WorldWideScience

Sample records for absolute radiant flux

  1. Light-emitting-diode Lambertian light sources as low-radiant-flux standards applicable to quantitative luminescence-intensity imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshita, Masahiro; Kubota, Hidehiro; Shimogawara, Masahiro; Mori, Kaneo; Ohmiya, Yoshihiro; Akiyama, Hidefumi

    2017-09-01

    Planar-type Lambertian light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with a circular aperture of several tens of μ m to a few mm in diameter were developed for use as radiant-flux standard light sources, which have been in strong demand for applications such as quantitative or absolute intensity measurements of weak luminescence from solid-state materials and devices. Via pulse-width modulation, time-averaged emission intensity of the LED devices was controlled linearly to cover a wide dynamic range of about nine orders of magnitude, from 10 μ W down to 10 fW. The developed planar LED devices were applied as the radiant-flux standards to quantitative measurements and analyses of photoluminescence (PL) intensity and PL quantum efficiency of a GaAs quantum-well sample. The results demonstrated the utility and applicability of the LED standards in quantitative luminescence-intensity measurements in Lambertian-type low radiant-flux level sources.

  2. Study on coal char ignition by radiant heat flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotkikh, A. G.; Slyusarskiy, K. V.

    2017-11-01

    The study on coal char ignition by CO2-continuous laser was carried out. The coal char samples of T-grade bituminous coal and 2B-grade lignite were studied via CO2-laser ignition setup. Ignition delay times were determined at ambient condition in heat flux density range 90–200 W/cm2. The average ignition delay time value for lignite samples were 2 times lower while this difference is larger in high heat flux region and lower in low heat flux region. The kinetic constants for overall oxidation reaction were determined using analytic solution of simplified one-dimensional heat transfer equation with radiant heat transfer boundary condition. The activation energy for lignite char was found to be less than it is for bituminous coal char by approximately 20 %.

  3. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Subpart A of... - Standard Radiant Heat Energy Flux Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standard Radiant Heat Energy Flux Profile 8 Figure 8 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER..., Subpt. A, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Subpart A of Part 1209—Standard Radiant Heat Energy Flux Profile EC03OC91...

  4. Methods of total spectral radiant flux realization at VNIIOFI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivashin, Evgeniy; Lalek, Jan; Rybczyński, Andrzej; Ogarev, Sergey; Khlevnoy, Boris; Dobroserdov, Dmitry; Sapritsky, Victor

    2018-02-01

    VNIIOFI carries out works on realization of independent methods for realization of the total spectral radiant flux (TSRF) of incoherent optical radiation sources - reference high-temperature blackbodies (BB), halogen lamps, and LED with quasi-Lambert spatial distribution of radiance. The paper describes three schemes for measuring facilities using photometers, spectroradiometers and computer-controlled high class goniometer. The paper describes different approaches for TSRF realization at the VNIIOFI National radiometric standard on the basis of high-temperature BB and LED sources, and gonio-spectroradiometer. Further, they are planned to be compared, and the use of fixed-point cells (in particular, based on the high-temperature δ(MoC)-C metal-carbon eutectic with a phase transition temperature of 2583 °C corresponding to the metrological optical “source-A”) as an option instead of the BB is considered in order to enhance calibration accuracy.

  5. From Hubble's NGSL to Absolute Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, Sara R.; Lindler, Don

    2012-01-01

    Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL) consists of R-l000 spectra of 374 stars of assorted temperature, gravity, and metallicity. Each spectrum covers the wavelength range, 0.18-1.00 microns. The library can be viewed and/or downloaded from the website, http://archive.stsci.edu/prepds/stisngsll. Stars in the NGSL are now being used as absolute flux standards at ground-based observatories. However, the uncertainty in the absolute flux is about 2%, which does not meet the requirements of dark-energy surveys. We are therefore developing an observing procedure that should yield fluxes with uncertainties less than 1 % and will take part in an HST proposal to observe up to 15 stars using this new procedure.

  6. Theoretical Analysis of Interferometer Wave Front Tilt and Fringe Radiant Flux on a Rectangular Photodetector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Konstantin Fuss

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a theoretical analysis of mirror tilt in a Michelson interferometer and its effect on the radiant flux over the active area of a rectangular photodetector or image sensor pixel. It is relevant to sensor applications using homodyne interferometry where these opto-electronic devices are employed for partial fringe counting. Formulas are derived for radiant flux across the detector for variable location within the fringe pattern and with varying wave front angle. The results indicate that the flux is a damped sine function of the wave front angle, with a decay constant of the ratio of wavelength to detector width. The modulation amplitude of the dynamic fringe pattern reduces to zero at wave front angles that are an integer multiple of this ratio and the results show that the polarity of the radiant flux changes exclusively at these multiples. Varying tilt angle causes radiant flux oscillations under an envelope curve, the frequency of which is dependent on the location of the detector with the fringe pattern. It is also shown that a fringe count of zero can be obtained for specific photodetector locations and wave front angles where the combined effect of fringe contraction and fringe tilt can have equal and opposite effects. Fringe tilt as a result of a wave front angle of 0.05° can introduce a phase measurement difference of 16° between a photodetector/pixel located 20 mm and one located 100 mm from the optical origin.

  7. SOLWEIG 1.0 Modelling spatial variations of 3D radiant fluxes and mean radiant temperature in complex urban settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Fredrik; Holmer, Björn; Thorsson, Sofia

    2008-09-01

    The mean radiant temperature, Tmrt, which sums up all shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes (both direct and reflected) to which the human body is exposed is one of the key meteorological parameters governing human energy balance and the thermal comfort of man. In this paper, a new radiation model (SOLWEIG 1.0), which simulates spatial variations of 3D radiation fluxes and Tmrt in complex urban settings, is presented. The Tmrt is derived by modelling shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes in six directions (upward, downward and from the four cardinal points) and angular factors. The model requires a limited number of inputs, such as direct, diffuse and global shortwave radiation, air temperature, relative humidity, urban geometry and geographical information (latitude, longitude and elevation). The model was evaluated using 7 days of integral radiation measurements at two sites with different building geometries a large square and a small courtyard in Göteborg, Sweden (57°N) across different seasons and in various weather conditions. The evaluation reveals good agreement between modelled and measured values of Tmrt, with an overall good correspondence of R 2 = 0.94, ( p < 0.01, RMSE = 4.8 K). SOLWEIG 1.0 is still under development. Future work will incorporate a vegetation scheme, as well as an improvement of the estimation of fluxes from the four cardinal points.

  8. SOLWEIG 1.0--modelling spatial variations of 3D radiant fluxes and mean radiant temperature in complex urban settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Fredrik; Holmer, Björn; Thorsson, Sofia

    2008-09-01

    The mean radiant temperature, T(mrt), which sums up all shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes (both direct and reflected) to which the human body is exposed is one of the key meteorological parameters governing human energy balance and the thermal comfort of man. In this paper, a new radiation model (SOLWEIG 1.0), which simulates spatial variations of 3D radiation fluxes and T(mrt) in complex urban settings, is presented. The T(mrt) is derived by modelling shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes in six directions (upward, downward and from the four cardinal points) and angular factors. The model requires a limited number of inputs, such as direct, diffuse and global shortwave radiation, air temperature, relative humidity, urban geometry and geographical information (latitude, longitude and elevation). The model was evaluated using 7 days of integral radiation measurements at two sites with different building geometries--a large square and a small courtyard in Göteborg, Sweden (57 degrees N)--across different seasons and in various weather conditions. The evaluation reveals good agreement between modelled and measured values of T(mrt), with an overall good correspondence of R (2) = 0.94, (p < 0.01, RMSE = 4.8 K). SOLWEIG 1.0 is still under development. Future work will incorporate a vegetation scheme, as well as an improvement of the estimation of fluxes from the four cardinal points.

  9. Atmospheric radiative flux divergence from Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Louis G.; Charlock, Thomas P.; Crommelynk, D.; Rutan, David; Gupta, Shashi

    1990-01-01

    A major objective of the Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) is the computation of vertical profiles through the atmosphere of the divergence of radiation flux, with global coverage. This paper discusses the need for radiation divergence and presents some options for its inference from CERES measurements and other data from the Earth Observating System.

  10. Radiant heat transfer network in the simulated protective clothing ; System under high heat flux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fukazawa, T.; Hartog, E.A. den; Daanen, H.A.M.; Penders-van Elk, N.; Tochihara, Y.; Havenith, G.

    2005-01-01

    A radiant network model was developed for design of the protective clothing system against solar and infrared radiative heat flux. A one-dimensional model was employed in the present study, because the aim of this study was to obtain precise temperature distribution through the system with use of a

  11. Absolute radiant power measurement for the Au M lines of laser-plasma using a calibrated broadband soft X-ray spectrometer with flat-spectral response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troussel, Ph.; Villette, B.; Oudot, G.; Tassin, V. [CEA/DAM/DIF, Bruyères le Châtel, 91297 Arpajon (France); Emprin, B. [CEA/DAM/DIF, Bruyères le Châtel, 91297 Arpajon (France); Laboratoire Charles Fabry, Institut d’Optique, CNRS, University Paris-Sud, 2, Avenue Augustin Fresnel, RD128, 91127 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Bridou, F.; Delmotte, F. [Laboratoire Charles Fabry, Institut d’Optique, CNRS, University Paris-Sud, 2, Avenue Augustin Fresnel, RD128, 91127 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Krumrey, M. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Abbestr. 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    CEA implemented an absolutely calibrated broadband soft X-ray spectrometer called DMX on the Omega laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) in 1999 to measure radiant power and spectral distribution of the radiation of the Au plasma. The DMX spectrometer is composed of 20 channels covering the spectral range from 50 eV to 20 keV. The channels for energies below 1.5 keV combine a mirror and a filter with a coaxial photo-emissive detector. For the channels above 5 keV the photoemissive detector is replaced by a conductive detector. The intermediate energy channels (1.5 keV < photon energy < 5 keV) use only a filter and a coaxial detector. A further improvement of DMX consists in flat-response X-ray channels for a precise absolute measurement of the photon flux in the photon energy range from 0.1 keV to 6 keV. Such channels are equipped with a filter, a Multilayer Mirror (MLM), and a coaxial detector. We present as an example the development of channel for the gold M emission lines in the photon energy range from 2 keV to 4 keV which has been successfully used on the OMEGA laser facility. The results of the radiant power measurements with the new MLM channel and with the usual channel composed of a thin titanium filter and a coaxial detector (without mirror) are compared. All elements of the channel have been calibrated in the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany's National Metrology Institute, at the synchrotron radiation facility BESSY II in Berlin using dedicated well established and validated methods.

  12. EUV mirror based absolute incident flux detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Kurt W.

    2004-03-23

    A device for the in-situ monitoring of EUV radiation flux includes an integrated reflective multilayer stack. This device operates on the principle that a finite amount of in-band EUV radiation is transmitted through the entire multilayer stack. This device offers improvements over existing vacuum photo-detector devices since its calibration does not change with surface contamination.

  13. A review of the criteria for people exposure to radiant heat flux from fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Phani K

    2008-11-15

    The NFPA 59A Standard and the Federal Regulation, 49 CFR Part 193, stipulate a level of 5 kW/m(2) as the criterion for determining the hazard distance to people exposure from a LNG fire. Another regulation (24CFR, Section 51.204) while stipulating a lower exposure limit of 1.42 kW/m(2) provides administrative relief from the regulation if mitigation measures are provided. Several countries in Europe and the Far East have adopted both a specified heat flux value (generally, 5 kW/m(2)) as well as modified dose criteria for human exposure hazard calculation in risk assessments. In some cases, the regulations in Europe require the use of lower values for children and physically challenged persons. This paper reviews the available literature on the phenomenon of skin burn caused by radiant heat exposure. The associated thermal and spectral properties of human skin are reviewed. The basis for regulatory setting, of 5 kW/m(2) and other exposure criteria (as a part of hazard and risk calculations) for evaluating distances to hazards from the exposure of people to radiant heat effects of large fires, is evaluated. An example calculation is provided to show the extent of reduction in the hazard distance to specified radiant heat flux from a fire when the spectral reflection and absorption properties of skin are considered with and without the inclusion of the mitigating effects of clothing. The results indicate that hazard distances calculated including the reflective and band absorptive properties (in IR wavelength) of skin results in a reduction of between 30 and 50% in the hazard distances obtained with current methodology, which ignores these effects. Unfortunately, there are no test results, from full-scale human-exposure-to-IR radiation, with which these predictions can be compared.

  14. A new integrating sphere design for spectral radiant flux determination of light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanselaer, P; Keppens, A; Forment, S; Ryckaert, W R; Deconinck, G

    2009-01-01

    Light-emitting diode (LED) technology is developing very quickly and may be considered an alternative for traditional light sources. However, at this moment, manufacturers and end users of LEDs are facing a rather basic but major problem. The lack of standardization regarding optical and electrical characterization of LEDs appears to compromise a successful implementation. In particular, numbers quoted for the luminous flux, and consequently for the efficacy of LEDs, are very sensitive data because they are used to impress and push the LED market. In this paper, the most was made of the typical hemispherical radiation of high-power LEDs to increase the accuracy of the flux determination using a custom-made integrating sphere. Recently developed measurement techniques such as the use of an external spectral irradiance standard and an optimized spectral irradiance detection head are combined with a very particular port geometry and a minimized baffle area. This results in a uniform spatial response distribution function (SRDF), which guarantees an accurate radiant and luminous flux determination, irrespective of the spatial intensity distribution of the LED package or luminaire. The effect of the directional response of the detector head on the SRDF has been explored. Measurements on LED devices with and without external optics are presented, illustrating the possibilities of the measurement setup

  15. Array-based goniospectroradiometer for measurement of spectral radiant intensity and spectral total flux of light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, Michael; Goodman, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    We present a description of a new goniospectroradiometric measurement system developed at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL). The instrument incorporates a modified array spectrometer and a series of rotary stages to allow measurement of the spectral radiant intensity distribution of a variety of different types of light source from 350 to 830 nm. Associated source properties such as chromaticity and correlated color temperature distributions and total spectral flux are then calculated from the radiant intensity data. A preliminary comparison with NPL's integrating sphere-based luminous flux scale shows agreement to within 0.4%, well within the combined measurement uncertainty. Measurements of the luminous intensity and color temperature distributions and the spectral total flux of a tungsten filament flux standard, a white LED cluster and a compact fluorescent source made using the goniospectroradiometer, are also presented

  16. The absolute energy flux envelopes of B type stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, A. B.

    1972-01-01

    Absolute energy flux envelopes covering the region of 1100 to 6000 A for main-sequence stars of types B3, B7 and A0 derived from published, ground-based observations and from spectrum scans with OAO-II are presented. These flux envelopes are compared with the predicted flux envelopes from lightly line-blanketed model atmospheres. The line blanketing at wavelengths shorter than 3000 A is severe, about one-half the predicted light being observed at 1600 A. These results demonstrate that a model which represents well the observed visible spectrum of a star may fail seriously for representing the ultraviolet spectrum.

  17. Importance of 3-D radiant flux densities for outdoor human thermal comfort on clear-sky summer days in Freiburg, Southwest Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Hyunjung Lee; Helmut Mayer; Dirk Schindler

    2014-01-01

    This study concerns the role of short- and long-wave radiant flux densities from different directions in complex urban settings for human thermal comfort on clear-sky summer days. The aims of the investigation are to quantify the importance of the sky view factor as an urban design-dependent variable for the 3-D radiant flux densities absorbed by the standardized human-biometeorological reference person and to analyze the varying impact of the absorbed 3-D short- and long-wave radiant flux de...

  18. Importance of 3-D radiant flux densities for outdoor human thermal comfort on clear-sky summer days in Freiburg, Southwest Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunjung Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study concerns the role of short- and long-wave radiant flux densities from different directions in complex urban settings for human thermal comfort on clear-sky summer days. The aims of the investigation are to quantify the importance of the sky view factor as an urban design-dependent variable for the 3-D radiant flux densities absorbed by the standardized human-biometeorological reference person and to analyze the varying impact of the absorbed 3-D short- and long-wave radiant flux densities on the mean radiant temperature (Tmrt$T_{\\text{mrt}}$, near-surface air temperature (Ta$T_{\\text{a}}$ and physiologically equivalent temperature (PET.The results obtained by measuring campaigns and numerical simulations point to the different importance of the absorbed 3-D radiant flux densities for human thermal comfort characterized by Ta$T_{\\text{a}}$, Tmrt$T_{\\text{mrt}}$ and PET. The magnitude of Tmrt$T_{\\text{mrt}}$ is mainly determined by the total of the absorbed 3-D long-wave radiant flux densities. However, the fluctuations of Tmrt$T_{\\text{mrt}}$ are mainly governed by the total of the absorbed 3-D short-wave radiant flux densities. Their variance can be well explained by the variance of the sky view factor related to the southern part of the upper half space. Taking account of the different impact of the 3-D radiant flux densities, Tmrt$T_{\\text{mrt}}$ can be quite well estimated by a multiple regression using the total of the absorbed 3-D short-wave radiant flux densities and the absorbed long-wave radiant flux density from the lower half space as independent variables. PET can be well estimated by a multiple regression showing Tmrt$T_{\\text{mrt}}$ and Ta$T_{\\text{a}}$ as independent variables. On a hot summer day, the increase of the albedo of vertical building walls within a simple E-W oriented street canyon leads to a decrease of the surface temperature of the S-facing wall, but to an increase of Tmrt$T_{\\text{mrt}}$ and PET

  19. Direct evaluation of reflector effects on radiant flux from InGaN-based light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masui, Hisashi; Fellows, Natalie N.; Sato, Hitoshi; Asamizu, Hirokuni; Nakamura, Shuji; Denbaars, Steven P.

    2007-08-01

    A metal layer formed on the backside of InGaN/sapphire-based light-emitting diodes deteriorates the inherent optical power output. An experimental approach of a suspended die is employed to study the effects of such metal layers via a direct comparison in radiant flux from a discrete die with and without a reflector. A sphere package that employs no reflector is proposed and fabricated. Light extraction of the sphere design is discussed; a light source in the sphere package would not have to be either an ideal point or placed at the center of the sphere, due to a finite critical angle at the sphere/air interface.

  20. Integrated thermal infrared imaging and structure-from-motion photogrammetry to map apparent temperature and radiant hydrothermal heat flux at Mammoth Mountain, CA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, A.; Hilley, G. E.; Lewicki, J. L.

    2015-09-01

    This work presents a method to create high-resolution (cm-scale) orthorectified and georeferenced maps of apparent surface temperature and radiant hydrothermal heat flux and estimate the radiant hydrothermal heat emission rate from a study area. A ground-based thermal infrared (TIR) camera was used to collect (1) a set of overlapping and offset visible imagery around the study area during the daytime and (2) time series of co-located visible and TIR imagery at one or more sites within the study area from pre-dawn to daytime. Daytime visible imagery was processed using the structure-from-motion photogrammetric method to create a digital elevation model onto which pre-dawn TIR imagery was orthorectified and georeferenced. Three-dimensional maps of apparent surface temperature and radiant hydrothermal heat flux were then visualized and analyzed from various computer platforms (e.g., Google Earth, ArcGIS). We demonstrate this method at the Mammoth Mountain fumarole area on Mammoth Mountain, CA. Time-averaged apparent surface temperatures and radiant hydrothermal heat fluxes were observed up to 73.7 °C and 450 W m- 2, respectively, while the estimated radiant hydrothermal heat emission rate from the area was 1.54 kW. Results should provide a basis for monitoring potential volcanic unrest and mitigating hydrothermal heat-related hazards on the volcano.

  1. Integrated thermal infrared imaging and Structure-from-Motion photogrametry to map apparent temperature and radiant hydrothermal heat flux at Mammoth Mountain, CA USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Aaron; George Hilley,; Lewicki, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a method to create high-resolution (cm-scale) orthorectified and georeferenced maps of apparent surface temperature and radiant hydrothermal heat flux and estimate the radiant hydrothermal heat emission rate from a study area. A ground-based thermal infrared (TIR) camera was used to collect (1) a set of overlapping and offset visible imagery around the study area during the daytime and (2) time series of co-located visible and TIR imagery at one or more sites within the study area from pre-dawn to daytime. Daytime visible imagery was processed using the Structure-from-Motion photogrammetric method to create a digital elevation model onto which pre-dawn TIR imagery was orthorectified and georeferenced. Three-dimensional maps of apparent surface temperature and radiant hydrothermal heat flux were then visualized and analyzed from various computer platforms (e.g., Google Earth, ArcGIS). We demonstrate this method at the Mammoth Mountain fumarole area on Mammoth Mountain, CA. Time-averaged apparent surface temperatures and radiant hydrothermal heat fluxes were observed up to 73.7 oC and 450 W m-2, respectively, while the estimated radiant hydrothermal heat emission rate from the area was 1.54 kW. Results should provide a basis for monitoring potential volcanic unrest and mitigating hydrothermal heat-related hazards on the volcano.

  2. 16 CFR 1209.6 - Test procedures for critical radiant flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... 1209.6 Section 1209.6 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY... burned to flame-out is converted to W/cm2 from the flux profile graph (Figure 8) and reported as critical... profile determination shall be made of 1.9±0.1 cm (3/4±1/32 in) 0.74 g/cm3 (46 lb/ft3) nominal density...

  3. MU head echo observations of the 2010 Geminids: radiant, orbit, and meteor flux observing biases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kero

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We report Geminid meteor head echo observations with the high-power large-aperture (HPLA Shigaraki middle and upper atmosphere (MU radar in Japan (34.85° N, 136.10° E. The MU radar observation campaign was conducted from 13 December 2010, 08:00 UTC to 15 December, 20:00 UTC and resulted in 48 h of radar data. A total of ~ 270 Geminids were observed among ~ 8800 meteor head echoes with precisely determined orbits. The Geminid head echo activity is consistent with an earlier peak than the visual Geminid activity determined by the International Meteor Organization (IMO. The observed flux of Geminids is a factor of ~ 3 lower than the previously reported flux of the 2009 Orionids measured with an identical MU~radar setup. We use the observed flux ratio to discuss the relation between the head echo mass–velocity selection effect, the mass distribution indices of meteor showers and the mass threshold of the MU radar.

  4. Far-Ultraviolet Absolute Flux of α Virginis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Carmen; Trapero, Joaquín; Gómez, José F.; Giménez, Álvaro; Orozco, Verónica; Bowyer, Stuart; Edelstein, Jerry; Korpela, Eric; Lampton, Michael; Cobb, Jeff

    2000-02-01

    We present the far-ultraviolet spectrum of α Virginis taken with Espectrógrafo Ultravioleta extremo para la Radiación Difusa (EURD) spectrograph on board MINISAT-01. The spectral range covered is from ~900 to 1080 Å with 5 Å spectral resolution. We have fitted Kurucz models to IUE spectra of α Vir and compared the extension of the model to our wavelengths with EURD data. This comparison shows that EURD fluxes are consistent with the prediction of the model within ~20%-30%, depending on the reddening assumed. EURD fluxes are consistent with Voyager observations but are ~60% higher than most previous rocket observations of α Vir. Based on the development and utilization of the Espectrógrafo Ultravioleta de Radiación Difusa, a collaboration of the Spanish Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial and the Center for EUV Astrophysics, University of California, Berkeley.

  5. Radiant and convective heat transfer for flow of a transparent gas in a short tube with prescribed sinusoidal wall heat flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Lemos, M.J.S.

    1982-01-01

    The present analysis accounts for radiant and convective heat transfer for a transparent fluid flowing in a short tube with prescribed wall heat flux. The heat flux distribution used was of sine shape with maximum at the middle of the tube. Such a solution is the approximate one for axial power in a nuclear reactor. The solutions for the tube wall and gas bulk temperatures were obtained by successive substitutions for the wall and gas balance energy equations. The results show a decrease of 30% for the maximum wall temperature using black surface (e = 1). In this same case, the increasing in the gas temperature shows a decrease of 58%

  6. Modification of Human-Biometeorologically Significant Radiant Flux Densities by Shading as Local Method to Mitigate Heat Stress in Summer within Urban Street Canyons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunjung Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing heat will be a significant problem for Central European cities in the future. Shading devices are discussed as a method to mitigate heat stress on citizens. To analyze the physical processes, which are characteristic of shading in terms of urban human-biometeorology, experimental investigations on the thermal effects of shading by a building and shading by tree canopies were conducted in Freiburg (Southwest Germany during typical Central European summer weather. Urban human-biometeorology stands for the variables air temperature Ta, mean radiant temperature Tmrt, and physiologically equivalent temperature PET, that is the human-biometeorological concept to assess the thermal environment which was applied. The measuring setup consists of specific human-biometeorological stations, which enable the direct or indirect determination of Ta, Tmrt, and PET. With respect to both shading devices, the Ta reduction did not exceed 2°C, while PET as a measure for human heat stress was lowered by two thermal sensation steps according to the ASHRAE scale. As Tmrt has the role of a key variable for outdoor thermal comfort during Central European summer weather, all radiant flux densities relevant to the determination of Tmrt were directly measured and analyzed in detail. The results show the crucial significance of the horizontal radiant flux densities for Tmrt and consequently PET.

  7. Measurement of absolute neutron flux in LWSCR based on the nuclear track method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghzadeh, J.; Nassiri Mofakham, N.; Khajehmiri, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Up to now the spectral parameters of thermal neutrons are measured with activation foils that are not always reliable in low flux systems. ► We applied a solid state nuclear track detector to measure the absolute neutron flux in the light water sub-critical reactor (LWSCR). ► Experiments concerning fission track detecting were performed and were investigated using the Monte Carlo code MCNP. ► The neutron fluxes obtained in experiment are in fairly good agreement with the results obtained by MCNP. - Abstract: In the present paper, a solid state nuclear track detector is applied to measure the absolute neutron flux in the light water sub-critical reactor (LWSCR) in Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI). Up to now, the spectral parameters of thermal neutrons have been measured with activation foils that are not always reliable in low flux systems. The method investigated here is the irradiation method. Experiments concerning fission track detecting were performed. The experiment including neutron flux calculation method has also been investigated using the Monte Carlo code MCNP. The analysis shows that the values of neutron flux obtained by experiment are in fairly good agreement with the results obtained by MCNP. Thus, this method may be able to predict the absolute value of neutron flux at LWSCR and other similar reactors.

  8. Wide Dynamic Range Multiband Infrared Radiometer for In-Fire Measurements of Wildland Fire Radiant Flux Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremens, R.; Dickinson, M. B.; Hardy, C.; Skowronski, N.; Ellicott, E. A.; Schroeder, W.

    2016-12-01

    We have developed a wide dynamic range (24-bit) data acquisition system for collection of radiant flux density (FRFD) data from wildland fires. The data collection subsystem was designed as an Arduino `shield' and incorporates a 24-bit analog-to-digital converter, precision voltage reference, real time clock, microSD card interface, audible annuciator and interface for various digital communication interfaces (RS232, I2C, SPI, etc.). The complete radiometer system consists of our custom-designed `shield', a commercially available Arduino MEGA computer circuit board and a thermopile sensor -amplifier daughter board. Software design and development is greatly assisted by the availability of a library of public-domain, user-implemented software. The daughter board houses a 5-band radiometer using thermopiles designed for this experiment (Dexter Research Corp., Dexter, MI) to allow determination of the total FRFD from the fire (using a wide band thermopile with a KRS-5 window, 0.1 - 30 um), the FRFD as would be received by an orbital asset like MODIS (3.95 um center wavelength (CWL) and 10.95 CWL, corresponding to MODIS bands 21/22 and 31, respectively) and wider bandpass (0.1-5.5 um and 8-14 um) corresponding to the FRFD recorded by `MWIR' and `LWIR' imaging systems. We required a very wide dynamic range system in order to be able to record the flux density from `cold' ground before the fire, through the `hot' flaming combustion stage, to the `cool' phase after passage of the fire front. The recording dynamic range required (with reasonable resolution at the lowest temperatures) is on the order of 106, which is not currently available in commercial instrumentation at a price point, size or feature set that is suitable for wildland fire investigations. The entire unit, along with rechargeable battery power supply is housed in a fireproof aluminum chassis box, which is then mounted on a mast at a height of 5 - 7 m above the fireground floor. We will report initial

  9. Flux depression and the absolute measurement of the thermal neutron flux density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensch, Friedrich.

    1977-01-01

    The thermal neutron flux depression in a diffusing medium by an absorbing foil has been treated in numerous papers. The results are re-examined in an attempt to find a uniform and physically meaningful representation of the 'activation correction'. This quantity can be split up into a combination of probabilities. Thus, it is possible to determine the activation correction for any moderator and foil material. Measurements confirm the utility of the concepts introduced

  10. Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document. Volume 3; Cloud Analyses and Determination of Improved Top of Atmosphere Fluxes (Subsystem 4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The theoretical bases for the Release 1 algorithms that will be used to process satellite data for investigation of the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) are described. The architecture for software implementation of the methodologies is outlined. Volume 3 details the advanced CERES methods for performing scene identification and inverting each CERES scanner radiance to a top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) flux. CERES determines cloud fraction, height, phase, effective particle size, layering, and thickness from high-resolution, multispectral imager data. CERES derives cloud properties for each pixel of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) visible and infrared scanner and the Earth Observing System (EOS) moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer. Cloud properties for each imager pixel are convolved with the CERES footprint point spread function to produce average cloud properties for each CERES scanner radiance. The mean cloud properties are used to determine an angular distribution model (ADM) to convert each CERES radiance to a TOA flux. The TOA fluxes are used in simple parameterization to derive surface radiative fluxes. This state-of-the-art cloud-radiation product will be used to substantially improve our understanding of the complex relationship between clouds and the radiation budget of the Earth-atmosphere system.

  11. Estimation of Surface Temperature and Heat Flux by Inverse Heat Transfer Methods Using Internal Temperatures Measured While Radiantly Heating a Carbon/Carbon Specimen up to 1920 F

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzo, Michelle; Daryabeigi, Kamran; Glass, David

    2015-01-01

    The ability to solve the heat conduction equation is needed when designing materials to be used on vehicles exposed to extremely high temperatures; e.g. vehicles used for atmospheric entry or hypersonic flight. When using test and flight data, computational methods such as finite difference schemes may be used to solve for both the direct heat conduction problem, i.e., solving between internal temperature measurements, and the inverse heat conduction problem, i.e., using the direct solution to march forward in space to the surface of the material to estimate both surface temperature and heat flux. The completed research first discusses the methods used in developing a computational code to solve both the direct and inverse heat transfer problems using one dimensional, centered, implicit finite volume schemes and one dimensional, centered, explicit space marching techniques. The developed code assumed the boundary conditions to be specified time varying temperatures and also considered temperature dependent thermal properties. The completed research then discusses the results of analyzing temperature data measured while radiantly heating a carbon/carbon specimen up to 1920 F. The temperature was measured using thermocouple (TC) plugs (small carbon/carbon material specimens) with four embedded TC plugs inserted into the larger carbon/carbon specimen. The purpose of analyzing the test data was to estimate the surface heat flux and temperature values from the internal temperature measurements using direct and inverse heat transfer methods, thus aiding in the thermal and structural design and analysis of high temperature vehicles.

  12. A rare gas optics-free absolute photon flux and energy analyzer to provide absolute photoionization rates of inflowing interstellar neutrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Darrell L.

    1994-01-01

    A prototype spectrometer has been developed for space applications requiring long term absolute EUV photon flux measurements. The energy spectrum of the incoming photons is transformed directly into an electron energy spectrum by taking advantage of the photoelectric effect in one of several rare gases at low pressures. Using an electron energy spectrometer, followed by an electron multiplier detector, pulses due to individual electrons are counted. The overall efficiency of this process can be made essentially independent of gain drifts in the signal path, and the secular degradation of optical components which is often a problem in other techniques is avoided. A very important feature of this approach is its freedom from the problem of overlapping spectral orders that plagues grating EUV spectrometers. An instrument with these features has not been flown before, but is essential to further advances in our understanding of solar EUV flux dynamics, and the coupled dynamics of terrestrial and planetary atmospheres. The detailed characteristics of this optics-free spectrometer are presented in the publications section.

  13. PC based system for absolute neutron flux-spectrum measurements. Final report for the period 1 April 1994 - 15 December 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrea, D.

    1998-01-01

    When measuring absolute neutron flux-spectra, thin detector foils are irradiated in a neutron field. The absolute activity of isotopes generated by activation or fission reactions (fission products) is then measured, using an efficiency calibrated high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy system, and the absolute reaction rates for their production is determined. Finally the flux-spectrum is determined based upon the reaction rate values. A general method to obtain flux-spectra from the reaction rate is the unfolding method. The above process involves computations of photopeak area, reaction rate, flux perturbation corrections and flux-spectrum. The PC's are well suited for the data processing system outlined above. Using available interfaces, the PC's can be involved even in the data acquisition. Graphical facilities allow decision upon the data processing flow

  14. Measurement of the Absolute Proton and Helium Flux at the Top of the Atmosphere using IMAX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menn, W.; Hof, M.; Reimer, O.

    1996-01-01

    The balloon-borne experiment IMAX launched from Lynn Lake, Canada in 1992 has been used to measure the cosmic ray proton and helium spectra from 0.2 GV to approximately 100 GV. The IMAX apparatus was designed to search for antiprotons and light isotopes using a superconducting magnet spectrometer...... with ancillary scintillators, time-of-flight, and aerogel cherenkov detectors. High resolution drift chambers and MWPCs were used as the tracking devices. Using redundant detectors, an extensive examination of the instrument efficiency was carried out. We present the absolute spectra of protons and helium...

  15. The absolute flux of protons and helium at the top of the atmosphere using IMAX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menn, W.; Hof, M.; Reimer, O.

    2000-01-01

    The cosmic-ray proton and helium spectra from 0.2 GeV nucleon(-1) to about 200 GeV nucleon(-1) have been measured with the balloon-borne experiment Isotope Matter-Antimatter Experiment (IMAX) launched from Lynn Lake, Manitoba, Canada, in 1992. IMAX was designed to search for antiprotons and light...... isotopes using a superconducting magnet spectrometer together with scintillators, a time-of-flight system, and Cherenkov detectors. Using redundant detectors, an extensive examination of the instrument efficiency was carried out. We present here the absolute spectra of protons and helium corrected.......15 +/- 1.03) x 10(3)R(-2.79+/-0.08) (m(2) GV s sr)(-1) for helium....

  16. Obtaining absolute spatial flux measurements with a time-resolved pinhole camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, K.L.; Porter, J.L.; Ruggles, L.E.; Fehl, D.L.; Chandler, G.A.; Vargas, M.; Mix, L.P.; Simpson, W.W.; Deeney, C.; Chrien, R.E.; Idzorek, G.C.

    1999-01-01

    A technique is described to determine the spatial x-ray flux emitted from a hohlraum wall and subsequently transmitted through a diagnostic hole. This technique uses x-ray diodes, bolometers, and a time-resolved pinhole camera to determine the spatial flux of x rays emitted through a hohlraum close-quote s diagnostic hole. The primary motivation for this analysis was the relatively long duration, nearly 100 ns, of the x-ray drive present in z-pinch driven hohlraums. This radiation causes plasma to ablate from the hohlraum walls surrounding the diagnostic hole and results in a partial obscuration that reduces the effective area over which diagnostics view the radiation. The effective change in area leads to an underestimation of the wall temperature when nonimaging diagnostics such as x-ray diodes and bolometers are used to determine power and later to infer a wall temperature. An analysis similar to the one described below is then necessary to understand the radiation environment present in x-ray driven hohlraums when these diagnostics are used and hole closure is important. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  17. Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) algorithm theoretical basis document. volume 4; Determination of surface and atmosphere fluxes and temporally and spatially averaged products (subsystems 5-12); Determination of surface and atmosphere fluxes and temporally and spatially averaged products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator); Barkstrom, Bruce R. (Principal Investigator); Baum, Bryan A.; Charlock, Thomas P.; Green, Richard N.; Lee, Robert B., III; Minnis, Patrick; Smith, G. Louis; Coakley, J. A.; Randall, David R.

    1995-01-01

    The theoretical bases for the Release 1 algorithms that will be used to process satellite data for investigation of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) are described. The architecture for software implementation of the methodologies is outlined. Volume 4 details the advanced CERES techniques for computing surface and atmospheric radiative fluxes (using the coincident CERES cloud property and top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) flux products) and for averaging the cloud properties and TOA, atmospheric, and surface radiative fluxes over various temporal and spatial scales. CERES attempts to match the observed TOA fluxes with radiative transfer calculations that use as input the CERES cloud products and NOAA National Meteorological Center analyses of temperature and humidity. Slight adjustments in the cloud products are made to obtain agreement of the calculated and observed TOA fluxes. The computed products include shortwave and longwave fluxes from the surface to the TOA. The CERES instantaneous products are averaged on a 1.25-deg latitude-longitude grid, then interpolated to produce global, synoptic maps to TOA fluxes and cloud properties by using 3-hourly, normalized radiances from geostationary meteorological satellites. Surface and atmospheric fluxes are computed by using these interpolated quantities. Clear-sky and total fluxes and cloud properties are then averaged over various scales.

  18. A rare gas optics-free absolute photon flux and energy analyzer for solar and planetary observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Darrell L.

    1994-01-01

    We have developed a prototype spectrometer for space applications requiring long term absolute EUV photon flux measurements. In this recently developed spectrometer, the energy spectrum of the incoming photons is transformed directly into an electron energy spectrum by taking advantage of the photoelectric effect in one of several rare gases at low pressures. Using an electron energy spectrometer, followed by an electron multiplier detector, pulses due to individual electrons are counted. The overall efficiency of this process can be made essentially independent of gain drifts in the signal path, and the secular degradation of optical components which is often a problem in other techniques is avoided. A very important feature of this approach is its freedom from the problem of overlapping spectral orders that plagues grating EUV spectrometers. An instrument with these features has not been flown before, but is essential to further advances in our understanding of solar EUV flux dynamics, and the coupled dynamics of terrestrial and planetary atmospheres. The detailed characteristics of this optics-free spectrometer are presented in the publications section.

  19. Radiant Floor Cooling Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2008-01-01

    In many countries, hydronic radiant floor systems are widely used for heating all types of buildings such as residential, churches, gymnasiums, hospitals, hangars, storage buildings, industrial buildings, and smaller offices. However, few systems are used for cooling.This article describes a floor...

  20. SYSTEMATIC UNCERTAINTIES IN THE SPECTROSCOPIC MEASUREMENTS OF NEUTRON STAR MASSES AND RADII FROM THERMONUCLEAR X-RAY BURSTS. III. ABSOLUTE FLUX CALIBRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Güver, Tolga [Istanbul University, Science Faculty, Department of Astronomy and Space Sciences, Beyazıt, 34119, Istanbul (Turkey); Özel, Feryal; Psaltis, Dimitrios [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Marshall, Herman [Center for Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Guainazzi, Matteo [European Space Astronomy Centre of ESA, P.O. Box 78, Villanueva de la Cañada, E-28691 Madrid (Spain); Díaz-Trigo, Maria [ESO, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany)

    2016-09-20

    Many techniques for measuring neutron star radii rely on absolute flux measurements in the X-rays. As a result, one of the fundamental uncertainties in these spectroscopic measurements arises from the absolute flux calibrations of the detectors being used. Using the stable X-ray burster, GS 1826–238, and its simultaneous observations by Chandra HETG/ACIS-S and RXTE /PCA as well as by XMM-Newton EPIC-pn and RXTE /PCA, we quantify the degree of uncertainty in the flux calibration by assessing the differences between the measured fluxes during bursts. We find that the RXTE /PCA and the Chandra gratings measurements agree with each other within their formal uncertainties, increasing our confidence in these flux measurements. In contrast, XMM-Newton EPIC-pn measures 14.0 ± 0.3% less flux than the RXTE /PCA. This is consistent with the previously reported discrepancy with the flux measurements of EPIC-pn, compared with EPIC MOS1, MOS2, and ACIS-S detectors. We also show that any intrinsic time-dependent systematic uncertainty that may exist in the calibration of the satellites has already been implicity taken into account in the neutron star radius measurements.

  1. Radiant heat loss versus radiant heat gain in premature neonates under radiant warmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, S

    1990-01-01

    Premature infants nursed on open radiant warmer beds are exposed to short-wavelength infrared power density distributed evenly over the bed surface. Additionally, infants' sides are exposed to relatively cooler nursery walls, and to the radiant warmer bed platform which may heat and reradiate to the baby. Therefore, infants may not only gain heat from the warmer (Q radiant warmer) but lose or gain radiant heat to the sides as well (+/- Q radiant loss). In order to quantitate these parameters, ten premature newborn infants nursed under radiant warmers servocontrolled to 36.5 degrees C skin temperature (weight 1.27 +/- 0.24 SD kg, gestation 31 +/- 3 weeks) were investigated, and partitional calorimetry previously reported. In the present study, calculation of net rate of radiant heat transfer (Q net radiant) was made from these data (-2.63 +/- -1.52 kcal/kg/h), and compared to direct measurements of Q radiant warmer (-2.49 +/- -0.90 kcal/kg/h). The present report further partitions net radiant heat transfer to evaluate Q radiant loss: -0.13 +/- 1.82 kcal/kg/h (range -3.16 to 1.93). From these calculations mean radiant temperature of this environment was estimated (45.3 +/- 4.3 degrees C) and compared to the radiant warmer temperature received (45.0 +/- 2.9 degrees C). This information suggests other strategies to reduce radiant heat loss as well as convective and evaporative losses in premature neonates nursed on open radiant warmer beds.

  2. Simulation study of a geometric shape factor technique for estimating earth-emitted radiant flux densities from wide-field-of-view radiation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, W. L.; Green, R. N.

    1980-01-01

    Geometric shape factors were computed and applied to satellite simulated irradiance measurements to estimate Earth emitted flux densities for global and zonal scales and for areas smaller than the detector field of view (FOV). Wide field of view flat plate detectors were emphasized, but spherical detectors were also studied. The radiation field was modeled after data from the Nimbus 2 and 3 satellites. At a satellite altitude of 600 km, zonal estimates were in error 1.0 to 1.2 percent and global estimates were in error less than 0.2 percent. Estimates with unrestricted field of view (UFOV) detectors were about the same for Lambertian and limb darkening radiation models. The opposite was found for restricted field of view detectors. The UFOV detectors are found to be poor estimators of flux density from the total FOV and are shown to be much better as estimators of flux density from a circle centered at the FOV with an area significantly smaller than that for the total FOV.

  3. Absolute measurements of fluxes from Cassiopeia A, Cygnus A, Taurus A, Virgo A at seven wavelengths in the 1.8-4.2 cm band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitrenko, L.V.; Snegireva, V.V.; Turchin, V.I.; Tsejtlin, N.M.; Voronkov, L.A.; Dmitrenko, D.A.; Kuznetsova, N.A.; Kholodilov, N.N.

    1981-01-01

    Results of absolute measurements of fluxes from Cassiopeia A, Cygnus A, Taurus A, Virgo A at 1.8-4.17 cm wavelengths are presented. Spectra are built in the wave range of 1.8-100 cm with the use of results obtained earlier. Variability has been detected in radiation of Taurus A as well as ''steps'' in the spectrum of Taurus A with the spectral index α=0 in the region of 2 cm and 3-4 cm [ru

  4. Absolute measurements of the thermal neutron flux by the foil activation method using the 4πβ-γ coincidence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranda Amado Furieri, R.C. de.

    1977-12-01

    An analysis of the correction factors required for the β-γ coincidence method is presented together with a listing of the various formulae involved in the determination of radioactive sources. The detection system including the activation detectores are described and the results are shown for the absolute measurements of thermal neutron flux carried out in the core of the Argonaut Reactor, at Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Brazil. (Author) [pt

  5. Thermal model of attic systems with radiant barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkes, K.E.

    1991-07-01

    This report summarizes the first phase of a project to model the thermal performance of radiant barriers. The objective of this phase of the project was to develop a refined model for the thermal performance of residential house attics, with and without radiant barriers, and to verify the model by comparing its predictions against selected existing experimental thermal performance data. Models for the thermal performance of attics with and without radiant barriers have been developed and implemented on an IBM PC/AT computer. The validity of the models has been tested by comparing their predictions with ceiling heat fluxes measured in a number of laboratory and field experiments on attics with and without radiant barriers. Cumulative heat flows predicted by the models were usually within about 5 to 10 percent of measured values. In future phases of the project, the models for attic/radiant barrier performance will be coupled with a whole-house model and further comparisons with experimental data will be made. Following this, the models will be utilized to provide an initial assessment of the energy savings potential of radiant barriers in various configurations and under various climatic conditions. 38 refs., 14 figs., 22 tabs.

  6. The final power calibration of the IPEN/MB-01 nuclear reactor for various configurations obtained from the measurements of the absolute average neutron flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Alexandre Fonseca Povoa da, E-mail: alexandre.povoa@mar.mil.br [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Bitelli, Ulysses d' Utra; Mura, Luiz Ernesto Credidio; Lima, Ana Cecilia de Souza; Betti, Flavio; Santos, Diogo Feliciano dos, E-mail: ubitelli@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The use of neutron activation foils is a widely spread technique applied to obtain nuclear parameters then comparing the results with those calculated using specific methodologies and available nuclear data. By irradiation of activation foils and subsequent measurement of its induced activity, it is possible to determine the neutron flux at the position of irradiation. The power level during operation of the reactor is a parameter which is directly proportional to the average neutron flux throughout the core. The objective of this work is to gather data from irradiation of gold foils symmetrically placed along a cylindrically configured core which presents only a small excess reactivity in order to derive the power generated throughout the spatial thermal and epithermal neutron flux distribution over the core of the IPEN/MB-01 Nuclear Reactor, eventually lending to a proper calibration of its nuclear channels. The foils are fixed in a Lucite plate then irradiated with and without cadmium sheaths so as to obtain the absolute thermal and epithermal neutron flux. The correlation between the average power neutron flux resulting from the gold foils irradiation, and the average power digitally indicated by the nuclear channel number 6, allows for the calibration of the nuclear channels of the reactor. The reactor power level obtained by thermal neutron flux mapping was (74.65 ± 2.45) watts to a mean counting per seconds of 37881 cps to nuclear channel number 10 a pulse detector, and 0.719.10{sup -5} ampere to nuclear linear channel number 6 (a non-compensated ionization chamber). (author)

  7. Self-Powered Neutron Detector Qualification for Absolute On-Line In-Pile Neutron Flux Measurements in BR2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeeren, L.; Wéber, M.

    2003-06-01

    A set of ten Self-Powered Neutron Detectors with Co, Rh and Ag emitters has been irradiated in several channels of the BR2 research reactor at SCK•CEN aiming at a comparison of their performance as thermal neutron flux detectors under various conditions. To allow for a correct interpretation of their signals, all detector sensitivity contributions (prompt and delayed) were calculated using a dedicated Monte Carlo model. The various contributions were also measured separately; the agreement between calculated and experimental data, including data from activation dosimetry, was excellent. Detailed neutron flux profiles were obtained from the SPND data, after correction for the finite detector lengths and for the slow response of delayed SPNDs.

  8. Dependence of absolute photon flux on infrared absorbance alteration and surface roughness on photoresist polymers irradiated with vacuum ultraviolet photons emitted from HBr plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Takeuchi, Takuya; Ishikawa, Kenji; Hayashi, Toshio; Takeda, Keigo; Sekine, Makoto; Hori, Masaru

    2017-12-01

    The absolute fluxes of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photons emitted from HBr plasma were analyzed and the effects of VUV photons on a photoresist polymer in ArF-excimer-laser (193 nm) lithography were quantitatively investigated on the basis of the infrared spectra attributed to the C=O region. The spectral peak intensity assigned to the methacrylic acid (MAA) in the photoresist drastically decreased owing to the loss of this monomer caused by the irradiation of VUV photons at dosages below 16 × 1016 photons/cm2. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy observation showed that the removed monomer moved to the surface and generated volatile products that induced a decrease in film thickness. As a consequence, the surface became rough during the early-stage irradiation at dosages lower than 16 × 1016 photons/cm2 owing to the monomer loss of MAA with volatile product formation and subsequent cross-linking reactions.

  9. Radiant Heating and Cooling Systems. Part one

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Kwan Woo; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2015-01-01

    The use of radiant heating systems has several thousand years of history.1,2 The early stage of radiant system application was for heating purposes, where hot air from flue gas (cooking, fires) was circulated under floors or in walls. After the introduction of plastic piping water-based radiant h...... installations. For similar reasons, as well as possible peak load reduction and energy savings, radiant systems are being widely applied in commercial and industrial buildings....

  10. Radiant cooling of an enclosure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chebihi, Abdeslam; Byun, Ki-Hong; Wen Jin; Smith, Theodore F.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the potential for radiant cooling using the atmospheric sky window and to evaluate the desired characteristics of a radiant cooling material (RCM) applied to the ceiling window of a three-dimensional enclosure. The thermal characteristics of the system are governed by the geometry, ambient temperature, sky radiative temperature, amount of solar energy and its direction, heat transfer modes, wall radiative properties, and radiative properties of the RCMs. A semi-gray band analysis is utilized for the solar and infrared bands. The radiosity/irradiation method is used in each band to evaluate the radiant exchanges in the enclosure. The radiative properties for the RCM are varied in a parametric study to identify the desired properties of RCMs. For performance simulation of real RCMs, the radiative properties are calculated from spectral data. The desired solar property is a high reflectance for both opaque and semi-transparent RCMs. For a semi-transparent RCM, a low value of the solar transmittance is preferred. The desired infrared property is a high emittance for an opaque RCM. For a semi-transparent RCM, a high infrared transmittance is desired, and the emittance should be greater than zero

  11. Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator); Barkstrom, Bruce R. (Principal Investigator)

    The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is a key component of the Earth Observing System (EOS) program. The CERES instrument provides radiometric measurements of the Earth's atmosphere from three broadband channels. The CERES missions are a follow-on to the successful Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) mission. The first CERES instrument (PFM) was launched on November 27, 1997, as part of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Two CERES instruments (FM1 and FM2) were launched into polar orbit on board the EOS flagship Terra on December 18, 1999, and two additional CERES instruments (FM3 and FM4) were launched on board EOS Aqua on May 4,2002. [Mission Objectives] The scientific justification for the CERES measurements can be summarized by three assertions: (1) changes in the radiative energy balance of the Earth-atmosphere system can cause long-term climate changes (e.g., carbon dioxide inducing global warming); (2) besides the systematic diurnal and seasonal cycles of incoming solar energy, changes in cloud properties (amount, height, optical thickness) cause the largest changes of the Earth's radiative energy balance; and (3) cloud physics is one of the weakest components of current climate models used to predict potential global climate change. CERES has four main objectives: 1) For climate change analysis, provide a continuation of the ERBE record of radiative fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA), analyzed using the same algorithms that produced the ERBE data. 2) Double the accuracy of estimates of radiative fluxes at TOA and the Earth's surface. 3) Provide the first long-term global estimates of the radiative fluxes within the Earth's atmosphere. 4) Provide cloud property estimates that are consistent with the radiative fluxes from surface to TOA. [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180].

  12. Radiant Heating and Cooling Systems. Part one

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Kwan Woo; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2015-01-01

    The use of radiant heating systems has several thousand years of history.1,2 The early stage of radiant system application was for heating purposes, where hot air from flue gas (cooking, fires) was circulated under floors or in walls. After the introduction of plastic piping water-based radiant...... heating and cooling with pipes embedded in room surfaces (floor, wall, and ceiling), the application increased significantly worldwide. Earlier application of radiant heating systems was mainly for residential buildings because of its comfort and free use of floor space without any obstruction from...

  13. Experimental evaluation of an active solar thermoelectric radiant wall system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, ZhongBing; Zhang, Ling; Gong, GuangCai; Han, TianHe

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel active solar thermoelectric radiant wall are proposed and tested. • The novel wall can control thermal flux of building envelope by using solar energy. • The novel wall can eliminate building envelop thermal loads and provide cooling capacity for space cooling. • Typical application issues including connection strategies, coupling with PV system etc. are discussed. - Abstract: Active solar thermoelectric radiant wall (ASTRW) system is a new solar wall technology which integrates thermoelectric radiant cooling and photovoltaic (PV) technologies. In ASTRW system, a PV system transfers solar energy directly into electrical energy to power thermoelectric cooling modes. Both the thermoelectric cooling modes and PV system are integrated into one enclosure surface as radiant panel for space cooling and heating. Hence, ASTRW system presents fundamental shift from minimizing building envelope energy losses by optimizing the insulation thickness to a new regime where active solar envelop is designed to eliminate thermal loads and increase the building’s solar gains while providing occupant comfort in all seasons. This article presents an experimental study of an ASTRW system with a dimension of 1580 × 810 mm. Experimental results showed that the inner surface temperature of the ASTRW is 3–8 °C lower than the indoor temperature of the test room, which indicated that the ASTRW system has the ability to control thermal flux of building envelope by using solar energy and reduce the air conditioning system requirements. Based on the optimal operating current of TE modules and the analysis based upon PV modeling theories, the number and type of the electrical connections for the TE modules in ASTRW system are discussed in order to get an excellent performance in the operation of the ASTRW system

  14. Flux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    . FLUX betegner en flyden eller strømmen, dvs. dynamik. Forstår man livet som proces og udvikling i stedet for som ting og mekanik, får man et andet billede af det gode liv end det, som den velkendte vestlige mekanicisme lægger op til. Dynamisk forstået indebærer det gode liv den bedst mulige...... kanalisering af den flux eller energi, der strømmer igennem os og giver sig til kende i vore daglige aktiviteter. Skal vores tanker, handlinger, arbejde, samvær og politiske liv organiseres efter stramme og faste regelsæt, uden slinger i valsen? Eller skal de tværtimod forløbe ganske uhindret af regler og bånd...

  15. Mean radiant temperature in idealised urban canyons--examples from Freiburg, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Jan; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Studies on the thermal comfort of humans in urban areas require meteorological data such as air temperature, air humidity, wind speed, and short- and long-wave fluxes. In such studies radiation fluxes can be expressed by the mean radiant temperature--a parameter with high variability in urban areas due to variability in global radiation. Wind speed in urban areas is influenced by urban obstacles and their orientation. Both mean radiant temperature and wind speed can be modified or changed by different height-to-width ratios or orientation of urban structures. Modifications to these parameters by typical urban structures (represented by the height-to-width ratio) can result in variation of mean radiant temperature over a range of more than 30°C, which can correspond to three levels of thermal stress. The results presented here provide a possible means of comparing different urban configurations in different climate regions.

  16. Mean radiant temperature in idealised urban canyons—examples from Freiburg, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Jan; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Studies on the thermal comfort of humans in urban areas require meteorological data such as air temperature, air humidity, wind speed, and short- and long-wave fluxes. In such studies radiation fluxes can be expressed by the mean radiant temperature—a parameter with high variability in urban areas due to variability in global radiation. Wind speed in urban areas is influenced by urban obstacles and their orientation. Both mean radiant temperature and wind speed can be modified or changed by different height-to-width ratios or orientation of urban structures. Modifications to these parameters by typical urban structures (represented by the height-to-width ratio) can result in variation of mean radiant temperature over a range of more than 30°C, which can correspond to three levels of thermal stress. The results presented here provide a possible means of comparing different urban configurations in different climate regions.

  17. Validation of absolute axial neutron flux distribution calculations with MCNP with 197Au(n,γ)198Au reaction rate distribution measurements at the JSI TRIGA Mark II reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulović, Vladimir; Štancar, Žiga; Snoj, Luka; Trkov, Andrej

    2014-02-01

    The calculation of axial neutron flux distributions with the MCNP code at the JSI TRIGA Mark II reactor has been validated with experimental measurements of the (197)Au(n,γ)(198)Au reaction rate. The calculated absolute reaction rate values, scaled according to the reactor power and corrected for the flux redistribution effect, are in good agreement with the experimental results. The effect of different cross-section libraries on the calculations has been investigated and shown to be minor. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Radiant vessel auxiliary cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germer, John H.

    1987-01-01

    In a modular liquid-metal pool breeder reactor, a radiant vessel auxiliary cooling system is disclosed for removing the residual heat resulting from the shutdown of a reactor by a completely passive heat transfer system. A shell surrounds the reactor and containment vessel, separated from the containment vessel by an air passage. Natural circulation of air is provided by air vents at the lower and upper ends of the shell. Longitudinal, radial and inwardly extending fins extend from the shell into the air passage. The fins are heated by radiation from the containment vessel and convect the heat to the circulating air. Residual heat from the primary reactor vessel is transmitted from the reactor vessel through an inert gas plenum to a guard or containment vessel designed to contain any leaking coolant. The containment vessel is conventional and is surrounded by the shell.

