Sample records for absolute risk representation

  1. Absolute risk representation in cardiovascular disease prevention: comprehension and preferences of health care consumers and general practitioners involved in a focus group study

    Ryan Rebecca


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Communicating risk is part of primary prevention of coronary heart disease and stroke, collectively referred to as cardiovascular disease (CVD. In Australia, health organisations have promoted an absolute risk approach, thereby raising the question of suitable standardised formats for risk communication. Methods Sixteen formats of risk representation were prepared including statements, icons, graphical formats, alone or in combination, and with variable use of colours. All presented the same risk, i.e., the absolute risk for a 55 year old woman, 16% risk of CVD in five years. Preferences for a five or ten-year timeframe were explored. Australian GPs and consumers were recruited for participation in focus groups, with the data analysed thematically and preferred formats tallied. Results Three focus groups with health consumers and three with GPs were held, involving 19 consumers and 18 GPs. Consumers and GPs had similar views on which formats were more easily comprehended and which conveyed 16% risk as a high risk. A simple summation of preferences resulted in three graphical formats (thermometers, vertical bar chart and one statement format as the top choices. The use of colour to distinguish risk (red, yellow, green and comparative information (age, sex, smoking status were important ingredients. Consumers found formats which combined information helpful, such as colour, effect of changing behaviour on risk, or comparison with a healthy older person. GPs preferred formats that helped them relate the information about risk of CVD to their patients, and could be used to motivate patients to change behaviour. Several formats were reported as confusing, such as a percentage risk with no contextual information, line graphs, and icons, particularly those with larger numbers. Whilst consumers and GPs shared preferences, the use of one format for all situations was not recommended. Overall, people across groups felt that risk

  2. Variance computations for functional of absolute risk estimates.

    Pfeiffer, R M; Petracci, E


    We present a simple influence function based approach to compute the variances of estimates of absolute risk and functions of absolute risk. We apply this approach to criteria that assess the impact of changes in the risk factor distribution on absolute risk for an individual and at the population level. As an illustration we use an absolute risk prediction model for breast cancer that includes modifiable risk factors in addition to standard breast cancer risk factors. Influence function based variance estimates for absolute risk and the criteria are compared to bootstrap variance estimates.

  3. Representations of Hardy Algebras: Absolute Continuity, Intertwiners and Superharmonic Operators

    Muhly, Paul S


    Suppose $\\mathcal{T}_{+}(E)$ is the tensor algebra of a $W^{*}$-correspondence $E$ and $H^{\\infty}(E)$ is the associated Hardy algebra. We investigate the problem of extending completely contractive representations of $\\mathcal{T}_{+}(E)$ on a Hilbert space to ultra-weakly continuous completely contractive representations of $H^{\\infty}(E)$ on the same Hilbert space. Our work extends the classical Sz.-Nagy - Foia\\c{s} functional calculus and more recent work by Davidson, Li and Pitts on the representation theory of Popescu's noncommutative disc algebra.

  4. Ergonomic risk: social representations of dental students

    Moura, Luana Kelle Batista; UNAERP; Sousa, Yara Teresinha Correa Silva; UNAERP; Moura, Guilherme César Batista; UNINOVAFAPI; Matos,Francisca Tereza Coelho; Falcão,Carlos Alberto Monteiro; Monte, Thiago LIma


    Objective: To learn the social representations of ergonomic risk prepared ​​by dental students. Methodology: This exploratory study, subsidized the Theory of Social Representations, with 64 dental students of an educational institution, by means of interviews. The data were processed in Alceste4.8 and lexical analysis done by the descending hierarchical classification. Results: In two categories: knowledge about exposure to ergonomic risk end attitude of students on preventing and treating in...

  5. Risk: from perception to social representation.

    Joffe, Hélène


    This paper is concerned with how people make meaning of the risks they face. It explores certain assumptions of the risk perception approaches, which dominate the area. It argues that despite changes currently taking place in the field, such models still focus on static, intrapersonal processes, with many viewing human thinking as analogous to erroneous information processing. In the place of an individual 'deficit' focus, the paper proposes a more intersubjective theory of the response to risk. Social representations theory is evaluated and its validity assessed by highlighting empirical work on representations of biotechnological and health risks. The review reveals that the response to risk is a highly social, emotive and symbolic entity. Therefore a theory and methods appropriate to such qualities are proposed, to produce a valid psychology of risk.

  6. General practitioners’ use of absolute risk versus individual risk factors in cardiovascular disease prevention: an experimental study

    Jansen, Jesse; Bonner, Carissa; McKinn, Shannon; Irwig, Les; Glasziou, Paul ,; Doust, Jenny; Teixeira-Pinto, Armando; Hayen, Andrew; Turner, Robin; McCaffery, Kirsten


    Objective To understand general practitioners’ (GPs) use of individual risk factors (blood pressure and cholesterol levels) versus absolute risk in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk management decision-making. Design Randomised experiment. Absolute risk, systolic blood pressure (SBP), cholesterol ratio (total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein (TC/HDL)) and age were systematically varied in hypothetical cases. High absolute risk was defined as 5-year risk of a cardiovascular event >15%, hig...

  7. Binomial Distribution Sample Confidence Intervals Estimation 7. Absolute Risk Reduction and ARR-like Expressions



    Full Text Available Assessments of a controlled clinical trial suppose to interpret some key parameters as the controlled event rate, experimental event date, relative risk, absolute risk reduction, relative risk reduction, number needed to treat when the effect of the treatment are dichotomous variables. Defined as the difference in the event rate between treatment and control groups, the absolute risk reduction is the parameter that allowed computing the number needed to treat. The absolute risk reduction is compute when the experimental treatment reduces the risk for an undesirable outcome/event. In medical literature when the absolute risk reduction is report with its confidence intervals, the method used is the asymptotic one, even if it is well know that may be inadequate. The aim of this paper is to introduce and assess nine methods of computing confidence intervals for absolute risk reduction and absolute risk reduction – like function.Computer implementations of the methods use the PHP language. Methods comparison uses the experimental errors, the standard deviations, and the deviation relative to the imposed significance level for specified sample sizes. Six methods of computing confidence intervals for absolute risk reduction and absolute risk reduction-like functions were assessed using random binomial variables and random sample sizes.The experiments shows that the ADAC, and ADAC1 methods obtains the best overall performance of computing confidence intervals for absolute risk reduction.

  8. High absolute risks and predictors of venous and arterial thromboembolic events in patients with nephrotic syndrome

    Mahmoodi, Bakhtawar K.; ten Kate, Min Ki; Waanders, Femke; Veeger, Nic J. G. M.; Brouwer, Jan-Leendert P.; Vogt, Liffert; Navis, Gerjan; van der Meer, Jan


    Background-No data are available on the absolute risk of either venous thromboembolism (VTE) or arterial thromboembolism (ATE) in patients with nephrotic syndrome. Reported risks are based on multiple case reports and small studies with mostly short-term follow-up. We assessed the absolute risk of V

  9. An overview of representation theorems for static risk measures

    SONG YongSheng; YAN JiaAn


    In this paper, we give an overview of representation theorems for various static risk measures: coherent or convex risk measures, risk measures with comonotonic subadditivity or convexity, law-invariant coherent or convex risk measures, risk measures with comonotonic subadditivity or convexity and respecting stochastic orders.

  10. An overview of representation theorems for static risk measures


    In this paper,we give an overview of representation theorems for various static risk measures:coherent or convex risk measures, risk measures with comonotonic subadditivity or convexity, law-invariant coherent or convex risk measures, risk measures with comonotonic subadditivity or convexity and respecting stochastic orders.

  11. Ten-year absolute risk of osteoporotic fractures according to BMD T score at menopause

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Vestergaard, Peter; Rud, Bo;


    was 10.9% as opposed to an expected risk of 5.7%. Relative risk gradients were similar to those of the recent meta-analysis. CONCLUSIONS: In healthy women, examined in the first year or two after menopause, 10-year fracture risk was higher at each level of BMD T score than expected from the model...... by Kanis et al. Inclusion of HRT users in the cohorts used may have led to higher BMD values and lower absolute fracture risk in the Kanis model. These longitudinal data can be used directly in estimating absolute fracture risk in untreated north European women from BMD at menopause....

  12. High-risk and low-risk human papillomavirus and the absolute risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or cancer

    Thomsen, Louise; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Munk, Christian;


    OBJECTIVE: To determine the absolute risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 3 or cervical cancer (CIN 3 or worse) after detection of low-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) and after a negative high-risk HPV test. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, consecutive liquid......-based cervical cytology samples were collected from women screened for cervical cancer in Copenhagen, Denmark, during 2002-2005. Samples were tested with a clinical test for 13 high-risk and five low-risk HPV types. The cohort (N=35,539; aged 14-90 years) was monitored in a nationwide pathology register for up...... cytology. Detection of low-risk HPV does not predict CIN 3 or worse. Cervical cancer screening should not include testing for low-risk HPV types. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II....

  13. Combined risk measures: representation results and applications

    Göttsche, Ove Ernst


    The analysis and interpretation of risk play a crucial role in different areas of modern finance. This includes pricing of financial products, capital allocation and derivation of economic capital. Key to this analysis is the quantification of the risk via risk measures. A promising approach is to d


    C.R.Rene Robin


    Full Text Available Domain specific knowledge representation is achieved through the use of ontologies. The ontology model of software risk management is an effective approach for the intercommunion between people from teaching and learning community, the communication and interoperation among various knowledge oriented applications, and the share and reuse of the software. But the lack of formal representation tools for domain modeling results in taking liberties with conceptualization. This paper narrates an ontology based semantic knowledge representation mechanism and the architecture we proposed has been successfully implemented for the domain software riskmanagement.

  15. Greater absolute risk for all subtypes of breast cancer in the US than Malaysia.

    Horne, Hisani N; Beena Devi, C R; Sung, Hyuna; Tang, Tieng Swee; Rosenberg, Philip S; Hewitt, Stephen M; Sherman, Mark E; Anderson, William F; Yang, Xiaohong R


    Hormone receptor (HR) negative breast cancers are relatively more common in low-risk than high-risk countries and/or populations. However, the absolute variations between these different populations are not well established given the limited number of cancer registries with incidence rate data by breast cancer subtype. We, therefore, used two unique population-based resources with molecular data to compare incidence rates for the 'intrinsic' breast cancer subtypes between a low-risk Asian population in Malaysia and high-risk non-Hispanic white population in the National Cancer Institute's surveillance, epidemiology, and end results 18 registries database (SEER 18). The intrinsic breast cancer subtypes were recapitulated with the joint expression of the HRs (estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor) and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2). Invasive breast cancer incidence rates overall were fivefold greater in SEER 18 than in Malaysia. The majority of breast cancers were HR-positive in SEER 18 and HR-negative in Malaysia. Notwithstanding the greater relative distribution for HR-negative cancers in Malaysia, there was a greater absolute risk for all subtypes in SEER 18; incidence rates were nearly 7-fold higher for HR-positive and 2-fold higher for HR-negative cancers in SEER 18. Despite the well-established relative breast cancer differences between low-risk and high-risk countries and/or populations, there was a greater absolute risk for HR-positive and HR-negative subtypes in the US than Malaysia. Additional analytical studies are sorely needed to determine the factors responsible for the elevated risk of all subtypes of breast cancer in high-risk countries like the United States.

  16. An absolute risk model to identify individuals at elevated risk for pancreatic cancer in the general population.

    Alison P Klein

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: We developed an absolute risk model to identify individuals in the general population at elevated risk of pancreatic cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Using data on 3,349 cases and 3,654 controls from the PanScan Consortium, we developed a relative risk model for men and women of European ancestry based on non-genetic and genetic risk factors for pancreatic cancer. We estimated absolute risks based on these relative risks and population incidence rates. RESULTS: Our risk model included current smoking (multivariable adjusted odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval: 2.20 [1.84-2.62], heavy alcohol use (>3 drinks/day (OR: 1.45 [1.19-1.76], obesity (body mass index >30 kg/m(2 (OR: 1.26 [1.09-1.45], diabetes >3 years (nested case-control OR: 1.57 [1.13-2.18], case-control OR: 1.80 [1.40-2.32], family history of pancreatic cancer (OR: 1.60 [1.20-2.12], non-O ABO genotype (AO vs. OO genotype (OR: 1.23 [1.10-1.37] to (BB vs. OO genotype (OR 1.58 [0.97-2.59], rs3790844(chr1q32.1 (OR: 1.29 [1.19-1.40], rs401681(5p15.33 (OR: 1.18 [1.10-1.26] and rs9543325(13q22.1 (OR: 1.27 [1.18-1.36]. The areas under the ROC curve for risk models including only non-genetic factors, only genetic factors, and both non-genetic and genetic factors were 58%, 57% and 61%, respectively. We estimate that fewer than 3/1,000 U.S. non-Hispanic whites have more than a 5% predicted lifetime absolute risk. CONCLUSION: Although absolute risk modeling using established risk factors may help to identify a group of individuals at higher than average risk of pancreatic cancer, the immediate clinical utility of our model is limited. However, a risk model can increase awareness of the various risk factors for pancreatic cancer, including modifiable behaviors.

  17. Recommendations for benefit-risk assessment methodologies and visual representations

    Hughes, Diana; Waddingham, Ed; Mt-Isa, Shahrul


    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to draw on the practical experience from the PROTECT BR case studies and make recommendations regarding the application of a number of methodologies and visual representations for benefit-risk assessment. METHODS: Eight case studies based on the benefit......-risk balance of real medicines were used to test various methodologies that had been identified from the literature as having potential applications in benefit-risk assessment. Recommendations were drawn up based on the results of the case studies. RESULTS: A general pathway through the case studies...... preparation, (iii) Analysis, (iv) Exploration and (v) Conclusion and dissemination. CONCLUSIONS: Adopting formal, structured approaches to benefit-risk assessment was feasible in real-world problems and facilitated clear, transparent decision-making. Prior to this work, no extensive practical application...

  18. One idea of portfolio risk control for absolute return strategy risk adjustments by signals from correlation behavior

    Nishiyama, N.


    Absolute return strategy provided from fund of funds (FOFs) investment schemes is the focus in Japanese Financial Community. FOFs investment mainly consists of hedge fund investment and it has two major characteristics which are low correlation against benchmark index and little impact from various external changes in the environment given maximizing return. According to the historical track record of survival hedge funds in this business world, they maintain a stable high return and low risk. However, one must keep in mind that low risk would not be equal to risk free. The failure of Long-term capital management (LTCM) that took place in the summer of 1998 was a symbolized phenomenon. The summer of 1998 exhibited a certain limitation of traditional value at risk (VaR) and some possibility that traditional VaR could be ineffectual to the nonlinear type of fluctuation in the market. In this paper, I try to bring self-organized criticality (SOC) into portfolio risk control. SOC would be well known as a model of decay in the natural world. I analyzed nonlinear type of fluctuation in the market as SOC and applied SOC to capture complicated market movement using threshold point of SOC and risk adjustments by scenario correlation as implicit signals. Threshold becomes the control parameter of risk exposure to set downside floor and forecast extreme nonlinear type of fluctuation under a certain probability. Simulation results would show synergy effect of portfolio risk control between SOC and absolute return strategy.

  19. Discursive representations of children and adolescents at risk

    Moreir, Kelly Cristina de Almeida; Silva, Denize Elena Garcia da


    The paper aims to present and discuss discursive representations near the characterization of the problem of children and adolescents at risk, and how they relate to their perception in the regular educational system. We seek, specifically, to identify these young people’s opinion about then educational institutions attended by them. The main theoretical and methodological procedure used for the critical study of discourse is based on Fairclough (2001; 2003). The Systemic Functional Linguistic...

  20. Communicating risk using absolute risk reduction or prolongation of life formats: cluster-randomised trial in general practice

    Harmsen, Charlotte Gry; Kristiansen, Ivar Sønbø; Larsen, Pia Veldt


    BACKGROUND: It is important that patients are well-informed about risks and benefits of therapies to help them decide whether to accept medical therapy. Different numerical formats can be used in risk communication but It remains unclear how the different formats affect decisions made by real-life...... patients. AIM: To compare the impact of using Prolongation Of Life (POL) and Absolute Risk Reduction (ARR) information formats to express effectiveness of cholesterol-lowering therapy on patients' redemptions of statin prescriptions, and on patients' confidence in their decision and satisfaction....... The COMRADE questionnaire was used to measure patients' confidence in their decision and satisfaction with the risk communication. RESULTS: Of the 240 patients included for analyses, 112 were allocated to POL information and 128 to ARR. Patients redeeming a statin prescription totalled six (5.4%) when...

  1. Performance of models for estimating absolute risk difference in multicenter trials with binary outcome

    Claudia Pedroza


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reporting of absolute risk difference (RD is recommended for clinical and epidemiological prospective studies. In analyses of multicenter studies, adjustment for center is necessary when randomization is stratified by center or when there is large variation in patients outcomes across centers. While regression methods are used to estimate RD adjusted for baseline predictors and clustering, no formal evaluation of their performance has been previously conducted. Methods We performed a simulation study to evaluate 6 regression methods fitted under a generalized estimating equation framework: binomial identity, Poisson identity, Normal identity, log binomial, log Poisson, and logistic regression model. We compared the model estimates to unadjusted estimates. We varied the true response function (identity or log, number of subjects per center, true risk difference, control outcome rate, effect of baseline predictor, and intracenter correlation. We compared the models in terms of convergence, absolute bias and coverage of 95 % confidence intervals for RD. Results The 6 models performed very similar to each other for the majority of scenarios. However, the log binomial model did not converge for a large portion of the scenarios including a baseline predictor. In scenarios with outcome rate close to the parameter boundary, the binomial and Poisson identity models had the best performance, but differences from other models were negligible. The unadjusted method introduced little bias to the RD estimates, but its coverage was larger than the nominal value in some scenarios with an identity response. Under the log response, coverage from the unadjusted method was well below the nominal value (<80 % for some scenarios. Conclusions We recommend the use of a binomial or Poisson GEE model with identity link to estimate RD for correlated binary outcome data. If these models fail to run, then either a logistic regression, log Poisson

  2. Evolution of the excess absolute risk (EAR) in the Valencian breast cancer screening programme

    Ferrer, S.; Ramos, M.; Villaescusa, J. I.; Verdu, G.; Salas, M. D.; Cuevas, M. D.


    Breast cancer is one of the most frequent diseases in women, with a high incidence rate. The best fight against the breast cancer is the early detection by menas of mammograms in a screening programme. The Valencian Breast Cancer Screening Programme (VBCSP) started at 1992, and it is composed of twenty-two mammography units. The programme is targeted towards asympotomatic women dfrom 45 to 69 years old, but this screening has a negative influence in the studied woman, whatever the diagnosis was. By means of MCNP-4c2 Monte Carlo code, some conversion factors from air kerma air kerma to glandular dose have been developed. Different breast woamn models, according to the Valencian brest anathomy (taking into account the relation breast radius / breast compression thickness obtained from real samples, have been simulated in order to obtain the glandular breast dose values. Quality control parameters as ESAK values were also employed for developing the methods. The conversion factors give a simple and fast wasy to obtain the mean glandular dose from mammography exposition parameters. The glandular dose has been also calculated following the European Protocol on Dosimetry in order to compare the results of the new methodology. Four sample populations of 100 omen from each uunit of the VBCSP have been taken innnn order to estimate the mean glandular dose and the associated excess absolute risk (EAR). Once the doses for each woman from the samples are obtained and according to the age of them, the EAR value for each sample has been determinated following the UNSCEAR 2000 projection risk model, which takes into account the characteristics of the Valencian population and gives the EAR for radio-induced breast cancer. The results have been calculated and compared by means of the ASQRAD software, but with an older risk projection model, the UNSCEAR 1994. Once the four sample average EAR have been calculated, the evolution of the induced risk in the Valencian Breast Cancer

  3. Quantifying cancer absolute risk and cancer mortality in the presence of competing events after a myotonic dystrophy diagnosis.

    Shahinaz M Gadalla

    Full Text Available Recent studies show that patients with myotonic dystrophy (DM have an increased risk of specific malignancies, but estimates of absolute cancer risk accounting for competing events are lacking. Using the Swedish Patient Registry, we identified 1,081 patients with an inpatient and/or outpatient diagnosis of DM between 1987 and 2007. Date and cause of death and date of cancer diagnosis were extracted from the Swedish Cause of Death and Cancer Registries. We calculated non-parametric estimates of absolute cancer risk and cancer mortality accounting for the high non-cancer competing mortality associated with DM. Absolute cancer risk after DM diagnosis was 1.6% (95% CI=0.4-4%, 5% (95% CI=3-9% and 9% (95% CI=6-13% at ages 40, 50 and 60 years, respectively. Females had a higher absolute risk of all cancers combined than males: 9% (95% CI=4-14, and 13% (95% CI=9-20 vs. 2% (95%CI= 0.7-6 and 4% (95%CI=2-8 by ages 50 and 60 years, respectively and developed cancer at younger ages (median age =51 years, range=22-74 vs. 57, range=43-84, respectively, p=0.02. Cancer deaths accounted for 10% of all deaths, with an absolute cancer mortality risk of 2% (95%CI=1-4.5%, 4% (95%CI=2-6%, and 6% (95%CI=4-9% by ages 50, 60, and 70 years, respectively. No gender difference in cancer-specific mortality was observed (p=0.6. In conclusion, cancer significantly contributes to morbidity and mortality in DM patients, even after accounting for high competing DM mortality from non-neoplastic causes. It is important to apply population-appropriate, validated cancer screening strategies in DM patients.

  4. Mapping return levels of absolute NDVI variations for the assessment of drought risk in Ethiopia

    Tonini, F.; Hochmair, H. H.; Jona Lasinio, G.


    The analysis and forecasting of extreme climatic events has become increasingly relevant to planning effective financial and food-related interventions in third-world countries. Natural disasters and climate change, both large and small scale, have a great impact on non-industrialized populations who rely exclusively on activities such as crop production, fishing, and similar livelihood activities. It is important to identify the extent of the areas prone to severe drought conditions in order to study the possible consequences of the drought on annual crop production. In this paper, we aim to identify such areas within the South Tigray zone, Ethiopia, using a transformation of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) called Absolute Difference NDVI (ADVI). Negative NDVI shifts from the historical average can generally be linked to a reduction in the vigor of local vegetation. Drought is more likely to increase in areas where negative shifts occur more frequently and with high magnitude, making it possible to spot critical situations. We propose a new methodology for the assessment of drought risk in areas where crop production represents a primary source of livelihood for its inhabitants. We estimate ADVI return levels pixel per pixel by fitting extreme value models to independent monthly minima. The study is conducted using SPOT-Vegetation (VGT) ten-day composite (S10) images from April 1998 to March 2009. In all short-term and long-term predictions, we found that central and southern areas of the South Tigray zone are prone to a higher drought risk compared to other areas.; Temporal autocorrelation among monthly minima within the Alamata woreda. (a) ACF-Boxplot and (b) PACF-Boxplot. ; ADVI return level estimates. (a) 10-Month return levels. (b) 100-Month return levels. (c) 1000-Month return levels.


    Vreeswijk, Charlotte M J M; Rijk, Catharina H A M; Maas, A Janneke B M; van Bakel, Hedwig J A


    Parents' representations of their infants consist of parents' subjective experiences of how they perceive their infants. They provide important information about the quality of the parent-infant relationship and are closely related to parenting behavior and infant attachment. Previous studies have shown that parents' representations emerge during pregnancy. However, little is known about prenatal (risk) factors that are related to parents' representations. In a prospective study, 308 mothers and 243 fathers were followed during pregnancy and postpartum. Prenatal risk factors were assessed with an adapted version of the Dunedin Family Services Indicator (T.G. Egan et al., ; R.C. Muir et al., ). At 26 weeks' gestation and 6 months' postpartum, parents' representations of their children were assessed with the Working Model of the Child Interview (C.H. Zeanah, D. Benoit, L. Hirshberg, M.L. Barton, & C. Regan). Results showed stability between pre- and postnatal representations, with fathers having more disengaged representations than did mothers. In addition, prenatal risk factors of parenting problems were associated with the quality of parents' prenatal (only in mothers) and postnatal representations. This study provides valuable information concerning parents at risk of developing nonbalanced representations of their children. In clinical practice, these families could be monitored more intensively and may be supported in developing a more optimal parent-infant relationship.

  6. Easy Absolute Values? Absolutely

    Taylor, Sharon E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage


    The authors teach a problem-solving course for preservice middle-grades education majors that includes concepts dealing with absolute-value computations, equations, and inequalities. Many of these students like mathematics and plan to teach it, so they are adept at symbolic manipulations. Getting them to think differently about a concept that they…

  7. Predicting Absolute Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Using Age and Waist Circumference Values in an Aboriginal Australian Community

    Odewumi Adegbija; Wendy Hoy; Zhiqiang Wang


    Objectives To predict in an Australian Aboriginal community, the 10-year absolute risk of type 2 diabetes associated with waist circumference and age on baseline examination. Method A sample of 803 diabetes-free adults (82.3% of the age-eligible population) from baseline data of participants collected from 1992 to 1998 were followed-up for up to 20 years till 2012. The Cox-proportional hazard model was used to estimate the effects of waist circumference and other risk factors, including age, ...

  8. Absolute risk of suicide after first hospital contact in mental disorder

    Nordentoft, Merete; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker


    Estimates of lifetime risk of suicide in mental disorders were based on selected samples with incomplete follow-up.......Estimates of lifetime risk of suicide in mental disorders were based on selected samples with incomplete follow-up....

  9. Higher relative, but lower absolute risks of myocardial infarction in women than in men

    Reuterwall, C; Hallqvist, J; Ahlbom, A;


    Middle-aged men have often been the subjects of multifactorial studies of myocardial infarction (MI) risk factors. One major objective of the SHEEP study was to compare the effects of different MI risk factors in women and men....

  10. Decoherence at absolute zero

    Sinha, Supurna


    We present an analytical study of the loss of quantum coherence at absolute zero. Our model consists of a harmonic oscillator coupled to an environment of harmonic oscillators at absolute zero. We find that for an Ohmic bath, the offdiagonal elements of the density matrix in the position representation decay as a power law in time at late times. This slow loss of coherence in the quantum domain is qualitatively different from the exponential decay observed in studies of high temperature envir...

  11. Bridging the etiologic and prognostic outlooks in individualized assessment of absolute risk of an illness: application in lung cancer.

    Karp, Igor; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Leffondré, Karen; Siemiatycki, Jack


    Assessment of individual risk of illness is an important activity in preventive medicine. Development of risk-assessment models has heretofore relied predominantly on studies involving follow-up of cohort-type populations, while case-control studies have generally been considered unfit for this purpose. To present a method for individualized assessment of absolute risk of an illness (as illustrated by lung cancer) based on data from a 'non-nested' case-control study. We used data from a case-control study conducted in Montreal, Canada in 1996-2001. Individuals diagnosed with lung cancer (n = 920) and age- and sex-matched lung-cancer-free subjects (n = 1288) completed questionnaires documenting life-time cigarette-smoking history and occupational, medical, and family history. Unweighted and weighted logistic models were fitted. Model overfitting was assessed using bootstrap-based cross-validation and 'shrinkage.' The discriminating ability was assessed by the c-statistic, and the risk-stratifying performance was assessed by examination of the variability in risk estimates over hypothetical risk-profiles. In the logistic models, the logarithm of incidence-density of lung cancer was expressed as a function of age, sex, cigarette-smoking history, history of respiratory conditions and exposure to occupational carcinogens, and family history of lung cancer. The models entailed a minimal degree of overfitting ('shrinkage' factor: 0.97 for both unweighted and weighted models) and moderately high discriminating ability (c-statistic: 0.82 for the unweighted model and 0.66 for the weighted model). The method's risk-stratifying performance was quite high. The presented method allows for individualized assessment of risk of lung cancer and can be used for development of risk-assessment models for other illnesses.

  12. Looking for appropriate qualification conditions for subdifferential formulae and dual representations for convex risk measures

    Bot, Radu Ioan


    A fruitful idea, when providing subdifferential formulae and dual representations for convex risk measures, is to make use of the conjugate duality theory in convex optimization. In this paper we underline the outstanding role played by the qualification conditions in the context of different problem formulations in this area. We show that not only the meanwhile classical generalized interiority point ones come here to bear, but also a recently introduced one formulated by means of the quasi-relative interior.

  13. Absolute advantage

    J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)


    textabstractA country is said to have an absolute advantage over another country in the production of a good or service if it can produce that good or service using fewer real resources. Equivalently, using the same inputs, the country can produce more output. The concept of absolute advantage can a

  14. Mammographic breast density and breast cancer risk: interactions of percent density, absolute dense, and non-dense areas with breast cancer risk factors.

    Yaghjyan, Lusine; Colditz, Graham A; Rosner, Bernard; Tamimi, Rulla M


    We investigated if associations of breast density and breast cancer differ according to the level of other known breast cancer risk factors, including body mass index (BMI), age at menarche, parity, age at first child's birth, age at menopause, alcohol consumption, a family history of breast cancer, a history of benign breast disease, and physical activity. This study included 1,044 postmenopausal incident breast cancer cases diagnosed within the Nurses' Health Study cohort and 1,794 matched controls. Percent breast density, absolute dense, and non-dense areas were measured from digitized film images with computerized techniques. Information on breast cancer risk factors was obtained prospectively from biennial questionnaires. Percent breast density was more strongly associated with breast cancer risk in current postmenopausal hormone users (≥50 vs. 10 %: OR 5.34, 95 % CI 3.36-8.49) as compared to women with past (OR 2.69, 95 % CI 1.32-5.49) or no hormone history (OR 2.57, 95 % CI 1.18-5.60, p-interaction = 0.03). Non-dense area was inversely associated with breast cancer risk in parous women, but not in women without children (p-interaction = 0.03). Associations of density with breast cancer risk did not differ by the levels of BMI, age at menarche, parity, age at first child's birth, age at menopause, alcohol consumption, a family history of breast cancer, a history of benign breast disease, and physical activity. Women with dense breasts, who currently use menopausal hormone therapy are at a particularly high risk of breast cancer. Most breast cancer risk factors do not modify the association between mammographic breast density and breast cancer risk.

  15. Risk and Representation in Research Ethics: The NunatuKavut Experience.

    Brunger, Fern; Russell, Todd


    This article examines Canadian policy governing the ethics of research involving Indigenous communities. Academics and community members collaborated in research to examine how best to apply the Tri-Council Policy Statement guidelines in a community with complex and multiple political and cultural jurisdictions. We examined issues of NunatuKavut (Southern Inuit) authority and representation in relation to governance of research in a context where community identity is complex and shifting, and new provincial legislation mandates centralized ethics review. We describe the politics of risk--the ways in which collective identity and research risks are co-constructed. Our case study illustrates that collective consent to research must emphasize shifting identity construction in relation to the particular risks and benefits invoked by the research question, to ascertain with which groups or individuals the negotiation of risk should take place in the first place. We conclude by describing a necessary re-imagining of policy governing research ethics involving Indigenous communities.

  16. Gist Representations and Communication of Risks about HIV-AIDS: A Fuzzy-Trace Theory Approach.

    Wilhelms, Evan A; Reyna, Valerie F; Brust-Renck, Priscila; Weldon, Rebecca B; Corbin, Jonathan C


    As predicted by fuzzy-trace theory, people with a range of training—from untrained adolescents to expert physicians—are susceptible to biases and errors in judgment and perception of HIV-AIDS risk. To explain why this occurs, we introduce fuzzy-trace theory as a theoretical perspective that describes these errors to be a function of knowledge deficits, gist-based representation of risk categories, retrieval failure for risk knowledge, and processing interference (e.g., base-rate neglect) in combining risk estimates. These principles explain how people perceive HIV-AIDS risk and why they take risks with potentially lethal outcomes, often despite rote (verbatim) knowledge.For example, people inappropriately generalize the wrong gist about condoms' effectiveness against fluid-borne disease to diseases that are transferred skin-to-skin, such as HPV. We also describe how variation in processing in adolescence (e.g., more verbatim processing compared to adults) can be a route to risk-taking that explains key aspects of why many people are infected with HIV in youth, as well as how interventions that emphasize bottom-line gists communicate risks effectively.

  17. Representations of primary care professionals about the occupational risk of HIV infection.

    de Souza, Marina Celly Martins Ribeiro; Freitas, Maria Imaculada de Fátima


    This was a qualitative study, based on the Social Representations Theory, with professionals that work in primary care, about the risk of HIV infection to which they are exposed in their quotidian work routine. Twelve physicians and nurses who work in two Health Centers in the city of Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil, were interviewed. The final analysis, carried out using the saturation of information criterion, was based on the method proposed by Structural Analysis of Narrative. The results show that the health professionals interviewed knew the infection risk in their work routine, representing it as very low in primary care, because they relate it to technological complexity which they consider does not exist in the level of assistance in which they work. They believed that the use of personal protection equipment may minimize the risks and that, nowadays, no primary care professional refuses to attend a patient due to fear of infection, even if not using all the recommended precautions.

  18. C-reactive protein, established risk factors and social inequalities in cardiovascular disease – the significance of absolute versus relative measures of disease

    Hedblad Bo


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The widespread use of relative scales in socioepidemiological studies has recently been criticized. The criticism is based mainly on the fact that the importance of different risk factors in explaining social inequalities in cardiovascular disease (CVD varies, depending on which scale is used to measure social inequalities. The present study examines the importance of established risk factors, as opposed to low-grade inflammation, in explaining socioeconomic differences in the incidence of CVD, using both relative and absolute scales. Methods We obtained information on socioeconomic position (SEP, established risk factors (smoking, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia, and low-grade inflammation as measured by high-sensitive (hs C-reactive protein (CRP levels, in 4,268 Swedish men and women who participated in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (MDCS. Data on first cardiovascular events, i.e., stroke or coronary event (CE, was collected from regional and national registers. Social inequalities were measured in relative terms, i.e., as ratios between incidence rates in groups with lower and higher SEP, and also in absolute terms, i.e., as the absolute difference in incidence rates in groups with lower and higher SEP. Results Those with low SEP had a higher risk of future CVD. Adjustment for risk factors resulted in a rather small reduction in the relative socioeconomic gradient, namely 8% for CRP (≥ 3 mg/L and 21% for established risk factors taken together. However, there was a reduction of 18% in the absolute socioeconomic gradient when looking at subjects with CRP-levels Conclusion C-reactive protein and established risk factors all contribute to socioeconomic differences in CVD. However, conclusions on the importance of "modern" risk factors (here, CRP, as opposed to established risk factors, in the association between SEP and CVD depend on the scale on which social inequalities are measured. The one-sided use of the relative

  19. [Representations of informal jobs and health risks among housemaids and construction workers].

    Iriart, Jorge Alberto Bernstein; de Oliveira, Roberval Passos; Xavier, Shirlei da Silva; Costa, Alane Mendara da Silva; de Araújo, Gustavo Ribeiro; Santana, Vilma Sousa


    During the past few decades, the Brazilian labor market has been characterized by an increase of unregistered workers, earning lower wages, not covered by social insurance or occupational risk prevention programs. This study describes the representations and perceptions about informal work contracts and job-related health risks, analyzed in a group of injured unregistered workers. This was a qualitative study based on in-depth interviews carried out with seventeen laborers, nine housemaids and eight construction workers. The findings indicate that workers recognize the importance of formal jobs, mainly because of legal guarantees of labor rights, mentioning the symbolic downgrading of informal jobs that undermines their self-esteem. Both work groups tended to minimize occupational health risks in the work environment, and did not recognize associations between informal job contracts and occupational accidents or diseases. It was clear that workers want to have job contracts. The findings of the study demonstrate the need for broader dissemination and discussion about labor rights and the construction of public policies that encompass health and safety programs for these workers.

  20. Absolute Summ

    Phillips, Alfred, Jr.

    Summ means the entirety of the multiverse. It seems clear, from the inflation theories of A. Guth and others, that the creation of many universes is plausible. We argue that Absolute cosmological ideas, not unlike those of I. Newton, may be consistent with dynamic multiverse creations. As suggested in W. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and with the Anthropic Principle defended by S. Hawking, et al., human consciousness, buttressed by findings of neuroscience, may have to be considered in our models. Predictability, as A. Einstein realized with Invariants and General Relativity, may be required for new ideas to be part of physics. We present here a two postulate model geared to an Absolute Summ. The seedbed of this work is part of Akhnaton's philosophy (see S. Freud, Moses and Monotheism). Most important, however, is that the structure of human consciousness, manifest in Kenya's Rift Valley 200,000 years ago as Homo sapiens, who were the culmination of the six million year co-creation process of Hominins and Nature in Africa, allows us to do the physics that we do. .

  1. Long-term absolute risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse following human papillomavirus infection: role of persistence

    Kjær, Susanne K; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Plum, Christian Edinger Munk;


    Infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main cause of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cancer. It has been suggested that information about high-risk HPV type-specific infection might make cervical cancer screening more effective. Persistent HPV infection...


    Toth Kornel


    Full Text Available In a continuously changing business environment accounting data have to provide useful information in order to achieve relevant and faithful representation in financial statements. Since global markets have changed radically, growing international trade means the horizons of investors and borrowers have now become global, which has increased the level of their risks. Concerning international trade and investment, one of the most important risks is uncertainty about future foreign currency exchange rates and interest rates. Changes in financial markets have increased the use of derivative instruments (such as forwards, futures, swaps, and options to hedge risk exposure worldwide, while the related accounting standards have not kept pace with those changes. Because of the complexity and variety of these instruments, reporting on derivatives faces many difficulties, since a different framework and different accounting concepts are required to present useful financial information. For these reasons the growing use of derivative financial instruments and the challenges of the global financial system have intensified and sharpened debates about whether derivative instruments increase or decrease the risk of banks, affecting faithful representation based on their financial statements and decision usefulness of the reported information. This study aims to describe the transformation of accounting concepts and its effect on fair value accounting for derivative financial instruments in the information economy. The research question of the paper is whether the advantages of fair value accounting exceed the disadvantages, especially in the case of derivatives, in reducing the uncertainty and risk associated with financial reporting. Based on this question, the purpose of the empirical research is to assess the level of different risks which banks operating in Hungary face when using derivative financial instruments and to investigate how and to what extent

  3. Prediction of absolute risk of fragility fracture at 10 years in a Spanish population: validation of the WHO FRAX ™ tool in Spain

    Solà Sílvia


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Age-related bone loss is asymptomatic, and the morbidity of osteoporosis is secondary to the fractures that occur. Common sites of fracture include the spine, hip, forearm and proximal humerus. Fractures at the hip incur the greatest morbidity and mortality and give rise to the highest direct costs for health services. Their incidence increases exponentially with age. Independently changes in population demography, the age - and sex- specific incidence of osteoporotic fractures appears to be increasing in developing and developed countries. This could mean more than double the expected burden of osteoporotic fractures in the next 50 years. Methods/Design To assess the predictive power of the WHO FRAX™ tool to identify the subjects with the highest absolute risk of fragility fracture at 10 years in a Spanish population, a predictive validation study of the tool will be carried out. For this purpose, the participants recruited by 1999 will be assessed. These were referred to scan-DXA Department from primary healthcare centres, non hospital and hospital consultations. Study population: Patients attended in the national health services integrated into a FRIDEX cohort with at least one Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA measurement and one extensive questionnaire related to fracture risk factors. Measurements: At baseline bone mineral density measurement using DXA, clinical fracture risk factors questionnaire, dietary calcium intake assessment, history of previous fractures, and related drugs. Follow up by telephone interview to know fragility fractures in the 10 years with verification in electronic medical records and also to know the number of falls in the last year. The absolute risk of fracture will be estimated using the FRAX™ tool from the official web site. Discussion Since more than 10 years ago numerous publications have recognised the importance of other risk factors for new osteoporotic fractures in addition to

  4. Risk: For Whom? Representations of Mining Activity by Different Social Actors in the Molango Manganese District of Hidalgo, Mexico.

    Catalán-Vázquez, Minerva; Riojas-Rodríguez, Horacio; Pelcastre-Villafuerte, Blanca Estela


    Previous studies have shown high levels of manganese exposure and neurocognitive damage in the population living in the mining zone in Molango, Mexico. One of the objectives of the Intersectoral Group on Environmental Management for the mining district has been to provide public participation in the risk management plan. To achieve this, it is important to know how the different social actors represent the mining activity. The objectives of this study were to characterize the social representations of the mining activity by different social actors. A qualitative design was used based on in-depth interviews of residents, public officials, and a mining company representative. The analysis was conducted according to themes for each group of actors. Essentially, distinct social representations of the different mining activities were identified. Residents viewed mining activities as synonymous with contamination and, therefore, as having affected all areas of their environment, health, and daily life. These activities were seen as a collective risk. The public officials and the mining company held that there was no evidence of harm and saw mining activities as a generator of regional development. Harm to health and the environment were seen as a stance taken by the communities in order to obtain economic benefits from the company. These images of the "other" are shaped by social, political, and cultural factors. They make it difficult for the actors to reach cooperative agreements and thereby affect progress on the risk management plan. Decisionmakers need to take these differences into account when promoting social participation.

  5. Teaching Absolute Value Meaningfully

    Wade, Angela


    What is the meaning of absolute value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve absolute value equations? Absolute value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching absolute value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…

  6. A prospective cohort study on the absolute risks of venous thromboembolism and predictive value of screening asymptomatic relatives of patients with hereditary deficiencies of protein S, protein C or antithrombin

    Mahmoodi, B. K.; Brouwer, J-L P.; Ten Kate, M. K.; Lijfering, W. M.; Veeger, N. J. G. M.; Mulder, A. B.; Kluin-Nelemans, H. C.; van der Meer, J.


    Background: Absolute risks of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in protein S-, protein C-, or antithrombin-deficient subjects are mainly based on retrospective data. Screening asymptomatic relatives of these patients is disputed, though studies addressing this issue have yet to be conducted. Methods: We

  7. A prospective cohort study on the absolute risks of venous thromboembolism and predictive value of screening asymptomatic relatives of patients with hereditary deficiencies of protein S, protein C or antithrombin.

    Mahmoodi, B.K.; Brouwer, J.L.P.; Kate, M.K. Ten; Lijfering, W.M.; Veeger, N.J.; Mulder, A.B.; Kluin-Nelemans, H.C.; Meer, J. van der


    BACKGROUND: Absolute risks of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in protein S-, protein C-, or antithrombin-deficient subjects are mainly based on retrospective data. Screening asymptomatic relatives of these patients is disputed, though studies addressing this issue have yet to be conducted. METHODS: We

  8. Differentiation, Self-Other Representations, and Rupture-Repair Processes: Predicting Child Maltreatment Risk

    Skowron, Elizabeth A.; Kozlowski, JoEllen M.; Pincus, Aaron L.


    This set of studies was designed to examine the relational underpinnings of child abuse potential in a sample of 51 urban families. In Study 1, lower maternal differentiation of self--most notably, greater emotional reactivity and greater emotional cutoff--along with self-attacking introjects distinguished mothers at higher risk (vs. lower risk)…

  9. Risk and threat factors in prior representations of driving situations among powered two-wheeler riders and car drivers.

    Ragot-Court, Isabelle; Mundutéguy, Christophe; Fournier, Jean-Yves


    Our research objective is to contribute to gaining a better understanding of the difficulties inherent to managing interactions between power two-wheeler riders and car drivers. 132 power two-wheeler riders and 94 car drivers have been asked what they perceive as being riskiest in driving situations for the representatives of their generic reference group. From all the answers produced, only those which provide information on risk factors related to the other and the occurrence of interferences due to the dynamic situation have been retained and analysed. The results provide a partial explanation of the difficulties related to the two types of users' taking each other into account. On the one hand, the frequency with which the other is mentioned as a source of risk is linked to the concept of conspicuity. This interpretation is related to the relative frequency of the interactions and the difference of real and perceived vulnerability between the users. On the other hand, the specific risk factors attributed to the other illustrates a mutual misunderstanding or ignorance of the driving situation's determinants. These include various practices among users which can be related to the physical and dynamic characteristics of their vehicle and their level of familiarity with other users. The potential road safety consequences of prior representations of risk factors among users are presented and suggestions for improving road user safety are proposed.

  10. Traditional medicines, collective negotiation, and representations of risk in Indian cancer care.

    Broom, Alex F; Doron, Assa


    Cancer is emerging as a key disease in India, but there has been virtually no research exploring understandings of cancer and practices of communication within oncology settings. This is despite the fact that the Indian context presents clinicians, patients, and family members with a range of unique challenges, including those related to disease awareness, interpersonal dynamics, and the use of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicines (TCAM). Drawing on a series of qualitative interviews with 22 Delhi-based oncology clinicians, in this article we examine clinicians' accounts of communication with their cancer patients. The interviews reveal the challenges of communication given cancer's relative novelty, cultural practices around collective negotiation, and rhetorical practices evident in advice-giving regarding TCAM. We conclude that with cancer set to become a major burden in India, research exploring competing forms of expertise, the politics of representation, and the nexus between traditional beliefs and techno-scientific development is urgently needed.

  11. Cognitive and Affective Representations of Active Surveillance as a Treatment Option for Low-Risk Prostate Cancer.

    Lyons, Kathleen D; Li, Hsin H; Mader, Emily M; Stewart, Telisa M; Morley, Christopher P; Formica, Margaret K; Perrapato, Scott D; Seigne, John D; Hyams, Elias S; Irwin, Brian H; Mosher, Terry; Hegel, Mark T


    Benefits of early diagnosis and treatment remain debatable for men with low-risk prostate cancer. Active surveillance (AS) is an alternative to treatment. The goal of AS is to identify patients whose cancer is progressing rapidly while avoiding treatment in the majority of patients. The purpose of this study was to explore cognitive and affective representations of AS within a clinical environment that promotes AS a viable option for men with low-risk prostate cancer. Participants included patients for whom AS and active treatment were equally viable options, as well as practitioners who were involved in consultations for prostate cancer. Data were generated from semistructured interviews and audits of consultation notes and were analyzed using thematic analysis. Nineteen patients and 16 practitioners completed a semistructured interview. Patients generally viewed AS as a temporary strategy that was largely equated with inaction. There was variation in the degree to which inaction was viewed as warranted or favorable. Patient perceptions of AS were generally malleable and able to be influenced by information from trusted sources. Encouraging slow deliberation and multiple consultations may facilitate greater understanding and acceptance of AS as a viable treatment option for low-risk prostate cancer.

  12. Methodology to predict long-term cancer survival from short-term data using Tobacco Cancer Risk and Absolute Cancer Cure models

    Mould, R. F.; Lederman, M.; Tai, P.; Wong, J. K. M.


