Absolute decay parametric instability of high-temperature plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zozulya, A.A.; Silin, V.P.; Tikhonchuk, V.T.
1986-01-01
A new absolute decay parametric instability having wide spatial localization region is shown to be possible near critical plasma density. Its excitation is conditioned by distributed feedback of counter-running Langmuir waves occurring during parametric decay of incident and reflected pumping wave components. In a hot plasma with the temperature of the order of kiloelectronvolt its threshold is lower than that of a known convective decay parametric instability. Minimum absolute instability threshold is shown to be realized under conditions of spatial parametric resonance of higher orders
Absolute and convective instability of a liquid sheet with transverse temperature gradient
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fu, Qing-Fei; Yang, Li-Jun; Tong, Ming-Xi; Wang, Chen
2013-01-01
Highlights: • The spatial–temporal instability of a liquid sheet with thermal effects was studied. • The flow can transit to absolutely unstable with certain flow parameters. • The effects of non-dimensional parameters on the transition were studied. -- Abstract: The spatial–temporal instability behavior of a viscous liquid sheet with temperature difference between the two surfaces was investigated theoretically. The practical situation motivating this investigation is liquid sheet heated by ambient gas, usually encountered in industrial heat transfer and liquid propellant rocket engines. The existing dispersion relation was used, to explore the spatial–temporal instability of viscous liquid sheets with a nonuniform temperature profile, by setting both the wave number and frequency complex. A parametric study was performed in both sinuous and varicose modes to test the influence of dimensionless numbers on the transition between absolute and convective instability of the flow. For a small value of liquid Weber number, or a great value of gas-to-liquid density ratio, the flow was found to be absolutely unstable. The absolute instability was enhanced by increasing the liquid viscosity. It was found that variation of the Marangoni number hardly influenced the absolute instability of the sinuous mode of oscillations; however it slightly affected the absolute instability in the varicose mode
Comments on the theory of absolute and convective instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oscarsson, T.E.; Roennmark, K.
1986-10-01
The theory of absolute and convective instabilities is discussed and we argue that the basis of the theory is questionable, since it describes the linear development of instabilities by their behaviour in the time asymptotic limit. In order to make sensible predictions on the linear development of instabilities, the problem should be studied on the finite time scale implied by the linear approximation. (authors)
Absolute dissipative drift-wave instabilities in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, L.; Chance, M.S.; Cheng, C.Z.
1979-07-01
Contrary to previous theoretical predictions, it is shown that the dissipative drift-wave instabilities are absolute in tokamak plasmas. The existence of unstable eigenmodes is shown to be associated with a new eigenmode branch induced by the finite toroidal couplings
Absolute/convective secondary instabilities and the role of confinement in free shear layers
Arratia, Cristóbal; Mowlavi, Saviz; Gallaire, François
2018-05-01
We study the linear spatiotemporal stability of an infinite row of equal point vortices under symmetric confinement between parallel walls. These rows of vortices serve to model the secondary instability leading to the merging of consecutive (Kelvin-Helmholtz) vortices in free shear layers, allowing us to study how confinement limits the growth of shear layers through vortex pairings. Using a geometric construction akin to a Legendre transform on the dispersion relation, we compute the growth rate of the instability in different reference frames as a function of the frame velocity with respect to the vortices. This approach is verified and complemented with numerical computations of the linear impulse response, fully characterizing the absolute/convective nature of the instability. Similar to results by Healey on the primary instability of parallel tanh profiles [J. Fluid Mech. 623, 241 (2009), 10.1017/S0022112008005284], we observe a range of confinement in which absolute instability is promoted. For a parallel shear layer with prescribed confinement and mixing length, the threshold for absolute/convective instability of the secondary pairing instability depends on the separation distance between consecutive vortices, which is physically determined by the wavelength selected by the previous (primary or pairing) instability. In the presence of counterflow and moderate to weak confinement, small (large) wavelength of the vortex row leads to absolute (convective) instability. While absolute secondary instabilities in spatially developing flows have been previously related to an abrupt transition to a complex behavior, this secondary pairing instability regenerates the flow with an increased wavelength, eventually leading to a convectively unstable row of vortices. We argue that since the primary instability remains active for large wavelengths, a spatially developing shear layer can directly saturate on the wavelength of such a convectively unstable row, by
Absolute parametric instability in a nonuniform plane plasma
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The paper reports an analysis of the effect of spatial plasma nonuniformity on absolute parametric instability (API) of electrostatic waves in magnetized plane waveguides subjected to an intense high-frequency (HF) electric field using the separation method. In this case the effect of strong static magnetic field is considered.
