are many advantages and disadvantages of bioceramics as bone implant. Advantages of hydroxyapatite as bone implant are rapidly integrated into the human body, and is most interesting property that will bond to bone forming indistinguishable unions. On contrary, disadvantages of hydroxyapatite as bone implant are poor mechanical properties (in particular fatigue properties mean that hydroxyapatite cannot be used in bulk form for load bearing applications such as orthopaedics and poor adhesion between the calcium phosphate coating and the material implant will occur.

  4. Bone mineral status in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. (United States)

    Fleischman, Amy; Ringelheim, Julie; Feldman, Henry A; Gordon, Catherine M


    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is caused by a deficiency in an adrenal enzyme resulting in alterations in cortisol and aldosterone production. Bone status is affected by chronic glucocorticoid therapy and excess androgen exposure in children with CAH. This cross-sectional study enrolled participants with 21-hydroxylase deficiency from a pediatric referral center. Bone mineral density in the participants was normal when compared to age, gender and ethnicity adjusted standards, with respect to chronological age or bone age. Lean body mass was positively correlated with bone mineral content (BMC), independent of fat mass (p bone status may be explained by the differential effects of glucocorticoids on growing bone, beneficial androgen effects, or other disease specific factors.

  5. Magnetic resonance in hematological diseases. Imaging of bone marrow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K.E.


    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a highly sensitive alternative to plain radiography, CT, and radionuclide studies for the imaging of normal and abnormal bone marrow. The cellularity and the corresponding fat/water ratio within the bone marrow show clear changes in haematological diseases....... This enables MRI to detect differences between fatty, fibrotic, aplastic and hypercellular marrow in patients with haematological disease. MRI can evaluate the distribution of bone marrow disease because it has the potential for visualization of almost the entire bone marrow compartment. However, MRI is unable...... to establish the primary diagnosis in haematological bone marrow disease with diffuse hypercellular marrow. In case of insufficient biopsy, MRI can provide important differential diagnostic information as well as guidance for further biopsy attempts. MRI is a useful complement to morphological bone marrow...

  6. Microarchitectural adaptations in aging and osteoarthrotic subchondral bone tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming


    The human skeleton optimizes its microarchitecture by elaborate adaptations to mechanical loading during development and growth. The mechanisms for adaptation involve a multistep process of cellular mechanotransduction stimulating bone modelling, and remodeling resulting in either bone formation...... into the age-related and OA-related subchondral bone adaptations.   Microarchitectural adaptation in human aging cancellous bone The precision of micro-CT measurement is excellent. Accurate 3-D micro-CT image datasets can be generated by applying an appropriate segmentation threshold. A fixed threshold may...... and the constant nature of connectivity suggest an important bone remodeling mechanism that normal aging tibia may adapt trabecular volume orientation. Namely, that the aging trabeculae align preferentially to the primary loading direction to compensate bone loss (III). Age-related changes in trabecular thickness...

  7. Diabetes, Biochemical Markers of Bone Turnover, Diabetes Control, and Bone


    Starup-Linde, Jakob


    Diabetes mellitus is known to have late complications including micro vascular and macro vascular disease. This review focuses on another possible area of complication regarding diabetes; bone. Diabetes may affect bone via bone structure, bone density, and biochemical markers of bone turnover. The aim of the present review is to examine in vivo from humans on biochemical markers of bone turnover in diabetics compared to non-diabetics. Furthermore, the effect of glycemic control on bone marker...

  8. Correction due to finite speed of light in absolute gravimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Nagornyi, V D; Zanimonskiy, Y Y


    Correction due to finite speed of light is among the most inconsistent ones in absolute gravimetry. Formulas reported by different authors yield corrections scattered up to 8 $\\mu$Gal with no obvious reasons. The problem, though noted before, has never been studied, and nowadays the correction is rather postulated than rigorously proven. In this paper we investigate the problem from several prospectives, find the corrections for different types of absolute gravimeters, and establish relationships between different ways of implement them. The obtained results enabled us to analyze and understand the discrepancies in the results of other authors. We found that the correction derived from the Doppler effect is accountable only for $\\tfrac{2}{3}$ of the total correction due to finite speed of light, if no signal delays are considered. Another major source of inconsistency was found in the tacit use of simplified trajectory models.

  9. Combinatorial Selection and Least Absolute Shrinkage via the CLASH Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Kyrillidis, Anastasios


    The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) for linear regression exploits the geometric interplay of the $\\ell_2$-data error objective and the $\\ell_1$-norm constraint to arbitrarily select sparse models. Guiding this uninformed selection process with sparsity models has been precisely the center of attention over the last decade in order to improve learning performance. To this end, we alter the selection process of LASSO to explicitly leverage combinatorial sparsity models (CSMs) via the combinatorial selection and least absolute shrinkage (CLASH) operator. We provide concrete guidelines how to leverage combinatorial constraints within CLASH, and characterize CLASH's guarantees as a function of the set restricted isometry constants of the sensing matrix. Finally, our experimental results show that CLASH can outperform both LASSO and model-based compressive sensing in sparse estimation.

  10. Determination of absolute internal conversion coefficients using the SAGE spectrometer (United States)

    Sorri, J.; Greenlees, P. T.; Papadakis, P.; Konki, J.; Cox, D. M.; Auranen, K.; Partanen, J.; Sandzelius, M.; Pakarinen, J.; Rahkila, P.; Uusitalo, J.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Smallcombe, J.; Davies, P. J.; Barton, C. J.; Jenkins, D. G.


    A non-reference based method to determine internal conversion coefficients using the SAGE spectrometer is carried out for transitions in the nuclei of 154Sm, 152Sm and 166Yb. The Normalised-Peak-to-Gamma method is in general an efficient tool to extract internal conversion coefficients. However, in many cases the required well-known reference transitions are not available. The data analysis steps required to determine absolute internal conversion coefficients with the SAGE spectrometer are presented. In addition, several background suppression methods are introduced and an example of how ancillary detectors can be used to select specific reaction products is given. The results obtained for ground-state band E2 transitions show that the absolute internal conversion coefficients can be extracted using the methods described with a reasonable accuracy. In some cases of less intense transitions only an upper limit for the internal conversion coefficient could be given.

  11. Automated absolute phase retrieval in across-track interferometry (United States)

    Madsen, Soren N.; Zebker, Howard A.


    Discussed is a key element in the processing of topographic radar maps acquired by the NASA/JPL airborne synthetic aperture radar configured as an across-track interferometer (TOPSAR). TOPSAR utilizes a single transmit and two receive antennas; the three-dimensional target location is determined by triangulation based on a known baseline and two measured slant ranges. The slant range difference is determined very accurately from the phase difference between the signals received by the two antennas. This phase is measured modulo 2pi, whereas it is the absolute phase which relates directly to the difference in slant range. It is shown that splitting the range bandwidth into two subbands in the processor and processing each individually allows for the absolute phase. The underlying principles and system errors which must be considered are discussed, together with the implementation and results from processing data acquired during the summer of 1991.

  12. Absolute configuration of labdane diterpenoids from Physalis nicandroides. (United States)

    Maldonado, Emma; Pérez-Castorena, Ana L; Romero, Yunuen; Martínez, Mahinda


    A mixture of the new epimeric labdenetriols 1 and 2 was isolated from the aerial parts of Physalis nicandroides. The structures of 1 and 2, including their absolute configurations, were established by analyses of their spectroscopic data, together with the X-ray diffraction analysis of acetonide 3 and chemical correlation with (-)-(13E)-labd-13-ene-8α,15-diol (6), whose absolute configuration was also confirmed by X-ray analysis of its dibromo derivative 7. The epimeric labdenediols 8 and 9, the known labdanes 6 and 11, and the acylsucroses 12 and 13 were also isolated. Labdanes 6 and 11 showed moderate anti-inflammatory activities in the induced ear edema model.