    Three parametric statistical models have been fully validated for cancer of the larynx for the prediction of long-term 15, 20 and 25 year cancer-specific survival fractions when short-term follow-up data was available for just 1-2 years after the end of treatment of the last patient. In all groups of cases the treatment period was only 5 years. Three disease stage groups were studied, T1N0, T2N0 and T3N0. The models are the Standard Lognormal (SLN) first proposed by Boag (1949 J. R. Stat. Soc. Series B 11 15-53) but only ever fully validated for cancer of the cervix, Mould and Boag (1975 Br. J. Cancer 32 529-50), and two new models which have been termed Tobacco Cancer Risk (TCR) and Absolute Cancer Cure (ACC). In each, the frequency distribution of survival times of defined groups of cancer deaths is lognormally distributed: larynx only (SLN), larynx and lung (TCR) and all cancers (ACC). All models each have three unknown parameters but it was possible to estimate a value for the lognormal parameter S a priori. By reduction to two unknown parameters the model stability has been improved. The material used to validate the methodology consisted of case histories of 965 patients, all treated during the period 1944-1968 by Dr Manuel Lederman of the Royal Marsden Hospital, London, with follow-up to 1988. This provided a follow-up range of 20- 44 years and enabled predicted long-term survival fractions to be compared with the actual survival fractions, calculated by the Kaplan and Meier (1958 J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 53 457-82) method. The TCR and ACC models are better than the SLN model and for a maximum short-term follow-up of 6 years, the 20 and 25 year survival fractions could be predicted. Therefore the numbers of follow-up years saved are respectively 14 years and 19 years. Clinical trial results using the TCR and ACC models can thus be analysed much earlier than currently possible. Absolute cure from cancer was also studied, using not only the prediction models which

  13. Patient-blaming and representation of risk factors in breast cancer images.

    Andsager, J L; Hust, S J; Powers, A


    Media coverage of some cancers in the past often equated cancer with a death sentence. Breast cancer coverage in 1990s magazines, however, has become less fatalistic, more frequent, and discusses a broader range of issues than before. This study examined whether the visual images accompanying magazine articles about breast cancer have also evolved. We used Goffman's (1976) rituals of subordination to measure patient-blaming and subordinating, disempowering images. We also analyzed race/ethnicity, body type, and age of females in the images to gauge whether these demographic risk factors were represented in a random sample of images from nine magazines over a 30-year period. Magazines analyzed represented three genres-women's magazines, fashion/beauty, and general news. Findings suggest that patient-blaming images have decreased in some categories and women portrayed are slightly more representative of risk factors of age and race/ethnicity. Magazine images tended to reinforce stereotyped portrayals of femininity to the detriment of cancer patients. Fashion/beauty magazines, aimed at younger women, were most likely to portray breast cancer images in stereotyped, patient-blaming ways, with the least representative images of risk factors. The social construction of feminine beauty seems to overpower accuracy in creating these images.

  14. Absolute nuclear material assay

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA


    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  15. Trends in absolute and relative educational inequalities in four modifiable ischaemic heart disease risk factors: repeated cross-sectional surveys from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT 1984–2008

    Ernstsen Linda


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been an overall decrease in incident ischaemic heart disease (IHD, but the reduction in IHD risk factors has been greater among those with higher social position. Increased social inequalities in IHD mortality in Scandinavian countries is often referred to as the Scandinavian “public health puzzle”. The objective of this study was to examine trends in absolute and relative educational inequalities in four modifiable ischaemic heart disease risk factors (smoking, diabetes, hypertension and high total cholesterol over the last three decades among Norwegian middle-aged women and men. Methods Population-based, cross-sectional data from The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT: HUNT 1 (1984–1986, HUNT 2 (1995–1997 and HUNT 3 (2006–2008, women and men 40–59 years old. Educational inequalities were assessed using the Slope Index of Inequality (SII and The Relative Index of Inequality (RII. Results Smoking prevalence increased for all education groups among women and decreased in men. Relative and absolute educational inequalities in smoking widened in both genders, with significantly higher absolute inequalities among women than men in the two last surveys. Diabetes prevalence increased in all groups. Relative inequalities in diabetes were stable, while absolute inequalities increased both among women (p = 0.05 and among men (p = 0.01. Hypertension prevalence decreased in all groups. Relative inequalities in hypertension widened over time in both genders. However, absolute inequalities in hypertension decreased among women (p = 0.05 and were stable among men (p = 0.33. For high total cholesterol relative and absolute inequalities remained stable in both genders. Conclusion Widening absolute educational inequalities in smoking and diabetes over the last three decades gives rise to concern. The mechanisms behind these results are less clear, and future studies are needed to assess if educational

  16. Social Representation Theory in Risk Studies%论风险研究领域中的社会表征理论

    王磊; 伍麟


    The current risk studies are conducted by employing such theories as are characterized mainly by the technique orientation,culture orientation and the notion of social amplification of risks. Though having deepened our understanding of risks,these theories have some limitations. The funda-mental one is that they all focus on the individual,static and cognitive aspects of risk perception. The social representations theory,however,uses common sense to understand the new things and regard social representations as the interface between individual and social levels. Social representations theo-ry emphasizes the interactions among group members to reach a consensus while allowing individual differences. It argues that representations will change with interpersonal interactions and the passage of time. These features can make up for the limitations of the risk perception theory. The sub-theories of social representations,i. e. the structural theory,identity theory and toblerone model,lay a solid the-oretical basis for the studies of risk representations. Different research methods like triangulation,word associations,serial reproduction,and basic cognitive schemes,constitute their methodological basis. Thus,social representations theory can become a new guiding theory for risk studies.%  社会表征理论以常识理解新事物为出发点,立足于个体和社会层面的交汇点,关注群体成员互动达成共识的同时允许个体差异的存在,认为表征会在人际互动和时间推移过程中发生变化。这些特点可以弥补风险感知的不足。社会表征的结构理论、身份理论和三角巧克力模型为风险表征的研究提供了理论基础;三角测量法、字词联想法、系列复制法和基本认知图式为其提供了方法论基础。社会表征理论可以成为风险研究的一个新的指导理论。

  17. Absolute neutrino mass update

    Päs, H; P\\"as, Heinrich; Weiler, Thomas J.


    The determination of absolute neutrino masses is crucial for the understanding of theories underlying the standard model, such as SUSY. We review the experimental prospects to determine absolute neutrino masses and the correlations among approaches, using the Delta m^2's inferred from neutrino oscillation experiments and assuming a three neutrino Universe.


    Schechter, J.; Shahid, M. N.


    We discuss the possibility of using experiments timing the propagation of neutrino beams over large distances to help determine the absolute masses of the three neutrinos.......We discuss the possibility of using experiments timing the propagation of neutrino beams over large distances to help determine the absolute masses of the three neutrinos....

  19. NGS Absolute Gravity Data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NGS Absolute Gravity data (78 stations) was received in July 1993. Principal gravity parameters include Gravity Value, Uncertainty, and Vertical Gradient. The...

  20. Absolute biological needs.

    McLeod, Stephen


    Absolute needs (as against instrumental needs) are independent of the ends, goals and purposes of personal agents. Against the view that the only needs are instrumental needs, David Wiggins and Garrett Thomson have defended absolute needs on the grounds that the verb 'need' has instrumental and absolute senses. While remaining neutral about it, this article does not adopt that approach. Instead, it suggests that there are absolute biological needs. The absolute nature of these needs is defended by appeal to: their objectivity (as against mind-dependence); the universality of the phenomenon of needing across the plant and animal kingdoms; the impossibility that biological needs depend wholly upon the exercise of the abilities characteristic of personal agency; the contention that the possession of biological needs is prior to the possession of the abilities characteristic of personal agency. Finally, three philosophical usages of 'normative' are distinguished. On two of these, to describe a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' is to describe it as value-dependent. A description of a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' in the third sense does not entail such value-dependency, though it leaves open the possibility that value depends upon the phenomenon or upon the truth of the claim. It is argued that while survival needs (or claims about them) may well be normative in this third sense, they are normative in neither of the first two. Thus, the idea of absolute need is not inherently normative in either of the first two senses.

  1. Sparse representation of multi parametric DCE-MRI features using K-SVD for classifying gene expression based breast cancer recurrence risk

    Mahrooghy, Majid; Ashraf, Ahmed B.; Daye, Dania; Mies, Carolyn; Rosen, Mark; Feldman, Michael; Kontos, Despina


    We evaluate the prognostic value of sparse representation-based features by applying the K-SVD algorithm on multiparametric kinetic, textural, and morphologic features in breast dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). K-SVD is an iterative dimensionality reduction method that optimally reduces the initial feature space by updating the dictionary columns jointly with the sparse representation coefficients. Therefore, by using K-SVD, we not only provide sparse representation of the features and condense the information in a few coefficients but also we reduce the dimensionality. The extracted K-SVD features are evaluated by a machine learning algorithm including a logistic regression classifier for the task of classifying high versus low breast cancer recurrence risk as determined by a validated gene expression assay. The features are evaluated using ROC curve analysis and leave one-out cross validation for different sparse representation and dimensionality reduction numbers. Optimal sparse representation is obtained when the number of dictionary elements is 4 (K=4) and maximum non-zero coefficients is 2 (L=2). We compare K-SVD with ANOVA based feature selection for the same prognostic features. The ROC results show that the AUC of the K-SVD based (K=4, L=2), the ANOVA based, and the original features (i.e., no dimensionality reduction) are 0.78, 0.71. and 0.68, respectively. From the results, it can be inferred that by using sparse representation of the originally extracted multi-parametric, high-dimensional data, we can condense the information on a few coefficients with the highest predictive value. In addition, the dimensionality reduction introduced by K-SVD can prevent models from over-fitting.

  2. The 'subjective' risk mapping: understanding of a technical risk representation by a professional group; La cartographie 'subjective' des risques: comprendre la representation d'un risque technique par un groupe professionnel

    Bertin, H.; Deleuze, G. [Electricite de France (EDF-RD), Management des Risques Industriels, 92 - Clamart (France)


    The paper presents the application of a particular way to make risk maps, called 'subjective risk mapping'. It has been used to understand how the risk of tube rupture under pressure is understood, defined, and set in perspective with other risks in a professional group working in an industrial plant. (authors)

  3. Absolute Neutrino Mass Determination

    Päs, H


    We discuss four approaches to the determination of absolute neutrino mass. These are the measurement of the zero-neutrino double beta decay rate, of the tritium decay end-point spectrum, of the cosmic ray spectrum above the GZK cutoff, and the cosmological measurement of the power spectrum governing the CMB and large scale structure. The first two approaches are sensitive to the mass eigenstates coupling to the electron neutrino, whereas the latter two are sensitive to the heavy component of the cosmic neutrino background. All mass eigenstates are related by the $\\Delta m^2$'s inferred from neutrino oscillation data. Consequently, the potential for absolute mass determination of each of the four approaches is correlated with the other three, in ways that we point out.

  4. Application of linear graph embedding as a dimensionality reduction technique and sparse representation classifier as a post classifier for the classification of epilepsy risk levels from EEG signals

    Prabhakar, Sunil Kumar; Rajaguru, Harikumar


    The most common and frequently occurring neurological disorder is epilepsy and the main method useful for the diagnosis of epilepsy is electroencephalogram (EEG) signal analysis. Due to the length of EEG recordings, EEG signal analysis method is quite time-consuming when it is processed manually by an expert. This paper proposes the application of Linear Graph Embedding (LGE) concept as a dimensionality reduction technique for processing the epileptic encephalographic signals and then it is classified using Sparse Representation Classifiers (SRC). SRC is used to analyze the classification of epilepsy risk levels from EEG signals and the parameters such as Sensitivity, Specificity, Time Delay, Quality Value, Performance Index and Accuracy are analyzed.

  5. Absolute airborne gravimetry

    Baumann, Henri

    This work consists of a feasibility study of a first stage prototype airborne absolute gravimeter system. In contrast to relative systems, which are using spring gravimeters, the measurements acquired by absolute systems are uncorrelated and the instrument is not suffering from problems like instrumental drift, frequency response of the spring and possible variation of the calibration factor. The major problem we had to resolve were to reduce the influence of the non-gravitational accelerations included in the measurements. We studied two different approaches to resolve it: direct mechanical filtering, and post-processing digital compensation. The first part of the work describes in detail the different mechanical passive filters of vibrations, which were studied and tested in the laboratory and later in a small truck in movement. For these tests as well as for the airborne measurements an absolute gravimeter FG5-L from Micro-G Ltd was used together with an Inertial navigation system Litton-200, a vertical accelerometer EpiSensor, and GPS receivers for positioning. These tests showed that only the use of an optical table gives acceptable results. However, it is unable to compensate for the effects of the accelerations of the drag free chamber. The second part describes the strategy of the data processing. It is based on modeling the perturbing accelerations by means of GPS, EpiSensor and INS data. In the third part the airborne experiment is described in detail, from the mounting in the aircraft and data processing to the different problems encountered during the evaluation of the quality and accuracy of the results. In the part of data processing the different steps conducted from the raw apparent gravity data and the trajectories to the estimation of the true gravity are explained. A comparison between the estimated airborne data and those obtained by ground upward continuation at flight altitude allows to state that airborne absolute gravimetry is feasible and

  6. Absolutely Indecomposable Modules

    Göbel, Rüdiger


    A module is called absolutely indecomposable if it is directly indecomposable in every generic extension of the universe. We want to show the existence of large abelian groups that are absolutely indecomposable. This will follow from a more general result about R-modules over a large class of commutative rings R with endomorphism ring R which remains the same when passing to a generic extension of the universe. It turns out that `large' in this context has the precise meaning, namely being smaller then the first omega-Erdos cardinal defined below. We will first apply result on large rigid trees with a similar property established by Shelah in 1982, and will prove the existence of related ` R_omega-modules' (R-modules with countably many distinguished submodules) and finally pass to R-modules. The passage through R_omega-modules has the great advantage that the proofs become very transparent essentially using a few `linear algebra' arguments accessible also for graduate students. The result gives a new constru...

  7. Representations of commonsense knowledge

    Davis, Ernest


    Representations of Commonsense Knowledge provides a rich language for expressing commonsense knowledge and inference techniques for carrying out commonsense knowledge. This book provides a survey of the research on commonsense knowledge.Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the basic ideas on artificial intelligence commonsense reasoning. This text then examines the structure of logic, which is roughly analogous to that of a programming language. Other chapters describe how rules of universal validity can be applied to facts known with absolute certainty to deduce ot

  8. Cumulative Alendronate Dose and the Long-Term Absolute Risk of Subtrochanteric and Diaphyseal Femur Fractures: A Register-Based National Cohort Analysis

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Eiken, Pia Agnete; Eastell, Richard


    are currently the subject of a U.S. Food and Drug Administration review. Objective: Our objective was to examine the risk of subtrochanteric/diaphyseal femur fractures in long term users of alendronate. Design: We conducted an age- and gender-matched cohort study using national healthcare data. Patients...... fractures occurred at a rate of 13 per 10,000 patient-years in untreated women and 31 per 10,000 patient-years in women receiving alendronate [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 1.88; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.62-2.17]. Rates for men were six and 31 per 10,000 patient-years, respectively (HR = 3.98; 95% CI...

  9. Absolute Gravimetry in Fennoscandia

    Pettersen, B. R; TImmen, L.; Gitlein, O.

    The Fennoscandian postglacial uplift has been mapped geometrically using precise levelling, tide gauges, and networks of permanent GPS stations. The results identify major uplift rates at sites located around the northern part of the Gulf of Bothnia. The vertical motions decay in all directions...... motions) has its major axis in the direction of southwest to northeast and covers a distance of about 2000 km. Absolute gravimetry was made in Finland and Norway in 1976 with a rise-and fall instrument. A decade later the number of gravity stations was expanded by JILAg-5, in Finland from 1988, in Norway...... from 1991, and in Sweden from 1992. FG5 was introduced in these three countries in 1993 (7 stations) and continued with an extended campaign in 1995 (12 stations). In 2003 a project was initiated by IfE, Hannover to collect observations simultaneously with GRACE on an annual cycle. New instruments were...

  10. Optical tweezers absolute calibration

    Dutra, R S; Neto, P A Maia; Nussenzveig, H M


    Optical tweezers are highly versatile laser traps for neutral microparticles, with fundamental applications in physics and in single molecule cell biology. Force measurements are performed by converting the stiffness response to displacement of trapped transparent microspheres, employed as force transducers. Usually, calibration is indirect, by comparison with fluid drag forces. This can lead to discrepancies by sizable factors. Progress achieved in a program aiming at absolute calibration, conducted over the past fifteen years, is briefly reviewed. Here we overcome its last major obstacle, a theoretical overestimation of the peak stiffness, within the most employed range for applications, and we perform experimental validation. The discrepancy is traced to the effect of primary aberrations of the optical system, which are now included in the theory. All required experimental parameters are readily accessible. Astigmatism, the dominant effect, is measured by analyzing reflected images of the focused laser spo...

  11. Absolute multilateration between spheres

    Muelaner, Jody; Wadsworth, William; Azini, Maria; Mullineux, Glen; Hughes, Ben; Reichold, Armin


    Environmental effects typically limit the accuracy of large scale coordinate measurements in applications such as aircraft production and particle accelerator alignment. This paper presents an initial design for a novel measurement technique with analysis and simulation showing that that it could overcome the environmental limitations to provide a step change in large scale coordinate measurement accuracy. Referred to as absolute multilateration between spheres (AMS), it involves using absolute distance interferometry to directly measure the distances between pairs of plain steel spheres. A large portion of each sphere remains accessible as a reference datum, while the laser path can be shielded from environmental disturbances. As a single scale bar this can provide accurate scale information to be used for instrument verification or network measurement scaling. Since spheres can be simultaneously measured from multiple directions, it also allows highly accurate multilateration-based coordinate measurements to act as a large scale datum structure for localized measurements, or to be integrated within assembly tooling, coordinate measurement machines or robotic machinery. Analysis and simulation show that AMS can be self-aligned to achieve a theoretical combined standard uncertainty for the independent uncertainties of an individual 1 m scale bar of approximately 0.49 µm. It is also shown that combined with a 1 µm m‑1 standard uncertainty in the central reference system this could result in coordinate standard uncertainty magnitudes of 42 µm over a slender 1 m by 20 m network. This would be a sufficient step change in accuracy to enable next generation aerospace structures with natural laminar flow and part-to-part interchangeability.

  12. FRAX TM: un nuevo instrumento para calcular el riesgo absoluto de fracturas a 10 años FRAX TM: A new instrument for calculating 10-year absolute fracture risk

    Haraldo Claus-Hermberg


    nature of the proposed endpoint, a new calculator has been proposed: Fracture Risk Assessment Tool FRAX TM, which follows the same objectives of previous models, but integrates and combines several of those factors according to their relative weight. It can estimate absolute risk of hip fracture (or a combination of osteoporotic fractures for the following 10 years. The calculator could be adapted for use in any country by the incorporation of hip fracture incidence and age- and sex-adjusted life expectancy in the same country. This instrument has been presented as a new paradigm to assist in clinical and therapeutic decision-making. In the present review some of its characteristics are discussed, such as: the purported applicability to different populations, the convenience of using 10-year absolute fracture risk for the whole age range under consideration, and whether the efficacy of pharmacological treatment for the prevention of bone fractures in osteoporotic patients can be expected to be equally effective among patients selected for treatment on the basis of this model. Finally, we would like to call attention to the fact that risk thresholds for intervention are not yet clearly defined; those thresholds can obviously be expected to have a profound impact on the number of patients amenable to treatment.

  13. Estimating Absolute Site Effects

    Malagnini, L; Mayeda, K M; Akinci, A; Bragato, P L


    The authors use previously determined direct-wave attenuation functions as well as stable, coda-derived source excitation spectra to isolate the absolute S-wave site effect for the horizontal and vertical components of weak ground motion. They used selected stations in the seismic network of the eastern Alps, and find the following: (1) all ''hard rock'' sites exhibited deamplification phenomena due to absorption at frequencies ranging between 0.5 and 12 Hz (the available bandwidth), on both the horizontal and vertical components; (2) ''hard rock'' site transfer functions showed large variability at high-frequency; (3) vertical-motion site transfer functions show strong frequency-dependence, and (4) H/V spectral ratios do not reproduce the characteristics of the true horizontal site transfer functions; (5) traditional, relative site terms obtained by using reference ''rock sites'' can be misleading in inferring the behaviors of true site transfer functions, since most rock sites have non-flat responses due to shallow heterogeneities resulting from varying degrees of weathering. They also use their stable source spectra to estimate total radiated seismic energy and compare against previous results. they find that the earthquakes in this region exhibit non-constant dynamic stress drop scaling which gives further support for a fundamental difference in rupture dynamics between small and large earthquakes. To correct the vertical and horizontal S-wave spectra for attenuation, they used detailed regional attenuation functions derived by Malagnini et al. (2002) who determined frequency-dependent geometrical spreading and Q for the region. These corrections account for the gross path effects (i.e., all distance-dependent effects), although the source and site effects are still present in the distance-corrected spectra. The main goal of this study is to isolate the absolute site effect (as a function of frequency

  14. Geometric Deformations of Orthogonal and Symplectic Galois Representations

    Booher, Jeremy


    For a representation over a finite field of characteristic p of the absolute Galois group of the rationals, we study the existence of a lift to characteristic zero that is geometric in the sense of the Fontaine-Mazur conjecture. For two-dimensional representations, Ramakrishna proved that under technical assumptions odd representations admit geometric lifts. We generalize this to higher dimensional orthogonal and symplectic representations. The key innovation is the definition and study of a ...

  15. Notes on absolute Hodge classes

    Charles, François


    We survey the theory of absolute Hodge classes. The notes include a full proof of Deligne's theorem on absolute Hodge classes on abelian varieties as well as a discussion of other topics, such as the field of definition of Hodge loci and the Kuga-Satake construction.

  16. Quiver representations

    Schiffler, Ralf


    This book is intended to serve as a textbook for a course in Representation Theory of Algebras at the beginning graduate level. The text has two parts. In Part I, the theory is studied in an elementary way using quivers and their representations. This is a very hands-on approach and requires only basic knowledge of linear algebra. The main tool for describing the representation theory of a finite-dimensional algebra is its Auslander-Reiten quiver, and the text introduces these quivers as early as possible. Part II then uses the language of algebras and modules to build on the material developed before. The equivalence of the two approaches is proved in the text. The last chapter gives a proof of Gabriel’s Theorem. The language of category theory is developed along the way as needed.

  17. Value Representations

    Rasmussen, Majken Kirkegaard; Petersen, Marianne Graves


    Stereotypic presumptions about gender affect the design process, both in relation to how users are understood and how products are designed. As a way to decrease the influence of stereotypic presumptions in design process, we propose not to disregard the aspect of gender in the design process......, as the perspective brings valuable insights on different approaches to technology, but instead to view gender through a value lens. Contributing to this perspective, we have developed Value Representations as a design-oriented instrument for staging a reflective dialogue with users. Value Representations...

  18. Representational Machines

    Petersson, Dag; Dahlgren, Anna; Vestberg, Nina Lager

    Photography not only represents space. Space is produced photographically. Since its inception in the 19th century, photography has brought to light a vast array of represented subjects. Always situated in some spatial order, photographic representations have been operatively underpinned by social...... to the enterprises of the medium. This is the subject of Representational Machines: How photography enlists the workings of institutional technologies in search of establishing new iconic and social spaces. Together, the contributions to this edited volume span historical epochs, social environments, technological...... possibilities, and genre distinctions. Presenting several distinct ways of producing space photographically, this book opens a new and important field of inquiry for photography research....

  19. Poetic representation

    Wulf-Andersen, Trine Østergaard


    This article is based on a Danish research project with young people in vulnerable positions. Young people are involved throughout the research process, including the interpretation of material produced through interviews, and discussions on how reflections and conclusions from the research should......, and dialogue, of situated participants. The article includes a lengthy example of a poetic representation of one participant’s story, and the author comments on the potentials of ‘doing’ poetic representations as an example of writing in ways that challenges what sometimes goes unasked in participative social...

  20. Assessment of risk for the formation of psycho-physical development and somatic health disorders in children in the preschool educational organizations with different representation of groups

    О.Yu. Ustinova


    Full Text Available We conducted the study of sanitary and hygienic conditions for the staying of children in the preschool educational organization with increased representation of groups. It was established that in the “compacted” preschool educational organizations (30 children in group the area of playing rooms does not comply with requirements of SanPIN–13; the acoustic exposure level reaches 75–80 dBA; the air of playing rooms contains phenol and formaldehyde in the concentrations exceeding the threshold level value for continuous exposure; and the bacterial load of the air of playing rooms, including the potentially pathogenic flora, increases significantly. The increased number of children in groups increases the risk of delays in the psycho-physical development of children and reduction of adaptive reserve of the cardiovascular, respiratory and nervous systems; increases the risk for formation of systemic multiple organ pathology that, in aggregate, contributes to the increased morbidity of children with allergic diseases of respiratory organs and skin, chronic inflammatory diseases of pharyngonasal cavity, bacterial intestinal and quarantine infections, functional disorders of nervous system and contact helminth infestations.

  1. Database applicaton for absolute spectrophotometry

    Bochkov, Valery V.; Shumko, Sergiy


    32-bit database application with multidocument interface for Windows has been developed to calculate absolute energy distributions of observed spectra. The original database contains wavelength calibrated observed spectra which had been already passed through apparatus reductions such as flatfielding, background and apparatus noise subtracting. Absolute energy distributions of observed spectra are defined in unique scale by means of registering them simultaneously with artificial intensity standard. Observations of sequence of spectrophotometric standards are used to define absolute energy of the artificial standard. Observations of spectrophotometric standards are used to define optical extinction in selected moments. FFT algorithm implemented in the application allows performing convolution (deconvolution) spectra with user-defined PSF. The object-oriented interface has been created using facilities of C++ libraries. Client/server model with Windows Socket functionality based on TCP/IP protocol is used to develop the application. It supports Dynamic Data Exchange conversation in server mode and uses Microsoft Exchange communication facilities.

  2. 随机对照试验所需治疗例数与绝对危险性降低的报道%Reporting Number Needed to Treat and Absolute Risk Reduction in Randomized Controlled Trials

    Jim Nuovo; Joy Melnikow; Denise Chang


    背景:为改进随机对照试验(randomized controlled trials,RCTs)的报道质量正在进行的努力包括试验报道的强化标准(consolidated standards of reporting trials,CONSORT)声明。作者分析了入选RCTs文中明确报道所需治疗例数(number needed to treat,NNT)和绝对危险性降低(absolute risk reduction,ARR)的频率。方法:5种最常引用的杂志用于本分析,即:内科学年鉴(Ann Intern Med)、英国医学杂志(BMJ)、美国医学会杂志(JAMA)、柳叶刀(Lancet)和新英格兰医学杂志(N Engl J Med)。每种杂志均选择1989、1992、1995和1998年4个年度进行分析。以人工方法审阅了各年度每种杂志的所有各期。采用随机对照试验评价某种治疗药物并具有显著治疗效果者作为入选文章。从每篇入选文章收集以下内容:研究的疾病、治疗或预防的事件、干预措施、研究结果和报道方法(相对危险性降低[RRR]、NNT和ARR)。结果:359篇入选文章中,8篇报道了NNT,其中6篇出自1998年。18篇报道了绝对危险性减低,其中10篇出自1998年。结论:尽管推荐使用CONSORT,但很少作者用NNT或ARR这些术语表述其研究结果。今后在报道随机对照试验时应重视这些指标的使用。

  3. Relativistic Absolutism in Moral Education.

    Vogt, W. Paul


    Discusses Emile Durkheim's "Moral Education: A Study in the Theory and Application of the Sociology of Education," which holds that morally healthy societies may vary in culture and organization but must possess absolute rules of moral behavior. Compares this moral theory with current theory and practice of American educators. (MJL)

  4. Absolute luminosity measurements at LHCb

    Hopchev, Plamen


    Absolute luminosity measurements are of general interest for colliding-beam experiments at storage rings. These measurements are necessary to determine the absolute cross-sections of reaction processes and are valuable to quantify the performance of the accelerator. LHCb has applied two methods to determine the absolute scale of its luminosity measurements for proton-proton collisions at the LHC running at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. In addition to the classic ``van der Meer'' scan method a novel technique has been developed which makes use of direct imaging of the individual beams using both proton-gas and proton-proton interactions. The beam imaging method is made possible by the high resolution of the LHCb vertex detector and the close proximity of the detector to the beams, and allows beam parameters such as positions, angles and widths to be determined. We describe both methods and compare the two results. In addition, we present the techniques used to transport the absolute luminosity measurement ...

  5. Absolute Standards for Climate Measurements

    Leckey, J.


    In a world of changing climate, political uncertainty, and ever-changing budgets, the benefit of measurements traceable to SI standards increases by the day. To truly resolve climate change trends on a decadal time scale, on-orbit measurements need to be referenced to something that is both absolute and unchanging. One such mission is the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) that will measure a variety of climate variables with an unprecedented accuracy to definitively quantify climate change. In the CLARREO mission, we will utilize phase change cells in which a material is melted to calibrate the temperature of a blackbody that can then be observed by a spectrometer. A material's melting point is an unchanging physical constant that, through a series of transfers, can ultimately calibrate a spectrometer on an absolute scale. CLARREO consists of two primary instruments: an infrared (IR) spectrometer and a reflected solar (RS) spectrometer. The mission will contain orbiting radiometers with sufficient accuracy to calibrate other space-based instrumentation and thus transferring the absolute traceability. The status of various mission options will be presented.

  6. Representational Thickness

    Mullins, Michael

    elements into the process of design. Through its immersive properties, virtual reality allows access to a spatial experience of a computer model very different to both screen based simulations as well as traditional forms of architectural representation. The dissertation focuses on processes of the current......Contemporary communicational and informational processes contribute to the shaping of our physical environment by having a powerful influence on the process of design. Applications of virtual reality (VR) are transforming the way architecture is conceived and produced by introducing dynamic...... by ‘professionals’ to ‘laypeople’. The thesis articulates problems in VR’s current application, specifically the CAVE and Panorama theatres, and seeks an understanding of how these problems may be addressed. The central questions that have motivated this research project are thus: What is architectural VR...

  7. Representation of drought frequency in Southern South America performed by 14 CMIP5 models. Drought risk implications and perspectives towards future projections

    Rivera, J. A.; Penalba, O. C.


    of the model outputs are inconsistent with the variabilities based on observed precipitation data. This also indicates that monthly and seasonal variabilities of precipitation are misrepresented by the models and this result contributes to the poor representation of the drought frequency patterns. These are the kind of variabilities that could be important for the forecasting of droughts on seasonal scales and could help to a seasonal risk assessment, which is important for the agricultural and hydrological sectors. Moreover, the spatial pattern of annual precipitation are poorly reproduced, with a subestimation of precipitation over La Plata Basin and an overestimation over Patagonia, leeward the Andes. These results prove that GCMs outputs are far to be used for drought risk assessment in the region, given the substantial differences in the frequency patterns. Also, future projections must be evaluated carefully in longer time scale resolutions.

  8. Optomechanics for absolute rotation detection

    Davuluri, Sankar


    In this article, we present an application of optomechanical cavity for the absolute rotation detection. The optomechanical cavity is arranged in a Michelson interferometer in such a way that the classical centrifugal force due to rotation changes the length of the optomechanical cavity. The change in the cavity length induces a shift in the frequency of the cavity mode. The phase shift corresponding to the frequency shift in the cavity mode is measured at the interferometer output to estimate the angular velocity of absolute rotation. We derived an analytic expression to estimate the minimum detectable rotation rate in our scheme for a given optomechanical cavity. Temperature dependence of the rotation detection sensitivity is studied.

  9. Physics of negative absolute temperatures

    Abraham, Eitan; Penrose, Oliver


    Negative absolute temperatures were introduced into experimental physics by Purcell and Pound, who successfully applied this concept to nuclear spins; nevertheless, the concept has proved controversial: a recent article aroused considerable interest by its claim, based on a classical entropy formula (the "volume entropy") due to Gibbs, that negative temperatures violated basic principles of statistical thermodynamics. Here we give a thermodynamic analysis that confirms the negative-temperature interpretation of the Purcell-Pound experiments. We also examine the principal arguments that have been advanced against the negative temperature concept; we find that these arguments are not logically compelling, and moreover that the underlying "volume" entropy formula leads to predictions inconsistent with existing experimental results on nuclear spins. We conclude that, despite the counterarguments, negative absolute temperatures make good theoretical sense and did occur in the experiments designed to produce them.

  10. Wastes and health: representation of sanitary risks linked to wastes and to their processing modes; Dechets et sante: representations des risques sanitaires lies aux dechets et a leurs modes de traitement

    Lhuilier, D.; Cochin, Y.


    This research has for objective the analysis of perception of sanitary risks in relation with wastes and the waste processing facilities. This work in at the intersection of the sociological study and the psychologic one. (N.C.)

  11. A remarkable representation of the Clifford group

    Bengtsson, Ingemar


    The finite Heisenberg group knows when the dimension of Hilbert space is a square number. Remarkably, it then admits a representation such that the entire Clifford group --- the automorphism group of the Heisenberg group --- is represented by monomial phase-permutation matrices. This has a beneficial influence on the amount of calculation that must be done to find Symmetric Informationally Complete POVMs. I make some comments on the equations obeyed by the absolute values of the components of the SIC vectors, and on the fact that the representation partly suggests a preferred tensor product structure.

  12. Android Apps for Absolute Beginners

    Jackson, Wallace


    Anybody can start building simple apps for the Android platform, and this book will show you how! Android Apps for Absolute Beginners takes you through the process of getting your first Android applications up and running using plain English and practical examples. It cuts through the fog of jargon and mystery that surrounds Android application development, and gives you simple, step-by-step instructions to get you started.* Teaches Android application development in language anyone can understand, giving you the best possible start in Android development * Provides simple, step-by-step exampl

  13. Cosmology with Negative Absolute Temperatures

    Vieira, J P P; Lewis, Antony


    Negative absolute temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al (2013) has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion ($w<-1$) with no Big Rip, and their contracting counterparts are forced to bounce after the energy density becomes sufficiently large. Both scenarios might be used to solve horizon and flatness problems analogously to standard inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.

  14. Cosmology with negative absolute temperatures

    Vieira, J. P. P.; Byrnes, Christian T.; Lewis, Antony


    Negative absolute temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al. [1] has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion (w inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.

  15. Uncertainty representation of grey numbers and grey sets.

    Yang, Yingjie; Liu, Sifeng; John, Robert


    In the literature, there is a presumption that a grey set and an interval-valued fuzzy set are equivalent. This presumption ignores the existence of discrete components in a grey number. In this paper, new measurements of uncertainties of grey numbers and grey sets, consisting of both absolute and relative uncertainties, are defined to give a comprehensive representation of uncertainties in a grey number and a grey set. Some simple examples are provided to illustrate that the proposed uncertainty measurement can give an effective representation of both absolute and relative uncertainties in a grey number and a grey set. The relationships between grey sets and interval-valued fuzzy sets are also analyzed from the point of view of the proposed uncertainty representation. The analysis demonstrates that grey sets and interval-valued fuzzy sets provide different but overlapping models for uncertainty representation in sets.

  16. The changing demographic, legal, and technological contexts of political representation

    Forest, Benjamin


    Three developments have created challenges for political representation in the U.S. and particularly for the use of territorially based representation (election by district). First, the demographic complexity of the U.S. population has grown both in absolute terms and in terms of residential patterns. Second, legal developments since the 1960s have recognized an increasing number of groups as eligible for voting rights protection. Third, the growing technical capacities of computer technology...

  17. Do stigma, blame and stereotyping contribute to unsafe sexual behaviour? A test of claims about the spread of HIV/AIDS arising from social representation theory and the AIDS risk reduction model.

    Riley, Gerard Anthony; Baah-Odoom, Dinah


    In the context of social representation theory and the AIDS risk reduction model, it has been claimed that stigmatizing, blaming and stereotyping attitudes make people feel less at risk of contracting HIV/AIDS, and that this, in turn, results in them taking fewer precautions in their sexual behaviour. Previous research has failed to provide convincing evidence to support these claims. The present study provided a test of the claims that addressed some of the methodological issues identified in the earlier research. A sample of 460 young people from Ghana, ranging in age from 15 to 28 years (mean=18), completed a questionnaire that measured the relevant constructs. The results supported the claims in relation to stigmatizing and intended sexual risk behaviour, but not stigmatizing and actual sexual risk behaviour. Although the latter two were correlated, this was not mediated by reduced perceptions of vulnerability. Claims in relation to blaming and stereotyping were not supported. Contrary to expectation, specific blaming and stereotyping attitudes that constructed HIV/AIDS as a sexual disease were associated with safer intended sexual behaviour, and this relationship was mediated by feeling at greater risk.

  18. Is Implantation of a Left Ventricular Assist Device in Patients With Critical or Impending Cardiogenic Shock an Absolute Contraindication? Looking Back at Our Past Experience Trying to Identify Contraindicative Risk Factors.

    Dell'Aquila, Angelo Maria; Schneider, Stefan R B; Risso, Paolo; Welp, Henryk; Glockner, David G; Alles, Sebastian; Sindermann, Jürgen R; Scherer, Mirela


    Poor survival has been demonstrated after ventricular assist device (VAD) implantation for Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support (INTERMACS) profile 1 and 2 patients compared with more stable levels. However, risk factors within this high-risk cohort have not been determined so far. The aim of the present study was to identify risk factors associated with this very high mortality rate. Between February 1993 and January 2013, 298 patients underwent VAD implantation in our institution. One hundred nine patients were in INTERMACS level 1 and 49 patients were in INTERMACS level 2 and were therefore defined as hemodynamically critical (overall 158 patients). Assist devices implanted were: HVAD HeartWare n = 18; Incor n = 11; VentrAssist n = 2; DeBakey n = 22; and pulsatile systems n = 105. After cumulative support duration of 815.35 months, Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a survival of 63.9, 48.8, and 40.3% at 1, 6, and 12 months, respectively. Cox regression analyses identified age > 50 (P = 0.001, odds ratio [OR] 2.48), white blood cell count > 13.000/μL (P = 0.01, OR 2.06), preoperative renal replacement therapy (P = 0.001, OR 2.63), and postcardiotomy failure (P < 0.001, OR 2.79) as independent predictors of mortality. Of note, last generation VADs were not associated with significantly better 6-month survival (P = 0.59). Patients without the aforementioned risk factors could yield a survival of 79.2% at 6 months. This single-center experience shows that VAD implantation in hemodynamically unstable patients generally results in poor early outcome, even in third-generation pumps. However, avoiding the aforementioned risk factors could result in improved outcome.

  19. When data representation compromise data security

    Simonsen, Eivind Ortind; Dahl, Mads Ronald

    on the internet over many years? A new legislation proposed in 2012 by the European Commission on protection of personal data will be implemented from 2015. The new law will impose sanction options ranging from a warning to a fine up to 100.000.000 EUR. We argue that this new law will lead to especially......WHEN DATA REPRESENTATION COMPROMISE DATA SECURITY The workflow of transforming data into informative representations makes extensive usage of computers and software. Scientists have a conventional tradition for producing publications that include tables and graphs as data representations....... These representations can be used for multiple purposes such as publications in journals, teaching and conference material. But when created, stored and distributed in a digital form there is a risk of compromising data security. Data beyond the once used specifically to create the representation can be included...

  20. Face Recognition using Optimal Representation Ensemble

    Li, Hanxi; Gao, Yongsheng


    Recently, the face recognizers based on linear representations have been shown to deliver state-of-the-art performance. In real-world applications, however, face images usually suffer from expressions, disguises and random occlusions. The problematic facial parts undermine the validity of the linear-subspace assumption and thus the recognition performance deteriorates significantly. In this work, we address the problem in a learning-inference-mixed fashion. By observing that the linear-subspace assumption is more reliable on certain face patches rather than on the holistic face, some Bayesian Patch Representations (BPRs) are randomly generated and interpreted according to the Bayes' theory. We then train an ensemble model over the patch-representations by minimizing the empirical risk w.r.t the "leave-one-out margins". The obtained model is termed Optimal Representation Ensemble (ORE), since it guarantees the optimality from the perspective of Empirical Risk Minimization. To handle the unknown patterns in tes...

  1. Newton On Absolute Space A Commentary

    Adewole, A I A


    Newton seems to have stated a quantitative relationship between the position of a body in relative space and the position of the body in absolute space in the first scholium of his Principia. We show that if this suspected relationship is assumed to hold, it will dispel many errors and misrepresentations that have befallen Newton's ideas on absolute space.

  2. Monolithically integrated absolute frequency comb laser system

    Wanke, Michael C.


    Rather than down-convert optical frequencies, a QCL laser system directly generates a THz frequency comb in a compact monolithically integrated chip that can be locked to an absolute frequency without the need of a frequency-comb synthesizer. The monolithic, absolute frequency comb can provide a THz frequency reference and tool for high-resolution broad band spectroscopy.

  3. Absolute Income, Relative Income, and Happiness

    Ball, Richard; Chernova, Kateryna


    This paper uses data from the World Values Survey to investigate how an individual's self-reported happiness is related to (i) the level of her income in absolute terms, and (ii) the level of her income relative to other people in her country. The main findings are that (i) both absolute and relative income are positively and significantly…

  4. Absolute frequency measurement of the 1S0 - 3P0 transition of 171Yb

    Pizzocaro, Marco; Rauf, Benjamin; Bregolin, Filippo; Milani, Gianmaria; Clivati, Cecilia; Costanzo, Giovanni A; Levi, Filippo; Calonico, Davide


    We report the absolute frequency measurement of the unperturbed transition 1S0 - 3P0 at 578 nm in 171Yb realized in an optical lattice frequency standard. The absolute frequency is measured 518 295 836 590 863.55(28) Hz relative to a cryogenic caesium fountain with a fractional uncertainty of 5.4x10-16 . This value is in agreement with the ytterbium frequency recommended as a secondary representation of the second in the International System of Units.

  5. Absolute quantitation of protein posttranslational modification isoform.

    Yang, Zhu; Li, Ning


    Mass spectrometry has been widely applied in characterization and quantification of proteins from complex biological samples. Because the numbers of absolute amounts of proteins are needed in construction of mathematical models for molecular systems of various biological phenotypes and phenomena, a number of quantitative proteomic methods have been adopted to measure absolute quantities of proteins using mass spectrometry. The liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) coupled with internal peptide standards, i.e., the stable isotope-coded peptide dilution series, which was originated from the field of analytical chemistry, becomes a widely applied method in absolute quantitative proteomics research. This approach provides more and more absolute protein quantitation results of high confidence. As quantitative study of posttranslational modification (PTM) that modulates the biological activity of proteins is crucial for biological science and each isoform may contribute a unique biological function, degradation, and/or subcellular location, the absolute quantitation of protein PTM isoforms has become more relevant to its biological significance. In order to obtain the absolute cellular amount of a PTM isoform of a protein accurately, impacts of protein fractionation, protein enrichment, and proteolytic digestion yield should be taken into consideration and those effects before differentially stable isotope-coded PTM peptide standards are spiked into sample peptides have to be corrected. Assisted with stable isotope-labeled peptide standards, the absolute quantitation of isoforms of posttranslationally modified protein (AQUIP) method takes all these factors into account and determines the absolute amount of a protein PTM isoform from the absolute amount of the protein of interest and the PTM occupancy at the site of the protein. The absolute amount of the protein of interest is inferred by quantifying both the absolute amounts of a few PTM

  6. Representations of mad cow disease.

    Washer, Peter


    This paper examines the reporting of the story of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) and its human derivative variant Creutzfeld-Jacob Disease (vCJD) in the British newspapers. Three 'snapshots' of newspaper coverage are sampled and analysed between the period 1986 and 1996 focusing on how representations of the disease evolved over the 10-year period. Social representations theory is used to elucidate how this new disease threat was conceptualised in the newspaper reporting and how it was explained to the UK public. This paper examines who or what was said to be at risk from the new disease, and whether some individuals or groups held to blame for the diseases' putative origins, the appearance of vCJD in human beings, and its spread.

  7. Social representations of women

    Álvaro Estramiana, José Luis


    Full Text Available Social Representations is one of the most important theories in contemporary social psychology. Since the social psychologist Serge Moscovici developed his theory of social representations to explain how a scientific theory such as the psychoanalysis turns into a common sense knowledge many studies have been done by different social psychologists. The analysis of the social representations of women as represented in myths and popular beliefs is an excellent opportunity to study how this theory can be applied to this representational field. At the same time it makes possible to understand the formation of attitudes towards women

  8. Absolute Memory for Tempo in Musicians and Non-Musicians

    Brandimonte, Maria A.; Bruno, Nicola


    The ability to remember tempo (the perceived frequency of musical pulse) without external references may be defined, by analogy with the notion of absolute pitch, as absolute tempo (AT). Anecdotal reports and sparse empirical evidence suggest that at least some individuals possess AT. However, to our knowledge, no systematic assessments of AT have been performed using laboratory tasks comparable to those assessing absolute pitch. In the present study, we operationalize AT as the ability to identify and reproduce tempo in the absence of rhythmic or melodic frames of reference and assess these abilities in musically trained and untrained participants. We asked 15 musicians and 15 non-musicians to listen to a seven-step `tempo scale’ of metronome beats, each associated to a numerical label, and then to perform two memory tasks. In the first task, participants heard one of the tempi and attempted to report the correct label (identification task), in the second, they saw one label and attempted to tap the correct tempo (production task). A musical and visual excerpt was presented between successive trials as a distractor to prevent participants from using previous tempi as anchors. Thus, participants needed to encode tempo information with the corresponding label, store the information, and recall it to give the response. We found that more than half were able to perform above chance in at least one of the tasks, and that musical training differentiated between participants in identification, but not in production. These results suggest that AT is relatively wide-spread, relatively independent of musical training in tempo production, but further refined by training in tempo identification. We propose that at least in production, the underlying motor representations are related to tactus, a basic internal rhythmic period that may provide a body-based reference for encoding tempo. PMID:27760198

  9. Magnifying absolute instruments for optically homogeneous regions

    Tyc, Tomas


    We propose a class of magnifying absolute optical instruments with a positive isotropic refractive index. They create magnified stigmatic images, either virtual or real, of optically homogeneous three-dimensional spatial regions within geometrical optics.

  10. The Simplicity Argument and Absolute Morality

    Mijuskovic, Ben


    In this paper the author has maintained that there is a similarity of thought to be found in the writings of Cudworth, Emerson, and Husserl in his investigation of an absolute system of morality. (Author/RK)

  11. Independent coding of absolute duration and distance magnitudes in the prefrontal cortex.

    Marcos, Encarni; Tsujimoto, Satoshi; Genovesio, Aldo


    The estimation of space and time can interfere with each other, and neuroimaging studies have shown overlapping activation in the parietal and prefrontal cortical areas. We used duration and distance discrimination tasks to determine whether space and time share resources in prefrontal cortex (PF) neurons. Monkeys were required to report which of two stimuli, a red circle or blue square, presented sequentially, were longer and farther, respectively, in the duration and distance tasks. In a previous study, we showed that relative duration and distance are coded by different populations of neurons and that the only common representation is related to goal coding. Here, we examined the coding of absolute duration and distance. Our results support a model of independent coding of absolute duration and distance metrics by demonstrating that not only relative magnitude but also absolute magnitude are independently coded in the PF.

  12. Absolute memory for musical pitch: evidence from the production of learned melodies.

    Levitin, D J


    Evidence for the absolute nature of long-term auditory memory is provided by analyzing the production of familiar melodies. Additionally, a two-component theory of absolute pitch is presented, in which this rare ability is conceived as consisting of a more common ability, pitch memory, and a separate, less common ability, pitch labeling. Forty-six subjects sang two different popular songs, and their productions were compared with the actual pitches used in recordings of those songs. Forty percent of the subjects sang the correct pitch on at least one trial; 12% of the subjects hit the correct pitch on both trials, and 44% came within two semitones of the correct pitch on both trials. The results show a convergence with previous studies on the stability of auditory imagery and latent absolute pitch ability; the results further suggest that individuals might possess representations of pitch that are more stable and accurate than previously recognized.