Absolute parametric instability in a nonuniform plane plasma ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. The paper reports an analysis of the effect of spatial plasma nonuniformity on absolute parametric instability (API) of electrostatic waves in magnetized plane waveguides subjected to an intense high-frequency (HF) electric field using the separation method. In this case the effect of strong static magnetic field is ...
Absolute instabilities of travelling wave solutions in a Keller-Segel model
Davis, P. N.; van Heijster, P.; Marangell, R.
2017-11-01
We investigate the spectral stability of travelling wave solutions in a Keller-Segel model of bacterial chemotaxis with a logarithmic chemosensitivity function and a constant, sublinear, and linear consumption rate. Linearising around the travelling wave solutions, we locate the essential and absolute spectrum of the associated linear operators and find that all travelling wave solutions have parts of the essential spectrum in the right half plane. However, we show that in the case of constant or sublinear consumption there exists a range of parameters such that the absolute spectrum is contained in the open left half plane and the essential spectrum can thus be weighted into the open left half plane. For the constant and sublinear consumption rate models we also determine critical parameter values for which the absolute spectrum crosses into the right half plane, indicating the onset of an absolute instability of the travelling wave solution. We observe that this crossing always occurs off of the real axis.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brandão, P V; Alves, L S de B; Barletta, A
2014-01-01
The present paper investigates the transition from convective to absolute instability induced by viscous dissipation. As far as the authors are aware, this is the first time such a study is reported in the literature. Its framework is provided by the Poiseuille-Darcy-Benard convection of a Newtonian fluid. We found the same behaviour observed in the absence of viscous dissipation whenever the Gebhart number is smaller than Ge < 0.95, which is the stabilising effect of the cross flow. When 0.95 < Ge < 4.31, weak cross flows still stabilise the onset of absolute instability but stronger cross flows destabilise it. For a stronger viscous dissipation, i.e. Ge > 4.31, the cross flow always destabilises this onset. The latter two conditions create a scenario where viscous dissipation is capable of inducing a transition to absolute instability in the absence of wall heating, i.e. with a zero Rayleigh number
Wang, Q.; Liu, Z. J.; Zheng, C. Y.; Xiao, C. Z.; Feng, Q. S.; Zhang, H. C.; He, X. T.
2018-01-01
The longitudinal relativistic effect on stimulated Raman backscattering (SRBS) is investigated by using one-dimensional (1D) Vlasov-Maxwell simulations. Using a short backscattered light seed pulse with a very small amplitude, the linear gain spectra of SRBS in the strongly convective regime is presented by combining the relativistic and non-relativistic 1D Vlasov-Maxwell simulations, which is in agreement with the steady-state linear theory. More interestingly, by considering transition from convective to absolute instability due to electron trapping, we successfully predict the critical duration of the seed which can just trigger the kinetic inflation of the excited SRBS after the seed leaves the simulation box. The critical duration in the relativistic case is much shorter than that in the nonrelativistic case, which indicates that the kinetic inflation more easily occurs in the relativistic case than in the nonrelativistic case. In the weakly convective regime, the transition from convective to absolute instability for SRBS can directly occur in the linear regime due to the longitudinal relativistic modification. For the same pump, our simulations first demonstrate that the SRBS excited by a short and small seed pulse is a convective instability in the nonrelativistic case but becomes an absolute instability due to the decrease of the linear Landau damping from the longitudinal relativistic modification in the relativistic case. In more detail, the growth rate of the backscattered light is also in excellent agreement with theoretical prediction.
