WorldWideScience

Sample records for absolute mass scale

  1. Probing the Absolute Mass Scale of Neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formaggio, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    The experimental efforts of the Neutrino Physics Group at MIT center primarily around the exploration of neutrino mass and its significance within the context of nuclear physics, particle physics, and cosmology. The group has played a prominent role in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, a neutrino experiment dedicated to measure neutrino oscillations from 8B neutrinos created in the sun. The group is now focusing its efforts in the measurement of the neutrino mass directly via the use of tritium beta decay. The MIT group has primary responsibilities in the Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino mass experiment, expected to begin data taking by 2013. Specifically, the MIT group is responsible for the design and development of the global Monte Carlo framework to be used by the KATRIN collaboration, as well as responsibilities directly associated with the construction of the focal plane detector. In addition, the MIT group is sponsoring a new research endeavor for neutrino mass measurements, known as Project 8, to push beyond the limitations of current neutrino mass experiments.

  2. Absolute Mass Scale Calibration Using Z->mumu

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksa, Martin

    1999-01-01

    Detailed simulations have been performed, investigating the possibility of calibrating the absolute mass scale of the muon spectrometer by using Z->mumu A sample of 10000 events was processed through DICE/ATRECON applying different scale factors to the magnetic field as a function of phi and eta. It is shown that these scale factors could be retrieved with high accuracy together with the muon energy loss as a function of eta. It is shown that the energy loss in the barrel region could be found with an accuracy of 45 MeV while calibrating at the same time 2 magnetic field scale factors with an accuracy of 0.001.

  3. ABSOLUTE NEUTRINO MASSES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schechter, J.; Shahid, M. N.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of using experiments timing the propagation of neutrino beams over large distances to help determine the absolute masses of the three neutrinos.......We discuss the possibility of using experiments timing the propagation of neutrino beams over large distances to help determine the absolute masses of the three neutrinos....

  4. Absolute mass scale calibration in the inverse problem of the physical theory of fireballs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalenichenko, V. V.

    A method of the absolute mass scale calibration is suggested for solving the inverse problem of the physical theory of fireballs. The method is based on the data on the masses of the fallen meteorites whose fireballs have been photographed in their flight. The method may be applied to those fireballs whose bodies have not experienced considerable fragmentation during their destruction in the atmosphere and have kept their form well enough. Statistical analysis of the inverse problem solution for a sufficiently representative sample makes it possible to separate a subsample of such fireballs. The data on the Lost City and Innisfree meteorites are used to obtain calibration coefficients.

  5. Absolute calibration of the mass scale in the inverse problem of the physical theory of fireballs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalenichenko, V. V.

    1992-08-01

    A method of the absolute calibration of the mass scale is proposed for solving the inverse problem of the physical theory of fireballs. The method is based on data on the masses of fallen meteorites whose fireballs have been photographed in flight. The method can be applied to fireballs whose bodies have not experienced significant fragmentation during their flight in the atmosphere and have kept their shape relatively well. Data on the Lost City and Innisfree meteorites are used to calculate the calibration coefficients.

  6. Standardization approaches in absolute quantitative proteomics with mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Celis, Francisco; Encinar, Jorge Ruiz; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2017-07-31

    Mass spectrometry-based approaches have enabled important breakthroughs in quantitative proteomics in the last decades. This development is reflected in the better quantitative assessment of protein levels as well as to understand post-translational modifications and protein complexes and networks. Nowadays, the focus of quantitative proteomics shifted from the relative determination of proteins (ie, differential expression between two or more cellular states) to absolute quantity determination, required for a more-thorough characterization of biological models and comprehension of the proteome dynamism, as well as for the search and validation of novel protein biomarkers. However, the physico-chemical environment of the analyte species affects strongly the ionization efficiency in most mass spectrometry (MS) types, which thereby require the use of specially designed standardization approaches to provide absolute quantifications. Most common of such approaches nowadays include (i) the use of stable isotope-labeled peptide standards, isotopologues to the target proteotypic peptides expected after tryptic digestion of the target protein; (ii) use of stable isotope-labeled protein standards to compensate for sample preparation, sample loss, and proteolysis steps; (iii) isobaric reagents, which after fragmentation in the MS/MS analysis provide a final detectable mass shift, can be used to tag both analyte and standard samples; (iv) label-free approaches in which the absolute quantitative data are not obtained through the use of any kind of labeling, but from computational normalization of the raw data and adequate standards; (v) elemental mass spectrometry-based workflows able to provide directly absolute quantification of peptides/proteins that contain an ICP-detectable element. A critical insight from the Analytical Chemistry perspective of the different standardization approaches and their combinations used so far for absolute quantitative MS-based (molecular and

  7. Absolute values of neutrino masses: status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilenky, S.M.; Giunti, C.; Grifols, J.A.; Masso, E.

    2003-01-01

    Compelling evidences in favor of neutrino masses and mixing obtained in the last years in Super-Kamiokande, SNO, KamLAND and other neutrino experiments made the physics of massive and mixed neutrinos a frontier field of research in particle physics and astrophysics. There are many open problems in this new field. In this review we consider the problem of the absolute values of neutrino masses, which apparently is the most difficult one from the experimental point of view. We discuss the present limits and the future prospects of β-decay neutrino mass measurements and neutrinoless double-β decay. We consider the important problem of the calculation of nuclear matrix elements of neutrinoless double-β decay and discuss the possibility to check the results of different model calculations of the nuclear matrix elements through their comparison with the experimental data. We discuss the upper bound of the total mass of neutrinos that was obtained recently from the data of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey and other cosmological data and we discuss future prospects of the cosmological measurements of the total mass of neutrinos. We discuss also the possibility to obtain information on neutrino masses from the observation of the ultra high-energy cosmic rays (beyond the GZK cutoff). Finally, we review the main aspects of the physics of core-collapse supernovae, the limits on the absolute values of neutrino masses from the observation of SN1987A neutrinos and the future prospects of supernova neutrino detection

  8. Absolute scale-based imaging position encoder with submicron accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, Andrey G.; Pantyushin, Anton V.; Lashmanov, Oleg U.; Vasilev, A. S.; Timofeev, Alexander N.; Korotaev, Valery V.; Gordeev, Sergey V.

    2013-04-01

    Study is devoted to experimental research and development of absolute imaging position encoder based on standard calibrated scale of invar alloy with 1 mm spacing. The encoder uses designed imaging system as a vernier and absolute magnetic encoder as a rough indication. The features of optical design, choice and use of imaging system as long as indexes images processing algorithm are described. A shadow method was implemented: indexes images on a CCD array are formed by the lens focused at the scale surface; the laser module lights up the scale through a beam-splitting prism by a parallel beam. Further dark indexes images on a light scale background are detected and analyzed to estimate the encoder position. Full range of experimental tests was set to calibrate the encoder and to estimate the accuracy. As a result, accuracy close to 1 μm at 1 m was achieved.

  9. Absolute determination of deuterium content of heavy water standards by distillation and mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurston, W.M.; James, M.W.D.

    1984-01-01

    An absolute method for heavy water standardization is described which is based on linear extrapolation to 100% D 2 O. The method uses a reflux column attached to a boiler containing the sample to be standardized. With the column operating at equilibrium under total reflux, samples from both the top and bottom of the column are converted to hydrogen and mass analyzed by use of an arbitrary D 2 O scale. To minimize mass spectrometer errors, the difference between top and bottom HD/total ion current is measured at the sample concentration and at several other slightly higher HD concentrations. The difference values vary linearly with the HDO concentration in the boiler. The linear relationship is extrapolated to zero HD difference as would be observed if 100% D 2 O were used. The extrapolated value on the arbitrary D 2 O scale is compared with 100% and any discrepancy represents an adjustment required to establish an absolute scale. The method has been tested at both the D 2 O and H 2 O ends of the range and has shown that the accuracy of the method is within the precision of 0.0006 mass % D 2 O. 8 references, 6 figures, 2 tables

  10. Improved accuracy for label-free absolute quantification of proteome by combining the Absolute Protein EXpression profiling algorithm and summed tandem mass spectrometric total ion current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qi; Shan, Yichu; Qu, Yanyan; Jiang, Hao; Yuan, Huiming; Liu, Jianxi; Zhang, Shen; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui

    2014-01-07

    Proteome scale absolute quantification is fundamental for the quantitative understanding of an organism. The unsatisfactory accuracy for protein abundance estimation of current algorithms has been partially improved by the Absolute Protein EXpression profiling (APEX) algorithm, which implements the prior expectations of peptides' appearances in the calculation of protein abundances. However, the abundance feature (AF) in APEX is the spectral count (SC); an AF suffers from a narrow dynamic range, thus, unsatisfactory accuracy. Therefore, we adopted another tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) level AF called Summed MS/MS Total ion current (SMT), which cumulates the MS/MS fragment intensities rather than simply counting the MS/MS spectra, to surmount this particular deficiency. The combination of APEX and SMT (abbreviated as APEX-SMT) is capable of improving the accuracy of absolute quantification by reducing the average relative deviation by ~55-85% compared to that of APEX, through a series of tests on the Universal Proteomics Standard sample with a dynamic range of 5 orders of magnitude (UPS2). The algorithm could also be used for relative quantification. When applied to the relative quantification of a publicly available benchmark dataset, APEX-SMT could provide comparable accuracy to APEX. All these results suggest that APEX-SMT is a promising alternative to APEX for proteome quantification.

  11. Absolute Quantification of Toxicological Biomarkers via Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Thomas Y K; Collins, Ben C; Stone, Peter; Tang, Ning; Gallagher, William M; Pennington, Stephen R

    2017-01-01

    With the advent of "-omics" technologies there has been an explosion of data generation in the field of toxicology, as well as many others. As new candidate biomarkers of toxicity are being regularly discovered, the next challenge is to validate these observations in a targeted manner. Traditionally, these validation experiments have been conducted using antibody-based technologies such as Western blotting, ELISA, and immunohistochemistry. However, this often produces a significant bottleneck as the time, cost, and development of successful antibodies are often far outpaced by the generation of targets of interest. In response to this, there recently have been several developments in the use of triple quadrupole (QQQ) mass spectrometry (MS) as a platform to provide quantification of proteins. This technology does not require antibodies; it is typically less expensive and quicker to develop assays and has the opportunity for more accessible multiplexing. The speed of these experiments combined with their flexibility and ability to multiplex assays makes the technique a valuable strategy to validate biomarker discovery.

  12. Production and trapping of carbon clusters for absolute mass measurements at ISOLTRAP

    CERN Document Server

    Scheidenberger, C; Herfurth, F; Kellerbauer, A G; Kluge, H J; Koizumi, M; Schwarz, S; Schweikhard, L

    2002-01-01

    Singly-charged carbon clusters C/sub n//sup +/ (n >or= 1) have been produced by laser-induced desorption and fragmentation of C/sub 60/ fullerenes and have been injected into and stored in the Penning trap system of the ISOLTRAP mass spectrometer at ISOLDE/CERN. The present study is the first step to extend the until now direct mass measurements at ISOLTRAP to absolute mass measurements by using clusters of /sup 12/C. (10 refs).

  13. Absolute quantitation of proteins by Acid hydrolysis combined with amino Acid detection by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirgorodskaya, Olga A; Körner, Roman; Kozmin, Yuri P

    2012-01-01

    Amino acid analysis is among the most accurate methods for absolute quantification of proteins and peptides. Here, we combine acid hydrolysis with the addition of isotopically labeled standard amino acids and analysis by mass spectrometry for accurate and sensitive protein quantitation. Quantitat......Amino acid analysis is among the most accurate methods for absolute quantification of proteins and peptides. Here, we combine acid hydrolysis with the addition of isotopically labeled standard amino acids and analysis by mass spectrometry for accurate and sensitive protein quantitation....... Quantitation of less than 10 fmol of protein standards with errors below 10% has been demonstrated using this method (1)....

  14. Masses and K-line absolute magnitudes of γ Leonis and 35 Comae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deming, D.; Dykton, M.

    1979-01-01

    The visual binary system γ Leonis consists of two K giants whose total mass was found by Wilson to be less than 0.6M/sub sun/ when a distance was obtained from K-line absolute magnitudes of both components. Since the orbital period of the system is of order 600 years, the orbital solution has usually been regarded as the most likely explanation of the anomalous mass. We have investigated the uniqueness of the orbital solution. We find that the individual orbital elements are only poorly determined, but that a 3 /P 2 is known to within +- 10%. The anomalous mass of this binary system implies either extensive mass-loss or the need for revisions in the K-line absolute magnitudes. We also investigate the binary system 35 Comae. Wilson has noted that in this system the K-line absolute magnitude of the G8 III primary component implies a total mass of 8 M/sub sun/. However the A component of 35 Comae is not sufficiently luminous to justify such a large total mass. The system has a period of order 700 years, and the uniqueness of the orbital solution is therefore suspect. However, in this case also we have investigated the uniqueness of the orbital solution and find that individual orbital elements are poorly determined, but that a 3 /P 2 is known to within +- 17%. We point out that 35 Comae is known to be very metal rich, in contrast to γ Leonis which is metal poor. We conclude that a composition-dependent correction to the K-line absolute magnitudes provides the simplest explanation of these mass anomalies. Such a correction would also give better agreement with the trigonometric parallaxes of these binary systems

  15. Recent improvements of ISOLTRAP Absolute mass measurements of exotic nuclides at $10^{-8}$ precision

    CERN Document Server

    Kellerbauer, A G

    2003-01-01

    In the past three years, the sensitivity and the performance of the Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP have been enhanced significantly. These improvements, which range from technical developments to systematic studies of the various factors contributing to the uncertainty of the final mass result, now allow mass measurements of short-lived radionuclides with half-lives of less than 100 ms and with a precision of better than 10$^{-8}$. Using a newly developed carbon cluster ion source, ISOLTRAP can perform absolute mass measurements relative to the microscopic mass standard $^{12}$C. These developments are reviewed as pertaining to the extension of ISOLTRAP mass measurements to higher precision and shorter half-lives and to molecular mass measurements.

  16. Radiative scaling neutrino mass and warm dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Ernest

    2012-01-01

    A new and radical scenario of the simple 2006 model of radiative neutrino mass is proposed, where there is no seesaw mechanism, i.e. neutrino masses are not inversely proportional to some large mass scale, contrary to the prevalent theoretical thinking. The neutral singlet fermions in the loop have masses of order 10 keV, the lightest of which is absolutely stable and the others are very long-lived. All are components of warm dark matter, which is a possible new paradigm for explaining the structure of the Universe at all scales.

  17. Kelvin Absolute Temperature Scale Identified as Length Scale and Related to de Broglie Thermal Wavelength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrab, Siavash

    Thermodynamic equilibrium between matter and radiation leads to de Broglie wavelength λdβ = h /mβvrβ and frequency νdβ = k /mβvrβ of matter waves and stochastic definitions of Planck h =hk =mk c and Boltzmann k =kk =mk c constants, λrkνrk = c , that respectively relate to spatial (λ) and temporal (ν) aspects of vacuum fluctuations. Photon massmk =√{ hk /c3 } , amu =√{ hkc } = 1 /No , and universal gas constant Ro =No k =√{ k / hc } result in internal Uk = Nhνrk = Nmkc2 = 3 Nmkvmpk2 = 3 NkT and potential pV = uN\\vcirc / 3 = N\\ucirc / 3 = NkT energy of photon gas in Casimir vacuum such that H = TS = 4 NkT . Therefore, Kelvin absolute thermodynamic temperature scale [degree K] is identified as length scale [meter] and related to most probable wavelength and de Broglie thermal wavelength as Tβ =λmpβ =λdβ / 3 . Parallel to Wien displacement law obtained from Planck distribution, the displacement law λwS T =c2 /√{ 3} is obtained from Maxwell -Boltzmann distribution of speed of ``photon clusters''. The propagation speeds of sound waves in ideal gas versus light waves in photon gas are described in terms of vrβ in harmony with perceptions of Huygens. Newton formula for speed of long waves in canals √{ p / ρ } is modified to √{ gh } =√{ γp / ρ } in accordance with adiabatic theory of Laplace.

  18. Absolute densities, masses, and radii of the WASP-47 system determined dynamically

    OpenAIRE

    Almenara, J. M.; Díaz, R. F.; Bonfils, X.; Udry, S.

    2016-01-01

    We present a self-consistent modelling of the available light curve and radial velocity data of WASP-47 that takes into account the gravitational interactions between all known bodies in the system. The joint analysis of light curve and radial velocity data in a multi-planetary system allows deriving absolute densities, radii, and masses without the use of theoretical stellar models. For WASP-47 the precision is limited by the reduced dynamical information that is due to the short time span o...

  19. Sulfur-based absolute quantification of proteins using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Seok; Heun Kim, Sook; Jeong, Ji-Seon; Lee, Yong-Moon; Yim, Yong-Hyeon

    2015-10-01

    An element-based reductive approach provides an effective means of realizing International System of Units (SI) traceability for high-purity biological standards. Here, we develop an absolute protein quantification method using double isotope dilution (ID) inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) combined with microwave-assisted acid digestion for the first time. We validated the method and applied it to certify the candidate protein certified reference material (CRM) of human growth hormone (hGH). The concentration of hGH was determined by analysing the total amount of sulfur in hGH. Next, the size-exclusion chromatography method was used with ICP-MS to characterize and quantify sulfur-containing impurities. By subtracting the contribution of sulfur-containing impurities from the total sulfur content in the hGH CRM, we obtained a SI-traceable certification value. The quantification result obtained with the present method based on sulfur analysis was in excellent agreement with the result determined via a well-established protein quantification method based on amino acid analysis using conventional acid hydrolysis combined with an ID liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The element-based protein quantification method developed here can be generally used for SI-traceable absolute quantification of proteins, especially pure-protein standards.

  20. From direct to absolute mass measurements a study of the accuracy of ISOLTRAP

    CERN Document Server

    Kellerbauer, A G; Bollen, G; Herfurth, F; Kluge, H J; Kuckein, M; Sauvan, E; Scheidenberger, C; Schweikhard, L

    2003-01-01

    For a detailed study of the accuracy of the Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP all expected sources of uncertainty were investigated with respect to their contributions to the uncertainty of the final result. In the course of these investigations, cross-reference measurements with singly charged carbon clusters $^{12}$C$^{+}_{n}$ were carried out. The carbon cluster ions were produced by use of laser-induced desorption, fragmentation, and ionization of C$_{60}$ fullerenes and injected into and stored in the Penning trap system. The comparison of the cyclotron frequencies of different carbon clusters has provided detailed insight into the residual systematic uncertainty of \\acro{ISOLTRAP} and yielded a value of $8 \\cdot 10^{-9}$. This also represents the current limit of mass accuracy of the apparatus. Since the unified atomic mass unit is defined as 1/12 of the mass of the $^{12}$C atom, it will be possible to carry out absolute mass measurements with \\acro{ISOLTRAP} in the future.\\\\[1\\baselineskip] PACS...

  1. Changing the Bayesian prior: Absolute neutrino mass constraints in nonlocal gravity*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirian, Yves

    2017-10-01

    Prior change is discussed in observational constraints studies of nonlocally modified gravity, where a model characterized by a modification of the form ˜m2R □-2R to the Einstein-Hilbert action was compared against the base Λ CDM one in a Bayesian way. It was found that the competing modified gravity model is significantly disfavored (at 22 ∶1 in terms of betting-odds) against Λ CDM given CMB +SNIa +BAO data, because of a tension appearing in the H0- ΩM plane. We identify the underlying mechanism generating such a tension and show that it is mostly caused by the late-time, quite smooth, phantom nature of the effective dark energy described by the nonlocal model. We find that the tension is resolved by considering an extension of the initial baseline, consisting in allowing the absolute mass of three degenerated massive neutrino species ∑mν/3 to take values within a prior interval consistent with existing data. As a net effect, the absolute neutrino mass is inferred to be nonvanishing at 2 σ level, best-fitting at ∑mν≈0.21 eV , and the Bayesian tension disappears rendering the nonlocal gravity model statistically equivalent to Λ CDM , given recent CMB +SNIa +BAO data. We also discuss constraints from growth rate measurements f σ8, whose fit is found to be improved by a larger massive neutrino fraction as well. The ν -extended nonlocal model also prefers a higher value of H0 than Λ CDM , therefore in better agreement with local measurements. Our study provides one more example suggesting that the neutrino density fraction Ων is partially degenerated with the nature of the dark energy. This emphasizes the importance of cosmological and terrestrial neutrino research and, as a massive neutrino background impacts structure formation observables non-negligibly, proves to be especially relevant for future galaxy surveys.

  2. Absolute Properties of the Pulsating Post-mass Transfer Eclipsing Binary OO Draconis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Woo; Hong, Kyeongsoo; Koo, Jae-Rim; Park, Jang-Ho

    2018-01-01

    OO Dra is a short-period Algol system with a δ Sct-like pulsator. We obtained time-series spectra between 2016 February and May to derive the fundamental parameters of the binary star and to study its evolutionary scenario. The radial velocity (RV) curves for both components were presented, and the effective temperature of the hotter and more massive primary was determined to be {T}{eff,1}=8260+/- 210 K by comparing the disentangling spectrum and the Kurucz models. Our RV measurements were solved with the BV light curves of Zhang et al. using the Wilson-Devinney binary code. The absolute dimensions of each component are determined as follows: M 1 = 2.03 ± 0.06 {M}⊙ , M 2 = 0.19 ± 0.01 {M}⊙ , R 1 = 2.08 ± 0.03 {R}⊙ , R 2 = 1.20 ± 0.02 {R}⊙ , L 1 = 18 ± 2 {L}⊙ , and L 2 = 2.0 ± 0.2 {L}⊙ . Comparison with stellar evolution models indicated that the primary star resides inside the δ Sct instability strip on the main sequence, while the cool secondary component is noticeably overluminous and oversized. We demonstrated that OO Dra is an oscillating post-mass transfer R CMa-type binary; the originally more massive star became the low-mass secondary component through mass loss caused by stellar wind and mass transfer, and the gainer became the pulsating primary as the result of mass accretion. The R CMa stars, such as OO Dra, are thought to have formed by non-conservative binary evolution and ultimately to evolve into EL CVn stars.

  3. Absolute densities, masses, and radii of the WASP-47 system determined dynamically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almenara, J. M.; Díaz, R. F.; Bonfils, X.; Udry, S.

    2016-10-01

    We present a self-consistent modelling of the available light curve and radial velocity data of WASP-47 that takes into account the gravitational interactions between all known bodies in the system. The joint analysis of light curve and radial velocity data in a multi-planetary system allows deriving absolute densities, radii, and masses without the use of theoretical stellar models. For WASP-47 the precision is limited by the reduced dynamical information that is due to the short time span of the K2 light curve. We achieve a precision of around 22% for the radii of the star and the transiting planets, between 40% and 60% for their masses, and between 1.5% and 38% for their densities. All values agree with previously reported measurements. When theoretical stellar models are included, the system parameters are determined with a precision that exceeds that achieved by previous studies, thanks to the self-consistent modelling of light curve and radial velocity data.

  4. A new time of flight mass spectrometer for absolute dissociative electron attachment cross-section measurements in gas phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Dipayan; Nag, Pamir; Nandi, Dhananjay

    2018-02-01

    A new time of flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS) has been developed to study the absolute dissociative electron attachment (DEA) cross section using a relative flow technique of a wide variety of molecules in gas phase, ranging from simple diatomic to complex biomolecules. Unlike the Wiley-McLaren type TOFMS, here the total ion collection condition has been achieved without compromising the mass resolution by introducing a field free drift region after the lensing arrangement. The field free interaction region is provided for low energy electron molecule collision studies. The spectrometer can be used to study a wide range of masses (H- ion to few hundreds atomic mass unit). The mass resolution capability of the spectrometer has been checked experimentally by measuring the mass spectra of fragment anions arising from DEA to methanol. Overall performance of the spectrometer has been tested by measuring the absolute DEA cross section of the ground state SO2 molecule, and the results are satisfactory.

  5. A new time of flight mass spectrometer for absolute dissociative electron attachment cross-section measurements in gas phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Dipayan; Nag, Pamir; Nandi, Dhananjay

    2018-02-01

    A new time of flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS) has been developed to study the absolute dissociative electron attachment (DEA) cross section using a relative flow technique of a wide variety of molecules in gas phase, ranging from simple diatomic to complex biomolecules. Unlike the Wiley-McLaren type TOFMS, here the total ion collection condition has been achieved without compromising the mass resolution by introducing a field free drift region after the lensing arrangement. The field free interaction region is provided for low energy electron molecule collision studies. The spectrometer can be used to study a wide range of masses (H - ion to few hundreds atomic mass unit). The mass resolution capability of the spectrometer has been checked experimentally by measuring the mass spectra of fragment anions arising from DEA to methanol. Overall performance of the spectrometer has been tested by measuring the absolute DEA cross section of the ground state SO 2 molecule, and the results are satisfactory.

  6. Absolute scale power measurements of frequency-locked coherent transition radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roark A. Marsh

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available We report the absolute power measurement of frequency-locked terahertz coherent transition radiation (CTR from a train of electron bunches produced by a 17.14 GHz accelerator. Frequency measurements were obtained by two independent techniques: a wave meter with a video diode detector, and a double heterodyne system. Good agreement was seen between these two techniques. The emitted radiation was observed to be a comb of frequencies that are harmonics of the 17.14 GHz accelerator frequency. The heterodyne receiver system showed that each of the emitted harmonics has a very narrow bandwidth, about 25 MHz, which corresponds to the transform-limited bandwidth for the bunch train length of 40 ns. The highest observed frequency was 377.08 GHz, the 22nd harmonic of the 17.14 GHz accelerator frequency. The emitted CTR power was measured on an absolute scale to test the theory of CTR. The power was compared with calculations made using an electric field integral equation (EFIE formulation and excellent agreement was obtained. This agreement serves as a valuable benchmark of the EFIE code, proof of both its validity and usefulness.

  7. Land Use in LCIA: an absolute scale proposal for Biotic Production Potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saez de Bikuna Salinas, Koldo; Ibrom, Andreas; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    Environmental impacts caused by land occupation and transformation have been bypassed in many LCA studies due to soils’ multifunctionality and the interconnectedness between the ecosystem services they provide. These inherent modelling complexities have traditionally forced LCA practitioners...... and no externally added inputs. The original ecosystem (or Potential Natural Vegetation) of a certain land gives then the maximum BPP with no additional, downstream or upstream, impacts. This Natural BPP is proposed as the maximum BPP in a hypothetical Absolute Scale for LCA’s Land Use framework. It is argued...... to content with a mere quantification of Land Use (LU), as surface area and duration (in m2 or ha and years) appropriated by humans, without further analysis of the impact pathways derived from those land uses. Milà i Canals established the first comprehensive, basic framework for taking soil quality aspect...

  8. Scaling properties of the transverse mass spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffner-Bielich, J.

    2002-01-01

    Motivated from the formation of an initial state of gluon-saturated matter, we discuss scaling relations for the transverse mass spectra at BNL's relativistic heavy-ion collider (RHIC). We show on linear plots, that the transverse mass spectra for various hadrons can be described by an universal function in m t . The transverse mass spectra for different centralities can be rescaled into each other. Finally, we demonstrate that m t -scaling is also present in proton-antiproton collider data and compare it to m t -scaling at RHIC. (orig.)

  9. Scaling analysis of meteorite shower mass distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, Lene; Meibom, A.; Bohr, Jakob

    1998-01-01

    Meteorite showers are the remains of extraterrestrial objects which are captivated by the gravitational field of the Earth. We have analyzed the mass distribution of fragments from 16 meteorite showers for scaling. The distributions exhibit distinct scaling behavior over several orders of magnetude...... the observed scaling exponents to exponents observed in laboratory experiments and discuss the possibility that one can derive insight into the original shapes of the meteoroids....

  10. In-Flight Measurement of the Absolute Energy Scale of the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Ajello, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Allafort, A.; /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Atwood, W.B.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Axelsson, M.; /Stockholm U. /Stockholm U., OKC /Royal Inst. Tech., Stockholm; Baldini, L.; /INFN, Pisa; Barbiellini, G.; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.; Bastieri, D.; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Bechtol, K.; /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Bellazzini, R.; /INFN, Pisa; Berenji, B.; /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Bloom, E.D.; /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Bonamente, E.; /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; Borgland, A.W.; /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Bouvier, A.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Bregeon, J.; /INFN, Pisa; Brez, A.; /INFN, Pisa; Brigida, M.; /Bari Polytechnic /INFN, Bari; Bruel, P.; /Ecole Polytechnique; Buehler, R.; /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Buson, S.; /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /CSIC, Catalunya /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /IASF, Milan /DAPNIA, Saclay /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Unlisted, US /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /ASDC, Frascati /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Montpellier U. /ASDC, Frascati /Bari Polytechnic /INFN, Bari /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Montpellier U. /Bari Polytechnic /INFN, Bari /Ecole Polytechnique /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Ecole Polytechnique /Hiroshima U. /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Bari Polytechnic /INFN, Bari /INFN, Bari /NASA, Goddard /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; /more authors..

    2012-09-20

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on-board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope is a pair-conversion telescope designed to survey the gamma-ray sky from 20 MeV to several hundreds of GeV. In this energy band there are no astronomical sources with sufficiently well known and sharp spectral features to allow an absolute calibration of the LAT energy scale. However, the geomagnetic cutoff in the cosmic ray electron-plus-positron (CRE) spectrum in low Earth orbit does provide such a spectral feature. The energy and spectral shape of this cutoff can be calculated with the aid of a numerical code tracing charged particles in the Earth's magnetic field. By comparing the cutoff value with that measured by the LAT in different geomagnetic positions, we have obtained several calibration points between {approx}6 and {approx}13 GeV with an estimated uncertainty of {approx}2%. An energy calibration with such high accuracy reduces the systematic uncertainty in LAT measurements of, for example, the spectral cutoff in the emission from gamma ray pulsars.

  11. Noncircular features in Saturn's rings IV: Absolute radius scale and Saturn's pole direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Richard G.; McGhee-French, Colleen A.; Lonergan, Katherine; Sepersky, Talia; Jacobson, Robert A.; Nicholson, Philip D.; Hedman, Mathew M.; Marouf, Essam A.; Colwell, Joshua E.

    2017-07-01

    We present a comprehensive solution for the geometry of Saturn's ring system, based on orbital fits to an extensive set of occultation observations of 122 individual ring edges and gaps. We begin with a restricted set of very high quality Cassini VIMS, UVIS, and RSS measurements for quasi-circular features in the C and B rings and the Cassini Division, and then successively add suitably weighted additional Cassini and historical occultation measurements (from Voyager, HST and the widely-observed 28 Sgr occultation of 3 Jul 1989) for additional non-circular features, to derive an absolute radius scale applicable across the entire classical ring system. As part of our adopted solution, we determine first-order corrections to the spacecraft trajectories used to determine the geometry of individual occultation chords. We adopt a simple linear model for Saturn's precession, and our favored solution yields a precession rate on the sky n^˙P = 0.207 ± 0 .006‧‧yr-1 , equivalent to an angular rate of polar motion ΩP = 0.451 ± 0 .014‧‧yr-1 . The 3% formal uncertainty in the fitted precession rate is approaching the point where it can provide a useful constraint on models of Saturn's interior, although realistic errors are likely to be larger, given the linear approximation of the precession model and possible unmodeled systematic errors in the spacecraft ephemerides. Our results are largely consistent with independent estimates of the precession rate based on historical RPX times (Nicholson et al., 1999 AAS/Division for Planetary Sciences Meeting Abstracts #31 31, 44.01) and from theoretical expectations that account for Titan's 700-yr precession period (Vienne and Duriez 1992, Astronomy and Astrophysics 257, 331-352). The fitted precession rate based on Cassini data only is somewhat lower, which may be an indication of unmodeled shorter term contributions to Saturn's polar motion from other satellites, or perhaps the result of inconsistencies in the assumed

  12. Neutrino mass as the probe of intermediate mass scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senjanovic, G.

    1980-01-01

    A discussion of the calculability of neutrino mass is presented. The possibility of neutrinos being either Dirac or Majorana particles is analyzed in detail. Arguments are offered in favor of the Majorana case: the smallness of neutrino mass is linked to the maximality of parity violation in weak interactions. It is shown how the measured value of neutrino mass would probe the existence of an intermediate mass scale, presumably in the TeV region, at which parity is supposed to become a good symmetry. Experimental consequences of the proposed scheme are discussed, in particular the neutrino-less double ..beta.. decay, where observation would provide a crucial test of the model, and rare muon decays such as ..mu.. ..-->.. e..gamma.. and ..mu.. ..-->.. ee anti e. Finally, the embedding of this model in an O(10) grand unified theory is analyzed, with the emphasis on the implications for intermediate mass scales that it offers. It is concluded that the proposed scheme provides a distinct and testable alternative for understanding the smallness of neutrino mass. 4 figures.

  13. Hadron mass scaling in Regge phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burakovsky, L.

    1998-01-01

    The authors show that Regge phenomenology is consistent with the only scaling law for the hadron masses, M * /M = (α'/α' * ) 1/2 , where asterisk indicates a finite-temperature quantity. Phenomenological models further suggest the following expression of the above scaling in terms of the temperature-dependent gluon condensate: M * /M = (α'/α' * ) 1/2 ( μν α > * / αμν >) 1/4

  14. Mass scaling of leptons and quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, G.

    1992-01-01

    The mass scaling of leptons and quarks is associated with a dynamical symmetry Lie group G and considered to be regulated in a two-dimensional subgroup parameter space S 1 (1) x S 1 (2) , a torus that is half-integer Fibonacci. By postregulating simple conditions on the mass dilatation pathways in S 1 (1) x S 1 (2) , one obtains mass values consistent with experiment for all twelve leptons and quarks. In particular, the neutrinos ν e , ν μ , ν τ are predicted to have masses 4.932731 eV, 1.019932 keV and 17.20978 keV, respectively, while the top quark t is predicted to have the mass 145.0027 GeV. 6 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Absolute quantification of norovirus capsid protein in food, water, and soil using synthetic peptides with electrospray and MALDI mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Erica M. [Center for Environmental Security and Security Defense Systems Initiative, The Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, 781 E. Terrace Mall, Tempe, AZ 85287-5904 (United States); Colquhoun, David R.; Schwab, Kellogg J. [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N. Wolfe St., Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Halden, Rolf U., E-mail: halden@asu.edu [Center for Environmental Security and Security Defense Systems Initiative, The Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, 781 E. Terrace Mall, Tempe, AZ 85287-5904 (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N. Wolfe St., Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States)

    2015-04-09

    Highlights: • Mass spectrometry-based methods for norovirus quantification are developed. • Absolute quantification is achieved using internal heavy isotope-labeled standards. • A single labeled peptide serves in two distinct detection strategies. • These methods are validated for food, water, and soil analysis. • MS-based detection limits are lowered by two orders of magnitude. - Abstract: Norovirus infections are one of the most prominent public health problems of microbial origin in the U.S. and other industrialized countries. Surveillance is necessary to prevent secondary infection, confirm successful cleanup after outbreaks, and track the causative agent. Quantitative mass spectrometry, based on absolute quantitation with stable-isotope labeled peptides, is a promising tool for norovirus monitoring because of its speed, sensitivity, and robustness in the face of environmental inhibitors. In the current study, we present two new methods for the detection of the norovirus genogroup I capsid protein using electrospray and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry. The peptide TLDPIEVPLEDVR was used to quantify norovirus-like particles down to 500 attomoles with electrospray and 100 attomoles with MALDI. With MALDI, we also demonstrate a detection limit of 1 femtomole and a quantitative dynamic range of 5 orders of magnitude in the presence of an environmental matrix effect. Due to the rapid processing time and applicability to a wide range of environmental sample types (bacterial lysate, produce, milk, soil, and groundwater), mass spectrometry-based absolute quantitation has a strong potential for use in public health and environmental sciences.

  16. Absolute quantification of norovirus capsid protein in food, water, and soil using synthetic peptides with electrospray and MALDI mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, Erica M.; Colquhoun, David R.; Schwab, Kellogg J.; Halden, Rolf U.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Mass spectrometry-based methods for norovirus quantification are developed. • Absolute quantification is achieved using internal heavy isotope-labeled standards. • A single labeled peptide serves in two distinct detection strategies. • These methods are validated for food, water, and soil analysis. • MS-based detection limits are lowered by two orders of magnitude. - Abstract: Norovirus infections are one of the most prominent public health problems of microbial origin in the U.S. and other industrialized countries. Surveillance is necessary to prevent secondary infection, confirm successful cleanup after outbreaks, and track the causative agent. Quantitative mass spectrometry, based on absolute quantitation with stable-isotope labeled peptides, is a promising tool for norovirus monitoring because of its speed, sensitivity, and robustness in the face of environmental inhibitors. In the current study, we present two new methods for the detection of the norovirus genogroup I capsid protein using electrospray and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry. The peptide TLDPIEVPLEDVR was used to quantify norovirus-like particles down to 500 attomoles with electrospray and 100 attomoles with MALDI. With MALDI, we also demonstrate a detection limit of 1 femtomole and a quantitative dynamic range of 5 orders of magnitude in the presence of an environmental matrix effect. Due to the rapid processing time and applicability to a wide range of environmental sample types (bacterial lysate, produce, milk, soil, and groundwater), mass spectrometry-based absolute quantitation has a strong potential for use in public health and environmental sciences

  17. IAU 2015 Resolution B2 on Recommended Zero Points for the Absolute and Apparent Bolometric Magnitude Scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mamajek, E. E.; Torres, G.; Prsa, A.

    2015-01-01

    The XXIXth IAU General Assembly in Honolulu adopted IAU 2015 Resolution B2 on recommended zero points for the absolute and apparent bolometric magnitude scales. The resolution was proposed by the IAU Inter-Division A-G Working Group on Nominal Units for Stellar and Planetary Astronomy after...... consulting with a broad spectrum of researchers from the astronomical community. Resolution B2 resolves the long-standing absence of an internationally-adopted zero point for the absolute and apparent bolometric magnitude scales. Resolution B2 defines the zero point of the absolute bolometric magnitude scale...... such that a radiation source with $M_{\\rm Bol}$ = 0 has luminosity L$_{\\circ}$ = 3.0128e28 W. The zero point of the apparent bolometric magnitude scale ($m_{\\rm Bol}$ = 0) corresponds to irradiance $f_{\\circ}$ = 2.518021002e-8 W/m$^2$. The zero points were chosen so that the nominal solar luminosity (3.828e26 W...

  18. Fixed mass and scaling sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, B.F.L.

    1975-01-01

    Using the correspondence principle (continuity in dynamics), the approach of Keppell-Jones-Ward-Taha to fixed mass and scaling current algebraic sum rules is extended so as to consider explicitly the contributions of all classes of intermediate states. A natural, generalized formulation of the truncation ideas of Cornwall, Corrigan, and Norton is introduced as a by-product of this extension. The formalism is illustrated in the familiar case of the spin independent Schwinger term sum rule. New sum rules are derived which relate the Regge residue functions of the respective structure functions to their fixed hadronic mass limits for q 2 → infinity. (Auth.)

  19. Absolute Quantification of Rifampicin by MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry Using Multiple TOF/TOF Events in a Single Laser Shot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Boone M; Chumbley, Chad W; Caprioli, Richard M

    2017-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI IMS) allows for the visualization of molecular distributions within tissue sections. While providing excellent molecular specificity and spatial information, absolute quantification by MALDI IMS remains challenging. Especially in the low molecular weight region of the spectrum, analysis is complicated by matrix interferences and ionization suppression. Though tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) can be used to ensure chemical specificity and improve sensitivity by eliminating chemical noise, typical MALDI MS/MS modalities only scan for a single MS/MS event per laser shot. Herein, we describe TOF/TOF instrumentation that enables multiple fragmentation events to be performed in a single laser shot, allowing the intensity of the analyte to be referenced to the intensity of the internal standard in each laser shot while maintaining the benefits of MS/MS. This approach is illustrated by the quantitative analyses of rifampicin (RIF), an antibiotic used to treat tuberculosis, in pooled human plasma using rifapentine (RPT) as an internal standard. The results show greater than 4-fold improvements in relative standard deviation as well as improved coefficients of determination (R 2 ) and accuracy (>93% quality controls, errors). This technology is used as an imaging modality to measure absolute RIF concentrations in liver tissue from an animal dosed in vivo. Each microspot in the quantitative image measures the local RIF concentration in the tissue section, providing absolute pixel-to-pixel quantification from different tissue microenvironments. The average concentration determined by IMS is in agreement with the concentration determined by HPLC-MS/MS, showing a percent difference of 10.6%. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  20. A novel double-focusing time-of-flight mass spectrometer for absolute recoil ion cross sections measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigaud, L., E-mail: lsigaud@if.uff.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), 24210-346 Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Jesus, V. L. B. de [Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Rio de Janeiro (IFRJ), Campus Nilópolis, 26530-060 Nilópolis, RJ (Brazil); Ferreira, Natalia [CEFET/RJ, Unidade Maracanã, 20271-110 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Montenegro, E. C. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), P.O. Box 68528, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-08-15

    In this work, the inclusion of an Einzel-like lens inside the time-of-flight drift tube of a standard mass spectrometer coupled to a gas cell—to study ionization of atoms and molecules by electron impact—is described. Both this lens and a conical collimator are responsible for further focalization of the ions and charged molecular fragments inside the spectrometer, allowing a much better resolution at the time-of-flight spectra, leading to a separation of a single mass-to-charge unit up to 100 a.m.u. The procedure to obtain the overall absolute efficiency of the spectrometer and micro-channel plate detector is also discussed.

  1. A Java program for LRE-based real-time qPCR that enables large-scale absolute quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Robert G

    2011-03-02

    Linear regression of efficiency (LRE) introduced a new paradigm for real-time qPCR that enables large-scale absolute quantification by eliminating the need for standard curves. Developed through the application of sigmoidal mathematics to SYBR Green I-based assays, target quantity is derived directly from fluorescence readings within the central region of an amplification profile. However, a major challenge of implementing LRE quantification is the labor intensive nature of the analysis. Utilizing the extensive resources that are available for developing Java-based software, the LRE Analyzer was written using the NetBeans IDE, and is built on top of the modular architecture and windowing system provided by the NetBeans Platform. This fully featured desktop application determines the number of target molecules within a sample with little or no intervention by the user, in addition to providing extensive database capabilities. MS Excel is used to import data, allowing LRE quantification to be conducted with any real-time PCR instrument that provides access to the raw fluorescence readings. An extensive help set also provides an in-depth introduction to LRE, in addition to guidelines on how to implement LRE quantification. The LRE Analyzer provides the automated analysis and data storage capabilities required by large-scale qPCR projects wanting to exploit the many advantages of absolute quantification. Foremost is the universal perspective afforded by absolute quantification, which among other attributes, provides the ability to directly compare quantitative data produced by different assays and/or instruments. Furthermore, absolute quantification has important implications for gene expression profiling in that it provides the foundation for comparing transcript quantities produced by any gene with any other gene, within and between samples.

  2. A Java program for LRE-based real-time qPCR that enables large-scale absolute quantification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G Rutledge

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Linear regression of efficiency (LRE introduced a new paradigm for real-time qPCR that enables large-scale absolute quantification by eliminating the need for standard curves. Developed through the application of sigmoidal mathematics to SYBR Green I-based assays, target quantity is derived directly from fluorescence readings within the central region of an amplification profile. However, a major challenge of implementing LRE quantification is the labor intensive nature of the analysis. FINDINGS: Utilizing the extensive resources that are available for developing Java-based software, the LRE Analyzer was written using the NetBeans IDE, and is built on top of the modular architecture and windowing system provided by the NetBeans Platform. This fully featured desktop application determines the number of target molecules within a sample with little or no intervention by the user, in addition to providing extensive database capabilities. MS Excel is used to import data, allowing LRE quantification to be conducted with any real-time PCR instrument that provides access to the raw fluorescence readings. An extensive help set also provides an in-depth introduction to LRE, in addition to guidelines on how to implement LRE quantification. CONCLUSIONS: The LRE Analyzer provides the automated analysis and data storage capabilities required by large-scale qPCR projects wanting to exploit the many advantages of absolute quantification. Foremost is the universal perspective afforded by absolute quantification, which among other attributes, provides the ability to directly compare quantitative data produced by different assays and/or instruments. Furthermore, absolute quantification has important implications for gene expression profiling in that it provides the foundation for comparing transcript quantities produced by any gene with any other gene, within and between samples.

  3. Absolute quantification method and validation of airborne snow crab allergen tropomyosin using tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Rahman, Anas M; Lopata, Andreas L; Randell, Edward W; Helleur, Robert J

    2010-11-29

    Measuring the levels of the major airborne allergens of snow crab in the workplace is very important in studying the prevalence of crab asthma in workers. Previously, snow crab tropomyosin (SCTM) was identified as the major aeroallergen in crab plants and a unique signature peptide was identified for this protein. The present study advances our knowledge on aeroallergens by developing a method of quantification of airborne SCTM by using isotope dilution mass spectrometry. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was developed for separation and analysis of the signature peptides. The tryptic digestion conditions were optimized to accomplish complete digestion. The validity of the method was studied using international conference on harmonization protocol, Where 2-9% for CV (precision) and 101-110% for accuracy, at three different levels of quality control. Recovery of the spiked protein from PTFE and TopTip filters was measured to be 99% and 96%, respectively. To further demonstrate the applicability and the validity of the method for real samples, 45 kg of whole snow crab were processed in an enclosed (simulated) crab processing line and air samples were collected. The levels of SCTM ranged between 0.36-3.92 μg m(-3) and 1.70-2.31 μg m(-3) for butchering and cooking stations, respectively. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Determination of the absolute jet energy scale in the DOe calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adam, I.; Adams, D.L.; Adams, M.; Ahn, S.; Aihara, H.; Alves, G.A.; Amos, N.; Anderson, E.W.; Astur, R.; Baarmand, M.M.; Babukhadia, L.; Baden, A.; Balamurali, V.; Balderston, J.; Baldin, B.; Banerjee, S.; Bantly, J.; Barberis, E.; Bartlett, J.F.; Belyaev, A.; Beri, S.B.; Bertram, I.; Bezzubov, V.A.; Bhat, P.C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Biswas, N.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, P.; Boehnlein, A.; Bojko, N.I.; Borcherding, F.; Boswell, C.; Brandt, A.; Brock, R.; Bross, A.; Buchholz, D.; Burtovoi, V.S.; Butler, J.M.; Carvalho, W.; Casey, D.; Casilum, Z.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakraborty, D.; Chang, S.-M.; Chekulaev, S.V.; Chen, L.-P.; Chen, W.; Choi, S.; Chopra, S.; Choudhary, B.C.; Christenson, J.H.; Chung, M.; Claes, D.; Clark, A.R.; Cobau, W.G.; Cochran, J.; Coney, L.; Cooper, W.E.; Cretsinger, C.; Cullen-Vidal, D.; Cummings, M.A.C.; Cutts, D.; Dahl, O.I.; Davis, K.; De, K.; Signore, K. Del; Demarteau, M.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S.P.; Diehl, H.T.; Diesburg, M.; Loreto, G. Di; Draper, P.; Ducros, Y.; Dudko, L.V.; Dugad, S.R.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V.D.; Engelmann, R.; Eno, S.; Eppley, G.; Ermolov, P.; Eroshin, O.V.; Evdokimov, V.N.; Fahland, T.; Fatyga, M.K.; Feher, S.; Fein, D.; Ferbel, T.; Finocchiaro, G.; Fisk, H.E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flattum, E.; Forden, G.E.; Fortner, M.; Frame, K.C.; Fuess, S.; Gallas, E.; Galyaev, A.N.; Gartung, P.; Gavrilov, V.; Geld, T.L.; II, R.J. Genik; Genser, K.; Gerber, C.E.; Gershtein, Y.; Gibbard, B.; Glenn, S.; Gobbi, B.; Goldschmidt, A.; Gomez, B.; Gomez, G.; Goncharov, P.I.; GonzalezSolis, J.L.; Gordon, H.; Goss, L.T.; Gounder, K.; Goussiou, A.; Graf, N.; Grannis, P.D.; Green, D.R.; Greenlee, H.; Grinstein, S.; Grudberg, P.; Gruenendahl, S.; Guglielmo, G.; Guida, J.A.; Guida, J.M.; Gupta, A.; Gurzhiev, S.N.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Hadley, N.J.; Haggerty, H.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Hahn, K.S.; Hall, R.E.; Hanlet, P.; Hansen, S.; Hauptman, J.M.; Hedin, D.; Heinson, A.P.; Heintz, U.; Hernandez-Montoya, R.; Heuring, T.; Hirosky, R.; Hobbs, J.D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hoftun, J.S.; Hsieh, F.; Hu, Ting; Hu, Tong; Huehn, T.; Ito, A.S.; James, E.; Jaques, J.; Jerger, S.A.; Jesik, R.; Jiang, J.Z.-Y.; Joffe-Minor, T.; Johns, K.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jones, M.; Joestlein, H.; Jun, S.Y.; Jung, C.K.; Kahn, S.; Kalbfleisch, G.; Kang, J.S.; Karmanov, D.; Karmgard, D.; Kehoe, R.; Kelly, M.L.; Kim, C.L.; Kim, S.K.; Klima, B.; Klopfenstein, C.; Kohli, J.M.; Koltick, D.; Kostritskiy, A.V.; Kotcher, J.; Kotwal, A.V.; Kourlas, J.; Kozelov, A.V.; Kozlovsky, E.A.; Krane, J.; Krishnaswamy, M.R.; Krzywdzinski, S.; Kuleshov, S.; Kunori, S.; Landry, F.; Landsberg, G.; Lauer, B.; Leflat, A.; Li, H.; Li, J.; Li-Demarteau, Q.Z.; Lima, J.G.R.; Lincoln, D.; Linn, S.L.; Linnemann, J.; Lipton, R.; Liu, Y.C.; Lobkowicz, F.; Loken, S.C.; Loekoes, S.; Lueking, L.; Lyon, A.L.; Maciel, A.K.A.; Madaras, R.J.; Madden, R.; Magan#=tilde#a-Mendoza, L.; Manankov, V.; Mani, S.; Mao, H.S.; Markeloff, R.; Marshall, T.; Martin, M.I.; Mauritz, K.M.; May, B.; Mayorov, A.A.; McCarthy, R.; McDonald, J.; McKibben, T.; McKinley, J.; McMahon, T.; Melanson, H.L.; Merkin, M.; Merritt, K.W.; Miettinen, H.; Mincer, A.; Mishra, C.S.; Mokhov, N.; Mondal, N.K.; Montgomery, H.E.; Mooney, P.; da Motta, H.; Murphy, C.; Nang, F.; Narain, M.; Narasimham, V.S.; Narayanan, A.; Neal, H.A.; Negret, J.P.; Nemethy, P.; Norman, D.; Oesch, L.; Oguri, V.; Oliveira, E.; Oltman, E.; Oshima, N.; Owen, D.; Padley, P.; Para, A.; Park, Y.M.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Paterno, M.; Pawlik, B.; Perkins, J.; Peters, M.; Piegaia, R.; Piekarz, H.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Pope, B.G.; Prosper, H.B.; Protopopescu, S.; Qian, J.; Quintas, P.Z.; Raja, R.; Rajagopalan, S.; Ramirez, O.; Rasmussen, L.; Reucroft, S.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rockwell, T.; Roco, M.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Rutherfoord, J.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Santoro, A.; Sawyer, L.; Schamberger, R.D.; Schellman, H.; Sculli, J.; Shabalina, E.; Shaffer, C.; Shankar, H.C.; Shivpuri, R.K.; Shupe, M.; Singh, H.; Singh, J.B.; Siroten ko, V.; Smart, W.; Smith, E.; Smith, R.P.; Snihur, R.; Snow, G.R.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Solomon, J.; Sosebee, M.; Sotnikova, N.; Souza, M.; Spadafora, A.L.; Steinbrueck, G.; Stephens, R.W.; Stevenson, M.L.; Stewart, D.; Stichelbaut, F.; Stoker, D.; Stolin, V.; Stoyanova, D.A.; Strauss, M.; Streets, K.; Strovink, M.; Sznajder, A.; Tamburello, P.; Tarazi, J.; Tartaglia, M.; Thomas, T.L.T.; Thompson, J.; Trippe, T.G.; Tuts, P.M.; Varelas, N.; Varnes, E.W.; Vititoe, D.; Volkov, A.A.; Vorobiev, A.P.; Wahl, H.D.; Wang, G.; Warchol, J.; Watts, G.; Wayne, M.; Weerts, H.; White, A.; White, J.T.; Wightman, J.A.; Willis, S.; Wimpenny, S.J.; Wirjawan, J.V.D.; Womersley, J.; Won, E.; Wood, D.R.; Xu, H.; Yamada, R.; Yamin, P.; Yang, J.; Yasuda, T.; Yepes, P.; Yoshikawa, C.; Youssef, S.; Yu, J.; Yu, Y.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, Z.H.; Zieminska, D.; Zieminski, A.; Zverev, E.G.; Zylberstejn, A.

    1999-01-01

    The DOe detector is used to study pp-bar collisions at the 1800 and 630 GeV center-of-mass energies available at the Fermilab Tevatron. To measure jets, the detector uses a sampling calorimeter composed of uranium and liquid argon as the passive and active media, respectively. Understanding the jet energy calibration is not only crucial for precision tests of QCD, but also for the measurement of particle masses and the determination of physics backgrounds associated with new phenomena. This paper describes the energy calibration of jets observed with the DOe detector at the two pp-bar center-of-mass energies in the transverse energy and pseudorapidity range E T >8 GeV and vertical bar η vertical bar <3

  5. Isotope pattern deconvolution for peptide mass spectrometry by non-negative least squares/least absolute deviation template matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slawski, Martin; Hussong, Rene; Tholey, Andreas; Jakoby, Thomas; Gregorius, Barbara; Hildebrandt, Andreas; Hein, Matthias

    2012-11-08

    The robust identification of isotope patterns originating from peptides being analyzed through mass spectrometry (MS) is often significantly hampered by noise artifacts and the interference of overlapping patterns arising e.g. from post-translational modifications. As the classification of the recorded data points into either 'noise' or 'signal' lies at the very root of essentially every proteomic application, the quality of the automated processing of mass spectra can significantly influence the way the data might be interpreted within a given biological context. We propose non-negative least squares/non-negative least absolute deviation regression to fit a raw spectrum by templates imitating isotope patterns. In a carefully designed validation scheme, we show that the method exhibits excellent performance in pattern picking. It is demonstrated that the method is able to disentangle complicated overlaps of patterns. We find that regularization is not necessary to prevent overfitting and that thresholding is an effective and user-friendly way to perform feature selection. The proposed method avoids problems inherent in regularization-based approaches, comes with a set of well-interpretable parameters whose default configuration is shown to generalize well without the need for fine-tuning, and is applicable to spectra of different platforms. The R package IPPD implements the method and is available from the Bioconductor platform (http://bioconductor.fhcrc.org/help/bioc-views/devel/bioc/html/IPPD.html).

  6. Precision and accuracy in the quantitative analysis of biological samples by accelerator mass spectrometry: application in microdose absolute bioavailability studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lan; Li, Jing; Kasserra, Claudia; Song, Qi; Arjomand, Ali; Hesk, David; Chowdhury, Swapan K

    2011-07-15

    Determination of the pharmacokinetics and absolute bioavailability of an experimental compound, SCH 900518, following a 89.7 nCi (100 μg) intravenous (iv) dose of (14)C-SCH 900518 2 h post 200 mg oral administration of nonradiolabeled SCH 900518 to six healthy male subjects has been described. The plasma concentration of SCH 900518 was measured using a validated LC-MS/MS system, and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) was used for quantitative plasma (14)C-SCH 900518 concentration determination. Calibration standards and quality controls were included for every batch of sample analysis by AMS to ensure acceptable quality of the assay. Plasma (14)C-SCH 900518 concentrations were derived from the regression function established from the calibration standards, rather than directly from isotopic ratios from AMS measurement. The precision and accuracy of quality controls and calibration standards met the requirements of bioanalytical guidance (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Center for Veterinary Medicine. Guidance for Industry: Bioanalytical Method Validation (ucm070107), May 2001. http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Drugs/GuidanceCompilanceRegulatoryInformation/Guidances/ucm070107.pdf ). The AMS measurement had a linear response range from 0.0159 to 9.07 dpm/mL for plasma (14)C-SCH 900158 concentrations. The CV and accuracy were 3.4-8.5% and 94-108% (82-119% for the lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ)), respectively, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9998. The absolute bioavailability was calculated from the dose-normalized area under the curve of iv and oral doses after the plasma concentrations were plotted vs the sampling time post oral dose. The mean absolute bioavailability of SCH 900518 was 40.8% (range 16.8-60.6%). The typical accuracy and standard deviation in AMS quantitative analysis of drugs from human plasma samples have been reported for the first time, and the impact of these

  7. Absolute Quantification of Choline-Related Biomarkers in Breast Cancer Biopsies by Liquid Chromatography Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimmi, Maria Chiara; Finato, Nicoletta; Pizzolato, Gloria; Beltrami, Carlo Alberto; Fogolari, Federico; Corazza, Alessandra; Esposito, Gennaro

    2013-01-01

    It has been repeatedly demonstrated that choline metabolism is altered in a wide variety of cancers. In breast tumours, the choline metabolite profile is characterized by an elevation of phosphocholine and total choline-compounds. This pattern is increasingly being exploited as biomarker in cancer diagnosis. The majority of in vitro metabolomics studies, for biomarkers quantification in cell cultures or tissues, entail proton NMR spectroscopy. Although many “targeted” approaches have been proposed to quantify metabolites from standard one-dimensional (1D) NMR experiments, the task is often made difficult by the high degree of overlap characterizing 1H NMR spectra of biological samples. Here we present an optimized protocol for tissue extraction and absolute quantification of choline, phosphocholine and glycerophosphocholine by means of liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS). The selected chromatographic separation system with a HILIC (hydrophilic interaction chromatography) amide column effectively separates free choline and its phopshorylated derivatives, contrary to failure observed using standard reversed-phase chromatography. The metabolite absolute quantification is based on external calibration with commercial standards, and is validated by a parallel 1D proton NMR analysis. The LC-MS/NMR analysis is applied to three breast carcinoma specimens obtained by surgical excision, each one accompanied by a control tissue sample taken outside the tumor margin. The metabolite concentrations measured are in good agreement with previous results on metabolic profile changes of breast cancer. Each of the three cancerous biopsies, when compared with the control tissue, exhibit a highly increased levels phosphocholine, total choline and phosphocholine/glycerophosphocholine ratio. PMID:24036926

  8. Twins labeling-liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry based metabolomics for absolute quantification of tryptophan and its key metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Huimin; Jiao, Yu; Wang, Xu; Lu, Tao; Zhang, Zunjian; Xu, Fengguo

    2017-06-30

    Tryptophan metabolism plays a crucial role in mediating gastrointestinal function. Here, in order to absolutely quantify tryptophan and its metabolites, a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based targeted metabolomics approach was developed using N-dimethyl-/N-diethyl-amino naphthalene-1-sulfonyl chloride (Dns/Dens-Cl) as twins labeling (TL) reagents. Dns-Cl is famous in amine and phenol derivations, and structure is similar with Dens-Cl. The introduction of easily protonated moiety of tertiary ammonium-containing part in the derivatives from Dns to tryptophan and its metabolites not only improved the LC separation but also enhanced their MS response. In addition, the Dens labeled standards were used as internal standards to compensate for matrix effects and ensure accurate quantifications. With the proposed method, twelve metabolites in tryptophan pathway could be detected at sub-ng/mL levels using only 20μL rat serum (the limit of detection could reach 3pg/mL for tryptamine, N-acetyl-serotonin and 6-hydroxymelatonin). The sensitivity was enhanced about 1-2 orders of magnitude compared with non-derivatization method. Focusing on tryptophan pathway, the method was successfully applied to determine the absolute serum concentrations of twelve tryptophan metabolites in a vincristine-induced ileus rat model. A significant down-regulation of the tryptophan metabolism along the kynurenine pathway and up-regulation of serotonin pathway were uncovered. Our findings provide a deeper insight into the mechanism of gastrointestinal dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. T2K off-axis near detector νμ flux measurement and absolute momentum scale calibration of the off-axis near detector tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaszczyk, F.

    2011-09-01

    In this thesis we present the results from the ν μ energy spectrum measurement at T2K's near detector and T2K's near detector tracker absolute momentum scale calibration. First we review the main historical steps and the current state of the art of neutrino physics as well as the theoretical framework required to understand the thesis physics analyses presented later on. In particular we focus on the neutrino oscillation parametrization and the neutrino-matter interaction models. We then describe T2K, an off-axis long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment in Japan which consists of a muon neutrino beam sent from J-PARC to Super- Kamiokande, with a magnetized near detector located at 280 m from the neutrino production site. T2K's main goals are measuring the last unknown angle of the PMNS matrix θ 13 through the search of ν e appearance in the ν μ beam and measuring precisely the atmospheric parameters through muon neutrino disappearance. We briefly describe the detectors, in particular the near detector tracker and its performance. We then present the analyses tools, such as the reconstruction techniques used and how the neutrino charged current interaction events needed for the energy spectrum measurement are selected. The main goal of the thesis, the muon neutrino energy spectrum measurement done with the first T2K data is explained next. We give the motivations for such measurement, the results obtained with the first T2K data sample, and the different systematic errors studied. Finally, the absolute momentum scale calibration of T2K's near detector tractor, done through the reconstruction of the neutral kaon invariant mass, is explained. (author)

  10. Influence of light-quark masses in dynamical scale breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barcelos Neto, J.; Chanda, R. (Rio de Janeiro Univ. (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica)

    1984-03-01

    It is demonstrated that light quark masses may significantly contribute to the logarithmic scale breaking in deep inelastic electromagnetic lepton-nucleon scattering. This is mainly due to the combination of scale variables together with large 'current' masses for u and d quarks, recently reported in the literature. Upper limits for current masses of u and d quarks, using positivity properties of the forward electromagnetic structure function F/sub 2/ of the nucleon are also estimated.

  11. Influence of light-quark masses in dynamical scale breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barcelos Neto, J.; Chanda, R.

    1984-01-01

    It is demonstrated that light quark masses may significantly contribute to the logarithmic scale breaking in deep inelastic electromagnetic lepton-nucleon scattering. This is mainly due to the combination of scale variables together with large 'current' masses for u and d quarks, recently reported in the literature. Upper limits for current masses of u and d quarks, using positivity properties of the forward electromagnetic structure function F 2 of the nucleon are also estimated. (Author) [pt

  12. DAQ Software Contributions, Absolute Scale Energy Calibration and Background Evaluation for the NOvA Experiment at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flumerfelt, Eric Lewis [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The NOvA (NuMI Off-axis ve [nu_e] Appearance) Experiment is a long-baseline accelerator neutrino experiment currently in its second year of operations. NOvA uses the Neutrinos from the Main Injector (NuMI) beam at Fermilab, and there are two main off-axis detectors: a Near Detector at Fermilab and a Far Detector 810 km away at Ash River, MN. The work reported herein is in support of the NOvA Experiment, through contributions to the development of data acquisition software, providing an accurate, absolute-scale energy calibration for electromagnetic showers in NOvA detector elements, crucial to the primary electron neutrino search, and through an initial evaluation of the cosmic background rate in the NOvA Far Detector, which is situated on the surface without significant overburden. Additional support work for the NOvA Experiment is also detailed, including DAQ Server Administration duties and a study of NOvA’s sensitivity to neutrino oscillations into a “sterile” state.

  13. Effects of fat and exoskeletal mass on the mass scaling of metabolism in Carabidae beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Bartosz W; Gudowska, Agnieszka; Antoł, Andrzej; Labecka, Anna Maria; Bauchinger, Ulf; Kozłowski, Jan; Czarnoleski, Marcin

    2017-10-13

    The rate at which organisms metabolize resources and consume oxygen is tightly linked to body mass. Typically, there is a sub-linear allometric relationship between metabolic rates and body mass (mass-scaling exponent b scaling of metabolic rates. Contrary to our hypothesis, the relative contribution of fat and the exoskeleton to body mass decreased, rather than increased with body mass, as indicated by the sub-linear allometric mass scaling of both components (b scaling, the exponents (b) for metabolism became slightly smaller (b = 0.70, phylogeny not considered; 0.52, phylogeny considered) when we removed lipids and the exoskeleton from body mass calculations and considered only the lean mass of soft tissue in the mass scaling. Overall, our results indicate that, in beetles, the relative content of metabolically inert components changes across species according to species-specific body mass. Nevertheless, we did not find evidence that this changing contribution plays a central role in the origin of interspecific metabolic scaling in carabids. Our findings stress the need for finding alternative explanations, at least in carabids, for the origin of the mass scaling of metabolic rates. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. The Effective Planck Mass and the Scale of Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, Ignatios

    2015-01-01

    Observable quantities in cosmology are dimensionless, and therefore independent of the units in which they are measured. This is true of all physical quantities associated with the primordial perturbations that source cosmic microwave background anisotropies such as their amplitude and spectral properties. However, if one were to try and infer an absolute energy scale for inflation-- a priori, one of the more immediate corollaries of detecting primordial tensor modes-- one necessarily makes reference to a particular choice of units, the natural choice for which is Planck units. In this note, we discuss various aspects of how inferring the energy scale of inflation is complicated by the fact that the effective strength of gravity as seen by inflationary quanta necessarily differs from that seen by gravitational experiments at presently accessible scales. The uncertainty in the former relative to the latter has to do with the unknown spectrum of universally coupled particles between laboratory scales and the pu...

  15. GRACE observes small?scale mass loss in Greenland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, B.; Chambers, D.; Schrama, E.J.O.

    2008-01-01

    Using satellite gravity data between February 2003 and January 2008, we examine changes in Greenland's mass distribution on a regional scale. During this period, Greenland lost mass at a mean rate of 179 ± 25 Gt/yr, equivalent to a global mean sea level change of 0.5 ± 0.1 mm/yr. Rates increase over

  16. Complex scaling and residual flavour symmetry in the neutrino mass ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-10-09

    Oct 9, 2017 ... Using the residual symmetry approach, we propose a complex extension of the scaling ansatz on the neutrino Majorana mass matrix M ν which allows a nonzero mass for each of the three light neutrinos as well as a nonvanishing θ 13 . Leptonic Dirac CP violation must be maximal while atmospheric ...