  19. Radiant heat transfers in turbojet engines. Two applications, three levels of modeling; Transferts radiatifs dans les foyers de turboreacteurs. Deux applications, trois niveaux de modelisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, J.L.; Desaulty, M. [SNECMA, Centre de Villaroche, 77 - Moissy-Cramayel (France); Taine, J. [Ecole Centrale de Paris, Laboratoire EM2C. CNRS, 92 - Chatenay-Malabry (France)

    1996-12-31

    Several applications linked with the dimensioning of turbojet engines require the use of modeling of radiant heat transfers. Two different applications are presented in this study: the modeling of heat transfers in the main combustion chamber, and modeling of the infrared signature of the post-combustion chamber of a military engine. In the first application, two types of radiant heat transfer modeling are presented: a global modeling based on empirical considerations and used in rapid pre-dimensioning methods, and a modeling based on a grey gases concept and combined to a ray shooting type technique allowing the determination of local radiant heat flux values. In the second application, a specific modeling of the radiant heat flux is used in the framework of a ray shooting method. Each model represents a different level of successive approximations of the radiant heat transfer adapted to flow specificities and to the performance requested. (J.S.) 16 refs.

  20. Conversion of radiant light energy in photobioreactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornet, J.F.; Dussap, C.G.; Gros, J.B. (Univ. Blase Pascal, Aubiere (France). Lab. de Genie Chimique Biologique)

    1994-06-01

    The conversion of radiant light energy into chemical affinity by microorganisms in photobioreactors is examined. The kinetics of entropy production in the system is theoretically established from entropy and energy balances for the material and photonic phases in the reactor. A negative chemical affinity term compensated for by a radiant energy term at a higher level of energy characterizes photosynthetic organisms. The local volumetric rate of radiant light energy absorbed, which appears in the dissipation function as an irreversible term, is calculated for monodimensional approximations providing analytical solutions and for general tridimensional equations requiring the solution of a new numerical algorithm. Solutions for the blue-green alga Spirulina platensis cultivated in photoreactors with different geometries and light energy inputs are compared. Thermodynamic efficiency of the photosynthesis is calculated. The highest value of 15% found for low radiant energy absorption rates corresponds to a maximum quantum yield in the reactor.

  1. Radiant recuperator modelling and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Suzana D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recuperators are frequently used in glass production and metallurgical processes to preheat combustion air by heat exchange with high temperature flue gases. Mass and energy balances of a 15 m high, concurrent radiant recuperator used in a glass fiber production process are given. The balances are used: for validation of a cell modeling method that predicts the performance of different recuperator designs, and for finding a simple solution to improve the existing recuperator. Three possible solutions are analyzed: to use the existing recuperator as a countercurrent one, to add an extra cylinder over the existing construction, and to make a system that consists of a central pipe and two concentric annular ducts. In the latter, two air streams flow in opposite directions, whereas air in the inner annular passage flows concurrently or countercurrently to flue gases. Compared with the concurrent recuperator, the countercurrent has only one drawback: the interface temperature is higher at the bottom. The advantages are: lower interface temperature at the top where the material is under maximal load, higher efficiency, and smaller pressure drop. Both concurrent and countercurrent double pipe-in-pipe systems are only slightly more efficient than pure concurrent and countercurrent recuperators, respectively. Their advantages are smaller interface temperatures whereas the disadvantages are their costs and pressure drops. To implement these solutions, the average velocities should be: for flue gas around 5 m/s, for air in the first passage less than 2 m/s, and for air in the second passage more than 25 m/s. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. EE 33027

  2. Absolute Summ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Alfred, Jr.

    Summ means the entirety of the multiverse. It seems clear, from the inflation theories of A. Guth and others, that the creation of many universes is plausible. We argue that Absolute cosmological ideas, not unlike those of I. Newton, may be consistent with dynamic multiverse creations. As suggested in W. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and with the Anthropic Principle defended by S. Hawking, et al., human consciousness, buttressed by findings of neuroscience, may have to be considered in our models. Predictability, as A. Einstein realized with Invariants and General Relativity, may be required for new ideas to be part of physics. We present here a two postulate model geared to an Absolute Summ. The seedbed of this work is part of Akhnaton's philosophy (see S. Freud, Moses and Monotheism). Most important, however, is that the structure of human consciousness, manifest in Kenya's Rift Valley 200,000 years ago as Homo sapiens, who were the culmination of the six million year co-creation process of Hominins and Nature in Africa, allows us to do the physics that we do. .

  3. T2K off-axis near detector νμ flux measurement and absolute momentum scale calibration of the off-axis near detector tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaszczyk, F.

    2011-09-01

    In this thesis we present the results from the ν μ energy spectrum measurement at T2K's near detector and T2K's near detector tracker absolute momentum scale calibration. First we review the main historical steps and the current state of the art of neutrino physics as well as the theoretical framework required to understand the thesis physics analyses presented later on. In particular we focus on the neutrino oscillation parametrization and the neutrino-matter interaction models. We then describe T2K, an off-axis long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment in Japan which consists of a muon neutrino beam sent from J-PARC to Super- Kamiokande, with a magnetized near detector located at 280 m from the neutrino production site. T2K's main goals are measuring the last unknown angle of the PMNS matrix θ 13 through the search of ν e appearance in the ν μ beam and measuring precisely the atmospheric parameters through muon neutrino disappearance. We briefly describe the detectors, in particular the near detector tracker and its performance. We then present the analyses tools, such as the reconstruction techniques used and how the neutrino charged current interaction events needed for the energy spectrum measurement are selected. The main goal of the thesis, the muon neutrino energy spectrum measurement done with the first T2K data is explained next. We give the motivations for such measurement, the results obtained with the first T2K data sample, and the different systematic errors studied. Finally, the absolute momentum scale calibration of T2K's near detector tractor, done through the reconstruction of the neutral kaon invariant mass, is explained. (author)

  4. Measurement of radiant properties of ceramic foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoornstra, J.; Turecky, M.; Maatman, D.

    1994-07-01

    An experimental facility is described for the measurement of the normal spectral and total emissivity and transmissivity of semi-transparent materials in the temperature range of 600 C to 1200 C. The set-up was used for the measurement of radiation properties of highly porous ceramic foam which is used in low NO x radiant burners. Emissivity and transmissivity data were measured and are presented for coated and uncoated ceramic foam of different thicknesses. (orig.)

  5. Radiant heat and thermal comfort in vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devonshire, Joel M; Sayer, James R

    2005-01-01

    Infrared-reflective (IRR) treatment of automotive glass has been shown to reduce air temperature in vehicle cabins, thereby increasing fuel economy and occupant comfort. Its effect on radiant heat, however, may augment these benefits. In this study, the hypothesis that radiant heat affects subjective comfort ratings in a vehicle was tested. IRR films were systematically applied to the driver-side window of an outdoor stationary vehicle. In Phase 1, cabin air temperature was controlled while participants rated their thermal comfort. In Phase 2, air temperature was adjusted according to participants' responses. Results in Phase 1 showed that the IRR treatment improved thermal comfort on the left forearm, which was exposed to direct solar irradiance, but not whole-body thermal comfort. In Phase 2, participants indicated that they were comfortable at a higher air temperature (mean of 2.5 degrees F [1.4 degrees C]) with the IRR treatment than in the untreated condition. The results indicate that reducing radiant heat via IRR treatment affects subjective assessments of thermal comfort and allows occupants to maintain the same level of comfort in a warmer vehicle cabin. Applications of this research include future implementations of IRR treatment on automotive glass that may lead to greater fuel economy savings and occupant comfort than have previously been estimated.

  6. Radiant non-catalytic recuperative reformer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khinkis, Mark J.; Kozlov, Aleksandr P.

    2017-10-31

    A radiant, non-catalytic recuperative reformer has a flue gas flow path for conducting hot exhaust gas from a thermal process and a reforming mixture flow path for conducting a reforming mixture. At least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path is positioned adjacent to the flue gas flow path to permit heat transfer from the hot exhaust gas to the reforming mixture. The reforming mixture flow path contains substantially no material commonly used as a catalyst for reforming hydrocarbon fuel (e.g., nickel oxide, platinum group elements or rhenium), but instead the reforming mixture is reformed into a higher calorific fuel via reactions due to the heat transfer and residence time. In a preferred embodiment, a portion of the reforming mixture flow path is positioned outside of flue gas flow path for a relatively large residence time.

  7. Bi-radiant oven: a low-energy oven system. Volume I. Development and assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeWitt, D.P.; Peart, M.V.

    1980-04-01

    The Bi-Radiant Oven system has three important features which provide improved performance. First, the cavity walls are highly reflective rather than absorptive thereby allowing these surfaces to operate at cooler temperatures. Second, the heating elements, similar in construction to those in a conventional oven, but operating at much lower temperatures, provide a prescribed, balanced radiant flux to the top and bottom surfaces of the food product. And third, the baking and roasting utensil has a highly absorptive finish. Instrumentation and methods of measurements have been developed for obtaining the important oven and food parameters during baking: wall, oven air, food and element temperatures; food mass loss rate; irradiance distribution; and convection heat flux. Observations on an experimental oven are presented and discussed. Thermal models relating the irradiance distribution to oven parameters have been compared with measurements using a new heat flux gage developed for the project. Using the DOE recommended test procedures, oven efficiencies of 20 to 23% have been measured. The heating requirements have been determined for seven food types: biscuits, meat loaf, baked foods, apple crisp, cornbread, macaroni and cheese casserole, and cheese souffle. Comparison of energy use with a conventional electric oven shows that energy savings greater than 50% can be realized. Detailed energy balances have been performed on two foods - beef roasts and yellow cake. Consideration of consumer acceptability of this new oven concept have been addressed.

  8. Radiant heat transfer of bicycle helmets and visors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brühwiler, Paul A

    2008-08-01

    Twenty-six bicycle helmets and their associated visors were characterized for radiant heat transfer using a thermal manikin headform in a climate chamber to assess their ability to protect the wearer from heating by the sun. A single configuration for applied radiant flow of 9.3 W was used to assess the roles of the forward and upper vents and the visor. The helmets shielded 50-75% of the radiant heating without a visor and 65-85% with one. Twenty-three visors were shown to result in a relevant reduction of radiant heating of the face (>0.5 W), with 15 reaching approximately 1 W. Heating of the visor and/or helmet and subsequent heating of the air flowing into the helmet was nevertheless found to be a relevant effect in many cases, suggesting that simple measures like reflective upper surfaces could noticeably improve the radiant heat rejection without changing the helmet structure. The forward vents in the helmets that allow the transmission of radiant heat are often important for forced convection, so that minimizing radiant heating geneally reduces the maximization of forced convective heat loss for current helmets.

  9. Performance of Different Light Sources for the Absolute Calibration of Radiation Thermometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, M. J.; Mantilla, J. M.; del Campo, D.; Hernanz, M. L.; Pons, A.; Campos, J.

    2017-09-01

    The evolving mise en pratique for the definition of the kelvin (MeP-K) [1, 2] will, in its forthcoming edition, encourage the realization and dissemination of the thermodynamic temperature either directly (primary thermometry) or indirectly (relative primary thermometry) via fixed points with assigned reference thermodynamic temperatures. In the last years, the Centro Español de Metrología (CEM), in collaboration with the Instituto de Óptica of Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (IO-CSIC), has developed several setups for absolute calibration of standard radiation thermometers using the radiance method to allow CEM the direct dissemination of the thermodynamic temperature and the assignment of the thermodynamic temperatures to several fixed points. Different calibration facilities based on a monochromator and/or a laser and an integrating sphere have been developed to calibrate CEM's standard radiation thermometers (KE-LP2 and KE-LP4) and filter radiometer (FIRA2). This system is based on the one described in [3] placed in IO-CSIC. Different light sources have been tried and tested for measuring absolute spectral radiance responsivity: a Xe-Hg 500 W lamp, a supercontinuum laser NKT SuperK-EXR20 and a diode laser emitting at 6473 nm with a typical maximum power of 120 mW. Their advantages and disadvantages have been studied such as sensitivity to interferences generated by the laser inside the filter, flux stability generated by the radiant sources and so forth. This paper describes the setups used, the uncertainty budgets and the results obtained for the absolute temperatures of Cu, Co-C, Pt-C and Re-C fixed points, measured with the three thermometers with central wavelengths around 650 nm.

  10. Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is a key component of the Earth Observing System (EOS) program. The CERES instruments provide radiometric...

  11. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF CEILING RADIANT COOLING SYSTEM IN COMPOSITE CLIMATE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Anuj [Malaviya National Institute of Technology (MNIT), Jaipur, India; Mathur, Jyotirmay [Malaviya National Institute of Technology (MNIT), Jaipur, India; Bhandari, Mahabir S [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Radiant cooling systems are proving to be an energy efficient solution due to higher thermal capacity of cooling fluid especially for the buildings that require individual zone controls and where the latent loads are moderate. The Conventional air conditioners work at very low temperature i.e.5-8 c (refrigerant evaporator inlet) while the radiant cooling systems, also referred as high temperature cooling system, work at high temperatures i.e. 14-18 c. The radiant cooling systems can maintain lower MRT (Mean Radiant Temperature) as ceiling panels maintain uniform temperature gradient inside room and provide higher human comfort. The radiant cooling systems are relatively new systems and their operation and energy savings potential are not quantified for a large number of buildings and operational parameters. Moreover, there are only limited numbers of whole building simulation studies have been carried out for these systems to have a full confidence in the capability of modelling tools to simulate these systems and predict the impact of various operating parameters. Theoretically, savings achieve due to higher temperature set point of chilled water, which reduces chiller-running time. However, conventional air conditioner runs continuously to maintain requisite temperature. In this paper, experimental study for performance evaluation of radiant cooling system carried out on system installed at Malaviya National Institute of Technology Jaipur. This paper quantifies the energy savings opportunities and effective temperature by radiant cooling system at different chilled water flow rates and temperature range. The data collected/ analysed through experimental study will used for calibration and validation of system model of building prepared in building performance simulation software. This validated model used for exploring optimized combinations of key parameters for composite climate. These optimized combinations will used in formulation of radiant cooling system

  12. Error analysis of thermocouple measurements in the Radiant Heat Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakos, J.T.; Strait, B.G.

    1980-12-01

    The measurement most frequently made in the Radiant Heat Facility is temperature, and the transducer which is used almost exclusively is the thermocouple. Other methods, such as resistance thermometers and thermistors, are used but very rarely. Since a majority of the information gathered at Radiant Heat is from thermocouples, a reasonable measure of the quality of the measurements made at the facility is the accuracy of the thermocouple temperature data

  13. An experimental investigation devoted to determine heat transfer characteristics in a radiant ceiling heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koca, Aliihsan; Acikgoz, Ozgen; Çebi, Alican; Çetin, Gürsel; Dalkilic, Ahmet Selim; Wongwises, Somchai

    2018-02-01

    Investigations on heated ceiling method can be considered as a new research area in comparison to the common wall heating-cooling and cooled ceiling methods. In this work, heat transfer characteristics of a heated radiant ceiling system was investigated experimentally. There were different configurations for a single room design in order to determine the convective and radiative heat transfer rates. Almost all details on the arrangement of the test chamber, hydraulic circuit and radiant panels, the measurement equipment and experimental method including uncertainty analysis were revealed in detail indicating specific international standards. Total heat transfer amount from the panels were calculated as the sum of radiation to the unheated surfaces, convection to the air, and conduction heat loss from the backside of the panels. Integral expression of the view factors was calculated by means of the numerical evaluations using Matlab code. By means of this experimental chamber, the radiative, convective and total heat-transfer coefficient values along with the heat flux values provided from the ceiling to the unheated surrounding surfaces have been calculated. Moreover, the details of 28 different experimental case study measurements from the experimental chamber including the convective, radiative and total heat flux, and heat output results are given in a Table for other researchers to validate their theoretical models and empirical correlations.

  14. Solar radiation, phytoplankton pigments and the radiant heating of the equatorial Pacific warm pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, David A.; Ohlmann, J. Carter; Washburn, Libe; Bidigare, Robert R.; Nosse, Craig T.; Fields, Erik; Zhou, Yimei

    1995-01-01

    Recent optical, physical, and biological oceanographic observations are used to assess the magnitude and variability of the penetrating flux of solar radiation through the mixed layer of the warm water pool (WWP) of the western equatorial Pacific Ocean. Typical values for the penetrative solar flux at the climatological mean mixed layer depth for the WWP (30 m) are approx. 23 W/sq m and are a large fraction of the climatological mean net air-sea heat flux (approx. 40 W/sq m). The penetrating solar flux can vary significantly on synoptic timescales. Following a sustained westerly wind burst in situ solar fluxes were reduced in response to a near tripling of mixed layer phytoplankton pigment concentrations. This results in a reduction in the penetrative flux at depth (5.6 W/sq m at 30 m) and corresponds to a biogeochemically mediated increase in the mixed layer radiant heating rate of 0.13 C per month. These observations demonstrate a significant role of biogeochemical processes on WWP thermal climate. We speculate that this biogeochemically mediated feedback process may play an important role in enhancing the rate at which the WWP climate system returns to normal conditions following a westerly wind burst event.

  15. Field evaluation of performance of radiant heating/cooling ceiling panel system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Rongling; Yoshidomi, Togo; Ooka, Ryozo

    2015-01-01

    As in many other countries in the world, Japan has witnessed an increased focus on low-energy buildings.For testing different engineering solutions for energy-efficient buildings, a low-energy building was builtat the University of Tokyo as an experimental pilot project. In this building, a radiant...... heating/coolingceiling panel system is used. However, no standard exists for the in situ performance evaluation of radiantheating/cooling ceiling systems; furthermore, no published database is available for comparison. Thus,this study aims to not only clarify the system performance but also to share our......, respectively. The upwardheat flux from the panels was found to be as large as 30–40% of the water heating/cooling capacity; thiswould translate into heat loss in certain operating modes. Several proposals for reducing the upwardheat flux were discussed. The measurements also showed that a category B thermal...

  16. Determination of Unfiltered Radiances from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, N. G.; Priestley, K. J.; Kratz, D. P.; Geier, E. B.; Green, R. N.; Wielicki, B. A.; Hinton, P. OR.; Nolan, S. K.

    2001-01-01

    A new method for determining unfiltered shortwave (SW), longwave (LW) and window (W) radiances from filtered radiances measured by the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) satellite instrument is presented. The method uses theoretically derived regression coefficients between filtered and unfiltered radiances that are a function of viewing geometry, geotype and whether or not cloud is present. Relative errors in insta.ntaneous unfiltered radiances from this method are generally well below 1% for SW radiances (approx. 0.4% 1(sigma) or approx.l W/sq m equivalent flux), < 0.2% for LW radiances (approx. 0.1% 1(sigma) or approx.0.3 W/sq m equivalent flux) and < 0.2% (approx. 0.1% 1(sigma) for window channel radiances.

  17. Physiological reaction of men under excercise to radiant heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, T; Kubota, T

    1975-03-01

    To investigate the effect of the radiant heat on the human body in a hot environment, the subjects exposed their nude back to a radiant heat of 1.3 and 2.6 cal/cm-2. min, using the exsiccating infrared illuminators under a hot ambient condition of a temperature 31 degrees C, with a relative humidity of 55% and a 0.5 m/sec air flow. The 8 subjects were healthy male college students aged 20 to 25. The following results were obtained by estimating the physiological reactions to different degrees of radiant heat at rest for 60 minutes and during exercise for 30 minutes on a bicycle ergometer by 272 kg. m/min (or 600 kp. m/min). 1) The mean skin temperature, heart rate, respiration rate and body weight loss rate increased at rest in parallel with the degree of the radiant heat, and during exercise the mean skin temperature, heart rate, respiration rate, body weight loss rate and respiratory volume increased, but the NA+ LOSS RATE DECREASED. The regression equation was obtained to show the quantitative relationship between the degree of the radiant heat and the physiological body reactions. 2) By computing the Heat Tolerance Index by Inoue et al., it was clarified that the higher the degree of the radiant heat was, the smaller was the index. And as there was a close correlation between the indices both at rest and during exercise, it was suggested that for the evaluation of heat tolerance, the radiant heat by the infrared illuminators is applicable as additional heat loading besides hot water bathing or staying in a hot chamber.

  18. Absolute nuclear material assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  19. Absolute nuclear material assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  20. Design and Control of Hydronic Radiant Cooling Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jingjuan

    Improving energy efficiency in the Heating Ventilation and Air conditioning (HVAC) systems in buildings is critical to achieve the energy reduction in the building sector, which consumes 41% of all primary energy produced in the United States, and was responsible for nearly half of U.S. CO2 emissions. Based on a report by the New Building Institute (NBI), when HVAC systems are used, about half of the zero net energy (ZNE) buildings report using a radiant cooling/heating system, often in conjunction with ground source heat pumps. Radiant systems differ from air systems in the main heat transfer mechanism used to remove heat from a space, and in their control characteristics when responding to changes in control signals and room thermal conditions. This dissertation investigates three related design and control topics: cooling load calculations, cooling capacity estimation, and control for the heavyweight radiant systems. These three issues are fundamental to the development of accurate design/modeling tools, relevant performance testing methods, and ultimately the realization of the potential energy benefits of radiant systems. Cooling load calculations are a crucial step in designing any HVAC system. In the current standards, cooling load is defined and calculated independent of HVAC system type. In this dissertation, I present research evidence that sensible zone cooling loads for radiant systems are different from cooling loads for traditional air systems. Energy simulations, in EnergyPlus, and laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the heat transfer dynamics in spaces conditioned by radiant and air systems. The results show that the magnitude of the cooling load difference between the two systems ranges from 7-85%, and radiant systems remove heat faster than air systems. For the experimental tested conditions, 75-82% of total heat gain was removed by radiant system during the period when the heater (simulating the heat gain) was on, while for air

  1. ABSOLUTE NEUTRINO MASSES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schechter, J.; Shahid, M. N.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of using experiments timing the propagation of neutrino beams over large distances to help determine the absolute masses of the three neutrinos.......We discuss the possibility of using experiments timing the propagation of neutrino beams over large distances to help determine the absolute masses of the three neutrinos....

  2. Convective and radiative heat transfer in MHD radiant boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, K. H.; Ahluwalia, R. K.

    1981-10-01

    A combined convection-gas radiation, two-zone flow model is formulated for study of the heat transfer characteristics of MHD radiant boilers. The radiative contributions of carbon dioxide, water vapor, potassium atoms, and slag particles are included in the formulation, and are determined by solving the radiation transport equation using the P1 approximation. The scattering and absorption cross sections of slag particles are calculated from Mie theory. The model is used to analyze the scale-up of heat transfer in radiant boilers with refractory thickness, wall emissivity, and boiler size under conditions of a gas composition and slag particle spectrum typical of coal-fired MHD combustion. A design procedure is suggested for sizing radiant boilers so as to achieve the required heat extraction rate and to provide a flow residence time that is adequate for decomposition of NO(x) to acceptable levels.

  3. Influence of ground surface characteristics on the mean radiant temperature in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Fredrik; Onomura, Shiho; Grimmond, C S B

    2016-09-01

    The effect of variations in land cover on mean radiant temperature (T mrt ) is explored through a simple scheme developed within the radiation model SOLWEIG. Outgoing longwave radiation is parameterised using surface temperature observations on a grass and an asphalt surface, whereas outgoing shortwave radiation is modelled through variations in albedo for the different surfaces. The influence of ground surface materials on T mrt is small compared to the effects of shadowing. Nevertheless, altering ground surface materials could contribute to a reduction in T mrt to reduce the radiant load during heat-wave episodes in locations where shadowing is not an option. Evaluation of the new scheme suggests that despite its simplicity it can simulate the outgoing fluxes well, especially during sunny conditions. However, it underestimates at night and in shadowed locations. One grass surface used to develop the parameterisation, with very different characteristics compared to an evaluation grass site, caused T mrt to be underestimated. The implications of using high temporal resolution (e.g. 15 minutes) meteorological forcing data under partly cloudy conditions are demonstrated even for fairly proximal sites.

  4. Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES): An Earth Observing System Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Harrison, Edwin F.; Lee, Robert B., III; Smith, G. Louis; Cooper, John E.

    1996-01-01

    Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is an investigation to examine the role of cloud/radiation feedback in the Earth's climate system. The CERES broadband scanning radiometers are an improved version of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) radiometers. The CERES instruments will fly on several National Aeronautics and Space Administration Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites starting in 1998 and extending over at least 15 years. The CERES science investigations will provide data to extend the ERBE climate record of top-of-atmosphere shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) radiative fluxes CERES will also combine simultaneous cloud property data derived using EOS narrowband imagers to provide a consistent set of cloud/radiation data, including SW and LW radiative fluxes at the surface and at several selected levels within the atmosphere. CERES data are expected to provide top-of-atmosphere radiative fluxes with a factor of 2 to 3 less error than the ERBE data Estimates of radiative fluxes at the surface and especially within the atmosphere will be a much greater challenge but should also show significant improvements over current capabilities.

  5. NGS Absolute Gravity Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NGS Absolute Gravity data (78 stations) was received in July 1993. Principal gravity parameters include Gravity Value, Uncertainty, and Vertical Gradient. The...

  6. Field tests on human tolerance to (LNG) fire radiant heat exposure, and attenuation effects of clothing and other objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raj, Phani K.

    2008-01-01

    A series of field tests exposing mannequins clothed with civilian clothing to a 3 m x 3 m square liquefied natural gas (LNG) pool fire was conducted. Both single layer clothing and double layer clothing were used. The radiant heat flux incident outside the clothing and incident on the skin covered by clothing were measured using wide-angle radiometers, for durations of 100-200 s (per test). The levels of heat flux incident on the clothing were close to 5 kW/m 2 . The magnitude of the radiant heat attenuation factor (AF) across the thickness was determined. AF varies between 2 and higher for cotton and polyester clothing (thickness 0.286-1.347 mm); AF value of 6 was measured for 1.347 mm thickness. Single sheet newspaper held about 5 cm in front of mannequins and exposed to incident flux of 5 kW/m 2 resulted in AF of 5, and AF of 8 with double sheets. AF decreases linearly with increasing heat flux values and linearly increases with thickness. The author exposed himself, in normal civilian clothing (of full sleeve cotton/polyester shirt and jean pants), to radiant heat from a LNG fire. The exposure was for several tens of seconds to heat flux levels ranging from 3.5 kW/m 2 to 5 + kW/m 2 (exposure times from 25 s to 97 s at average heat flux values in the 4 kW/m 2 and 5 kW/m 2 range). Occasionally, he was exposed to (as high as) 7 kW/m 2 for durations of several seconds. He did not suffer any unbearable or even severe pain nor did he experience blisters or burns or any other injury on the unprotected skin of his body. The incident heat fluxes on the author were measured by a hand-held radiometer (with digital display) as well as by strapped on wide-angle radiometers connected to a computer. He could withstand the US regulatory criterion of 5 kW/m 2 (for 30 s) without suffering any damage or burns. Temperature measured on author's skin covered by clothing did not rise above the normal body temperature even after 200 s of exposure to 4 kW/m 2 average heat flux

  7. Decoherence at absolute zero

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Supurna

    2005-01-01

    We present an analytical study of the loss of quantum coherence at absolute zero. Our model consists of a harmonic oscillator coupled to an environment of harmonic oscillators at absolute zero. We find that for an Ohmic bath, the offdiagonal elements of the density matrix in the position representation decay as a power law in time at late times. This slow loss of coherence in the quantum domain is qualitatively different from the exponential decay observed in studies of high temperature envir...

  8. Use of local convective and radiant cooling at warm environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Krejcirikova, Barbora; Kaczmarczyk, Jan

    2012-01-01

    . The acceptability of the thermal environment was similar for all cooling devices. The acceptability of air movement and PAQ increased when the local cooling methods were used. The best results were achieved with personalized ventilation and cooling fan. The minimal improvement in PAQ was reported when the radiant...

  9. Predictions of the meteor radiant point associated with a comet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Ichiro

    1990-01-01

    Under the condition of equal heliocentric distances on the ecliptic plane, predictions of cometary meteor orbit and its radiant point are presented and discussed in terms of meteor observations. Some adjustment methods regarding the parent cometary orbit in order to fulfill the proposed conditions for the apparition of meteor streams are also presented. (author)

  10. Finite-volume model for chemical vapor infiltration incorporating radiant heat transfer. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, A.W.; Starr, T.L. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Materials Science and Engineering

    1995-05-01

    Most finite-volume thermal models account for the diffusion and convection of heat and may include volume heating. However, for certain simulation geometries, a large percentage of heat flux is due to thermal radiation. In this paper a finite-volume computational procedure for the simulation of heat transfer by conduction, convection and radiation in three dimensional complex enclosures is developed. The radiant heat transfer is included as a source term in each volume element which is derived by Monte Carlo ray tracing from all possible radiating and absorbing faces. The importance of radiative heat transfer is illustrated in the modeling of chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) of tubes. The temperature profile through the tube preform matches experimental measurements only when radiation is included. An alternative, empirical approach using an {open_quotes}effective{close_quotes} thermal conductivity for the gas space can match the initial temperature profile but does not match temperature changes that occur during preform densification.

  11. Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) - An Earth Observing System experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Barkstrom, Bruce R.

    1991-01-01

    An overview is presented of the CERES experiment that is designed not only to monitor changes in the earth's radiant energy system and cloud systems but to provide these data with enough accuracy and simultaneity to examine the critical climate/cloud feedback mechanisms which may play a major role in determining future changes in the climate system. CERES will estimate not only the flow of radiation at the top of the atmosphere, but also more complete cloud properties that will permit determination of radiative fluxes within the atmosphere and at the surface. The CERES radiation budget data is also planned for utilization in a wide range of other Earth Observing System interdisciplinary science investigations, including studies of land, biological, ocean and atmospheric processes.

  12. Design of energy efficient building with radiant slab cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhen

    2007-12-01

    Air-conditioning comprises a substantial fraction of commercial building energy use because of compressor-driven refrigeration and fan-driven air circulation. Core regions of large buildings require year-round cooling due to heat gains from people, lights and equipment. Negative environmental impacts include CO2 emissions from electric generation and leakage of ozone-depleting refrigerants. Some argue that radiant cooling simultaneously improves building efficiency and occupant thermal comfort, and that current thermal comfort models fail to reflect occupant experience with radiant thermal control systems. There is little field evidence to test these claims. The University of Calgary's Information and Communications Technology (ICT) Building, is a pioneering radiant slab cooling installation in North America. Thermal comfort and energy performance were evaluated. Measurements included: (1) heating and cooling energy use, (2) electrical energy use for lighting and equipment, and (3) indoor temperatures. Accuracy of a whole building energy simulation model was evaluated with these data. Simulation was then used to compare the radiant slab design with a conventional (variable air volume) system. The radiant system energy performance was found to be poorer mainly due to: (1) simultaneous cooling by the slab and heating by other systems, (2) omission of low-exergy (e.g., groundwater) cooling possible with the high cooling water temperatures possible with radiant slabs and (3) excessive solar gain and conductive heat loss due to the wall and fenestration design. Occupant thermal comfort was evaluated through questionnaires and concurrent measurement of workstation comfort parameters. Analysis of 116 sets of data from 82 occupants showed that occupant assessment was consistent with estimates based on current thermal comfort models. The main thermal comfort improvements were reductions in (1) local discomfort from draft and (2) vertical air temperature stratification. The

  13. Video Meteor Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Brown, M. D.; Braid, D.

    2011-01-01

    The flux of meteoroids, or number of meteoroids per unit area per unit time, is critical for calibrating models of meteoroid stream formation and for estimating the hazard to spacecraft from shower and sporadic meteors. Although observations of meteors in the millimetre to centimetre size range are common, flux measurements (particularly for sporadic meteors, which make up the majority of meteoroid flux) are less so. It is necessary to know the collecting area and collection time for a given set of observations, and to correct for observing biases and the sensitivity of the system. Previous measurements of sporadic fluxes are summarized in Figure 1; the values are given as a total number of meteoroids striking the earth in one year to a given limiting mass. The Gr n et al. (1985) flux model is included in the figure for reference. Fluxes for sporadic meteoroids impacting the Earth have been calculated for objects in the centimeter size range using Super-Schmidt observations (Hawkins & Upton, 1958); this study used about 300 meteors, and used only the physical area of overlap of the cameras at 90 km to calculate the flux, corrected for angular speed of meteors, since a large angular speed reduces the maximum brightness of the meteor on the film, and radiant elevation, which takes into account the geometric reduction in flux when the meteors are not perpendicular to the horizontal. They bring up corrections for both partial trails (which tends to increase the collecting area) and incomplete overlap at heights other than 90 km (which tends to decrease it) as effects that will affect the flux, but estimated that the two effects cancelled one another. Halliday et al. (1984) calculated the flux of meteorite-dropping fireballs with fragment masses greater than 50 g, over the physical area of sky accessible to the MORP fireball cameras, counting only observations in clear weather. In the micron size range, LDEF measurements of small craters on spacecraft have been used to

  14. Calibration with Absolute Shrinkage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øjelund, Henrik; Madsen, Henrik; Thyregod, Poul

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, penalized regression using the L-1 norm on the estimated parameters is proposed for chemometric je calibration. The algorithm is of the lasso type, introduced by Tibshirani in 1996 as a linear regression method with bound on the absolute length of the parameters, but a modification...

  15. Approach to Absolute Zero

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 6. Approach to Absolute Zero 0.3 K. to a Few Milli-Kelvin. R Srinivasan. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 6 June 1997 pp 6-14. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/06/0006-0014 ...

  16. Approach to Absolute Zero

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 2. Approach to Absolute Zero From 4. 22 K. to 0. 3 K. R Srinivasan. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 2 February 1997 pp 8-16. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/02/0008-0016 ...

  17. Approach to Absolute Zero

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 10. Approach to Absolute Zero Below 10 milli-Kelvin. R Srinivasan. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 10 October 1997 pp 8-16. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/10/0008-0016 ...

  18. Approach to Absolute Zero

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 10. Approach to Absolute Zero Below 10 milli-Kelvin. R Srinivasan. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 10 October 1997 pp 8-16. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/10/0008-0016 ...

  19. ''Super-radiant'' states in intermediate energy nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auerbach, N.

    1994-01-01

    A ''super-radiant'' state emerges when, under certain conditions, one or a few ''internal'' states acquire a large collective decay width due to the coupling to one or a few ''external'' decay channels. The rest of the internal states are ''stripped'' of their decay width and become long lived quasistationary states. The essentials of such mechanism and its possible role in intermediate energy nuclear physics are discussed in this work

  20. Development of Personalized Radiant Cooling System for an Office Room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khare, Vaibhav [Malaviya National Institute of Technology (MNIT), Jaipur, India; Sharma, Anuj [Malaviya National Institute of Technology (MNIT), Jaipur, India; Mathur, Jyotirmay [Malaviya National Institute of Technology (MNIT), Jaipur, India; Bhandari, Mahabir S [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The building industry nowadays is facing two major challenges increased concern for energy reduction and growing need for thermal comfort. These challenges have led many researchers to develop Radiant Cooling Systems that show a large potential for energy savings. This study aims to develop a personalized cooling system using the principle of radiant cooling integrated with conventional all-air system to achieve better thermal environment at the workspace. Personalized conditioning aims to create a microclimatic zone around a single workspace. In this way, the energy is deployed only where it is actually needed, and the individual s needs for thermal comfort are fulfilled. To study the effect of air temperature along with air temperature distribution for workspace, air temperature near the vicinity of the occupant has been obtained as a result of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation using FLUENT. The analysis showed that personalized radiant system improves thermal environment near the workspace and allows all-air systems to work at higher thermostat temperature without compromising the thermal comfort, which in turn reduces its energy consumption.

  1. Solar–terrestrial radiant-energy regimes and temperature anomalies of natural and artificial turfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jim, C.Y.

    2016-01-01

    irradiance and low material specific heat, leading to heated AT materials, high ground-thermal radiation, and heat flux to near-ground air by conduction and convection. The ephemeral rainfall cooling confirmed ineffective cooling by irrigation. Athletes are immersed in an anomalously intense and omnidirectional radiant-energy and sensible-heat ambience. The heat-stress health implications of AT for athletes in hot summer afternoon call for preventive–precautionary measures and re-assessment of NT-to-AT decisions.

  2. Validation of the mean radiant temperature simulated by the RayMan software in urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunjung; Mayer, Helmut

    2016-11-01

    The RayMan software is worldwide applied in investigations on different issues in human-biometeorology. However, only the simulated mean radiant temperature (T mrt ) has been validated so far in a few case studies. They are based on T mrt values, which were experimentally determined in urban environments by use of a globe thermometer or applying the six-directional method. This study analyses previous T mrt validations in a comparative manner. Their results are extended by a recent validation of T mrt in an urban micro-environment in Freiburg (southwest Germany), which can be regarded as relatively heterogeneous due to different shading intensities by tree crowns. In addition, a validation of the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) simulated by RayMan is conducted for the first time. The validations are based on experimentally determined T mrt and PET values, which were calculated from measured meteorological variables in the daytime of a clear-sky summer day. In total, the validation results show that RayMan is capable of simulating T mrt satisfactorily under relatively homogeneous site conditions. However, the inaccuracy of simulated T mrt is increasing with lower sun elevation and growing heterogeneity of the simulation site. As T mrt represents the meteorological variable that mostly governs PET in the daytime of clear-sky summer days, the accuracy of simulated T mrt is mainly responsible for the accuracy of simulated PET. The T mrt validations result in some recommendations, which concern an update of physical principles applied in the RayMan software to simulate the short- and long-wave radiant flux densities, especially from vertical building walls and tree crowns.

  3. Validation of the mean radiant temperature simulated by the RayMan software in urban environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunjung; Mayer, Helmut

    2016-11-01

    The RayMan software is worldwide applied in investigations on different issues in human-biometeorology. However, only the simulated mean radiant temperature ( T mrt) has been validated so far in a few case studies. They are based on T mrt values, which were experimentally determined in urban environments by use of a globe thermometer or applying the six-directional method. This study analyses previous T mrt validations in a comparative manner. Their results are extended by a recent validation of T mrt in an urban micro-environment in Freiburg (southwest Germany), which can be regarded as relatively heterogeneous due to different shading intensities by tree crowns. In addition, a validation of the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) simulated by RayMan is conducted for the first time. The validations are based on experimentally determined T mrt and PET values, which were calculated from measured meteorological variables in the daytime of a clear-sky summer day. In total, the validation results show that RayMan is capable of simulating T mrt satisfactorily under relatively homogeneous site conditions. However, the inaccuracy of simulated T mrt is increasing with lower sun elevation and growing heterogeneity of the simulation site. As T mrt represents the meteorological variable that mostly governs PET in the daytime of clear-sky summer days, the accuracy of simulated T mrt is mainly responsible for the accuracy of simulated PET. The T mrt validations result in some recommendations, which concern an update of physical principles applied in the RayMan software to simulate the short- and long-wave radiant flux densities, especially from vertical building walls and tree crowns.

  4. The most problematic variable in the course of human-biometeorological comfort assessment — the mean radiant temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kántor, Noémi; Unger, János

    2011-03-01

    This paper gives a review on the topic of the mean radiant temperature Tmrt, the most important parameter influencing outdoor thermal comfort during sunny conditions. Tmrt summarizes all short wave and long wave radiation fluxes reaching the human body, which can be very complex (variable in spatial and also in temporal manner) in urban settings. Thermal comfort researchers and urban planners need easy and sound methodological approaches to assess Tmrt. After the basics of the Tmrt calculation some of the methods suitable for obtaining Tmrt also in urban environments will be presented.. Two of the discussed methods are based on instruments which measure the radiation fluxes integral (globe thermometer, pyranometer-pyrgeometer combination), and three of the methods are based on modelling the radiation environment with PC software (RayMan, ENVI-met and SOLWEIG).

  5. Thermal stability of premature infants during routine care under radiant warmers.

    OpenAIRE

    Seguin, J. H.; Vieth, R.

    1996-01-01

    The body temperatures of infants weighing less than 1500 g under radiant warmers during routine care were documented in the first week of life. Ten infants (median gestational age 28 weeks, median birthweight 913 g) were studied. During 30 nursing interventions (mean 9.2 minutes) mean oesophageal and foot temperature changed 0 degrees C and -0.11 degrees C, respectively. A radiant warmer may limit heat loss during interventions because of easy access and rapid radiant warmer responsiveness.

  6. Thermal stability of premature infants during routine care under radiant warmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguin, J H; Vieth, R

    1996-03-01

    The body temperatures of infants weighing less than 1500 g under radiant warmers during routine care were documented in the first week of life. Ten infants (median gestational age 28 weeks, median birthweight 913 g) were studied. During 30 nursing interventions (mean 9.2 minutes) mean oesophageal and foot temperature changed 0 degrees C and -0.11 degrees C, respectively. A radiant warmer may limit heat loss during interventions because of easy access and rapid radiant warmer responsiveness.

  7. Calibration with Absolute Shrinkage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øjelund, Henrik; Madsen, Henrik; Thyregod, Poul

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, penalized regression using the L-1 norm on the estimated parameters is proposed for chemometric je calibration. The algorithm is of the lasso type, introduced by Tibshirani in 1996 as a linear regression method with bound on the absolute length of the parameters, but a modification...... to the lasso. The lasso is applied both directly as a calibration method and as a method to select important variables/wave lengths. It is demonstrated that the lasso algorithm, in general, leads to parameter estimates of which some are zero while others are quite large (compared to e.g. the traditional PLS...

  8. Radiant energy collection and conversion apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, A.J.

    The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting to alternate energy forms includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past the window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles.

  9. Absolute Gravimetry in Fennoscandia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettersen, B. R; TImmen, L.; Gitlein, O.

    away from this central location. An oval shaped zero uplift isoline tracks the general western and northern coastline of Norway and the Kola peninsula. It returns southwest through Russian Karelia and touches the southern tip of Sweden and northern Denmark. The uplift area (as measured by present day...... motions) has its major axis in the direction of southwest to northeast and covers a distance of about 2000 km. Absolute gravimetry was made in Finland and Norway in 1976 with a rise-and fall instrument. A decade later the number of gravity stations was expanded by JILAg-5, in Finland from 1988, in Norway...... acquired by IfE (FG5-220), FGI (FG5-221), and UMB (FG5-226). New absolute gravity stations were established by the national mapping agencies in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. The total number of prepared sites in Fennoscandia is now about 30. Most of them are co-located with permanent GPS, for many of which...

  10. Interrelation between mean radiant temperature and room geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Kalmár, Ferenc; Kalmár, Tünde

    2012-01-01

    Energy saving is one of the most important research directions in the building sector. Daily new HVAC solutions and equipments are developed aiming higher efficiency and lower fossil fuel utilisation. There are cases when only the energy quantity is taken into account and the human side of the problem is neglected. The new energy saving ideas should be analysed from thermal comfort point too. The aim of our research was to see which the influence of the room geometry on the mean radiant tempe...

  11. Radiant science, dark politics: a memoir of the nuclear age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamen, M.D.

    1985-01-01

    The reviewer describes Radiant Science, Dark Politics: A Memoir of the Nuclear Age in contrast to a memoir by James R. Killian, Jr., a contemporary of Kamen. Kamen, co-discoverer of carbon-14 and a valued member of the Berkeley Radiation Laboratory, was fired in 1944 and blackballed as a security risk. Rehabilitated by the end of the war, his continued fight against political injustice through the McCarthy era colors the book and, for the reviewer, makes it self-serving. Kamen's later scientific work reflected his desire to work alone rather than in collaboration

  12. Radiant coolers - Theory, flight histories, design comparisons and future applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohoe, M. J.; Sherman, A.; Hickman, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    Radiant coolers have been developed for application to the cooling of infrared detectors aboard NASA earth observation systems and as part of the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program. The prime design constraints for these coolers are the location of the cooler aboard the satellite and the satellite orbit. Flight data from several coolers indicates that, in general, design temperatures are achieved. However, potential problems relative to the contamination of cold surfaces are also revealed by the data. A comparison among the various cooler designs and flight performances indicates design improvements that can minimize the contamination problem in the future.

  13. Luz Pozo Garza: Memoria radiante de una mujer solar

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco, Carmen

    2006-01-01

    The poetry of Luz Poz Garza is a Platonic flashing beauty cosmos ruled by clarity, depth and harmony symbolized in the name that gave birth to it: that of a “solar woman”, fully self-assured in her life and in her work, gathered in the “heart of light” of her poetry. Memoria solar, the title of her complete poetry work, contains the radiant memory of the solar woman, a curved by plenitude cosmos that shelters a first microcosmos (that of her youth poetry), red fruit such as orange o meat appl...

  14. Thermodynamics of negative absolute pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukacs, B.; Martinas, K.

    1984-03-01

    The authors show that the possibility of negative absolute pressure can be incorporated into the axiomatic thermodynamics, analogously to the negative absolute temperature. There are examples for such systems (GUT, QCD) processing negative absolute pressure in such domains where it can be expected from thermodynamical considerations. (author)

  15. Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES), a Review: Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G. L.; Priestley, K. J.; Loeb, N. G.; Wielicki, B. A.; Charlock, T. P.; Minnis, P.; Doelling, D. R.; Rutan, D. A.

    2011-01-01

    The Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) project s objectives are to measure the reflected solar radiance (shortwave) and Earth-emitted (longwave) radiances and from these measurements to compute the shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and the surface and radiation divergence within the atmosphere. The fluxes at TOA are to be retrieved to an accuracy of 2%. Improved bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs) have been developed to compute the fluxes at TOA from the measured radiances with errors reduced from ERBE by a factor of two or more. Instruments aboard the Terra and Aqua spacecraft provide sampling at four local times. In order to further reduce temporal sampling errors, data are used from the geostationary meteorological satellites to account for changes of scenes between observations by the CERES radiometers. A validation protocol including in-flight calibrations and comparisons of measurements has reduced the instrument errors to less than 1%. The data are processed through three editions. The first edition provides a timely flow of data to investigators and the third edition provides data products as accurate as possible with resources available. A suite of cloud properties retrieved from the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) by the CERES team is used to identify the cloud properties for each pixel in order to select the BRDF for each pixel so as to compute radiation fluxes from radiances. Also, the cloud information is used to compute radiation at the surface and through the atmosphere and to facilitate study of the relationship between clouds and the radiation budget. The data products from CERES include, in addition to the reflected solar radiation and Earth emitted radiation fluxes at TOA, the upward and downward shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes at the surface and at various levels in the atmosphere. Also at the surface the photosynthetically active radiation

  16. A radiant energy imaging apparatus for examination of a body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, D.D.

    1981-01-01

    A radiant energy imaging apparatus for obtaining CT scans is described. It employs a rotating unit operative to produce a scanning pencil beam of X-ray radiant energy by use of a mechanical scanning device. This consists of a first collimator which shapes radiation emitted from an X-ray source into a fan-shaped beam of X-rays, and a second collimator comprising a disc-shaped chopper wheel which is rotated through the fan-shaped beam. A single pencil beam is produced and caused to scan through an angle, sufficiently great to embrace a cross section of a body being examined, onto a single detector forming a portion of the rotating unit and located on the side of the body opposite to the X-ray source and mechanical scanning device. In addition to being used as a CT scanner, the system can be used to generate its own localization images and to perform digital radiography on those images and, because of the relative rotation feature, can be employed in this mode of operation to obtain anterior-posterior, lateral or oblique images at any desired angle. (Auth.)

  17. Accidental overheating of a newborn under an infant radiant warmer: a lesson for future use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molgat-Seon, Y; Daboval, T; Chou, S; Jay, O

    2013-09-01

    A fully functional radiant warmer induced rapid and continuous increases in regional skin temperatures, heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure and respiratory rate in a newborn patient without corrective action. We report this case of passive overheating to create awareness of the risks associated with regulating radiant heat output based upon a single servo-controlled temperature.

  18. 16 CFR Figure 10 to Subpart A of... - Insulation Radiant Panel Test Data Log Format

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insulation Radiant Panel Test Data Log Format 10 Figure 10 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION.... 1209, Subpt. A, Fig. 10 Figure 10 to Subpart A of Part 1209—Insulation Radiant Panel Test Data Log...

  19. Thermal Conditions in a Simulated Office Environment with Convective and Radiant Cooling Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustakallio, Panu; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Kostov, Kalin

    2013-01-01

    The thermal conditions in a two person office room were measured with four air conditioning systems: chilled beam (CB), chilled beam with radiant panel (CBR), chilled ceiling with ceiling installed mixing ventilation (CCMV) and four desk partition mounted local radiant cooling panels with mixing...

  20. Human response to local convective and radiant cooling in a warm environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Krejcirikova, Barbora; Kaczmarczyk, Jan

    2013-01-01

    achieved with personalized ventilation or the tabletop fan. Only minimal improvement in perceived air quality was reported when the radiant panel was used alone, indicating that in a warm environment, local convective cooling is superior to local radiant cooling as a means of improving perceived air...

  1. Human response to local convective and radiant cooling in a warm environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Krejcirikova, Barbora; Kaczmarczyk, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The response of 24 human subjects to local convective cooling, radiant cooling, and combined radiant and convective cooling was studied at 28°C and 50% relative humidity. The local cooling devices used were (1) a tabletop cooling fan, (2) personalized ventilation providing a stream of clean air, (3...

  2. Human response to local convective and radiant cooling in a warm environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Krejcirikova, Barbora; Kaczmarczyk, Jan

    2013-01-01

    achieved with personalized ventilation or the tabletop fan. Only minimal improvement in perceived air quality was reported when the radiant panel was used alone, indicating that in a warm environment, local convective cooling is superior to local radiant cooling as a means of improving perceived air...... of symptoms was reported with personalized ventilation and with the radiant panel with attached fans, which also caused subjects to report less fatigue. Sick building syndrome symptoms increased most when the tabletop fan, generating movement of polluted room air, was in operation. The temperature......The response of 24 human subjects to local convective cooling, radiant cooling, and combined radiant and convective cooling was studied at 28°C and 50% relative humidity. The local cooling devices used were (1) a tabletop cooling fan, (2) personalized ventilation providing a stream of clean air, (3...

  3. Testing and thermal modeling of radiant panels systems as commissioning tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca Diaz, Nestor; Cuevas, Cristian

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study performed to develop a thermal modeling of radiant panels systems to be used in situ, as diagnosis tool in commissioning processes to determine the main operating conditions of the system in cooling or heating mode. The model considers the radiant panels as a finned heat exchanger in dry regime. By using as inputs the ceiling and room dimensions, the radiant ceiling material properties and the measurements of air and water mass flow rates and temperatures, the model is able to calculate the radiant ceiling capacity, ceiling surface average temperature, water exhaust temperature and resultant temperature as a comfort indicator. The modeling proposed considers combined convection, perforation effect and a detailed radiative heat exchange method for radiant ceiling systems. An example of each system considered in this study is shown, illustrating the validation of the model. A sensitive analysis of the model is performed.

  4. Experimental evaluation of heat transfer coefficients between radiant ceiling and room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Causone, Francesco; Corgnati, Stefano P.; Filippi, Marco

    2009-01-01

    The heat transfer coefficients between radiant surfaces and room are influenced by several parameters: surfaces temperature distributions, internal gains, air movements. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the heat transfer coefficients between radiant ceiling and room in typical conditions of o...... in the literature, indicating limitations and possibilities of radiant ceiling systems improvement.......The heat transfer coefficients between radiant surfaces and room are influenced by several parameters: surfaces temperature distributions, internal gains, air movements. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the heat transfer coefficients between radiant ceiling and room in typical conditions...... and convection or as one total parameter, but this choice may lead to different considerations about thermal performance of the system. In order to perform correct evaluations, it is therefore extremely important to use the proper reference temperature. The obtained values confirm tendencies found...

  5. Analysis of annual thermal and moisture performance of radiant barrier systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkes, K.E.

    1991-04-01

    This report summarizes a project to model the annual thermal and moisture performance of radiant barrier systems installed in residential attics. A previously developed model for the thermal performance of attics with radiant barriers was modified to allow estimates of moisture condensation on the underside of radiant barriers that are laid directly on top of existing attic insulation. The model was partially validated by comparing its predictions of ceiling heat flows and moisture condensation with data and visual observations made during a field experiment with full-size houses near Knoxville, Tennessee. Since the model predictions were found to be in reasonable agreement with the experimental data, the models were used to estimate annual energy savings and moisture accumulation rates for a wide variety of climatic conditions. The models results have been used to identify locations where radiant barriers are cost effective and also where radiant barriers have potential for causing moisture problems. 58 refs., 20 figs., 32 tabs.

  6. Radiant floor cooling coupled with dehumidification systems in residential buildings: A simulation-based analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarrella, Angelo; De Carli, Michele; Peretti, Clara

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The floor radiant cooling in a typical apartment is analyzed. • Dehumidification devices, fan-coil and mechanical ventilation are compared. • The results are analyzed in terms of both thermal comfort and energy consumption. • The energy consumption of the dehumidifiers is higher than that of other systems. • The mechanical ventilation decreases the moisture level better than other systems. - Abstract: The development of radiant cooling has stimulated an interest in new systems based on coupling ventilation with radiant cooling. However, radiant cooling systems may cause condensation to form on an active surface under warm and humid conditions during the cooling season. This phenomenon occurs when surface temperature falls below dew point. To prevent condensation, air humidity needs to be reduced with a dehumidification device or a mechanical ventilation system. There are two main options to achieve this. The first is to use dehumidification devices that reduce humidity, but are not coupled with ventilation, i.e. devices that handle room air and leave air change to infiltrations. The second is to combine a mechanical ventilation system with dehumidifying finned coils. This study analyzes the floor radiant cooling of a typical residential apartment within a multi-storey building in three Italian climate zones by means of a detailed simulation tool. Five systems were compared in terms of both indoor thermal comfort and energy consumption: radiant cooling without dehumidification; radiant cooling with a soft dehumidification device; radiant cooling with a dehumidification device which also supplies sensible cooling; radiant cooling coupled with fan coils; and radiant cooling with a mechanical ventilation system which dehumidifies and cools

  7. The optimization design and parametric study of thermoelectric radiant cooling and heating panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Limei; Tu, Zhilong; Hu, Qiang; Tao, Cheng; Chen, Huanxin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Design procedure of TE radiant panel is proposed. • Thermal physical model combined thermoelectric effect and radiation law is developed. • An optimization design configuration of TE radiant panel is presented and validated. • The temperature distribution uniformity of TE radiant panel is studied. • We discuss the thermal characterization representation approach of TE radiant. - Abstract: Thermoelectric radiant air-conditioning (TE-RAC) system is a promising approach to implement thermoelectric technology in large-scale refrigeration system applications in future. However, no standard exists for the in situ design and the performance evaluation of thermoelectric radiant heating/cooling panel. Thus, this study aims to not only clarify the design procedure but also to share our thermal physical model and design configurations of the thermoelectric radiant panel to serve as a reference for other similar design cases. In addition, a simplified representation approach for the thermal characterization of thermoelectric panels is also discussed. The main design variables are the number of thermoelectric modules and the size of radiant panels. The inner surface transient temperature distribution of thermoelectric radiant panels is discussed, and the approaches for improving the uniformity of the inner surface temperature are proposed. The influence of cooling/heating load on the uniformity of the inner surface temperature is a slight larger than the size of the panel, so the matching design is very important. The results show that the optimal thickness of thermoelectric radiant panels is 4 mm, and the number of thermoelectric modules (TEM) is 16 per square meter, which also could solve the issues about dew formation and uniformity of inner surface temperature.

  8. Numerical investigation on the convective heat transfer in a spiral coil with radiant heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Milan Lj.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to numerically investigate the heat transfer in spiral coil tube in the laminar, transitional, and turbulent flow regimes. The Archimedean spiral coil was exposed to radiant heating and should represent heat absorber of parabolic dish solar concentrator. Specific boundary conditions represent the uniqueness of this study, since the heat flux upon the tube external surfaces varies not only in the circumferential direction, but also in the axial direction. The curvature ratio of spiral coil varies from 0.029 at the flow inlet to 0.234 at the flow outlet, while the heat transfer fluid is water. The 3-D steady-state transport equations were solved using the Reynolds stress turbulence model. Results showed that secondary flows strongly affect the flow and that the heat transfer is strongly asymmetric, with higher values near the outer wall of spiral. Although overall turbulence levels were lower than in a straight pipe, heat transfer rates were larger due to the curvature-induced modifications of the mean flow and temperature fields. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 42006

  9. Mathematical Modeling of Radiant Heat Transfer in Mirror Systems Considering Deep Reflecting Surface Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Leonov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available When designing large-sized mirror concentrating systems (MCS for high-temperature solar power plants, one must have at disposal reasonably reliable and economical methods and tools, making it possible to analyze its characteristics, to predict them depending on the operation conditions and accordingly to choose the most suitable system for the solution of particular task.Experimental determination of MCS characteristics requires complicated and expensive experimentation, having significant limitations on interpretation of the results, as well as limitations imposed due to the size of the structure. Therefore it is of particular interest to develop a mathematical model capable of estimating power characteristics of MCS considering the influence of operating conditions, design features, roughness and other surface defects.For efficient solution of the tasks the model must ensure simulation of solar radiant flux as well as simulation of geometrical and optical characteristics of reflection surface and their interaction. In this connection a statistical mathematical model of radiation heat exchange based on use of Monte Carlo methods and Finite Element Method was developed and realized in the software complex, making it possible to determine main characteristics of the MCS.In this paper the main attention is given to definition of MCS radiation characteristics with account for deep reflecting surface defects (cavities, craters. Deep cavities are not typical for MCS, but their occurrence is possible during operation as a result of erosion or any physical damage. For example, for space technology it is primarily micrometeorite erosion.