Absolute & Convective Instabilities in the Boundary Layer on a Rotating Sphere
Garrett, Stephen; Peake, Nigel
2001-11-01
We are concerned with absolute (AI) and convective instabilities (CI) in the boundary-layer on a sphere rotating in an otherwise still fluid. Both AI and CI are found at every latitude within specific parameter spaces. The local Reynolds number at the predicted onset of AI matches experimental data well for the onset of turbulence at ψ =30^o from the axis of rotation, beyond this latitude the discrepancy increases but remains relatively small below ψ =70^o. We suggest that this AI may cause the onset of transition. The results of the CI analysis show that a crossflow instability mode is the most dangerous below ψ =66^o. Above this latitude a streamline-curvature mode is found to be the most dangerous, which coincides with the appearance of reverse flow in the radial component of the mean flow. Our predictions of the Reynolds number and vortex angle at the onset of CI are consistent with existing experimental measurements. Close to the pole the predictions of each stability analysis are seen to approach those of existing rotating disk investigations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Du Chaohai; Liu Pukun
2009-01-01
The problem of spurious oscillations induced by absolute instabilities is the most challenging one that hinders the development of the millimeter-wave gyrotron traveling-wave amplifiers (gyro-TWTs). A spurious oscillation exists as a high order axial mode (HOAM) in the interaction circuit. This paper is devoted to demonstrating the complicated steady states of these HOAMs and exploring corresponding techniques to stabilize these potential multi-steady-state absolute instabilities. The stability-oriented design principle is conveyed in a start-to-end design flow of a Ka-band TE 11 mode gyro-TWT. Strong magnetic tapering near the downstream port, which is capable of cutting short the effective interaction circuit of a spurious oscillation and simultaneously boosting the amplification performance, is for the first time proposed to further improve the system stability. It is also found that an ideal prebunched electron beam in the linear stage is the necessary condition to efficient amplification in the nonlinear stage, suggesting that it is feasible to design a stable prebunching stage to replace the distributed-loss-loaded linear stage. The stability-oriented design principle provides more explicit reference for future design of a zero-drive stable gyro-TWT.
Absolute parametric instability of low frequency waves in a 2-D nonuniform anisotropic warm plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zaki, N.G.
2004-01-01
Using the separation method, the problem of absolute parametric instability (API) of electrostatic waves in magnetized pumped warm plasma is investigated. In this case the effect of static strong magnetic field is considered. The problem of strong magnetic field is solved in 2-D nonuniform plane plasma. The equations which describe the spatial part of the electric potential are obtained. Also the growth rates and conditions of the parametric instability for periodic cases are obtained. It is found that the spatial nonuniformity of the plasma exerts a stabilizing effect on the API. It is shown that the growth rates of periodic and aperiodic API in warm plasma are reduced in comparison with a cold plasma case
Saturation of equatorial inertial instability
Kloosterziel, R.C.; Orlandi, P.; Carnevale, G.F.
2015-01-01
Inertial instability in parallel shear flows and circular vortices in a uniformly rotating system ( $f$f-plane) redistributes absolute linear momentum or absolute angular momentum in such a way as to neutralize the instability. In previous studies we showed that, in the absence of other
Liu, Rong; Chen, Xue; Ding, Zijing
2018-01-01
We consider the motion of a gravity-driven flow down a vertical fiber subjected to a radial electric field. This flow exhibits rich dynamics including the formation of droplets, or beads, driven by a Rayleigh-Plateau mechanism modified by the presence of gravity as well as the Maxwell stress at the interface. A spatiotemporal stability analysis is performed to investigate the effect of electric field on the absolute-convective instability (AI-CI) characteristics. We performed a numerical simulation on the nonlinear evolution of the film to examine the transition from CI to AI regime. The numerical results are in excellent agreement with the spatiotemporal stability analysis. The blowup behavior of nonlinear simulation predicts the formation of touchdown singularity of the interface due to the effect of electric field. We try to connect the blowup behavior with the AI-CI characteristics. It is found that the singularities mainly occur in the AI regime. The results indicate that the film may have a tendency to form very sharp tips due to the enhancement of the absolute instability induced by the electric field. We perform a theoretical analysis to study the behaviors of the singularities. The results show that there exists a self-similarity between the temporal and spatial distances from the singularities.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zaki, N.G.; Bekheit, A.H.