  13. Embedded Data Representations.

    Willett, Wesley; Jansen, Yvonne; Dragicevic, Pierre


    We introduce embedded data representations, the use of visual and physical representations of data that are deeply integrated with the physical spaces, objects, and entities to which the data refers. Technologies like lightweight wireless displays, mixed reality hardware, and autonomous vehicles are making it increasingly easier to display data in-context. While researchers and artists have already begun to create embedded data representations, the benefits, trade-offs, and even the language necessary to describe and compare these approaches remain unexplored. In this paper, we formalize the notion of physical data referents - the real-world entities and spaces to which data corresponds - and examine the relationship between referents and the visual and physical representations of their data. We differentiate situated representations, which display data in proximity to data referents, and embedded representations, which display data so that it spatially coincides with data referents. Drawing on examples from visualization, ubiquitous computing, and art, we explore the role of spatial indirection, scale, and interaction for embedded representations. We also examine the tradeoffs between non-situated, situated, and embedded data displays, including both visualizations and physicalizations. Based on our observations, we identify a variety of design challenges for embedded data representation, and suggest opportunities for future research and applications.

  14. Multiple sparse representations classification

    E. Plenge (Esben); S.K. Klein (Stefan); W.J. Niessen (Wiro); E. Meijering (Erik)


    textabstractSparse representations classification (SRC) is a powerful technique for pixelwise classification of images and it is increasingly being used for a wide variety of image analysis tasks. The method uses sparse representation and learned redundant dictionaries to classify image pixels. In t

  15. Extensions of tempered representations

    Opdam, E.; Solleveld, M.


    Let π, π′ be irreducible tempered representations of an affine Hecke algebra H with positive parameters. We compute the higher extension groups Ext nH(π,π′) explicitly in terms of the representations of analytic R-groups corresponding to π and π′. The result has immediate applications to the computa

  16. Analysis of Large Flexible Body Deformation in Multibody Systems Using Absolute Coordinates

    Dombrowski, Stefan von [Institute of Robotics and Mechatronics, German Aerospace Center (DLR) (Germany)], E-mail:


    To consider large deformation problems in multibody system simulations a finite element approach, called absolute nodal coordinate.formulation,has been proposed. In this formulation absolute nodal coordinates and their material derivatives are applied to represent both deformation and rigid body motion. The choice of nodal variables allows a fully nonlinear representation of rigid body motion and can provide the exact rigid body inertia in the case of large rotations. The methodology is especially suited for but not limited to modeling of beams, cables and shells in multibody dynamics.This paper summarizes the absolute nodal coordinate formulation for a 3D Euler-Bernoulli beam model, in particular the definition of nodal variables, corresponding generalized elastic and inertia forces and equations of motion. The element stiffness matrix is a nonlinear function of the nodal variables even in the case of linearized strain/displacement relations. Nonlinear strain/displacement relations can be calculated from the global displacements using quadrature formulae.Computational examples are given which demonstrate the capabilities of the applied methodology. Consequences of the choice of shape.functions on the representation of internal forces are discussed. Linearized strain/displacement modeling is compared to the nonlinear approach and significant advantages of the latter, when using the absolute nodal coordinate formulation, are outlined.

  17. Embedded data representations

    Willett, Wesley; Jansen, Yvonne; Dragicevic, Pierre


    We introduce embedded data representations, the use of visual and physical representations of data that are deeply integrated with the physical spaces, objects, and entities to which the data refers. Technologies like lightweight wireless displays, mixed reality hardware, and autonomous vehicles...... are making it increasingly easier to display data in-context. While researchers and artists have already begun to create embedded data representations, the benefits, trade-offs, and even the language necessary to describe and compare these approaches remain unexplored. In this paper, we formalize the notion...... of physical data referents – the real-world entities and spaces to which data corresponds – and examine the relationship between referents and the visual and physical representations of their data. We differentiate situated representations, which display data in proximity to data referents, and embedded...

  18. Group and representation theory

    Vergados, J D


    This volume goes beyond the understanding of symmetries and exploits them in the study of the behavior of both classical and quantum physical systems. Thus it is important to study the symmetries described by continuous (Lie) groups of transformations. We then discuss how we get operators that form a Lie algebra. Of particular interest to physics is the representation of the elements of the algebra and the group in terms of matrices and, in particular, the irreducible representations. These representations can be identified with physical observables. This leads to the study of the classical Lie algebras, associated with unitary, unimodular, orthogonal and symplectic transformations. We also discuss some special algebras in some detail. The discussion proceeds along the lines of the Cartan-Weyl theory via the root vectors and root diagrams and, in particular, the Dynkin representation of the roots. Thus the representations are expressed in terms of weights, which are generated by the application of the elemen...

  19. A global algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity

    T. J. McDougall


    Full Text Available The International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater – 2010 has defined the thermodynamic properties of seawater in terms of a new salinity variable, Absolute Salinity, which takes into account the spatial variation of the composition of seawater. Absolute Salinity more accurately reflects the effects of the dissolved material in seawater on the thermodynamic properties (particularly density than does Practical Salinity.

    When a seawater sample has standard composition (i.e. the ratios of the constituents of sea salt are the same as those of surface water of the North Atlantic, Practical Salinity can be used to accurately evaluate the thermodynamic properties of seawater. When seawater is not of standard composition, Practical Salinity alone is not sufficient and the Absolute Salinity Anomaly needs to be estimated; this anomaly is as large as 0.025 g kg−1 in the northernmost North Pacific. Here we provide an algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity Anomaly for any location (x, y, p in the world ocean.

    To develop this algorithm, we used the Absolute Salinity Anomaly that is found by comparing the density calculated from Practical Salinity to the density measured in the laboratory. These estimates of Absolute Salinity Anomaly however are limited to the number of available observations (namely 811. In order to provide a practical method that can be used at any location in the world ocean, we take advantage of approximate relationships between Absolute Salinity Anomaly and silicate concentrations (which are available globally.

  20. Representation and propagation of imprecise and uncertain knowledge: applied to risk assessments related by polluted sites and soils; Representation et propagation de connaissances imprecises et incertaines: application a l'evaluation des risques lies aux sites et aux sols pollues

    Baudrit, C


    , and it is more natural to use intervals. However, the available information is often richer than an interval but less rich than a probability distribution. In practice, while information regarding variability is best conveyed using probability distributions, information regarding impreciseness is more faithful conveyed using probability families encoded either by p-boxes (lower and upper cumulative distribution functions) or by possibility distributions (also called fuzzy intervals) or yet by random intervals using the belief functions of Dempster-Shafer. The first objective of this work is to propose practical representation methods according to available information regarding model parameters by using possibility, probability and random sets. The second one is to propose different methods for propagating variability and impreciseness information through risk model by trying to take into account dependency between model parameters. Lastly, these alternative methods are tested on simplified real cases, with a view to provide useful inputs for the decision-making process: - Dose calculation: Transfer of a radioactive pollutant (strontium) from the deposit to man, through the consumption of food (cow's milk). - Toxic risk related to the accidental spill of trichloroethylene (TCE) into an aquifer (semi-analytical model). - Risk for health related to grounds polluted by lead due to the presence of factories. (author)

  1. From the description of activities to the identification of risks for clinical management: a proposal of building, merging and sharing knowledge representations of care processes.

    Staccini, Pascal; Joubert, Michel; Collomp, Rémy; Quaranta, Jean-François; Fieschi, Marius


    Management of clinical processes and hospital activities takes advantage of business process reengineering methodology. It is now recognized that care process modeling must integrate the definition of goals and the assessment of risk. Two kinds of issues have been outlined: 1) the lack of an integrated model to identify and describe processes and their components according to a functional point of view; and 2) an increasing amount of documents that hospital staff members have to create, collect, index and maintain. As initial models focused only on a structural view of activities, we reviewed different sources of standards and norms to extract and classify a set of metadata aimed at describing any activity and its outcomes. The model includes links to structured terminologies to name attributes or value them. An object-oriented information model has been created and implemented to test the relevance and the feasibility of the modeling approach. Conceptually speaking, this model gives opportunity to bridge tacit and explicit knowledge. Practically speaking, limits to generalization remain partly due to the lack of a template processes database.

  2. Absolute photoacoustic thermometry in deep tissue.

    Yao, Junjie; Ke, Haixin; Tai, Stephen; Zhou, Yong; Wang, Lihong V


    Photoacoustic thermography is a promising tool for temperature measurement in deep tissue. Here we propose an absolute temperature measurement method based on the dual temperature dependences of the Grüneisen parameter and the speed of sound in tissue. By taking ratiometric measurements at two adjacent temperatures, we can eliminate the factors that are temperature irrelevant but difficult to correct for in deep tissue. To validate our method, absolute temperatures of blood-filled tubes embedded ~9 mm deep in chicken tissue were measured in a biologically relevant range from 28°C to 46°C. The temperature measurement accuracy was ~0.6°C. The results suggest that our method can be potentially used for absolute temperature monitoring in deep tissue during thermotherapy.

  3. Quantum theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality

    Amaral, Barbara; Cunha, Marcelo Terra; Cabello, Adán


    Contextuality is a fundamental feature of quantum theory and a necessary resource for quantum computation and communication. It is therefore important to investigate how large contextuality can be in quantum theory. Linear contextuality witnesses can be expressed as a sum S of n probabilities, and the independence number α and the Tsirelson-like number ϑ of the corresponding exclusivity graph are, respectively, the maximum of S for noncontextual theories and for the theory under consideration. A theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality if it has scenarios in which ϑ /α approaches n . Here we show that quantum theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality despite what is suggested by the examination of the quantum violations of Bell and noncontextuality inequalities considered in the past. Our proof is not constructive and does not single out explicit scenarios. Nevertheless, we identify scenarios in which quantum theory allows for almost-absolute-maximal contextuality.

  4. Absolute-Magnitude Distributions of Supernovae

    Richardson, Dean; Wright, John; Maddox, Larry


    The absolute-magnitude distributions of seven supernova types are presented. The data used here were primarily taken from the Asiago Supernova Catalogue, but were supplemented with additional data. We accounted for both foreground and host-galaxy extinction. A bootstrap method is used to correct the samples for Malmquist bias. Separately, we generate volume-limited samples, restricted to events within 100 Mpc. We find that the superluminous events (M_B -15) make up about 3%. The normal Ia distribution was the brightest with a mean absolute blue magnitude of -19.25. The IIP distribution was the dimmest at -16.75.

  5. Absolute Stability Limit for Relativistic Charged Spheres

    Giuliani, Alessandro


    We find an exact solution for the stability limit of relativistic charged spheres for the case of constant gravitational mass density and constant charge density. We argue that this provides an absolute stability limit for any relativistic charged sphere in which the gravitational mass density decreases with radius and the charge density increases with radius. We then provide a cruder absolute stability limit that applies to any charged sphere with a spherically symmetric mass and charge distribution. We give numerical results for all cases. In addition, we discuss the example of a neutral sphere surrounded by a thin, charged shell.

  6. Absolute Asymmetric Synthesis Using A Cocrystal Approach



    1 Results Absolute asymmetric synthesis by means of solid-state reaction of chiral crystals self-assembled from achiral molecules is an attractive and promising methodology for asymmetric synthesis because it is not necessary to employ any external chiral source like a chiral catalyst.In order to design reliably absolute asymmetric syntheses in the solid state,it is inevitable to prepare and predict the formation of chiral crystals from achiral compounds.We have prepared a number of chiral cocrystals co...

  7. Ordering ambiguity versus representation

    Souza de Dutra, A [Abdus Salam ICTP, Strada Costiera 11, 34014 Trieste (Italy); UNESP-Campus de Guaratingueta-DFQ , Av. Dr. Ariberto Pereira da Cunha, 333, C.P. 205, 12516-410 Guaratingueta SP (Brazil)


    In this work we show that the ordering ambiguity on quantization depends on the representation choice. This property is then used to solve unambiguously some particular systems. Finally, we speculate on the consequences for more involved cases.

  8. Hyperfinite Representation of Distributions

    J Sousa Pinto; R F Hoskins


    Hyperfinite representation of distributions is studied following the method introduced by Kinoshita [2, 3], although we use a different approach much in the vein of [4]. Products and Fourier transforms of representatives of distributions are also analysed.

  9. Function, anticipation, representation

    Bickhard, Mark. H.


    Function emerges in certain kinds of far-from-equilibrium systems. One important kind of function is that of interactive anticipation, an adaptedness to temporal complexity. Interactive anticipation is the locus of the emergence of normative representational content, and, thus, of representation in general: interactive anticipation is the naturalistic core of the evolution of cognition. Higher forms of such anticipation are involved in the subsequent macro-evolutionary sequence of learning, emotions, and reflexive consciousness.

  10. Thin-film magnetoresistive absolute position detector

    Groenland, Johannes Petrus Jacobus


    The subject of this thesis is the investigation of a digital absolute posi- tion-detection system, which is based on a position-information carrier (i.e. a magnetic tape) with one single code track on the one hand, and an array of magnetoresistive sensors for the detection of the informatio

  11. Det demokratiske argument for absolut ytringsfrihed

    Lægaard, Sune


    Artiklen diskuterer den påstand, at absolut ytringsfrihed er en nødvendig forudsætning for demokratisk legitimitet med udgangspunkt i en rekonstruktion af et argument fremsat af Ronald Dworkin. Spørgsmålet er, hvorfor ytringsfrihed skulle være en forudsætning for demokratisk legitimitet, og hvorfor...

  12. New Techniques for Absolute Gravity Measurements.


    Hammond, J.A. (1978) Bollettino Di Geofisica Teorica ed Applicata Vol. XX. 8. Hammond, J. A., and Iliff, R. L. (1979) The AFGL absolute gravity system...International Gravimetric Bureau, No. L:I-43. 7. Hammond. J.A. (1978) Bollettino Di Geofisica Teorica ed Applicata Vol. XX. 8. Hammond, J.A., and

  13. Teaching Absolute Value Inequalities to Mature Students

    Sierpinska, Anna; Bobos, Georgeana; Pruncut, Andreea


    This paper gives an account of a teaching experiment on absolute value inequalities, whose aim was to identify characteristics of an approach that would realize the potential of the topic to develop theoretical thinking in students enrolled in prerequisite mathematics courses at a large, urban North American university. The potential is…

  14. Time Function and Absolute Black Hole

    Javadi, Hossein; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid


    Einstein’s theory of gravity is not consistent with quantum mechanics, because general relativity cannot be quantized. [1] But without conversion of force and energy, it is impossible to find a grand unified theory. A very important result of CPH theory is time function that allows we give a new ...... description of absolute black hole and before the big bang....

  15. Magnetoresistive sensor for absolute position detection

    Groenland, J.P.J.


    A digital measurement principle for absolute position is decscribed. The position data is recorded serially into a single track of a hard-magnetic layer with the help of longitudinal saturation recording. Detection is possible by means of an array of sensor elements which can be made of a substrate.

  16. Generalized Norms Inequalities for Absolute Value Operators

    Ilyas Ali


    Full Text Available In this article, we generalize some norms inequalities for sums, differences, and products of absolute value operators. Our results based on Minkowski type inequalities and generalized forms of the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality. Some other related inequalities are also discussed.

  17. Stimulus Probability Effects in Absolute Identification

    Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen


    This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an absolute identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of…

  18. Absolute Radiation Thermometry in the NIR

    Bünger, L.; Taubert, R. D.; Gutschwager, B.; Anhalt, K.; Briaudeau, S.; Sadli, M.


    A near infrared (NIR) radiation thermometer (RT) for temperature measurements in the range from 773 K up to 1235 K was characterized and calibrated in terms of the "Mise en Pratique for the definition of the Kelvin" (MeP-K) by measuring its absolute spectral radiance responsivity. Using Planck's law of thermal radiation allows the direct measurement of the thermodynamic temperature independently of any ITS-90 fixed-point. To determine the absolute spectral radiance responsivity of the radiation thermometer in the NIR spectral region, an existing PTB monochromator-based calibration setup was upgraded with a supercontinuum laser system (0.45 μm to 2.4 μm) resulting in a significantly improved signal-to-noise ratio. The RT was characterized with respect to its nonlinearity, size-of-source effect, distance effect, and the consistency of its individual temperature measuring ranges. To further improve the calibration setup, a new tool for the aperture alignment and distance measurement was developed. Furthermore, the diffraction correction as well as the impedance correction of the current-to-voltage converter is considered. The calibration scheme and the corresponding uncertainty budget of the absolute spectral responsivity are presented. A relative standard uncertainty of 0.1 % (k=1) for the absolute spectral radiance responsivity was achieved. The absolute radiometric calibration was validated at four temperature values with respect to the ITS-90 via a variable temperature heatpipe blackbody (773 K ...1235 K) and at a gold fixed-point blackbody radiator (1337.33 K).

  19. Risk

    Barshi, Immanuel


    Speaking up, i.e. expressing ones concerns, is a critical piece of effective communication. Yet, we see many situations in which crew members have concerns and still remain silent. Why would that be the case? And how can we assess the risks of speaking up vs. the risks of keeping silent? And once we do make up our minds to speak up, how should we go about it? Our workshop aims to answer these questions, and to provide us all with practical tools for effective risk assessment and effective speaking-up strategies..

  20. Martingale representation property in progressively enlarged filtrations

    Jeanblanc, M


    Consider $\\mathbb{G}$ the progressive enlargement of a filtration $\\mathbb{F}$ with a random time $\\tau$. Assuming that, in $\\mathbb{F}$, the martingale representation property holds, we examine conditions under which the martingale representation property holds also in $\\mathbb{G}$. It is noted that the classical results on this subject are no more sufficient to deal with all examples coming from credit risk modeling. In this paper, we introduce a new methodology which extends the various classical results and applies on recent examples.

  1. Representation, interaction, and intersubjectivity.

    Alterman, Richard


    What the participants share, their common "sense" of the world, creates a foundation, a framing, an orientation that enables human actors to see and act in coordination with one another. For recurrent activities, the methods the participants use to understand each other as they act change, making the intersubjective space in which actors operate richer and easier to produce. This article works through some of the issues that emerge from a close examination of intersubjectivity as it is managed through representation and interaction. The data that are presented document, in detail, a sequence of related interactions, within and across episodes of cooperation, where continuity and change can be observed. The emergence of conversational structure and coordinating representations are significant milestones in the long-term development of a representational practice that support the runtime co-construction of intersubjective space. Conversational structures emerge interactively to mediate recurrent points of coordination in the domain activity, and only secondarily the conversation itself. Coordinating representations change the representational practice of the participants by making it easier to manage their "shared view" of the collective work, enabling the participants to make progress, expand the field of the common activity, while exhibiting more control of if and when explicit grounding occurs.

  2. Representation Discovery using Harmonic Analysis

    Mahadevan, Sridhar


    Representations are at the heart of artificial intelligence (AI). This book is devoted to the problem of representation discovery: how can an intelligent system construct representations from its experience? Representation discovery re-parameterizes the state space - prior to the application of information retrieval, machine learning, or optimization techniques - facilitating later inference processes by constructing new task-specific bases adapted to the state space geometry. This book presents a general approach to representation discovery using the framework of harmonic analysis, in particu

  3. Post-representational cartography

    Rob Kitchin


    Full Text Available Over the past decade there has been a move amongst critical cartographers to rethink maps from a post-representational perspective – that is, a vantage point that does not privilege representational modes of thinking (wherein maps are assumed to be mirrors of the world and automatically presumes the ontological security of a map as a map, but rather rethinks and destabilises such notions. This new theorisation extends beyond the earlier critiques of Brian Harley (1989 that argued maps were social constructions. For Harley a map still conveyed the truth of a landscape, albeit its message was bound within the ideological frame of its creator. He thus advocated a strategy of identifying the politics of representation within maps in order to circumnavigate them (to reveal the truth lurking underneath, with the ontology of cartographic practice remaining unquestioned.

  4. Towards Multimodal Content Representation

    Bunt, Harry


    Multimodal interfaces, combining the use of speech, graphics, gestures, and facial expressions in input and output, promise to provide new possibilities to deal with information in more effective and efficient ways, supporting for instance: - the understanding of possibly imprecise, partial or ambiguous multimodal input; - the generation of coordinated, cohesive, and coherent multimodal presentations; - the management of multimodal interaction (e.g., task completion, adapting the interface, error prevention) by representing and exploiting models of the user, the domain, the task, the interactive context, and the media (e.g. text, audio, video). The present document is intended to support the discussion on multimodal content representation, its possible objectives and basic constraints, and how the definition of a generic representation framework for multimodal content representation may be approached. It takes into account the results of the Dagstuhl workshop, in particular those of the informal working group...

  5. Learning network representations

    Moyano, Luis G.


    In this review I present several representation learning methods, and discuss the latest advancements with emphasis in applications to network science. Representation learning is a set of techniques that has the goal of efficiently mapping data structures into convenient latent spaces. Either for dimensionality reduction or for gaining semantic content, this type of feature embeddings has demonstrated to be useful, for example, for node classification or link prediction tasks, among many other relevant applications to networks. I provide a description of the state-of-the-art of network representation learning as well as a detailed account of the connections with other fields of study such as continuous word embeddings and deep learning architectures. Finally, I provide a broad view of several applications of these techniques to networks in various domains.

  6. Mobilities and Representations

    Thelle, Mikkel


    , literature, and film. Moreover, we hope the authors of future reviews will reflect on the ways they approached those representations. Such commentaries would provide valuable methodological insights, and we hope to begin that effort with this interview. We have asked four prominent mobility scholars...... to consider how they and their peers are currently confronting representations of mobility. This is particularly timely given the growing academic focus on practices, material mediation, and nonrepresentational theories, as well as on bodily reactions, emotions, and feelings that, according to those theories...

  7. Additive and polynomial representations

    Krantz, David H; Suppes, Patrick


    Additive and Polynomial Representations deals with major representation theorems in which the qualitative structure is reflected as some polynomial function of one or more numerical functions defined on the basic entities. Examples are additive expressions of a single measure (such as the probability of disjoint events being the sum of their probabilities), and additive expressions of two measures (such as the logarithm of momentum being the sum of log mass and log velocity terms). The book describes the three basic procedures of fundamental measurement as the mathematical pivot, as the utiliz

  8. An absolute measure for a key currency

    Oya, Shunsuke; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Hirata, Yoshito

    It is generally considered that the US dollar and the euro are the key currencies in the world and in Europe, respectively. However, there is no absolute general measure for a key currency. Here, we investigate the 24-hour periodicity of foreign exchange markets using a recurrence plot, and define an absolute measure for a key currency based on the strength of the periodicity. Moreover, we analyze the time evolution of this measure. The results show that the credibility of the US dollar has not decreased significantly since the Lehman shock, when the Lehman Brothers bankrupted and influenced the economic markets, and has increased even relatively better than that of the euro and that of the Japanese yen.

  9. From Hubble's NGSL to Absolute Fluxes

    Heap, Sara R.; Lindler, Don


    Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL) consists of R-l000 spectra of 374 stars of assorted temperature, gravity, and metallicity. Each spectrum covers the wavelength range, 0.18-1.00 microns. The library can be viewed and/or downloaded from the website, Stars in the NGSL are now being used as absolute flux standards at ground-based observatories. However, the uncertainty in the absolute flux is about 2%, which does not meet the requirements of dark-energy surveys. We are therefore developing an observing procedure that should yield fluxes with uncertainties less than 1 % and will take part in an HST proposal to observe up to 15 stars using this new procedure.

  10. Asteroid absolute magnitudes and slope parameters

    Tedesco, Edward F.


    A new listing of absolute magnitudes (H) and slope parameters (G) has been created and published in the Minor Planet Circulars; this same listing will appear in the 1992 Ephemerides of Minor Planets. Unlike previous listings, the values of the current list were derived from fits of data at the V band. All observations were reduced in the same fashion using, where appropriate, a single basis default value of 0.15 for the slope parameter. Distances and phase angles were computed for each observation. The data for 113 asteroids was of sufficiently high quality to permit derivation of their H and G. These improved absolute magnitudes and slope parameters will be used to deduce the most reliable bias-corrected asteroid size-frequency distribution yet made.

  11. Learning in a unidimensional absolute identification task.

    Rouder, Jeffrey N; Morey, Richard D; Cowan, Nelson; Pfaltz, Monique


    We tested whether there is long-term learning in the absolute identification of line lengths. Line lengths are unidimensional stimuli, and there is a common belief that learning of these stimuli quickly reaches a low-level asymptote of about seven items and progresses no more. We show that this is not the case. Our participants served in a 1.5-h session each day for over a week. Although they did not achieve perfect performance, they continued to improve day by day throughout the week and eventually learned to distinguish between 12 and 20 line lengths. These results are in contrast to common characterizations of learning in absolute identification tasks with unidimensional stimuli. We suggest that this learning reflects improvement in short-term processing.

  12. Absolute and relative dosimetry for ELIMED

    Cirrone, G. A. P.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and Institute of Physics Czech Academy of Science, ELI-Beamlines project, Na Slovance 2, Prague (Czech Republic); Cuttone, G.; Candiano, G.; Musumarra, A.; Pisciotta, P.; Romano, F. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania (Italy); Carpinelli, M. [INFN Sezione di Cagliari, c/o Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy); Leonora, E.; Randazzo, N. [INFN-Sezione di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Presti, D. Lo [INFN-Sezione di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, Catania, Italy and Università di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Via S. Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Raffaele, L. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and INFN-Sezione di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Tramontana, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and Università di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Via S. Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Cirio, R.; Sacchi, R.; Monaco, V. [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via P.Giuria, 1 10125 Torino, Italy and Università di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via P.Giuria, 1 10125 Torino (Italy); Marchetto, F.; Giordanengo, S. [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via P.Giuria, 1 10125 Torino (Italy)


    The definition of detectors, methods and procedures for the absolute and relative dosimetry of laser-driven proton beams is a crucial step toward the clinical use of this new kind of beams. Hence, one of the ELIMED task, will be the definition of procedures aiming to obtain an absolute dose measure at the end of the transport beamline with an accuracy as close as possible to the one required for clinical applications (i.e. of the order of 5% or less). Relative dosimetry procedures must be established, as well: they are necessary in order to determine and verify the beam dose distributions and to monitor the beam fluence and the energetic spectra during irradiations. Radiochromic films, CR39, Faraday Cup, Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) and transmission ionization chamber will be considered, designed and studied in order to perform a fully dosimetric characterization of the ELIMED proton beam.

  13. Absolute and relative dosimetry for ELIMED

    Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Candiano, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Leonora, E.; Lo Presti, D.; Musumarra, A.; Pisciotta, P.; Raffaele, L.; Randazzo, N.; Romano, F.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V.; Tramontana, A.; Cirio, R.; Marchetto, F.; Sacchi, R.; Giordanengo, S.; Monaco, V.


    The definition of detectors, methods and procedures for the absolute and relative dosimetry of laser-driven proton beams is a crucial step toward the clinical use of this new kind of beams. Hence, one of the ELIMED task, will be the definition of procedures aiming to obtain an absolute dose measure at the end of the transport beamline with an accuracy as close as possible to the one required for clinical applications (i.e. of the order of 5% or less). Relative dosimetry procedures must be established, as well: they are necessary in order to determine and verify the beam dose distributions and to monitor the beam fluence and the energetic spectra during irradiations. Radiochromic films, CR39, Faraday Cup, Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) and transmission ionization chamber will be considered, designed and studied in order to perform a fully dosimetric characterization of the ELIMED proton beam.

  14. Absolute calibration of TFTR helium proportional counters

    Strachan, J.D.; Diesso, M.; Jassby, D.; Johnson, L.; McCauley, S.; Munsat, T.; Roquemore, A.L. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.; Barnes, C.W. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.]|[Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Loughlin, M. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.]|[JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon (United Kingdom)


    The TFTR helium proportional counters are located in the central five (5) channels of the TFTR multichannel neutron collimator. These detectors were absolutely calibrated using a 14 MeV neutron generator positioned at the horizontal midplane of the TFTR vacuum vessel. The neutron generator position was scanned in centimeter steps to determine the collimator aperture width to 14 MeV neutrons and the absolute sensitivity of each channel. Neutron profiles were measured for TFTR plasmas with time resolution between 5 msec and 50 msec depending upon count rates. The He detectors were used to measure the burnup of 1 MeV tritons in deuterium plasmas, the transport of tritium in trace tritium experiments, and the residual tritium levels in plasmas following 50:50 DT experiments.

  15. Absolute vs. Relative Notion of Wealth Changes


    This paper discusses solutions derived from lottery experiments using two alternative assumptions: that people perceive wealth changes as absolute amounts of money; and that people consider wealth changes as a proportion of some reference value dependant on the context of the problem under consideration. The former assumption leads to the design of Prospect Theory, the latter - to a solution closely resembling the utility function hypothesized by Markowitz (1952B). This paper presents several...

  16. The absolute differential calculus (calculus of tensors)

    Levi-Civita, Tullio


    Written by a towering figure of twentieth-century mathematics, this classic examines the mathematical background necessary for a grasp of relativity theory. Tullio Levi-Civita provides a thorough treatment of the introductory theories that form the basis for discussions of fundamental quadratic forms and absolute differential calculus, and he further explores physical applications.Part one opens with considerations of functional determinants and matrices, advancing to systems of total differential equations, linear partial differential equations, algebraic foundations, and a geometrical intro

  17. Measurement of absolute gravity acceleration in Firenze

    de Angelis, M.; Greco, F.; Pistorio, A.; Poli, N.; Prevedelli, M.; Saccorotti, G.; Sorrentino, F.; Tino, G. M.


    This paper reports the results from the accurate measurement of the acceleration of gravity g taken at two separate premises in the Polo Scientifico of the University of Firenze (Italy). In these laboratories, two separate experiments aiming at measuring the Newtonian constant and testing the Newtonian law at short distances are in progress. Both experiments require an independent knowledge on the local value of g. The only available datum, pertaining to the italian zero-order gravity network, was taken more than 20 years ago at a distance of more than 60 km from the study site. Gravity measurements were conducted using an FG5 absolute gravimeter, and accompanied by seismic recordings for evaluating the noise condition at the site. The absolute accelerations of gravity at the two laboratories are (980 492 160.6 ± 4.0) μGal and (980 492 048.3 ± 3.0) μGal for the European Laboratory for Non-Linear Spectroscopy (LENS) and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, respectively. Other than for the two referenced experiments, the data here presented will serve as a benchmark for any future study requiring an accurate knowledge of the absolute value of the acceleration of gravity in the study region.

  18. Measurement of absolute gravity acceleration in Firenze

    M. de Angelis


    Full Text Available This paper reports the results from the accurate measurement of the acceleration of gravity g taken at two separate premises in the Polo Scientifico of the University of Firenze (Italy. In these laboratories, two separate experiments aiming at measuring the Newtonian constant and testing the Newtonian law at short distances are in progress. Both experiments require an independent knowledge on the local value of g. The only available datum, pertaining to the italian zero-order gravity network, was taken more than 20 years ago at a distance of more than 60 km from the study site. Gravity measurements were conducted using an FG5 absolute gravimeter, and accompanied by seismic recordings for evaluating the noise condition at the site. The absolute accelerations of gravity at the two laboratories are (980 492 160.6 ± 4.0 μGal and (980 492 048.3 ± 3.0 μGal for the European Laboratory for Non-Linear Spectroscopy (LENS and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, respectively. Other than for the two referenced experiments, the data here presented will serve as a benchmark for any future study requiring an accurate knowledge of the absolute value of the acceleration of gravity in the study region.

  19. Assessing the performance capabilities of LRE-based assays for absolute quantitative real-time PCR.

    Robert G Rutledge

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Linear regression of efficiency or LRE introduced a new paradigm for conducting absolute quantification, which does not require standard curves, can generate absolute accuracies of +/-25% and has single molecule sensitivity. Derived from adapting the classic Boltzmann sigmoidal function to PCR, target quantity is calculated directly from the fluorescence readings within the central region of an amplification profile, generating 4-8 determinations from each amplification reaction. FINDINGS: Based on generating a linear representation of PCR amplification, the highly visual nature of LRE analysis is illustrated by varying reaction volume and amplification efficiency, which also demonstrates how LRE can be used to model PCR. Examining the dynamic range of LRE further demonstrates that quantitative accuracy can be maintained down to a single target molecule, and that target quantification below ten molecules conforms to that predicted by Poisson distribution. Essential to the universality of optical calibration, the fluorescence intensity generated by SYBR Green I (FU/bp is shown to be independent of GC content and amplicon size, further verifying that absolute scale can be established using a single quantitative standard. Two high-performance lambda amplicons are also introduced that in addition to producing highly precise optical calibrations, can be used as benchmarks for performance testing. The utility of limiting dilution assay for conducting platform-independent absolute quantification is also discussed, along with the utility of defining assay performance in terms of absolute accuracy. CONCLUSIONS: Founded on the ability to exploit lambda gDNA as a universal quantitative standard, LRE provides the ability to conduct absolute quantification using few resources beyond those needed for sample preparation and amplification. Combined with the quantitative and quality control capabilities of LRE, this kinetic-based approach has the

  20. Representation of the Divine

    Loddegaard, Anne


    out of place in a novel belonging to the serious combat literature of the Catholic Revival, and the direct representation of the supernatural is also surprising because previous Catholic Revival novelists, such as Léon Bloy and Karl-Joris Huysmans, maintain a realistic, non-magical world and deal...

  1. Representation of the Divine

    Loddegaard, Anne


    out of place in a novel belonging to the serious combat literature of the Catholic Revival, and the direct representation of the supernatural is also surprising because previous Catholic Revival novelists, such as Léon Bloy and Karl-Joris Huysmans, maintain a realistic, non-magical world and deal...

  2. Moment graphs and representations

    Jantzen, Jens Carsten


    Moment graphs and sheaves on moment graphs are basically combinatorial objects that have be used to describe equivariant intersectiion cohomology. In these lectures we are going to show that they can be used to provide a direct link from this cohomology to the representation theory of simple Lie...

  3. Representation and human reasoning

    ter Meulen, Alice G.B.


    Interpretation and reasoning are two sides of sharing information. Representations of the context and common ground must capture the rich content of what has been said, by linking to situations in the world as well as to what has been said before, common sense and to the presuppositions and entailme

  4. Spectral representation of fingerprints

    Xu, Haiyun; Bazen, Asker M.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Kevenaar, Tom A.M.; Akkermans, Anton H.M.


    Most fingerprint recognition systems are based on the use of a minutiae set, which is an unordered collection of minutiae locations and directions suffering from various deformations such as translation, rotation and scaling. The spectral minutiae representation introduced in this paper is a novel m

  5. Between Representation and Eternity

    Atzbach, Rainer


    . At death, an indi- vidual’s corpse and burial primarily reflect the social act of representation during the funeral. The position of the arms, which have incorrectly been used as a chronological tool in Scandinavia, may indicate an evolution from a more collective act of prayer up to the eleventh century...

  6. Sociocognitive Perspectives on Representation.

    Jacob, Elin K.; Shaw, Debora


    Discusses research dealing with the cognitive aspects of formal systems of knowledge representation. Highlights include the origins and theoretical foundations of the cognitive viewpoint; cognition and information science; cognitivism, mentalism, and subjective individualism; categorization; mental models; and sociocognitive approaches to indexing…

  7. The DTW-based representation space for seismic pattern classification

    Orozco-Alzate, Mauricio; Castro-Cabrera, Paola Alexandra; Bicego, Manuele; Londoño-Bonilla, John Makario


    Distinguishing among the different seismic volcanic patterns is still one of the most important and labor-intensive tasks for volcano monitoring. This task could be lightened and made free from subjective bias by using automatic classification techniques. In this context, a core but often overlooked issue is the choice of an appropriate representation of the data to be classified. Recently, it has been suggested that using a relative representation (i.e. proximities, namely dissimilarities on pairs of objects) instead of an absolute one (i.e. features, namely measurements on single objects) is advantageous to exploit the relational information contained in the dissimilarities to derive highly discriminant vector spaces, where any classifier can be used. According to that motivation, this paper investigates the suitability of a dynamic time warping (DTW) dissimilarity-based vector representation for the classification of seismic patterns. Results show the usefulness of such a representation in the seismic pattern classification scenario, including analyses of potential benefits from recent advances in the dissimilarity-based paradigm such as the proper selection of representation sets and the combination of different dissimilarity representations that might be available for the same data.

  8. The changing demographic, legal, and technological contexts of political representation.

    Forest, Benjamin


    Three developments have created challenges for political representation in the U.S. and particularly for the use of territorially based representation (election by district). First, the demographic complexity of the U.S. population has grown both in absolute terms and in terms of residential patterns. Second, legal developments since the 1960s have recognized an increasing number of groups as eligible for voting rights protection. Third, the growing technical capacities of computer technology, particularly Geographic Information Systems, have allowed political parties and other organizations to create election districts with increasingly precise political and demographic characteristics. Scholars have made considerable progress in measuring and evaluating the racial and partisan biases of districting plans, and some states have tried to use Geographic Information Systems technology to produce more representative districts. However, case studies of Texas and Arizona illustrate that such analytic and technical advances have not overcome the basic contradictions that underlie the American system of territorial political representation.

  9. Representations of stem cell clinics on Twitter.

    Kamenova, Kalina; Reshef, Amir; Caulfield, Timothy


    The practice of travelling abroad to receive unproven and unregulated stem cell treatments has become an increasingly problematic global phenomenon known as 'stem cell tourism'. In this paper, we examine representations of nine major clinics and providers of such treatments on the microblogging network Twitter. We collected and conducted a content analysis of Twitter posts (n = 363) by these establishments and by other users mentioning them, focusing specifically on marketing claims about treatment procedures and outcomes, discussions of safety and efficacy of stem cell transplants, and specific representations of patients' experiences. Our analysis has shown that there were explicit claims or suggestions of benefits associated with unproven stem cell treatments in approximately one third of the tweets and that patients' experiences, whenever referenced, were presented as invariably positive and as testimonials about the efficacy of stem cell transplants. Furthermore, the results indicated that the tone of most tweets (60.2 %) was overwhelmingly positive and there were rarely critical discussions about significant health risks associated with unproven stem cell therapies. When placed in the context of past research on the problems associated with the marketing of unproven stem cell therapies, this analysis of representations on Twitter suggests that discussions in social media have also remained largely uncritical of the stem cell tourism phenomenon, with inaccurate representations of risks and benefits for patients.

  10. Absolute Quantitation of DNA Methylation of 28 Candidate Genes in Prostate Cancer Using Pyrosequencing

    Nataڑa Vasiljeviš


    Full Text Available Aberrant DNA methylation plays a pivotal role in carcinogenesis and its mapping is likely to provide biomarkers for improved diagnostic and risk assessment in prostate cancer (PCa. We quantified and compared absolute methylation levels among 28 candidate genes in 48 PCa and 29 benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH samples using the pyrosequencing (PSQ method to identify genes with diagnostic and prognostic potential.

  11. [Colorectal cancer screening: an absolute necessity and an imminent reality in the French community].

    Polus, M; Stibbe, G; Van Laethem, J-L; Adler, M; Coche, E


    Colorectal cancer is a true problematic of public health. The screening is an absolute necessity. An ambitious program of screening is launched in French Community. Faecal occult blood test (FOBT) will be proposed to average risk patients in general population. A total colonoscopy will be performed if FOBT will be positive. First step colonoscopy will be proposed to high or very high risk patients. General practitioners are in the core of the multidisciplinary program.

  12. [Colorectal cancer screening: an absolute necessity and a concrete reality in the French community].

    Polus, M; Montrieux, C; Giet, D; Louis, E; Belaiche, J; Coche, E


    Colorectal cancer is a real problem of public health. Screening is an absolute necessity. An ambitious program of screening is launched in the French Community. Faecal occult blood test will be proposed to average risk patients in the general population. A total colonoscopy will be performed if FOBT is positive. First step colonoscopy will be proposed to high or very high risk patients. General practitioners are in the core of the multi-disciplinary program.

  13. Social representation of AIDS among Zambian adolescents.

    Joffe, Hélène; Bettega, Nadia


    This study explores shared thinking about HIV/AIDS among Zambian adolescents. With high numbers affected, the question is how this group represents its risk. Social representations of the origin, spread and risk of HIV/AIDS were gleaned via 60 semistructured interviews with urban 15 to 20 year olds. A systematic analysis revealed a shared picture: AIDS was linked to the West, God and teenage girls; its spread lay beyond the control of adolescent boys and men; and the personal sense of vulnerability was low. The results are discussed in light of their corroboration of the finding that social representations of danger can be identity protective, yet also system justifying. The potential transfer of such findings to psychological theory and to health campaigns is considered.

  14. Achieving Climate Change Absolute Accuracy in Orbit

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Thome, K. J; Leroy, S.; Corliss, J.; Anderson, J. G.; Ao, C. O.; Bantges, R.; Best, F.; Bowman, K.; Brindley, H.; Butler, J. J.; Collins, W.; Dykema, J. A.; Doelling, D. R.; Feldman, D. R.; Fox, N.; Huang, X.; Holz, R.; Huang, Y.; Jennings, D.; Jin, Z.; Johnson, D. G.; Jucks, K.; Kato, S.; Kratz, D. P.; Liu, X.; Lukashin, C.; Mannucci, A. J.; Phojanamongkolkij, N.; Roithmayr, C. M.; Sandford, S.; Taylor, P. C.; Xiong, X.


    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission will provide a calibration laboratory in orbit for the purpose of accurately measuring and attributing climate change. CLARREO measurements establish new climate change benchmarks with high absolute radiometric accuracy and high statistical confidence across a wide range of essential climate variables. CLARREO's inherently high absolute accuracy will be verified and traceable on orbit to Système Internationale (SI) units. The benchmarks established by CLARREO will be critical for assessing changes in the Earth system and climate model predictive capabilities for decades into the future as society works to meet the challenge of optimizing strategies for mitigating and adapting to climate change. The CLARREO benchmarks are derived from measurements of the Earth's thermal infrared spectrum (5-50 micron), the spectrum of solar radiation reflected by the Earth and its atmosphere (320-2300 nm), and radio occultation refractivity from which accurate temperature profiles are derived. The mission has the ability to provide new spectral fingerprints of climate change, as well as to provide the first orbiting radiometer with accuracy sufficient to serve as the reference transfer standard for other space sensors, in essence serving as a "NIST [National Institute of Standards and Technology] in orbit." CLARREO will greatly improve the accuracy and relevance of a wide range of space-borne instruments for decadal climate change. Finally, CLARREO has developed new metrics and methods for determining the accuracy requirements of climate observations for a wide range of climate variables and uncertainty sources. These methods should be useful for improving our understanding of observing requirements for most climate change observations.

  15. ABSOLUT LOMO绝对创意



    ABSOLUT与创意素来有着不解之缘。由Andy Warhal的ABSOLUT WARHOL至今,已有超过400位不同领域的创意大师为ABSOLUT的当代艺术宝库贡献了自己的得意之作。ABSOLUT的创意仿佛永远不会枯竭,而一系列的作品也让惊喜从未落空。

  16. Absolute quantification of myocardial blood flow.

    Yoshinaga, Keiichiro; Manabe, Osamu; Tamaki, Nagara


    With the increasing availability of positron emission tomography (PET) myocardial perfusion imaging, the absolute quantification of myocardial blood flow (MBF) has become popular in clinical settings. Quantitative MBF provides an important additional diagnostic or prognostic information over conventional visual assessment. The success of MBF quantification using PET/computed tomography (CT) has increased the demand for this quantitative diagnostic approach to be more accessible. In this regard, MBF quantification approaches have been developed using several other diagnostic imaging modalities including single-photon emission computed tomography, CT, and cardiac magnetic resonance. This review will address the clinical aspects of PET MBF quantification and the new approaches to MBF quantification.

  17. Absolute calibration of the Auger fluorescence detectors

    Bauleo, P.; Brack, J.; Garrard, L.; Harton, J.; Knapik, R.; Meyhandan, R.; Rovero, A.C.; /Buenos Aires, IAFE; Tamashiro, A.; Warner, D.


    Absolute calibration of the Pierre Auger Observatory fluorescence detectors uses a light source at the telescope aperture. The technique accounts for the combined effects of all detector components in a single measurement. The calibrated 2.5 m diameter light source fills the aperture, providing uniform illumination to each pixel. The known flux from the light source and the response of the acquisition system give the required calibration for each pixel. In the lab, light source uniformity is studied using CCD images and the intensity is measured relative to NIST-calibrated photodiodes. Overall uncertainties are presently 12%, and are dominated by systematics.

  18. Development of an absolute neutron dosimeter

    Acevedo, C; Birstein, L; Loyola, H [Section de Desarrollos Innovativos, Comision Chilena de EnergIa Nuclear (CCHEN), Casilla 188-D, Santiago (Chile)], E-mail:


    An Absolute Neutron Dosimeter was developed to be used as a calibration standard for the Radiation Metrology Laboratory at CCHEN. The main component of the Dosimeter consists of a Proportional Counter of cylindrical shape, with Polyethylene walls and Ethylene gas in its interior. It includes a cage shaped arrangement of graphite bars that operates like the Proportional Counter cathode and a tungsten wire of 25 {mu}m in diameter {mu}m as the anode. Results of a Montecarlo modeling for the Dosimeter operation and results of tests and measurements performed with a radioactive source are presented.

  19. Musical Activity Tunes Up Absolute Pitch Ability

    Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Ribe, Lars Riisgaard


    Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify or produce pitches of musical tones without an external reference. Active AP (i.e., pitch production or pitch adjustment) and passive AP (i.e., pitch identification) are considered to not necessarily coincide, although no study has properly compared...... that APs generally undershoot when adjusting musical pitch, a tendency that decreases when musical activity increases. Finally, APs are less accurate when adjusting the pitch to black key targets than to white key targets. Hence, AP ability may be partly practice-dependent and we speculate that APs may...

  20. Realizations of the Canonical Representation

    M K Vemuri


    A characterisation of the maximal abelian subalgebras of the bounded operators on Hilbert space that are normalised by the canonical representation of the Heisenberg group is given. This is used to classify the perfect realizations of the canonical representation.

  1. Standard model of knowledge representation

    Yin, Wensheng


    Knowledge representation is the core of artificial intelligence research. Knowledge representation methods include predicate logic, semantic network, computer programming language, database, mathematical model, graphics language, natural language, etc. To establish the intrinsic link between various knowledge representation methods, a unified knowledge representation model is necessary. According to ontology, system theory, and control theory, a standard model of knowledge representation that reflects the change of the objective world is proposed. The model is composed of input, processing, and output. This knowledge representation method is not a contradiction to the traditional knowledge representation method. It can express knowledge in terms of multivariate and multidimensional. It can also express process knowledge, and at the same time, it has a strong ability to solve problems. In addition, the standard model of knowledge representation provides a way to solve problems of non-precision and inconsistent knowledge.

  2. Harmonic Analysis and Group Representation

    Figa-Talamanca, Alessandro


    This title includes: Lectures - A. Auslander, R. Tolimeri - Nilpotent groups and abelian varieties, M Cowling - Unitary and uniformly bounded representations of some simple Lie groups, M. Duflo - Construction de representations unitaires d'un groupe de Lie, R. Howe - On a notion of rank for unitary representations of the classical groups, V.S. Varadarajan - Eigenfunction expansions of semisimple Lie groups, and R. Zimmer - Ergodic theory, group representations and rigidity; and, Seminars - A. Koranyi - Some applications of Gelfand pairs in classical analysis.


    甘作新; 葛渭高; 赵素霞; 仵永先


    In this paper, by introducing a new concept of absolute stability for a certain argument, necessary and sufficient conditions for absolute stability of general Lurie indirect control systems are obtained, and some practical sufficient conditions are also given.