  13. Determination of absolute internal conversion coefficients using the SAGE spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorri, J., E-mail: [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); Greenlees, P.T.; Papadakis, P.; Konki, J. [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); Cox, D.M. [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Auranen, K.; Partanen, J.; Sandzelius, M.; Pakarinen, J.; Rahkila, P.; Uusitalo, J. [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); Herzberg, R.-D. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Smallcombe, J.; Davies, P.J.; Barton, C.J.; Jenkins, D.G. [Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)


    A non-reference based method to determine internal conversion coefficients using the SAGE spectrometer is carried out for transitions in the nuclei of {sup 154}Sm, {sup 152}Sm and {sup 166}Yb. The Normalised-Peak-to-Gamma method is in general an efficient tool to extract internal conversion coefficients. However, in many cases the required well-known reference transitions are not available. The data analysis steps required to determine absolute internal conversion coefficients with the SAGE spectrometer are presented. In addition, several background suppression methods are introduced and an example of how ancillary detectors can be used to select specific reaction products is given. The results obtained for ground-state band E2 transitions show that the absolute internal conversion coefficients can be extracted using the methods described with a reasonable accuracy. In some cases of less intense transitions only an upper limit for the internal conversion coefficient could be given.

  14. Remote ultrasound palpation for robotic interventions using absolute elastography. (United States)

    Schneider, Caitlin; Baghani, Ali; Rohling, Robert; Salcudean, Septimiu


    Although robotic surgery has addressed many of the challenges presented by minimally invasive surgery, haptic feedback and the lack of knowledge of tissue stiffness is an unsolved problem. This paper presents a system for finding the absolute elastic properties of tissue using a freehand ultrasound scanning technique, which utilizes the da Vinci Surgical robot and a custom 2D ultrasound transducer for intraoperative use. An external exciter creates shear waves in the tissue, and a local frequency estimation method computes the shear modulus. Results are reported for both phantom and in vivo models. This system can be extended to any 6 degree-of-freedom tracking method and any 2D transducer to provide real-time absolute elastic properties of tissue.

  15. Demonstrating an absolute quantum advantage in direct absorption measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Moreau, Paul-Antoine; Whittaker, Rebecca; Joshi, Siddarth K; Birchall, Patrick; McMillan, Alex; Rarity, John G; Matthews, Jonathan C F


    Engineering apparatus that harness quantum theory offers practical advantages over current technology. A fundamentally more powerful prospect is the long-standing prediction that such quantum technologies could out-perform any future iteration of their classical counterparts, no matter how well the attributes of those classical strategies can be improved. Here, we experimentally demonstrate such an instance of \\textit{absolute} advantage per photon probe in the precision of optical direct absorption measurement. We use correlated intensity measurements of spontaneous parametric downconversion using a commercially available air-cooled CCD, a new estimator for data analysis and a high heralding efficiency photon-pair source. We show this enables improvement in the precision of measurement, per photon probe, beyond what is achievable with an ideal coherent state (a perfect laser) detected with $100\\%$ efficient and noiseless detection. We see this absolute improvement for up to $50\\%$ absorption, with a maximum ...

  16. Absolute limit on rotation of gravitationally bound stars (United States)

    Glendenning, N. K.


    The authors seek an absolute limit on the rotational period for a neutron star as a function of its mass, based on the minimal constraints imposed by Einstein's theory of relativity, Le Chatelier's principle, causality, and a low-density equation of state, uncertainties which can be evaluated as to their effect on the result. This establishes a limiting curve in the mass-period plane below which no pulsar that is a neutron star can lie. For example, the minimum possible Kepler period, which is an absolute limit on rotation below which mass-shedding would occur, is 0.33 ms for a M = 1.442 solar mass neutron star (the mass of PSR1913+16). If the limit were found to be broken by any pulsar, it would signal that the confined hadronic phase of ordinary nucleons and nuclei is only metastable.

  17. Simultaneously improving the sensitivity and absolute accuracy of CPT magnetometer. (United States)

    Liang, Shang-Qing; Yang, Guo-Qing; Xu, Yun-Fei; Lin, Qiang; Liu, Zhi-Heng; Chen, Zheng-Xiang


    A new method to improve the sensitivity and absolute accuracy simultaneously for coherent population trapping (CPT) magnetometer based on the differential detection method is presented. Two modulated optical beams with orthogonal circular polarizations are applied, in one of which two magnetic resonances are excited simultaneously by modulating a 3.4GHz microwave with Larmor frequency. When a microwave frequency shift is introduced, the difference in the power transmitted through the cell in each beam shows a low noise resonance. The sensitivity of 2pT/Hz @ 10Hz is achieved. Meanwhile, the absolute accuracy of ± 0.5nT within the magnetic field ranging from 20000nT to 100000nT is realized.

  18. Absolute Stability for Lurie Control System with Unbound Time Delays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王天成; 王耀才; 洪留荣


    Time delay existes widely in various real engineering systems and can result in unsatisfactory performance or even an instability of control systems. Therefore, to investigate the stability for time delay systems is of vitul importance in control theory and its applications. Many researchers have studied the stability criteria of systems with constant delay or bound varying time delay, but few of them studied large time delay or unbound time delay. Large time delay existes commonly in various engineering applications. In this paper, the absolute stability of Lurie type direct control systems and indirect control systems with several time delays are discussed. Based on Lyapunov theory, the new delay dependent absolute stability criteria are derived. In our theorem, time delays can be unbound functions, which shows that the results are less conservative than that of existed criteria.

  19. Determination of the Absolute Luminosity at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    White, Simon Mathieu; Puzo, P


    For particle colliders, the most important performance parameters are the beam energy and the luminosity. High energies allow the particle physics experiments to study and observe new effects. The luminosity describes the ability of the collider to produce the required number of useful interactions or events. It is defined as the proportionality factor between the event rate, measured by the experiments, and the cross section of the observed event which describes its probability to occur. The absolute knowledge of the luminosity therefore allows for the experiments to measure the absolute cross sections. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) was designed to produce proton proton collisions at a center of mass energy of 14 TeV. This energy would be the highest ever reached in a particle accelerator. The knowledge and understanding of particle physics at such high energy is based on simulations and theoretical predictions. As opposed to e+ e- colliders, for which the Bhabba scattering cross section can be accurately ...

  20. Enantiomers of a nonylphenol isomer: absolute configurations and estrogenic potencies. (United States)

    Zhang, Haifeng; Oppel, Iris M; Spiteller, Michael; Guenther, Klaus; Boehmler, Gabriele; Zuehlke, Sebastian


    Enantiomers of 4-(1,1,2-trimethylhexyl)phenol, a chiral isomer of the endocrine disrupting chemical nonylphenol, have been resolved and isolated by preparative chiral HPLC. The absolute configurations of the enantiomers were then determined by an X-ray crystallographic study of the (-)-camphanoyl derivative of the first eluted enantiomer NP(35)E1. The first enantiomer (NP(35)E1) and the second enantiomer (NP(35)E2) eluted were found to have the S and R absolute configurations, respectively. The estrogenic potencies of the S and R enantiomers were tested by the E-screen assay. A slight difference was observed in the relative proliferative effect between the S enantiomer and R enantiomer in the E-screen assay.