2011-01-01
The periodic absolute parametric instability (API) of the low-frequency oscillations excited by a monochromatic pumping field of an arbitrary amplitude in a warm 1-D (one-dimensional) nonuniform magnetoactive plasma is investigated. The separation method can be used for solving the two-fluid plasma equations describing the system. By applying this method we were able to determine the frequencies and growth rates of unstable modes and the self-consistent electric field. Plasma electrons are considered to have a thermal velocity. Different solutions for the spatial equation can be obtained the following cases: A) API in a uniform plasma, B) API in a nonuniform plasma. The latter has been studied here for two cases: B.1) the exact harmonic oscillator and B.2) the bounded harmonic oscillator (a bounded plasma). An increment has been found in the build-up of the oscillations, and it has been shown that the spatial nonuniformity of the plasma exerts the stabilizing effect on the parametric instability. A reduced growth rate of API in the warm plasma, in comparison to the cold plasma, is reported. It has also been found that the warmness of the plasma has no effect on the solution of the space part of the problem (only through the separation constant). (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zaki, N.G.; Bekheit, A.H.
2011-01-01
The periodic absolute parametric instability (API) of the low-frequency oscillations excited by a monochromatic pumping field of arbitrary amplitude in a warm I-D nonuniform magneto active plasma is investigated. One can use the separation method to solve the two-fluid plasma equations which describe the system. The method used enables us to determine the frequencies and growth rates of unstable modes and the self-consistent electric field. Plasma electrons are considered to have a thermal velocity. One can examine different solutions for the spatial equation in the following cases: A) API in uniform Plasma B) API in nonuniform plasma, we study this case for two variants: B.1) Exact harmonic oscillator and B.2) Bounded harmonic oscillator (bounded plasma). Increment is found in the buildup of the oscillations, and it is shown that the spatial nonuniformity of the plasma exerts a stabilizing effect on the parametric instability. It is shown that the growth rate of API in warm plasma is reduced compared to cold plasma. It is found also that the warmness of the plasma has no effect on the solution of the space part of the problem ( only through the separation constant )
Character of decay instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Polovin, R.V.; Demutskii, V.P.
1981-01-01
If the initial wave is unstable in the upper half plane Im ω>0 and there are no branch points of the quasiwave number, or if waves traveling in the same direction coalesce at a branch point, the instability is convective. On the other hand, if a branch point k(ω) does exist in the upper half-plane Im ω>0, and not all the waves that merge at this point travel in the same direction, the instability is absolute. A Green's function that describes the evolution of the perturbations of the initial wave in space and in time is constructed. The growth rates of the decay instability of the harmonics are determined. The produced waves are richer in harmonics than the initial waves. It is shown that the decay instability of an Alfven wave is absolute
Strongly nonlinear theory of rapid solidification near absolute stability
Kowal, Katarzyna N.; Altieri, Anthony L.; Davis, Stephen H.