  17. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization with a Mixture of Absolute Ethanol and Iodized Oil for Poorly Visualized Endophytic Renal Masses Prior to CT-Guided Percutaneous Cryoablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michimoto, Kenkichi, E-mail: michikoo@jikei.ac.jp; Shimizu, Kanichiro; Kameoka, Yoshihiko; Sadaoka, Shunichi [The Jikei University Scholl of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kashiwa Hospital (Japan); Miki, Jun; Kishimoto, Koichi [The Jikei University School of Medicine, Department of Urology, Kashiwa Hospital (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    PurposeTo retrospectively evaluate the feasibility of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) using a mixture of absolute ethanol and iodized oil to improve localization of endophytic renal masses on unenhanced computed tomography (CT) prior to CT-guided percutaneous cryoablation (PCA).Materials and MethodsOur institutional review board approved this retrospective study. From September 2011 to June 2015, 17 patients (mean age, 66.8 years) with stage T1a endophytic renal masses (mean diameter, 26.5 mm) underwent TAE using a mixture of absolute ethanol and iodized oil to improve visualization of small and endophytic renal masses on unenhanced CT prior to CT-guided PCA. TAE was considered successful that accumulated iodized oil depicted whole of the tumor edge on CT. PCA was considered successful when the iceball covered the entire tumor with over a 5 mm margin. Oncological and renal functional outcomes and complications were also evaluated.ResultsTAE was successfully performed in 16 of 17 endophytic tumors. The 16 tumors were performed under CT-guided PCA with their distinct visualization of localization and safe ablated margin. During the mean follow-up period of 15.4 ± 5.1 months, one patient developed local recurrence. Estimated glomerular filtration rate declined by 8 % with statistical significance (P = 0.01). There was no procedure-related significant complication.ConclusionTAE using a mixture of absolute ethanol and iodized oil to improve visualization of endophytic renal masses facilitated tumor localization on unenhanced CT, permitting depiction of the tumor edge as well as a safe margin for ablation during CT-guided PCA, with an acceptable decline in renal function.

  18. Planck-Scale Mass Equidistribution of Toral Laplace Eigenfunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granville, Andrew; Wigman, Igor

    2017-10-01

    We study the small scale distribution of the L 2-mass of eigenfunctions of the Laplacian on the two-dimensional flat torus. Given an orthonormal basis of eigenfunctions, Lester and Rudnick (Commun. Math. Phys. 350(1):279-300, 2017) showed the existence of a density one subsequence whose L 2-mass equidistributes more-or-less down to the Planck scale. We give a more precise version of their result showing equidistribution holds down to a small power of log above Planck scale, and also showing that the L 2-mass fails to equidistribute at a slightly smaller power of log above the Planck scale. This article rests on a number of results about the proximity of lattice points on circles, much of it based on foundational work of Javier Cilleruelo.

  19. Rate Equation and Scaling for Fragmentation with Mass Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Boyd F.; Cai, M.; Han, H.

    1990-01-01

    A linear rate equation describes fragmentation with continuous and discrete mass loss typified by consumption of porous reactive solids and two-phase heterogeneous solids. For a mass-dependent fragmentation rate xα and a continuous-mass-loss rate εxγ,σ=γ-α-1‘‘recession regime’’ where small particles lose mass continuously without breaking, σ>0 yields a ‘‘fragmentation regime’’ where all particles break, and σ=0 yields scaling for α>0. Shattering for ασ≥0 is runaway fragmentation produci...

  20. Should sparticle masses unify at the GUT scale?

    CERN Document Server

    Pomarol, Alex

    1995-01-01

    Gauge and Yukawa (for the third family) coupling unification seem to be the best predictions of the grand-unified theories (GUTs). In supersymmetric GUTs, one also expects that the sparticle masses unify at the GUT scale (for sparticles embedded in the same GUT multiplet). I show under what circumstances GUTs do not lead to sparticle mass unification. In particular, I give examples of SU(5) and SO(10) SUSY GUTs in which squarks and sleptons of a family have different tree-level masses at the unification scale. The models have interesting relations between Yukawa couplings. For example, I present an SO(10) GUT that allows for a large ratio of the top to bottom Yukawas, accounting for the large m_t /m_b. The splittings can also be induced in the Higgs soft masses and accommodate the electroweak breaking.

  1. Effective Planck Mass and the Scale of Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Kleban, Matthew; Porrati, Massimo

    2016-01-11

    A recent paper argued that it is not possible to infer the energy scale of inflation from the amplitude of tensor fluctuations in the Cosmic Microwave Background, because the usual connection is substantially altered if there are a large number of universally coupled fields present during inflation, with mass less than the inflationary Hubble scale. We give a simple argument demonstrating that this is incorrect.

  2. Geoelectrical Measurement of Multi-Scale Mass Transfer Parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day-Lewis, Frederick David [US Geological Survey, Storrs, CT (United States); Singha, Kamini [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Johnson, Timothy C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Haggerty, Roy [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Binley, Andrew [Lancaster Univ. (United Kingdom); Lane, John W. [US Geological Survey, Storrs, CT (United States)

    2014-11-25

    Mass transfer affects contaminant transport and is thought to control the efficiency of aquifer remediation at a number of sites within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. An improved understanding of mass transfer is critical to meeting the enormous scientific and engineering challenges currently facing DOE. Informed design of site remedies and long-term stewardship of radionuclide-contaminated sites will require new cost-effective laboratory and field techniques to measure the parameters controlling mass transfer spatially and across a range of scales. In this project, we sought to capitalize on the geophysical signatures of mass transfer. Previous numerical modeling and pilot-scale field experiments suggested that mass transfer produces a geoelectrical signature—a hysteretic relation between sampled (mobile-domain) fluid conductivity and bulk (mobile + immobile) conductivity—over a range of scales relevant to aquifer remediation. In this work, we investigated the geoelectrical signature of mass transfer during tracer transport in a series of controlled experiments to determine the operation of controlling parameters, and also investigated the use of complex-resistivity (CR) as a means of quantifying mass transfer parameters in situ without tracer experiments. In an add-on component to our grant, we additionally considered nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to help parse mobile from immobile porosities. Including the NMR component, our revised study objectives were to: 1. Develop and demonstrate geophysical approaches to measure mass-transfer parameters spatially and over a range of scales, including the combination of electrical resistivity monitoring, tracer tests, complex resistivity, nuclear magnetic resonance, and materials characterization; and 2. Provide mass-transfer estimates for improved understanding of contaminant fate and transport at DOE sites, such as uranium transport at the Hanford 300 Area. To achieve our objectives, we implemented a 3

  3. Selected Ion Flow Tube-Mass Spectrometry for Absolute Quantification of Aroma Compounds in the Headspace of Dry Fermented Sausages

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Olivares, A.; Dryahina, Kseniya; Navarro, J. L.; Flores, M.; Smith, D.; Španěl, Patrik

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 13 (2010), s. 5819-5829 ISSN 0003-2700 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/0256 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : mass spectrometry * aroma compounds * dry fermented sausages Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 5.874, year: 2010

  4. Reference absolute and indexed values for left and right ventricular volume, function and mass from cardiac computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stojanovska, Jadranka; Prasitdumrong, Hutsaya; Patel, Smita; Sundaram, Baskaran; Gross, Barry H.; Yilmaz, Zeynep N.; Kazerooni, Ella A.

    2014-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) volumetric and functional parameters are important biomarkers for morbidity and mortality in patients with heart failure. To retrospectively determine reference mean values of LV and RV volume, function and mass normalised by age, gender and body surface area (BSA) from retrospectively electrocardiographically gated 64-slice cardiac computed tomography (CCT) by using automated analysis software in healthy adults. The study was approved by the institutional review board with a waiver of informed consent. Seventy-four healthy subjects (49% female, mean age 49.6±11) free of hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia with a normal CCT formed the study population. Analyses of LV and RV volume (end-diastolic, end-systolic and stroke volumes), function (ejection fraction), LV mass and inter-rater reproducibility were performed with commercially available analysis software capable of automated contour detection. General linear model analysis was performed to assess statistical significance by age group after adjustment for gender and BSA. Bland–Altman analysis assessed the inter-rater agreement. The reference range for LV and RV volume, function, and LV mass was normalised to age, gender and BSA. Statistically significant differences were noted between genders in both LV mass and RV volume (P-value<0.0001). Age, in concert with gender, was associated with significant differences in RV end-diastolic volume and LV ejection fraction (P-values 0.027 and 0.03). Bland–Altman analysis showed acceptable limits of agreement (±1.5% for ejection fraction) without systematic error. LV and RV volume, function and mass normalised to age, gender and BSA can be reported from CCT datasets, providing additional information important for patient management.

  5. Step scaling in coordinate space. Running of the quark mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cichy, Krzysztof [Frankfurt Univ., Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Adam Mickiewicz Univ., Poznan (Poland). Faculty of Physics; Jansen, Karl [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Korcyl, Piotr [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2016-12-15

    We perform a benchmark study of the step scaling procedure for the ratios of renormalization constants extracted from position space correlation functions. We work in the quenched approximation and consider the pseudoscalar, scalar, vector and axial vector bilinears. The pseudoscalar/scalar cases allow us to obtain the non-perturbative running of the quark mass over a wide range of energy scales - from around 17 GeV to below 1.5 GeV - which agrees well with the 4-loop prediction of continuum perturbation theory. We find that step scaling is feasible in X-space and we discuss its advantages and potential problems.

  6. Implicit Priors in Galaxy Cluster Mass and Scaling Relation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantz, A.; Allen, S. W.

    2011-01-01

    Deriving the total masses of galaxy clusters from observations of the intracluster medium (ICM) generally requires some prior information, in addition to the assumptions of hydrostatic equilibrium and spherical symmetry. Often, this information takes the form of particular parametrized functions used to describe the cluster gas density and temperature profiles. In this paper, we investigate the implicit priors on hydrostatic masses that result from this fully parametric approach, and the implications of such priors for scaling relations formed from those masses. We show that the application of such fully parametric models of the ICM naturally imposes a prior on the slopes of the derived scaling relations, favoring the self-similar model, and argue that this prior may be influential in practice. In contrast, this bias does not exist for techniques which adopt an explicit prior on the form of the mass profile but describe the ICM non-parametrically. Constraints on the slope of the cluster mass-temperature relation in the literature show a separation based the approach employed, with the results from fully parametric ICM modeling clustering nearer the self-similar value. Given that a primary goal of scaling relation analyses is to test the self-similar model, the application of methods subject to strong, implicit priors should be avoided. Alternative methods and best practices are discussed.

  7. Absolute Summ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Alfred, Jr.

    Summ means the entirety of the multiverse. It seems clear, from the inflation theories of A. Guth and others, that the creation of many universes is plausible. We argue that Absolute cosmological ideas, not unlike those of I. Newton, may be consistent with dynamic multiverse creations. As suggested in W. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and with the Anthropic Principle defended by S. Hawking, et al., human consciousness, buttressed by findings of neuroscience, may have to be considered in our models. Predictability, as A. Einstein realized with Invariants and General Relativity, may be required for new ideas to be part of physics. We present here a two postulate model geared to an Absolute Summ. The seedbed of this work is part of Akhnaton's philosophy (see S. Freud, Moses and Monotheism). Most important, however, is that the structure of human consciousness, manifest in Kenya's Rift Valley 200,000 years ago as Homo sapiens, who were the culmination of the six million year co-creation process of Hominins and Nature in Africa, allows us to do the physics that we do. .

  8. Geoelectrical Measurement of Multi-Scale Mass Transfer Parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day-Lewis, Frederick; Singha, Kamini; Haggerty, Roy; Johnson, Tim; Binley, Andrew; Lane, John

    2014-01-16

    Mass transfer affects contaminant transport and is thought to control the efficiency of aquifer remediation at a number of sites within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. An improved understanding of mass transfer is critical to meeting the enormous scientific and engineering challenges currently facing DOE. Informed design of site remedies and long-term stewardship of radionuclide-contaminated sites will require new cost-effective laboratory and field techniques to measure the parameters controlling mass transfer spatially and across a range of scales. In this project, we sought to capitalize on the geophysical signatures of mass transfer. Previous numerical modeling and pilot-scale field experiments suggested that mass transfer produces a geoelectrical signature—a hysteretic relation between sampled (mobile-domain) fluid conductivity and bulk (mobile + immobile) conductivity—over a range of scales relevant to aquifer remediation. In this work, we investigated the geoelectrical signature of mass transfer during tracer transport in a series of controlled experiments to determine the operation of controlling parameters, and also investigated the use of complex-resistivity (CR) as a means of quantifying mass transfer parameters in situ without tracer experiments. In an add-on component to our grant, we additionally considered nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to help parse mobile from immobile porosities. Including the NMR component, our revised study objectives were to: 1. Develop and demonstrate geophysical approaches to measure mass-transfer parameters spatially and over a range of scales, including the combination of electrical resistivity monitoring, tracer tests, complex resistivity, nuclear magnetic resonance, and materials characterization; and 2. Provide mass-transfer estimates for improved understanding of contaminant fate and transport at DOE sites, such as uranium transport at the Hanford 300 Area. To achieve our objectives, we implemented a 3

  9. X-ray group and cluster mass profiles in MOND: unexplained mass on the group scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, G. W.; Famaey, B.; Buote, D. A.

    2008-07-01

    Although very successful in explaining the observed conspiracy between the baryonic distribution and the gravitational field in spiral galaxies without resorting to dark matter (DM), the modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) paradigm still requires DM in X-ray bright systems. Here, to get a handle on the distribution and importance of this DM, and thus on its possible form, we deconstruct the mass profiles of 26 X-ray emitting systems in MOND, with temperatures ranging from 0.5 to 9 keV. Initially, we compute the MOND dynamical mass as a function of radius, then subtract the known gas mass along with a component of galaxies which include the cD galaxy with M/LK = 1. Next, we test the compatibility of the required DM with ordinary massive neutrinos at the experimental limit of detection (mν = 2 eV), with density given by the Tremaine-Gunn limit. Even by considering that the neutrino density stays constant and maximal within the central 100 or 150 kpc (which is the absolute upper limit of a possible neutrino contribution there), we show that these neutrinos can never account for the required DM within this region. The natural corollary of this finding is that, whereas clusters (T >~ 3 keV) might have most of their mass accounted for if ordinary neutrinos have a 2 eV mass, groups (T cluster baryonic dark matter (CBDM, Milgrom) or even sterile neutrinos would present a more satisfactory solution to the problem of missing mass in MOND X-ray emitting systems.

  10. Scale Sizes of High-Latitude Neutral Mass Density Perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C. Y.; Huang, Y.; Su, Y. J.; Huang, T.; Sutton, E. K.

    2017-12-01

    In a statistical study of neutral mass density maxima, we found for a select interval, that 57% of the maxima have correlated field-aligned current (FAC) signatures, indicative of localized Ohmic heating. However the remaining 43% do not, and we suggested that these maxima may be due to gravity waves generated by neutral heating. We follow up on this study by an investigation into the spatial scale sizes of the mass density maxima using high-resolution neutral density and FAC data from CHAMP, when the satellite is in conjunction with DMSP, which provides the corresponding ion drift velocity, particle precipitation and Poynting flux. The study shows the average scale sizes of the perturbations due to J x B heating, as well as the sizes of the waves generated by Joule heating.

  11. Scales of guide field reconnection at the hydrogen mass ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapenta, G.; Markidis, S.; Divin, A.; Goldman, M.; Newman, D.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the signatures of component reconnection for a Harris current sheet with a guide field using the physical mass ratio of hydrogen. The study uses the fully kinetic particle in cell code IPIC3D to investigate the scaling with mass ratio of the following three main component reconnection features: electron density cavities along the separatrices, channels of fast electron flow within the cavities, and electron phase space holes due to the Buneman instability in the electron high speed channels. The width and strength of the electron holes and of the electron cavities are studied up the mass ratio proper of hydrogen, considering the effect of the simulation box size, and of the boundary conditions. The results compare favorably with the existing data from the Cluster and Themis missions and provide quantitative predictions for realistic conditions to be encountered by the planned magnetospheric multiscale mission.

  12. Scales of guide field reconnection at the hydrogen mass ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapenta, G.; Markidis, S.; Divin, A.; Goldman, M.; Newman, D.

    2010-08-01

    We analyze the signatures of component reconnection for a Harris current sheet with a guide field using the physical mass ratio of hydrogen. The study uses the fully kinetic particle in cell code IPIC3D to investigate the scaling with mass ratio of the following three main component reconnection features: electron density cavities along the separatrices, channels of fast electron flow within the cavities, and electron phase space holes due to the Buneman instability in the electron high speed channels. The width and strength of the electron holes and of the electron cavities are studied up the mass ratio proper of hydrogen, considering the effect of the simulation box size, and of the boundary conditions. The results compare favorably with the existing data from the Cluster and Themis missions and provide quantitative predictions for realistic conditions to be encountered by the planned magnetospheric multiscale mission.

  13. The evolving Planck mass in classically scale-invariant theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannike, K.; Raidal, M.; Spethmann, C.; Veermäe, H.

    2017-04-01

    We consider classically scale-invariant theories with non-minimally coupled scalar fields, where the Planck mass and the hierarchy of physical scales are dynamically generated. The classical theories possess a fixed point, where scale invariance is spontaneously broken. In these theories, however, the Planck mass becomes unstable in the presence of explicit sources of scale invariance breaking, such as non-relativistic matter and cosmological constant terms. We quantify the constraints on such classical models from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis that lead to an upper bound on the non-minimal coupling and require trans-Planckian field values. We show that quantum corrections to the scalar potential can stabilise the fixed point close to the minimum of the Coleman-Weinberg potential. The time-averaged motion of the evolving fixed point is strongly suppressed, thus the limits on the evolving gravitational constant from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and other measurements do not presently constrain this class of theories. Field oscillations around the fixed point, if not damped, contribute to the dark matter density of the Universe.

  14. The evolving Planck mass in classically scale-invariant theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannike, K.; Raidal, M.; Spethmann, C.; Veermäe, H. [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics,Rävala 10, 10143 Tallinn (Estonia)

    2017-04-05

    We consider classically scale-invariant theories with non-minimally coupled scalar fields, where the Planck mass and the hierarchy of physical scales are dynamically generated. The classical theories possess a fixed point, where scale invariance is spontaneously broken. In these theories, however, the Planck mass becomes unstable in the presence of explicit sources of scale invariance breaking, such as non-relativistic matter and cosmological constant terms. We quantify the constraints on such classical models from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis that lead to an upper bound on the non-minimal coupling and require trans-Planckian field values. We show that quantum corrections to the scalar potential can stabilise the fixed point close to the minimum of the Coleman-Weinberg potential. The time-averaged motion of the evolving fixed point is strongly suppressed, thus the limits on the evolving gravitational constant from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and other measurements do not presently constrain this class of theories. Field oscillations around the fixed point, if not damped, contribute to the dark matter density of the Universe.

  15. The Higgs mass and the scale of new physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichhorn, Astrid [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,31 Caroline St N, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London,Prince Consort Rd, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Gies, Holger [Theoretisch-Physikalisches Institut, Abbe Center of Photonics,Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena,Max-Wien-Platz 1, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Jaeckel, Joerg; Plehn, Tilman; Scherer, Michael M. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Heidelberg,Philosophenweg 16, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Sondenheimer, René [Theoretisch-Physikalisches Institut, Abbe Center of Photonics,Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena,Max-Wien-Platz 1, D-07743 Jena (Germany)

    2015-04-07

    In view of the measured Higgs mass of 125 GeV, the perturbative renormalization group evolution of the Standard Model suggests that our Higgs vacuum might not be stable. We connect the usual perturbative approach and the functional renormalization group which allows for a straightforward inclusion of higher-dimensional operators in the presence of an ultraviolet cutoff. In the latter framework we study vacuum stability in the presence of higher-dimensional operators. We find that their presence can have a sizable influence on the maximum ultraviolet scale of the Standard Model and the existence of instabilities. Finally, we discuss how such operators can be generated in specific models and study the relation between the instability scale of the potential and the scale of new physics required to avoid instabilities.

  16. The relative and absolute reliability of the Functional Independence and Difficulty Scale in community-dwelling frail elderly Japanese people using long-term care insurance services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Takashi; Izawa, Kazuhiro P; Watanabe, Shuichiro

    2017-06-01

    The newly developed Functional Independence and Difficulty Scale is a tool for assessing the performance of basic activities of daily living in terms of both independence and difficulty. The reliability of this new scale has not been assessed. The aim of this study was to examine the relative reliability and absolute reliability of the newly developed scale in community-dwelling frail elderly people in Japan. Participants were 47 community-dwelling elderly subjects (22 for assessing test-retest reliability and 25 for assessing inter-rater reliability). As relative reliability indices, intra-class correlation coefficients were used. From an absolute reliability perspective, we conducted Bland-Altman analysis and calculated the limit of agreement or minimal detectable change to determine the acceptable range of error. Intra-class correlation coefficients for test-retest and inter-rater reliability were 0.90 (P reliability was -5.2 to 1.8, representing an increase of over six points for improvement and a decrease of over two points for decline of basic activities of daily living ability. The minimal detectable change for inter-rater reliability was 3.7, indicating that a three-point difference might be existed between difference raters. The results of this study demonstrated that the FIDS appeared to be a reliable instrument for use in Japanese community-dwelling frail elderly people. While further research using a large and more diverse sample of participants is needed, our findings support the use of FIDS in clinical practice or clinical research targeting frail elderly Japanese people.

  17. Prospects for mass unification at low energy scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkas, R.R.

    1995-12-31

    A simple Pati-Salam SU(4) model with a low symmetry breaking scale of about 1000 TeV is presented. The analysis concentrates on calculating radiative corrections to tree level mass relations for third generation fermions. The tree-level relation m{sub b}/m{sub {tau}} = 1 predicted by such models can receive large radiative corrections up to about 50% due to threshold effects at the mass unification scale. These corrections are thus of about the same importance as those that give rise to renormalisation group running. The high figure of 50% can be achieved because l-loop graphs involving the physical charged Higgs boson give corrections to m{sub {tau}} -m{sub b} that are proportional to the large top quark mass. These corrections can either increase or decrease m{sub b}/m{sub {tau}} depending on the value of an unknown parameter. They can also be made to vanish through a fine-tuning. A related model of tree-level t-b-{tau} unification which uses the identification of SU(2){sub R} with custodial SU(2) is then discussed. A curious relation m{sub b}{approx} {radical}2m{sub {tau}} is found to be satisfied at tree-level in this model. The overall conclusion of this work is that the tree-level relation m{sub b}=m{sub {tau}} at low scales such as 1000 TeV or somewhat higher can produce a successful value for m{sub b}/m{sub {tau}} after corrections, but one must be mindful that radiative corrections beyond those incorporated through the renormalisation group can be very important. 14 refs., 7 figs.

  18. Prospects for mass unification at low energy scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkas, R.R.

    1995-01-01

    A simple Pati-Salam SU(4) model with a low symmetry breaking scale of about 1000 TeV is presented. The analysis concentrates on calculating radiative corrections to tree level mass relations for third generation fermions. The tree-level relation m b /m τ = 1 predicted by such models can receive large radiative corrections up to about 50% due to threshold effects at the mass unification scale. These corrections are thus of about the same importance as those that give rise to renormalisation group running. The high figure of 50% can be achieved because l-loop graphs involving the physical charged Higgs boson give corrections to m τ -m b that are proportional to the large top quark mass. These corrections can either increase or decrease m b /m τ depending on the value of an unknown parameter. They can also be made to vanish through a fine-tuning. A related model of tree-level t-b-τ unification which uses the identification of SU(2) R with custodial SU(2) is then discussed. A curious relation m b ∼ √2m τ is found to be satisfied at tree-level in this model. The overall conclusion of this work is that the tree-level relation m b =m τ at low scales such as 1000 TeV or somewhat higher can produce a successful value for m b /m τ after corrections, but one must be mindful that radiative corrections beyond those incorporated through the renormalisation group can be very important. 14 refs., 7 figs

  19. Scaling of human body mass with height: the body mass index revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, N J

    2010-03-03

    We adapt a biomechanical argument of Rashevsky, which places limits on the stress experienced by a torso supported by the legs, to deduce that body mass m of growing children should scale as the p th power of height h with 7/3 < p < 8/3. Further arguments based on stability and heat loss suggest that p should be close to 8/3. The arguments are extended to suggest that waist circumference w should scale as hq with q near the lower end of 2/3 < or = q < or = 1. Data from Hong Kong and British children are consistent with these hypotheses. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Absolute quantification of Pru av 2 in sweet cherry fruit by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry with the use of a stable isotope-labelled peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippoushi, Katsunari; Sasanuma, Motoe; Oike, Hideaki; Kobori, Masuko; Maeda-Yamamoto, Mari

    2016-08-01

    Pru av 2, a pathogenesis-related (PR) protein present in the sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit, is the principal allergen of cherry and one of the chief causes of pollen food syndrome (oral allergy syndrome). In this study, a quantitative assay for this protein was developed with the use of the protein absolute quantification (AQUA) method, which consists of liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) employing TGC[CAM]STDASGK[(13)C6,(15)N2], a stable isotope-labelled internal standard (SIIS) peptide. This assay gave a linear relationship (r(2)>0.99) in a concentration range (2.3-600fmol/μL), and the overall coefficient of variation (CV) for multiple tests was 14.6%. Thus, the contents of this allergenic protein in sweet cherry products could be determined using this assay. This assay should be valuable for allergological investigations of Pru av 2 in sweet cherry and detection of protein contamination in foods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Global-scale hydrological response to future glacier mass loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, Matthias; Hock, Regine

    2018-02-01

    Worldwide glacier retreat and associated future runoff changes raise major concerns over the sustainability of global water resources1-4, but global-scale assessments of glacier decline and the resulting hydrological consequences are scarce5,6. Here we compute global glacier runoff changes for 56 large-scale glacierized drainage basins to 2100 and analyse the glacial impact on streamflow. In roughly half of the investigated basins, the modelled annual glacier runoff continues to rise until a maximum (`peak water') is reached, beyond which runoff steadily declines. In the remaining basins, this tipping point has already been passed. Peak water occurs later in basins with larger glaciers and higher ice-cover fractions. Typically, future glacier runoff increases in early summer but decreases in late summer. Although most of the 56 basins have less than 2% ice coverage, by 2100 one-third of them might experience runoff decreases greater than 10% due to glacier mass loss in at least one month of the melt season, with the largest reductions in central Asia and the Andes. We conclude that, even in large-scale basins with minimal ice-cover fraction, the downstream hydrological effects of continued glacier wastage can be substantial, but the magnitudes vary greatly among basins and throughout the melt season.

  2. Membranes for nanometer-scale mass fast transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakajin, Olgica [San Leandro, CA; Holt, Jason [Berkeley, CA; Noy, Aleksandr [Belmont, CA; Park, Hyung Gyu [Oakland, CA

    2011-10-18

    Nanoporous membranes comprising single walled, double walled, and multiwalled carbon nanotubes embedded in a matrix material were fabricated for fluid mechanics and mass transfer studies on the nanometer scale and commercial applications. Average pore size can be 2 nm to 20 nm, or seven nm or less, or two nanometers or less. The membrane can be free of large voids spanning the membrane such that transport of material such as gas or liquid occurs exclusively through the tubes. Fast fluid, vapor, and liquid transport are observed. Versatile micromachining methods can be used for membrane fabrication. A single chip can comprise multiple membranes. These membranes are a robust platform for the study of confined molecular transport, with applications in liquid and gas separations and chemical sensing including desalination, dialysis, and fabric formation.

  3. RPC Production at General Tecnica: a mass scale production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Della Volpe, D.; Morganti, S.

    2006-01-01

    The construction of LHC has deeply changed the RPC production. The enormous amount of detector needed and the strong requirements on gas volume quality had a deep impact on the production chain and on the QC and QA at the production site. This basically has brought the RPC from an almost hand-crafted detector to a medium scale mass product. The most critical aspects of the production chain have been modified and/or improved introducing new and more rigorous QC and QA procedures to guarantee the detector quality and improve the management of storage and the procurement on materials. Here it will be presented the work carried on in the last four year at the production site to improve and check the quality and the results achieved. Something like 10000 RPC were produced between 2002 and 2005. Also a preliminary and rough analysis on the efficiencies of the various phases in the chain production based on ATLAS production will be presented

  4. Cluster-continuum quasichemical theory calculation of the lithium ion solvation in water, acetonitrile and dimethyl sulfoxide: an absolute single-ion solvation free energy scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Nathalia F; Pliego, Josefredo R

    2015-10-28

    Absolute single-ion solvation free energy is a very useful property for understanding solution phase chemistry. The real solvation free energy of an ion depends on its interaction with the solvent molecules and on the net potential inside the solute cavity. The tetraphenyl arsonium-tetraphenyl borate (TATB) assumption as well as the cluster-continuum quasichemical theory (CC-QCT) approach for Li(+) solvation allows access to a solvation scale excluding the net potential. We have determined this free energy scale investigating the solvation of the lithium ion in water (H2O), acetonitrile (CH3CN) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solvents via the CC-QCT approach. Our calculations at the MP2 and MP4 levels with basis sets up to the QZVPP+diff quality, and including solvation of the clusters and solvent molecules by the dielectric continuum SMD method, predict the solvation free energy of Li(+) as -116.1, -120.6 and -123.6 kcal mol(-1) in H2O, CH3CN and DMSO solvents, respectively (1 mol L(-1) standard state). These values are compatible with the solvation free energy of the proton of -253.4, -253.2 and -261.1 kcal mol(-1) in H2O, CH3CN and DMSO solvents, respectively. Deviations from the experimental TATB scale are only 1.3 kcal mol(-1) in H2O and 1.8 kcal mol(-1) in DMSO solvents. However, in the case of CH3CN, the deviation reaches a value of 9.2 kcal mol(-1). The present study suggests that the experimental TATB scale is inconsistent for CH3CN. A total of 125 values of the solvation free energy of ions in these three solvents were obtained. These new data should be useful for the development of theoretical solvation models.

  5. Small angle neutron scattering on an absolute intensity scale and the internal surface of diatom frustules from three species of differing morphologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, C J; Strobl, M; Percot, A; Saroun, J; Haug, J; Vyverman, W; Chepurnov, V A; Ferris, J M

    2013-05-01

    The internal nanostructure of the diatoms Cyclotella meneghiniana, Seminavis robusta and Achnanthes subsessilis was investigated using small angle neutron scattering (SANS) to examine thin biosilica samples, consisting of isotropic (powder) from their isolated cell walls. The interpretation of SANS data was assisted by several other measurements. The N2 adsorption, interpreted within the Branuer-Emmet-Teller isotherm, yielded the specific surface area of the material. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy indicates that the isolated material is amorphous silica with small amounts of organic cell wall materials acting as a filling material between the silica particles. A two-phase (air and amorphous silica) model was used to interpret small angle neutron scattering data. After correction for instrumental resolution, the measurements on two SANS instruments covered an extended range of scattering vectors 0.0011 nm(-1) scattering vectors, q, on an absolute scale of intensity for each sample. Each of the samples gave a characteristic scattering curve where log (intensity) versus log (q) has a -4 dependence, with other features superimposed. In the high-q regime, departure from this behaviour was observed at a length-scales equivalent to the proposed unitary silica particle. The limiting Porod scattering law was used to determine the specific area per unit of volume of each sample illuminated by the neutron beam. The Porod behaviour, and divergence from this behaviour, is discussed in terms of various structural features and the proposed mechanisms for the bio-assembly of unitary silica particles in frustules.

  6. Micrometry combined with profile mapping for the absolute measurement of Integrated Column Density (ICD) and for accurate X-ray mass attenuation coefficients using XERT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, M. Tauhidul; Rae, Nicholas A.; Glover, Jack L.; Barnea, Zwi [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Chantler, Christopher T., E-mail: chantler@physics.unimelb.edu.a [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

    2010-07-21

    Absolute values of the column densities [{rho}t]{sub c} of four gold foils were measured using micrometry combined with the 2D X-ray attenuation profile. The absolute calibration of [{rho}t]{sub c} was made with a reference foil and the [{rho}t]{sub c} of other foils were determined following the thickness transfer method. By this method, we obtain absolute calibration to 0.1% or better which was not possible using only the X-ray map of a single foil over its central region.

  7. From high-scale leptogenesis to low-scale one-loop neutrino mass generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hang; Gu, Pei-Hong

    2018-02-01

    We show that a high-scale leptogenesis can be consistent with a low-scale one-loop neutrino mass generation. Our models are based on the SU(3)c × SU(2)L × U(1)Y × U(1) B - L gauge groups. Except a complex singlet scalar for the U(1) B - L symmetry breaking, the other new scalars and fermions (one scalar doublet, two or more real scalar singlets/triplets and three right-handed neutrinos) are odd under an unbroken Z2 discrete symmetry. The real scalar decays can produce an asymmetry stored in the new scalar doublet which subsequently decays into the standard model lepton doublets and the right-handed neutrinos. The lepton asymmetry in the standard model leptons then can be partially converted to a baryon asymmetry by the sphaleron processes. By integrating out the heavy scalar singlets/triplets, we can realize an effective theory to radiatively generate the small neutrino masses at the TeV scale. Furthermore, the lightest right-handed neutrino can serve as a dark matter candidate.

  8. Micro-scale mass-transfer variations during electrodeposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutija, D.P.

    1991-08-01

    Results of two studies on micro-scale mass-transfer enhancement are reported: (1) Profiled cross-sections of striated zinc surfaces deposited in laminar channel flow were analyzed with fast-fourier transforms (FFT) to determine preferred striation wavelengths. Striation frequency increases with current density until a minimum separation between striae of 150 {mu}m is reached. Beyond this point, independent of substrate used, striae meld together and form a relatively smooth, nodular deposit. Substrates equipped with artificial micron-sized protrusions result in significantly different macro-morphology in zinc deposits. Micro-patterned electrodes (MPE) with hemispherical protrusions 5 {mu}m in diameter yield thin zinc striae at current densities that ordinarily produce random nodular deposits. MPEs with artificial hemi-cylinders, 2.5 {mu}m in height and spaced 250 {mu}m apart, form striae with a period which matches the spacing of micron-sized ridges. (2) A novel, corrosion-resistant micromosaic electrode was fabricated on a silicon wafer. Measurements of mass-transport enhancement to a vertical micromosaic electrode caused by parallel bubble streams rising inside of the diffusion boundary-layer demonstrated the presence of two co-temporal enhancement mechanisms: surface-renewal increases the limiting current within five bubble diameters of the rising column, while bubble-induced laminar flows cause weaker enhancement over a much broader swath. The enhancement caused by bubble curtains is predicted accurately by linear superposition of single-column enhancements. Two columns of smaller H{sub 2} bubbles generated at the same volumetric rate as a single column of larger bubbles cause higher peak and far-field enhancements. 168 refs., 96 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Absolute quantification of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 in human tumor cell lines and tissues by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry using both isotopic and non-isotopic internal standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The peptide fingerprint map of NQO1 has been defined by using TripleTOF. ► Signature peptide of NQO1 can be quickly quantified within 10 min. ► Analysis is performed with non-isotopic analog and compared with isotopic method. ► This method is adequate for NQO1 quantitation from human cancer cells and tissues. -- Abstract: NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1, DT-diaphorase) is a prognostic biomarker and a potential therapeutic target for various tumors. Therefore, it is of significance to develop a robust method for the absolute quantification of NQO1. This study aimed to develop and validate a LC–MS/MS based method and to test the appropriateness of using non-isotopic analog peptide as the internal standard (IS) by comparing with a stable isotope labeled (SIL) peptide. The chromatographic performance and mass spectra between the selected signature peptide of NQO1 and the non-isotopic peptide were observed to be very similar. The use of the two internal standards was validated appropriate for the absolute quantification of NQO1, as evidenced by satisfactory validation results over a concentration range of 1.62–162 fmol μL −1 . This method has been successfully applied to the absolute quantification of NQO1 expression in various tumor cell lines and tissues. NQO1 expression in human tumor tissues is much higher than that in the neighboring normal tissues in both the cases of lung and colon cancer. The quantitative results obtained from the isotopic and non-isotopic methods are quite similar, further supporting that the use of non-isotopic analog peptide as internal standard is appropriate and feasible for the quantification of NQO1. By comparing with a classical isotopic IS, the present study indicates that the use of a non-isotopic peptide analog to the proteotypic peptide as the internal standard can get equal accuracy and preciseness in measuring NQO1. The universal applicability of the non-isotopic IS approach for the

  10. Absolute quantification of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 in human tumor cell lines and tissues by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry using both isotopic and non-isotopic internal standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Zhiyuan; Wu, Mengqiu; Li, Yingchun; Zheng, Xiao; Liu, Huiying; Cheng, Xuefang [State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Key Lab of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Xu, Lin [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Jiangsu Cancer Hospital, Nanjing 210009 (China); Wang, Guangji, E-mail: guangjiwang@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Key Lab of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Hao, Haiping, E-mail: hhp_770505@yahoo.com.cn [State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Key Lab of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► The peptide fingerprint map of NQO1 has been defined by using TripleTOF. ► Signature peptide of NQO1 can be quickly quantified within 10 min. ► Analysis is performed with non-isotopic analog and compared with isotopic method. ► This method is adequate for NQO1 quantitation from human cancer cells and tissues. -- Abstract: NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1, DT-diaphorase) is a prognostic biomarker and a potential therapeutic target for various tumors. Therefore, it is of significance to develop a robust method for the absolute quantification of NQO1. This study aimed to develop and validate a LC–MS/MS based method and to test the appropriateness of using non-isotopic analog peptide as the internal standard (IS) by comparing with a stable isotope labeled (SIL) peptide. The chromatographic performance and mass spectra between the selected signature peptide of NQO1 and the non-isotopic peptide were observed to be very similar. The use of the two internal standards was validated appropriate for the absolute quantification of NQO1, as evidenced by satisfactory validation results over a concentration range of 1.62–162 fmol μL{sup −1}. This method has been successfully applied to the absolute quantification of NQO1 expression in various tumor cell lines and tissues. NQO1 expression in human tumor tissues is much higher than that in the neighboring normal tissues in both the cases of lung and colon cancer. The quantitative results obtained from the isotopic and non-isotopic methods are quite similar, further supporting that the use of non-isotopic analog peptide as internal standard is appropriate and feasible for the quantification of NQO1. By comparing with a classical isotopic IS, the present study indicates that the use of a non-isotopic peptide analog to the proteotypic peptide as the internal standard can get equal accuracy and preciseness in measuring NQO1. The universal applicability of the non-isotopic IS approach for the

  11. Exact and Asymptotic Scaling Solutions for Fragmentation with Mass Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, M.; Edwards, Boyd F.; Han, H.

    1991-01-01

    Exact and asymptotic solutions to a linear rate equation for fragmentation with mass loss are presented. Solutions for spatially discrete random bond annihilation illustrate the mutual exclusiveness of the fragmentation and recession terms in the rate equation. Exact solutions for deterministic equal fragment recession show that continuous mass loss between fragmentation events can be approximated by discrete mass loss during fragmentation events when this mass loss is small. Evidence ...

  12. Stress Appraisal with Simulation of en masse Absolute Intrusion of Maxillary Anteriors deploying Strategic Mini-implant Locations: A Finite Element Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar S Padmawar

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Stresses on the teeth are higher and distributed more evenly, when the point of force application is bilateral rather than a single source. Bilateral implants generate less stresses which are evenly distributed with minimum detrimental effect on the teeth during absolute intrusion.

  13. Differential diagnosis of pelvic masses by gray-scale sonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Young Soo; Lee, Jeon Kee; Lee, Joong Suk; Choi, Han Yong; Kim, Bong Kee

    1984-01-01

    Ultrasonography is a safe, nonivasive examination which should be the first procedure in the workup of a patient with a definite or suspected pelvic mass. The diagnostic schemes were derived from correlating the sonographic features with histomorphology in 230 surgically proven pelvic masses. Besides separating pelvic masses into the conventional categories of cystic, complex and solid, grayscale sonographic features of a pelvic mass can be used to subcategorized these masses into a more useful differential diagnosis. The results are as follows: 1. The most characteristic finding of uterine mynoma was midly to mederately echogenic uterine enlargement (90.7%) with a lobulated uterine margin (62.8%), and often less echogenic than the normal uterine echoes. 2. The typical ultrasonographic finding of H-mole was uterine enlargement with multiple small vesicular patterns of intrauterine contents (93%). 3. This most frequent finding of cystic teratoma was cystic mass with echogenic foci (48%), but the echogenic appearance of the lesions was extremely variable. 4. The ultrasonographic findings of ectopic pregnancy were adnexal mass (complex or cystic), decidual proliferation of the uterus, enlargement of uterine size, fluid in cul-de-sac, deveiation of uterus by adnexal mass, and pseudointrauterine appearance. 5. Ultrasound provided information leading to the correct diagnosis in 57% of cases, contributory data in 21.3%, and non-specific information in 10.4%. Errors occured in 3.9% and false -negative in 7.4%

  14. A low Fermi scale from a simple gaugino-scalar mass relation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruemmer, F. [International School for Advanced Studies, Trieste (Italy); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Buchmueller, W. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-11-15

    In supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model, the Fermi scale of electroweak symmetry breaking is determined by the pattern of supersymmetry breaking. We present an example, motivated by a higher-dimensional GUT model, where a particular mass relation between the gauginos, third-generation squarks and Higgs fields of the MSSM leads to a Fermi scale smaller than the soft mass scale. This is in agreement with the measured Higgs boson mass. The {mu} parameter is generated independently of supersymmetry breaking, however the {mu} problem becomes less acute due to the little hierarchy between the soft mass scale and the Fermi scale as we argue. The resulting superparticle mass spectra depend on the localization of quark and lepton fields in higher dimensions. In one case, the squarks of the first two generations as well as the gauginos and higgsinos can be in the range of the LHC. Alternatively, only the higgsinos may be accessible at colliders. The lightest superparticle is the gravitino.

  15. SYSTEMATIC UNCERTAINTIES IN THE SPECTROSCOPIC MEASUREMENTS OF NEUTRON STAR MASSES AND RADII FROM THERMONUCLEAR X-RAY BURSTS. III. ABSOLUTE FLUX CALIBRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Güver, Tolga [Istanbul University, Science Faculty, Department of Astronomy and Space Sciences, Beyazıt, 34119, Istanbul (Turkey); Özel, Feryal; Psaltis, Dimitrios [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Marshall, Herman [Center for Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Guainazzi, Matteo [European Space Astronomy Centre of ESA, P.O. Box 78, Villanueva de la Cañada, E-28691 Madrid (Spain); Díaz-Trigo, Maria [ESO, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany)

    2016-09-20

    Many techniques for measuring neutron star radii rely on absolute flux measurements in the X-rays. As a result, one of the fundamental uncertainties in these spectroscopic measurements arises from the absolute flux calibrations of the detectors being used. Using the stable X-ray burster, GS 1826–238, and its simultaneous observations by Chandra HETG/ACIS-S and RXTE /PCA as well as by XMM-Newton EPIC-pn and RXTE /PCA, we quantify the degree of uncertainty in the flux calibration by assessing the differences between the measured fluxes during bursts. We find that the RXTE /PCA and the Chandra gratings measurements agree with each other within their formal uncertainties, increasing our confidence in these flux measurements. In contrast, XMM-Newton EPIC-pn measures 14.0 ± 0.3% less flux than the RXTE /PCA. This is consistent with the previously reported discrepancy with the flux measurements of EPIC-pn, compared with EPIC MOS1, MOS2, and ACIS-S detectors. We also show that any intrinsic time-dependent systematic uncertainty that may exist in the calibration of the satellites has already been implicity taken into account in the neutron star radius measurements.

  16. Recipe Estimation Using Mass Spectrometer and Large-Scale Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamun, Al; Nakamoto, Takamichi

    An odor recorder is an instrument capable of determining the qualitative and quantitative composition of the target smell (e.g. apple), so called odor recipe. A variety of smells can be generated by blending multiple odor components; an odor recorder can reproduce smells as well as record them so that the sensor array output pattern of the blended odor can match that of the target odor. Although the range of smell to be recorded has been so far limited, this work enhances that range using mass spectrometry without GC. We previously proposed the algorithm to select appropriate odor components among huge number of candidates. Here we applied this proposed algorithm experimentally for reproducing different eight fruit flavors using odor components selected from our laboratory database, composed of recorded mass patterns of 190 components. The blended and target smells were compared using sensory test (triangle test). Sensory test revealed that the smell blended according to the estimated recipe using our proposed method was almost the same as the target one. Moreover, even if the less contributed components in mass spectra are eliminated from the estimated recipe, the flavor remains almost similar to that of the target one.

  17. 40 CFR Appendix I to Subpart A of... - Global Warming Potentials (Mass Basis), Referenced to the Absolute GWP for the Adopted Carbon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Global Warming Potentials (Mass Basis..., App. I Appendix I to Subpart A of Part 82—Global Warming Potentials (Mass Basis), Referenced to the... formula Global warming potential (time horizon) 20 years 100 years 500 years CFC-11 CFCl3 5000 4000 1400...

  18. Scaling Factor Estimation Using an Optimized Mass Change Strategy, Part 1: Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aenlle, Manuel López; Fernández, Pelayo Fernández; Brincker, Rune

    2007-01-01

    In natural input modal analysis, only un-scaled mode shapes can be obtained. The mass change method is, in many cases, the simplest way to estimate the scaling factors, which involves repeated modal testing after changing the mass in different points of the structure where the mode shapes are known....... The scaling factors are determined using the natural frequencies and mode shapes of both the modified and the unmodified structure. However, the uncertainty on the scaling factor estimation depends on the modal analysis and the mass change strategy (number, magnitude and location of the masses) used to modify...... the dynamic behavior of the structure. In this paper, a procedure to optimize the mass change strategy is proposed, which uses the modal parameters(natural frequencies and mode shapes) of the original structure as the basic information....

  19. Absolute nuclear material assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  20. Absolute nuclear material assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  1. The scaling relationship between baryonic mass and stellar disc size in morphologically late-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Po-Feng

    2018-02-01

    Here I report the scaling relationship between the baryonic mass and scale-length of stellar discs for ∼1000 morphologically late-type galaxies. The baryonic mass-size relationship is a single power law R_\\ast ∝ M_b^{0.38} across ∼3 orders of magnitude in baryonic mass. The scatter in size at fixed baryonic mass is nearly constant and there are no outliers. The baryonic mass-size relationship provides a more fundamental description of the structure of the disc than the stellar mass-size relationship. The slope and the scatter of the stellar mass-size relationship can be understood in the context of the baryonic mass-size relationship. For gas-rich galaxies, the stars are no longer a good tracer for the baryons. High-baryonic-mass, gas-rich galaxies appear to be much larger at fixed stellar mass because most of the baryonic content is gas. The stellar mass-size relationship thus deviates from the power-law baryonic relationship, and the scatter increases at the low-stellar-mass end. These extremely gas-rich low-mass galaxies can be classified as ultra-diffuse galaxies based on the structure.

  2. Magnetic Origin of Black Hole Winds Across the Mass Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumura, Keigo; Kazanas, Demosthenes; Shrader, Chris; Behar, Ehud; Tombesi, Francesco; Contopoulos, Ioannis

    2017-01-01

    Black hole accretion disks appear to produce invariably plasma outflows that result in blue-shifted absorption features in their spectra. The X-ray absorption-line properties of these outflows are quite diverse, ranging in velocity from non-relativistic (approx. 300 km/sec) to sub-relativistic (approx. 0.1c where c is the speed of light) and a similarly broad range in the ionization states of the wind plasma. We report here that semi-analytic, self-similar magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wind models that have successfully accounted for the X-ray absorber properties of supermassive black holes, also fit well the high-resolution X-ray spectrum of the accreting stellar-mass black hole, GRO J1655-40. This provides an explicit theoretical argument of their MHD origin (aligned with earlier observational claims) and supports the notion of a universal magnetic structure of the observed winds across all known black hole sizes.

  3. From X-ray binaries to quasars black holes on all mass scales black holes on all mass scales

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, L C; Maccarone, T J

    2005-01-01

    This volume brings together contributions from many of the world's leading authorities on black hole accretion. The papers within represent part of a new movement to make use of the relative advantages of studying stellar mass and supermassive black holes and to bring together the knowledge gained from the two approaches. The topics discussed here run the gamut of the state of the art in black hole observational and theoretical work-variability, spectroscopy, disk-jet connections, and multi-wavelength campaigns on black holes are all covered. Reprinted from ASTROPHYSICS AND SPACE SCIENCE, 300:1-3 (2005)

  4. Heat and mass transfer intensification and shape optimization a multi-scale approach

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Is the heat and mass transfer intensification defined as a new paradigm of process engineering, or is it just a common and old idea, renamed and given the current taste? Where might intensification occur? How to achieve intensification? How the shape optimization of thermal and fluidic devices leads to intensified heat and mass transfers? To answer these questions, Heat & Mass Transfer Intensification and Shape Optimization: A Multi-scale Approach clarifies  the definition of the intensification by highlighting the potential role of the multi-scale structures, the specific interfacial area, the distribution of driving force, the modes of energy supply and the temporal aspects of processes.   A reflection on the methods of process intensification or heat and mass transfer enhancement in multi-scale structures is provided, including porous media, heat exchangers, fluid distributors, mixers and reactors. A multi-scale approach to achieve intensification and shape optimization is developed and clearly expla...

  5. Parametric scaling from species relative abundances to absolute abundances in the computation of biological diversity: a first proposal using Shannon's entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricotta, Carlo

    2003-01-01

    Traditional diversity measures such as the Shannon entropy are generally computed from the species' relative abundance vector of a given community to the exclusion of species' absolute abundances. In this paper, I first mention some examples where the total information content associated with a given community may be more adequate than Shannon's average information content for a better understanding of ecosystem functioning. Next, I propose a parametric measure of statistical information that contains both Shannon's entropy and total information content as special cases of this more general function.

  6. Physics at the 100 GeV mass scale: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, E.C.

    1990-01-01

    This report contains the following papers: heavy quarks--experimental; the theory of heavy flavour production; precision experiments in electroweak interactions; theory of precision electroweak measurements; applications of QCD to hadron-hadron collisions; W + W - interactions and the search for the Higgs Boson; electroweak symmetry breaking: Higgs/Whatever; electron-positron storage rings as heavy quark factories; prospects for next-generation e + e - linear colliders; current prospects for hadron colliders; hadron colliders beyond the SSC; recent results on weak decays of charmed mesons from the Mark 3 experiment; recent CLEO results on bottom and charm; recent results on B-decays from ARGUE; a review of recent results on the hadron and photoproduction of charm; search for the top quark at UA1; recent results from the UA2 experiment at the CERN bar pp collider; selected preliminary results from CDF; new measurement of the phase difference Φ 00 - Φ ± in CP--violating K 0 decays; a recent result on CP violation by E731 at Fermilab; rare kaon decay experiments; CP violation; inverse muon decay, neutrino dimuon production, and a search for neutral heavy leptons at the tevatron; first results from MACRO; a superstring theory underview; recent results from TRISTAN; measurements of the Z boson resonance parameters at SLC; decays of the Z boson; and theory--weak neutral currents and the Z mass after the SLC

  7. Physics at the 100 GeV mass scale: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, E.C. (ed.)

    1990-01-01

    This report contains the following papers: heavy quarks--experimental; the theory of heavy flavour production; precision experiments in electroweak interactions; theory of precision electroweak measurements; applications of QCD to hadron-hadron collisions; W{sup +}W{sup {minus}} interactions and the search for the Higgs Boson; electroweak symmetry breaking: Higgs/Whatever; electron-positron storage rings as heavy quark factories; prospects for next-generation e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} linear colliders; current prospects for hadron colliders; hadron colliders beyond the SSC; recent results on weak decays of charmed mesons from the Mark 3 experiment; recent CLEO results on bottom and charm; recent results on B-decays from ARGUE; a review of recent results on the hadron and photoproduction of charm; search for the top quark at UA1; recent results from the UA2 experiment at the CERN {bar p}p collider; selected preliminary results from CDF; new measurement of the phase difference {Phi}{sub 00} {minus} {Phi}{sub {plus minus}} in CP--violating K{sup 0} decays; a recent result on CP violation by E731 at Fermilab; rare kaon decay experiments; CP violation; inverse muon decay, neutrino dimuon production, and a search for neutral heavy leptons at the tevatron; first results from MACRO; a superstring theory underview; recent results from TRISTAN ; measurements of the Z boson resonance parameters at SLC; decays of the Z boson; and theory--weak neutral currents and the Z mass after the SLC.

  8. Scaling Factor Estimation Using Optimized Mass Change Strategy, Part 2: Experimental Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández, Pelayo Fernández; Aenlle, Manuel López; Garcia, Luis M. Villa

    2007-01-01

    The mass change method is used to estimate the scaling factors, the uncertainty is reduced when, for each mode, the frequency shift is maximized and the changes in the mode shapes are minimized, which in turn, depends on the mass change strategy chosen to modify the dynamic behavior of the struct......The mass change method is used to estimate the scaling factors, the uncertainty is reduced when, for each mode, the frequency shift is maximized and the changes in the mode shapes are minimized, which in turn, depends on the mass change strategy chosen to modify the dynamic behavior...... factors of a steel cantilever beam. The effect of the mass change strategy was experimentally studied by performing several modal tests in which the magnitude, the location and the number of the attached masses were changed....

  9. Scaling the Mode Shapes of a Building Model by Mass Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Rodrigues, J.; Andersen, P.

    2004-01-01

    It is well known, that when using natural input modal analysis, the loads are not known, and thus, the mode scaling factor that relates the magnitude of the loading to the magnitude of the response cannot be estimated. However It has been pointed out by several theoretical papers that mode shapes...... change technique can be used on a ¼ scale model of a 4-storey building. The uncertainties on the estimated scaling factors are illustrated by repeating the estimation using different mass changes....... can be scaled by performing  several natural input modal analysis tests with different mass changes, observe the frequency shift introduced by the mass changes and then follow an estimation scheme that allows the user to estimate the scaling factor modeby- mode, i.e. only information of the particular...

  10. A general method for the calculation of absolute trace gas concentrations in air and breath from selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Španěl, Patrik; Dryahina, Kseniya; Smith, D.

    249-250, - (2006), s. 230-239 ISSN 1387-3806 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/03/0827 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : selected ion flow tube * mass spectrometry * SIFT-MS * trace gas analysis Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.337, year: 2006

  11. Constraints on Dark Energy, Observable-mass Scaling Relations, Neutrino Properties and Gravity from Galaxy Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapetti Serra, David Angelo

    Using a data set of 238 cluster detections drawn from the ROSAT All-Sky Survey and X-ray follow-up observations from the Chandra X-ray Observatory and/or ROSAT for 94 of those clusters we obtain tight constraints on dark energy, both luminosity-mass and temperature-mass scaling relations, neutrin...

  12. Towards absolute quantification of allergenic proteins in food--lysozyme in wine as a model system for metrologically traceable mass spectrometric methods and certified reference materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryar, Adam; Pritchard, Caroline; Burkitt, William; Walker, Michael; O'Connor, Gavin; Burns, Duncan Thorburn; Quaglia, Milena

    2013-01-01

    Current routine food allergen quantification methods, which are based on immunochemistry, offer high sensitivity but can suffer from issues of specificity and significant variability of results. MS approaches have been developed, but currently lack metrological traceability. A feasibility study on the application of metrologically traceable MS-based reference procedures was undertaken. A proof of concept involving proteolytic digestion and isotope dilution MS for quantification of protein allergens in a food matrix was undertaken using lysozyme in wine as a model system. A concentration of lysozyme in wine of 0.95 +/- 0.03 microg/g was calculated based on the concentrations of two peptides, confirming that this type of analysis is viable at allergenically meaningful concentrations. The challenges associated with this promising method were explored; these included peptide stability, chemical modification, enzymatic digestion, and sample cleanup. The method is suitable for the production of allergen in food certified reference materials, which together with the achieved understanding of the effects of sample preparation and of the matrix on the final results, will assist in addressing the bias of the techniques routinely used and improve measurement confidence. Confirmation of the feasibility of MS methods for absolute quantification of an allergenic protein in a food matrix with results traceable to the International System of Units is a step towards meaningful comparison of results for allergen proteins among laboratories. This approach will also underpin risk assessment and risk management of allergens in the food industry, and regulatory compliance of the use of thresholds or action levels when adopted.

  13. The dynamical masses, densities, and star formation scaling relations of Lyα galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhoads, James E.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Richardson, Mark L. A.; McLinden, Emily M.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Fynbo, Johan P. U.; Tilvi, Vithal S.

    2014-01-01

    We present the first dynamical mass measurements for Lyα galaxies at high redshift, based on velocity dispersion measurements from rest-frame optical emission lines and size measurements from Hubble Space Telescope imaging, for nine galaxies drawn from four surveys. We use these measurements to study Lyα galaxies in the context of galaxy scaling relations. The resulting dynamical masses range from 10 9 to 10 10 M ☉ . We also fit stellar population models to our sample and use them to place the Lyα sample on a stellar mass versus line width relation. The Lyα galaxies generally follow the same scaling relation as star-forming galaxies at lower redshift, although, lower stellar mass fits are also acceptable in ∼1/3 of the Lyα galaxies. Using the dynamical masses as an upper limit on gas mass, we show that Lyα galaxies have unusually active star formation for their gas mass surface density. This behavior is consistent with what is observed in starburst galaxies, despite the typically smaller masses and sizes of the Lyα galaxy population. Finally, we examine the mass densities of these galaxies and show that their future evolution likely requires dissipational ('wet') merging. In short, we find that Lyα galaxies are low-mass cousins of larger starbursts.

  14. The QCD mass gap and quark deconfinement scales as mass bounds in strong gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burikham, Piyabut [Chulalongkorn University, High Energy Physics Theory Group, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Bangkok (Thailand); Harko, Tiberiu [Babes-Bolyai University, Department of Physics, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); University College London, Department of Mathematics, London (United Kingdom); Lake, Matthew J. [Sun Yat-Sen University, School of Physics, Guangzhou (China); Nanyang Technological University, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Singapore (Singapore); Naresuan University, The Institute for Fundamental Study, ' ' The Tah Poe Academia Institute' ' , Phitsanulok (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Ministry of Education, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2017-11-15

    Though not a part of mainstream physics, Salam's theory of strong gravity remains a viable effective model for the description of strong interactions in the gauge singlet sector of QCD, capable of producing particle confinement and asymptotic freedom, but not of reproducing interactions involving SU(3) color charge. It may therefore be used to explore the stability and confinement of gauge singlet hadrons, though not to describe scattering processes that require color interactions. It is a two-tensor theory of both strong interactions and gravity, in which the strong tensor field is governed by equations formally identical to the Einstein equations, apart from the coupling parameter, which is of order 1 GeV{sup -1}. We revisit the strong gravity theory and investigate the strong gravity field equations in the presence of a mixing term which induces an effective strong cosmological constant, Λ{sub f}. This introduces a strong de Sitter radius for strongly interacting fermions, producing a confining bubble, which allows us to identify Λ{sub f} with the 'bag constant' of the MIT bag model, B ≅ 2 x 10{sup 14} g cm{sup -3}. Assuming a static, spherically symmetric geometry, we derive the strong gravity TOV equation, which describes the equilibrium properties of compact hadronic objects. From this, we determine the generalized Buchdahl inequalities for a strong gravity 'particle', giving rise to upper and lower bounds on the mass/radius ratio of stable, compact, strongly interacting objects. We show, explicitly, that the existence of the lower mass bound is induced by the presence of Λ{sub f}, producing a mass gap, and that the upper bound corresponds to a deconfinement phase transition. The physical implications of our results for holographic duality in the context of the AdS/QCD and dS/QCD correspondences are also discussed. (orig.)

  15. The QCD mass gap and quark deconfinement scales as mass bounds in strong gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burikham, Piyabut; Harko, Tiberiu; Lake, Matthew J.

    2017-01-01

    Though not a part of mainstream physics, Salam's theory of strong gravity remains a viable effective model for the description of strong interactions in the gauge singlet sector of QCD, capable of producing particle confinement and asymptotic freedom, but not of reproducing interactions involving SU(3) color charge. It may therefore be used to explore the stability and confinement of gauge singlet hadrons, though not to describe scattering processes that require color interactions. It is a two-tensor theory of both strong interactions and gravity, in which the strong tensor field is governed by equations formally identical to the Einstein equations, apart from the coupling parameter, which is of order 1 GeV -1 . We revisit the strong gravity theory and investigate the strong gravity field equations in the presence of a mixing term which induces an effective strong cosmological constant, Λ f . This introduces a strong de Sitter radius for strongly interacting fermions, producing a confining bubble, which allows us to identify Λ f with the 'bag constant' of the MIT bag model, B ≅ 2 x 10 14 g cm -3 . Assuming a static, spherically symmetric geometry, we derive the strong gravity TOV equation, which describes the equilibrium properties of compact hadronic objects. From this, we determine the generalized Buchdahl inequalities for a strong gravity 'particle', giving rise to upper and lower bounds on the mass/radius ratio of stable, compact, strongly interacting objects. We show, explicitly, that the existence of the lower mass bound is induced by the presence of Λ f , producing a mass gap, and that the upper bound corresponds to a deconfinement phase transition. The physical implications of our results for holographic duality in the context of the AdS/QCD and dS/QCD correspondences are also discussed. (orig.)

  16. NGS Absolute Gravity Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NGS Absolute Gravity data (78 stations) was received in July 1993. Principal gravity parameters include Gravity Value, Uncertainty, and Vertical Gradient. The...

  17. Decoherence at absolute zero

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Supurna

    2005-01-01

    We present an analytical study of the loss of quantum coherence at absolute zero. Our model consists of a harmonic oscillator coupled to an environment of harmonic oscillators at absolute zero. We find that for an Ohmic bath, the offdiagonal elements of the density matrix in the position representation decay as a power law in time at late times. This slow loss of coherence in the quantum domain is qualitatively different from the exponential decay observed in studies of high temperature envir...

  18. Conceptual Design and Demonstration of Space Scale for Measuring Mass in Microgravity Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn-Kyu Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new idea for developing a space scale for measuring mass in a microgravity environment was proposed by using the inertial force properties of an object to measure its mass. The space scale detected the momentum change of the specimen and reference masses by using a load-cell sensor as the force transducer based on Newton’s laws of motion. In addition, the space scale calculated the specimen mass by comparing the inertial forces of the specimen and reference masses in the same acceleration field. By using this concept, a space scale with a capacity of 3 kg based on the law of momentum conservation was implemented and demonstrated under microgravity conditions onboard International Space Station (ISS with an accuracy of ±1 g. By the performance analysis on the space scale, it was verified that an instrument with a compact size could be implemented and be quickly measured with a reasonable accuracy under microgravity conditions.

  19. TESTING THE ASTEROSEISMIC MASS SCALE USING METAL-POOR STARS CHARACTERIZED WITH APOGEE AND KEPLER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, Courtney R.; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Tayar, Jamie; Pinsonneault, Marc [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 W. 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Elsworth, Yvonne P.; Chaplin, William J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston Park Road, West Midlands, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Shetrone, Matthew [McDonald Observatory, The University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, C1400, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); Mosser, Benoît [LESIA, CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Université Denis Diderot, Observatoire de Paris, F-92195 Meudon Cedex (France); Hekker, Saskia [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Harding, Paul [Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106-7215 (United States); Silva Aguirre, Víctor [Stellar Astrophysics Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Basu, Sarbani [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Beers, Timothy C. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719, USA and JINA: Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics (United States); Bizyaev, Dmitry [Apache Point Observatory, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States); Bedding, Timothy R. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy (SIfA), School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Frinchaboy, Peter M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas Christian University, TCU Box 298840, Fort Worth, TX 76129 (United States); García, Rafael A. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS, Universit Paris 7 Diderot, IRFU/SAp, Centre de Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Pérez, Ana E. García; Hearty, Fred R., E-mail: epstein@astronomy.ohio-state.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); and others

    2014-04-20

    Fundamental stellar properties, such as mass, radius, and age, can be inferred using asteroseismology. Cool stars with convective envelopes have turbulent motions that can stochastically drive and damp pulsations. The properties of the oscillation frequency power spectrum can be tied to mass and radius through solar-scaled asteroseismic relations. Stellar properties derived using these scaling relations need verification over a range of metallicities. Because the age and mass of halo stars are well-constrained by astrophysical priors, they provide an independent, empirical check on asteroseismic mass estimates in the low-metallicity regime. We identify nine metal-poor red giants (including six stars that are kinematically associated with the halo) from a sample observed by both the Kepler space telescope and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-III APOGEE spectroscopic survey. We compare masses inferred using asteroseismology to those expected for halo and thick-disk stars. Although our sample is small, standard scaling relations, combined with asteroseismic parameters from the APOKASC Catalog, produce masses that are systematically higher (<ΔM > =0.17 ± 0.05 M {sub ☉}) than astrophysical expectations. The magnitude of the mass discrepancy is reduced by known theoretical corrections to the measured large frequency separation scaling relationship. Using alternative methods for measuring asteroseismic parameters induces systematic shifts at the 0.04 M {sub ☉} level. We also compare published asteroseismic analyses with scaling relationship masses to examine the impact of using the frequency of maximum power as a constraint. Upcoming APOKASC observations will provide a larger sample of ∼100 metal-poor stars, important for detailed asteroseismic characterization of Galactic stellar populations.

  20. UPDATED MASS SCALING RELATIONS FOR NUCLEAR STAR CLUSTERS AND A COMPARISON TO SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, Nicholas; Graham, Alister W.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate whether or not nuclear star clusters and supermassive black holes (SMBHs) follow a common set of mass scaling relations with their host galaxy's properties, and hence can be considered to form a single class of central massive object (CMO). We have compiled a large sample of galaxies with measured nuclear star cluster masses and host galaxy properties from the literature and fit log-linear scaling relations. We find that nuclear star cluster mass, M NC , correlates most tightly with the host galaxy's velocity dispersion: log M NC = (2.11 ± 0.31)log (σ/54) + (6.63 ± 0.09), but has a slope dramatically shallower than the relation defined by SMBHs. We find that the nuclear star cluster mass relations involving host galaxy (and spheroid) luminosity and stellar and dynamical mass, intercept with but are in general shallower than the corresponding black hole scaling relations. In particular, M NC ∝M 0.55±0.15 Gal,dyn ; the nuclear cluster mass is not a constant fraction of its host galaxy or spheroid mass. We conclude that nuclear stellar clusters and SMBHs do not form a single family of CMOs.