  1. Rational functions with maximal radius of absolute monotonicity

    KAUST Repository

    Loczi, Lajos


    We study the radius of absolute monotonicity R of rational functions with numerator and denominator of degree s that approximate the exponential function to order p. Such functions arise in the application of implicit s-stage, order p Runge-Kutta methods for initial value problems and the radius of absolute monotonicity governs the numerical preservation of properties like positivity and maximum-norm contractivity. We construct a function with p=2 and R>2s, disproving a conjecture of van de Griend and Kraaijevanger. We determine the maximum attainable radius for functions in several one-parameter families of rational functions. Moreover, we prove earlier conjectured optimal radii in some families with 2 or 3 parameters via uniqueness arguments for systems of polynomial inequalities. Our results also prove the optimality of some strong stability preserving implicit and singly diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta methods. Whereas previous results in this area were primarily numerical, we give all constants as exact algebraic numbers.

  2. High bone turnover in Irish professional jockeys.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Waldron-Lynch, F


    SUMMARY: Professional jockeys are routinely exposed to high impact trauma and sustain fractures frequently. We found that jockeys restrict their caloric intake in order to maintain regulation weights, and that bone turnover is high. There are significant health and safety implications for the racing industry. INTRODUCTION: Professional jockeys routinely sustain fractures from high impact falls. Jockeys maintain a low percentage body fat and a low body mass index (BMI) to achieve low weight targets in order to race. We evaluated dietary habits and bone metabolism in jockeys. METHODS: Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in 27 male jockeys of the 144 jockeys licensed in Ireland. Fourteen (52%) had BMD T score below -1.0, of whom 12 consented to clinical review, nutritional survey, endocrine studies, and bone turnover markers (BTM). BTM were compared to age- and sex-matched controls (n = 16). RESULTS: BMI was 20.6 +\\/- 1.7 kg\\/m(2); previous fracture frequency was 3.2 +\\/- 2.0 per rider. All had normal endocrine axes. The jockeys\\' diet as determined by a 7-day dietary recall was deficient in energy, calcium, and vitamin D intake. Compared with the control group, the jockey group had evidence of increased bone turnover. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial proportion of the professional jockeys in Ireland have low-normal BMD, low BMI, and high bone turnover that may result from weight and dietary restrictions. These factors seem to have a deleterious effect on their bone health and predispose the jockeys to a high fracture risk that should be remediated.

  3. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) and “nutrient tasks and interactions” (ID 574), increase in calcium absorption leading to an increase in calcium retention, (ID 606), and maintenance of normal bone (ID 607) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claims is n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs). The Panel considers that n-3 PUFAs are sufficiently characterised....... claims in relation to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) and “nutrient tasks and interactions”, increase in calcium absorption leading to an increase in calcium retention, and maintenance of normal bone. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States......Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health...

  4. Electroweak Absolute, Meta-, and Thermal Stability in Neutrino Mass Models

    CERN Document Server

    Lindner, Manfred; Radovčić, Branimir


    We analyze the stability of the electroweak vacuum in neutrino mass models containing right handed neutrinos or fermionic isotriplets. In addition to considering absolute stability, we place limits on the Yukawa couplings of new fermions based on metastability and thermal stability in the early Universe. Our results reveal that the upper limits on the neutrino Yukawa couplings can change significantly when the top quark mass is allowed to vary within the experimental range of uncertainty in its determination.

  5. Relative or Absolute Poverty Lines - A New Approach


    Madden, David


    When measuring poverty over time analysts must choose the value of the income elasticity of the poverty line, which essentially determines whether an absolute or relative poverty line is being used. The choice of this parameter is ultimately a value judgement but this paper suggests an approach which has some empirical basis. Borrowing from the life-style and deprivation approach to poverty various dimensions of poverty and deprivation are identified and the income elasticity of these items i...

  6. Crystal structure of meteoritic schreibersites: determination of absolute structure (United States)

    Skála, Roman; Císařová, Ivana

    Minerals of the schreibersite nickelphosphide series (Fe,Ni)3P crystallize in the non-centrosymmetric space group Ibar 4. As a consequence, they can possess two different spatial arrangements of the constituting atoms within the unit cell, related by the inversion symmetry operation. Here, we present the crystal structure refinements from single crystal X-ray diffraction data for schreibersite grains from iron meteorites Acuña, Carlton, Hex River Mts. (three different crystals), Odessa (two different crystals), Sikhote Alin, and Toluca aiming for the determination of the absolute structure of the examined crystals. The crystals studied cover the composition range from 58 mol% to 80 mol% Fe3P end-member. Unit-cell parameter a and volume of the unit cell V, as well as certain topological structural parameters tightly correlate with Fe3P content. Unit-cell parameter c, on the other hand, does not show such strong correlation. Eight of the nine crystal structure refinements allowed unambiguous absolute structure assignment. The single crystal extracted from Toluca is, however, of poor quality and consequently the structure refinement did not provide as good results as the rest of the materials. Also, this crystal has only weak inversion distinguishing power to provide unequivocal absolute structure determination. Six of the eight unambiguous absolute structure determinations indicated inverted atomic arrangement compared to that reported in earlier structure refinements (here called standard). Only two grains, one taken from Odessa iron and the other from the Hex River Mts. meteorite, reveal the dominance of standard crystal structure setting.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WuCongxin; LiuTiefu


    As well known that in 1938,I. M. Gelfand firstly introduced abstract functions of bounded variation from [a,b] to a Banach space. After Gelfand's work,many mathematicians investigated various properties and of this kind of abstract functions, and also paid attention to the abstract functions of absolute continuity In this paper, we summarize to explain our work [1-17] about this topic.

  8. Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm with absolute monocytosis at presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaworski JM


    Full Text Available Joseph M Jaworski,1,2 Vanlila K Swami,1 Rebecca C Heintzelman,1 Carrie A Cusack,3 Christina L Chung,3 Jeremy Peck,3 Matthew Fanelli,3 Micheal Styler,4 Sanaa Rizk,4 J Steve Hou1 1Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Hahnemann University Hospital/Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Department of Pathology, Mercy Fitzgerald Hospital, Darby, PA, USA; 3Department of Dermatology, Hahnemann University Hospital/Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 4Department of Hematology/Oncology, Hahnemann University Hospital/Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm is an uncommon malignancy derived from precursors of plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Nearly all patients present initially with cutaneous manifestations, with many having extracutaneous disease additionally. While response to chemotherapy initially is effective, relapse occurs in most, with a leukemic phase ultimately developing. The prognosis is dismal. While most of the clinical and pathologic features are well described, the association and possible prognostic significance between peripheral blood absolute monocytosis (>1.0 K/µL and blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm have not been reported. We report a case of a 68-year-old man who presented with a rash for 4–5 months. On physical examination, there were multiple, dull-pink, indurated plaques on the trunk and extremities. Complete blood count revealed thrombocytopenia, absolute monocytosis of 1.7 K/µL, and a negative flow cytometry study. Biopsy of an abdominal lesion revealed typical features of blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm. Patients having both hematologic and nonhematologic malignancies have an increased incidence of absolute monocytosis. Recent studies examining Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients have suggested that this is a negative prognostic factor. The association between