  10. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THE CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER IN A SPIRALLY COILED CORRUGATED TUBE WITH RADIANT HEATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Đorđević

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Archimedean spiral coil made of a transversely corrugated tube was exposed to radiant heating in order to represent a heat absorber of the parabolic dish solar concentrator. The main advantage of the considered innovative design solution is a coupling effect of the two passive methods for heat transfer enhancement - coiling of the flow channel and changes in surface roughness. The curvature ratio of the spiral coil varies from 0.029 to 0.234, while water and a mixture of propylene glycol and water are used as heat transfer fluids. The unique focus of this study is on specific boundary conditions since the heat flux upon the tube external surfaces varies not only in the circumferential direction, but in the axial direction as well. Instrumentation of the laboratory model of the heat absorber mounted in the radiation field includes measurement of inlet fluid flow rate, pressure drop, inlet and outlet fluid temperature and 35 type K thermocouples welded to the coil surface. A thermal analysis of the experimentally obtained data implies taking into consideration the externally applied radiation field, convective and radiative heat losses, conduction through the tube wall and convection to the internal fluid. The experimental results have shown significant enhancement of the heat transfer rate compared to spirally coiled smooth tubes, up to 240% in the turbulent flow regime.

  11. Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carman, Stephen L.; Cooper, John E.; Miller, James; Harrison, Edwin F.; Barkstrom, Bruce R.

    1992-01-01

    The CERES (Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System) experiment will play a major role in NASA's multi-platform Earth Observing System (EOS) program to observe and study the global climate. The CERES instruments will provide EOS scientists with a consistent data base of accurately known fields of radiation and of clouds. CERES will investigate the important question of cloud forcing and its influence on the radiative energy flow through the Earth's atmosphere. The CERES instrument is an improved version of the ERBE (Earth Radiation Budget Experiment) broadband scanning radiometer flown by NASA from 1984 through 1989. This paper describes the science of CERES, presents an overview of the instrument preliminary design, and outlines the issues related to spacecraft pointing and attitude control.

  12. Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John E.; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Kopia, Leonard P.

    1992-01-01

    The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) experiment will play a major role in NASA's planned multi-instrument multi-satellite Earth Observing System (EOS) program to observe and study the total Earth System on a global scale. The CERES experiment will provide EOS with a consistent data base of accurately known fields of radiation and of clouds; and will investigate the important question of the impact of clouds upon the radiative energy flow through the earth-atmosphere system. The CERES instruments will be an improved version of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) broadband scanning radiometer instruments flown by NASA in the 1980s. This paper describes the CERES experiment approach and the current CERES instrument design status.

  13. Ten questions about radiant heating and cooling systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhee, Kyu-Nam; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Kim, Kwang Woo

    2017-01-01

    and cooling. On the other hand, the RHC system has limitations such as complicated control of Thermally Activated Building System (TABS), acoustical issues, higher capital cost and cooling load than conventional air systems, and so on. For now, the required mitigation of these limitations and the need......Radiant heating and cooling (RHC) systems are being increasingly applied not only in residential but also in non-residential buildings such as commercial buildings, education facilities, and even large scale buildings such as airport terminals. Furthermore, with the combined ventilation system used...... studies on RHC systems in terms of comfort, heat transfer analysis, energy simulation, control strategy, system configurations and so on. Many studies have demonstrated that the RHC system is a good solution to improve indoor environmental quality while reducing building energy consumption for heating...

  14. A RADIANT AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM USING SOLAR-DRIVEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. ABDALLA

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Every air-conditioning system needs some fresh air to provide adequate ventilation air required to remove moisture, gases like ammonia and hydrogen sulphide, disease organisms, and heat from occupied spaces. However, natural ventilation is difficult to control because urban areas outside air is often polluted and cannot be supplied to inner spaces before being filtered. Besides the high electrical demand of refrigerant compression units used by most air-conditioning systems, and fans used to transport the cool air through the thermal distribution system draw a significant amount of electrical energy in comparison with electrical energy used by the building thermal conditioning systems. Part of this electricity heats the cooled air; thereby add to the internal thermal cooling peak load. In addition, refrigerant compression has both direct and indirect negative effects on the environment on both local and global scales. In seeking for innovative air-conditioning systems that maintain and improve indoor air quality under potentially more demanding performance criteria without increasing environmental impact, this paper presents radiant air-conditioning system which uses a solar-driven liquid desiccant evaporative cooler. The paper describes the proposed solar-driven liquid desiccant evaporative cooling system and the method used for investigating its performance in providing cold water for a radiant air-conditioning system in Khartoum (Central Sudan. The results of the investigation show that the system can operate in humid as well as dry climates and that employing such a system reduces air-conditioning peak electrical demands as compared to vapour compression systems.

  15. Luz Pozo Garza: Memoria radiante de una mujer solar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanco, Carmen

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The poetry of Luz Poz Garza is a Platonic flashing beauty cosmos ruled by clarity, depth and harmony symbolized in the name that gave birth to it: that of a “solar woman”, fully self-assured in her life and in her work, gathered in the “heart of light” of her poetry. Memoria solar, the title of her complete poetry work, contains the radiant memory of the solar woman, a curved by plenitude cosmos that shelters a first microcosmos (that of her youth poetry, red fruit such as orange o meat apple, and a second microcosmos (that of her maturity poetry of white or blue flower of total mystic lucidity, such as solar camellia, rose o lotus.La poesía de Luz Pozo Garza es un cosmos fulgurante de belleza platónica regida por la claridad, la profundidad y la armonía simbolizadas en el nombre que lo dio a luz, el de una “mujer solar” plenamente autoafirmada en su vida y en su obra, unidas en el “corazón de Luz” de su poesía. Memoria solar, el título de su obra poética completa contiene su memoria radiante de mujer solar, un cosmos curvo de plenitud que guarda un microcosmos primero, el de su poesía de juventud, de fruto rojo, cual naranja o manzana de la carne, y un microcosmos segundo, el de su poesía de madurez, de flor blanca o azul de la total lucidez mística, cual camelia, rosa o loto solares.

  16. Absolute risk, absolute risk reduction and relative risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Andres Calvache

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article illustrates the epidemiological concepts of absolute risk, absolute risk reduction and relative risk through a clinical example. In addition, it emphasizes the usefulness of these concepts in clinical practice, clinical research and health decision-making process.

  17. EFFECT OF THE SCREENS RADIANT REFLECTANCE ON THERMAL TRANSPORT PROCESS IN THE CLADDING STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Sizov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses variants of the heat insulating layers disposition in relation to the cladding load-carrying structures and demonstrates prime advantages and drawbacks of the three variants. The authors notice that from the heat-engineering viewpoint the variant with exterior side winterization is the most favourable. However, utilizing micromodules as heat-insulating layers screened with leafing aluminum makes it necessary to account for the screens reflecting power. It allows reducing the irradiating component in the combined value of thermal transport through the enclosure and consequently raises the structure thermal resistance or, with parity of these values, leads to lower thickness of the heat-insulating layer. The known data applied for calculating the total heat transmission helps demonstrate reduction of the general heat flux value by 1.4 times, and the heat transmission resistance by 1.76 m2 deg./W. This allows reducing thickness of the heat-insulating layer (with regard of two screens by 0.07 m. Computations illustrate the fact that account for the radiant reflectance of screening enables lowering the rated heat flux passing through the enclosure. Which again allows decreasing the structure thermal resistance and its general thickness (by 70 mm at the expense of small thickness of the heat insulation of micromodules. The humidity regime calculations establish good acceptability of the enclosure service conditions in winter. The period will see no real water vapour condensation. The plotted diagrams of the cladding heat-and-humidity conditions demonstrate that condensation zones do not affect the layer of thermal insulation (micromodules. And the condensation zone with reduction of the heat-insulating layer appears only during ‘severe’ outside temperature conditions of a cold month. Reduced to 230 mm thickness of the wall construction allows utilizing ‘old’ stock of forms with prefabricated panels in parallel with energy

  18. Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) algorithm theoretical basis document. volume 2; Geolocation, calibration, and ERBE-like analyses (subsystems 1-3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, B. A. (Principal Investigator); Barkstrom, B. R. (Principal Investigator); Charlock, T. P.; Baum, B. A.; Green, R. N.; Minnis, P.; Smith, G. L.; Coakley, J. A.; Randall, D. R.; Lee, R. B., III

    1995-01-01

    The theoretical bases for the Release 1 algorithms that will be used to process satellite data for investigation of the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) are described. The architecture for software implementation of the methodologies is outlined. Volume 2 details the techniques used to geolocate and calibrate the CERES scanning radiometer measurements of shortwave and longwave radiance to invert the radiances to top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) and surface fluxes following the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) approach, and to average the fluxes over various time and spatial scales to produce an ERBE-like product. Spacecraft ephemeris and sensor telemetry are used with calibration coefficients to produce a chronologically ordered data product called bidirectional scan (BDS) radiances. A spatially organized instrument Earth scan product is developed for the cloud-processing subsystem. The ERBE-like inversion subsystem converts BDS radiances to unfiltered instantaneous TOA and surface fluxes. The TOA fluxes are determined by using established ERBE techniques. Hourly TOA fluxes are computed from the instantaneous values by using ERBE methods. Hourly surface fluxes are estimated from TOA fluxes by using simple parameterizations based on recent research. The averaging process produces daily, monthly-hourly, and monthly means of TOA and surface fluxes at various scales. This product provides a continuation of the ERBE record.

  19. Climate Model Evaluation using New Datasets from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Norman G.; Wielicki, Bruce A.; Doelling, David R.

    2008-01-01

    There are some in the science community who believe that the response of the climate system to anthropogenic radiative forcing is unpredictable and we should therefore call off the quest . The key limitation in climate predictability is associated with cloud feedback. Narrowing the uncertainty in cloud feedback (and therefore climate sensitivity) requires optimal use of the best available observations to evaluate and improve climate model processes and constrain climate model simulations over longer time scales. The Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy System (CERES) is a satellite-based program that provides global cloud, aerosol and radiative flux observations for improving our understanding of cloud-aerosol-radiation feedbacks in the Earth s climate system. CERES is the successor to the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE), which has widely been used to evaluate climate models both at short time scales (e.g., process studies) and at decadal time scales. A CERES instrument flew on the TRMM satellite and captured the dramatic 1998 El Nino, and four other CERES instruments are currently flying aboard the Terra and Aqua platforms. Plans are underway to fly the remaining copy of CERES on the upcoming NPP spacecraft (mid-2010 launch date). Every aspect of CERES represents a significant improvement over ERBE. While both CERES and ERBE measure broadband radiation, CERES calibration is a factor of 2 better than ERBE. In order to improve the characterization of clouds and aerosols within a CERES footprint, we use coincident higher-resolution imager observations (VIRS, MODIS or VIIRS) to provide a consistent cloud-aerosol-radiation dataset at climate accuracy. Improved radiative fluxes are obtained by using new CERES-derived Angular Distribution Models (ADMs) for converting measured radiances to fluxes. CERES radiative fluxes are a factor of 2 more accurate than ERBE overall, but the improvement by cloud type and at high latitudes can be as high as a factor of 5

  20. Design and Analysis of a Floor Radiant Heating System Based on Energy Substitution Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available With the development of renewable energy, energy substitution technology has been applied to many fields. This research suggests that solar energy, as renewable energy, takes the place of conventional energy: a floor radiant heating system driven by solar energy is combined with a photovoltaic floor radiant heating system, and the photothermal floor radiant heating system has been proposed and investigated in this study. This research also designs a fuzzy PID (Proportion, Integration, Differentiation control system to control the indoor temperature within the set range precisely. In this paper, the proposed floor radiant heating system has been tested and analyzed. The experimental results show that the inhomogeneity of the indoor floor surface temperature distribution is larger than that of other places, and the standard deviation of the indoor floor surface temperature can reach 1.87 °C. The standard deviation was approximately 0.36 °C at 0.6 m, 1.2 m and 1.8 m, which indicates this is suitable for habitation. Three kinds of floor radiant heating systems were compared and analyzed to demonstrate the advantage of the proposed floor radiant heating system. The calculation method of the heating system was proposed and applied to the actual heating system in this paper. The proposed floor radiant heating system is a highly efficient and environmental protection system that can be used for heating extensive areas to realize the objective of energy saving and emission reduction.

  1. Radiometric measurements of wall temperatures in the 800 K to 1150 K range for a quartz radiant heating tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blevins, L.G.; Sivathanu, Y.R.; Gore, J.P.; Shahien, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Many industrial applications require heat transfer to a load in an inert environment, which can be achieved by using gas-fired radiant tubes. A radiant tube consists of a flame confined in a cylindrical metal or ceramic chamber. The flame heats the tube wall, which in turn radiates to the load. One important characteristic of radiant heating tubes is wall temperature uniformity. Numerical models of radiant tubes have been used to predict wall temperatures, but there is a lack of experimental data for validation. Recently, Namazian et al., Singh and Gorski, and Peters et al. have measured wall temperature profiles of radiant tubes using thermocouples. 13 refs., 3 figs

  2. Global, Multi-Year Analysis of Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System Terra Observations and Radiative Transfer Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlock, T. P.; Rose, F. G.; Rutan, D. A.; Coleman, L. H.; Caldwell, T.; Zentz, S.

    2005-01-01

    An extended record of the Terra Surface and Atmosphere Radiation Budget (SARB) computed by CERES (Clouds and Earth s Radiant Energy System) is produced in gridded form, facilitating an investigation of global scale direct aerosol forcing. The new gridded version (dubbed FSW) has a spacing of 1 at the Equator. A companion document (Rutan et al. 2005) focuses on advances to (and validation of) the ungridded, footprint scale calculations (dubbed CRS), primarily in clear-sky conditions. While mainly intended to provide observations of fluxes at the top of atmosphere (TOA), CERES (Wielicki et al. 1996) includes a program to also compute the fluxes at TOA, within the atmosphere and at the surface, and also to validate the results with independent ground based measurements (Charlock and Alberta 1996). ARM surface data has been a focus for this component of CERES. To permit the user to infer cloud forcing and direct aerosol forcing with the computed SARB, CERES includes surface and TOA fluxes that have been computed for cloud-free (clear) and aerosol free (pristine) footprints; this accounts for aerosol effects (SW scattering and absorption, and LW scattering, absorption and emission) to both clear and cloudy skies.

  3. An experimental study of thermal comfort at different combinations of air and mean radiant temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2009-01-01

    It is often discussed if a person prefers a low air temperature (ta) and a high mean radiant temperature (tr), vice-versa or it does not matter as long as the operative temperature is acceptable. One of the hypotheses is that it does not matter for thermal comfort but for perceived air quality......, a lower air temperature is preferred. This paper presents an experimental study with 30 human subjects exposed to three different combinations of air- and mean radiant temperature with an operative temperature around 23 °C. The subjects gave subjective evaluations of thermal comfort and perceived air...... quality during the experiments. The PMV-index gave a good estimation of thermal sensation vote (TSV) when the air and mean radiant temperature were the same. In the environment with different air- and mean radiant temperatures, a thermal comfort evaluation shows an error up to 1 scale unit on the 7-point...

  4. Radiant heat increases piglets’ use of the heated creep area on the critical days after birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mona Lilian Vestbjerg; Thodberg, Karen; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate how piglets’ use of a creep area is affected by using radiant heat compared to an incandescent light bulb. It was hypothesised that radiant heat would increase the use of the creep area. Twenty litters were randomly assigned to one of two heat sources...... in the creep area: (1) an incandescent light bulb (STANDARD, n=10) or (2) a radiant heat source (RADIANT, n=10) with five of each type of heat source in each of two batches. Observations on piglets’ position in the pen were made by scan sampling every ten minutes in a 4-hour period from 1100 to 1500 h on day 1...

  5. First absolute measurements of fast-ion losses in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Ramos, M.; Garcia-Munoz, M.; Jimenez-Ramos, M. C.; Garcia Lopez, J.; Galdon-Quiroga, J.; Sanchis-Sanchez, L.; Ayllon-Guerola, J.; Faitsch, M.; Gonzalez-Martin, J.; Hermann, A.; de Marne, P.; Rivero-Rodriguez, J. F.; Sieglin, B.; Snicker, A.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2017-10-01

    A new diagnostic technique that allows to obtain absolute fluxes of fast-ion losses measured with absolutely calibrated scintillator based fast-ion loss detectors (FILD) is presented here. First absolute fluxes of fast-ion losses have been obtained in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak. An instrument function that includes the scintillator efficiency, collimator geometry, optical transmission and camera efficiency has been constructed. The scintillator response to deuterium ions in the relevant energy range of fast-ions has been characterized using a tandem accelerator. Absolute flux of neutral beam injection (NBI) prompt losses has been obtained in magnetohydrodynamic quiescent plasmas. The temporal evolution of the heat load measured with FILD follows that measured at the FILD entrance obtained with an Infra-Red camera looking at the FILD detector head. ASCOT simulations are in good agreement with the absolute heat load of NBI prompt losses measured with FILD.

  6. Impact of Solar Heat Gain on Radiant Floor Cooling System Design

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Jingjuan Dove; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Radiant floor cooling systems are increasingly being used in transition spaces with large glazed surfaces, such as atria, airports, and perimeter areas. For these cases, the cooling capacity can increase significantly according to the scientific literature. However, current design standards and test methods provide only limited guidance on sizing of radiant floor cooling systems and their associated air systems in the presence of solar radiation. The goals of this study are to 1) review curre...

  7. Radiant cooling in US office buildings: Towards eliminating the perception of climate-imposed barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stetiu, Corina [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Much attention is being given to improving the efficiency of air-conditioning systems through the promotion of more efficient cooling technologies. One such alternative, radiant cooling, is the subject of this thesis. Performance information from Western European buildings equipped with radiant cooling systems indicates that these systems not only reduce the building energy consumption but also provide additional economic and comfort-related benefits. Their potential in other markets such as the US has been largely overlooked due to lack of practical demonstration, and to the absence of simulation tools capable of predicting system performance in different climates. This thesis describes the development of RADCOOL, a simulation tool that models thermal and moisture-related effects in spaces equipped with radiant cooling systems. The thesis then conducts the first in-depth investigation of the climate-related aspects of the performance of radiant cooling systems in office buildings. The results of the investigation show that a building equipped with a radiant cooling system can be operated in any US climate with small risk of condensation. For the office space examined in the thesis, employing a radiant cooling system instead of a traditional all-air system can save on average 30% of the energy consumption and 27% of the peak power demand due to space conditioning. The savings potential is climate-dependent, and is larger in retrofitted buildings than in new construction. This thesis demonstrates the high performance potential of radiant cooling systems across a broad range of US climates. It further discusses the economics governing the US air-conditioning market and identifies the type of policy interventions and other measures that could encourage the adoption of radiant cooling in this market.

  8. Radiant{trademark} Liquid Radioisotope Intravascular Radiation Therapy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eigler, N.; Whiting, J.; Chernomorsky, A.; Jackson, J.; Knapp, F.F., Jr.; Litvack, F.

    1998-01-16

    RADIANT{trademark} is manufactured by United States Surgical Corporation, Vascular Therapies Division, (formerly Progressive Angioplasty Systems). The system comprises a liquid {beta}-radiation source, a shielded isolation/transfer device (ISAT), modified over-the-wire or rapid exchange delivery balloons, and accessory kits. The liquid {beta}-source is Rhenium-188 in the form of sodium perrhenate (NaReO{sub 4}), Rhenium-188 is primarily a {beta}-emitter with a physical half-life of 17.0 hours. The maximum energy of the {beta}-particles is 2.1 MeV. The source is produced daily in the nuclear pharmacy hot lab by eluting a Tungsten-188/Rhenium-188 generator manufactured by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Using anion exchange columns and Millipore filters the effluent is concentrated to approximately 100 mCi/ml, calibrated, and loaded into the (ISAT) which is subsequently transported to the cardiac catheterization laboratory. The delivery catheters are modified Champion{trademark} over-the-wire, and TNT{trademark} rapid exchange stent delivery balloons. These balloons have thickened polyethylene walls to augment puncture resistance; dual radio-opaque markers and specially configured connectors.

  9. Drinking caused by exposing dogs to radiant heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, W J

    1977-01-01

    1. Exposure to radiant heat caused dogs to pant and lose water by evaporation at rates of 40-70 g/hr. 2. When water was offered at intervals during the heating, the dogs drank at about half of the opportunities. The individual drinks were small but, by their repetition, loss of water by evaporation during heating was approximately matched by drinking. 3. Water given by stomach tube reduced drinking during a subsequent period of heating. 4. When water was offered more than 15 min after the end of a period of heating, after panting had ceased, drinking occurred only if the water loss exceeded 50-70 g, about 0-6% of the body water. This is regarded as drinking due to loss of water, beyond a threshold of dehydration necessary to stimulate drinking with the dog at rest. When water was offered during heating, drinking occurred with dehydration less than this threshold. 5. The drinking produced by heating was similar to that produced by running (O'Connor, 1975). When the animal ran under heat, panting was more severe and the water loss greater (85-150 g/hr); it was approximately matched by more drinking. PMID:839452

  10. Design and construction of a regenerative radiant tube burner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henao, Diego Alberto; Cano C, Carlos Andres; Amell Arrieta, Andres A.

    2002-01-01

    The technological development of the gas industry in Colombia, aiming at efficient and safe use of the natural gas, requires the assimilation and adaptation of new generation, technologies for this purpose in this article results are presented on the design, construction and characterization of a prototype of a burner of regenerative radiant robe with a thermal power of 9,94 kW and a factor of air 1,05. This system takes advantage of the high exit temperature of the combustion smokes, after they go trough a metallic robe where they transfer the heat by radiation, to heat a ceramic channel that has the capacity to absorbing a part of the heat of the smokes and then transferring them to a current of cold air. The benefits of air heating are a saving in fuel, compared with other processes that don't incorporate the recovery of heat from the combustion gases. In this work it was possible to probe a methodology for the design of this type of burners and to reach maximum temperatures of heating of combustion air of 377,9 centigrade degrees, using a material available in the national market, whose regenerative properties should be studied in depth

  11. Assessment of radiant temperature in a closed incubator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Décima, Pauline; Stéphan-Blanchard, Erwan; Pelletier, Amandine; Ghyselen, Laurent; Delanaud, Stéphane; Dégrugilliers, Loïc; Telliez, Frédéric; Bach, Véronique; Libert, Jean-Pierre

    2012-08-01

    In closed incubators, radiative heat loss (R) which is assessed from the mean radiant temperature (Tr) accounts for 40-60% of the neonate's total heat loss. In the absence of a benchmark method to calculate Tr--often considered to be the same as the air incubator temperature-errors could have a considerable impact on the thermal management of neonates. We compared Tr using two conventional methods (measurement with a black-globe thermometer and a radiative "view factor" approach) and two methods based on nude thermal manikins (a simple, schematic design from Wheldon and a multisegment, anthropometric device developed in our laboratory). By taking the Tr estimations for each method, we calculated metabolic heat production values by partitional calorimetry and then compared them with the values calculated from V(O2) and V(CO2) measured in 13 preterm neonates. Comparisons between the calculated and measured metabolic heat production values showed that the two conventional methods and Wheldon's manikin underestimated R, whereas when using the anthropomorphic thermal manikin, the simulated versus clinical difference was not statistically significant. In conclusion, there is a need for a safety standard for measuring TR in a closed incubator. This standard should also make available estimating equations for all avenues of the neonate's heat exchange considering the metabolic heat production and the modifying influence of the thermal insulation provided by the diaper and by the mattress. Although thermal manikins appear to be particularly appropriate for measuring Tr, the current lack of standardized procedures limits their widespread use.

  12. Energy efficiency and indoor thermal perception. A comparative study between radiant panel and portable convective heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Ahmed Hamza H.; Morsy, Mahmoud Gaber [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Assiut University, Assiut, 71516 (Egypt)

    2010-11-15

    This study investigates experimentally the thermal perception of indoor environment for evaluating the ability of radiant panel heaters to produce thermal comfort for space occupants as well as the energy consumption in comparison with conventional portable natural convective heaters. The thermal perception results show that, compared with conventional convection heater, a radiantly heated office room maintains a lower ambient air temperature while providing equal levels of thermal perception on the thermal dummy head as the convective heater and saves up to 39.1% of the energy consumption per day. However, for human subjects' vote experiments, the results show that for an environmentally controlled test room at outdoor environment temperatures of 0C and 5C, using two radiant panel heaters with a total capacity of 580 W leads to a better comfort sensation than the conventional portable natural convective heater with a 670 W capacity, with an energy saving of about 13.4%. In addition, for an outdoor environment temperature of 10C, using one radiant panel heater with a capacity of 290 W leads to a better comfort sensation than the conventional convection heater with a 670 W capacity, with an energy saving of about 56.7%. From the analytical results, it is found that distributing the radiant panel heater inside the office room, one on the wall facing the window and the other on the wall close to the window, provides the best operative temperature distribution within the room.

  13. Ground Calibrations of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Spacecraft Thermistor Bolometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Robert B., III; Smith, G. Lou; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan; Paden, Jack; Pandey, Direndra K.; Thornhill, K. Lee; Bolden, William C.; Wilson, Robert S.

    1997-01-01

    The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) spacecraft scanning thermistor bolometers will measure earth-reflected solar and earth-emmitted,longwave radiances, at the top-of-the-atmosphere. The measurements are performed in the broadband shortwave (0.3-5.0 micron) and longwave (5.0 - >100 micron) spectral regions as well as in the 8 -12 micron water vapor window over geographical footprints as small as 10 kilometers at the nadir. The CERES measurements are designed to improve our knowledge of the earth's natural climate processes, in particular those related to clouds, and man's impact upon climate as indicated by atmospheric temperature. November 1997, the first set of CERES bolometers is scheduled for launch on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Spacecraft. The CERES bolometers were calibrated radiometrically in a vacuum ground facility using absolute reference sources, tied to the International Temperature Scale of 1990. Accurate bolometer calibrations are dependent upon the derivations of the radiances from the spectral properties [reflectance, transmittance, emittance, etc.] of both the sources and bolometers. In this paper, the overall calibration approaches are discussed for the longwave and shortwave calibrations. The spectral responses for the TRMM bolometer units are presented and applied to the bolometer ground calibrations in order to determine pre-launch calibration gains.

  14. Artifacts in the measurement of skin temperature under infant radiant warmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, M H; Edwards, N K

    1985-01-01

    All skin temperature probes measure, to some extent, operative temperature as well as skin temperature, and thus artifactually measure a temperature different from true skin temperature. To assess the magnitude and direction of these artifacts in the measurement of surface temperature in radiant warmers designed for human infants, the artifactual deviation of measured surface temperatures from mean surface temperature was determined under a short-wavelength warmer and a long-wavelength radiant warmer, using a copper ball as an experimental model. The measurements were made using both a disk-shaped thermistor and a tubular thermistor. All measurements were made near the top of the hemisphere of the ball facing the heating element of the warmer. In all cases, the average artifact was negative. That is, even on the surface of the ball near the radiant heat source, the surface temperature probes recorded an artifactually low temperature. In the analogous clinical setting, a somewhat larger negative artifact would be expected.

  15. Daytime relapse of the mean radiant temperature based on the six-directional method under unobstructed solar radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kántor, Noémi; Lin, Tzu-Ping; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2014-09-01

    This study contributes to the knowledge about the capabilities of the popular "six-directional method" describing the radiation fields outdoors. In Taiwan, measurements were carried out with three orthogonally placed net radiometers to determine the mean radiant temperature (T(mrt)). The short- and long-wave radiation flux densities from the six perpendicular directions were recorded in the daylight hours of 12 days. During unobstructed direct irradiation, a specific daytime relapse was found in the temporal course of the T(mrt) values referring to the reference shapes of a standing man and also of a sphere. This relapse can be related to the short-wave fluxes reaching the body from the lateral directions. Through deeper analysis, an instrumental shortcoming of the six-directional technique was discovered. The pyranometer pairs of the same net radiometer have a 10-15-min long "blind spot" when the sun beams are nearly perpendicular to them. The blind-spot period is supposed to be shorter with steeper solar azimuth curve on the daylight period. This means that the locations with lower geographical latitude, and the summertime measurements, are affected less by this instrumental problem. A methodological shortcoming of the six-directional technique was also demonstrated. Namely, the sum of the short-wave flux densities from the lateral directions is sensitive to the orientation of the radiometers, and therefore by deviating from the original directions, the T(mrt) decrease on clear sunny days will occur in different times and will be different in extent.

  16. Water loss from the skin of term and preterm infants nursed under a radiant heater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjartansson, S; Arsan, S; Hammarlund, K; Sjörs, G; Sedin, G

    1995-02-01

    The rate of evaporation from the skin (g/m2/h) was measured in 12 full-term and 16 preterm infants (gestational age 25-34 wk) both during incubator care and when nursed under a radiant heater. The method for evaporation rate measurement is noninvasive and based on determination of the water vapor pressure gradient close to the skin surface. Measurements were first made with the infant nursed in an incubator with a controlled environment with respect to humidity, temperature, and air velocity. The measurements in the term infants were performed at an ambient relative humidity (RH) of 50%, and in the preterm infants first at 50% and subsequently at 30-40%. Evaporation rate was then measured with the infant nursed under a radiant heater. In term infants, mean evaporation rate was 3.3 g/m2/h during incubator care (RH 50%) and 4.4 g/m2/h during care under the radiant heater. In preterm infants, the corresponding values were 15.5 g/m2/h in the incubator at RH 50%, 16.7 g/m2/h at RH 30-40%, and 17.9 g/m2/h under the radiant heater. It is concluded that the evaporative water loss from the skin depends on the ambient water vapor pressure, irrespective of whether the infant is nursed in an incubator or under a radiant heater. The higher rate of evaporation during care under a radiant heater is due to the lower ambient water vapor pressure and not to any direct effect of the nonionizing radiation on the skin.

  17. Dynamic heat transfer modeling and parametric study of thermoelectric radiant cooling and heating panel system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Yongqiang; Zhang, Ling; Liu, Zhongbing; Wang, Yingzi; Wu, Jing; Wang, Xiliang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Dynamic model of thermoelectric radiant panel system is established. • The internal parameters of thermoelectric module are dynamically calculated in simulation. • Both artificial neural networks model and system model are verified through experiment data. • Optimized system structure is obtained through parametric study. - Abstract: Radiant panel system can optimize indoor thermal comfort with lower energy consumption. The thermoelectric radiant panel (TERP) system is a new and effective prototype of radiant system using thermoelectric module (TEM) instead of conventional water pipes, as heat source. The TERP can realize more stable and easier system control as well as lower initial and operative cost. In this study, an improved system dynamic model was established by combining analytical system model and artificial neural networks (ANN) as well as the dynamic calculation functions of internal parameters of TEM. The double integral was used for the calculation of surface average temperature of TERP. The ANN model and system model were in good agreement with experiment data in both cooling and heating mode. In order to optimize the system design structure, parametric study was conducted in terms of the thickness of aluminum panel and insulation, as well as the arrangement of TEMs on the surface of radiant panel. It was found through simulation results that the optimum thickness of aluminum panel and insulation are respectively around 1–2 mm and 40–50 mm. In addition, TEMs should be uniformly installed on the surface of radiant panel and each TEM should stand at the central position of a square-shaped typical region with length around 0.387–0.548 m.

  18. Effects of pollen of pinus thunbergii induced by different radiant factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Qunce; Liang Qiuxia; Li Guoping

    2008-01-01

    The effects of pollens and pollen tubes of Pinus thunbergii induced respectively by N + beam, γ-ray and ultraviolet ray were measured, and the differences of the effects caused by the different radiant factors were distinguished. The results showed that there was obvious difference in the damages of the pollen germination and the pollen tube growth led by the radiant factors. The curve of dose effects from γ-ray irradiation was similarly S type, and that from ultraviolet ray treatment approximately L type. The effects from ion implantation expressed the two characteristics, the curve of the saddle type and the top inflation of pollen tube. (authors)

  19. Effect of a radiant heater on post-operative hypothermia: comparison with a reflective blanket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredahl, C; Lambert-Jensen, P; Freundlich, M

    1995-11-01

    Thirty patients with post-operative hypothermia following major surgery (thoracic, abdominal, orthopaedic) were allocated randomly to either active warming with a radiant heater (500 W) or passive rewarming with a reflective blanket. Rectal temperature, mean skin temperature (at four measuring sites), continuous haemoglobin saturation and shivering were measured for 2 h post-operatively. Although post-operative heat supply with a radiant heater resulted in faster rewarming, there were no differences between the two groups with respect to haemoglobin saturation and shivering.

  20. Radiant warmers versus incubators for regulating body temperature in newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flenady, V J; Woodgate, P G

    2003-01-01

    The provision of a thermoneutral environment is an essential component of the immediate and longer term care of newborn infants. A variety of methods are currently employed including incubators and open-care systems, with or without modifications such as heat shields and plastic wrap. The system used must allow ready access to the infant but should also minimise alterations in the immediate environment. To assess the effects of radiant warmers versus incubators on neonatal fluid and electrolyte balance, morbidity and mortality. The standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group was used. This included searches of electronic databases: Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 1, 2003), MEDLINE (1966 -2003), and CINAHL (1982-2003), previous reviews including cross references, abstracts, conferences, symposia proceedings, expert informants and journal hand searching mainly in the English language. Randomised or quasi-randomised trials in which radiant warmers were compared to incubators in a neonatal population. Independent data extraction and quality assessment of included trials was conducted by the authors. Data were analysed using relative risk (RR) and weighted mean difference (WMD). Results are presented with 95% confidence intervals. Meta-analysis was undertaken using a fixed effect model. Eight studies are included in this review; six employed a crossover design. In the overall comparison of radiant warmers vs incubators, radiant warmers caused a statistically significant increase in insensible water loss (IWL) [WMD 0.94g/Kg/day (95% CI 0.47, 1.41)] and a trend towards increased oxygen consumption which was not statistically significant [WMD 0.27mL/kg/min (95% CI -0.09, 0.63)]. Due to small numbers, effects on important clinical outcomes could not be adequately assessed. A comparison of radiant warmers with heat shields vs incubators without heat shields showed a

  1. The relationship between radiant heat, air temperature and thermal comfort at rest and exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Gueritee, Julien; Tipton, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The aims of the present work were to investigate the relationships between radiant heat load, air velocity and body temperatures with or without coincidental exercise to determine the physiological mechanisms that drive thermal comfort and thermoregulatory behaviour. Seven male volunteers wearing swimming trunks in 18 °C, 22 °C or 26 °C air were exposed to increasing air velocities up to 3 m s− 1 and self-adjusted the intensity of the direct radiant heat received on the front of the body to j...

  2. Thermal environment in a simulated double office room with convective and radiant cooling systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustakallio, Panu; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Rezgals, Lauris

    2017-01-01

    The thermal environment in a double office room obtained with chilled beam (CB), chilled beam with radiant panel (CBR), chilled ceiling with ceiling installed mixing ventilation (CCMV) and overhead mixing total volume ventilation (MTVV) under summer (cooling) condition was compared. Design (peak......) and usual (average) heat load from solar radiation, office equipment, lighting and occupants was simulated, respectively at 62 W/m2 and 38 W/m2 under four different workstation layouts. Air temperature, globe (operative) temperature, radiant asymmetry, air velocity and turbulent intensity were measured...

  3. Three-dimensional simulation of super-radiant Smith-Purcell radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, D.; Imasaki, K.; Yang, Z.; Park, Gun-Sik

    2006-01-01

    A simulation of coherent and super-radiant Smith-Purcell radiation is performed in the gigahertz regime using a three-dimensional particle-in-cell code. The simulation model supposes a rectangular grating to be driven by a single electron bunch and a train of periodic bunches, respectively. The true Smith-Purcell radiation is distinguished from the evanescent wave, which has an angle independent frequency lower than the minimum allowed Smith-Purcell frequency. We also find that the super-radiant radiations excited by periodic bunches are emitted at higher harmonics of the bunching frequency and at the corresponding Smith-Purcell angles

  4. Radiant warmer power and body size as determinants of insensible water loss in the critically ill neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, S; Engle, W D; Fox, W W; Polin, R A

    1981-12-01

    Twelve critically ill neonates mechanically ventilated for respiratory failure (mean weight 1.33 kg, mean gestation 31 wk) were studied to quantitate the effects of radiant power from a radiant warming device, body weight, and body surface area on insensible water loss. Radiant power density (Mw/cm2) was measured using a wattmeter and thermopile transducer. Insensible water loss was measured using a Potter Baby Scale. Weight correlated inversely with insensible water loss, (r = -0.86, P less than 0.001). Radiant power density correlated inversely to weight, (r = -0.71, P less than 0.001). There was a significant increase in insensible water loss as radiant power density increased, (r = 0.54, P less than 0.05). Net radiant power received (W/kg) by infants over their exposed surface area, correlated directly to insensible water loss, (r = 0.67, P less than 0.01) irrespective of body weight. Critically ill neonates ventilated for respiratory failure and nursed under radiant warmers incurred greater insensible water losses than previously reported for well infants. The magnitude of this increased insensible water loss is inversely related to body size and is determined directly by the radiant power density required to maintain body temperature.

  5. Flammability properties and radiant fraction of FRT wood plastic composites using mass loss calorimeter under HRR hood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Dietenberger; Charles R. Boardman; Nicole Stark

    2017-01-01

    A special test arrangement was used to assess the flammability of 4 different wood plastic composites (WPC), most with fire retardants, all of which has a tendency to high smoke production leading to high radiant energy losses to the apparatus walls. The mass loss calorimeter (MLC) was modified to include a thermopile on the exhaust pipe stack to compensate for radiant...

  6. Ignition and flame spread properties of wood, elaborated during a new test method based on convective heat flux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt

    , established from a Bunsen burners pilot flame. This principal is somewhat in contrast to the more typical radiation established fluxes. For instance, the ISO 9239 (DS 2000) test method is based on a gas fired radiant panel. And in the ISO 5657 standard, the ignition properties are investigated on test...

  7. Integrated application of combined cooling, heating and power poly-generation PV radiant panel system of zero energy buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Baoquan

    2018-02-01

    A new type of combined cooling, heating and power of photovoltaic radiant panel (PV/R) module was proposed, and applied in the zero energy buildings in this paper. The energy system of this building is composed of PV/R module, low temperature difference terminal, energy storage, multi-source heat pump, energy balance control system. Radiant panel is attached on the backside of the PV module for cooling the PV, which is called PV/R module. During the daytime, the PV module was cooled down with the radiant panel, as the temperature coefficient influence, the power efficiency was increased by 8% to 14%, the radiant panel solar heat collecting efficiency was about 45%. Through the nocturnal radiant cooling, the PV/R cooling capacity could be 50 W/m2. For the multifunction energy device, the system shows the versatility during the heating, cooling and power used of building utilization all year round.

  8. Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) algorithm theoretical basis document. Volume 1; Overviews (subsystem 0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator); Barkstrom, Bruce R. (Principal Investigator); Baum, Bryan A.; Cess, Robert D.; Charlock, Thomas P.; Coakley, James A.; Green, Richard N.; Lee, Robert B., III; Minnis, Patrick; Smith, G. Louis

    1995-01-01

    The theoretical bases for the Release 1 algorithms that will be used to process satellite data for investigation of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) are described. The architecture for software implementation of the methodologies is outlined. Volume 1 provides both summarized and detailed overviews of the CERES Release 1 data analysis system. CERES will produce global top-of-the-atmosphere shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes at the top of the atmosphere, at the surface, and within the atmosphere by using the combination of a large variety of measurements and models. The CERES processing system includes radiance observations from CERES scanning radiometers, cloud properties derived from coincident satellite imaging radiometers, temperature and humidity fields from meteorological analysis models, and high-temporal-resolution geostationary satellite radiances to account for unobserved times. CERES will provide a continuation of the ERBE record and the lowest error climatology of consistent cloud properties and radiation fields. CERES will also substantially improve our knowledge of the Earth's surface radiation budget.

  9. Relationship Between the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Measurements and Surface Temperatures of Selected Ocean Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Dhirendra, K.; Lee, Robert B., III; Brown, Shannon B.; Paden, Jack; Spence, Peter L.; Thomas, Susan; Wilson, Robert S.; Al-Hajjah, Aiman

    2001-01-01

    Clear sky longwave radiances and fluxes are compared with the sea surface temperatures for three oceanic regions: Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific. The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) measurements were obtained by the three thermistor bolometers: total channel which measures the radiation arising from the earth-atmosphere system between 0.3 - greater than 100 micrometers; the window channel which measures the radiation from 8-12 micrometers; and the shortwave channel which measures the reflected energy from 0.3 - less than 5.0 micrometers. These instruments have demonstrated measurement precisions of approximately 0.3% on the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) between ground and on-orbit sensor calibrations. In this work we have used eight months of clear sky earth-nadir-view radiance data starting from January 1998 through August 1998. We have found a very strong correlation of 0.97 between the CERES window channel's weekly averaged unfiltered spectral radiance values at satellite altitude (350 km) and the corresponding weekly averaged sea surface temperature (SST) data covering all the oceanic regions. Such correlation can be used in predicting the sea surface temperatures using the present CERES Terra's window channel radiances at satellite altitude very easily.

  10. Evaluation of Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Scanner Pointing Accuracy using a Coastline Detection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currey, Chris; Smith, Lou; Neely, Bob

    1998-01-01

    Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) investigation to examine the role of clouds in the radiative energy flow through the Earth-atmosphere system. The first CERES scanning radiometer was launched on November 27, 1997 into a 35 inclination, 350 km altitude orbit, on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) spacecraft. The CERES instrument consists of a three channel scanning broadband radiometer. The spectral bands measure shortwave (0.3 - 5 microns), window (8 - 12 microns), and total (0.3 - 100 microns) radiation reflected or emitted from the Earth-atmosphere system. Each Earth viewing measurement is geolocated to the Earth fixed coordinate system using satellite ephemeris, Earth rotation and geoid, and instrument pointing data. The interactive CERES coastline detection system is used to assess the accuracy of the CERES geolocation process. By analyzing radiative flux gradients at the boundaries of ocean and land masses, the accuracy of the scanner measurement locations may be derived for the CERES/TRMM instrument/satellite system. The resulting CERES measurement location errors are within 10% of the nadir footprint size. Precise pointing knowledge of the Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) is required for convolution of cloud properties onto the CERES footprint; initial VIRS coastline results are included.

  11. Cloud Effects on Meridional Atmospheric Energy Budget Estimated from Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Seiji; Rose, Fred G.; Rutan, David A.; Charlock, Thomas P.

    2008-01-01

    The zonal mean atmospheric cloud radiative effect, defined as the difference of the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) and surface cloud radiative effects, is estimated from three years of Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data. The zonal mean shortwave effect is small, though it tends to be positive (warming). This indicates that clouds increase shortwave absorption in the atmosphere, especially in midlatitudes. The zonal mean atmospheric cloud radiative effect is, however, dominated by the longwave effect. The zonal mean longwave effect is positive in the tropics and decreases with latitude to negative values (cooling) in polar regions. The meridional gradient of cloud effect between midlatitude and polar regions exists even when uncertainties in the cloud effect on the surface enthalpy flux and in the modeled irradiances are taken into account. This indicates that clouds increase the rate of generation of mean zonal available potential energy. Because the atmospheric cooling effect in polar regions is predominately caused by low level clouds, which tend to be stationary, we postulate that the meridional and vertical gradients of cloud effect increase the rate of meridional energy transport by dynamics in the atmosphere from midlatitude to polar region, especially in fall and winter. Clouds then warm the surface in polar regions except in the Arctic in summer. Clouds, therefore, contribute in increasing the rate of meridional energy transport from midlatitude to polar regions through the atmosphere.

  12. Comparison of a radiant patient warming device with forced air warming during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, A; Walker, S; Bradley, M

    2004-02-01

    The importance of maintaining a patient's core body temperature during anaesthesia to reduce the incidence of postoperative complications has been well documented. The standard practice of this institution is the use of a forced air device for intraoperative warming. The purpose of this study was to compare this standard with an alternative warming device using a radiant heat source which only heated the face. This prospective, randomized controlled trial compared the efficacy of two methods of intraoperative warming: the BairHugger (Augustine Medical, U.S.A.) forced air device and the SunTouch (Fisher & Paykel Healthcare, N.Z.) radiant warmer during laparoscopic cholecystectomy in 42 female patients. Oesophageal core temperatures were recorded automatically on to computer during operations using standardised anaesthesia, intravenous infusions and draping. The study failed to show any statistical or clinical difference between the two patient groups in terms of mean core temperature both intraoperatively (P = 0.42) and in the recovery period (P = 0.54). Mean start to end core temperature differences were marginally lower in the radiant group (0.08 degree C) but not statistically or clinically significantly different. Given some of the drawbacks with forced air systems, such as the expense of the single use blanket, this new radiant warming device offers an alternative method of active warming with advantages in terms of cost and possible application to a wide variety of surgical procedures.

  13. Present and projected future mean radiant temperature for three European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsson, Sofia; Rayner, David; Lindberg, Fredrik; Monteiro, Ana; Katzschner, Lutz; Lau, Kevin Ka-Lun; Campe, Sabrina; Katzschner, Antje; Konarska, Janina; Onomura, Shiho; Velho, Sara; Holmer, Björn

    2017-09-01

    Present-day and projected future changes in mean radiant temperature, T mrt in one northern, one mid-, and one southern European city (represented by Gothenburg, Frankfurt, and Porto), are presented, and the concept of hot spots is adopted. Air temperature, T a , increased in all cities by 2100, but changes in solar radiation due to changes in cloudiness counterbalanced or exacerbated the effects on T mrt . The number of days with high T mrt in Gothenburg was relatively unchanged at the end of the century (+1 day), whereas it more than doubled in Frankfurt and tripled in Porto. The use of street trees to reduce daytime radiant heat load was analyzed using hot spots to identify where trees could be most beneficial. Hot spots, although varying in intensity and frequency, were generally confined to near sunlit southeast-southwest facing walls, in northeast corner of courtyards, and in open spaces in all three cities. By adding trees in these spaces, the radiant heat load can be reduced, especially in spaces with no or few trees. A set of design principles for reducing the radiant heat load is outlined based on these findings and existing literature.

  14. Calculation codes for radiant heat transfers; Les codes de calcul de rayonnement thermique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This document reports on 12 papers about computerized simulation and modeling of radiant heat transfers and fluid flows in various industrial and domestic situations: space heating, metal industry (furnaces, boilers..), aerospace industry (turbojet engines, combustion chambers) etc.. This workshop was organized by the ``radiation`` section of the French society of thermal engineers. (J.S.)

  15. Present and projected future mean radiant temperature for three European cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsson, Sofia; Rayner, David; Lindberg, Fredrik; Monteiro, Ana; Katzschner, Lutz; Lau, Kevin Ka-Lun; Campe, Sabrina; Katzschner, Antje; Konarska, Janina; Onomura, Shiho; Velho, Sara; Holmer, Björn

    2017-09-01

    Present-day and projected future changes in mean radiant temperature, T mrt in one northern, one mid-, and one southern European city (represented by Gothenburg, Frankfurt, and Porto), are presented, and the concept of hot spots is adopted. Air temperature, T a , increased in all cities by 2100, but changes in solar radiation due to changes in cloudiness counterbalanced or exacerbated the effects on T mrt. The number of days with high T mrt in Gothenburg was relatively unchanged at the end of the century (+1 day), whereas it more than doubled in Frankfurt and tripled in Porto. The use of street trees to reduce daytime radiant heat load was analyzed using hot spots to identify where trees could be most beneficial. Hot spots, although varying in intensity and frequency, were generally confined to near sunlit southeast-southwest facing walls, in northeast corner of courtyards, and in open spaces in all three cities. By adding trees in these spaces, the radiant heat load can be reduced, especially in spaces with no or few trees. A set of design principles for reducing the radiant heat load is outlined based on these findings and existing literature.

  16. Cooling load calculations of radiant and all-air systems for commercial buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdakis, Eleftherios; Bauman, Fred; Schiavon, Stefano

    The authors simulated in TRNSYS three radiant systems coupled with a 50% sized variable air volume (VAV) system and a 50% sized all-air VAV system with night ventilation. The objective of this study was to identify the differences in the cooling load profiles of the examined systems when they are...

  17. Absolute metrology for space interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvadé, Yves; Courteville, Alain; Dändliker, René

    2017-11-01

    The crucial issue of space-based interferometers is the laser interferometric metrology systems to monitor with very high accuracy optical path differences. Although classical high-resolution laser interferometers using a single wavelength are well developed, this type of incremental interferometer has a severe drawback: any interruption of the interferometer signal results in the loss of the zero reference, which requires a new calibration, starting at zero optical path difference. We propose in this paper an absolute metrology system based on multiplewavelength interferometry.

  18. Notes on neutron flux measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcala Ruiz, F.

    1984-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to get an useful guide to carry out topical neutron flux measurements. Although the foil activation technique is used in the majority of the cases, other techniques, such as those based on fission chambers and self-powered neutron detectors, are also shown. Special interest is given to the description and application of corrections on the measurement of relative and absolute induced activities by several types of detectors (scintillators, G-M and gas proportional counters). The thermal arid epithermal neutron fluxes, as determined in this work, are conventional or effective (West cots fluxes), which are extensively used by the reactor experimentalists; however, we also give some expressions where they are related to the integrated neutron fluxes, which are used in neutron calculations. (Author) 16 refs

  19. Optimal thermal management for low birth weight infants nursed under high-powered radiant warmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, S W; Baumgart, S

    1987-01-01

    Servocontrol of skin temperature for the critically ill premature neonate nursed on a radiant warmer bed has been assumed to be analogous to skin temperature control for infants nursed in convection-warmed incubators. There are significant differences between these two warming techniques, and no definitive data exist to aid the clinical specialist in governing radiant warmer control. Eighteen low birth weight premature infants less than 2 weeks of age were studied under powerful overhead radiant warmers to determine the optimal skin temperature for servocontrol of radiant heater output. Anterior abdominal wall temperature was servocontrolled at 35.5 degrees, 36.5 degrees, and 37.5 degrees C in a randomized fashion for three periods of 90 minutes each after thermal equilibrium was established. Oxygen consumption was measured during the entire 90-min sample period at each temperature by a computerized metabolic apparatus to determine the optimal thermal neutral control temperature defined as minimal oxygen consumption with normal body temperature. Skin, deep rectal, and environmental temperature measurements, as well as behavior assessments, were made concurrently. Oxygen consumption was significantly elevated at 35.5 degrees C (8.62 +/- 0.73 mL/kg/min, mean +/- SEM) compared with 36.5 degrees C (7.30 +/- 0.55 mL/kg/min). Changing servocontrol temperature to 37.5 degrees C produced no further significant decrease in oxygen consumption (7.41 +/- 0.70 mL/kg/min), and nine infants manifested supranormal deep rectal temperatures (greater than 37.5 degrees C). Optimal abdominal skin temperature control at 36.5 degrees C (slightly warmer than previously reported but less than 37.5 degrees C) is recommended for premature neonates nursed on radiant warmer beds.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. The relationship between radiant heat, air temperature and thermal comfort at rest and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéritée, Julien; Tipton, Michael J

    2015-02-01

    The aims of the present work were to investigate the relationships between radiant heat load, air velocity and body temperatures with or without coincidental exercise to determine the physiological mechanisms that drive thermal comfort and thermoregulatory behaviour. Seven male volunteers wearing swimming trunks in 18°C, 22°C or 26°C air were exposed to increasing air velocities up to 3 m s(-1) and self-adjusted the intensity of the direct radiant heat received on the front of the body to just maintain overall thermal comfort, at rest or when cycling (60 W, 60 rpm). During the 30 min of the experiments, skin and rectal temperatures were continuously recorded. We hypothesized that mean body temperature should be maintained stable and the intensity of the radiant heat and the mean skin temperatures would be lower when cycling. In all conditions, mean body temperature was lower when facing winds of 3 m s(-1) than during the first 5 min, without wind. When facing winds, in all but the 26°C air, the radiant heat was statistically higher at rest than when exercising. In 26°C air mean skin temperature was lower at rest than when exercising. No other significant difference was observed. In all air temperatures, high correlation coefficients were observed between the air velocity and the radiant heat load. Other factors that we did not measure may have contributed to the constant overall thermal comfort status despite dropping mean skin and body temperatures. It is suggested that the allowance to behaviourally adjust the thermal environment increases the tolerance of cold discomfort. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Enhancement of natural ventilation rate and attic heat gain reduction of roof solar collector using radiant barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puangsombut, W.; Hirunlabh, J. [Building Scientific Research Center, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangmod, Thungkru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Khedari, J.; Win, M.M. [South-East Asia University, 19/1 Petkasem Rd., Nongkhaem, Bangkok 10160 (Thailand); Zeghmati, B. [Centre d' Etudes Fondamentales-Groupe de Mechanique Acoustique et Instrumentation, Universite de Perpignan, 66870, Perpignan (France)

    2007-06-15

    Presented in this paper are the experimental results on natural ventilation flow rate enhancement and attic heat gain reduction of a roof solar collector equipped with a radiant barrier (RB). Investigation was conducted using an open ended inclined rectangular channel with an RB. The RB was used on the lower plate while the upper plate was heated with constant heat flux intensity. The channel dimensions are 1.5 x 0.70 x 0.19 m. The slope of the channel was fixed at 30 from horizontal plane. Four heat flux (190.5, 285.7, 380.9 and 476.2 W m{sup -2}) and five air gap space (3, 5, 7, 9 and 11 cm) were considered. Data analysis was made to determine the free convection heat transfer coefficient and induced airflow rate using two dimensionless parameters, viz., Nusselt number (Nu) and Reynolds number (Re). The Nu and Re were correlated as a function of Ra sin30 and channel aspect ratio defined as the ratio of air gap space to the channel length. The relations obtained were as follows: Nu=0.371(Ra sin 30){sup 0.2223}(S/L){sup -0.0469} and Re=191.68(Ra sin30){sup 0.1213}(S/L){sup -0.085}. When compared to a conventional roof solar configuration with gypsum board on the lower part, it was observed that the use of RB increased convective heat transfer and airflow rate by about 40-50%, thereby increasing heat transfer reduction through the lower plate by about 50%. The developed correlations are useful for the design of such open-ended channels like the roof solar collector for passive ventilation of houses. (author)

  2. Absolute pitch--electrophysiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnea, A; Granot, R; Pratt, H

    1994-02-01

    People who have the ability to label or to produce notes without any reference are considered to possess Absolute Pitch (AP). Others, who need a reference in order to identify the notes, possess Relative Pitch (RP). The AP ability is assumed to reflect a unique, language-like representation of non-lexical musical notes in memory. The purpose of this study was to examine this assumption by comparing Event Related Potentials (ERP) of musicians with and without AP, to lexical and non-lexical representation of musical material. Subjects were eighteen young adult musicians. Seven were AP and eleven RP. Auditory stimuli, presented through earphones, were piano notes (non-lexical) or a voice saying the note's name (lexical). Visual stimuli, presented on a computer display were note symbols (non-lexical) or letters (lexical). Subjects performed a number of tasks, combining the two modalities (visual and auditory) and stimulus types (lexical and non-lexical), and reaction times (RT), performance accuracy and evoked potentials were recorded. The tasks forced the subjects to transfer mental representations of musical material from one mode to another. Our most important findings were the differences, between groups, in the scalp distribution of P300 amplitudes. We conclude that absolute pitch possessors use the same internal language as relative pitch possessors, when possible, but the distribution of the underlying brain activity is different between AP and RP subjects.

  3. Absolute MR thermometry using nanocarriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckers, Roel; Sprinkhuizen, Sara M; Crielaard, Bart J; Ippel, Johannes H; Boelens, Rolf; Bakker, Chris J G; Storm, Gert; Lammers, Twan; Bartels, Lambertus W

    2014-01-01

    Accurate time-resolved temperature mapping is crucial for the safe use of hyperthermia-mediated drug delivery. We here propose a magnetic resonance imaging temperature mapping method in which drug delivery systems serve not only to improve tumor targeting, but also as an accurate and absolute nano-thermometer. This method is based on the temperature-dependent chemical shift difference between water protons and the protons in different groups of drug delivery systems. We show that the chemical shift of the protons in the ethylene oxide group in polyethylene glycol (PEG) is temperature-independent, whereas the proton resonance of water decreases with increasing temperature. The frequency difference between both resonances is linear and does not depend on pH and physiological salt conditions. In addition, we show that the proton resonance of the methyl group in N-(2-hydroxypropyl)-methacrylamide (HPMA) is temperature-independent. Therefore, PEGylated liposomes, polymeric mPEG-b-pHPMAm-Lac2 micelles and HPMA copolymers can provide a temperature-independent reference frequency for absolute magnetic resonance (MR) thermometry. Subsequently, we show that multigradient echo MR imaging with PEGylated liposomes in situ allows accurate, time-resolved temperature mapping. In conclusion, nanocarrier materials may serve as highly versatile tools for tumor-targeted drug delivery, acting not only as hyperthermia-responsive drug delivery systems, but also as accurate and precise nano-thermometers. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. NIST Stars: Absolute Spectrophotometric Calibration of Vega and Sirius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deustua, Susana; Woodward, John T.; Rice, Joseph P.; Brown, Steven W.; Maxwell, Stephen E.; Alberding, Brian G.; Lykke, Keith R.