  4. Higher Representations Duals

    Sannino, Francesco


    We uncover novel solutions of the 't Hooft anomaly matching conditions for scalarless gauge theories with matter transforming according to higher dimensional representations of the underlying gauge group. We argue that, if the duals exist, they are gauge theories with fermions transforming...... according to the defining representation of the dual gauge group. The resulting conformal windows match the one stemming from the all-orders beta function results when taking the anomalous dimension of the fermion mass to be unity which are also very close to the ones obtained using the Schwinger......-Dyson approximation. We use the solutions to gain useful insight on the conformal window of the associated electric theory. A consistent picture emerges corroborating previous results obtained via different analytic methods and in agreement with first principle lattice explorations....

  5. Constructing visual representations

    Huron, Samuel; Jansen, Yvonne; Carpendale, Sheelagh


    The accessibility of infovis authoring tools to a wide audience has been identified as a major research challenge. A key task in the authoring process is the development of visual mappings. While the infovis community has long been deeply interested in finding effective visual mappings......, comparatively little attention has been placed on how people construct visual mappings. In this paper, we present the results of a study designed to shed light on how people transform data into visual representations. We asked people to create, update and explain their own information visualizations using only...... tangible building blocks. We learned that all participants, most of whom had little experience in visualization authoring, were readily able to create and talk about their own visualizations. Based on our observations, we discuss participants’ actions during the development of their visual representations...

  6. Learning Multisensory Representations


    people’s performances in visual-haptic and visual-auditory environments. People are extraordinarily good at learning information via one sensory...AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0183 Learning Multisensory Representations Robert Jacobs UNIVERSITY OF ROCHESTER Final Report 05/23/2016 DISTRIBUTION A...Materiel Command REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 The public reporting burden for this collection of information is

  7. Non-Representational Theory

    Jensen, Ole B.


    Dette kapitel gennemgår den såkaldte ”Non-Representational Theory” (NRT), der primært er kendt fra den Angelsaksiske humangeografi, og som særligt er blevet fremført af den engelske geograf Nigel Thrift siden midten af 2000 årtiet. Da positionen ikke kan siges at være specielt homogen vil kapitlet...

  8. Comprehension and Representation in Translation



    Transhfion is the faithful rcpresentation in one language of the thought, content, feeling and style written in another language. It involves two processes: comprehension and representation. Correct comprehension is the base for adequate representation. Criteria for good representation lies in two points: the version should be faithful to the original, and the version should be as intelligible as possible.


    Alexander Oktyabrinovich Prokhorov


    Full Text Available Since the time of statement of the problem of states in psychology, the study of “sensuous” tissue – the mental state representation-takes a fundamental meaning. The problem is concluded in the following questions: “How is mental state represented in the consciousness of an individual?”, “What is the specificity of the mental state representation as distinguished from the subject-matter representation?”, “What are the mechanisms of the mental state representation occurrence and the peculiarities of its dynamics? The study of the mental state representation will allow to explain its specificity and difference from the figurative representation, the peculiarities of state explication as a representation in the consciousness and its relation with other elements of consciousness, will allow to show the regularities of the mental state representation development and its dynamics, factors, which influence the specificity of its occurrence, the regulatory role of the state representation in the vital function. From these perspectives, the article presents the results of the study of spatiotemporal characteristics of the mental state representation; reveals the peculiar features of the spatiotemporal organization of mental state representations: Relieves, specificity, magnitude, variability of indicators, changes of structural characteristics in time spans; considers the age-specific peculiar features of the spatiotemporal organization of mental state representations in terms of organization, stability, coherence and differentiated nature of spatiotemporal structures with the representatives of certain age groups.

  10. Representation and Re-Presentation in Litigation Science

    Jasanoff, Sheila


    Federal appellate courts have devised several criteria to help judges distinguish between reliable and unreliable scientific evidence. The best known are the U.S. Supreme Court’s criteria offered in 1993 in Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc. This article focuses on another criterion, offered by the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals, that instructs judges to assign lower credibility to “litigation science” than to science generated before litigation. In this article I argue that the criterion-based approach to judicial screening of scientific evidence is deeply flawed. That approach buys into the faulty premise that there are external criteria, lying outside the legal process, by which judges can distinguish between good and bad science. It erroneously assumes that judges can ascertain the appropriate criteria and objectively apply them to challenged evidence before litigation unfolds, and before methodological disputes are sorted out during that process. Judicial screening does not take into account the dynamics of litigation itself, including gaming by the parties and framing by judges, as constitutive factors in the production and representation of knowledge. What is admitted through judicial screening, in other words, is not precisely what a jury would see anyway. Courts are sites of repeated re-representations of scientific knowledge. In sum, the screening approach fails to take account of the wealth of existing scholarship on the production and validation of scientific facts. An unreflective application of that approach thus puts courts at risk of relying upon a “junk science” of the nature of scientific knowledge. PMID:18197311

  11. [Time perceptions and representations].

    Tordjman, S


    Representations of time and time measurements depend on subjective constructs that vary according to changes in our concepts, beliefs, societal needs and technical advances. Similarly, the past, the future and the present are subjective representations that depend on each individual's psychic time and biological time. Therefore, there is no single, one-size-fits-all time for everyone, but rather a different, subjective time for each individual. We need to acknowledge the existence of different inter-individual times but also intra-individual times, to which different functions and different rhythms are attached, depending on the system of reference. However, the construction of these time perceptions and representations is influenced by objective factors (physiological, physical and cognitive) related to neuroscience which will be presented and discussed in this article. Thus, studying representation and perception of time lies at the crossroads between neuroscience, human sciences and philosophy. Furthermore, it is possible to identify several constants among the many and various representations of time and their corresponding measures, regardless of the system of time reference. These include the notion of movements repeated in a stable rhythmic pattern involving the recurrence of the same interval of time, which enables us to define units of time of equal and invariable duration. This rhythmicity is also found at a physiological level and contributes through circadian rhythms, in particular the melatonin rhythm, to the existence of a biological time. Alterations of temporality in mental disorders will be also discussed in this article illustrated by certain developmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders. In particular, the hypothesis will be developed that children with autism would need to create discontinuity out of continuity through stereotyped behaviors and/or interests. This discontinuity repeated at regular intervals could have been

  12. Translation between representation languages

    Vanbaalen, Jeffrey


    A capability for translating between representation languages is critical for effective knowledge base reuse. A translation technology for knowledge representation languages based on the use of an interlingua for communicating knowledge is described. The interlingua-based translation process consists of three major steps: translation from the source language into a subset of the interlingua, translation between subsets of the interlingua, and translation from a subset of the interlingua into the target language. The first translation step into the interlingua can typically be specified in the form of a grammar that describes how each top-level form in the source language translates into the interlingua. In cases where the source language does not have a declarative semantics, such a grammar is also a specification of a declarative semantics for the language. A methodology for building translators that is currently under development is described. A 'translator shell' based on this methodology is also under development. The shell has been used to build translators for multiple representation languages and those translators have successfully translated nontrivial knowledge bases.

  13. The field representation language.

    Tsafnat, Guy


    The complexity of quantitative biomedical models, and the rate at which they are published, is increasing to a point where managing the information has become all but impossible without automation. International efforts are underway to standardise representation languages for a number of mathematical entities that represent a wide variety of physiological systems. This paper presents the Field Representation Language (FRL), a portable representation of values that change over space and/or time. FRL is an extensible mark-up language (XML) derivative with support for large numeric data sets in Hierarchical Data Format version 5 (HDF5). Components of FRL can be reused through unified resource identifiers (URI) that point to external resources such as custom basis functions, boundary geometries and numerical data. To demonstrate the use of FRL as an interchange we present three models that study hyperthermia cancer treatment: a fractal model of liver tumour microvasculature; a probabilistic model simulating the deposition of magnetic microspheres throughout it; and a finite element model of hyperthermic treatment. The microsphere distribution field was used to compute the heat generation rate field around the tumour. We used FRL to convey results from the microsphere simulation to the treatment model. FRL facilitated the conversion of the coordinate systems and approximated the integral over regions of the microsphere deposition field.

  14. Absolute stereochemistry of altersolanol A and alterporriols.

    Kanamaru, Saki; Honma, Miho; Murakami, Takanori; Tsushima, Taro; Kudo, Shinji; Tanaka, Kazuaki; Nihei, Ken-Ichi; Nehira, Tatsuo; Hashimoto, Masaru


    The absolute stereochemistry of altersolanol A (1) was established by observing a positive exciton couplet in the circular dichroism (CD) spectrum of the C3,C4-O-bis(2-naphthoyl) derivative 10 and by chemical correlations with known compound 8. Before the discussion, the relative stereochemistry of 1 was confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. The shielding effect at C7'-OMe group by C1-O-benzoylation established the relative stereochemical relationship between the C8-C8' axial bonding and the C1-C4/C1'-C4' polyol moieties of alterporriols E (3), an atropisomer of the C8-C8' dimer of 1. As 3 could be obtained by dimerization of 1 in vitro, the absolute configuration of its central chirality elements (C1-C4) must be identical to those of 1. Spectral comparison between the experimental and theoretical CD spectra supported the above conclusion. Axial stereochemistry of novel C4-O-deoxy dimeric derivatives, alterporriols F (4) and G (5), were also revealed by comparison of their CD spectra to those of 2 and 3.

  15. Absolute Electron Extraction Efficiency of Liquid Xenon

    Kamdin, Katayun; Mizrachi, Eli; Morad, James; Sorensen, Peter


    Dual phase liquid/gas xenon time projection chambers (TPCs) currently set the world's most sensitive limits on weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), a favored dark matter candidate. These detectors rely on extracting electrons from liquid xenon into gaseous xenon, where they produce proportional scintillation. The proportional scintillation from the extracted electrons serves to internally amplify the WIMP signal; even a single extracted electron is detectable. Credible dark matter searches can proceed with electron extraction efficiency (EEE) lower than 100%. However, electrons systematically left at the liquid/gas boundary are a concern. Possible effects include spontaneous single or multi-electron proportional scintillation signals in the gas, or charging of the liquid/gas interface or detector materials. Understanding EEE is consequently a serious concern for this class of rare event search detectors. Previous EEE measurements have mostly been relative, not absolute, assuming efficiency plateaus at 100%. I will present an absolute EEE measurement with a small liquid/gas xenon TPC test bed located at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  16. Absolute Orientation Based on Distance Kernel Functions

    Yanbiao Sun


    Full Text Available The classical absolute orientation method is capable of transforming tie points (TPs from a local coordinate system to a global (geodetic coordinate system. The method is based only on a unique set of similarity transformation parameters estimated by minimizing the total difference between all ground control points (GCPs and the fitted points. Nevertheless, it often yields a transformation with poor accuracy, especially in large-scale study cases. To address this problem, this study proposes a novel absolute orientation method based on distance kernel functions, in which various sets of similarity transformation parameters instead of only one set are calculated. When estimating the similarity transformation parameters for TPs using the iterative solution of a non-linear least squares problem, we assigned larger weighting matrices for the GCPs for which the distances from the point are short. The weighting matrices can be evaluated using the distance kernel function as a function of the distances between the GCPs and the TPs. Furthermore, we used the exponential function and the Gaussian function to describe distance kernel functions in this study. To validate and verify the proposed method, six synthetic and two real datasets were tested. The accuracy was significantly improved by the proposed method when compared to the classical method, although a higher computational complexity is experienced.

  17. Strongmen sport is associated with larger absolute heart size and impaired cardiac relaxation.

    Venckunas, Tomas; Vasiliauskas, Donatas; Marcinkeviciene, Jolanta E; Grizas, Vytautas; Stasiulis, Arvydas; Malkova, Dalia


    This study was carried out to compare cardiac structure and function and blood lipids among Strongmen, sedentary controls, and marathoners. Echocardiography was performed, and endothelial function, blood lipids and maximal oxygen uptake were measured in 27 Caucasian adult men (8 Strongmen, 10 marathoners, 9 controls). Absolute cardiac size parameters such as left ventricular (LV) diameter and wall thickness of Strongmen were higher (p 0.05). Maximal oxygen uptake of Strongmen was lower than in controls (p sport is associated with higher absolute but not relative cardiac size parameters, impaired myocardial relaxation, and low cardiorespiratory fitness. Therefore, Strongmen may demand greater attention as an extreme group of athletes with regard to cardiovascular risk.

  18. A Conceptual Approach to Absolute Value Equations and Inequalities

    Ellis, Mark W.; Bryson, Janet L.


    The absolute value learning objective in high school mathematics requires students to solve far more complex absolute value equations and inequalities. When absolute value problems become more complex, students often do not have sufficient conceptual understanding to make any sense of what is happening mathematically. The authors suggest that the…

  19. Invariant and Absolute Invariant Means of Double Sequences

    Abdullah Alotaibi


    Full Text Available We examine some properties of the invariant mean, define the concepts of strong σ-convergence and absolute σ-convergence for double sequences, and determine the associated sublinear functionals. We also define the absolute invariant mean through which the space of absolutely σ-convergent double sequences is characterized.

  20. Covariant representations of subproduct systems

    Viselter, Ami


    A celebrated theorem of Pimsner states that a covariant representation $T$ of a $C^*$-correspondence $E$ extends to a $C^*$-representation of the Toeplitz algebra of $E$ if and only if $T$ is isometric. This paper is mainly concerned with finding conditions for a covariant representation of a \\emph{subproduct system} to extend to a $C^*$-representation of the Toeplitz algebra. This framework is much more general than the former. We are able to find sufficient conditions, and show that in important special cases, they are also necessary. Further results include the universality of the tensor algebra, dilations of completely contractive covariant representations, Wold decompositions and von Neumann inequalities.

  1. Use of Absolute and Comparative Performance Feedback in Absolute and Comparative Judgments and Decisions

    Moore, Don A.; Klein, William M. P.


    Which matters more--beliefs about absolute ability or ability relative to others? This study set out to compare the effects of such beliefs on satisfaction with performance, self-evaluations, and bets on future performance. In Experiment 1, undergraduate participants were told they had answered 20% correct, 80% correct, or were not given their…

  2. How is an absolute democracy possible?

    Joanna Bednarek


    Full Text Available In the last part of the Empire trilogy, Commonwealth, Negri and Hardt ask about the possibility of the self-governance of the multitude. When answering, they argue that absolute democracy, understood as the political articulation of the multitude that does not entail its unification (construction of the people is possible. As Negri states, this way of thinking about political articulation is rooted in the tradition of democratic materialism and constitutes the alternative to the dominant current of modern political philosophy that identifies political power with sovereignty. The multitude organizes itself politically by means of the constitutive power, identical with the ontological creativity or productivity of the multitude. To state the problem of political organization means to state the problem of class composition: political democracy is at the same time economic democracy.

  3. Absolute geostrophic currents in global tropical oceans

    Yang, Lina; Yuan, Dongliang


    A set of absolute geostrophic current (AGC) data for the period January 2004 to December 2012 are calculated using the P-vector method based on monthly gridded Argo profiles in the world tropical oceans. The AGCs agree well with altimeter geostrophic currents, Ocean Surface Current Analysis-Real time currents, and moored current-meter measurements at 10-m depth, based on which the classical Sverdrup circulation theory is evaluated. Calculations have shown that errors of wind stress calculation, AGC transport, and depth ranges of vertical integration cannot explain non-Sverdrup transport, which is mainly in the subtropical western ocean basins and equatorial currents near the Equator in each ocean basin (except the North Indian Ocean, where the circulation is dominated by monsoons). The identified non-Sverdrup transport is thereby robust and attributed to the joint effect of baroclinicity and relief of the bottom (JEBAR) and mesoscale eddy nonlinearity.




    Full Text Available Resumen: En este ensayo pongo en contraposición dos doctrinas conspicuamenteleibnicianas: la doctrina del tiempo relacional e ideal, y la doctrina de la armonía preestablecida. Argumentaré que si todas las substancias están necesariamentecoordinadas, entonces no tiene sentido negar el carácter absoluto y real del tiempo. En la primera sección describiré la concepción newtoniana y clarkeana del tiempo absoluto; en la segunda discutiré la crítica leibniciana a dicha concepción, crítica sobre la que se erige su doctrina relacional e ideal del tiempo; en la tercera sección daré un vistazo a la metafísica monádica madura de Leibniz, haciendo especial énfasis en la doctrina de la armonía preestablecida; finalmente, en la última sección sugeriré la existencia de una tensión irreconciliable entre estas dos doctrinas.Abstract: In this paper I bring together two characteristically Leibnizean doctrines:the doctrine of relational and ideal time, and the doctrine of preestablished harmony. I will argue that, if every substance is necessarily connected with another, then it makes no sense to deny absolute and real time. In the first section, I will describe Newton’s and Clarke’s conception of absolute time; then, in the second section, I will consider Leibniz’s critique of that conception, on which he bases his ideal and relational doctrine of time. In the third section I will look briefly at Leibniz’s mature monadic metaphysics, taking special account of his doctrine of preestablished harmony. In the last section, I will suggest that there is an irreconcilable tension between these two doctrines.

  5. Residual Representations of Spacetime

    Saller, H


    Spacetime is modelled by binary relations - by the classes of the automorphisms $\\GL(\\C^2)$ of a complex 2-dimensional vector space with respect to the definite unitary subgroup $\\U(2)$. In extension of Feynman propagators for particle quantum fields representing only the tangent spacetime structure, global spacetime representations are given, formulated as residues using energy-momentum distributions with the invariants as singularities. The associatated quantum fields are characterized by two invariant masses - for time and position - supplementing the one mass for the definite unitary particle sector with another mass for the indefinite unitary interaction sector without asymptotic particle interpretation.

  6. Absolut x Adbusters: vínculos sociais da publicidade revelados pela antipublicidade

    Simone Rocha


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é evidenciar alguns vínculos que a publicidade estabelece com o mundo social por meio do olhar tensionador da antipublicidade. Tomando por base autores como Stuart Hall e Michel Foucault, e através de uma análise sociossemiótica de anúncios da Absolut Vodka e dos spoof ads da ONG canadense Adbusters, procuramos evidenciar alguns dos modos pelos quais a masculinidade é uma representação socialmente compartilhada, tornando-se um elemento relevante a ser considerado na construção de campanhas publicitárias. Palavras-chave: Antipublicidade; publicidade; representações sociais. ABSTRACT The aim of this paper is to evidence the links which advertisements build with the social world from the questioning point of view of spoof ads. Based on authors such as Stuart Hall and Michel Foucault, and through a socio- semiotic analysis of Absolut Vodka ads and the spoof ads produced by Canadian NGO Adbusters, we try to highlight some of the ways in which masculinity is a socially shared representation, thus an important factor to be considered in the construction of advertising campaigns. Keywords: Spoof ads; advertisement; social representations.

  7. Self-perceived facture risk

    Rothmann, M J; Ammentorp, J; Bech, M


    factors associated with this and to compare self-perceived risk with absolute fracture risk estimated by FRAX® in women aged 65-80 years. METHODS: Data from 20,905 questionnaires from the ROSE study were analyzed. The questionnaire included 25 items on osteoporosis, risk factors for fractures, and self......-perceived risk of fractures and enabled calculation of absolute fracture risk by FRAX®. Data were analyzed using bivariate tests and regression models. RESULTS: Women generally underestimated their fracture risk compared to absolute risk estimated by FRAX®. Women with risk factors for facture estimated......-rated heath, conditions related to secondary osteoporosis, and inability to do housework. CONCLUSIONS: These women aged 65-81 years underestimated their risk of fracture. However, they did seem to have an understanding of the importance of some risk factors such as previous fractures, parental hip fracture...

  8. Social Representations of Intelligence

    Elena Zubieta


    Full Text Available The article stresses the relationship between Explicit and Implicit theories of Intelligence. Following the line of common sense epistemology and the theory of Social Representations, a study was carried out in order to analyze naive’s explanations about Intelligence Definitions. Based on Mugny & Carugati (1989 research, a self-administered questionnaire was designed and filled in by 286 subjects. Results are congruent with the main hyphotesis postulated: A general overlap between explicit and implicit theories showed up. According to the results Intelligence appears as both, a social attribute related to social adaptation and as a concept defined in relation with contextual variables similar to expert’s current discourses. Nevertheless, conceptions based on “gifted ideology” still are present stressing the main axes of Intelligence debate: biological and sociological determinism. In the same sense, unfamiliarity and social identity are reaffirmed as organizing principles of social representation. The distance with the object -measured as the belief in intelligence differences as a solve/non solve problem- and the level of implication with the topic -teachers/no teachers- appear as discriminating elements at the moment of supporting specific dimensions. 

  9. Knowledge representation with SOA

    Daniela Gotseva


    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of supporting the software development process through the artificial intelligence. The expert systems could advise the Domain Engineer in programming without the detailed experience in programming languages. He will use and integrate, with the help of deductive database and domain knowledge, the previously developed software components to new complex functionalities. The objective of this document is to provide the knowledge representation about atomic Web Services which will be registered as the facts in the deductive database. The author proposes to use the decision rules in decision tables for representing the service model which consists of semantic specification, interface description, service quality (QoS, non-functional properties. Also the use of Domain Specific Languages (DSL for modeling Domain Engineers re-quests to the expert system will be considered within this document. As the illustrative use case for described knowledge representation the author proposes the domain of SOA-based geographic information systems (GIS which represent a new branch of information and communication technologies.

  10. Testing the absolute-tempo hypothesis: context effects for familiar and unfamiliar songs.

    Rashotte, Matthew A; Wedell, Douglas H


    In two experiments, we investigated context effects on tempo judgments for familiar and unfamiliar songs performed by popular artists. In Experiment 1, participants made comparative tempo judgments to a remembered standard for song clips drawn from either a slow or a fast context, created by manipulating the tempos of the same songs. Although both familiar and unfamiliar songs showed significant shifts in their points of subjective equality toward the tempo context values, more-familiar songs showed significantly reduced contextual bias. In Experiment 2, tempo pleasantness ratings showed significant context effects in which the ordering of tempos on the pleasantness scale differed across contexts, with the most pleasant tempo shifting toward the contextual values, an assimilation of ideal points. Once again, these effects were significant but reduced for the more-familiar songs. The moderating effects of song familiarity support a weak version of the absolute-tempo hypothesis, in which long-term memory for tempo reduces but does not eliminate contextual effects. Thus, although both relative and absolute tempo information appear to be encoded in memory, the absolute representation may be subject to rapid revision by recently experienced tempo-altered versions of the same song.

  11. Integral geometry and representation theory

    Gel'fand, I M; Vilenkin, N Ya


    Generalized Functions, Volume 5: Integral Geometry and Representation Theory is devoted to the theory of representations, focusing on the group of two-dimensional complex matrices of determinant one.This book emphasizes that the theory of representations is a good example of the use of algebraic and geometric methods in functional analysis, in which transformations are performed not on the points of a space, but on the functions defined on it. The topics discussed include Radon transform on a real affine space, integral transforms in the complex domain, and representations of the group of comp


    Daniela SIMTION


    Full Text Available Profitability of an economic unit is expressed through a system of indicators, because "no index or economic category can reflect the total, perfect, complex reality of economic phenomena or processes. Each expresses a side of concrete, essential details (indexes, but a full one (economic category. This system of indexes for profitability is characterized by a higher degree of consolidation, of reflection of the economic-financial results. They must be correlated to the other indexes of economic efficiency from the various subsystems that constitute the factors which determine the actual amount of profit and the rate of return. Each indicator has a certain form of expression according to the phenomena to which it refers. Thus, they can be expressed in relative sizes as medium sizes or indexes. They can also be expressed in physical, conventional or value units. The ability to develop monetary results can not be judged independently to the employed means for achieving them. Therefore, the profitability analysis is not limited to investigating its absolute indexes but also the relative ones, obtained by comparing the results to the means employed or consumed for developing the specific activity

  13. Gyrokinetic Statistical Absolute Equilibrium and Turbulence

    Jian-Zhou Zhu and Gregory W. Hammett


    A paradigm based on the absolute equilibrium of Galerkin-truncated inviscid systems to aid in understanding turbulence [T.-D. Lee, "On some statistical properties of hydrodynamical and magnetohydrodynamical fields," Q. Appl. Math. 10, 69 (1952)] is taken to study gyrokinetic plasma turbulence: A finite set of Fourier modes of the collisionless gyrokinetic equations are kept and the statistical equilibria are calculated; possible implications for plasma turbulence in various situations are discussed. For the case of two spatial and one velocity dimension, in the calculation with discretization also of velocity v with N grid points (where N + 1 quantities are conserved, corresponding to an energy invariant and N entropy-related invariants), the negative temperature states, corresponding to the condensation of the generalized energy into the lowest modes, are found. This indicates a generic feature of inverse energy cascade. Comparisons are made with some classical results, such as those of Charney-Hasegawa-Mima in the cold-ion limit. There is a universal shape for statistical equilibrium of gyrokinetics in three spatial and two velocity dimensions with just one conserved quantity. Possible physical relevance to turbulence, such as ITG zonal flows, and to a critical balance hypothesis are also discussed.

  14. Going beyond representational anthropology

    Winther, Ida Wentzel

    an education. There is a close connection between: 1) The dream and the desire for education; 2) Mobility (away from the family, home and friends in a very young age for getting an education; 3) Transforming a new and unknown site and space into a known place, where one can make one-self at home ('home one......Going beyond representational anthropology: Re-presenting bodily, emotional and virtual practices in everyday life. Separated youngsters and families in Greenland Greenland is a huge island, with a total of four high-schools. Many youngsters (age 16-18) move far away from home in order to get...... transformation work into the young people and their families. In this presentation I want to screen two sequences from the film, in order to show and clarify how mobility and transformation are made and dealt with both from the youngsters’ and their parents’ perspectives, but in asynchronous loups. I want...

  15. Linear recursive distributed representations.

    Voegtlin, Thomas; Dominey, Peter F


    Connectionist networks have been criticized for their inability to represent complex structures with systematicity. That is, while they can be trained to represent and manipulate complex objects made of several constituents, they generally fail to generalize to novel combinations of the same constituents. This paper presents a modification of Pollack's Recursive Auto-Associative Memory (RAAM), that addresses this criticism. The network uses linear units and is trained with Oja's rule, in which it generalizes PCA to tree-structured data. Learned representations may be linearly combined, in order to represent new complex structures. This results in unprecedented generalization capabilities. Capacity is orders of magnitude higher than that of a RAAM trained with back-propagation. Moreover, regularities of the training set are preserved in the new formed objects. The formation of new structures displays developmental effects similar to those observed in children when learning to generalize about the argument structure of verbs.

  16. Intentionality, Representation, and Anticipation

    De Preester, Helena


    Both Brentano and Merleau-Ponty have developed an account of intentionality, which nevertheless differ profoundly in the following respect. According to Brentano, intentionality mainly is a matter of mental presentations. This marks the beginning of phenomenology's difficult relation with the nature of the intentional reference. Merleau-Ponty, on the other hand, has situated intentionality on the level of the body, a turn which has important implications for the nature of intentionality. Intentionality no longer is primarily based on having (re)presentations, but is rooted in the dynamics of the living body. To contrast those approaches enables us to make clear in what way intentionality is studied nowadays. On the one hand, intentionality is conceived of as a matter of formal-syntactical causality in cognitive science, and in particular in classical-computational theory. On the other hand, a interactivist approach offers a more Merleau-Ponty-like point of view, in which autonomy, embodiment and interaction are stressed.

  17. Absolute quantification of somatic DNA alterations in human cancer

    Carter, Scott L.; Cibulskis, Kristian; Helman, Elena; McKenna, Aaron; Shen, Hui; Zack, Travis; Laird, Peter W.; Onofrio, Robert C.; Winckler, Wendy; Weir, Barbara A; Beroukhim, Rameen; Pellman, David; Levine, Douglas A.; Lander, Eric S.; Meyerson, Matthew


    We developed a computational method (ABSOLUTE) that infers tumor purity and malignant cell ploidy directly from analysis of somatic DNA alterations. ABSOLUTE can detect subclonal heterogeneity, somatic homozygosity, and calculate statistical sensitivity to detect specific aberrations. We used ABSOLUTE to analyze ovarian cancer data and identified pervasive subclonal somatic point mutations. In contrast, mutations occurring in key tumor suppressor genes, TP53 and NF1 were predominantly clonal ...

  18. Absolute quantification of somatic DNA alterations in human cancer

    Carter, Scott L.; Cibulskis, Kristian; Helman, Elena; McKenna, Aaron; Shen, Hui; Zack, Travis; Laird, Peter W.; Onofrio, Robert C.; Winckler, Wendy; Weir, Barbara A; Beroukhim, Rameen; Pellman, David; Levine, Douglas A.; Lander, Eric S.; Meyerson, Matthew


    We developed a computational method (ABSOLUTE) that infers tumor purity and malignant cell ploidy directly from analysis of somatic DNA alterations. ABSOLUTE can detect subclonal heterogeneity, somatic homozygosity, and calculate statistical sensitivity to detect specific aberrations. We used ABSOLUTE to analyze ovarian cancer data and identified pervasive subclonal somatic point mutations. In contrast, mutations occurring in key tumor suppressor genes, TP53 and NF1 were predominantly clonal ...

  19. Positioning, alignment and absolute pointing of the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    Fehr, F [Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1 (Germany); Distefano, C, E-mail: fehr@physik.uni-erlangen.d [INFN Laboratori Nazional del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy)


    A precise detector alignment and absolute pointing is crucial for point-source searches. The ANTARES neutrino telescope utilises an array of hydrophones, tiltmeters and compasses for the relative positioning of the optical sensors. The absolute calibration is accomplished by long-baseline low-frequency triangulation of the acoustic reference devices in the deep-sea with a differential GPS system at the sea surface. The absolute pointing can be independently verified by detecting the shadow of the Moon in cosmic rays.

  20. The absolute disparity anomaly and the mechanism of relative disparities.

    Chopin, Adrien; Levi, Dennis; Knill, David; Bavelier, Daphne


    There has been a long-standing debate about the mechanisms underlying the perception of stereoscopic depth and the computation of the relative disparities that it relies on. Relative disparities between visual objects could be computed in two ways: (a) using the difference in the object's absolute disparities (Hypothesis 1) or (b) using relative disparities based on the differences in the monocular separations between objects (Hypothesis 2). To differentiate between these hypotheses, we measured stereoscopic discrimination thresholds for lines with different absolute and relative disparities. Participants were asked to judge the depth of two lines presented at the same distance from the fixation plane (absolute disparity) or the depth between two lines presented at different distances (relative disparity). We used a single stimulus method involving a unique memory component for both conditions, and no extraneous references were available. We also measured vergence noise using Nonius lines. Stereo thresholds were substantially worse for absolute disparities than for relative disparities, and the difference could not be explained by vergence noise. We attribute this difference to an absence of conscious readout of absolute disparities, termed the absolute disparity anomaly. We further show that the pattern of correlations between vergence noise and absolute and relative disparity acuities can be explained jointly by the existence of the absolute disparity anomaly and by the assumption that relative disparity information is computed from absolute disparities (Hypothesis 1).

  1. Representation of Integral Dispersion Relations by Local Forms

    Ferreira, Erasmo


    The representation of the usual integral dispersion relations (IDR) of scattering theory through series of derivatives of the amplitudes is discussed, extended, simplified, and confirmed as mathematical identities. Forms of derivative dispersion relations (DDR) valid for the whole energy interval, recently obtained and presented as double infinite series, are simplified through the use of new sum rules of the incomplete $\\Gamma$ functions, being reduced to single summations, where the usual convergence criteria are easily applied. For the forms of the imaginary amplitude used in phenomenology of hadronic scattering, we show that expressions for the DDR can represent, with absolute accuracy, the IDR of scattering theory, as true mathematical identities. Besides the fact that the algebraic manipulation can be easily understood, numerical tests prove the accuracy of these representations up to the maximum available machine precision. As consequence of our analytical and numerical work, it is concluded that the s...

  2. Evaluation of the absolute regional temperature potential

    D. T. Shindell


    Full Text Available The Absolute Regional Temperature Potential (ARTP is one of the few climate metrics that provides estimates of impacts at a sub-global scale. The ARTP presented here gives the time-dependent temperature response in four latitude bands (90–28° S, 28° S–28° N, 28–60° N and 60–90° N as a function of emissions based on the forcing in those bands caused by the emissions. It is based on a large set of simulations performed with a single atmosphere-ocean climate model to derive regional forcing/response relationships. Here I evaluate the robustness of those relationships using the forcing/response portion of the ARTP to estimate regional temperature responses to the historic aerosol forcing in three independent climate models. These ARTP results are in good accord with the actual responses in those models. Nearly all ARTP estimates fall within ±20% of the actual responses, though there are some exceptions for 90–28° S and the Arctic, and in the latter the ARTP may vary with forcing agent. However, for the tropics and the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes in particular, the ±20% range appears to be roughly consistent with the 95% confidence interval. Land areas within these two bands respond 39–45% and 9–39% more than the latitude band as a whole. The ARTP, presented here in a slightly revised form, thus appears to provide a relatively robust estimate for the responses of large-scale latitude bands and land areas within those bands to inhomogeneous radiative forcing and thus potentially to emissions as well. Hence this metric could allow rapid evaluation of the effects of emissions policies at a finer scale than global metrics without requiring use of a full climate model.

  3. Absolute Radiometric Calibration of KOMPSAT-3A

    Ahn, H. Y.; Shin, D. Y.; Kim, J. S.; Seo, D. C.; Choi, C. U.


    This paper presents a vicarious radiometric calibration of the Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite-3A (KOMPSAT-3A) performed by the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) and the Pukyong National University Remote Sensing Group (PKNU RSG) in 2015.The primary stages of this study are summarized as follows: (1) A field campaign to determine radiometric calibrated target fields was undertaken in Mongolia and South Korea. Surface reflectance data obtained in the campaign were input to a radiative transfer code that predicted at-sensor radiance. Through this process, equations and parameters were derived for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor to enable the conversion of calibrated DN to physical units, such as at-sensor radiance or TOA reflectance. (2) To validate the absolute calibration coefficients for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor, we performed a radiometric validation with a comparison of KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 TOA reflectance using one of the six PICS (Libya 4). Correlations between top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiances and the spectral band responses of the KOMPSAT-3A sensors at the Zuunmod, Mongolia and Goheung, South Korea sites were significant for multispectral bands. The average difference in TOA reflectance between KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 image over the Libya 4, Libya site in the red-green-blue (RGB) region was under 3%, whereas in the NIR band, the TOA reflectance of KOMPSAT-3A was lower than the that of Landsat-8 due to the difference in the band passes of two sensors. The KOMPSAT-3Aensor includes a band pass near 940 nm that can be strongly absorbed by water vapor and therefore displayed low reflectance. Toovercome this, we need to undertake a detailed analysis using rescale methods, such as the spectral bandwidth adjustment factor.

  4. $\\alpha$-Representation for QCD

    Tuan, Richard Hong


    An $\\alpha$-parameter representation is derived for gauge field theories.It involves, relative to a scalar field theory, only constants and derivatives with respect to the $\\alpha$-parameters. Simple rules are given to obtain the $\\alpha$-representation for a Feynman graph with an arbitrary number of loops in gauge theories in the Feynman gauge.

  5. Scientific Representation and Science Learning

    Matta, Corrado


    In this article I examine three examples of philosophical theories of scientific representation with the aim of assessing which of these is a good candidate for a philosophical theory of scientific representation in science learning. The three candidate theories are Giere's intentional approach, Suárez's inferential approach and Lynch and…

  6. Representation of Fuzzy Symmetric Relations


    Std Z39-18 REPRESENTATION OF FUZZY SYMMETRIC RELATIONS L. Valverde Dept. de Matematiques i Estadistica Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya Avda...REPRESENTATION OF FUZZY SYMMETRIC RELATIONS L. "Valverde* Dept. de Matematiques i Estadistica Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya Avda. Diagonal, 649

  7. Adjoint Functors and Representation Dimensions

    Chang Chang XI


    We study the global dimensions of the coherent functors over two categories that are linked by a pair of adjoint functors. This idea is then exploited to compare the representation dimensions of two algebras. In particular, we show that if an Artin algebra is switched from the other, then they have the same representation dimension.

  8. Congruence properties of induced representations

    Mayer, Dieter; Momeni, Arash; Venkov, Alexei

    In this paper we study representations of the projective modular group induced from the Hecke congruence group of level 4 with Selberg's character. We show that the well known congruence properties of Selberg's character are equivalent to the congruence properties of the induced representations. ...

  9. Revealing children's implicit spelling representations.

    Critten, Sarah; Pine, Karen J; Messer, David J


    Conceptualizing the underlying representations and cognitive mechanisms of children's spelling development is a key challenge for literacy researchers. Using the Representational Redescription model (Karmiloff-Smith), Critten, Pine and Steffler (2007) demonstrated that the acquisition of phonological and morphological knowledge may be underpinned by increasingly explicit levels of spelling representation. However, their proposal that implicit representations may underlie early 'visually based' spelling remains unresolved. Children (N = 101, aged 4-6 years) were given a recognition task (Critten et al., 2007) and a novel production task, both involving verbal justifications of why spellings are correct/incorrect, strategy use and word pattern similarity. Results for both tasks supported an implicit level of spelling characterized by the ability to correctly recognize/produce words but the inability to explain operational strategies or generalize knowledge. Explicit levels and multiple representations were also in evidence across the two tasks. Implications for cognitive mechanisms underlying spelling development are discussed.

  10. Fuzzy Morphological Polynomial Image Representation

    Chin-Pan Huang


    Full Text Available A novel signal representation using fuzzy mathematical morphology is developed. We take advantage of the optimum fuzzy fitting and the efficient implementation of morphological operators to extract geometric information from signals. The new representation provides results analogous to those given by the polynomial transform. Geometrical decomposition of a signal is achieved by windowing and applying sequentially fuzzy morphological opening with structuring functions. The resulting representation is made to resemble an orthogonal expansion by constraining the results of opening to equate adapted structuring functions. Properties of the geometric decomposition are considered and used to calculate the adaptation parameters. Our procedure provides an efficient and flexible representation which can be efficiently implemented in parallel. The application of the representation is illustrated in data compression and fractal dimension estimation temporal signals and images.

  11. Risks of advanced technology - Nuclear: risk comparison

    Latarjet, R. (Institut du Radium, Orsay (France))

    The author presents a general definition of the concept of risk and makes a distinction between the various types of risk - the absolute and the relative; the risk for oneself and for others. The quantitative comparison of risks presupposes their ''interchangeability''. In the case of major risks in the long term - or genotoxic risks - there is a certain degree of interchangeability which makes this quantitative comparison possible. It is expressed by the concept of rad-equivalence which the author defines and explains giving as a concrete example the work conducted on ethylene and ethylene oxide.

  12. Archival Representation in the Digital Age

    Zhang, Jane


    This study analyzes the representation systems of three digitized archival collections using the traditional archival representation framework of provenance, order, and content. The results of the study reveal a prominent role of provenance representation, a compromised role of order representation, and an active role of content representation in…

  13. Islam and Media Representations

    Mohamed Bensalah


    Full Text Available For the author of this article, the media’s treatment of Islam has raised numerous polymorphous questions and debates. Reactivated by the great scares of current events, the issue, though an ancient one, calls many things into question. By way of introduction, the author tries to analyse the complex processes of elaboration and perception of the representations that have prevailed during the past century. In referring to the semantic decoding of the abundant colonial literature and iconography, the author strives to translate the extreme xenophobic tensions and the identity crystallisations associated with the current media orchestration of Islam, both in theWest and the East. He then evokes the excesses of the media that are found at the origin of many amalgams wisely maintained between Islam, Islamism and Islamic terrorism, underscoring their duplicity and their willingness to put themselves, consciously, in service to deceivers and directors of awareness, who are very active at the heart of the politico-media sphere. After levelling a severe accusation against the harmful drifts of the media, especially in times of crisis and war, the author concludes by asserting that these tools of communication, once they are freed of their masks and invective apparatuses, can be re-appropriated by new words and bya true communication between peoples and cultures.


    GAN Zuoxin; HAN Jingqing; ZHAO Suxia; WU Yongxian


    In the present paper, the absolute stability of general Lurie discrete nonlinear control systems has been discussed by Lyapunov function approach. A sufficient condition of absolute stability for the general Lurie discrete nonlinear control systems is derived, and some necessary and sufficient conditions are obtained in special cases. Meanwhile, we give a simple example to illustrate the effectiveness of the results.

  15. On the Mean Absolute Error in Inverse Binomial Sampling

    Mendo, Luis


    A closed-form expression and an upper bound are obtained for the mean absolute error of the unbiased estimator of a probability in inverse binomial sampling. The results given permit the estimation of an arbitrary probability with a prescribed level of the normalized mean absolute error.

  16. A Global Forecast of Absolute Poverty and Employment.

    Hopkins, M. J. D.


    Estimates are made of absolute poverty and employment under the hypothesis that existing trends continue. Concludes that while the number of people in absolute poverty is not likely to decline by 2000, the proportion will fall. Jobs will have to grow 3.9% per year in developing countries to achieve full employment. (JOW)

  17. Absolute Humidity and the Seasonality of Influenza (Invited)

    Shaman, J. L.; Pitzer, V.; Viboud, C.; Grenfell, B.; Goldstein, E.; Lipsitch, M.


    Much of the observed wintertime increase of mortality in temperate regions is attributed to seasonal influenza. A recent re-analysis of laboratory experiments indicates that absolute humidity strongly modulates the airborne survival and transmission of the influenza virus. Here we show that the onset of increased wintertime influenza-related mortality in the United States is associated with anomalously low absolute humidity levels during the prior weeks. We then use an epidemiological model, in which observed absolute humidity conditions temper influenza transmission rates, to successfully simulate the seasonal cycle of observed influenza-related mortality. The model results indicate that direct modulation of influenza transmissibility by absolute humidity alone is sufficient to produce this observed seasonality. These findings provide epidemiological support for the hypothesis that absolute humidity drives seasonal variations of influenza transmission in temperate regions. In addition, we show that variations of the basic and effective reproductive numbers for influenza, caused by seasonal changes in absolute humidity, are consistent with the general timing of pandemic influenza outbreaks observed for 2009 A/H1N1 in temperate regions. Indeed, absolute humidity conditions correctly identify the region of the United States vulnerable to a third, wintertime wave of pandemic influenza. These findings suggest that the timing of pandemic influenza outbreaks is controlled by a combination of absolute humidity conditions, levels of susceptibility and changes in population mixing and contact rates.

  18. Novalis' Poetic Uncertainty: A "Bildung" with the Absolute

    Mika, Carl


    Novalis, the Early German Romantic poet and philosopher, had at the core of his work a mysterious depiction of the "absolute." The absolute is Novalis' name for a substance that defies precise knowledge yet calls for a tentative and sensitive speculation. How one asserts a truth, represents an object, and sets about encountering things…

  19. Determination of Absolute Zero Using a Computer-Based Laboratory

    Amrani, D.


    We present a simple computer-based laboratory experiment for evaluating absolute zero in degrees Celsius, which can be performed in college and undergraduate physical sciences laboratory courses. With a computer, absolute zero apparatus can help demonstrators or students to observe the relationship between temperature and pressure and use…

  20. Absolute instruments and perfect imaging in geometrical optics

    Tyc, Tomas; Sarbort, Martin; Bering, Klaus


    We investigate imaging by spherically symmetric absolute instruments that provide perfect imaging in the sense of geometrical optics. We derive a number of properties of such devices, present a general method for designing them and use this method to propose several new absolute instruments, in particular a lens providing a stigmatic image of an optically homogeneous region and having a moderate refractive index range.

  1. Absolute instability in viscoelastic mixing layers

    Ray, Prasun K.; Zaki, Tamer A.


    The spatiotemporal linear stability of viscoelastic planar mixing layers is investigated. A one-parameter family of velocity profiles is used as the base state with the parameter, S, controlling the amount of shear and backflow. The influence of viscoelasticity in dilute polymer solutions is modeled with the Oldroyd-B and FENE-P constitutive equations. Both models require the specification of the ratio of the polymer-relaxation and convective time scales (the Weissenberg number, We) and the ratio of solvent and solution viscosities (β). The maximum polymer extensibility, L, must also be specified for the FENE-P model. We examine how the variation of these parameters along with the Reynolds number, Re, affects the minimum value of S at which the flow becomes locally absolutely unstable. With the Oldroyd-B model, the influence of viscoelasticity is shown to be almost fully captured by the elasticity, E^* equiv (1-β ) We/Re, and Scrit decreases as elasticity is increased, i.e., elasticity is destabilizing. A simple approximate dispersion relation obtained via long-wave asymptotic analysis is shown to accurately capture this destabilizing influence. Results obtained with the FENE-P model exhibit a rich variety of behavior. At large values of the extensibility, L, results are similar to those for the Oldroyd-B fluid as expected. However, when the extensibility is reduced to more realistic values (L ≈ 100), one must consider the scaled shear rate, η _c equiv We S/2L, in addition to the elasticity. When ηc is large, the base-state polymer stress obtained by the FENE-P model is reduced, and there is a corresponding reduction in the overall influence of viscoelasticity on stability. Additionally, elasticity exhibits a stabilizing effect which is driven by the streamwise-normal perturbation polymer stress. As ηc is reduced, the base-state and perturbation normal polymer stresses predicted by the FENE-P model move towards the Oldroyd-B values, and the destabilizing

  2. Irreducible representations of Birman-Wenzl algebras



    Irreducible representations of Birman-Wenzl algebras are constructed by using the induced representation and the linear equation method. Self-adjoint representations of Birman-Wenzl algebras Cf (r, q) with f≤4 are presented.

  3. Multi-parameter Burau representations

    Mohammad N. Abdulrahim; Madline Al- Tahan; Samer S. Habre


    We consider the multi-parameter representation of Artin's braid group introduced by D. D. Long and J. P. Tian, namely $\\alpha: B_{n}\\rightarrow GL_{m}(C)$, where $m=n!n$ . First, we show that there exists a complex specialization of the multi-parameter representation that does not arise from any Hecke algebra. Second, we find conditions under which the images of the generators of the braid group on three strings under the multi-parameter representation are unitary relative to a nonsingular he...

  4. Functional Representations for Fock Superalgebras

    Kupsch, J; Kupsch, Joachim; Smolyanov, Oleg G.


    The Fock space of bosons and fermions and its underlying superalgebra are represented by algebras of functions on a superspace. We define Gaussian integration on infinite dimensional superspaces, and construct superanalogs of the classical function spaces with a reproducing kernel -- including the Bargmann-Fock representation -- and of the Wiener-Segal representation. The latter representation requires the investigation of Wick ordering on Z2-graded algebras. As application we derive a Mehler formula for the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck semigroup on the Fock space.

  5. Thinking together with material representations

    Stege Bjørndahl, Johanne; Fusaroli, Riccardo; Østergaard, Svend


    How do material representations such as models, diagrams and drawings come to shape and aid collective, epistemic processes? This study investigated how groups of participants spontaneously recruited material objects (in this case LEGO blocks) to support collective creative processes in the context......, the material representations were experimented on and physical attributes were explored resulting in discoveries of new meaning potentials and creative solutions. We discuss these different ways in which material representations do their work in collective reasoning processes in relation to ideas about top...

  6. Computer aided surface representation

    Barnhill, R.E.


    The central research problem of this project is the effective representation and display of surfaces, interpolating to given information, in three or more dimensions. In a typical problem, we wish to create a surface from some discrete information. If this information is itself on another surface, the problem is to determine a surface defined on a surface,'' which is discussed below. Often, properties of an already constructed surface are desired: such geometry processing'' is described below. The Summary of Proposed Research from our original proposal describes the aims of this research project. This Summary and the Table of Contents from the original proposal are enclosed as an Appendix to this Progress Report. The broad sweep from constructive mathematics through algorithms and computer graphics displays is utilized in the research. The wide range of activity, directed in both theory and applications, makes this project unique. Last month in the first Ardent Titan delivered in the State of Arizona came to our group, funded by the DOE and Arizona State University. Although the Titan is a commercial product, its newness requires our close collaboration with Ardent to maximize results. During the past year, four faculty members and several graduate research assistants have worked on this DOE project. The gaining of new professionals is an important aspect of this project. A listing of the students and their topics is given in the Appendix. The most significant publication during the past year is the book, Curves and Surfaces for Computer Aided Geometric Design, by Dr. Gerald Farin. This 300 page volume helps fill a considerable gap in the subject and includes many new results on Bernstein-Bezier curves and surfaces.