  9. Measurement of the absolute branching fraction of the Ds+- meson

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, K; Dragic, J; Fujii, H; Gershon, T; Haba, J; Hazumi, M; Higuchi, T; Igarashi, Y; Itoh, R; Iwasaki, Y; Katayama, N; Kichimi, H; Krokovnyi, P P; Limosani, A; Nakamura, I; Nakao, M; Nakazawa, H; Nishida, S; Nozaki, T; Ozaki, H; Ronga, F J; Saitoh, S; Sakai, Y; Stamen, R; Sumisawa, K; Suzuki, S Y; Tajima, O; Takasaki, F; Tamai, K; Tanaka, M; Trabelsi, K; Tsuboyama, T; Tsukamoto, T; Uehara, S; Unno, Y; Uno, S; Ushiroda, Y; Yamauchi, M; Zhang, J; Hoshi, Y; Neichi, K; Aihara, H; Hastings, N C; Ishikawa, A; Itoh, K; Iwasaki, M; Kakuno, H; Kusaka, A; Nakahama, Y; Tanabe, K; Anipko, D; Arinstein, K; Aulchenko, V; Bedny, I; Bondar, A; Eidelman, S; Epifanov, D A; Gabyshev, N; Kuzmin, A; Poluektov, A; Root, N; Shwartz, B; Sidorov, V; Usov, Yu; Zhilich, V; Aoki, K; Enari, Y; Hara, K; Hayasaka, K; Hokuue, T; Iijima, T; Ikado, K; Inami, K; Kishimoto, N; Kozakai, Y; Kubota, T; Miyazaki, Y; Ohshima, T; Okabe, T; Sato, N; Senyo, K; Yoshino, S; Arakawa, T; Kawasaki, T; Miyata, H; Tamura, N; Watanabe, M; Asano, Y; Aso, T; Aushev, T; Bay, A; Hinz, L; Jacoby, C; Schietinger, T; Schneider, O; Villa, S; Wicht, J; Zürcher, D; Aziz, T; Banerjee, S; Gokhroo, G; Majumder, G; Bahinipati, S; Drutskoy, A; Goldenzweig, P; Kinoshita, K; Kulasiri, R; Sayeed, K; Schwartz, A J; Somov, A; Bakich, A M; Cole, S; McOnie, S; Parslow, N; Peak, L S; Stöck, H; Varvell, K E; Yabsley, B D; Balagura, V; Chistov, R; Danilov, M; Liventsev, D; Medvedeva, T; Mizuk, R; Pakhlov, P; Pakhlova, G; Tikhomirov, I; Uglov, T; Tian, Y BanX C; Barberio, E; Dalseno, J; Dowd, R; Moloney, G R; Sevior, M E; Taylor, G N; Tse, Y F; Urquijo, P; Barbero, M; Browder, T E; Guler, H; Jones, M; Li, J; Nishimura, K; Olsen, S L; Peters, M; Rorie, J; Sahoo, H; Uchida, K; Varner, G; Belous, K S; Shapkin, M; Sokolov, A; Bitenc, U; Bizjak, I; Fratina, S; Gorisek, A; Pestotnik, R; Staric, M; Zupanc, A; Blyth, S; Chen, A; Chen, W T; Go, A; Hou, S; Kuo, C C; Bozek, A; Kapusta, P; Lesiak, T; Matyja, A; Natkaniec, Z; Ostrowicz, W; Palka, H; Rózanska, M; Wiechczynski, J; Bracko, M; Korpar S; Brodzicka, J; Chang, M C; Kikuchi, N; Mikami, Y; Nagamine, T; Schonmeier, P; Yamaguchi, A; Yamamoto, H; Chang, P; Chao, Y; Chen, K F; Hou, W S; Hsiung, Y B; Lee, Y J; Lin, C Y; Lin, S W; Shen, Y T; Tsai, Y T; Ueno, K; Wang, C C; Wang, M Z; Wu, C H; Cheon, B G; Choi, J H; Ha, H; Kang, J S; Won, E; Choi, S K; Choi, Y; Choi, Y K; Kim, H O; Kim, J H; Park, C W; Park, K S; Chuvikov, A; Garmash, A; Marlow, D; Ziegler, T; Dash, M; Mohapatra, D; Piilonen, L E; Yusa, Y; Fujikawa, M; Hayashii, H; Imoto, A; Kataoka, S U; Miyabayashi, K; Noguchi, S; Krizan, P; Golob, B; Seidl, R; Grosse-Perdekamp, M; Hara, T; Heffernan, D; Miyake, H; Hasegawa, Y; Satoyama, N; Takada, N; Nitoh, O; Hoshina, K; Ishino, H; Khan, H R; Kibayashi, A; Mori, T; Ono, S; Watanabe, Y; Iwabuchi, M; Kim, Y J; Liu, Y; Sarangi, T R; Uchida, Y; Kang, J H; Kim, T H; Kwon, Y J; Kurihara, E; Kawai, H; Park, H; Kim, H J; Kim, S K; Lee, J; Lee, S E; Yang He Young; Kumar, R; Singh, J B; Soni, N; Lange, J S; Leder, G; MacNaughton, J; Mandl, F; Mitaroff, W A; Pernicka, M; Schwanda, C; Widhalm, L; Matsumoto, T; Nakagawa, T; Seki, T; Sumiyoshi, T; Yamamoto, S; Müller, J; Murakami, A; Sugiyama, A; Suzuki, S; Nagasaka, Y; Nakano, E; Sakaue, H; Teramoto, Y; Ogawa, A; Shibuya, H; Ogawa, S; Okuno, S; Sakamoto, H; Wang, C H; Schümann, J; Stanic, S; Xie, Q L; Yuan, Y; Zang, S L; Zhang, C C; Yamashita, Y; Zhang, L M; Zhang, Z P


    The Ds+- -> K+-K-+pi+- absolute branching fraction is measured using e+e- -> Ds*+- Ds1-+(2536) events collected by the Belle detector at the KEKB e+e- asymmetric energy collider. Using the ratio of yields when either the Ds1 or Ds* is fully reconstructed, we find Br(Ds+- -> K+-K-+pi+-)= (4.0+-0.4(stat)+-0.4(sys))%.

  10. Diagnostic Application of Absolute Neutron Activation Analysis in Hematology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamboni, C.B.; Oliveira, L.C.; Dalaqua, L. Jr.


    The Absolute Neutron Activation Analysis (ANAA) technique was used to determine element concentrations of Cl and Na in blood of healthy group (male and female blood donators), select from Blood Banks at Sao Paulo city, to provide information which can help in diagnosis of patients. This study permitted to perform a discussion about the advantages and limitations of using this nuclear methodology in hematological examinations.

  11. Electroweak absolute, meta-, and thermal stability in neutrino mass models (United States)

    Lindner, Manfred; Patel, Hiren H.; Radovčić, Branimir


    We analyze the stability of the electroweak vacuum in neutrino mass models containing right-handed neutrinos or fermionic isotriplets. In addition to considering absolute stability, we place limits on the Yukawa couplings of new fermions based on metastability and thermal stability in the early Universe. Our results reveal that the upper limits on the neutrino Yukawa couplings can change significantly when the top quark mass is allowed to vary within the experimental range of uncertainty in its determination.

  12. Absolute configuration of novel bioactive flavonoids from Tephrosia purpurea. (United States)

    Chang, L C; Chávez, D; Song, L L; Farnsworth, N R; Pezzuto, J M; Kinghorn, A D


    [structure: see text] Three novel flavonoids, (+)-tephrorins A (1) and B (2) and (+)-tephrosone (3), were isolated from Tephrosia purpurea. Their structures were elucidated by NMR spectral analysis, and their absolute configurations were determined by Mosher ester methodology. Compounds 1 and 2 are flavanones containing an unusual tetrahydrofuran moiety. Compounds 1-3 were evaluated for their potential cancer chemopreventive properties using a cell-based quinone reductase induction assay.

  13. Absolute Stability of Discrete-Time Systems with Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rigoberto Medina


    Full Text Available We investigate the stability of nonlinear nonautonomous discrete-time systems with delaying arguments, whose linear part has slowly varying coefficients, and the nonlinear part has linear majorants. Based on the “freezing” technique to discrete-time systems, we derive explicit conditions for the absolute stability of the zero solution of such systems.