    2018-01-01

    Absolute flux calibration of standard stars, traceable to SI (International System of Units) standards, is essential for 21st century astrophysics. Dark energy investigations that rely on observations of Type Ia supernovae and precise photometric redshifts of weakly lensed galaxies require a minimum accuracy of 0.5 % in the absolute color calibration. Studies that aim to address fundamental stellar astrophysics also benefit. In the era of large telescopes and all sky surveys well-calibrated standard stars that do not saturate and that are available over the whole sky are needed. Significant effort has been expended to obtain absolute measurements of the fundamental standards Vega and Sirius (and other stars) in the visible and near infrared, achieving total uncertainties between1% and 3%, depending on wavelength, that do not meet the needed accuracy. The NIST Stars program aims to determine the top-of-the-atmosphere absolute spectral irradiance of bright stars to an uncertainty less than 1% from a ground-based observatory. NIST Stars has developed a novel, fully SI-traceable laboratory calibration strategy that will enable achieving the desired accuracy. This strategy has two key components. The first is the SI-traceable calibration of the entire instrument system, and the second is the repeated spectroscopic measurement of the target star throughout the night. We will describe our experimental strategy, present preliminary results for Vega and Sirius and an end-to-end uncertainty budget

  5. "Absolute" sterility and "absolute" freedom from particle contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, J Z

    1998-01-01

    Until the recent past, sterility of an injectable product was only discussed in absolute terms. Any description of sterility other than as an absolute could simply not be envisioned. While dealing in absolute yes/no statements is philosophically satisfying, these yes/no statements can't accommodate all real world scientific problems. Among these problems is the sterility problems faced in the mass production of injectable compounds. Many descriptions of procedures employed to achieve sterility in parenteral production batches were reported in the literature. The theoretical framework that could unite the widespread observations and practices into practical methodology was missing until recently. Production line control of the sterility of injectable products was essentially based on gut evaluations. The present achievement of rational, production line control of product sterility is based on the recognition that product sterility could not be simply regarded as a sharply edged yes/no affair. The present rational control is based on the fact that the sterility of a product is determined by the degree of contamination in the product prior to sterilization and to the parameters of the sterilization process. The end result of the sterilization process is now described as a probabalistic reduction of the initial contamination. The essential laboratory measurements on which this conclusion was based is due to Pflug (1-3). He assembled a theoretical framework, based on experimental data, that characterizes the sterility achieved in an injectable product with a single number. The end result of the sterilization process is now described as a probabalistic reduction of the initial contamination. As in many disciplines, the ability to achieve an objective evaluation of this important attribute provided the basis for scientific analysis, improved control and thus improved production and reduced cost. An equivalent framework is essential for the communication and

  6. Energy flow and thermal comfort in buildings: Comparison of radiant and air-based heating & cooling systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Dréau, Jérôme

    is based on both radiation and convection. This thesis focuses on characterizing the heat transfer from the terminal towards the space and on the parameters influencing the effectiveness of terminals. Therefore the comfort conditions and energy consumption of four types of terminals (active chilled beam...... in the ventilation losses (or gains). At low air-change rates (below 0.5 ACH), radiant and air-based terminals have similar energy needs. For higher air change rate, the energy consumption of radiant terminals is lower than that of air-based terminals due to the higher air temperature. At 2 ACH, the energy savings...... of a radiant wall can be estimated to around 10% compared to the active chilled beam (in terms of delivered energy). The asymmetry between air and radiant temperature, the air temperature gradient and the possible short-circuit between inlet and outlet all play a role equally important in decreasing...

  7. Radiant Floor Cooling Combined with Mixing Ventilation in a Residential Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krajcik, Michal; Simone, Angela; Tomasi, Roberta

    in progress. An experimental laboratory study in a simulated residential room with a seated occupant simulated by a thermal manikin was performed in order to evaluate thermal comfort and ventilation effectiveness. Thermal comfort was evaluated by means of vertical air temperature and air velocity profiles...... for comfortable thermal environment recommended by the standards. The cooler supply air mixed well and the effect of the position of air terminal devices was small. When warm unconditioned outside air was supplied by mixing ventilation in combination with the radiant floor cooling, low floor temperature......Mixing air ventilation system is one of the main ventilation concepts applied in residential buildings. The effect of combining the mixing ventilation system with the radiant floor heating has been well established, whereas the validation of using the floor for cooling in summer is still...

  8. Effects of Floor Covering Resistance of a Radiant Floor on System Energy and Exergy Performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Shukuya, Masanori; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2016-01-01

    Floor covering resistance (material and thickness) can be influenced by subjective choices (architectural design, interior design, texture, etc.) with significant effects on the performance of a radiant heating and cooling system. To study the effects of floor covering resistance on system...... performance, a water-based radiant floor heating and cooling system (dry, wooden construction) was considered to be coupled to an air-to-water heat pump, and the effects of varying floor covering resistances (0.05 m2K/W, 0.09 m2K/W and 0.15 m2K/W) on system performance were analyzed in terms of energy...... and exergy. In order to achieve the same heating and cooling outputs, higher average water temperatures are required in the heating mode (and lower temperatures in the cooling mode) with increasing floor covering resistance. These temperature requirements decrease the heat pump’s performance (lower...

  9. Super-radiant Smith–Purcell radiation from periodic line charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, D.; Hangyo, M.; Tsunawaki, Y.; Yang, Z.; Wei, Y.; Miyamoto, S; Asakawa, M.R.; Imasaki, K.

    2012-01-01

    Smith–Purcell radiation occurs when an electron passes close to the surface of a metallic grating. The radiation becomes coherent when the length of the electron bunch is smaller than the wavelength of the radiation. A train of periodic bunches can enhance the spectral intensity by changing the angular and spectral distribution of the radiation. This is called super-radiant Smith–Purcell radiation, and has been observed in experiments and particle-in-cell simulations. In this paper, we introduce a new method to study this effect by calculating the reflected waves of an incident evanescent wave from periodic line charges. The reflection coefficients are numerically computed, and the spectral distributions of the super-radiant radiation are demonstrated. These analytical results are in agreement with those obtained through part-in-cell simulations.

  10. Annual Cycles of Surface Shortwave Radiative Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilber, Anne C.; Smith, G. Louis; Gupta, Shashi K.; Stackhouse, Paul W.

    2006-01-01

    The annual cycles of surface shortwave flux are investigated using the 8-yr dataset of the surface radiation budget (SRB) components for the period July 1983-June 1991. These components include the downward, upward, and net shortwave radiant fluxes at the earth's surface. The seasonal cycles are quantified in terms of principal components that describe the temporal variations and empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) that describe the spatial patterns. The major part of the variation is simply due to the variation of the insolation at the top of the atmosphere, especially for the first term, which describes 92.4% of the variance for the downward shortwave flux. However, for the second term, which describes 4.1% of the variance, the effect of clouds is quite important and the effect of clouds dominates the third term, which describes 2.4% of the variance. To a large degree the second and third terms are due to the response of clouds to the annual cycle of solar forcing. For net shortwave flux at the surface, similar variances are described by each term. The regional values of the EOFs are related to climate classes, thereby defining the range of annual cycles of shortwave radiation for each climate class.

  11. High accuracy absolute distance metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinkels, Bas L.; Bhattacharya, Nandini; Verlaan, Ad L.; Braat, Joseph J. M.

    2017-11-01

    One of ESA's future missions is the Darwin Space Interferometer, which aims to detect planets around nearby stars using optical aperture synthesis with free-flying telescopes. Since this involves interfering white (infra-red) light over large distances, the mission is not possible without a complex metrology system that monitors various speeds, distances and angles between the satellites. One of its sub-systems should measure absolute distances with an accuracy of around 70 micrometer over distances up to 250 meter. To enable such measurements, we are investigating a technique called frequency sweeping interferometry, in which a single laser is swept over a large known frequency range. Central to our approach is the use of a very stable, high finesse Fabry-Ṕerot cavity, to which the laser is stabilized at the endpoints of the frequency sweep. We will discuss the optical set-up, the control system that controls the fast sweeping, the calibration and the data analysis. We tested the system using long fibers and achieved a repeatability of 50 micrometers at a distance of 55 meters. We conclude with some recommendations for further improvements and the adaption for use in space.

  12. Study of thermosiphon and radiant panel passive heating systems for metal buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biehl, F.A.; Schnurr, N.M.; Wray, W.O.

    1983-01-01

    A study of passive-heating systems appropriate for use on metal buildings is being conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme, California. The systems selected for study were chosen on the basis of their appropriateness for retrofit applications, although they are also suitable for new construction: simple radiant panels that communicate directly with the building interior and a backflow thermosiphon that provides heat indirectly.

  13. Free of pollution gas - an utopia or attainable goal? Gas radiant burner with a small capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofbauer, P.; Bornscheuer, W.

    1993-01-01

    The firm Viessmann has developed a gas radiant burner for boiler capacities up to 100 kN combusting gas with extremely low pollutant emissions. This is possible since from the reaction zone a considerable part of the combustion heat is delivered through radiation by means of a glowing special steel structure. The theoretical fundamentals are explained by means of considerations regarding the equilibrium and a reaction kinetic numerical model. (orig.) [de

  14. The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System Elevation Bearing Assembly Life Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Phillip L.; Miller, James B.; Jones, William R., Jr.; Rasmussen, Kent; Wheeler, Donald R.; Rana, Mauro; Peri, Frank

    1999-01-01

    The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) elevation scan bearings lubricated with Pennzane SHF X2000 and 2% lead naphthenate (PbNp) were life tested for a seven-year equivalent Low Earth Orbit (LEO) operation. The bearing life assembly was tested continuously at an accelerated and normal rate using the scanning patterns developed for the CERES Earth Observing System AM-1 mission. A post-life-test analysis was performed on the collected data, bearing wear, and lubricant behavior.

  15. Simplified Building Thermal Model Used for Optimal Control of Radiant Cooling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei He

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available MPC has the ability to optimize the system operation parameters for energy conservation. Recently, it has been used in HVAC systems for saving energy, but there are very few applications in radiant cooling systems. To implement MPC in buildings with radiant terminals, the predictions of cooling load and thermal environment are indispensable. In this paper, a simplified thermal model is proposed for predicting cooling load and thermal environment in buildings with radiant floor. In this thermal model, the black-box model is introduced to derive the incident solar radiation, while the genetic algorithm is utilized to identify the parameters of the thermal model. In order to further validate this simplified thermal model, simulated results from TRNSYS are compared with those from this model and the deviation is evaluated based on coefficient of variation of root mean square (CV. The results show that the simplified model can predict the operative temperature with a CV lower than 1% and predict cooling loads with a CV lower than 10%. For the purpose of supervisory control in HVAC systems, this simplified RC thermal model has an acceptable accuracy and can be used for further MPC in buildings with radiation terminals.

  16. Thermal Performance Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Floor Structure with Radiant Floor Heating System in Apartment Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Sun Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of the resilient materials in the radiant floor heating systems of reinforced concrete floor in apartment housing is closely related to the reduction of the floor impact sound and the heating energy loss. This study examined the thermal conductivity of expanded polystyrene (EPS foam used for the resilient material in South Korea and analysed the thermal transfer of reinforced concrete floor structure according to the thermal conductivity of the resilient materials. 82 EPS specimens were used to measure the thermal conductivity. The measured apparent density of EPS resilient materials ranged between 9.5 and 63.0 kg/m3, and the thermal conductivity ranged between 0.030 and 0.046 W/(m·K. As the density of resilient materials made of expanded polystyrene foam increases, the thermal conductivity tends to proportionately decrease. To set up reasonable thermal insulation requirements for radiant heating floor systems, the thermal properties of floor structure according to thermal insulation materials must be determined. Heat transfer simulations were performed to analyze the surface temperature, heat loss, and heat flow of floor structure with radiant heating system. As the thermal conductivity of EPS resilient material increased 1.6 times, the heat loss was of 3.4% increase.

  17. Effect of aluminized fabrics on radiant protective performance of fire proximity suit materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lu; Park, Pyoung Kyu; Hong, Kyoung A; Yoon, Kee Jong

    2015-03-01

    Radiant heat may be a significant component of heat exposure in the case of proximity firefighting. To combat high levels of radiant heat, fire proximity suits made of aluminized fabrics (Al-Fb) are commonly used due to their proven radiant protective performance (RPP). In this study RPP of various Al-Fb prepared using different aluminized films (Al-Fl) such as double-sided aluminized film and single-sided aluminized film and different base fabrics such as woven, knit, and nonwoven fabrics are compared. The effect of flexing on RPP and flame protective performance (FPP) of Al-Fb is also examined. The results show that RPP of Al-Fl is affected by the protective film to protect against mechanical or physical damages, and also by their structure such as whether the second reflective aluminum layer is present or not. In addition RPP of Al-Fb is also influenced by the base fabric, especially its surface roughness. The increased surface roughness combined with the damage caused to the aluminum layer after flexing result in reduction of RPP of Al-Fb. The contribution of Al-Fl to FPP of Al-Fb is not as significant as to RPP. Finally, based on the results, some points that may be important in developing and designing fire proximity suits are recommended. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  18. Radiant heat loss, an unexploited path for heat stress reduction in shaded cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, A; Horovitz, T

    2012-06-01

    Reducing thermal radiation on shaded animals reduces heat stress independently of other means of stress relief. Radiant heat exchange was estimated as a function of climate, shade structure, and animal density. Body surface portion exposed to radiant sources in shaded environments was determined by geometrical relations to determine angles of view of radiation sources (roof underside, sky, sun-exposed ground, shaded ground) on the animal's surface. The relative representation of environment radiation sources on the body surface was determined. Animal thermal radiation balance was derived from radiant heat gained from radiation sources (including surrounding animals) and that lost from the animal surface. The animal environment was assumed to have different shade dimensions and temperatures. These were summed to the radiant heat balance of the cow. The data formed served to estimate the effect of changes in intensity of radiation sources, roof and shaded surface dimensions, and animal density on radiant heat balance (Rbal) of cattle. Roof height effect was expressed by effect of roof temperature on Rbal. Roof underside temperature (35 to 75°C) effect on Rbal was reduced by roof height. If roof height were 4m, an increase in its underside temperature from 35 to 75°C would increase mean Rbal from -63 to -2 W·m⁻², whereas if roof height were 10 m, Rbal would only increase from -99 to -88 W·m⁻². A hot ground temperature increase from 35 to 65°C reduced mean Rbal heat loss from -45 to 3 W·m⁻². Increasing the surface of the shaded area had only a minor effect on Rbal and on the effect of hot ground on Rbal. Increasing shade roof height reduced the effect of roof temperature on Rbal to minor levels when height was > 8m. Increasing the roof height from 4 to 10 m decreased Rbal from -32 to -94 W·m⁻². Increasing indirect radiation from 100 to 500 W·m⁻² was associated with an increase in Rbal from -135 to +23 W·m⁻². Their combined effects were lower

  19. The effects of mixing air distribution and heat load arrangement on the performance of ceiling radiant panels under cooling mode of operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustakallio, Panu; Kosonen, Risto; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2016-01-01

    in a test chamber equipped with two ceiling radiant panels and air distribution units flush with the radiant panels. The heat load was generated through the walls and with heated cylinders. The cooling power of the radiant panels was increased with the studied air distribution methods. The increase was from......The cooling power of radiant panels can be effected by the arrangement of heat loads and by the room air distribution system. This impact can be important because often the cooling output is the critical factor for the design and usability of radiant panels. In this study, the impact of heat load...... 5% to 17% depending on the air distribution method and the heat load arrangement. The most significant effect of the heat load arrangement occured when heat loads are located unevenly and their convection flow turns or weakens the supply air jet flushing the radiant panels....

  20. The influence of vegetation and building morphology on shadow patterns and mean radiant temperatures in urban areas: model development and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Fredrik; Grimmond, C. S. B.

    2011-10-01

    The solar and longwave environmental irradiance geometry (SOLWEIG) model simulates spatial variations of 3-D radiation fluxes and mean radiant temperature ( T mrt) as well as shadow patterns in complex urban settings. In this paper, a new vegetation scheme is included in SOLWEIG and evaluated. The new shadow casting algorithm for complex vegetation structures makes it possible to obtain continuous images of shadow patterns and sky view factors taking both buildings and vegetation into account. For the calculation of 3-D radiation fluxes and T mrt, SOLWEIG only requires a limited number of inputs, such as global shortwave radiation, air temperature, relative humidity, geographical information (latitude, longitude and elevation) and urban geometry represented by high-resolution ground and building digital elevation models (DEM). Trees and bushes are represented by separate DEMs. The model is evaluated using 5 days of integral radiation measurements at two sites within a square surrounded by low-rise buildings and vegetation in Göteborg, Sweden (57°N). There is good agreement between modelled and observed values of T mrt, with an overall correspondence of R 2 = 0.91 ( p human comfort, building design, planning and evaluation of instrument exposure.

  1. Absolutely summing multilinear operators: a Panorama | Pellegrino ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper has a twofold purpose: to present an overview of the theory of absolutely summing operators and its different generalizations for the multilinear setting, and to sketch the beginning of a research project related to an objective search of “perfect” multilinear extensions of the ideal of absolutely summing operators.

  2. MEAN OF MEDIAN ABSOLUTE DERIVATION TECHNIQUE MEAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    The accurate estimation of noise variance in an image is the first important stage ... lung image was lung image was developed. developed. developed. The development of mean of median absolute derivation technique development of mean of median absolute .... that are non-real numbers during initial processing.

  3. Quantum nonequilibrium equalities with absolute irreversibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funo, Ken; Murashita, Yûto; Ueda, Masahito

    2015-07-01

    We derive quantum nonequilibrium equalities in absolutely irreversible processes. Here by absolute irreversibility we mean that in the backward process the density matrix does not return to the subspace spanned by those eigenvectors that have nonzero weight in the initial density matrix. Since the initial state of a memory and the postmeasurement state of the system are usually restricted to a subspace, absolute irreversibility occurs during the measurement and feedback processes. An additional entropy produced in absolutely irreversible processes needs to be taken into account to derive nonequilibrium equalities. We discuss a model of a feedback control on a qubit system to illustrate the obtained equalities. By introducing N heat baths each composed of a qubit and letting them interact with the system, we show how the entropy reduction via feedback control can be converted into work. An explicit form of extractable work in the presence of absolute irreversibility is given.

  4. Software used with the flux mapper at the solar parabolic dish test site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazono, C.

    1984-01-01

    Software for data archiving and data display was developed for use on a Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) PDP-11/34A minicomputer for use with the JPL-designed flux mapper. The flux mapper is a two-dimensional, high radiant energy scanning device designed to measure radiant flux energies expected at the focal point of solar parabolic dish concentrators. Interfacing to the DEC equipment was accomplished by standard RS-232C serial lines. The design of the software was dicated by design constraints of the flux-mapper controller. Early attemps at data acquisition from the flux-mapper controller were not without difficulty. Time and personnel limitations result in an alternative method of data recording at the test site with subsequent analysis accomplished at a data evaluation location at some later time. Software for plotting was also written to better visualize the flux patterns. Recommendations for future alternative development are discussed. A listing of the programs used in the anaysis is included in an appendix.

  5. Physics of magnetic flux tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Ryutova, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    This book is the first account of the physics of magnetic flux tubes from their fundamental properties to collective phenomena in an ensembles of flux tubes. The physics of magnetic flux tubes is absolutely vital for understanding fundamental physical processes in the solar atmosphere shaped and governed by magnetic fields. High-resolution and high cadence observations from recent space and  ground-based instruments taken simultaneously at different heights and temperatures not only show the ubiquity of filamentary structure formation but also allow to study how various events are interconnected by system of magnetic flux tubes. The book covers both theory and observations. Theoretical models presented in analytical and phenomenological forms are tailored for practical applications. These are welded with state-of-the-art observations from early decisive ones to the most recent data that open a new phase-space for exploring the Sun and sun-like stars. Concept of magnetic flux tubes is central to various magn...

  6. Critical flux determination by flux-stepping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Søren; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    2010-01-01

    In membrane filtration related scientific literature, often step-by-step determined critical fluxes are reported. Using a dynamic microfiltration device, it is shown that critical fluxes determined from two different flux-stepping methods are dependent upon operational parameters such as step......, such values are more or less useless in itself as critical flux predictors, and constant flux verification experiments have to be conducted to check if the determined critical fluxes call predict sustainable flux regimes. However, it is shown that using the step-by-step predicted critical fluxes as start...

  7. Compression garments: no enhancement of high-intensity exercise in hot radiant conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barwood, Martin J; Corbett, Jo; Feeney, John; Hannaford, Paul; Henderson, Dan; Jones, Ian; Kirke, Jade

    2013-09-01

    To establish the thermal and performance effects of wearing a lower-body graduated compression garment (GCG) in a hot environment (35.2°C ± 0.1°C) with a representative radiant heat load (~800 W/m²) in contrast to a control (running shorts) and sham condition (a compression garment 1 size larger than that recommended by the manufacturer), with the latter included to establish any placebo effect. Eight participants (mean ± SD; age 21 ± 2 y, height 1.77 ± 0.06 m, mass 72.8 ± 7.1 kg, surface area, 1.89 ± 0.10 m²) completed 3 treadmill tests at a fixed speed for 15 min followed by a self-paced 5-km time trial. Performance (completion time) and pacing (split time), thermal responses (aural, skin, and mean body temperature, cardiac frequency), and perceptual responses (rating of perceived exertion [RPE], thermal sensation, thermal comfort) were measured. Performance in the compression group was not different than in either sham or control at any stage (P > .05); completion time 26.08 ± 4.08, 26.05 ± 3.27, and 25.18 ± 3.15 min, respectively. At the end of the 5-km time trial, RPE was not different; it was 19 ± 1 across conditions. In general, thermal and perceptual responses were not different, although the radiant heat load increased site-specific skin temperature (quadriceps) in the garment conditions. GCG did not enhance performance in a hot environment with a representative radiant heat load. The sham treatment did not benefit perception. GCG provided no evidence of performance enhancement.

  8. Effects of radiant heat exposure on pacing pattern during a 15-km cycling time trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levels, Koen; de Koning, Jos; Broekhuijzen, Iris; Zwaan, Tamara; Foster, Carl; Daanen, Hein

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of different durations of skin temperature manipulation on pacing patterns and performance during a 15-km cycling time trial. Nineteen well-trained men completed three 15-km cycling time trials in 18 °C and 50% relative humidity with 4.5-km (short-heat), 9.0-km (long-heat) or without (control) radiant heat exposure applied by infrared heaters after 1.5 km in the time trial. During the time trials, power output, mean skin temperature, rectal temperature, heart rate and rating of perceived exertion were assessed. The radiant heat exposure resulted in higher mean skin temperature during the time trial for short-heat (35.0 ± 0.6 °C) and long-heat (35.3 ± 0.5 °C) than for control (32.5 ± 1.0 °C; P temperature was similar (P = 0.55). The mean power output was less for short-heat (273 ± 8 W; P = 0.001) and long-heat (271 ± 9 W; P = 0.02) than for control (287 ± 7 W), but pacing patterns did not differ (P = 0.55). Heart rate was greatest in control (177 ± 9 beats · min(-1); P radiant heat exposure and associated higher skin temperature reduced overall performance, but did not modify pacing pattern during a 15-km cycling time trial, regardless of the duration of the exposure.

  9. Experimental study of the effect of a radiant tube on the temperature distribution in a horizontal heating furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, H.T.; Liao, X.W.; Qu, Z.G.; Li, Y.Z.; Chen, J.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • 1:1 scale experimental study of the temperature distribution by a radiant tube. • Two burners are investigated for the heat transfer comparisons. • The non-uniformity coefficient ε is adopted to quantify temperature deviation. - Abstract: This article reports the experimental study of the heat transfer characteristics in a horizontal heating furnace that is extensively used in the petroleum industry of China. To avoid furnace burnout caused by an uneven furnace wall temperature, a straight radiant tube is proposed to be installed in the furnace, which transfers heat to the furnace wall mainly via a radiation pattern. Seven groups of measure points were selected to record the temperature data; each group consisted of two testing points at the top wall and middle wall. Two burners were investigated to compare the temperature distribution along the horizontal furnace wall. A non-uniformity coefficient ε of the wall temperature was used to quantify the temperature deviation. The experimental results show that the radiant tube can significantly reduce the temperature deviation on the furnace wall. The furnace wall with the SR100 burner has a generally larger É› than that with the HQ05 burner without the radiant tube. The SR100 burner has a larger overall decrease in É› than the HQ05 burner after the radiant tube is installed.

  10. Molecules, Water, and Radiant Energy: New Clues for the Origin of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Gerald H.; Figueroa, Xavier; Zhao, Qing

    2009-01-01

    We here examine the putative first step in the origin of life: the coalescence of dispersed molecules into a more condensed, organized state. Fresh evidence implies that the driving energy for this coalescence may come in a manner more direct than previously thought. The sun’s radiant energy separates charge in water, and this free charge demonstrably induces condensation. This condensation mechanism puts water as a central protagonist in life rather than as an incidental participant, and thereby helps explain why life requires water. PMID:19468316

  11. Hematological effects of radiant heat-induced whole body hyperthermia on dogs.

    OpenAIRE

    Woods, J P; Schmitt-Tiggelaar, C L; d'Oleire, F; Rosenthal, R C; Robins, H I

    1996-01-01

    The effects on hematological parameters of radiant heat-induced whole body hyperthermia (WBH) at 40.5 degrees C and 41.8 degrees C were determined in 6 normal dogs. Complete blood counts determined prior to WBH, immediately post WBH plateau, and at 1, 2, 7, and 14 days posttreatment did not change significantly following WBH at 40.5 degrees C or 41.8 degrees C. Similarly, no significant changes were detected in platelet counts measured following 40.5 degrees C WBH. In contrast, platelet count...

  12. Present and projected future mean radiant temperature for three European cities

    OpenAIRE

    Thorsson, Sofia; Rayner, David; Lindberg, Fredrik; Monteiro, Ana; Katzschner, Lutz; Lau, Kevin Ka-Lun; Campe, Sabrina; Katzschner, Antje; Konarska, Janina; Onomura, Shiho; Velho, Sara; Holmer, Björn

    2017-01-01

    Present-day and projected future changes in mean radiant temperature, T mrt in one northern, one mid-, and one southern European city (represented by Gothenburg, Frankfurt, and Porto), are presented, and the concept of hot spots is adopted. Air temperature, T a , increased in all cities by 2100, but changes in solar radiation due to changes in cloudiness counterbalanced or exacerbated the effects on T mrt. The number of days with high T mrt in Gothenburg was relatively unchanged at the end of...

  13. Comparison of radiant and convective cooling of office room: effect of workstation layout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Rezgals, Lauris

    2014-01-01

    and compared. The room was furnished with two workstations, two laptops and two thermal manikins resembling occupants. Two heat load levels, design (65 W/m2) and usual (39 W/m2), were generated by adding heat from warm panels simulating solar radiation. Two set-ups were studied: occupants sitting......The impact of heat source location (room layout) on the thermal environment generated in a double office room with four cooling ventilation systems - overhead ventilation, chilled ceiling with overhead ventilation, active chilled beam and active chilled beam with radiant panels was measured...

  14. Numerical analysis of diffuse ceiling ventilation and its integration with a radiant ceiling system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Chen, Qingyan

    2017-01-01

    A novel system combining diffuse ceiling ventilation and radiant ceiling was proposed recently, with the aim of providing energy efficient and comfort environment to office buildings. Designing of such a system is challenging because of complex interactions between the two subsystems and a large...... number of design parameters encountered in practice. This study aimed to develop a numerical model that can reliably predict the airflow and thermal performance of the integrated system during the design stage. The model was validated by experiments under different operating conditions. The validated...

  15. Sensitivity analysis of the thermal performance of radiant and convective terminals for cooling buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Dréau, J.; Heiselberg, P.

    2014-01-01

    conducted to determine the parameters influencing their thermal performance the most. The air change rate, the outdoor temperature and the air temperature stratification have the largest effect on the cooling need (maintaining a constant operative temperature). For air change rates higher than 0.5 ACH......, differences between terminals can be observed. Due to their higher dependency on the air change rate and outdoor temperature, convective terminals are generally less energy effective than radiant terminals. The global comfort level achieved by the different systems is always within the recommended range......, but differences have been observed in the uniformity of comfort....

  16. Experimental and numerical analysis of air and radiant cooling systems in offices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corgnati, S. P.; Perino, M.; Fracastoro, G. V.

    2009-01-01

    , for example in offices with high thermal loads. This study was performed by means of CFD simulations previously validated through an experimental campaign performed in a full scale test room, simulating a typical two-desk office equipped with an all air mixing ventilation system. The numerical studies were...... then extended to the coupled mixing ventilation and cold radiant ceiling panels. In particular, attention was drawn on the evaluation of the main supply jet properties (throw and penetration length) and on the draft risk caused by the cold air drop into the occupied zone. The study shows that such a problem can...

  17. Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Visualization Single Satellite Footprint (SSF) Plot Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsi, Julia A.

    1995-01-01

    The first Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument will be launched in 1997 to collect data on the Earth's radiation budget. The data retrieved from the satellite will be processed through twelve subsystems. The Single Satellite Footprint (SSF) plot generator software was written to assist scientists in the early stages of CERES data analysis, producing two-dimensional plots of the footprint radiation and cloud data generated by one of the subsystems. Until the satellite is launched, however, software developers need verification tools to check their code. This plot generator will aid programmers by geolocating algorithm result on a global map.

  18. Cooling load calculation by the radiant time series method - effect of solar radiation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Alexandre M.S. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil)], E-mail: amscosta@uem.br

    2010-07-01

    In this work was analyzed numerically the effect of three different models for solar radiation on the cooling load calculated by the radiant time series' method. The solar radiation models implemented were clear sky, isotropic sky and anisotropic sky. The radiant time series' method (RTS) was proposed by ASHRAE (2001) for replacing the classical methods of cooling load calculation, such as TETD/TA. The method is based on computing the effect of space thermal energy storage on the instantaneous cooling load. The computing is carried out by splitting the heat gain components in convective and radiant parts. Following the radiant part is transformed using time series, which coefficients are a function of the construction type and heat gain (solar or non-solar). The transformed result is added to the convective part, giving the instantaneous cooling load. The method was applied for investigate the influence for an example room. The location used was - 23 degree S and 51 degree W and the day was 21 of January, a typical summer day in the southern hemisphere. The room was composed of two vertical walls with windows exposed to outdoors with azimuth angles equals to west and east directions. The output of the different models of solar radiation for the two walls in terms of direct and diffuse components as well heat gains were investigated. It was verified that the clear sky exhibited the less conservative (higher values) for the direct component of solar radiation, with the opposite trend for the diffuse component. For the heat gain, the clear sky gives the higher values, three times higher for the peek hours than the other models. Both isotropic and anisotropic models predicted similar magnitude for the heat gain. The same behavior was also verified for the cooling load. The effect of room thermal inertia was decreasing the cooling load during the peak hours. On the other hand the higher thermal inertia values are the greater for the non peak hours. The effect

  19. The absolute environmental performance of buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brejnrod, Kathrine Nykjær; Kalbar, Pradip; Petersen, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    sustainability for the standard house were proposed focusing on three measures: minimizing environmental impacts from building construction, minimizing impacts from energy consumption during use phase, and reducing the living area per person. In an intermediate path, absolute sustainability can be obtained...... by reducing the impacts from construction by 89%, use phase energy consumption by 80%, and the living area by 60%.......Our paper presents a novel approach for absolute sustainability assessment of a building's environmental performance. It is demonstrated how the absolute sustainable share of the earth carrying capacity of a specific building type can be estimated using carrying capacity based normalization factors...

  20. Regional absolute conductivity reconstruction using projected current density in MREIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajib, Saurav Z K; Kim, Hyung Joong; Woo, Eung Je; Kwon, Oh In

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) is a non-invasive technique for imaging the internal conductivity distribution in tissue within an MRI scanner, utilizing the magnetic flux density, which is introduced when a current is injected into the tissue from external electrodes. This magnetic flux alters the MRI signal, so that appropriate reconstruction can provide a map of the additional z-component of the magnetic field (B z ) as well as the internal current density distribution that created it. To extract the internal electrical properties of the subject, including the conductivity and/or the current density distribution, MREIT techniques use the relationship between the external injection current and the z-component of the magnetic flux density B = (B x , B y , B z ). The tissue studied typically contains defective regions, regions with a low MRI signal and/or low MRI signal-to-noise-ratio, due to the low density of nuclear magnetic resonance spins, short T 2 or T* 2 relaxation times, as well as regions with very low electrical conductivity, through which very little current traverses. These defective regions provide noisy B z data, which can severely degrade the overall reconstructed conductivity distribution. Injecting two independent currents through surface electrodes, this paper proposes a new direct method to reconstruct a regional absolute isotropic conductivity distribution in a region of interest (ROI) while avoiding the defective regions. First, the proposed method reconstructs the contrast of conductivity using the transversal J-substitution algorithm, which blocks the propagation of severe accumulated noise from the defective region to the ROI. Second, the proposed method reconstructs the regional projected current density using the relationships between the internal current density, which stems from a current injection on the surface, and the measured B z data. Combining the contrast conductivity distribution in the entire imaging

  1. ASTEROID ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDES V10.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Absolute magnitudes and slopes, mostly IAU-adopted with exceptions noted, for all asteroids numbered as of the 2006 March 14 batch of Minor Planet Circulars.

  2. ASTEROID ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDES V11.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Absolute magnitudes and slopes, mostly IAU-adopted with exceptions noted, for all asteroids numbered as of the 2007 April 2 batch of Minor Planet Circulars.

  3. ASTEROID ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDES V12.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Absolute magnitudes and slopes, mostly IAU-adopted with exceptions noted, for all asteroids numbered as of the 2008 April 20 batch of Minor Planet Circulars.

  4. ASTEROID ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDES V7.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set tabulates the IAU-adopted absolute V magnitude and slope parameter for all numbered asteroids as of the given stop date. The data set is updated yearly.

  5. ASTEROID ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDES V9.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Absolute magnitudes and slopes, mostly IAU-adopted with exceptions noted, for all asteroids numbered as of the 2005 April 7 batch of Minor Planet Circulars.

  6. ASTEROID ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDES V8.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Absolute magnitudes and slopes, mostly IAU-adopted with exceptions noted, for all asteroids numbered as of the 2004 April 15 batch of Minor Planet Circulars

  7. Physiological strains of wearing aluminized and non-aluminized firefighters' protective clothing during exercise in radiant heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chinmei; Tochihara, Yutaka; Ismail, Mohamed Saat; Lee, Joo-Young

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the influences of aluminized (Type A) and non-aluminized firefighters' protective clothing (Type B, C, D and CON) on physiological and subjective responses in radiant heat. Total clothing weight was 6.24, 6.38, 6.06, 5.76 and 3.82 kg for Type A, B, C, D and CON, respectively. Eight firefighters performed exercise at an air temperature of 30°C with 50%RH. Three bouts of 10 min-bicycle exercise in radiant heat (a globe temperature of 70°C) was spaced by a 10 min rest with no radiant heat. Results showed that rectal temperature, mean skin temperature, heart rate, and body weight loss were significantly greater in Type A than in other types (pradiant heat. Therefore, it is suggested that the safe upper limits while wearing aluminized firefighters' clothing should be distinguished from those for typical firefighters' protective clothing.

  8. Solar radiation and cooling load calculation for radiant systems: Definition and evaluation of the Direct Solar Load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Causone, Francesco; Corgnati, Stefano P.; Filippi, Marco

    2010-01-01

    The study of the influence of solar radiation on the built environment is a basic issue in building physics and currently it is extremely important because glazed envelopes are widely used in contemporary architecture. In the present study, the removal of solar heat gains by radiant cooling systems...... is investigated. Particular attention is given to the portion of solar radiation converted to cooling load, without taking part in thermal absorption phenomena due to the thermal mass of the room. This specific component of the cooling load is defined as the Direct Solar Load. A simplified procedure to correctly...... calculate the magnitude of the Direct Solar Load in cooling load calculations is proposed and it is implemented with the Heat Balance method and the Radiant Time Series method. The F ratio of the solar heat gains directly converted to cooling load, in the case of a low thermal mass radiant ceiling...

  9. Energy flow and thermal comfort in buildings: Comparison of radiant and air-based heating & cooling systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Dréau, Jérôme

    is based on both radiation and convection. This thesis focuses on characterizing the heat transfer from the terminal towards the space and on the parameters influencing the effectiveness of terminals. Therefore the comfort conditions and energy consumption of four types of terminals (active chilled beam...... losses, and an air-based terminal might be more energy-efficient than a radiant terminal (in terms of delivered energy). Regarding comfort, a similar global level has been observed for the radiant and air-based terminals in both numerical and experimental investigations. But the different terminals did...... not achieve the same uniformity in space. The active chilled beam theoretically achieves the most uniform comfort conditions (when disregarding the risk of draught), followed by the radiant ceiling. The least uniform conditions were obtained with the cooled floor due to large differences between the sitting...

  10. Absolutely uniform illumination of laser fusion pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    Absolutely uniform illumination of spherical laser fusion pellets is possible when the energy deposition from a single beam is given by a simple cos 2 theta distribution. Conditions can be derived for which the laser beam targeting angles allow this absolute illumination uniformity. Configurations based upon the cube and higher order Platonic solids satisfy the constraints, as well as an infinite class of other less symmetric configurations

  11. Absolutely uniform illumination of laser fusion pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    Absolutely uniform illumination of spherical laser fusion pellets is possible when the energy deposition from a single laser beam is given by a simple cos 2 theta distribution. Conditions can be derived for which the laser beam targeting angles allow this absolute illumination uniformity. Configurations based upon the cube and higher order Platonic solids satisfy the constraints, as well as infinite class of other less symmetric configurations

  12. Absolute spectrophotometry of Nova Cygni 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kontizas, E.; Kontizas, M.; Smyth, M.J.

    1976-01-01

    Radiometric photoelectric spectrophotometry of Nova Cygni 1975 was carried out on 1975 August 31, September 2, 3. α Lyr was used as reference star and its absolute spectral energy distribution was used to reduce the spectrophotometry of the nova to absolute units. Emission strengths of Hα, Hβ, Hγ (in W cm -2 ) were derived. The Balmer decrement Hα:Hβ:Hγ was compared with theory, and found to deviate less than had been reported for an earlier nova. (author)

  13. Newborns' temperature submitted to radiant heat and to the Top Maternal device at birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemeire Sartori de Albuquerque

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to compare the axillar temperatures of newborns that are put immediately after birth in skin-to-skin contact under the Top Maternal device, as compared to those in a radiant heat crib. Methods: comparatives observational study of the case-control type about temperature of 60 babies born at the Obstetric Center and Normal Delivery Center of a public hospital of the municipality of Sao Paulo, being them: 29 receiving assistance in heated crib and 31 in skin-to skin contact, shielded by a cotton tissue placed on mother's thorax, called Top Maternal. Results: the temperature of the babies of the skin-to-skin contact group presented higher values in a larger share of the time measures verified, as compared to those that were placed in radiant heat crib, independently from the place of birth. Differences between the two groups were not statistically significant. Conclusion: the study contributes to generate new knowledge, supporting the idea of keeping babies with their mothers immediately after birth protected with the Maternal Top, without harming their wellbeing, as it keeps the axillar temperature in recommendable levels.

  14. Inspection of radiant heating floor applying non-destructive testing techniques: GPR and IRT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Lagüela-López

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La inspección de suelos radiantes requiere el uso de técnicas no destructivas, tratando de minimizar el impacto de la inspección, así como el tiempo y el coste, además de maximizar la información adquirida de cara al mejor diagnóstico posible. Con este objetivo, la aplicación de termografía infrarroja (IRT y georradar (GPR se propone para la inspección de suelos radiantes con cobertura de diferentes materiales, para evaluar las capacidades y la información adquirible con cada técnica. Los resultados muestran que cada técnica proporciona diferentes tipos de información: estado de las tuberías (IRT, geometría y configuración (GPR; concluyendo que la inspección óptima está formada por la combinación de ambas técnicas.

  15. High-temperature process heat reactor with solid coolant and radiant heat exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, A.M.; Bulkin, Yu.M.; Vasil'ev, S.I.

    1984-01-01

    The high temperature graphite reactor with the solid coolant in which heat transfer is realized by radiant heat exchange is described. Neutron-physical and thermal-technological features of the reactor are considered. The reactor vessel is made of sheet carbon steel in the form of a sealed rectangular annular box. The moderator is a set of graphite blocks mounted as rows of arched laying Between the moderator rows the solid coolant annular layings made of graphite blocks with high temperature nuclear fuel in the form of coated microparticles are placed. The coolant layings are mounted onto ring movable platforms, the continuous rotation of which is realizod by special electric drives. Each part of the graphite coolant laying consecutively passes through the reactor core neutron cut-off zones and technological zone. In the core the graphite is heated up to the temperature of 1350 deg C sufficient for effective radiant heat transfer. In the neutron cut-off zone the chain reaction and further graphite heating are stopped. In the technological zone the graphite transfers the accumulated heat to the walls of technological channels in which the working medium moves. The described reactor is supposed to be used in nuclear-chemical complex for ammonia production by the method of methane steam catalytic conversion

  16. Radiative heat exchange of a meteor body in the approximation of radiant heat conduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilyugin, N.N.; Chernova, T.A.

    1986-01-01

    The problem of the thermal and dynamic destruction of large meteor bodies moving in planetary atmospheres is fundamental for the clarification of optical observations and anomalous phenomena in the atmosphere, the determination of the physicochemical properties of meteoroids, and the explanation of the fall of remnants of large meteorites. Therefore, it is important to calculate the coefficient of radiant heat exchange (which is the determining factor under these conditions) for large meteor bodies as they move with hypersonic velocities in an atmosphere. The solution of this problem enables one to find the ablation of a meteorite during its aerodynamic heating and to determine the initial conditions for the solution of problems of the breakup of large bodies and their subsequent motion and ablation. Hypersonic flow of an inviscid gas stream over an axisymmetric blunt body is analyzed with allowance for radiative transfer in a thick-thin approximation. The gas-dynamic problem of the flow of an optically thick gas over a large body is solved by the method of asymptotic joined expansions, using a hypersonic approximation and local self-similarity. An equation is obtained for the coefficient of radiant heat exchange and the peculiarities of such heat exchange for meteor bodies of large size are noted

  17. Moisture measurements in single-family houses with attics containing radiant barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levins, W.P.; Karnitz, M.A.; Hall, J.A.

    1989-02-01

    Tests were conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory researchers at three unoccupied research houses in Karns, Tennessee, to determine the effects of moisture condensation on the underside of perforated horizontal radiant barriers during the winter of 1987-88. An experimental plan called for the houses to be operated at high indoor relative humidities (45 and 55% at 70/degree/F), with data concerning the attic moisture conditions collected by both visual and instrument measurements. The testing showed that moisture went through a diurnal cycle at the Karns research houses. Moisture could condense on the bottom surface of a horizontal barrier in cold (below 35/degree/F) weather, but it could also dissipate to the attic air during a normal Tennessee winter afternoon, leaving the barrier dry. In long periods of subfreezing weather, all the condensation did not vaporize, as some remained on the surface through the day. However, the testing did show that the moisture cycle occurring on a perforated horizontal radiant barrier during a typical Tennessee winter did not appear to pose any structural, wet insulation, or strained ceiling problems to the Karns research houses, even though they were operated at higher than normal indoor relative humidities. Care should be taken in extrapolating the observations of this experimental work to areas with prolonged periods of subfreezing weather. The diurnal moisture cycle under a barrier may be different in colder climates. Further testing of horizontal barriers in colder climates is recommended. 21 refs., 45 figs., 11 tabs.

  18. Experimental Study on Light Flash Radiant Intensity Generated by Strong Shock 2A12 Aluminum Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Enling; Zhang, Lijiao; Zhang, Qingming; Shi, Xiaohan; Wang, Meng; Wang, Di; Xiang, Shenghai; Xia, Jin; Han, Yafei; Xu, Mingyang; Wu, Jin; Zhang, Shuang; Yuan, Jianfei

    2015-07-01

    In order to study the light flash radiant intensity produced by strong shock on a 2A12 aluminum target at the same projectile incidence angles and different shock velocities, experimental measurements were conducted for light flash phenomena of a 2A12 aluminum projectile impacting a 2A12 aluminum target under the conditions of different impact velocity and the same projectile incidence angles of 45° by using an optical pyrometer measurement system and a two-stage light gas gun loading system. Experimental results show that the peak values of the light flash radiant intensity for the wavelength of 550 nm are largest in the wavelength ranges of 600 nm, 650 nm and 700 nm when a 2A12 aluminum projectile impacts a double-layer 2A12 aluminum plate in the present experimental conditions. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 10972145, 11272218, 11472178), State Key Program of National Natural Science of China (No. 11032003), Program for Liaoning Excellent Talents in University, China (No. LR2013008)

  19. Dynamic behavior of radiant cooling system based on capillary tubes in walls made of high performance concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikeska, Tomás; Svendsen, Svend

    2015-01-01

    using cooling water for the radiant cooling system with a temperature only about 4K lower than the temperature of the room air. The relatively high speed reaction of the designed system is a result of the slim construction of the sandwich wall elements made of high performance concrete. (C) 2015...... elements made of high performance concrete. The influence of the radiant cooling system on the indoor climate of the test room in terms of the air, surface and operative temperatures and velocities was investigated.The results show that the temperature of the room air can be kept in a comfortable range...

  20. Initial fracture resistance and curing temperature rise of ten contemporary resin-based composites with increasing radiant exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortall, A; El-Mahy, W; Stewardson, D; Addison, O; Palin, W

    2013-05-01

    The principal objective of this study was to determine whether the bulk fracture resistance of ten light activated composites varied over a clinically realistic range of radiant exposures between 5 and 40 J/cm(2). Ten operators were tested for clinically simulated radiant exposure delivery from a Bluephase(®) (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein) LED light to an occlusal cavity floor in tooth 27 in a mannequin head using a MARC(®)-Patient Simulator (Bluelight Analytics Inc., Halifax, NS) device. Notch disc test samples were prepared to determine the torque resistance to fracture (T) of the composites. Samples were irradiated with the same monowave Bluephase(®) light for 10s, 20s or 40s at distances of 0mm or 7 mm. After 24h, storage samples were fractured in a universal testing machine and torque to failure was derived. Radiant exposure delivered in the clinical simulation ranged from 14.3% to 69.4% of maximum mean radiant exposure deliverable at 0mm in a MARC(®)-Resin Calibrator (Bluelight Analytics Inc., Halifax, NS) test device. Mean torque to failure increased significantly (Pradiant exposure for 8 out of 10 products. The micro-fine hybrid composite Gradia Direct anterior (GC) had the lowest mean (S.D.) T between 10.3 (1.8)N/mm and 13.7 (2.2)N/mm over the tested radiant exposure range. Three heavily filled materials Majesty Posterior, Clearfil APX and Clearfil Photo-Posterior (Kuraray) had mean T values in excess of 25 N/mm following 40 J/cm(2) radiant exposure. Mean T for Z100 (3MESPE) and Esthet-X (Dentsply) increased by 10% and 91% respectively over the tested range of radiant exposures. Individual products require different levels of radiant exposure to optimize their fracture resistance. Light activated composites vary in the rate at which they attain optimal fracture resistance. Unless the clinician accurately controls all the variables associated with energy delivery, there is no way of predicting that acceptable fracture resistance will be

  1. Radiant Ceiling Panels Combined with Localized Methods for Improved Thermal Comfort of Both Patient and Medical Staff in Patient Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mori, Sakura; Barova, Mariya; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov

    2012-01-01

    The objectives were to identify whether ceiling installed radiant heating panels can provide thermal comfort to the occupants in a patient room, and to determine a method for optimal thermal environment to both patient and medical staff simultaneously. The experiments were performed in a climate...... chamber resembling a single-bed patient room under convective air conditioning alone or combined with the ceiling installed radiant heating panels. Two thermal manikins simulated a patient lying in the bed and a doctor standing next to the patient. Conventional cotton blanket, electric blanket, electric...

  2. Study of heating performance of radiant ceiling heating system and its impact on workers thermal comfort level of workers in typical industrial work shops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aliabadi

    2013-08-01

    .Conclusion: Due to large space of these industrial units, producing appropriate heating by convection mechanism is too difficult and expensive. The results confirmed that if radiant heating system applied based on scientific design principles they could be effective in promotion of thermal comfort due to heating surrounding surface by radiant and also reducing fuel consumption.

  3. Flux calculations for the upgrade of the SANS facility at the Petten-reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uca, O.; Ohms, C.; Youtsos, A.G.

    2006-01-01

    The absolute flux at the sample position of the Small-Angle Neutron Scattering instrument is an important parameter in instrument construction. In this paper, analytical expressions are obtained to calculate the flux at the sample position. The used approach has been validated on different instruments. An increase of the flux with two orders of magnitude is foreseen after completion of the upgrade

  4. A global algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. McDougall

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater – 2010 has defined the thermodynamic properties of seawater in terms of a new salinity variable, Absolute Salinity, which takes into account the spatial variation of the composition of seawater. Absolute Salinity more accurately reflects the effects of the dissolved material in seawater on the thermodynamic properties (particularly density than does Practical Salinity.

    When a seawater sample has standard composition (i.e. the ratios of the constituents of sea salt are the same as those of surface water of the North Atlantic, Practical Salinity can be used to accurately evaluate the thermodynamic properties of seawater. When seawater is not of standard composition, Practical Salinity alone is not sufficient and the Absolute Salinity Anomaly needs to be estimated; this anomaly is as large as 0.025 g kg−1 in the northernmost North Pacific. Here we provide an algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity Anomaly for any location (x, y, p in the world ocean.

    To develop this algorithm, we used the Absolute Salinity Anomaly that is found by comparing the density calculated from Practical Salinity to the density measured in the laboratory. These estimates of Absolute Salinity Anomaly however are limited to the number of available observations (namely 811. In order to provide a practical method that can be used at any location in the world ocean, we take advantage of approximate relationships between Absolute Salinity Anomaly and silicate concentrations (which are available globally.

  5. Automated absolute activation analysis with californium-252 sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacMurdo, K.W.; Bowman, W.W.

    1978-09-01

    A 100-mg /sup 252/Cf neutron activation analysis facility is used routinely at the Savannah River Laboratory for multielement analysis of many solid and liquid samples. An absolute analysis technique converts counting data directly to elemental concentration without the use of classical comparative standards and flux monitors. With the totally automated pneumatic sample transfer system, cyclic irradiation-decay-count regimes can be pre-selected for up to 40 samples, and samples can be analyzed with the facility unattended. An automatic data control system starts and stops a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer and/or a delayed-neutron detector; the system also stores data and controls output modes. Gamma ray data are reduced by three main programs in the IBM 360/195 computer: the 4096-channel spectrum and pertinent experimental timing, counting, and sample data are stored on magnetic tape; the spectrum is then reduced to a list of significant photopeak energies, integrated areas, and their associated statistical errors; and the third program assigns gamma ray photopeaks to the appropriate neutron activation product(s) by comparing photopeak energies to tabulated gamma ray energies. Photopeak areas are then converted to elemental concentration by using experimental timing and sample data, calculated elemental neutron capture rates, absolute detector efficiencies, and absolute spectroscopic decay data. Calculational procedures have been developed so that fissile material can be analyzed by cyclic neutron activation and delayed-neutron counting procedures. These calculations are based on a 6 half-life group model of delayed neutron emission; calculations include corrections for delayed neutron interference from /sup 17/O. Detection sensitivities of < or = 400 ppB for natural uranium and 8 ppB (< or = 0.5 (nCi/g)) for /sup 239/Pu were demonstrated with 15-g samples at a throughput of up to 140 per day. Over 40 elements can be detected at the sub-ppM level.

  6. Automated absolute activation analysis with californium-252 sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacMurdo, K.W.; Bowman, W.W.

    1978-09-01

    A 100-mg 252 Cf neutron activation analysis facility is used routinely at the Savannah River Laboratory for multielement analysis of many solid and liquid samples. An absolute analysis technique converts counting data directly to elemental concentration without the use of classical comparative standards and flux monitors. With the totally automated pneumatic sample transfer system, cyclic irradiation-decay-count regimes can be pre-selected for up to 40 samples, and samples can be analyzed with the facility unattended. An automatic data control system starts and stops a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer and/or a delayed-neutron detector; the system also stores data and controls output modes. Gamma ray data are reduced by three main programs in the IBM 360/195 computer: the 4096-channel spectrum and pertinent experimental timing, counting, and sample data are stored on magnetic tape; the spectrum is then reduced to a list of significant photopeak energies, integrated areas, and their associated statistical errors; and the third program assigns gamma ray photopeaks to the appropriate neutron activation product(s) by comparing photopeak energies to tabulated gamma ray energies. Photopeak areas are then converted to elemental concentration by using experimental timing and sample data, calculated elemental neutron capture rates, absolute detector efficiencies, and absolute spectroscopic decay data. Calculational procedures have been developed so that fissile material can be analyzed by cyclic neutron activation and delayed-neutron counting procedures. These calculations are based on a 6 half-life group model of delayed neutron emission; calculations include corrections for delayed neutron interference from 17 O. Detection sensitivities of 239 Pu were demonstrated with 15-g samples at a throughput of up to 140 per day. Over 40 elements can be detected at the sub-ppM level

  7. Jasminum flexile flower absolute from India--a detailed comparison with three other jasmine absolutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Norbert A; Kohlenberg, Birgit; Sim, Sherina; Meier, Manfred; Hammerschmidt, Franz-Josef

    2009-09-01

    Jasminum flexile flower absolute from the south of India and the corresponding vacuum headspace (VHS) sample of the absolute were analyzed using GC and GC-MS. Three other commercially available Indian jasmine absolutes from the species: J. sambac, J. officinale subsp. grandiflorum, and J. auriculatum and the respective VHS samples were used for comparison purposes. One hundred and twenty-one compounds were characterized in J. flexile flower absolute, with methyl linolate, benzyl salicylate, benzyl benzoate, (2E,6E)-farnesol, and benzyl acetate as the main constituents. A detailed olfactory evaluation was also performed.

  8. Overview of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Norman G.; Wielicki, Bruce A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the CERES project. It demonstrates how algorithm improvements have lead to improved top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative flux accuracy. CERES shortwave flux anomalies are compared with those from Earthshine and ISCCP-FD.

  9. Smart Control of Air Climatization System in Function on the Values of Mean Local Radiant Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Cannistraro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The hygrothermal comfort indoor conditions are defined as: those environmental conditions in which an individual exposed, expresses a state of satisfaction. These conditions cannot always be achieved anywhere in an optimal way and economically; in some cases they can be obtained only in work environments specific areas. This could be explained because of air conditioning systems designing is generally performed both on the basis of the fundamental parameters’ average values, such as temperature, velocity and relative humidity (Ta, va e φa and derived parameters such as operating temperature and mean radiant one (Top eTmr. However, in some specific cases - large open-spaces or in case of radiating surfaces - the descriptors defining indoor comfort conditions, based on average values, do not provide the optimum values required during the air conditioning systems design phase. This is largely due to the variability of real environmental parameters values compared to the average ones taken as input in the calculation. The results obtained in previous scientific papers on the thermal comfort have been the driving element of this work. It offers a simple, original and clever way of thinking about the new domotic systems for air conditioning, based on the “local mean radiant temperature.” This is a very important parameter when one wants to analyze comfort in environments characterized by the presence of radiating surfaces, as will be seen hereinafter. In order to take into account the effects of radiative exchanges in the open-space workplace, where any occupant may find themselves in different temperature and humidity conditions, this paper proposes an action on the domotic climate control, with ducts and vents air distribution placed in different zones. Comparisons were performed between the parameters values representing the punctual thermal comfort, with the Predicted Mean Vote PMV, in an environment marked by radiating surfaces (i

  10. Absolute calibration in vivo measurement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruchten, D.A.; Hickman, D.P.