  1. Two mass-scale oscillation analysis of atmospheric and reactor data

    CERN Document Server

    González-Garciá, M Concepción

    2003-01-01

    An analysis of atmospheric and reactor neutrino data is presented in terms of three--neutrino oscillations where the effect of both mass differences is explicitly considered. We study the allowed parameter space resulting from this analysis as a function of the {\\it mass splitting hierarchy parameter} $\\alpha=\\Delta m^2/\\Delta M^2$ which parametrizes the departure from the one--dominant mass scale approximation. We consider schemes with both direct and inverted mass ordering. Our results show that the analysis of the atmospheric neutrino data does not provide any significant restriction on $\\alpha$ but even for large deviations of the one--dominant mass scale approximation the derived range of the largest mass splitting, $\\Delta M^2$, is stable while the allowed ranges of mixing angles $\\sin^2\\theta_{23}$ and $\\sin^2\\theta_{13}$ are wider than those obtained in the one--dominant mass scale approximation. Inclusion of the CHOOZ reactor data in the analysis favours small values of $\\alpha$. This results into th...

  2. Naturalness and superpartner masses or when to give up on weak scale supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, G.W.; Castano, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    Superpartner masses cannot be arbitrarily heavy if supersymmetric extensions of the standard model explain the stability of the gauge hierarchy. This ancient and hallowed motivation for weak scale supersymmetry is often quoted, yet no reliable determination of this upper limit on superpartner masses exists. In this paper we compute upper bounds on superpartner masses in the minimal supersymmetric model, and we identify which values of the superpartner masses correspond to the most natural explanation of the hierarchy stability. We compare the most natural value of these masses and their upper limits to the physics reach of current and future colliders. As a result, we find that supersymmetry could explain weak scale stability naturally even if no superpartners are discovered at the CERN LEP II or the Fermilab Tevatron (even with the Main Injector upgrade). However, we find that supersymmetry cannot provide a complete explanation of weak scale stability, if squarks and gluinos have masses beyond the physics reach of the CERN LHC. Moreover, in the most natural scenarios, many sparticles, for example, charginos, squarks, and gluinos, lie within the physics reach of either LEP II or the Tevatron. Our analysis determines the most natural value of the chargino (squark) [(gluino)] mass consistent with current experimental constraints is ∼50 (250) [(250)] GeV and the corresponding theoretical upper bound is ∼250 (700) [(800)] GeV

  3. Modelling maximal oxygen uptake in athletes: allometric scaling versus ratio-scaling in relation to body mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Michael; Aziz, Abdul Rashid

    2008-04-01

    Maximal oxygen uptake, V&O2 peak, among athletes is an important foundation for all training programmes to enhance competition performance. In Singapore, the V& O2 peak of athletes is apparently not widely known. There is also controversy in the modelling or scaling of maximal oxygen uptake for differences in body size - the use of ratio-scaling remains common but allometric scaling is gaining acceptance as the method of choice. One hundred fifty-eight male (age, 21.7 +/- 4.9 years; body mass, 64.8 +/- 8.6 kg) and 28 female (age, 21.9 +/- 7.0 years; body mass, 53.0 +/- 7.0 kg) athletes completed a maximal treadmill run to volitional exhaustion, to determine VO2 peak. V& O2 peak in L/min of female athletes was 67.8% that of male athletes (2.53 +/- 0.29 vs. 3.73 +/- 0.53 L/min), and V& O2 peak in mL/kg BM1.0/min of female athletes was 83.4% of male athletes (48.4 +/- 7.2 vs. 58.0 +/- 6.9 mL/kg BM1.0/min). Ratio-scaling of V& O2 peak did not create a size-free variable and was unsuitable as a scaling method. Instead, V& O2 peak, that was independent of the effect of body mass in male and female athletes, was best described using 2 separate and allometrically-derived sex-specific regression equations; these were V& O2 peak = 2.23 BM0.67 for male athletes and V& O2 peak = 2.23 BM0.24 for female athletes.

  4. Absolute luminosity measurements with the LHCb detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderson, J; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Arrabito, L; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Bailey, D S; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bates, A; Bauer, C; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Bediaga, I; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Brisbane, S; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Büchler-Germann, A; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Caicedo Carvajal, J M; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chiapolini, N; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Collins, P; Constantin, F; Conti, G; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Corti, G; Cowan, G A; Currie, R; D'Almagne, B; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; De Bonis, I; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Lorenzi, F; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Degaudenzi, H; Deissenroth, M; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Diniz Batista, P; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Eames, C; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisele, F; Eisenhardt, S; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; Elsasser, Ch; d'Enterria, D G; Esperante Pereira, D; Estève, L; Falabella, A; Fanchini, E; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garnier, J-C; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauvin, N; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Gregson, S; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harji, R; Harnew, N; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Hofmann, W; Holubyev, K; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Huston, R S; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Imong, J; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jahjah Hussein, M; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jaton, P; Jean-Marie, B; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Keaveney, J; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kim, Y M; Knecht, M; Koblitz, S; Koppenburg, P; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kruzelecki, K; Kucharczyk, M; Kukulak, S; Kumar, R; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Li, L; Li Gioi, L; Lieng, M; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Luisier, J; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Magnin, J; Malde, S; Mamunur, R M D; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinez Santos, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Maynard, B; Mazurov, A; McGregor, G; McNulty, R; Mclean, C; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Merkel, J; Messi, R; Miglioranzi, S; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Musy, M; Mylroie-Smith, J; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nardulli, J; Nasteva, I; Nedos, M; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Nies, S; Niess, V; Nikitin, N; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, B; Palacios, J; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Paterson, S K; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petrella, A; Petrolini, A; Pie Valls, B; Pietrzyk, B; Pilar, T; Pinci, D; Plackett, R; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; du Pree, T; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Rinnert, K; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodrigues, F; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogers, G J; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santinelli, R; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schleich, S; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M -H; Schwemmer, R; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shao, B; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skottowe, H P; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, A C; Smith, N A; Sobczak, K; Soler, F J P; Solomin, A; Soomro, F; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Styles, N; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Topp-Joergensen, S; Tran, M T; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urquijo, P; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Vervink, K; Viaud, B; Videau, I; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Visniakov, J; Vollhardt, A; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Voss, H; Wacker, K; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Witzeling, W; Wotton, S A; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yushchenko, O; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhong, L; Zverev, E; Zvyagin, A

    2012-01-01

    Absolute luminosity measurements are of general interest for colliding-beam experiments at storage rings. These measurements are necessary to determine the absolute cross-sections of reaction processes and are valuable to quantify the performance of the accelerator. LHCb has applied two methods to determine the absolute scale of its luminosity measurements for proton-proton collisions at the LHC with a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. In addition to the classic ``van der Meer scan'' method a novel technique has been developed which makes use of direct imaging of the individual beams using beam-gas and beam-beam interactions. This beam imaging method is made possible by the high resolution of the LHCb vertex detector and the close proximity of the detector to the beams, and allows beam parameters such as positions, angles and widths to be determined. The results of the two methods have comparable precision and are in good agreement. Combining the two methods, an overall precision of 3.5\\% in the absolute lumi...

  5. Improved mass-measurement accuracy using a PNB Load Cell Scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suda, S.; Pontius, P.; Schoonover, R.

    1981-08-01

    The PNB Load Cell Scale is a Preloaded, Narrow-Band calibration mass comparator. It consists of (1) a frame and servo-mechanism that maintains a preload tension on the load cell until the load, an unknown mass, is sensed, and (2) a null-balance digital instrument that suppresses the cell response associated with the preload, thereby improving the precision and accuracy of the measurements. Ideally, the objects used to set the preload should be replica mass standards that closely approximate the density and mass of the unknowns. The advantages of the PNB scale are an expanded output signal over the range of interest which increases both the sensitivity and resolution, and minimizes the transient effects associated with loading of load cells. An area of immediate and practical application of this technique to nuclear material safeguards is the weighing of UF 6 cyliners where in-house mass standards are currently available and where the mass values are typically assigned on the basis of comparison weighings. Several prototypical versions of the PNB scale have been assembled at the US National Bureau of Standards. A description of the instrumentation, principles of measurements, and applications are presented in this paper

  6. Scatter of mass changes estimates at basin scale for Greenland and Antarctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barletta, Valentina Roberta; Sørensen, Louise Sandberg; Forsberg, René

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade, the GRACE mission has provided valuable data for determining the mass changes of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. Yet, discrepancies still exist in the published mass balance results, and comprehensive analyses on the sources of errors and discrepancies are lacking....... Here, we present monthly mass changes together with trends derived from GRACE data at basin scale for both the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets, and we assess the variability and errors for each of the possible sources of discrepancies, and we do this in an unprecedented systematic way, taking...... into account mass inference methods, data sets and background models. We find a very good agreement between the monthly mass change results derived from two independent methods, which represents a cross validation. For the monthly solutions, we find that most of the scatter is caused by the use of the two...

  7. Ecology of ontogenetic body-mass scaling of gill surface area in a freshwater crustacean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazier, Douglas S; Paul, David A

    2017-06-01

    Several studies have documented ecological effects on intraspecific and interspecific body-size scaling of metabolic rate. However, little is known about how various ecological factors may affect the scaling of respiratory structures supporting oxygen uptake for metabolism. To our knowledge, our study is the first to provide evidence for ecological effects on the scaling of a respiratory structure among conspecific populations of any animal. We compared the body-mass scaling of gill surface area (SA) among eight spring-dwelling populations of the amphipod crustacean Gammarus minus Although gill SA scaling was not related to water temperature, conductivity or G. minus population density, it was significantly related to predation regime (and secondarily to pH). Body-mass scaling slopes for gill SA were significantly lower in four populations inhabiting springs with fish predators than for four populations in springs without fish (based on comparing means of the population slopes, or slopes calculated from pooled raw data for each comparison group). As a result, gill SA was proportionately smaller in adult amphipods from springs with versus without fish. This scaling difference paralleled similar differences in the scaling exponents for the rates of growth and resting metabolic rate. We hypothesized that gill SA scaling is shallower in fish-containing versus fishless spring populations of G. minus because of effects of size-selective predation on size-specific growth and activity that in turn affect the scaling of oxygen demand and concomitantly the gill capacity (SA) for oxygen uptake. Although influential theory claims that metabolic scaling is constrained by internal body design, our study builds on previous work to show that the scaling of both metabolism and the respiratory structures supporting it may be ecologically sensitive and evolutionarily malleable. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Final Report: Geoelectrical Measurement of Multi-Scale Mass Transfer Parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haggerty, Roy [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Day-Lewis, Fred [U.S. Geological Survey, Storrs, CT (United States); Singha, Kamini [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Johnson, Timothy [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Binley, Andrew [Lancaster Univ. (United Kingdom); Lane, John [U.S. Geological Survey, Storrs, CT (United States)

    2014-03-20

    Mass transfer affects contaminant transport and is thought to control the efficiency of aquifer remediation at a number of sites within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. An improved understanding of mass transfer is critical to meeting the enormous scientific and engineering challenges currently facing DOE. Informed design of site remedies and long-term stewardship of radionuclide-contaminated sites will require new cost-effective laboratory and field techniques to measure the parameters controlling mass transfer spatially and across a range of scales. In this project, we sought to capitalize on the geophysical signatures of mass transfer. Previous numerical modeling and pilot-scale field experiments suggested that mass transfer produces a geoelectrical signature—a hysteretic relation between sampled (mobile-domain) fluid conductivity and bulk (mobile + immobile) conductivity—over a range of scales relevant to aquifer remediation. In this work, we investigated the geoelectrical signature of mass transfer during tracer transport in a series of controlled experiments to determine the operation of controlling parameters, and also investigated the use of complex-resistivity (CR) as a means of quantifying mass transfer parameters in situ without tracer experiments. In an add-on component to our grant, we additionally considered nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to help parse mobile from immobile porosities. Including the NMR component, our revised study objectives were to: 1. Develop and demonstrate geophysical approaches to measure mass-transfer parameters spatially and over a range of scales, including the combination of electrical resistivity monitoring, tracer tests, complex resistivity, nuclear magnetic resonance, and materials characterization; and 2. Provide mass-transfer estimates for improved understanding of contaminant fate and transport at DOE sites, such as uranium transport at the Hanford 300 Area. To achieve our objectives, we implemented a 3

  9. Effects of reservoir heterogeneity on scaling of effective mass transfer coefficient for solute transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Juliana Y.; Srinivasan, Sanjay

    2016-09-01

    Modeling transport process at large scale requires proper scale-up of subsurface heterogeneity and an understanding of its interaction with the underlying transport mechanisms. A technique based on volume averaging is applied to quantitatively assess the scaling characteristics of effective mass transfer coefficient in heterogeneous reservoir models. The effective mass transfer coefficient represents the combined contribution from diffusion and dispersion to the transport of non-reactive solute particles within a fluid phase. Although treatment of transport problems with the volume averaging technique has been published in the past, application to geological systems exhibiting realistic spatial variability remains a challenge. Previously, the authors developed a new procedure where results from a fine-scale numerical flow simulation reflecting the full physics of the transport process albeit over a sub-volume of the reservoir are integrated with the volume averaging technique to provide effective description of transport properties. The procedure is extended such that spatial averaging is performed at the local-heterogeneity scale. In this paper, the transport of a passive (non-reactive) solute is simulated on multiple reservoir models exhibiting different patterns of heterogeneities, and the scaling behavior of effective mass transfer coefficient (Keff) is examined and compared. One such set of models exhibit power-law (fractal) characteristics, and the variability of dispersion and Keff with scale is in good agreement with analytical expressions described in the literature. This work offers an insight into the impacts of heterogeneity on the scaling of effective transport parameters. A key finding is that spatial heterogeneity models with similar univariate and bivariate statistics may exhibit different scaling characteristics because of the influence of higher order statistics. More mixing is observed in the channelized models with higher-order continuity. It

  10. Calibration with Absolute Shrinkage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øjelund, Henrik; Madsen, Henrik; Thyregod, Poul

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, penalized regression using the L-1 norm on the estimated parameters is proposed for chemometric je calibration. The algorithm is of the lasso type, introduced by Tibshirani in 1996 as a linear regression method with bound on the absolute length of the parameters, but a modification...

  11. Approach to Absolute Zero

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 6. Approach to Absolute Zero 0.3 K. to a Few Milli-Kelvin. R Srinivasan. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 6 June 1997 pp 6-14. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/06/0006-0014 ...

  12. Approach to Absolute Zero

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 2. Approach to Absolute Zero From 4. 22 K. to 0. 3 K. R Srinivasan. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 2 February 1997 pp 8-16. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/02/0008-0016 ...

  13. Approach to Absolute Zero

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 10. Approach to Absolute Zero Below 10 milli-Kelvin. R Srinivasan. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 10 October 1997 pp 8-16. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/10/0008-0016 ...

  14. Approach to Absolute Zero

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 10. Approach to Absolute Zero Below 10 milli-Kelvin. R Srinivasan. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 10 October 1997 pp 8-16. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/10/0008-0016 ...

  15. Basal metabolic rate scaled to body mass within species by the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Basal metabolic rate scaled to body mass within species by the fractal dimension of the vascular system and body composition. ... The postulate bd = c is shown to hold for both these species within the limits of experimental error, with the crucian carp evidence being especially convincing, since b, c and d are estimated from ...

  16. Basal metabolic rate scaled to body mass between species by the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The principal reason that basal metabolic rate (BMR) and MMR scale with different power exponents to whole body mass is that MMR is due mainly to respiration in skeletal muscle during exercise and BMR to respiration in the viscera during rest. It follows, therefore, from the self-similarity of the vascular system that BMR is ...

  17. Status of large-scale analysis of post-translational modifications by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jesper V; Mann, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    , but it has only been in the last ten years that mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics has begun to reveal the true extent of the PTM universe. In this overview for the special PTM issue in Molecular and Cellular Proteomics, we take stock of where MS-based proteomics stands in the large-scale analysis...

  18. Plasmon mass scale in two-dimensional classical nonequilibrium gauge theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappi, T.; Peuron, J.

    2018-02-01

    We study the plasmon mass scale in classical gluodynamics in a two-dimensional configuration that mimics the boost-invariant initial color fields in a heavy-ion collision. We numerically measure the plasmon mass scale using three different methods: a hard thermal loop (HTL) expression involving the quasiparticle spectrum constructed from Coulomb gauge field correlators, an effective dispersion relation, and the measurement of oscillations between electric and magnetic energies after introducing a spatially uniform perturbation to the electric field. We find that the HTL expression and the uniform electric field measurement are in rough agreement. The effective dispersion relation agrees with other methods within a factor of 2. We also study the dependence on time and occupation number, observing similar trends as in three spatial dimensions, where a power-law dependence sets in after an occupation-number-dependent transient time. We observe a decrease of the plasmon mass squared as t-1 / 3 at late times.

  19. Constraints on Dark Energy, Observable-mass Scaling Relations, Neutrino Properties and Gravity from Galaxy Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapetti Serra, David Angelo

    Using a data set of 238 cluster detections drawn from the ROSAT All-Sky Survey and X-ray follow-up observations from the Chandra X-ray Observatory and/or ROSAT for 94 of those clusters we obtain tight constraints on dark energy, both luminosity-mass and temperature-mass scaling relations, neutrino...... properties and gravity. I will present the novel statistical framework we employed to self-consistently and simultaneously constrain cosmology and observable-mass scaling relations accounting for survey biases, parameter covariances and systematic uncertainties. Allowing the dark energy equation of state...... and the linear growth index to take any constant values, we find no evidence for departures from the standard cosmological paradigm – General Relativity plus a cosmological constant and cold dark matter. I will review in detail our results and demonstrate the power of X-ray cluster studies to constrain both...

  20. Atomic scale mass delivery driven by bend kink in single walled carbon nanotube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan Biao; Ding Jianning; Ling Zhiyong; Yuan Ningyi; Cheng Guanggui

    2010-01-01

    The possibility of atomic scale mass delivery by bend kink in single walled carbon nanotube was investigated with the aid of molecular dynamics simulation. By keeping the bending angle while moving the tube end, the encapsulated atomic scale mass such as atom, molecule and atom group were successfully delivered through the nanotube. The van der Waals interaction between the encapsulated mass and the tube wall provided the driving force for the delivery. There were no dramatic changes in the van der Waals interaction, and a smooth and steady delivery was achieved when constant loading rate was applied. The influence of temperature on the atom group delivery was also analyzed. It is found raising temperature is harmful to the smooth movement of the atom group. However, the delivery rate can be promoted under higher temperature when the atom group is situated before the kink during the delivery.

  1. Large-scale correlations in gas traced by Mg II absorbers around low-mass galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffmann, Guinevere

    2018-03-01

    The physical origin of the large-scale conformity in the colours and specific star formation rates of isolated low-mass central galaxies and their neighbours on scales in excess of 1 Mpc is still under debate. One possible scenario is that gas is heated over large scales by feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGNs), leading to coherent modulation of cooling and star formation between well-separated galaxies. In this Letter, the metal line absorption catalogue of Zhu & Ménard is used to probe gas out to large projected radii around a sample of a million galaxies with stellar masses ˜1010M⊙ and photometric redshifts in the range 0.4 effective volume of 2.2 Gpc3. A statistically significant excess of Mg II absorbers is present around the red-low-mass galaxies compared to their blue counterparts out to projected radii of 10 Mpc. In addition, the equivalent width distribution function of Mg II absorbers around low-mass galaxies is shown to be strongly affected by the presence of a nearby (Rp < 2 Mpc) radio-loud AGNs out to projected radii of 5 Mpc.

  2. Basin-scale heterogeneity in Antarctic precipitation and its impact on surface mass variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fyke

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Annually averaged precipitation in the form of snow, the dominant term of the Antarctic Ice Sheet surface mass balance, displays large spatial and temporal variability. Here we present an analysis of spatial patterns of regional Antarctic precipitation variability and their impact on integrated Antarctic surface mass balance variability simulated as part of a preindustrial 1800-year global, fully coupled Community Earth System Model simulation. Correlation and composite analyses based on this output allow for a robust exploration of Antarctic precipitation variability. We identify statistically significant relationships between precipitation patterns across Antarctica that are corroborated by climate reanalyses, regional modeling and ice core records. These patterns are driven by variability in large-scale atmospheric moisture transport, which itself is characterized by decadal- to centennial-scale oscillations around the long-term mean. We suggest that this heterogeneity in Antarctic precipitation variability has a dampening effect on overall Antarctic surface mass balance variability, with implications for regulation of Antarctic-sourced sea level variability, detection of an emergent anthropogenic signal in Antarctic mass trends and identification of Antarctic mass loss accelerations.

  3. The mass dependence of dark matter halo alignments with large-scale structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piras, Davide; Joachimi, Benjamin; Schäfer, Björn Malte; Bonamigo, Mario; Hilbert, Stefan; van Uitert, Edo

    2018-02-01

    Tidal gravitational forces can modify the shape of galaxies and clusters of galaxies, thus correlating their orientation with the surrounding matter density field. We study the dependence of this phenomenon, known as intrinsic alignment (IA), on the mass of the dark matter haloes that host these bright structures, analysing the Millennium and Millennium-XXL N-body simulations. We closely follow the observational approach, measuring the halo position-halo shape alignment and subsequently dividing out the dependence on halo bias. We derive a theoretical scaling of the IA amplitude with mass in a dark matter universe, and predict a power law with slope βM in the range 1/3 to 1/2, depending on mass scale. We find that the simulation data agree with each other and with the theoretical prediction remarkably well over three orders of magnitude in mass, with the joint analysis yielding an estimate of β M = 0.36^{+0.01}_{-0.01}. This result does not depend on redshift or on the details of the halo shape measurement. The analysis is repeated on observational data, obtaining a significantly higher value, β M = 0.56^{+0.05}_{-0.05}. There are also small but significant deviations from our simple model in the simulation signals at both the high- and low-mass end. We discuss possible reasons for these discrepancies, and argue that they can be attributed to physical processes not captured in the model or in the dark matter-only simulations.

  4. Effects of Contingency versus Constraints on the Body-Mass Scaling of Metabolic Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas S. Glazier

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available I illustrate the effects of both contingency and constraints on the body-mass scaling of metabolic rate by analyzing the significantly different influences of ambient temperature (Ta on metabolic scaling in ectothermic versus endothermic animals. Interspecific comparisons show that increasing Ta results in decreasing metabolic scaling slopes in ectotherms, but increasing slopes in endotherms, a pattern uniquely predicted by the metabolic-level boundaries hypothesis, as amended to include effects of the scaling of thermal conductance in endotherms outside their thermoneutral zone. No other published theoretical model explicitly predicts this striking variation in metabolic scaling, which I explain in terms of contingent effects of Ta and thermoregulatory strategy in the context of physical and geometric constraints related to the scaling of surface area, volume, and heat flow across surfaces. My analysis shows that theoretical models focused on an ideal 3/4-power law, as explained by a single universally applicable mechanism, are clearly inadequate for explaining the diversity and environmental sensitivity of metabolic scaling. An important challenge is to develop a theory of metabolic scaling that recognizes the contingent effects of multiple mechanisms that are modulated by several extrinsic and intrinsic factors within specified constraints.

  5. Evaluation of mixing and mass transfer in a stirred pilot scale bioreactor utilizing CFD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Christian; Yang, Jifeng; Larsson, Hilde Kristina

    2017-01-01

    transfer coefficients were determined from six Trichoderma reesei fermentations at different well-defined process conditions. Similarly the mass transfer was predicted by Higbie’s penetration model from two-phase CFD simulations using a correlation of bubble size and power input, and the overall mass...... transfer coefficients were in accordance with the experimental data. This work illustrates the possibility of predicting the two phase fluid dynamic performance of an agitated pilot scale bioreactor using validated CFD models. These models can be applied to illustrate the effect of changing the physical...

  6. Testing feasibility of scalar-tensor gravity by scale dependent mass and coupling to matter

    OpenAIRE

    Mota, D. F.; Salzano, V.; Capozziello, S.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate whether there is any cosmological evidence for a scalar field with a mass and coupling to matter which change accordingly to the properties of the astrophysical system it “lives in,” without directly focusing on the underlying mechanism that drives the scalar field scale-dependent-properties. We assume a Yukawa type of coupling between the field and matter and also that the scalar-field mass grows with density, in order to overcome all gravity constraints within the Solar Syste...

  7. Dark-Matter Particles without Weak-Scale Masses or Weak Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Jonathan L.; Kumar, Jason

    2008-01-01

    We propose that dark matter is composed of particles that naturally have the correct thermal relic density, but have neither weak-scale masses nor weak interactions. These models emerge naturally from gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking, where they elegantly solve the dark-matter problem. The framework accommodates single or multiple component dark matter, dark-matter masses from 10 MeV to 10 TeV, and interaction strengths from gravitational to strong. These candidates enhance many direct and indirect signals relative to weakly interacting massive particles and have qualitatively new implications for dark-matter searches and cosmological implications for colliders

  8. Predictions of the marviken subcooled critical mass flux using the critical flow scaling parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Choon Kyung; Chun, Se Young; Cho, Seok; Yang, Sun Ku; Chung, Moon Ki [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    A total of 386 critical flow data points from 19 runs of 27 runs in the Marviken Test were selected and compared with the predictions by the correlations based on the critical flow scaling parameters. The results show that the critical mass flux in the very large diameter pipe can be also characterized by two scaling parameters such as discharge coefficient and dimensionless subcooling (C{sub d,ref} and {Delta}{Tau}{sup *} {sub sub}). The agreement between the measured data and the predictions are excellent. 8 refs., 8 figs. 1 tab. (Author)

  9. ADVANTAGES OF RAPID METHOD FOR DETERMINING SCALE MASS AND DECARBURIZED LAYER OF ROLLED COIL STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Parusov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the universal empirical relationships that allow for operational calculation of scale mass and decarbonized layer depth based on the parameters of the technological process for rolled coil steel production. Methodology. The research is carried out on the industrial batches of the rolled steel of SAE 1006 and SAE 1065 grades. Scale removability was determined in accordance with the procedure of «Bekaert» company by the specifi-cations: GA-03-16, GA-03-18, GS-03-02, GS-06-01. The depth of decarbonized layer was identified in accordance with GOST 1763-68 (M method. Findings. Analysis of experimental data allowed us to determine the rational temperature of coil formation of the investigated steel grades, which provide the best possible removal of scale from the metal surface, a minimal amount of scale, as well as compliance of the metal surface color with the require-ments of European consumers. Originality. The work allowed establishing correlation of the basic quality indicators of the rolled coil high carbon steel (scale mass, depth of decarbonized layer and inter-laminar distance in pearlite with one of the main parameters (coil formation temperature of the deformation and heat treatment mode. The re-sulting regression equations, without metallographic analysis, can be used to determine, with a minimum error, the quantitative values of the total scale mass, depth of decarbonized layer and the average inter-lamellar distance in pearlite of the rolled coil high carbon steel. Practical value. Based on the specifications of «Bekaert» company (GA-03-16, GA-03-18, GS-03-02 and GS-06-01 the method of testing descaling by mechanical means from the surface of the rolled coil steel of low- and high-carbon steel grades was developed and approved in the environment of PJSC «ArcelorMittal Kryvyi Rih». The work resulted in development of the rapid method for determination of total and remaining scale mass on the rolled coil steel

  10. Starobinsky-Like Inflation and Neutrino Masses in a No-Scale SO(10) Model

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John

    2016-11-08

    Using a no-scale supergravity framework, we construct an SO(10) model that makes predictions for cosmic microwave background observables similar to those of the Starobinsky model of inflation, and incorporates a double-seesaw model for neutrino masses consistent with oscillation experiments and late-time cosmology. We pay particular attention to the behaviour of the scalar fields during inflation and the subsequent reheating.

  11. Renormalization group and relations between scattering amplitudes in a theory with different mass scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulov, A.V.; Skalozub, V.V.

    2000-01-01

    In the Yukawa model with two different mass scales the renormalization group equation is used to obtain relations between scattering amplitudes at low energies. Considering fermion-fermion scattering as an example, a basic one-loop renormalization group relation is derived which gives possibility to reduce the problem to the scattering of light particles on the external field substituting a heavy virtual state. Applications of the results to problem of searching new physics beyond the Standard Model are discussed [ru

  12. Calibration with Absolute Shrinkage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øjelund, Henrik; Madsen, Henrik; Thyregod, Poul

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, penalized regression using the L-1 norm on the estimated parameters is proposed for chemometric je calibration. The algorithm is of the lasso type, introduced by Tibshirani in 1996 as a linear regression method with bound on the absolute length of the parameters, but a modification...... to the lasso. The lasso is applied both directly as a calibration method and as a method to select important variables/wave lengths. It is demonstrated that the lasso algorithm, in general, leads to parameter estimates of which some are zero while others are quite large (compared to e.g. the traditional PLS...

  13. Extended scaling and residual flavor symmetry in the neutrino Majorana mass matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samanta, Rome; Ghosal, Ambar [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, HBNI, Astroparticle Physics and Cosmology Division, Kolkata (India); Roy, Probir [Bose Institute, Center for Astroparticle Physics and Space Science, Kolkata (India)

    2016-12-15

    The residual symmetry approach, along with a complex extension for some flavor invariance, is a powerful tool to uncover the flavor structure of the 3 x 3 neutrino Majorana mass matrix M{sub ν} toward gaining insights into neutrino mixing. We utilize this to propose a complex extension of the real scaling ansatz for M{sub ν} which was introduced some years ago. Unlike the latter, our proposal allows a nonzero mass for each of the three light neutrinos as well as a nonvanishing θ{sub 13}. The generation of light neutrino masses via the type-I seesaw mechanism is also demonstrated. A major result of this scheme is that leptonic Dirac CP-violation must be maximal while atmospheric neutrino mixing does not need to be exactly maximal. Moreover, each of the two allowed Majorana phases, to be probed by the search for nuclear 0νββ decay, has to be at one of its two CP-conserving values. There are other interesting consequences such as the allowed occurrence of a normal mass ordering which is not favored by the real scaling ansatz. Our predictions will be tested in ongoing and future neutrino oscillation experiments at T2K, NOνA and DUNE. (orig.)

  14. Absolute Gravimetry in Fennoscandia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettersen, B. R; TImmen, L.; Gitlein, O.

    away from this central location. An oval shaped zero uplift isoline tracks the general western and northern coastline of Norway and the Kola peninsula. It returns southwest through Russian Karelia and touches the southern tip of Sweden and northern Denmark. The uplift area (as measured by present day...... motions) has its major axis in the direction of southwest to northeast and covers a distance of about 2000 km. Absolute gravimetry was made in Finland and Norway in 1976 with a rise-and fall instrument. A decade later the number of gravity stations was expanded by JILAg-5, in Finland from 1988, in Norway...... acquired by IfE (FG5-220), FGI (FG5-221), and UMB (FG5-226). New absolute gravity stations were established by the national mapping agencies in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. The total number of prepared sites in Fennoscandia is now about 30. Most of them are co-located with permanent GPS, for many of which...

  15. The little things that run: a general scaling of invertebrate exploratory speed with body mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirt, Myriam R; Lauermann, Tobias; Brose, Ulrich; Noldus, Lucas P J J; Dell, Anthony I

    2017-11-01

    Speed is a key trait of animal movement, and while much is already known about vertebrate speed and how it scales with body mass, studies on invertebrates are sparse, especially across diverse taxonomic groups. Here, we used automated image-based tracking to characterize the exploratory (voluntary) speed of 173 invertebrates comprising 57 species across six taxonomic groups (Arachnida, Chilopoda, Diplopoda, Entognatha, Insecta, Malacostraca) and four feeding types (carnivore, detritivore, herbivore, omnivore). Across all individuals, exploratory speed (mm/s) scaled with body mass (g) following a power-law relationship with a scaling exponent of 0.19 ± 0.04 (mean ± SE) and an intercept of 14.33 ± 1.2. These parameters varied substantially with taxonomic group and feeding type. For the first time, we provide general empirically derived allometric scaling relationships of exploratory speed across broad taxonomic groups of invertebrates. As exploratory speed drives key components of species interactions, such as encounter and attack rates, or competition, our study contributes to a deeper understanding of the role of individual movement in population and community level processes. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  16. On exact and approximated formulations for scaling-mode shapes in operational modal analysis by mass and stiffness change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López-Aenlle, Manuel; Brincker, Rune; Pelayo, F.

    2012-01-01

    When operational modal analysis (OMA) is used to estimate modal parameters, mode shapes cannot be mass normalized. In the past few years, some equations have been proposed to scale mode shapes using the mass-change method, which consists of repeating modal testing after changing the mass at diffe...... simulations were carried out using a plate with closely spaced modes....

  17. Nanogram-scale preparation and NMR analysis for mass-limited small volatile compounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Nojima

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Semiochemicals are often produced in infinitesimally small quantities, so their isolation requires large amounts of starting material, not only requiring significant effort in sample preparation, but also resulting in a complex mixture of compounds from which the bioactive compound needs to be purified and identified. Often, compounds cannot be unambiguously identified by their mass spectra alone, and NMR analysis is required for absolute chemical identification, further exacerbating the situation because NMR is relatively insensitive and requires large amounts of pure analyte, generally more than several micrograms. We developed an integrated approach for purification and NMR analysis of <1 µg of material. Collections from high performance preparative gas-chromatography are directly eluted with minimal NMR solvent into capillary NMR tubes. With this technique, (1H-NMR spectra were obtained on 50 ng of geranyl acetate, which served as a model compound, and reasonable H-H COSY NMR spectra were obtained from 250 ng of geranyl acetate. This simple off-line integration of preparative GC and NMR will facilitate the purification and chemical identification of novel volatile compounds, such as insect pheromones and other semiochemicals, which occur in minute (sub-nanogram, and often limited, quantities.

  18. Large-scale ichthyoplankton and water mass distribution along the South Brazil Shelf.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carlos Pinto de Macedo-Soares

    Full Text Available Ichthyoplankton is an essential component of pelagic ecosystems, and environmental factors play an important role in determining its distribution. We have investigated simultaneous latitudinal and cross-shelf gradients in ichthyoplankton abundance to test the hypothesis that the large-scale distribution of fish larvae in the South Brazil Shelf is associated with water mass composition. Vertical plankton tows were collected between 21°27' and 34°51'S at 107 stations, in austral late spring and early summer seasons. Samples were taken with a conical-cylindrical plankton net from the depth of chlorophyll maxima to the surface in deep stations, or from 10 m from the bottom to the surface in shallow waters. Salinity and temperature were obtained with a CTD/rosette system, which provided seawater for chlorophyll-a and nutrient concentrations. The influence of water mass on larval fish species was studied using Indicator Species Analysis, whereas environmental effects on the distribution of larval fish species were analyzed by Distance-based Redundancy Analysis. Larval fish species were associated with specific water masses: in the north, Sardinella brasiliensis was found in Shelf Water; whereas in the south, Engraulis anchoita inhabited the Plata Plume Water. At the slope, Tropical Water was characterized by the bristlemouth Cyclothone acclinidens. The concurrent analysis showed the importance of both cross-shelf and latitudinal gradients on the large-scale distribution of larval fish species. Our findings reveal that ichthyoplankton composition and large-scale spatial distribution are determined by water mass composition in both latitudinal and cross-shelf gradients.

  19. Large-Scale Ichthyoplankton and Water Mass Distribution along the South Brazil Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Macedo-Soares, Luis Carlos Pinto; Garcia, Carlos Alberto Eiras; Freire, Andrea Santarosa; Muelbert, José Henrique

    2014-01-01

    Ichthyoplankton is an essential component of pelagic ecosystems, and environmental factors play an important role in determining its distribution. We have investigated simultaneous latitudinal and cross-shelf gradients in ichthyoplankton abundance to test the hypothesis that the large-scale distribution of fish larvae in the South Brazil Shelf is associated with water mass composition. Vertical plankton tows were collected between 21°27′ and 34°51′S at 107 stations, in austral late spring and early summer seasons. Samples were taken with a conical-cylindrical plankton net from the depth of chlorophyll maxima to the surface in deep stations, or from 10 m from the bottom to the surface in shallow waters. Salinity and temperature were obtained with a CTD/rosette system, which provided seawater for chlorophyll-a and nutrient concentrations. The influence of water mass on larval fish species was studied using Indicator Species Analysis, whereas environmental effects on the distribution of larval fish species were analyzed by Distance-based Redundancy Analysis. Larval fish species were associated with specific water masses: in the north, Sardinella brasiliensis was found in Shelf Water; whereas in the south, Engraulis anchoita inhabited the Plata Plume Water. At the slope, Tropical Water was characterized by the bristlemouth Cyclothone acclinidens. The concurrent analysis showed the importance of both cross-shelf and latitudinal gradients on the large-scale distribution of larval fish species. Our findings reveal that ichthyoplankton composition and large-scale spatial distribution are determined by water mass composition in both latitudinal and cross-shelf gradients. PMID:24614798

  20. Large-scale ichthyoplankton and water mass distribution along the South Brazil Shelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Macedo-Soares, Luis Carlos Pinto; Garcia, Carlos Alberto Eiras; Freire, Andrea Santarosa; Muelbert, José Henrique

    2014-01-01

    Ichthyoplankton is an essential component of pelagic ecosystems, and environmental factors play an important role in determining its distribution. We have investigated simultaneous latitudinal and cross-shelf gradients in ichthyoplankton abundance to test the hypothesis that the large-scale distribution of fish larvae in the South Brazil Shelf is associated with water mass composition. Vertical plankton tows were collected between 21°27' and 34°51'S at 107 stations, in austral late spring and early summer seasons. Samples were taken with a conical-cylindrical plankton net from the depth of chlorophyll maxima to the surface in deep stations, or from 10 m from the bottom to the surface in shallow waters. Salinity and temperature were obtained with a CTD/rosette system, which provided seawater for chlorophyll-a and nutrient concentrations. The influence of water mass on larval fish species was studied using Indicator Species Analysis, whereas environmental effects on the distribution of larval fish species were analyzed by Distance-based Redundancy Analysis. Larval fish species were associated with specific water masses: in the north, Sardinella brasiliensis was found in Shelf Water; whereas in the south, Engraulis anchoita inhabited the Plata Plume Water. At the slope, Tropical Water was characterized by the bristlemouth Cyclothone acclinidens. The concurrent analysis showed the importance of both cross-shelf and latitudinal gradients on the large-scale distribution of larval fish species. Our findings reveal that ichthyoplankton composition and large-scale spatial distribution are determined by water mass composition in both latitudinal and cross-shelf gradients.

  1. Thermodynamics of negative absolute pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukacs, B.; Martinas, K.

    1984-03-01

    The authors show that the possibility of negative absolute pressure can be incorporated into the axiomatic thermodynamics, analogously to the negative absolute temperature. There are examples for such systems (GUT, QCD) processing negative absolute pressure in such domains where it can be expected from thermodynamical considerations. (author)

  2. Large-Scale Implementation of Structured Reporting of Adnexal Masses on Ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh-Burgmann, Elizabeth J; Flanagan, Tracy; Lee, Nina; Osinski, Todd; Sweet, Cliff; Lynch, Margaret; Caponigro, Marianna; Mehta, Jaysheel; Alavi, Mubarika; Herrinton, Lisa J

    2018-03-20

    The aim of this article is to describe the development and implementation of structured reporting of adnexal mass findings on pelvic ultrasound in a large integrated health care delivery system. A structured reporting system that includes standardized terminology for describing adnexal masses on ultrasound was developed by a multidisciplinary team of radiologists, gynecologists, and gynecologic oncologists on the basis of literature review and internal data. The system uses a reporting template that requires radiologists to assign abnormal adnexal masses to one of five possible categories on the basis of standardized criteria: category 0, 1, 2, or 3 for masses 10 cm. Unique predefined hashtags were linked to each category to enable electronic data extraction, and a hard stop feature was installed that prevents reports from being finalized without a category designation. In 2014, after a 3-month pilot study, large-scale implementation was supported by an educational campaign consisting of web-based conferences, e-mail announcements, and local presentations. Clinical management recommendations on the basis of category and other clinical factors were provided in a separate practice resource for clinicians. Analysis of adherence revealed that 93% of the approximately 12,000 reports describing abnormal adnexal masses in 2016 included category designations. Feedback from referring providers via an anonymous survey indicated high levels of satisfaction with reports. Multidisciplinary collaboration and leveraging of technology enabled large-scale implementation of structured reporting with high levels of adherence among radiologists and improved satisfaction among referring providers. Copyright © 2018 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Seesaw induced electroweak scale, the hierarchy problem and sub-eV neutrino masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwood, D.; Bar-Shalom, S.; Soni, A.

    2006-01-01

    We describe a model for the scalar sector where all interactions occur either at an ultra-high scale, Λ U ∝10 16 -10 19 GeV, or at an intermediate scale, Λ I =10 9 -10 11 GeV. The interaction of physics on these two scales results in an SU(2) Higgs condensate at the electroweak (EW) scale, Λ EW , through a seesaw-like Higgs mechanism, Λ EW ∝Λ I 2 /Λ U , while the breaking of the SM SU(2) x U(1) gauge symmetry occurs at the intermediate scale Λ I . The EW scale is, therefore, not fundamental but is naturally generated in terms of ultra-high energy phenomena and so the hierarchy problem is alleviated. We show that the class of such ''seesaw Higgs'' models predict the existence of sub-eV neutrino masses which are generated through a ''two-step'' seesaw mechanism in terms of the same two ultra-high scales: m ν ∝Λ I 4 /Λ U 3 ∝Λ EW 2 /Λ U . The neutrinos can be either Dirac or Majorana, depending on the structure of the scalar potential. We also show that our seesaw Higgs model can be naturally embedded in theories with tiny extra dimensions of size R∝Λ U -1 ∝10 -16 fm, where the seesaw induced EW scale arises from a violation of a symmetry at a distant brane; in particular, in the scenario presented there are seven tiny extra dimensions. (orig.)

  4. Constraining the lightest neutrino mass and mee from general ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-25

    Jan 25, 2016 ... Despite spectacular advances in fixing the neutrino mass and mixing parameters through various neutrino oscillation experiments, we still have little knowledge about the magnitudes of some vital parameters in the neutrino sector such as the absolute neutrino mass scale, effective Majorana mass mee ...

  5. Mass transfer processes and field-scale transport of organic solutes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brusseau, M.L.

    1990-01-01

    The influence of mass transfer processes, such as sorption/desorption and mass transfer between immiscible liquids and water, on the transport of organic solutes is discussed. Rate-limited sorption of organic solutes caused by a diffusion-constrained mechanism is shown to be significant under laboratory conditions. The significance of the impact of nonequilibrium sorption on field-scale transport is scale dependent. The impact of organic liquids on mass transfer and transport of organic solutes depends upon the nature of the solute and the nature and form of the organic liquid. For example, while retardation of nonionic solutes is decreased in mixed-solvent systems, (i.e. systems comprised of water and a miscible organic liquid or an immiscible liquid present in concentrations below phase separation), the retardation of organic acids may, in some cases, increase with addition of a cosolvent. While the presence of an immiscible liquid existing as a mobile phase will reduce retention of organic solutes, the presence of residual saturation of an immiscible liquid can significantly increase retention. A model is presented that incorporates the effects of retention resulting from residual saturation, as well as nonequilibrium sorption, on the transport of organic solutes. (Author) (70 refs., 3 figs.)

  6. Testing feasibility of scalar-tensor gravity by scale dependent mass and coupling to matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mota, D. F.; Salzano, V.; Capozziello, S.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate whether there is any cosmological evidence for a scalar field with a mass and coupling to matter which change accordingly to the properties of the astrophysical system it ''lives in,'' without directly focusing on the underlying mechanism that drives the scalar field scale-dependent-properties. We assume a Yukawa type of coupling between the field and matter and also that the scalar-field mass grows with density, in order to overcome all gravity constraints within the Solar System. We analyze three different gravitational systems assumed as ''cosmological indicators'': supernovae type Ia, low surface brightness spiral galaxies and clusters of galaxies. Results show (i) a quite good fit to the rotation curves of low surface brightness galaxies only using visible stellar and gas-mass components is obtained; (ii) a scalar field can fairly well reproduce the matter profile in clusters of galaxies, estimated by x-ray observations and without the need of any additional dark matter; and (iii) there is an intrinsic difficulty in extracting information about the possibility of a scale-dependent massive scalar field (or more generally about a varying gravitational constant) from supernovae type Ia.

  7. ON THE ASSEMBLY OF THE MILKY WAY DWARF SATELLITES AND THEIR COMMON MASS SCALE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashkov, Valery; Madau, Piero; Kuhlen, Michael; Diemand, Jürg

    2012-01-01

    We use a particle tagging technique to dynamically populate the N-body Via Lactea II high-resolution simulation with stars. The method is calibrated using the observed luminosity function of Milky Way (MW) satellites and the concentration of their stellar populations, and self-consistently follows the accretion and disruption of progenitor dwarfs and the buildup of the stellar halo in a cosmological 'live host'. Simple prescriptions for assigning stellar populations to collisionless particles are able to reproduce many properties of the observed MW halo and its surviving dwarf satellites, like velocity dispersions, sizes, brightness profiles, metallicities, and spatial distribution. Our model predicts the existence of approximately 1850 subhalos harboring 'extremely faint' satellites (with mass-to-light ratios >5 × 10 3 ) lying beyond the Sloan Digital Sky Survey detection threshold. Of these, about 20 are 'first galaxies', i.e., satellites that formed a stellar mass above 10 M ☉ before redshift 9. The 10 most luminous satellites (L > 10 6 L ☉ ) in the simulation are hosted by subhalos with peak circular velocities today in the range V max = 10-40 km s –1 that have shed between 80% and 99% of their dark mass after being accreted at redshifts 1.7 max and stellar line-of-sight velocity dispersion σ los today follow the relation V max = 2.2σ los . We apply a standard mass estimation algorithm based on Jeans modeling of the line-of-sight velocity dispersion profiles to the simulated dwarf spheroidals and test the accuracy of this technique. The inner (within 300 pc) mass-luminosity relation for currently detectable satellites is nearly flat in our model, in qualitative agreement with the 'common mass scale' found in MW dwarfs. We do, however, predict a weak, but significant positive correlation for these objects: M 300 ∝L 0.088±0.024 .

  8. Pebble-isolation mass: Scaling law and implications for the formation of super-Earths and gas giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsch, Bertram; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Johansen, Anders; Lega, Elena; Lambrechts, Michiel; Crida, Aurélien

    2018-04-01

    The growth of a planetary core by pebble accretion stops at the so-called pebble isolation mass, when the core generates a pressure bump that traps drifting pebbles outside its orbit. The value of the pebble isolation mass is crucial in determining the final planet mass. If the isolation mass is very low, gas accretion is protracted and the planet remains at a few Earth masses with a mainly solid composition. For higher values of the pebble isolation mass, the planet might be able to accrete gas from the protoplanetary disc and grow into a gas giant. Previous works have determined a scaling of the pebble isolation mass with cube of the disc aspect ratio. Here, we expand on previous measurements and explore the dependency of the pebble isolation mass on all relevant parameters of the protoplanetary disc. We use 3D hydrodynamical simulations to measure the pebble isolation mass and derive a simple scaling law that captures the dependence on the local disc structure and the turbulent viscosity parameter α. We find that small pebbles, coupled to the gas, with Stokes number τf < 0.005 can drift through the partial gap at pebble isolation mass. However, as the planetary mass increases, particles must be decreasingly smaller to penetrate the pressure bump. Turbulent diffusion of particles, however, can lead to an increase of the pebble isolation mass by a factor of two, depending on the strength of the background viscosity and on the pebble size. We finally explore the implications of the new scaling law of the pebble isolation mass on the formation of planetary systems by numerically integrating the growth and migration pathways of planets in evolving protoplanetary discs. Compared to models neglecting the dependence of the pebble isolation mass on the α-viscosity, our models including this effect result in higher core masses for giant planets. These higher core masses are more similar to the core masses of the giant planets in the solar system.

  9. Comparison of relativity theories with observer-independent scales of both velocity and length/mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Benedetti, Dario; D'Andrea, Francesco; Procaccini, Andrea

    2003-01-01

    We consider the two most studied proposals of relativity theories with observer-independent scales of both velocity and length/mass: the one discussed by Amelino-Camelia as an illustrative example for the original proposal (Preprint gr-qc/0012051) of theories with two relativistic invariants, and an alternative more recently proposed by Magueijo and Smolin (Preprint hep-th/0112090). We show that these two relativistic theories are much more closely connected than it would appear on the basis of a naive analysis of their original formulations. In particular, in spite of adopting a rather different formal description of the deformed boost generators, they end up assigning the same dependence of momentum on rapidity, which can be described as the core feature of these relativistic theories. We show that this observation can be used to clarify the concepts of particle mass, particle velocity and energy-momentum conservation rules in these theories with two relativistic invariants

  10. Economic evaluations of mass drug administration: The importance of economies of scale and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Hugo C; Toor, Jaspreet; Hollingsworth, T Déirdre; Anderson, Roy M

    2017-11-08

    It is recognised that changing the current approaches for the control of the neglected tropical diseases will be needed to reach the World Health Organization's (WHO) 2020 goals. Consequently, it is important that economic evaluations of the alternative approaches are conducted. A vital component of such evaluations is the issue of how the intervention's costs should be incorporated. We discuss this issue - focusing on mass drug administration. We argue that the common approach of assuming an intervention's cost per treatment is constant, regardless of the number of individuals treated, is a misleading way to consider the delivery costs of mass drug administration due to the occurrence of economies/diseconomies of scale and scope. Greater care and consideration are required when the costs are incorporated into such analyses. Without this, these economic evaluations could potentially lead to incorrect policy recommendations. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  11. Harvard Forest regional-scale air mass composition by Patterns in Atmospheric Transport History (PATH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, J. L.; Munger, J. W.; Goldstein, A. H.; Jacob, D. J.; Wofsy, S. C.

    1998-06-01

    We calculated 4 years (1990-1993) of back trajectories arriving at Harvard Forest and used them to define patterns in atmospheric transport history. This information was used to assess the degree to which regional-scale transport modulates the chemical composition of air masses sampled at Harvard Forest. Different seasonal signals in trace-gas concentration are derived for different flow patterns. Throughout the year, high-speed transport of cool, dry, cloud-free air from the north and northwest represents background conditions for the Harvard Forest site. These synoptic conditions describe the atmosphere after passage of a cold front. The most polluted conditions in each season occurred under SW flow, with warmer temperatures, higher water vapor mixing ratios, low mixed-layer depths at the site, and a higher frequency of cloudy conditions. These regional-scale air mass characteristics describe synoptic conditions of warm sector transport. In addition to average air mass characteristics, we have analyzed the covariation of species (e.g., O3 versus NOy-NOx; O3 versus CO) to address chemical processes based on transport history. For summer daytime measurements, we show that relatively fresh pollutants arrive in SW flow while the most aged air masses with higher O3 to NOz slopes arrive with W flow, suggesting a Midwestern contribution to regional high-oxidant episodes. These observations of patterns in chemical characteristics related to patterns in transport are corroborated with probability maps indicating the likelihood of transport from upwind regions using trajectories selected for chemical distribution end-members (10th and 90th percentiles).

  12. Higgs mass scales and matter-antimatter oscillations in grand unified theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senjanovic, G.

    1982-01-01

    A general discussion of mass scales in grand unified theories is presented, with special emphasis on Higgs scalars which mediate neutron-antineutron (n-anti n) and hydrogen-antihydrogen (H-anti H) oscillations. It is shown that the analogue of survival hypothesis for fermions naturally makes such particles superheavy, thus leading to unobservable lifetimes. If this hypothesis is relaxed, an interesting possibility of potentially observable n-anti n and H-anti H transitions, mutually related arises in the context of SU(5) theory with spontaneously broken B-L symmetry.

  13. Shifts in mass-scaling of respiration, feeding, and growth rates across life-form transitions in marine pelagic organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Hirst, Andrew G.

    2014-01-01

    The metabolic rate of organisms may be viewed as a basic property from which other vital rates and many ecological patterns emerge and that follows a universal allometric mass scaling law, or it may be considered a property of the organism that emerges as a result of the adaptation to the environ...... life-form-dependent allometries that have similar scaling but different intercepts, such that the mass-specific rates converge on a rather narrow size-independent range. In contrast, ingestion and growth rates follow a near-universal taxa-independent ~3/4 mass scaling power law.We argue...

  14. Theoretical Re-evaluations of Scaling Relations between SMBHs and Their Host Galaxies—1. Effect of Seed BH Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikari Shirakata

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We use a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation and investigate how the mass of a seed black hole affect the scaling relation between black hole mass and bulge mass at z ~ 0. When the mass of the seed is set at 105M⊙, we find that the model results become inconsistent with recent observational results of the scaling relation for dwarf galaxies. On the other hand, when we set seed black hole mass as 103M⊙ or as randomly chosen value within a 103-5M⊙ range, we find the results are consistent with observational results including the dispersion. We also find that black hole mass—bulge mass relations for less massive bulges at z ~ 0 put stronger constraints on the seed BH mass than the relations at higher redshifts.

  15. Effects of the application of different particle sizes of mill scale (residue) in mass red ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnt, A.B.C.; Rocha, M.R.; Meller, J.G.

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the influence of particle size of mill scale, residue, when added to a mass ceramic. This residue rich in iron oxide may be used as pigment in the ceramics industry. The use of pigments in ceramic products is related to the characteristics of non-toxicity, chemical stability and determination of tone. The tendency to solubilize the pigment depends on the specific surface area. The residue study was initially subjected to physical and chemical characterization and added in a proportion of 5% at a commercial ceramic white burning, with different particle sizes. Both formulations were sintered at a temperature of 950 ° C and evaluated for: loss on ignition, firing linear shrinkage, water absorption, flexural strength and difference of tone. Samples with finer particles of mill scale 0.038 μ showed higher mechanical strength values in the order of 18 MPa. (author)

  16. Pore-scale supercritical CO2 dissolution and mass transfer under drainage conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chun; Zhou, Quanlin; Oostrom, Mart; Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Mehta, Hardeep

    2017-02-01

    Abstract: Recently, both core- and pore-scale imbibition experiments have shown non-equilibrium dissolution of supercritical CO2 (scCO2) and a prolonged depletion of residual scCO2. In this study, pore-scale scCO2 dissolution and mass transfer under drainage conditions were investigated using a two-dimensional heterogeneous micromodel and a novel fluorescent water dye with a sensitive pH range between 3.7 and 6.5. Drainage experiments were conducted at 9 MPa and 40 °C by injecting scCO2 into the sandstone-analogue pore network initially saturated by water without dissolved CO2 (dsCO2). During the experiments, time-lapse images of dye intensity, reflecting water pH, were obtained. These images show non-uniform pH in individual pores and pore clusters, with average pH levels gradually decreasing with time. Further analysis on selected pores and pore clusters shows that (1) rate-limited mass transfer prevails with slowly decreasing pH over time when the scCO2-water interface area is low with respect to the volume of water-filled pores and pore clusters, (2) fast scCO2 dissolution and phase equilibrium occurs when scCO2 bubbles invade into water-filled pores, significantly enhancing the area-to-volume ratio, and (3) a transition from rate-limited to diffusion-limited mass transfer occurs in a single pore when a medium area-to-volume ratio is prevalent. The analysis also shows that two fundamental processes – scCO2 dissolution at phase interfaces and diffusion of dsCO2 at the pore scale (10-100 µm) observed after scCO2 bubble invasion into water-filled pores without pore throat constraints – are relatively fast. The overall slow dissolution of scCO2 in the millimeter-scale micromodel can be attributed to the small area-to-volume ratios that represent pore-throat configurations and characteristics of phase

  17. Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigg, Chris

    2007-01-01

    In the classical physics we inherited from Isaac Newton, mass does not arise, it simply is. The mass of a classical object is the sum of the masses of its parts. Albert Einstein showed that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content, inviting us to consider the origins of mass. The protons we accelerate at Fermilab are prime examples of Einsteinian matter: nearly all of their mass arises from stored energy. Missing mass led to the discovery of the noble gases, and a new form of missing mass leads us to the notion of dark matter. Starting with a brief guided tour of the meanings of mass, the colloquium will explore the multiple origins of mass. We will see how far we have come toward understanding mass, and survey the issues that guide our research today.

  18. Measurement of Galaxy Cluster Integrated Comptonization and Mass Scaling Relations with the South Pole Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saliwanchik, B. R.; et al.

    2015-01-22

    We describe a method for measuring the integrated Comptonization (Y (SZ)) of clusters of galaxies from measurements of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect in multiple frequency bands and use this method to characterize a sample of galaxy clusters detected in the South Pole Telescope (SPT) data. We use a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to fit a β-model source profile and integrate Y (SZ) within an angular aperture on the sky. In simulated observations of an SPT-like survey that include cosmic microwave background anisotropy, point sources, and atmospheric and instrumental noise at typical SPT-SZ survey levels, we show that we can accurately recover β-model parameters for inputted clusters. We measure Y (SZ) for simulated semi-analytic clusters and find that Y (SZ) is most accurately determined in an angular aperture comparable to the SPT beam size. We demonstrate the utility of this method to measure Y (SZ) and to constrain mass scaling relations using X-ray mass estimates for a sample of 18 galaxy clusters from the SPT-SZ survey. Measuring Y (SZ) within a 0.'75 radius aperture, we find an intrinsic log-normal scatter of 21% ± 11% in Y (SZ) at a fixed mass. Measuring Y (SZ) within a 0.3 Mpc projected radius (equivalent to 0.'75 at the survey median redshift z = 0.6), we find a scatter of 26% ± 9%. Prior to this study, the SPT observable found to have the lowest scatter with mass was cluster detection significance. We demonstrate, from both simulations and SPT observed clusters that Y (SZ) measured within an aperture comparable to the SPT beam size is equivalent, in terms of scatter with cluster mass, to SPT cluster detection significance.

  19. MEASUREMENT OF GALAXY CLUSTER INTEGRATED COMPTONIZATION AND MASS SCALING RELATIONS WITH THE SOUTH POLE TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saliwanchik, B. R.; Montroy, T. E. [Physics Department, Center for Education and Research in Cosmology and Astrophysics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Aird, K. A. [University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Bayliss, M. [Department of Physics, Harvard University, 17 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Bocquet, S.; Desai, S. [Department of Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 München (Germany); Brodwin, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, 5110 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Cho, H. M. [NIST Quantum Devices Group, 325 Broadway, Mailcode 817.03, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Clocchiatti, A. [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica (Chile); De Haan, T.; Dobbs, M. A.; Dudley, J. P. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 Rue University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Foley, R. J.; Forman, W. R., E-mail: benjamin.saliwanchik@case.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); and others

    2015-02-01

    We describe a method for measuring the integrated Comptonization (Y {sub SZ}) of clusters of galaxies from measurements of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect in multiple frequency bands and use this method to characterize a sample of galaxy clusters detected in the South Pole Telescope (SPT) data. We use a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to fit a β-model source profile and integrate Y {sub SZ} within an angular aperture on the sky. In simulated observations of an SPT-like survey that include cosmic microwave background anisotropy, point sources, and atmospheric and instrumental noise at typical SPT-SZ survey levels, we show that we can accurately recover β-model parameters for inputted clusters. We measure Y {sub SZ} for simulated semi-analytic clusters and find that Y {sub SZ} is most accurately determined in an angular aperture comparable to the SPT beam size. We demonstrate the utility of this method to measure Y {sub SZ} and to constrain mass scaling relations using X-ray mass estimates for a sample of 18 galaxy clusters from the SPT-SZ survey. Measuring Y {sub SZ} within a 0.'75 radius aperture, we find an intrinsic log-normal scatter of 21% ± 11% in Y {sub SZ} at a fixed mass. Measuring Y {sub SZ} within a 0.3 Mpc projected radius (equivalent to 0.'75 at the survey median redshift z = 0.6), we find a scatter of 26% ± 9%. Prior to this study, the SPT observable found to have the lowest scatter with mass was cluster detection significance. We demonstrate, from both simulations and SPT observed clusters that Y {sub SZ} measured within an aperture comparable to the SPT beam size is equivalent, in terms of scatter with cluster mass, to SPT cluster detection significance.

  20. Absolute risk, absolute risk reduction and relative risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Andres Calvache

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article illustrates the epidemiological concepts of absolute risk, absolute risk reduction and relative risk through a clinical example. In addition, it emphasizes the usefulness of these concepts in clinical practice, clinical research and health decision-making process.

  1. Determining Central Black Hole Masses in Distant Active Galaxies and Quasars. II. Improved Optical and UV Scaling Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne; Peterson, B. M.

    2006-01-01

    We present four improved empirical relationships useful for estimating the central black hole mass in nearby AGNs and distant luminous quasars alike using either optical or UV single-epoch spectroscopy. These mass-scaling relationships between line widths and luminosity are based on recently...

  2. Effect of enhanced manganese oxidation in the hyporheic zone on basin-scale geochemical mass balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Judson W.; Fuller, Christopher C.

    1998-01-01

    cumulative effect of hyporheic exchange in Pinal Creek basin was to remove approximately 20% of the dissolved manganese flowing out of the drainage basin. Our results illustrate that the cumulative significance of reactive uptake in the hyporheic zone depends on the balance between chemical reaction rates, hyporheic porewater residence time, and turnover of streamflow through hyporheic flow paths. The similarity between the hyporheic reaction timescale (1/λs ≈ 1.3 hours), and the hyporheic porewater residence timescale (ts ≈ 8 min) ensured that there was adequate time for the reaction to progress. Furthermore, it was the similarity between the turnover length for stream water flow through hyporheic flow paths (Ls = stream velocity/storage-zone exchange coefficient ≈ 1.3 km) and the length of Pinal Creek (L ≈ 7 km), which ensured that all stream water passed through hyporheic flow paths several times. As a means to generalize our findings to other sites where similar types of hydrologic and chemical information are available, we suggest a cumulative significance index for hyporheic reactions, Rs = λstsL/Ls (dimensionless); higher values indicate a greater potential for hyporheic reactions to influence geochemical mass balance. Our experience in Pinal Creek basin suggests that values of Rs > 0.2 characterize systems where hyporheic reactions are likely to influence geochemical mass balance at the drainage-basin scale.

  3. Alignments of Dark Matter Halos with Large-scale Tidal Fields: Mass and Redshift Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sijie; Wang, Huiyuan; Mo, H. J.; Shi, Jingjing

    2016-07-01

    Large-scale tidal fields estimated directly from the distribution of dark matter halos are used to investigate how halo shapes and spin vectors are aligned with the cosmic web. The major, intermediate, and minor axes of halos are aligned with the corresponding tidal axes, and halo spin axes tend to be parallel with the intermediate axes and perpendicular to the major axes of the tidal field. The strengths of these alignments generally increase with halo mass and redshift, but the dependence is only on the peak height, ν \\equiv {δ }{{c}}/σ ({M}{{h}},z). The scaling relations of the alignment strengths with the value of ν indicate that the alignment strengths remain roughly constant when the structures within which the halos reside are still in a quasi-linear regime, but decreases as nonlinear evolution becomes more important. We also calculate the alignments in projection so that our results can be compared directly with observations. Finally, we investigate the alignments of tidal tensors on large scales, and use the results to understand alignments of halo pairs separated at various distances. Our results suggest that the coherent structure of the tidal field is the underlying reason for the alignments of halos and galaxies seen in numerical simulations and in observations.