  14. Measuring absolute spectral radiance using an Erbium Doped Fibre Amplifier

    CERN Document Server

    Sanguinetti, Bruno; Monteiro, Fernando; Gisin, Nicolas; Zbinden, Hugo


    We describe a method to measure the spectral radiance of a source in an absolute way without the need of a reference. Here we give the necessary detail to allow for the device to be reproduced from standard fiber-optic components. The device is suited for fiber-optic applications at telecom wavelengths and calibration of powermeters and spectrometers at light levels from 1nW to 1uW.

  15. The United States and assassination policy : diluting the absolute



    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The U.S. has reached a crossroads with its policy regarding assassination. Executive Order 12333, which explicitly and absolutely prohibits assassination, is still in effect. The ban, however, has been diluted and circumvented since its inception. Past administrations have targeted enemy leaders with "indirect" strikes such as the 1986 attacks against Libya and the 1998 missile strikes in Afghanistan and Sudan. Currently, the U.S. deli...

  16. Absolute configuration determination using enantiomeric pairs of molecularly imprinted polymers. (United States)

    Meador, Danielle S; Spivak, David A


    A new method for determination of absolute configuration (AC) is demonstrated using an enantiomeric pair of molecularly imprinted polymers, referred to as "DuoMIPs". The ratio of HPLC capacity factors (k') for the analyte on each of the DuoMIPs is defined as the γ factor and can be used to determine AC when above 1.2. A mnemonic based on the complementary binding geometry of the DuoMIPs was used to aid in understanding and prediction of AC.

  17. Predictive visual tracking based on least absolute deviation estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rongtai Cai; Yanjie Wang


    To cope with the occlusion and intersection between targets and the environment, location prediction is employed in the visual tracking system. Target trace is fitted by sliding subsection polynomials based on least absolute deviation (LAD) estimation, and the future location of target is predicted with the fitted trace. Experiment results show that the proposed location prediction algorithm based on LAD estimation has significant robustness advantages over least square (LS) estimation, and it is more effective than LS-based methods in visual tracking.

  18. A novel absolute displacement measurement technology based on wavenumber resolved low coherence interferometry (United States)

    Zhao, Keqiang; Xie, Fang; Ma, Sen; Wang, Yunzhi; Chen, Liang


    This paper proposed a novel absolute displacement measurement technology which is based on the wavenumber spectrum of low coherence interferometry. The signal from a Michelson interferometer, which is derived from a broadband light source, is dispersed by a bulk dispersing grating. The interferometric signal of each wavelength is detected by a linear array charge coupled device (CCD). By transforming the wavelength spectrum of the signal into wavenumber spectrum, absolute displacement can be measured precisely by measuring the wavenumber difference between two neighboring peaks of the wavenumber spectrum. Unlike the normal low coherence interferometric measurement systems (LCIMS) which have to scan the optical path difference (OPD) of the interferometer in order to demodulate the measurand, there is no need of scanning action during the measurement procedure, which not only simplifies the measurement system but also improves the measurement speed greatly. A fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is employed to produce a feedback signal which is used to stabilize the Michelson interferometer so as to obtain high measurement precision. A step height with the calibrated value of 50 μm that is configurated with two gauge blocks is measured by the system. The measurement resolution is 6.03 nm and the standard deviation of 10 times measurement results is 6.8 nm.

  19. Variable Selection for Modeling the Absolute Magnitude at Maximum of Type Ia Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Uemura, Makoto; Kawabata, S; Ikeda, Shiro; Maeda, Keiichi


    We discuss what is an appropriate set of explanatory variables in order to predict the absolute magnitude at the maximum of Type Ia supernovae. In order to have a good prediction, the error for future data, which is called the "generalization error," should be small. We use cross-validation in order to control the generalization error and LASSO-type estimator in order to choose the set of variables. This approach can be used even in the case that the number of samples is smaller than the number of candidate variables. We studied the Berkeley supernova database with our approach. Candidates of the explanatory variables include normalized spectral data, variables about lines, and previously proposed flux-ratios, as well as the color and light-curve widths. As a result, we confirmed the past understanding about Type Ia supernova: i) The absolute magnitude at maximum depends on the color and light-curve width. ii) The light-curve width depends on the strength of Si II. Recent studies have suggested to add more va...

  20. Absolute photoabsorption cross section of C{sub 60} in the extreme ultraviolet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, T. [Department of Vacuum UV Photoscience, Institute for Molecular Science, Myodaiji, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan); Kou, J. [Department of Vacuum UV Photoscience, Institute for Molecular Science, Myodaiji, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan); Haruyama, Y. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Kubozono, Y. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Mitsuke, K. [Department of Vacuum UV Photoscience, Institute for Molecular Science, Myodaiji, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan) and Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Myodaiji, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan)]. E-mail:


    The absolute photoabsorption cross section curve of C{sub 60} has been determined by means of mass spectrometry with the photon source of monochromatized synchrotron radiation of h{nu} = 24.5-150 eV. Description has been made on a high-temperature source of gaseous fullerenes and an efficient time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The cross section was estimated by assuming an approximate expression of the number density of C{sub 60} in the ionization region. The resultant values were 762, 241, and 195 Mb at h{nu} = 24.5, 90, and 110 eV, respectively, with about 10% errors. The cross section curve was then normalized at h{nu} = 25 eV to the absolute photoabsorption cross section reported by Jaensch and Kamke [R. Jaensch, W. Kamke, Mol. Mater. 13 (2000) 143], the most reliable data so far available in the valence excitation region of C{sub 60}. Accordingly, the present cross section data were altered to 407, 144, and 114 Mb at h{nu} = 25, 90, and 110 eV, respectively.

  1. Bovine Calcined Bone for the Repair of Radial Defect in a Rabbit Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In order to investigate the bovine calcined bone's ability of repairing segmental bone defect and seek a new artificial bone substitute material, the bovine calcined bone (450℃,32 h) was implanted into the 10-mm middle radial defect of rabbits with tricalcium phosphate ceramics as the control. By using the methods of histology, radiology and biomechanics their osteogenic ability were measured. It was found that the bovine calcined bone's ability of repairing bone defect was better than that of tricalcium phosphate ceramics. The histological Nilsson′s scores at 3rd, 5th, 9th week after operation were significantly increased (P<0.01). At 12th week after operation the bending strength of radius in experimental group was much higher than that of control group and turned normal. It was suggested that bovine calcined bone is an ideal artificial bone substitute material with good ability of repairing segmental bone defect and some degree of mechanical strength.

  2. On the absolute value of the air-fluorescence yield

    CERN Document Server

    Rosado, J; Arqueros, F


    The absolute value of the air-fluorescence yield is a key parameter for the energy reconstruction of extensive air showers registered by fluorescence telescopes. In previous publications, we reported a detailed Monte Carlo simulation of the air-fluorescence generation that allowed the theoretical evaluation of this parameter. This simulation has been upgraded in the present work. As a result, we determined an updated absolute value of the fluorescence yield of 7.9+-2.0 ph/MeV for the band at 337 nm in dry air at 800 hPa and 293 K, in agreement with experimental values. We have also performed a critical analysis of available absolute measurements of the fluorescence yield with the assistance of our simulation. Corrections have been applied to some measurements to account for a bias in the evaluation of the energy deposition. Possible effects of other experimental aspects have also been discussed. From this analysis, we determined an average fluorescence yield of 7.04+-0.24 ph/MeV at the above conditions.