  7. Representation of identities and the politics of representation in cognition

    Kanavillil Rajagopalan


    Full Text Available

    In this paper, I make a plea for viewing representation as first and foremost a political matter. I argue that by so doing we may avoid the many of pitfalls of contemporary theories of cognition as they attempt to tackle the issue of representation. Most of these problems have to do with the fact that representation is treated exclusively as a mimetic or theatrical question. The fact of the matter is however that representation also has a political dimension. Indeed it has always had this political dimension which, counterintuitive though it may seem at first glimpse, manifests itself even in very the attempt to aestheticise the whole issue of representation (as in some versions of postmodernism or to deny its role altogether as a tertium quid between the external world and the cognising mind (as in contemporary neo-pragmatism. I also contend that, by recognising the political nature of representation, we also pave the way for endorsing the thesis that the mind is a social construct, thereby taking some steam out of the thesis of "mind-brain identity" (so-called "identity theory of mind".

  8. Colon Cancer Risk Assessment - Gauss Program

    An executable file (in GAUSS) that projects absolute colon cancer risk (with confidence intervals) according to NCI’s Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (CCRAT) algorithm. GAUSS is not needed to run the program.

  9. Heart Risks May Boost Women's Colon Cancer Risk, Too

    ... wasn't involved in the research. Excluding skin cancers, colon cancer is the third most common cancer diagnosed in ... Cancer Society says. The "absolute" risk of developing colon cancer over a specified period of time varies by ...

  10. Foundations of Risk Analysis

    Aven, Terje


    Foundations of Risk Analysis presents the issues core to risk analysis - understanding what risk means, expressing risk, building risk models, addressing uncertainty, and applying probability models to real problems. The author provides the readers with the knowledge and basic thinking they require to successfully manage risk and uncertainty to support decision making. This updated edition reflects recent developments on risk and uncertainty concepts, representations and treatment. New material in Foundations of Risk Analysis includes:An up to date presentation of how to understand, define and

  11. Probability representation of classical states

    Man'ko, OV; Man'ko, [No Value; Pilyavets, OV


    Probability representation of classical states described by symplectic tomograms is discussed. Tomographic symbols of classical observables which are functions on phase-space are studied. Explicit form of kernel of commutative star-product of the tomographic symbols is obtained.

  12. Integral representation of Skorokhod reflection

    Anantharam, Venkat


    We show that a certain integral representation of the one-sided Skorokhod reflection of a continuous bounded variation function characterizes the reflection in that it possesses a unique maximal solution which solves the Skorokhod reflection problem.

  13. Computer representation of molecular surfaces

    Max, N.L.


    This review article surveys recent work on computer representation of molecular surfaces. Several different algorithms are discussed for producing vector or raster drawings of space-filling models formed as the union of spheres. Other smoother surfaces are also considered.

  14. (Self)-representations on youtube

    Simonsen, Thomas Mosebo

    This paper examines forms of self-representation on YouTube with specific focus on Vlogs (Video blogs). The analytical scope of the paper is on how User-generated Content on YouTube initiates a certain kind of audiovisual representation and a particular interpretation of reality that can...... be distinguished within Vlogs. This will be analysed through selected case studies taken from a representative sample of empirically based observations of YouTube videos. The analysis includes a focus on how certain forms of representation can be identified as representations of the self (Turkle 1995, Scannell...... 1996, Walker 2005) and further how these forms must be comprehended within a context of technological constrains, institutional structures and social as well as economical practices on YouTube (Burgess and Green 2009, Van Dijck 2009). It is argued that these different contexts play a vital part...

  15. Semantic Knowledge Representation (SKR) API

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The SKR Project was initiated at NLM in order to develop programs to provide usable semantic representation of biomedical free text by building on resources...

  16. Number line representations of fractions

    Behr, Merlyn J.; Bright, George W.; Wachsmuth, Ipke; Wagner, Sigrid


    The study explored students' interpretations of representations of fractions on number lines and the effect of instruction on those interpretations. Subjects were five fourth-graders, and instruction was a four-day unit on the use of number lines. A 16-item, multiple-choice pre- and posttest was used along with videotaped interviews. Performance improved except when students had to associate a reduced fraction symbol with an equivalent, unreduced fraction representation on a number line. The ...

  17. An All Fiber White Light Interferometric Absolute Temperature Measurement System

    Jeonggon Harrison Kim


    Full Text Available Recently the author of this article proposed a new signal processing algorithm for an all fiber white light interferometer. In this article, an all fiber white light interferometric absolute temperature measurement system is presented using the previously proposed signal processing algorithm. Stability and absolute temperature measurement were demonstrated. These two tests demonstrated the feasibility of absolute temperature measurement with an accuracy of 0.015 fringe and 0.0005 fringe, respectively. A hysteresis test from 373K to 873K was also presented. Finally, robustness of the sensor system towards laser diode temperature drift, AFMZI temperature drift and PZT non-linearity was demonstrated.

  18. Absolute frequency measurement of the {{}^{1}}{{\\text{S}}_{0}} – {{}^{3}}{{\\text{P}}_{0}} transition of 171Yb

    Pizzocaro, Marco; Thoumany, Pierre; Rauf, Benjamin; Bregolin, Filippo; Milani, Gianmaria; Clivati, Cecilia; Costanzo, Giovanni A.; Levi, Filippo; Calonico, Davide


    We report the absolute frequency measurement of the unperturbed transition {{}1}{{\\text{S}}0} – {{}3}{{\\text{P}}0} at 578 nm in 171Yb realized in an optical lattice frequency standard relative to a cryogenic caesium fountain. The measurement result is 518 295 836 590 863.59(31) Hz with a relative standard uncertainty of 5.9× {{10}-16} . This value is in agreement with the ytterbium frequency recommended as a secondary representation of the second in the International System of Units.

  19. Changes in Absolute Sea Level Along U.S. Coasts

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map shows changes in absolute sea level from 1960 to 2016 based on satellite measurements. Data were adjusted by applying an inverted barometer (air pressure)...

  20. Monochromator-Based Absolute Calibration of Radiation Thermometers

    Keawprasert, T.; Anhalt, K.; Taubert, D. R.; Hartmann, J.


    A monochromator integrating-sphere-based spectral comparator facility has been developed to calibrate standard radiation thermometers in terms of the absolute spectral radiance responsivity, traceable to the PTB cryogenic radiometer. The absolute responsivity calibration has been improved using a 75 W xenon lamp with a reflective mirror and imaging optics to a relative standard uncertainty at the peak wavelength of approximately 0.17 % ( k = 1). Via a relative measurement of the out-of-band responsivity, the spectral responsivity of radiation thermometers can be fully characterized. To verify the calibration accuracy, the absolutely calibrated radiation thermometer is used to measure Au and Cu freezing-point temperatures and then to compare the obtained results with the values obtained by absolute methods, resulting in T - T 90 values of +52 mK and -50 mK for the gold and copper fixed points, respectively.

  1. Significance of absolute energy scale for physics at BESⅢ

    FU Cheng-Dong; MO Xiao-Hu


    The effects of absolute energy calibration on BESⅢ physics are discussed in detail,which mainly involve the effects on τ mass measurement,cross section scan measurement,and generic error determination in other measurements.


    Farhat Iqbal


    Full Text Available In this paper the asymptotic distribution of the absolute residual autocorrelations from generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedastic (GARCH models is derived. The correct asymptotic standard errors for the absolute residual autocorrelations are also obtained and based on these results, a diagnostic test for checking the adequacy of GARCH-type models are developed. Our results do not depend on the existence of higher moments and is therefore robust under heavy-tailed distributions.

  3. Absolute Free Energies for Biomolecules in Implicit or Explicit Solvent

    Berryman, Joshua T.; Schilling, Tanja

    Methods for absolute free energy calculation by alchemical transformation of a quantitative model to an analytically tractable one are discussed. These absolute free energy methods are placed in the context of other methods, and an attempt is made to describe the best practice for such calculations given the current state of the art. Calculations of the equilibria between the four free energy basins of the dialanine molecule and the two right- and left-twisted basins of DNA are discussed as examples.

  4. Spectra of absolute instruments from the WKB approximation

    Tyc, Tomas


    We calculate frequency spectra of absolute optical instruments using the WKB approximation. The resulting eigenfrequencies approximate the actual values very accurately, in some cases they even give the exact values. Our calculations confirm results obtained previously by a completely different method. In particular, the eigenfrequencies of absolute instruments form tight groups that are almost equidistantly spaced. We demonstrate our method and its results on several examples.

  5. Global trends in relative and absolute wealth concentrations


    This paper compares changes in relative and absolute wealth concentrations to establish if both processes have followed similar trajectories. The findings indicate that while the level of relative wealth concentration has increased recently, it is not extraordinarily high in an historical perspective. On the contrary, the level of absolute wealth concentration is most likely higher than that previously occurred because of the increase in the wealth holdings and population size of high net wor...

  6. Representations Of The Super-virasoro Algebra fock Representations

    Polychronidis, V J


    In this dissertation the complete classification of the Super- Virasoro modules M (h, c) of the Neveu-Schwarz and Ramond algebras is constructed. A family of representations F p, po of the Neveu- Schwarz and Ramond algebras, which generalize the Fock representations of the Virasoro algebra, is constructed. The Felder's construction of Fock space resolutions for the Virasoro minimal models is generalized in the Super-Virasoro minimal models case. In particular, a two-sided resolution of the irreducible Super-Verma module L( h, c) of the Neveu- Schwarz algebra is provided. --- 8 --- AN

  7. On Representation in Information Theory

    Joseph E. Brenner


    Full Text Available Semiotics is widely applied in theories of information. Following the original triadic characterization of reality by Peirce, the linguistic processes involved in information—production, transmission, reception, and understanding—would all appear to be interpretable in terms of signs and their relations to their objects. Perhaps the most important of these relations is that of the representation-one, entity, standing for or representing some other. For example, an index—one of the three major kinds of signs—is said to represent something by being directly related to its object. My position, however, is that the concept of symbolic representations having such roles in information, as intermediaries, is fraught with the same difficulties as in representational theories of mind. I have proposed an extension of logic to complex real phenomena, including mind and information (Logic in Reality; LIR, most recently at the 4th International Conference on the Foundations of Information Science (Beijing, August, 2010. LIR provides explanations for the evolution of complex processes, including information, that do not require any entities other than the processes themselves. In this paper, I discuss the limitations of the standard relation of representation. I argue that more realistic pictures of informational systems can be provided by reference to information as an energetic process, following the categorial ontology of LIR. This approach enables naïve, anti-realist conceptions of anti-representationalism to be avoided, and enables an approach to both information and meaning in the same novel logical framework.

  8. Method to obtain absolute impurity density profiles combining charge exchange and beam emission spectroscopy without absolute intensity calibrationa)

    Kappatou, A.; Jaspers, R. J. E.; Delabie, E.; Marchuk, O.; Biel, W.; Jakobs, M. A.


    Investigation of impurity transport properties in tokamak plasmas is essential and a diagnostic that can provide information on the impurity content is required. Combining charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) and beam emission spectroscopy (BES), absolute radial profiles of impurity densities can be obtained from the CXRS and BES intensities, electron density and CXRS and BES emission rates, without requiring any absolute calibration of the spectra. The technique is demonstrated here with absolute impurity density radial profiles obtained in TEXTOR plasmas, using a high efficiency charge exchange spectrometer with high etendue, that measures the CXRS and BES spectra along the same lines-of-sight, offering an additional advantage for the determination of absolute impurity densities.

  9. Method to obtain absolute impurity density profiles combining charge exchange and beam emission spectroscopy without absolute intensity calibration

    Kappatou, A.; Delabie, E. [FOM Institute DIFFER - Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Association EURATOM-FOM, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Jaspers, R. J. E.; Jakobs, M. A. [Science and Technology of Nuclear Fusion, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Marchuk, O.; Biel, W. [Institute for Energy and Climate Research, Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, 52425 Julich (Germany)


    Investigation of impurity transport properties in tokamak plasmas is essential and a diagnostic that can provide information on the impurity content is required. Combining charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) and beam emission spectroscopy (BES), absolute radial profiles of impurity densities can be obtained from the CXRS and BES intensities, electron density and CXRS and BES emission rates, without requiring any absolute calibration of the spectra. The technique is demonstrated here with absolute impurity density radial profiles obtained in TEXTOR plasmas, using a high efficiency charge exchange spectrometer with high etendue, that measures the CXRS and BES spectra along the same lines-of-sight, offering an additional advantage for the determination of absolute impurity densities.

  10. Bad (Re)Presentations

    Computer Security Team


    This time, we would like to address copyright violations (again) - but with a twist. While previous articles focussed on “Music, videos and the risk for CERN” or on software licences, the focus is now on using photos, music and images “found” on the Web for presentations, publications and web pages…   Just recently, a video produced for CERN and published on YouTube and Facebook used background music from a contemporary popular artist. However, the people responsible failed to obtain the appropriate permission to actually use that music. They thought that having bought it on iTunes was sufficient. But it was not: “buying” means you have the right to listen, but not the right for further distribution or re-publication. As a result, the videos were pulled from YouTube and Facebook. Similarly, how many of us integrate graphics and images “found” on the Web into our presentations?  How many of us...

  11. Tools for microbiological risk assessment

    Bassett, J; Nauta, M; Lindqvist, R.; Zwietering, M. H.


    Microbiological Risk Assessment (MRA) has emerged as a comprehensive and systematic approach for addressing the risk of pathogens in specific foods and/or processes. At government level, MRA is increasingly recognised as a structured and objective approach to understand the level of risk in a given food/pathogen scenario. Tools developed so far support qualitative and quantitative assessments of the risk that a food pathogen poses to a particular population. Risk can be expressed as absolute ...

  12. The "hospital superbug": social representations of MRSA.

    Washer, Peter; Joffe, Helene


    The so-called 'hospital superbug' methcillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) became a topic of media and political concern in Britain from the middle of the 1990s. It was increasingly politicised in the period leading up to the British General Election of 2005. This study examines the meanings of MRSA that circulate in Britain by analysing newspaper coverage of the disease over the 10-year period 1995-2005. It utilises social representations theory and contextualises MRSA within existing research on representations of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs). A key pattern in the representation of EIDs is to externalise the threat they pose by linking the origin, risk and blame to 'the other' of those who represent them. It is in this light that this study investigates who and what MRSA is associated with and the impact that these associations have on levels of alarm and blame. Key findings are that MRSA is represented as a potentially lethal 'superbug', marking the end of a 'golden age of medicine' in which the story of the discovery of antibiotics has played such a key role. Furthermore, MRSA is constructed around an "it could be you/me" set of assumptions by way of the plethora of human interest stories that dominate the coverage. Finally, the blame for MRSA focuses not on its genesis, but rather on why it spreads. This is attributed to poor hygiene in hospitals, which is ultimately caused by mismanagement of the National Health Service and erosion of the authority and morality symbolised by the 'matron' role. This constellation of meanings informs a somewhat different pattern of response to MRSA when compared to many past EIDs.

  13. Digital models for architectonical representation

    Stefano Brusaporci


    Full Text Available Digital instruments and technologies enrich architectonical representation and communication opportunities. Computer graphics is organized according the two phases of visualization and construction, that is modeling and rendering, structuring dichotomy of software technologies. Visualization modalities give different kinds of representations of the same 3D model and instruments produce a separation between drawing and image’s creation. Reverse modeling can be related to a synthesis process, ‘direct modeling’ follows an analytic procedure. The difference between interactive and not interactive applications is connected to the possibilities offered by informatics instruments, and relates to modeling and rendering. At the same time the word ‘model’ describes different phenomenon (i.e. files: mathematical model of the building and of the scene; raster representation and post-processing model. All these correlated different models constitute the architectonical interpretative model, that is a simulation of reality made by the model for improving the knowledge.

  14. Evidence for Absolute Moral Opposition to Genetically Modified Food in the United States.

    Scott, Sydney E; Inbar, Yoel; Rozin, Paul


    Public opposition to genetic modification (GM) technology in the food domain is widespread (Frewer et al., 2013). In a survey of U.S. residents representative of the population on gender, age, and income, 64% opposed GM, and 71% of GM opponents (45% of the entire sample) were "absolutely" opposed-that is, they agreed that GM should be prohibited no matter the risks and benefits. "Absolutist" opponents were more disgust sensitive in general and more disgusted by the consumption of genetically modified food than were non-absolutist opponents or supporters. Furthermore, disgust predicted support for legal restrictions on genetically modified foods, even after controlling for explicit risk-benefit assessments. This research suggests that many opponents are evidence insensitive and will not be influenced by arguments about risks and benefits.

  15. Concepts, ontologies, and knowledge representation

    Jakus, Grega; Omerovic, Sanida; Tomažic, Sašo


    Recording knowledge in a common framework that would make it possible to seamlessly share global knowledge remains an important challenge for researchers. This brief examines several ideas about the representation of knowledge addressing this challenge. A widespread general agreement is followed that states uniform knowledge representation should be achievable by using ontologies populated with concepts. A separate chapter is dedicated to each of the three introduced topics, following a uniform outline: definition, organization, and use. This brief is intended for those who want to get to know

  16. Comparison of Optimal Portfolios Selected by Multicriterial Model Using Absolute and Relative Criteria Values

    Branka Marasović


    Full Text Available In this paper we select an optimal portfolio on the Croatian capital market by using the multicriterial programming. In accordance with the modern portfolio theory maximisation of returns at minimal risk should be the investment goal of any successful investor. However, contrary to the expectations of the modern portfolio theory, the tests carried out on a number of financial markets reveal the existence of other indicators important in portfolio selection. Considering the importance of variables other than return and risk, selection of the optimal portfolio becomes a multicriterial problem which should be solved by using the appropriate techniques.In order to select an optimal portfolio, absolute values of criteria, like return, risk, price to earning value ratio (P/E, price to book value ratio (P/B and price to sale value ratio (P/S are included in our multicriterial model. However the problem might occur as the mean values of some criteria are significantly different for different sectors and because financial managers emphasize that comparison of the same criteria for different sectors could lead us to wrong conclusions. In the second part of the paper, relative values of previously stated criteria (in relation to mean value of sector are included in model for selecting optimal portfolio. Furthermore, the paper shows that if relative values of criteria are included in multicriterial model for selecting optimal portfolio, return in subsequent period is considerably higher than if absolute values of the same criteria were used.


    Branka Marasović


    Full Text Available In this paper we select an optimal portfolio on the Croatian capital market by using the multicriterial programming. In accordance with the modern portfolio theory maximisation of returns at minimal risk should be the investment goal of any successful investor. However, contrary to the expectations of the modern portfolio theory, the tests carried out on a number of financial markets reveal the existence of other indicators important in portfolio selection. Considering the importance of variables other than return and risk, selection of the optimal portfolio becomes a multicriterial problem which should be solved by using the appropriate techniques.In order to select an optimal portfolio, absolute values of criteria, like return, risk, price to earning value ratio (P/E, price to book value ratio (P/B and price to sale value ratio (P/S are included in our multicriterial model. However the problem might occur as the mean values of some criteria are significantly different for different sectors and because financial managers emphasize that comparison of the same criteria for different sectors could lead us to wrong conclusions. In the second part of the paper, relative values of previously stated criteria (in relation to mean value of sector are included in model for selecting optimal portfolio. Furthermore, the paper shows that if relative values of criteria are included in multicriterial model for selecting optimal portfolio, the return in the subsequent period is considerably higher than if absolute values of the same criteria were used.

  18. Geohazards storytelling between reality and representation

    Musacchio, Gemma; Candela, Andrea; Canel, Samanta; Roi, Cinzia


    Ethics towards geohazards might start at early age and it might radicate on narratives occuring in the media, as disfuctional ideas and perception are passed from school or society to children. In this paper we study the representations and imaginaries of natural hazards as they are in the media and how they are passed on chidren and laypeople. The investigation is led on an experimental basis on primary schools in Northern Italy (Varese province), where data concerning school education are collected. The approach is that of the storytelling that allow evaluation of children perception of hazard and risk. Narratives (news, rhetorics, images and pictures, symbols, metaphores and interpretations) that mass media and education generally used in order to explain and represent geohazards (earthquakes, volcanoes, hydrogeological instability, climate change and so on) are also analysed. They are responsible for certain individual and collective perceptions, indeed. The research has attempted to analyze how imaginaries and common "wrong" ideas can influence environmental education and public communication of natural hazards. A better understanding of feelings (fears and hopes), and all cultural behaviours included in the social construction of collective narratives and representations of environmental emergencies could be useful in order to re-orient education and communication strategies on the basis of more targeted and participatory approaches.

  19. Absolute quantification of somatic DNA alterations in human cancer.

    Carter, Scott L; Cibulskis, Kristian; Helman, Elena; McKenna, Aaron; Shen, Hui; Zack, Travis; Laird, Peter W; Onofrio, Robert C; Winckler, Wendy; Weir, Barbara A; Beroukhim, Rameen; Pellman, David; Levine, Douglas A; Lander, Eric S; Meyerson, Matthew; Getz, Gad


    We describe a computational method that infers tumor purity and malignant cell ploidy directly from analysis of somatic DNA alterations. The method, named ABSOLUTE, can detect subclonal heterogeneity and somatic homozygosity, and it can calculate statistical sensitivity for detection of specific aberrations. We used ABSOLUTE to analyze exome sequencing data from 214 ovarian carcinoma tumor-normal pairs. This analysis identified both pervasive subclonal somatic point-mutations and a small subset of predominantly clonal and homozygous mutations, which were overrepresented in the tumor suppressor genes TP53 and NF1 and in a candidate tumor suppressor gene CDK12. We also used ABSOLUTE to infer absolute allelic copy-number profiles from 3,155 diverse cancer specimens, revealing that genome-doubling events are common in human cancer, likely occur in cells that are already aneuploid, and influence pathways of tumor progression (for example, with recessive inactivation of NF1 being less common after genome doubling). ABSOLUTE will facilitate the design of clinical sequencing studies and studies of cancer genome evolution and intra-tumor heterogeneity.

  20. Absolute neutrophil values in malignant patients on cytotoxic chemotherapy.

    Madu, A J; Ibegbulam, O G; Ocheni, S; Madu, K A; Aguwa, E N


    A total of eighty patients with various malignancies seen between September 2008 and April 2009 at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) Ituku Ozalla, Enugu, Nigeria, had their absolute neutrophil counts, done at Days 0 and 12 of the first cycle of their various chemotherapeutic regimens. They were adult patients who had been diagnosed of various malignancies, consisting of Breast cancer 36 (45%), Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma 8 (10%), Hodgkin's lymphoma 13 (16.25%), Colorectal carcinoma 6 (7.5%), Multiple myeloma 7 (8.75%), Cervical carcinoma 1 (1.25%) and other malignancies 9 (11.25%), Manual counting of absolute neutrophil count was done using Turks solution and improved Neubauer counting chamber and Galen 2000 Olympus microscope. The socio demographic data of the patients were assessed from a questionnaire. There were 27 males (33.75%) and 53 females (66.25%). Their ages ranged from 18 - 80 years with a median of 45 years. The mean absolute neutrophil count of the respondents pre-and post chemotherapy was 3.7 +/- 2.1 x 10(9)/L and 2.5 +/- 1.6 x 10(9)/L respectively. There were significant differences in both the absolute neutrophil count (p=0.00) compared to the pre-chemotherapy values. Chemotherapeutic combinations containing cyclophosphamide and Adriamycin were observed to cause significant reduction in absolute neutrophil.

  1. Adaptive representations for reinforcement learning

    Whiteson, S.


    This book presents new algorithms for reinforcement learning, a form of machine learning in which an autonomous agent seeks a control policy for a sequential decision task. Since current methods typically rely on manually designed solution representations, agents that automatically adapt their own r

  2. Reusable Lexical Representations for Idioms

    Odijk, J.E.J.M.


    In this paper I introduce (1) a technically simple and highly theory-independent way for lexically representing flexible idiomatic expressions, and (2) a procedure to incorporate these lexical representations in a wide variety of NLP systems. The method is based on Structural EQuivalence Classes for

  3. Correct Representation of Conformational Equilibria.

    Fulop, F.; And Others


    In representing conformational equilibria of compounds having only one chiral center, erroneous formulas showing different antipodes on the two sides of the equilibrium are rare. In contrast, with compounds having two or more chiral centers especially with saturated heterocycles, this erroneous representation occurs frequently in the chemical…

  4. Empirical studies on word representations

    Suster, Simon


    One of the most fundamental tasks in natural language processing is representing words with mathematical objects (such as vectors). The word representations, which are most often estimated from data, allow capturing the meaning of words. They enable comparing words according to their semantic simila

  5. Octonionic matrix representation and electromagnetism

    Chanyal, B. C. [Kumaun University, S. S. J. Campus, Almora (India)


    Keeping in mind the important role of octonion algebra, we have obtained the electromagnetic field equations of dyons with an octonionic 8 x 8 matrix representation. In this paper, we consider the eight - dimensional octonionic space as a combination of two (external and internal) four-dimensional spaces for the existence of magnetic monopoles (dyons) in a higher-dimensional formalism. As such, we describe the octonion wave equations in terms of eight components from the 8 x 8 matrix representation. The octonion forms of the generalized potential, fields and current source of dyons in terms of 8 x 8 matrix are discussed in a consistent manner. Thus, we have obtained the generalized Dirac-Maxwell equations of dyons from an 8x8 matrix representation of the octonion wave equations in a compact and consistent manner. The generalized Dirac-Maxwell equations are fully symmetric Maxwell equations and allow for the possibility of magnetic charges and currents, analogous to electric charges and currents. Accordingly, we have obtained the octonionic Dirac wave equations in an external field from the matrix representation of the octonion-valued potentials of dyons.

  6. Mental Representations of Social Status

    Chiao, Joan Y.; Bordeaux, Andrew R.; Ambady, Nalni


    How do people think about social status? We investigated the nature of social status and number representations using a semantic distance latency test. In Study 1, 21 college students compared words connoting different social status as well as numbers, which served as a control task. Participants were faster at comparing occupations and numbers…

  7. Measurable representation of biconjugate integrands

    Ottavio Caligaris


    Full Text Available We find here a representation of convex regularization of a non convex proper function and of a non convex proper normal integrand by means of a suitable multifunction which reveals to be very useful in existence theorems for non convex problems of calculus of variations.

  8. Digital Image Representation and Access.

    Mostafa, Javed


    Reviews the literature relating to the development and application of modern imaging technology between 1987 and 1993. Highlights include image representation, including image data, compression, and image formats; and image access, including indexing and modeling, user interface design, and distributed access. (143 references) (LRW)

  9. The mixed Littlewood conjecture for pseudo-absolute values

    Harrap, Stephen


    In this paper we prove the mixed Littlewood conjecture for a p-adic absolute value and any pseudo-absolute value with bounded ratios. More precisely we show that if p is a prime and D is a pseudo-absolute value sequence with elements divisible by finitely many primes not equal to p, and if the terms of D grow more slowly than the exponential of a polynomial then the infimum over natural numbers n of the quantity n.|n|_p.|n|_D.||nx|| equals 0 for all real x. Our proof relies on two deep results, a measure rigidity theorem due to Lindenstrauss and lower bounds for linear forms in logarithms due to Baker and Wustholz. We also deduce the answer to the related metric question of how fast the infimum above tends to zero, for almost every x.

  10. Absolute Uniqueness of Phase Retrieval with Random Illumination

    Fannjiang, Albert


    Random phase or amplitude illumination is proposed to remove at once all types of ambiguity, trivial or nontrivial, at once from phase retrieval. Almost sure irreducibility is proved for {\\em any} complex-valued object of arbitrary sparsity. While this irreducibility result can be viewed as a probabilistic version of the classical result by Bruck, Sodin and Hayes, it provides a new perspective and an effective method for achieving absolute uniqueness in phase retrieval for {\\em every} object, not just objects outside of a measure-zero set. In particular, almost sure absolute uniqueness is proved for complex-valued objects under a general two-point assumption. For objects of nonnegative real and imaginary parts, absolute uniqueness is proved to hold with probability exponentially close to unity as the object sparsity increases.

  11. Absolute distance sensing by two laser optical interferometry.

    Thurner, Klaus; Braun, Pierre-François; Karrai, Khaled


    We have developed a method for absolute distance sensing by two laser optical interferometry. A particularity of this technique is that a target distance is determined in absolute and is no longer limited to within an ambiguity range affecting usually multiple wavelength interferometers. We implemented the technique in a low-finesse Fabry-Pérot miniature fiber based interferometer. We used two diode lasers, both operating in the 1550 nm wavelength range. The wavelength difference is chosen to create a 25 μm long periodic beating interferometric pattern allowing a nanometer precise position measurement but limited to within an ambiguity range of 25 μm. The ambiguity is then eliminated by scanning one of the wavelengths over a small range (3.4 nm). We measured absolute distances in the sub-meter range and this with just few nanometer repeatability.

  12. The 5 -modular representations of the Tits simple group in the principal block

    Gollan, Holger W.


    In this paper we show how to construct the 5-modular absolutely irreducible representations of the Tits simple group in the principal block, which is the only block of positive defect. Starting with the smallest nontrivial ones, all the others except one pair are obtained as constituents of tensor products of dimension at most 729. The last two we get from a permutation representation of degree 1600. We give an exact description of the construction of the first one of degree 26 by extending its restrictions to several subgroups, a method first used in the existence proof of the Janko group {J_4} . Using the explicit matrices obtained from the above constructions, we work out the Green correspondents and sources of all the representations and state their socle series.

  13. Total Synthesis and Absolute Configuration of the Marine Norditerpenoid Xestenone

    Hiroaki Miyaoka


    Full Text Available Xestenone is a marine norditerpenoid found in the northeastern Pacific sponge Xestospongia vanilla. The relative configuration of C-3 and C-7 in xestenone was determined by NOESY spectral analysis. However the relative configuration of C-12 and the absolute configuration of this compound were not determined. The authors have now achieved the total synthesis of xestenone using their developed one-pot synthesis of cyclopentane derivatives employing allyl phenyl sulfone and an epoxy iodide as a key step. The relative and absolute configurations of xestenone were thus successfully determined by this synthesis.

  14. Absolute cross-sections from X-{gamma} coincidence measurements

    Lemasson, A. [GANIL, CEA/DSM - CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); Shrivastava, A. [Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Navin, A. [GANIL, CEA/DSM - CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France)], E-mail:; Rejmund, M. [GANIL, CEA/DSM - CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); Nanal, V. [Department of Nuclear and Atomic Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Bhattacharyya, S. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Chatterjee, A.; Kailas, S.; Mahata, K.; Parkar, V.V. [Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Pillay, R.G. [Department of Nuclear and Atomic Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Ramachandran, K.; Rout, P.C. [Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)


    An activation technique using coincidences between characteristic X-rays and {gamma}-rays to obtain absolute cross-sections is described. This method is particularly useful in the case of nuclei that decay by electron capture. In addition to the reduction of possible contamination, an improved detection sensitivity is achieved as compared to inclusive measurements, thereby allowing the extraction of absolute fusion cross-sections in the nano-barn range. Results of this technique for {sup 6}Li+{sup 198}Pt system, at energies around the Coulomb barrier are described. Future applications with low intensity radioactive ion beams are also discussed.

  15. Absolute gravimetry - for monitoring climate change and geodynamics in Greenland

    Nielsen, Jens Emil

    with the GPS data, it is possible to separate the different signals. The method used in this study is absolute gravimetry. An absolute gravimeter of the A10 type has been purchased by DTU Space for this purpose. This instrument can measure gravity changes as small as 6µGal (= 60nm=s2), which provides...... the studies of the instrument it is found that it performs better than the manufacture specifications. The presence of a noise signal in the data, which originates from the instrument itself, has been the motivation to investigate different processing schemes. This noise is called the system response...

  16. Absolute, Extreme-Ultraviolet, Solar Spectral Irradiance Monitor (AESSIM)

    Huber, Martin C. E.; Smith, Peter L.; Parkinson, W. H.; Kuehne, M.; Kock, M.


    AESSIM, the Absolute, Extreme-Ultraviolet, Solar Spectral Irradiance Monitor, is designed to measure the absolute solar spectral irradiance at extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) wavelengths. The data are required for studies of the processes that occur in the earth's upper atmosphere and for predictions of atmospheric drag on space vehicles. AESSIM is comprised of sun-pointed spectrometers and newly-developed, secondary standards of spectral irradiance for the EUV. Use of the in-orbit standard sources will eliminate the uncertainties caused by changes in spectrometer efficiency that have plagued all previous measurements of the solar spectral EUV flux.

  17. Properties of Absolute Stability in the Presence of Time Lags

    M. De la Sen


    Full Text Available This study is concerned with the properties of absolute stability independent of the delays of time-delay systems, possessing non commensurate internal point delays, for any nonlinearity satisfying a Popov’s- type time positivity inequality. That property holds if an associate delay-free system is absolutely stable and the size of the delayed dynamics is sufficiently small. The results are obtained for nonlinearities belonging to sectors [0, k] and [h, k+h], and are based on a parabola test type.

  18. Stability comparison of two absolute gravimeters: optical versus atomic interferometers

    Gillot, Pierre; Landragin, Arnaud; Santos, Franck Pereira Dos; Merlet, Sébastien


    We report the direct comparison between the stabilities of two mobile absolute gravimeters of different technology: the LNE-SYRTE Cold Atom Gravimeter and FG5X\\#216 of the Universit\\'e du Luxembourg. These instruments rely on two different principles of operation: atomic and optical interferometry. The comparison took place in the Walferdange Underground Laboratory for Geodynamics in Luxembourg, at the beginning of the last International Comparison of Absolute Gravimeters, ICAG-2013. We analyse a 2h10 duration common measurement, and find that the CAG shows better immunity with respect to changes in the level of vibration noise, as well as a slightly better short term stability.

  19. Absolute small-angle measurement based on optical feedback interferometry

    Jingang Zhong; Xianhua Zhang; Zhixiang Ju


    We present a simple but effective method for small-angle measurement based on optical feedback inter-ferometry (or laser self-mixing interferometry). The absolute zero angle can be defined at the biggest fringe amplitude point, so this method can also achieve absolute angle measurement. In order to verify the method, we construct an angle measurement system. The Fourier-transform method is used to analysis the interference signal. Rotation angles are experimentally measured with a resolution of 10-6 rad and a measurement range of approximately from -0.0007 to +0.0007 rad.

  20. Communication of fracture risk and treatment benefit in terms of ‘bone health age’ using FRAX or Qfracture

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Rubin, Katrine Hass; Hansen, Carrinna


    Introduction: Communication of absolute and relative risks is challenging despite the development of tools to quickly derive absolute fracture risk estimates from risk factors with or without BMD. We speculated that back-transformation of risks to a risk age could make for a clearer message...

  1. Simple visual aids make health risks clear

    Rocío García-Retamero


    Full Text Available Transparent risk communication is an essential component of informed decision making. Unfortunately, many people struggle to understand risks because they lack practical mathematical and risk literacy skills. Our research shows that well-designed visual aids improve risk understanding by encouraging more thorough deliberation and reducing biased risk representations.

  2. Absolute coronary blood flow measurement and microvascular resistance in ST-elevation myocardial infarction in the acute and subacute phase

    Wijnbergen, Inge; Veer, Marcel van ' t [Department of Cardiology, Catharina Hospital, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Lammers, Jeroen; Ubachs, Joey [Department of Cardiology, Catharina Hospital, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Pijls, Nico H.J., E-mail: [Department of Cardiology, Catharina Hospital, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven (Netherlands)


    Background/Purpose: In a number of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), myocardial hypoperfusion, known as the no-reflow phenomenon, persists after primary percutaneous intervention (PPCI). The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of a new quantitative method of measuring absolute blood flow and resistance within the perfusion bed of an infarct-related artery. Furthermore, we sought to study no-reflow by correlating these measurements to the index of microvascular resistance (IMR) and the area at risk (AR) as determined by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). Methods: Measurements of absolute flow and myocardial resistance were performed in 20 patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), first immediately following PPCI and then again after 3–5 days. These measurements used the technique of thermodilution during a continuous infusion of saline. Flow was expressed in ml/min per gram of tissue within the area at risk. Results: The average time needed for measurement of absolute flow, resistance and IMR was 20 min, and all measurements could be performed without complication. A higher flow supplying the AR correlated with a lower IMR in the acute phase. Absolute flow increased from 3.14 to 3.68 ml/min/g (p = 0.25) and absolute resistance decreased from 1317 to 1099 (p = 0.40) between the first day and fifth day after STEMI. Conclusions: Measurement of absolute flow and microvascular resistance is safe and feasible in STEMI patients and may allow for a better understanding of microvascular (dys)function in the early phase of AMI. - Highlights: • We measured absolute coronary blood flow and microvascular resistance in STEMI patients in the acute phase and in the subacute phase, using the technique of thermodilution with low grade intracoronary continuous infusion of saline. • These measurements are safe and feasible during PPCI in STEMI patients. • In STEMI patients, absolute flow

  3. Improvement in image resolution based on dispersive representation of data

    Kravchenko, V. F.; Ponomaryov, V. I.; Pustovoit, V. I.


    A method for reconstructing the resolution of images, based on selection and optimization of significant local features and sparse representation of processed-image blocks (using optimized low- and high-resolution dictionaries), has been substantiated for the first time. This method, making it possible to improve significantly the resolution of images of various nature, is interpreted physically. A block diagram of the processing system corresponding to the new approach to image reconstruction has been developed. A simulation of the new method for reconstructing images of different physical natures and known algorithms showed an advantage of the new scheme for reconstructing resolution in terms of universally recognized criteria (peak signal-to-noise ratio, mean absolute error, and structural similarity index measure) and in visual comparison of the processed images.

  4. Polarised press reporting about HIV prevention: Social representations of pre-exposure prophylaxis in the UK press.

    Jaspal, Rusi; Nerlich, Brigitte


    Pre-exposure prophylaxis is a novel biomedical HIV prevention option for individuals at high risk of HIV acquisition. Although pre-exposure prophylaxis has yielded encouraging results in various clinical trials, opponents argue that pre-exposure prophylaxis poses a number of risks to human health and to sexually transmitted infection prevention efforts. Using qualitative thematic analysis and social representation theory, this article explores coverage of pre-exposure prophylaxis in the UK print media between 2008 and 2015 in order to chart the emerging social representations of this novel HIV prevention strategy. The analysis revealed two competing social representations of pre-exposure prophylaxis: (1) as a positive development in the 'battle' against HIV (the hope representation) and (2) as a medical, social and psychological setback in this battle, particularly for gay/bisexual men (the risk representation). These social representations map onto the themes of pre-exposure prophylaxis as a superlatively positive development; pre-exposure prophylaxis as a weapon in the battle against HIV/AIDS; and risk, uncertainty and fear in relation to pre-exposure prophylaxis. The hope representation focuses on taking (individual and collective) responsibility, while the risk representation focuses on attributing (individual and collective) blame. The implications for policy and practice are discussed.

  5. Multipolar representation of protein structure

    Bourne Philip E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background That the structure determines the function of proteins is a central paradigm in biology. However, protein functions are more directly related to cooperative effects at the residue and multi-residue scales. As such, current representations based on atomic coordinates can be considered inadequate. Bridging the gap between atomic-level structure and overall protein-level functionality requires parameterizations of the protein structure (and other physicochemical properties in a quasi-continuous range, from a simple collection of unrelated amino acids coordinates to the highly synergistic organization of the whole protein entity, from a microscopic view in which each atom is completely resolved to a "macroscopic" description such as the one encoded in the three-dimensional protein shape. Results Here we propose such a parameterization and study its relationship to the standard Euclidian description based on amino acid representative coordinates. The representation uses multipoles associated with residue Cα coordinates as shape descriptors. We demonstrate that the multipoles can be used for the quantitative description of the protein shape and for the comparison of protein structures at various levels of detail. Specifically, we construct a (dissimilarity measure in multipolar configuration space, and show how such a function can be used for the comparison of a pair of proteins. We then test the parameterization on a benchmark set of the protein kinase-like superfamily. We prove that, when the biologically relevant portions of the proteins are retained, it can robustly discriminate between the various families in the set in a way not possible through sequence or conventional structural representations alone. We then compare our representation with the Cartesian coordinate description and show that, as expected, the correlation with that representation increases as the level of detail, measured by the highest rank of multipoles

  6. A geometric representation for the Proca model

    Camacaro, J; Leal, L C; Camacaro, Jaime; Gaitan, Rolando; Leal, Lorenzo


    The Proca model is quantized in an open-path dependent representation that generalizes the Loop Representation of gauge theories. The starting point is a gauge invariant Lagrangian that reduces to the Proca Lagrangian when certain gauge is selected.

  7. Attitudes, social representations and social attitudes

    Farr, Robert, M.


    This paper plays the role of the devil's advocate in relation to Colin Fraser's paper "attitudes, social representations and widespread beliefs". It argues for the alternative perspective which Colin identifies that social representations and social attitudes are epistemologically incompatible theories.

  8. Multiple Interactive Representations for Fractions Learning

    Feenstra, Laurens; Aleven, Vincent; Rummel, Nikol; Taatgen, Niels; Aleven,; Kay, J; Mostow, J


    Multiple External Representations (MERs) have been used successfully in instructional activities, including fractions However, students often have difficulties making the connections between the MERs spontaneously We argue that interactive fraction representations may help students in discovering re

  9. The communicative constitution of representation and exclusion

    Wessel, van M.G.J.


    In the light of current debate on representation, specifically engaging with literature showing how representation is communicatively constituted, this paper empirically shows how exclusion also can be seen as communicatively constituted. The interpretive approach toward communication employed in th

  10. Some Representations of Unified Voigt Functions



    The authors derive a set of unified representations of the Voigt functions in terms of familiar special functions of Mathematical Physics. Some deductions from these representations are also considered.

  11. The extended loop representation of quantum gravity

    Di Bartolo, C; Griego, J R


    A new representation of Quantum Gravity is developed. This formulation is based on an extension of the group of loops. The enlarged group, that we call the Extended Loop Group, behaves locally as an infinite dimensional Lie group. Quantum Gravity can be realized on the state space of extended loop dependent wavefunctions. The extended representation generalizes the loop representation and contains this representation as a particular case. The resulting diffeomorphism and hamiltonian constraints take a very simple form and allow to apply functional methods and simplify the loop calculus. In particular we show that the constraints are linear in the momenta. The nondegenerate solutions known in the loop representation are also solutions of the constraints in the new representation. The practical calculation advantages allows to find a new solution to the Wheeler-DeWitt equation. Moreover, the extended representation puts in a precise framework some of the regularization problems of the loop representation. We sh...

  12. Kernel representations for behaviors over finite rings

    Kuijper, M.; Pinto, R.; Polderman, J.W.; Yamamoto, Y.


    In this paper we consider dynamical systems finite rings. The rings that we study are the integers modulo a power of a given prime. We study the theory of representations for such systems, in particular kernel representations.

  13. Multipliers for the Absolute Euler Summability of Fourier Series

    Prem Chandra


    In this paper, the author has investigated necessary and sufficient conditions for the absolute Euler summability of the Fourier series with multipliers. These conditions are weaker than those obtained earlier by some workers. It is further shown that the multipliers are best possible in certain sense.

  14. Confirmation of the absolute configuration of (−)-aurantioclavine

    Behenna, Douglas C.


    We confirm our previous assignment of the absolute configuration of (-)-aurantioclavine as 7R by crystallographically characterizing an advanced 3-bromoindole intermediate reported in our previous synthesis. This analysis also provides additional support for our model of enantioinduction in the palladium(II)-catalyzed oxidative kinetic resolution of secondary alcohols. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Absolute configurations of zingiberenols isolated from ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizomes

    The sesquiterpene alcohol zingiberenol, or 1,10-bisaboladien-3-ol, was isolated some time ago from ginger, Zingiber officinale, rhizomes, but its absolute configuration had not been determined. With three chiral centers present in the molecule, zingiberenol can exist in eight stereoisomeric forms. ...

  16. Two methods for absolute calibration of dynamic pressure transducers

    Swift, G. W.; Migliori, A.; Garrett, S. L.; Wheatley, J. C.


    Two techniques are described for absolute calibration of a dynamic pressure transducer from 0 to 400 Hz in 1-MPa helium gas. One technique is based on a comparison to a mercury manometer; the other is based on the principle of reciprocity. The two techniques agree within the instrumental uncertainties of 1%.

  17. Partial sums of arithmetical functions with absolutely convergent Ramanujan expansions



    For an arithmetical function $f$ with absolutely convergent Ramanujan expansion, we derive an asymptotic formula for the $\\sum_{n\\leq N}$ f(n)$ with explicit error term. As a corollary we obtain new results about sum-of-divisors functions and Jordan’s totient functions.

  18. Absolute Value Inequalities: High School Students' Solutions and Misconceptions

    Almog, Nava; Ilany, Bat-Sheva


    Inequalities are one of the foundational subjects in high school math curricula, but there is a lack of academic research into how students learn certain types of inequalities. This article fills part of the research gap by presenting the findings of a study that examined high school students' methods of approaching absolute value inequalities,…

  19. Individual Differences in Absolute and Relative Metacomprehension Accuracy

    Maki, Ruth H.; Shields, Micheal; Wheeler, Amanda Easton; Zacchilli, Tammy Lowery


    The authors investigated absolute and relative metacomprehension accuracy as a function of verbal ability in college students. Students read hard texts, revised texts, or a mixed set of texts. They then predicted their performance, took a multiple-choice test on the texts, and made posttest judgments about their performance. With hard texts,…

  20. Absolute configuration and antiprotozoal activity of minquartynoic acid

    Rasmussen, H B; Christensen, Søren Brøgger; Kvist, L P;


    Minquartynoic acid (1) was isolated as an antimalarial and antileishmanial constituent of the Peruvian tree Minquartia guianensis and its absolute configuration at C-17 established to be (+)-S through conversion to the known (+)-(S)-17-hydroxystearic acid (2) and confirmed using Mosher's method....

  1. Fabricating the absolute fake: America in contemporary pop culture

    Kooijman, J.


    Onze wereld wordt gedomineerd door de Amerikaanse popcultuur. Fabricating the Absolute Fake onderzoekt de dynamiek van Amerikanisering aan de hand van hedendaagse films, televisieprogramma's en popsterren die reflecteren op de vraag wat het betekent om Amerikaan in een mondiale popcultuur te zijn. J

  2. Ophthalmoplegic migraine. Two patients with an absolute response to indomethacin.

    Pareja, J A; Churruca, J; de la Casa Fages, B; de Silanes, C López; Sánchez, C; Barriga, F J


    Two patients suffering from ophthalmoplegic migraine had a strictly unilateral headache absolutely responsive to indomethacin, but not to other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, analgesics or corticosteroids. Such observations raise a therapeutic alternative and suggest that ophthalmoplegic migraine may present with different headache phenotypes.

  3. Absolute measurements of chlorine Cl+ cation single photoionization cross section

    Hernandez, E. M.; Juarez, A. M.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Aguilar, A.; Hernandez, L.; Antillon, A.; Macaluso, D.; Morales-Mori, A.; Gonzalez-Magana, O.; Hanstorp, D.; Covington, A. M.; Davis, V.; Calabrese, D.; Hinojosa, G.