  4. Absolute Calibration of Si iRMs used for Measurements of Si Paleo-nutrient proxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vocke, R. D., Jr.; Rabb, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    Silicon isotope variations (reported as δ30Si and δ29Si, relative to NBS28) in silicic acid dissolved in ocean waters, in biogenic silica and in diatoms are extremely informative paleo-nutrient proxies. The resolution and comparability of such measurements depend on the quality of the isotopic Reference Materials (iRMs) defining the delta scale. We report new absolute Si isotopic measurements on the iRMs NBS28 (RM 8546 - Silica Sand), Diatomite, and Big Batch using the Avogadro measurement approach and comparing them with prior assessments of these iRMs. The Avogadro Si measurement technique was developed by the German Physikalish-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) to provide a precise and highly accurate method to measure absolute isotopic ratios in highly enriched 28Si (99.996%) material. These measurements are part of an international effort to redefine the kg and mole based on the Planck constant h and the Avogadro constant NA, respectively (Vocke et al., 2014 Metrologia 51, 361, Azuma et al., 2015 Metrologia 52 360). This approach produces absolute Si isotope ratio data with lower levels of uncertainty when compared to the traditional "Atomic Weights" method of absolute isotope ratio measurement calibration. This is illustrated in Fig. 1 where absolute Si isotopic measurements on SRM 990, separated by 40+ years of advances in instrumentation, are compared. The availability of this new technique does not say that absolute Si isotopic ratios are or ever will be better for normal Si isotopic measurements when seeking isotopic variations in nature, because they are not. However, by determining the absolute isotopic ratios of all the Si iRM scale artifacts, such iRMs become traceable to the metric system (SI); thereby automatically conferring on all the artifact-based δ30Si and δ29Si measurements traceability to the base SI unit, the mole. Such traceability should help reduce the potential of bias between different iRMs and facilitate the replacement of delta-scale

  5. Scatter of mass changes estimates at basin scale for Greenland and Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Barletta

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, the GRACE mission has provided valuable data for determining the mass changes of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. Yet, discrepancies still exist in the published mass balance results, and comprehensive analyses on the sources of errors and discrepancies are lacking. Here, we present monthly mass changes together with trends derived from GRACE data at basin scale for both the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets, and we assess the variability and errors for each of the possible sources of discrepancies, and we do this in an unprecedented systematic way, taking into account mass inference methods, data sets and background models. We find a very good agreement between the monthly mass change results derived from two independent methods, which represents a cross validation. For the monthly solutions, we find that most of the scatter is caused by the use of the two different data sets rather than the two different methods applied. Besides the well-known GIA trend uncertainty, we find that the geocenter motion and the recent de-aliasing corrections significantly impact the trends, with contributions of +13.2 Gt yr−1 and −20 Gt yr−1, respectively, for Antarctica, which is more affected by these than Greenland. We show differences between the use of release RL04 and the new RL05 and confirm a lower noise content in the new release. The overall scatter of the solutions well exceeds the uncertainties propagated from the data errors and the leakage (as done in the past; hence we calculate new sound total errors for the monthly solutions and the trends. We find that the scatter in the monthly solutions caused by applying different estimates of geocenter motion time series (degree-1 corrections is significant – contributing with up to 40% of the total error. For the whole GRACE period (2003–2011 our trend estimate for Greenland is −234 ± 20 Gt yr−1 and −83 ± 36 Gt yr−1 for Antarctica (−111 ± 15 Gt yr

  6. "Absolute" sterility and "absolute" freedom from particle contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, J Z

    1998-01-01

    Until the recent past, sterility of an injectable product was only discussed in absolute terms. Any description of sterility other than as an absolute could simply not be envisioned. While dealing in absolute yes/no statements is philosophically satisfying, these yes/no statements can't accommodate all real world scientific problems. Among these problems is the sterility problems faced in the mass production of injectable compounds. Many descriptions of procedures employed to achieve sterility in parenteral production batches were reported in the literature. The theoretical framework that could unite the widespread observations and practices into practical methodology was missing until recently. Production line control of the sterility of injectable products was essentially based on gut evaluations. The present achievement of rational, production line control of product sterility is based on the recognition that product sterility could not be simply regarded as a sharply edged yes/no affair. The present rational control is based on the fact that the sterility of a product is determined by the degree of contamination in the product prior to sterilization and to the parameters of the sterilization process. The end result of the sterilization process is now described as a probabalistic reduction of the initial contamination. The essential laboratory measurements on which this conclusion was based is due to Pflug (1-3). He assembled a theoretical framework, based on experimental data, that characterizes the sterility achieved in an injectable product with a single number. The end result of the sterilization process is now described as a probabalistic reduction of the initial contamination. As in many disciplines, the ability to achieve an objective evaluation of this important attribute provided the basis for scientific analysis, improved control and thus improved production and reduced cost. An equivalent framework is essential for the communication and

  7. Scaling of adult regional body mass and body composition as a whole to height: Relevance to body shape and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuna, John M; Peterson, Courtney M; Thomas, Diana M; Heo, Moonseong; Hong, Sangmo; Choi, Woong; Heymsfield, Steven B

    2015-01-01

    Adult body mass (MB) empirically scales as height (Ht) squared (MB ∝ Ht(2) ), but does regional body mass and body composition as a whole also scale as Ht(2) ? This question is relevant to a wide range of biological topics, including interpretation of body mass index (BMI). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to quantify regional body mass [head (MH), trunk, arms, and legs] and whole-body composition [fat, lean soft tissue (LST), and bone mineral content (BMC)] in non-Hispanic (NH) white, NH black, Mexican American, and Korean adults participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; n = 17,126) and Korean NHANES (n = 8,942). Regression models were developed to establish Ht scaling powers for each measured component with adjustments for age and adiposity. Exploratory analyses revealed a consistent scaling pattern across men and women of the four population groups: regional mass powers, head (∼0.8-1) body composition, LST (∼2.0-2.3) body mass scaled uniformly across the eight sex and population groups as Ht(∼2) , tall and short subjects differed in body shape (e.g., MH/MB ∝ Ht(-∼1) ) and composition. Adult human body shape and relative composition are a function of body size as represented by stature, a finding that reveals a previously unrecognized phenotypic heterogeneity as defined by BMI. These observations provide new pathways for exploring mechanisms governing the interrelations between adult stature, body morphology, biomechanics, and metabolism. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Mass and charge transfer on various relevant scales in polymer electrolyte fuel cells[Dissertation 16991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freunberger, S. A.

    2007-07-01

    This dissertation is concerned with the development, experimental diagnostics and mathematical modelling and simulation of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC). The central themes throughout this thesis are the closely interlinked phenomena of mass and charge transfer. In the face of developing a PEFC system for vehicle propulsion these phenomena are scrutinized on a broad range of relevant scales. Starting from the material related level of the membrane and the gas diffusion layer (GDL) we turn to length scales, where structural features of the cell additionally come into play. These are the scale of flow channels and ribs, the single cell and the cell stack followed by the cell, stack, and system development for an automotive power train. In Chapter 3 selected fundamental material models and properties, respectively, are explored that are crucial for the mathematical modelling and simulation of PEFC, as needed in some succeeding parts of this work. First, established mathematical models for mass and charge transfer in the membrane are compared within the framework of the membrane electrode assembly (MEA), which represents the electrochemical unit. Second, reliable values for effective diffusivities in the GDLs which are vital for the simulation of gaseous mass transport are measured. Therefore, a method is developed that allows measuring this quantity both as a function of compression and direction as this is a prerequisite of sophisticated more-dimensional numerical PEFC-models. Besides the cross section of the catalyst layer (CL) mass transfer under channels and ribs is considered as a major source of losses in particular under high load operation. As up to now there have been solely non-validated theoretical investigations, in Chapter 4 an experimental method is developed that is for the first time capable of resolving the current density distribution on the this scale. For this, the electron conductors in the cell are considered as 2-dimensional shunt

  9. Measuring the black hole mass in ultraluminous X-ray sources with the X-ray scaling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, I.; Gliozzi, M.; Satyapal, S.; Titarchuk, L.

    2018-01-01

    In our recent work, we demonstrated that a novel X-ray scaling method, originally introduced for Galactic black holes (BH), could be reliably extended to estimate the mass of supermassive black holes accreting at moderate to high level. Here, we apply this X-ray scaling method to ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) to constrain their MBH. Using 49 ULXs with multiple XMM-Newton observations, we infer that ULXs host both stellar mass BHs and intermediate mass BHs. The majority of the sources of our sample seem to be consistent with the hypothesis of highly accreting massive stellar BHs with MBH ∼ 100 M⊙. Our results are in general agreement with the MBH values obtained with alternative methods, including model-independent variability methods. This suggests that the X-ray scaling method is an actual scale-independent method that can be applied to all BH systems accreting at moderate-high rate.

  10. A scale of greatness and causal classification of mass extinctions: implications for mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengör, A M Celâl; Atayman, Saniye; Ozeren, Sinan

    2008-09-16

    A quantitative scale for measuring greatness, G, of mass extinctions is proposed on the basis of rate of biodiversity diminution expressed as the product of the loss of biodiversity, called magnitude (M), and the inverse of time in which that loss occurs, designated as intensity (I). On this scale, the catastrophic Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) extinction appears as the greatest since the Ordovician and the only one with a probable extraterrestrial cause. The end-Permian extinction was less great but with a large magnitude (M) and smaller intensity (I); only some of its individual episodes involved some semblance of catastrophe. Other extinctions during the Phanerozoic, with the possible exception of the end-Silurian diversity plunge, were parts of a forced oscillatory phenomenon and seem caused by marine- and land-habitat destruction during continental assemblies that led to elimination of shelves and (after the Devonian) rain forests and enlargement of deserts. Glaciations and orogenies that shortened and thickened the continental crust only exacerbated these effects. During the Mesozoic and Cainozoic, the evolution of life was linearly progressive, interrupted catastrophically only at the K-T boundary. The end-Triassic extinction was more like the Paleozoic extinctions in nature and probably also in its cause. By contrast, the current extinction resembles none of the earlier ones and may end up being the greatest of all.

  11. Evidence for a mass dependent step-change in the scaling of efficiency in terrestrial locomotion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L Nudds

    Full Text Available A reanalysis of existing data suggests that the established tenet of increasing efficiency of transport with body size in terrestrial locomotion requires re-evaluation. Here, the statistical model that described the data best indicated a dichotomy between the data for small (1 kg. Within and between these two size groups there was no detectable difference in the scaling exponents (slopes relating metabolic (E(met and mechanical costs (E(mech, CM of locomotion to body mass (M(b. Therefore, no scaling of efficiency (E(mech, CM/E(met with M(b was evident within each size group. Small animals, however, appeared to be generally less efficient than larger animals (7% and 26% respectively. Consequently, it is possible that the relationship between efficiency and M(b is not continuous, but, rather, involves a step-change. This step-change in the efficiency of locomotion mirrors previous findings suggesting a postural cause for an apparent size dichotomy in the relationship between E(met and M(b. Currently data for E(mech, CM is lacking, but the relationship between efficiency in terrestrial locomotion and M(b is likely to be determined by posture and kinematics rather than body size alone. Hence, scaling of efficiency is likely to be more complex than a simple linear relationship across body sizes. A homogenous study of the mechanical cost of terrestrial locomotion across a broad range of species, body sizes, and importantly locomotor postures is a priority for future research.

  12. Batch top-spray fluid bed coating: Scale-up insight using dynamic heat- and mass-transfer modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Peter Dybdahl; Bach, P.; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2009-01-01

    volumes. In each control volume, dynamic heat and mass balances were set up allowing the simulation of the contents of water vapour, water on core particles and deposited coating mass as well as fluidisation gas, particle and chamber wall temperature. The model was used to test different scale....../3). Results show good agreement between simulated and experimental outlet fluidisation air temperature and humidity as well as bed temperature. Simulations reveal that vertical temperature and humidity gradients increase significantly with increasing scale and that in fluid beds as the simulated 900kg (RICA......-TEC Anhydro) production-scale, the gradients become too large to use the simple combined drying force/relative droplet size scale-up approach without also increasing the inlet fluidisation air temperature significantly. Instead, scale-up in terms of combinations of the viscous Stokes theory with simulated...

  13. A low-energy β-function in a finite super-Yang-Mills model with multiple mass scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foda, O.; Helayel-Neto, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    We compute the one-loop contribution to the low-energy light-fermion gauge coupling in a finite supersymmetric gauge theory with two mass scales: a heavy mass that breaks an initial N=4 supersymmetry down to N=2, but respects the finiteness, and a light mass that, for simplicity, is set to zero. We find that coupling grows with the mass of the heavy intermediate states. Hence the latter do not decouple at low energies, leading to large logarithms that invalidate low-energy perturbation theory. Consequently, further manipulations are required to obtain a meaningful perturbative expansion. Enforcing decoupling through finite renormalizations, that absorb the heavy mass effects into a redefinition of the parameters of the lagrangian, introduces an arbitrary subtraction mass μ. The requirement that the S-matrix elements be independent of μ leads to a non-trivial renormalization-group equation for the low-energy theory, with a non-vanishing β-function. (orig.)

  14. Low-energy. beta. -function in a finite super-Yang-Mills model with multiple mass scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foda, O.; Helayel-Neto, J.A. (International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy))

    1985-02-14

    We compute the one-loop contribution to the low-energy light-fermion gauge coupling in a finite supersymmetric gauge theory with two mass scales: a heavy mass that breaks an initial N=4 supersymmetry down to N=2, but respects the finiteness, and a light mass that, for simplicity, is set to zero. We find that coupling grows with the mass of the heavy intermediate states. Hence the latter do not decouple at low energies, leading to large logarithms that invalidate low-energy perturbation theory. Consequently, further manipulations are required to obtain a meaningful perturbative expansion. Enforcing decoupling through finite renormalizations, that absorb the heavy mass effects into a redefinition of the parameters of the lagrangian, introduces an arbitrary subtraction mass ..mu... The requirement that the S-matrix elements be independent of ..mu.. leads to a non-trivial renormalization-group equation for the low-energy theory, with a non-vanishing ..beta..-function.

  15. A Local Baseline of the Black Hole Mass - Host Galaxy Scaling Relations for Active Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennert, Vardha

    2017-08-01

    The discovery of relations between supermassive black holes (BHs) and their host-galaxy properties has sparked many observational studies pertaining both to the local Universe and cosmic history. Nevertheless, a clear understanding of their origin and fundamental drivers still eludes us. Studying the evolution of these relations depends on our understanding of the slope and scatter of local relations for active galaxies (AGNs). We propose a SNAP program of a unique sample of 84 local type-1 AGNs, spanning a wide range of BH masses (MBH), morphologies, and stellar masses. The high resolution WFC3/F814W images are essential for a detailed decomposition of the host-galaxy in the presence of a bright AGN point source, resulting in precise measurements of the different host-galaxy components and AGN luminosity free of host-galaxy contamination for a robust determination of MBH. When complemented with spatially-resolved Keck spectra to determine stellar-velocity dispersion within bulge effective radius, this yields a most complete baseline of host-galaxy properties over the entire range of MBH scaling relations. A typical SNAP completion rate results in a sample of 30 objects which will be used to calibrate existing Gemini NIRI and SDSS images. We will study slope and scatter of the relations, dependencies and fundamental drivers. The frequency of pseudo-bulges, bars, and (minor) mergers will reveal the dominant growth mechanism of spheroids. The homogeneous sample will identify any selection biases in the reverberation-mapped AGN sample which serves as a MBH calibrator for the entire Universe. Results will be compared with state-of-the-art semi-analytical models.

  16. Applicability of transverse mass scaling in hadronic collisions at energies available at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenkämper, Lucas; Bock, Friederike; Loizides, Constantin; Schmidt, Nicolas

    2017-12-01

    We present a study on the applicability of transverse mass scaling for identified particle spectra in proton-proton collisions at √{s }=7 TeV based on data taken by the ALICE experiment at the LHC. The measured yields are parametrized and compared to estimates obtained from a generalized transverse mass scaling approach applied to different reference particle spectra. It is found that generalized transverse mass scaling is not able to describe the measured spectra over the full range in transverse momentum. At low pT, deviations of 20 % or more are obtained, in particular, if pions are used as reference particles. A better scaling performance is obtained when kaons are used as reference particles. At high pT all tested spectra with the possible exception of the charged kaons exhibit a scaling behavior. Investigating the feed-down contributions from resonance decays to the charged pion yields reveals, that using them as reference a general scaling may not be achievable. Our findings imply that for precision measurements of direct photon and di-electron spectra at low transverse momentum one should measure the relevant hadronic background, instead of relying on mT scaling for its estimate.

  17. Scale effect experiment in a fractured rock mass. Pilot study in the certified Fanay-Augeres mine (F)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, E.; Peaudecerf, P.; Ledoux, E.; De Marsily, G.

    1985-01-01

    This report (in two volumes) presents the results of a first phase of research about ''scale effect'' on permeability and solute transport in a fractured rock mass, to assess its suitability for future disposal of radioactive wastes. The gallery which was ''certified'' is located in the Fanay-Augeres mine(F), at a depth of about 175 m, in a granite mass. The portion selected for the subsequent experimental work is about 100 m long

  18. "Diminishing returns" in the scaling of leaf area vs. dry mass in Wuyi Mountain bamboos, Southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jun; Fan, Ruirui; Niklas, Karl J; Zhong, Quanlin; Yang, Fuchun; Li, Man; Chen, Xiaoping; Sun, Mengke; Cheng, Dongliang

    2017-07-01

    Leaf area and dry mass are crucial for plant metabolic performance. The "diminishing returns" hypothesis predicts that leaf area will scale less than one with respect to leaf dry mass, indicating that the cost of light interception increases with leaf area. However, it remains unclear whether and how this scaling relationship varies among species growing in different environments. More than 2000 measurements from five bamboo species adapted to high and low light and growing at different elevations in Wuyi Mountains, Southeast China, were used to explore how the leaf area vs. dry mass scaling relationship was affected by light and elevation. The data indicate that (1) the normalization constants for leaf area vs. dry mass were positively but not significantly correlated with increasing leaf size and that (2) the scaling exponents remained numerically invariant among all five bamboo species, with a common slope of 0.85. Standardized major axis (SMA) analyses and comparisons of 95% confidence intervals also showed that the numerical values of the scaling exponents did not differ regardless of elevation and were similar between shaded and unshaded adapted species, whereas the numerical values of the normalization constants increased with decreasing light. The data collected for all five bamboo species are consistent with the "diminishing returns" hypothesis, i.e., the scaling exponents governing the leaf area vs. dry mass scaling relationship are less than one within and across species and are insensitive to light conditions or elevation. © 2017 Sun et al. Published by the Botanical Society of America. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY).

  19. Beyond the Standard Model: The Weak Scale, Neutrino Mass, and the Dark Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiner, Neal

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this proposal was to advance theoretical studies into questions of collider physics at the weak scale, models and signals of dark matter, and connections between neutrino mass and dark energy. The project was a significant success, with a number of developments well beyond what could have been anticipated at the outset. A total of 35 published papers and preprints were produced, with new ideas and signals for LHC physics and dark matter experiments, in particular. A number of new ideas have been found on the possible indirect signals of models of dark matter which relate to the INTEGRAL signal of astrophysical positron production, high energy positrons seen at PAMELA and Fermi, studies into anomalous gamma rays at Fermi, collider signatures of sneutrino dark matter, scenarios of Higgs physics arising in SUSY models, the implications of galaxy cluster surveys for photon-axion conversion models, previously unconsidered collider phenomenology in the form of 'lepton jets' and a very significant result for flavor physics in supersymmetric theories. Progress continues on all fronts, including development of models with dramatic implications for direct dark matter searches, dynamics of dark matter with various excited states, flavor physics, and consequences of modified missing energy signals for collider searches at the LHC.

  20. Quantifying in-stream retention of nitrate at catchment scales using a practical mass balance approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwientek, Marc; Selle, Benny

    2016-02-01

    As field data on in-stream nitrate retention is scarce at catchment scales, this study aimed at quantifying net retention of nitrate within the entire river network of a fourth-order stream. For this purpose, a practical mass balance approach combined with a Lagrangian sampling scheme was applied and seasonally repeated to estimate daily in-stream net retention of nitrate for a 17.4 km long, agriculturally influenced, segment of the Steinlach River in southwestern Germany. This river segment represents approximately 70% of the length of the main stem and about 32% of the streambed area of the entire river network. Sampling days in spring and summer were biogeochemically more active than in autumn and winter. Results obtained for the main stem of Steinlach River were subsequently extrapolated to the stream network in the catchment. It was demonstrated that, for baseflow conditions in spring and summer, in-stream nitrate retention could sum up to a relevant term of the catchment's nitrogen balance if the entire stream network was considered.

  1. An industry-scale mass marking technique for tracing farmed fish escapees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fletcher Warren-Myers

    Full Text Available Farmed fish escape and enter the environment with subsequent effects on wild populations. Reducing escapes requires the ability to trace individuals back to the point of escape, so that escape causes can be identified and technical standards improved. Here, we tested if stable isotope otolith fingerprint marks delivered during routine vaccination could be an accurate, feasible and cost effective marking method, suitable for industrial-scale application. We tested seven stable isotopes, (134Ba, (135Ba, (136Ba, (137Ba, (86Sr, (87Sr and (26Mg, on farmed Atlantic salmon reared in freshwater, in experimental conditions designed to reflect commercial practice. Marking was 100% successful with individual Ba isotopes at concentrations as low as 0.001 µg. g-1 fish and for Sr isotopes at 1 µg. g-1 fish. Our results suggest that 63 unique fingerprint marks can be made at low cost using Ba (0.0002 - 0.02 $US per mark and Sr (0.46 - 0.82 $US per mark isotopes. Stable isotope fingerprinting during vaccination is feasible for commercial application if applied at a company level within the world's largest salmon producing nations. Introducing a mass marking scheme would enable tracing of escapees back to point of origin, which could drive greater compliance, better farm design and improved management practices to reduce escapes.

  2. A scale space approach for unsupervised feature selection in mass spectra classification for ovarian cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccarelli, Michele; d'Acierno, Antonio; Facchiano, Angelo

    2009-10-15

    Mass spectrometry spectra, widely used in proteomics studies as a screening tool for protein profiling and to detect discriminatory signals, are high dimensional data. A large number of local maxima (a.k.a. peaks) have to be analyzed as part of computational pipelines aimed at the realization of efficient predictive and screening protocols. With this kind of data dimensions and samples size the risk of over-fitting and selection bias is pervasive. Therefore the development of bio-informatics methods based on unsupervised feature extraction can lead to general tools which can be applied to several fields of predictive proteomics. We propose a method for feature selection and extraction grounded on the theory of multi-scale spaces for high resolution spectra derived from analysis of serum. Then we use support vector machines for classification. In particular we use a database containing 216 samples spectra divided in 115 cancer and 91 control samples. The overall accuracy averaged over a large cross validation study is 98.18. The area under the ROC curve of the best selected model is 0.9962. We improved previous known results on the problem on the same data, with the advantage that the proposed method has an unsupervised feature selection phase. All the developed code, as MATLAB scripts, can be downloaded from http://medeaserver.isa.cnr.it/dacierno/spectracode.htm.

  3. Considerations of anthropometric, tissue volume, and tissue mass scaling for improved patient specificity of skeletal S values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolch, W.E.; Patton, P.W.; Shah, A.P.; Rajon, D.A.; Jokisch, D.W.

    2002-01-01

    It is generally acknowledged that reference man (70 kg in mass and 170 cm in height) does not adequately represent the stature and physical dimensions of many patients undergoing radionuclide therapy, and thus scaling of radionuclide S values is required for patient specificity. For electron and beta sources uniformly distributed within internal organs, the mean dose from self-irradiation is noted to scale inversely with organ mass, provided no escape of electron energy occurs at the organ boundaries. In the skeleton, this same scaling approach is further assumed to be correct for marrow dosimetry; nevertheless, difficulties in quantitative assessments of marrow mass in specific skeletal regions of the patient make this approach difficult to implement clinically. Instead, scaling of marrow dose is achieved using various anthropometric parameters that presumably scale in the same proportion. In this study, recently developed three-dimensional macrostructural transport models of the femoral head and humeral epiphysis in three individuals (51-year male, 82-year female, and 86-year female) are used to test the abilities of different anthropometric parameters (total body mass, body surface area, etc.) to properly scale radionuclide S values from reference man models. The radionuclides considered are 33 P, 177 Lu, 153 Sm, 186 Re, 89 Sr, 166 Ho, 32 P, 188 Re, and 90 Y localized in either the active marrow or endosteal tissues of the bone trabeculae. S value scaling is additionally conducted in which the 51-year male subject is assigned as the reference individual; scaling parameters are then expanded to include tissue volumes and masses for both active marrow and skeletal spongiosa. The study concludes that, while no single anthropometric parameter emerges as a consistent scaler of reference man S values, lean body mass is indicated as an optimal scaler when the reference S values are based on 3D transport techniques. Furthermore, very exact patient-specific scaling of

  4. Effects of fracture distribution and length scale on the equivalent continuum elastic compliance of fractured rock masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marte Gutierrez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fracture systems have strong influence on the overall mechanical behavior of fractured rock masses due to their relatively lower stiffness and shear strength than those of the rock matrix. Understanding the effects of fracture geometrical distribution, such as length, spacing, persistence and orientation, is important for quantifying the mechanical behavior of fractured rock masses. The relation between fracture geometry and the mechanical characteristics of the fractured rock mass is complicated due to the fact that the fracture geometry and mechanical behaviors of fractured rock mass are strongly dependent on the length scale. In this paper, a comprehensive study was conducted to determine the effects of fracture distribution on the equivalent continuum elastic compliance of fractured rock masses over a wide range of fracture lengths. To account for the stochastic nature of fracture distributions, three different simulation techniques involving Oda's elastic compliance tensor, Monte Carlo simulation (MCS, and suitable probability density functions (PDFs were employed to represent the elastic compliance of fractured rock masses. To yield geologically realistic results, parameters for defining fracture distributions were obtained from different geological fields. The influence of the key fracture parameters and their relations to the overall elastic behavior of the fractured rock mass were studied and discussed. A detailed study was also carried out to investigate the validity of the use of a representative element volume (REV in the equivalent continuum representation of fractured rock masses. A criterion was also proposed to determine the appropriate REV given the fracture distribution of the rock mass.

  5. Geoelectrical Measurement of Multi-Scale Mass Transfer Parameters Final Report to the Subsurface Biogeochemical Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day-Lewis, Frederick; Singha, Kamini; Haggerty, Roy; Johnson, Timothy; Binley, Andrew; Lane, John

    2014-03-10

    . In this project, we sought to capitalize on the geophysical signatures of mass transfer. Previous numerical modeling and pilot-scale field experiments suggested that mass transfer produces a geoelectrical signature—a hysteretic relation between sampled (mobile-domain) fluid conductivity and bulk (mobile + immobile) conductivity—over a range of scales relevant to aquifer remediation. In this work, we investigated the geoelectrical signature of mass transfer during tracer transport in a series of controlled experiments to determine the operation of controlling parameters, and also investigated the use of complex-resistivity (CR) as a means of quantifying mass transfer parameters in situ without tracer experiments. In an add-on component to our grant, we additionally considered nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to help parse mobile from immobile porosities. Our study objectives were to: 1. Develop and demonstrate geophysical approaches to measure mass-transfer parameters spatially and over a range of scales, including the combination of electrical resistivity monitoring, tracer tests, complex resistivity, nuclear magnetic resonance, and materials characterization; and 2. Provide mass-transfer estimates for improved understanding of contaminant fate and transport at DOE sites, such as uranium transport at the Hanford 300 Area. To achieve our objectives, we implemented a 3-part research plan involving (1) development of computer codes and techniques to estimate mass-transfer parameters from time-lapse electrical data; (2) bench-scale experiments on synthetic materials and materials from cores from the Hanford 300 Area; and (3) field demonstration experiments at the DOE’s Hanford 300 Area.

  6. Linking Morphodynamic Response with Sediment Mass Balance: Issues of Scale, Geomorphic Setting, and Sampling Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grams, P. E.; Topping, D. J.; Schmidt, J. C.; Kaplinski, M. A.; Hazel, J. E.

    2011-12-01

    The sediment mass balance, or budget, is one of the most powerful and frequently used conceptual frameworks in fluvial geomorphology. Sediment budgets are used to evaluate the effects of streamflow regulation, inform the design of stream restoration projects, and anticipate the outcomes of dam removal, among other applications. In almost every case, the primary interest is the interaction between changes in the sediment budget and the morphodynamics of specific channel features that make up the components of the sediment budget. However, linkages between changes in specific morphologic features and changes in the sediment budget are not necessarily straightforward and are often poorly understood. In order for the sediment budget to be used as an effective tool, these linkages must be better quantified. A complete understanding of these linkages is usually hampered by sparse data. Measurements of morphologic change typically consist of some type of sampling scheme that requires extrapolation to the reach scale and adequate measurements of both sediment influx and efflux are rarely available. Our attempts to develop a monitoring program for the Colorado River in Grand Canyon that tracks changes in specific morphologic features, transfers in sediment storage among channel features, and changes in the sediment budget have yielded several insights: (1) changes in sediment storage can be highly localized with as much as 80% of changes in storage occurring within as little as 1% of a reach; (2) areas where large storage changes are likely may be predictable in the sense that the largest changes tend to occur in specific geomorphic settings; (3) magnitudes of changes are unpredictable because nearby features of the same general geomorphic type often respond differently due to differences in local hydraulics; (4) the morphology of a set of features at the time of measurement may be strongly affected by the antecedent flow regime, thereby confounding attempts to make

  7. The effect of design and scale on the mixing and mass transfer in U-loop bioreactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Leander Adrian Haaning; Villadsen, John; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    is altered? In this study we have investigated the mixing time and mass transfer capabilities of U-loop reactors of different geometries (high vs. diameter ratio) in pilot (0.15m3) and semi-industrial scales (2.2m3). A new expression for the mechanical power input into the system is also proposed, which...... vertical forced flow loop reactor where gas and liquid are driven through a series of static mixers in a U-shaped pipe, is quite capable of coping with these challenges in pilot scale. The critical question remains; what happens when the scale undergoes a more than 10 fold increase and the geometry...

  8. Multiple linear regression to develop strength scaled equations for knee and elbow joints based on age, gender and segment mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Souza, Sonia; Rasmussen, John; Schwirtz, Ansgar

    2012-01-01

    and valuable ergonomic tool. Objective: To investigate age and gender effects on the torque-producing ability in the knee and elbow in older adults. To create strength scaled equations based on age, gender, upper/lower limb lengths and masses using multiple linear regression. To reduce the number of dependent...

  9. Shear zone liquefaction in mass transport deposit emplacement : A multi-scale integration of seismic reflection and outcrop data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogata, K.; Mountjoy, J. J.; Pini, Gian Andrea; Festa, A.; Tinterri, R.

    2014-01-01

    We present the integrated outcrop-geophysical study of two mass transport complexes, the exhumed Specchio unit in the Northern Apennines of Italy and the Holocene Poverty unit in the Hikurangi margin of New Zealand. The combination of micro- to meso-scale structural, stratigraphic and sedimentologic

  10. Determination of the b quark mass at the $M_Z$ scale with the DELPHI detector at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Abdallah, J; Adam, W; Adzic, P; Albrecht, T; Alderweireld, T; Alemany-Fernandez, R; Allmendinger, T; Allport, P P; Amaldi, Ugo; Amapane, N; Amato, S; Anashkin, E; Andreazza, A; Andringa, S; Anjos, N; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Ask, S; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Ballestrero, A; Bambade, P; Barbier, R; Bardin, D; Barker, G J; Baroncelli, A; Battaglia, M; Baubillier, M; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Behrmann, A; Ben-Haim, E; Benekos, N; Benvenuti, A C; Bérat, C; Berggren, M; Berntzon, L; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Besson, N; Bloch, D; Blom, M; Bluj, M; Bonesini, M; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Botner, O; Bouquet, B; Bowcock, T J V; Boyko, I; Bracko, M; Brenner, R; Brodet, E; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Buschmann, P; Calvi, M; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Carena, F; Castro, N; Cavallo, F; Chapkin, M; Charpentier, P; Checchia, P; Chierici, R; Shlyapnikov, P; Chudoba, J; Chung, S U; Cieslik, K; Collins, P; Contri, R; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Costa, M J; Crennell, D J; Cuevas-Maestro, J; D'Hondt, J; Dalmau, J; Da Silva, T; Da Silva, W; Della Ricca, G; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Clercq, C; De Lotto, B; De Maria, N; De Min, A; De Paula, L; Di Ciaccio, L; Di Simone, A; Doroba, K; Drees, J; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ellert, M; Elsing, M; Espirito-Santo, M C; Fanourakis, G K; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, M; Fernández, J; Ferrer, A; Ferro, F; Flagmeyer, U; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J; Gandelman, M; García, C; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gómez-Ceballos, G; Gonçalves, P; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Guy, J; Haag, C; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hamilton, K; Haug, S; Hauler, F; Hedberg, V; Hennecke, M; Herr, H; Hoffman, J; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Houlden, M A; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jeans, D; Johansson, E K; Johansson, P D; Jonsson, P; Joram, C; Jungermann, L; Kapusta, F; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E; Kernel, G; Kersevan, B P; Kerzel, U; King, B T; Kjaer, N J; Kluit, P; Kokkinias, P; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krumshtein, Z; Kucharczyk, M; Lamsa, J; Leder, G; Ledroit, F; Leinonen, L; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Liebig, W; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lopes, J H; López, J M; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J; Malek, A; Maltezos, S; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Masik, J; Mastroyiannopoulos, N; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Mazzucato, F; Mazzucato, M; McNulty, R; Meroni, C; Migliore, E; Mitaroff, W A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Moch, M; Mönig, K; Monge, R; Montenegro, J; Moraes, D; Moreno, S; Morettini, P; Müller, U; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mundim, L; Murray, W; Muryn, B; Myatt, G; Myklebust, T; Nassiakou, M; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Nawrocki, K; Nicolaidou, R; Nikolenko, M; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, R; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Oyanguren, A; Paganoni, M; Paiano, S; Palacios, J P; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A; Passon, O; Peralta, L; Perepelitsa, V F; Perrotta, A; Petrolini, A; Piedra, J; Pieri, L; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Piotto, E; Podobnik, T; Poireau, V; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Pozdnyakov, V; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, A; Rames, J; Read, A; Rebecchi, P; Rehn, J; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P B; Richard, F; Rídky, J; Rivero, M; Rodríguez, D; Romero, A; Ronchese, P; Roudeau, P; Rovelli, T; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ryabtchikov, D; Sadovskii, A; Salmi, L; Salt, J; Sander, C; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schwickerath, U; Segar, A; Sekulin, R L; Siebel, M; Sisakian, A; Smadja, G; Smirnova, O; Sokolov, A; Sopczak, A; Sosnowski, R; Spassoff, Tz; Stanitzki, M; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Szumlak, T; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Taffard, A C; Tegenfeldt, F; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Tobin, M; Todorovova, S; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortosa, P; Travnicek, P; Treille, D; Tristram, G; Trochimczuk, M; Troncon, C; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyapkin, P; Tzamarias, S; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; van Dam, P; Van Eldik, J; Van Remortel, N; Van Vulpen, I; Vegni, G; Veloso, F; Venus, W; Verdier, P; Verzi, V; Vilanova, D; Vitale, L; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Washbrook, A J; Weiser, C; Wicke, D; Wickens, J; Wilkinson, G; Winter, M; Witek, M; Yushchenko, O P; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, P; Zavrtanik, D; Zhuravlov, V; Zimin, N I; Zintchenko, A; Zupan, M

    2006-01-01

    An experimental study of the normalized three-jet rate of b quark events with respect to light quarks events (light= \\ell \\equiv u,d,s) has been performed using the CAMBRIDGE and DURHAM jet algorithms. The data used were collected by the DELPHI experiment at LEP on the Z peak from 1994 to 2000. The results are found to agree with theoretical predictions treating mass corrections at next-to-leading order. Measurements of the b quark mass have also been performed for both the b pole mass: M_b and the b running mass: m_b(M_Z). Data are found to be better described when using the running mass. The measurement yields: m_b(M_Z) = 2.85 +/- 0.18 (stat) +/- 0.13 (exp) +/- 0.19 (had) +/- 0.12 (theo) GeV/c^2 for the CAMBRIDGE algorithm. This result is the most precise measurement of the b mass derived from a high energy process. When compared to other b mass determinations by experiments at lower energy scales, this value agrees with the prediction of Quantum Chromodynamics for the energy evolution of the running mass. ...

  11. Multiple linear regression to develop strength scaled equations for knee and elbow joints based on age, gender and segment mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Souza, Sonia; Rasmussen, John; Schwirtz, Ansgar

    2012-01-01

    and valuable ergonomic tool. Objective: To investigate age and gender effects on the torque-producing ability in the knee and elbow in older adults. To create strength scaled equations based on age, gender, upper/lower limb lengths and masses using multiple linear regression. To reduce the number of dependent......Background: The next fifty years will see a drastic increase in the older population. Among other effects, ageing causes a decrease in strength. It is necessary to provide safe and comfortable environments for the elderly. To achieve this, digital human modelling has proved to be a useful...... predicted KPT (R2=0.60). Gender, forearm mass and age best predicted EPT (R2=0.75). Good crossvalidation was established for both elbow and knee models. Conclusion: This cross-sectional study of muscle strength created and validated strength scaled equations of EPT and KPT using only gender, segment mass...

  12. Absolute NMR shielding scales and nuclear spin–rotation constants in {sup 175}LuX and {sup 197}AuX (X = {sup 19}F, {sup 35}Cl, {sup 79}Br and {sup 127}I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demissie, Taye B., E-mail: taye.b.demissie@uit.no; Komorovsky, Stanislav; Repisky, Michal; Ruud, Kenneth [Centre for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway); Jaszuński, Michał [Institute of Organic Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44, 01 224 Warszawa (Poland)

    2015-10-28

    We present nuclear spin–rotation constants, absolute nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shielding constants, and shielding spans of all the nuclei in {sup 175}LuX and {sup 197}AuX (X = {sup 19}F, {sup 35}Cl, {sup 79}Br, {sup 127}I), calculated using coupled-cluster singles-and-doubles with a perturbative triples (CCSD(T)) correction theory, four-component relativistic density functional theory (relativistic DFT), and non-relativistic DFT. The total nuclear spin–rotation constants determined by adding the relativistic corrections obtained from DFT calculations to the CCSD(T) values are in general in agreement with available experimental data, indicating that the computational approach followed in this study allows us to predict reliable results for the unknown spin–rotation constants in these molecules. The total NMR absolute shielding constants are determined for all the nuclei following the same approach as that applied for the nuclear spin–rotation constants. In most of the molecules, relativistic effects significantly change the computed shielding constants, demonstrating that straightforward application of the non-relativistic formula relating the electronic contribution to the nuclear spin–rotation constants and the paramagnetic contribution to the shielding constants does not yield correct results. We also analyze the origin of the unusually large absolute shielding constant and its relativistic correction of gold in AuF compared to the other gold monohalides.

  13. LoCuSS: THE SUNYAEV–ZEL'DOVICH EFFECT AND WEAK-LENSING MASS SCALING RELATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrone, Daniel P.; Carlstrom, John E.; Gralla, Megan; Greer, Christopher H.; Hennessy, Ryan; Leitch, Erik M.; Plagge, Thomas; Smith, Graham P.; Okabe, Nobuhiro; Bonamente, Massimiliano; Hasler, Nicole; Culverhouse, Thomas L.; Hawkins, David; Lamb, James W.; Muchovej, Stephen; Joy, Marshall; Martino, Rossella; Mazzotta, Pasquale; Miller, Amber; Mroczkowski, Tony

    2012-01-01

    We present the first weak-lensing-based scaling relation between galaxy cluster mass, M WL , and integrated Compton parameter Y sph . Observations of 18 galaxy clusters at z ≅ 0.2 were obtained with the Subaru 8.2 m telescope and the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Array. The M WL -Y sph scaling relations, measured at Δ = 500, 1000, and 2500 ρ c , are consistent in slope and normalization with previous results derived under the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium (HSE). We find an intrinsic scatter in M WL at fixed Y sph of 20%, larger than both previous measurements of M HSE -Y sph scatter as well as the scatter in true mass at fixed Y sph found in simulations. Moreover, the scatter in our lensing-based scaling relations is morphology dependent, with 30%-40% larger M WL for undisturbed compared to disturbed clusters at the same Y sph at r 500 . Further examination suggests that the segregation may be explained by the inability of our spherical lens models to faithfully describe the three-dimensional structure of the clusters, in particular, the structure along the line of sight. We find that the ellipticity of the brightest cluster galaxy, a proxy for halo orientation, correlates well with the offset in mass from the mean scaling relation, which supports this picture. This provides empirical evidence that line-of-sight projection effects are an important systematic uncertainty in lensing-based scaling relations.

  14. On new scaling group of transformation for Prandtl-Eyring fluid model with both heat and mass transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Ur Rehman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A short communication is structured to offer a set of scaling group of transformation for Prandtl-Eyring fluid flow yields by stretching flat porous surface. The fluid flow regime is carried with both heat and mass transfer characteristics. To seek solution of flow problem a set of scaling group of transformation is proposed by adopting Lie approach. These transformations are used to step down the partial differential equations into ordinary differential equations. The reduced system is solved by numerical method termed as shooting method. A self-coded algorithm is executed in this regard. The obtain results are elaborated by means of figures and tables. Keywords: Heat and mass transfer, Scaling group of transformations, Prandtl-Eyring fluid

  15. Scaling and χPT description of pions from Nf=2 twisted mass QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimopoulos, Petros; Frezzotti, Roberto; Herdoiza, Gregorio; Jansen, Karl; Michael, Chris; Urbach, Carsten; Bonn Univ.

    2009-12-01

    We study light-quark observables by means of dynamical lattice QCD simulations using two flavours of twisted mass fermions at maximal twist. We employ chiral perturbation theory to describe our data for the pion mass and decay constant. In this way, we extract precise determinations for the low-energy constants of the effective theory as well as for the light-quark mass and the chiral condensate. (orig.)

  16. Double beta decays and neutrino masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejiri, Hiro

    2006-01-01

    Neutrino-less double beta decays(0νββ) are of great interest for studying the Majorana nature of ν's and the absolute ν-mass scale. The present report is a brief review of the 0νββ studies with emphasis on future experiments with the mass sensitivity of an order of 25∼100 meV and on experimental probes for investigating 0νββ nuclear matrix elements

  17. The effect of vegetation patterns on Aeolian mass flux at regional scale: A wind tunnel study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Youssef, I.F.; Visser, S.M.; Karssenberg, D.; Erpul, G.; Cornelis, W.M.; Gabriels, D.; Poortinga, A.; Boever, de M.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although insight on the effect of vegetation pattern on Aeolian mass transport is essential for re-planting degraded land, only limited knowledge on this effect is available. The objective of this research was to understand the effect of vegetation design on the Aeolian mass flux inside a

  18. Mass and metallicity scaling relations of high-redshift star-forming galaxies selected by GRBs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabsalmani, M.; Møller, P.; Perley, D. A.; Freudling, W.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Le Floc'h, E.; Zwaan, M. A.; Schulze, S.; Tanvir, N. R.; Christensen, L.; Levan, A. J.; Jakobsson, P.; Malesani, D.; Cano, Z.; Covino, S.; D'Elia, V.; Goldoni, P.; Gomboc, A.; Heintz, K. E.; Sparre, M.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Vergani, S. D.

    2018-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the relations between gas kinematics, metallicity and stellar mass in a sample of 82 gamma-ray burst (GRB)-selected galaxies using absorption and emission methods. We find the velocity widths of both emission and absorption profiles to be a proxy of stellar mass. We also investigate the velocity-metallicity correlation and its evolution with redshift. Using 33 GRB hosts with measured stellar mass and metallicity, we study the mass-metallicity relation for GRB host galaxies in a stellar mass range of 108.2-1011.1 M⊙ and a redshift range of z ∼ 0.3-3.4. The GRB-selected galaxies appear to track the mass-metallicity relation of star-forming galaxies but with an offset of 0.15 towards lower metallicities. This offset is comparable with the average error bar on the metallicity measurements of the GRB sample and also the scatter on the mass-metallicity relation of the general population. It is hard to decide whether this relatively small offset is due to systematic effects or the intrinsic nature of GRB hosts. We also investigate the possibility of using absorption-line metallicity measurements of GRB hosts to study the mass-metallicity relation at high redshifts. Our analysis shows that the metallicity measurements from absorption methods can significantly differ from emission metallicities and assuming identical measurements from the two methods may result in erroneous conclusions.

  19. Nine cases of nonpalpable testicular mass. An incidental finding in a large scale ultrasonography survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avci, A.; Eken, C.; Ozgok, Y.; Erol, B.

    2008-01-01

    Nonpalpable testicular masses are usually diagnosed during routine ultrasonography (US) examinations for other conditions. There are conflicting results on the final diagnosis and management of these lesions. In the present study we report the results of a large US series of 5104 patients on nonpalpable testicular masses and discuss the management of these patients. This retrospective observational study was performed in a secondary care military hospital. A total of 5104 patients underwent a US and 11 of them were diagnosed as having a nonpalpable testicular mass. These 11 patients also underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Two of them refused surgery and were excluded from the study. The remaining nine patients underwent intraoperative US-guided localization and excisional biopsy of the non-palpable testicular parenchymal mass. A radical orchiectomy was required in all of them. US and MRI findings, frozen and final pathology results were recorded. The median age of study subjects was 24 years. The final pathology revealed a malign tumor in eight patients and an inflammatory mass in one patient. There were inconsistent results in four patients between frozen section analysis and final pathology. MRI improved the definition of the solid masses in all patients. MRI enhances the certainty of the diagnosis of malignity in nonpalpable testicular masses, particularly in conditions that generally can not be diagnosed with ultrasonography alone. Frozen section analysis is not an accredited method in diagnosing malign lesions in non-palpable testicular masses. (author)

  20. Absolute limit on rotation of gravitationally bound stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendenning, N. K.

    1994-03-01

    The authors seek an absolute limit on the rotational period for a neutron star as a function of its mass, based on the minimal constraints imposed by Einstein's theory of relativity, Le Chatelier's principle, causality, and a low-density equation of state, uncertainties which can be evaluated as to their effect on the result. This establishes a limiting curve in the mass-period plane below which no pulsar that is a neutron star can lie. For example, the minimum possible Kepler period, which is an absolute limit on rotation below which mass-shedding would occur, is 0.33 ms for a M = 1.442 solar mass neutron star (the mass of PSR1913+16). If the limit were found to be broken by any pulsar, it would signal that the confined hadronic phase of ordinary nucleons and nuclei is only metastable.

  1. EXPLORING SCALE EFFECT USING GEOGRAPHICALLY WEIGHTED REGRESSION ON MASS DATASET OF URBAN ROBBERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ö. Yavuz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban geographers have been studying to explain factors influencing crime on cases limited by their study areas. Researchers have a common opinion that explanatory variables modelling crime on those cases might be irrelevant for another one. None of the researchers tested significance of these variables with changing scales of the study area. Because their data did not allow them to study with different scales. This research examines the scale effect with various data from a wide range of data sources. Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR method is used to explain that effect, after organizing data by Geographical Information System (GIS technologies. Explanatory variables deduced for district scale are different from those for grid scale. Hence, the explanatory variables may change not only for different geographical areas but also for different scales of the same area.

  2. Exploring Scale Effect Using Geographically Weighted Regression on Mass Dataset of Urban Robbery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Ö.; Tecim, V.

    2013-05-01

    Urban geographers have been studying to explain factors influencing crime on cases limited by their study areas. Researchers have a common opinion that explanatory variables modelling crime on those cases might be irrelevant for another one. None of the researchers tested significance of these variables with changing scales of the study area. Because their data did not allow them to study with different scales. This research examines the scale effect with various data from a wide range of data sources. Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) method is used to explain that effect, after organizing data by Geographical Information System (GIS) technologies. Explanatory variables deduced for district scale are different from those for grid scale. Hence, the explanatory variables may change not only for different geographical areas but also for different scales of the same area.

  3. Agent-Based Simulation of Mass Shootings: Determining How to Limit the Scale of a Tragedy

    OpenAIRE

    Roy Hayes; Reginald Hayes

    2014-01-01

    An agent-based simulation was created to examine key parameters in mass shootings. The goal of the simulation was to examine the potential effectiveness of Senator Dianne Feinstein’s (D-Calif.) assault weapons and high-capacity magazines bill. Based on the analysis, the proposed law would have a negligible effect on the number of people shot during mass shootings. The assault weapons portion of the proposed bill will have no effect on the number of people killed or wounded in a mass shootin...

  4. On new scaling group of transformation for Prandtl-Eyring fluid model with both heat and mass transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Khalil Ur; Malik, Aneeqa Ashfaq; Malik, M. Y.; Tahir, M.; Zehra, Iffat

    2018-03-01

    A short communication is structured to offer a set of scaling group of transformation for Prandtl-Eyring fluid flow yields by stretching flat porous surface. The fluid flow regime is carried with both heat and mass transfer characteristics. To seek solution of flow problem a set of scaling group of transformation is proposed by adopting Lie approach. These transformations are used to step down the partial differential equations into ordinary differential equations. The reduced system is solved by numerical method termed as shooting method. A self-coded algorithm is executed in this regard. The obtain results are elaborated by means of figures and tables.

  5. A low-energy β-function in a finite super-Yang-Mills model with multiple mass scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foda, O.; Helayel-Neto, J.A.

    1984-08-01

    We compute the one-loop contribution to the low-energy light-fermion gauge coupling in a finite supersymmetric gauge theory with two mass scales: a heavy mass that breaks an initial N=4 supersymmetry down to N=2, but respects the finiteness, and a light mass that, for simplicity, is set to zero. We find that the coupling grows with the mass of the heavy intermediate states. Hence the latter do not decouple at low energies, leading to large logarithms that invalidate low-energy perturbation theory. Consequently, further manipulations are required to obtain a meaningful perturbative expansion. Enforcing decoupling through finite renormalizations, that absorb the heavy mass effects into a redefinition of the parameters of the Lagrangian, introduces an arbitrary subtraction mass μ. The requirement that the S-matrix elements be independent of μ leads to a non-trivial renormalization-group equation for the low-energy theory, with a non-vanishing β-function. (author)

  6. The dynamics of superclusters - Initial determination of the mass density of the universe at large scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, H. C.; Ciardullo, R.; Harms, R. J.; Bartko, F.

    1981-01-01

    The radial velocities of cluster members of two rich, large superclusters have been measured in order to probe the supercluster mass densities, and simple evolutionary models have been computed to place limits upon the mass density within each supercluster. These superclusters represent true physical associations of size of about 100 Mpc seen presently at an early stage of evolution. One supercluster is weakly bound, the other probably barely bound, but possibly marginally unbound. Gravity has noticeably slowed the Hubble expansion of both superclusters. Galaxy surface-density counts and the density enhancement of Abell clusters within each supercluster were used to derive the ratio of mass densities of the superclusters to the mean field mass density. The results strongly exclude a closed universe.

  7. Mixing and mass transfer in a pilot scale U-loop bioreactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Leander Adrian Haaning; Villadsen, John; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2017-01-01

    A system capable of handling a large volumetric gas fraction while providing a high gas to liquid mass transfer is a necessity if the metanotrophic bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus is to be used in single cell protein (SCP) production. In this study mixing time and mass transfer coefficients were...... determined in a 0.15 m3 forced flow U-loop fermenter of a novel construction. The effect on the impeller drawn power when a gas was introduced into the system was also studied.Mixing time decreased and mass transfer increased with increasing volumetric liquid flow rate and specific power input. This happened...... also for a large volume fraction of the gas, which was shown to have only minor effect on the power drawn from the pump impeller.Very large mass transfer coefficients, considerably higher than those obtainable in an STR and previous tubular loop reactors, could be achieved in the U-loop fermenter...

  8. Exercise-induced maximum metabolic rate scaled to body mass by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2016-10-27

    Oct 27, 2016 ... while exercise-induced MMR is shown here to scale according to distribution network fractal dimensions. Hence, with a possibly obvious surface area explanatory cause, cold exposed MMR is left aside for present purposes. Initially developed for water flow description in river basins, network scaling laws ...

  9. Anomalous leptonic U(1) symmetry: Syndetic origin of the QCD axion, weak-scale dark matter, and radiative neutrino mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ernest; Restrepo, Diego; Zapata, Óscar

    2018-01-01

    The well-known leptonic U(1) symmetry of the Standard Model (SM) of quarks and leptons is extended to include a number of new fermions and scalars. The resulting theory has an invisible QCD axion (thereby solving the strong CP problem), a candidate for weak-scale dark matter (DM), as well as radiative neutrino masses. A possible key connection is a color-triplet scalar, which may be produced and detected at the Large Hadron Collider.

  10. Mass hierarchy and energy scaling of the Tsallis - Pareto parameters in hadron productions at RHIC and LHC energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bíró, Gábor; Barnaföldi, Gergely Gábor; Biró, Tamás Sándor; Shen, Keming

    2018-02-01

    The latest, high-accuracy identified hadron spectra measurements in highenergy nuclear collisions led us to the investigation of the strongly interacting particles and collective effects in small systems. Since microscopical processes result in a statistical Tsallis - Pareto distribution, the fit parameters q and T are well suited for identifying system size scalings and initial conditions. Moreover, parameter values provide information on the deviation from the extensive, Boltzmann - Gibbs statistics in finite-volumes. We apply here the fit procedure developed in our earlier study for proton-proton collisions [1, 2]. The observed mass and center-of-mass energy trends in the hadron production are compared to RHIC dAu and LHC pPb data in different centrality/multiplicity classes. Here we present new results on mass hierarchy in pp and pA from light to heavy hadrons.

  11. Modelling Energy Loss Mechanisms and a Determination of the Electron Energy Scale for the CDF Run II W Mass Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riddick, Thomas [Univ. College London, Bloomsbury (United Kingdom)

    2012-06-15

    The calibration of the calorimeter energy scale is vital to measuring the mass of the W boson at CDF Run II. For the second measurement of the W boson mass at CDF Run II, two independent simulations were developed. This thesis presents a detailed description of the modification and validation of Bremsstrahlung and pair production modelling in one of these simulations, UCL Fast Simulation, comparing to both geant4 and real data where appropriate. The total systematic uncertainty on the measurement of the W boson mass in the W → eve channel from residual inaccuracies in Bremsstrahlung modelling is estimated as 6.2 ±3.2 MeV/c2 and the total systematic uncertainty from residual inaccuracies in pair production modelling is estimated as 2.8± 2.7 MeV=c2. Two independent methods are used to calibrate the calorimeter energy scale in UCL Fast Simulation; the results of these two methods are compared to produce a measurement of the Z boson mass as a cross-check on the accuracy of the simulation.

  12. An experimental scale-model study of seismic response of an underground opening in jointed rock mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kana, D.D.; Fox, D.J.; Hsiung, S.; Chowdhury, A.H.

    1997-02-01

    This report describes an experimental investigation conducted by the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA) to (i) obtain a better understanding of the seismic response of an underground opening in a highly-fractured and jointed rock mass and (ii) generate a data set that can be used to evaluate the capabilities (analytical methods) to calculate such response. This report describes the design and implementation of simulated seismic experiments and results for a 1/15 scale model of a jointed rock mass with a circular tunnel in the middle. The discussion on the design of the scale model includes a description of the associated similitude theory, physical design rationale, model material development, preliminary analytical evaluation, instrumentation design and calibration, and model assembly and pretest procedures. The thrust of this discussion is intended to provide the information necessary to understand the experimental setup and to provide the background necessary to understand the experimental results. The discussion on the experimental procedures and results includes the seismic input test procedures, test runs, and measured excitation and response time histories. The closure of the tunnel due to various levels of seismic activity is presented. A threshold level of seismic input amplitude was required before significant rock mass motion occurred. The experiment, though designed as a two-dimensional representation of a rock mass, behaved in a somewhat three-dimensional manner, which will have an effect on subsequent analytical model comparison

  13. Final scientific and technical report: New experiments to measure the neutrino mass scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monreal, Benjamin [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    2016-11-19

    In this work, we made material progress towards future measurements of the mass of the neutrino. The neutrino is a fundamental particle, first observed in the 1950s and subjected to particularly intense study over the past 20 years. It is now known to have some, non-zero mass, but we are in an unusual situation of knowing the mass exists but not knowing what value it takes. The mass may be determined by precise measurements of certain radioactive decay distributions, particularly the beta decay of tritium. The KATRIN experiment is an international project which is nearing the beginning of a tritium measurement campaign using a large electrostatic spectrumeter. This research included participation in KATRIN, including construction and delivery of a key calibration subsystem, the ``Rear Section''. To obtain sensitivity beyond KATRIN's, new techniques are required; this work included R&D on a new technique we call CRES (Cyclotron Resonance Electron Spectroscopy) which has promise to enable even more sensitive tritium decay measurements. We successfully carried out CRES spectroscopy in a model system in 2014, making an important step towards the design of a next-generation tritium experiment with new neutrino mass measurement abilities.

  14. Dynamics of superclusters: initial determination of the mass density of the universe at large scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, H.C.; Harms, R.J.; Ciardullo, R.; Bartko, F.

    1981-01-01

    We have measured radial velocities of cluster members of two rich, large superclusters in order to probe the supercluster mass densities and have computed simple evolutionary models to place limits upon the mass density within each superclusters. These supercluster represent true physical associations of size approx.100 Mpc (for H 0 = 50 km s -1 Mpc -1 ) seen presently at an early stage of evolution. One supercluster is weakly bound, the other probably barely bound, but possibly marginally unbound. Gravity has noticeably slowed the Hubble expansion of both superclusters. We used galaxy surface-density counts and the density enhancement of Abell clusters within each super-cluster to derive the ratio of mass densities of the supercluster to the mean field mass density. The results strongly exclude a closed universe. We obtain Ω < or approx. = 0.30 with a preferred range 0.06 < or approx. =Ω< or approx. = 0.16. This preferred range for the cosmological density parameter corresponds to a mass-to-luminosity range of 48 < or approx. = M/L < or approx. = 129 in solar units

  15. Basin-scale partitioning of Greenland ice sheet mass balance components (2007-2011)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M.L.; Stenseng, Lars; Skourup, Henriette

    2015-01-01

    The current deficit in Greenland ice sheet mass balance is due to both a decrease in surface mass balance (SMB) input and an increase in ice discharge (D) output. While SMB processes are beginning to be well captured by observationally-constrained climate modeling, insight into D is relatively...... of the gate. Using a 1961-1990 reference climatology SMB field from the MAR regional climate model, we quantify ice sheet mass balance within eighteen basins. We find a 2007-2011 mean D of 515±57 Gtyr-1. We find a 2007-2011 mean total mass balance of -262±21 Gtyr-1, which is equal to a 0.73 mm yr-1 global sea...... limited. We use InSAR-derived velocities, in combination with ice thickness observations, to quantify the mass flux (F) across a flux perimeter around the ice sheet at ~1700 m elevation. To quantify D, we correct F for SMB, as well as changes in volume due to ice dynamics, in the area downstream...

  16. Authentication of Fish Products by Large-Scale Comparison of Tandem Mass Spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Tune; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht; Deelder, André M.

    2013-01-01

    Authentication of food is a major concern worldwide to ensure that food products are correctly labeled in terms of which animals are actually processed for consumption. Normally authentication is based on species recognition by comparison of selected sequences of DNA or protein. We here present...... a new robust, proteome-wide tandem mass spectrometry method for species recognition and food product authentication. The method does not use or require any genome sequences or selection of tandem mass spectra but uses all acquired data. The experimental steps were performed in a simple, standardized...... workflow including protein extraction, digestion, and data analysis. First, a set of reference spectral libraries was generated using unprocessed muscle tissue from 22 different fish species. Query tandem mass spectrometry data sets from “unknown” fresh muscle tissue samples were then searched against...

  17. Large-Scale Identification of the Arginine Methylome by Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sylvestersen, Kathrine B; Nielsen, Michael L

    2015-01-01

    , prefractionation using strong cation exchange, and identification using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. A strategy for relative quantification is described using stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC). Approaches for analysis of arginine methylation site occupancy......The attachment of one or more methylation groups to the side chain of arginine residues is a regulatory mechanism for cellular proteins. Recent advances in mass spectrometry-based characterization allow comprehensive identification of arginine methylation sites by peptide-level enrichment...... strategies. Described in this unit is a 4-day protocol for enrichment of arginine-methylated peptides and subsequent identification of thousands of distinct sites by mass spectrometry. Specifically, the protocol explains step-by-step sample preparation, enrichment using commercially available antibodies...

  18. Allometric or lean body mass scaling of propofol pharmacokinetics: towards simplifying parameter sets for target-controlled infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, Johan Francois

    2012-03-01

    Uncertainty exists as to the most suitable pharmacokinetic parameter sets for propofol target-controlled infusions (TCI). The pharmacokinetic parameter sets currently employed are clearly not universally applicable, particularly when patient attributes differ from those of the subjects who participated in the original research from which the models were derived. Increasing evidence indicates that the pharmacokinetic parameters of propofol can be scaled allometrically as well as in direct proportion to lean body mass (LBM). Appraisal of hitherto published studies suggests that an allometrically scaled pharmacokinetic parameter set may be applicable to a wide range of patients ranging from children to obese adults. On the other hand, there is evidence that propofol pharmacokinetic parameters, scaled linearly to LBM, provide improved dosing in normal and obese adults. The 'Schnider' pharmacokinetic parameter set that has been programmed into commercially available TCI pumps cannot be employed at present for morbidly obese patients (body mass index >40 kg/m2), because of anomalous behaviour of the equation used to calculate LBM, resulting in administration of excessive amounts of propofol. Simulations of TCI using improved equations to calculate LBM indicate that the Schnider model delivers similar amounts of propofol to morbidly obese patients as do the allometrically scaled pharmacokinetic parameter sets. These hypotheses deserve further investigation. To facilitate further investigation, researchers are encouraged to make their data freely available to the WorldSIVA Open TCI Initiative (http://opentci.org).

  19. Sub-seasonal thaw slump mass wasting is not consistently energy limited at the landscape scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwieback, Simon; Kokelj, Steven V.; Günther, Frank; Boike, Julia; Grosse, Guido; Hajnsek, Irena

    2018-02-01

    Predicting future thaw slump activity requires a sound understanding of the atmospheric drivers and geomorphic controls on mass wasting across a range of timescales. On sub-seasonal timescales, sparse measurements indicate that mass wasting at active slumps is often limited by the energy available for melting ground ice, but other factors such as rainfall or the formation of an insulating veneer may also be relevant. To study the sub-seasonal drivers, we derive topographic changes from single-pass radar interferometric data acquired by the TanDEM-X satellites. The estimated elevation changes at 12 m resolution complement the commonly observed planimetric retreat rates by providing information on volume losses. Their high vertical precision (around 30 cm), frequent observations (11 days) and large coverage (5000 km2) allow us to track mass wasting as drivers such as the available energy change during the summer of 2015 in two study regions. We find that thaw slumps in the Tuktoyaktuk coastlands, Canada, are not energy limited in June, as they undergo limited mass wasting (height loss of around 0 cm day-1) despite the ample available energy, suggesting the widespread presence of early season insulating snow or debris veneer. Later in summer, height losses generally increase (around 3 cm day-1), but they do so in distinct ways. For many slumps, mass wasting tracks the available energy, a temporal pattern that is also observed at coastal yedoma cliffs on the Bykovsky Peninsula, Russia. However, the other two common temporal trajectories are asynchronous with the available energy, as they track strong precipitation events or show a sudden speed-up in late August respectively. The observed temporal patterns are poorly related to slump characteristics like the headwall height. The contrasting temporal behaviour of nearby thaw slumps highlights the importance of complex local and temporally varying controls on mass wasting.

  20. The effect of vegetation patterns on Aeolian mass flux at regional scale: a wind tunnel study

    OpenAIRE

    Youssef, Feras; Visser, Saskia M; Karssenberg, Derek; Erpul, Gunay; Cornelis, Wim; Gabriels, Donald; Poortinga, Ate; De Boever, Maarten

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although insight on the effect of vegetation pattern on Aeolian mass transport is essential for re-planting degraded land, only limited knowledge on this effect is available. The objective of this research was to understand the effect of vegetation design on the Aeolian mass flux inside a single land unit and at the borders among land units. A simulation of Atriplex halimus shrubs inside a wind tunnel was made, and sand redistribution was measured after the application of 200-230 sec...

  1. Mass coral spawning: A natural large-scale nutrien t addition experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eyre, B.D.; Glud, Ronnie Nøhr; Patten, N.

    2008-01-01

    ), and dissolved organic phosphorus were used in the production of biomass, and mass balance calculations highlighted the importance of organic forms of N and P for benthic and pelagic production in tropical coral reef environments characterized by low inorganic N and P. The input of N and P via the deposition......A mass coral spawning event on the Heron Island reef flat in 2005 provided a unique opportunity to examine the response of a coral reef ecosystem to a large episodic nutrient addition. A post-major spawning phytoplankton bloom resulted in only a small drawdown of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP...

  2. Constraining the physical structure of the inner few 100 AU scales of deeply embedded low-mass protostars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, M. V.; Harsono, D.; Tobin, J. J.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Jørgensen, J. K.; Murillo, N.; Lai, S.-P.

    2016-05-01

    Context. The physical structure of deeply embedded low-mass protostars (Class 0) on scales of less than 300 AU is still poorly constrained. While molecular line observations demonstrate the presence of disks with Keplerian rotation toward a handful of sources, others show no hint of rotation. Determining the structure on small scales (a few 100 AU) is crucial for understanding the physical and chemical evolution from cores to disks. Aims: We determine the presence and characteristics of compact, disk-like structures in deeply embedded low-mass protostars. A related goal is investigating how the derived structure affects the determination of gas-phase molecular abundances on hot-core scales. Methods: Two models of the emission, a Gaussian disk intensity distribution and a parametrized power-law disk model, are fitted to subarcsecond resolution interferometric continuum observations of five Class 0 sources, including one source with a confirmed Keplerian disk. Prior to fitting the models to the de-projected real visibilities, the estimated envelope from an independent model and any companion sources are subtracted. For reference, a spherically symmetric single power-law envelope is fitted to the larger scale emission (~1000 AU) and investigated further for one of the sources on smaller scales. Results: The radii of the fitted disk-like structures range from ~90-170 AU, and the derived masses depend on the method. Using the Gaussian disk model results in masses of 54-556 × 10-3 M⊙, and using the power-law disk model gives 9-140 × 10-3 M⊙. While the disk radii agree with previous estimates the masses are different for some of the sources studied. Assuming a typical temperature distribution (r-0.5), the fractional amount of mass in the disk above 100 K varies from 7% to 30%. Conclusions: A thin disk model can approximate the emission and physical structure in the inner few 100 AU scales of the studied deeply embedded low-mass protostars and paves the way for

  3. Mixing and mass transfer in a pilot scale U-loop bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Leander A H; Villadsen, John; Jørgensen, Sten B; Gernaey, Krist V

    2017-02-01

    A system capable of handling a large volumetric gas fraction while providing a high gas to liquid mass transfer is a necessity if the metanotrophic bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus is to be used in single cell protein (SCP) production. In this study, mixing time and mass transfer coefficients were determined in a 0.15 m 3 forced flow U-loop fermenter of a novel construction. The effect on the impeller drawn power when a gas was introduced into the system was also studied. Mixing time decreased and mass transfer increased with increasing volumetric liquid flow rate and specific power input. This happened also for a large volume fraction of the gas, which was shown to have only minor effect on the power drawn from the pump impeller. Very large mass transfer coefficients, considerably higher than those obtainable in an STR and previous tubular loop reactors, could be achieved in the U-loop fermenter equipped with static mixers at modest volumetric liquid and gas flow rates. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 344-354. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Testing the blazar sequence and black hole mass scaling with BL Lac objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plotkin, Richard M.; Markoff, Sera; Anderson, Scott F.; Kelly, Brandon C.; Körding, Elmar; Trager, Scott C.; Romero, Gustavo E.; Sunyaev, Rashid A.; Belloni, Tomaso

    Jets from accreting black holes appear remarkably similar over eight orders of magnitude in black hole mass, with more massive black holes generally launching more powerful jets. For example, there is an observed correlation, termed the fundamental plane of black hole accretion, between black hole

  5. Testing the blazar sequence and black hole mass scaling with BL Lac objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plotkin, R.M.; Markoff, S.; Anderson, S.F.; Kelly, B.C.; Körding, E.; Trager, S.C.

    2010-01-01

    Jets from accreting black holes appear remarkably similar over eight orders of magnitude in black hole mass, with more massive black holes generally launching more powerful jets. For example, there is an observed correlation, termed the fundamental plane of black hole accretion, between black hole

  6. Monthly solutions of ice sheet mass balance at basin scale – and their associated uncertainties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Louise Sandberg; Barletta, Valentina Roberta; Forsberg, René

    2012-01-01

    There are still discrepancies in published ice sheet mass balance results, even between ones based on the same data sets. It can be difficult to conclude from where the discrepancies arise, and it is therefore important to cross calibrate methods, data and models in order to determine...