2017-10-01
We investigate the nonlinear evolution of the morphological deformation of a solid-liquid interface of a binary melt under rapid solidification conditions near two absolute stability limits. The first of these involves the complete stabilization of the system to cellular instabilities as a result of large enough surface energy. We derive nonlinear evolution equations in several limits in this scenario and investigate the effect of interfacial disequilibrium on the nonlinear deformations that arise. In contrast to the morphological stability problem in equilibrium, in which only cellular instabilities appear and only one absolute stability boundary exists, in disequilibrium the system is prone to oscillatory instabilities and a second absolute stability boundary involving attachment kinetics arises. Large enough attachment kinetics stabilize the oscillatory instabilities. We derive a nonlinear evolution equation to describe the nonlinear development of the solid-liquid interface near this oscillatory absolute stability limit. We find that strong asymmetries develop with time. For uniform oscillations, the evolution equation for the interface reduces to the simple form f''+(βf')2+f =0 , where β is the disequilibrium parameter. Lastly, we investigate a distinguished limit near both absolute stability limits in which the system is prone to both cellular and oscillatory instabilities and derive a nonlinear evolution equation that captures the nonlinear deformations in this limit. Common to all these scenarios is the emergence of larger asymmetries in the resulting shapes of the solid-liquid interface with greater departures from equilibrium and larger morphological numbers. The disturbances additionally sharpen near the oscillatory absolute stability boundary, where the interface becomes deep-rooted. The oscillations are time-periodic only for small-enough initial amplitudes and their frequency depends on a single combination of physical parameters, including the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zaki, N.G.
2009-01-01
In this paper, the effect of spatial plasma nonuniformity on periodic Absolute Parametric Instability (API) of electrostatic waves in a magnetized pump warm plasma is investigated in a cylindrical geometry. An API plays a crucial role in the processes of the energy transfer from the electromagnetic radiation to the plasma and may have an important consequences for experiments on RF plasma heating in a magnetic traps and for a laser-fusion system. In conclusion; it is found that: A) allowance for the spatial nonuniformity of the plasma density leads to A.I) localization of an unstable wave in a finite region of a plasma volume, A.2) increasing the threshold value of the pump wave amplitude above which parametric amplification occurs and A.3) decreasing the value of the growth rate of unstable waves, B) more growth rate of periodic API is decreased due to electrons warmness in comparison with the case of cold plasma, and C) Independent of the geometry of the problem ( plane or cylinder), the results of the API in a warm plasma waveguide are still valid
Lower hybrid parametric instabilities nonuniform pump waves and tokamak applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berger, R.L.; Chen, L.; Kaw, P.K.; Perkins, F.W.
1976-11-01
Electrostatic lower hybrid ''pump'' waves often launched into tokamak plasmas by structures (e.g., waveguides) whose dimensions are considerably smaller than characteristic plasma sizes. Such waves propagate in well-defined resonance cones and give rise to parametric instabilities driven by electron E x B velocities. The finite size of the resonance cone region determines the threshold for both convective quasimode decay instabilities and absolute instabilities. The excitation of absolute instabilities depends on whether a travelling or standing wave pump model is used; travelling wave pumps require the daughter waves to have a definite frequency shift. Altogether, parametric instabilities driven by E x B velocities occur for threshold fields significantly below the threshold for filamentation instabilities driven by pondermotive forces. Applications to tokamak heating show that nonlinear effects set in when a certain power-per-wave-launching port is exceeded
Numerical study of jets secondary instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brancher, Pierre
1996-01-01
The work presented in this dissertation is a contribution to the study of the transition to turbulence in open shear flows. Results from direct numerical simulations are interpreted within the framework of hydrodynamic stability theory. The first chapter is an introduction to the primary and secondary instabilities observed in jets and mixing layers. The numerical method used in the present study is detailed in the second chapter. The dynamics of homogeneous circular jets subjected to stream wise and azimuthal perturbations are investigated in the third chapter. A complete scenario describing the evolution of the jet is proposed with emphasis on the dynamics of vorticity within the flow. In the fourth chapter a parametric study reveals a three-dimensional secondary instability mainly controlled in the linear regime by the Strouhal number of the primary instability. In the nonlinear regime the dynamics of the azimuthal harmonies are described by means of model equations and are linked to the formation of stream wise vortices in the braid. The fifth chapter is dedicated to the convective or absolute nature of the secondary instabilities in plane shear layers. It is shown that there are flow configurations for which the two-dimensional secondary instability (pairing) is absolute even though the primary instability (Kelvin-Helmholtz) is convective. Some preliminary results concerning the three-dimensional secondary instabilities arc presented at the end of this chapter. The last chapter summarizes the main results and examines possible extensions of this work. (author) [fr
Waves and instabilities in plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, L.