    1991-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is currently investigating a new method for obtaining absolute calibration factors for radiation measurement systems used to measure internally deposited radionuclides in vivo. Absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems will eliminate the need to generate a series of human surrogate structures (i.e., phantoms) for calibrating in vivo measurement systems. The absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems utilizes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to define physiological structure, size, and composition. The MRI image provides a digitized representation of the physiological structure, which allows for any mathematical distribution of radionuclides within the body. Using Monte Carlo transport codes, the emission spectrum from the body is predicted. The in vivo measurement equipment is calibrated using the Monte Carlo code and adjusting for the intrinsic properties of the detection system. The calibration factors are verified using measurements of existing phantoms and previously obtained measurements of human volunteers. 8 refs

  11. Study on a mean radiant temperature measure tool based on an almost spherical array of radiometric sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, L

    2012-11-01

    Mean radiant temperature has significant influence on indoor thermal comfort conditions. It has gained greater importance with the wider application of heating and cooling systems based on the use of large surfaces with a temperature slightly higher or lower than the indoor temperature (hot/cold floors or ceilings), because these systems operate through the radiant temperature control. The most used tool to measure radiant temperature, the globe thermometer, still has large margins of error, most of all due to the uncertainty in the evaluation of the convection heat exchanges between the globe surface and the indoor air. The feasibility of a device to measure mean radiant temperature in indoor condition, alternative to the globe-thermometer (obtained placing radiometric sensors (thermopiles) on the sides of different geometric regular solids), is proposed. The behavior has been investigated for different regular solids, such as the residual error and its dependence on walls average temperature, non-uniformity magnitude, orientation and position of the solid in the enclosure, room shape, non-uniformity temperature distribution. Icosahedron shape shows an excellent behavior, with errors lower than 0.1 K in all the examined conditions.

  12. Where the Solar system meets the solar neighbourhood: patterns in the distribution of radiants of observed hyperbolic minor bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente Marcos, Carlos; de la Fuente Marcos, Raúl; Aarseth, Sverre J.

    2018-05-01

    Observed hyperbolic minor bodies might have an interstellar origin, but they can be natives of the Solar system as well. Fly-bys with the known planets or the Sun may result in the hyperbolic ejection of an originally bound minor body; in addition, members of the Oort cloud could be forced to follow inbound hyperbolic paths as a result of secular perturbations induced by the Galactic disc or, less frequently, due to impulsive interactions with passing stars. These four processes must leave distinctive signatures in the distribution of radiants of observed hyperbolic objects, both in terms of coordinates and velocity. Here, we perform a systematic numerical exploration of the past orbital evolution of known hyperbolic minor bodies using a full N-body approach and statistical analyses to study their radiants. Our results confirm the theoretical expectations that strong anisotropies are present in the data. We also identify a statistically significant overdensity of high-speed radiants towards the constellation of Gemini that could be due to the closest and most recent known fly-by of a star to the Solar system, that of the so-called Scholz's star. In addition to and besides 1I/2017 U1 (`Oumuamua), we single out eight candidate interstellar comets based on their radiants' velocities.

  13. The Effects of Mean Radiant Temperature on Thermal Comfort, Energy Consumption and Control – A Critical Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Halawa; J. van Hoof; V. Soebarto

    2014-01-01

    Halawa, E., van Hoof, J., Soebarto, V. (2014) The Effects of Mean Radiant Temperature on Thermal Comfort, Energy Consumption and Control – A Critical Overview. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Review 37:907-918 doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2014.05.040

  14. Validation of the uncertainty budget for soft X-ray radiant power measurement using a cryogenic radiometer

    CERN Document Server

    Rabus, H; Scholze, F; Thornagel, R; Ulm, G

    2002-01-01

    The cryogenic radiometer SYRES, a thermal detector based on the electrical substitution principle, has been used as the primary detector standard for radiant power measurement in the ultraviolet, vacuum ultraviolet and soft X-ray spectral ranges. In order to investigate the possibility of radiant energy being deposited in its absorber cavity without being transformed into heat when detecting soft X-rays, SYRES has been directly compared with the electron storage ring BESSY 1, a primary radiometric source standard of calculable spectral radiant power. To this end, the integral radiant power emitted by the storage ring,into a solid angle defined by a high-precision aperture was measured with SYRES. The experiments were conducted at two nominal energies of the circulating electrons, 800 MeV and 340 MeV, to study the influence of the different spectral distributions of the synchrotron radiation. For the original graphite-coated cavity absorber, significant discrepancies were found which could be traced back to th...

  15. The Influence of a Radiant Panel System with Integrated Phase Change Material on Energy Use and Thermal Indoor Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lin Flemming; Bourdakis, Eleftherios; Kazanci, Ongun Berk

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the effect on energy use and thermal comfort when combining microencapsulated phase change material (PCM) with radiant ceiling panels in a two-person office. The performance of the system was studied during the cooling season in the climates of Copenhagen, Denmark, and Rome...

  16. A METHOD FOR EVALUATION OF NON-UNIFORM RADIANT-CONVECTIVE LOAD ON HUMAN BODY DURING MENTAL WORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Prokšová Zuská

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop a documentation for the amendment of the microclimatic part of the Czech Government Regulation, particularly in a non-uniform radiant-convective load evaluation. Changes in regulation were made based on experimental data obtained on a group of experimental individuals in a climatic chamber. One of the objectives of the climatic chamber experiments was to evaluate whether there was a possibility to use an alternative method, which utilizes a new value – stereotemperature, for the assessment. A group of 24 women was exposed to a non-uniform radiant-convective load in a climatic chamber for 1 hour during their computer work. Measurements were divided according to the globe temperature into 3 stages. The physical parameters of air were continuously measured: the air temperature, globe temperature, air velocity, radiant temperature, relative humidity, stereotemperature and physiological parameters. Thermal sensations of experimental subjects were expressed in the seven-point scale according to EN ISO 7730. The thermal sensation correlated very well with the difference of stereotemperature and the globe temperature. The stereotemperature correlated very well with the radiant temperature. In this work, the composed equations were used to develop the limit values for the thermal stress evaluation in the uniform and non-uniform thermal environment at workplaces. It is possible to determine how the body of an exposed person perceives the non-uniform climatic conditions in the indoor environment, by adding the stereotemperature to government regulations.

  17. A new simplified model to calculate surface temperature and heat transfer of radiant floor heating and cooling systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xiaozhou; Zhao, Jianing; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a new simplified model to calculate surface temperature and heat transfer of radiant floor heating and cooling system was proposed and established using the conduction shape factor. Measured data from references were used to validate the proposed model. The results showed...... that the maximum differences between the calculated surface temperature and heat transfer using the proposed model and the measured data were 0.8 ºC and 8.1 W/m2 for radiant floor heating system when average water temperature between 40 ºC and 60 ºC. For the corresponding values were 0.3 ºC and 2.0 W/m2...... for radiant floor cooling systems when average water temperature between 10 ºC and 20 ºC. Numerically simulated data in this study were also used to validate the proposed model. The results showed that the surface temperature and heat transfer of radiant floor calculated by the proposed model agreed very well...

  18. Optical Meteor Fluxes and Application to the 2015 Perseids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaauw, R. C.; Campbell-Brown, M.; Kingery, A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper outlines new methods to measure optical meteor fluxes for showers and sporadic sources. Many past approaches have found the collecting area of a detector at a fixed 100 km altitude, but this approach considers the full volume, finding the area in two km height intervals based on the position of the shower or sporadic source radiant and the population's velocity. Here, the stellar limiting magnitude is found every 10 minutes during clear periods and converted to a limiting meteor magnitude for the shower or sporadic source having fluxes measured, which is then converted to a limiting mass. The final output is a mass limited flux for meteor showers or sporadic sources. Presented are the results of these flux methods as applied to the 2015 Perseid meteor shower as seen by the Meteoroid Environment Office's eight wide-field cameras. The peak Perseid flux on the night of August 13, 2015, was measured to be 0.002989 meteoroids/km2/hr down to 0.00051 grams, corresponding to a ZHR of 100.7.

  19. Radiant heating tests of several liquid metal heat-pipe sandwich panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarda, C. J.; Basiulis, A.

    1983-01-01

    Integral heat pipe sandwich panels, which synergistically combine the thermal efficiency of heat pipes and the structural efficiency of honeycomb sandwich construction, were conceived as a means of alleviating thermal stress problems in the Langley Scramjet Engine. Test panels which utilized two different wickable honeycomb cores, facesheets with screen mesh sintered to the internal surfaces, and a liquid metal working fluid (either sodium or potassium) were tested by radiant heating at various heat load levels. The heat pipe panels reduced maximum temperature differences by 31 percent with sodium working fluid and 45 percent with potassium working fluid. Results indicate that a heat pipe sandwich panel is a potential, simple solution to the engine thermal stress problem. Other interesting applications of the concept include: cold plates for electronic component and circuit card cooling, radiators for large space platforms, low distortion large area structures (e.g., space antennas) and laser mirrors.

  20. Radiant thinking and the use of the mind map in nurse practitioner education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Julie R; Anderson, Kelley M; Ellis, Kathryn K

    2013-05-01

    The concept of radiant thinking, which led to the concept of mind mapping, promotes all aspects of the brain working in synergy, with thought beginning from a central point. The mind map, which is a graphical technique to improve creative thinking and knowledge attainment, utilizes colors, images, codes, and dimensions to amplify and enhance key ideas. This technique augments the visualization of relationships and links between concepts, which aids in information acquisition, data retention, and overall comprehension. Faculty can promote students' use of the technique for brainstorming, organizing ideas, taking notes, learning collaboratively, presenting, and studying. These applications can be used in problem-based learning, developing plans of care, health promotion activities, synthesizing disease processes, and forming differential diagnoses. Mind mapping is a creative way for students to engage in a unique method of learning that can expand memory recall and help create a new environment for processing information. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Data Products for Climate Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Seiji; Loeb, Norman G.; Rutan, David A.; Rose, Fred G.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project integrates CERES, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and geostationary satellite observations to provide top-of-atmosphere (TOA) irradiances derived from broadband radiance observations by CERES instruments. It also uses snow cover and sea ice extent retrieved from microwave instruments as well as thermodynamic variables from reanalysis. In addition, these variables are used for surface and atmospheric irradiance computations. The CERES project provides TOA, surface, and atmospheric irradiances in various spatial and temporal resolutions. These data sets are for climate research and evaluation of climate models. Long-term observations are required to understand how the Earth system responds to radiative forcing. A simple model is used to estimate the time to detect trends in TOA reflected shortwave and emitted longwave irradiances.

  2. The Super-Radiant Mechanism and the Widths of Compound Nuclear States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auerbach, N

    2012-01-01

    In the introduction I will present the theory of the super-radiant mechanism as applied to various phenomena. I will then discuss the statistics of resonance widths in a many-body Fermi system with open decay channels. Depending on the strength of the coupling to the continuum such systems show deviations from the standard Porter-Thomas distribution. The deviations result from the process of increasing interaction of the intrinsic states through the common decay channels. In the limit of very strong coupling this leads to super-radiance. The results I will present are important for the understanding of recent experimental data concerning the width distribution of compound neutron resonances in nuclei.

  3. Photosynthesis and leaf morphology of Liquidambar styraciflua L. under variable urban radiant-energy conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjelgren, Roger K.; Clark, James R.

    1992-09-01

    Diminished sunlight, characteristic of urban canyons, has been suggested as being potentially limiting to plant growth. This study investigated the response of sweetgum ( Liquidambar styraciflua L.) to variable irradiance in a range of urban locations. Diurnal photosynthesis was measured in situ on mature trees, comparing an open site at an urban park with an urban canyon that received 4 h of midday sun in midsummer. Photosynthesis for trees growing in the canyon was lower both during shaded and sunlit periods compared with trees at the park. Photosynthesis of detached shoots in a growth chamber was greater in canyon than park foliage at low irradiance, indicating possible photosynthetic shade acclimation analogous to tree species growing in the forest understorey. Shoot and trunk growth and morphological characteristics were measured on L. styraciflua growing along boulevards at 15 additional urban sites and related to seasonal interception of solar radiation. Angular elevation and orientation of buildings and trees that defined the horizon topography at each site were used in modeling the potential irradiance of global shortwave radiation. Seasonal irradiance among sites ranged from 21% in the urban core to nearly 95% in outlying residential districts of that potentially received under an unobstructed horizon. Shade acclimation was confirmed by differences in leaf morphology, as foliage became flatter, thinner, and more horizontally oriented at sites with lower irradiance. Photosynthetic and morphological acclimation to shade did not compensate for lower available radiant energy as both shoot and trunk growth decreased at sites of lower irradiance. Unlike the forest understorey, the static light environment of urban canyons may subject shade-intolerant species such as L. styraciflua to chronic, low-radiant-energy stress.

  4. Newborns' temperature submitted to radiant heat and to the Top Maternal device at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Rosemeire Sartori de; Mariani, Corintio; Bersusa, Ana Aparecida Sanches; Dias, Vanessa Macedo; Silva, Maria Izabel Mota da

    2016-08-08

    to compare the axillar temperatures of newborns that are put immediately after birth in skin-to-skin contact under the Top Maternal device, as compared to those in a radiant heat crib. comparatives observational study of the case-control type about temperature of 60 babies born at the Obstetric Center and Normal Delivery Center of a public hospital of the municipality of Sao Paulo, being them: 29 receiving assistance in heated crib and 31 in skin-to skin contact, shielded by a cotton tissue placed on mother's thorax, called Top Maternal. the temperature of the babies of the skin-to-skin contact group presented higher values in a larger share of the time measures verified, as compared to those that were placed in radiant heat crib, independently from the place of birth. Differences between the two groups were not statistically significant. the study contributes to generate new knowledge, supporting the idea of keeping babies with their mothers immediately after birth protected with the Maternal Top, without harming their wellbeing, as it keeps the axillar temperature in recommendable levels. comparar a temperatura axilar dos recém-nascidos acomodados - imediatamente após o nascimento - em contato pele a pele, sob o Top Maternal, em berço de calor radiante. estudo comparativo observacional do tipo Caso-Controle sobre a temperatura de 60 bebês nascidos no Centro Obstétrico e Centro de Parto Normal de um hospital público do município de São Paulo, sendo: 29 assistidos em berço aquecido e 31 em contato pele a pele, protegidos por uma malha de algodão colocada sobre o tórax da mãe, denominada Top Maternal. a temperatura dos bebês do grupo de contato pele a pele teve maior valor na maioria dos tempos verificados comparada à dos que foram colocados em berço de calor radiante, independentemente do local de nascimento. A diferença entre os grupos não foi estatisticamente significante. o estudo contribui com a geração de um novo conhecimento que sustenta a

  5. The Absolute Normal Scores Test for Symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penfield, Douglas A.; Sachdeva, Darshan

    1976-01-01

    The absolute normal scores test is described as a test for the symmetry of a distribution of scores about a location parameter. The test is compared to the sign test and the Wilcoxon test as an alternative to the "t"-test. (Editor/RK)

  6. The Theory of Absolute Reaction Rates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 7. The Theory of Absolute Reaction Rates. Henry Eyring. Classics Volume 17 Issue 7 July 2012 pp 704-711. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/017/07/0704-0711. Author Affiliations.

  7. 49 CFR 236.709 - Block, absolute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Block, absolute. 236.709 Section 236.709 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION...

  8. Thin-film magnetoresistive absolute position detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenland, J.P.J.

    1990-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the investigation of a digital absolute posi- tion-detection system, which is based on a position-information carrier (i.e. a magnetic tape) with one single code track on the one hand, and an array of magnetoresistive sensors for the detection of the information on the

  9. Det demokratiske argument for absolut ytringsfrihed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2014-01-01

    Artiklen diskuterer den påstand, at absolut ytringsfrihed er en nødvendig forudsætning for demokratisk legitimitet med udgangspunkt i en rekonstruktion af et argument fremsat af Ronald Dworkin. Spørgsmålet er, hvorfor ytringsfrihed skulle være en forudsætning for demokratisk legitimitet, og hvorf...

  10. Absolute Distance Measurements with Tunable Semiconductor Laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikel, Břetislav; Číp, Ondřej; Lazar, Josef

    T118, - (2005), s. 41-44 ISSN 0031-8949 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAB2065001 Keywords : tunable laser * absolute interferometer Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.661, year: 2004

  11. Stimulus Probability Effects in Absolute Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an absolute identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of…

  12. systemic complications following absolute alcohol embolisation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of the superficial temporal (STA), middle meningeal. (MMA) and occipital ... external jugular vein. Absolute alcohol was injected into the feeder artery using the intermittent pulsed spray technique in aliquots of 1 ml. A total of 55 ml of alcohol was injected. ... cells, vessel wall necrosis resulting in thrombosis and permanent ...

  13. On the absolute measure of Beta activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez del Rio, C.; Jimenez Reynaldo, O.; Rodriguez Mayquez, E.

    1956-01-01

    A new method for absolute beta counting of solid samples is given. The mea surements is made with an inside Geiger-Muller tube of new construction. The backscattering correction when using an infinite thick mounting is discussed and results for different materials given. (Author)

  14. Absolute tightness: the chemists hesitate to invest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The safety requirements of industries as nuclear plants and the strengthening of regulations in the field of environment (more particularly those related to volatile organic compounds) have lead the manufacturers to build absolute tightness pumps. But these equipments do not answer all the problems and represent a high investment cost. In consequence, the chemists hesitate to invest. (O.L.)

  15. A clinical comparison of radiant warmer and incubator care for preterm infants from birth to 1800 grams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M P; Payton, M J; Salmon, A; Hutchinson, C; de Klerk, A

    2001-08-01

    The objective of this study was to compare radiant warmer and incubator care for preterm infants from birth with respect to temperature control and weight gain. Sixty preterm infants radiant warmer or incubator care. The initial goal was to maintain abdominal temperature at 36.8 degrees C in both groups and axillary temperature at 36.8 to 37.3 degrees C; air servocontrol was used for incubator infants. Infants in both groups received added humidity for 5 days if their weight was temperatures were obtained. The percentage of the recording time during which the abdominal temperature was in the target range of between 36 degrees C and 37.5 degrees C was determined as an indicator of temperature control. Weight gain from birth to 1800 g was compared. Secondary outcomes included fluid balance and clinical events. There were 30 infants in each group; 48 were temperature control were noted on day 1. Although admission temperatures were similar, lower abdominal temperatures were noted in the first 2 hours of life in the incubator group (medians were 36.6 degrees C and 35.9 degrees C in the radiant warmer and incubator groups, respectively). Similarly, mean abdominal temperatures during the 3-hour recording on day 1 were lower in the incubator group, and infants in this group spent a significantly greater percentage of the recording time with temperatures outside the target range (17.3% compared with 0.88%). Other temperature recordings from the forehead and foot were not significantly different in the groups. Fluid intakes were higher for infants under radiant warmer on days 2, 3, and 4, and the difference amounted to a mean of 12.8 mL/kg/d. Maximum sodium levels in the first week were similar in the 2 groups. Mean weight gain was 17.4 g/kg/d for the radiant warmer group and 17.1 g/kg/d for the incubator group; days to regain birth weight and length of hospital stay were not significantly different. Greater numbers of infants in the radiant warmer group required

  16. The Absolute Shielding Constants of Heavy Nuclei: Resolving the Enigma of the (119)Sn Absolute Shielding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkin, Elena; Komorovsky, Stanislav; Repisky, Michal; Demissie, Taye B; Ruud, Kenneth

    2013-02-07

    We demonstrate that the apparent disagreement between experimental determinations and four-component relativistic calculations of the absolute shielding constants of heavy nuclei is due to the breakdown of the commonly assumed relation between the electronic contribution to the nuclear spin-rotation constants and the paramagnetic contribution to the NMR shielding constants. We demonstrate that this breakdown has significant consequences for the absolute shielding constant of (119)Sn, leading to errors of about 1000 ppm. As a consequence, we expect that many absolute shielding constants of heavy nuclei will be in need of revision.

  17. Innovative CO2 Analyzer Technology for the Eddy Covariance Flux Monitor, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to build and evaluate NDIR Analyzers that can be used to observe Eddy Covariance Flux and Absolute Dry Mole Fraction of CO2 from stationary and airborne...

  18. Radon flux measurement methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielson, K.K.; Rogers, V.C.

    1984-01-01

    Five methods for measuring radon fluxes are evaluated: the accumulator can, a small charcoal sampler, a large-area charcoal sampler, the ''Big Louie'' charcoal sampler, and the charcoal tent sampler. An experimental comparison of the five flux measurement techniques was also conducted. Excellent agreement was obtained between the measured radon fluxes and fluxes predicted from radium and emanation measurements

  19. Trapped individual ion at absolute zero temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Nan; Dehmelt, Hans; Nagourney, Warren

    1989-01-01

    Laser cooling and ion trapping have progressed to such an extent that one can now speak of realizing a confined atom at absolute zero temperature. In this short publication, we analyze an experiment toward such realization using a single Ba+ ion in a miniature rf trap. The Ba+ ion is first laser-cooled to the limit where the ion spends most of its time in the zero-point energy state. Then a test sequence allows one to verify whether or not the ion is actually in its zero-point state. The test sequence may also serve as a device for state selection of an atom at absolute zero temperature. PMID:16594054

  20. Interpolation of uniformly absolutely continuous operators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cobos, F.; Gogatishvili, Amiran; Opic, B.; Pick, L.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 286, 5-6 (2013), s. 579-599 ISSN 0025-584X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/08/0383 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : uniformly absolutely continuous operators * interpolation * type of an interpolation method Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.658, year: 2013 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ mana .201100205/full

  1. Absolute spectrophotometry of the β Lyr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnashev, V.I.; Skul'skij, M.Yu.

    1978-01-01

    In 1974 an absolute spectrophotometry of β Lyr was performed with the scanning spectrophotometer in the 3300-7400 A range. The energy distribution in the β Lyr spectrum is obtained. The β Lyr model is proposed. It is shown, that the continuous spectrum of the β Lyr radiation can be presented by the total radiation of the B8 3 and A5 3 two stars and of the gaseous envelope with Te =20000 K

  2. Benzofuranoid and bicyclooctanoid neolignans:absolute configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarenga, M.A. de; Giesbrecht, A.M.; Gottlieb, O.R.; Yoshida, M.

    1977-01-01

    The naturally occuring benzofuranoid and bicyclo (3,2,1) octanoid neolignans have their relative configurations established by 1 H and 13 C NMR, inclusively with aid of the solvent shift technique. Interconversion of the benzofuranoid type compounds, as well as for a benzofuranoid to a bicyclooctanoid derivate, make ORD correlations, ultimately with (2S, 3S) - and (2R,3R)-2,3- dihydrobenzofurans, possible, and led to the absolute configurations of both series of neolignans [pt

  3. Development of a non-premix radiant burner. Evaluation of design possibilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, P.; Myken, A.N.; Rasmussen, N.B.

    1996-12-31

    The objective of the project period is to: make a study into materials suitable for the NPRB (Non-Premix Radiant Burner); chhose the materials for the construction; make proposals for the design of the NPRB; test the different proposals with a CFD-model (Computational Fluid Dynamics). In pursuit of finding a suitable material it is necessary first to estimate the maximum temperature that will occur in the burner. A realistic temperature was estimated to 2100-2300 K. After the literature study a few materials seemed promising. The final choice was made after having contacted some of the leading producers. One producer could produce burners of one of the suggested materials, zirconia. Several construction ideas for the NPRB have been discussed and some of them tested with a CFD-model. The proposed burner concept has been modified in order to obtain a homogenous temperature distribution, enhance air and gas mixing and reduce the maximum material temperature. The conditions for the CFD-calculations have been as follows: burner height x width: 300 mm x 300 mm; fuel input: 50kW (specific load: 550 kW/m{sup 2}); combustion air temperature: 800 deg. C; furnace temperature: 900 deg. C; excess air: 5%. The most promising way to disbribute the gas in the burner is by using perforated ceramic tubes. The CFD-calculations have been based on ten tubes with an outer diameter of 10 mm, each perforated with 40 1 mm holes. From the CFD-calculations it can be concluded that a cavity for mixing gas and hot air is necessary between two layers of ceramic foam. From the CFD-calculations it also can be concluded that the distance between the gas jets can be increased while the diameter of the jets should be decreased. From the CFD calculations it can be seen that a large amount of unburned fuel will leave the surface of the burner. It is suggested to add an extra ceramic foam to the construction to increase the burnout of the fuel in the burner. This concept has been developed for

  4. Cylindrical Taylor states conserving total absolute magnetic helicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, B. C.; Fang, F.

    2014-09-01

    The Taylor state of a three-dimensional (3D) magnetic field in an upright cylindrical domain V is derived from first principles as an extremum of the total magnetic energy subject to a conserved, total absolute helicity Habs. This new helicity [Low, Phys. Plasmas 18, 052901 (2011)] is distinct from the well known classical total helicity and relative total helicity in common use to describe wholly-contained and anchored fields, respectively. A given field B, tangential along the cylindrical side of V, may be represented as a unique linear superposition of two flux systems, an axially extended system along V and a strictly transverse system carrying information on field-circulation. This specialized Chandrasekhar-Kendall representation defines Habs and permits a neat formulation of the boundary-value problem (BVP) for the Taylor state as a constant-α force-free field, treating 3D wholly-contained and anchored fields on the same conceptual basis. In this formulation, the governing equation is a scalar integro-partial differential equation (PDE). A family of series solutions for an anchored field is presented as an illustration of this class of BVPs. Past treatments of the constant-α field in 3D cylindrical geometry are based on a scalar Helmholtz PDE as the governing equation, with issues of inconsistency in the published field solutions discussed over time in the journal literature. The constant-α force-free equation reduces to a scalar Helmholtz PDE only as special cases of the 3D integro-PDE derived here. In contrast, the constant-α force-free equation and the scalar Helmholtz PDE are absolutely equivalent in the spherical domain as discussed in Appendix. This theoretical study is motivated by the investigation of the Sun's corona but the results are also relevant to laboratory plasmas.

  5. Comparison of different methods of estimating the mean radiant temperature in outdoor thermal comfort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, E L; Minella, F O; Matzarakis, A

    2014-10-01

    Correlations between outdoor thermal indices and the calculated or measured mean radiant temperature T(mrt) are in general of high importance because of the combined effect on human energy balance in outdoor spaces. The most accurate way to determine T(mrt) is by means of integral radiation measurements, i.e. measuring the short- and long-wave radiation from six directions using pyranometers and pyrgeometers, an expensive and not always an easily available procedure. Some studies use globe thermometers combined with air temperature and wind speed sensors. An alternative way to determine T(mrt) is based on output from the RayMan model from measured data of incoming global radiation and morphological features of the monitoring site in particular sky view factor (SVF) data. The purpose of this paper is to compare different methods to assess the mean radiant temperature T(mrt) in terms of differences to a reference condition (T(mrt) calculated from field measurements) and to resulting outdoor comfort levels expressed as PET and UTCI values. The T(mrt) obtained from field measurements is a combination of air temperature, wind speed and globe temperature data according to the forced ventilation formula of ISO 7726 for data collected in Glasgow, UK. Four different methods were used in the RayMan model for T(mrt) calculations: input data consisting exclusively of data measured at urban sites; urban data excluding solar radiation, estimated SVF data and solar radiation data measured at a rural site; urban data excluding solar radiation with SVF data for each site; urban data excluding solar radiation and including solar radiation at the rural site taking no account of SVF information. Results show that all methods overestimate T(mrt) when compared to ISO calculations. Correlations were found to be significant for the first method and lower for the other three. Results in terms of comfort (PET, UTCI) suggest that reasonable estimates could be made based on global radiation

  6. Comparison of different methods of estimating the mean radiant temperature in outdoor thermal comfort studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, E. L.; Minella, F. O.; Matzarakis, A.

    2014-10-01

    Correlations between outdoor thermal indices and the calculated or measured mean radiant temperature Tmrt are in general of high importance because of the combined effect on human energy balance in outdoor spaces. The most accurate way to determine Tmrt is by means of integral radiation measurements, i.e. measuring the short- and long-wave radiation from six directions using pyranometers and pyrgeometers, an expensive and not always an easily available procedure. Some studies use globe thermometers combined with air temperature and wind speed sensors. An alternative way to determine Tmrt is based on output from the RayMan model from measured data of incoming global radiation and morphological features of the monitoring site in particular sky view factor (SVF) data. The purpose of this paper is to compare different methods to assess the mean radiant temperature Tmrt in terms of differences to a reference condition (Tmrt calculated from field measurements) and to resulting outdoor comfort levels expressed as PET and UTCI values. The Tmrt obtained from field measurements is a combination of air temperature, wind speed and globe temperature data according to the forced ventilation formula of ISO 7726 for data collected in Glasgow, UK. Four different methods were used in the RayMan model for Tmrt calculations: input data consisting exclusively of data measured at urban sites; urban data excluding solar radiation, estimated SVF data and solar radiation data measured at a rural site; urban data excluding solar radiation with SVF data for each site; urban data excluding solar radiation and including solar radiation at the rural site taking no account of SVF information. Results show that all methods overestimate Tmrt when compared to ISO calculations. Correlations were found to be significant for the first method and lower for the other three. Results in terms of comfort (PET, UTCI) suggest that reasonable estimates could be made based on global radiation data measured at

  7. The FLUKA atmospheric neutrino flux calculation

    CERN Document Server

    Battistoni, G.; Montaruli, T.; Sala, P.R.

    2003-01-01

    The 3-dimensional (3-D) calculation of the atmospheric neutrino flux by means of the FLUKA Monte Carlo model is here described in all details, starting from the latest data on primary cosmic ray spectra. The importance of a 3-D calculation and of its consequences have been already debated in a previous paper. Here instead the focus is on the absolute flux. We stress the relevant aspects of the hadronic interaction model of FLUKA in the atmospheric neutrino flux calculation. This model is constructed and maintained so to provide a high degree of accuracy in the description of particle production. The accuracy achieved in the comparison with data from accelerators and cross checked with data on particle production in atmosphere certifies the reliability of shower calculation in atmosphere. The results presented here can be already used for analysis by current experiments on atmospheric neutrinos. However they represent an intermediate step towards a final release, since this calculation does not yet include the...

  8. Generalized flux states of the t-J model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nori, F.; Abrahams, E.; Zimanyi, G.T.

    1990-01-01

    We investigate certain generalized flux phases arising in a mean-field approach to the t-J model. First, we establish that the energy of noninteracting electrons moving in a uniform magnetic field has an absolute minimum as a function of the flux at exactly one flux quantum per particle. Using this result, we show that if the hard-core nature of the hole bosons is taken into account, then the slave-boson mean-field approximation for the t-J Hamiltonian allows for a solution where both the spinons and the holons experience an average flux of one flux quantum per particle. This enables them to achieve the lowest possible energy within the manifold of spatially uniform flux states. In the case of the continuum model, this is possible only for certain fractional fillings and we speculate that the system may react to this frustration effect by phase separation

  9. Indoor temperatures for calculating room heat loss and heating capacity of radiant heating systems combined with mechanical ventilation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xiaozhou; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Fang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a typical office room with a radiant heating system and a mechanical ventilation system was selected as the research subject. Indoor temperature formulas for calculating the room heat loss (including transmission heat loss and ventilation heat loss) and heating capacity of the hybrid...... for calculating ventilation heat loss and heating capacity of radiant heating systems combined with mechanical ventilation systems. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....... change rates on the indoor temperatures were performed using the proposed model. When heated surface temperatures and air change rates were from 21.0 to 29.0 degrees C and from 0.5 to 4.0 h-1, the indoor temperatures for calculating the transmission heat loss and ventilation heat loss were between 20...

  10. Numerical Simulation of the Application of Solar Radiant Systems, Internal Airflow and Occupants’ Presence in the Improvement of Comfort in Winter Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Eusébio Z. E. Conceição; Mª Manuela J. R. Lúcio

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the use of numerical simulation in the application of solar radiant systems, internal airflow and occupants’ presence in the improvement of comfort in winter conditions is made. The thermal comfort, the local thermal discomfort and the air quality in an occupied chamber space are evaluated. In the experimental measurements, a wood chamber, a desk, two seats, two seated hygro-thermal manikins, a warm radiant floor, a solar radiation simulator and a water solar collector are used....

  11. Full Scale Measurements and CFD Investigations of a Wall Radiant Cooling System Based on Plastic Capillary Tubes in Thin Concrete Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikeska, Tomás; Fan, Jianhua; Svendsen, Svend

    2017-01-01

    Densely occupied spaces such as classrooms can very often have problems with overheating. It can be difficult to cool such spaces by means of a ventilation system without creating draughts and causing discomfort for occupants. The use of a wall radiant cooling system is a suitable option for spac...... with a high occupant density. Radiant systems can remove most sensible heat loads resulting in a relatively small requirement for supply air for ventilation....

  12. Intense Super-radiant X-rays from a Compact Source using a Nanocathode Array and Emittance Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Graves, W. S.; Kaertner, F. X.; Moncton, D. E.; Piot, P.

    2012-01-01

    A novel method of producing intense short wavelength radiation from relativistic electrons is described. The electrons are periodically bunched at the wavelength of interest enabling in-phase super-radiant emission that is orders of magnitude more intense than that of unbunched electrons. The periodic bunching is achieved in steps beginning with an array of beamlets emitted from a nanoengineered field emission array. The beamlets are then manipulated and converted to a longitudinal density mo...

  13. PAIR INFLUENCE OF WIND SPEED AND MEAN RADIANT TEMPERATURE ON OUTDOOR THERMAL COMFORT OF HUMID TROPICAL ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Sangkertadi Sangkertadi; Reny Syafriny

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this article is to explore knowledge of outdoor thermal comfort in humid tropical environment for urban activities especially for people in walking activity, and those who stationary/seated with moderate action. It will be characterized the pair influence of wind speed and radiant temperature on the outdoor thermal comfort. Many of researchers stated that those two microclimate variables give significant role on outdoor thermal comfort in tropical humid area. Outdoor Tropical ...

  14. Effects of radiant exposure and wavelength spectrum of light-curing units on chemical and physical properties of resin cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Fonseca Lima

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives In this study, we evaluated the influence of different radiant exposures provided by single-peak and polywave light-curing units (LCUs on the degree of conversion (DC and the mechanical properties of resin cements. Materials and Methods Six experimental groups were established for each cement (RelyX ARC, 3M ESPE; LuxaCore Dual, Ivoclar Vivadent; Variolink, DMG, according to the different radiant exposures (5, 10, and 20 J/cm2 and two LCUs (single-peak and polywave. The specimens were made (7 mm in length × 2 mm in width × 1 mm in height using silicone molds. After 24 hours of preparation, DC measurement was performed using Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. The same specimens were used for the evaluation of mechanical properties (flexural strength, FS; elastic modulus, E by a three-point bending test. Data were assessed for normality, after which two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and post hoc Tukey's test were performed. Results No properties of the Variolink cement were influenced by any of the considered experimental conditions. In the case of the RelyX ARC cement, DC was higher when polywave LCU was used; FS and E were not influenced by the conditions evaluated. The LuxaCore cement showed greater sensitivity to the different protocols. Conclusions On the basis of these results, both the spectrum of light emitted and the radiant exposure used could affect the properties of resin cements. However, the influence was material-dependent.

  15. Assessing the accuracy of globe thermometer method in predicting outdoor mean radiant temperature under Malaysia tropical microclimate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khrit N.G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessing outdoor human thermal comfort and urban climate quality require experimental investigation of microclimatic conditions and their variations in open urban spaces. For this, it is essential to provide quantitative information on air temperature, humidity, wind velocity and mean radiant temperature. These parameters can be quantified directly except mean radiant temperature (Tmrt. The most accurate method to quantify Tmrt is integral radiation measurements (3-D shortwave and long-wave which require using expensive radiometer instruments. To overcome this limitation the well-known globe thermometer method was suggested to calculate Tmrt. The aim of this study was to assess the possibility of using indoor globe thermometer method in predicting outdoor mean radiant temperature under Malaysia tropical microclimate. Globe thermometer method using small and large sizes of black-painted copper globes (50mm, 150mm were used to estimate Tmrt and compare it with the reference Tmrt estimated by integral radiation method. The results revealed that the globe thermometer method considerably overestimated Tmrt during the middle of the day and slightly underestimated it in the morning and late evening. The difference between the two methods was obvious when the amount of incoming solar radiation was high. The results also showed that the effect of globe size on the estimated Tmrt is mostly small. Though, the estimated Tmrt by the small globe showed a relatively large amount of scattering caused by rapid changes in radiation and wind speed.

  16. Assessing the accuracy of globe thermometer method in predicting outdoor mean radiant temperature under Malaysia tropical microclimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrit, N. G.; Alghoul, M. A.; Sopian, K.; Lahimer, A. A.; Elayeb, O. K.

    2017-11-01

    Assessing outdoor human thermal comfort and urban climate quality require experimental investigation of microclimatic conditions and their variations in open urban spaces. For this, it is essential to provide quantitative information on air temperature, humidity, wind velocity and mean radiant temperature. These parameters can be quantified directly except mean radiant temperature (Tmrt). The most accurate method to quantify Tmrt is integral radiation measurements (3-D shortwave and long-wave) which require using expensive radiometer instruments. To overcome this limitation the well-known globe thermometer method was suggested to calculate Tmrt. The aim of this study was to assess the possibility of using indoor globe thermometer method in predicting outdoor mean radiant temperature under Malaysia tropical microclimate. Globe thermometer method using small and large sizes of black-painted copper globes (50mm, 150mm) were used to estimate Tmrt and compare it with the reference Tmrt estimated by integral radiation method. The results revealed that the globe thermometer method considerably overestimated Tmrt during the middle of the day and slightly underestimated it in the morning and late evening. The difference between the two methods was obvious when the amount of incoming solar radiation was high. The results also showed that the effect of globe size on the estimated Tmrt is mostly small. Though, the estimated Tmrt by the small globe showed a relatively large amount of scattering caused by rapid changes in radiation and wind speed.

  17. Effects of radiant exposure and wavelength spectrum of light-curing units on chemical and physical properties of resin cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Adriano Fonseca; Formaggio, Stephanie Ellen Ferreira; Zambelli, Lígia França Aires; Palialol, Alan Rodrigo Muniz; Marchi, Giselle Maria; Saraceni, Cintia Helena Coury; de Oliveira, Marcelo Tavares

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we evaluated the influence of different radiant exposures provided by single-peak and polywave light-curing units (LCUs) on the degree of conversion (DC) and the mechanical properties of resin cements. Six experimental groups were established for each cement (RelyX ARC, 3M ESPE; LuxaCore Dual, Ivoclar Vivadent; Variolink, DMG), according to the different radiant exposures (5, 10, and 20 J/cm 2 ) and two LCUs (single-peak and polywave). The specimens were made (7 mm in length × 2 mm in width × 1 mm in height) using silicone molds. After 24 hours of preparation, DC measurement was performed using Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. The same specimens were used for the evaluation of mechanical properties (flexural strength, FS; elastic modulus, E ) by a three-point bending test. Data were assessed for normality, after which two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc Tukey's test were performed. No properties of the Variolink cement were influenced by any of the considered experimental conditions. In the case of the RelyX ARC cement, DC was higher when polywave LCU was used; FS and E were not influenced by the conditions evaluated. The LuxaCore cement showed greater sensitivity to the different protocols. On the basis of these results, both the spectrum of light emitted and the radiant exposure used could affect the properties of resin cements. However, the influence was material-dependent.

  18. PAIR INFLUENCE OF WIND SPEED AND MEAN RADIANT TEMPERATURE ON OUTDOOR THERMAL COMFORT OF HUMID TROPICAL ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangkertadi Sangkertadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this article is to explore knowledge of outdoor thermal comfort in humid tropical environment for urban activities especially for people in walking activity, and those who stationary/seated with moderate action. It will be characterized the pair influence of wind speed and radiant temperature on the outdoor thermal comfort. Many of researchers stated that those two microclimate variables give significant role on outdoor thermal comfort in tropical humid area. Outdoor Tropical Comfort (OTC model was used for simulation in this study. The model output is comfort scale that refers on ASHRAE definition. The model consists of two regression equations with variables of air temperature, globe temperature, wind speed, humidity and body posture, for two types of activity: walking and seated. From the results it can be stated that there is significant role of wind speed to reduce mean radiant temperature and globe temperature, when the velocity is elevated from 0.5 m/s to 2 m/s. However, the wind has not play significant role when the speed is changed from 2 m/s to 3.5 m/s. The results of the study may inspire us to implement effectiveness of electrical-fan equipment for outdoor space in order to get optimum wind speed, coupled with optimum design of shading devices to minimize radiant temperature for thermal comfort.

  19. Body temperature mapping in critically ill newborn infants nursed under radiant warmers during intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaseling, G K; Molgat-Seon, Y; Daboval, T; Chou, S; Jay, O

    2016-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess (i) the agreement between servo-control temperature (Tfeedback) and rectal temperature (Tre) and (ii) the distribution of regional skin temperatures (Tsk) of neonates nursed under a radiant warmer (RW) in a neonatal intensive care unit. An observational study of 13 neonates nursed under a RW device set to servo-control mode (Tfeedback set-point: 36.5 °C) who were monitored for Tfeedback, Tre and Tsk at six sites for a period of 105 min. Mean bias for Tfeedback relative to Tre was +0.01 °C, but 95% limits of agreement were ±0.99 °C, and only 66% of Tfeedback values were within the acceptable limits determined a priori (±0.5 °C). Tfeedback was maintained within a range of 1.4 °C (35.9 to 37.3 °C), whereas the range observed for regional skin temperatures spanned from 9.5 °C (27.3 to 36.8 °C; foot) to 4.8 °C (33.1 to 37.9 °C; chest). Although Tfeedback is maintained within narrow limits, the level of agreement with Tre is poor. In addition, large fluctuations in regional skin temperatures occur with a consistent caudal-to-rostral temperature gradient, irrespective of Tfeedback.

  20. Extinction of radiant energy by large atmospheric crystals with different shapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shefer, Olga

    2016-01-01

    The calculated results of extinction characteristics of visible and infrared radiation for large semi-transparent crystals are obtained by hybrid technique, which is a combination of the geometric optics method and the physical optics method. Energy and polarization characteristics of the radiation extinction in terms of the elements of the extinction matrix for individual large crystals and ensemble of crystals are discussed. Influences of particle shapes, aspect ratios, parameters of size distribution, complex refractive index, orientation of crystals, wavelength, and the polarization state of an incident radiation on the extinction are illustrated. It is shown that the most expressive and stable features of energy and polarization characteristics of the extinction are observed in the midinfrared region, despite the fact that the ice particles significantly absorb the radiant energy of this spectrum. It is demonstrated that the polarized extinction characteristics can reach several tens of percent at IR wavelengths. For the large crystals, the conditions of occurrence of the spectral behavior of the extinction coefficient in the visible, near-IR, and mid-IR wavelength ranges are determined. - Highlights: • Method of physical optics is used at coherent sum of diffracted and refracted fields. • The extinction characteristics in terms of elements of extinction matrix are obtained. • Influence of shapes and sizes of large particles on the extinction is evaluated. • Conditions of occurrence of extinction features are determined.

  1. Analysis of directional radiative behavior and heating efficiency for a gas-fired radiant burner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, B.X.; Lu, Y.P.; Liu, L.H.; Kudo, K.; Tan, H.P.

    2005-01-01

    For the purpose of energy conservation and uniform heating of object surface, a gas-fired porous radiant burner with a bundle of reflecting tubes is developed. A physical model is developed to simulate the directional radiative behavior of this heating device, in which the Monte Carlo method based on the concept of radiation distribution factor is used to compute the directional radiative behavior. The effects of relating parameters on the directional behavior of radiative heating and the heating efficiency are analyzed. With the increase of the length-to-radius ratio of tube, the radiation heating efficiency decreases, but the radiation energy incident on the object surface is more collimated. The radiation heating efficiency increases with the specular reflectivity. With the increase in length of tube segment with specular reflective surface, the radiation heating efficiency increases, but the extent of concentration and collimation of radiative energy decreases. For real design of the heating device, some trade-offs are needed to balance the radiation heating efficiency and the uniformity of radiative heating of object surface

  2. Robust spectrometer-based methods for characterizing radiant exitance of dental LED light curing units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortall, Adrian C; Felix, Christopher J; Watts, David C

    2015-04-01

    Firstly, to assess light output, from a representative range of dental light curing units (LCUs), using a new portable spectrometer based instrument (checkMARC™) compared with a "gold standard" method. Secondly, to assess possible inconsistency between light output measurements using three different laboratory-grade thermopile instruments. The output of four blue-dental LCUs and four polywave blue-and-violet-LCUs was measured with two spectrometer-based systems: a portable spectrometer instrument and a benchtop Integrating Sphere fiber-coupled spectrometer system. Power output was also recorded with three thermopiles according to ISO 10650-2. Beam profile images were recorded of LCU output to assess for spatial and spectral beam uniformity. Power recorded with the portable spectrometer instrument closely matched the 'gold standard' Integrating Sphere apparatus calibrated according to International Standards. Radiant exitance for the eight LCUs differed significantly between the three thermopiles. Light source to thermopile sensor distance influenced recorded power significantly (pSpectrometer-based methods are capable of overcoming the limitations inherent with thermopile-based measurement techniques. Spectrometer based measurements can fulfill the intention of ISO 10650. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Achieving Climate Change Absolute Accuracy in Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Thome, K. J; Leroy, S.; Corliss, J.; Anderson, J. G.; Ao, C. O.; Bantges, R.; Best, F.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission will provide a calibration laboratory in orbit for the purpose of accurately measuring and attributing climate change. CLARREO measurements establish new climate change benchmarks with high absolute radiometric accuracy and high statistical confidence across a wide range of essential climate variables. CLARREO's inherently high absolute accuracy will be verified and traceable on orbit to Système Internationale (SI) units. The benchmarks established by CLARREO will be critical for assessing changes in the Earth system and climate model predictive capabilities for decades into the future as society works to meet the challenge of optimizing strategies for mitigating and adapting to climate change. The CLARREO benchmarks are derived from measurements of the Earth's thermal infrared spectrum (5-50 micron), the spectrum of solar radiation reflected by the Earth and its atmosphere (320-2300 nm), and radio occultation refractivity from which accurate temperature profiles are derived. The mission has the ability to provide new spectral fingerprints of climate change, as well as to provide the first orbiting radiometer with accuracy sufficient to serve as the reference transfer standard for other space sensors, in essence serving as a "NIST [National Institute of Standards and Technology] in orbit." CLARREO will greatly improve the accuracy and relevance of a wide range of space-borne instruments for decadal climate change. Finally, CLARREO has developed new metrics and methods for determining the accuracy requirements of climate observations for a wide range of climate variables and uncertainty sources. These methods should be useful for improving our understanding of observing requirements for most climate change observations.

  4. Absolute Priority for a Vehicle in VANET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirani, Rostam; Hendessi, Faramarz; Montazeri, Mohammad Ali; Sheikh Zefreh, Mohammad

    In today's world, traffic jams waste hundreds of hours of our life. This causes many researchers try to resolve the problem with the idea of Intelligent Transportation System. For some applications like a travelling ambulance, it is important to reduce delay even for a second. In this paper, we propose a completely infrastructure-less approach for finding shortest path and controlling traffic light to provide absolute priority for an emergency vehicle. We use the idea of vehicular ad-hoc networking to reduce the imposed travelling time. Then, we simulate our proposed protocol and compare it with a centrally controlled traffic light system.

  5. Musical Activity Tunes Up Absolute Pitch Ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Ribe, Lars Riisgaard

    2014-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify or produce pitches of musical tones without an external reference. Active AP (i.e., pitch production or pitch adjustment) and passive AP (i.e., pitch identification) are considered to not necessarily coincide, although no study has properly compared...... that APs generally undershoot when adjusting musical pitch, a tendency that decreases when musical activity increases. Finally, APs are less accurate when adjusting the pitch to black key targets than to white key targets. Hence, AP ability may be partly practice-dependent and we speculate that APs may...

  6. Absolute method of measuring magnetic susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, A.; Senftle, F.E.

    1959-01-01

    An absolute method of standardization and measurement of the magnetic susceptibility of small samples is presented which can be applied to most techniques based on the Faraday method. The fact that the susceptibility is a function of the area under the curve of sample displacement versus distance of the magnet from the sample, offers a simple method of measuring the susceptibility without recourse to a standard sample. Typical results on a few substances are compared with reported values, and an error of less than 2% can be achieved. ?? 1959 The American Institute of Physics.

  7. "Monte Carlo simulation of neutron fluxes on an absolute scale - comparison to experiments"

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šaroun, Jan; Kulda, Jiří; Wildes, A.; Hiess, A.

    276/278, - (2000), s. 148-149 ISSN 0921-4526 R&D Projects: GA ČR GV202/97/K038; GA AV ČR KSK1048601 Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.893, year: 2000

  8. Clustering of Emerging Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzmaikin, A.

    1997-01-01

    Observations show that newly emerging flux tends to appear on the Solar surface at sites where there is flux already. This results in clustering of solar activity. Standard dynamo theories do not predict this effect.

  9. Standardization of the cumulative absolute velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, T.F.; Jacobson, J.P.

    1991-12-01

    EPRI NP-5930, ''A Criterion for Determining Exceedance of the Operating Basis Earthquake,'' was published in July 1988. As defined in that report, the Operating Basis Earthquake (OBE) is exceeded when both a response spectrum parameter and a second damage parameter, referred to as the Cumulative Absolute Velocity (CAV), are exceeded. In the review process of the above report, it was noted that the calculation of CAV could be confounded by time history records of long duration containing low (nondamaging) acceleration. Therefore, it is necessary to standardize the method of calculating CAV to account for record length. This standardized methodology allows consistent comparisons between future CAV calculations and the adjusted CAV threshold value based upon applying the standardized methodology to the data set presented in EPRI NP-5930. The recommended method to standardize the CAV calculation is to window its calculation on a second-by-second basis for a given time history. If the absolute acceleration exceeds 0.025g at any time during each one second interval, the earthquake records used in EPRI NP-5930 have been reanalyzed and the adjusted threshold of damage for CAV was found to be 0.16g-set

  10. An intercomparison and validation of satellite-based surface radiative energy flux estimates over the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riihelä, Aku; Key, Jeffrey R.; Meirink, Jan Fokke; Kuipers Munneke, Peter; Palo, Timo; Karlsson, Karl-Göran

    2017-05-01

    Accurate determination of radiative energy fluxes over the Arctic is of crucial importance for understanding atmosphere-surface interactions, melt and refreezing cycles of the snow and ice cover, and the role of the Arctic in the global energy budget. Satellite-based estimates can provide comprehensive spatiotemporal coverage, but the accuracy and comparability of the existing data sets must be ascertained to facilitate their use. Here we compare radiative flux estimates from Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Synoptic 1-degree (SYN1deg)/Energy Balanced and Filled, Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) surface energy budget, and our own experimental FluxNet / Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring cLoud, Albedo and RAdiation (CLARA) data against in situ observations over Arctic sea ice and the Greenland Ice Sheet during summer of 2007. In general, CERES SYN1deg flux estimates agree best with in situ measurements, although with two particular limitations: (1) over sea ice the upwelling shortwave flux in CERES SYN1deg appears to be underestimated because of an underestimated surface albedo and (2) the CERES SYN1deg upwelling longwave flux over sea ice saturates during midsummer. The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer-based GEWEX and FluxNet-CLARA flux estimates generally show a larger range in retrieval errors relative to CERES, with contrasting tendencies relative to each other. The largest source of retrieval error in the FluxNet-CLARA downwelling shortwave flux is shown to be an overestimated cloud optical thickness. The results illustrate that satellite-based flux estimates over the Arctic are not yet homogeneous and that further efforts are necessary to investigate the differences in the surface and cloud properties which lead to disagreements in flux retrievals.

  11. Commissioning of the Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Jakobsen, Sune; Hansen, Peter; Hansen, Jørgen Beck

    The startup of the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) has initialized a new era in particle physics. The standard model of particle physics has for the last 40 years with tremendous success described all measurements with phenomenal precision. The experiments at the LHC are testing the standard model in a new energy regime. To normalize the measurements and understand the potential discoveries of the LHC experiments it is often crucial to know the interaction rate - the absolute luminosity. The ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS) detector will measure luminosity by numerous methods. But for most of the methods only the relative luminosity is measured with good precision. The absolute scale has to be provided from elsewhere. ATLAS is like the other LHC experiments mainly relying of absolute luminosity calibration from van der Meer scans (beam separation scans). To cross check and maybe even improve the precision; ATLAS has built a sub-detector to measure the flux of protons scattered under very small angles as this flux...

  12. Absolute determination of the temperature-dependent penetration depth in superconducting V3Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christen, D.K.; Sekula, S.T.; Kerchner, H.R.; Chang, Y.K.

    1985-01-01

    The temperature-dependent penetration depth lambda(T) is the fundamental length that describes the spatial variation of a static magnetic field within a superconductor, including the field decay from the core of an isolated flux line (FL) in a type-II superconductor in the mixed state. The penetration depth has been the subject of extensive investigation in a number of superconducting pure materials and alloys. Few experimental techniques enable an absolute determination of lambda; usually one may obtain only relative changes with temperature. The authors have shown that for an extreme (high-kappa) type-II superconductor, such as V 3 Si, it is possible to measure lambda(T) absolutely from the low-field flux-line lattice (FLL) form factor F/sub hk/, which is extracted from the intensity of neutrons diffracted at small angles from the FLL. Since this technique provides an absolute determination, it enables a direct comparison to the predictions of microscopic theory. Here the authors compare the observed lambda to the BCS theory and its modifications due to many-body effects

  13. Evaluation of thermal comfort conditions in a localized radiant system placed in front and behind two students seated nearby warmed curtains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conceicao, Eusebio Z.E. [FCT, Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Lucio, M-1. Manuela J.R. [Agrupamento Vertical Professor Paula Nogueira, R. Comunidade Lusiada, 8700-000 Olhao (Portugal)

    2010-10-15

    In this work the evaluation of thermal comfort conditions, that two students are subjected, in a classroom desk equipped with a localized radiant system placed in front and behind the occupants seated nearby windows equipped with curtains subjected to solar radiation, in Winter conditions, is made. In the simulation, performed in a 2.7 x 2.4 x 2.4 m{sup 3} virtual chamber, two occupants seated in a classroom desk, equipped with two localized radiant surfaces placed in front and two localized radiant surfaces placed behind them, a window subjected to solar radiation and an internal curtain are considered. A numerical model, that allows to simulate the human body thermal, clothing thermal and thermoregulatory systems, in non-uniform environments, is used. The Mean Radiant Temperature, with and without correction, and Radiosity methods are used in the study of the influence of the localized radiant surface, the room surrounding surfaces, the lateral occupant's body, the lateral curtain surface and the lateral solar radiation, in the thermal comfort conditions. In the first part of the study three numerical methods used in the evaluation of internal radiant heat exchanges in an acceptable typical thermal situation are analysed, while in the second part the influence of four important thermal parameters in the thermal comfort level is analysed. In the first part of this work, the localized radiant surfaces and the lateral occupant's body are evaluated in the first test, the localized radiant surfaces, the lateral occupants body and the lateral curtains surface are evaluated in the second test and the localized radiant surfaces, the lateral occupants body, the lateral window glass surface and the lateral solar radiation are evaluated in the third test. In the second part of this work, the influence of air temperature, equal to the room surrounding surfaces temperature, the localized radiant system temperature, the lateral curtains temperature and the air

  14. Forecasting Error Calculation with Mean Absolute Deviation and Mean Absolute Percentage Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khair, Ummul; Fahmi, Hasanul; Hakim, Sarudin Al; Rahim, Robbi

    2017-12-01

    Prediction using a forecasting method is one of the most important things for an organization, the selection of appropriate forecasting methods is also important but the percentage error of a method is more important in order for decision makers to adopt the right culture, the use of the Mean Absolute Deviation and Mean Absolute Percentage Error to calculate the percentage of mistakes in the least square method resulted in a percentage of 9.77% and it was decided that the least square method be worked for time series and trend data.

  15. CERES Fast Longwave And SHortwave Radiative Flux (FLASHFlux) Version4A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaengphokhai, P.; Stackhouse, P. W., Jr.; Kratz, D. P.; Gupta, S. K.

    2017-12-01

    The agricultural, renewable energy management, and science communities need global surface and top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative fluxes on a low latency basis. The Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) FLASHFlux (Fast Longwave and SHortwave radiative Flux) data products address this need by enhancing the speed of CERES processing using simplified calibration and parameterized model of surface fluxes to provide a daily global radiative fluxes data set within one week of satellite observations. The CERES FLASHFlux provides two data products: 1) an overpass swath Level 2 Single Scanner Footprint (SSF) data products separately for both Aqua and Terra observations, and 2) a daily Level 3 Time Interpolated and Spatially Averaged (TISA) 1o x 1o gridded data that combines Aqua and Terra observations. The CERES FLASHFlux data product is being promoted to Version4A. Updates to FLASHFlux Version4A include a new cloud retrieval algorithm and an improved shortwave surface flux parameterization. We inter-compared FLASHFlux Version4A, FLASHFlux Version3C, CERES Edition 4 Syn1Deg and at the monthly scale CERES Edition4 EBAF (Energy Balanced and Filled) Top-of-Atmosphere and Edition 4 Surface EBAF fluxes to evaluate these improvements. We also analyze the impact of the new inputs and cloud algorithm to the surface shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes using ground sites measurement provided by CAVE (CERES/ARM Validation Experiment).

  16. Absolute and Relative Time-Consistent Revealed Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    T. DEMUYNCK

    2007-01-01

    We introduce an Absolute (Relative) Time-consistent Axiom of Revealed Preference which characterizes the consistency of a choice function with the property of absolute (relative) time-consistency and impatience. The axiom requires that the absolute (relative) time-consistent and impatient closure of the revealed preference relation does not conflict with the strict revealed preference relation.