  7. A case-study on the accuracy of mass balances for xenobiotics in full-scale wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewsky, Marius; Farlin, Julien; Bayerle, Michael; Gallé, Tom

    2013-04-01

    Removal efficiencies of micropollutants in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are usually evaluated from mass balance calculations using a small number of observations drawn from short sampling campaigns. Since micropollutant loads can vary greatly in both influent and effluent and reactor tanks exhibit specific hydraulic residence times, these short-term approaches are particularly prone to yield erroneous removal values. A detailed investigation of micropollutant transit times at full-scale and on how this affects mass balancing results was still lacking. The present study used hydraulic residence time distributions to scrutinize the match of influent loads to effluent loads of 10 polar micropollutants with different influent dynamics in a full-scale WWTP. Prior hydraulic modeling indicated that a load sampled over one day in the effluent is composed of influent load fractions of five preceding days. Results showed that the error of the mass balance can be reduced with increasing influent sampling duration. The approach presented leads to a more reliable estimation of the removal efficiencies of those micropollutants which can be constantly detected in influents, such as pharmaceuticals, but provides no advantage for pesticides due to their sporadic occurrence. The mismatch between sampled influent and effluent loads was identified as a major error source and an explanation was provided for the occurrence of negative mass balances regularly reported. This study indicates that the accurate determination of global removal values is only feasible in full-scale investigations with sampling durations much longer than 1 day. In any case, the uncertainty of these values needs to be reported when used in removal assessment, model selection or validation.

  8. Absolute metrology for space interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvadé, Yves; Courteville, Alain; Dändliker, René

    2017-11-01

    The crucial issue of space-based interferometers is the laser interferometric metrology systems to monitor with very high accuracy optical path differences. Although classical high-resolution laser interferometers using a single wavelength are well developed, this type of incremental interferometer has a severe drawback: any interruption of the interferometer signal results in the loss of the zero reference, which requires a new calibration, starting at zero optical path difference. We propose in this paper an absolute metrology system based on multiplewavelength interferometry.

  9. Transition in x-ray yield, mass scaling observed in the high-wire-number, plasma-shell regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitney, K.G.; Pulsifer, P.E.; Apruzese, J.P.; Thornhill, J.W.; Davis, J.; Sanford, T.W.L.; Mock, R.C.; Nash, T.J.

    1999-01-01

    Initial calculations, based on classical transport coefficients and carried out to predict the efficiency with which the implosion kinetic energy of aluminum Z pinches could be thermalized and converted into kilovolt x-rays, predicted a sharp transition between m 2 and m yield scaling, where m is the aluminum array mass. Later, when ad hoc increases in the heat conductivity and artificial viscosity were introduced into these calculations and the densities that were achieved on axis were sharply reduced, the transition from m 2 to m scaling was found to have shifted, but was otherwise still fairly sharp and well-defined. The location of these breakpoint curves defined the locus of implosion velocities at which the yields would obtain their maximum for different mass arrays. The first such mass breakpoint curve that was calculated is termed hard, while the second is termed soft. Early 24, 30, and 42 aluminum wire experiments on the Saturn accelerator at the Sandia National laboratories confirmed the predictions of the soft breakpoint curve calculations. In this talk, the authors present results from a more recent set of aluminum experiments on Saturn, in which the array mass was varied at a fixed array radius and in which the radius was varied for a fixed mass. In both sets of experiments, the wire numbers were large: in excess of 92 and generally 136 or 192. In this high-wire-number regime, the wire plasmas are calculated to merge to form a plasma shell prior to significant radial implosion. Large wire number has been found to improve the pinch compressibility, and the analysis of these experiments in the shell regime shows that they come very close to the original predictions of the hard breakpoint curve calculations. A discussion of these detailed comparisons will be presented

  10. Two-region mass transfer to account for 2D profile scale heterogeneity in a 1D effective plot scale flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipovic, Vilim; Coquet, Yves; Gerke, Horst H.

    2017-04-01

    In arable soil landscapes, specific spatial heterogeneities related to tillage and trafficking can influence the movement of water and chemicals. The structure in the topsoil is characterized by spatial patterns with locally compacted zones. The contrasting hydraulic properties of more-and-less compacted soil zones can result in heterogeneous flow fields and preferential flow. Two- or three-dimensional models used to account for soil spatial variability are relatively too complex when trying to include local heterogeneities in the description of field scale flow and transport problems. The idea was to reduce the model complexity linked to the explicit description of heterogeneities in 2D or 3D without deteriorating the validity of simulation results. When reducing the spatial dimensionality, the geometry in a 2D, cross-sectional explicit plot description is removed on the expense of an increased complexity of the 1D model with two flow domains and mass exchange between them. Our objective was to design a simplified 1D model approach that effectively accounts for plot-scale soil structural variability. In this simplified 1D model, effective soil hydraulic parameters can be assigned to each of the two domains separately. Different theoretical scenarios simulating different shape, size and arrangement of compacted clods in the tilled layer were set to estimate their effect on solute behaviour. The mass exchange parameters could be determined from structure quantification and by comparing simplified 1D with reference 2D results accounting for defined soil structural (i.e., here the compacted regions) geometries. The mass exchange is strongly related to the geometry of the compacted zones including their distribution and size within the non-compacted soil. Additionally, the simplified model approach was tested by comparing it with measured results from a field tracer experiment.

  11. First assessment of triclosan, triclocarban and paraben mass loads at a very large regional scale: case of Paris conurbation (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasperi, Johnny; Geara, Darine; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Bressy, Adèle; Zedek, Sifax; Rocher, Vincent; El Samrani, Antoine; Chebbo, Ghassan; Moilleron, Régis

    2014-09-15

    The objective of this study was to examine the occurrence of parabens (5 congeners), triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC) at the scale of the Parisian sewer network and to provide representative knowledge on these compounds in France for a large area. For this purpose and in collaboration with the Parisian public sanitation service (SIAAP) in charge of the collect and treatment of the Parisian wastewater, this study focused on seven main sewer trunks of the Paris conurbation, accounting for 1900,000 m(3) d(-1), i.e., about 8 million inhabitants. Concentrations lying in the 2000-20000 ng l(-1) ranges were found in wastewater, confirming the ubiquity of parabens, TCS and TCC in our environment and household products. Parabens (>97%) and to a lesser extent TCS (68% in median) were mainly associated to the dissolved fraction, as demonstrated by low KD and KOC values. For the first time, this study also evaluated the pollutant mass loads per population equivalent (PE) of parabens, TCS and TCC at the large and representative scale of the Parisian conurbation. Hence, the median mass loads varied from 176 to 3040 μg PE(-1) d(-1) for parabens and from 26 to 762 μg PE(-1) d(-1) for TCS and TCC. Based on these results and according to the assumptions done, the extrapolation of the mass loads at the national scale pointed out an annual mass loads between 51.8 and 100.7 ty(-1) for methyl paraben (MeP) and between 11.2 and 23.5 ty(-1) for TCS. Mass loads per equivalent habitant and national mass loads are both extremely relevant and innovative data. Contrary to other countries, such data are nowadays rather difficult to gain in France and neither enquiry nor database provides access to information on the use and production of these chemicals. Since cosmetic industries are voluntarily and fully engaged in the substitution of parabens, triclosan and triclocarban in personal care product, this study could constitute a "time reference status" which could be used as a basis for

  12. On the feasibility of using satellite gravity observations for detecting large-scale solid mass transfer events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peidou, Athina C.; Fotopoulos, Georgia; Pagiatakis, Spiros

    2017-10-01

    The main focus of this paper is to assess the feasibility of utilizing dedicated satellite gravity missions in order to detect large-scale solid mass transfer events (e.g. landslides). Specifically, a sensitivity analysis of Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) gravity field solutions in conjunction with simulated case studies is employed to predict gravity changes due to past subaerial and submarine mass transfer events, namely the Agulhas slump in southeastern Africa and the Heart Mountain Landslide in northwestern Wyoming. The detectability of these events is evaluated by taking into account the expected noise level in the GRACE gravity field solutions and simulating their impact on the gravity field through forward modelling of the mass transfer. The spectral content of the estimated gravity changes induced by a simulated large-scale landslide event is estimated for the known spatial resolution of the GRACE observations using wavelet multiresolution analysis. The results indicate that both the Agulhas slump and the Heart Mountain Landslide could have been detected by GRACE, resulting in {\\vert }0.4{\\vert } and {\\vert }0.18{\\vert } mGal change on GRACE solutions, respectively. The suggested methodology is further extended to the case studies of the submarine landslide in Tohoku, Japan, and the Grand Banks landslide in Newfoundland, Canada. The detectability of these events using GRACE solutions is assessed through their impact on the gravity field.

  13. Absolute pitch--electrophysiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnea, A; Granot, R; Pratt, H

    1994-02-01

    People who have the ability to label or to produce notes without any reference are considered to possess Absolute Pitch (AP). Others, who need a reference in order to identify the notes, possess Relative Pitch (RP). The AP ability is assumed to reflect a unique, language-like representation of non-lexical musical notes in memory. The purpose of this study was to examine this assumption by comparing Event Related Potentials (ERP) of musicians with and without AP, to lexical and non-lexical representation of musical material. Subjects were eighteen young adult musicians. Seven were AP and eleven RP. Auditory stimuli, presented through earphones, were piano notes (non-lexical) or a voice saying the note's name (lexical). Visual stimuli, presented on a computer display were note symbols (non-lexical) or letters (lexical). Subjects performed a number of tasks, combining the two modalities (visual and auditory) and stimulus types (lexical and non-lexical), and reaction times (RT), performance accuracy and evoked potentials were recorded. The tasks forced the subjects to transfer mental representations of musical material from one mode to another. Our most important findings were the differences, between groups, in the scalp distribution of P300 amplitudes. We conclude that absolute pitch possessors use the same internal language as relative pitch possessors, when possible, but the distribution of the underlying brain activity is different between AP and RP subjects.

  14. Absolute MR thermometry using nanocarriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckers, Roel; Sprinkhuizen, Sara M; Crielaard, Bart J; Ippel, Johannes H; Boelens, Rolf; Bakker, Chris J G; Storm, Gert; Lammers, Twan; Bartels, Lambertus W

    2014-01-01

    Accurate time-resolved temperature mapping is crucial for the safe use of hyperthermia-mediated drug delivery. We here propose a magnetic resonance imaging temperature mapping method in which drug delivery systems serve not only to improve tumor targeting, but also as an accurate and absolute nano-thermometer. This method is based on the temperature-dependent chemical shift difference between water protons and the protons in different groups of drug delivery systems. We show that the chemical shift of the protons in the ethylene oxide group in polyethylene glycol (PEG) is temperature-independent, whereas the proton resonance of water decreases with increasing temperature. The frequency difference between both resonances is linear and does not depend on pH and physiological salt conditions. In addition, we show that the proton resonance of the methyl group in N-(2-hydroxypropyl)-methacrylamide (HPMA) is temperature-independent. Therefore, PEGylated liposomes, polymeric mPEG-b-pHPMAm-Lac2 micelles and HPMA copolymers can provide a temperature-independent reference frequency for absolute magnetic resonance (MR) thermometry. Subsequently, we show that multigradient echo MR imaging with PEGylated liposomes in situ allows accurate, time-resolved temperature mapping. In conclusion, nanocarrier materials may serve as highly versatile tools for tumor-targeted drug delivery, acting not only as hyperthermia-responsive drug delivery systems, but also as accurate and precise nano-thermometers. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. A SCALING RELATION BETWEEN MEGAMASER DISK RADIUS AND BLACK HOLE MASS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardle, Mark; Yusef-Zadeh, Farhad

    2012-01-01

    Several thin, Keplerian, sub-parsec megamaser disks have been discovered in the nuclei of active galaxies and used to precisely determine the mass of their host black holes. We show that there is an empirical linear correlation between the disk radius and the black hole mass. We demonstrate that such disks are naturally formed by the partial capture of molecular clouds passing through the galactic nucleus and temporarily engulfing the central supermassive black hole. Imperfect cancellation of the angular momenta of the cloud material colliding after passing on opposite sides of the hole leads to the formation of a compact disk. The radial extent of the disk is determined by the efficiency of this process and the Bondi-Hoyle capture radius of the black hole, and naturally produces the empirical linear correlation of the radial extent of the maser distribution with black hole mass. The disk has sufficient column density to allow X-ray irradiation from the central source to generate physical and chemical conditions conducive to the formation of 22 GHz H 2 O masers. For initial cloud column densities ∼ 23.5 cm –2 the disk is non-self-gravitating, consistent with the ordered kinematics of the edge-on megamaser disks; for higher cloud columns the disk would fragment and produce a compact stellar disk similar to that observed around Sgr A* at the galactic center.

  16. Probing eV-mass scale axions with a Micromegas detector in the CAST experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Galan Lacarra, Javier A.

    The CAST (CERN Axion Solar Telescope) experiment is searching for axions, an hypothetical particle that emerges as a possible solution to the well known CP violation problem in strong interactions. CAST is using a decommissioned LHC dipole magnet able to track the Sun as a possible source of solar axions, and to convert them to X-rays photons detectable with low background X-ray detectors. CAST continues its data taking period scanning masses up to 1eV. This thesis presents the data obtained with a Micromegas detector for the scanned axion mass range up to 0.64eV. The working principle, characterization and analysis of the Micromegas detectors operating in CAST are detailed in this work. Moreover, the last detector data corresponding to the new data taking period, with 3He gas inside the bores, was used to obtain a preliminar and conservative upper limit on the axion-photon coupling for the new axion mass range explored, g_{a\\gamma} < 2.44 10^{-10} GeV^{-1}.

  17. Meso-scale kinematic indicators in exhumed mass transport deposits: Definitions and implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogata, Kei; Pini, Gian Andrea; Festa, Andrea; Poga??nik, Z??ljko; Lucente, Claudio Corrado

    2016-01-01

    In this study we combine observations and analytical data from large-scale (10–100s of m-thick and 100 m 2 -extensive), siliciclastic and carbonate MTD/MTCs belonging to the Oligocene – Miocene foredeep and wedge-top suc-cessions of the Northern Apennines and the Paleocene – Eocene Friuli basin of

  18. Exercise-induced maximum metabolic rate scaled to body mass by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The central postulation of the present approach to metabolic rate scaling is that exercise-induced maximum aerobic metabolic rate (MMR) is proportional to the fractal extent (V) of an animal. Total fractal extent can be calculated from the sum of the fractal extents of the capillary service units, as specified by the formula V ...

  19. Ontogenetic scaling of fish metabolism in the mouse-to-elephant mass magnitude range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moran, Damian; Wells, R.M.G.

    2007-01-01

    coefficient. Statistical and information theory comparisons of three other models showed that a segmented linear regression and curvilinear quadratic function were an improvement over a simple linear regression. This confirmed previous observations that the metabolic scaling exponent of fish changes during...

  20. Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scales are a visible peeling or flaking of outer skin layers. These layers are called the stratum ... Scales may be caused by dry skin, certain inflammatory skin conditions, or infections. Examples of disorders that ...

  1. Simultaneous measurement of top quark mass and jet energy scale using template fits at the CMS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naumann-Emme, Sebastian

    2011-07-15

    In this thesis, pairs of top quarks produced in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV and decaying in the muon+jets channel t anti t {yields} (b{mu}{nu})(bqq{sup '}) are analyzed using data that were recorded by the CMS detector in the year 2010 and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 pb{sup -1}. A sample of 78 events is selected by requiring exactly one isolated muon and at least four jets, two of them being identified as jets from the decay of b quarks. Given these selection criteria, the expected fraction of t anti t events is 94%. The trijet mass, M3, and the dijet mass, M2, are reconstructed, taking into account the b-tagging information. M3 and M2 are estimators of the masses of hadronically decaying top quarks and the corresponding W bosons, respectively. Templates for M2 and for the event-wise mass difference {delta}M{sub 32}=M3-M2 are parametrized as linear functions of the top quark mass, m{sub t}, and the jet energy scale (JES). Based on the precise knowledge of the W boson mass, M2 provides a strong handle on the energy scale of jets from light quarks. The reconstructed M2 and {delta}M{sub 32} in data are compared to the template functions from simulation in a combined likelihood fit. The overall JES in the selected sample is found to be 1.048{+-}0.040(stat){+-}0.015(syst) relative to the simulated JES and the measured m{sub t} is 167.8{+-}7.1(stat+JES){+-}3.1(syst) GeV. This is one of the first measurements of m{sub t} at the Large Hadron Collider. Furthermore, the JES measurement is an important input for the commissioning of the CMS experiment for the upcoming measurements with more data in the near future. (orig.)

  2. Contrasting effects of mass-flowering crops on bee pollination of hedge plants at different spatial and temporal scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács-Hostyánszki, Anikó; Haenke, Sebastian; Batáry, Péter; Jauker, Birgit; Báldi, András; Tscharntke, Teja; Holzschuh, Andrea

    2013-12-01

    Landscape-wide mass-flowering of oilseed rape (canola Brassica napus) can considerably affect wild bee communities and pollination success of wild plants. We aimed to assess the impact of oilseed rape on the pollination of wild plants and bee abundance during and after oilseed-rape bloom, including effects on crop-noncrop spillover at landscape and adjacent-field scales. We focused on two shrub species (hawthorn Crataegus spp., dog rose Rosa canina) and adjacent herb flowering in forest edges, connected hedges, and isolated hedges in Lower Saxony, Germany. We selected 35 landscape circles of 1 km radius, differing in the amount of oilseed rape; 18 were adjacent to oilseed rape and 17 to cereal fields, and we quantified bee density via pan traps at all sites. Adjacent oilseed rape positively affected fruit mass and seed number per fruit of simultaneously flowering hawthorn (no effect on dog rose, which flowers after the oilseed rape bloom). At the landscape scale, oilseed rape had a negative effect on bumble bee density in the hedges during flowering due to dilution of pollinators per unit area and the consequently intensified competition between oilseed rape and wild shrubs, but a positive effect after flowering when bees moved to the hedges, which still provided resources. In contrast, positive landscape-scale effects of oilseed rape were found throughout the season in forest edges, suggesting that edges support nesting activity and enhanced food resources. Our results show that oilseed rape effects on bee abundances and pollination success in seminatural habitats depend on the spatial and temporal scale considered and on the habitat type, the wild plant species, and the time of crop flowering. These scale-dependent positive and negative effects should be considered in evaluations of landscape-scale configuration and composition of crops. Food resources provided by mass-flowering crops should be most beneficial for landscape-wide enhancement of wild bee

  3. A high-precision mechanical absolute-rotation sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswara, Krishna; Hagedorn, Charles A; Turner, Matthew D; Arp, Trevor; Gundlach, Jens H

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a mechanical absolute-rotation sensor capable of resolving ground rotation angle of less than 1 nrad/√Hz above 30 mHz and 0.2 nrad/√Hz above 100 mHz about a single horizontal axis. The device consists of a meter-scale beam balance, suspended by a pair of flexures, with a resonance frequency of 10.8 mHz. The center of mass is located 3 μm above the pivot, giving an excellent horizontal displacement rejection of better than 3 × 10(-5) rad/m. The angle of the beam is read out optically using a high-sensitivity autocollimator. We have also built a tiltmeter with better than 1 nrad/√Hz sensitivity above 30 mHz. Co-located measurements using the two instruments allowed us to distinguish between background rotation signal at low frequencies and intrinsic instrument noise. The rotation sensor is useful for rotational seismology and for rejecting background rotation signal from seismometers in experiments demanding high levels of seismic isolation, such as Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory.

  4. Advances in the Metrology of Absolute Value Assignments to Isotopic Reference Materials: Consequences from the Avogadro Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vocke, Robert; Rabb, Savelas

    2015-04-01

    All isotope amount ratios (hereafter referred to as isotope ratios) produced and measured on any mass spectrometer are biased. This unfortunate situation results mainly from the physical processes in the source area where ions are produced. Because the ionized atoms in poly-isotopic elements have different masses, such processes are typically mass dependent and lead to what is commonly referred to as mass fractionation (for thermal ionization and electron impact sources) and mass bias (for inductively coupled plasma sources.) This biasing process produces a measured isotope ratio that is either larger or smaller than the "true" ratio in the sample. This has led to the development of numerous fractionation "laws" that seek to correct for these effects, many of which are not based on the physical processes giving rise to the biases. The search for tighter and reproducible precisions has led to two isotope ratio measurement systems that exist side-by-side. One still seeks to measure "absolute" isotope ratios while the other utilizes an artifact based measurement system called a delta-scale. The common element between these two measurement systems is the utilization of isotope reference materials (iRMs). These iRMs are used to validate a fractionation "law" in the former case and function as a scale anchor in the latter. Many value assignments of iRMs are based on "best measurements" by the original groups producing the reference material, a not entirely satisfactory approach. Other iRMs, with absolute isotope ratio values, have been produced by calibrated measurements following the Atomic Weight approach (AW) pioneered by NBS nearly 50 years ago. Unfortunately, the AW is not capable of calibrating the new generation of iRMs to sufficient precision. So how do we get iRMs with isotope ratios of sufficient precision and without bias? Such a focus is not to denigrate the extremely precise delta-scale measurements presently being made on non-traditional and tradition

  5. Pre- versus post-mass extinction divergence of Mesozoic marine reptiles dictated by time-scale dependence of evolutionary rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motani, Ryosuke; Jiang, Da-Yong; Tintori, Andrea; Ji, Cheng; Huang, Jian-Dong

    2017-05-17

    The fossil record of a major clade often starts after a mass extinction even though evolutionary rates, molecular or morphological, suggest its pre-extinction emergence (e.g. squamates, placentals and teleosts). The discrepancy is larger for older clades, and the presence of a time-scale-dependent methodological bias has been suggested, yet it has been difficult to avoid the bias using Bayesian phylogenetic methods. This paradox raises the question of whether ecological vacancies, such as those after mass extinctions, prompt the radiations. We addressed this problem by using a unique temporal characteristic of the morphological data and a high-resolution stratigraphic record, for the oldest clade of Mesozoic marine reptiles, Ichthyosauromorpha. The evolutionary rate was fastest during the first few million years of ichthyosauromorph evolution and became progressively slower over time, eventually becoming six times slower. Using the later slower rates, estimates of divergence time become excessively older. The fast, initial rate suggests the emergence of ichthyosauromorphs after the end-Permian mass extinction, matching an independent result from high-resolution stratigraphic confidence intervals. These reptiles probably invaded the sea as a new ecosystem was formed after the end-Permian mass extinction. Lack of information on early evolution biased Bayesian clock rates. © 2017 The Author(s).

  6. Large-scale analysis of in Vivo phosphorylated membrane proteins by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nühse, Thomas S; Stensballe, Allan; Jensen, Ole N

    2003-01-01

    Global analyses of protein phosphorylation require specific enrichment methods because of the typically low abundance of phosphoproteins. To date, immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) for phosphopeptides has shown great promise for large-scale studies, but has a reputation for poor...... specificity. We investigated the potential of IMAC in combination with capillary liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry for the identification of plasma membrane phosphoproteins of Arabidopsis. Without chemical modification of peptides, over 75% pure phosphopeptides were isolated from...... plasma membrane digests and detected and sequenced by mass spectrometry. We present a scheme for two-dimensional peptide separation using strong anion exchange chromatography prior to IMAC that both decreases the complexity of IMAC-purified phosphopeptides and yields a far greater coverage...

  7. Mass scale of vectorlike matter and superpartners from IR fixed point predictions of gauge and top Yukawa couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermíšek, Radovan; McGinnis, Navin

    2018-03-01

    We use the IR fixed point predictions for gauge couplings and the top Yukawa coupling in the minimal supersymmetric model (MSSM) extended with vectorlike families to infer the scale of vectorlike matter and superpartners. We quote results for several extensions of the MSSM and present results in detail for the MSSM extended with one complete vectorlike family. We find that for a unified gauge coupling αG>0.3 vectorlike matter or superpartners are expected within 1.7 TeV (2.5 TeV) based on all three gauge couplings being simultaneously within 1.5% (5%) from observed values. This range extends to about 4 TeV for αG>0.2 . We also find that in the scenario with two additional large Yukawa couplings of vectorlike quarks the IR fixed point value of the top Yukawa coupling independently points to a multi-TeV range for vectorlike matter and superpartners. Assuming a universal value for all large Yukawa couplings at the grand unified theory scale, the measured top quark mass can be obtained from the IR fixed point for tan β ≃4 . The range expands to any tan β >3 for significant departures from the universality assumption. Considering that the Higgs boson mass also points to a multi-TeV range for superpartners in the MSSM, adding a complete vectorlike family at the same scale provides a compelling scenario where the values of gauge couplings and the top quark mass are understood as a consequence of the particle content of the model.

  8. The effect of design and scale on the mixing and mass transfer in U-loop bioreactors

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Leander Adrian Haaning; Villadsen, John; Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Christensen, Ib; Eliasson Lantz, Anna; Gernaey, Krist V.

    2017-01-01

    A system capable of handling a large volumetric gas fraction while providing a high gas to liquid mass transfer is a necessity if the metanotrophic bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus is to be used in single cell protein (SCP) production.Previous studies have proven that a U-loop fermenter, a novel vertical forced flow loop reactor where gas and liquid are driven through a series of static mixers in a U-shaped pipe, is quite capable of coping with these challenges in pilot scale. The critical ...

  9. The PMA Catalogue: 420 million positions and absolute proper motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmetov, V. S.; Fedorov, P. N.; Velichko, A. B.; Shulga, V. M.

    2017-07-01

    We present a catalogue that contains about 420 million absolute proper motions of stars. It was derived from the combination of positions from Gaia DR1 and 2MASS, with a mean difference of epochs of about 15 yr. Most of the systematic zonal errors inherent in the 2MASS Catalogue were eliminated before deriving the absolute proper motions. The absolute calibration procedure (zero-pointing of the proper motions) was carried out using about 1.6 million positions of extragalactic sources. The mean formal error of the absolute calibration is less than 0.35 mas yr-1. The derived proper motions cover the whole celestial sphere without gaps for a range of stellar magnitudes from 8 to 21 mag. In the sky areas where the extragalactic sources are invisible (the avoidance zone), a dedicated procedure was used that transforms the relative proper motions into absolute ones. The rms error of proper motions depends on stellar magnitude and ranges from 2-5 mas yr-1 for stars with 10 mag < G < 17 mag to 5-10 mas yr-1 for faint ones. The present catalogue contains the Gaia DR1 positions of stars for the J2015 epoch. The system of the PMA proper motions does not depend on the systematic errors of the 2MASS positions, and in the range from 14 to 21 mag represents an independent realization of a quasi-inertial reference frame in the optical and near-infrared wavelength range. The Catalogue also contains stellar magnitudes taken from the Gaia DR1 and 2MASS catalogues. A comparison of the PMA proper motions of stars with similar data from certain recent catalogues has been undertaken.

  10. AMiBA: SCALING RELATIONS BETWEEN THE INTEGRATED COMPTON-y AND X-RAY-DERIVED TEMPERATURE, MASS, AND LUMINOSITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Chih-Wei Locutus; Wu, Jiun-Huei Proty; Liao, Yu-Wei; Lin, Kai-Yang; Wang, Fu-Cheng; Chiueh, Tzihong; Ho, Paul T. P.; Koch, Patrick M.; Liu, Guo-Chin; Molnar, Sandor M.; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Altamirano, Pablo; Chang, Chia-Hao; Chang, Shu-Hao; Chang, Su-Wei; Chen, Ming-Tang; Han, Chih-Chiang; Huang, Yau-De; Umetsu, Keiichi; Birkinshaw, Mark

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the scaling relations between the X-ray and the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect properties of clusters of galaxies, using data taken during 2007 by the Y. T. Lee Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA) at 94 GHz for the six clusters A1689, A1995, A2142, A2163, A2261, and A2390. The scaling relations relate the integrated Compton-y parameter Y 2500 to the X-ray-derived gas temperature T e , total mass M 2500 , and bolometric luminosity L X within r 2500 . Our results for the power-law index and normalization are both consistent with the self-similar model and other studies in the literature except for the Y 2500 -L X relation, for which a physical explanation is given though further investigation may be still needed. Our results not only provide confidence for the AMiBA project but also support our understanding of galaxy clusters.

  11. Discovery of large-scale diffuse radio emission in low-mass galaxy cluster Abell 1931

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggen, M.; Rafferty, D.; Bonafede, A.; van Weeren, R. J.; Shimwell, T.; Intema, H.; Röttgering, H.; Brunetti, G.; Di Gennaro, G.; Savini, F.; Wilber, A.; O'Sullivan, S.; Ensslin, T. A.; De Gasperin, F.; Hoeft, M.

    2018-04-01

    Extended, steep-spectrum radio synchrotron sources are pre-dominantly found in massive galaxy clusters as opposed to groups. LOFAR Two-Metre Sky Survey images have revealed a diffuse, ultra-steep spectrum radio source in the low-mass cluster Abell 1931. The source has a fairly irregular morphology with a largest linear size of about 550 kpc. The source is only seen in LOFAR observations at 143 MHz and GMRT observations at 325 MHz. The spectral index of the total source between 143 MHz and 325 MHz is α _{143}^{325} = -2.86 ± 0.36. The source remains invisible in Very Large Array (1-2 GHz) observations as expected given the spectral index. Chandra X-ray observations of the cluster revealed a bolometric luminosity of LX = (1.65 ± 0.39) × 1043 erg s-1 and a temperature of 2.92_{-0.87}^{+1.89} keV which implies a mass of around ˜1014M⊙. We conclude that the source is a remnant radio galaxy that has shut off around 200 Myr ago. The brightest cluster galaxy, a radio-loud elliptical galaxy, could be the source for this extinct source. Unlike remnant sources studied in the literature, our source has a steep spectrum at low radio frequencies. Studying such remnant radio galaxies at low radio frequencies is important for understanding the scarcity of such sources and their role in feedback processes.

  12. Meso-scale testing and development of test procedures to maintain mass balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, James; Page, Cheryl; Fuller, Chris

    2003-01-01

    The Conrad Blucher Institute for Surveying and Science (Texas A&M University--Corpus Christi) has conducted numerous petroleum experiments at the Shoreline Environmental Research Facility (Corpus Christi, Texas, USA). The meso-scale facility has multiple wave tanks, permitting some control in experimental design of the investigations, but allowing for real-world conditions. This paper outlines the evolution of a materials balance approach in conducting petroleum experiments at the facility. The first attempt at a materials balance was during a 1998 study on the fate/effects of dispersant use on crude oil. Both water column and beach sediment samples were collected. For the materials balance, the defined environmental compartments for oil accumulation were sediments, water column, and the water surface, while the discharge from the tanks was presumed to be the primary sink. The "lessons learned" included a need to quantify oil adhesion to the tank surfaces. This was resolved by adhering strips of the polymer tank lining to the tank sides that could be later removed and extracted for oil. Also, a protocol was needed to quantify any floating oil on the water surface. A water surface (oil slick) quantification protocol was developed, involving the use of solid-phase extraction disks. This protocol was first tested during a shoreline cleaner experiment, and later refined in subsequent dispersant effectiveness studies. The effectiveness tests were designed to simulate shallow embayments which created the need for additional adjustments in the tanks. Since dispersant efficacy is largely affected by hydrodynamics, it was necessary to scale the hydrodynamic conditions of the tanks to those expected in our prototype system (Corpus Christi Bay, Texas). The use of a scaled model permits the experiment to be reproduced and/or evaluated under different conditions. To minimize wave reflection in the tank, a parabolic wave dissipater was built. In terms of materials balance, this

  13. Mass coral spawning: A natural large-scale nutrien t addition experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eyre, B.D.; Glud, Ronnie Nøhr; Patten, N.

    2008-01-01

    minimum = 0.37 mu mol L-1), compared with almost complete removal of dissolved inorganic nitrogen ( DIN) ( minimum NO3+= 0.01 mu mol L-1; NH4+ = 0.11 mu mol L-1), suggesting that pelagic primary production is potentially N limited on the timescale of this study. DIN, DIP, dissolved organic nitrogen ( DON......), and dissolved organic phosphorus were used in the production of biomass, and mass balance calculations highlighted the importance of organic forms of N and P for benthic and pelagic production in tropical coral reef environments characterized by low inorganic N and P. The input of N and P via the deposition...... potential N limitation of benthic coral reef communities. For example, there was sufficient bioavailable P stored in the top 10 cm of the sediment column to sustain the prespawning rates of benthic production for over 200 d. Most of the change in benthic N cycling occurred via DON and N-2 pathways, driven...

  14. A unified framework for heat and mass transport at the atomic scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponga, Mauricio; Sun, Dingyi

    2018-04-01

    We present a unified framework to simulate heat and mass transport in systems of particles. The proposed framework is based on kinematic mean field theory and uses a phenomenological master equation to compute effective transport rates between particles without the need to evaluate operators. We exploit this advantage and apply the model to simulate transport phenomena at the nanoscale. We demonstrate that, when calibrated to experimentally-measured transport coefficients, the model can accurately predict transient and steady state temperature and concentration profiles even in scenarios where the length of the device is comparable to the mean free path of the carriers. Through several example applications, we demonstrate the validity of our model for all classes of materials, including ones that, until now, would have been outside the domain of computational feasibility.

  15. Computer-aided mass detection in mammography: False positive reduction via gray-scale invariant ranklet texture features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masotti, Matteo; Lanconelli, Nico; Campanini, Renato

    2009-01-01

    In this work, gray-scale invariant ranklet texture features are proposed for false positive reduction (FPR) in computer-aided detection (CAD) of breast masses. Two main considerations are at the basis of this proposal. First, false positive (FP) marks surviving our previous CAD system seem to be characterized by specific texture properties that can be used to discriminate them from masses. Second, our previous CAD system achieves invariance to linear/nonlinear monotonic gray-scale transformations by encoding regions of interest into ranklet images through the ranklet transform, an image transformation similar to the wavelet transform, yet dealing with pixels' ranks rather than with their gray-scale values. Therefore, the new FPR approach proposed herein defines a set of texture features which are calculated directly from the ranklet images corresponding to the regions of interest surviving our previous CAD system, hence, ranklet texture features; then, a support vector machine (SVM) classifier is used for discrimination. As a result of this approach, texture-based information is used to discriminate FP marks surviving our previous CAD system; at the same time, invariance to linear/nonlinear monotonic gray-scale transformations of the new CAD system is guaranteed, as ranklet texture features are calculated from ranklet images that have this property themselves by construction. To emphasize the gray-scale invariance of both the previous and new CAD systems, training and testing are carried out without any in-between parameters' adjustment on mammograms having different gray-scale dynamics; in particular, training is carried out on analog digitized mammograms taken from a publicly available digital database, whereas testing is performed on full-field digital mammograms taken from an in-house database. Free-response receiver operating characteristic (FROC) curve analysis of the two CAD systems demonstrates that the new approach achieves a higher reduction of FP marks

  16. Absolute chronology and stratigraphy of Lepenski Vir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borić Dušan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, a number of specialist analyses were made on the material from old excavations of Mesolithic-Neolithic sites in the Danube Gorges. These new results altered significantly our understanding of the Lepenski Vir culture. The question of chronology of this regional phenomenon has been acute since the discovery of Lepenski Vir in the 1960s, and it remains of key importance for understanding the character of Mesolithic-Neolithic transformations in this and the neighbouring regions. The most heated debate was fuelled by the initial stratigraphic and chronological attribution of the type-site itself. There remained the question about the adequate dating of the most prominent phase at this site characterized by buildings with trapezoidal bases covered with limestone floors and with rectangular stone-lined hearths placed in the centre of these features. There have been suggestions that these features also contain Early Neolithic Starčevo type pottery and other similar items of material culture and should thus be dated to the Early Neolithic historical context. Moreover, the first series of conventional radiocarbon determinations (21 dates also suggested that the absolute chronology of these features should be confined to the period from around 6400-5500 cal BC (Fig. 1. Due to the importance of defining more precisely the chronology for the start of construction of these particular features at Lepenski Vir and for establishing the life-span of these buildings and their associated material culture, we have AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry dated a number of contexts from this site. The results are presented in this paper. The project was made possible through the Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerate Dating Service (ORADS programme funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC and the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC of the Great Britain. Apart from those dates presented in this paper, there are 29 previously published

  17. Projection Of The Stellar To Halo Mass Relation Into The Scaling Relations Of A Disc Galaxy Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancillas, Brisa; Ávila-Reese, Vladimir; Rodríguez-Puebla, Aldo; Valls-Gabaud, David

    2017-06-01

    Several pieces of evidence suggest that disk formation is the generic process of assembly of galaxies, while the spheroidal component arises from the merging/interactions of disks as well as from their secular evolution. To understand galaxy formation and evolution, a cosmological framework is required. The current cosmological paradigm is summarized in the so-called Λ-cold dark matter model (ΛCDM). The statistical connection between the masses of the observed galaxies and those of the simulated CDM halos in large volumes leads us to the galaxy-halo mass relation, which summarizes the main astrophysical processes of galaxy formation and evolution (gas heating and cooling, SF, SN- and AGN-driven feedback, etc.). An important question is how this relation constrained by semi-empirical methods (e.g., Rodriguez-Puebla et al. 2014) is "projected" into the disk galaxy scaling relations and other galaxy correlations. To explore this question, we generate a synthetic catalog of thousands of disk/halo systems by means of an extended Mo, Mao & White (1998) model, and by using as input the baryonic-to-halo mass relation, fbar(Mh), of local disk galaxy as recently constrained by Calette et al. (2015).

  18. Analysis of mass spectrometry data in proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiesen, Rune; Jensen, Ole N

    2008-01-01

    The systematic study of proteins and protein networks, that is, proteomics, calls for qualitative and quantitative analysis of proteins and peptides. Mass spectrometry (MS) is a key analytical technology in current proteomics and modern mass spectrometers generate large amounts of high-quality data...... that in turn allow protein identification, annotation of secondary modifications, and determination of the absolute or relative abundance of individual proteins. Advances in mass spectrometry-driven proteomics rely on robust bioinformatics tools that enable large-scale data analysis. This chapter describes...

  19. Pore to core scale simulation of the mass transfer with mineral reaction in porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekri, S.; Renard, S.; Delprat-Jannaud, F.

    2015-01-01

    Pore Network Model (PNM) is used to simulate mass transfer with mineral reaction in a single phase flow through porous medium which is here a sandstone sample from the reservoir formation of the Pakoslaw gas field. The void space of the porous medium is represented by an idealized geometry of pore-bodies joined by pore-throats. Parameters defining the pore-bodies and the pore-throats distribution are determined by an optimization process aiming to match the experimental Mercury Intrusion Capillary Pressure (MICP) curve and petrophysical properties of the rock such as intrinsic permeability and formation factor. The generated network is used first to simulate the multiphase flow by solving Kirchhoff's laws. The capillary pressure and relative permeability curves are derived. Then, reactive transport is addressed under asymptotic regime where the solute concentration undergoes an exponential evolution with time. The porosity/ permeability relationship and the three phenomenological coefficients of transport, namely the solute velocity, the dispersion and the mean reaction rate are determined as functions of Peclet and Peclet-Damkohler dimensionless numbers. Finally, the role of the dimensionless numbers on the reactive flow properties is highlighted. (authors)

  20. Verification of Heat and Mass Transfer Closures in Industrial Scale Packed Bed Reactor Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpit Singhal

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Particle-resolved direct numerical simulation (PR-DNS is known to provide an accurate detailed insight into the local flow phenomena in static particle arrays. Most PR-DNS studies in literature do not account for reactions taking place inside the porous particles. In this study, PR-DNS is performed for catalytic reactions inside the particles using the multifluid approach where all heat and mass transfer phenomena are directly resolved both inside and outside the particles. These simulation results are then used to verify existing 1D model closures from literature over a number of different reaction parameters including different reaction orders, multiple reactions and reactants, interacting reactions, and reactions involving gas volume generation/consumption inside the particle. Results clearly showed that several modifications to existing 1D model closures are required to reproduce PR-DNS results. The resulting enhanced 1D model was then used to accurately simulate steam methane reforming, which includes all of the aforementioned reaction complexities. The effect of multiple reactants was found to be the most influential in this case.

  1. Fundamental principles of absolute radiometry and the philosophy of this NBS program (1968 to 1971)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, J.

    1972-01-01

    A description is given work performed on a program to develop an electrically calibrated detector (also called absolute radiometer, absolute detector, and electrically calibrated radiometer) that could be used to realize, maintain, and transfer a scale of total irradiance. The program includes a comprehensive investigation of the theoretical basis of absolute detector radiometry, as well as the design and construction of a number of detectors. A theoretical analysis of the sources of error is also included.

  2. High accuracy absolute distance metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinkels, Bas L.; Bhattacharya, Nandini; Verlaan, Ad L.; Braat, Joseph J. M.

    2017-11-01

    One of ESA's future missions is the Darwin Space Interferometer, which aims to detect planets around nearby stars using optical aperture synthesis with free-flying telescopes. Since this involves interfering white (infra-red) light over large distances, the mission is not possible without a complex metrology system that monitors various speeds, distances and angles between the satellites. One of its sub-systems should measure absolute distances with an accuracy of around 70 micrometer over distances up to 250 meter. To enable such measurements, we are investigating a technique called frequency sweeping interferometry, in which a single laser is swept over a large known frequency range. Central to our approach is the use of a very stable, high finesse Fabry-Ṕerot cavity, to which the laser is stabilized at the endpoints of the frequency sweep. We will discuss the optical set-up, the control system that controls the fast sweeping, the calibration and the data analysis. We tested the system using long fibers and achieved a repeatability of 50 micrometers at a distance of 55 meters. We conclude with some recommendations for further improvements and the adaption for use in space.

  3. Planetesimal Initial Mass Functions and Creation Rates Under Turbulent Concentration Using Scale-Dependent Cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzzi, J. N.; Hartlep, T.; Estrada, P.

    2016-01-01

    The initial accretion of primitive bodies from freely-floating nebula particles remains problematic. Traditional growth-by-sticking models in turbulent nebulae encounter a "meter-size barrier" due to both drift and destruction, or even a millimeter-to-centimeter-size "bouncing" barrier. Recent suggestions have been made that some "lucky" particles might be able to outgrow the collision and/or drift barriers, and lead to so-called "streaming instabilities" or SI. However, new full models of growth by sticking in the presence of radial drift show that lucky particles (the largest particles, at the tail of the size distribution, that grow beyond the nominal fragmentation and drift barriers) are far too rare to lead to any collective effects such as streaming or gravitational instabilities. Thus we need to focus on typical radii gamma(sub M) which contain most of the mass. Our models of disks with weak-to-moderate turbulence, which include all the most recent experimental constraints on collisional growth, erosion, bouncing, and fragmentation, as well as radial drift, find that growth stalls quite generally at sizes gamma(sub M) which are too small to settle into layers which are dense enough for any collective effects (streaming or gravitational instabilities) to arise. Even if growth by sticking could somehow breach the nominal barriers (perhaps if the actual sticking or strength is larger than current estimates for pure ice or pure silicate, with specific grain sizes), turbulent nebulae present subsequent formidable obstacles to incremental growth through the 1-10km size range. On the other hand, non-turbulent nebulae alpha is less than 10(Sup -4).

  4. Economies of scale: body mass index and costs of cardiac surgery in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ana P; Parlow, Joel L; Milne, Brian; Whitehead, Marlo; Xu, Jianfeng; Rohland, Susan; Thorpe, Joelle B

    2017-05-01

    An obesity paradox has been described, whereby obese patients have better health outcomes than normal weight patients in certain clinical situations, including cardiac surgery. However, the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and resource utilization and costs in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery is largely unknown. We examined resource utilization and cost data for 53,224 patients undergoing CABG in Ontario, Canada over a 10-year period between 2002 and 2011. Data for costs during hospital admission and for a 1-year follow-up period were derived from the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, and analyzed according to pre-defined BMI categories using analysis of variance and multivariate models. BMI independently influenced healthcare costs. Underweight patients had the highest per patient costs ($50,124 ± $36,495), with the next highest costs incurred by morbidly obese ($43,770 ± $31,747) and normal weight patients ($42,564 ± $30,630). Obese and overweight patients had the lowest per patient costs ($40,760 ± $30,664 and $39,960 ± $25,422, respectively). Conversely, at the population level, overweight and obese patients were responsible for the highest total yearly population costs to the healthcare system ($92 million and $50 million, respectively, compared to $4.2 million for underweight patients). This is most likely due to the high proportion of CABG patients falling into the overweight and obese BMI groups. In the future, preoperative risk stratification and preparation based on BMI may assist in reducing surgical costs, and may inform health policy measures aimed at the management of weight extremes in the population.

  5. Decadal-scale joint inversion of NOx and SO2 using a hybrid 4D-Var / mass balance approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Z.; Henze, D. K.; Capps, S.; Wang, Y.; Xu, X.; Wang, J.; Keller, M.

    2016-12-01

    Quantifying the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) is important for improving our understanding of acid rain, formation of aerosols, and human health problems. Traditional top-down estimates have provided valuable constraints for NOx and SO2 emission inventories in China, but are either time-consuming (e.g., 4D-Var) or only crudely represent the influence of atmospheric transport and chemistry (e.g., mass balance). We develop an approach combining mass balance and an adjoint-based four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) methods that facilitates decadal-scale emission inversions. This hybrid inversion is first evaluated with a single species inversion using NO2 pseudo observations. In a set of seven-year pseudo observation test, hybrid posterior NOx emissions have smaller normalized mean square error (by 54% to 94%) than that of mass balance when compared to true emissions in most cases, and have slightly better performance in detecting emissions magnitudes and trends. Using this hybrid method, NO2 observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), and the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model, we have derived monthly top-down NOx emissions for China from 2005 to 2012. Our posterior emissions have the same seasonality as recent bottom-up inventories, and smaller emissions (by 13.4% to 23.5%) as well as emission growth rate (by 0.6% to 4.1%). The hybrid method is further implemented for long-term joint inversion of NOx and SO2 emissions in China using combined observations of OMI NO2 and SO2 column densities. A 4D-Var inversion is first performed to optimize NOx and SO2 emissions in the base year using GEOS-Chem adjoint. Mass balance scaling factor is then applied to these posterior to improve their inter-annual variation. Overall, these studies augment the utility of remote sensing data for evaluating emission control strategies and mitigating the impact of NOx and SO2 on human health and the environment.

  6. Determination of the absolute configuration of (+) - surinamensin's via diastereomeric O-methylmandelic esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, L. da S.; Barata, L.E.S.

    1990-01-01

    The absolute configurarion of (+) surinamensin, a 8.0.4' neolignan, has been determined based on its O-methymandalates esters. Nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared and mass spectroscopy analysis are presented. (C.G.C.) [pt

  7. Absolute dimensions and evolutionary status of UW CMa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parthasarathy, M.

    1978-01-01

    Photoelectric B and V light curves of close binary system UW Canis Majoris (08.5 If + O-B) are analysed. Combining the photoelectric elements and the spectroscopic orbit absolute dimensions of the system are determined. The mass of the bright primary (08.5 If) component is found to be 19.3 solar masses and that of the faint secondary to be 23.2 solar masses. The primary has filled the Roche lobe and it is 1 to 2 mag over-luminous for its mass. The massive secondary component is most likely a main sequence star. Comparison with the theoretical evolutionary models of massive close binary systems undergoing case A of mass exchange indicate that UW CMa is close to the contact stage of evolution. (author)

  8. Evaluation of the absolute regional temperature potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Shindell

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Absolute Regional Temperature Potential (ARTP is one of the few climate metrics that provides estimates of impacts at a sub-global scale. The ARTP presented here gives the time-dependent temperature response in four latitude bands (90–28° S, 28° S–28° N, 28–60° N and 60–90° N as a function of emissions based on the forcing in those bands caused by the emissions. It is based on a large set of simulations performed with a single atmosphere-ocean climate model to derive regional forcing/response relationships. Here I evaluate the robustness of those relationships using the forcing/response portion of the ARTP to estimate regional temperature responses to the historic aerosol forcing in three independent climate models. These ARTP results are in good accord with the actual responses in those models. Nearly all ARTP estimates fall within ±20% of the actual responses, though there are some exceptions for 90–28° S and the Arctic, and in the latter the ARTP may vary with forcing agent. However, for the tropics and the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes in particular, the ±20% range appears to be roughly consistent with the 95% confidence interval. Land areas within these two bands respond 39–45% and 9–39% more than the latitude band as a whole. The ARTP, presented here in a slightly revised form, thus appears to provide a relatively robust estimate for the responses of large-scale latitude bands and land areas within those bands to inhomogeneous radiative forcing and thus potentially to emissions as well. Hence this metric could allow rapid evaluation of the effects of emissions policies at a finer scale than global metrics without requiring use of a full climate model.

  9. arXiv Plasmon mass scale and quantum fluctuations of classical fields on a real time lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Lappi, Tuomas; Peuron, Jarkko

    2018-01-01

    Classical real-time lattice simulations play an important role in understanding non-equilibrium phenomena in gauge theories and are used in particular to model the prethermal evolution of heavy-ion collisions. Above the Debye scale the classical Yang-Mills (CYM) theory can be matched smoothly to kinetic theory. First we study the limits of the quasiparticle picture of the CYM fields by determining the plasmon mass of the system using 3 different methods. Then we argue that one needs a numerical calculation of a system of classical gauge fields and small linearized fluctuations, which correspond to quantum fluctuations, in a way that keeps the separation between the two manifest. We demonstrate and test an implementation of an algorithm with the linearized fluctuation showing that the linearization indeed works and that the Gauss’s law is conserved.

  10. Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA): small-scale anisotropic galaxy clustering and the pairwise velocity dispersion of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveday, J.; Christodoulou, L.; Norberg, P.; Peacock, J. A.; Baldry, I. K.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Brown, M. J. I.; Colless, M.; Driver, S. P.; Holwerda, B. W.; Hopkins, A. M.; Kafle, P. R.; Liske, J.; Lopez-Sanchez, A. R.; Taylor, E. N.

    2018-03-01

    The galaxy pairwise velocity dispersion (PVD) can provide important tests of non-standard gravity and galaxy formation models. We describe measurements of the PVD of galaxies in the Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey as a function of projected separation and galaxy luminosity. Due to the faint magnitude limit (r PVD to smaller scales (r⊥ = 0.01 h - 1 Mpc) than previous work. The measured PVD at projected separations r⊥ ≲ 1 h - 1 Mpc increases near monotonically with increasing luminosity from σ12 ≈ 200 km s - 1 at Mr = -17 mag to σ12 ≈ 600 km s - 1 at Mr ≈ -22 mag. Analysis of the Gonzalez-Perez et al. (2014) GALFORM semi-analytic model yields no such trend of PVD with luminosity: the model overpredicts the PVD for faint galaxies. This is most likely a result of the model placing too many low-luminosity galaxies in massive haloes.

  11. Articulated Multimedia Physics, Lesson 14, Gases, The Gas Laws, and Absolute Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York Inst. of Tech., Old Westbury.

    As the fourteenth lesson of the Articulated Multimedia Physics Course, instructional materials are presented in this study guide with relation to gases, gas laws, and absolute temperature. The topics are concerned with the kinetic theory of gases, thermometric scales, Charles' law, ideal gases, Boyle's law, absolute zero, and gas pressures. The…

  12. Technical Note: A comparison of model and empirical measures of catchment-scale effective energy and mass transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rasmussen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent work suggests that a coupled effective energy and mass transfer (EEMT term, which includes the energy associated with effective precipitation and primary production, may serve as a robust prediction parameter of critical zone structure and function. However, the models used to estimate EEMT have been solely based on long-term climatological data with little validation using direct empirical measures of energy, water, and carbon balances. Here we compare catchment-scale EEMT estimates generated using two distinct approaches: (1 EEMT modeled using the established methodology based on estimates of monthly effective precipitation and net primary production derived from climatological data, and (2 empirical catchment-scale EEMT estimated using data from 86 catchments of the Model Parameter Estimation Experiment (MOPEX and MOD17A3 annual net primary production (NPP product derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS. Results indicated positive and significant linear correspondence (R2 = 0.75; P −2 yr−1. Modeled EEMT values were consistently greater than empirical measures of EEMT. Empirical catchment estimates of the energy associated with effective precipitation (EPPT were calculated using a mass balance approach that accounts for water losses to quick surface runoff not accounted for in the climatologically modeled EPPT. Similarly, local controls on primary production such as solar radiation and nutrient limitation were not explicitly included in the climatologically based estimates of energy associated with primary production (EBIO, whereas these were captured in the remotely sensed MODIS NPP data. These differences likely explain the greater estimate of modeled EEMT relative to the empirical measures. There was significant positive correlation between catchment aridity and the fraction of EEMT partitioned into EBIO (FBIO, with an increase in FBIO as a fraction of the total as aridity increases and percentage of

  13. The hyperfine structure in the rotational spectra of D{sub 2}{sup 17}O and HD{sup 17}O: Confirmation of the absolute nuclear magnetic shielding scale for oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puzzarini, Cristina, E-mail: cristina.puzzarini@unibo.it; Cazzoli, Gabriele [Dipartimento di Chimica “Giacomo Ciamician,” Università degli Studi di Bologna, Via Selmi 2, I-40126 Bologna (Italy); Harding, Michael E. [Institut für Nanotechnologie, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT), Campus Nord, Postfach 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Center for Theoretical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Vázquez, Juana [Center for Theoretical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Gauss, Jürgen, E-mail: gauss@uni-mainz.de [Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Universität Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany)

    2015-03-28

    Guided by theoretical predictions, the hyperfine structures of the rotational spectra of mono- and bideuterated-water containing {sup 17}O have been experimentally investigated. To reach sub-Doppler resolution, required to resolve the hyperfine structure due to deuterium quadrupole coupling as well as to spin-rotation (SR) and dipolar spin-spin couplings, the Lamb-dip technique has been employed. The experimental investigation and in particular, the spectral analysis have been supported by high-level quantum-chemical computations employing coupled-cluster techniques and, for the first time, a complete experimental determination of the hyperfine parameters involved was possible. The experimentally determined {sup 17}O spin-rotation constants of D{sub 2}{sup 17}O and HD{sup 17}O were used to derive the paramagnetic part of the corresponding nuclear magnetic shielding constants. Together with the computed diamagnetic contributions as well as the vibrational and temperature corrections, the latter constants have been employed to confirm the oxygen nuclear magnetic shielding scale, recently established on the basis of spin-rotation data for H{sub 2}{sup 17}O [Puzzarini et al., J. Chem. Phys. 131, 234304 (2009)].

  14. Large-Scale Mass Spectrometry Imaging Investigation of Consequences of Cortical Spreading Depression in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Migraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreira, Ricardo J.; Shyti, Reinald; Balluff, Benjamin; Abdelmoula, Walid M.; van Heiningen, Sandra H.; van Zeijl, Rene J.; Dijkstra, Jouke; Ferrari, Michel D.; Tolner, Else A.; McDonnell, Liam A.; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M. J. M.

    2015-06-01

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is the electrophysiological correlate of migraine aura. Transgenic mice carrying the R192Q missense mutation in the Cacna1a gene, which in patients causes familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 (FHM1), exhibit increased propensity to CSD. Herein, mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) was applied for the first time to an animal cohort of transgenic and wild type mice to study the biomolecular changes following CSD in the brain. Ninety-six coronal brain sections from 32 mice were analyzed by MALDI-MSI. All MSI datasets were registered to the Allen Brain Atlas reference atlas of the mouse brain so that the molecular signatures of distinct brain regions could be compared. A number of metabolites and peptides showed substantial changes in the brain associated with CSD. Among those, different mass spectral features showed significant ( t-test, P migraine pathophysiology. The results also demonstrate the utility of aligning MSI datasets to a common reference atlas for large-scale MSI investigations.

  15. Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect and X-ray Scaling Relations from Weak-Lensing Mass Calibration of 32 SPT Selected Galaxy Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, J.P.; et al.

    2017-11-14

    Uncertainty in the mass-observable scaling relations is currently the limiting factor for galaxy cluster based cosmology. Weak gravitational lensing can provide a direct mass calibration and reduce the mass uncertainty. We present new ground-based weak lensing observations of 19 South Pole Telescope (SPT) selected clusters and combine them with previously reported space-based observations of 13 galaxy clusters to constrain the cluster mass scaling relations with the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE), the cluster gas mass $M_\\mathrm{gas}$, and $Y_\\mathrm{X}$, the product of $M_\\mathrm{gas}$ and X-ray temperature. We extend a previously used framework for the analysis of scaling relations and cosmological constraints obtained from SPT-selected clusters to make use of weak lensing information. We introduce a new approach to estimate the effective average redshift distribution of background galaxies and quantify a number of systematic errors affecting the weak lensing modelling. These errors include a calibration of the bias incurred by fitting a Navarro-Frenk-White profile to the reduced shear using $N$-body simulations. We blind the analysis to avoid confirmation bias. We are able to limit the systematic uncertainties to 6.4% in cluster mass (68% confidence). Our constraints on the mass-X-ray observable scaling relations parameters are consistent with those obtained by earlier studies, and our constraints for the mass-SZE scaling relation are consistent with the the simulation-based prior used in the most recent SPT-SZ cosmology analysis. We can now replace the external mass calibration priors used in previous SPT-SZ cosmology studies with a direct, internal calibration obtained on the same clusters.

  16. Magnetic topology of coronal mass ejection events out of the ecliptic: Ulysses/HI-SCALE energetic particle observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Malandraki

    Full Text Available Solar energetic particle fluxes (Ee > 38 keV observed by the ULYSSES/HI-SCALE experiment are utilized as diagnostic tracers of the large-scale structure and topology of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF embedded within two well-identified Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs detected at 56° and 62° south heliolatitudes by ULYSSES during the solar maximum southern high-latitude pass. On the basis of the energetic solar particle observations it is concluded that: (A the high-latitude ICME magnetic structure observed in May 2000 causes a depression in the solar energetic electron intensities which can be accounted for by either a detached or an attached magnetic field topology for the ICME; (B during the traversal of the out-of-ecliptic ICME event observed in July 2000 energetic electrons injected at the Sun are channeled by the ICME and propagate freely along the ICME magnetic field lines to 62° S heliolatitude.

    Key words. Interplanetary physics (energetic particles; interplanetary magnetic fields

  17. Magnetic topology of coronal mass ejection events out of the ecliptic: Ulysses/HI-SCALE energetic particle observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Malandraki

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Solar energetic particle fluxes (Ee > 38 keV observed by the ULYSSES/HI-SCALE experiment are utilized as diagnostic tracers of the large-scale structure and topology of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF embedded within two well-identified Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs detected at 56° and 62° south heliolatitudes by ULYSSES during the solar maximum southern high-latitude pass. On the basis of the energetic solar particle observations it is concluded that: (A the high-latitude ICME magnetic structure observed in May 2000 causes a depression in the solar energetic electron intensities which can be accounted for by either a detached or an attached magnetic field topology for the ICME; (B during the traversal of the out-of-ecliptic ICME event observed in July 2000 energetic electrons injected at the Sun are channeled by the ICME and propagate freely along the ICME magnetic field lines to 62° S heliolatitude.Key words. Interplanetary physics (energetic particles; interplanetary magnetic fields

  18. The Principle of Absolute Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressler, David E.

    1998-04-01

    I will present a novel theory that is the long sought after unification of gravity and eletromagnetism. The theory is clamed to be comprehensive in that it explaines the unity of Nature as a geometrical solution. For example, gravity, inertia, time dialation, distance dialation, electrostatic charge, and action-at-a-distance are simple field effects which are due to the localization (mass) of the kinetic and electromagnetic energy present. I will redefine the Michelson and Morley expermental elidence to support this new theory.

  19. Convective and large-scale mass flux profiles over tropical oceans determined from synergistic analysis of a suite of satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masunaga, Hirohiko; Luo, Zhengzhao Johnny

    2016-07-01

    A new, satellite-based methodology is developed to evaluate convective mass flux and large-scale total mass flux. To derive the convective mass flux, candidate profiles of in-cloud vertical velocity are first constructed with a simple plume model under the constraint of ambient sounding and then narrowed down to the solution that matches satellite-derived cloud top buoyancy. Meanwhile, the large-scale total mass flux is provided separately from satellite soundings by a method developed previously. All satellite snapshots are sorted into a composite time series that delineates the evolution of a vigorous and organized convective system. Principal findings are the following. First, convective mass flux is modulated primarily by convective cloud cover, with the intensity of individual convection being less variable over time. Second, convective mass flux dominates the total mass flux only during the early hours of the convective evolution; as convective system matures, a residual mass flux builds up in the mass flux balance that is reminiscent of stratiform dynamics. The method developed in this study is expected to be of unique utility for future observational diagnosis of tropical convective dynamics and for evaluation of global climate model cumulus parameterizations in a global sense.

  20. Absolutely summing multilinear operators: a Panorama | Pellegrino ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper has a twofold purpose: to present an overview of the theory of absolutely summing operators and its different generalizations for the multilinear setting, and to sketch the beginning of a research project related to an objective search of “perfect” multilinear extensions of the ideal of absolutely summing operators.

  1. MEAN OF MEDIAN ABSOLUTE DERIVATION TECHNIQUE MEAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    The accurate estimation of noise variance in an image is the first important stage ... lung image was lung image was developed. developed. developed. The development of mean of median absolute derivation technique development of mean of median absolute .... that are non-real numbers during initial processing.

  2. Quantum nonequilibrium equalities with absolute irreversibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funo, Ken; Murashita, Yûto; Ueda, Masahito

    2015-07-01

    We derive quantum nonequilibrium equalities in absolutely irreversible processes. Here by absolute irreversibility we mean that in the backward process the density matrix does not return to the subspace spanned by those eigenvectors that have nonzero weight in the initial density matrix. Since the initial state of a memory and the postmeasurement state of the system are usually restricted to a subspace, absolute irreversibility occurs during the measurement and feedback processes. An additional entropy produced in absolutely irreversible processes needs to be taken into account to derive nonequilibrium equalities. We discuss a model of a feedback control on a qubit system to illustrate the obtained equalities. By introducing N heat baths each composed of a qubit and letting them interact with the system, we show how the entropy reduction via feedback control can be converted into work. An explicit form of extractable work in the presence of absolute irreversibility is given.

  3. Linking the formation of molecular clouds and high-mass stars: a multi-tracer and multi-scale study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen-Luong, Quang

    2012-01-01

    Star formation is a complex process involving many physical processes acting from the very large scales of the galaxy to the very small scales of individual stars. Among the highly debated topics, the gas to star-formation-rate (SFR) relation is an interesting topic for both the galactic and extragalactic communities. Although it is studied extensively for external galaxies, how this relation behaves with respect to the molecular clouds of the Milky Way is still unclear. The detailed mechanisms of the formation of molecular clouds and stars, especially high-mass stars, are still not clear. To tackle these two questions, we investigate the molecular cloud formation and the star formation activities in the W43 molecular cloud complex and the G035.39-00.33 filament. The first goal is to infer the connections of the gas-SFR relations of these two objects to those of other galactic molecular clouds and to extragalactic ones. The second goal is to look for indications that the converging flows theory has formed the W43 molecular cloud since it is the first theory to explain star formation self-consistently, from the onset of molecular clouds to the formation of seeds of (high-mass) stars. We use a large dataset of continuum tracers at 3.6--870 μm extracted from Galaxy-wide surveys such as HOBYS, EPOS, Hi-GAL, ATLASGAL, GLIMPSE, and MIPSGAL to trace the cloud structure, mass and star formation activities of both the W43 molecular cloud complex and the G035.39-00.33 filament. To explore the detailed formation mechanisms of the molecular cloud in W43 from low-density to very high-density gas, we take advantage of the existing H I , 13 CO 1-0 molecular line data from the VGPS and GRS surveys in combination with the new dedicated molecular line surveys with the IRAM 30 m. We characterise the W43 molecular complex as being a massive complex (M(total) ∼ 7.1 *10 6 M. over spatial extent of ∼ 140 pc), which has a high concentration of dense clumps (M(clumps) ∼ 8.4*10 5 M

  4. Parasitism alters three power laws of scaling in a metazoan community: Taylor's law, density-mass allometry, and variance-mass allometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagrue, Clément; Poulin, Robert; Cohen, Joel E

    2015-02-10

    How do the lifestyles (free-living unparasitized, free-living parasitized, and parasitic) of animal species affect major ecological power-law relationships? We investigated this question in metazoan communities in lakes of Otago, New Zealand. In 13,752 samples comprising 1,037,058 organisms, we found that species of different lifestyles differed in taxonomic distribution and body mass and were well described by three power laws: a spatial Taylor's law (the spatial variance in population density was a power-law function of the spatial mean population density); density-mass allometry (the spatial mean population density was a power-law function of mean body mass); and variance-mass allometry (the spatial variance in population density was a power-law function of mean body mass). To our knowledge, this constitutes the first empirical confirmation of variance-mass allometry for any animal community. We found that the parameter values of all three relationships differed for species with different lifestyles in the same communities. Taylor's law and density-mass allometry accurately predicted the form and parameter values of variance-mass allometry. We conclude that species of different lifestyles in these metazoan communities obeyed the same major ecological power-law relationships but did so with parameters specific to each lifestyle, probably reflecting differences among lifestyles in population dynamics and spatial distribution.

  5. Parasitism alters three power laws of scaling in a metazoan community: Taylor’s law, density-mass allometry, and variance-mass allometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagrue, Clément; Poulin, Robert; Cohen, Joel E.