    The photoionization of Cl+ leading to Cl2+ was measured in the photon energy range of 19.5-28.0 eV. A spectrum with a photon energy resolution of 15 meV normalized to absolute cross-section measurements is presented. The measurements were carried out by merging a Cl+ ion beam with a photon beam of h

  4. Absolute luminosity measurements with the LHCb detector at the LHC

    Aaij, R; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderson, J; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Arrabito, L; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Bailey, D S; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bates, A; Bauer, C; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Bediaga, I; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Brisbane, S; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Büchler-Germann, A; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Caicedo Carvajal, J M; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chiapolini, N; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Collins, P; Constantin, F; Conti, G; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Corti, G; Cowan, G A; Currie, R; D'Almagne, B; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; De Bonis, I; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Lorenzi, F; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Degaudenzi, H; Deissenroth, M; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Diniz Batista, P; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Eames, C; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisele, F; Eisenhardt, S; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; Elsasser, Ch; d'Enterria, D G; Esperante Pereira, D; Estève, L; Falabella, A; Fanchini, E; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garnier, J-C; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauvin, N; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Gregson, S; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harji, R; Harnew, N; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Hofmann, W; Holubyev, K; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Huston, R S; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Imong, J; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jahjah Hussein, M; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jaton, P; Jean-Marie, B; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Keaveney, J; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kim, Y M; Knecht, M; Koblitz, S; Koppenburg, P; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kruzelecki, K; Kucharczyk, M; Kukulak, S; Kumar, R; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Li, L; Li Gioi, L; Lieng, M; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Luisier, J; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Magnin, J; Malde, S; Mamunur, R M D; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinez Santos, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Maynard, B; Mazurov, A; McGregor, G; McNulty, R; Mclean, C; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Merkel, J; Messi, R; Miglioranzi, S; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Musy, M; Mylroie-Smith, J; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nardulli, J; Nasteva, I; Nedos, M; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Nies, S; Niess, V; Nikitin, N; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, B; Palacios, J; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Paterson, S K; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petrella, A; Petrolini, A; Pie Valls, B; Pietrzyk, B; Pilar, T; Pinci, D; Plackett, R; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; du Pree, T; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Rinnert, K; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodrigues, F; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogers, G J; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santinelli, R; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schleich, S; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M -H; Schwemmer, R; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shao, B; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skottowe, H P; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, A C; Smith, N A; Sobczak, K; Soler, F J P; Solomin, A; Soomro, F; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Styles, N; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Topp-Joergensen, S; Tran, M T; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urquijo, P; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Vervink, K; Viaud, B; Videau, I; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Visniakov, J; Vollhardt, A; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Voss, H; Wacker, K; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Witzeling, W; Wotton, S A; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yushchenko, O; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhong, L; Zverev, E; Zvyagin, A


    Absolute luminosity measurements are of general interest for colliding-beam experiments at storage rings. These measurements are necessary to determine the absolute cross-sections of reaction processes and are valuable to quantify the performance of the accelerator. LHCb has applied two methods to determine the absolute scale of its luminosity measurements for proton-proton collisions at the LHC with a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. In addition to the classic ``van der Meer scan'' method a novel technique has been developed which makes use of direct imaging of the individual beams using beam-gas and beam-beam interactions. This beam imaging method is made possible by the high resolution of the LHCb vertex detector and the close proximity of the detector to the beams, and allows beam parameters such as positions, angles and widths to be determined. The results of the two methods have comparable precision and are in good agreement. Combining the two methods, an overall precision of 3.5\\% in the absolute lumi...

  5. Absolute Stability of Discrete-Time Systems with Delay

    Medina Rigoberto


    Full Text Available We investigate the stability of nonlinear nonautonomous discrete-time systems with delaying arguments, whose linear part has slowly varying coefficients, and the nonlinear part has linear majorants. Based on the "freezing" technique to discrete-time systems, we derive explicit conditions for the absolute stability of the zero solution of such systems.

  6. Absolute magnitudes and phase coefficients of trans-Neptunian objects

    Alvarez-Candal, A; Ortiz, J L; Duffard, R; Morales, N; Santos-Sanz, P; Thirouin, A; Silva, J S


    Context: Accurate measurements of diameters of trans-Neptunian objects are extremely complicated to obtain. Thermal modeling can provide good results, but accurate absolute magnitudes are needed to constrain the thermal models and derive diameters and geometric albedos. The absolute magnitude, Hv, is defined as the magnitude of the object reduced to unit helio- and geocentric distances and a zero solar phase angle and is determined using phase curves. Phase coefficients can also be obtained from phase curves. These are related to surface properties, yet not many are known. Aims: Our objective is to measure accurate V band absolute magnitudes and phase coefficients for a sample of trans-Neptunian objects, many of which have been observed, and modeled, within the 'TNOs are cool' program, one of Herschel Space Observatory key projects. Methods: We observed 56 objects using the V and R filters. These data, along with those available in the literature, were used to obtain phase curves and measure V band absolute m...

  7. Lyman alpha SMM/UVSP absolute calibration and geocoronal correction

    Fontenla, Juan M.; Reichmann, Edwin J.


    Lyman alpha observations from the Ultraviolet Spectrometer Polarimeter (UVSP) instrument of the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) spacecraft were analyzed and provide instrumental calibration details. Specific values of the instrument quantum efficiency, Lyman alpha absolute intensity, and correction for geocoronal absorption are presented.

  8. On absolute stability of nonlinear systems with small delays

    M. I. Gil


    Full Text Available Nonlinear nonautonomous retarded systems with separated autonomous linear parts and continuous nonlinear ones are considered. It is assumed that deviations of the argument are sufficiently small. Absolute stability conditions are derived. They are formulated in terms of eigenvalues of auxiliary matrices.

  9. Gray- and White-Matter Anatomy of Absolute Pitch Possessors

    Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Chakravarty, Mallar


    Absolute pitch (AP), the ability to identify a musical pitch without a reference, has been examined behaviorally in numerous studies for more than a century, yet only a few studies have examined the neuroanatomical correlates of AP. Here, we used MRI and diffusion tensor imaging to investigate...

  10. Toward The Absolute Age of M92 With MIST

    Choi, Jieun; Conroy, Charlie; Dotter, Aaron; Weisz, Daniel; Rosenfield, Philip; Dolphin, Andrew


    Globular clusters provide a fundamental link between stars and galaxies. For example, it has been suggested that ultra faint dwarf galaxies formed all of their stars prior to the epoch of reionization, but this conclusion hinges entirely on the striking similarity of their stellar populations to the ancient, metal-poor globular cluster M92. The accurate measurement of absolute ages of ancient globular clusters therefore has direct implications for the formation histories of the smallest galaxies in the Universe. However, a reliable determination of the absolute ages of globular clusters has proven to be a challenge due to uncertainties in stellar physics and complications in how the models are compared to observations. I will present preliminary results from a comprehensive study to measure the absolute age of M92 using high-quality HST archival imaging data. We pair our new MESA Isochrones and Stellar Tracks (MIST) models with a full CMD fitting framework to jointly fit multi-color CMDs, taking into account the uncertainties in abundances, distance, and stellar physics. The goal of this project is two-fold. First, we aim to provide the most secure absolute age of M92 to date with robustly estimated uncertainties. Second, we explore and quantify the degeneracies between uncertain physical quantities and model variables, such as the distance, mixing-length-alpha parameter, and helium abundance, with the ultimate goal of better constraining these unknowns with data from ongoing and future surveys such as K2, Gaia, TESS, JWST, and WFIRST.

  11. Transfinite tree quivers and their representations

    Enochs, E; Özdemir, S


    The idea of "vertex at the infinity" naturally appears when studying indecomposable injective representations of tree quivers. In this paper we formalize this behavior and find the structure of all the indecomposable injective representations of a tree quiver of size an arbitrary cardinal $\\kappa$. As a consequence the structure of injective representations of noetherian $\\kappa$-trees is completely determined. In the second part we will consider the problem whether arbitrary trees are source injective representation quivers or not.

  12. Representation theory of finite monoids

    Steinberg, Benjamin


    This first text on the subject provides a comprehensive introduction to the representation theory of finite monoids. Carefully worked examples and exercises provide the bells and whistles for graduate accessibility, bringing a broad range of advanced readers to the forefront of research in the area. Highlights of the text include applications to probability theory, symbolic dynamics, and automata theory. Comfort with module theory, a familiarity with ordinary group representation theory, and the basics of Wedderburn theory, are prerequisites for advanced graduate level study. Researchers in algebra, algebraic combinatorics, automata theory, and probability theory, will find this text enriching with its thorough presentation of applications of the theory to these fields. Prior knowledge of semigroup theory is not expected for the diverse readership that may benefit from this exposition. The approach taken in this book is highly module-theoretic and follows the modern flavor of the theory of finite dimensional ...

  13. Berry phase in Heisenberg representation

    Andreev, V. A.; Klimov, Andrei B.; Lerner, Peter B.


    We define the Berry phase for the Heisenberg operators. This definition is motivated by the calculation of the phase shifts by different techniques. These techniques are: the solution of the Heisenberg equations of motion, the solution of the Schrodinger equation in coherent-state representation, and the direct computation of the evolution operator. Our definition of the Berry phase in the Heisenberg representation is consistent with the underlying supersymmetry of the model in the following sense. The structural blocks of the Hamiltonians of supersymmetrical quantum mechanics ('superpairs') are connected by transformations which conserve the similarity in structure of the energy levels of superpairs. These transformations include transformation of phase of the creation-annihilation operators, which are generated by adiabatic cyclic evolution of the parameters of the system.

  14. Paired structures in knowledge representation

    Montero, J.; Bustince, H.; Franco de los Ríos, Camilo;


    In this position paper we propose a consistent and unifying view to all those basic knowledge representation models that are based on the existence of two somehow opposite fuzzy concepts. A number of these basic models can be found in fuzzy logic and multi-valued logic literature. Here it is clai......In this position paper we propose a consistent and unifying view to all those basic knowledge representation models that are based on the existence of two somehow opposite fuzzy concepts. A number of these basic models can be found in fuzzy logic and multi-valued logic literature. Here...... of paired structures, generated from two paired concepts together with their associated neutrality, all of them to be modeled as fuzzy sets. In this way, paired structures can be viewed as a standard basic model from which different models arise. This unifying view should therefore allow a deeper analysis...

  15. Sparse representation of astronomical images.

    Rebollo-Neira, Laura; Bowley, James


    Sparse representation of astronomical images is discussed. It is shown that a significant gain in sparsity is achieved when particular mixed dictionaries are used for approximating these types of images with greedy selection strategies. Experiments are conducted to confirm (i) the effectiveness at producing sparse representations and (ii) competitiveness, with respect to the time required to process large images. The latter is a consequence of the suitability of the proposed dictionaries for approximating images in partitions of small blocks. This feature makes it possible to apply the effective greedy selection technique called orthogonal matching pursuit, up to some block size. For blocks exceeding that size, a refinement of the original matching pursuit approach is considered. The resulting method is termed "self-projected matching pursuit," because it is shown to be effective for implementing, via matching pursuit itself, the optional backprojection intermediate steps in that approach.

  16. [The nose: representation and symbolism].

    Lebeau, J; Antoine, P


    The nose is a primordial element in the facial recognition among the human species. This privileged place, confirmed by experimental psychology, finds a professional application in the creation of the photofit. The physiognomonist drift, that flourished during the last century, lacked a scientific basis and gradually gave way. On the other hand, it is interesting to observe the artist's representations of the nose: except for the realistis school the nose is upsetting. It is therefore either stereotyped or deleted. As for the caricaturist, he illustrates the nose shamelessly. This representation is certainly related to the symbolic force of the nasal appendage, not only a vector of diverse and variable odours but also a passage for the spirit and to the heart. The nose is therefore a significative element of relation, of contact and of expression.

  17. Time representations in social science.

    Schulz, Yvan


    Time has long been a major topic of study in social science, as in other sciences or in philosophy. Social scientists have tended to focus on collective representations of time, and on the ways in which these representations shape our everyday experiences. This contribution addresses work from such disciplines as anthropology, sociology and history. It focuses on several of the main theories that have preoccupied specialists in social science, such as the alleged "acceleration" of life and overgrowth of the present in contemporary Western societies, or the distinction between so-called linear and circular conceptions of time. The presentation of these theories is accompanied by some of the critiques they have provoked, in order to enable the reader to form her or his own opinion of them.

  18. SAR Image Complex Pixel Representations

    Doerry, Armin W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Complex pixel values for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images of uniform distributed clutter can be represented as either real/imaginary (also known as I/Q) values, or as Magnitude/Phase values. Generally, these component values are integers with limited number of bits. For clutter energy well below full-scale, Magnitude/Phase offers lower quantization noise than I/Q representation. Further improvement can be had with companding of the Magnitude value.

  19. Receptive fields and visual representations

    Watson, Andrew B.


    Efficient representation of images for human use requires an understanding of how the brain processes and represents visual information. Spatial imagery is represented in the brain in the receptive fields of visual neurons. Models of these neurons lead to models of image fidelity, and to digital implementations of these neural codes. This approach will be illustrated by two example codes. The advantages and difficulties of this approach will be discussed.

  20. Computing Visible-Surface Representations,


    Terzopoulos N00014-75-C-0643 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AMC ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT, TASK Artificial Inteligence Laboratory AREA A...Massachusetts Institute of lechnolog,. Support lbr the laboratory’s Artificial Intelligence research is provided in part by the Advanced Rtccarcl Proj...dynamically maintaining visible surface representations. Whether the intention is to model human vision or to design competent artificial vision systems

  1. Temporal Representation in Semantic Graphs

    Levandoski, J J; Abdulla, G M


    A wide range of knowledge discovery and analysis applications, ranging from business to biological, make use of semantic graphs when modeling relationships and concepts. Most of the semantic graphs used in these applications are assumed to be static pieces of information, meaning temporal evolution of concepts and relationships are not taken into account. Guided by the need for more advanced semantic graph queries involving temporal concepts, this paper surveys the existing work involving temporal representations in semantic graphs.

  2. Representability of Hom Implies Flatness

    Nitin Nitsure


    Let be a projective scheme over a noetherian base scheme , and let $\\mathcal{F}$ be a coherent sheaf on . For any coherent sheaf $\\mathcal{E}$ on , consider the set-valued contravariant functor $\\hom_{(\\mathcal{E},\\mathcal{F})}$ on -schemes, defined by $\\hom_{(\\mathcal{E},\\mathcal{F})}(T)=\\mathrm{Hom}(\\mathcal{E}_T,\\mathcal{F}_T)$ where $\\mathcal{E}_T$ and $\\mathcal{F}_T$ are the pull-backs of $\\mathcal{E}$ and $\\mathcal{F}$ to $X_T=X×_s T$. A basic result of Grothendieck ([EGA], III 7.7.9) says that if $\\mathcal{F}$ is flat over then $\\hom_{(\\mathcal{E},\\mathcal{F})}$ is representable for all $\\mathcal{E}$. We prove the converse of the above, in fact, we show that if is a relatively ample line bundle on over such that the functor $\\hom_{(L^{-n},\\mathcal{F})}$ is representable for infinitely many positive integers , then $\\mathcal{F}$ is flat over . As a corollary, taking $X=S$, it follows that if $\\mathcal{F}$ is a coherent sheaf on then the functor $T\\mapsto H^0(T,\\mathcal{F}_T)$ on the category of -schemes is representable if and only if $\\mathcal{F}$ is locally free on . This answers a question posed by Angelo Vistoli. The techniques we use involve the proof of flattening stratification, together with the methods used in proving the author's earlier result (see [N1]) that the automorphism group functor of a coherent sheaf on is representable if and only if the sheaf is locally free.

  3. Phases of stable representations of quivers

    Engenhorst, Magnus


    We consider stable representations of non-Dynkin quivers with respect to a central charge. On one condition the existence of a stable representation with self-extensions implies the existence of infinitely many stables without self-extensions. In this case the phases of the stable representations approach one or two limit points. In particular, the phases are not dense in two arcs.

  4. On Nambu-Lie 3-algebra representations

    Sochichiu, Corneliu


    We propose a recipe to construct matrix representations of Nambu--Lie 3-algebras in terms of irreducible representations of underlying Lie algebra. The case of Euclidean four-dimensional 3-algebra is considered in details. We find that representations of this 3-algebra are not possible in terms of only Hermitian matrices in spite of its Euclidean nature.

  5. Absolute Gravity Datum in the Age of Cold Atom Gravimeters

    Childers, V. A.; Eckl, M. C.


    The international gravity datum is defined today by the International Gravity Standardization Net of 1971 (IGSN-71). The data supporting this network was measured in the 1950s and 60s using pendulum and spring-based gravimeter ties (plus some new ballistic absolute meters) to replace the prior protocol of referencing all gravity values to the earlier Potsdam value. Since this time, gravimeter technology has advanced significantly with the development and refinement of the FG-5 (the current standard of the industry) and again with the soon-to-be-available cold atom interferometric absolute gravimeters. This latest development is anticipated to provide improvement in the range of two orders of magnitude as compared to the measurement accuracy of technology utilized to develop ISGN-71. In this presentation, we will explore how the IGSN-71 might best be "modernized" given today's requirements and available instruments and resources. The National Geodetic Survey (NGS), along with other relevant US Government agencies, is concerned about establishing gravity control to establish and maintain high order geodetic networks as part of the nation's essential infrastructure. The need to modernize the nation's geodetic infrastructure was highlighted in "Precise Geodetic Infrastructure, National Requirements for a Shared Resource" National Academy of Science, 2010. The NGS mission, as dictated by Congress, is to establish and maintain the National Spatial Reference System, which includes gravity measurements. Absolute gravimeters measure the total gravity field directly and do not involve ties to other measurements. Periodic "intercomparisons" of multiple absolute gravimeters at reference gravity sites are used to constrain the behavior of the instruments to ensure that each would yield reasonably similar measurements of the same location (i.e. yield a sufficiently consistent datum when measured in disparate locales). New atomic interferometric gravimeters promise a significant

  6. Networks of Absolute Calibration Stars for SST, AKARI, and WISE

    Cohen, M.


    I describe the Cohen-Walker-Witteborn (CWW) network of absolute calibration stars built to support ground-based, airborne, and space-based sensors, and how they are used to calibrate instruments on the SPITZER Space Telescope (SST and Japan's AKARI (formerly ASTRO-F), and to support NASA's planned MidEx WISE (the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer). All missions using this common calibration share a self-consistent framework embracing photometry and low-resolution spectroscopy. CWW also underpins COBE/DIRBE several instruments used on the Kuiper Airborne Observatory ({KAO}), the joint Japan-USA ``IR Telescope in Space" (IRTS) Near-IR and Mid-IR spectrometers, the European Space Agency's IR Space Observatory (ISO), and the US Department of Defense's Midcourse Space eXperiment (MSX). This calibration now spans the far-UV to mid-infrared range with Sirius (one specific Kurucz synthetic spectrum) as basis, and zero magnitude defined from another Kurucz spectrum intended to represent an ideal Vega (not the actual star with its pole-on orientation and mid-infrared dust excess emission). Precision 4-29 μm radiometric measurements on MSX validate CWW's absolute Kurucz spectrum of Sirius, the primary, and a set of bright K/MIII secondary standards. Sirius is measured to be 1.0% higher than predicted. CWW's definitions of IR zero magnitudes lie within 1.1% absolute of MSX measurements. The US Air Force Research Laboratory's independent analysis of on-orbit {MSX} stellar observations compared with emissive reference spheres show CWW primary and empirical secondary spectra lie well within the ±1.45% absolute uncertainty associated with this 15-year effort. Our associated absolute calibration for the InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) on the SST lies within ˜2% of the recent extension of the calibration of the Hubble Space Telescope's STIS instrument to NICMOS (Bohlin, these Proceedings), showing the closeness of these two independent approaches to calibration.

  7. Absolute V-R colors of trans-Neptunian objects

    Alvarez-Candal, Alvaro; Ayala-Loera, Carmen; Ortiz, Jose-Luis; Duffard, Rene; Estela, Fernandez-Valenzuela; Santos-Sanz, Pablo


    The absolute magnitude of a minor body is the apparent magnitude that the body would have if observed from the Sun at a distance of 1AU. Absolute magnitudes are measured using phase curves, showing the change of the magnitude, normalized to unit helio and geo-centric distance, vs. phase angle. The absolute magnitude is then the Y-intercept of the curve. Absolute magnitudes are related to the total reflecting surface of the body and thus bring information of its size, coupled with the reflecting properties.Since 2011 our team has been collecting data from several telescopes spread in Europe and South America. We complemented our data with those available in the literature in order to construct phase curves of trans-Neptunian objects with at least three points. In a first release (Alvarez-Candal et al. 2016, A&A, 586, A155) we showed results for 110 trans-Neptunian objects using V magnitudes only, assuming an overall linear trend and taking into consideration rotational effects, for objects with known light-curves.In this contribution we show results for more than 130 objects, about 100 of them with phase curves in two filters: V and R. We compute absolute magnitudes and phase coefficients in both filters, when available. The average values are HV = 6.39 ± 2.37, βV = (0.09 ± 0.32) mag per degree, HR = 5.38 ± 2.30, and βR = (0.08 ± 0.42) mag per degree.

  8. Symbol Systems and Pictorial Representations

    Diederich, Joachim; Wright, Susan

    All problem-solvers are subject to the same ultimate constraints -- limitations on space, time, and materials (Minsky, 1985). He introduces two principles: (1) Economics: Every intelligence must develop symbol-systems for representing objects, causes and goals, and (2) Sparseness: Every evolving intelligence will eventually encounter certain very special ideas -- e.g., about arithmetic, causal reasoning, and economics -- because these particular ideas are very much simpler than other ideas with similar uses. An extra-terrestrial intelligence (ETI) would have developed symbol systems to express these ideas and would have the capacity of multi-modal processing. Vakoch (1998) states that ...``ETI may rely significantly on other sensory modalities (than vision). Particularly useful representations would be ones that may be intelligible through more than one sensory modality. For instance, the information used to create a three-dimensional representation of an object might be intelligible to ETI heavily reliant on either visual or tactile sensory processes.'' The cross-modal representations Vakoch (1998) describes and the symbol systems Minsky (1985) proposes are called ``metaphors'' when combined. Metaphors allow for highly efficient communication. Metaphors are compact, condensed ways of expressing an idea: words, sounds, gestures or images are used in novel ways to refer to something they do not literally denote. Due to the importance of Minsky's ``economics'' principle, it is therefore possible that a message heavily relies on metaphors.

  9. Neural Representations of Physics Concepts.

    Mason, Robert A; Just, Marcel Adam


    We used functional MRI (fMRI) to assess neural representations of physics concepts (momentum, energy, etc.) in juniors, seniors, and graduate students majoring in physics or engineering. Our goal was to identify the underlying neural dimensions of these representations. Using factor analysis to reduce the number of dimensions of activation, we obtained four physics-related factors that were mapped to sets of voxels. The four factors were interpretable as causal motion visualization, periodicity, algebraic form, and energy flow. The individual concepts were identifiable from their fMRI signatures with a mean rank accuracy of .75 using a machine-learning (multivoxel) classifier. Furthermore, there was commonality in participants' neural representation of physics; a classifier trained on data from all but one participant identified the concepts in the left-out participant (mean accuracy = .71 across all nine participant samples). The findings indicate that abstract scientific concepts acquired in an educational setting evoke activation patterns that are identifiable and common, indicating that science education builds abstract knowledge using inherent, repurposed brain systems.

  10. Approximate Representations and Approximate Homomorphisms

    Moore, Cristopher


    Approximate algebraic structures play a defining role in arithmetic combinatorics and have found remarkable applications to basic questions in number theory and pseudorandomness. Here we study approximate representations of finite groups: functions f:G -> U_d such that Pr[f(xy) = f(x) f(y)] is large, or more generally Exp_{x,y} ||f(xy) - f(x)f(y)||^2$ is small, where x and y are uniformly random elements of the group G and U_d denotes the unitary group of degree d. We bound these quantities in terms of the ratio d / d_min where d_min is the dimension of the smallest nontrivial representation of G. As an application, we bound the extent to which a function f : G -> H can be an approximate homomorphism where H is another finite group. We show that if H's representations are significantly smaller than G's, no such f can be much more homomorphic than a random function. We interpret these results as showing that if G is quasirandom, that is, if d_min is large, then G cannot be embedded in a small number of dimensi...

  11. Eisenstein series and automorphic representations

    Fleig, Philipp; Kleinschmidt, Axel; Persson, Daniel


    We provide an introduction to the theory of Eisenstein series and automorphic forms on real simple Lie groups G, emphasising the role of representation theory. It is useful to take a slightly wider view and define all objects over the (rational) adeles A, thereby also paving the way for connections to number theory, representation theory and the Langlands program. Most of the results we present are already scattered throughout the mathematics literature but our exposition collects them together and is driven by examples. Many interesting aspects of these functions are hidden in their Fourier coefficients with respect to unipotent subgroups and a large part of our focus is to explain and derive general theorems on these Fourier expansions. Specifically, we give complete proofs of Langlands' constant term formula for Eisenstein series on adelic groups G(A) as well as the Casselman--Shalika formula for the p-adic spherical Whittaker vector associated to unramified automorphic representations of G(Q_p). Somewhat ...

  12. A vibrational circular dichroism approach to the determination of the absolute configurations of flavorous 5-substituted-2(5H)-furanones.

    Nakahashi, Atsufumi; Yaguchi, Yoshihiro; Miura, Nobuaki; Emura, Makoto; Monde, Kenji


    Sotolon (1) and maple furanone (2) are naturally occurring chiral furanones. These 5-substituted-2(5H)-furanones are industrially significant aroma compounds due to their characteristic organoleptic properties and extraordinarily low odor thresholds. Each enantiomer of 1 and 2 was successfully obtained by preparative enantioselective supercritical fluid chromatography. The absolute configuration of 1 was confirmed as (R)-(-)-1 and (S)-(+)-1 by adopting the vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) approach. The absolute configuration of 2, which has remained ambiguous since its discovery in 1957, was determined as (R)-(+)-2 and (S)-(-)-2 for the first time by the VCD technique. Surprisingly, the signs of the optical rotation of 2 are opposite of those of 1 regardless of their identical absolute configurations. This observation emphasizes the risk in absolute configurational assignments based on comparison of optical rotation signs of similar structures. Odor evaluation of the enantiomers of 2 revealed different odor intensities.

  13. Breast Cancer Risk Assessment SAS Macro (Gail Model)

    A SAS macro (commonly referred to as the Gail Model) that projects absolute risk of invasive breast cancer according to NCI’s Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (BCRAT) algorithm for specified race/ethnic groups and age intervals.

  14. Coxian Representations of Generalized Erlang Distributions

    Qi-ming He; Han-qin Zhang


    This paper studies Coxian representations of generalized Erlang distributions. A nonlinear program is derived for computing the parameters of minimal Coxian representations of generalized Erlang distributions.The nonlinear program is also used to characterize the triangular order and the admissible region of generalized Erlang distributions. It is shown that the admissible region associated with a triangular order may not be convex. For generalized Erlang distributions of ME-order 3, a minimal Coxian representation is found explicitly.In addition, an algorithm is developed for computing a special type of ordered Coxian representations - the bivariate Coxian representation - for generalized Erlang distributions.

  15. On the infinite fern of Galois representations of unitary type

    Chenevier, Gaetan


    Let E be a CM number field, F its maximal totally real subfield, c the generator of Gal(E/F), p an odd prime totally split in E, and S a finite set of places of E containing the places above p. Let r : G_{E,S} --> GL_3(F_p^bar) be a modular, absolutely irreducible, Galois representation of type U(3), i.e. such that r^* = r^c, and let X(r) be the rigid analytic generic fiber of its universal G_{E,S}-deformation of type U(3). We show that each irreducible component of the Zariski-closure of the modular points in X(r) has dimension at least 6[F:Q]. We study an analogue of the infinite fern of Gouvea-Mazur in this context and deal with the Hilbert modular case as well. As important steps, we prove that any first order deformation of a generic enough crystalline representation of Gal(Q_p^bar/Q_p) (of any dimension) is a linear combination of trianguline deformations, and that unitary eigenvarieties (of any rank) are etale over the weight space at the non-critical classical points. As another application, we obtain...

  16. Geometrical Description in Binary Composites and Spectral Density Representation

    Enis Tuncer


    Full Text Available In this review, the dielectric permittivity of dielectric mixtures is discussed in view of the spectral density representation method. A distinct representation is derived for predicting the dielectric properties, permittivities ε, of mixtures. The presentation of the dielectric properties is based on a scaled permittivity approach, ξ = (εe − εm(εi − εm−1, where the subscripts e, m and i denote the dielectric permittivities of the effective, matrix and inclusion media, respectively [Tuncer, E. J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 2005, 17, L125]. This novel representation transforms the spectral density formalism to a form similar to the distribution of relaxation times method of dielectric relaxation. Consequently, I propose that any dielectric relaxation formula, i.e., the Havriliak-Negami empirical dielectric relaxation expression, can be adopted as a scaled permittivity. The presented scaled permittivity representation has potential to be improved and implemented into the existing data analyzing routines for dielectric relaxation; however, the information to extract would be the topological/morphological description in mixtures. To arrive at the description, one needs to know the dielectric properties of the constituents and the composite prior to the spectral analysis. To illustrate the strength of the representation and confirm the proposed hypothesis, the Landau-Lifshitz/Looyenga (LLL [Looyenga, H. Physica 1965, 31, 401] expression is selected. The structural information of a mixture obeying LLL is extracted for different volume fractions of phases. Both an in-house computational tool based on the Monte Carlo method to solve inverse integral transforms and the proposed empirical scaled permittivity expression are employed to estimate the spectral density function of the LLL expression. The estimated spectral functions for mixtures with different inclusion concentration compositions show similarities; they are composed of a couple of bell

  17. Octree Representation and Its Applications in CAD



    In this paper,a survey of octree representation and its applications in CAD is presented.The octree representation may be categorized as pure octree representation and polytree(or extended octree),and the latter is actually a boundary representation decomposed by octree.Linear octree which is a variant of regular octree representation has the advantage of saving memory space.The mapping between Cartesian coordinates and node addresses in linear octree is discussed.Then,algorithms for converting a boundary representation of 3D object into an octree are investiged and major approaches for transforming an octree encoded object are presented.After that,some of the applications of octree representation in CAD are listed,in particular,the applications in solid modeling,in accelerating ray tracing and in generating meshes for FEM.

  18. On the absolute calibration of SO2 cameras

    J. Zielcke


    Full Text Available Sulphur dioxide emission flux measurements are an important tool for volcanic monitoring and eruption risk assessment. The SO2 camera technique remotely measures volcanic emissions by analysing the ultraviolet absorption of SO2 in a narrow spectral window between 305 nm and 320 nm using solar radiation scattered in the atmosphere. The SO2 absorption is selectively detected by mounting band-pass interference filters in front of a two-dimensional, UV-sensitive CCD detector. While this approach is simple and delivers valuable insights into the two-dimensional SO2 distribution, absolute calibration has proven to be difficult. An accurate calibration of the SO2 camera (i.e., conversion from optical density to SO2 column density, CD is crucial to obtain correct SO2 CDs and flux measurements that are comparable to other measurement techniques and can be used for volcanological applications. The most common approach for calibrating SO2 camera measurements is based on inserting quartz cells (cuvettes containing known amounts of SO2 into the light path. It has been found, however, that reflections from the windows of the calibration cell can considerably affect the signal measured by the camera. Another possibility for calibration relies on performing simultaneous measurements in a small area of the camera's field-of-view (FOV by a narrow-field-of-view Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (NFOV-DOAS system. This procedure combines the very good spatial and temporal resolution of the SO2 camera technique with the more accurate column densities obtainable from DOAS measurements. This work investigates the uncertainty of results gained through the two commonly used, but quite different calibration methods (DOAS and calibration cells. Measurements with three different instruments, an SO2 camera, a NFOV-DOAS system and an Imaging DOAS (IDOAS, are presented. We compare the calibration-cell approach with the calibration from the NFOV-DOAS system. The

  19. Correction due to finite speed of light in absolute gravimeters

    Nagornyi, V D; Zanimonskiy, Y Y


    Correction due to finite speed of light is among the most inconsistent ones in absolute gravimetry. Formulas reported by different authors yield corrections scattered up to 8 $\\mu$Gal with no obvious reasons. The problem, though noted before, has never been studied, and nowadays the correction is rather postulated than rigorously proven. In this paper we investigate the problem from several prospectives, find the corrections for different types of absolute gravimeters, and establish relationships between different ways of implement them. The obtained results enabled us to analyze and understand the discrepancies in the results of other authors. We found that the correction derived from the Doppler effect is accountable only for $\\tfrac{2}{3}$ of the total correction due to finite speed of light, if no signal delays are considered. Another major source of inconsistency was found in the tacit use of simplified trajectory models.

  20. Combinatorial Selection and Least Absolute Shrinkage via the CLASH Algorithm

    Kyrillidis, Anastasios


    The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) for linear regression exploits the geometric interplay of the $\\ell_2$-data error objective and the $\\ell_1$-norm constraint to arbitrarily select sparse models. Guiding this uninformed selection process with sparsity models has been precisely the center of attention over the last decade in order to improve learning performance. To this end, we alter the selection process of LASSO to explicitly leverage combinatorial sparsity models (CSMs) via the combinatorial selection and least absolute shrinkage (CLASH) operator. We provide concrete guidelines how to leverage combinatorial constraints within CLASH, and characterize CLASH's guarantees as a function of the set restricted isometry constants of the sensing matrix. Finally, our experimental results show that CLASH can outperform both LASSO and model-based compressive sensing in sparse estimation.

  1. Determination of absolute internal conversion coefficients using the SAGE spectrometer

    Sorri, J.; Greenlees, P. T.; Papadakis, P.; Konki, J.; Cox, D. M.; Auranen, K.; Partanen, J.; Sandzelius, M.; Pakarinen, J.; Rahkila, P.; Uusitalo, J.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Smallcombe, J.; Davies, P. J.; Barton, C. J.; Jenkins, D. G.


    A non-reference based method to determine internal conversion coefficients using the SAGE spectrometer is carried out for transitions in the nuclei of 154Sm, 152Sm and 166Yb. The Normalised-Peak-to-Gamma method is in general an efficient tool to extract internal conversion coefficients. However, in many cases the required well-known reference transitions are not available. The data analysis steps required to determine absolute internal conversion coefficients with the SAGE spectrometer are presented. In addition, several background suppression methods are introduced and an example of how ancillary detectors can be used to select specific reaction products is given. The results obtained for ground-state band E2 transitions show that the absolute internal conversion coefficients can be extracted using the methods described with a reasonable accuracy. In some cases of less intense transitions only an upper limit for the internal conversion coefficient could be given.

  2. Automated absolute phase retrieval in across-track interferometry

    Madsen, Soren N.; Zebker, Howard A.


    Discussed is a key element in the processing of topographic radar maps acquired by the NASA/JPL airborne synthetic aperture radar configured as an across-track interferometer (TOPSAR). TOPSAR utilizes a single transmit and two receive antennas; the three-dimensional target location is determined by triangulation based on a known baseline and two measured slant ranges. The slant range difference is determined very accurately from the phase difference between the signals received by the two antennas. This phase is measured modulo 2pi, whereas it is the absolute phase which relates directly to the difference in slant range. It is shown that splitting the range bandwidth into two subbands in the processor and processing each individually allows for the absolute phase. The underlying principles and system errors which must be considered are discussed, together with the implementation and results from processing data acquired during the summer of 1991.

  3. Absolute configuration of labdane diterpenoids from Physalis nicandroides.

    Maldonado, Emma; Pérez-Castorena, Ana L; Romero, Yunuen; Martínez, Mahinda


    A mixture of the new epimeric labdenetriols 1 and 2 was isolated from the aerial parts of Physalis nicandroides. The structures of 1 and 2, including their absolute configurations, were established by analyses of their spectroscopic data, together with the X-ray diffraction analysis of acetonide 3 and chemical correlation with (-)-(13E)-labd-13-ene-8α,15-diol (6), whose absolute configuration was also confirmed by X-ray analysis of its dibromo derivative 7. The epimeric labdenediols 8 and 9, the known labdanes 6 and 11, and the acylsucroses 12 and 13 were also isolated. Labdanes 6 and 11 showed moderate anti-inflammatory activities in the induced ear edema model.

  4. Determination of absolute internal conversion coefficients using the SAGE spectrometer

    Sorri, J., E-mail: [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); Greenlees, P.T.; Papadakis, P.; Konki, J. [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); Cox, D.M. [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Auranen, K.; Partanen, J.; Sandzelius, M.; Pakarinen, J.; Rahkila, P.; Uusitalo, J. [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); Herzberg, R.-D. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Smallcombe, J.; Davies, P.J.; Barton, C.J.; Jenkins, D.G. [Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)


    A non-reference based method to determine internal conversion coefficients using the SAGE spectrometer is carried out for transitions in the nuclei of {sup 154}Sm, {sup 152}Sm and {sup 166}Yb. The Normalised-Peak-to-Gamma method is in general an efficient tool to extract internal conversion coefficients. However, in many cases the required well-known reference transitions are not available. The data analysis steps required to determine absolute internal conversion coefficients with the SAGE spectrometer are presented. In addition, several background suppression methods are introduced and an example of how ancillary detectors can be used to select specific reaction products is given. The results obtained for ground-state band E2 transitions show that the absolute internal conversion coefficients can be extracted using the methods described with a reasonable accuracy. In some cases of less intense transitions only an upper limit for the internal conversion coefficient could be given.

  5. Remote ultrasound palpation for robotic interventions using absolute elastography.

    Schneider, Caitlin; Baghani, Ali; Rohling, Robert; Salcudean, Septimiu


    Although robotic surgery has addressed many of the challenges presented by minimally invasive surgery, haptic feedback and the lack of knowledge of tissue stiffness is an unsolved problem. This paper presents a system for finding the absolute elastic properties of tissue using a freehand ultrasound scanning technique, which utilizes the da Vinci Surgical robot and a custom 2D ultrasound transducer for intraoperative use. An external exciter creates shear waves in the tissue, and a local frequency estimation method computes the shear modulus. Results are reported for both phantom and in vivo models. This system can be extended to any 6 degree-of-freedom tracking method and any 2D transducer to provide real-time absolute elastic properties of tissue.

  6. Demonstrating an absolute quantum advantage in direct absorption measurement

    Moreau, Paul-Antoine; Whittaker, Rebecca; Joshi, Siddarth K; Birchall, Patrick; McMillan, Alex; Rarity, John G; Matthews, Jonathan C F


    Engineering apparatus that harness quantum theory offers practical advantages over current technology. A fundamentally more powerful prospect is the long-standing prediction that such quantum technologies could out-perform any future iteration of their classical counterparts, no matter how well the attributes of those classical strategies can be improved. Here, we experimentally demonstrate such an instance of \\textit{absolute} advantage per photon probe in the precision of optical direct absorption measurement. We use correlated intensity measurements of spontaneous parametric downconversion using a commercially available air-cooled CCD, a new estimator for data analysis and a high heralding efficiency photon-pair source. We show this enables improvement in the precision of measurement, per photon probe, beyond what is achievable with an ideal coherent state (a perfect laser) detected with $100\\%$ efficient and noiseless detection. We see this absolute improvement for up to $50\\%$ absorption, with a maximum ...

  7. Absolute limit on rotation of gravitationally bound stars

    Glendenning, N. K.


    The authors seek an absolute limit on the rotational period for a neutron star as a function of its mass, based on the minimal constraints imposed by Einstein's theory of relativity, Le Chatelier's principle, causality, and a low-density equation of state, uncertainties which can be evaluated as to their effect on the result. This establishes a limiting curve in the mass-period plane below which no pulsar that is a neutron star can lie. For example, the minimum possible Kepler period, which is an absolute limit on rotation below which mass-shedding would occur, is 0.33 ms for a M = 1.442 solar mass neutron star (the mass of PSR1913+16). If the limit were found to be broken by any pulsar, it would signal that the confined hadronic phase of ordinary nucleons and nuclei is only metastable.

  8. Simultaneously improving the sensitivity and absolute accuracy of CPT magnetometer.

    Liang, Shang-Qing; Yang, Guo-Qing; Xu, Yun-Fei; Lin, Qiang; Liu, Zhi-Heng; Chen, Zheng-Xiang


    A new method to improve the sensitivity and absolute accuracy simultaneously for coherent population trapping (CPT) magnetometer based on the differential detection method is presented. Two modulated optical beams with orthogonal circular polarizations are applied, in one of which two magnetic resonances are excited simultaneously by modulating a 3.4GHz microwave with Larmor frequency. When a microwave frequency shift is introduced, the difference in the power transmitted through the cell in each beam shows a low noise resonance. The sensitivity of 2pT/Hz @ 10Hz is achieved. Meanwhile, the absolute accuracy of ± 0.5nT within the magnetic field ranging from 20000nT to 100000nT is realized.

  9. Absolute Stability for Lurie Control System with Unbound Time Delays

    王天成; 王耀才; 洪留荣


    Time delay existes widely in various real engineering systems and can result in unsatisfactory performance or even an instability of control systems. Therefore, to investigate the stability for time delay systems is of vitul importance in control theory and its applications. Many researchers have studied the stability criteria of systems with constant delay or bound varying time delay, but few of them studied large time delay or unbound time delay. Large time delay existes commonly in various engineering applications. In this paper, the absolute stability of Lurie type direct control systems and indirect control systems with several time delays are discussed. Based on Lyapunov theory, the new delay dependent absolute stability criteria are derived. In our theorem, time delays can be unbound functions, which shows that the results are less conservative than that of existed criteria.

  10. Determination of the Absolute Luminosity at the LHC

    White, Simon Mathieu; Puzo, P


    For particle colliders, the most important performance parameters are the beam energy and the luminosity. High energies allow the particle physics experiments to study and observe new effects. The luminosity describes the ability of the collider to produce the required number of useful interactions or events. It is defined as the proportionality factor between the event rate, measured by the experiments, and the cross section of the observed event which describes its probability to occur. The absolute knowledge of the luminosity therefore allows for the experiments to measure the absolute cross sections. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) was designed to produce proton proton collisions at a center of mass energy of 14 TeV. This energy would be the highest ever reached in a particle accelerator. The knowledge and understanding of particle physics at such high energy is based on simulations and theoretical predictions. As opposed to e+ e- colliders, for which the Bhabba scattering cross section can be accurately ...

  11. Enantiomers of a nonylphenol isomer: absolute configurations and estrogenic potencies.

    Zhang, Haifeng; Oppel, Iris M; Spiteller, Michael; Guenther, Klaus; Boehmler, Gabriele; Zuehlke, Sebastian


    Enantiomers of 4-(1,1,2-trimethylhexyl)phenol, a chiral isomer of the endocrine disrupting chemical nonylphenol, have been resolved and isolated by preparative chiral HPLC. The absolute configurations of the enantiomers were then determined by an X-ray crystallographic study of the (-)-camphanoyl derivative of the first eluted enantiomer NP(35)E1. The first enantiomer (NP(35)E1) and the second enantiomer (NP(35)E2) eluted were found to have the S and R absolute configurations, respectively. The estrogenic potencies of the S and R enantiomers were tested by the E-screen assay. A slight difference was observed in the relative proliferative effect between the S enantiomer and R enantiomer in the E-screen assay.

  12. Rational functions with maximal radius of absolute monotonicity

    Loczi, Lajos


    We study the radius of absolute monotonicity R of rational functions with numerator and denominator of degree s that approximate the exponential function to order p. Such functions arise in the application of implicit s-stage, order p Runge-Kutta methods for initial value problems and the radius of absolute monotonicity governs the numerical preservation of properties like positivity and maximum-norm contractivity. We construct a function with p=2 and R>2s, disproving a conjecture of van de Griend and Kraaijevanger. We determine the maximum attainable radius for functions in several one-parameter families of rational functions. Moreover, we prove earlier conjectured optimal radii in some families with 2 or 3 parameters via uniqueness arguments for systems of polynomial inequalities. Our results also prove the optimality of some strong stability preserving implicit and singly diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta methods. Whereas previous results in this area were primarily numerical, we give all constants as exact algebraic numbers.

  13. Unitary Representations of Gauge Groups

    Huerfano, Ruth Stella

    I generalize to the case of gauge groups over non-trivial principal bundles representations that I. M. Gelfand, M. I. Graev and A. M. Versik constructed for current groups. The gauge group of the principal G-bundle P over M, (G a Lie group with an euclidean structure, M a compact, connected and oriented manifold), as the smooth sections of the associated group bundle is presented and studied in chapter I. Chapter II describes the symmetric algebra associated to a Hilbert space, its Hilbert structure, a convenient exponential and a total set that later play a key role in the construction of the representation. Chapter III is concerned with the calculus needed to make the space of Lie algebra valued 1-forms a Gaussian L^2-space. This is accomplished by studying general projective systems of finitely measurable spaces and the corresponding systems of sigma -additive measures, all of these leading to the description of a promeasure, a concept modeled after Bourbaki and classical measure theory. In the case of a locally convex vector space E, the corresponding Fourier transform, family of characters and the existence of a promeasure for every quadratic form on E^' are established, so the Gaussian L^2-space associated to a real Hilbert space is constructed. Chapter III finishes by exhibiting the explicit Hilbert space isomorphism between the Gaussian L ^2-space associated to a real Hilbert space and the complexification of its symmetric algebra. In chapter IV taking as a Hilbert space H the L^2-space of the Lie algebra valued 1-forms on P, the gauge group acts on the motion group of H defining in an straight forward fashion the representation desired.

  14. The Development of Caregiving Representations among women with Severe Mental Illness

    Røhder, Katrine; Harder, Susanne

    . It is argued that as overactivation of emotional arousel normally is associated with mothers less able to regulate self and child , the PCEQ and CEQ could be useful and interesting measures that would allow for easy assessment and maybe screenng of vulnerable mothers and child-at-risk. More research...... on the associations between maternal behavior and caregiving regulation representations are needed, as well as research that explore the signifance of maternal characteristics, such as psyhopathology, for the development of caregiving representations....

  15. Electroweak Absolute, Meta-, and Thermal Stability in Neutrino Mass Models

    Lindner, Manfred; Radovčić, Branimir


    We analyze the stability of the electroweak vacuum in neutrino mass models containing right handed neutrinos or fermionic isotriplets. In addition to considering absolute stability, we place limits on the Yukawa couplings of new fermions based on metastability and thermal stability in the early Universe. Our results reveal that the upper limits on the neutrino Yukawa couplings can change significantly when the top quark mass is allowed to vary within the experimental range of uncertainty in its determination.

  16. Relative or Absolute Poverty Lines - A New Approach

    Madden, David


    When measuring poverty over time analysts must choose the value of the income elasticity of the poverty line, which essentially determines whether an absolute or relative poverty line is being used. The choice of this parameter is ultimately a value judgement but this paper suggests an approach which has some empirical basis. Borrowing from the life-style and deprivation approach to poverty various dimensions of poverty and deprivation are identified and the income elasticity of these items i...