  17. Pollutant emissions reduction and performance optimization of an industrial radiant tube burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scribano, Gianfranco; Solero, Giulio; Coghe, Aldo [Dipartimento di Energetica, Politecnico di Milano, via La Masa, 34, 20156 Milano (Italy)

    2006-07-15

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation performed upon a single-ended self-recuperative radiant tube burner fuelled by natural gas in the non-premixed mode, which is used in the steel industry for surface treatment. The main goal of the research activity was a systematic investigation of the burner aimed to find the best operating conditions in terms of optimum equivalence ratio, thermal power and lower pollutant emissions. The analysis, which focused on the main parameters influencing the thermal efficiency and pollutant emissions at the exhaust (NO{sub x} and CO), has been carried out for different operating conditions of the burner: input thermal powers from 12.8 up to 18kW and equivalence ratio from 0.5 (very lean flame) to 0.95 (quasi-stoichiometric condition). To significantly reduce pollutant emissions ensuring at the same time the thermal requirements of the heating process, it has been developed a new burner configuration, in which a fraction of the exhaust gases recirculates in the main combustion region through a variable gap between the burner efflux and the inner flame tube. This internal recirculation mechanism (exhaust gases recirculation, EGR) has been favoured through the addition of a pre-combustion chamber terminated by a converging nozzle acting as a mixing/ejector to promote exhaust gas entrainment into the flame tube. The most important result of this solution was a decrease of NO{sub x} emissions at the exhaust of the order of 50% with respect to the original burner geometry, for a wide range of thermal power and equivalence ratio. (author)

  18. Highly Controlled Synthesis and Super-Radiant Photoluminescence of Plasmonic Cube-in-Cube Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong-Eun; Kim, Sungi; Son, Jiwoong; Lee, Yeonhee; Nam, Jwa-Min

    2016-12-14

    The plasmonic properties of metal nanostructures have been heavily utilized for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF), but the direct photoluminescence (PL) from plasmonic metal nanostructures, especially with plasmonic coupling, has not been widely used as much as SERS and MEF due to the lack of understanding of the PL mechanism, relatively weak signals, and the poor availability of the synthetic methods for the nanostructures with strong PL signals. The direct PL from metal nanostructures is beneficial if these issues can be addressed because it does not exhibit photoblinking or photobleaching, does not require dye-labeling, and can be employed as a highly reliable optical signal that directly depends on nanostructure morphology. Herein, we designed and synthesized plasmonic cube-in-cube (CiC) nanoparticles (NPs) with a controllable interior nanogap in a high yield from Au nanocubes (AuNCs). In synthesizing the CiC NPs, we developed a galvanic void formation (GVF) process, composed of replacement/reduction and void formation steps. We unraveled the super-radiant character of the plasmonic coupling-induced plasmon mode which can result in highly enhanced PL intensity and long-lasting PL, and the PL mechanisms of these structures were analyzed and matched with the plasmon hybridization model. Importantly, the PL intensity and quantum yield (QY) of CiC NPs are 31 times and 16 times higher than those of AuNCs, respectively, which have shown the highest PL intensity and QY reported for metallic nanostructures. Finally, we confirmed the long-term photostability of the PL signal, and the signal remained stable for at least 1 h under continuous illumination.

  19. Modeling of hydronic radiant cooling of a thermally homeostatic building using a parametric cooling tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Peizheng; Wang, Lin-Shu; Guo, Nianhua

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Investigated cooling of thermally homeostatic buildings in 7 U.S. cities by modeling. • Natural energy is harnessed by cooling tower to extract heat for building cooling. • Systematically studied possibility and conditions of using cooling tower in buildings. • Diurnal ambient temperature amplitude is taken into account in cooling tower cooling. • Homeostatic building cooling is possible in locations with large ambient T amplitude. - Abstract: A case is made that while it is important to mitigate dissipative losses associated with heat dissipation and mechanical/electrical resistance for engineering efficiency gain, the “architect” of energy efficiency is the conception of best heat extraction frameworks—which determine the realm of possible efficiency. This precept is applied to building energy efficiency here. Following a proposed process assumption-based design method, which was used for determining the required thermal qualities of building thermal autonomy, this paper continues this line of investigation and applies heat extraction approach investigating the extent of building partial homeostasis and the possibility of full homeostasis by using cooling tower in one summer in seven selected U.S. cities. Cooling tower heat extraction is applied parametrically to hydronically activated radiant-surfaces model-buildings. Instead of sizing equipment as a function of design peak hourly temperature as it is done in heat balance design-approach of selecting HVAC equipment, it is shown that the conditions of using cooling tower depend on both “design-peak” daily-mean temperature and the distribution of diurnal range in hourly temperature (i.e., diurnal temperature amplitude). Our study indicates that homeostatic building with natural cooling (by cooling tower alone) is possible only in locations of special meso-scale climatic condition such as Sacramento, CA. In other locations the use of cooling tower alone can only achieve homeostasis

  20. The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Sensors and Preflight Calibration Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Robert B., III; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Smith, G. Louis; Cooper, John E.; Kopia, Leonard P.; Lawrence, R. Wes; Thomas, Susan; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Crommelynck, Dominique A. H.

    1996-01-01

    The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) spacecraft sensors are designed to measure broadband earth-reflected solar shortwave (0.3-5 microns) and earth-emitted longwave (5- > 100 microns) radiances at the top of the atmosphere as part of the Mission to Planet Earth program. The scanning thermistor bolometer sensors respond to radiances in the broadband shortwave (0.3-5 microns) and total-wave (0.3- > 100 microns) spectral regions, as well as to radiances in the narrowband water vapor window (8-12 microns) region. 'ne sensors are designed to operate for a minimum of 5 years aboard the NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission and Earth Observing System AM-1 spacecraft platforms that are scheduled for launches in 1997 and 1998, respectively. The flight sensors and the in-flight calibration systems will be calibrated in a vacuum ground facility using reference radiance sources, tied to the international temperature scale of 1990. The calibrations will be used to derive sensor gains, offsets, spectral responses, and point spread functions within and outside of the field of view. The shortwave, total-wave, and window ground calibration accuracy requirements (1 sigma) are +/-0.8, +/-0.6, and +/-0.3 W /sq m/sr, respectively, while the corresponding measurement precisions are +/-O.5% and +/-1.0% for the broadband longwave and shortwave radiances, respectively. The CERES sensors, in-flight calibration systems, and ground calibration instrumentation are described along with outlines of the preflight and in-flight calibration approaches.

  1. Absolute ion hydration enthalpies from absolute hardness and some VBT relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Savaş; Fernandes de Farias, Robson

    2018-01-01

    In the present work, absolute hydration enthalpies are calculated from ion absolute hardness for a series of +1 and -1 ions. The calculated values are compared with those previously reported (Housecroft, 2017) [2] and relationships between Vm-1/3 and absolute hardness are stablished. The following empirical equations have been derived, for cations and anions, respectively: ΔhydHo = -(9.645 η+ + 245.930) and ΔhydHo = -(64.601 η- + 12.321). In such equations, η+ and η- are the absolute hardness. It is shown that for d block monocations (Cu+, Ag+ and Au+), hydration enthalpy is closely related with Clementi effective nuclear charge by the equation: ΔhydHo = -(9.645 η+ + 245.930) (Zeff/(n - 1)), where n is the main quantum number. Furthermore, is shown that a typical VBT parameter (Vm-1/3) is related with η+ and η- values and so, with the energies of the frontier orbitals, that is, is stablished a direct relationship between a structural parameter available by X-ray data and the energy of atomic/molecular orbitals.

  2. Absolute beam current monitoring in endstation c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochna, C.

    1995-01-01

    The first few experiments at CEBAF require approximately 1% absolute measurements of beam currents expected to range from 10-25μA. This represents errors of 100-250 nA. The initial complement of beam current monitors are of the non intercepting type. CEBAF accelerator division has provided a stripline monitor and a cavity monitor, and the authors have installed an Unser monitor (parametric current transformer or PCT). After calibrating the Unser monitor with a precision current reference, the authors plan to transfer this calibration using CW beam to the stripline monitors and cavity monitors. It is important that this be done fairly rapidly because while the gain of the Unser monitor is quite stable, the offset may drift on the order of .5μA per hour. A summary of what the authors have learned about the linearity, zero drift, and gain drift of each type of current monitor will be presented

  3. How is an absolute democracy possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Bednarek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last part of the Empire trilogy, Commonwealth, Negri and Hardt ask about the possibility of the self-governance of the multitude. When answering, they argue that absolute democracy, understood as the political articulation of the multitude that does not entail its unification (construction of the people is possible. As Negri states, this way of thinking about political articulation is rooted in the tradition of democratic materialism and constitutes the alternative to the dominant current of modern political philosophy that identifies political power with sovereignty. The multitude organizes itself politically by means of the constitutive power, identical with the ontological creativity or productivity of the multitude. To state the problem of political organization means to state the problem of class composition: political democracy is at the same time economic democracy.

  4. Absolute negative mobility in the anomalous diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ruyin; Chen, Chongyang; Nie, Linru

    2017-12-01

    Transport of an inertial Brownian particle driven by the multiplicative Lévy noise was investigated here. Numerical results indicate that: (i) The Lévy noise is able to induce absolute negative mobility (ANM) in the system, while disappearing in the deterministic case; (ii) the ANM can occur in the region of superdiffusion while disappearing in the region of normal diffusion, and the appropriate stable index of the Lévy noise makes the particle move along the opposite direction of the bias force to the maximum degree; (iii) symmetry breaking of the Lévy noise also causes the ANM effect. In addition, the intrinsic physical mechanism and conditions for the ANM to occur are discussed in detail. Our results have the implication that the Lévy noise plays an important role in the occurrence of the ANM phenomenon.

  5. MLU and IPSyn measuring absolute complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea Nieminen

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This article compares the results of Mean Length of Utterance (MLU and Index of Productive Syntax (IPSyn with the structural complexity of spontaneous utterances produced by 30-month-old Finnish children in a semi-structured playing situation. The comparison was carried out in order to determine the aspects of structural complexity which can be detected with MLU and IPSyn. This research adopts the frameworks of absolute complexity together with a multidimensional view of utterance structure and, furthermore, applies it through Utterance Analysis (UA. The results of the comparison between the metrics and changes in structural complexity discovered by UA reveal that MLU and IPSyn do function as measures of structural complexity but only if used in close relation to each other. Because they focus on different aspects of utterances, the results of both metrics should be interpreted in relation to one another.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5128/ERYa5.11

  6. WHY DOES LEIBNIZ NEED ABSOLUTE TIME?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLÁS VAUGHAN C.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: En este ensayo pongo en contraposición dos doctrinas conspicuamenteleibnicianas: la doctrina del tiempo relacional e ideal, y la doctrina de la armonía preestablecida. Argumentaré que si todas las substancias están necesariamentecoordinadas, entonces no tiene sentido negar el carácter absoluto y real del tiempo. En la primera sección describiré la concepción newtoniana y clarkeana del tiempo absoluto; en la segunda discutiré la crítica leibniciana a dicha concepción, crítica sobre la que se erige su doctrina relacional e ideal del tiempo; en la tercera sección daré un vistazo a la metafísica monádica madura de Leibniz, haciendo especial énfasis en la doctrina de la armonía preestablecida; finalmente, en la última sección sugeriré la existencia de una tensión irreconciliable entre estas dos doctrinas.Abstract: In this paper I bring together two characteristically Leibnizean doctrines:the doctrine of relational and ideal time, and the doctrine of preestablished harmony. I will argue that, if every substance is necessarily connected with another, then it makes no sense to deny absolute and real time. In the first section, I will describe Newton’s and Clarke’s conception of absolute time; then, in the second section, I will consider Leibniz’s critique of that conception, on which he bases his ideal and relational doctrine of time. In the third section I will look briefly at Leibniz’s mature monadic metaphysics, taking special account of his doctrine of preestablished harmony. In the last section, I will suggest that there is an irreconcilable tension between these two doctrines.

  7. Validation of Improved Broadband Shortwave and Longwave Fluxes Derived From GOES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaiyer, Mandana M.; Nordeen, Michele L.; Palikonda, Rabindra; Yi, Yuhong; Minnis, Patrick; Doelling, David R.

    2009-01-01

    Broadband (BB) shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) fluxes at TOA (Top of Atmosphere) are crucial parameters in the study of climate and can be monitored over large portions of the Earth's surface using satellites. The VISST (Visible Infrared Solar Split-Window Technique) satellite retrieval algorithm facilitates derivation of these parameters from the Geostationery Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES). However, only narrowband (NB) fluxes are available from GOES, so this derivation requires use of narrowband-to-broadband (NB-BB) conversion coefficients. The accuracy of these coefficients affects the validity of the derived broadband (BB) fluxes. Most recently, NB-BB fits were re-derived using the NB fluxes from VISST/GOES data with BB fluxes observed by the CERES (Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy Budget) instrument aboard Terra, a sun-synchronous polar-orbiting satellite that crosses the equator at 10:30 LT. Subsequent comparison with ARM's (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement) BBHRP (Broadband Heating Rate Profile) BB fluxes revealed that while the derived broadband fluxes agreed well with CERES near the Terra overpass times, the accuracy of both LW and SW fluxes decreased farther away from the overpass times. Terra's orbit hampers the ability of the NB-BB fits to capture diurnal variability. To account for this in the LW, seasonal NB-BB fits are derived separately for day and night. Information from hourly SW BB fluxes from the Meteosat-8 Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) is employed to include samples over the complete solar zenith angle (SZA) range sampled by Terra. The BB fluxes derived from these improved NB-BB fits are compared to BB fluxes computed with a radiative transfer model.

  8. Absolute determination of radiation bursts and of proportional counters space charge effect through the influence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rios, I.J.; Mayer, R.E.

    2016-01-01

    When proportional counters are employed in charge integration mode to determine the magnitude of a radiation pulse, so intense that individual detection events take place in a time too short to produce individual output pulses, mostly in pulsed neutron sources, the strong build-up of positive space charge reduces the electric multiplication factor of the proportional detector. Under such conditions the ensuing measurement underestimates the amount of radiation that interacted with the detector. If the geometric characteristics, the filling gas pressure and the voltage applied to that detector are known, it becomes possible to apply an analytical correction method to the measurement. In this article we present a method that allows to determine the absolute value of the detected radiation burst without the need to know the characteristics of the employed detectors. It is necessary to employ more than one detector, taking advantage of the Influence Method. The “Influence Method” is conceived for the absolute determination of a nuclear particle flux in the absence of known detector efficiency and without the need to register coincidences of any kind. This method exploits the influence of the presence of one detector in the count rate of another detector, when they are placed one behind the other and define statistical estimators for the absolute number of incident particles and for the efficiency (Rios and Mayer, 2015 [1,2]). Its practical implementation in the measurement of a moderated neutron flux arising from an isotopic neutron source was exemplified in (Rios and Mayer, 2016 [3]) and the extension for multiple detectors in (Rios and Mayer 2016 [4]). - Highlights: • Absolute determination of radiation burst. • Proportional counters space charge effect. • Radiation measurements on pulsed devices.

  9. Everolimus in advanced, progressive, well-differentiated, non-functional neuroendocrine tumors: RADIANT-4 lung subgroup analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Nicola; Buzzoni, Roberto; Delle Fave, Gianfranco; Tesselaar, Margot E; Wolin, Edward; Van Cutsem, Eric; Tomassetti, Paola; Strosberg, Jonathan; Voi, Maurizio; Bubuteishvili-Pacaud, Lida; Ridolfi, Antonia; Herbst, Fabian; Tomasek, Jiri; Singh, Simron; Pavel, Marianne; Kulke, Matthew H; Valle, Juan W; Yao, James C

    2018-01-01

    In the phase III RADIANT-4 study, everolimus improved median progression-free survival (PFS) by 7.1 months in patients with advanced, progressive, well-differentiated (grade 1 or grade 2), non-functional lung or gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) vs placebo (hazard ratio, 0.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.35-0.67; P < .00001). This exploratory analysis reports the outcomes of the subgroup of patients with lung NETs. In RADIANT-4, patients were randomized (2:1) to everolimus 10 mg/d or placebo, both with best supportive care. This is a post hoc analysis of the lung subgroup with PFS, by central radiology review, as the primary endpoint; secondary endpoints included objective response rate and safety measures. Ninety of the 302 patients enrolled in the study had primary lung NET (everolimus, n = 63; placebo, n = 27). Median PFS (95% CI) by central review was 9.2 (6.8-10.9) months in the everolimus arm vs 3.6 (1.9-5.1) months in the placebo arm (hazard ratio, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.28-0.88). More patients who received everolimus (58%) experienced tumor shrinkage compared with placebo (13%). Most frequently reported (≥5% incidence) grade 3-4 drug-related adverse events (everolimus vs. placebo) included stomatitis (11% vs. 0%), hyperglycemia (10% vs. 0%), and any infections (8% vs. 0%). In patients with advanced, progressive, well-differentiated, non-functional lung NET, treatment with everolimus was associated with a median PFS improvement of 5.6 months, with a safety profile similar to that of the overall RADIANT-4 cohort. These results support the use of everolimus in patients with advanced, non-functional lung NET. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (no. NCT01524783). © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  10. Research on determine the absolute neutron output of distributed pulse generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Bojun; Tang Zhangkui; Wang Dong; Yang Gaozhao; Peng Taiping

    2009-01-01

    In order to determine the absolute neutron output of distributed pulse generators, we deduced equivalent length to deal with experimental data, according to the different layout and weighting of multiple pulse generators. The deposited energy in scintillation crystal and the integral flux which drilling through crystal interface was simulated by MCNP code. The result shows the simulated proportion of different distributed pulse generators is approximately agreed with experimental data. The validity of the equivalent length model was proved by the consistent results between calculation and experimental data. (authors)

  11. A rare gas optics-free absolute EUV photon spectrometer for solar system studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daybell, M. D.; Gruntman, M. A.; Judge, D. L.; Samson, J. A. R.

    1992-01-01

    We have developed a prototype spectrometer for space applications which require long term absolute EUV photon flux measurements. In this recently developed spectrometer, the energy spectrum of the incoming photons is transformed directly into an electron energy spectrum by taking advantage of the photoelectric effect in one of several rare gases at low pressures. Using an electron energy spectrometer operating at a few eV, and followed by an electron multiplying detector, pulses due to individual electrons are counted. The overall efficiency of this process is essentially independent of gain drifts in the signal path, and the secular degradation of optical components which is often a problem in other techniques is avoided.

  12. Effect of supply air temperature on air distribution in a room with radiant heating and mechanical ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xiaozhou; Zhao, Jianing; Fang, Lei

    2017-01-01

    The present study focused on the effect of supply air temperature on air distribution in a room with floor heating (FH) or ceiling heating (CH) and mixing ventilation (MV) or displacement ventilation (DV). The vertical distribution of air temperature and velocity in the occupied zone and the hori...... are relevant to the design and control of the hybrid systems with radiant heating systems and mechanical ventilation systems.......The present study focused on the effect of supply air temperature on air distribution in a room with floor heating (FH) or ceiling heating (CH) and mixing ventilation (MV) or displacement ventilation (DV). The vertical distribution of air temperature and velocity in the occupied zone...

  13. Heat transfer in hybrid fibre reinforced concrete-steel composite column exposed to a gas-fired radiant heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štefan, R.; Procházka, J.; Novák, J.; Fládr, J.; Wald, F.; Kohoutková, A.; Scheinherrová, L.; Čáchová, M.

    2017-09-01

    In the paper, a gas-fired radiant heater system for testing of structural elements and materials at elevated temperatures is described. The applicability of the system is illustrated on an example of the heat transfer experiment on a hybrid fibre reinforced concrete-steel composite column specimen. The results obtained during the test are closely analysed by common data visualization techniques. The experiment is simulated by a mathematical model of heat transfer, assuming the material data of the concrete determined by in-house measurements. The measured and calculated data are compared and discussed.

  14. Thermal environment in simulated offices with convective and radiant cooling systems under cooling (summer) mode of operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustakallio, Panu; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Kostov, Kalin

    2016-01-01

    calculated. Manikin-based equivalent temperature (MBET) was determined by using two thermal manikins to identify the impact of the local thermal conditions generated by the studied systems on occupants' thermal perception. The results revealed that the differences in the thermal conditions achieved...... and occupants were simulated to obtain two different heat load conditions: 38 W/m2 and 64 W/m2 in the case of office room, and 71 W/m2 and 86 W/m2 in the case of meeting room. Air temperature, globe (operative) temperature, radiant asymmetry, air velocity and turbulent intensity were measured and draught rate...

  15. Vertical divergence of fogwater fluxes above a spruce forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkard, R.; Eugster, W.; Wrzesinsky, T.; Klemm, O.

    Two almost identical eddy covariance measurement setups were used to measure the fogwater fluxes to a forest ecosystem in the "Fichtelgebirge" mountains (Waldstein research site, 786 m a.s.l.) in Germany. During the first experiment, an intercomparison was carried out with both setups running simultaneously at the same measuring height on a meteorological tower, 12.5 m above the forest canopy. The results confirmed a close agreement of the turbulent fluxes between the two setups, and allowed to intercalibrate liquid water content (LWC) and gravitational fluxes. During the second experiment, the setups were mounted at a height of 12.5 and 3 m above the canopy, respectively. For the 22 fog events, a persistent negative flux divergence was observed with a greater downward flux at the upper level. To extrapolate the turbulent liquid water fluxes measured at height z to the canopy of height hc, a conversion factor 1/[1+0.116( z- hc)] was determined. For the fluxes of nonvolatile ions, no such correction is necessary since the net evaporation of the fog droplets appears to be the primary cause of the vertical flux divergence. Although the net evaporation reduces the liquid water flux reaching the canopy, it is not expected to change the absolute amount of ions dissolved in fogwater.

  16. Comparison of surface energy fluxes with satellite-derived surface energy flux estimates from a shrub-steppe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkham, Randy R. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This thesis relates the components of the surface energy balance (i.e., net radiation, sensible and latent heat flux densities, soil heat flow) to remotely sensed data for native vegetation in a semi-arid environment. Thematic mapper data from Landsat 4 and 5 were used to estimate net radiation, sensible heat flux (H), and vegetation amount. Several sources of ground truth were employed. They included soil water balance using the neutron thermalization method and weighing lysimeters, and the measurement of energy fluxes with the Bowen ratio energy balance (BREB) technique. Sensible and latent heat flux were measured at four sites on the U.S. Department of Energy`s Hanford Site using a weighing lysimeter and/or BREB stations. The objective was to calibrate an aerodynamic transport equation that related H to radiant surface temperature. The transport equation was then used with Landsat thermal data to generate estimates of H and compare these estimates against H values obtained with BREB/lysimeters at the time of overflight. Landsat and surface meteorologic data were used to estimate the radiation budget terms at the surface. Landsat estimates of short-wave radiation reflected from the surface correlate well with reflected radiation measured using inverted Eppley pyranometers. Correlation of net radiation estimates determined from satellite data, pyranometer, air temperature, and vapor pressure compared to net radiometer values obtained at time of overflight were excellent for a single image, but decrease for multiple images. Soil heat flux, GT, is a major component of the energy balance in arid systems and G{sub T} generally decreases as vegetation cover increases. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values generated from Landsat thermatic mapper data were representative of field observations of the presence of green vegetation, but it was not possible to determine a single relationship between NDVI and GT for all sites.

  17. Comparison of surface energy fluxes with satellite-derived surface energy flux estimates from a shrub-steppe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkham, R.R.

    1993-12-01

    This thesis relates the components of the surface energy balance (i.e., net radiation, sensible and latent heat flux densities, soil heat flow) to remotely sensed data for native vegetation in a semi-arid environment. Thematic mapper data from Landsat 4 and 5 were used to estimate net radiation, sensible heat flux (H), and vegetation amount. Several sources of ground truth were employed. They included soil water balance using the neutron thermalization method and weighing lysimeters, and the measurement of energy fluxes with the Bowen ratio energy balance (BREB) technique. Sensible and latent heat flux were measured at four sites on the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site using a weighing lysimeter and/or BREB stations. The objective was to calibrate an aerodynamic transport equation that related H to radiant surface temperature. The transport equation was then used with Landsat thermal data to generate estimates of H and compare these estimates against H values obtained with BREB/lysimeters at the time of overflight. Landsat and surface meteorologic data were used to estimate the radiation budget terms at the surface. Landsat estimates of short-wave radiation reflected from the surface correlate well with reflected radiation measured using inverted Eppley pyranometers. Correlation of net radiation estimates determined from satellite data, pyranometer, air temperature, and vapor pressure compared to net radiometer values obtained at time of overflight were excellent for a single image, but decrease for multiple images. Soil heat flux, G T , is a major component of the energy balance in arid systems and G T generally decreases as vegetation cover increases. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values generated from Landsat thermatic mapper data were representative of field observations of the presence of green vegetation, but it was not possible to determine a single relationship between NDVI and G T for all sites

  18. Chiral charge flux and electroweak baryogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funakubo, Koichi [Saga Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Kakuto, Akira; Otsuki, Shoichiro; Takenaga, Kazunori; Toyoda, Fumihiko

    1995-06-01

    By treating CP-violating interaction of the electroweak bubble wall as a perturbative term, chiral charge flux through the bubble wall is estimated. It is found that the absolute value of the flux F{sub Q} has a sharp peak at m{sub 0} - a - T with F{sub Q}/(uT{sup 3}) - 10{sup -3}(Q{sub L}-Q{sub R}){Delta}{theta}. Here m{sub 0} is the fermion mass, 1/a is the wall thickness, T is the temperature at which the bubbles are growing, u is the wall velocity, Q{sub L(R)} is the chiral charge of the relevant left (right)-handed fermion and {Delta}{theta} is the measure of CP violation. (author).

  19. Impact of prior therapies on everolimus activity: an exploratory analysis of RADIANT-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzoni, Roberto; Carnaghi, Carlo; Strosberg, Jonathan; Fazio, Nicola; Singh, Simron; Herbst, Fabian; Ridolfi, Antonia; Pavel, Marianne E; Wolin, Edward M; Valle, Juan W; Oh, Do-Youn; Yao, James C; Pommier, Rodney

    2017-01-01

    Recently, everolimus was shown to improve median progression-free survival (PFS) by 7.1 months in patients with advanced, progressive, well-differentiated, nonfunctional neuroendocrine tumors (NET) of lung or gastrointestinal (GI) tract compared with placebo (HR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.35-0.67; P <0.00001) in the Phase III, RADIANT-4 study. This post hoc analysis evaluates the impact of prior therapies (somatostatin analogs [SSA], chemotherapy, and radiotherapy) on everolimus activity. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01524783. Patients were randomized (2:1) to everolimus 10 mg/day or placebo, both with best supportive care. Subgroups of patients who received prior SSA, chemotherapy, or radiotherapy (including peptide receptor radionuclide therapy) were analyzed and reported. A total of 302 patients were enrolled, of whom, 163 (54%) had any prior SSA use (mostly for tumor control), 77 (25%) received chemotherapy, and 63 (21%) were previously exposed to radiotherapy. Patients who received everolimus had longer median PFS compared with placebo, regardless of previous SSA (with SSA: 11.1 vs 4.5 months [HR, 0.56 {95% CI, 0.37-0.85}]; without SSA: 9.5 vs 3.7 months [0.57 {0.36-0.89}]), chemotherapy (with chemotherapy: 9.2 vs 2.1 months [0.35 {0.19-0.64}]; without chemotherapy: 11.2 vs 5.4 months [0.60 {0.42-0.86}]), or radiotherapy (with radiotherapy: 9.2 vs 3.0 months [0.47 {0.24-0.94}]; without radiotherapy: 11 vs 5.1 months [0.59 {0.42-0.83}]) exposure. The most frequent drug-related adverse events included stomatitis (59%-65%), fatigue (27%-35%), and diarrhea (24%-34%) among the subgroups. These results suggest that everolimus improves PFS in patients with advanced, progressive lung or GI NET, regardless of prior therapies. Safety findings were consistent with the known safety profile of everolimus in NET.

  20. Tropical Gravity Wave Momentum Fluxes and Latent Heating Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Marvin A.; Zhou, Tiehan; Love, Peter T.

    2015-01-01

    Recent satellite determinations of global distributions of absolute gravity wave (GW) momentum fluxes in the lower stratosphere show maxima over the summer subtropical continents and little evidence of GW momentum fluxes associated with the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ). This seems to be at odds with parameterizations forGWmomentum fluxes, where the source is a function of latent heating rates, which are largest in the region of the ITCZ in terms of monthly averages. The authors have examined global distributions of atmospheric latent heating, cloud-top-pressure altitudes, and lower-stratosphere absolute GW momentum fluxes and have found that monthly averages of the lower-stratosphere GW momentum fluxes more closely resemble the monthly mean cloud-top altitudes rather than the monthly mean rates of latent heating. These regions of highest cloud-top altitudes occur when rates of latent heating are largest on the time scale of cloud growth. This, plus previously published studies, suggests that convective sources for stratospheric GW momentum fluxes, being a function of the rate of latent heating, will require either a climate model to correctly model this rate of latent heating or some ad hoc adjustments to account for shortcomings in a climate model's land-sea differences in convective latent heating.

  1. What is Needed for Absolute Paleointensity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valet, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Many alternative approaches to the Thellier and Thellier technique for absolute paleointensity have been proposed during the past twenty years. One reason is the time consuming aspect of the experiments. Another reason is to avoid uncertainties in determinations of the paleofield which are mostly linked to the presence of multidomain grains. Despite great care taken by these new techniques, there is no indication that they always provide the right answer and in fact sometimes fail. We are convinced that the most valid approach remains the original double heating Thellier protocol provided that natural remanence is controlled by pure magnetite with a narrow distribution of small grain sizes, mostly single domains. The presence of titanium, even in small amount generates biases which yield incorrect field values. Single domain grains frequently dominate the magnetization of glass samples, which explains the success of this selective approach. They are also present in volcanic lava flows but much less frequently, and therefore contribute to the low success rate of most experiments. However the loss of at least 70% of the magnetization at very high temperatures prior to the Curie point appears to be an essential prerequisite that increases the success rate to almost 100% and has been validated from historical flows and from recent studies. This requirement can easily be tested by thermal demagnetization while low temperature experiments can document the detection of single domain magnetite using the δFC/δZFC parameter as suggested (Moskowitz et al, 1993) for biogenic magnetite.

  2. Compact neutron flux monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhavi, V.; Phatak, P.R.; Bahadur, C.; Bayala, A.K.; Jakati, R.K.; Sathian, V.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: A compact size neutron flux monitor has been developed incorporating standard boards developed for smart radiation monitors. The sensitivity of the monitors is 0.4cps/nV. It has been tested up to 2075 nV flux with standard neutron sources. It shows convincing results even in high flux areas like 6m away from the accelerator in RMC (Parel) for 106/107 nV. These monitors have a focal and remote display, alarm function with potential free contacts for centralized control and additional provision of connectivity via RS485/Ethernet. This paper describes the construction, working and results of the above flux monitor

  3. Evaluation of Various Retrofitting Concepts of Building Envelope for Offices Equipped with Large Radiant Ceiling Panels by Dynamic Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Jordan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve significant savings in energy and an improved level of thermal comfort in retrofitted existing buildings, specific retrofitting concepts that combine new technologies and design need to be developed and implemented. Large radiant surfaces systems are now among the most promising future technologies to be used both in retrofitted and in new low-energy buildings. These kinds of systems have been the topic of several studies dealing with thermal comfort and energy utilization, but some specific issues concerning their possible use in various concepts for retrofitting are still poorly understood. In the present paper, some results of dynamic simulations, with the transient system simulation tool (TRNSYS model, of the retrofitted offices equipped with radiant ceiling panels are presented and thoroughly analysed. Based on a precise comparison of the results of these simulations with actual measurements in the offices, certain input data for the model were added, so that the model was consequently validated. The model was then applied to the evaluation of various concepts of building envelopes for office retrofitting. By means of dynamic simulations of indoor environment it was possible to determine the benefits and limitations of individual retrofitting concepts. Some specific parameters, which are relevant to these concepts, were also identified.

  4. Some effects of 8-12 micron radiant energy transfer on the mass and heat budgets of cloud droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkstrom, B. R.

    1978-01-01

    In standard treatments of the mass and energy budget of cloud droplets, radiant energy transfer is neglected on the grounds that the temperature difference between the droplet and its surroundings is small. This paper includes the effect of radiant heating and cooling of droplets by using the Eddington approximation for the solution of the radiative transfer equation. Although the calculation assumes that the cloud is isothermal and has a constant size spectrum with altitude, the heating or cooling of droplets by radiation changes the growth rate of the droplets very significantly. At the top of a cloud with a base at 2500 m and a top at 3000 m, a droplet will grow from 9.5 to 10.5 microns in about 4 min, assuming a supersaturation ratio of 1.0013. Such a growth rate is more than 20 times the growth rate for condensation alone, and may be expected to have a significant impact on estimates of precipitation formation as well as on droplet spectrum calculations.

  5. Thermal Comfort and Energy Consumption Using Different Radiant Heating/Cooling Systems in a Modern Office Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemethova, Ema; Stutterecker, Werner; Schoberer, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the potential of enhancing thermal comfort and energy consumption created by three different radiant systems in the newly-built Energetikum office building. A representative office, Simulation room 1/1, was selected from 6 areas equipped with portable sensor groups for the indoor environment monitoring. The presented data obtained from 3 reference weeks; the heating, transition and cooling periods indicate overheating, particularly during the heating and transition period. The values of the indoor air temperature during the heating and transition period could not meet the normative criteria according to standard EN 15251:2007 (cat. II.) for 15-30% of the time intervals evaluated. Consequently, a simulation model of the selected office was created and points to the possibilities of improving the control system, which can lead to an elimination of the problem with overheating. Three different radiant systems - floor heating/ cooling, a thermally active ceiling, and a near-surface thermally active ceiling were implemented in the model. A comparison of their effects on thermal comfort and energy consumption is presented in the paper.

  6. Thermal Comfort and Energy Consumption Using Different Radiant Heating/Cooling Systems in a Modern Office Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemethova Ema

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to evaluate the potential of enhancing thermal comfort and energy consumption created by three different radiant systems in the newly-built Energetikum office building. A representative office, Simulation room 1/1, was selected from 6 areas equipped with portable sensor groups for the indoor environment monitoring. The presented data obtained from 3 reference weeks; the heating, transition and cooling periods indicate overheating, particularly during the heating and transition period. The values of the indoor air temperature during the heating and transition period could not meet the normative criteria according to standard EN 15251:2007 (cat. II. for 15-30% of the time intervals evaluated. Consequently, a simulation model of the selected office was created and points to the possibilities of improving the control system, which can lead to an elimination of the problem with overheating. Three different radiant systems - floor heating/ cooling, a thermally active ceiling, and a near-surface thermally active ceiling were implemented in the model. A comparison of their effects on thermal comfort and energy consumption is presented in the paper.

  7. Evaluation of the absolute regional temperature potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Shindell

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Absolute Regional Temperature Potential (ARTP is one of the few climate metrics that provides estimates of impacts at a sub-global scale. The ARTP presented here gives the time-dependent temperature response in four latitude bands (90–28° S, 28° S–28° N, 28–60° N and 60–90° N as a function of emissions based on the forcing in those bands caused by the emissions. It is based on a large set of simulations performed with a single atmosphere-ocean climate model to derive regional forcing/response relationships. Here I evaluate the robustness of those relationships using the forcing/response portion of the ARTP to estimate regional temperature responses to the historic aerosol forcing in three independent climate models. These ARTP results are in good accord with the actual responses in those models. Nearly all ARTP estimates fall within ±20% of the actual responses, though there are some exceptions for 90–28° S and the Arctic, and in the latter the ARTP may vary with forcing agent. However, for the tropics and the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes in particular, the ±20% range appears to be roughly consistent with the 95% confidence interval. Land areas within these two bands respond 39–45% and 9–39% more than the latitude band as a whole. The ARTP, presented here in a slightly revised form, thus appears to provide a relatively robust estimate for the responses of large-scale latitude bands and land areas within those bands to inhomogeneous radiative forcing and thus potentially to emissions as well. Hence this metric could allow rapid evaluation of the effects of emissions policies at a finer scale than global metrics without requiring use of a full climate model.

  8. Absolute Radiometric Calibration of KOMPSAT-3A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Y. Ahn

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a vicarious radiometric calibration of the Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite-3A (KOMPSAT-3A performed by the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI and the Pukyong National University Remote Sensing Group (PKNU RSG in 2015.The primary stages of this study are summarized as follows: (1 A field campaign to determine radiometric calibrated target fields was undertaken in Mongolia and South Korea. Surface reflectance data obtained in the campaign were input to a radiative transfer code that predicted at-sensor radiance. Through this process, equations and parameters were derived for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor to enable the conversion of calibrated DN to physical units, such as at-sensor radiance or TOA reflectance. (2 To validate the absolute calibration coefficients for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor, we performed a radiometric validation with a comparison of KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 TOA reflectance using one of the six PICS (Libya 4. Correlations between top-of-atmosphere (TOA radiances and the spectral band responses of the KOMPSAT-3A sensors at the Zuunmod, Mongolia and Goheung, South Korea sites were significant for multispectral bands. The average difference in TOA reflectance between KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 image over the Libya 4, Libya site in the red-green-blue (RGB region was under 3%, whereas in the NIR band, the TOA reflectance of KOMPSAT-3A was lower than the that of Landsat-8 due to the difference in the band passes of two sensors. The KOMPSAT-3Aensor includes a band pass near 940 nm that can be strongly absorbed by water vapor and therefore displayed low reflectance. Toovercome this, we need to undertake a detailed analysis using rescale methods, such as the spectral bandwidth adjustment factor.

  9. Absolute parameters of young stars: QZ Carinae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, W. S. G.; Blackford, M.; Butland, R.; Budding, E.

    2017-09-01

    New high-resolution spectroscopy and BVR photometry together with literature data on the complex massive quaternary star QZ Car are collected and analysed. Absolute parameters are found as follows. System A: M1 = 43 (±3), M2 = 19 (+3 -7), R1 = 28 (±2), R2 = 6 (±2), (⊙); T1 ˜ 28 000, T2 ˜ 33 000 K; System B: M1 = 30 (±3), M2 = 20 (±3), R1 = 10 (±0.5), R2 = 20 (±1), (⊙); T1 ˜ 36 000, T2 ˜ 30 000 K (model dependent temperatures). The wide system AB: Period = 49.5 (±1) yr, Epochs, conjunction = 1984.8 (±1), periastron = 2005.3 (±3) yr, mean separation = 65 (±3), (au); orbital inclination = 85 (+5 -15) deg, photometric distance ˜2700 (±300) pc, age = 4 (±1) Myr. Other new contributions concern: (a) analysis of the timing of minima differences (O - C)s for the eclipsing binary (System B); (b) the width of the eclipses, pointing to relatively large effects of radiation pressure; (c) inferences from the rotational widths of lines for both Systems A and B; and (d) implications for theoretical models of early-type stars. While feeling greater confidence on the quaternary's general parametrization, observational complications arising from strong wind interactions or other, unclear, causes still inhibit precision and call for continued multiwavelength observations. Our high-inclination value for the AB system helps to explain failures to resolve the wide binary in the previous years. The derived young age independently confirms membership of QZ Car to the open cluster Collinder 228.

  10. Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2012-06-05

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  11. Planck absolute entropy of a rotating BTZ black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, S. M. Jawwad

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the Planck absolute entropy and the Bekenstein-Smarr formula of the rotating Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole are presented via a complex thermodynamical system contributed by its inner and outer horizons. The redefined entropy approaches zero as the temperature of the rotating BTZ black hole tends to absolute zero, satisfying the Nernst formulation of a black hole. Hence, it can be regarded as the Planck absolute entropy of the rotating BTZ black hole.

  12. Solar Magnetic Flux Ropes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... The most probable initial magnetic configuration of a CME is a flux rope consisting of twisted field lines which fill the whole volume of a dark coronal cavity. The flux ropes can be in stable equilibrium in the coronal magnetic field for weeks and even months, but suddenly they lose their stability and erupt with ...

  13. Night time cooling by ventilation or night sky radiation combined with in-room radiant cooling panels including phase change materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdakis, Eleftherios; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Grossule, Fabio

    constructed at the Technical University of Denmark, where the outside PVT panels are connected through a storage tank to in-room radiant ceiling panels. The radiant ceiling panels include phase change material (PCM) and embedded pipes for circulating water. Due to the phase change material it is possible...... depending on the sky clearness. This cooling power was enough to remove the stored heat and regenerate the ceiling panels. The validation simulation model results related to PCM were close to the corresponding results extracted from the experiment, while the results related to the production of cold water...

  14. Absolute calibration of a cold and thermal neutron detector using monochromatic neutron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin Ha; Cude-Woods, Christopher; Ito, Takeyasu; Young, Albert

    2017-09-01

    Time of flight spectra for cold neutrons exiting the moderator volume of the LANSCE UCN source has been obtained using a commercial neutron scintillator, EJ-426, coupled to a Hamamatsu R1355. The absolute efficiency for this detector system was determined using a 37.4 meV (monochromatic) neutron beam from the Neutron Powder Diffraction Facility (NPDF) at North Carolina State University's PULSTAR reactor. We measured the absolute neutron flux at the NPDF through thin foil activation and explored threshold effects through analysis of the measured pulse height distribution for effectively pure neutron signals from the NPDF beam. Non-uniformity of the flux profile across the detector and the detection efficiency as a function of the point of incidence of neutrons on the scintillator was explored using a X-Y translation system to perform scans using either fixed or movable apertures. The results are generally consistent with our expectations for this system, and provide a quantitative assessment of the sensitivity of this system to cold and thermal neutrons. This project was funded by the National Science Foundation and the Department of Energy.

  15. Determination of the absolute activity by the coincidences 4πβ-γ method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urcelay Silva, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    The 4π beta-gamma coincidence method for absolute determination of activities is extremely important in the production of high-precision radioactive sources. By means of this method it is possible to obtain absolute measurements of decay to within 0.1%. Thanks to the high efficiency of the 4π counter, most of the corrections required - background, random coincidences, dead time, decay scheme and detector efficiency - are small. The paper describes the experimental set-up showing the pulses in the two branches of the system, together with the conditions under which the 4πbeta flux detector functions. To determine whether the system was functioning satisfactorily, the activity of four cobalt-60 standards (supplied by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures based at Sevres in France) was determined and the differences obtained were less than 0.5% with respect to the certificates accompanying the sources. Alterations to the flux detector are suggested so that higher accuracy may be obtained. (author)

  16. Impact of prior therapies on everolimus activity: an exploratory analysis of RADIANT-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buzzoni R

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Roberto Buzzoni,1 Carlo Carnaghi,2 Jonathan Strosberg,3 Nicola Fazio,4 Simron Singh,5 Fabian Herbst,6 Antonia Ridolfi,7 Marianne E Pavel,8 Edward M Wolin,9 Juan W Valle,10 Do-Youn Oh,11 James C Yao,12 Rodney Pommier13 1IRCCS Foundation, National Institute of Tumors, Milan, Italy; 2Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano, Italy; 3Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL, USA; 4European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy; 5Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, ON, Canada; 6Novartis AG, Basel, Switzerland; 7Novartis Pharma S.A.S., Rueil-Malmaison, France; 8Medizinische Klinik 1, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany; 9Montefiore Einstein Center for Cancer Care, Bronx, NY, USA; 10Institute of Cancer Sciences, University of Manchester, The Christie Hospital, Manchester, UK; 11Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 12University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA; 13Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA Background: Recently, everolimus was shown to improve median progression-free survival (PFS by 7.1 months in patients with advanced, progressive, well-differentiated, nonfunctional neuroendocrine tumors (NET of lung or gastrointestinal (GI tract compared with placebo (HR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.35–0.67; P<0.00001 in the Phase III, RADIANT-4 study. This post hoc analysis evaluates the impact of prior therapies (somatostatin analogs [SSA], chemotherapy, and radiotherapy on everolimus activity. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01524783. Patients and methods: Patients were randomized (2:1 to everolimus 10 mg/day or placebo, both with best supportive care. Subgroups of patients who received prior SSA, chemotherapy, or radiotherapy (including peptide receptor radionuclide therapy were analyzed and reported. Results: A total of 302 patients were enrolled, of whom, 163 (54% had any prior SSA use (mostly for tumor control, 77 (25% received

  17. Absolute chronology and stratigraphy of Lepenski Vir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borić Dušan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, a number of specialist analyses were made on the material from old excavations of Mesolithic-Neolithic sites in the Danube Gorges. These new results altered significantly our understanding of the Lepenski Vir culture. The question of chronology of this regional phenomenon has been acute since the discovery of Lepenski Vir in the 1960s, and it remains of key importance for understanding the character of Mesolithic-Neolithic transformations in this and the neighbouring regions. The most heated debate was fuelled by the initial stratigraphic and chronological attribution of the type-site itself. There remained the question about the adequate dating of the most prominent phase at this site characterized by buildings with trapezoidal bases covered with limestone floors and with rectangular stone-lined hearths placed in the centre of these features. There have been suggestions that these features also contain Early Neolithic Starčevo type pottery and other similar items of material culture and should thus be dated to the Early Neolithic historical context. Moreover, the first series of conventional radiocarbon determinations (21 dates also suggested that the absolute chronology of these features should be confined to the period from around 6400-5500 cal BC (Fig. 1. Due to the importance of defining more precisely the chronology for the start of construction of these particular features at Lepenski Vir and for establishing the life-span of these buildings and their associated material culture, we have AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry dated a number of contexts from this site. The results are presented in this paper. The project was made possible through the Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerate Dating Service (ORADS programme funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC and the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC of the Great Britain. Apart from those dates presented in this paper, there are 29 previously published

  18. Numerical evaluation of magnetic absolute measurements with arbitrarily distributed DI-fluxgate theodolite orientations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-P. Brunke

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available At geomagnetic observatories the absolute measurements are needed to determine the calibration parameters of the continuously recording vector magnetometer (variometer. Absolute measurements are indispensable for determining the vector of the geomagnetic field over long periods of time. A standard DI (declination, inclination measuring scheme for absolute measurements establishes routines in magnetic observatories. The traditional measuring schema uses a fixed number of eight orientations (Jankowski et al., 1996.We present a numerical method, allowing for the evaluation of an arbitrary number (minimum of five as there are five independent parameters of telescope orientations. Our method provides D, I and Z base values and calculated error bars of them.A general approach has significant advantages. Additional measurements may be seamlessly incorporated for higher accuracy. Individual erroneous readings are identified and can be discarded without invalidating the entire data set. A priori information can be incorporated. We expect the general method to also ease requirements for automated DI-flux measurements. The method can reveal certain properties of the DI theodolite which are not captured by the conventional method.Based on the alternative evaluation method, a new faster and less error-prone measuring schema is presented. It avoids needing to calculate the magnetic meridian prior to the inclination measurements.Measurements in the vicinity of the magnetic equator are possible with theodolites and without a zenith ocular.The implementation of the method in MATLAB is available as source code at the GFZ Data Center Brunke (2017.

  19. Numerical evaluation of magnetic absolute measurements with arbitrarily distributed DI-fluxgate theodolite orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunke, Heinz-Peter; Matzka, Jürgen

    2018-01-01

    At geomagnetic observatories the absolute measurements are needed to determine the calibration parameters of the continuously recording vector magnetometer (variometer). Absolute measurements are indispensable for determining the vector of the geomagnetic field over long periods of time. A standard DI (declination, inclination) measuring scheme for absolute measurements establishes routines in magnetic observatories. The traditional measuring schema uses a fixed number of eight orientations (Jankowski et al., 1996).We present a numerical method, allowing for the evaluation of an arbitrary number (minimum of five as there are five independent parameters) of telescope orientations. Our method provides D, I and Z base values and calculated error bars of them.A general approach has significant advantages. Additional measurements may be seamlessly incorporated for higher accuracy. Individual erroneous readings are identified and can be discarded without invalidating the entire data set. A priori information can be incorporated. We expect the general method to also ease requirements for automated DI-flux measurements. The method can reveal certain properties of the DI theodolite which are not captured by the conventional method.Based on the alternative evaluation method, a new faster and less error-prone measuring schema is presented. It avoids needing to calculate the magnetic meridian prior to the inclination measurements.Measurements in the vicinity of the magnetic equator are possible with theodolites and without a zenith ocular.The implementation of the method in MATLAB is available as source code at the GFZ Data Center Brunke (2017).

  20. Directed flux motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Andrew (Inventor); Punnoose, Andrew (Inventor); Strausser, Katherine (Inventor); Parikh, Neil (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A directed flux motor described utilizes the directed magnetic flux of at least one magnet through ferrous material to drive different planetary gear sets to achieve capabilities in six actuated shafts that are grouped three to a side of the motor. The flux motor also utilizes an interwoven magnet configuration which reduces the overall size of the motor. The motor allows for simple changes to modify the torque to speed ratio of the gearing contained within the motor as well as simple configurations for any number of output shafts up to six. The changes allow for improved manufacturability and reliability within the design.

  1. Spectral estimates of net radiation and soil heat flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daughtry, C.S.T.; Kustas, W.P.; Moran, M.S.; Pinter, P.J. Jr.; Jackson, R.D.; Brown, P.W.; Nichols, W.D.; Gay, L.W.

    1990-01-01

    Conventional methods of measuring surface energy balance are point measurements and represent only a small area. Remote sensing offers a potential means of measuring outgoing fluxes over large areas at the spatial resolution of the sensor. The objective of this study was to estimate net radiation (Rn) and soil heat flux (G) using remotely sensed multispectral data acquired from an aircraft over large agricultural fields. Ground-based instruments measured Rn and G at nine locations along the flight lines. Incoming fluxes were also measured by ground-based instruments. Outgoing fluxes were estimated using remotely sensed data. Remote Rn, estimated as the algebraic sum of incoming and outgoing fluxes, slightly underestimated Rn measured by the ground-based net radiometers. The mean absolute errors for remote Rn minus measured Rn were less than 7%. Remote G, estimated as a function of a spectral vegetation index and remote Rn, slightly overestimated measured G; however, the mean absolute error for remote G was 13%. Some of the differences between measured and remote values of Rn and G are associated with differences in instrument designs and measurement techniques. The root mean square error for available energy (Rn - G) was 12%. Thus, methods using both ground-based and remotely sensed data can provide reliable estimates of the available energy which can be partitioned into sensible and latent heat under non advective conditions

  2. Does Absolute Synonymy exist in Owere-Igbo? | Omego | AFRREV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among Igbo linguistic researchers, determining whether absolute synonymy exists in Owere–Igbo, a dialect of the Igbo language predominantly spoken by the people of Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria, has become a thorny issue. While some linguistic scholars strive to establish that absolute synonymy exists in the lexical ...

  3. Determination of Absolute Zero Using a Computer-Based Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrani, D.

    2007-01-01

    We present a simple computer-based laboratory experiment for evaluating absolute zero in degrees Celsius, which can be performed in college and undergraduate physical sciences laboratory courses. With a computer, absolute zero apparatus can help demonstrators or students to observe the relationship between temperature and pressure and use…

  4. Modification of Human-Biometeorologically Significant Radiant Flux Densities by Shading as Local Method to Mitigate Heat Stress in Summer within Urban Street Canyons

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyunjung; Holst, Jutta; Mayer, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    Increasing heat will be a significant problem for Central European cities in the future. Shading devices are discussed as a method to mitigate heat stress on citizens. To analyze the physical processes, which are characteristic of shading in terms of urban human-biometeorology, experimental investigations on the thermal effects of shading by a building and shading by tree canopies were conducted in Freiburg (Southwest Germany) during typical Central European summer weather. Urban human-biomet...

  5. CrossRef Antiproton Flux, Antiproton-to-Proton Flux Ratio, and Properties of Elementary Particle Fluxes in Primary Cosmic Rays Measured with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station

    CERN Document Server

    Aguilar, M; Alpat, B; Ambrosi, G; Arruda, L; Attig, N; Aupetit, S; Azzarello, P; Bachlechner, A; Barao, F; Barrau, A; Barrin, L; Bartoloni, A; Basara, L; Başeǧmez-du Pree, S; Battarbee, M; Battiston, R; Bazo, J; Becker, U; Behlmann, M; Beischer, B; Berdugo, J; Bertucci, B; Bindi, V; Boella, G; de Boer, W; Bollweg, K; Bonnivard, V; Borgia, B; Boschini, M  J; Bourquin, M; Bueno, E  F; Burger, J; Cadoux, F; Cai, X  D; Capell, M; Caroff, S; Casaus, J; Castellini, G; Cernuda, I; Cervelli, F; Chae, M  J; Chang, Y  H; Chen, A  I; Chen, G  M; Chen, H  S; Cheng, L; Chou, H  Y; Choumilov, E; Choutko, V; Chung, C  H; Clark, C; Clavero, R; Coignet, G; Consolandi, C; Contin, A; Corti, C; Coste, B; Creus, W; Crispoltoni, M; Cui, Z; Dai, Y  M; Delgado, C; Della Torre, S; Demirköz, M  B; Derome, L; Di Falco, S; Dimiccoli, F; Díaz, C; von Doetinchem, P; Dong, F; Donnini, F; Duranti, M; D'Urso, D; Egorov, A; Eline, A; Eronen, T; Feng, J; Fiandrini, E; Finch, E; Fisher, P; Formato, V; Galaktionov, Y; Gallucci, G; García, B; García-López, R  J; Gargiulo, C; Gast, H; Gebauer, I; Gervasi, M; Ghelfi, A; Giovacchini, F; Goglov, P; Gómez-Coral, D  M; Gong, J; Goy, C; Grabski, V; Grandi, D; Graziani, M; Guerri, I; Guo, K  H; Habiby, M; Haino, S; Han, K  C; He, Z  H; Heil, M; Hoffman, J; Hsieh, T  H; Huang, H; Huang, Z  C; Huh, C; Incagli, M; Ionica, M; Jang, W  Y; Jinchi, H; Kang, S  C; Kanishev, K; Kim, G  N; Kim, K  S; Kirn, Th; Konak, C; Kounina, O; Kounine, A; Koutsenko, V; Krafczyk, M  S; La Vacca, G; Laudi, E; Laurenti, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lebedev, A; Lee, H  T; Lee, S  C; Leluc, C; Li, H  S; Li, J  Q; Li, Q; Li, T  X; Li, W; Li, Z  H; Li, Z  Y; Lim, S; Lin, C  H; Lipari, P; Lippert, T; Liu, D; Liu, Hu; Lu, S  Q; Lu, Y  S; Luebelsmeyer, K; Luo, F; Luo, J  Z; Lv, S  S; Majka, R; Mañá, C; Marín, J; Martin, T; Martínez, G; Masi, N; Maurin, D; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Meng, Q; Mo, D  C; Morescalchi, L; Mott, P; Nelson, T; Ni, J  Q; Nikonov, N; Nozzoli, F; Nunes, P; Oliva, A; Orcinha, M; Palmonari, F; Palomares, C; Paniccia, M; Pauluzzi, M; Pensotti, S; Pereira, R; Picot-Clemente, N; Pilo, F; Pizzolotto, C; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Poireau, V; Putze, A; Quadrani, L; Qi, X  M; Qin, X; Qu, Z  Y; Räihä, T; Rancoita, P  G; Rapin, D; Ricol, J  S; Rodríguez, I; Rosier-Lees, S; Rozhkov, A; Rozza, D; Sagdeev, R; Sandweiss, J; Saouter, P; Schael, S; Schmidt, S  M; Schulz von Dratzig, A; Schwering, G; Seo, E  S; Shan, B  S; Shi, J  Y; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Song, J  W; Sun, W  H; Tacconi, M; Tang, X  W; Tang, Z  C; Tao, L; Tescaro, D; Ting, Samuel C  C; Ting, S  M; Tomassetti, N; Torsti, J; Türkoğlu, C; Urban, T; Vagelli, V; Valente, E; Vannini, C; Valtonen, E; Vázquez Acosta, M; Vecchi, M; Velasco, M; Vialle, J  P; Vitale, V; Vitillo, S; Wang, L  Q; Wang, N  H; Wang, Q  L; Wang, X; Wang, X  Q; Wang, Z  X; Wei, C  C; Weng, Z  L; Whitman, K; Wienkenhöver, J; Willenbrock, M; Wu, H; Wu, X; Xia, X; Xiong, R  Q; Xu, W; Yan, Q; Yang, J; Yang, M; Yang, Y; Yi, H; Yu, Y  J; Yu, Z  Q; Zeissler, S; Zhang, C; Zhang, J; Zhang, J  H; Zhang, S  D; Zhang, S  W; Zhang, Z; Zheng, Z  M; Zhu, Z  Q; Zhuang, H  L; Zhukov, V; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, N; Zuccon, P

    2016-01-01

    A precision measurement by AMS of the antiproton flux and the antiproton-to-proton flux ratio in primary cosmic rays in the absolute rigidity range from 1 to 450 GV is presented based on 3.49×105 antiproton events and 2.42×109 proton events. The fluxes and flux ratios of charged elementary particles in cosmic rays are also presented. In the absolute rigidity range ∼60 to ∼500  GV, the antiproton p¯, proton p, and positron e+ fluxes are found to have nearly identical rigidity dependence and the electron e− flux exhibits a different rigidity dependence. Below 60 GV, the (p¯/p), (p¯/e+), and (p/e+) flux ratios each reaches a maximum. From ∼60 to ∼500  GV, the (p¯/p), (p¯/e+), and (p/e+) flux ratios show no rigidity dependence. These are new observations of the properties of elementary particles in the cosmos.