    2015-01-01

    How do the lifestyles (free-living unparasitized, free-living parasitized, and parasitic) of animal species affect major ecological power-law relationships? We investigated this question in metazoan communities in lakes of Otago, New Zealand. In 13,752 samples comprising 1,037,058 organisms, we found that species of different lifestyles differed in taxonomic distribution and body mass and were well described by three power laws: a spatial Taylor’s law (the spatial variance in population density was a power-law function of the spatial mean population density); density-mass allometry (the spatial mean population density was a power-law function of mean body mass); and variance-mass allometry (the spatial variance in population density was a power-law function of mean body mass). To our knowledge, this constitutes the first empirical confirmation of variance-mass allometry for any animal community. We found that the parameter values of all three relationships differed for species with different lifestyles in the same communities. Taylor's law and density-mass allometry accurately predicted the form and parameter values of variance-mass allometry. We conclude that species of different lifestyles in these metazoan communities obeyed the same major ecological power-law relationships but did so with parameters specific to each lifestyle, probably reflecting differences among lifestyles in population dynamics and spatial distribution. PMID:25550506

  6. Jet energy scale corrections and their impact on measurements of the top-quark mass at CMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirschenmann, Henning

    2014-10-01

    The final state of many physics processes at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is dominated by jets, the experimental signature of quarks and gluons. The precise measurement of jets is a prerequisite to understand these processes. In this thesis, the determination of jet-energy corrections at CMS using dijet events is described, and the investigation of a correction specifically tailored to improve the reconstruction of b-jets in top-quark mass measurements is presented. Dijet events are used to determine the response relative to the central detector region in data and simulation as a function of the pseudorapidity η. Two complementary response estimators are introduced and detailed supplementary studies, e.g. of the time stability of the response, are performed. For the 2011 data-taking period, the MC/Data differences are found to be below 5% in the tracker-covered detector region with systematic uncertainties of less than 1%. Furthermore, a study of b-jet properties in 2012 data is presented. The correlation of various such observables with the response is exploited to improve the jet-energy measurement of b-jets. A resolution improvement of about 10% can be achieved, and the evaluation of b-jet specific jet-energy scale uncertainties (b-JES) indicates improvements of about 30%. This additional correction is applied to an existing measurement of the top-quark mass in the muon+jets channel. It leads to a statistical sensitivity improvement of about 10% and a reduction of systematic uncertainties related to the b-JES from 0.6 GeV to 0.3 GeV.

  7. The Spectroscopy and H-band Imaging of Virgo Cluster Galaxies (SHIVir) Survey: Scaling Relations and the Stellar-to-total Mass Relation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouellette, Nathalie N.-Q.; Courteau, Stéphane [Department of Physics, Engineering Physics and Astronomy, Queen’s University, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6 (Canada); Holtzman, Jon A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM, 88003-8001 (United States); Dutton, Aaron A. [Department of Physics, New York University Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Cappellari, Michele [Sub-department of Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Dalcanton, Julianne J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, 98195 (United States); McDonald, Michael [MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, MIT, Cambridge, MA, 02139 (United States); Roediger, Joel C.; Côté, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Taylor, James E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Tully, R. Brent [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822-1839 (United States); Peng, Eric W. [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2017-07-01

    We present parameter distributions and fundamental scaling relations for 190 Virgo cluster galaxies in the SHIVir survey. The distribution of galaxy velocities is bimodal about V {sub circ} ∼ 125 km s{sup −1}, hinting at the existence of dynamically unstable modes in the inner regions of galaxies. An analysis of the Tully-Fisher relation (TFR) of late-type galaxies (LTGs) and the fundamental plane (FP) of early-type galaxies (ETGs) is presented, yielding a compendium of galaxy scaling relations. The slope and zero-point of the Virgo TFR match those of field galaxies, while scatter differences likely reflect distinct evolutionary histories. The velocities minimizing scatter for the TFR and FP are measured at large apertures where the baryonic fraction becomes subdominant. While TFR residuals remain independent of any galaxy parameters, FP residuals (i.e., the FP “tilt”) correlate strongly with the dynamical-to-stellar mass ratio, yielding stringent galaxy formation constraints. We construct a stellar-to-total mass relation (STMR) for ETGs and LTGs and find linear but distinct trends over the range M {sub *} = 10{sup 8–11} M {sub ⊙}. Stellar-to-halo mass relations (SHMRs), which probe the extended dark matter halo, can be scaled down to masses estimated within the optical radius, showing a tight match with the Virgo STMR at low masses; possibly inadequate halo abundance matching prescriptions and broad radial scalings complicate this comparison at all masses. While ETGs appear to be more compact than LTGs of the same stellar mass in projected space, their mass-size relations in physical space are identical. The trends reported here may soon be validated through well-resolved numerical simulations.

  8. The absolute environmental performance of buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brejnrod, Kathrine Nykjær; Kalbar, Pradip; Petersen, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    sustainability for the standard house were proposed focusing on three measures: minimizing environmental impacts from building construction, minimizing impacts from energy consumption during use phase, and reducing the living area per person. In an intermediate path, absolute sustainability can be obtained...... by reducing the impacts from construction by 89%, use phase energy consumption by 80%, and the living area by 60%.......Our paper presents a novel approach for absolute sustainability assessment of a building's environmental performance. It is demonstrated how the absolute sustainable share of the earth carrying capacity of a specific building type can be estimated using carrying capacity based normalization factors...

  9. Exponential bound in the quest for absolute zero

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanatos, Dionisis

    2017-10-01

    In most studies for the quantification of the third law of thermodynamics, the minimum temperature which can be achieved with a long but finite-time process scales as a negative power of the process duration. In this article, we use our recent complete solution for the optimal control problem of the quantum parametric oscillator to show that the minimum temperature which can be obtained in this system scales exponentially with the available time. The present work is expected to motivate further research in the active quest for absolute zero.

  10. The Multi-Scale Mass Transfer Processes Controlling Natural Attenuation and Engineered Remediation: An IFC Focused on Hanford’s 300 Area Uranium Plume Quality Assurance Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-01-31

    The purpose of the project is to conduct research at an Integrated Field-Scale Research Challenge Site in the Hanford Site 300 Area, CERCLA OU 300-FF-5 (Figure 1), to investigate multi-scale mass transfer processes associated with a subsurface uranium plume impacting both the vadose zone and groundwater. The project will investigate a series of science questions posed for research related to the effect of spatial heterogeneities, the importance of scale, coupled interactions between biogeochemical, hydrologic, and mass transfer processes, and measurements/approaches needed to characterize a mass-transfer dominated system. The research will be conducted by evaluating three (3) different hypotheses focused on multi-scale mass transfer processes in the vadose zone and groundwater, their influence on field-scale U(VI) biogeochemistry and transport, and their implications to natural systems and remediation. The project also includes goals to 1) provide relevant materials and field experimental opportunities for other ERSD researchers and 2) generate a lasting, accessible, and high-quality field experimental database that can be used by the scientific community for testing and validation of new conceptual and numerical models of subsurface reactive transport.

  11. Small-scale structures in neutrals and charged aerosol particles as observed during the ECOMA/MASS rocket campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Strelnikov

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We present results of in situ measurements of neutral temperature during the ECOMA/MASS rocket campaign. We present and compare results of turbulence measurements conducted simultaneously by both in situ and doppler radar techniques. We show that the derived values of the turbulence energy dissipation rates are similar on average. We also find a region with a near adiabatic lapse rate with turbulence detected at the upper and lower edge. We note that it is consistent with expectation for a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. We also present an estimate of the Schmidt numbers, Sc, for the charged aerosols that utilizes in situ measured small-scale density fluctuations of charged aerosols and both in situ and radar turbulence measurements. The derived Schmidt numbers fall within the range between 100 and 4500. This result agrees with previous estimates based on multi-frequency observations of PMSE (Rapp et al., 2008 and also with estimates of microphysical parameters presented in the companion paper by Rapp et al. (2009.

  12. Small-scale structures in neutrals and charged aerosol particles as observed during the ECOMA/MASS rocket campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Strelnikov

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We present results of in situ measurements of neutral temperature during the ECOMA/MASS rocket campaign. We present and compare results of turbulence measurements conducted simultaneously by both in situ and doppler radar techniques. We show that the derived values of the turbulence energy dissipation rates are similar on average. We also find a region with a near adiabatic lapse rate with turbulence detected at the upper and lower edge. We note that it is consistent with expectation for a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability.

    We also present an estimate of the Schmidt numbers, Sc, for the charged aerosols that utilizes in situ measured small-scale density fluctuations of charged aerosols and both in situ and radar turbulence measurements. The derived Schmidt numbers fall within the range between 100 and 4500. This result agrees with previous estimates based on multi-frequency observations of PMSE (Rapp et al., 2008 and also with estimates of microphysical parameters presented in the companion paper by Rapp et al. (2009.

  13. A NEW SCALING RELATION FOR H II REGIONS IN SPIRAL GALAXIES: UNVEILING THE TRUE NATURE OF THE MASS-METALLICITY RELATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Díaz, A. I.; Sánchez, S. F.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Vílchez, J. M.; Mast, D.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Husemann, B.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate the existence of a local mass, metallicity, star formation relation using spatially resolved optical spectroscopy of H II regions in the local universe. One of the projections of this distribution—the local mass-metallicity relation—extends over a wide range in this parameter space: three orders of magnitude in mass and a factor of eight in metallicity. We explain the new relation as the combined effect of the differential distributions of mass and metallicity in the disks of galaxies, and a selective star formation efficiency. We use this local relation to reproduce—with a noticeable agreement—the mass-metallicity relation seen in galaxies, and conclude that the latter is a scale-up integrated effect of a local relation, supporting the inside-out growth and downsizing scenarios of galaxy evolution.

  14. ASTEROID ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDES V10.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Absolute magnitudes and slopes, mostly IAU-adopted with exceptions noted, for all asteroids numbered as of the 2006 March 14 batch of Minor Planet Circulars.

  15. ASTEROID ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDES V11.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Absolute magnitudes and slopes, mostly IAU-adopted with exceptions noted, for all asteroids numbered as of the 2007 April 2 batch of Minor Planet Circulars.

  16. ASTEROID ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDES V12.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Absolute magnitudes and slopes, mostly IAU-adopted with exceptions noted, for all asteroids numbered as of the 2008 April 20 batch of Minor Planet Circulars.

  17. ASTEROID ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDES V7.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set tabulates the IAU-adopted absolute V magnitude and slope parameter for all numbered asteroids as of the given stop date. The data set is updated yearly.

  18. ASTEROID ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDES V9.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Absolute magnitudes and slopes, mostly IAU-adopted with exceptions noted, for all asteroids numbered as of the 2005 April 7 batch of Minor Planet Circulars.

  19. ASTEROID ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDES V8.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Absolute magnitudes and slopes, mostly IAU-adopted with exceptions noted, for all asteroids numbered as of the 2004 April 15 batch of Minor Planet Circulars

  20. Absolutely uniform illumination of laser fusion pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    Absolutely uniform illumination of spherical laser fusion pellets is possible when the energy deposition from a single beam is given by a simple cos 2 theta distribution. Conditions can be derived for which the laser beam targeting angles allow this absolute illumination uniformity. Configurations based upon the cube and higher order Platonic solids satisfy the constraints, as well as an infinite class of other less symmetric configurations

  1. Absolutely uniform illumination of laser fusion pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    Absolutely uniform illumination of spherical laser fusion pellets is possible when the energy deposition from a single laser beam is given by a simple cos 2 theta distribution. Conditions can be derived for which the laser beam targeting angles allow this absolute illumination uniformity. Configurations based upon the cube and higher order Platonic solids satisfy the constraints, as well as infinite class of other less symmetric configurations

  2. Absolute spectrophotometry of Nova Cygni 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kontizas, E.; Kontizas, M.; Smyth, M.J.

    1976-01-01

    Radiometric photoelectric spectrophotometry of Nova Cygni 1975 was carried out on 1975 August 31, September 2, 3. α Lyr was used as reference star and its absolute spectral energy distribution was used to reduce the spectrophotometry of the nova to absolute units. Emission strengths of Hα, Hβ, Hγ (in W cm -2 ) were derived. The Balmer decrement Hα:Hβ:Hγ was compared with theory, and found to deviate less than had been reported for an earlier nova. (author)

  3. 242Pu absolute neutron-capture cross section measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, M. Q.; Wu, C. Y.; Henderson, R. A.; Bucher, B.; Chyzh, A.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Baramsai, B.; Couture, A.; Jandel, M.; Mosby, S.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Ullmann, J. L.

    2017-09-01

    The absolute neutron-capture cross section of 242Pu was measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center using the Detector for Advanced Neutron-Capture Experiments array along with a compact parallel-plate avalanche counter for fission-fragment detection. During target fabrication, a small amount of 239Pu was added to the active target so that the absolute scale of the 242Pu(n,γ) cross section could be set according to the known 239Pu(n,f) resonance at En,R = 7.83 eV. The relative scale of the 242Pu(n,γ) cross section covers four orders of magnitude for incident neutron energies from thermal to ≈ 40 keV. The cross section reported in ENDF/B-VII.1 for the 242Pu(n,γ) En,R = 2.68 eV resonance was found to be 2.4% lower than the new absolute 242Pu(n,γ) cross section.

  4. 242Pu absolute neutron-capture cross section measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buckner M.Q.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The absolute neutron-capture cross section of 242Pu was measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center using the Detector for Advanced Neutron-Capture Experiments array along with a compact parallel-plate avalanche counter for fission-fragment detection. During target fabrication, a small amount of 239Pu was added to the active target so that the absolute scale of the 242Pu(n,γ cross section could be set according to the known 239Pu(n,f resonance at En,R = 7.83 eV. The relative scale of the 242Pu(n,γ cross section covers four orders of magnitude for incident neutron energies from thermal to ≈ 40 keV. The cross section reported in ENDF/B-VII.1 for the 242Pu(n,γ En,R = 2.68 eV resonance was found to be 2.4% lower than the new absolute 242Pu(n,γ cross section.

  5. A land uplift model in Fennoscandia combining GRACE and absolute gravimetry data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Jürgen; Naeimi, Majid; Gitlein, Olga; Timmen, Ludger; Denker, Heiner

    Since 2002 the GRACE satellite mission provides monthly solutions of the Earth’s gravity field reflecting mass variations on various spatial and temporal scales. The glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA)-induced trend signal in Fennoscandia can be obtained with a spatial resolution of about 300-400 km. Moreover, since 2003 the Institut für Erdmessung has carried out absolute gravity (AG) measurements in Fennoscandia in close cooperation with the Scandinavian partners. From the AG data, point-wise mass variations at the AG sites have been determined including the GIA-induced trend signal. For direct comparison of those point values with regional results from GRACE, vertical movements of the sites have been considered using rates determined from permanent GPS measurements. The various results for GIA-related effects agree well near the uplift center, although the different raw data contain different signal contributions. In a final step, we combine the AG trend values (including GPS rates) and the GRACE results to obtain a data-based solution of the present-day secular mass variation in Fennoscandia. Here, we present results of the individual techniques as well as the combined solution, where we also discuss possible errors sources.

  6. Effect of constitution on mass of individual organs and their association with metabolic rate in humans--a detailed view on allometric scaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred J Müller

    Full Text Available Resting energy expenditure (REE-power relationships result from multiple underlying factors including weight and height. In addition, detailed body composition, including fat free mass (FFM and its components, skeletal muscle mass and internal organs with high metabolic rates (i.e. brain, heart, liver, kidneys, are major determinants of REE. Since the mass of individual organs scales to height as well as to weight (and, thus, to constitution, the variance in these associations may also add to the variance in REE. Here we address body composition (measured by magnetic resonance imaging and REE (assessed by indirect calorimetry in a group of 330 healthy volunteers differing with respect to age (17-78 years, sex (61% female and BMI (15.9-47.8 kg/m(2. Using three dimensional data interpolation we found that the inter-individual variance related to scaling of organ mass to height and weight and, thus, the constitution-related variances in either FFM (model 1 or kidneys, muscle, brain and liver (model 2 explained up to 43% of the inter-individual variance in REE. These data are the first evidence that constitution adds to the complexity of REE. Since organs scale differently as weight as well as height the "fit" of organ masses within constitution should be considered as a further trait.

  7. Defining an absolute reference frame for 'clumped' isotope studies of CO 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Kate J.; Affek, Hagit P.; Passey, Benjamin H.; Schrag, Daniel P.; Eiler, John M.

    2011-11-01

    We present a revised approach for standardizing and reporting analyses of multiply substituted isotopologues of CO 2 (i.e., 'clumped' isotopic species, especially the mass-47 isotopologues). Our approach standardizes such data to an absolute reference frame based on theoretical predictions of the abundances of multiply-substituted isotopologues in gaseous CO 2 at thermodynamic equilibrium. This reference frame is preferred over an inter-laboratory calibration of carbonates because it enables all laboratories measuring mass 47 CO 2 to use a common scale that is tied directly to theoretical predictions of clumping in CO 2, regardless of the laboratory's primary research field (carbonate thermometry or CO 2 biogeochemistry); it explicitly accounts for mass spectrometric artifacts rather than convolving (and potentially confusing) them with chemical fractionations associated with sample preparation; and it is based on a thermodynamic equilibrium that can be experimentally established in any suitably equipped laboratory using commonly available materials. By analyzing CO 2 gases that have been subjected to established laboratory procedures known to promote isotopic equilibrium (i.e., heated gases and water-equilibrated CO 2), and by reference to thermodynamic predictions of equilibrium isotopic distributions, it is possible to construct an empirical transfer function that is applicable to data with unknown clumped isotope signatures. This transfer function empirically accounts for the fragmentation and recombination reactions that occur in electron impact ionization sources and other mass spectrometric artifacts. We describe the protocol necessary to construct such a reference frame, the method for converting gases with unknown clumped isotope compositions to this reference frame, and suggest a protocol for ensuring that all reported isotopic compositions (e.g., Δ 47 values; Eiler and Schauble, 2004; Eiler, 2007) can be compared among different laboratories and

  8. A global algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. McDougall

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater – 2010 has defined the thermodynamic properties of seawater in terms of a new salinity variable, Absolute Salinity, which takes into account the spatial variation of the composition of seawater. Absolute Salinity more accurately reflects the effects of the dissolved material in seawater on the thermodynamic properties (particularly density than does Practical Salinity.

    When a seawater sample has standard composition (i.e. the ratios of the constituents of sea salt are the same as those of surface water of the North Atlantic, Practical Salinity can be used to accurately evaluate the thermodynamic properties of seawater. When seawater is not of standard composition, Practical Salinity alone is not sufficient and the Absolute Salinity Anomaly needs to be estimated; this anomaly is as large as 0.025 g kg−1 in the northernmost North Pacific. Here we provide an algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity Anomaly for any location (x, y, p in the world ocean.

    To develop this algorithm, we used the Absolute Salinity Anomaly that is found by comparing the density calculated from Practical Salinity to the density measured in the laboratory. These estimates of Absolute Salinity Anomaly however are limited to the number of available observations (namely 811. In order to provide a practical method that can be used at any location in the world ocean, we take advantage of approximate relationships between Absolute Salinity Anomaly and silicate concentrations (which are available globally.

  9. Effect of Absolute From Hibiscus syriacus L. Flower on Wound Healing in Keratinocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Seok Won; Lee, Kang Pa; Kim, Do-Yoon; Hwang, Dae Il; Won, Kyung-Jong; Lee, Dae Won; Lee, Hwan Myung

    2017-01-01

    Background: Proliferation and migration of keratinocytes are essential for the repair of cutaneous wounds. Hibiscus syriacus L. has been used in Asian medicine; however, research on keratinocytes is inadequate. Objective: To establish the dermatological properties of absolute from Hibiscus syriacus L. flower (HSF) and to provide fundamental research for alternative medicine. Materials and Methods: We identified the composition of HSF absolute using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysi...

  10. Performance assessment of mass flow rate measurement capability in a large scale transient two-phase flow test system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nalezny, C.L.; Chapman, R.L.; Martinell, J.S.; Riordon, R.P.; Solbrig, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    Mass flow is an important measured variable in the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) Program. Large uncertainties in mass flow measurements in the LOFT piping during LOFT coolant experiments requires instrument testing in a transient two-phase flow loop that simulates the geometry of the LOFT piping. To satisfy this need, a transient two-phase flow loop has been designed and built. The load cell weighing system, which provides reference mass flow measurements, has been analyzed to assess its capability to provide the measurements. The analysis consisted of first performing a thermal-hydraulic analysis using RELAP4 to compute mass inventory and pressure fluctuations in the system and mass flow rate at the instrument location. RELAP4 output was used as input to a structural analysis code SAPIV which is used to determine load cell response. The computed load cell response was then smoothed and differentiated to compute mass flow rate from the system. Comparison between computed mass flow rate at the instrument location and mass flow rate from the system computed from the load cell output was used to evaluate mass flow measurement capability of the load cell weighing system. Results of the analysis indicate that the load cell weighing system will provide reference mass flows more accurately than the instruments now in LOFT

  11. Absolute dating methods for the Southern African Cainozoic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patridge, T.C. (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dept. of Anatomy); Netterburg, F. (Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria (South Africa). National Inst. for Transport and Road Research); Vogel, J.C. (Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria (South Africa). National Physical Research Lab.); Sellschop, J.P.F. (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Nuclear Physics Research Unit)

    1984-09-01

    Those absolute dating methods other than radiocarbon which appear most useful for the Southern African Cainozoic are uranium disequilibrium, amino acid racemization, thermoluminescence, electron spin resonance, potassium/argon, and accelerator mass spectrometry. Although they are comparative dating methods only, the palaeo- and archaeomagnetic techniques appear most promising. More than one method is necessary to cover the ages and types of Southern African materials. The need for local dating services justifies the establishment of further Cainozoic dating facilities in South Africa. The necessary equipment is already available, or could be developed by adapting existing apparatus, so that only additional staff and funding would be required.

  12. Absolute activity determination of I-125 in the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelled, O.; German, U.; Kol, R.; Levinson, S.; Laichter, Y.

    1997-01-01

    I-125 has been widely used in nuclear medicine and as a tracer in different experiments. The dose equivalent to the thyroid Tom internal contamination of 1-125, can be estimated by in-vivo monitoring of the thyroid or through bioassay of urine . The in-vivo monitoring of the thyroid can be carried out by counting the photon emission from the decay of the 1-125 , by a Nal(Tl) detector calibrated with a thyroid phantom. This direct method is sensitive , but due to the low photon energy (27keV to 35keV), the counting efficiency depends strongly on the variations of the thyroid mass , thyroid depth below the surface , thyroid shape and detector position . It is estimated that the uncertainty of the activity determination can reach several hundred percents . A mewed for absolute determination of the activity of a '251 source based on the counting rate values of file 27 keV photons and the 54 keV coincidence photo peak, which diminishes the geometry dependence of the counting efficiency , was applied to determine the uptake of 125-I in human thyroid In this work we checked also the application of the absolute determination method wife high sensitivity phoswich detectors. We compare the results of calculations of interval exposure to 125-I for a real case, evaluated by the absolute determination method and by the direct method. (authors)

  13. Jasminum flexile flower absolute from India--a detailed comparison with three other jasmine absolutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Norbert A; Kohlenberg, Birgit; Sim, Sherina; Meier, Manfred; Hammerschmidt, Franz-Josef

    2009-09-01

    Jasminum flexile flower absolute from the south of India and the corresponding vacuum headspace (VHS) sample of the absolute were analyzed using GC and GC-MS. Three other commercially available Indian jasmine absolutes from the species: J. sambac, J. officinale subsp. grandiflorum, and J. auriculatum and the respective VHS samples were used for comparison purposes. One hundred and twenty-one compounds were characterized in J. flexile flower absolute, with methyl linolate, benzyl salicylate, benzyl benzoate, (2E,6E)-farnesol, and benzyl acetate as the main constituents. A detailed olfactory evaluation was also performed.

  14. On the difference between the pole and the MS masses of the top quark at the electroweak scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jegerlehner, Fred [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Kalmykov, Mikhail Yu.; Kniehl, Bernd A. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2012-12-15

    We argue that for a Higgs boson mass M{sub H} {proportional_to} 125 GeV, as estimated from recent Higgs searches at the LHC, the inclusion of the electroweak radiative corrections in the relationship between the pole and MS masses of the top quark reduces the difference to about 1 GeV. This fact is relevant for the scheme dependence of electroweak observables as well as for the extraction of the top quark mass from experimental data.

  15. THE ATACAMA COSMOLOGY TELESCOPE: DYNAMICAL MASSES AND SCALING RELATIONS FOR A SAMPLE OF MASSIVE SUNYAEV-ZEL'DOVICH EFFECT SELECTED GALAXY CLUSTERS {sup ,}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sifon, Cristobal; Barrientos, L. Felipe; Gonzalez, Jorge; Infante, Leopoldo; Duenner, Rolando [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Facultad de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Menanteau, Felipe; Hughes, John P.; Baker, Andrew J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Hasselfield, Matthew [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Marriage, Tobias A.; Crichton, Devin; Gralla, Megan B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218-2686 (United States); Addison, Graeme E.; Dunkley, Joanna [Sub-department of Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Battaglia, Nick; Bond, J. Richard; Hajian, Amir [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Das, Sudeep [Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics, LBL and Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Devlin, Mark J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Hilton, Matt [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); and others

    2013-07-20

    We present the first dynamical mass estimates and scaling relations for a sample of Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) selected galaxy clusters. The sample consists of 16 massive clusters detected with the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) over a 455 deg{sup 2} area of the southern sky. Deep multi-object spectroscopic observations were taken to secure intermediate-resolution (R {approx} 700-800) spectra and redshifts for Almost-Equal-To 60 member galaxies on average per cluster. The dynamical masses M{sub 200c} of the clusters have been calculated using simulation-based scaling relations between velocity dispersion and mass. The sample has a median redshift z = 0.50 and a median mass M{sub 200c}{approx_equal}12 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} h{sub 70}{sup -1} M{sub sun} with a lower limit M{sub 200c}{approx_equal}6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} h{sub 70}{sup -1} M{sub sun}, consistent with the expectations for the ACT southern sky survey. These masses are compared to the ACT SZE properties of the sample, specifically, the match-filtered central SZE amplitude y{sub 0}-tilde, the central Compton parameter y{sub 0}, and the integrated Compton signal Y{sub 200c}, which we use to derive SZE-mass scaling relations. All SZE estimators correlate with dynamical mass with low intrinsic scatter ({approx}< 20%), in agreement with numerical simulations. We explore the effects of various systematic effects on these scaling relations, including the correlation between observables and the influence of dynamically disturbed clusters. Using the three-dimensional information available, we divide the sample into relaxed and disturbed clusters and find that {approx}50% of the clusters are disturbed. There are hints that disturbed systems might bias the scaling relations, but given the current sample sizes, these differences are not significant; further studies including more clusters are required to assess the impact of these clusters on the scaling relations.

  16. Current Direct Neutrino Mass Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Drexlin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution, we review the status and perspectives of direct neutrino mass experiments, which investigate the kinematics of β-decays of specific isotopes (3H, 187Re, 163Ho to derive model-independent information on the averaged electron (antineutrino mass. After discussing the kinematics of β-decay and the determination of the neutrino mass, we give a brief overview of past neutrino mass measurements (SN1987a-ToF studies, Mainz and Troitsk experiments for 3H, cryobolometers for 187Re. We then describe the Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino (KATRIN experiment currently under construction at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, which will use the MAC-E-Filter principle to push the sensitivity down to a value of 200 meV (90% C.L.. To do so, many technological challenges have to be solved related to source intensity and stability, as well as precision energy analysis and low background rate close to the kinematic endpoint of tritium β-decay at 18.6 keV. We then review new approaches such as the MARE, ECHO, and Project8 experiments, which offer the promise to perform an independent measurement of the neutrino mass in the sub-eV region. Altogether, the novel methods developed in direct neutrino mass experiments will provide vital information on the absolute mass scale of neutrinos.

  17. Absolute calibration in vivo measurement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruchten, D.A.; Hickman, D.P.

    1991-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is currently investigating a new method for obtaining absolute calibration factors for radiation measurement systems used to measure internally deposited radionuclides in vivo. Absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems will eliminate the need to generate a series of human surrogate structures (i.e., phantoms) for calibrating in vivo measurement systems. The absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems utilizes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to define physiological structure, size, and composition. The MRI image provides a digitized representation of the physiological structure, which allows for any mathematical distribution of radionuclides within the body. Using Monte Carlo transport codes, the emission spectrum from the body is predicted. The in vivo measurement equipment is calibrated using the Monte Carlo code and adjusting for the intrinsic properties of the detection system. The calibration factors are verified using measurements of existing phantoms and previously obtained measurements of human volunteers. 8 refs

  18. THE MASS-LOSS RETURN FROM EVOLVED STARS TO THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD. VI. LUMINOSITIES AND MASS-LOSS RATES ON POPULATION SCALES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riebel, D.; Meixner, M.; Srinivasan, S.; Sargent, B.

    2012-01-01

    We present results from the first application of the Grid of Red Supergiant and Asymptotic Giant Branch ModelS (GRAMS) model grid to the entire evolved stellar population of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). GRAMS is a pre-computed grid of 80,843 radiative transfer models of evolved stars and circumstellar dust shells composed of either silicate or carbonaceous dust. We fit GRAMS models to ∼30,000 asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and red supergiant (RSG) stars in the LMC, using 12 bands of photometry from the optical to the mid-infrared. Our published data set consists of thousands of evolved stars with individually determined evolutionary parameters such as luminosity and mass-loss rate. The GRAMS grid has a greater than 80% accuracy rate discriminating between oxygen- and carbon-rich chemistry. The global dust injection rate to the interstellar medium (ISM) of the LMC from RSGs and AGB stars is on the order of 2.1 × 10 –5 M ☉ yr –1 , equivalent to a total mass injection rate (including the gas) into the ISM of ∼6 × 10 –3 M ☉ yr –1 . Carbon stars inject two and a half times as much dust into the ISM as do O-rich AGB stars, but the same amount of mass. We determine a bolometric correction factor for C-rich AGB stars in the K s band as a function of J – K s color, BC K s = -0.40(J-K s ) 2 + 1.83(J-K s ) + 1.29. We determine several IR color proxies for the dust mass-loss rate (M-dot d ) from C-rich AGB stars, such as log M-dot d = (-18.90/((K s -[8.0])+3.37) - 5.93. We find that a larger fraction of AGB stars exhibiting the 'long-secondary period' phenomenon are more O-rich than stars dominated by radial pulsations, and AGB stars without detectable mass loss do not appear on either the first-overtone or fundamental-mode pulsation sequences.

  19. Planck/SDSS Cluster Mass and Gas Scaling Relations for a Volume-Complete redMaPPer Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimeno, Pablo; Diego, Jose M.; Broadhurst, Tom; De Martino, I.; Lazkoz, Ruth

    2018-04-01

    Using Planck satellite data, we construct Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) gas pressure profiles for a large, volume-complete sample of optically selected clusters. We have defined a sample of over 8,000 redMaPPer clusters from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), within the volume-complete redshift region 0.100 Dividing the sample into richness bins we simultaneously solve for the mean cluster mass in each bin together with the corresponding radial pressure profile parameters, employing an MCMC analysis. These profiles are well detected over a much wider range of cluster mass and radius than previous work, showing a clear trend towards larger break radius with increasing cluster mass. Our SZ-based masses fall ˜16% below the mass-richness relations from weak lensing, in a similar fashion as the "hydrostatic bias" related with X-ray derived masses. Finally, we derive a tight Y500-M500 relation over a wide range of cluster mass, with a power law slope equal to 1.70 ± 0.07, that agrees well with the independent slope obtained by the Planck team with an SZ-selected cluster sample, but extends to lower masses with higher precision.

  20. Allometric scaling of population variance with mean body size is predicted from Taylor's law and density-mass allometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joel E; Xu, Meng; Schuster, William S F

    2012-09-25

    Two widely tested empirical patterns in ecology are combined here to predict how the variation of population density relates to the average body size of organisms. Taylor's law (TL) asserts that the variance of the population density of a set of populations is a power-law function of the mean population density. Density-mass allometry (DMA) asserts that the mean population density of a set of populations is a power-law function of the mean individual body mass. Combined, DMA and TL predict that the variance of the population density is a power-law function of mean individual body mass. We call this relationship "variance-mass allometry" (VMA). We confirmed the theoretically predicted power-law form and the theoretically predicted parameters of VMA, using detailed data on individual oak trees (Quercus spp.) of Black Rock Forest, Cornwall, New York. These results connect the variability of population density to the mean body mass of individuals.

  1. Decadal-scale rates of reef erosion following El Niño-related mass coral mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roff, George; Zhao, Jian-Xin; Mumby, Peter J

    2015-12-01

    As the frequency and intensity of coral mortality events increase under climate change, understanding how declines in coral cover may affect the bioerosion of reef frameworks is of increasing importance. Here, we explore decadal-scale rates of bioerosion of the framework building coral Orbicella annularis by grazing parrotfish following the 1997/1998 El Niño-related mass mortality event at Long Cay, Belize. Using high-precision U-Th dating and CT scan analysis, we quantified in situ rates of external bioerosion over a 13-year period (1998-2011). Based upon the error-weighted average U-Th age of dead O. annularis skeletons, we estimate the average external bioerosion between 1998 and 2011 as 0.92 ± 0.55 cm depth. Empirical observations of herbivore foraging, and a nonlinear numerical response of parrotfish to an increase in food availability, were used to create a model of external bioerosion at Long Cay. Model estimates of external bioerosion were in close agreement with U-Th estimates (0.85 ± 0.09 cm). The model was then used to quantify how rates of external bioerosion changed across a gradient of coral mortality (i.e., from few corals experiencing mortality following coral bleaching to complete mortality). Our results indicate that external bioerosion is remarkably robust to declines in coral cover, with no significant relationship predicted between the rate of external bioerosion and the proportion of O. annularis that died in the 1998 bleaching event. The outcome was robust because the reduction in grazing intensity that follows coral mortality was compensated for by a positive numerical response of parrotfish to an increase in food availability. Our model estimates further indicate that for an O. annularis-dominated reef to maintain a positive state of reef accretion, a necessity for sustained ecosystem function, live cover of O. annularis must not drop below a ~5-10% threshold of cover. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Deposits of Large-scale Mass Movements in the Sediments of Hallstätter See (Austria) - Recurrent Natural Hazards at a UNESCO World Cultural Heritage Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterbach, S.; Strasser, M.; Tjallingii, R.; Kowarik, K.; Reschreiter, H.; Spatl, C.; Brauer, A.

    2017-12-01

    The cultural importance of underground salt mining in Hallstatt (Austria), which is documented since the Middle Bronze Age, has been recognized already 20 years ago by assigning the status of a UNESCO World Cultural Heritage Site to the Hallstatt area, particularly because of the wealth of archaeological artefacts from the Early Iron Age. Local mining activity is well documented for prehistoric times and known to have been repeatedly affected by large-scale mass movements, for example at the end of the Bronze Age and during the Late Iron Age. In contrast, evidence of mining activity between the 5th and late 13th century AD is scarce, which could be related to socio-economic changes but also to continued mass movement activity, possibly biasing the archaeological record. Within the present study, a 15.63-m-long 14C-dated sediment core from Hallstätter See has been investigated with respect to the deposits of large-scale mass movements. Most of the lake sediment sequence consists of cm- to sub-mm-scale laminated carbonate mud with frequently intercalated small-scale turbidites, reflecting seasonally variable detrital input from the tributaries, but two major event layers clearly stand out. The upper one comprises a 2.45-m-thick basal mass transport deposit (containing folded laminated sediments, homogenized sediments with liquefaction structures, and coarse gravel) and an overlying 1.45-m-thick co-genetic turbidite. From the lower event layer only the topmost part of the turbiditic sequence with a (minimum) thickness of 1.49 m was recovered. Based on their sedimentological characteristics, both event layers are interpreted as the subaqueous continuation of large-scale mass movements, which occurred at ca. 1050 and 2300 cal. years BP and possibly originated from the rock walls along the western lake shore where also the salt mining area is located. This indicates that mass movement activity not only threatened prehistoric salt mining, but occurred also repeatedly

  3. Absolute distance measurements using two-mode laser telemetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintz, Michel.; Courde, C.; Brillet, A.; Man, C. N.

    2017-11-01

    A novel laser ranging method is described that uses a two-mode laser source, and detection of the phase of the return beam. The design eliminates the cyclic error usually associated with phase measurements and provides unambiguous, absolute distance determination. Measurements of an ≍ 8m path are obtained at a beat frequency of 13 GHz. We analyse the ≍1 μm stability of the data obtained with this preliminary implementation, and expect that an improved version will allow accuracies well below 1 μm, for the kilometer-scale distances involved in satellite formation flight.

  4. Quantum bath refrigeration towards absolute zero: challenging the unattainability principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolář, M; Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, D; Alicki, R; Kurizki, G

    2012-08-31

    A minimal model of a quantum refrigerator, i.e., a periodically phase-flipped two-level system permanently coupled to a finite-capacity bath (cold bath) and an infinite heat dump (hot bath), is introduced and used to investigate the cooling of the cold bath towards absolute zero (T=0). Remarkably, the temperature scaling of the cold-bath cooling rate reveals that it does not vanish as T→0 for certain realistic quantized baths, e.g., phonons in strongly disordered media (fractons) or quantized spin waves in ferromagnets (magnons). This result challenges Nernst's third-law formulation known as the unattainability principle.

  5. Measured and modelled absolute gravity changes in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Emil; Forsberg, René; Strykowski, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    In glaciated areas, the Earth is responding to the ongoing changes of the ice sheets, a response knownas glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). GIA can be investigated through observations of gravity change.For the ongoing assessment of the ice sheets mass balance, where satellite data are used...... in Greenland. Theresult is compared with the initial measurements of absolute gravity (AG) change at selected GreenlandNetwork (GNET) sites.We find that observations are highly influenced by the direct attraction from the ice and ocean. Thisis especially evident in the measurements conducted at the GNET...... station near the Helheim Glacier.The effect of the direct attraction diminishes at sites that are more than one degree from the source.Here, the dominant signal is the effect of the elastic signal from present day ice mass changes. We findagreement between the measured and modelled gravity changes at all...

  6. The Absolute Normal Scores Test for Symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penfield, Douglas A.; Sachdeva, Darshan

    1976-01-01

    The absolute normal scores test is described as a test for the symmetry of a distribution of scores about a location parameter. The test is compared to the sign test and the Wilcoxon test as an alternative to the "t"-test. (Editor/RK)

  7. The Theory of Absolute Reaction Rates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 7. The Theory of Absolute Reaction Rates. Henry Eyring. Classics Volume 17 Issue 7 July 2012 pp 704-711. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/017/07/0704-0711. Author Affiliations.

  8. 49 CFR 236.709 - Block, absolute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Block, absolute. 236.709 Section 236.709 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION...

  9. Thin-film magnetoresistive absolute position detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenland, J.P.J.

    1990-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the investigation of a digital absolute posi- tion-detection system, which is based on a position-information carrier (i.e. a magnetic tape) with one single code track on the one hand, and an array of magnetoresistive sensors for the detection of the information on the

  10. Det demokratiske argument for absolut ytringsfrihed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2014-01-01

    Artiklen diskuterer den påstand, at absolut ytringsfrihed er en nødvendig forudsætning for demokratisk legitimitet med udgangspunkt i en rekonstruktion af et argument fremsat af Ronald Dworkin. Spørgsmålet er, hvorfor ytringsfrihed skulle være en forudsætning for demokratisk legitimitet, og hvorf...

  11. Absolute Distance Measurements with Tunable Semiconductor Laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikel, Břetislav; Číp, Ondřej; Lazar, Josef

    T118, - (2005), s. 41-44 ISSN 0031-8949 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAB2065001 Keywords : tunable laser * absolute interferometer Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.661, year: 2004

  12. Stimulus Probability Effects in Absolute Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an absolute identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of…

  13. systemic complications following absolute alcohol embolisation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of the superficial temporal (STA), middle meningeal. (MMA) and occipital ... external jugular vein. Absolute alcohol was injected into the feeder artery using the intermittent pulsed spray technique in aliquots of 1 ml. A total of 55 ml of alcohol was injected. ... cells, vessel wall necrosis resulting in thrombosis and permanent ...

  14. On the absolute measure of Beta activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez del Rio, C.; Jimenez Reynaldo, O.; Rodriguez Mayquez, E.

    1956-01-01

    A new method for absolute beta counting of solid samples is given. The mea surements is made with an inside Geiger-Muller tube of new construction. The backscattering correction when using an infinite thick mounting is discussed and results for different materials given. (Author)

  15. Absolute tightness: the chemists hesitate to invest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The safety requirements of industries as nuclear plants and the strengthening of regulations in the field of environment (more particularly those related to volatile organic compounds) have lead the manufacturers to build absolute tightness pumps. But these equipments do not answer all the problems and represent a high investment cost. In consequence, the chemists hesitate to invest. (O.L.)

  16. Measuring the black hole mass in Ultraluminous X-ray Sources with the X-ray Scaling Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Insuk; Gliozzi, M.

    2014-01-01

    The black hole mass is a crucial parameter to shed light on the physics of accretion. While the presence of stellar mass black holes (sMBHs) in binary systems and supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in the center of galaxies is widely accepted, the very existence of intermediate mass black holes (IMBHs) is still a matter of debate. It has been suggested that this type of black holes within the mass range of MBH=10^2-10^5 Msun may reside in Ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) which are very bright off nuclear X-ray sources. Recently, a new method to constrain the mass of BH systems, based solely on X-ray data, was successfully used for sMBHs and SMBHs. Since the X-ray emission is thought to be produced by the same process (Comptonization) in all accretion objects, in principle, this method can be applied to estimate the mass of black holes in ULXs. We have carried out a systemic analysis of a sample of 43 ULXs with multiple X-ray observations and applied this novel method. Our preliminary results suggest that ~70% of the sample harbor IMBHs and indicates a good agreement with those derived with different methods present in the literature.

  17. Error analysis in newborn screening: can quotients support the absolute values?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneth, Borros; Hintz, Martin

    2017-03-01

    Newborn screening is performed using modern tandem mass spectrometry, which can simultaneously detect a variety of analytes, including several amino acids and fatty acids. Tandem mass spectrometry measures the diagnostic parameters as absolute concentrations and produces fragments which are used as markers of specific substances. Several prominent quotients can also be derived, which are quotients of two absolute measured concentrations. In this study, we determined the precision of both the absolute concentrations and the derived quotients. First, the measurement error of the absolute concentrations and the measurement error of the ratios were practically determined. Then, the Gaussian theory of error calculation was used. Finally, these errors were compared with one another. The practical analytical accuracies of the quotients were significantly higher (e.g., coefficient of variation (CV) = 5.1% for the phenylalanine to tyrosine (Phe/Tyr) quotient and CV = 5.6% for the Fisher quotient) than the accuracies of the absolute measured concentrations (mean CVs = 12%). According to our results, the ratios are analytically correct and, from an analytical point of view, can support the absolute values in finding the correct diagnosis.

  18. Reco level Smin and subsystem Smin: improved global inclusive variables for measuring the new physics mass scale in MET events at hadron colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konar, Partha; /Florida U.; Kong, Kyoungchul; /SLAC; Matchev, Konstantin T.; Park, Myeonghun; /Florida U.

    2011-08-11

    The variable {radical}s{sub min} was originally proposed in [1] as a model-independent, global and fully inclusive measure of the new physics mass scale in missing energy events at hadron colliders. In the original incarnation of {radical}s{sub min}, however, the connection to the new physics mass scale was blurred by the effects of the underlying event, most notably initial state radiation and multiple parton interactions. In this paper we advertize two improved variants of the {radical}s{sub min} variable, which overcome this problem. First we show that by evaluating the {radical}s{sub min} variable at the RECO level, in terms of the reconstructed objects in the event, the effects from the underlying event are significantly diminished and the nice correlation between the peak in the {radical}s{sub min}{sup (reco)} distribution and the new physics mass scale is restored. Secondly, the underlying event problem can be avoided altogether when the {radical}s{sub min} concept is applied to a subsystem of the event which does not involve any QCD jets. We supply an analytic formula for the resulting subsystem {radical}s{sub min}{sup (sub)} variable and show that its peak exhibits the usual correlation with the mass scale of the particles produced in the subsystem. Finally, we contrast {radical}s{sub min} to other popular inclusive variables such as H{sub T}, M{sub Tgen} and M{sub TTgen}. We illustrate our discussion with several examples from supersymmetry, and with dilepton events from top quark pair production.

  19. Integrating a 250 mL-spinner flask with other stirred bench-scale cell culture devices: a mass transfer perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejos, Jose R; Brorson, Kurt A; Moreira, Antonio R; Rao, Govind

    2011-01-01

    The bioprocess development cycle is a complex task that requires a complete understanding of the engineering of the process (e.g., mass transfer, mixing, CO(2) removal, process monitoring, and control) and its affect on cell biology and product quality. Despite their widespread use in bioprocess development, spinner flasks generally lack engineering characterization of critical physical parameters such as k(L)a, P/V, or mixing time. In this study, mass transfer characterization of a 250-mL spinner flask using optical patch-based sensors is presented. The results quantitatively show the effect of the impeller type, liquid filling volume, and agitation speed on the volumetric mass transfer coefficient (k(L)a) in a 250-mL spinner flask, and how they can be manipulated to match mass transfer capability at large culture devices. Thus, process understanding in spinner flasks can be improved, and these devices can be seamlessly integrated in a rational scale-up strategy from cell thawing to bench-scale bioreactors (and beyond) in biomanufacturing. Copyright © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  20. Advanced subgrid-scale modeling for convection-dominated species transport at fluid interfaces with application to mass transfer from rising bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Andre; Bothe, Dieter

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents a novel subgrid scale (SGS) model for simulating convection-dominated species transport at deformable fluid interfaces. One possible application is the Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of mass transfer from rising bubbles. The transport of a dissolving gas along the bubble-liquid interface is determined by two transport phenomena: convection in streamwise direction and diffusion in interface normal direction. The convective transport for technical bubble sizes is several orders of magnitude higher, leading to a thin concentration boundary layer around the bubble. A true DNS, fully resolving hydrodynamic and mass transfer length scales results in infeasible computational costs. Our approach is therefore a DNS of the flow field combined with a SGS model to compute the mass transfer between bubble and liquid. An appropriate model-function is used to compute the numerical fluxes on all cell faces of an interface cell. This allows to predict the mass transfer correctly even if the concentration boundary layer is fully contained in a single cell layer around the interface. We show that the SGS-model reduces the resolution requirements at the interface by a factor of ten and more. The integral flux correction is also applicable to other thin boundary layer problems. Two flow regimes are investigated to validate the model. A semi-analytical solution for creeping flow is used to assess local and global mass transfer quantities. For higher Reynolds numbers ranging from Re = 100 to Re = 460 and Péclet numbers between Pe =104 and Pe = 4 ṡ106 we compare the global Sherwood number against correlations from literature. In terms of accuracy, the predicted mass transfer never deviates more than 4% from the reference values.

  1. The Absolute Shielding Constants of Heavy Nuclei: Resolving the Enigma of the (119)Sn Absolute Shielding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkin, Elena; Komorovsky, Stanislav; Repisky, Michal; Demissie, Taye B; Ruud, Kenneth

    2013-02-07

    We demonstrate that the apparent disagreement between experimental determinations and four-component relativistic calculations of the absolute shielding constants of heavy nuclei is due to the breakdown of the commonly assumed relation between the electronic contribution to the nuclear spin-rotation constants and the paramagnetic contribution to the NMR shielding constants. We demonstrate that this breakdown has significant consequences for the absolute shielding constant of (119)Sn, leading to errors of about 1000 ppm. As a consequence, we expect that many absolute shielding constants of heavy nuclei will be in need of revision.

  2. Application of x-ray fluorescence (XRF) absolute analysis method for silica refractories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asakura, Hideo; Yamada, Yasujiro; Kansai, Kouhei; Tomatsu, Ichirou; Murata, Mamoru

    2015-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis is a rapid and precise quantitative analytical method for the determination of major and trace elements in many industries and academics. XRF analytical values are relative due to the use of the calibration curves calculated from measuring the reference standard materials such as Japanese Refractory Reference Materials (JRRM) series with certified values determined by wet chemical analysis. The development of the XRF analytical method from relative to absolute analysis will help much to determine the absolute values of samples from the fields where reference standard samples have not been prepared, and thus can be applied widely in many industries. The implement of the absolute XRF analysis for silica refractories requires high purity reagents and/or reference standard solution for the binary basic calibration curve, and theoretical matrix correction coefficients for the multi-components silica refractories analysis. The reproducibility and repeatability of this method for Al 2 O 3 5 mass% sample were 0.009 and 0.006 mass% in Al 2 O 3 and showed better values that those of ICP-AES recognized as an absolute method in JIS R 2212-2, which yielded 0.028 and 0.031 mass%, respectively. The XRF absolute analysis for JRRM 200 series, 201a and 205a does not show a bias but coincides with their certified values. (author)

  3. From Hubble's NGSL to Absolute Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, Sara R.; Lindler, Don

    2012-01-01

    Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL) consists of R-l000 spectra of 374 stars of assorted temperature, gravity, and metallicity. Each spectrum covers the wavelength range, 0.18-1.00 microns. The library can be viewed and/or downloaded from the website, http://archive.stsci.edu/prepds/stisngsll. Stars in the NGSL are now being used as absolute flux standards at ground-based observatories. However, the uncertainty in the absolute flux is about 2%, which does not meet the requirements of dark-energy surveys. We are therefore developing an observing procedure that should yield fluxes with uncertainties less than 1 % and will take part in an HST proposal to observe up to 15 stars using this new procedure.

  4. Trapped individual ion at absolute zero temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Nan; Dehmelt, Hans; Nagourney, Warren

    1989-01-01

    Laser cooling and ion trapping have progressed to such an extent that one can now speak of realizing a confined atom at absolute zero temperature. In this short publication, we analyze an experiment toward such realization using a single Ba+ ion in a miniature rf trap. The Ba+ ion is first laser-cooled to the limit where the ion spends most of its time in the zero-point energy state. Then a test sequence allows one to verify whether or not the ion is actually in its zero-point state. The test sequence may also serve as a device for state selection of an atom at absolute zero temperature. PMID:16594054

  5. Interpolation of uniformly absolutely continuous operators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cobos, F.; Gogatishvili, Amiran; Opic, B.; Pick, L.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 286, 5-6 (2013), s. 579-599 ISSN 0025-584X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/08/0383 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : uniformly absolutely continuous operators * interpolation * type of an interpolation method Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.658, year: 2013 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ mana .201100205/full

  6. Absolute spectrophotometry of the β Lyr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnashev, V.I.; Skul'skij, M.Yu.

    1978-01-01

    In 1974 an absolute spectrophotometry of β Lyr was performed with the scanning spectrophotometer in the 3300-7400 A range. The energy distribution in the β Lyr spectrum is obtained. The β Lyr model is proposed. It is shown, that the continuous spectrum of the β Lyr radiation can be presented by the total radiation of the B8 3 and A5 3 two stars and of the gaseous envelope with Te =20000 K

  7. Benzofuranoid and bicyclooctanoid neolignans:absolute configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarenga, M.A. de; Giesbrecht, A.M.; Gottlieb, O.R.; Yoshida, M.

    1977-01-01

    The naturally occuring benzofuranoid and bicyclo (3,2,1) octanoid neolignans have their relative configurations established by 1 H and 13 C NMR, inclusively with aid of the solvent shift technique. Interconversion of the benzofuranoid type compounds, as well as for a benzofuranoid to a bicyclooctanoid derivate, make ORD correlations, ultimately with (2S, 3S) - and (2R,3R)-2,3- dihydrobenzofurans, possible, and led to the absolute configurations of both series of neolignans [pt

  8. The effect of vegetation on wind-blown mass transport at the regional scale: A wind tunnel experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Youssef, I.F.; Visser, S.M.; Karssenberg, D.; Erpul, G.; Cornelis, W.M.; Gabriels, D.; Poortinga, A.

    2012-01-01

    Wind erosion is a global environmental problem. Re-vegetating land is a commonly used method to reduce the negative effects of wind erosion. However, there is limited knowledge on the effect of vegetation pattern on wind-blown mass transport. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect

  9. The effect of vegetation patterns on wind-blown mass transport at the regional scale: A wind tunnel experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Youssef, F.; Visser, S.; Karssenberg, D.J.; Erpul, G.; Cornelis, W.M.; Gabriels, D.; Poortinga, A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Wind erosion is a global environmental problem. Re-vegetating land is a commonly used method to reduce the negative effects of wind erosion. However, there is limited knowledge on the effect of vegetation pattern on wind-blown mass transport. The objective of this study was to investigate

  10. Are arrival date and body mass after spring migration influenced by large-scale environmental factors in a migratory seabird?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Lesley eSzostek

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the timing of migratory events have been observed recently in many migratory species, most likely in response to climatic change. In the common tern Sterna hirundo we examined such changes in spring arrival date and body mass based on a 19 year individual-based longitudinal data from a transponder marked colony from 1994 - 2012. Although no long-term trend was observed in either trait, strong inter-annual and age-specific variation in arrival date and mass was evident. We investigated whether environmental factors such as (i global climate phenomena North Atlantic and Southern Oscillation Indices NAOI and SOI, or (ii local factors, such as food abundance in the wintering and breeding area, represented by fish stock or marine primary productivity, could explain this variation. We found that 2-year-old birds on their first spring migration advanced arrival relative to spring NAOI and delayed arrival relative to sprat Sprattus sprattus abundance. The arrival date of 3-year-olds also advanced in relation to NAOI and delayed in relation to winter SOI. In contrast, adults delayed arrival with NAOI and advanced relative to SOI. Within age groups, earlier annual arrival coincided with higher mass, indicating that a fast and/or early migration did not come at a cost to body condition. Changes in arrival mass relative to environmental covariates were found only in 2-year-olds on their first spring migration: in these birds arrival mass was positively related to herring Clupea harengus and sprat abundance in the breeding area as well as spring NAOI and negatively related to SOI. In conclusion, traits related to migration of common terns were linked with environmental conditions, but showed no long-term trends over the past two decades. Age-related differences were marked, suggesting that common terns might be subject to differing environmental constraints or respond differently to conditions during their annual cycle depending on age.

  11. Black Hole Mass Determination In the X-Ray Binary 4U 1630-47: Scaling of Spectral and Variability Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifina, Elena; Titarchuk, Lev; Shaposhnikov, Nikolai

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of a comprehensive investigation on the evolution of spectral and timing properties of the Galactic black hole candidate 4U 1630-47 during its spectral transitions. In particular, we show how a scaling of the correlation of the photon index of the Comptonized spectral component gamma with low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs), ?(sub L), and mass accretion rate, M, can be applied to the black hole mass and the inclination angle estimates.We analyze the transition episodes observed with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer and BeppoSAX satellites.We find that the broadband X-ray energy spectra of 4U 1630-47 during all spectral states can be modeled by a combination of a thermal component, a Comptonized component, and a red-skewed iron-line component. We also establish that gamma monotonically increases during transition from the low-hard state to the high-soft state and then saturates for high mass accretion rates. The index saturation levels vary for different transition episodes. Correlations of gamma versus ?(sub L) also show saturation at gamma (is) approximately 3. Gamma -M and gamma -?(sub L) correlations with their index saturation revealed in 4U 1630-47 are similar to those established in a number of other black hole candidates and can be considered as an observational evidence for the presence of a black hole in these sources. The scaling technique, which relies on XTE J1550-564, GRO 1655-40, and H1743-322 as reference sources, allows us to evaluate a black hole mass in 4U 1630-47 yielding M(sub BH) (is) approximately 10 +/- 0.1 solar masses and to constrain the inclination angle of i (is) approximately less than 70 deg.

  12. From single steps to mass migration: the problem of scale in the movement ecology of the Serengeti wildebeest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torney, Colin J; Hopcraft, J Grant C; Morrison, Thomas A; Couzin, Iain D; Levin, Simon A

    2018-05-19

    A central question in ecology is how to link processes that occur over different scales. The daily interactions of individual organisms ultimately determine community dynamics, population fluctuations and the functioning of entire ecosystems. Observations of these multiscale ecological processes are constrained by various technological, biological or logistical issues, and there are often vast discrepancies between the scale at which observation is possible and the scale of the question of interest. Animal movement is characterized by processes that act over multiple spatial and temporal scales. Second-by-second decisions accumulate to produce annual movement patterns. Individuals influence, and are influenced by, collective movement decisions, which then govern the spatial distribution of populations and the connectivity of meta-populations. While the field of movement ecology is experiencing unprecedented growth in the availability of movement data, there remain challenges in integrating observations with questions of ecological interest. In this article, we present the major challenges of addressing these issues within the context of the Serengeti wildebeest migration, a keystone ecological phenomena that crosses multiple scales of space, time and biological complexity.This article is part of the theme issue 'Collective movement ecology'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  13. Effect of Absolute From Hibiscus syriacus L. Flower on Wound Healing in Keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seok Won; Lee, Kang Pa; Kim, Do-Yoon; Hwang, Dae Il; Won, Kyung-Jong; Lee, Dae Won; Lee, Hwan Myung

    2017-01-01

    Proliferation and migration of keratinocytes are essential for the repair of cutaneous wounds. Hibiscus syriacus L. has been used in Asian medicine; however, research on keratinocytes is inadequate. To establish the dermatological properties of absolute from Hibiscus syriacus L. flower (HSF) and to provide fundamental research for alternative medicine. We identified the composition of HSF absolute using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. We also examined the effect of HSF absolute in HaCaT cells using the XTT assay, Boyden chamber assay, sprout-out growth assay, and western blotting. We conducted an in-vivo wound healing assay in rat tail-skin. Ten major active compounds were identified from HSF absolute. As determined by the XTT assay, Boyden chamber assay, and sprout-out growth assay results, HSF absolute exhibited similar effects as that of epidermal growth factor on the proliferation and migration patterns of keratinocytes (HaCaT cells), which were significantly increased after HSF absolute treatment. The expression levels of the phosphorylated signaling proteins relevant to proliferation, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (Erk 1/2) and Akt, were also determined by western blot analysis. These results of our in-vitro and ex-vivo studies indicate that HSF absolute induced cell growth and migration of HaCaT cells by phosphorylating both Erk 1/2 and Akt. Moreover, we confirmed the wound-healing effect of HSF on injury of the rat tail-skin. Therefore, our results suggest that HSF absolute is promising for use in cosmetics and alternative medicine. Hisbiscus syriacus L. flower absolute increases HaCaT cell migration and proliferation. Hisbiscus syriacus L. flower absolute regulates phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 and Akt in HaCaT cell.Treatment with Hisbiscus syriacus L. flower induced sprout outgrowth.The wound in the tail-skin of rat was reduced by Hisbiscus syriacus L. flower absolute Abbreviations used: HSF: Hibiscus syriacus L. flower

  14. Exploring the Saturation Levels of Stimulated Raman Scattering in the Absolute Regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, D. T.; Depierreux, S.; Tassin, V.; Stenz, C.; Labaune, C.

    2010-01-01

    This Letter reports new experimental results that evidence the transition between the absolute and convective growth of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS). Significant reflectivities were observed only when the instability grows in the absolute regime. In this case, saturation processes efficiently limit the SRS reflectivity that is shown to scale linearly with the laser intensity, and the electron density and temperature. Such a scaling agrees with the one established by T. Kolber et al.[Phys. Fluids B 5, 138 (1993)] and B Bezzerides et al.[Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2569 (1993)], from numerical simulations where the Raman saturation is due to the coupling of electron plasma waves with ion waves dynamics.

  15. The cross section for inclusive deep inelastic scattering in the impulse approximation: scale invariance and mass problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nataf, R.

    1982-06-01

    The non-perturbative calculation of inclusive D.I.S. is made in a parton model different from the ''naive'' one upon two points: 1) the struck quark is off-shell (impulse approximation), 2) kinematical correlations between partons are taken into account. At low Q 2 (4 to 20 GeV 2 ) the best target mass correction is the Nachtmann one [fr

  16. The relation between the fundamental scale controlling high-energy interactions of quarks and the proton mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deur, Alexandre [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Brodsky, Stanley J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); de Teramond, Guy F. [Univ. de Costa Rica, San Jose (Costa Rica)

    2015-04-06

    Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) provides a fundamental description of the physics binding quarks into protons, neutrons, and other hadrons. QCD is well understood at short distances where perturbative calculations are feasible. Establishing an explicit relation between this regime and the large-distance physics of quark confinement has been a long-sought goal. A major challenge is to relate the parameter Λs, which controls the predictions of perturbative QCD (pQCD) at short distances, to the masses of hadrons. Here we show how new theoretical insights into QCD's behavior at large and small distances lead to an analytical relation between hadronic masses and Λs. The resulting prediction, Λs = 0.341 ± 0.024 GeV agrees well with the experimental value 0.339 ± 0.016 GeV. Conversely, the experimental value of Λs can be used to predict the masses of hadrons, a task which had so far only been accomplished through intensive numerical lattice calculations, requiring several phenomenological input parameters.

  17. Osmotic Power Generation by Inner Selective Hollow Fiber Membranes: An investigation of thermodynamics, mass transfer, and module scale modelling

    KAUST Repository

    Xiong, Jun Ying

    2016-12-29

    A comprehensive analysis of fluid motion, mass transport, thermodynamics and power generation during pressure retarded osmotic (PRO) processes was conducted. This work aims to (1) elucidate the fundamental relationship among various membrane properties and operation parameters and (2) analyse their individual and combined impacts on PRO module performance. A state-of-the-art inner-selective thin-film composite (TFC) hollow fiber membrane was employed in the modelling. The analyses of mass transfer and Gibbs free energy of mixing indicate that the asymmetric nature of hollow fibers results in more significant external concentration polarization (ECP) in the lumen side of the inner-selective hollow fiber membranes. In addition, a trade-off relationship exists between the power density (PD) and the specific energy (SE). The PD vs. SE trade-off upper bound may provide a useful guidance whether the flowrates of the feed and draw solutions should be further optimized in order to (1) minimize the boundary thickness and (2) maximize the osmotic power generation. Two new terms, mass transfer efficiency and power harvesting efficiency for osmotic power generation, have been proposed. This work may provide useful insights to design and operate PRO modules with enhanced performance so that the PRO process becomes more promising in real applications in the near future.

  18. Barrier Island Dynamics Using Mass Center Analysis: A New Way to Detect and Track Large-Scale Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Paris

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A geographic information system (GIS was used to introduce and test a new method for quantitatively characterizing topographic change. Borrowing from classic Newtonian mechanics, the concept of a body’s center of mass is applied to the geomorphic landscape, and the barrier island environment in particular, to evaluate the metric’s potential as a proxy for detecting, tracking and visualizing change. Two barrier islands along North Carolina’s Outer Banks are used to test this idea: Core Banks, uninhabited and largely-undeveloped, and Hatteras Island, altered by the presence of a protective dune system. Findings indicate that for Core Banks, the alongshore change in the center of mass is in accord with dominate littoral transport and wind conditions. Cross-shore change agrees with independent estimates for the island migration rates. This lends credence to our assertion that the mass center metric has the potential to be a viable proxy for describing wholesale barrier migration and would be a valuable addition to the already-established ocean shoreline and subaerial volume metrics. More research is, however, required to demonstrate efficacy.

  19. Pore-scale studies of interphase mass and heat transfer during two-phase flow in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanizadeh, S. M.; Karadimitriou, N.; Zhang, Q.; Nuske, P.

    2015-12-01

    Micro-models have been proven to be a valuable tool in porous media studies by allowing the observation of flow and transport on the micro-scale. They help to increase our insight of flow and transport phenomena on both micro- and macro-scales. A micro-model is an artificial representation of a porous medium, made of a transparent material. We have used Poly-Di-Methyl-Siloxane (PDMS), which is a viscoelastic, silicon-based organic polymer. It is optically transparent, inert, non-toxic, and non-flammable. We have studied capillary phenomena, colloid transport, and heat transfer during two-phase flow. We have shown that capillarity phenomena are controlled by fluid-fluid interfaces at the micro-scale. In colloid transport experiments, we directly observe colloids movement, their retention at interfaces, and mobilization with the moving interface and contact lines. We have also performed heat transport experiments where the two fluids have distinctly different temperatures at the pore scale. Under such conditions, fluid-fluid interfaces play a major role in heat transport processes. Our results suggest that average fluid-fluid interfacial area could be an important state variable for the macroscale description of two-phase flow and transport processes.

  20. Low-cost small scale processing technologies for production applications in various environments-Mass produced factories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bramsiepe, C.; Sievers, S.; Seifert, T.; Stefanidis, G.D.; Vlachos, D.G.; Schnitzer, H.; Muster, B.; Brunner, C.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Bruins, M.E.; Schembecker, G.

    2012-01-01

    The requirements for chemical and food production technologies will change in the future as a result of shorter time to market and increasing market volatility. Especially the rising use of renewable resources will require the implementation of flexible and fast to install small-scale production

  1. Absolute Memory for Tempo in Musicians and Non-Musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratton, Irene; Brandimonte, Maria A; Bruno, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    The ability to remember tempo (the perceived frequency of musical pulse) without external references may be defined, by analogy with the notion of absolute pitch, as absolute tempo (AT). Anecdotal reports and sparse empirical evidence suggest that at least some individuals possess AT. However, to our knowledge, no systematic assessments of AT have been performed using laboratory tasks comparable to those assessing absolute pitch. In the present study, we operationalize AT as the ability to identify and reproduce tempo in the absence of rhythmic or melodic frames of reference and assess these abilities in musically trained and untrained participants. We asked 15 musicians and 15 non-musicians to listen to a seven-step `tempo scale' of metronome beats, each associated to a numerical label, and then to perform two memory tasks. In the first task, participants heard one of the tempi and attempted to report the correct label (identification task), in the second, they saw one label and attempted to tap the correct tempo (production task). A musical and visual excerpt was presented between successive trials as a distractor to prevent participants from using previous tempi as anchors. Thus, participants needed to encode tempo information with the corresponding label, store the information, and recall it to give the response. We found that more than half were able to perform above chance in at least one of the tasks, and that musical training differentiated between participants in identification, but not in production. These results suggest that AT is relatively wide-spread, relatively independent of musical training in tempo production, but further refined by training in tempo identification. We propose that at least in production, the underlying motor representations are related to tactus, a basic internal rhythmic period that may provide a body-based reference for encoding tempo.