  17. Crystal structure of meteoritic schreibersites: determination of absolute structure

    Skála, Roman; Císařová, Ivana

    Minerals of the schreibersite nickelphosphide series (Fe,Ni)3P crystallize in the non-centrosymmetric space group Ibar 4. As a consequence, they can possess two different spatial arrangements of the constituting atoms within the unit cell, related by the inversion symmetry operation. Here, we present the crystal structure refinements from single crystal X-ray diffraction data for schreibersite grains from iron meteorites Acuña, Carlton, Hex River Mts. (three different crystals), Odessa (two different crystals), Sikhote Alin, and Toluca aiming for the determination of the absolute structure of the examined crystals. The crystals studied cover the composition range from 58 mol% to 80 mol% Fe3P end-member. Unit-cell parameter a and volume of the unit cell V, as well as certain topological structural parameters tightly correlate with Fe3P content. Unit-cell parameter c, on the other hand, does not show such strong correlation. Eight of the nine crystal structure refinements allowed unambiguous absolute structure assignment. The single crystal extracted from Toluca is, however, of poor quality and consequently the structure refinement did not provide as good results as the rest of the materials. Also, this crystal has only weak inversion distinguishing power to provide unequivocal absolute structure determination. Six of the eight unambiguous absolute structure determinations indicated inverted atomic arrangement compared to that reported in earlier structure refinements (here called standard). Only two grains, one taken from Odessa iron and the other from the Hex River Mts. meteorite, reveal the dominance of standard crystal structure setting.


    WuCongxin; LiuTiefu


    As well known that in 1938,I. M. Gelfand firstly introduced abstract functions of bounded variation from [a,b] to a Banach space. After Gelfand's work,many mathematicians investigated various properties and of this kind of abstract functions, and also paid attention to the abstract functions of absolute continuity In this paper, we summarize to explain our work [1-17] about this topic.

  19. Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm with absolute monocytosis at presentation

    Jaworski JM


    Full Text Available Joseph M Jaworski,1,2 Vanlila K Swami,1 Rebecca C Heintzelman,1 Carrie A Cusack,3 Christina L Chung,3 Jeremy Peck,3 Matthew Fanelli,3 Micheal Styler,4 Sanaa Rizk,4 J Steve Hou1 1Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Hahnemann University Hospital/Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Department of Pathology, Mercy Fitzgerald Hospital, Darby, PA, USA; 3Department of Dermatology, Hahnemann University Hospital/Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 4Department of Hematology/Oncology, Hahnemann University Hospital/Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm is an uncommon malignancy derived from precursors of plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Nearly all patients present initially with cutaneous manifestations, with many having extracutaneous disease additionally. While response to chemotherapy initially is effective, relapse occurs in most, with a leukemic phase ultimately developing. The prognosis is dismal. While most of the clinical and pathologic features are well described, the association and possible prognostic significance between peripheral blood absolute monocytosis (>1.0 K/µL and blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm have not been reported. We report a case of a 68-year-old man who presented with a rash for 4–5 months. On physical examination, there were multiple, dull-pink, indurated plaques on the trunk and extremities. Complete blood count revealed thrombocytopenia, absolute monocytosis of 1.7 K/µL, and a negative flow cytometry study. Biopsy of an abdominal lesion revealed typical features of blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm. Patients having both hematologic and nonhematologic malignancies have an increased incidence of absolute monocytosis. Recent studies examining Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients have suggested that this is a negative prognostic factor. The association between

  20. Measurement of the absolute branching fraction of the Ds+- meson

    Abe, K; Dragic, J; Fujii, H; Gershon, T; Haba, J; Hazumi, M; Higuchi, T; Igarashi, Y; Itoh, R; Iwasaki, Y; Katayama, N; Kichimi, H; Krokovnyi, P P; Limosani, A; Nakamura, I; Nakao, M; Nakazawa, H; Nishida, S; Nozaki, T; Ozaki, H; Ronga, F J; Saitoh, S; Sakai, Y; Stamen, R; Sumisawa, K; Suzuki, S Y; Tajima, O; Takasaki, F; Tamai, K; Tanaka, M; Trabelsi, K; Tsuboyama, T; Tsukamoto, T; Uehara, S; Unno, Y; Uno, S; Ushiroda, Y; Yamauchi, M; Zhang, J; Hoshi, Y; Neichi, K; Aihara, H; Hastings, N C; Ishikawa, A; Itoh, K; Iwasaki, M; Kakuno, H; Kusaka, A; Nakahama, Y; Tanabe, K; Anipko, D; Arinstein, K; Aulchenko, V; Bedny, I; Bondar, A; Eidelman, S; Epifanov, D A; Gabyshev, N; Kuzmin, A; Poluektov, A; Root, N; Shwartz, B; Sidorov, V; Usov, Yu; Zhilich, V; Aoki, K; Enari, Y; Hara, K; Hayasaka, K; Hokuue, T; Iijima, T; Ikado, K; Inami, K; Kishimoto, N; Kozakai, Y; Kubota, T; Miyazaki, Y; Ohshima, T; Okabe, T; Sato, N; Senyo, K; Yoshino, S; Arakawa, T; Kawasaki, T; Miyata, H; Tamura, N; Watanabe, M; Asano, Y; Aso, T; Aushev, T; Bay, A; Hinz, L; Jacoby, C; Schietinger, T; Schneider, O; Villa, S; Wicht, J; Zürcher, D; Aziz, T; Banerjee, S; Gokhroo, G; Majumder, G; Bahinipati, S; Drutskoy, A; Goldenzweig, P; Kinoshita, K; Kulasiri, R; Sayeed, K; Schwartz, A J; Somov, A; Bakich, A M; Cole, S; McOnie, S; Parslow, N; Peak, L S; Stöck, H; Varvell, K E; Yabsley, B D; Balagura, V; Chistov, R; Danilov, M; Liventsev, D; Medvedeva, T; Mizuk, R; Pakhlov, P; Pakhlova, G; Tikhomirov, I; Uglov, T; Tian, Y BanX C; Barberio, E; Dalseno, J; Dowd, R; Moloney, G R; Sevior, M E; Taylor, G N; Tse, Y F; Urquijo, P; Barbero, M; Browder, T E; Guler, H; Jones, M; Li, J; Nishimura, K; Olsen, S L; Peters, M; Rorie, J; Sahoo, H; Uchida, K; Varner, G; Belous, K S; Shapkin, M; Sokolov, A; Bitenc, U; Bizjak, I; Fratina, S; Gorisek, A; Pestotnik, R; Staric, M; Zupanc, A; Blyth, S; Chen, A; Chen, W T; Go, A; Hou, S; Kuo, C C; Bozek, A; Kapusta, P; Lesiak, T; Matyja, A; Natkaniec, Z; Ostrowicz, W; Palka, H; Rózanska, M; Wiechczynski, J; Bracko, M; Korpar S; Brodzicka, J; Chang, M C; Kikuchi, N; Mikami, Y; Nagamine, T; Schonmeier, P; Yamaguchi, A; Yamamoto, H; Chang, P; Chao, Y; Chen, K F; Hou, W S; Hsiung, Y B; Lee, Y J; Lin, C Y; Lin, S W; Shen, Y T; Tsai, Y T; Ueno, K; Wang, C C; Wang, M Z; Wu, C H; Cheon, B G; Choi, J H; Ha, H; Kang, J S; Won, E; Choi, S K; Choi, Y; Choi, Y K; Kim, H O; Kim, J H; Park, C W; Park, K S; Chuvikov, A; Garmash, A; Marlow, D; Ziegler, T; Dash, M; Mohapatra, D; Piilonen, L E; Yusa, Y; Fujikawa, M; Hayashii, H; Imoto, A; Kataoka, S U; Miyabayashi, K; Noguchi, S; Krizan, P; Golob, B; Seidl, R; Grosse-Perdekamp, M; Hara, T; Heffernan, D; Miyake, H; Hasegawa, Y; Satoyama, N; Takada, N; Nitoh, O; Hoshina, K; Ishino, H; Khan, H R; Kibayashi, A; Mori, T; Ono, S; Watanabe, Y; Iwabuchi, M; Kim, Y J; Liu, Y; Sarangi, T R; Uchida, Y; Kang, J H; Kim, T H; Kwon, Y J; Kurihara, E; Kawai, H; Park, H; Kim, H J; Kim, S K; Lee, J; Lee, S E; Yang He Young; Kumar, R; Singh, J B; Soni, N; Lange, J S; Leder, G; MacNaughton, J; Mandl, F; Mitaroff, W A; Pernicka, M; Schwanda, C; Widhalm, L; Matsumoto, T; Nakagawa, T; Seki, T; Sumiyoshi, T; Yamamoto, S; Müller, J; Murakami, A; Sugiyama, A; Suzuki, S; Nagasaka, Y; Nakano, E; Sakaue, H; Teramoto, Y; Ogawa, A; Shibuya, H; Ogawa, S; Okuno, S; Sakamoto, H; Wang, C H; Schümann, J; Stanic, S; Xie, Q L; Yuan, Y; Zang, S L; Zhang, C C; Yamashita, Y; Zhang, L M; Zhang, Z P


    The Ds+- -> K+-K-+pi+- absolute branching fraction is measured using e+e- -> Ds*+- Ds1-+(2536) events collected by the Belle detector at the KEKB e+e- asymmetric energy collider. Using the ratio of yields when either the Ds1 or Ds* is fully reconstructed, we find Br(Ds+- -> K+-K-+pi+-)= (4.0+-0.4(stat)+-0.4(sys))%.

  1. Diagnostic Application of Absolute Neutron Activation Analysis in Hematology

    Zamboni, C.B.; Oliveira, L.C.; Dalaqua, L. Jr.


    The Absolute Neutron Activation Analysis (ANAA) technique was used to determine element concentrations of Cl and Na in blood of healthy group (male and female blood donators), select from Blood Banks at Sao Paulo city, to provide information which can help in diagnosis of patients. This study permitted to perform a discussion about the advantages and limitations of using this nuclear methodology in hematological examinations.

  2. Electroweak absolute, meta-, and thermal stability in neutrino mass models

    Lindner, Manfred; Patel, Hiren H.; Radovčić, Branimir


    We analyze the stability of the electroweak vacuum in neutrino mass models containing right-handed neutrinos or fermionic isotriplets. In addition to considering absolute stability, we place limits on the Yukawa couplings of new fermions based on metastability and thermal stability in the early Universe. Our results reveal that the upper limits on the neutrino Yukawa couplings can change significantly when the top quark mass is allowed to vary within the experimental range of uncertainty in its determination.

  3. Absolute configuration of novel bioactive flavonoids from Tephrosia purpurea.

    Chang, L C; Chávez, D; Song, L L; Farnsworth, N R; Pezzuto, J M; Kinghorn, A D


    [structure: see text] Three novel flavonoids, (+)-tephrorins A (1) and B (2) and (+)-tephrosone (3), were isolated from Tephrosia purpurea. Their structures were elucidated by NMR spectral analysis, and their absolute configurations were determined by Mosher ester methodology. Compounds 1 and 2 are flavanones containing an unusual tetrahydrofuran moiety. Compounds 1-3 were evaluated for their potential cancer chemopreventive properties using a cell-based quinone reductase induction assay.

  4. Absolute Stability of Discrete-Time Systems with Delay

    Rigoberto Medina


    Full Text Available We investigate the stability of nonlinear nonautonomous discrete-time systems with delaying arguments, whose linear part has slowly varying coefficients, and the nonlinear part has linear majorants. Based on the “freezing” technique to discrete-time systems, we derive explicit conditions for the absolute stability of the zero solution of such systems.

  5. Measuring absolute spectral radiance using an Erbium Doped Fibre Amplifier

    Sanguinetti, Bruno; Monteiro, Fernando; Gisin, Nicolas; Zbinden, Hugo


    We describe a method to measure the spectral radiance of a source in an absolute way without the need of a reference. Here we give the necessary detail to allow for the device to be reproduced from standard fiber-optic components. The device is suited for fiber-optic applications at telecom wavelengths and calibration of powermeters and spectrometers at light levels from 1nW to 1uW.

  6. The United States and assassination policy : diluting the absolute


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The U.S. has reached a crossroads with its policy regarding assassination. Executive Order 12333, which explicitly and absolutely prohibits assassination, is still in effect. The ban, however, has been diluted and circumvented since its inception. Past administrations have targeted enemy leaders with "indirect" strikes such as the 1986 attacks against Libya and the 1998 missile strikes in Afghanistan and Sudan. Currently, the U.S. deli...

  7. Absolute configuration determination using enantiomeric pairs of molecularly imprinted polymers.

    Meador, Danielle S; Spivak, David A


    A new method for determination of absolute configuration (AC) is demonstrated using an enantiomeric pair of molecularly imprinted polymers, referred to as "DuoMIPs". The ratio of HPLC capacity factors (k') for the analyte on each of the DuoMIPs is defined as the γ factor and can be used to determine AC when above 1.2. A mnemonic based on the complementary binding geometry of the DuoMIPs was used to aid in understanding and prediction of AC.

  8. Predictive visual tracking based on least absolute deviation estimation

    Rongtai Cai; Yanjie Wang


    To cope with the occlusion and intersection between targets and the environment, location prediction is employed in the visual tracking system. Target trace is fitted by sliding subsection polynomials based on least absolute deviation (LAD) estimation, and the future location of target is predicted with the fitted trace. Experiment results show that the proposed location prediction algorithm based on LAD estimation has significant robustness advantages over least square (LS) estimation, and it is more effective than LS-based methods in visual tracking.

  9. Efficient Type Representation in TAL

    Chen, Juan


    Certifying compilers generate proofs for low-level code that guarantee safety properties of the code. Type information is an essential part of safety proofs. But the size of type information remains a concern for certifying compilers in practice. This paper demonstrates type representation techniques in a large-scale compiler that achieves both concise type information and efficient type checking. In our 200,000-line certifying compiler, the size of type information is about 36% of the size of pure code and data for our benchmarks, the best result to the best of our knowledge. The type checking time is about 2% of the compilation time.

  10. Superalgebraic representation of Dirac matrices

    Monakhov, V. V.


    We consider a Clifford extension of the Grassmann algebra in which operators are constructed from products of Grassmann variables and derivatives with respect to them. We show that this algebra contains a subalgebra isomorphic to a matrix algebra and that it additionally contains operators of a generalized matrix algebra that mix states with different numbers of Grassmann variables. We show that these operators are extensions of spin-tensors to the case of superspace. We construct a representation of Dirac matrices in the form of operators of a generalized matrix algebra.

  11. QED in the worldline representation

    Schubert, Christian


    Simultaneously with inventing the modern relativistic formalism of quantum electrodynamics, Feynman presented also a first-quantized representation of QED in terms of worldline path integrals. Although this alternative formulation has been studied over the years by many authors, only during the last fifteen years it has acquired some popularity as a computational tool. I will shortly review here three very different techniques which have been developed during the last few years for the evaluation of worldline path integrals, namely (i) the "string-inspired formalism", based on the use of worldline Green functions, (ii) the numerical "worldline Monte Carlo formalism", and (iii) the semiclassical "worldline instanton" approach.

  12. Multimedia ontology representation and applications

    Chaudhury, Santanu; Ghosh, Hiranmay


    The result of more than 15 years of collective research, Multimedia Ontology: Representation and Applications provides a theoretical foundation for understanding the nature of media data and the principles involved in its interpretation. The book presents a unified approach to recent advances in multimedia and explains how a multimedia ontology can fill the semantic gap between concepts and the media world. It relays real-life examples of implementations in different domains to illustrate how this gap can be filled.The book contains information that helps with building semantic, content-based

  13. Cognitive representation of negative numbers.

    Fischer, Martin H


    To understand negative numbers, must we refer to positive number representations (the phylogenetic hypothesis), or do we acquire a negative mental number line (the ontogenetic hypothesis)? In the experiment reported here, participants made lateralized button responses to indicate the larger of two digits from the range -9 to 9. Digit pairs were displayed spatially congruent or incongruent with either a phylogenetic or an ontogenetic mental number line. The pattern of decision latencies suggests that negative numbers become associated with left space, thus supporting the ontogenetic view.

  14. On the absolute value of the air-fluorescence yield

    Rosado, J; Arqueros, F


    The absolute value of the air-fluorescence yield is a key parameter for the energy reconstruction of extensive air showers registered by fluorescence telescopes. In previous publications, we reported a detailed Monte Carlo simulation of the air-fluorescence generation that allowed the theoretical evaluation of this parameter. This simulation has been upgraded in the present work. As a result, we determined an updated absolute value of the fluorescence yield of 7.9+-2.0 ph/MeV for the band at 337 nm in dry air at 800 hPa and 293 K, in agreement with experimental values. We have also performed a critical analysis of available absolute measurements of the fluorescence yield with the assistance of our simulation. Corrections have been applied to some measurements to account for a bias in the evaluation of the energy deposition. Possible effects of other experimental aspects have also been discussed. From this analysis, we determined an average fluorescence yield of 7.04+-0.24 ph/MeV at the above conditions.

  15. 灵动的性感 Absolut Volvo C30

    傅微芳; 杨洲


    <正>绝对伏特加酒(Absolut Vodka)永恒的个性化包装,对每一个人来说都不陌生。短颈圆肩的水晶瓶,独创性地将所有标注Absolut Vodka的文字信息用彩色粗体字体直接印在瓶身,透过完全透明的酒瓶,感触到纯正、净爽、自信的Absolut Vodka。同样来自瑞典经典轿车沃尔沃(Volvo)家族的C30就像斯堪的纳维亚的烈酒一样展现着恒久魅力,为人们的眼球、心境带来激情与渴望的强力冲击,Volvo C30那种灵动的性感气质让钟爱者静静地迷醉其中。

  16. Bio-Inspired Stretchable Absolute Pressure Sensor Network.

    Guo, Yue; Li, Yu-Hung; Guo, Zhiqiang; Kim, Kyunglok; Chang, Fu-Kuo; Wang, Shan X


    A bio-inspired absolute pressure sensor network has been developed. Absolute pressure sensors, distributed on multiple silicon islands, are connected as a network by stretchable polyimide wires. This sensor network, made on a 4'' wafer, has 77 nodes and can be mounted on various curved surfaces to cover an area up to 0.64 m × 0.64 m, which is 100 times larger than its original size. Due to Micro Electro-Mechanical system (MEMS) surface micromachining technology, ultrathin sensing nodes can be realized with thicknesses of less than 100 µm. Additionally, good linearity and high sensitivity (~14 mV/V/bar) have been achieved. Since the MEMS sensor process has also been well integrated with a flexible polymer substrate process, the entire sensor network can be fabricated in a time-efficient and cost-effective manner. Moreover, an accurate pressure contour can be obtained from the sensor network. Therefore, this absolute pressure sensor network holds significant promise for smart vehicle applications, especially for unmanned aerial vehicles.

  17. The Absolute Magnitudes of Type Ia Supernovae in the Ultraviolet

    Brown, Peter J; Milne, Peter; Bufano, Filomena; Ciardullo, Robin; Elias-Rosa, Nancy; Filippenko, Alexei V; Foley, Ryan J; Gehrels, Neil; Gronwall, Caryl; Hicken, Malcolm; Holland, Stephen T; Hoversten, Erik A; Immler, Stefan; Kirshner, Robert P; Li, Weidong; Mazzali, Paolo; Phillips, Mark M; Pritchard, Tyler; Still, Martin; Turatto, Massimo; Berk, Daniel Vanden


    We examine the absolute magnitudes and light-curve shapes of 14 nearby(redshift z = 0.004--0.027) Type Ia supernovae (SNe~Ia) observed in the ultraviolet (UV) with the Swift Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope. Colors and absolute magnitudes are calculated using both a standard Milky Way (MW) extinction law and one for the Large Magellanic Cloud that has been modified by circumstellar scattering. We find very different behavior in the near-UV filters (uvw1_rc covering ~2600-3300 A after removing optical light, and u ~3000--4000 A) compared to a mid-UV filter (uvm2 ~2000-2400 A). The uvw1_rc-b colors show a scatter of ~0.3 mag while uvm2-b scatters by nearly 0.9 mag. Similarly, while the scatter in colors between neighboring filters is small in the optical and somewhat larger in the near-UV, the large scatter in the uvm2-uvw1 colors implies significantly larger spectral variability below 2600 A. We find that in the near-UV the absolute magnitudes at peak brightness of normal SNe Ia in our sample are correlated with ...

  18. Son preference in Indian families: absolute versus relative wealth effects.

    Gaudin, Sylvestre


    The desire for male children is prevalent in India, where son preference has been shown to affect fertility behavior and intrahousehold allocation of resources. Economic theory predicts less gender discrimination in wealthier households, but demographers and sociologists have argued that wealth can exacerbate bias in the Indian context. I argue that these apparently conflicting theories can be reconciled and simultaneously tested if one considers that they are based on two different notions of wealth: one related to resource constraints (absolute wealth), and the other to notions of local status (relative wealth). Using cross-sectional data from the 1998-1999 and 2005-2006 National Family and Health Surveys, I construct measures of absolute and relative wealth by using principal components analysis. A series of statistical models of son preference is estimated by using multilevel methods. Results consistently show that higher absolute wealth is strongly associated with lower son preference, and the effect is 20%-40% stronger when the household's community-specific wealth score is included in the regression. Coefficients on relative wealth are positive and significant although lower in magnitude. Results are robust to using different samples, alternative groupings of households in local areas, different estimation methods, and alternative dependent variables.

  19. The absolute infrared magnitudes of type Ia supernovae

    Meikle, W P S


    The absolute luminosities and homogeneity of early-time infrared (IR) light curves of type Ia supernovae are examined. Eight supernovae are considered. These are selected to have accurately known epochs of maximum blue light as well as having reliable distance estimates and/or good light curve coverage. Two approaches to extinction correction are considered. Owing to the low extinction in the IR, the differences in the corrections via the two methods are small. Absolute magnitude light curves in the J, H and K-bands are derived. Six of the events, including five established ``Branch-normal'' supernovae show similar coeval magnitudes. Two of these, SNe 1989B and 1998bu, were observed near maximum infrared light. This occurs about 5 days {\\it before} maximum blue light. Absolute peak magnitudes of about -19.0, -18.7 and -18.8 in J, H & K respectively were obtained. The two spectroscopically peculiar supernovae in the sample, SNe 1986G and 1991T, also show atypical IR behaviour. The light curves of the six s...

  20. Absolute surface reconstruction by slope metrology and photogrammetry

    Dong, Yue

    Developing the manufacture of aspheric and freeform optical elements requires an advanced metrology method which is capable of inspecting these elements with arbitrary freeform surfaces. In this dissertation, a new surface measurement scheme is investigated for such a purpose, which is to measure the absolute surface shape of an object under test through its surface slope information obtained by photogrammetric measurement. A laser beam propagating toward the object reflects on its surface while the vectors of the incident and reflected beams are evaluated from the four spots they leave on the two parallel transparent windows in front of the object. The spots' spatial coordinates are determined by photogrammetry. With the knowledge of the incident and reflected beam vectors, the local slope information of the object surface is obtained through vector calculus and finally yields the absolute object surface profile by a reconstruction algorithm. An experimental setup is designed and the proposed measuring principle is experimentally demonstrated by measuring the absolute surface shape of a spherical mirror. The measurement uncertainty is analyzed, and efforts for improvement are made accordingly. In particular, structured windows are designed and fabricated to generate uniform scattering spots left by the transmitted laser beams. Calibration of the fringe reflection instrument, another typical surface slope measurement method, is also reported in the dissertation. Finally, a method for uncertainty analysis of a photogrammetry measurement system by optical simulation is investigated.

  1. The new Absolute Quantum Gravimeter (AQG): first results and perspectives

    Bonvalot, Sylvain; Le Moigne, Nicolas; Merlet, Sebastien; Desruelle, Bruno; Lautier-Gaud, Jean; Menoret, Vincent; Vermeulen, Pierre


    Cold atom gravimetry represents one of the most innovative evolution in gravity instrumentation since the last 20 years. The concept of measuring the gravitational acceleration by dropping atoms and the development of the first instrumental devices during this last decade quickly revealed the promising perspectives of this new generation of gravity meters enabling accurate and absolute measurements of the Earth's gravity field for a wide range of applications (geophysics, geodesy, metrology, etc.). The Absolute Quantum Gravimeter (AQG) gravity meter, developed by MUQUANS (Talence, France - with the support of RESIF, the French Seismologic and Geodetic Network ( belongs to this new generation of instruments. It also represents the first commercial device based on the utilization of advanced matter-wave interferometry techniques, which allow to characterize precisely the vertical acceleration experienced by a cloud of cold atoms. Recently, the first operational unit (AQG01) has been achieved as a compact transportable gravimeter with the aim of satisfying absolute gravity measurements in laboratory conditions under the following specifications: measurements the μGal level at a few Hz cycling frequency, sensitivity of 50μGal/√Hz, immunity to ground vibrations, easy and quickness of operation, automated continuous data acquisition for several months, etc. In order to evaluate the current performances of the AQG01, several experiments are carried out in collaboration between RESIF user's teams and the MUQUANS manufacturer on different reference gravity sites and laboratories in France. These measurements performed in indoor conditions including simultaneous observations with classical reference gravity instruments (corner-cube absolute gravity meters, relative superconducting meters) as well with the Cold Atom Gravity meter (CAG) developed by LNE-SYRTE, lead to a first objective characterization of the performances of

  2. Representation theory a first course

    Fulton, William


    The primary goal of these lectures is to introduce a beginner to the finite­ dimensional representations of Lie groups and Lie algebras. Since this goal is shared by quite a few other books, we should explain in this Preface how our approach differs, although the potential reader can probably see this better by a quick browse through the book. Representation theory is simple to define: it is the study of the ways in which a given group may act on vector spaces. It is almost certainly unique, however, among such clearly delineated subjects, in the breadth of its interest to mathematicians. This is not surprising: group actions are ubiquitous in 20th century mathematics, and where the object on which a group acts is not a vector space, we have learned to replace it by one that is {e. g. , a cohomology group, tangent space, etc. }. As a consequence, many mathematicians other than specialists in the field {or even those who think they might want to be} come in contact with the subject in various ways. It is for ...

  3. Representation and Perspective in Science

    Bas C. van Fraassen


    Full Text Available The world science describes tends to have a very strange look. We can’t see atoms or force fields, nor are they imaginable within visualizable categories, so neither can we even imagine what the world must be like according to recent physical theories. That tension, between what science depicts as reality and how things appear to us, though it is more striking now, has been with us since modern science began. It can be addressed, and perhaps alleviated by inquiring into how science represents nature. In general, representation is selective, the selection is of what is relevant to the purpose at hand, and success may even require distortion. From this point of view, the constraint on science, that it must ‘save the phenomena’, takes on a new form. The question to be faced is how the perspectival character of the appearances (that is, contents of measurement outcomes can be related to the hidden structure that the sciences postulate. In the competing interpretations of quantum mechanics we can see how certain traditional ideals and constraints are left behind. Specifically, Carlo Rovelli’s Relational Quantum Mechanics offers a probative example of the freedom of scientific representation.

  4. Transforming Graph Representations for Statistical Relational Learning

    Rossi, Ryan A; Aha, David W; Neville, Jennifer


    Relational data representations have become an increasingly important topic due to the recent proliferation of network datasets (e.g., social, biological, information networks) and a corresponding increase in the application of statistical relational learning (SRL) algorithms to these domains. In this article, we examine a range of representation issues for graph-based relational data. Since the choice of relational data representation for the nodes, links, and features can dramatically affect the capabilities of SRL algorithms, we survey approaches and opportunities for relational representation transformation designed to improve the performance of these algorithms. This leads us to introduce an intuitive taxonomy for data representation transformations in relational domains that incorporates link transformation and node transformation as symmetric representation tasks. In particular, the transformation tasks for both nodes and links include (i) predicting their existence, (ii) predicting their label or type...

  5. Advanced Geometric Modeler with Hybrid Representation

    杨长贵; 陈玉健; 等


    An advanced geometric modeler GEMS4.0 has been developed,in which feature representation is used at the highest level abstraction of a product model.Boundary representation is used at the bottom level,while CSG model is adopted at the median level.A BRep data structure capable of modeling non-manifold is adopted.UNRBS representation is used for all curved surfaces,Quadric surfaces have dual representations consisting of their geometric data such as radius,center point,and center axis.Boundary representation of free form surfaces is easily built by sweeping and skinning method with NURBS geometry.Set operations on curved solids with boundary representation are performed by an evaluation process consisting of four steps.A file exchange facility is provided for the conversion between product data described by STEP and product information generated by GEMS4.0.

  6. Full quivers of representations of algebras

    Belov-Kanel, Alexei; Vishne, Uzi


    We introduce the notion of the full quiver of a representation of an algebra, which is a cover of the (classical) quiver, but which captures properties of the representation itself. Gluing of vertices and of arrows enables one to study subtle combinatorial aspects of algebras which are lost in the classical quiver. Full quivers of representations apply especially well to \\Zcd\\ algebras, which have properties very like those of finite dimensional algebras over fields. By choosing the representation appropriately, one can restrict the gluing to two main types: {\\it Frobenius} (along the diagonal) and, more generally {\\it proportional} Frobenius gluing (above the diagonal), and our main result is that any representable algebra has a faithful representation described completely by such a full quiver. Further reductions are considered, which bear on the polynomial identities.

  7. High-level Behavior Representation Languages Revisited


    2006 High-level Behavior Representation Languages Revisited Frank E. Ritter, Steven R. Haynes, and Mark Cohen (ritter, shaynes, again to consider high level behavior representation languages. Cognitive models and intelligent agents are becoming more complex and pervasive...00-2006 to 00-00-2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE High-level Behavior Representation Languages Revisited 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  8. Braid group representation on quantum computation

    Aziz, Ryan Kasyfil, E-mail: [Department of Computational Sciences, Bandung Institute of Technology (Indonesia); Muchtadi-Alamsyah, Intan, E-mail: [Algebra Research Group, Bandung Institute of Technology (Indonesia)


    There are many studies about topological representation of quantum computation recently. One of diagram representation of quantum computation is by using ZX-Calculus. In this paper we will make a diagrammatical scheme of Dense Coding. We also proved that ZX-Calculus diagram of maximally entangle state satisfies Yang-Baxter Equation and therefore, we can construct a Braid Group representation of set of maximally entangle state.

  9. Social representation of the kinesiotherapist profession

    Beatrice ABALAŞE


    The scientific approach is focused on identifying the social representation of the profession of physical therapist referring to mental images of social reality to a group consensus meeting. The goal of research identifies social representation of the profession of physical therapist, on the premise that students of the Faculty of Physical Education and Sport have made a social representation of the profession of physical therapist in accordance with the description of the occupation of CO...

  10. Ambiguous representations as fuzzy relations between sets

    Nykyforchyn, Oleh; 10.1016/j.fss.2011.02.007


    Crisp and $L$-fuzzy ambiguous representations of closed subsets of one space by closed subsets of another space are introduced. It is shown that, for each pair of compact Hausdorff spaces, the set of (crisp or $L$-fuzzy) ambiguous representations is a lattice and a compact Hausdorff Lawson upper semilattice. The categories of ambiguous and $L$-ambiguous representations are defined and investigated.

  11. Representations and inequalities for generalized hypergeometric functions

    Karp, Dmitrii


    We find an integral representation for the generalized hypergeometric function unifying known representations via generalized Stieltjes, Laplace and cosine Fourier transforms. Using positivity conditions for the weight in this representation we establish various new facts regarding generalized hypergeometric functions, including complete monotonicity, log-convexity in upper parameters, monotonicity of ratios and new proofs of Luke's bounds. Besides, we derive two-sided inequalities for the Be...



    This paper investigates the optimal dynamic investment for an investor who maximizes constant absolute risk aversion(CARA)utility in a discrete-time market with a riskfree bond and a risky stock.The risky stock is assumed to present both the dividend risk and the price risk.With our assumptions,the dividend risk is equivalent to fundamental risk,and the price risk is equivalent to the noise trading risk.The analytical expression for the optimal investment strategy is obtained by dynamic programming.The main result in this paper highlights the importance of differentiating between noise trading risk and fundamental risk for the optimal dynamic investment.

  13. On minimal integer representations of weighted games

    Freixas, Josep


    We study minimum integer representations for the weights of weighted games, which is linked with some solution concepts in game theory. Closing some gaps in the existing literature we prove that each weighted game with two types of voters admits a unique minimum integer presentation and give examples for more than two types of voters without a minimum integer representation. We characterize the possible weights in minimum integer representations and give examples for at least four types of voters without minimum integer representations preserving types.

  14. Integrality of representations of finite groups

    Hofmann, Tommy


    Since the early days of representation theory of finite groups in the 19th century, it was known that complex linear representations of finite groups live over number fields, that is, over finite extensions of the field of rational numbers. While the related question of integrality of representations was answered negatively by the work of Cliff, Ritter and Weiss as well as by Serre and Feit, it was not known how to decide integrality of a given representation. In this thesis we show tha...

  15. Minimal Model Semantics for Sorted Constraint Representation

    廖乐健; 史忠植


    Sorted constraint representation is a very useful representation in AI which combines class hierarchies and constraint networks.For such sorted constraint representation,a problem is how to generalize the idea of default inheritance to constraint network,where the attributes in a class or between different classes interact with each other via the network.To give a formal account for the defeasible reasoning in such representation,a general sorted constraint logic is proposed,and a minimal-model semantics for the logic is presented.

  16. Absolute measurement of the ${}^{1}S_{0}$ - ${}^{3}P_{0}$ clock transition in neutral ${}^{88}$Sr over the 330 km-long stabilized fibre optic link

    Morzynski, Piotr; Bartoszek-Bober, Dobroslawa; Nawrocki, Jerzy; Krehlik, Przemyslaw; Sliwczynski, Lukasz; Lipinski, Marcin; Maslowski, Piotr; Cygan, Agata; Dunst, Piotr; Garus, Michal; Lisak, Daniel; Zachorowski, Jerzy; Gawlik, Wojciech; Radzewicz, Czeslaw; Ciurylo, Roman; Zawada, Michal


    We report a stability below $7\\times 10{}^{-17}$ of two independent optical lattice clocks operating with bosonic ${}^{88}$Sr isotope. The value (429228066418008.3(1.9)${}_{syst}$(0.9)${}_{stat}$~Hz) of the absolute frequency of the ${}^{1}S_{0}$ - ${}^{3}P_{0}$ transition was measured with an optical frequency comb referenced to the local representation of the UTC by the 330 km-long stabilized fibre optical link. The result was verified by series of measurements on two independent optical lattice clocks and agrees with recommendation of Bureau International des Poids et Mesures.

  17. Film Presentation: CERN or the Factory for the Absolute by Jan Sacher (2010)

    CERN Bulletin


    This film is about the Largest Hadron Collider in the world, the LHC, which is located on the French - Swiss border. By means of the accelerator, the scientists want to simulate the situation shortly after the Big Bang. As a result, they hope to acquire basic information about the structure of mass and reveal the last secrets of the universe. This observational documentary deals with several serious questions, such as the introduction of the CERN institution, an explanation of the experiments and their expected results, as well as the technological complexity of the project. Finally, the possible risks are discussed. CERN or the Factory for the Absolute will be presented on Friday, 6 May from 13:00 to 14:05 in the Council Chamber Please note that the Czech version of this film, CERN neboli Továrna na absolutno, will be shown on Friday, 20 May in the Council Chamber.  

  18. “On the brink of the absolutely forbidden”: In Conversation with Mary Morrissy

    Loredana Salis


    Full Text Available Mary Morrissy (Dublin, 1957 belongs to the generation of womenwriters excluded from the Field Day Anthology in the 1990s, only tobe included in a dedicated volume in 2003. By then she had becomea distinguished literary voice in Ireland (having published a collectionof short stories, and two novels. After The Rising of Bella Casey (2013,Morrissy returned to the short story in the form of an adaptation ofJoyce’s “An Encounter” (2014, and a collection of short stories entitledProsperity Drive (2016. Situated where history, biography andfiction intersect, her works deal with Ireland’s recent cultural developmentsand situations of marginality risking social exclusion, genderinequality, an indelible past and the dominance of religion. Standing“on the brink of the absolutely forbidden”, her protagonists, like herwriting, yearn to break taboos and

  19. Knowledge Representation in Travelling Texts

    Mousten, Birthe; Locmele, Gunta


    Today, information travels fast. Texts travel, too. In a corporate context, the question is how to manage which knowledge elements should travel to a new language area or market and in which form? The decision to let knowledge elements travel or not travel highly depends on the limitation...... and the purpose of the text in a new context as well as on predefined parameters for text travel. For texts used in marketing and in technology, the question is whether culture-bound knowledge representation should be domesticated or kept as foreign elements, or should be mirrored or moulded—or should not travel...... at all! When should semantic and pragmatic elements in a text be replaced and by which other elements? The empirical basis of our work is marketing and technical texts in English, which travel into the Latvian and Danish markets, respectively....

  20. Minimal Surfaces for Hitchin Representations

    Li, Qiongling; Dai, Song


    Given a reductive representation $\\rho: \\pi_1(S)\\rightarrow G$, there exists a $\\rho$-equivariant harmonic map $f$ from the universal cover of a fixed Riemann surface $\\Sigma$ to the symmetric space $G/K$ associated to $G$. If the Hopf differential of $f$ vanishes, the harmonic map is then minimal...... class and has a strong rigidity property. Secondly, we show that the immersed minimal surface is never tangential to any flat inside the symmetric space. As a direct corollary, the pullback metric of the minimal surface is always strictly negatively curved. In the end, we find a fully decoupled system....... In this paper, we investigate the properties of immersed minimal surfaces inside symmetric space associated to a subloci of Hitchin component: $q_n$ and $q_{n-1}$ case. First, we show that the pullback metric of the minimal surface dominates a constant multiple of the hyperbolic metric in the same conformal...

  1. Wavelet Representation of Contour Sets

    Bertram, M; Laney, D E; Duchaineau, M A; Hansen, C D; Hamann, B; Joy, K I


    We present a new wavelet compression and multiresolution modeling approach for sets of contours (level sets). In contrast to previous wavelet schemes, our algorithm creates a parametrization of a scalar field induced by its contoum and compactly stores this parametrization rather than function values sampled on a regular grid. Our representation is based on hierarchical polygon meshes with subdivision connectivity whose vertices are transformed into wavelet coefficients. From this sparse set of coefficients, every set of contours can be efficiently reconstructed at multiple levels of resolution. When applying lossy compression, introducing high quantization errors, our method preserves contour topology, in contrast to compression methods applied to the corresponding field function. We provide numerical results for scalar fields defined on planar domains. Our approach generalizes to volumetric domains, time-varying contours, and level sets of vector fields.

  2. Sparse Representations of Hyperspectral Images

    Swanson, Robin J.


    Hyperspectral image data has long been an important tool for many areas of sci- ence. The addition of spectral data yields significant improvements in areas such as object and image classification, chemical and mineral composition detection, and astronomy. Traditional capture methods for hyperspectral data often require each wavelength to be captured individually, or by sacrificing spatial resolution. Recently there have been significant improvements in snapshot hyperspectral captures using, in particular, compressed sensing methods. As we move to a compressed sensing image formation model the need for strong image priors to shape our reconstruction, as well as sparse basis become more important. Here we compare several several methods for representing hyperspectral images including learned three dimensional dictionaries, sparse convolutional coding, and decomposable nonlocal tensor dictionaries. Addi- tionally, we further explore their parameter space to identify which parameters provide the most faithful and sparse representations.

  3. Style representation in design grammars

    Ahmad, Sumbul; Chase, Scott Curland


    The concept of style is relevant for both the analysis and synthesis of designs. New styles are often formed by the adaptation of previous ones based on changes in design criteria and context. A formal characterization of style is given by shape grammars, which describe the compositional rules...... underlying a set of designs. Stylistic change can be modelled by grammar transformations, which allow the transformation of the structure and vocabulary of a grammar that is used to describe a particular style. In order for grammars to be useful beyond a single application, they should have the capability...... to be transformed according to changing design style needs. Issues of formalizing stylistic change necessitate a lucid and formal definition of style in the design language generated by a grammar. Furthermore, a significant aspect of the definition of style is the representation of aesthetic qualities attributed...

  4. Thresholds for pulse wave velocity, urine albumin creatinine ratio and left ventricular mass index using SCORE, Framingham and ESH/ESC risk charts

    Sehestedt, Thomas; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Hansen, Tine W;


    Markers of subclinical target organ damage (TOD) increase cardiovascular (CV) risk prediction beyond traditional risk factors. We wanted to establish thresholds for three markers of TOD based on absolute CV risk in different risk chart categories....

  5. Experimental study of absolute instability over a rotating disk

    Othman Bekhit, Hesham Abdel Ghafar


    A series of experiments were performed to study the absolute instability of Type I traveling cross-flow modes in the boundary layer on a smooth disk rotating at constant speed. The basic flow agreed with analytic theory, and the growth of natural disturbances matched linear theory predictions. Controlled temporal disturbances were introduced by a short-duration air pulse from a hypodermic tube located above the disk and outside the boundary layer. The air pulse was positioned just outboard of the critical radius for Type I cross-flow modes. A hot-wire sensor primarily sensitive to the azirnuthal velocity component, was positioned at different spatial locations on the disk to document the growth of disturbances produced by the air pulses. Ensemble averages conditioned on the air pulses revealed wave packets that evolved in time and space. Two amplitudes of air pulses were used. The lower amplitude produced wave packets with linear amplitude characteristics that agreed with linear-theory wall-normal eigenfunction distributions and spatial growth rates. The higher amplitude pulse produced wave packets that had nonlinear amplitude characteristics. The space-time evolution of the leading and trailing edges of the wave packets were followed well past the critical radius for the absolute instability based on Lingwood (1995). With the linear amplitudes, the absolute instability was dominated by the convective modes, agreeing with the linear DNS simulations of Davies and Carpenter (2003). With the nonlinear amplitudes, larger temporal growth of the wave packets existed which supports the finite amplitude analysis of Pier (2003), and more closely resembles the wave packet evolution in the experimental study of Lingwood (1996). This suggests that the disturbance levels in the experiment that was intended to demonstrate the linear analysis, were likely fuite.

  6. Absolute versus relative ascertainment of pedophilia in men.

    Blanchard, Ray; Kuban, Michael E; Blak, Thomas; Cantor, James M; Klassen, Philip E; Dickey, Robert


    There are at least two different criteria for assessing pedophilia in men: absolute ascertainment (their sexual interest in children is intense) and relative ascertainment (their sexual interest in children is greater than their interest in adults). The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd edition (DSM-III) used relative ascertainment in its diagnostic criteria for pedophilia; this was abandoned and replaced by absolute ascertainment in the DSM-III-R and all subsequent editions. The present study was conducted to demonstrate the continuing need for relative ascertainment, particularly in the laboratory assessment of pedophilia. A total of 402 heterosexual men were selected from a database of patients referred to a specialty clinic. These had undergone phallometric testing, a psychophysiological procedure in which their penile blood volume was monitored while they were presented with a standardized set of laboratory stimuli depicting male and female children, pubescents, and adults.The 130 men selected for the Teleiophilic Profile group responded substantially to prepubescent girls but even more to adult women; the 272 men selected for the Pedophilic Profile group responded weakly to prepubescent girls but even less to adult women. In terms of absolute magnitude, every patient in the Pedophilic Profile group had a lesser penile response to prepubescent girls than every patient in the Teleiophilic Profile group. Nevertheless, the Pedophilic Profile group had a significantly greater number of known sexual offenses against prepubescent girls, indicating that they contained a higher proportion of true pedophiles. These results dramatically demonstrate the utility-or perhaps necessity-of relative ascertainment in the laboratory assessment of erotic age-preference.

  7. Danish GPs' perception of disease risk and benefit of prevention

    Nexøe, Jørgen; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte; Kragstrup, Jakob


    interventions against risk factors when information about the effects is presented in terms of relative risk reductions rather than absolute risk reductions. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to gain better insight into how GPs perceive risk of disease, and how this perception is influenced by the way...... through medical treatment phrased in terms of either relative risk reduction, absolute risk reduction, number needed to treat or all of the aforementioned terms of risk reduction. The GPs were asked whether they would recommend medical treatment as primary prevention, knowing the case story and expected...

  8. The Past Is Present: Representations of Parents, Friends, and Romantic Partners Predict Subsequent Romantic Representations.

    Furman, Wyndol; Collibee, Charlene


    This study examined how representations of parent-child relationships, friendships, and past romantic relationships are related to subsequent romantic representations. Two-hundred 10th graders (100 female; Mage  = 15.87 years) from diverse neighborhoods in a Western U.S. city were administered questionnaires and were interviewed to assess avoidant and anxious representations of their relationships with parents, friends, and romantic partners. Participants then completed similar questionnaires and interviews about their romantic representations six more times over the next 7.5 years. Growth curve analyses revealed that representations of relationships with parents, friends, and romantic partners each uniquely predicted subsequent romantic representations across development. Consistent with attachment and behavioral systems theory, representations of romantic relationships are revised by representations and experiences in other relationships.

  9. Predicting accurate absolute binding energies in aqueous solution

    Jensen, Jan Halborg


    Recent predictions of absolute binding free energies of host-guest complexes in aqueous solution using electronic structure theory have been encouraging for some systems, while other systems remain problematic. In this paper I summarize some of the many factors that could easily contribute 1-3 kcal......-represented by continuum models. While I focus on binding free energies in aqueous solution the approach also applies (with minor adjustments) to any free energy difference such as conformational or reaction free energy differences or activation free energies in any solvent....

  10. Absolute Measurement Fiber-optic Sensors in Large Structural Monitoring


    The security of civil engineering is an important task due to the economic, social and environmental significance. Compared with conventional sensors, the optical fiber sensors have their unique characteristics.Being durable, stable and insensitive to external perturbations,they are particular interesting for the long-term monitoring of civil structures.Focus is on absolute measurement optical fiber sensors, which are emerging from the monitoring large structural, including SOFO system, F-P optical fiber sensors, and fiber Bragg grating sensors. The principle, characteristic and application of these three kinds of optical fiber sensors are described together with their future prospects.

  11. Absolute cross-section normalization of magnetic neutron scattering data

    Xu, Guangyong; Xu, Zhijun; Tranquada, J. M.


    We discuss various methods to obtain the resolution volume for neutron scattering experiments, in order to perform absolute normalization on inelastic magnetic neutron scattering data. Examples from previous experiments are given. We also try to provide clear definitions of a number of physical quantities which are commonly used to describe neutron magnetic scattering results, including the dynamic spin correlation function and the imaginary part of the dynamic susceptibility. Formulas that can be used for general purposes are provided and the advantages of the different normalization processes are discussed.

  12. Dichotomy and perceptual distortions in absolute pitch ability

    Athos, E. Alexandra; Levinson, Barbara; Kistler, Amy; Zemansky, Jason; Bostrom, Alan; Freimer, Nelson; Gitschier, Jane


    Absolute pitch (AP) is the rare ability to identify the pitch of a tone without the aid of a reference tone. Understanding both the nature and genesis of AP can provide insights into neuroplasticity in the auditory system. We explored factors that may influence the accuracy of pitch perception in AP subjects both during the development of the trait and in later age. We used a Web-based survey and a pitch-labeling test to collect perceptual data from 2,213 individuals, 981 (44%) of whom proved...

  13. System Design of the ATLAS Absolute Luminosity Monitor

    Anghinolfi, Francis; Franz, Sebastien; Iwanski, W; Lundberg, B; PH-EP


    The ATLAS absolute luminosity monitor is composed of 8 roman pots symmetrically located in the LHC tunnel. Each pot contains 23 multi anode photomultiplier tubes, and each one of those is fitted with a front-end assembly called PMF. A PMF provides the high voltage biasing of the tube, the frontend readout chip and the readout logic in a very compact arrangement. The 25 PMFs contained in one roman pot are connected to a motherboard used as an interface to the backend electronics. The system allows to configure the front-end electronics from the ATLAS detector control system and to transmit the luminosity data over Slink.