  3. 灵动的性感 Absolut Volvo C30

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅微芳; 杨洲


    <正>绝对伏特加酒(Absolut Vodka)永恒的个性化包装,对每一个人来说都不陌生。短颈圆肩的水晶瓶,独创性地将所有标注Absolut Vodka的文字信息用彩色粗体字体直接印在瓶身,透过完全透明的酒瓶,感触到纯正、净爽、自信的Absolut Vodka。同样来自瑞典经典轿车沃尔沃(Volvo)家族的C30就像斯堪的纳维亚的烈酒一样展现着恒久魅力,为人们的眼球、心境带来激情与渴望的强力冲击,Volvo C30那种灵动的性感气质让钟爱者静静地迷醉其中。

  4. Bio-Inspired Stretchable Absolute Pressure Sensor Network. (United States)

    Guo, Yue; Li, Yu-Hung; Guo, Zhiqiang; Kim, Kyunglok; Chang, Fu-Kuo; Wang, Shan X


    A bio-inspired absolute pressure sensor network has been developed. Absolute pressure sensors, distributed on multiple silicon islands, are connected as a network by stretchable polyimide wires. This sensor network, made on a 4'' wafer, has 77 nodes and can be mounted on various curved surfaces to cover an area up to 0.64 m × 0.64 m, which is 100 times larger than its original size. Due to Micro Electro-Mechanical system (MEMS) surface micromachining technology, ultrathin sensing nodes can be realized with thicknesses of less than 100 µm. Additionally, good linearity and high sensitivity (~14 mV/V/bar) have been achieved. Since the MEMS sensor process has also been well integrated with a flexible polymer substrate process, the entire sensor network can be fabricated in a time-efficient and cost-effective manner. Moreover, an accurate pressure contour can be obtained from the sensor network. Therefore, this absolute pressure sensor network holds significant promise for smart vehicle applications, especially for unmanned aerial vehicles.

  5. Son preference in Indian families: absolute versus relative wealth effects. (United States)

    Gaudin, Sylvestre


    The desire for male children is prevalent in India, where son preference has been shown to affect fertility behavior and intrahousehold allocation of resources. Economic theory predicts less gender discrimination in wealthier households, but demographers and sociologists have argued that wealth can exacerbate bias in the Indian context. I argue that these apparently conflicting theories can be reconciled and simultaneously tested if one considers that they are based on two different notions of wealth: one related to resource constraints (absolute wealth), and the other to notions of local status (relative wealth). Using cross-sectional data from the 1998-1999 and 2005-2006 National Family and Health Surveys, I construct measures of absolute and relative wealth by using principal components analysis. A series of statistical models of son preference is estimated by using multilevel methods. Results consistently show that higher absolute wealth is strongly associated with lower son preference, and the effect is 20%-40% stronger when the household's community-specific wealth score is included in the regression. Coefficients on relative wealth are positive and significant although lower in magnitude. Results are robust to using different samples, alternative groupings of households in local areas, different estimation methods, and alternative dependent variables.

  6. Absolute surface reconstruction by slope metrology and photogrammetry (United States)

    Dong, Yue

    Developing the manufacture of aspheric and freeform optical elements requires an advanced metrology method which is capable of inspecting these elements with arbitrary freeform surfaces. In this dissertation, a new surface measurement scheme is investigated for such a purpose, which is to measure the absolute surface shape of an object under test through its surface slope information obtained by photogrammetric measurement. A laser beam propagating toward the object reflects on its surface while the vectors of the incident and reflected beams are evaluated from the four spots they leave on the two parallel transparent windows in front of the object. The spots' spatial coordinates are determined by photogrammetry. With the knowledge of the incident and reflected beam vectors, the local slope information of the object surface is obtained through vector calculus and finally yields the absolute object surface profile by a reconstruction algorithm. An experimental setup is designed and the proposed measuring principle is experimentally demonstrated by measuring the absolute surface shape of a spherical mirror. The measurement uncertainty is analyzed, and efforts for improvement are made accordingly. In particular, structured windows are designed and fabricated to generate uniform scattering spots left by the transmitted laser beams. Calibration of the fringe reflection instrument, another typical surface slope measurement method, is also reported in the dissertation. Finally, a method for uncertainty analysis of a photogrammetry measurement system by optical simulation is investigated.

  7. Bone morphogenetic protein-2-encapsulated grafted-poly-lactic acid-polycaprolactone nanoparticles promote bone repair. (United States)

    Xu, Xiaojun; Yang, Jun; Ding, Lifeng; Li, Jianjun


    The aim of this study is to test the efficacy of a novel tissue-engineered bone in repairing bone defects, using poly-lactic-acid-polycaprolactone (PLA-PCL) scaffolding seeded with PEG-bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2)-transfected rBMSCs (rabbit bone marrow stromal cells). The rBMSCs were transfected with PEG/BMP-2 or liposome/BMP-2, and then implanted into a PLA-PCL tissue-engineered bone. The protein level of BMP-2 was assessed by Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. ELISA was used to measure the amount of BMP-2 secreted in the culture media. The mRNA level of BMP-2 and osteocalcin was assayed quantitatively by real-time PCR. The middle portion of the bilateral radius in New Zealand rabbits was excised and implanted with tissue-engineered bone, and the modified areas were monitored by X-ray, hematoxylin-eosin staining, and immunohistochemistry staining of BMP-2. PEG-BMP-2 nanoparticles (NPs) and BMP-2-loaded PEG-PLA-PCL tissue-engineered bones were successfully constructed. The novel PEG-PLA-PCL NPs/DNA complex was a superior option for transfecting BMP-2 in rBMSCs compared to normal liposomes Moreover, the mRNA level of osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase activity was also elevated upon transfection of BMP-2-encapsulated NPs. In vivo implants with BMP-2-carried tissue-engineered bone exhibited dramatic augmentation of BMP-2 and effective bone formation in the rabbit ectopic model. The PEG-PLA-PCL NPs/BMP-2 complex had an advantageous effect on bone repair, which provided an important theoretic basis for potential clinical treatments.

  8. Fundamental ratios and logarithmic periodicity in human limb bones. (United States)

    Pietak, Alexis; Ma, Siyan; Beck, Caroline W; Stringer, Mark D


    Fundamental mathematical relationships are widespread in biology yet there is little information on this topic with regard to human limb bone lengths and none related to human limb bone volumes. Forty-six sets of ipsilateral upper and lower limb long bones and third digit short bones were imaged by computed tomography. Maximum bone lengths were measured manually and individual bone volumes calculated from computed tomography images using a stereologic method. Length ratios of femur : tibia and humerus : ulna were remarkably similar (1.21 and 1.22, respectively) and varied little (bone volume ratios varied much more than upper limb ratios. The relationship between bone length and volume was found to be well described by power laws, with R(2) values ranging from 0.983 to 0.995. The most striking finding was a logarithmic periodicity in bone length moving from distal to proximal up the limb (upper limb λ = 0.72, lower limb λ = 0.93). These novel data suggest that human limb bone lengths and volumes follow fundamental and highly conserved mathematical relationships, which may contribute to our understanding of normal and disordered growth, stature estimation, and biomechanics.