  2. The Eruption of a Small-scale Emerging Flux Rope as the Driver of an M-class Flare and of a Coronal Mass Ejection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, X. L.; Xue, Z. K.; Wang, J. C.; Yang, L. H.; Kong, D. F. [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 396 Yangfangwang, Guandu District, Kunming 650216, Yunnan (China); Jiang, C. W. [Institute of Space Science and Applied Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen, 5180055 (China); Priest, E. R. [Mathematics Institute, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Cao, W. D. [Big Bear Solar Observatory, 40386 North Shore Lane, Big Bear City, CA 92314 (United States); Ji, H. S., E-mail: yanxl@ynao.ac.cn [Key Laboratory for Dark Matter and Space Science, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, Jiangsu (China)

    2017-08-10

    Solar flares and coronal mass ejections are the most powerful explosions in the Sun. They are major sources of potentially destructive space weather conditions. However, the possible causes of their initiation remain controversial. Using high-resolution data observed by the New Solar Telescope of Big Bear Solar Observatory, supplemented by Solar Dynamics Observatory observations, we present unusual observations of a small-scale emerging flux rope near a large sunspot, whose eruption produced an M-class flare and a coronal mass ejection. The presence of the small-scale flux rope was indicated by static nonlinear force-free field extrapolation as well as data-driven magnetohydrodynamics modeling of the dynamic evolution of the coronal three-dimensional magnetic field. During the emergence of the flux rope, rotation of satellite sunspots at the footpoints of the flux rope was observed. Meanwhile, the Lorentz force, magnetic energy, vertical current, and transverse fields were increasing during this phase. The free energy from the magnetic flux emergence and twisting magnetic fields is sufficient to power the M-class flare. These observations present, for the first time, the complete process, from the emergence of the small-scale flux rope, to the production of solar eruptions.

  3. Measured and modelled absolute gravity changes in Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, J. Emil; Forsberg, Rene; Strykowski, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    In glaciated areas, the Earth is responding to the ongoing changes of the ice sheets, a response known as glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). GIA can be investigated through observations of gravity change. For the ongoing assessment of the ice sheets mass balance, where satellite data are used, the study of GIA is important since it acts as an error source. GIA consists of three signals as seen by a gravimeter on the surface of the Earth. These signals are investigated in this study. The ICE-5G ice history and recently developed ice models of present day changes are used to model the gravity change in Greenland. The result is compared with the initial measurements of absolute gravity (AG) change at selected Greenland Network (GNET) sites.

  4. Achieving Climate Change Absolute Accuracy in Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Thome, K. J; Leroy, S.; Corliss, J.; Anderson, J. G.; Ao, C. O.; Bantges, R.; Best, F.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission will provide a calibration laboratory in orbit for the purpose of accurately measuring and attributing climate change. CLARREO measurements establish new climate change benchmarks with high absolute radiometric accuracy and high statistical confidence across a wide range of essential climate variables. CLARREO's inherently high absolute accuracy will be verified and traceable on orbit to Système Internationale (SI) units. The benchmarks established by CLARREO will be critical for assessing changes in the Earth system and climate model predictive capabilities for decades into the future as society works to meet the challenge of optimizing strategies for mitigating and adapting to climate change. The CLARREO benchmarks are derived from measurements of the Earth's thermal infrared spectrum (5-50 micron), the spectrum of solar radiation reflected by the Earth and its atmosphere (320-2300 nm), and radio occultation refractivity from which accurate temperature profiles are derived. The mission has the ability to provide new spectral fingerprints of climate change, as well as to provide the first orbiting radiometer with accuracy sufficient to serve as the reference transfer standard for other space sensors, in essence serving as a "NIST [National Institute of Standards and Technology] in orbit." CLARREO will greatly improve the accuracy and relevance of a wide range of space-borne instruments for decadal climate change. Finally, CLARREO has developed new metrics and methods for determining the accuracy requirements of climate observations for a wide range of climate variables and uncertainty sources. These methods should be useful for improving our understanding of observing requirements for most climate change observations.

  5. Absolute Priority for a Vehicle in VANET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirani, Rostam; Hendessi, Faramarz; Montazeri, Mohammad Ali; Sheikh Zefreh, Mohammad

    In today's world, traffic jams waste hundreds of hours of our life. This causes many researchers try to resolve the problem with the idea of Intelligent Transportation System. For some applications like a travelling ambulance, it is important to reduce delay even for a second. In this paper, we propose a completely infrastructure-less approach for finding shortest path and controlling traffic light to provide absolute priority for an emergency vehicle. We use the idea of vehicular ad-hoc networking to reduce the imposed travelling time. Then, we simulate our proposed protocol and compare it with a centrally controlled traffic light system.

  6. Musical Activity Tunes Up Absolute Pitch Ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Ribe, Lars Riisgaard

    2014-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify or produce pitches of musical tones without an external reference. Active AP (i.e., pitch production or pitch adjustment) and passive AP (i.e., pitch identification) are considered to not necessarily coincide, although no study has properly compared...... that APs generally undershoot when adjusting musical pitch, a tendency that decreases when musical activity increases. Finally, APs are less accurate when adjusting the pitch to black key targets than to white key targets. Hence, AP ability may be partly practice-dependent and we speculate that APs may...

  7. Absolute method of measuring magnetic susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, A.; Senftle, F.E.

    1959-01-01

    An absolute method of standardization and measurement of the magnetic susceptibility of small samples is presented which can be applied to most techniques based on the Faraday method. The fact that the susceptibility is a function of the area under the curve of sample displacement versus distance of the magnet from the sample, offers a simple method of measuring the susceptibility without recourse to a standard sample. Typical results on a few substances are compared with reported values, and an error of less than 2% can be achieved. ?? 1959 The American Institute of Physics.

  8. Absolute Dimensions of Contact Binary Stars in Baade Window

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Woon Kang

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The light curves of the representative 6 contact binary stars observed by OGLE Project of searching for dark matter in our Galaxy have been analyzed by the method of the Wilson and Devinney Differential Correction to find photometric solutions. The orbital inclinations of these binaries are in the range of 52 deg - 69 deg which is lower than that of the solar neighborhood binaries. The Roche lobe filling factor of these binaries are distributed in large range of 0.12 - 0.90. Since absence of spectroscopic observations for these binaries we have found masses of the 6 binary systems based on the intersection between Kepler locus and locus derived from Vandenberg isochrones in the mass - luminosity plane. Then absolute dimensions and distances have been found by combining the masses and the photometric solutions. The distances of the 6 binary systems are distributed in the range of 1 kpc - 6 kpc. This distance range is the limiting range where the contact binaries which have period shorter than a day are visible. Most contact binaries discovered in the Baade window do not belong to the Galactic bulge.

  9. High-Resolution Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry Enables Large Scale Molecular Characterization of Dissolved Organic Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Petras

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved organic matter (DOM is arguably one of the most complex exometabolomes on earth, and is comprised of thousands of compounds, that together contribute more than 600 × 1015 g carbon. This reservoir is primarily the product of interactions between the upper ocean's microbial food web, yet abiotic processes that occur over millennia have also modified many of its molecules. The compounds within this reservoir play important roles in determining the rate and extent of element exchange between inorganic reservoirs and the marine biosphere, while also mediating microbe-microbe interactions. As such, there has been a widespread effort to characterize DOM using high-resolution analytical methods including nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR and mass spectrometry (MS. To date, molecular information in DOM has been primarily obtained through calculated molecular formulas from exact mass. This approach has the advantage of being non-targeted, accessing the inherent complexity of DOM. Molecular structures are however still elusive and the most commonly used instruments are costly. More recently, tandem mass spectrometry has been employed to more precisely identify DOM components through comparison to library mass spectra. Here we describe a data acquisition and analysis workflow that expands the repertoire of high-resolution analytical approaches available to access the complexity of DOM molecules that are amenable to electrospray ionization (ESI MS. We couple liquid chromatographic separation with tandem MS (LC-MS/MS and a data analysis pipeline, that integrates peak extraction from extracted ion chromatograms (XIC, molecular formula calculation and molecular networking. This provides more precise structural characterization. Although only around 1% of detectable DOM compounds can be annotated through publicly available spectral libraries, community-wide participation in populating and annotating DOM datasets could rapidly increase the

  10. Design of pulsed perforated-plate columns for industrial scale mass transfer applications - present experience and the need for a model based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Amitava

    2010-01-01

    Mass transfer is a vital unit operation in the processing of spent nuclear fuel in the backend of closed fuel cycle and Pulsed perforated plate extraction columns are used as mass transfer device for more than five decades. The pulsed perforated plate column is an agitated differential contactor, which has wide applicability due to its simplicity, high mass transfer efficiency, high through put, suitability for maintenance free remote operation, ease of cleaning/decontamination and cost effectiveness. Design of pulsed columns are based on a model proposed to describe the hydrodynamics and mass transfer. In equilibrium stage model, the HETS values are obtained from pilot plant experiments and then scaled empirically to design columns for industrial application. The dispersion model accounts for mass transfer kinetics and back-mixing. The drop population balance model can describe complex hydrodynamics of dispersed phase, that is, drop formation, break-up and drop-to-drop interactions. In recent years, significant progress has been made to model pulsed columns using CFD, which provides complete mathematical description of hydrodynamics in terms of spatial distribution of flow fields and 3D visualization. Under the condition of pulsation, the poly-dispersed nature of turbulent droplet swarm renders modeling difficult. In the absence of industry acceptance of proposed models, the conventional chemical engineering practice is to use HETS-NTS concept or HTU-NTU approach to design extraction columns. The practicability of HTU-NTU approach has some limitations due to the lack of experimental data on individual film mass transfer coefficients. Presently, the HETS-NTS concept has been used for designing the columns, which has given satisfactory performance. The design objective is mainly to arrive at the diameter and height of the mass transfer section for a specific plate geometry, fluid properties and pulsing condition to meet the intended throughput (capacity) and mass

  11. A kinetic-based sigmoidal model for the polymerase chain reaction and its application to high-capacity absolute quantitative real-time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Don

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based upon defining a common reference point, current real-time quantitative PCR technologies compare relative differences in amplification profile position. As such, absolute quantification requires construction of target-specific standard curves that are highly resource intensive and prone to introducing quantitative errors. Sigmoidal modeling using nonlinear regression has previously demonstrated that absolute quantification can be accomplished without standard curves; however, quantitative errors caused by distortions within the plateau phase have impeded effective implementation of this alternative approach. Results Recognition that amplification rate is linearly correlated to amplicon quantity led to the derivation of two sigmoid functions that allow target quantification via linear regression analysis. In addition to circumventing quantitative errors produced by plateau distortions, this approach allows the amplification efficiency within individual amplification reactions to be determined. Absolute quantification is accomplished by first converting individual fluorescence readings into target quantity expressed in fluorescence units, followed by conversion into the number of target molecules via optical calibration. Founded upon expressing reaction fluorescence in relation to amplicon DNA mass, a seminal element of this study was to implement optical calibration using lambda gDNA as a universal quantitative standard. Not only does this eliminate the need to prepare target-specific quantitative standards, it relegates establishment of quantitative scale to a single, highly defined entity. The quantitative competency of this approach was assessed by exploiting "limiting dilution assay" for absolute quantification, which provided an independent gold standard from which to verify quantitative accuracy. This yielded substantive corroborating evidence that absolute accuracies of ± 25% can be routinely achieved. Comparison

  12. CFD Study of Full-Scale Aerobic Bioreactors: Evaluation of Dynamic O2 Distribution, Gas-Liquid Mass Transfer and Reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humbird, David; Sitaraman, Hariswaran; Stickel, Jonathan; Sprague, Michael A.; McMillan, Jim

    2016-11-18

    If advanced biofuels are to measurably displace fossil fuels in the near term, they will have to operate at levels of scale, efficiency, and margin unprecedented in the current biotech industry. For aerobically-grown products in particular, scale-up is complex and the practical size, cost, and operability of extremely large reactors is not well understood. Put simply, the problem of how to attain fuel-class production scales comes down to cost-effective delivery of oxygen at high mass transfer rates and low capital and operating costs. To that end, very large reactor vessels (>500 m3) are proposed in order to achieve favorable economies of scale. Additionally, techno-economic evaluation indicates that bubble-column reactors are more cost-effective than stirred-tank reactors in many low-viscosity cultures. In order to advance the design of extremely large aerobic bioreactors, we have performed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of bubble-column reactors. A multiphase Euler-Euler model is used to explicitly account for the spatial distribution of air (i.e., gas bubbles) in the reactor. Expanding on the existing bioreactor CFD literature (typically focused on the hydrodynamics of bubbly flows), our simulations include interphase mass transfer of oxygen and a simple phenomenological reaction representing the uptake and consumption of dissolved oxygen by submerged cells. The simulations reproduce the expected flow profiles, with net upward flow in the center of column and downward flow near the wall. At high simulated oxygen uptake rates (OUR), oxygen-depleted regions can be observed in the reactor. By increasing the gas flow to enhance mixing and eliminate depleted areas, a maximum oxygen transfer (OTR) rate is obtained as a function of superficial velocity. These insights regarding minimum superficial velocity and maximum reactor size are incorporated into NREL's larger techno-economic models to supplement standard reactor design equations.

  13. Standardization of the cumulative absolute velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, T.F.; Jacobson, J.P.

    1991-12-01

    EPRI NP-5930, ''A Criterion for Determining Exceedance of the Operating Basis Earthquake,'' was published in July 1988. As defined in that report, the Operating Basis Earthquake (OBE) is exceeded when both a response spectrum parameter and a second damage parameter, referred to as the Cumulative Absolute Velocity (CAV), are exceeded. In the review process of the above report, it was noted that the calculation of CAV could be confounded by time history records of long duration containing low (nondamaging) acceleration. Therefore, it is necessary to standardize the method of calculating CAV to account for record length. This standardized methodology allows consistent comparisons between future CAV calculations and the adjusted CAV threshold value based upon applying the standardized methodology to the data set presented in EPRI NP-5930. The recommended method to standardize the CAV calculation is to window its calculation on a second-by-second basis for a given time history. If the absolute acceleration exceeds 0.025g at any time during each one second interval, the earthquake records used in EPRI NP-5930 have been reanalyzed and the adjusted threshold of damage for CAV was found to be 0.16g-set

  14. What Is Needed to Eradicate Lymphatic Filariasis? A Model-Based Assessment on the Impact of Scaling Up Mass Drug Administration Programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randee J Kastner

    Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis (LF is a neglected tropical disease for which more than a billion people in 73 countries are thought to be at-risk. At a global level, the efforts against LF are designed as an elimination program. However, current efforts appear to aim for elimination in some but not all endemic areas. With the 2020 goal of elimination looming, we set out to develop plausible scale-up scenarios to reach global elimination and eradication. We predict the duration of mass drug administration (MDA necessary to reach local elimination for a variety of transmission archetypes using an existing model of LF transmission, estimate the number of treatments required for each scenario, and consider implications of rapid scale-up.We have defined four scenarios that differ in their geographic coverage and rate of scale-up. For each scenario, country-specific simulations and calculations were performed that took into account the pre-intervention transmission intensity, the different vector genera, drug regimen, achieved level of population coverage, previous progress toward elimination, and potential programmatic delays due to mapping, operations, and administration.Our results indicate that eliminating LF by 2020 is unlikely. If MDA programs are drastically scaled up and expanded, the final round of MDA for LF eradication could be delivered in 2028 after 4,159 million treatments. However, if the current rate of scale-up is maintained, the final round of MDA to eradicate LF may not occur until 2050.Rapid scale-up of MDA will decrease the amount of time and treatments required to reach LF eradication. It may also propel the program towards success, as the risk of failure is likely to increase with extended program duration.

  15. A large-scale experiment on mass transfer of trichloroethylene from the unsaturated zone of a sandy aquifer to its interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellali, Salah; Benremita, Hocine; Muntzer, Paul; Razakarisoa, Olivier; Schäfer, Gerhard

    2003-01-01

    A large-scale experiment was conducted to investigate the transport of trichloroethylene (TCE) vapors in the unsaturated zone and to determine the mass transfer to the groundwater and the atmosphere. The experiment involved injection of 5 1 of TCE in the unsaturated zone under controlled conditions, with multidepth sampling of gas and water through the unsaturated zone and across the capillary zone into underlying groundwater. The mass transfer of TCE vapors from the vadose zone to the atmosphere was quantified using a vertical flux chamber. A special soil water sampler was used to monitor transport across the capillary fringe. Experimental data indicated that TCE in the unsaturated zone was mainly transported to the atmosphere and this exchange reduced significantly the potential for groundwater pollution. The maximum measured TCE flux to the atmosphere was about 3 g/m(2)/day. Observed and calculated fluxes based on vertical TCE vapor concentration gradients and Fick's law were in good agreement. This confirms that TCE vapor transport under the experimental conditions was governed essentially by molecular diffusion. TCE vapors also caused a lower, but significant contamination of the underlying groundwater by dispersion across the capillary fringe with a corresponding maximum flux of about 0.1 g/m(2)/day. This mass transfer to groundwater is partly uncertain due to an inadvertent entry of some nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) from the source area into the saturated zone. Application of an analytical solution to estimate the TCE flux from the unsaturated zone to the groundwater indicated that this phenomenon is not only influenced by molecular diffusion but also by vertical dispersion. The mass balance indicates that, under the given experimental conditions (e.g. proximity of the source emplacement relative to the soil surface, relatively high permeable porous medium), nearly 95% of the initial TCE mass was transferred to the atmosphere.

  16. Forecasting Error Calculation with Mean Absolute Deviation and Mean Absolute Percentage Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khair, Ummul; Fahmi, Hasanul; Hakim, Sarudin Al; Rahim, Robbi

    2017-12-01

    Prediction using a forecasting method is one of the most important things for an organization, the selection of appropriate forecasting methods is also important but the percentage error of a method is more important in order for decision makers to adopt the right culture, the use of the Mean Absolute Deviation and Mean Absolute Percentage Error to calculate the percentage of mistakes in the least square method resulted in a percentage of 9.77% and it was decided that the least square method be worked for time series and trend data.

  17. Foods for a Mission to Mars: Equivalent System Mass and Development of a Multipurpose Small-Scale Seed Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolph, J.; Chen, G.; Weiss, I.; Perchonok, D. M.; Wijeratne, W.; Fortune, S.; Corvalan, C.; Campanella, O.; Okos, M.; Mauer, L. J.

    2007-01-01

    The candidate crops for planetary food systems include: wheat, white and sweet potatoes, soybean, peanut, strawberry, dry bean including le ntil and pinto, radish, rice, lettuce, carrot, green onion, tomato, p eppers, spinach, and cabbage. Crops such as wheat, potatoes, soybean, peanut, dry bean, and rice can only be utilized after processing, while others are classified as ready-to-eat. To process foods in space, the food processing subsystem must be capable of producing a variety of nutritious, acceptable, and safe edible ingredients and food produ cts from pre-packaged and resupply foods as well as salad crops grown on the transit vehicle or other crops grown on planetary surfaces. D esigning, building, developing, and maintaining such a subsystem is b ound to many constraints and restrictions. The limited power supply, storage locations, variety of crops, crew time, need to minimize waste , and other equivalent system mass (ESM) parameters must be considere d in the selection of processing equipment and techniques.

  18. WWTP design in warm climates - guideline comparison and parameter adaptation for a full-scale activated sludge plant using mass balancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walder, C; Lindtner, S; Proesl, A; Klegraf, F; Weissenbacher, N

    2013-01-01

    The ATV-A-131 guideline and the design approach published in 'Wastewater Engineering, Treatment and Reuse (WE)' are widely used for the design of activated sludge plants. They are both based on simplified steady-state assumptions tailored to the boundary conditions of temperate climates. Using design guidelines beyond the designated temperature range may lead to inappropriate results. The objectives of this paper are (1) to summarise temperature relevant differences between ATV-A-131 and WE; (2) to show the related design components; and (3) to demonstrate a procedure for design parameter adaptation for a full-scale activated sludge plant located in a warm climate region. To gain steady-state data required for wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) design according to ATV-A-131 and WE, full-scale plant data were acquired for a period of 6 months as a basis for analyses and adaptation. Mass balances were calculated for the verification of the measurements and for analysing excess sludge production. The two approaches showed relevant temperature related differences. WE default application resulted in lower deviation in the mass balance results for excess sludge production. However, with the adaptation of the heterotrophic decay rates for both approaches and the inert organic and mineral solids fraction additionally for ATV-A-131, a good fit to the observed excess sludge production could be achieved.

  19. Active cavity radiometer, type III - An automatic, absolute standard, highly accurate detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, R. C.

    1971-01-01

    Instrument of simple construction operates without vacuum enclosure over wide pressure range and temperatures from 218 to 398 deg K and defines absolute radiometric scale to within less than 0.5 mW/sq cm. It has potential application to meteorology and climatology and operates on electrical substitution calorimeter principle.

  20. Absolute and Relative Time-Consistent Revealed Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    T. DEMUYNCK

    2007-01-01

    We introduce an Absolute (Relative) Time-consistent Axiom of Revealed Preference which characterizes the consistency of a choice function with the property of absolute (relative) time-consistency and impatience. The axiom requires that the absolute (relative) time-consistent and impatient closure of the revealed preference relation does not conflict with the strict revealed preference relation.

  1. Dynamics and microinstabilities at perpendicular collisionless shock: A comparison of large-scale two-dimensional full particle simulations with different ion to electron mass ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umeda, Takayuki; Kidani, Yoshitaka; Matsukiyo, Shuichi; Yamazaki, Ryo

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale two-dimensional (2D) full particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations are carried out for studying the relationship between the dynamics of a perpendicular shock and microinstabilities generated at the shock foot. The structure and dynamics of collisionless shocks are generally determined by Alfven Mach number and plasma beta, while microinstabilities at the shock foot are controlled by the ratio of the upstream bulk velocity to the electron thermal velocity and the ratio of the plasma-to-cyclotron frequency. With a fixed Alfven Mach number and plasma beta, the ratio of the upstream bulk velocity to the electron thermal velocity is given as a function of the ion-to-electron mass ratio. The present 2D full PIC simulations with a relatively low Alfven Mach number (M A ∼ 6) show that the modified two-stream instability is dominant with higher ion-to-electron mass ratios. It is also confirmed that waves propagating downstream are more enhanced at the shock foot near the shock ramp as the mass ratio becomes higher. The result suggests that these waves play a role in the modification of the dynamics of collisionless shocks through the interaction with shock front ripples

  2. Alien calculus and a Schwinger-Dyson equation: two-point function with a nonperturbative mass scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellon, Marc P.; Clavier, Pierre J.

    2018-02-01

    Starting from the Schwinger-Dyson equation and the renormalization group equation for the massless Wess-Zumino model, we compute the dominant nonperturbative contributions to the anomalous dimension of the theory, which are related by alien calculus to singularities of the Borel transform on integer points. The sum of these dominant contributions has an analytic expression. When applied to the two-point function, this analysis gives a tame evolution in the deep euclidean domain at this approximation level, making doubtful the arguments on the triviality of the quantum field theory with positive β -function. On the other side, we have a singularity of the propagator for timelike momenta of the order of the renormalization group invariant scale of the theory, which has a nonperturbative relationship with the renormalization point of the theory. All these results do not seem to have an interpretation in terms of semiclassical analysis of a Feynman path integral.

  3. Absolute ion hydration enthalpies from absolute hardness and some VBT relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Savaş; Fernandes de Farias, Robson

    2018-01-01

    In the present work, absolute hydration enthalpies are calculated from ion absolute hardness for a series of +1 and -1 ions. The calculated values are compared with those previously reported (Housecroft, 2017) [2] and relationships between Vm-1/3 and absolute hardness are stablished. The following empirical equations have been derived, for cations and anions, respectively: ΔhydHo = -(9.645 η+ + 245.930) and ΔhydHo = -(64.601 η- + 12.321). In such equations, η+ and η- are the absolute hardness. It is shown that for d block monocations (Cu+, Ag+ and Au+), hydration enthalpy is closely related with Clementi effective nuclear charge by the equation: ΔhydHo = -(9.645 η+ + 245.930) (Zeff/(n - 1)), where n is the main quantum number. Furthermore, is shown that a typical VBT parameter (Vm-1/3) is related with η+ and η- values and so, with the energies of the frontier orbitals, that is, is stablished a direct relationship between a structural parameter available by X-ray data and the energy of atomic/molecular orbitals.

  4. Absolute beam current monitoring in endstation c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochna, C.

    1995-01-01

    The first few experiments at CEBAF require approximately 1% absolute measurements of beam currents expected to range from 10-25μA. This represents errors of 100-250 nA. The initial complement of beam current monitors are of the non intercepting type. CEBAF accelerator division has provided a stripline monitor and a cavity monitor, and the authors have installed an Unser monitor (parametric current transformer or PCT). After calibrating the Unser monitor with a precision current reference, the authors plan to transfer this calibration using CW beam to the stripline monitors and cavity monitors. It is important that this be done fairly rapidly because while the gain of the Unser monitor is quite stable, the offset may drift on the order of .5μA per hour. A summary of what the authors have learned about the linearity, zero drift, and gain drift of each type of current monitor will be presented

  5. How is an absolute democracy possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Bednarek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last part of the Empire trilogy, Commonwealth, Negri and Hardt ask about the possibility of the self-governance of the multitude. When answering, they argue that absolute democracy, understood as the political articulation of the multitude that does not entail its unification (construction of the people is possible. As Negri states, this way of thinking about political articulation is rooted in the tradition of democratic materialism and constitutes the alternative to the dominant current of modern political philosophy that identifies political power with sovereignty. The multitude organizes itself politically by means of the constitutive power, identical with the ontological creativity or productivity of the multitude. To state the problem of political organization means to state the problem of class composition: political democracy is at the same time economic democracy.

  6. Absolute negative mobility in the anomalous diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ruyin; Chen, Chongyang; Nie, Linru

    2017-12-01

    Transport of an inertial Brownian particle driven by the multiplicative Lévy noise was investigated here. Numerical results indicate that: (i) The Lévy noise is able to induce absolute negative mobility (ANM) in the system, while disappearing in the deterministic case; (ii) the ANM can occur in the region of superdiffusion while disappearing in the region of normal diffusion, and the appropriate stable index of the Lévy noise makes the particle move along the opposite direction of the bias force to the maximum degree; (iii) symmetry breaking of the Lévy noise also causes the ANM effect. In addition, the intrinsic physical mechanism and conditions for the ANM to occur are discussed in detail. Our results have the implication that the Lévy noise plays an important role in the occurrence of the ANM phenomenon.

  7. MLU and IPSyn measuring absolute complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea Nieminen

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This article compares the results of Mean Length of Utterance (MLU and Index of Productive Syntax (IPSyn with the structural complexity of spontaneous utterances produced by 30-month-old Finnish children in a semi-structured playing situation. The comparison was carried out in order to determine the aspects of structural complexity which can be detected with MLU and IPSyn. This research adopts the frameworks of absolute complexity together with a multidimensional view of utterance structure and, furthermore, applies it through Utterance Analysis (UA. The results of the comparison between the metrics and changes in structural complexity discovered by UA reveal that MLU and IPSyn do function as measures of structural complexity but only if used in close relation to each other. Because they focus on different aspects of utterances, the results of both metrics should be interpreted in relation to one another.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5128/ERYa5.11

  8. Molecular-scale model for the mass density of electrolyte solutions bound by clay surfaces: application to bentonites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalvès, J; Rousseau-Gueutin, P

    2008-04-15

    A model to simulate the density of solutions adsorbed onto clay mineral surfaces is proposed. In this model, the alteration of the ionic distribution caused by the electric field associated with the surface charge of clay platelets is accounted for using an electrical triple-layer model with an overlapping diffuse layer. The combined effects of ion hydration and the electric field on the structure of water are introduced through their influence on the partial molar volume of water. This model, applied to Na-montmorillonite, simulates the distribution of the interplatelet solution density as a function of the distance to the mineral surface. High densities in the direct vicinity of the surface and slightly lower density (a few percent) than the normal density in the diffuse layer are obtained. These results show good consistency with the available data on bentonite and with the densities that can be inferred from molecular dynamics simulations. This model shows that the interplatelet distance plays an important role in the distribution of the mass density of the solution in the pore space of clay rocks.

  9. WHY DOES LEIBNIZ NEED ABSOLUTE TIME?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLÁS VAUGHAN C.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: En este ensayo pongo en contraposición dos doctrinas conspicuamenteleibnicianas: la doctrina del tiempo relacional e ideal, y la doctrina de la armonía preestablecida. Argumentaré que si todas las substancias están necesariamentecoordinadas, entonces no tiene sentido negar el carácter absoluto y real del tiempo. En la primera sección describiré la concepción newtoniana y clarkeana del tiempo absoluto; en la segunda discutiré la crítica leibniciana a dicha concepción, crítica sobre la que se erige su doctrina relacional e ideal del tiempo; en la tercera sección daré un vistazo a la metafísica monádica madura de Leibniz, haciendo especial énfasis en la doctrina de la armonía preestablecida; finalmente, en la última sección sugeriré la existencia de una tensión irreconciliable entre estas dos doctrinas.Abstract: In this paper I bring together two characteristically Leibnizean doctrines:the doctrine of relational and ideal time, and the doctrine of preestablished harmony. I will argue that, if every substance is necessarily connected with another, then it makes no sense to deny absolute and real time. In the first section, I will describe Newton’s and Clarke’s conception of absolute time; then, in the second section, I will consider Leibniz’s critique of that conception, on which he bases his ideal and relational doctrine of time. In the third section I will look briefly at Leibniz’s mature monadic metaphysics, taking special account of his doctrine of preestablished harmony. In the last section, I will suggest that there is an irreconcilable tension between these two doctrines.

  10. The Use of Low Temperature Detectors for Direct Measurements of the Mass of the Electron Neutrino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nucciotti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed many exciting breakthroughs in neutrino physics. The detection of neutrino oscillations has proved that neutrinos are massive particles, but the assessment of their absolute mass scale is still an outstanding challenge in today particle physics and cosmology. Since low temperature detectors were first proposed for neutrino physics experiments in 1984, there has been tremendous technical progress: today this technique offers the high energy resolution and scalability required to perform competitive experiments challenging the lowest electron neutrino masses. This paper reviews the thirty-year effort aimed at realizing calorimetric measurements with sub-eV neutrino mass sensitivity using low temperature detectors.

  11. Mass balance of pilot-scale pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse by steam explosion followed by alkaline delignification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, George J M; Martín, Carlos; da Silva, Vinícius F N; Gómez, Edgardo O; Gonçalves, Adilson R

    2012-05-01

    Five pilot-scale steam explosion pretreatments of sugarcane bagasse followed by alkaline delignification were explored. The solubilised lignin was precipitated with 98% sulphuric acid. Most of the pentosan (82.6%), and the acetyl group fractions were solubilised during pretreatment, while 90.2% of cellulose and 87.0% lignin were recovered in the solid fraction. Approximately 91% of the lignin and 72.5% of the pentosans contained in the steam-exploded solids were solubilised by delignification, resulting in a pulp with almost 90% of cellulose. The acidification of the black liquors allowed recovery of 48.3% of the lignin contained in the raw material. Around 14% of lignin, 22% of cellulose and 26% of pentosans were lost during the process. In order to increase material recovery, major changes, such as introduction of efficient condensers and the reduction in the number of washing steps, should be done in the process setup. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A composition dependent energy scale and the determination of the cosmic ray primary mass in the ankle region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supanitsky, A. D.; Etchegoyen, A.; Melo, D.; Sanchez, F.

    2015-08-01

    primary mass and has an almost linear dependence with primary energy.

  13. A large-scale mass casualty simulation to develop the non-technical skills medical students require for collaborative teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorm, Christine; Roberts, Chris; Lim, Renee; Roper, Josephine; Skinner, Clare; Robertson, Jeremy; Gentilcore, Stacey; Osomanski, Adam

    2016-03-08

    There is little research on large-scale complex health care simulations designed to facilitate student learning of non-technical skills in a team-working environment. We evaluated the acceptability and effectiveness of a novel natural disaster simulation that enabled medical students to demonstrate their achievement of the non-technical skills of collaboration, negotiation and communication. In a mixed methods approach, survey data were available from 117 students and a thematic analysis undertaken of both student qualitative comments and tutor observer participation data. Ninety three per cent of students found the activity engaging for their learning. Three themes emerged from the qualitative data: the impact of fidelity on student learning, reflexivity on the importance of non-technical skills in clinical care, and opportunities for collaborative teamwork. Physical fidelity was sufficient for good levels of student engagement, as was sociological fidelity. We demonstrated the effectiveness of the simulation in allowing students to reflect upon and evidence their acquisition of skills in collaboration, negotiation and communication, as well as situational awareness and attending to their emotions. Students readily identified emerging learning opportunities though critical reflection. The scenarios challenged students to work together collaboratively to solve clinical problems, using a range of resources including interacting with clinical experts. A large class teaching activity, framed as a simulation of a natural disaster is an acceptable and effective activity for medical students to develop the non-technical skills of collaboration, negotiation and communication, which are essential to team working. The design could be of value in medical schools in disaster prone areas, including within low resource countries, and as a feasible intervention for learning the non-technical skills that are needed for patient safety.

  14. The noctilucent cloud (NLC display during the ECOMA/MASS sounding rocket flights on 3 August 2007: morphology on global to local scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Baumgarten

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available During the ECOMA/MASS rocket campaign large scale NLC/PMC was observed by satellite, lidar and camera from polar to mid latitudes. We examine the observations from different instruments to investigate the morphology of the cloud. Satellite observations show a planetary wave 2 structure. Lidar observations from Kühlungsborn (54° N, Esrange (68° N and ALOMAR (69° N show a highly dynamic NLC layer. Under favorable solar illumination the cloud is also observable by ground-based cameras. The cloud was detected by cameras from Trondheim (63° N, Juliusruh (55° N and Kühlungsborn. We investigate planetary scale morphology and local scale gravity wave structures, important for the interpretation of the small scale rocket soundings. We compare in detail the lidar observations with the NLC structure observed by the camera in Trondheim. The ALOMAR RMR-lidar observed only a faint NLC during the ECOMA launch window, while the camera in Trondheim showed a strong NLC display in the direction of ALOMAR. Using the high resolution camera observations (t~30 s, Δx<5 km and the wind information from the meteor radar at ALOMAR we investigate the formation and destruction of NLC structures. We observe that the NLC brightness is reduced by a factor of 20–40 within 100 s which can be caused by a temperature about 15 K above the frostpoint temperature. A horizontal temperature gradient of more than 3 K/km is estimated.

  15. The need for an established allocation method when assessing absolute sustainability on a product level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Morten; Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of absolute sustainability within life cycle assessment (LCA) framework is operational on the country scale. However, it is difficult to apply the existing approaches to products, which are typically the scope of LCAs. How should we assess whether a chair is (absolutely) sustainable......? If we assess the life cycle and relate the impact scores to the remaining capacity available for impacts, there is a risk that all products are seen absolutely sustainable. In addition, how should we decide on who can use the remaining capacity? To address these issues an allocation method is proposed...... for dividing the remaining capacity between and within product groups. The method is a two- step method developed based on the annual consumption pattern of an average person in the country and share of product sub-groups in the group. For example, in the first allocation step, the remaining capacity share...

  16. Results of Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer and Infrared Integrating Sphere Comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reda, Ibrahim M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sengupta, Manajit [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dooraghi, Michael R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Grobner, Julian [Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos (PMOD); Thomann, Christian [Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos (PMOD); Long, Chuck [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; McComiskey, Allison [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Hall, Emiel [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Wacker, Stefan [Deutscher Wetterdienst

    2018-03-05

    Accurate and traceable atmospheric longwave irradiance measurements are required for understanding radiative impacts on the Earth's energy budget. The standard to which pyrgeometers are traceable is the interim World Infrared Standard Group (WISG), maintained in the Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos (PMOD). The WISG consists of four pyrgeometers that were calibrated using Rolf Philipona's Absolute Sky-scanning Radiometer [1]. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) facility has recently adopted the WISG to maintain the traceability of the calibrations of all Eppley precision infrared radiometer (PIR) pyrgeometers. Subsequently, Julian Grobner [2] developed the infrared interferometer spectrometer and radiometer (IRIS) radiometer, and Ibrahim Reda [3] developed the absolute cavity pyrgeometer (ACP). The ACP and IRIS were developed to establish a world reference for calibrating pyrgeometers with traceability to the International System of Units (SI). The two radiometers are unwindowed with negligible spectral dependence, and they are traceable to SI units through the temperature scale (ITS-90). The two instruments were compared directly to the WISG three times at PMOD and twice at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) facility to WISG-traceable pyrgeometers. The ACP and IRIS agreed within +/- 1 W/m2 to +/- 3 W/m2 in all comparisons, whereas the WISG references exhibit a 2-5 Wm2 low bias compared to the ACP/IRIS average, depending on the water vapor column, as noted in Grobner et al. [4]. Consequently, a case for changing the current WISG has been made by Grobner and Reda. However, during the five comparisons the column water vapor exceeded 8 mm. Therefore, it is recommended that more ACP and IRIS comparisons should be held under different environmental conditions and water vapor column content to better establish the traceability of these instruments to SI with established uncertainty.

  17. Heat and mass transfer in multi-scale porous structures: application to Diesel particulate filters modelling; Transferts de chaleur et de masse dans des structures poreuses multi-echelles: application a l'etude des filtres a particules Diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oxarango, L.

    2004-09-15

    Ceramic filters appear to be the most promising solution to deal with the future emission standard requirements for diesel powered vehicles. Indeed, this type of Diesel Particulate Filters provides suitable characteristics for high efficiency soot collection. However, this filtration process is characterised by a dramatic increase of the pressure drop imposed in the exhaust line. Thus, the filter has to be cleaned periodically to insure the proper engine operating conditions. This regeneration phase is based on the oxidation of the carbon particles within the apparatus. This complex thermal process is critical for the safety working of Diesel Particulate Filters. Indeed, thermal stresses induced by the heat released during soot oxidation are involved in most of the filter breaking scenario. Numerous geometrical parameters defining the complex multi-scale structure of the apparatus could influence its thermal response. Thus, the geometrical optimization of these filters is a major problematic for the development of new products. This study aims at modelling heat and mass transfer phenomenon within Diesel Particulate Filters. The studied geometrical configuration is based on a ceramic honeycomb with porous walls and alternately plugged channel known as wall-flow DPF. In a first part, the gas flow, particles transport and collection are considered. Given the apparatus particular structure, the problem has to be treated considering various spatial length-scales. The filtering walls are characterised by a micrometric porous structure. The flow modelling with the Darcy law requires determining a particular effective permeability. The laminar flow problem in millimetric channels with wall suction (or injection) is studied. The asymptotic solution for flow in two-dimensional channels is used to derive a one-dimensional system preserving mass and momentum balances. This approach is then extended to the square channel configuration using direct numerical simulations. The

  18. Scale effects between body size and limb design in quadrupedal mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon M Kilbourne

    Full Text Available Recently the metabolic cost of swinging the limbs has been found to be much greater than previously thought, raising the possibility that limb rotational inertia influences the energetics of locomotion. Larger mammals have a lower mass-specific cost of transport than smaller mammals. The scaling of the mass-specific cost of transport is partly explained by decreasing stride frequency with increasing body size; however, it is unknown if limb rotational inertia also influences the mass-specific cost of transport. Limb length and inertial properties--limb mass, center of mass (COM position, moment of inertia, radius of gyration, and natural frequency--were measured in 44 species of terrestrial mammals, spanning eight taxonomic orders. Limb length increases disproportionately with body mass via positive allometry (length ∝ body mass(0.40; the positive allometry of limb length may help explain the scaling of the metabolic cost of transport. When scaled against body mass, forelimb inertial properties, apart from mass, scale with positive allometry. Fore- and hindlimb mass scale according to geometric similarity (limb mass ∝ body mass(1.0, as do the remaining hindlimb inertial properties. The positive allometry of limb length is largely the result of absolute differences in limb inertial properties between mammalian subgroups. Though likely detrimental to locomotor costs in large mammals, scale effects in limb inertial properties appear to be concomitant with scale effects in sensorimotor control and locomotor ability in terrestrial mammals. Across mammals, the forelimb's potential for angular acceleration scales according to geometric similarity, whereas the hindlimb's potential for angular acceleration scales with positive allometry.

  19. Scale effects between body size and limb design in quadrupedal mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbourne, Brandon M; Hoffman, Louwrens C

    2013-01-01

    Recently the metabolic cost of swinging the limbs has been found to be much greater than previously thought, raising the possibility that limb rotational inertia influences the energetics of locomotion. Larger mammals have a lower mass-specific cost of transport than smaller mammals. The scaling of the mass-specific cost of transport is partly explained by decreasing stride frequency with increasing body size; however, it is unknown if limb rotational inertia also influences the mass-specific cost of transport. Limb length and inertial properties--limb mass, center of mass (COM) position, moment of inertia, radius of gyration, and natural frequency--were measured in 44 species of terrestrial mammals, spanning eight taxonomic orders. Limb length increases disproportionately with body mass via positive allometry (length ∝ body mass(0.40)); the positive allometry of limb length may help explain the scaling of the metabolic cost of transport. When scaled against body mass, forelimb inertial properties, apart from mass, scale with positive allometry. Fore- and hindlimb mass scale according to geometric similarity (limb mass ∝ body mass(1.0)), as do the remaining hindlimb inertial properties. The positive allometry of limb length is largely the result of absolute differences in limb inertial properties between mammalian subgroups. Though likely detrimental to locomotor costs in large mammals, scale effects in limb inertial properties appear to be concomitant with scale effects in sensorimotor control and locomotor ability in terrestrial mammals. Across mammals, the forelimb's potential for angular acceleration scales according to geometric similarity, whereas the hindlimb's potential for angular acceleration scales with positive allometry.

  20. What is Needed for Absolute Paleointensity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valet, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Many alternative approaches to the Thellier and Thellier technique for absolute paleointensity have been proposed during the past twenty years. One reason is the time consuming aspect of the experiments. Another reason is to avoid uncertainties in determinations of the paleofield which are mostly linked to the presence of multidomain grains. Despite great care taken by these new techniques, there is no indication that they always provide the right answer and in fact sometimes fail. We are convinced that the most valid approach remains the original double heating Thellier protocol provided that natural remanence is controlled by pure magnetite with a narrow distribution of small grain sizes, mostly single domains. The presence of titanium, even in small amount generates biases which yield incorrect field values. Single domain grains frequently dominate the magnetization of glass samples, which explains the success of this selective approach. They are also present in volcanic lava flows but much less frequently, and therefore contribute to the low success rate of most experiments. However the loss of at least 70% of the magnetization at very high temperatures prior to the Curie point appears to be an essential prerequisite that increases the success rate to almost 100% and has been validated from historical flows and from recent studies. This requirement can easily be tested by thermal demagnetization while low temperature experiments can document the detection of single domain magnetite using the δFC/δZFC parameter as suggested (Moskowitz et al, 1993) for biogenic magnetite.

  1. Mass flow and energy balance plus economic analysis of a full-scale biogas plant in the rice-wine-pig system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiang; Kong, Chuixue; Duan, Qiwu; Luo, Tao; Mei, Zili; Lei, Yunhui

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents mass flow and energy balance as well as an economic analysis for a biogas plant in a rice-wine-pig system at a practical rather than laboratory scale. Results showed feeding amount was 65.30 t d(-1) (total solid matter (TSM) 1.3%) for the normal temperature continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), and 16.20 t d(-1) (TSM 8.4%) for the mesophilic CSTR. The digestion produced 80.50 t d(-1) of mass, with 76.41 t d(-1) flowing into rice fields and 4.49 t d(-1) into composting. Energy consumption of this plant fluctuated with seasons, and surplus energy was 823, 221 kWh/year. Thus, biogas plant was critical for material recycling and energy transformation of this agro-ecosystem. The economic analysis showed that the payback time of the plant was 10.9 years. It also revealed application of biogas as a conventional energy replacement would be attractive for a crop-wine-livestock ecosystem with anaerobic digestion of manure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Marine debris in beaches of the Southwestern Atlantic: An assessment of their abundance and mass at different spatial scales in northern coastal Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becherucci, Maria Eugenia; Rosenthal, Alan Federico; Seco Pon, Juan Pablo

    2017-06-15

    Argentina is currently undergoing an intensive development of coastal-oriented tourism due to the temperate climate and coastal sceneries of the Southwestern Atlantic and particularly its wide ocean-open sandy beaches, which may turn into an important contributor of marine debris to the beaches. This study was designed to assess at four spatial scales (i) the variation of the abundance and mass of marine debris and (ii) the composition and sources of these items in sandy-tourist beaches of coastal zones of the province of Buenos Aires, in northern Argentina. The abundance and mass of marine debris shifted between sampling localities (separated by ~1.5×10 5 m) and beaches (~3×10 4 m). Debris was primarily from recreational and fishing activities and over 20mm in size. Tackling the complications associated with marine debris in northern Argentina may include intensive educational and advertising campaigns oriented chiefly to beach users and fisherman. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Utilizing a reference material for assessing absolute tumor mechanical properties in modality independent elastography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Kyu; Weis, Jared A.; Yankeelov, Thomas E.; Miga, Michael I.

    2014-03-01

    There is currently no reliable method for early characterization of breast cancer response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) [1,2]. Given that disruption of normal structural architecture occurs in cancer-bearing tissue, we hypothesize that further structural changes occur in response to NAC. Consequently, we are investigating the use of modalityindependent elastography (MIE) [3-8] as a method for monitoring mechanical integrity to predict long term outcomes in NAC. Recently, we have utilized a Demons non-rigid image registration method that allows 3D elasticity reconstruction in abnormal tissue geometries, making it particularly amenable to the evaluation of breast cancer mechanical properties. While past work has reflected relative elasticity contrast ratios [3], this study improves upon that work by utilizing a known stiffness reference material within the reconstruction framework such that a stiffness map becomes an absolute measure. To test, a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) cryogel phantom and a silicone rubber mock mouse tumor phantom were constructed with varying mechanical stiffness. Results showed that an absolute measure of stiffness could be obtained based on a reference value. This reference technique demonstrates the ability to generate accurate measurements of absolute stiffness to characterize response to NAC. These results support that `referenced MIE' has the potential to reliably differentiate absolute tumor stiffness with significant contrast from that of surrounding tissue. The use of referenced MIE to obtain absolute quantification of biomarkers is also translatable across length scales such that the characterization method is mechanics-consistent at the small animal and human application.

  4. Assessing microbial degradation of o-xylene at field-scale from the reduction in mass flow rate combined with compound-specific isotope analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, A.; Steinbach, A.; Liedl, R.; Ptak, T.; Michaelis, W.; Teutsch, G.

    2004-07-01

    In recent years, natural attenuation (NA) has evolved into a possible remediation alternative, especially in the case of BTEX spills. In order to be approved by the regulators, biodegradation needs to be demonstrated which requires efficient site investigation and monitoring tools. Three methods—the Integral Groundwater Investigation method, the compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) and a newly developed combination of both—were used in this work to quantify at field scale the biodegradation of o-xylene at a former gasworks site which is heavily contaminated with BTEX and PAHs. First, the Integral Groundwater Investigation method [Schwarz, R., Ptak, T., Holder, T., Teutsch, G., 1998. Groundwater risk assessment at contaminated sites: a new investigation approach. In: Herbert, M. and Kovar, K. (Editors), GQ'98 Groundwater Quality: Remediation and Protection. IAHS Publication 250, pp. 68-71; COH 4 (2000) 170] was applied, which allows the determination of mass flow rates of o-xylene by integral pumping tests. Concentration time series obtained during pumping at two wells were used to calculate inversely contaminant mass flow rates at the two control planes that are defined by the diameter of the maximum isochrone. A reactive transport model was used within a Monte Carlo approach to identify biodegradation as the dominant process for reduction in the contaminant mass flow rate between the two consecutive control planes. Secondly, compound-specific carbon isotope analyses of o-xylene were performed on the basis of point-scale samples from the same two wells. The Rayleigh equation was used to quantify the degree of biodegradation that occurred between the wells. Thirdly, a combination of the Integral Groundwater Investigation method and the compound-specific isotope analysis was developed and applied. It comprises isotope measurements during the integral pumping tests and the evaluation of δ13C time series by an inversion algorithm to obtain spatially

  5. Long-term variations of absolute and superconducting gravity values in Southeast Alaska, observed by the ISEA2 project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazama, T.; Hideaki, H.; Miura, S.; Kaufman, M.; Sato, T.; Larsen, C. F.; Freymueller, J. T.

    2013-12-01

    It is well known that gravity values have been decreasing in Southeast Alaska, mainly due to glacier mass changes from the end of the Little Ice Age to the present. For example, absolute gravity measurements made by the ISEA1 project (2006-2008) showed a maximum gravity change rate of -5.6 micro-gal/year (Sun et al., 2010; Sato et al., 2012a), which was consistent with large uplift rates obtained from GPS data (Larsen et al., 2005). However, the newly-obtained absolute gravity values in 2012 were about 10 micro-gal greater than expected based on the gravity trends of Sun et al. (2010), possibly because of above-average snowfall in the winter of 2011-2012 (Sato et al., 2012b). In order to monitor spatiotemporal gravity changes associated with glacier mass changes, seasonal hydrological gravity changes should be quantified via continuous gravity observations and/or hydrological modeling. We thus installed a superconducting gravimeter iGrav (serial number: 003) at Egan Library, University of Alaska Southeast in June 2012, as part of the ISEA2 project (2011-2015). The mass position (unit: volts) and air pressure have been recorded every second since June 2012, and the gravity value was then calculated from the mass position, using the scale factor of -89.561 micro-gal/V (Sato et al., 2012b). After the removal of tidal gravity changes using the BAYTAP software (Tamura et al., 1991), a gravity change of 4 micro-gal in peak to peak was extracted from the long-term superconducting gravity data from June 2012 to July 2013. Note that this non-tidal gravity change includes the instrumental drift, although the drift rate was very small (less than 1 micro-gal/year) according to the linear regression to the gravity change. We will discuss possible physical mechanisms of the non-tidal gravity change associated with water redistribution, using a hydrological model (e.g., Kazama et al., 2012) and/or long-term weather data. In addition, we also measured absolute gravity values at 6

  6. Multi-Scale Mass Transfer Processes Controlling Natural Attenuation and Engineered Remediation: An IFRC Focused on Hanford's 300 Area Uranium Plume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachara, John M.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Christensen, John N.; Conrad, Mark E.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Freshley, Mark D.; Haggerty, Roy; Hammon, Glenn; Kent, Douglas B.; Konopka, Allan; Lichtner, Peter C.; Liu, Chongxuan; McKinley, James P.; Murray, Christopher J.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Rubin, Yoram; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Versteeg, Roelof J.; Ward, Anderson L.; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2010-01-01

    The Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge (IFRC) at the Hanford Site 300 Area uranium (U) plume addresses multi-scale mass transfer processes in a complex hydrogeologic setting where groundwater and riverwater interact. A series of forefront science questions on mass transfer are posed for research which relate to the effect of spatial heterogeneities; the importance of scale; coupled interactions between biogeochemical, hydrologic, and mass transfer processes; and measurements and approaches needed to characterize and model a mass-transfer dominated system. The project was initiated in February 2007, with CY 2007 and CY 2008 progress summarized in preceding reports. The site has 35 instrumented wells, and an extensive monitoring system. It includes a deep borehole for microbiologic and biogeochemical research that sampled the entire thickness of the unconfined 300 A aquifer. Significant, impactful progress has been made in CY 2009 with completion of extensive laboratory measurements on field sediments, field hydrologic and geophysical characterization, four field experiments, and modeling. The laboratory characterization results are being subjected to geostatistical analyses to develop spatial heterogeneity models of U concentration and chemical, physical, and hydrologic properties needed for reactive transport modeling. The field experiments focused on: (1) physical characterization of the groundwater flow field during a period of stable hydrologic conditions in early spring, (2) comprehensive groundwater monitoring during spring to characterize the release of U(VI) from the lower vadose zone to the aquifer during water table rise and fall, (3) dynamic geophysical monitoring of salt-plume migration during summer, and (4) a U reactive tracer experiment (desorption) during the fall. Geophysical characterization of the well field was completed using the down-well Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT) array, with results subjected to robust

  7. Multi-Scale Mass Transfer Processes Controlling Natural Attenuation and Engineered Remediation: An IFRC Focused on Hanford’s 300 Area Uranium Plume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachara, John M.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Christensen, John N.; Conrad, Mark E.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Freshley, Mark D.; Haggerty, Roy; Hammon, Glenn; Kent, Douglas B.; Konopka, Allan; Lichtner, Peter C.; Liu, Chongxuan; McKinley, James P.; Murray, Christopher J.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Rubin, Yoram; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Versteeg, Roelof J.; Ward, Anderson L.; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2010-02-01

    The Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge (IFRC) at the Hanford Site 300 Area uranium (U) plume addresses multi-scale mass transfer processes in a complex hydrogeologic setting where groundwater and riverwater interact. A series of forefront science questions on mass transfer are posed for research which relate to the effect of spatial heterogeneities; the importance of scale; coupled interactions between biogeochemical, hydrologic, and mass transfer processes; and measurements and approaches needed to characterize and model a mass-transfer dominated system. The project was initiated in February 2007, with CY 2007 and CY 2008 progress summarized in preceding reports. The site has 35 instrumented wells, and an extensive monitoring system. It includes a deep borehole for microbiologic and biogeochemical research that sampled the entire thickness of the unconfined 300 A aquifer. Significant, impactful progress has been made in CY 2009 with completion of extensive laboratory measurements on field sediments, field hydrologic and geophysical characterization, four field experiments, and modeling. The laboratory characterization results are being subjected to geostatistical analyses to develop spatial heterogeneity models of U concentration and chemical, physical, and hydrologic properties needed for reactive transport modeling. The field experiments focused on: (1) physical characterization of the groundwater flow field during a period of stable hydrologic conditions in early spring, (2) comprehensive groundwater monitoring during spring to characterize the release of U(VI) from the lower vadose zone to the aquifer during water table rise and fall, (3) dynamic geophysical monitoring of salt-plume migration during summer, and (4) a U reactive tracer experiment (desorption) during the fall. Geophysical characterization of the well field was completed using the down-well Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT) array, with results subjected to robust

  8. Mediterranean Sea large-scale low-frequency ocean variability and water mass formation rates from 1987 to 2007: A retrospective analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinardi, Nadia; Zavatarelli, Marco; Adani, Mario; Coppini, Giovanni; Fratianni, Claudia; Oddo, Paolo; Simoncelli, Simona; Tonani, Marina; Lyubartsev, Vladislav; Dobricic, Srdjan; Bonaduce, Antonio

    2015-03-01

    We describe a synthesis of the Mediterranean Sea circulation structure and dynamics from a 23-year-long reanalysis of the ocean circulation carried out by Adani et al. (2011). This mesoscale permitting dynamical reconstruction of past ocean variability in the Mediterranean Sea allows the study of the time-mean circulation and its low frequency, decadal, components. It is found that the time-mean circulation is composed of boundary and open ocean intensified jets at the border of cyclonic and anticyclonic gyres. The large scale basin circulation is generally characterized in the northern regions by cyclonic gyres and in its southern parts by anticyclonic gyres and eddy-dominated flow fields, with the exception of the Tyrrhenian and the northern Ionian Sea. The time-mean Tyrrhenian Sea circulation is dominated by cyclonic gyres of different intensity and intermittency. The northern Ionian Sea circulation, however, reverses in sign in two ten-year periods, the first in 1987-1996 and the second in 1997-2006, which is here called the Northern Ionian reversal phenomenon. This reversal is provoked by the excursion of the Atlantic-Ionian Stream from the middle to the northern parts of the basin. The decadal variability of other parts of the basin is characterized by changes in strength of the basin scale structures. The water mass formation rates and variability are dominated by event-like periods where the intermediate and deep waters are formed for 2-3 years at higher rates. The largest deep water formation events of the past 23 years occurred separately in the western and eastern Mediterranean basin: the first coincided with the Eastern Mediterranean Transient (Roether et al., 1996) and the second with the western Mediterranean deep water formation event in 2005-2006 (Smith et al., 2008). A new schematic of the basin-scale circulation is formulated and commented.

  9. Absolute Radiometric Calibration of KOMPSAT-3A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Y. Ahn

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a vicarious radiometric calibration of the Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite-3A (KOMPSAT-3A performed by the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI and the Pukyong National University Remote Sensing Group (PKNU RSG in 2015.The primary stages of this study are summarized as follows: (1 A field campaign to determine radiometric calibrated target fields was undertaken in Mongolia and South Korea. Surface reflectance data obtained in the campaign were input to a radiative transfer code that predicted at-sensor radiance. Through this process, equations and parameters were derived for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor to enable the conversion of calibrated DN to physical units, such as at-sensor radiance or TOA reflectance. (2 To validate the absolute calibration coefficients for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor, we performed a radiometric validation with a comparison of KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 TOA reflectance using one of the six PICS (Libya 4. Correlations between top-of-atmosphere (TOA radiances and the spectral band responses of the KOMPSAT-3A sensors at the Zuunmod, Mongolia and Goheung, South Korea sites were significant for multispectral bands. The average difference in TOA reflectance between KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 image over the Libya 4, Libya site in the red-green-blue (RGB region was under 3%, whereas in the NIR band, the TOA reflectance of KOMPSAT-3A was lower than the that of Landsat-8 due to the difference in the band passes of two sensors. The KOMPSAT-3Aensor includes a band pass near 940 nm that can be strongly absorbed by water vapor and therefore displayed low reflectance. Toovercome this, we need to undertake a detailed analysis using rescale methods, such as the spectral bandwidth adjustment factor.

  10. Absolute parameters of young stars: QZ Carinae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, W. S. G.; Blackford, M.; Butland, R.; Budding, E.

    2017-09-01

    New high-resolution spectroscopy and BVR photometry together with literature data on the complex massive quaternary star QZ Car are collected and analysed. Absolute parameters are found as follows. System A: M1 = 43 (±3), M2 = 19 (+3 -7), R1 = 28 (±2), R2 = 6 (±2), (⊙); T1 ˜ 28 000, T2 ˜ 33 000 K; System B: M1 = 30 (±3), M2 = 20 (±3), R1 = 10 (±0.5), R2 = 20 (±1), (⊙); T1 ˜ 36 000, T2 ˜ 30 000 K (model dependent temperatures). The wide system AB: Period = 49.5 (±1) yr, Epochs, conjunction = 1984.8 (±1), periastron = 2005.3 (±3) yr, mean separation = 65 (±3), (au); orbital inclination = 85 (+5 -15) deg, photometric distance ˜2700 (±300) pc, age = 4 (±1) Myr. Other new contributions concern: (a) analysis of the timing of minima differences (O - C)s for the eclipsing binary (System B); (b) the width of the eclipses, pointing to relatively large effects of radiation pressure; (c) inferences from the rotational widths of lines for both Systems A and B; and (d) implications for theoretical models of early-type stars. While feeling greater confidence on the quaternary's general parametrization, observational complications arising from strong wind interactions or other, unclear, causes still inhibit precision and call for continued multiwavelength observations. Our high-inclination value for the AB system helps to explain failures to resolve the wide binary in the previous years. The derived young age independently confirms membership of QZ Car to the open cluster Collinder 228.

  11. Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2012-06-05

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  12. Planck absolute entropy of a rotating BTZ black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, S. M. Jawwad

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the Planck absolute entropy and the Bekenstein-Smarr formula of the rotating Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole are presented via a complex thermodynamical system contributed by its inner and outer horizons. The redefined entropy approaches zero as the temperature of the rotating BTZ black hole tends to absolute zero, satisfying the Nernst formulation of a black hole. Hence, it can be regarded as the Planck absolute entropy of the rotating BTZ black hole.

  13. Dynamic Analysis of Offshore Oil Pipe Installation Using the Absolute Nodal Coordinate Formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmy D; Madsen, Søren B; Hyldahl, Per Christian

    2013-01-01

    The Absolute Nodal Coordinate Formulation (ANCF) has shown promising results in dynamic analysis of structures that undergo large deformation. The method relaxes the assumption of infinitesimal rotations. Being based in a fixed inertial reference frame leads to a constant mass matrix and zero......, are included to mimic the external forces acting on the pipe during installation. The scope of this investigation is to demonstrate the ability using the ANCF to analyze the dynamic behavior of an offshore oil pipe during installation...

  14. Absolute Thermal SST Measurements over the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, W. S.; Warden, R.; Kaptchen, P. F.; Finch, T.; Emery, W. J.

    2010-12-01

    Climate monitoring and natural disaster rapid assessment require baseline measurements that can be tracked over time to distinguish anthropogenic versus natural changes to the Earth system. Disasters like the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill require constant monitoring to assess the potential environmental and economic impacts. Absolute calibration and validation of Earth-observing sensors is needed to allow for comparison of temporally separated data sets and provide accurate information to policy makers. The Ball Experimental Sea Surface Temperature (BESST) radiometer was designed and built by Ball Aerospace to provide a well calibrated measure of sea surface temperature (SST) from an unmanned aerial system (UAS). Currently, emissive skin SST observed by satellite infrared radiometers is validated by shipborne instruments that are expensive to deploy and can only take a few data samples along the ship track to overlap within a single satellite pixel. Implementation on a UAS will allow BESST to map the full footprint of a satellite pixel and perform averaging to remove any local variability due to the difference in footprint size of the instruments. It also enables the capability to study this sub-pixel variability to determine if smaller scale effects need to be accounted for in models to improve forecasting of ocean events. In addition to satellite sensor validation, BESST can distinguish meter scale variations in SST which could be used to remotely monitor and assess thermal pollution in rivers and coastal areas as well as study diurnal and seasonal changes to bodies of water that impact the ocean ecosystem. BESST was recently deployed on a conventional Twin Otter airplane for measurements over the Gulf of Mexico to access the thermal properties of the ocean surface being affected by the oil spill. Results of these measurements will be presented along with ancillary sensor data used to eliminate false signals including UV and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR

  15. Determining Absolute Zero Using a Tuning Fork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldader, Jeffrey D.

    2008-01-01

    The Celsius and Kelvin temperature scales, we tell our students, are related. We explain that a change in temperature of 1 degree C corresponds to a change of 1 Kelvin and that atoms and molecules have zero kinetic energy at zero Kelvin, -273 degrees C. In this paper, we will show how students can derive the relationship between the Celsius and…

  16. A comparison of allometric scaling methods for normalizing strength, power, and speeed in American football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, B H

    2015-06-01

    Assessments of physical abilities are consistently and systematically done in American football in order to determine progress and effectiveness of conditioning programs. Typically, such assessment are recorded as absolute values without regard to the influence of body mass (BM) on the performance variables. Test results were collected on NCAA football players (mean + SD: age = 20.1+1.3, mass=107.38+20.30 kg, height=186.76+8.6 cm). Players were categorized into seven weight groups. Data by weight groups were compared by absolute and by allometrically scaled values for 1-RM squat (N.=566), vertical jump (N.=581), and 40 yd (36.58 m) sprint (N.=560) over a seven-year period. Results of ANOVAs yielded significant (P<0.05) and a near linear pattern of absolute strength by BM. Allometrically scaled 1-RM squat resulted in normalized data void of significant wt group differences while allometrically scaled power and speed did not normalize data to the point that the data could be compared regardless of BM. Results suggest that it may be possible to determine if an athlete falls within an a normal range of the established standards derived from allometric scaling for the 1-RM squat. However, caution should be taken when applying allometric scaling for power and speed. It is suggested that additional research look into the possibility of adjusting the exponent (performance variable x BMx) to better reflect a normalized condition for more accurate comparisons of athletes.

  17. Comparison of allometric scaling methods for normalizing strength, power, and speeed in American football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, B H

    2015-06-01

    Assessments of physical abilities are consistently and systematically done in American football in order to determine progress and effectiveness of conditioning programs. Typically, such assessment are recorded as absolute values without regard to the influence of body mass (BM) on the performance variables. Test results were collected on NCAA football players (mean + SD: age = 20.1+1.3, mass=107.38+20.30 kg, height=186.76+8.6 cm). Players were categorized into seven weight groups. Data by weight groups were compared by absolute and by allometrically scaled values for 1-RM squat (N.=566), vertical jump (N.=581), and 40 yd (36.58 m) sprint (N.=560) over a seven-year period. Results of ANOVAs yielded significant (P<0.05) and a near linear pattern of absolute strength by BM. Allometrically scaled 1-RM squat resulted in normalized data void of significant wt group differences while allometrically scaled power and speed did not normalize data to the point that the data could be compared regardless of BM. Results suggest that it may be possible to determine if an athlete falls within an a normal range of the established standards derived from allometric scaling for the 1-RM squat. However, caution should be taken when applying allometric scaling for power and speed. It is suggested that additional research look into the possibility of adjusting the exponent (performance variable x BMx) to better reflect a normalized condition for more accurate comparisons of athletes.

  18. Higgs boson mass and new physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezrukov, Fedor; Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY; Kalmykov, Mikhail Yu.; Kniehl, Bernd A.; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail

    2012-05-01

    We discuss the lower Higgs boson mass bounds which come from the absolute stability of the Standard Model (SM) vacuum and from the Higgs inflation, as well as the prediction of the Higgs boson mass coming from asymptotic safety of the SM. We account for the 3-loop renormalization group evolution of the couplings of the Standard Model and for a part of two-loop corrections that involve the QCD coupling α s to initial conditions for their running. This is one step above the current state of the art procedure (''one-loop matching-two-loop running''). This results in reduction of the theoretical uncertainties in the Higgs boson mass bounds and predictions, associated with the Standard Model physics, to 1-2 GeV. We find that with the account of existing experimental uncertainties in the mass of the top quark and α s (taken at 2σ level) the bound reads M H ≥ M min (equality corresponds to the asymptotic safety prediction), where M min =129±6 GeV. We argue that the discovery of the SM Higgs boson in this range would be in agreement with the hypothesis of the absence of new energy scales between the Fermi and Planck scales, whereas the coincidence of M H with M min would suggest that the electroweak scale is determined by Planck physics. In order to clarify the relation between the Fermi and Planck scale a construction of an electron-positron or muon collider with a center of mass energy ∝200+200 GeV (Higgs and t-quark factory) would be needed.

  19. Higgs boson mass and new physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezrukov, Fedor [Connecticut Univ., Storrs, CT (United States). Dept. of Physics; Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). RIKEN-BNL Research Center; Kalmykov, Mikhail Yu.; Kniehl, Bernd A. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland). Inst. de Theorie des Phenomenes Physiques

    2012-05-15

    We discuss the lower Higgs boson mass bounds which come from the absolute stability of the Standard Model (SM) vacuum and from the Higgs inflation, as well as the prediction of the Higgs boson mass coming from asymptotic safety of the SM. We account for the 3-loop renormalization group evolution of the couplings of the Standard Model and for a part of two-loop corrections that involve the QCD coupling {alpha}{sub s} to initial conditions for their running. This is one step above the current state of the art procedure (''one-loop matching-two-loop running''). This results in reduction of the theoretical uncertainties in the Higgs boson mass bounds and predictions, associated with the Standard Model physics, to 1-2 GeV. We find that with the account of existing experimental uncertainties in the mass of the top quark and {alpha}{sub s} (taken at 2{sigma} level) the bound reads M{sub H} {>=} M{sub min} (equality corresponds to the asymptotic safety prediction), where M{sub min}=129{+-}6 GeV. We argue that the discovery of the SM Higgs boson in this range would be in agreement with the hypothesis of the absence of new energy scales between the Fermi and Planck scales, whereas the coincidence of M{sub H} with M{sub min} would suggest that the electroweak scale is determined by Planck physics. In order to clarify the relation between the Fermi and Planck scale a construction of an electron-positron or muon collider with a center of mass energy {proportional_to}200+200 GeV (Higgs and t-quark factory) would be needed.