1987-01-01
The contents of this book are: Plasma as a Dielectric Medium; Nyquist Technique; Absolute and Convective Instabilities; Landau Damping and Phase Mixing; Particle Trapping and Breakdown of Linear Theory; Solution of Viasov Equation via Guilding-Center Transformation; Kinetic Theory of Magnetohydrodynamic Waves; Geometric Optics; Wave-Kinetic Equation; Cutoff and Resonance; Resonant Absorption; Mode Conversion; Gyrokinetic Equation; Drift Waves; Quasi-Linear Theory; Ponderomotive Force; Parametric Instabilities; Problem Sets for Homework, Midterm and Final Examinations
A real space calculation of absolutely unstable modes for two-plasmon decay in inhomogeneous plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Powers, L.V.; Berger, R.L.
1986-01-01
Growth rates for absolute modes of two-plasmon decay are obtained by solving for eigenmodes of the coupled mode equations for obliquely scattered Langmuir waves in real space. This analysis establishes a connection both to previous analysis in Fourier transform space and to other parametric instabilities, the analysis of which is commonly done in real space. The essential feature of the instability which admits absolute modes in an inhomogeneous plasma is the strong spatial dependence of the coupling coefficients. Landau damping limits the perpendicular wavenumbers of the most unstable modes and raises the instability thresholds for background plasma temperatures above 1 keV. (author)
Threshold of decay instability in an inhomogeneous plasma (Leningrad 1973)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Piliia, A.D.
It is shown that in a spatially inhomogeneous plasma there can exist an absolute decay instability with a threshold lower than that found earlier. This instability arises when two parametrically coupled waves have turning points inside the plasma layer. The cause of the instability is a positive inverse coupling, caused by a nonlinear conversion and a reflection of the waves
Avitabile, D.; Desroches, M.; Knobloch, E.; Krupa, M.
2017-11-01
A subcritical pattern-forming system with nonlinear advection in a bounded domain is recast as a slow-fast system in space and studied using a combination of geometric singular perturbation theory and numerical continuation. Two types of solutions describing the possible location of stationary fronts are identified, whose origin is traced to the onset of convective and absolute instability when the system is unbounded. The former are present only for non-zero upstream boundary conditions and provide a quantitative understanding of noise-sustained structures in systems of this type. The latter correspond to the onset of a global mode and are present even with zero upstream boundary conditions. The role of canard trajectories in the nonlinear transition between these states is clarified and the stability properties of the resulting spatial structures are determined. Front location in the convective regime is highly sensitive to the upstream boundary condition, and its dependence on this boundary condition is studied using a combination of numerical continuation and Monte Carlo simulations of the partial differential equation. Statistical properties of the system subjected to random or stochastic boundary conditions at the inlet are interpreted using the deterministic slow-fast spatial dynamical system.
Absolute parametric instability of low-frequency waves in a 2D ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
solved in two-dimensional (2D) nonuniform plane plasma. Equations which describe the spatial part of the electric potential are obtained. Also, the growth rates and conditions of the parametric instability for periodic and aperiodic cases are obtained. It is found that the spatial nonuniformity of the plasma exerts a stabilizing ...
Analysis of beam transverse instability in electron linac
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mondrus, I.N.; Shenderovich, A.M.
1990-01-01
Dispersion equations describing transverse beam instability in a single resonator section and in an accelerator comprising a sequence of resonator sections are derived. It is shown that close to parametric resonance of any multiplicity a reduction of cumulative instability incoherent takes place between nonsymmetric defocusing wave frequency and the frequency of accelerator cluster transport. Under exact resonance the increment equals to zero and under misalignment due to resonance depending on its sign and disturbance frequency an instability of either fast or slow wave takes place. It is shown that this effect leads to beam instability suppression of sections with the opposite sign of misalignment due to resonance are located in turn. The results obtained show that application of a parametric resonance through reducing slight the single section absolute instability threshold current, allows one to effectively suppress cumulative instability. The requirement to the accuracy of tuning to a resonance of identical sections is substantially reduced under the alternation of sections with different sign misalignment due to resonance and can be easily realized in practice
Absolute instabilities of travelling wave solutions in a Keller-Segel model
Davis, P. N.; van Heijster, P.; Marangell, R.