  6. Antiproton Flux, Antiproton-to-Proton Flux Ratio, and Properties of Elementary Particle Fluxes in Primary Cosmic Rays Measured with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, M; Ali Cavasonza, L; Alpat, B; Ambrosi, G; Arruda, L; Attig, N; Aupetit, S; Azzarello, P; Bachlechner, A; Barao, F; Barrau, A; Barrin, L; Bartoloni, A; Basara, L; Başeǧmez-du Pree, S; Battarbee, M; Battiston, R; Bazo, J; Becker, U; Behlmann, M; Beischer, B; Berdugo, J; Bertucci, B; Bindi, V; Boella, G; de Boer, W; Bollweg, K; Bonnivard, V; Borgia, B; Boschini, M J; Bourquin, M; Bueno, E F; Burger, J; Cadoux, F; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Caroff, S; Casaus, J; Castellini, G; Cernuda, I; Cervelli, F; Chae, M J; Chang, Y H; Chen, A I; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Cheng, L; Chou, H Y; Choumilov, E; Choutko, V; Chung, C H; Clark, C; Clavero, R; Coignet, G; Consolandi, C; Contin, A; Corti, C; Coste, B; Creus, W; Crispoltoni, M; Cui, Z; Dai, Y M; Delgado, C; Della Torre, S; Demirköz, M B; Derome, L; Di Falco, S; Dimiccoli, F; Díaz, C; von Doetinchem, P; Dong, F; Donnini, F; Duranti, M; D'Urso, D; Egorov, A; Eline, A; Eronen, T; Feng, J; Fiandrini, E; Finch, E; Fisher, P; Formato, V; Galaktionov, Y; Gallucci, G; García, B; García-López, R J; Gargiulo, C; Gast, H; Gebauer, I; Gervasi, M; Ghelfi, A; Giovacchini, F; Goglov, P; Gómez-Coral, D M; Gong, J; Goy, C; Grabski, V; Grandi, D; Graziani, M; Guerri, I; Guo, K H; Habiby, M; Haino, S; Han, K C; He, Z H; Heil, M; Hoffman, J; Hsieh, T H; Huang, H; Huang, Z C; Huh, C; Incagli, M; Ionica, M; Jang, W Y; Jinchi, H; Kang, S C; Kanishev, K; Kim, G N; Kim, K S; Kirn, Th; Konak, C; Kounina, O; Kounine, A; Koutsenko, V; Krafczyk, M S; La Vacca, G; Laudi, E; Laurenti, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lebedev, A; Lee, H T; Lee, S C; Leluc, C; Li, H S; Li, J Q; Li, J Q; Li, Q; Li, T X; Li, W; Li, Z H; Li, Z Y; Lim, S; Lin, C H; Lipari, P; Lippert, T; Liu, D; Liu, Hu; Lu, S Q; Lu, Y S; Luebelsmeyer, K; Luo, F; Luo, J Z; Lv, S S; Majka, R; Mañá, C; Marín, J; Martin, T; Martínez, G; Masi, N; Maurin, D; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Meng, Q; Mo, D C; Morescalchi, L; Mott, P; Nelson, T; Ni, J Q; Nikonov, N; Nozzoli, F; Nunes, P; Oliva, A; Orcinha, M; Palmonari, F; Palomares, C; Paniccia, M; Pauluzzi, M; Pensotti, S; Pereira, R; Picot-Clemente, N; Pilo, F; Pizzolotto, C; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Poireau, V; Putze, A; Quadrani, L; Qi, X M; Qin, X; Qu, Z Y; Räihä, T; Rancoita, P G; Rapin, D; Ricol, J S; Rodríguez, I; Rosier-Lees, S; Rozhkov, A; Rozza, D; Sagdeev, R; Sandweiss, J; Saouter, P; Schael, S; Schmidt, S M; Schulz von Dratzig, A; Schwering, G; Seo, E S; Shan, B S; Shi, J Y; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Song, J W; Sun, W H; Tacconi, M; Tang, X W; Tang, Z C; Tao, L; Tescaro, D; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tomassetti, N; Torsti, J; Türkoğlu, C; Urban, T; Vagelli, V; Valente, E; Vannini, C; Valtonen, E; Vázquez Acosta, M; Vecchi, M; Velasco, M; Vialle, J P; Vitale, V; Vitillo, S; Wang, L Q; Wang, N H; Wang, Q L; Wang, X; Wang, X Q; Wang, Z X; Wei, C C; Weng, Z L; Whitman, K; Wienkenhöver, J; Willenbrock, M; Wu, H; Wu, X; Xia, X; Xiong, R Q; Xu, W; Yan, Q; Yang, J; Yang, M; Yang, Y; Yi, H; Yu, Y J; Yu, Z Q; Zeissler, S; Zhang, C; Zhang, J; Zhang, J H; Zhang, S D; Zhang, S W; Zhang, Z; Zheng, Z M; Zhu, Z Q; Zhuang, H L; Zhukov, V; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, N; Zuccon, P

    2016-08-26

    A precision measurement by AMS of the antiproton flux and the antiproton-to-proton flux ratio in primary cosmic rays in the absolute rigidity range from 1 to 450 GV is presented based on 3.49×10^{5} antiproton events and 2.42×10^{9} proton events. The fluxes and flux ratios of charged elementary particles in cosmic rays are also presented. In the absolute rigidity range ∼60 to ∼500  GV, the antiproton p[over ¯], proton p, and positron e^{+} fluxes are found to have nearly identical rigidity dependence and the electron e^{-} flux exhibits a different rigidity dependence. Below 60 GV, the (p[over ¯]/p), (p[over ¯]/e^{+}), and (p/e^{+}) flux ratios each reaches a maximum. From ∼60 to ∼500  GV, the (p[over ¯]/p), (p[over ¯]/e^{+}), and (p/e^{+}) flux ratios show no rigidity dependence. These are new observations of the properties of elementary particles in the cosmos.

  7. Assessing neonatal heat balance and physiological strain in newborn infants nursed under radiant warmers in intensive care with fentanyl sedation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molgat-Seon, Yannick; Daboval, Thierry; Chou, Shirley; Jay, Ollie

    2014-12-01

    To assess heat balance status of newborn infants nursed under radiant warmers (RWs) during intensive care. Heat balance, thermal status and primary indicators of physiological strain were concurrently measured in 14 newborns nursed under RWs for 105 min. Metabolic heat production (M), evaporative heat loss (E), convective (C) and conductive heat flow (K), rectal temperature (T re) and mean skin temperatures (T sk) were measured continuously. The rate of radiant heat required for heat balance (R req) and the rate of radiant heat provided (R prov) were derived. The rate of body heat storage (S) was calculated using a two-compartment model of 'core' (T re) and 'shell' (T sk) temperatures. Mean M, E, C and K were 10.5 ± 2.7 W, 5.8 ± 1.1 W, 6.2 ± 0.8 W and 0.1 ± 0.1 W, respectively. Mean R prov (1.7 ± 2.6 W) and R req (1.7 ± 2.7 W) were similar (p > 0.05). However, while the resultant mean change in body heat content after 105 min was negligible (-0.1 ± 3.7 kJ), acute time-dependent changes in S were evidenced by a mean positive heat storage component of +6.4 ± 2.6 kJ and a mean negative heat storage component of -6.5 ± 3.7 kJ. Accordingly, large fluctuations in both T re and T sk occurred that were actively induced by changes in RW output. Nonetheless, no active physiological responses (heart rate, breathing frequency and mean arterial pressure) to these bouts of heating and cooling were observed. RWs maintain net heat balance over a prolonged period, but actively induce acute bouts of heat imbalance that cause rapid changes in T re and T sk. Transient bouts of heat storage do not exacerbate physiological strain, but could in the longer term.

  8. Effect of radiant heat at the birth site in farrowing crates on hypothermia and behaviour in neonatal piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, H M-L; Pedersen, L J

    2016-01-01

    It has been documented that floor heating of the farrowing area in loose housed sows improves survival of piglets significantly. However, today, the majority of farrowing pens are designed with crating of sows and slatted floor at the birth site. The aim of this study was to investigate whether providing radiant heat at the birth site to new-born piglets in pens with crated sows reduced hypothermia, time to first milk intake and growth of the piglets during the 1(st) week. Second parity Danish Landrace×Yorkshire sows (n=36) were randomly divided into two groups: Control (CG) and heat (HG). In the area behind the sow (zone 1), two radiant heat panels were mounted above the slatted floor in the HG. The farrowings were attended, and the heaters were turned on at birth of first piglet and turned off 12 h after. Birth time, time to leave zone 1, time to first contact with udder and time to first suckling were registered by direct observation. The piglet's rectal temperature (RT) was measured 15, 30, 60, 120, 180, 240 min after birth and 12, 14 and 24 h after birth of first piglet. Piglets were weighed at birth, 24 and 48 h and 7 days after birth. Data were analysed in a mixed model in SAS. The drop in RT was lower in HG compared with CG (P=0.002), and the RT in HG remained higher than in CG from 30 to 240 min after birth (Pweight gain was found between piglets in HG and CG at 24 h (P=0.23), 48 h (P=0.28) and 7 days after birth (P=0.44). Birth weight had a positive effect on RT (P<0.001) and reduced time to leave zone 1 (P<0.01), reach udder (P<0.001) and time to first suckling (P<0.001). The results showed that radiant heating behind the sows reduced hypothermia in new-born piglets and indicate that providing heat during the first half hour after birth is important.

  9. Solar hybrid cooling system for high-tech offices in subtropical climate - Radiant cooling by absorption refrigeration and desiccant dehumidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fong, K.F.; Chow, T.T.; Lee, C.K.; Lin, Z.; Chan, L.S.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A solar hybrid cooling system is proposed for high-tech offices in subtropical climate. → An integration of radiant cooling, absorption refrigeration and desiccant dehumidification. → Year-round cooling and energy performances were evaluated through dynamic simulation. → Its annual primary energy consumption was lower than conventional system up to 36.5%. → The passive chilled beams were more energy-efficient than the active chilled beams. - Abstract: A solar hybrid cooling design is proposed for high cooling load demand in hot and humid climate. For the typical building cooling load, the system can handle the zone cooling load (mainly sensible) by radiant cooling with the chilled water from absorption refrigeration, while the ventilation load (largely latent) by desiccant dehumidification. This hybrid system utilizes solar energy for driving the absorption chiller and regenerating the desiccant wheel. Since a high chilled water temperature generated from the absorption chiller is not effective to handle the required latent load, desiccant dehumidification is therefore involved. It is an integration of radiant cooling, absorption refrigeration and desiccant dehumidification, which are powered up by solar energy. In this study, the application potential of the solar hybrid cooling system was evaluated for the high-tech offices in the subtropical climate through dynamic simulation. The high-tech offices are featured with relatively high internal sensible heat gains due to the intensive office electric equipment. The key performance indicators included the solar fraction and the primary energy consumption. Comparative study was also carried out for the solar hybrid cooling system using two common types of chilled ceilings, the passive chilled beams and active chilled beams. It was found that the solar hybrid cooling system was technically feasible for the applications of relatively higher cooling load demand. The annual primary energy

  10. A developmental study of latent absolute pitch memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, Kelly; Müllensiefen, Daniel; Stewart, Lauren

    2017-03-01

    The ability to recall the absolute pitch level of familiar music (latent absolute pitch memory) is widespread in adults, in contrast to the rare ability to label single pitches without a reference tone (overt absolute pitch memory). The present research investigated the developmental profile of latent absolute pitch (AP) memory and explored individual differences related to this ability. In two experiments, 288 children from 4 to12 years of age performed significantly above chance at recognizing the absolute pitch level of familiar melodies. No age-related improvement or decline, nor effects of musical training, gender, or familiarity with the stimuli were found in regard to latent AP task performance. These findings suggest that latent AP memory is a stable ability that is developed from as early as age 4 and persists into adulthood.

  11. Aeronet Solar Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SolRad-Net (Solar Radiation Network) is an established network of ground-based sensors providing high-frequency solar flux measurements in quasi-realtime to the...

  12. Flux in Tallinn

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Rahvusvahelise elektroonilise kunsti sümpoosioni ISEA2004 klubiõhtu "Flux in Tallinn" klubis Bon Bon. Eestit esindasid Ropotator, Ars Intel Inc., Urmas Puhkan, Joel Tammik, Taavi Tulev (pseud. Wochtzchee). Klubiõhtu koordinaator Andres Lõo

  13. Disseny de calefacció amb terra radiant d'una casa a l'horta de Lleida mitjançant energia geotèrmica

    OpenAIRE

    Fillat Sobrino, Jordi

    2008-01-01

    S'ha realitzat el disseny de calefacció d'una vivenda mitjançant energia geotèrmica de baixa temperatura, amb un bescanviador vertical de 80 m de profunditat. El sistema de calefacció és de terra radiant en forma d'espiral.

  14. Experimental investigation of the influence of the air jet trajectory on convective heat transfer in buildings equipped with air-based and radiant cooling systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Dreau, Jerome; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2015-01-01

    The complexity and diversity of airflow in buildings make the accurate definition of convective heat transfer coefficients (CHTCs) difficult. In a full-scale test facility, the convective heat transfer of two cooling systems (active chilled beam and radiant wall) has been investigated under steady...

  15. Determining Reactor Neutrino Flux

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Flux is an important source of uncertainties for a reactor neutrino experiment. It is determined from thermal power measurements, reactor core simulation, and knowledge of neutrino spectra of fuel isotopes. Past reactor neutrino experiments have determined the flux to (2-3)% precision. Precision measurements of mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ by reactor neutrino experiments in the coming years will use near-far detector configurations. Most uncertainties from reactor will be canceled out. Understa...

  16. Theoretical magnetic flux emergence

    OpenAIRE

    MacTaggart, David

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic flux emergence is the subject of how magnetic fields from the solar interior can rise and expand into the atmosphere to produce active regions. It is the link that joins dynamics in the convection zone with dynamics in the atmosphere. In this thesis, we study many aspects of magnetic flux emergence through mathematical modelling and computer simulations. Our primary aim is to understand the key physical processes that lie behind emergence. The first chapter intro...

  17. Flux Emergence (Theory)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Mark C. M.; Isobe, Hiroaki

    2014-07-01

    Magnetic flux emergence from the solar convection zone into the overlying atmosphere is the driver of a diverse range of phenomena associated with solar activity. In this article, we introduce theoretical concepts central to the study of flux emergence and discuss how the inclusion of different physical effects (e.g., magnetic buoyancy, magnetoconvection, reconnection, magnetic twist, interaction with ambient field) in models impact the evolution of the emerging field and plasma.

  18. Neutron flux monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimazu, Yoichiro.

    1995-01-01

    In a neutron flux monitoring device, there are disposed a neutron flux measuring means for outputting signals in accordance with the intensity of neutron fluxes, a calculation means for calculating a self power density spectrum at a frequency band suitable to an object to be measured based on the output of the neutron flux measuring means, an alarm set value generation means for outputting an alarm set value as a comparative reference, and an alarm judging means for comparing the alarm set value with the outputted value of the calculation means to judge requirement of generating an alarm and generate an alarm in accordance with the result of the judgement. Namely, the time-series of neutron flux signals is put to fourier transformation for a predetermined period of time by the calculation means, and from each of square sums for real number component and imaginary number component for each of the frequencies, a self power density spectrum in the frequency band suitable to the object to be measured is calculated. Then, when the set reference value is exceeded, an alarm is generated. This can reliably prevent generation of erroneous alarm due to neutron flux noises and can accurately generate an alarm at an appropriate time. (N.H.)

  19. Neutron flux monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Naotaka.

    1993-01-01

    The device of the present invention greatly saves an analog processing section such as an analog filter and an analog processing circuit. That is, the device of the present invention comprises (1) a neutron flux detection means for detecting neutron fluxed in the reactor, (2) a digital filter means for dividing signals corresponding to the detected neutron fluxes into predetermined frequency band regions, (3) a calculation processing means for applying a calculation processing corresponding to the frequency band regions to the neutron flux detection signals divided by the digital filter means. With such a constitution, since the neutron detection signals are processed by the digital filter means, the accuracy is improved and the change for the property of the filter is facilitated. Further, when a neutron flux level is obtained, a calculation processing corresponding to the frequency band region can be conducted without the analog processing circuit. Accordingly, maintenance and accuracy are improved by greatly decreasing the number of parts. Further, since problems inherent to the analog circuit are solved, neutron fluxes are monitored at high reliability. (I.S.)

  20. Radiant heat evaluation of concrete: a study of the erosion of concrete due to surface heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, T.Y.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to investigate the erosion of concrete under high surface heat flux in connection with the core-melt/concrete interaction studies. The dominate erosion mechanism was found to be melting at the surface accompanied by chemical decomposition of the concrete beneath the melt-solid interface. The erosion process reaches a steady state after an initial transient. The steady state is characterized by an essentially constant erosion rate at the surface and a nonvarying (with respect to the moving melt interface) temperature distribution within the concrete. For the range of incident heat flux 64 W/cm/sup 2/ to 118 W/cm/sup 2/, the corresponding steady state erosion rate varies from approximately 8 cm/hr to 23 cm/hr. A simple ablation/melting model is proposed for the erosion process. The model was found to be able to correlate all temperature responses at various depths from all tests at large times and for temperatures above approximately 250/sup 0/C.

  1. Heat transfer characteristics of a porous radiant burner under the influence of a 2-D radiation field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talukdar, Prabal; Mishra, S.C. E-mail: scm_iitg@yahoo.com; Trimis, D.; Durst, F

    2004-04-01

    This paper deals with the heat transfer analysis of a 2-D rectangular porous radiant burner. Combustion in the porous medium is modelled as a spatially dependent heat generation zone. The gas and the solid phases are considered in non-local thermal equilibrium, and separate energy equations are used for the two phases. The solid phase is assumed to be absorbing, emitting and scattering, while the gas phase is considered transparent to radiation. The radiative part of the energy equation is solved using the collapsed dimension method. The alternating direction implicit scheme is used to solve the transient 2-D energy equations. Effects of various parameters on the performance of the burner are studied.

  2. A Simulation Study on the Performance of Radiant Ceilings Combined with Free-Hanging Horizontal Sound Absorbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Domínguez, L. Marcos; Rage, Niels

    2018-01-01

    Radiant heating and cooling systems, and Thermally Active Building Systems (TABS) in particular, have several advantages such as benefiting from the low temperature heating and high temperature cooling principle, coupling with renewable energy sources, peak shifting and peak load reductions. When...... using TABS, most building simulation models assume an uncovered ceiling; however, this might not be the case in practice, due to the use of free-hanging horizontal (or vertical) sound absorbers for the control of room acoustic conditions. The use of sound absorbers will decrease the performance...... simulation software with a recently developed plug-in that allows simulating the effects of horizontal sound absorbers on the performance of TABS and on the thermal indoor environment. The change in thermal indoor environment and in performance of TABS were quantified, and the simulation results were...

  3. Effect of radiant heat at the birth site in farrowing crates on hypothermia and behaviour in neonatal piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Heidi Mai-Lis; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2016-01-01

    It has been documented that floor heating of the farrowing area in loose housed sows improves survival of piglets significantly. However, today, the majority of farrowing pens are designed with crating of sows and slatted floor at the birth site. The aim of this study was to investigate whether......). In the area behind the sow (zone 1), two radiant heat panels were mounted above the slatted floor in the HG. The farrowings were attended, and the heaters were turned on at birth of first piglet and turned off 12 h after. Birth time, time to leave zone 1, time to first contact with udder and time to first....... The drop in RT was lower in HG compared with CG (P=0.002), and the RT in HG remained higher than in CG from 30 to 240 min after birth (P

  4. Using Lunar Observations to Validate In-Flight Calibrations of Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Janet L.; Smith, G. Louis; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The validation of in-orbit instrument performance requires stability in both instrument and calibration source. This paper describes a method of validation using lunar observations scanning near full moon by the Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments. Unlike internal calibrations, the Moon offers an external source whose signal variance is predictable and non-degrading. From 2006 to present, in-orbit observations have become standardized and compiled for the Flight Models-1 and -2 aboard the Terra satellite, for Flight Models-3 and -4 aboard the Aqua satellite, and beginning 2012, for Flight Model-5 aboard Suomi-NPP. Instrument performance parameters which can be gleaned are detector gain, pointing accuracy and static detector point response function validation. Lunar observations are used to examine the stability of all three detectors on each of these instruments from 2006 to present. This validation method has yielded results showing trends per CERES data channel of 1.2% per decade or less.

  5. Thermal and epithermal neutron flux distributions measurement in thermal column of TRR using an experimental-simulation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeli, Ruhollah; Kasesaz, Yaser; Shirmardi, Seyed Pezhman; Ezaty, Arsalan

    2018-03-01

    For designing an appropriate neutron beam, the determination of neutron flux at any irradiation facility is an important key factor. Due to the importance of determining the thermal and epithermal neutron fluxes in a typical thermal column of a reactor, a simple and accurate technique is introduced in this study. Absolute thermal and epithermal fluxes were measured experimentally at a certain point using the foil activation method by neutron bombardment of bare and cadmium covered Au foils. The relative neutron fluxes were also derived simply by means of Monte Carlo simulation by accurate modelling of the reactor components. Finally, by normalization of the relative distribution flux with regard to information about the absolute neutron flux, the accurate thermal and epithermal neutron distributions were derived, separately. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of Surface Microhardness and Abrasion Resistance of Two Dental Glass Ionomer Cement Materials after Radiant Heat Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Dionysopoulos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a radiant heat treatment using a dental LED unit on the surface microhardness and abrasion resistance after toothbrushing simulation of two conventional GIC materials. Two conventional GIC materials were studied in this investigation: Ketac Fil Plus Aplicap and IonoStar Molar. Twenty disk-shaped specimens (n=10 were prepared of each GIC (7 mm × 2 mm using cylindrical Teflon molds. Group 1 specimens were left in the mold to set without any treatment, while in Group 2 after placement in the mold the specimens were irradiated for 60 sec at the top surface using a LED light-curing unit. Toothbrushing simulation was carried out using a commercial electric toothbrush which was fixed in a constructed device that allowed the heads of the brushes to be aligned parallel to the surface of the specimens and to control the pressure, with the following parameters: load of the toothbrush standardized at 250 g, medium hardness toothbrush head, and rotation sense changing every 30 sec. The toothbrush abrasion test mechanism, based on a 1.25-Hz frequency for 10,000 cycles, was equivalent to 800 days (~2 years of brushing. Surface hardness, surface roughness, and surface loss after abrasive procedure were evaluated using Vickers method and Vertical Scanning Interferometry. Data were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s post hoc test (a=0.05. The radiant heat treatment increased the surface microhardness and decreased surface roughness and surface loss after abrasive procedures of both the tested GIC materials but to different extent. Between the tested GIC materials there were significant differences in their tested properties (p<0.05.

  7. Kinetics of fluoride ion release from dental restorative glass ionomer cements: the influence of ultrasound, radiant heat and glass composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanjal, N K; Billington, R W; Shahid, S; Luo, J; Hill, R G; Pearson, G J

    2010-02-01

    To compare the effect of ultrasonic setting with self curing on fluoride release from conventional and experimental dental glass ionomer cements. To compare hand mixed and capsule mixing and the effect of replacing some of the reactive glass with zirconia. In a novel material which advocated using radiant heat to cure it, to compare the effect of this with ultrasound. To evaluate the effect of ultrasound on a glass ionomer with fluoride in the water but not in the glass. 10 samples of each cement were ultrasonically set for 55 s; 10 controls self cured for 6 min. Each was placed in 10 ml of deionised water which was changed at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28 days. The solution fluoride content was measured using a selective ion electrode. All ultrasound samples released more fluoride than the controls. Release patterns were similar; after a few days, cumulative fluoride was linear with respect to t(1/2). Slope and intercept of linear regression plots increased with ultrasound. With radiant heat the cement released less fluoride than controls. The effect of ultrasound on cement with F in water increased only slope not intercept. Zirconia addition enhances fluoride release although the cement fluorine content is reduced. Comparison of capsule and hand mixing showed no consistent effect on fluoride release. Ultrasound enhances fluoride release from GICs. As heat has an opposite effect the heat from ultrasound is not its only action. The lesser effect on cement with fluoride only in the water indicates that of ultrasound enhances fluoride release from glass.

  8. Prediction of liquid metal alloy radiant properties from measurements of the Hall coefficient and the direct current resistivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havstad, M.A.; Qiu, T.

    1995-04-01

    The thermal radiative properties of high temperature solid and liquid metal alloys are particularly useful to research and development efforts in laser cladding and machining, electron beam welding and laser isotope separation. However the cost, complexity, and difficulty of measuring these properties have forced the use of crude estimates from the Hagen-Rubens relation, the Drude relations, or extrapolation from low temperature or otherwise flawed data (e.g., oxidized). The authors have found in this work that published values for the Hall coefficient and the electrical resistivity of liquid metal alloys can provide useful estimates of the reflectance and emittance of some groups of binary liquid metal and high temperature solid alloys. The estimation method computes the Drude free electron parameters, and thence the optical constants and the radiant properties from the dependence of the Hall coefficient and direct current resistivity on alloy composition (the Hall coefficient gives the free electron density and the resistivity gives the average time between collisions). They find that predictions of the radiant properties of molten cerium-copper alloy, which use the measured variations in the Hall coefficient and resistivity (both highly nonlinear) as a function of alloy fraction (rather than linear combinations of the values of the pure elements) yield a good comparison to published measurements of the variation of the normal spectral emittance (a different but also nonlinear function) of cerium-copper alloy at the single wavelength available for comparison, 0.645 μm. The success of the approach in the visible range is particularly notable because one expects a Drude based approach to improve with increasing wavelength from the visible into the infrared. Details of the estimation method, the comparison between the calculation and the measured emittance, and a discussion of what groups of elements may also provide agreement is given

  9. Mini-implants and miniplates generate sub-absolute and absolute anchorage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consolaro, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The functional demand imposed on bone promotes changes in the spatial properties of osteocytes as well as in their extensions uniformly distributed throughout the mineralized surface. Once spatial deformation is established, osteocytes create the need for structural adaptations that result in bone formation and resorption that happen to meet the functional demands. The endosteum and the periosteum are the effectors responsible for stimulating adaptive osteocytes in the inner and outer surfaces. Changes in shape, volume and position of the jaws as a result of skeletal correction of the maxilla and mandible require anchorage to allow bone remodeling to redefine morphology, esthetics and function as a result of spatial deformation conducted by orthodontic appliances. Examining the degree of changes in shape, volume and structural relationship of areas where mini-implants and miniplates are placed allows us to classify mini-implants as devices of subabsolute anchorage and miniplates as devices of absolute anchorage.

  10. Mini-implants and miniplates generate sub-absolute and absolute anchorage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Consolaro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The functional demand imposed on bone promotes changes in the spatial properties of osteocytes as well as in their extensions uniformly distributed throughout the mineralized surface. Once spatial deformation is established, osteocytes create the need for structural adaptations that result in bone formation and resorption that happen to meet the functional demands. The endosteum and the periosteum are the effectors responsible for stimulating adaptive osteocytes in the inner and outer surfaces.Changes in shape, volume and position of the jaws as a result of skeletal correction of the maxilla and mandible require anchorage to allow bone remodeling to redefine morphology, esthetics and function as a result of spatial deformation conducted by orthodontic appliances. Examining the degree of changes in shape, volume and structural relationship of areas where mini-implants and miniplates are placed allows us to classify mini-implants as devices of subabsolute anchorage and miniplates as devices of absolute anchorage.

  11. Experimental setup to determine the pulse energies and radiant exposures for excimer lasers with repetition rates ranging from 100 to 1050 Hz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrochen, Michael; Wuellner, Christian; Rose, Kristin; Donitzky, Christof

    2009-10-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of surface profiling for central ablation depth measurements and determine experimentally the required single-pulse energies and radiant exposures to achieve equivalent central ablation depths on bovine corneas for a myopic correction of -6.00 diopters (optical zone 6.5 mm) performed with laser repetition rates ranging from 100 to 1050 Hz. Institute for Refractive and Ophthalmic Surgery, Zurich, Switzerland, and WaveLight AG, Erlangen, Germany. Freshly enucleated bovine corneas and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) plates were photoablated. The shot pattern for the myopic correction was maintained during all experiments; the pulse laser energy was adjusted to achieve equal ablation depths for all repetition rates. Pulse energy, radiant exposure, and pulse duration were monitored to determine the required laser parameter. The variations (standard deviation) of the profile measurements were +/-0.45 microm or less for PMMA and +/-1.50 microm or less for bovine corneas. Measurements with bovine corneas should be performed within 3 minutes or less to avoid larger variations in profile measurements. Increasing the repetition rate from 100 Hz to 1050 Hz required an increase in peak radiant exposure from 400 mJ/cm(2) to 530 mJ/cm(2) to achieve equal ablation for the myopic correction. The required increase in the mean radiant exposure ranged from 190 to 260 mJ/cm(2). Higher-repetition-rate excimer lasers require increased radiant exposure. Further experimental studies should be performed to determine the relevance of spatial and temporal spot positioning, ablation-plume dynamics, and temperature increases during high-repetition-rate laser treatments.

  12. Finite-elements modeling of radiant heat transfers between mobile surfaces; Modelisation par elements finis de transferts radiatifs entre surfaces mobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daurelle, J.V.; Cadene, V.; Occelli, R. [Universite de Provence, 13 - Marseille (France)

    1996-12-31

    In the numerical modeling of thermal industrial problems, radiant heat transfers remain difficult to take into account and require important computer memory and long computing time. These difficulties are enhanced when radiant heat transfers are coupled with finite-elements diffusive heat transfers because finite-elements architecture is complex and requires a lot of memory. In the case of radiant heat transfers along mobile boundaries, the methods must be optimized. The model described in this paper concerns the radiant heat transfers between diffuse grey surfaces. These transfers are coupled with conduction transfers in the limits of the diffusive opaque domain. 2-D and 3-D geometries are analyzed and two configurations of mobile boundaries are considered. In the first configuration, the boundary follows the deformation of the mesh, while in the second, the boundary moves along the fixed mesh. Matter displacement is taken into account in the term of transport of the energy equation, and an appropriate variation of the thermophysical properties of the transition elements between the opaque and transparent media is used. After a description of the introduction of radiative limit conditions in a finite-elements thermal model, the original methods used to optimize calculation time are explained. Two examples of application illustrate the approach used. The first concerns the modeling of radiant heat transfers between fuel rods during a reactor cooling accident, and the second concerns the study of heat transfers inside the air-gap of an electric motor. The method of identification of the mobile surface on the fixed mesh is described. (J.S.) 12 refs.

  13. The Open Flux Problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linker, J. A.; Caplan, R. M.; Downs, C.; Riley, P.; Mikic, Z.; Lionello, R.; Henney, C. J.; Arge, C. N.; Liu, Y.; Derosa, M. L.; Yeates, A.; Owens, M. J.

    2017-01-01

    The heliospheric magnetic field is of pivotal importance in solar and space physics. The field is rooted in the Sun’s photosphere, where it has been observed for many years. Global maps of the solar magnetic field based on full-disk magnetograms are commonly used as boundary conditions for coronal and solar wind models. Two primary observational constraints on the models are (1) the open field regions in the model should approximately correspond to coronal holes (CHs) observed in emission and (2) the magnitude of the open magnetic flux in the model should match that inferred from in situ spacecraft measurements. In this study, we calculate both magnetohydrodynamic and potential field source surface solutions using 14 different magnetic maps produced from five different types of observatory magnetograms, for the time period surrounding 2010 July. We have found that for all of the model/map combinations, models that have CH areas close to observations underestimate the interplanetary magnetic flux, or, conversely, for models to match the interplanetary flux, the modeled open field regions are larger than CHs observed in EUV emission. In an alternative approach, we estimate the open magnetic flux entirely from solar observations by combining automatically detected CHs for Carrington rotation 2098 with observatory synoptic magnetic maps. This approach also underestimates the interplanetary magnetic flux. Our results imply that either typical observatory maps underestimate the Sun’s magnetic flux, or a significant portion of the open magnetic flux is not rooted in regions that are obviously dark in EUV and X-ray emission.

  14. Incorrect Weighting of Absolute Performance in Self-Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, Scott A.; Cozzarin, Brian

    Students spend much of their life in an attempt to assess their aptitude for numerous tasks. For example, they expend a great deal of effort to determine their academic standing given a distribution of grades. This research finds that students use their absolute performance, or percentage correct as a yardstick for their self-assessment, even when relative standing is much more informative. An experiment shows that this reliance on absolute performance for self-evaluation causes a misallocation of time and financial resources. Reasons for this inappropriate responsiveness to absolute performance are explored.

  15. Prognostic Value of Absolute versus Relative Rise of Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    maternal outcome than a relative rise in the systolic/diastolic blood pressure from mid pregnancy, which did not reach this absolute level. We conclude that in the Nigerian obstetric population, the practice of diagnosing pregnancy hypertension on ...

  16. Efficacy of intrahepatic absolute alcohol in unrespectable hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooqi, J.I.; Hameed, K.; Khan, I.U.; Shah, S.

    2001-01-01

    To determine efficacy of intrahepatic absolute alcohol injection in researchable hepatocellular carcinoma. A randomized, controlled, experimental and interventional clinical trial. Gastroenterology Department, PGMI, Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar during the period from June, 1998 to June, 2000. Thirty patients were treated by percutaneous, intrahepatic absolute alcohol injection sin repeated sessions, 33 patients were not given or treated with alcohol to serve as control. Both the groups were comparable for age, sex and other baseline characteristics. Absolute alcohol therapy significantly improved quality of life of patients, reduced the tumor size and mortality as well as showed significantly better results regarding survival (P< 0.05) than the patients of control group. We conclude that absolute alcohol is a beneficial and safe palliative treatment measure in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). (author)

  17. Changes in Absolute Sea Level Along U.S. Coasts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map shows changes in absolute sea level from 1960 to 2016 based on satellite measurements. Data were adjusted by applying an inverted barometer (air pressure)...

  18. Absolute Continuity of Stable Foliations for Mappings of Banach Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Alex; Young, Lai-Sang

    2017-09-01

    We prove the absolute continuity of stable foliations for mappings of Banach spaces satisfying conditions consistent with time- t maps of certain classes of dissipative PDEs. This property is crucial for passing information from submanifolds transversal to the stable foliation to the rest of the phase space; it is also used in proofs of ergodicity. Absolute continuity of stable foliations is well known in finite dimensional hyperbolic theory. On Banach spaces, the absence of nice geometric properties poses some additional difficulties.

  19. Research on measurement of neutron flux in irradiation channels of research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Zhitao; Lv Zheng; Wang Yulin; Zheng Wuqin

    2014-01-01

    Relative distribution of thermal neutron flux in the irradiation channel is measured by classical activation foil method. After that, on a representative point in the irradiation channel, neutron temperature and absolute neutron flux are also measured. Cadmium ratio correction method is used to check the experiment result in the end. Comparative analysis shows that the results from two different methods are agreed pretty well, which adds the credibility of experiment results. (authors)

  20. An information theory approach for evaluating earth radiation budget (ERB) measurements - Nonuniform sampling of diurnal longwave flux variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halyo, Nesim; Direskeneli, Haldun; Barkstrom, Bruce R.

    1991-01-01

    Satellite measurements are subject to a wide range of uncertainties due to their temporal, spatial, and directional sampling characteristics. An information-theory approach is suggested to examine the nonuniform temporal sampling of ERB measurements. The information (i.e., its entropy or uncertainty) before and after the measurements is determined, and information gain (IG) is defined as a reduction in the uncertainties involved. A stochastic model for the diurnal outgoing flux variations that affect the ERB is developed. Using Gaussian distributions for the a priori and measured radiant exitance fields, the IG is obtained by computing the a posteriori covariance. The IG for the monthly outgoing flux measurements is examined for different orbital parameters and orbital tracks, using the Earth Observing System orbital parameters as specific examples. Variations in IG due to changes in the orbit's inclination angle and the initial ascending node local time are investigated.

  1. Radiant measurement accuracy of micrometeors detected by the Arecibo 430 MHz Dual-Beam Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Janches

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Precise knowledge of the angle between the meteor vector velocity and the radar beam axis is one of the largest source of errors in the Arecibo Observatory (AO micrometeor observations. In this paper we study ~250 high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR meteor head-echoes obtained using the dual-beam 430 MHz AO Radar in Puerto Rico, in order to reveal the distribution of this angle. All of these meteors have been detected first by the radar first side lobe, then by the main beam and finally seen in the side lobe again. Using geometrical arguments to calculate the meteor velocity in the plane perpendicular to the beam axis, we find that most of the meteors are travelling within ~15° with respect to the beam axis, in excellent agreement with previous estimates. These results suggest that meteoroids entering the atmosphere at greater angles may deposit their meteoric material at higher altitudes explaining at some level the missing mass inconsistency raised by the comparisson of meteor fluxes derived from satellite and traditional meteor radar observations. They also may be the source of the observed high altitude ions and metalic layers observed by radars and lidars respectively.

  2. Soluble organic nutrient fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert G. Qualls; Bruce L. Haines; Wayne Swank

    2014-01-01

    Our objectives in this study were (i) compare fluxes of the dissolved organic nutrients dissolved organic carbon (DOC), DON, and dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) in a clearcut area and an adjacent mature reference area. (ii) determine whether concentrations of dissolved organic nutrients or inorganic nutrients were greater in clearcut areas than in reference areas,...

  3. Radiation flux measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corte, E.; Maitra, P.

    1977-01-01

    A radiation flux measuring device is described which employs a differential pair of transistors, the output of which is maintained constant, connected to a radiation detector. Means connected to the differential pair produce a signal representing the log of the a-c component of the radiation detector, thereby providing a signal representing the true root mean square logarithmic output. 3 claims, 2 figures

  4. Muon and neutrino fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, P. G.; Protheroe, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    The result of a new calculation of the atmospheric muon and neutrino fluxes and the energy spectrum of muon-neutrinos produced in individual extensive air showers (EAS) initiated by proton and gamma-ray primaries is reported. Also explained is the possibility of detecting atmospheric nu sub mu's due to gamma-rays from these sources.

  5. Flux scaling: Ultimate regime

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Flux scaling: Ultimate regime. With the Nusselt number and the mixing length scales, we get the Nusselt number and Reynolds number (w'd/ν) scalings: and or. and. scaling expected to occur at extremely high Ra Rayleigh-Benard convection. Get the ultimate regime ...

  6. Absolute calibration of neutron detectors on the C-2U advanced beam-driven FRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magee, R. M., E-mail: rmagee@trialphaenergy.com; Clary, R.; Korepanov, S.; Jauregui, F.; Allfrey, I.; Garate, E.; Valentine, T.; Smirnov, A. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    In the C-2U fusion energy experiment, high power neutral beam injection creates a large fast ion population that sustains a field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasma. The diagnosis of the fast ion pressure in these high-performance plasmas is therefore critical, and the measurement of the flux of neutrons from the deuterium-deuterium (D-D) fusion reaction is well suited to the task. Here we describe the absolute, in situ calibration of scintillation neutron detectors via two independent methods: firing deuterium beams into a high density gas target and calibration with a 2 × 10{sup 7} n/s AmBe source. The practical issues of each method are discussed and the resulting calibration factors are shown to be in good agreement. Finally, the calibration factor is applied to C-2U experimental data where the measured neutron rate is found to exceed the classical expectation.

  7. Absolute spectrophotometry of the IC 2149, 4593, and NGC 6210 planetary nebulae in near infrared region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noskova, R.I.

    1976-01-01

    The absolute monochromatic energy flux (in ergs.cm -2 sec -1 ) was determined for the emission lines of the planetary nebulae IC2149, 4593 and NGC 6210 in the spectral interval lambda 6300-11000 A. The interstellar extinction Asub(β)=1.sup(m)3; O.sup(m)4; O.sup(m)6, accordingly, was estimated by using spectral lines HI of the Paschen and Balmer series. The energy distribution (in ergsxcm -2 xsec -1 1A -1 ) was found in summary continuous spectrum in the interval lambda 4000-10000 A. The attempt was made to separate the continuum of the nucleus and the nebula. The theoretical nebula continuous spectrum was calculated from lambda 3000 A to the radio range. The continuum, calibrated by menas of the flat part of the radiospectrum, linked well enough with the optical spectrum calculated here

  8. Calibration of high-heat-flux sensors in a solar furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballestrín, J.; Rodríguez-Alonso, M.; Rodríguez, J.; Cañadas, I.; Barbero, F. J.; Langley, L. W.; Barnes, A.

    2006-12-01

    The most common sensors used for the measurement of high solar irradiance are the Gardon gauges, which are usually calibrated using a black body at a certain temperature as the radiant source. This calibration procedure is assumed to produce a systematic error when solar irradiance measurements are taken using these sensors. This paper demonstrates a calorimetric method for calibrating these high-heat-flux gauges in a solar furnace. This procedure has enabled these sensors to be calibrated under concentrated solar radiation at higher irradiances under non-laboratory conditions in the CIEMAT solar furnace at the Plataforma Solar de Almería. Working at higher irradiances has allowed the uncertainty in the calibration constant of these sensors to be reduced. This work experimentally confirms the predicted systematic errors committed when measuring high solar irradiances using Gardon sensors calibrated with a black body.

  9. Auditory working memory predicts individual differences in absolute pitch learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hedger, Stephen C; Heald, Shannon L M; Koch, Rachelle; Nusbaum, Howard C

    2015-07-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is typically defined as the ability to label an isolated tone as a musical note in the absence of a reference tone. At first glance the acquisition of AP note categories seems like a perceptual learning task, since individuals must assign a category label to a stimulus based on a single perceptual dimension (pitch) while ignoring other perceptual dimensions (e.g., loudness, octave, instrument). AP, however, is rarely discussed in terms of domain-general perceptual learning mechanisms. This is because AP is typically assumed to depend on a critical period of development, in which early exposure to pitches and musical labels is thought to be necessary for the development of AP precluding the possibility of adult acquisition of AP. Despite this view of AP, several previous studies have found evidence that absolute pitch category learning is, to an extent, trainable in a post-critical period adult population, even if the performance typically achieved by this population is below the performance of a "true" AP possessor. The current studies attempt to understand the individual differences in learning to categorize notes using absolute pitch cues by testing a specific prediction regarding cognitive capacity related to categorization - to what extent does an individual's general auditory working memory capacity (WMC) predict the success of absolute pitch category acquisition. Since WMC has been shown to predict performance on a wide variety of other perceptual and category learning tasks, we predict that individuals with higher WMC should be better at learning absolute pitch note categories than individuals with lower WMC. Across two studies, we demonstrate that auditory WMC predicts the efficacy of learning absolute pitch note categories. These results suggest that a higher general auditory WMC might underlie the formation of absolute pitch categories for post-critical period adults. Implications for understanding the mechanisms that underlie the

  10. The effect of urban geometry on mean radiant temperature under future climate change: a study of three European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Kevin Ka-Lun; Lindberg, Fredrik; Rayner, David; Thorsson, Sofia

    2015-07-01

    Future anthropogenic climate change is likely to increase the air temperature (T(a)) across Europe and increase the frequency, duration and magnitude of severe heat stress events. Heat stress events are generally associated with clear-sky conditions and high T(a), which give rise to high radiant heat load, i.e. mean radiant temperature (T(mrt)). In urban environments, T mrt is strongly influenced by urban geometry. The present study examines the effect of urban geometry on daytime heat stress in three European cities (Gothenburg in Sweden, Frankfurt in Germany and Porto in Portugal) under present and future climates, using T(mrt) as an indicator of heat stress. It is found that severe heat stress occurs in all three cities. Similar maximum daytime T(mrt) is found in open areas in all three cities despite of the latitudinal differences in average daytime T(mrt). In contrast, dense urban structures like narrow street canyons are able to mitigate heat stress in the summer, without causing substantial changes in T(mrt) in the winter. Although the T(mrt) averages are similar for the north-south and east-west street canyons in each city, the number of hours when T(mrt) exceeds the threshold values of 55.5 and 59.4 °C-used as indicators of moderate and severe heat stress-in the north-south canyons is much higher than that in the east-west canyons. Using statistically downscaled data from a regional climate model, it is found that the study sites were generally warmer in the future scenario, especially Porto, which would further exacerbate heat stress in urban areas. However, a decrease in solar radiation in Gothenburg and Frankfurt reduces T(mrt) in the spring, while the reduction in T(mrt) is somewhat offset by increasing T(a) in other seasons. It suggests that changes in the T(mrt) under the future scenario are dominated by variations in T(a). Nonetheless, the intra-urban differences remain relatively stable in the future. These findings suggest that dense urban

  11. Applying Fibre-Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing to Near-surface Temperature Dynamics of Broadacre Cereals During Radiant Frost Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutsel, B.; Callow, J. N.

    2017-12-01

    Radiant frost events, particularly those during the reproductive stage of winter cereal growth, cost growers millions of dollars in lost yield. Whilst synoptic drivers of frost and factors influencing temperature variation at the landscape scale are relatively well understood, there is a lack of knowledge surrounding small-scale temperature dynamics within paddocks and plot trials. Other work has also suggested a potential significant temperature gradient (several degrees) vertically from ground to canopy, but this is poorly constrained experimentally. Subtle changes in temperature are important as frost damage generally occurs in a very narrow temperature range (-2 to -5°C). Once a variety's damage threshold is reached, a 1°C difference in minimum temperature can increase damage from 10 to 90%. This study applies Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) using fibre optics to understand how minimum temperature evolves during a radiant frost. DTS assesses the difference in attenuation of Raman scattering of a light pulse travelling along a fibre optic cable to measure temperature. A bend insensitive multimode fibre was deployed in a double ended duplex configuration as a "fence" run through four times of sowing at a trial site in the Western Australian Wheatbelt. The fibre optic fence was 160m long and 800mm tall with the fibre optic cable spaced 100mm apart vertically, and calibrated in ambient water ( 10 to 15oC) and a chilled glycol ( -8 to-10 oC) baths. The temperature measurements had a spatial resolution of 0.65m and temporal resolution of 60s, providing 2,215 measurements every minute. The results of this study inform our understanding of the subtle temperature changes from the soil to canopy, providing new insight into how to place traditional temperature loggers to monitor frost damage. It also addresses questions of within-trial temperature variability, and provides an example of how novel techniques such as DTS can be used to improve the way temperature

  12. Numerical Modeling of Conjugate Thermogravitational Convection in a Closed System with a Radiant Energy Source in Conditions of Convective-Radiative Heat Exchange at the External Boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nee Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical modeling of conjugate natural convection in a closed rectangular cavity with a radiant energy source in conditions of convective-radiative heat exchange at the external boundary was conducted. The radiant energy distribution was set by the Lambert’s law. Conduction and convection processes analysis showed that the air masses flow pattern is modified slightly over the time. The temperature increases in the gas cavity, despite the heat removal from the one of the external boundary. According to the results of the integral heat transfer analysis were established that the average Nusselt number (Nuav increasing occurs up to τ = 200 (dimensionless time. Further Nuav has changed insignificantly due to the temperature field equalization near the interfaces “gas – wall”.

  13. ULY JUP COSPIN HIGH FLUX TELESCOPE HIGH RES. ION FLUX

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains ion flux data recorded by the COSPIN High Flux Telescope (HFT) during the Ulysses Jupiter encounter 1992-Jan-25 to 1992-Feb-18.

  14. Absolute Navigation Information Estimation for Micro Planetary Rovers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ilyas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides algorithms to estimate absolute navigation information, e.g., absolute attitude and position, by using low power, weight and volume Microelectromechanical Systems-type (MEMS sensors that are suitable for micro planetary rovers. Planetary rovers appear to be easily navigable robots due to their extreme slow speed and rotation but, unfortunately, the sensor suites available for terrestrial robots are not always available for planetary rover navigation. This makes them difficult to navigate in a completely unexplored, harsh and complex environment. Whereas the relative attitude and position can be tracked in a similar way as for ground robots, absolute navigation information, unlike in terrestrial applications, is difficult to obtain for a remote celestial body, such as Mars or the Moon. In this paper, an algorithm called the EASI algorithm (Estimation of Attitude using Sun sensor and Inclinometer is presented to estimate the absolute attitude using a MEMS-type sun sensor and inclinometer, only. Moreover, the output of the EASI algorithm is fused with MEMS gyros to produce more accurate and reliable attitude estimates. An absolute position estimation algorithm has also been presented based on these on-board sensors. Experimental results demonstrate the viability of the proposed algorithms and the sensor suite for low-cost and low-weight micro planetary rovers.

  15. Relative and absolute risk in epidemiology and health physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldsmith, R.; Peterson, H.T. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The health risk from ionizing radiation commonly is expressed in two forms: (1) the relative risk, which is the percentage increase in natural disease rate and (2) the absolute or attributable risk which represents the difference between the natural rate and the rate associated with the agent in question. Relative risk estimates for ionizing radiation generally are higher than those expressed as the absolute risk. This raises the question of which risk estimator is the most appropriate under different conditions. The absolute risk has generally been used for radiation risk assessment, although mathematical combinations such as the arithmetic or geometric mean of both the absolute and relative risks, have also been used. Combinations of the two risk estimators are not valid because the absolute and relative risk are not independent variables. Both human epidemiologic studies and animal experimental data can be found to illustrate the functional relationship between the natural cancer risk and the risk associated with radiation. This implies that the radiation risk estimate derived from one population may not be appropriate for predictions in another population, unless it is adjusted for the difference in the natural disease incidence between the two populations

  16. Effect of radiant heat on conventional glass ionomer cements during setting by using a blue light diode laser system (445 nm).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionysopoulos, Dimitrios; Tolidis, Kosmas; Strakas, Dimitrios; Gerasimou, Paris; Sfeikos, Thrasyvoulos; Gutknecht, Norbert

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of radiant heat on surface hardness of three conventional glass ionomer cements (GICs) by using a blue diode laser system (445 nm) and a light-emitting diode (LED) unit. Additionally, the safety of the laser treatment was evaluated. Thirty disk-shaped specimens were prepared of each tested GIC (Equia Fil, Ketac Universal Aplicap and Riva Self Cure). The experimental groups (n = 10) of the study were as follows: group 1 was the control group of the study; in group 2, the specimens were irradiated for 60 s at the top surface using a LED light-curing unit; and in group 3, the specimens were irradiated for 60 s at the top surface using a blue light diode laser system (445 nm). Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc tests at a level of significance of a = 0.05. Radiant heat treatments, with both laser and LED devices, increased surface hardness (p diode laser treatment was seemed to be more effective compared to LED treatment. There were no alterations in surface morphology or chemical composition after laser treatment. The tested radiant heat treatment with a blue diode laser may be advantageous for the longevity of GIC restorations. The safety of the use of blue diode laser for this application was confirmed.

  17. Effects of blue diode laser (445 nm) and LED (430-480 nm) radiant heat treatments on dental glass ionomer restoratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionysopoulos, Dimitrios; Tolidis, Kosmas; Strakas, Dimitrios; Gerasimou, Paris; Sfeikos, Thrasyvoulos; Gutknecht, Norbert

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of two radiant heat treatments on water sorption, solubility and surface roughness of three conventional glass ionomer cements by using a blue diode laser (445 nm) and a light emitting diode (LED) unit (430-480 nm). Thirty disk-shaped specimens were prepared for each tested GIC (Equia Fil, Ketac Universal Aplicap and Riva Self Cure). The experimental groups (n = 10) of the study were as follows: Group 1 was the control group, in Group 2 the specimens were irradiated for 60 s at the top surface using a LED light-curing unit and in Group 3 the specimens were irradiated for 60 s at the top surface using a blue light diode laser. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests at a level of significance of a = 0.05. Radiant heat treatments with both laser and LED devices significantly decreased water sorption and solubility (p tested GICs. Blue diode laser treatment was seemed to be more effective compared to LED treatment for some of the tested materials. There were no changes in surface roughness of the GICs after the treatments (p > 0.05). Among the tested materials there were differences in water sorption and solubility (p 0.05). The use of the blue diode laser for this radiant heat treatment was harmless for the surface of the tested GICs and may be advantageous for the longevity of their restorations.

  18. Measurements of thermal and fast neutron fluxes at the TRIGA reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerdin, F.; Grabovsek, Z.; Klinc, T.; Solinc, H.

    1966-01-01

    Gold foils were placed at different positions in the TRIGA reactor core and in the experimental devices. Absolute values of the thermal neutron flux at these positions were obtained by coincidence method. Preliminary fast neutron spectrum was measured by threshold detector and by 'Li 6 sandwich' detector. A short description of the applied method and obtained measurements results are included [sl

  19. Atmospheric lepton fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaisser Thomas K.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This review of atmospheric muons and neutrinos emphasizes the high energy range relevant for backgrounds to high-energy neutrinos of astrophysical origin. After a brief historical introduction, the main distinguishing features of atmospheric νμ and νe are discussed, along with the implications of the muon charge ratio for the νµ / ν̅µ ratio. Methods to account for effects of the knee in the primary cosmic-ray spectrum and the energy-dependence of hadronic interactions on the neutrino fluxes are discussed and illustrated in the context of recent results from IceCube. A simple numerical/analytic method is proposed for systematic investigation of uncertainties in neutrino fluxes arising from uncertainties in the primary cosmic-ray spectrum/composition and hadronic interactions.

  20. Simplified model and performance analysis for top insulated metal ceiling radiant cooling panels with serpentine tube arrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqing Yu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a simplified model for top insulated metal ceiling radiant cooling panels with serpentine tube arrangement (CRCP-s to predict the mean panel temperature, outlet water temperature and cooling capacity. The simplified model needs no complicated calculation and can be conducted with a calculator. Experiment was conducted for two kinds of CRCP-s, comparisons indicate that the model predicted outlet water temperature and cooling capacity agree well with experiment measured results. The differences between model predicted and experiment measured results are acceptable for most engineering purpose, and the thermal performance analysis were conducted by the model. The results show that: (1 The tube spacing has significant effect on the cooling capacity within the applicable range of tube spacing from 0.05m to 0.3 m; (2 The tube thermal conductivity affect the cooling capacity significantly if it is less than 1.0 W/(m K; (3 The plate thickness has significant effect of the cooling capacity, if the plate thickness is less than 0.5 mm; (4 The water flowrate should be large enough to keep the flow in turbulent regime.

  1. Modeling of mean radiant temperature based on comparison of airborne remote sensing data with surface measured data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Chen, Chih-Yu; Matzarakis, Andreas; Liu, Jin-King; Lin, Tzu-Ping

    2016-06-01

    Assessment of outdoor thermal comfort is becoming increasingly important due to the urban heat island effect, which strongly affects the urban thermal environment. The mean radiant temperature (Tmrt) quantifies the effect of the radiation environment on humans, but it can only be estimated based on influencing parameters and factors. Knowledge of Tmrt is important for quantifying the heat load on human beings, especially during heat waves. This study estimates Tmrt using several methods, which are based on climatic data from a traditional weather station, microscale ground surface measurements, land surface temperature (LST) and light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data measured using airborne devices. Analytical results reveal that the best means of estimating Tmrt combines information about LST and surface elevation information with meteorological data from the closest weather station. The application in this method can eliminate the inconvenience of executing a wide range ground surface measurement, the insufficient resolution of satellite data and the incomplete data of current urban built environments. This method can be used to map a whole city to identify hot spots, and can be contributed to understanding human biometeorological conditions quickly and accurately.

  2. Analysis on the impact of mean radiant temperature for the thermal comfort of underfloor air distribution systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Jae Dong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sejong University, 98 Kunja-dong, Kwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Hiki [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 449-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Hoseon [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Soongsil University, Seoul 156-743 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    Despite the potentially significant advantages of underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems, the shortcomings in fundamental understanding have impeded the use of UFAD systems. A study has been carried out on the thermal stratification which is crucial to system design, energy efficient operation and comfort performance of UFAD systems with an aim of examining impact of mean radiant temperature (MRT) on thermal comfort. Clear elucidation of the benefit of UFAD systems has been shown by comparing it to the traditional overhead air distribution systems. Keeping the same level of comfortable environment in the occupied zone, UFAD systems require much higher temperature of supply air, which represents significant energy savings. The benefit of UFAD systems is more pronounced at the condition of high ceiling height building. Considerable discrepancies in thermal comfort are found on the assumption that air temperature rather than MRT is used for the evaluation of PMV. However, more rigorous analysis including the full radiation simulation does not show any significant difference in PMV distribution. The result of the full radiation simulations requires much longer simulation time but gives similar air temperature distribution and only slightly higher averaged temperature than present approaches. (author)

  3. Absolute marine gravimetry with matter-wave interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidel, Y; Zahzam, N; Blanchard, C; Bonnin, A; Cadoret, M; Bresson, A; Rouxel, D; Lequentrec-Lalancette, M F

    2018-02-12

    Measuring gravity from an aircraft or a ship is essential in geodesy, geophysics, mineral and hydrocarbon exploration, and navigation. Today, only relative sensors are available for onboard gravimetry. This is a major drawback because of the calibration and drift estimation procedures which lead to important operational constraints. Atom interferometry is a promising technology to obtain onboard absolute gravimeter. But, despite high performances obtained in static condition, no precise measurements were reported in dynamic. Here, we present absolute gravity measurements from a ship with a sensor based on atom interferometry. Despite rough sea conditions, we obtained precision below 10 -5  m s -2 . The atom gravimeter was also compared with a commercial spring gravimeter and showed better performances. This demonstration opens the way to the next generation of inertial sensors (accelerometer, gyroscope) based on atom interferometry which should provide high-precision absolute measurements from a moving platform.