  9. Nutrition in bone health revisited: a story beyond calcium. (United States)

    Ilich, J Z; Kerstetter, J E


    Osteoporosis is a complex, multi-factorial condition characterized by reduced bone mass and impaired micro-architectural structure, leading to an increased susceptibility to fractures. Although most of the bone strength (including bone mass and quality) is genetically determined, many other factors (nutritional, environmental and life-style) also influence bone. Nutrition is important modifiable factor in the development and maintenance of bone mass and the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Approximately 80-90% of bone mineral content is comprised of calcium and phosphorus. Other dietary components, such as protein, magnesium, zinc, copper, iron, fluoride, vitamins D, A, C, and K are required for normal bone metabolism, while other ingested compounds not usually categorized as nutrients (e.g. caffeine, alcohol, phytoestrogens) may also impact bone health. Unraveling the interaction between different factors; nutritional, environmental, life style, and heredity help us to understand the complexity of the development of osteoporosis and subsequent fractures. This paper reviews the role of dietary components on bone health throughout different stages of life. Each nutrient is discussed separately, however the fact that many nutrients are co-dependent and simultaneously interact with genetic and environmental factors should not be neglected. The complexity of the interactions is probably the reason why there are controversial or inconsistent findings regarding the contribution of a single or a group of nutrients in bone health.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angad eMalhotra


    Full Text Available Appropriate, well characterized bone defect animal models remain essential for preclinical research. This pilot study demonstrates a relevant animal model for cancellous bone defect healing. Three different defect diameters (8, 11, 14mm of fixed depth (25mm were compared in both skeletally immature (18 month old and aged sheep (5 year old. In each animal, four defects were surgically created and placed in the cancellous bone of the medial distal femoral and proximal tibial epiphyses bilaterally. Animals were euthanized at four weeks post-operatively to assess early healing and any biological response. Defect sites were graded radiographically, and new bone formation quantified using µCT and histomorphometry. Fibrous tissue was found within the central region in most of the defects, with woven bone normally forming near the periphery of the defect. Bone volume fraction (BV/TV significantly decreased with an increasing defect diameter. Actual bone volume (BV, however, increased with defect diameter. Bone ingrowth was lower for all defect diameters in the aged group. This pilot study proposes that the surgical creation of 11mm diameter defects in the proximal tibial and distal femoral epiphyses of aged sheep is a suitable large animal model to study early healing of cancellous bone defects. The refined model allows for the placement of four separate bone defects per animal, and encourages a reduction in animal numbers required for preclinical research.

  11. Skeletal unloading induces selective resistance to the anabolic actions of growth hormone on bone (United States)

    Halloran, B. P.; Bikle, D. D.; Harris, J.; Autry, C. P.; Currier, P. A.; Tanner, S.; Patterson-Buckendahl, P.; Morey-Holton, E.


    Loss of skeletal weight bearing or physical unloading of bone in the growing animal inhibits bone formation and induces a bone mineral deficit. To determine whether the inhibition of bone formation induced by skeletal unloading in the growing animal is a consequence of diminished sensitivity to growth hormone (GH) we studied the effects of skeletal unloading in young hypophysectomized rats treated with GH (0, 50, 500 micrograms/100 g body weight/day). Skeletal unloading reduced serum osteocalcin, impaired uptake of 3H-proline into bone, decreased proximal tibial mass, and diminished periosteal bone formation at the tibiofibular junction. When compared with animals receiving excipient alone, GH administration increased bone mass in all animals. The responses in serum osteocalcin, uptake of 3H-proline and 45Ca into the proximal tibia, and proximal tibial mass in non-weight bearing animals were equal to those in weight bearing animals. The responses in trabecular bone volume in the proximal tibia and bone formation at the tibiofibular junction to GH, however, were reduced significantly by skeletal unloading. Bone unloading prevented completely the increase in metaphyseal trabecular bone normally induced by GH and severely dampened the stimulatory effect (158% vs. 313%, p < 0.002) of GH on periosteal bone formation. These results suggest that while GH can stimulate the overall accumulation of bone mineral in both weight bearing and non-weight bearing animals, skeletal unloading selectively impairs the response of trabecular bone and periosteal bone formation to the anabolic actions of GH.

  12. Bone development and its relation to fracture repair. The role of mesenchymal osteoblasts and surface osteoblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Shapiro


    Full Text Available Bone development occurs by two mechanisms: intramembranous bone formation and endochondral bone formation. Bone tissue forms by eventual differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into either mesenchymal osteoblasts (MOBL, which synthesize woven bone in random orientation, or surface osteoblasts (SOBL, which synthesize bone on surfaces in a well oriented lamellar array. Bone repair uses the same formation patterns as bone development but the specific mechanism of repair is determined by the biomechanical environment provided. Bone synthesis and maintenance are highly dependent on the blood supply of bone and on cell-cell communication via the lacunar-canalicular system. Recent investigations highlight the molecular cascades leading to cell differentiation, the components of the structural proteins such as the various collagens, and tissue vascularization. The patterning of bone matrix from an initial woven to an eventual lamellar orientation is essential for bone to develop its maximum strength. This review demonstrates the repetitive nature of woven to lamellar bone formation as mediated by MOBLs and SOBLs in both normal vertebrate bones and bone repair. Repair, using endochondral, primary, direct and distraction osteogenesis mechanisms, is reviewed along with the associated molecular, vascular, and biophysical features.

  13. System for the analysis of whole-bone strength from helical CT images (United States)

    Camp, Jon J.; Karwoski, Ronald A.; Stacy, Mahlon C.; Atkinson, Elizabeth J.; Khosla, Sundeep; Melton, L. Joseph; Riggs, B. Lawrence; Robb, Richard A.


    Osteoporosis affects an estimated 44 million Americans. This condition results from bone loss, but the measured change in bone mass does not fully account for the marked decrease in whole-bone structural integrity seen in osteoporosis. In order to study structural changes in bone mineral distribution due to normal ageing and osteoporosis, we have developed a method for progressive analysis of whole-bone mechanical integrity from helical CT images. The system provides rapid semi-automated alignment of femur and vertebrae volume images into standard anatomic reference planes, and calculates bone mineral density in any selected 3D sections of bone. Mineral density measures are obtained using both full-width-half-max contours and threshold-derived masks, and are obtained for cortical bone and trabecular bone separately. Biomechanical properties of the bone cross-section are also assessed, including the 2-D bending moment of the cortical bone region and the integrated flexural rigidity of the cortical region or whole-bone region in arbitrary planes. This method facilitates progressive refinement of the analysis protocol by separating the labor-intensive alignment and landmark selection process from the analysis process. As the analysis protocol evolves to include new measures, previously analyzed images can be automatically reanalyzed, using the image regions originally specified. Initial results show inverse correlation of indices of biomechanical bone strength with age, greater loss of bone strength in the lumbar spine than in the femoral neck, and more trabecular than cortical bone loss at both sites.

  14. The new Absolute Quantum Gravimeter (AQG): first results and perspectives (United States)

    Bonvalot, Sylvain; Le Moigne, Nicolas; Merlet, Sebastien; Desruelle, Bruno; Lautier-Gaud, Jean; Menoret, Vincent; Vermeulen, Pierre


    Cold atom gravimetry represents one of the most innovative evolution in gravity instrumentation since the last 20 years. The concept of measuring the gravitational acceleration by dropping atoms and the development of the first instrumental devices during this last decade quickly revealed the promising perspectives of this new generation of gravity meters enabling accurate and absolute measurements of the Earth's gravity field for a wide range of applications (geophysics, geodesy, metrology, etc.). The Absolute Quantum Gravimeter (AQG) gravity meter, developed by MUQUANS (Talence, France - with the support of RESIF, the French Seismologic and Geodetic Network ( belongs to this new generation of instruments. It also represents the first commercial device based on the utilization of advanced matter-wave interferometry techniques, which allow to characterize precisely the vertical acceleration experienced by a cloud of cold atoms. Recently, the first operational unit (AQG01) has been achieved as a compact transportable gravimeter with the aim of satisfying absolute gravity measurements in laboratory conditions under the following specifications: measurements the μGal level at a few Hz cycling frequency, sensitivity of 50μGal/√Hz, immunity to ground vibrations, easy and quickness of operation, automated continuous data acquisition for several months, etc. In order to evaluate the current performances of the AQG01, several experiments are carried out in collaboration between RESIF user's teams and the MUQUANS manufacturer on different reference gravity sites and laboratories in France. These measurements performed in indoor conditions including simultaneous observations with classical reference gravity instruments (corner-cube absolute gravity meters, relative superconducting meters) as well with the Cold Atom Gravity meter (CAG) developed by LNE-SYRTE, lead to a first objective characterization of the performances of