2016-01-01
We investigate the spectral stability of travelling wave solutions in a Keller-Segel model of bacterial chemotaxis with a logarithmic chemosensitivity function and a constant, sublinear, and linear consumption rate. Linearising around the travelling wave solutions, we locate the essential and absolute spectrum of the associated linear operators and find that all travelling wave solutions have essential spectrum in the right half plane. However, we show that in the case of constant or sublinea...
Ensuring long-term stability of infrared camera absolute calibration.
Kattnig, Alain; Thetas, Sophie; Primot, Jérôme
2015-07-13
Absolute calibration of cryogenic 3-5 µm and 8-10 µm infrared cameras is notoriously instable and thus has to be repeated before actual measurements. Moreover, the signal to noise ratio of the imagery is lowered, decreasing its quality. These performances degradations strongly lessen the suitability of Infrared Imaging. These defaults are often blamed on detectors reaching a different "response state" after each return to cryogenic conditions, while accounting for the detrimental effects of imperfect stray light management. We show here that detectors are not to be blamed and that the culprit can also dwell in proximity electronics. We identify an unexpected source of instability in the initial voltage of the integrating capacity of detectors. Then we show that this parameter can be easily measured and taken into account. This way we demonstrate that a one month old calibration of a 3-5 µm camera has retained its validity.
Fast flavor conversions of supernova neutrinos: Classifying instabilities via dispersion relations
Capozzi, Francesco; Dasgupta, Basudeb; Lisi, Eligio; Marrone, Antonio; Mirizzi, Alessandro
2017-08-01
Supernova neutrinos can exhibit a rich variety of flavor conversion mechanisms. In particular, they can experience "fast" self-induced flavor conversions almost immediately above the core. Very recently, a novel method has been proposed to investigate these phenomena, in terms of the dispersion relation for the complex frequency and wave number (ω ,k ) of disturbances in the mean field of the νeνx flavor coherence. We discuss a systematic approach to such instabilities, originally developed in the context of plasma physics, and based of the time-asymptotic behavior of the Green's function of the system. Instabilities are typically seen to emerge for complex ω and can be further characterized as convective (moving away faster than they spread) and absolute (growing locally), depending on k -dependent features. Stable cases emerge when k (but not ω ) is complex, leading to disturbances damped in space, or when both ω and k are real, corresponding to complete stability. The analytical classification of both unstable and stable modes leads not only to qualitative insights about their features but also to quantitative predictions about the growth rates of instabilities. Representative numerical solutions are discussed in a simple two-beam model of interacting neutrinos. As an application, we argue that supernova and binary neutron star mergers exhibiting a "crossing" in the electron lepton number would lead to an absolute instability in the flavor content of the neutrino gas.
Absolute risk, absolute risk reduction and relative risk
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jose Andres Calvache
2012-12-01
Full Text Available This article illustrates the epidemiological concepts of absolute risk, absolute risk reduction and relative risk through a clinical example. In addition, it emphasizes the usefulness of these concepts in clinical practice, clinical research and health decision-making process.
On broadened definitions of instability for stars in thermal imbalance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simon, N.R.
1977-01-01
The classical theory of stability of dynamical systems is employed to demonstrate that traditional definitions of pulsational instability cannot be directly applied to stars in thermal imbalance. In particular, it is shown that, for the case of thermal imbalance, pulsational displacements and pulsational velocities have separate and distinct e-folding times. This being true, a broadened set of definitions becomes necessary, and such a set is formulated again with reference to the classical theory. In accordance with the new definitions, it is argued that the development of observable pulsations requires as a necessary condition infinitesimal instability of both absolute displacement and velocity. If either one is unstable without the other, this constitutes a class of (probably) non-pulsational instability, not previously treated in the astrophysical literature. Finally, it is shown that the stability of stars in thermal imbalance may be evaluated according to the present definitions by employing either of two existing theories - the energy approach due to Demaret (1974; 1975; 1976) or the small perturbation technique of Cox et al. (1973). (Auth.)