  14. Absolute efficiency measurements with the 10B based Jalousie detector

    Modzel, G.; Henske, M.; Houben, A.; Klein, M.; Köhli, M.; Lennert, P.; Meven, M.; Schmidt, C. J.; Schmidt, U.; Schweika, W.


    The 10B based Jalousie detector is a replacement for 3He counter tubes, which are nowadays less affordable for large area detectors due to the 3He crisis. In this paper we investigate and verify the performance of the new 10B based detector concept and its adoption for the POWTEX diffractometer, which is designed for the detection of thermal neutrons with predicted detection efficiencies of 75-50% for neutron energies of 10-100 meV, respectively. The predicted detection efficiency has been verified by absolute measurements using neutrons with a wavelength of 1.17 Å (59 meV).

  15. Electromagnetic Hydrophone with Tomographic System for Absolute Velocity Field Mapping

    Grasland-Mongrain, Pol; Mari, Jean-Martial; Chapelon, Jean-Yves; Lafon, Cyril; 10.1063/1.4726178


    The velocity and pressure of an ultrasonic wave can be measured by an electromagnetic hydrophone made of a thin wire and a magnet. The ultrasonic wave vibrates the wire inside a magnetic field, inducing an electrical current. Previous articles reported poor spatial resolution of comparable hydrophones along the axis of the wire. In this study, submillimetric spatial resolution has been achieved by using a tomographic method. Moreover, a physical model is presented for obtaining absolute measurements. A pressure differential of 8% has been found between piezoelectric and electromagnetic hydrophone measurements. These characteristics show this technique as an alternative to standard hydrophones.

  16. Results from an absolute gravity survey in the United States

    Zumberge, M. A.; Faller, J. E.; Gschwind, J.


    Using the recently completed JTLA absolute gravity meter, we made a survey of twelve sites in the United States. Over a period of eight weeks, the instrument was driven a total distance of nearly 20,000 km to sites in California, New Mexico, Colorado, Wyoming, Maryland and Massachusetts. The time spent in carrying out a measurement at a single location was typically one day. We report the results of the measurements in this survey along with earlier measurements made with the instrument, discuss the measurement accuracy and compare our results with other measurements. Previously announced in STAR as N83-20480

  17. Absolute Photoionization Cross Sections of Two Cyclic Ketones: Cyclopentanone & Cyclohexanone.

    Price, Chelsea; Fathi, Yasmin; Meloni, Giovanni


    Absolute photoionization cross sections for cyclopentanone and cyclohexanone, as well as partial ionization cross sections for the dissociative ionized fragments, are presented in this investigation. Experiments are performed via a multiplexed photoionization mass spectrometer utilizing VUV synchrotron radiation supplied by the Advanced Light Source of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. These results allow the quantification of these species that is relevant to investigate the kinetics and combustion reactions of potential biofuels. The CBS-QB3 calculated values for the adiabatic ionization energies agree well with the experimental values and the identification of possible dissociative fragments is discussed for both systems.

  18. The absolute frequency of the 87Sr optical clock transition

    Campbell, Gretchen K.; Ludlow, Andrew D.; Blatt, Sebastian;


    The absolute frequency of the 1S0–3P0 clock transition of 87Sr has been measured to be 429 228 004 229 873.65 (37) Hz using lattice-confined atoms, where the fractional uncertainty of 8.6 × 10-16 represents one of the most accurate measurements of an atomic transition frequency to date. After a d...... is made possible using a femtosecond laser based optical frequency comb to phase coherently connect the optical and microwave spectral regions and by a 3.5 km fibre transfer scheme to compare the remotely located clock signals....

  19. Absolute band gaps in two-dimensional graphite photonic crystal

    Gaoxin Qiu(仇高新); Fanglei Lin(林芳蕾); Hua Wang(王华); Yongping Li(李永平)


    The off-plane propagation of electromagnetic (EM) waves in a two-dimensional (2D) graphite photoniccrystal structure was studied using transfer matrix method. Transmission spectra calculations indicatethat such a 2D structure has a common band gap from 0.202 to 0.2035 c/a for both H and E polarizationsand for all off-plane angles form 0° up to 90°. The presence of such an absolute band gap implies that 2Dgraphite photonic crystal, which is much easier and more feasible to fabricate, can exhibit some propertiesof a three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystal.

  20. Strategy for the absolute neutron emission measurement on ITER.

    Sasao, M; Bertalot, L; Ishikawa, M; Popovichev, S


    Accuracy of 10% is demanded to the absolute fusion measurement on ITER. To achieve this accuracy, a functional combination of several types of neutron measurement subsystem, cross calibration among them, and in situ calibration are needed. Neutron transport calculation shows the suitable calibration source is a DT/DD neutron generator of source strength higher than 10(10) n/s (neutron/second) for DT and 10(8) n/s for DD. It will take eight weeks at the minimum with this source to calibrate flux monitors, profile monitors, and the activation system.

  1. Quantum bath refrigeration towards absolute zero: challenging the unattainability principle.

    Kolář, M; Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, D; Alicki, R; Kurizki, G


    A minimal model of a quantum refrigerator, i.e., a periodically phase-flipped two-level system permanently coupled to a finite-capacity bath (cold bath) and an infinite heat dump (hot bath), is introduced and used to investigate the cooling of the cold bath towards absolute zero (T=0). Remarkably, the temperature scaling of the cold-bath cooling rate reveals that it does not vanish as T→0 for certain realistic quantized baths, e.g., phonons in strongly disordered media (fractons) or quantized spin waves in ferromagnets (magnons). This result challenges Nernst's third-law formulation known as the unattainability principle.

  2. Absolute distance measurement based on multiple self-mixing interferometry

    Duan, Zhiwei; Yu, Yangyang; Gao, Bingkun; Jiang, Chunlei


    To improve the precision of distance measurement using laser Self-Mixing Interferometry (SMI) and compute short distance, we propose a method of Multiple Self-Mixing Interferometry (MSMI) that is modulated with a triangular wave. The principle of this method has been described in this paper. Experiments at different distances and amplitudes of modulation current are based on the proposed method. Low-priced and easily operated experimental devices are built. Experimental results show that a resolution of 2.7 mm can be achieved for absolute distance ranging from 2.2 to 23 cm.

  3. Analysis of Absolute Stability for Time-delay Teleoperation Systems

    Qi-Wen Deng; Qing Wei; Ze-Xiang Li


    In this paper, a new bilateral control algorithm based on absolute stability theory is put forward, which aims at the time-delay teleoperation system with force feedback from the slave directly. In the new control algorithm, the delay-dependent stability,instead of delay-independent stability, is taken as the aim of control design. It improves the transparency of the system at the price of unnecessary stability. With this algorithm, the time-delay teleoperation systems have good transparency and stability. A simulation system is established to verify the effect of this algorithm.

  4. 3D measurement of absolute radiation dose in grid therapy

    Trapp, J V [Joint Department of Physics, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden Foundation Trust, Downs Road, Sutton, Surrey SM2 5PT (United Kingdom); Department of Applied Physics, RMIT University, GPO Box 2476V, Melbourne 3001 (Australia); Warrington, A P [Joint Department of Physics, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden Foundation Trust, Downs Road, Sutton, Surrey SM2 5PT (United Kingdom); Partridge, M [Joint Department of Physics, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden Foundation Trust, Downs Road, Sutton, Surrey SM2 5PT (United Kingdom); Philps, A [Joint Department of Physics, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden Foundation Trust, Downs Road, Sutton, Surrey SM2 5PT (United Kingdom); Leach, M O [Cancer Research UK Clinical MR Research Group, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden Foundation Trust, Downs Road, Sutton, Surrey SM2 5PT (United Kingdom); Webb, S [Joint Department of Physics, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden Foundation Trust, Downs Road, Sutton, Surrey SM2 5PT (United Kingdom)


    Spatially fractionated radiotherapy through a grid is a concept which has a long history and was routinely used in orthovoltage radiation therapy in the middle of last century to minimize damage to the skin and subcutaneous tissue. With the advent of megavoltage radiotherapy and its skin sparing effects the use of grids in radiotherapy declined in the 1970s. However there has recently been a revival of the technique for use in palliative treatments with a single fraction of 10 to 20 Gy. In this work the absolute 3D dose distribution in a grid irradiation is measured for photons using a combination of film and gel dosimetry.

  5. Method of differential-phase/absolute-amplitude QAM

    Dimsdle, Jeffrey William


    A method of quadrature amplitude modulation involving encoding phase differentially and amplitude absolutely, allowing for a high data rate and spectral efficiency in data transmission and other communication applications, and allowing for amplitude scaling to facilitate data recovery; amplitude scale tracking to track-out rapid and severe scale variations and facilitate successful demodulation and data retrieval; 2.sup.N power carrier recovery; incoherent demodulation where coherent carrier recovery is not possible or practical due to signal degradation; coherent demodulation; multipath equalization to equalize frequency dependent multipath; and demodulation filtering.

  6. Absolute Measurement of Quantum-Limited Interferometric Displacements

    Thiel, Valérian; Treps, Nicolas; Roslund, Jonathan


    A methodology is introduced that enables an absolute, quantum-limited measurement of sub-wavelength interferometric displacements. The technique utilizes a high-frequency optical path modulation within an interferometer operated in a homodyne configuration. All of the information necessary to fully characterize the resultant path displacement is contained within the relative strengths of the various harmonics of the phase modulation. The method, which is straightforward and readily implementable, allows a direct measurement of the theoretical Cram\\'er-Rao limit of detection without any assumptions on the nature of the light source.

  7. Symmetric Euler orientation representations for orientational averaging.

    Mayerhöfer, Thomas G


    A new kind of orientation representation called symmetric Euler orientation representation (SEOR) is presented. It is based on a combination of the conventional Euler orientation representations (Euler angles) and Hamilton's quaternions. The properties of the SEORs concerning orientational averaging are explored and compared to those of averaging schemes that are based on conventional Euler orientation representations. To that aim, the reflectance of a hypothetical polycrystalline material with orthorhombic crystal symmetry was calculated. The calculation was carried out according to the average refractive index theory (ARIT [T.G. Mayerhöfer, Appl. Spectrosc. 56 (2002) 1194]). It is shown that the use of averaging schemes based on conventional Euler orientation representations leads to a dependence of the result from the specific Euler orientation representation that was utilized and from the initial position of the crystal. The latter problem can be overcome partly by the introduction of a weighing factor, but only for two-axes-type Euler orientation representations. In case of a numerical evaluation of the average, a residual difference remains also if a two-axes type Euler orientation representation is used despite of the utilization of a weighing factor. In contrast, this problem does not occur if a symmetric Euler orientation representation is used as a matter of principle, while the result of the averaging for both types of orientation representations converges with increasing number of orientations considered in the numerical evaluation. Additionally, the use of a weighing factor and/or non-equally spaced steps in the numerical evaluation of the average is not necessary. The symmetrical Euler orientation representations are therefore ideally suited for the use in orientational averaging procedures.


    Yan Hangyu


    We first introduce the concepts of absolutely E-pure modules and Epure split modules. Then, we characterize the IF rings in terms of absolutely E-pure modules. The E-pure split modules are also characterized.

  9. Structure and Absolute Configuration of Nyasol and Hinokiresinol via Synthesis and Vibrational Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy

    Lassen, Peter Rygaard


    The absolute configuration of the norlignan (+)-nyasol was determined to be S by comparison of the experimental vibrational circular dichroism data with first-principle calculations taking into account the eight lowest energy conformations. The established absolute configuration of (+)-nyasol...

  10. College Students' Perceptions toward the Multi Modal Representations and Instruction of Representations in Learning Modern Physics

    Yesildag Hasançebi, Funda; Günel, Murat


    Problem Statement: In recent years, researchers on learning have focused on learning with multimodal representation and this research has shown that when learners can interact with an appropriate representation their performance is enhanced. If students have the opportunity to interact consciously with modal representation, learning can be…

  11. Sztuka i mistyka. Ekspresja jako artystyczne doświadczenie absolutu [Art and Mysticism.Expression as an Artistic Experience of the Absolute

    Waldemar Prusik


    Full Text Available Theory of art as so called the theory of intuition-expression extremely and clearlydemonstrates the way of a mystic experience as a experience of the Absolute. Croce’sconcept of the Absolute is a sign of being spiritual, no diverse in itself, what is morefully given in an emotional (feelingartistic expression (artwork. Imagination asan appropriate representational power expressively became, in this context, thesphere of the Absolute (indifferent intuition, totality of Being in which the Absolute realizes – through creation of art – the material world. An artist, because ofhis creative imagination, appears for Croce as a complete, perfect man and fulfillsa creative and demiurge function for the world. According to Kandinsky, inspiredby Steiner’s antroposophy, art doesn’t present concrete thingsbut using a maximumsimplistic concrete form, expresses and shows things in itself, as an ideal, spiritual,absolute but compared to the world of concretes, the mentioned thingsare internal,substantial, essential and “abstractive”. Abstraction as a “true reality” demands ofgiving up the empirical world and looking continuously at the sphere of absolute“necessity”. Art is a specific, inspired knowledge of the Absolute and an abstractartist inspired by this knowledge and expressing it in his artworks must be understoodin a way characteristic of mysticism (an inspired visionary-prophet, perfect man.In Adorno’s aesthetic theory art actualizes the nature in aspect of beauty and thisactualization consists in changing towards the lack of identity. An individual (eachone artwork is the “epiphany” of “spirit” of art, that is an aesthetically Absolute.As a result an artwork presents itself as a kind of “mystic event”, but an artist expressing the sphere of the Absolute still be an inspired visionary going beyond thenatural (empirical order.All of these theories of art are based on the old neoplato-arabian theory of

  12. Attachment Representation and Sensitivity: The Moderating Role of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in a Refugee Sample.

    van Ee, Elisa; Jongmans, Marian J; van der Aa, Niels; Kleber, Rolf J


    It has been hypothesized that adult attachment representations guide caregiving behavior and influence parental sensitivity, and thus affect the child's socio-emotional development. Several studies have shown a link between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and reduced parental sensitivity, so it is possible that PTSD moderates the relationship between insecure attachment representations and insensitivity. In this study symptoms of PTSD (Harvard Trauma Questionnaire), parental sensitivity (Emotional Availability Scales), and attachment representations (Attachment Script Assessment) were assessed in 53 parents who were asylum seekers or refugees. Results showed that when parents were less able to draw on secure attachment representations, symptoms of PTSD increased the risk of insensitive parenting. These findings suggest that parental sensitivity is affected not just by attachment representations, but by a conjunction of risk factors including symptoms of PTSD and insecure attachment representations. These parents should therefore be supported to establish or confirm secure models of attachment experiences, to facilitate their ability interact sensitively and form a secure relationship with their children.

  13. Automatic section thickness determination using an absolute gradient focus function.

    Elozory, D T; Kramer, K A; Chaudhuri, B; Bonam, O P; Goldgof, D B; Hall, L O; Mouton, P R


    Quantitative analysis of microstructures using computerized stereology systems is an essential tool in many disciplines of bioscience research. Section thickness determination in current nonautomated approaches requires manual location of upper and lower surfaces of tissue sections. In contrast to conventional autofocus functions that locate the optimally focused optical plane using the global maximum on a focus curve, this study identified by two sharp 'knees' on the focus curve as the transition from unfocused to focused optical planes. Analysis of 14 grey-scale focus functions showed, the thresholded absolute gradient function, was best for finding detectable bends that closely correspond to the bounding optical planes at the upper and lower tissue surfaces. Modifications to this function generated four novel functions that outperformed the original. The 'modified absolute gradient count' function outperformed all others with an average error of 0.56 μm on a test set of images similar to the training set; and, an average error of 0.39 μm on a test set comprised of images captured from a different case, that is, different staining methods on a different brain region from a different subject rat. We describe a novel algorithm that allows for automatic section thickness determination based on just out-of-focus planes, a prerequisite for fully automatic computerized stereology.

  14. Communication: The absolute shielding scales of oxygen and sulfur revisited

    Komorovsky, Stanislav; Repisky, Michal; Malkin, Elena; Ruud, Kenneth, E-mail: [Centre for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, University of Tromsø — The Arctic University of Norway, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway); Gauss, Jürgen [Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Duesbergweg 10-14, D-55128 Mainz (Germany)


    We present an updated semi-experimental absolute shielding scale for the {sup 17}O and {sup 33}S nuclei. These new shielding scales are based on accurate rotational microwave data for the spin–rotation constants of H{sub 2}{sup 17}O [Puzzarini et al., J. Chem. Phys. 131, 234304 (2009)], C{sup 17}O [Cazzoli et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 4, 3575 (2002)], and H{sub 2}{sup 33}S [Helgaker et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 244308 (2013)] corrected both for vibrational and temperature effects estimated at the CCSD(T) level of theory as well as for the relativistic corrections to the relation between the spin–rotation constant and the absolute shielding constant. Our best estimate for the oxygen shielding constants of H{sub 2}{sup 17}O is 328.4(3) ppm and for C{sup 17}O −59.05(59) ppm. The relativistic correction for the sulfur shielding of H{sub 2}{sup 33}S amounts to 3.3%, and the new sulfur shielding constant for this molecule is 742.9(4.6) ppm.

  15. Communication: The absolute shielding scales of oxygen and sulfur revisited

    Komorovsky, Stanislav; Repisky, Michal; Malkin, Elena; Ruud, Kenneth; Gauss, Jürgen


    We present an updated semi-experimental absolute shielding scale for the 17O and 33S nuclei. These new shielding scales are based on accurate rotational microwave data for the spin-rotation constants of H217O [Puzzarini et al., J. Chem. Phys. 131, 234304 (2009)], C17O [Cazzoli et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 4, 3575 (2002)], and H233S [Helgaker et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 244308 (2013)] corrected both for vibrational and temperature effects estimated at the CCSD(T) level of theory as well as for the relativistic corrections to the relation between the spin-rotation constant and the absolute shielding constant. Our best estimate for the oxygen shielding constants of H217O is 328.4(3) ppm and for C17O -59.05(59) ppm. The relativistic correction for the sulfur shielding of H233S amounts to 3.3%, and the new sulfur shielding constant for this molecule is 742.9(4.6) ppm.

  16. Absolute properties of the spotted eclipsing binary star CV Bootis

    Torres, Guillermo; Lacy, Claud H Sandberg


    We present new V-band differential brightness measurements as well as new radial-velocity measurements of the detached, circular, 0.84-day period, double-lined eclipsing binary system CV Boo. These data along with other observations from the literature are combined to derive improved absolute dimensions of the stars for the purpose of testing various aspects of theoretical modeling. Despite complications from intrinsic variability we detect in the system, and despite the rapid rotation of the components, we are able to determine the absolute masses and radii to better than 1.3% and 2%, respectively. We obtain M(A) = 1.032 +/- 0.013 M(Sun) and R(B) = 1.262 +/- 0.023 R(Sun) for the hotter, larger, and more massive primary (star A), and M(B) = 0.968 +/- 0.012 M(Sun) and R(B) = 1.173 +/- 0.023 R(Sun) for the secondary. The estimated effective temperatures are 5760 +/- 150 K and 5670 +/- 150 K. The intrinsic variability with a period about 1% shorter than the orbital period is interpreted as being due to modulatio...

  17. Accurate absolute parameters of the binary system V4089 Sgr

    Veramendi, M E


    We carried out a spectroscopic-photometric analysis of the binary V4089 Sgr with the aim to obtain absolute masses and radii of the components and to contrast these parameters with stellar evolution theoretical models. We took high-resolution spectra and measured radial velocity using standard cross-correlations and a technique of spectral disentangling. Absolute parameters of the components were determined through the simultaneous fitting of measured radial velocities and Geneva photometric data available in the literature. In this way we obtained Ma=2.584+-0.008 Msun, Mb=1.607+-0.007 Msun, Ra=3.959+-0.013 Rsun, and Rb=1.605+-0.016 Rsun. The comparison of these parameters with two grids of theoretical models led to estimate narrow ranges of possible values for system metallicity and age. According circularization theory it is not expected that the binary had been achieved a circular orbit as a result of tidal friction, so the null eccentricity found is an interesting fact. On the other hand, we measured proj...

  18. Absolute rotation detection by Coriolis force measurement using optomechanics

    Davuluri, Sankar; Li, Yong


    In this article, we present an application of the optomechanical cavities for absolute rotation detection. Two optomechanical cavities, one in each arm, are placed in a Michelson interferometer. The interferometer is placed on a rotating table and is moved with a uniform velocity of \\dot{\\bar{y}} with respect to the rotating table. The Coriolis force acting on the interferometer changes the length of the optomechanical cavity in one arm, while the length of the optomechanical cavity in the other arm is not changed. The phase shift corresponding to the change in the optomechanical cavity length is measured at the interferometer output to estimate the angular velocity of the absolute rotation. An analytic expression for the minimum detectable rotation rate corresponding to the standard quantum limit of measurable Coriolis force in the interferometer is derived. Squeezing technique is discussed to improve the rotation detection sensitivity by a factor of \\sqrt{{γ }m/{ω }m} at 0 K temperature, where {γ }m and {ω }m are the damping rate and angular frequency of the mechanical oscillator. The temperature dependence of the rotation detection sensitivity is studied.

  19. DI3 - A New Procedure for Absolute Directional Measurements

    A Geese


    Full Text Available The standard observatory procedure for determining a geomagnetic field's declination and inclination absolutely is the DI-flux measurement. The instrument consists of a non-magnetic theodolite equipped with a single-axis fluxgate magnetometer. Additionally, a scalar magnetometer is needed to provide all three components of the field. Using only 12 measurement steps, all systematic errors can be accounted for, but if only one of the readings is wrong, the whole measurement has to be rejected. We use a three-component sensor on top of the theodolites telescope. By performing more measurement steps, we gain much better control of the whole procedure: As the magnetometer can be fully calibrated by rotating about two independent directions, every combined reading of magnetometer output and theodolite angles provides the absolute field vector. We predefined a set of angle positions that the observer has to try to achieve. To further simplify the measurement procedure, the observer is guided by a pocket pc, in which he has only to confirm the theodolite position. The magnetic field is then stored automatically, together with the horizontal and vertical angles. The DI3 measurement is periodically performed at the Niemegk Observatory, allowing for a direct comparison with the traditional measurements.

  20. The Absolute Magnitude of RRc Variables From Statistical Parallax

    Kollmeier, Juna A; Burns, Christopher R; Gould, Andrew; Thompson, Ian B; Preston, George W; Sneden, Christopher; Crane, Jeffrey D; Dong, Subo; Madore, Barry F; Morrell, Nidia; Prieto, Jose L; Shectman, Stephen; Simon, Joshua D; Villanueva, Edward


    We present the first definitive measurement of the absolute magnitude of RR Lyrae c-type variable stars (RRc) determined purely from statistical parallax. We use a sample of 247 RRc selected from the All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) for which high-quality light curves, photometry and proper motions are available. We obtain high-resolution echelle spectra for these objects to determine radial velocities and abundances as part of the Carnegie RR Lyrae Survey (CARRS). We find that M_(V,RRc) = 0.52 +/- 0.11 at a mean metallicity of [Fe/H] = -1.59. This is to be compared with previous estimates for RRab stars (M_(V,RRab) = 0.75 +/- 0.13 and the only direct measurement of an RRc absolute magnitude (RZ Cephei, M_(V, RRc) = 0.27 +/- 0.17). We find the bulk velocity of the halo to be (W_pi, W_theta, W_z) = (10.9,34.9,7.2) km/s in the radial, rotational and vertical directions with dispersions (sigma_(W_pi), sigma_(W_theta), sigma_(W_z)) = (154.7, 103.6, 93.8) km/s. For the disk, we find (W_pi, W_theta, W_z) = (8.5, 213...

  1. Absolute counting of neutrophils in whole blood using flow cytometry.

    Brunck, Marion E G; Andersen, Stacey B; Timmins, Nicholas E; Osborne, Geoffrey W; Nielsen, Lars K


    Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) is used clinically to monitor physiological dysfunctions such as myelosuppression or infection. In the research laboratory, ANC is a valuable measure to monitor the evolution of a wide range of disease states in disease models. Flow cytometry (FCM) is a fast, widely used approach to confidently identify thousands of cells within minutes. FCM can be optimised for absolute counting using spiked-in beads or by measuring the sample volume analysed. Here we combine the 1A8 antibody, specific for the mouse granulocyte protein Ly6G, with flow cytometric counting in straightforward FCM assays for mouse ANC, easily implementable in the research laboratory. Volumetric and Trucount™ bead assays were optimized for mouse neutrophils, and ANC values obtained with these protocols were compared to ANC measured by a dual-platform assay using the Orphee Mythic 18 veterinary haematology analyser. The single platform assays were more precise with decreased intra-assay variability compared with ANC obtained using the dual protocol. Defining ANC based on Ly6G expression produces a 15% higher estimate than the dual protocol. Allowing for this difference in ANC definition, the flow cytometry counting assays using Ly6G can be used reliably in the research laboratory to quantify mouse ANC from a small volume of blood. We demonstrate the utility of the volumetric protocol in a time-course study of chemotherapy induced neutropenia using four drug regimens.

  2. Ranitidine: single dose pharmacokinetics and absolute bioavailability in man.

    van Hecken, A M; Tjandramaga, T B; Mullie, A; Verbesselt, R; de Schepper, P J


    1 Ranitidine single dose pharmacokinetics and absolute bioavailability have been studied in five healthy male volunteers. Following an overnight fast, 150 mg was given intravenously as a bolus injection or orally as a tablet formulation to each subject on separate occasions. 2 Following intravenous administration, plasma levels declined biexponentially. The mean (+/- s.d.) distribution half-life (t 1/2 alpha) was 6.6 +/- 1.6 min; plasma half-life (t 1/2 beta) was 1.7 +/- 0.2 h; the volume of distribution (V) was 96 +/- 9 1; total body clearance (CL) was 647 +/- 94 ml/min and renal clearance (CLR) 520 +/- 123 ml/min. 3 Following oral administration plasma levels showed a bimodal pattern with a first peak at 1.1 +/- 0.4 h and a second peak at 3 +/- 0 h. The absolute availability was 60 +/- 17%. The plasma half-life (t 1/2) of 2.3 +/- 0.4 h was significantly longer (P less than 0.05) after oral than after i.v. administration. 4 Renal excretion of unchanged ranitidine accounted for 79 +/- 9% of the dose after i.v. administration and for 27 +/- 7% after oral administration. 5 Our results suggest a more extensive biotransformation of ranitidine and biliary excretion of metabolites after oral administration while i.v. administration ranitidine is preferentially excreted unchanged in the urine.

  3. Absolute calibration of a multilayer-based XUV diagnostic

    Stuik, R; Tümmler, J; Bijkerk, F


    A portable, universal narrowband XUV diagnostic suitable for calibration of various XUV light sources, was built, tested and fully calibrated. The diagnostic allows measurement of the absolute XUV energy and average power in two selected wavelength bands, at 11.4 and 13.4 nm. In addition, the pulse-to-pulse and long-term XUV stability of the source can be assessed, as well as the contamination of multilayer XUV optics exposed to the source. This paper describes the full calibration procedure: all optical elements were calibrated at the wavelength of operation by Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt at the storage ring Bessy II, a full analysis of geometrical factors was done, and the influence of the spectral emissivity of the source on the calibration was analyzed in detail. The calibration was performed both for the centroid wavelength as for the full bandwidth of the diagnostic. The total uncertainty in the absolute calibration allowed measurement of source characteristics with an uncertainty of less than...

  4. Absolute Quantification of Selected Proteins in the Human Osteoarthritic Secretome

    Mandy J. Peffers


    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is characterized by a loss of extracellular matrix which is driven by catabolic cytokines. Proteomic analysis of the OA cartilage secretome enables the global study of secreted proteins. These are an important class of molecules with roles in numerous pathological mechanisms. Although cartilage studies have identified profiles of secreted proteins, quantitative proteomics techniques have been implemented that would enable further biological questions to be addressed. To overcome this limitation, we used the secretome from human OA cartilage explants stimulated with IL-1β and compared proteins released into the media using a label-free LC-MS/MS-based strategy. We employed QconCAT technology to quantify specific proteins using selected reaction monitoring. A total of 252 proteins were identified, nine were differentially expressed by IL-1 β stimulation. Selected protein candidates were quantified in absolute amounts using QconCAT. These findings confirmed a significant reduction in TIMP-1 in the secretome following IL-1β stimulation. Label-free and QconCAT analysis produced equivocal results indicating no effect of cytokine stimulation on aggrecan, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein, fibromodulin, matrix metalloproteinases 1 and 3 or plasminogen release. This study enabled comparative protein profiling and absolute quantification of proteins involved in molecular pathways pertinent to understanding the pathogenesis of OA.

  5. Absolute poverty measures for the developing world, 1981-2004.

    Chen, Shaohua; Ravallion, Martin


    We report new estimates of measures of absolute poverty for the developing world for the period 1981-2004. A clear trend decline in the percentage of people who are absolutely poor is evident, although with uneven progress across regions. We find more mixed success in reducing the total number of poor. Indeed, the developing world outside China has seen little or no sustained progress in reducing the number of poor, with rising poverty counts in some regions, notably sub-Saharan Africa. There are encouraging signs of progress in all regions after 2000, although it is too early to say whether this is a new trend. We also summarize results from estimating a new series incorporating an allowance for the higher cost of living facing poor people in urban areas. This reveals a marked urbanization of poverty in the developing world, which is stronger in some regions than others, although it remains that three-quarters of the poor live in rural areas.

  6. Switching between representations in reinforcement learning

    van Seijen, H.; Whiteson, S.; Kester, L.; Babuška, R.; Groen, F.C.A.


    This chapter presents and evaluates an online representation selection method for factored Markov decision processes (MDPs). The method addresses a special case of the feature selection problem that only considers certain subsets of features, which we call candidate representations. A motivation for

  7. Klein Topological Field Theories from Group Representations

    Sergey A. Loktev


    Full Text Available We show that any complex (respectively real representation of finite group naturally generates a open-closed (respectively Klein topological field theory over complex numbers. We relate the 1-point correlator for the projective plane in this theory with the Frobenius-Schur indicator on the representation. We relate any complex simple Klein TFT to a real division ring.

  8. An Axiomatic Representation of System Dynamics

    Baianu, I


    An axiomatic representation of system dynamics is introduced in terms of categories, functors, organismal supercategories, limits and colimits of diagrams. Specific examples are considered in Complex Systems Biology, such as ribosome biogenesis and Hormonal Control in human subjects. "Fuzzy" Relational Structures are also proposed for flexible representations of biological system dynamics and organization.

  9. Sparse representation for the ISAR image reconstruction

    Hu, Mengqi; Montalbo, John; Li, Shuxia; Sun, Ligang; Qiao, Zhijun G.


    In this paper, a sparse representation of the data for an inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) system is provided in two dimensions. The proposed sparse representation motivates the use a of a Convex Optimization that recovers the image with far less samples, which is required by Nyquist-Shannon sampling theorem to increases the efficiency and decrease the cost of calculation in radar imaging.

  10. Representations of reductive normal algebraic monoids

    Doty, Stephen


    The rational representation theory of a reductive normal algebraic monoid (with one-dimensional center) forms a highest weight category, in the sense of Cline, Parshall, and Scott. This is a fundamental fact about the representation theory of reductive normal algebraic monoids. We survey how this result was obtained, and treat some natural examples coming from classical groups.

  11. Identifying Bilingual Semantic Neural Representations across Languages

    Buchweitz, Augusto; Shinkareva, Svetlana V.; Mason, Robert A.; Mitchell, Tom M.; Just, Marcel Adam


    The goal of the study was to identify the neural representation of a noun's meaning in one language based on the neural representation of that same noun in another language. Machine learning methods were used to train classifiers to identify which individual noun bilingual participants were thinking about in one language based solely on their…

  12. Emerging representation technologies for problem solving

    Jong, de Ton; Spector, J. Michael; Merrill, M. David; Elen, Jan; Bishop, M.J.


    When learners solve problems they often create an external representation to organize the information given in the problem statement, to translate this problem description into underlying domain terms, and to complete this with knowledge they already have. This representation is subsequently used to

  13. Representational Issues in Students Learning about Evaporation

    Tytler, Russell; Prain, Vaughan; Peterson, Suzanne


    This study draws on recent research on the central role of representation in learning. While there has been considerable research on students' understanding of evaporation, the representational issues entailed in this understanding have not been investigated in depth. The study explored students' engagement with evaporation phenomena through…

  14. Bridge: Intelligent Tutoring with Intermediate Representations


    Research and Development Center and Psychology Department University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, PA. 15260 The Artificial Intelligence and Psychology...problem never introduces more than one unfamiliar plan. Inteligent Tutoring With Intermediate Representations - Bonar and Cunniigbam 4 You must have a... Inteligent Tutoring With ntermediate Representations - Bonar and Cunningham 7 The requirements are specified at four differcnt levels, corresponding to

  15. Representation-independent manipulations with Dirac spinors

    Pal, P B


    Dirac matrices, also known as gamma matrices, are defined only up to a similarity transformation. Usually, some explicit representation of these matrices is assumed in order to deal with them. In this article, we show how it is possible to proceed without any such assumption. Various important identities involving Dirac matrices and spinors have been derived without assuming any representation at any stage.

  16. The Decimal Representation of Real Numbers

    Kalapodi, A.


    The representation of natural numbers in decimal form is an unequivocal procedure while for the representation of real numbers some ambiguities concerning the existence of infinitely many digits equal to 9 still emerge. One of the most frequently confronted misunderstandings is whether 0.999...equals 1 or not, and if not what number does this…

  17. Highest weight representations of quantum current algebras

    Albeverio, Sergio A; Albeverio, Sergio; Fei, Shao Ming


    We study the highest weight and continuous tensor product representations of q-deformed Lie algebras through the mappings of a manifold into a locally compact group. As an example the highest weight representation of the q-deformed algebra sl_q(2,\\Cb) is calculated in detail.

  18. Connectivity in the regular polytope representation

    Thompson, R.J.; Van Oosterom, P.J.M.


    In order to be able to draw inferences about real world phenomena from a representation expressed in a digital computer, it is essential that the representation should have a rigorously correct algebraic structure. It is also desirable that the underlying algebra be familiar, and provide a close mod

  19. Redheffer representations and relaxed commutant lifting

    ter Horst, S.


    It is well known that the solutions of a (relaxed) commutant lifting problem can be described via a linear fractional representation of the Redheffer type. The coefficients of such Redheffer representations are analytic operator-valued functions defined on the unit disc D of the complex plane. In th

  20. Parts, Cavities, and Object Representation in Infancy

    Hayden, Angela; Bhatt, Ramesh S.; Kangas, Ashley; Zieber, Nicole


    Part representation is not only critical to object perception but also plays a key role in a number of basic visual cognition functions, such as figure-ground segregation, allocation of attention, and memory for shapes. Yet, virtually nothing is known about the development of part representation. If parts are fundamental components of object shape…

  1. Wavelets for Sparse Representation of Music

    Endelt, Line Ørtoft; Harbo, Anders La-Cour


    We are interested in obtaining a sparse representation of music signals by means of a discrete wavelet transform (DWT). That means we want the energy in the representation to be concentrated in few DWT coefficients. It is well-known that the decay of the DWT coefficients is strongly related...

  2. Switching between Representations in Reinforcement Learning

    Seijen, H. van; Whiteson, S.; Kester, L.


    This chapter presents and evaluates an online representation selection method for factored Markov decision processes (MDPs). The method addresses a special case of the feature selection problem that only considers certain subsets of features, which we call candidate representations. A motivation for

  3. Self-Representation and Brain Development

    Lewis, Michael; Carmody, Dennis P.


    This study examined the relation between self-representation and brain development in infants and young children. Self-representation was assessed by mirror recognition, personal pronoun use, and pretend play. Structural brain images were obtained from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Brain development was assessed by a quantitative measure of…

  4. Binary Representations of Fingerprint Spectral Minutiae Features

    Xu, Haiyun; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.


    A fixed-length binary representation of a fingerprint has the advantages of a fast operation and a small template storage. For many biometric template protection schemes, a binary string is also required as input. The spectral minutiae representation is a method to represent a minutiae set as a fixe

  5. Improving Representational Competence with Concrete Models

    Stieff, Mike; Scopelitis, Stephanie; Lira, Matthew E.; DeSutter, Dane


    Representational competence is a primary contributor to student learning in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) disciplines and an optimal target for instruction at all educational levels. We describe the design and implementation of a learning activity that uses concrete models to improve students' representational competence and…

  6. A Special Application of Absolute Value Techniques in Authentic Problem Solving

    Stupel, Moshe


    There are at least five different equivalent definitions of the absolute value concept. In instances where the task is an equation or inequality with only one or two absolute value expressions, it is a worthy educational experience for learners to solve the task using each one of the definitions. On the other hand, if more than two absolute value…

  7. Constraint on Absolute Accuracy of Metacomprehension Assessments: The Anchoring and Adjustment Model vs. the Standards Model

    Kwon, Heekyung


    The objective of this study is to provide a systematic account of three typical phenomena surrounding absolute accuracy of metacomprehension assessments: (1) the absolute accuracy of predictions is typically quite low; (2) there exist individual differences in absolute accuracy of predictions as a function of reading skill; and (3) postdictions…

  8. Absolute neutrino masses physics beyond SM, double beta decay and cosmic rays

    Päs, H; P\\"as, Heinrich; Weiler, Thomas J.


    Absolute neutrino masses provide a key to physics beyond the standard model. We discuss the impact of absolute neutrinos masses on physics beyond the standard model, the experimental possibilities to determine absolute neutrinos masses, and the intriguing connection with the Z-burst model for extreme-energy cosmic rays.

  9. Relations between asymptotic and Fredholm representations

    Manuilov, V M


    We prove that for matrix algebras $M_n$ there exists a monomorphism $(\\prod_n M_n/\\oplus_n M_n)\\otimes C(S^1) \\to {\\cal Q} $ into the Calkin algebra which induces an isomorphism of the $K_1$-groups. As a consequence we show that every vector bundle over a classifying space $B\\pi$ which can be obtained from an asymptotic representation of a discrete group $\\pi$ can be obtained also from a representation of the group $\\pi\\times Z$ into the Calkin algebra. We give also a generalization of the notion of Fredholm representation and show that asymptotic representations can be viewed as asymptotic Fredholm representations.

  10. Distorted representation in visual tourism research

    Jensen, Martin Trandberg


    Tourism research has recently been informed by non-representational theories to highlight the socio-material, embodied and heterogeneous composition of tourist experiences. These advances have contributed to further reflexivity and called for novel ways to animate representations. On this backgro......Tourism research has recently been informed by non-representational theories to highlight the socio-material, embodied and heterogeneous composition of tourist experiences. These advances have contributed to further reflexivity and called for novel ways to animate representations....... On this background, this paper develops the notion ‘distorted representation’ to illustrate that blurred and obscure photos can in fact be intelligible and sensible in understanding tourism. Through an exploration of the overwhelmed and unintended practices of visual fieldwork, distorted representation illustrates...

  11. [Health education: knowledge, social representation, and illness].

    Gazzinelli, Maria Flávia; Gazzinelli, Andréa; Reis, Dener Carlos dos; Penna, Cláudia Maria de Mattos


    This article discusses the theory and practice of health and education, beginning with the notion of the hegemony (in health education practice) of strategies linked to the notion that to grasp established knowledge always leads to the acquisition of new behaviors and practices. Five different axioms have oriented education and health practices, either juxtaposed or at different moments: (1) the notion of overcoming the determination of knowledge over practices; (2) the determination of representations over practices; (3) the analysis of representations within the traditional framework of right and wrong; (4) reciprocity between representations and practices; and (5) the importance of considering practices amenable to re-elaboration through representations, thus situating experience in understanding subjects' illness processes, as well as the way subjects culturally construct illness. The article highlights the need for a link between social representations and illness-as-experience in health education practices.

  12. Qualitative inquiries into social representations of health.

    Flick, U


    Concepts of health and illness have been a major topic for social representations research. Whereas studies on cognitive representations of health and illness develop a general, decontextualized schema of illness, social representations research focuses on the diversity of lay concepts of health and illness and how health and illness are socially constructed in different contexts. Two qualitative studies about the social representations of health are presented. The episodic interview and theoretical coding were used to study health concepts of nurses and clerks in East and West Germany and among Portuguese and German women. Results in both studies show different forms of awareness of health as the core of the health concepts in the various groups. Social representations theory connects these differences back to the political and cultural backgrounds of the study participants.

  13. ABJM Wilson Loops in Arbitrary Representations

    Hatsuda, Yasuyuki; Moriyama, Sanefumi; Okuyama, Kazumi


    We study vacuum expectation values (VEVs) of circular half BPS Wilson loops in arbitrary representations in ABJM theory. We find that those in hook representations are reduced to elementary integrations thanks to the Fermi gas formalism, which are accessible from the numerical studies similar to the partition function in the previous studies. For non-hook representations, we show that the VEVs in the grand canonical formalism can be exactly expressed as determinants of those in the hook representations. Using these facts, we can study the instanton effects of the VEVs in various representations. Our results are consistent with the worldsheet instanton effects studied from the topological string and a prescription to include the membrane instanton effects by shifting the chemical potential, which has been successful for the partition function.

  14. A spectral invariant representation of spectral reflectance

    Ibrahim, Abdelhameed; Tominaga, Shoji; Horiuchi, Takahiko


    Spectral image acquisition as well as color image is affected by several illumination factors such as shading, gloss, and specular highlight. Spectral invariant representations for these factors were proposed for the standard dichromatic reflection model of inhomogeneous dielectric materials. However, these representations are inadequate for other characteristic materials like metal. This paper proposes a more general spectral invariant representation for obtaining reliable spectral reflectance images. Our invariant representation is derived from the standard dichromatic reflection model for dielectric materials and the extended dichromatic reflection model for metals. We proof that the invariant formulas for spectral images of natural objects preserve spectral information and are invariant to highlights, shading, surface geometry, and illumination intensity. It is proved that the conventional spectral invariant technique can be applied to metals in addition to dielectric objects. Experimental results show that the proposed spectral invariant representation is effective for image segmentation.

  15. ABJM Wilson loops in arbitrary representations

    Hatsuda, Yasuyuki [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Honda, Masazumi [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Moriyama, Sanefumi [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Kobayashi Maskawa Inst. and Graduate School of Mathematics; Okuyama, Kazumi [Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). Dept. of Physics


    We study vacuum expectation values (VEVs) of circular half BPS Wilson loops in arbitrary representations in ABJM theory. We find that those in hook representations are reduced to elementary integrations thanks to the Fermi gas formalism, which are accessible from the numerical studies similar to the partition function in the previous studies. For non-hook representations, we show that the VEVs in the grand canonical formalism can be exactly expressed as determinants of those in the hook representations. Using these facts, we can study the instanton effects of the VEVs in various representations. Our results are consistent with the worldsheet instanton effects studied from the topological string and a prescription to include the membrane instanton effects by shifting the chemical potential, which has been successful for the partition function.

  16. Profile of students' comprehension of 3D molecule representation and its interconversion on chirality

    Setyarini, M.; Liliasari, Kadarohman, Asep; Martoprawiro, Muhamad A.


    This study aims at describing (1) students' level comprehension; (2) factors causing difficulties to 3D comprehend molecule representation and its interconversion on chirality. Data was collected using multiple-choice test consisting of eight questions. The participants were required to give answers along with their reasoning. The test was developed based on the indicators of concept comprehension. The study was conducted to 161 college students enrolled in stereochemistry topic in the odd semester (2014/2015) from two LPTK (teacher training institutes) in Bandar Lampung and Gorontalo, and one public university in Bandung. The result indicates that college students' level of comprehension towards 3D molecule representations and its inter-conversion was 5% on high level, 22 % on the moderate level, and 73 % on the low level. The dominant factors identified as the cause of difficulties to comprehend 3D molecule representation and its interconversion were (i) the lack of spatial awareness, (ii) violation of absolute configuration determination rules, (iii) imprecise placement of observers, (iv) the lack of rotation operation, and (v) the lack of understanding of correlation between the representations. This study recommends that learning show more rigorous spatial awareness training tasks accompanied using dynamic visualization media of molecules associated. Also students learned using static molecular models can help them overcome their difficulties encountered.

  17. Primary Teachers' Representational Practices: From Competency to Fluency

    Nichols, Kim; Stevenson, Michael; Hedberg, John; Gillies, Robyn Margaret


    Eighteen primary teachers across three conditions (Representational Fluency, Representational Agency, Comparison) received two days of training around an inquiry unit on plate tectonics replete with representations. The Representational Agency group also received training around the semiotic and material affordances of representations while the…

  18. Knowledge Representation Standards and Interchange Formats for Causal Graphs

    Throop, David R.; Malin, Jane T.; Fleming, Land


    In many domains, automated reasoning tools must represent graphs of causally linked events. These include fault-tree analysis, probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), planning, procedures, medical reasoning about disease progression, and functional architectures. Each of these fields has its own requirements for the representation of causation, events, actors and conditions. The representations include ontologies of function and cause, data dictionaries for causal dependency, failure and hazard, and interchange formats between some existing tools. In none of the domains has a generally accepted interchange format emerged. The paper makes progress towards interoperability across the wide range of causal analysis methodologies. We survey existing practice and emerging interchange formats in each of these fields. Setting forth a set of terms and concepts that are broadly shared across the domains, we examine the several ways in which current practice represents them. Some phenomena are difficult to represent or to analyze in several domains. These include mode transitions, reachability analysis, positive and negative feedback loops, conditions correlated but not causally linked and bimodal probability distributions. We work through examples and contrast the differing methods for addressing them. We detail recent work in knowledge interchange formats for causal trees in aerospace analysis applications in early design, safety and reliability. Several examples are discussed, with a particular focus on reachability analysis and mode transitions. We generalize the aerospace analysis work across the several other domains. We also recommend features and capabilities for the next generation of causal knowledge representation standards.

  19. Mental Representations in Art Discourse

    Katja Sudec


    Full Text Available The paper starts by examining the content included in the museum environment, where I write about the type of relations that emerge in a museum or artistic setting. This is followed by an observation of a social act (socialising and a chapter on the use of food in an artistic venue. At the end, I address art education via the format that I developed at the 6th Berlin Biennale. This is followed by an overview of the cognitive model of the fort-da game based on Freud’s theory via two discourse models. Here, I address discourse on art works in the form of a lecture or reading, where the art space is fictitiously present, and then move on to discuss discourse on art works in real, “present” art space. This is followed by a section on actions (Handlungen in German and methods supporting the fort-da model. The last part of the article examines the issue of “mental representations”, defining and explaining the function of mental representations with regard to the target audience of the blind and visually impaired.

  20. Hermann Weyl and Representation Theory


    Weyl was a universal mathematician whose fundamental contributionsto mathematics encompassed all areas, and provideda unification seldom seen. His work on the theory ofLie groups was motivated by his life-long interest in quantummechanics and relativity. When Weyl entered Lie theory,it mostly focussed on the infinitesimal, and he strove to bringin a global perspective. Time and again, Weyl’s ideas arisingin one context have been adapted and applied to wholly newcontexts. In 1925–26, Weyl wrote four epochal papers in representationtheory of Lie groups which solved fundamentalproblems, and also gave birth to the subject of harmonic analysisof semisimple Lie groups. In these papers, Weyl provedcomplete reducibility theorems and introduced many techniqueswhich have become the standard way to study representationsof Lie groups and their various generalizationsin the last seven decades. Weyl’s work covers several parts ofmathematics, as well as parts of physics. In this article, wediscuss mainly his contributions to the representation theoryof Lie groups via the four papers mentioned above.