  15. Study of a new bone-targeting titanium implant–bone interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu XN


    Full Text Available Xiangning Liu,1,* Ye Zhang,1,* Shaobing Li,2,* Yayu Wang,3 Ting Sun,1 Zejian Li,1 Lizhao Cai,1 Xiaogang Wang,3,* Lei Zhou,2 Renfa Lai1 1The Medical Center of Stomatology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, 2The Department of Oral Implantology, Guangdong Provincial Stomatological Hospital, Southern Medical University, 3Department of Cell Biology, Institute of Biomedicine, College of Life Science and Technology, Jinan University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: New strategies involving bone-targeting titanium (Ti implant–bone interface are required to enhance bone regeneration and osseointegration for orthopedic and dental implants, especially in osteoporotic subjects. In this study, a new dual-controlled, local, bone-targeting delivery system was successfully constructed by loading tetracycline-grafted simvastatin (SV-loaded polymeric micelles in titania nanotube (TNT arrays, and a bone-targeting Ti implant–bone interface was also successfully constructed by implanting the delivery system in vivo. The biological effects were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that Ti surfaces with TNT–bone-targeting micelles could promote cytoskeletal spreading, early adhesion, alkaline phosphatase activity, and extracellular osteocalcin concentrations of rat osteoblasts, with concomitant enhanced protein expression of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-2. A single-wall bone-defect implant model was established in normal and ovariectomized rats as postmenopausal osteoporosis models. Microcomputed tomography imaging and BMP-2 expression in vivo demonstrated that the implant with a TNT-targeting micelle surface was able to promote bone regeneration and osseointegration in both animal models. Therefore, beneficial biological effects were demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo, which indicated that the bone-targeting effects of micelles greatly enhance the

  16. Absolute Polarization Measurements at RHIC in the Coulomb Nuclear Interference Region

    CERN Document Server

    Eyser, K O; Bravar, A; Bunce, G; Dhawan, S; Gill, R; Haeberli, W; Huang, H; Jinnouchi, O; Makdisi, Y; Nakagawa, I; Nass, A; Okada, H; Stephenson, E; Svirida, D; Wise, T; Wood, J; Zelenski, A


    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory provides polarized proton beams for the investigation of the nucleon spin structure. For polarimetry, carbon-proton and proton-proton scattering is used in the Coulomb nuclear interference region at small momentum transfer ($-t$). Fast polarization measurements of each beam are carried out with carbon fiber targets at several times during an accelerator store. A polarized hydrogen gas jet target is needed for absolute normalization over multiple stores, while the target polarization is constantly monitored in a Breit-Rabi polarimeter. In 2005, the jet polarimeter has been used with both RHIC beams. We present results from the jet polarimeter including a detailed analysis of background contributions to asymmetries and to the beam polarization.

  17. Class IIA ring avulsion injuries: an absolute indication for microvascular repair. (United States)

    Nissenbaum, M


    The class II ring avulsion category, includes those patients in whom only digital arteries are damaged but all other structures are intact and functional (here labeled class IIA). Current literature suggests this is a rare lesion. Seven patients with this specific injury in whom the affected digits were nonviable are reported. Four of the seven were misdiagnosed on initial emergency room evaluation. Two did not seek additional medical attention and the condition progressed to necrosis and amputation. The other two, who sought additional treatment because of progressive ischemia, and three additional patients who were correctly diagnosed on initial examination underwent simple digital arterial repair. All digits operated on survived and demonstrated near normal function. Since failure to operate results in digital loss, this is an absolute indication for microvascular repair.

  18. Improved Measurement of Absolute Hadronic Branching Fractions of the Ds+ Meson

    CERN Document Server

    Onyisi, P U E; Cinabro, D; Smith, M J; Zhou, P; Naik, P; Rademacker, J; Edwards, K W; Briere, R A; Vogel, H; Rosner, J L; Alexander, J P; Cassel, D G; Das, S; Ehrlich, R; Gibbons, L; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Shi, X; Sun, W M; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Lowrey, N; Mehrabyan, S; Selen, M; Wiss, J; Libby, J; Kornicer, M; Mitchell, R E; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Hietala, J; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A; Xiao, T; Powell, A; Thomas, C; Wilkinson, G; Asner, D M; Tatishvili, G; Ge, J Y; Miller, D H; Shipsey, I P J; Xin, B; Adams, G S; Napolitano, J; Ecklund, K M; Insler, J; Muramatsu, H; Pearson, L J; Thorndike, E H; Artuso, M; Blusk, S; Mountain, R; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Zhang, L M


    The branching fractions of Ds meson decays serve to normalize many measurements of processes involving charm quarks. Using 586 pb^-1 of e+ e- collisions recorded at a center of mass energy of 4.17 GeV, we determine absolute branching fractions for 13 Ds decays in 16 reconstructed final states with a double tag technique. In particular we make a precise measurement of the branching fraction B(Ds -> K- K+ pi+) = (5.55 +- 0.14 +- 0.13)%, where the uncertainties are statistical and systematic respectively. We find a significantly reduced value of B(Ds -> pi+ pi0 eta') compared to the world average, and our results bring the inclusively and exclusively measured values of B(Ds -> eta' X)$ into agreement. We also search for CP-violating asymmetries in Ds decays and measure the cross-section of e+ e- -> Ds* Ds at Ecm = 4.17 GeV.

  19. Microstimulation at the bone-implant interface upregulates osteoclast activation pathways. (United States)

    Stadelmann, Vincent A; Terrier, Alexandre; Pioletti, Dominique P


    Peri-implant bone resorption after total joint arthroplasty is a key parameter in aseptic loosening. Implant wear debris and biomechanical aspects have both been demonstrated to be part of the bone resorption process. However, neither of these two parameters has been clearly identified as the primary initiator of peri-implant bone resorption. For the biomechanical parameters, micromotions were measured at the bone-implant interface during normal gait cycles. The amplitude of the micromotions was shown to trigger differentiation of bone tissues. So far no data exists directly quantifying the effect of micromotion and compression on human bone. We hypothesize that micromotion and compression at the bone-implant interface may induce direct activation of bone resorption around the implant through osteoblasts-osteoclasts cell signaling in human bone. This hypothesis was tested with an ex vivo loading system developed to stimulate trabecular bone cores and mimic the micromotions arising at the bone-implant interface. Gene expression of RANKL, OPG, TGFB2, IFNG and CSF-1 was analyzed after no mechanical stimulation (control), exposure to compression or exposure to micromotions. We observed an 8-fold upregulation of RANKL after exposure to micromotions, and downregulation of OPG, IFNG and TGFB2. The RANKL:OPG ratio was upregulated 24-fold after micromotions. This suggests that the micromotions arising at the bone-implant interface during normal gait cycles induce a bone resorption response after only 1 h, which occurs before any wear debris particles enter the system.

  20. A Proposed Method for Measurement of Absolute Air Fluorescence Yield based on High Resolution Optical Emission Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Gika, V; Maltezos, S


    In this work, we present a method for absolute measurement of air fluorescence yield based on high resolution optical emission spectroscopy. The absolute measurement of the air fluorescence yield is feasible using the Cherenkov light, emitted by an electron beam simultaneously with the fluorescence light, as a "standard candle". The separation of these two radiations can be accomplished exploiting the "dark" spectral regions of the emission band systems of the molecular spectrum of nitrogen. In these "dark" regions the net Cherenkov light can be recorded experimentally and be compared with the calculated one. The instrumentation for obtaining the nitrogen molecular spectra in high resolution and the noninvasive method for monitoring the rotational temperature of the emission process are also described. For the experimental evaluation of the molecular spectra analysis we used DC normal glow discharges in air performed in an appropriate spectral lamp considered as an air-fluorescence light emulator. The propose...