  4. Adjustment and testing comparison of absolute gravimeters in November 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Pešková

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on a comparison measurement processing of absolute gravimeters in 2013. The comparison deals with a number of various types of absolute gravimeters and includes also an absolute gravimeter from Geodetic observatory Pecný. Comparative measurements are performed to detect systematic errors of gravimeters. A result of processing is most likely value of a gravity and a systematic error of individual devices. Measured values are input to a adjustment with condition a sum of systematic errors is zero. A part of this process is also verification following output: (i value of a posteriori standard deviation, (ii size of corrections and (iii statistical significance of systematic errors. The results of adjustment are 15 gravity values on the reference places and 25 systematic errors of measuring instruments. Result shows that the presence of systematic errors in measurements is not statistically provable because the systematic errors are similarly sized as their standard deviation.

  5. NEUTRON FLUX INTENSITY DETECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, J.T.

    1964-04-21

    A method of measuring the instantaneous intensity of neutron flux in the core of a nuclear reactor is described. A target gas capable of being transmuted by neutron bombardment to a product having a resonance absorption line nt a particular microwave frequency is passed through the core of the reactor. Frequency-modulated microwave energy is passed through the target gas and the attenuation of the energy due to the formation of the transmuted product is measured. (AEC)

  6. Absolute and Relative Socioeconomic Health Inequalities across Age Groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander K R van Zon

    Full Text Available The magnitude of socioeconomic health inequalities differs across age groups. It is less clear whether socioeconomic health inequalities differ across age groups by other factors that are known to affect the relation between socioeconomic position and health, like the indicator of socioeconomic position, the health outcome, gender, and as to whether socioeconomic health inequalities are measured in absolute or in relative terms. The aim is to investigate whether absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differ across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome and gender.The study sample was derived from the baseline measurement of the LifeLines Cohort Study and consisted of 95,432 participants. Socioeconomic position was measured as educational level and household income. Physical and mental health were measured with the RAND-36. Age concerned eleven 5-years age groups. Absolute inequalities were examined by comparing means. Relative inequalities were examined by comparing Gini-coefficients. Analyses were performed for both health outcomes by both educational level and household income. Analyses were performed for all age groups, and stratified by gender.Absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differed across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome, and gender. Absolute inequalities were most pronounced for mental health by household income. They were larger in younger than older age groups. Relative inequalities were most pronounced for physical health by educational level. Gini-coefficients were largest in young age groups and smallest in older age groups.Absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differed cross-sectionally across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome and gender. Researchers should critically consider the implications of choosing a specific age group, in addition to the indicator of socioeconomic position and

  7. Absolute and Relative Socioeconomic Health Inequalities across Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zon, Sander K R; Bültmann, Ute; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2015-01-01

    The magnitude of socioeconomic health inequalities differs across age groups. It is less clear whether socioeconomic health inequalities differ across age groups by other factors that are known to affect the relation between socioeconomic position and health, like the indicator of socioeconomic position, the health outcome, gender, and as to whether socioeconomic health inequalities are measured in absolute or in relative terms. The aim is to investigate whether absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differ across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome and gender. The study sample was derived from the baseline measurement of the LifeLines Cohort Study and consisted of 95,432 participants. Socioeconomic position was measured as educational level and household income. Physical and mental health were measured with the RAND-36. Age concerned eleven 5-years age groups. Absolute inequalities were examined by comparing means. Relative inequalities were examined by comparing Gini-coefficients. Analyses were performed for both health outcomes by both educational level and household income. Analyses were performed for all age groups, and stratified by gender. Absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differed across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome, and gender. Absolute inequalities were most pronounced for mental health by household income. They were larger in younger than older age groups. Relative inequalities were most pronounced for physical health by educational level. Gini-coefficients were largest in young age groups and smallest in older age groups. Absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differed cross-sectionally across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome and gender. Researchers should critically consider the implications of choosing a specific age group, in addition to the indicator of socioeconomic position and health outcome

  8. Neural sensitivity to absolute and relative anticipated reward in adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatin G Vaidya

    Full Text Available Adolescence is associated with a dramatic increase in risky and impulsive behaviors that have been attributed to developmental differences in neural processing of rewards. In the present study, we sought to identify age differences in anticipation of absolute and relative rewards. To do so, we modified a commonly used monetary incentive delay (MID task in order to examine brain activity to relative anticipated reward value (neural sensitivity to the value of a reward as a function of other available rewards. This design also made it possible to examine developmental differences in brain activation to absolute anticipated reward magnitude (the degree to which neural activity increases with increasing reward magnitude. While undergoing fMRI, 18 adolescents and 18 adult participants were presented with cues associated with different reward magnitudes. After the cue, participants responded to a target to win money on that trial. Presentation of cues was blocked such that two reward cues associated with $.20, $1.00, or $5.00 were in play on a given block. Thus, the relative value of the $1.00 reward varied depending on whether it was paired with a smaller or larger reward. Reflecting age differences in neural responses to relative anticipated reward (i.e., reference dependent processing, adults, but not adolescents, demonstrated greater activity to a $1 reward when it was the larger of the two available rewards. Adults also demonstrated a more linear increase in ventral striatal activity as a function of increasing absolute reward magnitude compared to adolescents. Additionally, reduced ventral striatal sensitivity to absolute anticipated reward (i.e., the difference in activity to medium versus small rewards correlated with higher levels of trait Impulsivity. Thus, ventral striatal activity in anticipation of absolute and relative rewards develops with age. Absolute reward processing is also linked to individual differences in Impulsivity.

  9. Physics of magnetic flux ropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, C. T.; Priest, E. R.; Lee, L. C.

    The present work encompasses papers on the structure, waves, and instabilities of magnetic flux ropes (MFRs), photospheric flux tubes (PFTs), the structure and heating of coronal loops, solar prominences, coronal mass ejections and magnetic clouds, flux ropes in planetary ionospheres, the magnetopause, magnetospheric field-aligned currents and flux tubes, and the magnetotail. Attention is given to the equilibrium of MFRs, resistive instability, magnetic reconnection and turbulence in current sheets, dynamical effects and energy transport in intense flux tubes, waves in solar PFTs, twisted flux ropes in the solar corona, an electrodynamical model of solar flares, filament cooling and condensation in a sheared magnetic field, the magnetopause, the generation of twisted MFRs during magnetic reconnection, ionospheric flux ropes above the South Pole, substorms and MFR structures, evidence for flux ropes in the earth magnetotail, and MFRs in 3D MHD simulations.

  10. Third law of thermodynamics in the presence of a heat flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camacho, J.

    1995-01-01

    Following a maximum entropy formalism, we study a one-dimensional crystal under a heat flux. We obtain the phonon distribution function and evaluate the nonequilibrium temperature, the specific heat, and the entropy as functions of the internal energy and the heat flux, in both the quantum and the classical limits. Some analogies between the behavior of equilibrium systems at low absolute temperature and nonequilibrium steady states under high values of the heat flux are shown, which point to a possible generalization of the third law in nonequilibrium situations

  11. Measurements of neutron flux from an inertial-electrostatic confinement device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westenskow, G.A.

    1975-08-01

    A neutron-detection system was built for the purpose of measuring the neutron flux from an Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement Device located at Brigham Young University. A BF 3 proportional counter was used for absolute flux measurements and a pair of scintillation detectors was used to compare neutron output under different operating conditions. The detectors were designed to be compatible with the operating conditions of the device and to be able to measure small changes in neutron output. The detectors were calibrated using a Pu-Be source with corrections made for laboratory conditions. Performance of the counting system was checked and data were collected on the neutron flux from the device

  12. Pool size measurements facilitate the determination of fluxes at branching points in nonstationary metabolic flux analysis: The case of Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eHeise

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pool size measurements are important for the estimation of absolute intracellular fluxes in particular scenarios based on data from heavy carbon isotope experiments. Recently, steady-state fluxes estimates were obtained for central carbon metabolism in an intact illuminated rosette of Arabidopsis thaliana grown photoautotrophically (Szecowka et al., 2013; Heise et al., 2014. Fluxes were estimated therein by integrating mass-spectrometric data of the dynamics of the unlabeled metabolic fraction, data on metabolic pool sizes, partitioning of metabolic pools between cellular compartments and estimates of photosynthetically inactive pools, with a simplified model of plant central carbon metabolism. However, the fluxes were determined by treating the pool sizes as fixed parameters. Here we investigated whether and, if so, to what extent the treatment of pool sizes as parameters to be optimized in three scenarios may affect the flux estimates. The results are discussed in terms of benchmark values for canonical pathways and reactions, including starch and sucrose synthesis as well as the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylation and oxygenation reactions. In addition, we discuss pathways emerging from a divergent branch point for which pool sizes are required for flux estimation, irrespective of the computational approach used for the simulation of the observable labelling pattern. Therefore, our findings indicate the necessity for development of techniques for accurate pool size measurements to improve the quality of flux estimates from nonstationary flux estimates in intact plant cells in the absence of alternative flux measurements.

  13. Clinical application of absolute ethanol as an embolizing material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae Hyung; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Man Chung

    1982-01-01

    Transcatheter infusion of absolute ethanol was applied clinically in 3 cases of artificial embolization: 25 yrs old female with bilateral renal angiomyolipoma, 19 yrs old female with right paralumbar liposarcoma and 25 yrs old male with hypernephroma of right kidney. Selective or subselective manual infusion was made and 9 to 22 cc of pure ethanol was delivered in a speed of 1 to 2 cc per second. The sclerosing effect of absolute ethanol was potent. However, all 3 cases revealed mild post-embolization syndrome

  14. Absolute Stability Analysis of a Phase Plane Controlled Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jiann-Woei; Plummer, Michael; Bedrossian, Nazareth; Hall, Charles; Jackson, Mark; Spanos, Pol

    2010-01-01

    Many aerospace attitude control systems utilize phase plane control schemes that include nonlinear elements such as dead zone and ideal relay. To evaluate phase plane control robustness, stability margin prediction methods must be developed. Absolute stability is extended to predict stability margins and to define an abort condition. A constrained optimization approach is also used to design flex filters for roll control. The design goal is to optimize vehicle tracking performance while maintaining adequate stability margins. Absolute stability is shown to provide satisfactory stability constraints for the optimization.

  15. Absolute gain measurement by the image method under mismatched condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Richard Q.; Baddour, Maurice F.

    1987-01-01

    Purcell's image method for measuring the absolute gain of an antenna is particularly attractive for small test antennas. The method is simple to use and utilizes only one antenna with a reflecting plane to provide an image for the receiving antenna. However, the method provides accurate results only if the antenna is matched to its waveguide. In this paper, a waveguide junction analysis is developed to determine the gain of an antenna under mismatched condition. Absolute gain measurements for two standard gain horn antennas have been carried out. Experimental results agree closely with published data.

  16. Absolute and conditional convergence within Sonora state municipalities, 1989- 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Bracamontes Neváre

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to identify the existence of convergence, absolut as muchas conditional, for the municipalities that conform the state of Sonora. Taking as abase the methodologic excercise of Mankiw, Romer and Weill (1992 that considersthe first model of Solow (1956 and makes an extension of it including thehuman capital, evidence shows that there is no tendency for poor municipalitiesto grow more quickly than rich municipalities, which means that there is no processof convergence –nor absolute or conditional– in the municipalities of Sonora,independently of the development layer in which these are classified: municipalitieswith high, average or low development.

  17. Total synthesis and absolute configuration of the marine norditerpenoid xestenone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Koichiro; Kurokawa, Takao; Kawashima, Etsuko; Miyaoka, Hiroaki

    2009-11-24

    Xestenone is a marine norditerpenoid found in the northeastern Pacific sponge Xestospongia vanilla. The relative configuration of C-3 and C-7 in xestenone was determined by NOESY spectral analysis. However the relative configuration of C-12 and the absolute configuration of this compound were not determined. The authors have now achieved the total synthesis of xestenone using their developed one-pot synthesis of cyclopentane derivatives employing allyl phenyl sulfone and an epoxy iodide as a key step. The relative and absolute configurations of xestenone were thus successfully determined by this synthesis.

  18. Total Synthesis and Absolute Configuration of the Marine Norditerpenoid Xestenone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Miyaoka

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Xestenone is a marine norditerpenoid found in the northeastern Pacific sponge Xestospongia vanilla. The relative configuration of C-3 and C-7 in xestenone was determined by NOESY spectral analysis. However the relative configuration of C-12 and the absolute configuration of this compound were not determined. The authors have now achieved the total synthesis of xestenone using their developed one-pot synthesis of cyclopentane derivatives employing allyl phenyl sulfone and an epoxy iodide as a key step. The relative and absolute configurations of xestenone were thus successfully determined by this synthesis.

  19. Validation experiments to determine radiation partitioning of heat flux to an object in a fully turbulent fire.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricks, Allen; Blanchat, Thomas K.; Jernigan, Dann A.

    2006-06-01

    It is necessary to improve understanding and develop validation data of the heat flux incident to an object located within the fire plume for the validation of SIERRA/ FUEGO/SYRINX fire and SIERRA/CALORE. One key aspect of the validation data sets is the determination of the relative contribution of the radiative and convective heat fluxes. To meet this objective, a cylindrical calorimeter with sufficient instrumentation to measure total and radiative heat flux had been designed and fabricated. This calorimeter will be tested both in the controlled radiative environment of the Penlight facility and in a fire environment in the FLAME/Radiant Heat (FRH) facility. Validation experiments are specifically designed for direct comparison with the computational predictions. Making meaningful comparisons between the computational and experimental results requires careful characterization and control of the experimental features or parameters used as inputs into the computational model. Validation experiments must be designed to capture the essential physical phenomena, including all relevant initial and boundary conditions. A significant question of interest to modeling heat flux incident to an object in or near a fire is the contribution of the radiation and convection modes of heat transfer. The series of experiments documented in this test plan is designed to provide data on the radiation partitioning, defined as the fraction of the total heat flux that is due to radiation.

  20. Absolute Value Inequalities: High School Students' Solutions and Misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almog, Nava; Ilany, Bat-Sheva

    2012-01-01

    Inequalities are one of the foundational subjects in high school math curricula, but there is a lack of academic research into how students learn certain types of inequalities. This article fills part of the research gap by presenting the findings of a study that examined high school students' methods of approaching absolute value inequalities,…

  1. Absolute measurements of chlorine Cl+ cation single photoionization cross section

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez, E. M.; Juarez, A. M.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Aguilar, A.; Hernandez, L.; Antillon, A.; Macaluso, D.; Morales-Mori, A.; Gonzalez-Magana, O.; Hanstorp, D.; Covington, A. M.; Davis, V.; Calabrese, D.; Hinojosa, G.

    The photoionization of Cl+ leading to Cl2+ was measured in the photon energy range of 19.5-28.0 eV. A spectrum with a photon energy resolution of 15 meV normalized to absolute cross-section measurements is presented. The measurements were carried out by merging a Cl+ ion beam with a photon beam of

  2. Europe's Other Poverty Measures: Absolute Thresholds Underlying Social Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavier, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The first thing many learn about international poverty measurement is that European nations apply a "relative" poverty threshold and that they also do a better job of reducing poverty. Unlike the European model, the "absolute" U.S. poverty threshold does not increase in real value when the nation's standard of living rises,…

  3. Mechanism for an absolute parametric instability of an inhomogeneous plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipenko, V. I.; Budnikov, V. N.; Gusakov, E. Z.; Romanchuk, I. A.; Simonchik, L. V.

    1984-05-01

    The structure of plasma oscillations in a region of parametric spatial amplification has been studied experimentally for the first time. A new mechanism for an absolute parametric instability has been observed. This mechanism operates when a pump wave with a spatial structure more complicated than a plane wave propagates through a plasma which is inhomogeneous along more than one dimension.

  4. Global Absolute Poverty: Behind the Veil of Dollars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moatsos, M.

    2015-01-01

    The global absolute poverty rates of the World Bank demonstrate a continued decline of poverty in developing countries between 1983 and 2012. However, the methodology applied to derive these results has received extensive criticism by scholars for requiring the application of PPP exchange rates and

  5. Global Absolute Poverty: Behind the Veil of Dollars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moatsos, M.

    2017-01-01

    The widely applied “dollar-a-day” methodology identifies global absolute poverty as declining precipitously since the early 80’s throughout the developing world. The methodological underpinnings of the “dollar-a-day” approach have been questioned in terms of adequately representing equivalent

  6. An improved generalized Newton method for absolute value equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jingmei; Liu, Sanyang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we suggest and analyze an improved generalized Newton method for solving the NP-hard absolute value equations [Formula: see text] when the singular values of A exceed 1. We show that the global and local quadratic convergence of the proposed method. Numerical experiments show the efficiency of the method and the high accuracy of calculation.

  7. Multipliers for the absolute Euler summability of Fourier series

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Springer Verlag Heidelberg #4 2048 1996 Dec 15 10:16:45

    (Math. Sci.), Vol. 111, No. 2, May 2001, pp. 203–219. Printed in India. Multipliers for the absolute Euler summability of Fourier series. PREM CHANDRA. School of Studies in Mathematics, Vikram University, Ujjain 456 010, India. MS received 30 December 1999; revised 30 October 2000. Abstract. In this paper, the author ...

  8. Predicting accurate absolute binding energies in aqueous solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jan Halborg

    2015-01-01

    Recent predictions of absolute binding free energies of host-guest complexes in aqueous solution using electronic structure theory have been encouraging for some systems, while other systems remain problematic. In this paper I summarize some of the many factors that could easily contribute 1-3 kcal...

  9. Planck absolute entropy of a rotating BTZ black hole

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S. M. Jawwad Riaz

    2018-03-06

    Mar 6, 2018 ... Abstract. In this paper, the Planck absolute entropy and the Bekenstein–Smarr formula of the rotating. Banados–Teitelboim–Zanelli (BTZ) black hole are presented via a complex thermodynamical system con- tributed by its inner and outer horizons. The redefined entropy approaches zero as the ...

  10. Multipliers for the Absolute Euler Summability of Fourier Series

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, the author has investigated necessary and sufficient conditions for the absolute Euler summability of the Fourier series with multipliers. These conditions are weaker than those obtained earlier by some workers. It is further shown that the multipliers are best possible in certain sense.

  11. 20 CFR 404.1205 - Absolute coverage groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Absolute coverage groups. 404.1205 Section 404.1205 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY...) Employees of a State's political subdivision performing services in connection with that subdivision's...

  12. Absolute luminosity measurements with the LHCb detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderson, J; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Arrabito, L; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Bailey, D S; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bates, A; Bauer, C; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Bediaga, I; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Brisbane, S; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Büchler-Germann, A; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Caicedo Carvajal, J M; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chiapolini, N; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Collins, P; Constantin, F; Conti, G; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Corti, G; Cowan, G A; Currie, R; D'Almagne, B; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; De Bonis, I; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Lorenzi, F; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Degaudenzi, H; Deissenroth, M; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Diniz Batista, P; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Eames, C; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisele, F; Eisenhardt, S; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; Elsasser, Ch; d'Enterria, D G; Esperante Pereira, D; Estève, L; Falabella, A; Fanchini, E; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garnier, J-C; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauvin, N; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Gregson, S; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harji, R; Harnew, N; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Hofmann, W; Holubyev, K; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Huston, R S; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Imong, J; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jahjah Hussein, M; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jaton, P; Jean-Marie, B; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Keaveney, J; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kim, Y M; Knecht, M; Koblitz, S; Koppenburg, P; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kruzelecki, K; Kucharczyk, M; Kukulak, S; Kumar, R; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Li, L; Li Gioi, L; Lieng, M; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Luisier, J; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Magnin, J; Malde, S; Mamunur, R M D; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinez Santos, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Maynard, B; Mazurov, A; McGregor, G; McNulty, R; Mclean, C; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Merkel, J; Messi, R; Miglioranzi, S; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Musy, M; Mylroie-Smith, J; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nardulli, J; Nasteva, I; Nedos, M; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Nies, S; Niess, V; Nikitin, N; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, B; Palacios, J; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Paterson, S K; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petrella, A; Petrolini, A; Pie Valls, B; Pietrzyk, B; Pilar, T; Pinci, D; Plackett, R; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; du Pree, T; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Rinnert, K; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodrigues, F; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogers, G J; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santinelli, R; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schleich, S; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M -H; Schwemmer, R; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shao, B; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skottowe, H P; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, A C; Smith, N A; Sobczak, K; Soler, F J P; Solomin, A; Soomro, F; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Styles, N; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Topp-Joergensen, S; Tran, M T; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urquijo, P; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Vervink, K; Viaud, B; Videau, I; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Visniakov, J; Vollhardt, A; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Voss, H; Wacker, K; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Witzeling, W; Wotton, S A; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yushchenko, O; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhong, L; Zverev, E; Zvyagin, A

    2012-01-01

    Absolute luminosity measurements are of general interest for colliding-beam experiments at storage rings. These measurements are necessary to determine the absolute cross-sections of reaction processes and are valuable to quantify the performance of the accelerator. LHCb has applied two methods to determine the absolute scale of its luminosity measurements for proton-proton collisions at the LHC with a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. In addition to the classic ``van der Meer scan'' method a novel technique has been developed which makes use of direct imaging of the individual beams using beam-gas and beam-beam interactions. This beam imaging method is made possible by the high resolution of the LHCb vertex detector and the close proximity of the detector to the beams, and allows beam parameters such as positions, angles and widths to be determined. The results of the two methods have comparable precision and are in good agreement. Combining the two methods, an overall precision of 3.5\\% in the absolute lumi...

  13. Dominated operators, absolutely summing operators and the strict ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    b(X;E) be the space of all E-valued bounded continuous functions on X, equipped with the strict topology β. We study dominated and absolutely summing operators T : Cb(X;E) → F. We derive that if X is a locally compact Hausdorff space and E ...

  14. Confirmation of the absolute configuration of (−)-aurantioclavine

    KAUST Repository

    Behenna, Douglas C.

    2011-04-01

    We confirm our previous assignment of the absolute configuration of (-)-aurantioclavine as 7R by crystallographically characterizing an advanced 3-bromoindole intermediate reported in our previous synthesis. This analysis also provides additional support for our model of enantioinduction in the palladium(II)-catalyzed oxidative kinetic resolution of secondary alcohols. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF AN ABSOLUTE GRAVITY METER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An absolute gravimeter which has been designed and constructed consists of a timing circuit which measures the time a body takes to fall between two points separated by a known distance. The time of fall and the known distance are used to calculate the acceleration of gravity at the point of experimentation.

  16. Absolutely continuous spectrum and spectral transition for some ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Absolutely continuous spectrum and spectral transition for some continuous random operators. M KRISHNA. Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Taramani, Chennai 600 113, India. E-mail: krishna@imsc.res.in. MS received 28 February 2010; revised 6 June 2011. Dedicated to Barry Simon for his 65th birthday. Abstract.

  17. Frequency Windows of Absolute Negative Conductance in Josephson Junctions

    OpenAIRE

    Machura, L.; Kostur, M.; Talkner, P.; Hanggi, P.; Luczka, J.

    2007-01-01

    We report on anomalous conductance in a resistively and capacitively shunted Josephson junction which is simultaneously driven by ac and dc currents. The dependence of the voltage across the junction on the frequency of the ac current shows windows of absolute negative conductance regimes, i.e. for a positive (negative) dc current, the voltage is negative (positive).

  18. Relative versus Absolute Stimulus Control in the Temporal Bisection Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Marilia Pinhiero; Machado, Armando

    2012-01-01

    When subjects learn to associate two sample durations with two comparison keys, do they learn to associate the keys with the short and long samples (relational hypothesis), or with the specific sample durations (absolute hypothesis)? We exposed 16 pigeons to an ABA design in which phases A and B corresponded to tasks using samples of 1 s and 4 s,…

  19. Use of absolute lymphocyte count or neutrophil ingestion rate of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was designed to evaluate absolute lymphocyte count or neutrophil ingestion rate of NBT as alternative indices to CD4+ T cell count in the management of HIV/AIDS subjects. 158 adult participants (male = 70, female = 88) were recruited for the study and grouped as: (i) Symptomatic HIV subjects with or ...

  20. Necessity and sufficiency conditions for the absolute null ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We are inspired by the works of Chukwu [1], Eke [2], Schinterdorf and Barmish [4] to unveil necessary and sufficient conditions for the absolute null controllability of a linear delay perturbed system with zero in the domain of null controllability. Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics Vol. 10 2006: pp. 549- ...

  1. Absolute Stability of Discrete-Time Systems with Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medina Rigoberto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the stability of nonlinear nonautonomous discrete-time systems with delaying arguments, whose linear part has slowly varying coefficients, and the nonlinear part has linear majorants. Based on the "freezing" technique to discrete-time systems, we derive explicit conditions for the absolute stability of the zero solution of such systems.

  2. DOES ABSOLUTE SYNONYMY EXIST IN OWERE-IGBO?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    or emotional overtones, etc. These are explained below: A. Contextual Differences: One of the implications of absolute synonymy is that it must be possible for synonyms to be used interchangeably in all sentence contexts. But our analyses of the sentences above as given by native speakers indicated that there are some ...

  3. The Absolute and the Relative Dimensions of Constitutional Rights

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alexy, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 1 (2017), s. 31-47 ISSN 0143-6503 Keywords : constitutional rights * judicial review * proportionality Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences OBOR OECD: Law Impact factor: 1.242, year: 2016 https://academic.oup.com/ojls/article/37/1/31/2669583/The-Absolute-and-the-Relative-Dimensions-of

  4. Absolute parametric instability in a nonuniform plane plasma ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The paper reports an analysis of the effect of spatial plasma nonuniformity on absolute parametric instability (API) of electrostatic waves in magnetized plane waveguides subjected to an intense high-frequency (HF) electric field using the separation method. In this case the effect of strong static magnetic field is considered.

  5. Absolute parametric instability in a nonuniform plane plasma ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The paper reports an analysis of the effect of spatial plasma nonuniformity on absolute parametric instability (API) of electrostatic waves in magnetized plane waveguides subjected to an intense high-frequency (HF) electric field using the separation method. In this case the effect of strong static magnetic field is ...

  6. Absolute intensity calibration for ECE measurements on EAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yong; Liu Xiang; Zhao Hailin

    2014-01-01

    In this proceeding, the results of the in-situ absolute intensity calibration for ECE measurements on EAST are presented. A 32-channel heterodyne radiometer system and a Michelson interferometer on EAST have been calibrated independently, and preliminary results from plasma operation indicate a good agreement between the electron temperature profiles obtained with different systems. (author)

  7. Fabricating the absolute fake: America in contemporary pop culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, J.

    2008-01-01

    Onze wereld wordt gedomineerd door de Amerikaanse popcultuur. Fabricating the Absolute Fake onderzoekt de dynamiek van Amerikanisering aan de hand van hedendaagse films, televisieprogramma's en popsterren die reflecteren op de vraag wat het betekent om Amerikaan in een mondiale popcultuur te zijn.

  8. On quantum harmonic oscillator being subjected to absolute ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    On quantum harmonic oscillator being subjected to absolute potential state. SWAMI NITYAYOGANANDA. Ramakrishna Mission Ashrama, R.K. Beach, Visakhapatnam 530 003, India. E-mail: nityayogananda@gmail.com. MS received 1 May 2015; accepted 6 May 2016; published online 3 December 2016. Abstract.

  9. Partial sums of arithmetical functions with absolutely convergent ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For an arithmetical function f with absolutely convergent Ramanujan expansion, we derive an asymptotic formula for the ∑ n ≤ N f(n)$ with explicit error term. As a corollary we obtain new results about sum-of-divisors functions and Jordan's totient functions.

  10. Partial sums of arithmetical functions with absolutely convergent ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    , Chennai 600 113, India. E-mail: biswajyoti@imsc.res.in. MS received 9 May 2015; revised 9 July 2015. Abstract. For an arithmetical function f with absolutely convergent Ramanujan expansion, we derive an asymptotic formula for the sum. ∑.

  11. Automatic solar image motion measurements. [electronic disk flux monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgate, S. A.; Moore, E. P.

    1975-01-01

    The solar seeing image motion has been monitored electronically and absolutely with a 25 cm telescope at three sites along the ridge at the southern end of the Magdalena Mountains west of Socorro, New Mexico. The uncorrelated component of the variations of the optical flux from two points at opposite limbs of the solar disk was continually monitored in 3 frequencies centered at 0.3, 3 and 30 Hz. The frequency band of maximum signal centered at 3 Hz showed the average absolute value of image motion to be somewhat less than 2sec. The observer estimates of combined blurring and image motion were well correlated with electronically measured image motion, but the observer estimates gave a factor 2 larger value.

  12. Reactor flux calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lhuillier, D. [Commissariat à l' Énergie Atomique et aux Énergies Alternatives, Centre de Saclay, IRFU/SPhN, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2013-02-15

    The status of the prediction of reactor anti-neutrino spectra is presented. The most accurate method is still the conversion of total β spectra of fissionning isotopes as measured at research reactors. Recent re-evaluations of the conversion process led to an increased predicted flux by few percent and were at the origin of the so-called reactor anomaly. The up to date predictions are presented with their main sources of error. Perspectives are given on the complementary ab-initio predictions and upcoming experimental cross-checks of the predicted spectrum shape.

  13. Australian methane fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    Estimates are provided for the amount of methane emitted annually into the atmosphere in Australia for a variety of sources. The sources considered are coal mining, landfill, motor vehicles, natural gas suply system, rice paddies, bushfires, termites, wetland and animals. This assessment indicates that the major sources of methane are natural or agricultural in nature and therefore offer little scope for reduction. Nevertheless the remainder are not trival and reduction of these fluxes could play a significant part in any Australian action on the greenhouse problem. 19 refs., 7 tabs., 1 fig

  14. [The flux of historiography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzolini, R G

    2001-01-01

    The author places Grmek's editorial within the flux of the historiographical debate which, since the middle of the 1970s, has concentrated on two major crises due to the end of social science-oriented 'scientific history' and to the 'linguistic turn'. He also argues that Grmek's historiographical work of the 1980s and 1990s was to some extent an alternative to certain observed changes in historical fashion and has achieved greater intelligibility because of its commitment to a rational vision of science and historiography.

  15. The PMA Catalogue: 420 million positions and absolute proper motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmetov, V. S.; Fedorov, P. N.; Velichko, A. B.; Shulga, V. M.

    2017-07-01

    We present a catalogue that contains about 420 million absolute proper motions of stars. It was derived from the combination of positions from Gaia DR1 and 2MASS, with a mean difference of epochs of about 15 yr. Most of the systematic zonal errors inherent in the 2MASS Catalogue were eliminated before deriving the absolute proper motions. The absolute calibration procedure (zero-pointing of the proper motions) was carried out using about 1.6 million positions of extragalactic sources. The mean formal error of the absolute calibration is less than 0.35 mas yr-1. The derived proper motions cover the whole celestial sphere without gaps for a range of stellar magnitudes from 8 to 21 mag. In the sky areas where the extragalactic sources are invisible (the avoidance zone), a dedicated procedure was used that transforms the relative proper motions into absolute ones. The rms error of proper motions depends on stellar magnitude and ranges from 2-5 mas yr-1 for stars with 10 mag < G < 17 mag to 5-10 mas yr-1 for faint ones. The present catalogue contains the Gaia DR1 positions of stars for the J2015 epoch. The system of the PMA proper motions does not depend on the systematic errors of the 2MASS positions, and in the range from 14 to 21 mag represents an independent realization of a quasi-inertial reference frame in the optical and near-infrared wavelength range. The Catalogue also contains stellar magnitudes taken from the Gaia DR1 and 2MASS catalogues. A comparison of the PMA proper motions of stars with similar data from certain recent catalogues has been undertaken.

  16. Standardization approaches in absolute quantitative proteomics with mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Celis, Francisco; Encinar, Jorge Ruiz; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2017-07-31

    Mass spectrometry-based approaches have enabled important breakthroughs in quantitative proteomics in the last decades. This development is reflected in the better quantitative assessment of protein levels as well as to understand post-translational modifications and protein complexes and networks. Nowadays, the focus of quantitative proteomics shifted from the relative determination of proteins (ie, differential expression between two or more cellular states) to absolute quantity determination, required for a more-thorough characterization of biological models and comprehension of the proteome dynamism, as well as for the search and validation of novel protein biomarkers. However, the physico-chemical environment of the analyte species affects strongly the ionization efficiency in most mass spectrometry (MS) types, which thereby require the use of specially designed standardization approaches to provide absolute quantifications. Most common of such approaches nowadays include (i) the use of stable isotope-labeled peptide standards, isotopologues to the target proteotypic peptides expected after tryptic digestion of the target protein; (ii) use of stable isotope-labeled protein standards to compensate for sample preparation, sample loss, and proteolysis steps; (iii) isobaric reagents, which after fragmentation in the MS/MS analysis provide a final detectable mass shift, can be used to tag both analyte and standard samples; (iv) label-free approaches in which the absolute quantitative data are not obtained through the use of any kind of labeling, but from computational normalization of the raw data and adequate standards; (v) elemental mass spectrometry-based workflows able to provide directly absolute quantification of peptides/proteins that contain an ICP-detectable element. A critical insight from the Analytical Chemistry perspective of the different standardization approaches and their combinations used so far for absolute quantitative MS-based (molecular and

  17. Towards absolute laser spectroscopic CO2 isotope ratio measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyangwe Nwaboh, Javis; Werhahn, Olav; Ebert, Volker

    2017-04-01

    Knowledge of isotope composition of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere is necessary to identify sources and sinks of this key greenhouse gas. In the last years, laser spectroscopic techniques such as cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) and tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) have been shown to perform accurate isotope ratio measurements for CO2 and other gases like water vapour (H2O) [1,2]. Typically, isotope ratios are reported in literature referring to reference materials provided by e.g. the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). However, there could be some benefit if field deployable absolute isotope ratio measurement methods were developed to address issues such as exhausted reference material like the Pee Dee Belemnite (PDB) standard. Absolute isotope ratio measurements would be particularly important for situations where reference materials do not even exist. Here, we present CRDS and TDLAS-based absolute isotope ratios (13C/12C ) in atmospheric CO2. We demonstrate the capabilities of the used methods by measuring CO2 isotope ratios in gas standards. We compare our results to values reported for the isotope certified gas standards. Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM) compliant uncertainty budgets on the CRDS and TDLAS absolute isotope ratio measurements are presented, and traceability is addressed. We outline the current impediments in realizing high accuracy absolute isotope ratio measurements using laser spectroscopic methods, propose solutions and the way forward. Acknowledgement Parts of this work have been carried out within the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP) ENV52 project-HIGHGAS. The EMRP is jointly funded by the EMRP participating countries within EURAMET and the European Union. References [1] B. Kühnreich, S. Wagner, J. C. Habig,·O. Möhler, H. Saathoff, V. Ebert, Appl. Phys. B 119:177-187 (2015). [2] E. Kerstel, L. Gianfrani, Appl. Phys. B 92, 439-449 (2008).

  18. Infrared radiometric technique for rapid quantitative evaluation of heat flux distribution over large areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazer, Stuart; Siebes, Georg

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a novel approach for rapid, quantitative measurement of spatially distributed heat flux incident on a plane. The technique utilizes the spatial temperature distribution on an opaque thin film at the location of interest, as measured by an imaging infrared radiometer. Knowledge of film radiative properties, plus quantitative estimates of convection cooling permit the steady state energy balance at any location on the film sheet to be solved for the incident heat flux. Absolute accuracies on the order of 10-15 percent have been obtained in tests performed in air. The method is particularly useful for evaluation of spatial heat flux uniformity from distributed heat sources over large areas. It has recently been used in several applications at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, including flux uniformity measurements from large distributed quartz lamp arrays used during thermal vacuum testing of several spacecraft components, and flux mapping of a low power NdYg laser beam.

  19. Solar heating by radiant floor: Experimental results and emission reduction obtained with a micro photovoltaic–heat pump system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izquierdo, M.; Agustín-Camacho, P. de

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This work presents a PVT multicrystalline solar heating system for buildings. • The PV DC electricity generated was converted to AC to drive an air–water heat pump. • Experimental results obtained from December 1, 2012 to April 30, 2013 are detailed. • An environmental study is also presented. - Abstract: An experimental research with a solar photovoltaic thermal (PVT) micro grid feeding a reversible air–water, 6 kW heating capacity heat pump, has been carried out from December 2012 to April 2013. Its purpose is to heat a laboratory that is used as a house prototype for the study of heating/cooling systems. It was built in accordance with the 2013 Spanish CTE, and has an area of 35 m 2 divided into two internal rooms: one of them housing the storage system, the solar controller, the inverter and the control system; the other one is occupied by three people. Its main thermal characteristics are: UA = 125 W/°C and a maximum thermal load about 6.0 kW at the initial time. The PVT field consists of 12 modules, with a total area of 15.7 m 2 and useful area of 14 m 2 . Each module is composed of 48 polycrystalline silicon cells of 243.4 cm 2 , which with a nominal efficiency 14% can generate a power of 180 W, being the total nominal power installed 2.16 kW. The PV system stores electricity in 250 Ah batteries from where is converted from DC to AC through a 3.0 kW inverter that feeds the heat pump. This works supplying 840 l/h of hot water at 35–45 °C to the radiant floor. The data storing system is recording variables such as solar radiation; temperatures; input power to batteries; heat produced; heat transferred by the radiant floor; heat pump’s COP; isolated ratio; and solar fraction. The objective of this work is to present and discuss the experimental results and the emission reduction of CO 2 obtained during the period from 01/12/2012 to 30/04/2013, including the detailed results of two representative days of Madrid’s climate: 28

  20. Characteristics of the mean radiant temperature in high latitude cities--implications for sensitive climate planning applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Fredrik; Holmer, Björn; Thorsson, Sofia; Rayner, David

    2014-07-01

    Knowledge of how the mean radiant temperature (T mrt ) is affected by factors such as location, climate and urban setting contributes to the practice of climate sensitive planning. This paper examines how T mrt varies within an urban setting and how it is influenced by cloudiness. In addition, variations of T mrt in three high latitude cities are investigated in order to analyse the impact of geographical context and climate conditions. Results showed large spatial variations between sunlit and shaded areas during clear weather conditions, with the highest values of T mrt close to sunlit walls and the lowest values in the areas shaded by buildings and vegetation. As cloudiness increases, the spatial pattern is altered and the differences are reduced. The highest T mrt under cloudy conditions is instead found in open areas where the proportion of shortwave diffuse radiation from the sky vault is high. A regional comparison between three Swedish coastal cities showed that T mrt during summer is similar regardless of latitudinal location. On the other hand, large differences in T mrt during winter were found. Shadows, both from buildings and vegetation are the most effective measure to reduce extreme values of T mrt. However, extensive areas of shadow are usually not desired within outdoor urban environments at high latitude cities. One solution is to create diverse outdoor urban spaces in terms of shadow and also ventilation. This would provide individuals with access to a choice of thermal environments which they can use to assist their thermal regulation, based on personal needs and desires.

  1. FABRICACIÓN DE TUBOS DE CARBURO DE SILICIO PARA USO COMO CUERPO RADIANTE EN HORNOS Y SISTEMAS DE CALENTAMIENTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FABIO VARGAS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El carburo de silicio (SiC es un material con alta potencialidad de uso en hornos y sistemas de calentamiento dada su alta conductividad térmica, refractariedad, baja expansión térmica y estabilidad mecánica a temperaturas hasta de 1650°C. A pesar de sus excelentes propiedades térmicas, la utilización del SiC en hornos y sistemas de calentamiento ha estado limitada por la oxidación que sufre a temperatura superior a 1100°C y por su falta de plasticidad y alta dureza, lo que dificulta su conformado a través de los procesos tradicionalmente utilizados para dar forma a los cerámicos. En la búsqueda de una solución al problema de conformado, se obtuvo una pasta constituida por partículas de carburo de silicio de dos tamaños diferentes (180 Bm y 7 Bm, en relación en peso 70/30, las cuales fueron aglomeradas con un una solución acuosa de 7,5 % en peso de plastificante tipo celulosa (B de carácter orgánico desarrollado en laboratorio; utilizando 15 ml de solución por cada 100 gramos de SiC. Con esta pasta fueron fabricados mediante centrifugado, tubos de buenas propiedades físicas y térmicas para su uso en hornos radiantes y otros sistemas de calentamiento.

  2. Spectral Characterizations of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Thermistor Bolometers using Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornhill, K. Lee; Bitting, Herbert; Lee, Robert B., III; Paden, Jack; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan; Wilson, Robert S.

    1998-01-01

    Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) techniques are being used to characterize the relative spectral response, or sensitivity, of scanning thermistor bolometers in the infrared (IR) region (2 - >= 100-micrometers). The bolometers are being used in the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) program. The CERES measurements are designed to provide precise, long term monitoring of the Earth's atmospheric radiation energy budget. The CERES instrument houses three bolometric radiometers, a total wavelength (0.3- >= 150-micrometers) sensor, a shortwave (0.3-5-micrometers) sensor, and an atmospheric window (8-12-micrometers) sensor. Accurate spectral characterization is necessary for determining filtered radiances for longwave radiometric calibrations. The CERES bolometers spectral response's are measured in the TRW FTS Vacuum Chamber Facility (FTS - VCF), which uses a FTS as the source and a cavity pyroelectric trap detector as the reference. The CERES bolometers and the cavity detector are contained in a vacuum chamber, while the FTS source is housed in a GN2 purged chamber. Due to the thermal time constant of the CERES bolometers, the FTS must be operated in a step mode. Data are acquired in 6 IR spectral bands covering the entire longwave IR region. In this paper, the TRW spectral calibration facility design and data measurement techniques are described. Two approaches are presented which convert the total channel FTS data into the final CERES spectral characterizations, producing the same calibration coefficients (within 0.1 percent). The resulting spectral response curves are shown, along with error sources in the two procedures. Finally, the impact of each spectral response curve on CERES data validation will be examined through analysis of filtered radiance values from various typical scene types.

  3. Permanent magnet flux-biased magnetic actuator with flux feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groom, Nelson J. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The invention is a permanent magnet flux-biased magnetic actuator with flux feedback for adjustably suspending an element on a single axis. The magnetic actuator includes a pair of opposing electromagnets and provides bi-directional forces along the single axis to the suspended element. Permanent magnets in flux feedback loops from the opposing electromagnets establish a reference permanent magnet flux-bias to linearize the force characteristics of the electromagnets to extend the linear range of the actuator without the need for continuous bias currents in the electromagnets.

  4. The Application of New Optical Meteor Flux Routines to the 2014 May Camelopardalid Outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaauw, Rhiannon; Campbell-Brown, Margaret; Kingery, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Meteoroid Environment Office (MEO) is charged with monitoring the meteoroid environment in near-Earth space for the protection of satellites and spacecraft. The MEO has recently established eight wide-field meteor cameras, four cameras each at two separate stations to calculate automated meteor fluxes in the millimeter size range. Each camera consists of a 17 mm focal length Schneider lens on a Watec 902H2 Ultimate CCD video camera, producing a 21.7 x 15.5 degree field of view. This configuration has a limiting meteor magnitude of about +5. One station is located at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama and the other is 31.8 kilometers away at a school in Decatur, Alabama. Both single-station and double-station fluxes are calculated every morning using data from the previous night. The flux algorithms employed here differ from others currently in use in that they do not assume a single height for all meteors observed in the common camera volume. In the MEO system, the volume is broken up into a set of height intervals, with the collecting areas determined by the position of the active shower or sporadic source radiant. The flux per height interval is calculated and summed to obtain the total meteor flux. As the mass is also computed from the photometry, a mass flux can also be calculated. First, a weather algorithm indicates if sky conditions are clear enough to calculate fluxes, at which point a limiting magnitude algorithm is employed. The limiting magnitude algorithm performs a fit of stellar magnitudes versus camera intensities. The stellar limiting magnitude is derived from this and converted to a limiting meteor magnitude for the active shower or sporadic source. The fluxes are scaled to an average limiting magnitude throughout the night and zenithal hourly rate (ZHR's) are output daily along with flux values. In addition to this process, results will be presented as applied to the 2014 May Camelopardalid outburst, using data from several

  5. Henry More and the development of absolute time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Emily

    2015-12-01

    This paper explores the nature, development and influence of the first English account of absolute time, put forward in the mid-seventeenth century by the 'Cambridge Platonist' Henry More. Against claims in the literature that More does not have an account of time, this paper sets out More's evolving account and shows that it reveals the lasting influence of Plotinus. Further, this paper argues that More developed his views on time in response to his adoption of Descartes' vortex cosmology and cosmogony, providing new evidence of More's wider project to absorb Cartesian natural philosophy into his Platonic metaphysics. Finally, this paper argues that More should be added to the list of sources that later English thinkers - including Newton and Samuel Clarke - drew on in constructing their absolute accounts of time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Absolute gravimetry - for monitoring climate change and geodynamics in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Emil

    be detected in Greenland, resulting from the loading and unloading of ice during winter and summer. Besides this kind of elastic signal, there will also be a more general trend due to the development of the ice. As already indicated, the two geophysical signals under investigation give rise to a vertical...... with the GPS data, it is possible to separate the different signals. The method used in this study is absolute gravimetry. An absolute gravimeter of the A10 type has been purchased by DTU Space for this purpose. This instrument can measure gravity changes as small as 6µGal (= 60nm=s2), which provides...... investigated with different processing methods. These preliminary results of the gravity measurements in Greenland are interesting new data which suggest that as more measurements become available it will be possible, along with the GPS data, to separate the different geodynamical processes and thereby give...

  7. Synesthesia and rhythm. The road to absolute cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Roncero Palomar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Absolute cinema, developed during the historical avant-garde, con-tinued with a long artistic tradition that linked musical with visual experience. Due to cinema as médium of expression, this filmmakers were able to work with the moving image to develop concepts such as rhythm, also with more complex figures than the colored spots that other devices could create at those time. This study starts with the published texts in 1704 by Newton about color, and provides an overview of those artistic highlights that link image and sound, and which creates the origins of absolute cinema. The connections and equivalences between the visual and sound experiences used by these filmmakers are also studied in order to know if there was a continuous line with the origins of these studies or if there was a rupture and other later investigations were able to have more repercussion in their works.

  8. Absolute configuration assignment of (+)-fluralaner using vibrational circular dichroism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, John; Joyce, Leo A; Liu, Jinchu; Jarrell, Tiffany M; Culberson, J Chris; Sherer, Edward C

    2017-12-01

    The absolute configurations of the separated enantiomers of fluralaner, a racemic animal health product used to prevent fleas and ticks, have been assigned using vibrational circular dichroism (VCD). The crystallographic structure of the active enantiomer (+)-fluralaner has previously been shown to have the (S) configuration using small molecule crystallography. We sought a faster analytical method to determine the absolute configuration of the separated enantiomers. When comparing the measured IR (infrared) and VCD spectra, it is apparent that the amide carbonyl groups appear in the IR but are nearly absent in the VCD. Computational work to calculate the VCD and IR using in vacuo models, implicit solvation, and explicitly solvated complexes has implicated conformational averaging of the carbonyl VCD intensities. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Absolute efficiencies of X-ray screens for fluoroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giakoumakis, G.E.

    1989-01-01

    The absolute X-ray efficiencies of phosphor screens made of various materials (ZnCdS:Ag, CsI:Na, Y 2 O 2 S:Tb, Gd 2 O 2 S:Tb, CaWO 4 and ZnS:Cu) are reported. The measurements have been carried out under fluoroscopic conditions for tube voltages ranging from 50 to 250 kV and for screen weights from 20 to 200 mg cm -2 . There is also, for comparison, a set of measurements concerning the behaviour of the screens under soft X-rays (20-50 kV) excitation. All the experimental results are discussed on the basis of an improved Hammaker-Ludwig model and analytical expressions are presented permitting the theoretical calculation of the absolute efficiency of the screens. (author)

  10. Absolute dating of the Aegean Late Bronze Age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, P.M.

    1987-01-01

    A recent argument for raising the absolute date of the beginning of the Aegean Late Bronze (LB) Age to about 1700 B.C. is critically examined. It is argued here that: (1) the alabaster lid from Knossos did have the stratigraphical context assigned to it by Evans, in all probability Middle Minoan IIIA, c. 1650 B.C.; (2) the attempt to date the alabastron found in an early Eighteenth Dynasty context at Aniba to Late Minoan IIIA:1 is open to objections; (3) radiocarbon dates from Aegean LB I contexts are too wide in their calibrated ranges and too inconsistent both within and between site sets to offer any reliable grounds at present for raising Aegean LB I absolute chronology to 1700 B.C. Other evidence, however, suggests this period began about 1600 B.C., i.e. some fifty years earlier than the conventional date of 1550 B.C. (author)

  11. Absolute limit on rotation of gravitationally bound stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendenning, N. K.

    1994-03-01

    The authors seek an absolute limit on the rotational period for a neutron star as a function of its mass, based on the minimal constraints imposed by Einstein's theory of relativity, Le Chatelier's principle, causality, and a low-density equation of state, uncertainties which can be evaluated as to their effect on the result. This establishes a limiting curve in the mass-period plane below which no pulsar that is a neutron star can lie. For example, the minimum possible Kepler period, which is an absolute limit on rotation below which mass-shedding would occur, is 0.33 ms for a M = 1.442 solar mass neutron star (the mass of PSR1913+16). If the limit were found to be broken by any pulsar, it would signal that the confined hadronic phase of ordinary nucleons and nuclei is only metastable.

  12. Rational functions with maximal radius of absolute monotonicity

    KAUST Repository

    Loczi, Lajos

    2014-05-19

    We study the radius of absolute monotonicity R of rational functions with numerator and denominator of degree s that approximate the exponential function to order p. Such functions arise in the application of implicit s-stage, order p Runge-Kutta methods for initial value problems and the radius of absolute monotonicity governs the numerical preservation of properties like positivity and maximum-norm contractivity. We construct a function with p=2 and R>2s, disproving a conjecture of van de Griend and Kraaijevanger. We determine the maximum attainable radius for functions in several one-parameter families of rational functions. Moreover, we prove earlier conjectured optimal radii in some families with 2 or 3 parameters via uniqueness arguments for systems of polynomial inequalities. Our results also prove the optimality of some strong stability preserving implicit and singly diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta methods. Whereas previous results in this area were primarily numerical, we give all constants as exact algebraic numbers.

  13. Absolute scale-based imaging position encoder with submicron accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, Andrey G.; Pantyushin, Anton V.; Lashmanov, Oleg U.; Vasilev, A. S.; Timofeev, Alexander N.; Korotaev, Valery V.; Gordeev, Sergey V.

    2013-04-01

    Study is devoted to experimental research and development of absolute imaging position encoder based on standard calibrated scale of invar alloy with 1 mm spacing. The encoder uses designed imaging system as a vernier and absolute magnetic encoder as a rough indication. The features of optical design, choice and use of imaging system as long as indexes images processing algorithm are described. A shadow method was implemented: indexes images on a CCD array are formed by the lens focused at the scale surface; the laser module lights up the scale through a beam-splitting prism by a parallel beam. Further dark indexes images on a light scale background are detected and analyzed to estimate the encoder position. Full range of experimental tests was set to calibrate the encoder and to estimate the accuracy. As a result, accuracy close to 1 μm at 1 m was achieved.

  14. ABSOLUTE AND COMPARATIVE SUSTAINABILITY OF FARMING ENTERPRISES IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bachev

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating absolute and comparative sustainability of farming enterprises is among the most topical issues for researchers, farmers, investors, administrators, politicians, interests groups and public at large. Nevertheless, in Bulgaria and most East European countries there are no comprehensive assessments on sustainability level of Bulgarian farms of different juridical type. This article applies a holistic framework and assesses absolute and comparative sustainability major farming structures in Bulgaria - unregistered farms of Natural Persons, Sole Traders, Cooperatives, and Companies. First, method of the study is outlined, and overall characteristics of surveyed farming enterprises presented. After that an assessment is made of integral, governance, economic, social, environmental sustainability of farming structures of different juridical type. Next, structure of farming enterprises with different sustainability levels is analyzed. Finally, conclusion from the study and directions for further research and amelioration of sustainability assessments suggested.

  15. Reactor neutron flux measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okutani, Yasushi; Hayakawa, Toshifumi.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention concerns a device for displaying an approximate neutron flux distribution to recognize the neutron flux distribution of the whole reactor in a short period of time. The device of the present invention displays, the results of measurement for neutron fluxes collected by a data collecting section on every results of the measurements at measuring points situating at horizontally identical positions of the reactor core. In addition, every results of the measurements at the measuring points situating at the identical height in the reactor core are accumulated, and the results of the integration are graphically displayed. With such procedures, the neutron flux distribution in the entire reactor is approximately displayed. Existent devices could not recognize the neutron flux distribution of the entire reactor at a glance and it took much time for the recognition. The device of the present invention can recognize the neutron flux distribution of the entire reactor in a short period of time. (I.S.)

  16. Flux compactifications and generalized geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grana, Mariana

    2006-01-01

    Following the lectures given at CERN Winter School 2006, we present a pedagogical overview of flux compactifications and generalized geometries, concentrating on closed string fluxes in type II theories. We start by reviewing the supersymmetric flux configurations with maximally symmetric four-dimensional spaces. We then discuss the no-go theorems (and their evasion) for compactifications with fluxes. We analyse the resulting four-dimensional effective theories for Calabi-Yau and Calabi-Yau orientifold compactifications, concentrating on the flux-induced superpotentials. We discuss the generic mechanism of moduli stabilization and illustrate with two examples: the conifold in IIB and a T 6 /(Z 3 x Z 3 ) torus in IIA. We finish by studying the effective action and flux vacua for generalized geometries in the context of generalized complex geometry

  17. California's Future Carbon Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, L.; Pyles, R. D.; Paw U, K.; Gertz, M.

    2008-12-01

    The diversity of the climate and vegetation systems in the state of California provides a unique opportunity to study carton dioxide exchange between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere. In order to accurately calculate the carbon flux, this study couples the sophisticated analytical surface layer model ACASA (Advance Canopy-Atmosphere-Soil Algorithm, developed in the University of California, Davis) with the newest version of mesoscale model WRF (the Weather Research & Forecasting Model, developed by NCAR and several other agencies). As a multilayer, steady state model, ACASA incorporates higher-order representations of vertical temperature variations, CO2 concentration, radiation, wind speed, turbulent statistics, and plant physiology. The WRF-ACASA coupling is designed to identify how multiple environmental factors, in particularly climate variability, population density, and vegetation distribution, impact on future carbon cycle prediction across a wide geographical range such as in California.

  18. Absolute bunch length measurements by incoherent radiation fluctuation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sannibale, Fernando; Stupakov, Gennady; Zolotorev, Max; Filippetto, Daniele; Jagerhofer, Lukas

    2008-09-29

    By analyzing the pulse to pulse intensity fluctuations of the radiation emitted by a charge particle in the incoherent part of the spectrum, it is possible to extract information about the spatial distribution of the beam. At the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, we have developed and successfully tested a simple scheme based on this principle that allows for the absolute measurement of the rms bunch length. A description of the method and the experimental results are presented.

  19. Absolute Bunch Length Measurements by Incoherent Radiation Fluctuation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sannibale, F.; /LBL, Berkeley; Stupakov, G.V.; /SLAC; Zolotorev, M.S.; /LBL, Berkeley; Filippetto, D.; /INFN, Rome; Jagerhofer, L.; /Vienna, Tech. U.

    2009-12-09

    By analyzing the pulse to pulse intensity fluctuations of the radiation emitted by a charge particle in the incoherent part of the spectrum, it is possible to extract information about the spatial distribution of the beam. At the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, we have developed and successfully tested a simple scheme based on this principle that allows for the absolute measurement of the rms bunch length. A description of the method and the experimental results are presented.

  20. Mylar sources for the absolute determination of activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenillas, Pablo A.

    1999-01-01

    Strong Mylar foils 2.5 μm thick are proposed as an alternative to the very fragile Vyns foils for the preparation of the radioactive sources for absolute counting. Several experiments have been carried out with β and X-ray emitters to demonstrate the suitability of this material. The results show that Mylar can replace Vyns foils even for low energy β emitters. (author)