  20. Multi-Scale Mass Transfer Processes Controlling Natural Attenuation and Engineered Remediation: An IFRC Focused on Hanford’s 300 Area Uranium Plume January 2010 to January 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachara, John M.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Christensen, John N.; Conrad, Mark S.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Freshley, Mark D.; Haggerty, Roy; Hammond, Glenn E.; Kent, Douglas B.; Konopka, Allan; Lichtner, Peter C.; Liu, Chongxuan; McKinley, James P.; Murray, Christopher J.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Rubin, Yoram; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Versteeg, Roelof J.; Ward, Anderson L.; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2011-02-01

    The Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) at the Hanford Site 300 Area uranium (U) plume addresses multi-scale mass transfer processes in a complex subsurface hydrogeologic setting where groundwater and riverwater interact. A series of forefront science questions on reactive mass transfer focus research. These questions relate to the effect of spatial heterogeneities; the importance of scale; coupled interactions between biogeochemical, hydrologic, and mass transfer processes; and measurements and approaches needed to characterize and model a mass-transfer dominated system. The project was initiated in February 2007, with CY 2007, CY 2008, and CY 2009 progress summarized in preceding reports. A project peer review was held in March 2010, and the IFRC project has responded to all suggestions and recommendations made in consequence by reviewers and SBR/DOE. These responses have included the development of “Modeling” and “Well-Field Mitigation” plans that are now posted on the Hanford IFRC web-site. The site has 35 instrumented wells, and an extensive monitoring system. It includes a deep borehole for microbiologic and biogeochemical research that sampled the entire thickness of the unconfined 300 A aquifer. Significant, impactful progress has been made in CY 2010 including the quantification of well-bore flows in the fully screened wells and the testing of means to mitigate them; the development of site geostatistical models of hydrologic and geochemical properties including the distribution of U; developing and parameterizing a reactive transport model of the smear zone that supplies contaminant U to the groundwater plume; performance of a second passive experiment of the spring water table rise and fall event with a associated multi-point tracer test; performance of downhole biogeochemical experiments where colonization substrates and discrete water and gas samplers were deployed to the lower aquifer zone; and modeling of past injection experiments for

  1. An Absolute Valve for the ITER Neutral Beam Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Ch.; Chuilon, B.; Michael, W.

    2006-01-01

    In the ITER reference design a fast shutter was included to limit tritium migration into the beamline vacuum enclosures. The need was recently identified to extend the functionality of the fast shutter to that of an absolute valve in order to facilitate injector maintenance procedures and to satisfy safety requirements in case of an in-vessel loss of coolant event. Three concepts have been examined satisfying the ITER requirements for speed of actuation, sealing performance over the required lifetime, and pressure differential in fault scenarios, namely: a rectangular closure section; a circular cross section; and a rotary JET-type valve. The rectangular section represents the most efficient usage of the available space envelope and leads to a minimum-mass system, although it requires greater total force for a given load per unit length of seal. However, a metallic seal of the '' hard/hard '' type, where the seal relies on the elastic properties of the material and does not utilise any type of spring device, can provide the required seal performance with typical loading of 200 kg/cm. The conceptual design of the proposed absolute valve will be presented. The aperture dimensions are 1.45 m high by 0.6 m wide, with minimum achievable leak rate of 1 · 10 -9 mbarl/s and maximum pressure differential of 3 bar across the valve. Sealing force is provided using two seal plates, linked by a 3 mm thick ' omega ' diaphragm, by pressurisation of the interspace to 8 bar; this allows for a relative movement of the plates of 2 mm. Movement of the device perpendicular to the beam direction is carried out using a novel magnetic drive in order to transmit the motive force across the vacuum boundary, similar to that demonstrated on a test-rig in an earlier study. The conceptual design includes provision of all the services such as pneumatics and water cooling to cope with the heat loads from neutral beams in quasi steady-state operation and from the ITER plasma. A future programme

  2. Does Absolute Synonymy exist in Owere-Igbo? | Omego | AFRREV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among Igbo linguistic researchers, determining whether absolute synonymy exists in Owere–Igbo, a dialect of the Igbo language predominantly spoken by the people of Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria, has become a thorny issue. While some linguistic scholars strive to establish that absolute synonymy exists in the lexical ...

  3. Determination of Absolute Zero Using a Computer-Based Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrani, D.

    2007-01-01

    We present a simple computer-based laboratory experiment for evaluating absolute zero in degrees Celsius, which can be performed in college and undergraduate physical sciences laboratory courses. With a computer, absolute zero apparatus can help demonstrators or students to observe the relationship between temperature and pressure and use…

  4. Absolute magnitude estimation and relative judgement approaches to subjective workload assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidulich, Michael A.; Tsang, Pamela S.

    1987-01-01

    Two rating scale techniques employing an absolute magnitude estimation method, were compared to a relative judgment method for assessing subjective workload. One of the absolute estimation techniques used was an unidimensional overall workload scale and the other was the multidimensional NASA-Task Load Index technique. Thomas Saaty's Analytic Hierarchy Process was the unidimensional relative judgment method used. These techniques were used to assess the subjective workload of various single- and dual-tracking conditions. The validity of the techniques was defined as their ability to detect the same phenomena observed in the tracking performance. Reliability was assessed by calculating test-retest correlations. Within the context of the experiment, the Saaty Analytic Hierarchy Process was found to be superior in validity and reliability. These findings suggest that the relative judgment method would be an effective addition to the currently available subjective workload assessment techniques.

  5. The CLARA/NORSAT-1 solar absolute radiometer: instrument design, characterization and calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Benjamin; Levesque, Pierre-Luc; Kopp, Greg; Andersen, Bo; Beck, Ivo; Finsterle, Wolfgang; Gyo, Manfred; Heuerman, Karl; Koller, Silvio; Mingard, Nathan; Remesal Oliva, Alberto; Pfiffner, Daniel; Soder, Ricco; Spescha, Marcel; Suter, Markus; Schmutz, Werner

    2017-10-01

    The compact lightweight absolute radiometer (CLARA) experiment aims at measuring the total solar irradiance (TSI) in space and is scheduled to fly on the Norwegian NORSAT-1 micro satellite. The CLARA experiment will contribute to the long term monitoring of the TSI variability to support the analysis of potential long term trends in the Sun’s variability. CLARA is traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology radiometric scale and will provide further evidence for the TSI value on an absolute scale. In this paper we present the design, characterization, and calibration details of the CLARA instrument. The combined measurement uncertainty for the calibrated SI-traceable CLARA flight instrument is 567-912 ppm (k  =  1) depending on the measuring channel.

  6. A Novel Strategy for Large-Scale Metabolomics Study by Calibrating Gross and Systematic Errors in Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanni; Hao, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Chunxia; Zhao, Jieyu; Zhang, Junjie; Li, Yanli; Li, Lili; Huang, Xin; Lin, Xiaohui; Zeng, Zhongda; Lu, Xin; Xu, Guowang

    2016-02-16

    Metabolomics is increasingly applied to discover and validate metabolite biomarkers and illuminate biological variations. Combination of multiple analytical batches in large-scale and long-term metabolomics is commonly utilized to generate robust metabolomics data, but gross and systematic errors are often observed. The appropriate calibration methods are required before statistical analyses. Here, we develop a novel correction strategy for large-scale and long-term metabolomics study, which could integrate metabolomics data from multiple batches and different instruments by calibrating gross and systematic errors. The gross error calibration method applied various statistical and fitting models of the feature ratios between two adjacent quality control (QC) samples to screen and calibrate outlier variables. Virtual QC of each sample was produced by a linear fitting model of the feature intensities between two neighboring QCs to obtain a correction factor and remove the systematic bias. The suggested method was applied to handle metabolic profiling data of 1197 plant samples in nine batches analyzed by two gas chromatography-mass spectrometry instruments. The method was evaluated by the relative standard deviations of all the detected peaks, the average Pearson correlation coefficients, and Euclidean distance of QCs and non-QC replicates. The results showed the established approach outperforms the commonly used internal standard correction and total intensity signal correction methods, it could be used to integrate the metabolomics data from multiple analytical batches and instruments, and it allows the frequency of QC to one injection of every 20 real samples. The suggested method makes a large amount of metabolomics analysis practicable.

  7. A developmental study of latent absolute pitch memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, Kelly; Müllensiefen, Daniel; Stewart, Lauren

    2017-03-01

    The ability to recall the absolute pitch level of familiar music (latent absolute pitch memory) is widespread in adults, in contrast to the rare ability to label single pitches without a reference tone (overt absolute pitch memory). The present research investigated the developmental profile of latent absolute pitch (AP) memory and explored individual differences related to this ability. In two experiments, 288 children from 4 to12 years of age performed significantly above chance at recognizing the absolute pitch level of familiar melodies. No age-related improvement or decline, nor effects of musical training, gender, or familiarity with the stimuli were found in regard to latent AP task performance. These findings suggest that latent AP memory is a stable ability that is developed from as early as age 4 and persists into adulthood.

  8. Absolute measurement of the $\\beta\\alpha$ decay of $^{16}$N

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to study the $\\beta$-decay of $^{16}$N at ISOLDE with the aim of determining the branching ratio for $\\beta\\alpha$ decay on an absolute scale. There are indications that the previously measured branching ratio is in error by an amount significantly larger than the quoted uncertainty. This limits the precision with which the S-factor of the astrophysically important $^{12}$C($\\alpha, \\gamma)^{16}$O reaction can be determined.

  9. Relationship between LIBS Ablation and Pit Volume for Geologic Samples: Applications for in situ Absolute Geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devismes, D.; Cohen, Barbara A.

    2014-01-01

    In planetary sciences, in situ absolute geochronology is a scientific and engineering challenge. Currently, the age of the Martian surface can only be determined by crater density counting. However this method has significant uncertainties and needs to be calibrated with absolute ages. We are developing an instrument to acquire in situ absolute geochronology based on the K-Ar method. The protocol is based on the laser ablation of a rock by hundreds of laser pulses. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) gives the potassium content of the ablated material and a mass spectrometer (quadrupole or ion trap) measures the quantity of 40Ar released. In order to accurately measure the quantity of released 40Ar in cases where Ar is an atmospheric constituent (e.g., Mars), the sample is first put into a chamber under high vacuum. The 40Arquantity, the concentration of K and the estimation of the ablated mass are the parameters needed to give the age of the rocks. The main uncertainties with this method are directly linked to the measures of the mass (typically some µg) and of the concentration of K by LIBS (up to 10%). Because the ablated mass is small compared to the mass of the sample, and because material is redeposited onto the sample after ablation, it is not possible to directly measure the ablated mass. Our current protocol measures the ablated volume and estimates the sample density to calculate ablated mass. The precision and accuracy of this method may be improved by using knowledge of the sample's geologic properties to predict its response to laser ablation, i.e., understanding whether natural samples have a predictable relationship between laser energy deposited and resultant ablation volume. In contrast to most previous studies of laser ablation, theoretical equations are not highly applicable. The reasons are numerous, but the most important are: a) geologic rocks are complex, polymineralic materials; b) the conditions of ablation are unusual (for example

  10. Absolute density measurements in the middle atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rapp

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last ten years a total of 25 sounding rockets employing ionization gauges have been launched at high latitudes ( ~ 70° N to measure total atmospheric density and its small scale fluctuations in an altitude range between 70 and 110 km. While the determination of small scale fluctuations is unambiguous, the total density analysis has been complicated in the past by aerodynamical disturbances leading to densities inside the sensor which are enhanced compared to atmospheric values. Here, we present the results of both Monte Carlo simulations and wind tunnel measurements to quantify this aerodynamical effect. The comparison of the resulting ‘ram-factor’ profiles with empirically determined density ratios of ionization gauge measurements and falling sphere measurements provides excellent agreement. This demonstrates both the need, but also the possibility, to correct aerodynamical influences on measurements from sounding rockets. We have determined a total of 20 density profiles of the mesosphere-lower-thermosphere (MLT region. Grouping these profiles according to season, a listing of mean density profiles is included in the paper. A comparison with density profiles taken from the reference atmospheres CIRA86 and MSIS90 results in differences of up to 40%. This reflects that current reference atmospheres are a significant potential error source for the determination of mixing ratios of, for example, trace gas constituents in the MLT region.Key words. Middle atmosphere (composition and chemistry; pressure, density, and temperature; instruments and techniques

  11. Absolute density measurements in the middle atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rapp

    Full Text Available In the last ten years a total of 25 sounding rockets employing ionization gauges have been launched at high latitudes ( ~ 70° N to measure total atmospheric density and its small scale fluctuations in an altitude range between 70 and 110 km. While the determination of small scale fluctuations is unambiguous, the total density analysis has been complicated in the past by aerodynamical disturbances leading to densities inside the sensor which are enhanced compared to atmospheric values. Here, we present the results of both Monte Carlo simulations and wind tunnel measurements to quantify this aerodynamical effect. The comparison of the resulting ‘ram-factor’ profiles with empirically determined density ratios of ionization gauge measurements and falling sphere measurements provides excellent agreement. This demonstrates both the need, but also the possibility, to correct aerodynamical influences on measurements from sounding rockets. We have determined a total of 20 density profiles of the mesosphere-lower-thermosphere (MLT region. Grouping these profiles according to season, a listing of mean density profiles is included in the paper. A comparison with density profiles taken from the reference atmospheres CIRA86 and MSIS90 results in differences of up to 40%. This reflects that current reference atmospheres are a significant potential error source for the determination of mixing ratios of, for example, trace gas constituents in the MLT region.

    Key words. Middle atmosphere (composition and chemistry; pressure, density, and temperature; instruments and techniques

  12. Exploiting the multiplexing capabilities of tandem mass tags for high-throughput estimation of cellular protein abundances by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrné, Erik; Martinez-Segura, Amalia; Syed, Afzal Pasha; Vina-Vilaseca, Arnau; Gruber, Andreas J; Marguerat, Samuel; Schmidt, Alexander

    2015-09-01

    The generation of dynamic models of biological processes critically depends on the determination of precise cellular concentrations of biomolecules. Measurements of system-wide absolute protein levels are particularly valuable information in systems biology. Recently, mass spectrometry based proteomics approaches have been developed to estimate protein concentrations on a proteome-wide scale. However, for very complex proteomes, fractionation steps are required, increasing samples number and instrument analysis time. As a result, the number of full proteomes that can be routinely analyzed is limited. Here we combined absolute quantification strategies with the multiplexing capabilities of isobaric tandem mass tags to determine cellular protein abundances in a high throughput and proteome-wide scale even for highly complex biological systems, such as a whole human cell line. We generated two independent data sets to demonstrate the power of the approach regarding sample throughput, dynamic range, quantitative precision and accuracy as well as proteome coverage in comparison to existing mass spectrometry based strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Mini-implants and miniplates generate sub-absolute and absolute anchorage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consolaro, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The functional demand imposed on bone promotes changes in the spatial properties of osteocytes as well as in their extensions uniformly distributed throughout the mineralized surface. Once spatial deformation is established, osteocytes create the need for structural adaptations that result in bone formation and resorption that happen to meet the functional demands. The endosteum and the periosteum are the effectors responsible for stimulating adaptive osteocytes in the inner and outer surfaces. Changes in shape, volume and position of the jaws as a result of skeletal correction of the maxilla and mandible require anchorage to allow bone remodeling to redefine morphology, esthetics and function as a result of spatial deformation conducted by orthodontic appliances. Examining the degree of changes in shape, volume and structural relationship of areas where mini-implants and miniplates are placed allows us to classify mini-implants as devices of subabsolute anchorage and miniplates as devices of absolute anchorage.

  14. Mini-implants and miniplates generate sub-absolute and absolute anchorage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Consolaro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The functional demand imposed on bone promotes changes in the spatial properties of osteocytes as well as in their extensions uniformly distributed throughout the mineralized surface. Once spatial deformation is established, osteocytes create the need for structural adaptations that result in bone formation and resorption that happen to meet the functional demands. The endosteum and the periosteum are the effectors responsible for stimulating adaptive osteocytes in the inner and outer surfaces.Changes in shape, volume and position of the jaws as a result of skeletal correction of the maxilla and mandible require anchorage to allow bone remodeling to redefine morphology, esthetics and function as a result of spatial deformation conducted by orthodontic appliances. Examining the degree of changes in shape, volume and structural relationship of areas where mini-implants and miniplates are placed allows us to classify mini-implants as devices of subabsolute anchorage and miniplates as devices of absolute anchorage.

  15. Evidence of Absolute Decoupling from Real World Policy Mixes in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doreen Fedrigo-Fazio

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In resource economics, decoupling from environmental impacts is assumed to be beneficial. However, the success of efforts to increase resource productivity should be placed within the context of the earth’s resources and ecosystems as theoretically finite and contingent on a number of threshold values. Thus far relatively few analyses exist of policies which have successfully implemented strategies for decoupling within these limits. Through ex-post evaluation of a number of real world policy mixes from European Union member states, this paper further develops definitions of the concept of decoupling. Beyond absolute (and relative decoupling, “absolute decoupling within limits” is proposed as an appropriate term for defining resource-productivity at any scale which respects the existing real world limits on resources and ecosystems and as such, contributes to meeting sustainability objectives. Policy mixes presented here cover a range of resources such as fish stocks, fertilizers, aggregates and fossil based materials (plastics. Policy mixes demonstrating absolute decoupling and at least one where absolute decoupling within limits has occurred, provide insights on developing resource efficiency policies in Europe and beyond.

  16. Absolute standard hydrogen electrode potential measured by reduction of aqueous nanodrops in the gas phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, William A; Leib, Ryan D; O'Brien, Jeremy T; Bush, Matthew F; Williams, Evan R

    2008-03-19

    In solution, half-cell potentials are measured relative to those of other half cells, thereby establishing a ladder of thermochemical values that are referenced to the standard hydrogen electrode (SHE), which is arbitrarily assigned a value of exactly 0 V. Although there has been considerable interest in, and efforts toward, establishing an absolute electrochemical half-cell potential in solution, there is no general consensus regarding the best approach to obtain this value. Here, ion-electron recombination energies resulting from electron capture by gas-phase nanodrops containing individual [M(NH3)6]3+, M = Ru, Co, Os, Cr, and Ir, and Cu2+ ions are obtained from the number of water molecules that are lost from the reduced precursors. These experimental data combined with nanodrop solvation energies estimated from Born theory and solution-phase entropies estimated from limited experimental data provide absolute reduction energies for these redox couples in bulk aqueous solution. A key advantage of this approach is that solvent effects well past two solvent shells, that are difficult to model accurately, are included in these experimental measurements. By evaluating these data relative to known solution-phase reduction potentials, an absolute value for the SHE of 4.2 +/- 0.4 V versus a free electron is obtained. Although not achieved here, the uncertainty of this method could potentially be reduced to below 0.1 V, making this an attractive method for establishing an absolute electrochemical scale that bridges solution and gas-phase redox chemistry.

  17. Direct infusion-SIM as fast and robust method for absolute protein quantification in complex samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Looße

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Relative and absolute quantification of proteins in biological and clinical samples are common approaches in proteomics. Until now, targeted protein quantification is mainly performed using a combination of HPLC-based peptide separation and selected reaction monitoring on triple quadrupole mass spectrometers. Here, we show for the first time the potential of absolute quantification using a direct infusion strategy combined with single ion monitoring (SIM on a Q Exactive mass spectrometer. By using complex membrane fractions of Escherichia coli, we absolutely quantified the recombinant expressed heterologous human cytochrome P450 monooxygenase 3A4 (CYP3A4 comparing direct infusion-SIM with conventional HPLC-SIM. Direct-infusion SIM revealed only 14.7% (±4.1 (s.e.m. deviation on average, compared to HPLC-SIM and a decreased processing and analysis time of 4.5 min (that could be further decreased to 30 s for a single sample in contrast to 65 min by the LC–MS method. Summarized, our simplified workflow using direct infusion-SIM provides a fast and robust method for quantification of proteins in complex protein mixtures.

  18. Incorrect Weighting of Absolute Performance in Self-Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, Scott A.; Cozzarin, Brian

    Students spend much of their life in an attempt to assess their aptitude for numerous tasks. For example, they expend a great deal of effort to determine their academic standing given a distribution of grades. This research finds that students use their absolute performance, or percentage correct as a yardstick for their self-assessment, even when relative standing is much more informative. An experiment shows that this reliance on absolute performance for self-evaluation causes a misallocation of time and financial resources. Reasons for this inappropriate responsiveness to absolute performance are explored.

  19. Accuracy and consistency of weights provided by home bathroom scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorkin, Meredith; Spaccarotella, Kim; Martin-Biggers, Jennifer; Quick, Virginia; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2013-12-17

    Self-reported body weight is often used for calculation of Body Mass Index because it is easy to collect. Little is known about sources of error introduced by using bathroom scales to measure weight at home. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and consistency of digital versus dial-type bathroom scales commonly used for self-reported weight. Participants brought functioning bathroom scales (n=18 dial-type, n=43 digital-type) to a central location. Trained researchers assessed accuracy and consistency using certified calibration weights at 10 kg, 25 kg, 50 kg, 75 kg, 100 kg, and 110 kg. Data also were collected on frequency of calibration, age and floor surface beneath the scale. All participants reported using their scale on hard surface flooring. Before calibration, all digital scales displayed 0, but dial scales displayed a mean absolute initial weight of 0.95 (1.9 SD) kg. Digital scales accurately weighed test loads whereas dial-type scale weights differed significantly (pdigital scales at all weights (pDigital home bathroom scales provide sufficiently accurate and consistent weights for public health research. Reminders to zero scales before each use may further improve accuracy of self-reported weight.

  20. MZDASoft: a software architecture that enables large-scale comparison of protein expression levels over multiple samples based on liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanat Bari, Mehrab; Ramirez, Nelson; Wang, Zhiwei; Zhang, Jianqiu Michelle

    2015-10-15

    Without accurate peak linking/alignment, only the expression levels of a small percentage of proteins can be compared across multiple samples in Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry/Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) due to the selective nature of tandem MS peptide identification. This greatly hampers biomedical research that aims at finding biomarkers for disease diagnosis, treatment, and the understanding of disease mechanisms. A recent algorithm, PeakLink, has allowed the accurate linking of LC/MS peaks without tandem MS identifications to their corresponding ones with identifications across multiple samples collected from different instruments, tissues and labs, which greatly enhanced the ability of comparing proteins. However, PeakLink cannot be implemented practically for large numbers of samples based on existing software architectures, because it requires access to peak elution profiles from multiple LC/MS/MS samples simultaneously. We propose a new architecture based on parallel processing, which extracts LC/MS peak features, and saves them in database files to enable the implementation of PeakLink for multiple samples. The software has been deployed in High-Performance Computing (HPC) environments. The core part of the software, MZDASoft Parallel Peak Extractor (PPE), can be downloaded with a user and developer's guide, and it can be run on HPC centers directly. The quantification applications, MZDASoft TandemQuant and MZDASoft PeakLink, are written in Matlab, which are compiled with a Matlab runtime compiler. A sample script that incorporates all necessary processing steps of MZDASoft for LC/MS/MS quantification in a parallel processing environment is available. The project webpage is http://compgenomics.utsa.edu/zgroup/MZDASoft. The proposed architecture enables the implementation of PeakLink for multiple samples. Significantly more (100%-500%) proteins can be compared over multiple samples with better quantification accuracy in test cases. MZDASoft

  1. The Path to an Up-to-date Absolute Gravity Reference System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmes, H.; Falk, R.; Wziontek, H.

    2014-12-01

    The determination of precise gravity field parameters is of great importance in a period in which earth sciences are achieving the necessary accuracy to monitor and document global change processes. This is the reason why experts from geodesy and metrology joined in a successful cooperation to make absolute gravity observations traceable to SI quantities, to improve the metrological kilogram definition and to monitor mass movements and smallest height changes for geodetic and geophysical applications. How can we determine such a gravity reference system and secure it over multiple decades? Precise knowledge of the gravity acceleration and definition of standards, models and corrections are an important prerequisite to the definition of the gravity system. Over more than three decades, the absolute gravity community cooperated successfully to obtain the gravity reference in comparisons at intervals of 4 years and to certify metrological equivalence between National Metrology Institutes. With increasing resolution of the absolute gravimeter sensors and new measurement principles it becomes obvious that such comparisons are not sufficient for all applications. Mainly for geodetic purposes it is necessary to sub-divide comparison intervals and maintain a connected network of gravity reference sites where compared absolute gravimeters operate together with superconducting gravimeters to derive a continuous gravity reference function. By means of this distributed monitoring of the gravity reference it will also be possible to relate observations of earlier absolute gravimeters to the present-day and to future instruments. It will be possible to include new sensors like atom interferometers and in future to relate the results of precise optical clocks. With co-located space geodetic sensors like GNSS, SLR and VLBI, these reference sites fulfill the conditions of a geodetic fundamental station as a component of IAG's Global Geodetic Observing System.

  2. Absolute total and partial dissociative cross sections of pyrimidine at electron and proton intermediate impact velocities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, Wania, E-mail: wania@if.ufrj.br; Luna, Hugo; Sigaud, Lucas; Montenegro, Eduardo C. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, PO 68528, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Tavares, Andre C. [Departamento de Física, Pontificia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro, PO 38071, Rua Marquês de São Vicente 225, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-02-14

    Absolute total non-dissociative and partial dissociative cross sections of pyrimidine were measured for electron impact energies ranging from 70 to 400 eV and for proton impact energies from 125 up to 2500 keV. MOs ionization induced by coulomb interaction were studied by measuring both ionization and partial dissociative cross sections through time of flight mass spectrometry and by obtaining the branching ratios for fragment formation via a model calculation based on the Born approximation. The partial yields and the absolute cross sections measured as a function of the energy combined with the model calculation proved to be a useful tool to determine the vacancy population of the valence MOs from which several sets of fragment ions are produced. It was also a key point to distinguish the dissociation regimes induced by both particles. A comparison with previous experimental results is also presented.

  3. Small scale characterization of vine plant root zone via 3D electrical resistivity tomography and Mise-à-la-Masse method: a case study in a Bordeaux Vineyard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary, Benjamin; Peruzzo, Luca; Boaga, Jacopo; Schmutz, Myriam; Wu, Yuxin; Hubbard, Susan S.; Cassiani, Giorgio

    2017-04-01

    Nowadays, best viticulture practices require the joint interpretation of climate and soils data. However, information about the soil structure and subsoil processes is often lacking, as point measurements, albeit precise, cannot ensure sufficient spatial coverage and resolution. Non-invasive methods can provide spatially extensive, high resolution information that, supported by traditional point-like data, help complete the complex picture of subsoil static and dynamic reality. So far very little emphasis has been given to investigating the role of soil properties and even less of roots activity on winegrapes. Vine plant's root systems play an important role in providing the minerals to the plants, but also control the water uptake and thus the water state of the vines, which is a key factor determining the grape quality potential. In this contribution we report about the measurements conducted since June 2016 in a vineyard near Bordeaux (France, Pessac Leognan Chateau). Two neighbor plants of different sizes have been selected. In order to spot small scale soil variations and root zone physical structure at the vicinity of the vine plants, we applied a methodology using longitudinal 2D tomography, 3D borehole-based electrical resistivity tomography and a variation of the mise-à-la-masse method (MALM) to assess the effect of plant roots on the current injection in the ground. Time-lapse measurements are particularly informative about the plant dynamics, and the focus is particularly applied on this approach. The time-lapse 3D ERT and MALM results are presented, and the potential to assimilate these data into a hydrological model that can account for the root water uptake as a function of atmospheric conditions is discussed.

  4. Perceived body image in men and women with type 2 diabetes mellitus: correlation of body mass index with the figure rating scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fox Kathleen M

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body mass index (BMI is often used as an objective surrogate estimate of body fat. Increased BMI is directly associated with an increase in metabolic disease, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. The Stunkard Figure Rating Scale (FRS is a subjective measure of body fat, and self-perceptions of body image conceivably impact the development and treatment of T2DM. This study examined the self-perception of body image to various levels of BMI among those with T2DM. Methods Respondents (n = 13,887 to the US Study to Help Improve Early evaluation and management of risk factors Leading to Diabetes (SHIELD 2006 survey self-reported their weight and height for BMI calculation. On the gender-specific Stunkard FRS, respondents selected the figure most closely resembling their body image. Spearman correlation was computed between perceived body image and BMI for men and women separately. Student's t-test analysis compared the mean BMI differences between respondents with and without T2DM. Results Men with T2DM did not significantly differ from men without diabetes mellitus in mean BMI per body image figure except at the extremes in body figures. Women with T2DM had a significantly higher BMI for the same body figure compared with women without diabetes mellitus for most figures (p Conclusions Individuals, particularly women, with T2DM may differ in their perception of body image compared with those without diabetes mellitus. It is unclear if these perceived differences increase the risk of T2DM, or if the diagnosis of T2DM alters body image perceptions.

  5. Prognostic Value of Absolute versus Relative Rise of Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    maternal outcome than a relative rise in the systolic/diastolic blood pressure from mid pregnancy, which did not reach this absolute level. We conclude that in the Nigerian obstetric population, the practice of diagnosing pregnancy hypertension on ...

  6. Efficacy of intrahepatic absolute alcohol in unrespectable hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooqi, J.I.; Hameed, K.; Khan, I.U.; Shah, S.

    2001-01-01

    To determine efficacy of intrahepatic absolute alcohol injection in researchable hepatocellular carcinoma. A randomized, controlled, experimental and interventional clinical trial. Gastroenterology Department, PGMI, Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar during the period from June, 1998 to June, 2000. Thirty patients were treated by percutaneous, intrahepatic absolute alcohol injection sin repeated sessions, 33 patients were not given or treated with alcohol to serve as control. Both the groups were comparable for age, sex and other baseline characteristics. Absolute alcohol therapy significantly improved quality of life of patients, reduced the tumor size and mortality as well as showed significantly better results regarding survival (P< 0.05) than the patients of control group. We conclude that absolute alcohol is a beneficial and safe palliative treatment measure in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). (author)

  7. Changes in Absolute Sea Level Along U.S. Coasts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map shows changes in absolute sea level from 1960 to 2016 based on satellite measurements. Data were adjusted by applying an inverted barometer (air pressure)...

  8. Absolute Continuity of Stable Foliations for Mappings of Banach Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Alex; Young, Lai-Sang

    2017-09-01

    We prove the absolute continuity of stable foliations for mappings of Banach spaces satisfying conditions consistent with time- t maps of certain classes of dissipative PDEs. This property is crucial for passing information from submanifolds transversal to the stable foliation to the rest of the phase space; it is also used in proofs of ergodicity. Absolute continuity of stable foliations is well known in finite dimensional hyperbolic theory. On Banach spaces, the absence of nice geometric properties poses some additional difficulties.

  9. Orion Absolute Navigation System Progress and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Greg N.; D'Souza, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    The Orion spacecraft is being designed as NASA's next-generation exploration vehicle for crewed missions beyond Low-Earth Orbit. The navigation system for the Orion spacecraft is being designed in a Multi-Organizational Design Environment (MODE) team including contractor and NASA personnel. The system uses an Extended Kalman Filter to process measurements and determine the state. The design of the navigation system has undergone several iterations and modifications since its inception, and continues as a work-in-progress. This paper seeks to benchmark the current state of the design and some of the rationale and analysis behind it. There are specific challenges to address when preparing a timely and effective design for the Exploration Flight Test (EFT-1), while still looking ahead and providing software extensibility for future exploration missions. The primary measurements in a Near-Earth or Mid-Earth environment consist of GPS pseudorange and deltarange, but for future explorations missions the use of star-tracker and optical navigation sources need to be considered. Discussions are presented for state size and composition, processing techniques, and consider states. A presentation is given for the processing technique using the computationally stable and robust UDU formulation with an Agee-Turner Rank-One update. This allows for computational savings when dealing with many parameters which are modeled as slowly varying Gauss-Markov processes. Preliminary analysis shows up to a 50% reduction in computation versus a more traditional formulation. Several state elements are discussed and evaluated, including position, velocity, attitude, clock bias/drift, and GPS measurement biases in addition to bias, scale factor, misalignment, and non-orthogonalities of the accelerometers and gyroscopes. Another consideration is the initialization of the EKF in various scenarios. Scenarios such as single-event upset, ground command, pad alignment, cold start are discussed as are

  10. ACRE: Absolute concentration robustness exploration in module-based combinatorial networks

    KAUST Repository

    Kuwahara, Hiroyuki

    2017-03-01

    To engineer cells for industrial-scale application, a deep understanding of how to design molecular control mechanisms to tightly maintain functional stability under various fluctuations is crucial. Absolute concentration robustness (ACR) is a category of robustness in reaction network models in which the steady-state concentration of a molecular species is guaranteed to be invariant even with perturbations in the other molecular species in the network. Here, we introduce a software tool, absolute concentration robustness explorer (ACRE), which efficiently explores combinatorial biochemical networks for the ACR property. ACRE has a user-friendly interface, and it can facilitate efficient analysis of key structural features that guarantee the presence and the absence of the ACR property from combinatorial networks. Such analysis is expected to be useful in synthetic biology as it can increase our understanding of how to design molecular mechanisms to tightly control the concentration of molecular species. ACRE is freely available at https://github.com/ramzan1990/ACRE.

  11. Quantifying discipline practices using absolute versus relative frequencies: clinical and research implications for child welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhiem, Oliver; Shaffer, Anne; Kolko, David J

    2014-01-01

    In the parent intervention outcome literatures, discipline practices are generally quantified as absolute frequencies or, less commonly, as relative frequencies. These differences in methodology warrant direct comparison as they have critical implications for study results and conclusions among treatments targeted at reducing parental aggression and harsh discipline. In this study, we directly compared the absolute frequency method and the relative frequency method for quantifying physically aggressive, psychologically aggressive, and nonaggressive discipline practices. Longitudinal data over a 3-year period came from an existing data set of a clinical trial examining the effectiveness of a psychosocial treatment in reducing parental physical and psychological aggression and improving child behavior (N = 139). Discipline practices (aggressive and nonaggressive) were assessed using the Conflict Tactics Scale. The two methods yielded different patterns of results, particularly for nonaggressive discipline strategies. We suggest that each method makes its own unique contribution to a more complete understanding of the association between parental aggression and intervention effects.

  12. Absolute Absolution: The Forgiveness of Original Sin by Ministers of Government Schooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, John Taylor

    1994-01-01

    Traces the evolution of public schooling as an attempt by progressives and others to absolve citizens of Original Sin and unweave the world view of traditional Christianity. Argues that the removal from schools of Christian beliefs about morality, labor, self-control, and death signals a wish to collectivize the American masses and restore a…

  13. Global change and the measurement of absolute sea-level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamante, John M.; Pyle, Thomas E.; Carter, William E.; Scherer, Wolfgang

    To quantify properly the long-term response of sea-level to climate change, land motions must be separated from the apparent or relative sea-level change recorded by conventional tide/sea-level gauges. Here we present a concept for global measurement of the true or “absolute” sea-level change, which combines recent advances in space-based geodetic techniques with plans for a global sea-level network under the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP). Data from initial feasibility tests show that land motion, due to global (plate tectonic), regional (glacial rebound), or local (fluid withdrawal) effects, can probably be measured to ±1cm (on a single measurement basis) by an innovative combination of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) and Global Positioning System (GPS) tevhniques. By making repeated observations of position at a number of tide gauges using portable, economical GPS receivers in a differential mode relative to the fewer, more stable, but more expensive VLBI observatories, it will be possible to subtract land motion from the relative sea-level signal. Decadal to century scale trends at the 1-2mm y -1 level will be resolvable in the sea-level and vertical land motion time series within about a decade. Detection of subsidence or uplift at specific gauges will allow correction for land motion or deletion of bad data when computing regional or global, i.e. eustatic, sea-level changes. In addition to their applications in oceanography and climate studies, such data will test models by Peltier and other that relate mantle viscosity and deglaciation history to present rates of crustal subsidence or uplift. If the predicted crustal motions are confirmed, we can also have more confidence in the use of historical tide/sea-level gauge records in retrospective studies of sea-level change related to climate variability on decadal or longer time scales. It is concluded that as few as one-third (about 100) of the total number of tide/sea-level gauges (250

  14. Entrenched geographical and socioeconomic disparities in child mortality: trends in absolute and relative inequalities in Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Jimenez-Soto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cambodia has made considerable improvements in mortality rates for children under the age of five and neonates. These improvements may, however, mask considerable disparities between subnational populations. In this paper, we examine the extent of the country's child mortality inequalities. METHODS: Mortality rates for children under-five and neonates were directly estimated using the 2000, 2005 and 2010 waves of the Cambodian Demographic Health Survey. Disparities were measured on both absolute and relative scales using rate differences and ratios, and where applicable, slope and relative indices of inequality by levels of rural/urban location, regions and household wealth. FINDINGS: Since 2000, considerable reductions in under-five and to a lesser extent in neonatal mortality rates have been observed. This mortality decline has, however, been accompanied by an increase in relative inequality in both rates of child mortality for geography-related stratifying markers. For absolute inequality amongst regions, most trends are increasing, particularly for neonatal mortality, but are not statistically significant. The only exception to this general pattern is the statistically significant positive trend in absolute inequality for under-five mortality in the Coastal region. For wealth, some evidence for increases in both relative and absolute inequality for neonates is observed. CONCLUSION: Despite considerable gains in reducing under-five and neonatal mortality at a national level, entrenched and increased geographical and wealth-based inequality in mortality, at least on a relative scale, remain. As expected, national progress seems to be associated with the period of political and macroeconomic stability that started in the early 2000s. However, issues of quality of care and potential non-inclusive economic growth might explain remaining disparities, particularly across wealth and geography markers. A focus on further addressing key

  15. Cardiovascular responses to exercise as functions of absolute and relative work load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, S. F.; Taylor, W. F.; Graham, R. M.; Pettinger, W. A.; Schutte, J. E.; Blomqvist, C. G.

    1983-01-01

    The roles of absolute and relative oxygen uptake (VO2 and percent of muscle group specific VO2-max) as determinants of the cardiovascular and ventilatory responses to exercise over a wide range of active muscle mass are investigated. Experiments were conducted using four types of dynamic exercise: one-arm curl, one-arm cranking, and one and two-leg cycling at four different relative work loads (25, 50, 75, and 100 percent of VO2-max) for the corresponding muscle group. Results show that VO2 during maximal one-arm curl, one-arm cranking, and one-leg cycling averaged 20, 50, and 75 percent, respectively, of that for maximal two-leg cycling. Cardiac output was determined to be linearly related to VO2 with a similar slope and intercept for each type of exercise, and the heart rate at a given percent VO2-max was higher with larger active muscle mass. It is concluded that the cardiovascular responses to exercise was determined to a large extent by the active muscle mass and the absolute oxygen uptake, with the principal feature appearing to be the tight linkage between systematic oxygen transport and utilization.

  16. Auditory working memory predicts individual differences in absolute pitch learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hedger, Stephen C; Heald, Shannon L M; Koch, Rachelle; Nusbaum, Howard C

    2015-07-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is typically defined as the ability to label an isolated tone as a musical note in the absence of a reference tone. At first glance the acquisition of AP note categories seems like a perceptual learning task, since individuals must assign a category label to a stimulus based on a single perceptual dimension (pitch) while ignoring other perceptual dimensions (e.g., loudness, octave, instrument). AP, however, is rarely discussed in terms of domain-general perceptual learning mechanisms. This is because AP is typically assumed to depend on a critical period of development, in which early exposure to pitches and musical labels is thought to be necessary for the development of AP precluding the possibility of adult acquisition of AP. Despite this view of AP, several previous studies have found evidence that absolute pitch category learning is, to an extent, trainable in a post-critical period adult population, even if the performance typically achieved by this population is below the performance of a "true" AP possessor. The current studies attempt to understand the individual differences in learning to categorize notes using absolute pitch cues by testing a specific prediction regarding cognitive capacity related to categorization - to what extent does an individual's general auditory working memory capacity (WMC) predict the success of absolute pitch category acquisition. Since WMC has been shown to predict performance on a wide variety of other perceptual and category learning tasks, we predict that individuals with higher WMC should be better at learning absolute pitch note categories than individuals with lower WMC. Across two studies, we demonstrate that auditory WMC predicts the efficacy of learning absolute pitch note categories. These results suggest that a higher general auditory WMC might underlie the formation of absolute pitch categories for post-critical period adults. Implications for understanding the mechanisms that underlie the

  17. Development of an ion-pair liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry method for determination of organophosphate pesticide metabolites in large-scale biomonitoring studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cequier, Enrique; Sakhi, Amrit Kaur; Haug, Line Småstuen; Thomsen, Cathrine

    2016-07-08

    Organophosphate based pesticides are widely used in the agricultural sector, and exposure to these chemicals is common for the general population. Pesticides are toxic due to the inhibition of acetylcholinesterases, and the potential for adverse health effects have been investigated in past and recent studies. Human biomonitoring of organophosphate pesticide exposure is carried out through the determination of the metabolites in urine (dialkylphosphates, DAPs). Hereby we present a new method for determination of the 6 non-specific metabolites dimethyl phosphate (DMP), diethyl phosphate (DEP), dimethyl thiophosphate (DMTP), diethyl thiophosphate (DETP), dimethyl dithiophosphate (DMDTP), and diethyl dithiophosphate (DEDTP) in urine based on off-line solid phase extraction (anion exchange, 96-well plates) followed by ion-pair ultra-performance liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Recoveries and accuracies in control urine spiked at 5ng/mL ranged from 48% to109% and from 91% to 115%, respectively. The method limits of detection for the DAPs were 1.2ng/mL for DMP, 0.38ng/mL for DEP, 0.20ng/mL for DMTP, 0.33ng/mL for DETP, 0.64ng/mL for DMDTP, and 0.15ng/mL for DEDTP. The method was applied to samples from a Norwegian mother/child study group (n=48/56) and the DAPs detection frequencies in urine from mothers and children were about: 40% for DMP, 95% for DEP, 96% for DMTP, 50% for DETP, 15% for DMDTP, and 1% for DEDTP. In both mothers and children, the most abundant DAPs were DMTP (median 2.4/5.2ng/mL) and DEP (median 2.6/3.4ng/mL) followed by DMP (median 1.5/2.1ng/mL). The SG corrected concentrations of DEP and DETP in mothers were statistically higher than in children (p-valuepesticides in these mothers, or significant differences in toxicokinetics between adults and children. The method was proven robust and suitable for large-scale biomonitoring studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Measurement of the absolute branching fraction of $D^{+}\\rightarrow\\bar K^0 e^{+}\

    OpenAIRE

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ai, X. C.; Albayrak, O.; Albrecht, M.; Ambrose, D. J.; Amoroso, A.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Ferroli, R. Baldini; Ban, Y.; Bennett, D. W.; Bennett, J. V.; Bertani, M.

    2016-01-01

    By analyzing 2.93 fb(-1) data collected at the center-of-mass energy root s = 3.773 GeV with the BESIII detector, we measure the absolute branching fraction of the semileptonic decay D+ -> (K) over bar (0)e(+)nu(e) to be B(D (+) -> (K) over bar (0)e(+)nu(e)) = (8.59 +/- 0.14 +/- 0.21)% using (K) over bar (0) -> K-S(0) -> pi(0) pi(0), where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second systematic. Our result is consistent with previous measurements within uncertainties.. ...

  19. MUSCLE W49: A multi-scale continuum and line exploration of the most luminous star formation region in the Milky Way. I. Data and the mass structure of the giant molecular cloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galván-Madrid, R.; Pineda, J. E.; Peng, T.-C. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Liu, H. B.; Ho, P. T. P. [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Zhang, Z.-Y. [Max-Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Zhang, Q.; Keto, E. R. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Rodríguez, L. F.; Zapata, L. [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, UNAM, A.P. 3-72 Xangari, Morelia 58089 (Mexico); Peters, T. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Zürich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zürich (Switzerland); De Pree, C. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Agnes Scott College, Decatur, GA 30030 (United States)

    2013-12-20

    The Multi-scale Continuum and Line Exploration of W49 is a comprehensive gas and dust survey of the giant molecular cloud (GMC) of W49A, the most luminous star-formation region in the Milky Way. The project covers, for the first time, the entire GMC at different scales and angular resolutions. In this paper, we present (1) an all-configuration Submillimeter Array mosaic in the 230 GHz (1.3 mm) band covering the central ∼3' × 3' (∼10 pc, known as W49N), where most of the embedded massive stars reside and (2) Purple Mountain Observatory 14 m telescope observations in the 90 GHz band, covering the entire GMC with maps of up to ∼35' × 35' in size, or ∼113 pc. We also make use of archival data from the Very Large Array, JCMT-SCUBA, the IRAM 30 m telescope, and the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory BOLOCAM Galactic Plane Survey. We derive the basic physical parameters of the GMC at all scales. Our main findings are as follows. (1) The W49 GMC is one of the most massive in the Galaxy, with a total mass M {sub gas} ∼ 1.1 × 10{sup 6} M {sub ☉} within a radius of 60 pc. Within a radius of 6 pc, the total gas mass is M {sub gas} ∼ 2 × 10{sup 5} M {sub ☉}. At these scales, only ∼1% of the material is photoionized. The mass reservoir is sufficient to form several young massive clusters (YMCs) as massive as a globular cluster. (2) The mass of the GMC is distributed in a hierarchical network of filaments. At scales <10 pc, a triple, centrally condensed structure peaks toward the ring of HC H II regions in W49N. This structure extends to scales from ∼10 to 100 pc through filaments that radially converge toward W49N and its less-prominent neighbor W49S. The W49A starburst most likely formed from global gravitational contraction with localized collapse in a 'hub-filament' geometry. (3) Currently, feedback from the central YMCs (with a present mass M {sub cl} ≳ 5 × 10{sup 4} M {sub ☉}) is still not enough to entirely disrupt

  20. Measuring neutrino mass without neutrinos!

    CERN Multimedia

    Peach, Kenneth J

    2004-01-01

    Neutrinoless double beta decay offers the most precise (if challenging) way of measuring the absolute mass of the neutrino. Particle Physics met at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory last autumn to discuss wether the UK should take a lead in setting up such an experiment

  1. Absolute Navigation Information Estimation for Micro Planetary Rovers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ilyas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides algorithms to estimate absolute navigation information, e.g., absolute attitude and position, by using low power, weight and volume Microelectromechanical Systems-type (MEMS sensors that are suitable for micro planetary rovers. Planetary rovers appear to be easily navigable robots due to their extreme slow speed and rotation but, unfortunately, the sensor suites available for terrestrial robots are not always available for planetary rover navigation. This makes them difficult to navigate in a completely unexplored, harsh and complex environment. Whereas the relative attitude and position can be tracked in a similar way as for ground robots, absolute navigation information, unlike in terrestrial applications, is difficult to obtain for a remote celestial body, such as Mars or the Moon. In this paper, an algorithm called the EASI algorithm (Estimation of Attitude using Sun sensor and Inclinometer is presented to estimate the absolute attitude using a MEMS-type sun sensor and inclinometer, only. Moreover, the output of the EASI algorithm is fused with MEMS gyros to produce more accurate and reliable attitude estimates. An absolute position estimation algorithm has also been presented based on these on-board sensors. Experimental results demonstrate the viability of the proposed algorithms and the sensor suite for low-cost and low-weight micro planetary rovers.

  2. Relative and absolute risk in epidemiology and health physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldsmith, R.; Peterson, H.T. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The health risk from ionizing radiation commonly is expressed in two forms: (1) the relative risk, which is the percentage increase in natural disease rate and (2) the absolute or attributable risk which represents the difference between the natural rate and the rate associated with the agent in question. Relative risk estimates for ionizing radiation generally are higher than those expressed as the absolute risk. This raises the question of which risk estimator is the most appropriate under different conditions. The absolute risk has generally been used for radiation risk assessment, although mathematical combinations such as the arithmetic or geometric mean of both the absolute and relative risks, have also been used. Combinations of the two risk estimators are not valid because the absolute and relative risk are not independent variables. Both human epidemiologic studies and animal experimental data can be found to illustrate the functional relationship between the natural cancer risk and the risk associated with radiation. This implies that the radiation risk estimate derived from one population may not be appropriate for predictions in another population, unless it is adjusted for the difference in the natural disease incidence between the two populations

  3. Absolute cardiovascular risk in a Fiji medical zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyaneshwar, Rajat; Naidu, Swaran; Raban, Magdalena Z; Naidu, Sheetal; Linhart, Christine; Morrell, Stephen; Tukana, Isimeli; Taylor, Richard

    2016-02-09

    The population of Fiji has experienced emergence of non-communicable disease (NCD) and a plateau in life expectancy over the past 20 years. A mini-STEPS survey (n = 2765) was conducted in Viseisei in Western Fiji to assess NCD risk factors (RFs) in i-Taukei (Melanesians) and those of Indian descent aged 25-64 years (response 73 %). Hypertension (HT) was defined as systolic blood pressure (BP) ≥140 mmHg or diastolic BP ≥90 mmHg or on medication for HT; type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) as fasting plasma glucose ≥7.0 mmol/L or on medication for T2DM; and obesity as a body mass index (kilograms/height(metres)(2)) ≥30. Data were age-adjusted to 2007 Fiji Census. Associations between RFs and ethnicity/education were investigated. Comparisons with Fiji STEPS surveys were undertaken, and the absolute risk of a cardiovascular disease (CVD) event/death in 10 years was estimated from multiple RF charts. NCD/RFs increased with age except excessive alcohol intake and daily smoking (women) which declined. Daily smoking was higher in men 33 % (95 % confidence interval: 31-36) than women 14 % (12-116); women were more obese 40 % (37-43) than men 23 % (20-26); HT was similar in men 37 % (34-40) and women 34 % (31-36), as was T2DM in men 15 % (13-17) and women 17 % (15-19). i-Taukei men had an odds ratio (OR) of 0.41 (0.28-0.58) for T2DM compared to Indians (1.00); and i-Taukei (both sexes) had a higher OR for obesity and low fruit/vegetable intake, daily smoking, excessive alcohol intake and HT in females. Increasing education correlated with lesser smoking, but with higher obesity and lower fruit/vegetable intake. Compared to the 2011 Fiji STEPS survey, no significant differences were evident in obesity, HT or T2DM prevalences. The proportion (40-64 years) classified at high or very high risk (≥20 %) of a CVD event/death (over 10 years) based on multiple RFs was 8.3 % for men (8.1 % i-Taukei, 8.5 % Indian), and 6.7 % for women (7.9 % i-Taukei, 6.0 % Indian). The results

  4. Absolute marine gravimetry with matter-wave interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidel, Y; Zahzam, N; Blanchard, C; Bonnin, A; Cadoret, M; Bresson, A; Rouxel, D; Lequentrec-Lalancette, M F

    2018-02-12

    Measuring gravity from an aircraft or a ship is essential in geodesy, geophysics, mineral and hydrocarbon exploration, and navigation. Today, only relative sensors are available for onboard gravimetry. This is a major drawback because of the calibration and drift estimation procedures which lead to important operational constraints. Atom interferometry is a promising technology to obtain onboard absolute gravimeter. But, despite high performances obtained in static condition, no precise measurements were reported in dynamic. Here, we present absolute gravity measurements from a ship with a sensor based on atom interferometry. Despite rough sea conditions, we obtained precision below 10 -5  m s -2 . The atom gravimeter was also compared with a commercial spring gravimeter and showed better performances. This demonstration opens the way to the next generation of inertial sensors (accelerometer, gyroscope) based on atom interferometry which should provide high-precision absolute measurements from a moving platform.

  5. Adjustment and testing comparison of absolute gravimeters in November 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Pešková

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on a comparison measurement processing of absolute gravimeters in 2013. The comparison deals with a number of various types of absolute gravimeters and includes also an absolute gravimeter from Geodetic observatory Pecný. Comparative measurements are performed to detect systematic errors of gravimeters. A result of processing is most likely value of a gravity and a systematic error of individual devices. Measured values are input to a adjustment with condition a sum of systematic errors is zero. A part of this process is also verification following output: (i value of a posteriori standard deviation, (ii size of corrections and (iii statistical significance of systematic errors. The results of adjustment are 15 gravity values on the reference places and 25 systematic errors of measuring instruments. Result shows that the presence of systematic errors in measurements is not statistically provable because the systematic errors are similarly sized as their standard deviation.

  6. Absolute and Relative Socioeconomic Health Inequalities across Age Groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander K R van Zon

    Full Text Available The magnitude of socioeconomic health inequalities differs across age groups. It is less clear whether socioeconomic health inequalities differ across age groups by other factors that are known to affect the relation between socioeconomic position and health, like the indicator of socioeconomic position, the health outcome, gender, and as to whether socioeconomic health inequalities are measured in absolute or in relative terms. The aim is to investigate whether absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differ across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome and gender.The study sample was derived from the baseline measurement of the LifeLines Cohort Study and consisted of 95,432 participants. Socioeconomic position was measured as educational level and household income. Physical and mental health were measured with the RAND-36. Age concerned eleven 5-years age groups. Absolute inequalities were examined by comparing means. Relative inequalities were examined by comparing Gini-coefficients. Analyses were performed for both health outcomes by both educational level and household income. Analyses were performed for all age groups, and stratified by gender.Absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differed across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome, and gender. Absolute inequalities were most pronounced for mental health by household income. They were larger in younger than older age groups. Relative inequalities were most pronounced for physical health by educational level. Gini-coefficients were largest in young age groups and smallest in older age groups.Absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differed cross-sectionally across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome and gender. Researchers should critically consider the implications of choosing a specific age group, in addition to the indicator of socioeconomic position and

  7. Absolute and Relative Socioeconomic Health Inequalities across Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zon, Sander K R; Bültmann, Ute; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2015-01-01

    The magnitude of socioeconomic health inequalities differs across age groups. It is less clear whether socioeconomic health inequalities differ across age groups by other factors that are known to affect the relation between socioeconomic position and health, like the indicator of socioeconomic position, the health outcome, gender, and as to whether socioeconomic health inequalities are measured in absolute or in relative terms. The aim is to investigate whether absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differ across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome and gender. The study sample was derived from the baseline measurement of the LifeLines Cohort Study and consisted of 95,432 participants. Socioeconomic position was measured as educational level and household income. Physical and mental health were measured with the RAND-36. Age concerned eleven 5-years age groups. Absolute inequalities were examined by comparing means. Relative inequalities were examined by comparing Gini-coefficients. Analyses were performed for both health outcomes by both educational level and household income. Analyses were performed for all age groups, and stratified by gender. Absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differed across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome, and gender. Absolute inequalities were most pronounced for mental health by household income. They were larger in younger than older age groups. Relative inequalities were most pronounced for physical health by educational level. Gini-coefficients were largest in young age groups and smallest in older age groups. Absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differed cross-sectionally across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome and gender. Researchers should critically consider the implications of choosing a specific age group, in addition to the indicator of socioeconomic position and health outcome

  8. Neural sensitivity to absolute and relative anticipated reward in adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatin G Vaidya

    Full Text Available Adolescence is associated with a dramatic increase in risky and impulsive behaviors that have been attributed to developmental differences in neural processing of rewards. In the present study, we sought to identify age differences in anticipation of absolute and relative rewards. To do so, we modified a commonly used monetary incentive delay (MID task in order to examine brain activity to relative anticipated reward value (neural sensitivity to the value of a reward as a function of other available rewards. This design also made it possible to examine developmental differences in brain activation to absolute anticipated reward magnitude (the degree to which neural activity increases with increasing reward magnitude. While undergoing fMRI, 18 adolescents and 18 adult participants were presented with cues associated with different reward magnitudes. After the cue, participants responded to a target to win money on that trial. Presentation of cues was blocked such that two reward cues associated with $.20, $1.00, or $5.00 were in play on a given block. Thus, the relative value of the $1.00 reward varied depending on whether it was paired with a smaller or larger reward. Reflecting age differences in neural responses to relative anticipated reward (i.e., reference dependent processing, adults, but not adolescents, demonstrated greater activity to a $1 reward when it was the larger of the two available rewards. Adults also demonstrated a more linear increase in ventral striatal activity as a function of increasing absolute reward magnitude compared to adolescents. Additionally, reduced ventral striatal sensitivity to absolute anticipated reward (i.e., the difference in activity to medium versus small rewards correlated with higher levels of trait Impulsivity. Thus, ventral striatal activity in anticipation of absolute and relative rewards develops with age. Absolute reward processing is also linked to individual differences in Impulsivity.

  9. Commissioning of the Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Jakobsen, Sune; Hansen, Peter; Hansen, Jørgen Beck

    The startup of the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) has initialized a new era in particle physics. The standard model of particle physics has for the last 40 years with tremendous success described all measurements with phenomenal precision. The experiments at the LHC are testing the standard model in a new energy regime. To normalize the measurements and understand the potential discoveries of the LHC experiments it is often crucial to know the interaction rate - the absolute luminosity. The ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS) detector will measure luminosity by numerous methods. But for most of the methods only the relative luminosity is measured with good precision. The absolute scale has to be provided from elsewhere. ATLAS is like the other LHC experiments mainly relying of absolute luminosity calibration from van der Meer scans (beam separation scans). To cross check and maybe even improve the precision; ATLAS has built a sub-detector to measure the flux of protons scattered under very small angles as this flux...

  10. Measurement of definite integral of sinusoidal signal absolute value third power using digital stochastic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beljić Željko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a special case of digital stochastic measurement of the third power of definite integral of sinusoidal signal’s absolute value, using 2-bit AD converters is presented. This case of digital stochastic method had emerged from the need to measure power and energy of the wind. Power and energy are proportional to the third power of wind speed. Anemometer output signal is sinusoidal. Therefore an integral of the third power of sinusoidal signal is zero. Two approaches are proposed for the third power calculation of the wind speed signal. One approach is to use absolute value of sinusoidal signal (before AD conversion for which there is no need of multiplier hardware change. The second approach requires small multiplier hardware change, but input signal remains unchanged. For the second approach proposed minimal hardware change was made to calculate absolute value of the result after AD conversion. Simulations have confirmed theoretical analysis. Expected precision of wind energy measurement of proposed device is better than 0,00051% of full scale. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR32019

  11. Clinical application of absolute ethanol as an embolizing material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae Hyung; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Man Chung

    1982-01-01

    Transcatheter infusion of absolute ethanol was applied clinically in 3 cases of artificial embolization: 25 yrs old female with bilateral renal angiomyolipoma, 19 yrs old female with right paralumbar liposarcoma and 25 yrs old male with hypernephroma of right kidney. Selective or subselective manual infusion was made and 9 to 22 cc of pure ethanol was delivered in a speed of 1 to 2 cc per second. The sclerosing effect of absolute ethanol was potent. However, all 3 cases revealed mild post-embolization syndrome

  12. Absolute Stability Analysis of a Phase Plane Controlled Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jiann-Woei; Plummer, Michael; Bedrossian, Nazareth; Hall, Charles; Jackson, Mark; Spanos, Pol

    2010-01-01

    Many aerospace attitude control systems utilize phase plane control schemes that include nonlinear elements such as dead zone and ideal relay. To evaluate phase plane control robustness, stability margin prediction methods must be developed. Absolute stability is extended to predict stability margins and to define an abort condition. A constrained optimization approach is also used to design flex filters for roll control. The design goal is to optimize vehicle tracking performance while maintaining adequate stability margins. Absolute stability is shown to provide satisfactory stability constraints for the optimization.

  13. Absolute gain measurement by the image method under mismatched condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Richard Q.; Baddour, Maurice F.

    1987-01-01

    Purcell's image method for measuring the absolute gain of an antenna is particularly attractive for small test antennas. The method is simple to use and utilizes only one antenna with a reflecting plane to provide an image for the receiving antenna. However, the method provides accurate results only if the antenna is matched to its waveguide. In this paper, a waveguide junction analysis is developed to determine the gain of an antenna under mismatched condition. Absolute gain measurements for two standard gain horn antennas have been carried out. Experimental results agree closely with published data.

  14. Absolute and conditional convergence within Sonora state municipalities, 1989- 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Bracamontes Neváre

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to identify the existence of convergence, absolut as muchas conditional, for the municipalities that conform the state of Sonora. Taking as abase the methodologic excercise of Mankiw, Romer and Weill (1992 that considersthe first model of Solow (1956 and makes an extension of it including thehuman capital, evidence shows that there is no tendency for poor municipalitiesto grow more quickly than rich municipalities, which means that there is no processof convergence –nor absolute or conditional– in the municipalities of Sonora,independently of the development layer in which these are classified: municipalitieswith high, average or low development.

  15. Total synthesis and absolute configuration of the marine norditerpenoid xestenone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Koichiro; Kurokawa, Takao; Kawashima, Etsuko; Miyaoka, Hiroaki

    2009-11-24

    Xestenone is a marine norditerpenoid found in the northeastern Pacific sponge Xestospongia vanilla. The relative configuration of C-3 and C-7 in xestenone was determined by NOESY spectral analysis. However the relative configuration of C-12 and the absolute configuration of this compound were not determined. The authors have now achieved the total synthesis of xestenone using their developed one-pot synthesis of cyclopentane derivatives employing allyl phenyl sulfone and an epoxy iodide as a key step. The relative and absolute configurations of xestenone were thus successfully determined by this synthesis.

  16. Total Synthesis and Absolute Configuration of the Marine Norditerpenoid Xestenone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Miyaoka

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Xestenone is a marine norditerpenoid found in the northeastern Pacific sponge Xestospongia vanilla. The relative configuration of C-3 and C-7 in xestenone was determined by NOESY spectral analysis. However the relative configuration of C-12 and the absolute configuration of this compound were not determined. The authors have now achieved the total synthesis of xestenone using their developed one-pot synthesis of cyclopentane derivatives employing allyl phenyl sulfone and an epoxy iodide as a key step. The relative and absolute configurations of xestenone were thus successfully determined by this synthesis.

  17. Absolute IGS antenna phase center model igs08.atx: status and potential improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, R.; Dach, R.; Collilieux, X.; Jäggi, A.; Schmitz, M.; Dilssner, F.

    2016-04-01

    On 17 April 2011, all analysis centers (ACs) of the International GNSS Service (IGS) adopted the reference frame realization IGS08 and the corresponding absolute antenna phase center model igs08.atx for their routine analyses. The latter consists of an updated set of receiver and satellite antenna phase center offsets and variations (PCOs and PCVs). An update of the model was necessary due to the difference of about 1 ppb in the terrestrial scale between two consecutive realizations of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF2008 vs. ITRF2005), as that parameter is highly correlated with the GNSS satellite antenna PCO components in the radial direction.

  18. Electro optic sensor for high precision absolute distance measurement using multiwavelength interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sucheta; Eiswirt, Peter; Petter, Jürgen

    2018-02-05

    A prototype multi-wavelength interferometric, phase shifting distance sensor based on linear electro optic effect has been demonstrated in this work to improve the measurement speed of a commercial four-wavelength interferometer. Experimental results revealed the phase modulation ability of the sensor, preserving equivalent efficiency for nanometer-scale absolute distance measurement similar to present piezoelectricity driven mechanical phase modulation. The electro optic sensor working under free beam propagation can significantly overcome the limitations experienced by mechanical phase modulation technique such as the restricted value for the modulating frequency and as well the high driving voltage requirement.

  19. Absolute radiometric calibration of Landsat using a pseudo invariant calibration site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helder, D.; Thome, K.J.; Mishra, N.; Chander, G.; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Angal, A.; Choi, Tae-young

    2013-01-01

    Pseudo invariant calibration sites (PICS) have been used for on-orbit radiometric trending of optical satellite systems for more than 15 years. This approach to vicarious calibration has demonstrated a high degree of reliability and repeatability at the level of 1-3% depending on the site, spectral channel, and imaging geometries. A variety of sensors have used this approach for trending because it is broadly applicable and easy to implement. Models to describe the surface reflectance properties, as well as the intervening atmosphere have also been developed to improve the precision of the method. However, one limiting factor of using PICS is that an absolute calibration capability has not yet been fully developed. Because of this, PICS are primarily limited to providing only long term trending information for individual sensors or cross-calibration opportunities between two sensors. This paper builds an argument that PICS can be used more extensively for absolute calibration. To illustrate this, a simple empirical model is developed for the well-known Libya 4 PICS based on observations by Terra MODIS and EO-1 Hyperion. The model is validated by comparing model predicted top-of-atmosphere reflectance values to actual measurements made by the Landsat ETM+ sensor reflective bands. Following this, an outline is presented to develop a more comprehensive and accurate PICS absolute calibration model that can be Système international d'unités (SI) traceable. These initial concepts suggest that absolute calibration using PICS is possible on a broad scale and can lead to improved on-orbit calibration capabilities for optical satellite sensors.

  20. Sakharov's induced gravity on the AdS background: SM scale as inverse mass parameter of the Schwinger-DeWitt expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altshuler, Boris L.

    2015-09-01

    The one-loop quantum effective action W of the scalar field "living" on the AdS background of the Randall-Sundrum (RS) model has been defined by a now-popular way which excludes bulk UV divergencies; thus, the induced Planck mass is given not by the UV regularization parameter like in Sakharov's pioneer work but by the location of the UV cut of AdS space. Resummation of the Schwinger-DeWitt expansion of the action W is performed by the novel "auxiliary mass" method. The inverse mass squared parameter of this expansion is determined by the location of the "visible" IR brane of the RS model. The obtained expression for the induced vacuum energy density coincides with the independently calculated VEV of the stress-energy tensor; the corresponding potential in four dimensions possesses a nontrivial extremum which hopefully will permit us to stabilize the IR brane and hence to fix the observed small value of the mass hierarchy in analogy with the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism. It is demonstrated that naive equating of values of the induced Planck mass and vacuum energy density to those of the RS model determines otherwise arbitrary constants of the model. A principle of quantum self-consistency generalizing this approach is proposed.