Parametric instabilities in inhomogeneous plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nicholson, D.R.
1975-01-01
The nonlinear coupling of three waves in a plasma is considered. One of the waves is assumed large and constant; its amplitude is the parameter of the parametric instability. The spatial-temporal evolution of the other two waves is treated theoretically, in one dimension, by analytic methods and by direct numerical integration of the basic equations. Various monotonic forms of inhomogeneity are considered; agreement with previous work is found and new results are established. Nonmonotonic inhomogeneities are considered, in the form of turbulence and, as a model problem, in the form of a simple sinusoidal modulation. Relatively small amounts of nonmonotonic inhomogeneity, in the presence of a linear density gradient, are found to destabilize the well-known convective saturation, absolute growth occurring instead. (U.S.)
1992-04-01
Hannemann & Oertel (1989) and many others. If the the mean flow is weakly nonparallel, i.e. evolves slowly on the scale of a typical instability wave... HANNEMANN , K. & OERTEL, H. Jr. 1989 Numerical simulation of the absolutely and convectively unstable wake. J. Fluid Mech. 199, 55-88. HUERRE, P. & MONKEWITZ
Hydrodynamic instabilities in the developing region of an axially rotating pipe flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miranda-Barea, A; Fabrellas-García, C; Parras, L; Pino, C del, E-mail: cpino@uma.es [Universidad de Málaga, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería Industrial, Ampliación Campus de Teatinos, 29071, Málaga, España (Spain)
2015-06-15
We conduct experiments in a rotating Hagen–Poiseuille flow (RHPF) through flow visualizations when the flow becomes convectively and absolutely unstable at low-to-moderate Reynolds numbers, Re. We characterize periodic patterns at a very high swirl parameter, L, when the flow overcomes the absolutely unstable region. These non-steady helical filaments wrapped around the axis appear in the developing region of the pipe. Experimentally, we compute the onset of these oscillations in the (L, Re)-plane finding that the rotation rate decreases as the Reynolds number increases in the process of achieving the time-dependent state. Additionally, we report information regarding frequencies and wavelengths that appear downstream of the rotating pipe for convectively and absolutely unstable flows, even for very high swirl parameters at which the flow becomes time-dependent in the developing region. We do not observe variations in the trends of these parameters, so these hydrodynamic instabilities in the developing region do not affect the unstable travelling waves downstream of the pipe. (paper)
Transformation instability of oscillations in inhomogeneous beam-plasma system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kitsenko, A.B.
1985-01-01
Wave transformation is studied in a plasma system which was weak-inhomogeneous along beam velocity, in absence of external magnetic field. For the case of small density beam formulae are obtained which have set a coupling between the charge density beam wave amplitudes and the Langmuir wave on both sides of transformation point. It is shown that in collisionless plasma the wave production is a cause of the absorption of the charge density beam waves. Transformation mechanism of the absolute instability in the weak-inhomogeneous beam-plasma system is revealed
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Uroš Martinčič
2014-05-01
Full Text Available The paper explores the issue of structure and case in English absolute constructions, whose subjects are deduced by several descriptive grammars as being in the nominative case due to its supposed neutrality in terms of register. This deduction is countered by systematic accounts presented within the framework of the Minimalist Program which relate the case of absolute constructions to specific grammatical factors. Each proposal is shown as an attempt of analysing absolute constructions as basic predication structures, either full clauses or small clauses. I argue in favour of the small clause approach due to its minimal reliance on transformations and unique stipulations. Furthermore, I propose that small clauses project a singular category, and show that the use of two cases in English absolute constructions can be accounted for if they are analysed as depictive phrases, possibly selected by prepositions. The case of the subject in absolutes is shown to be a result of syntactic and non-syntactic factors. I thus argue in accordance with Minimalist goals that syntactic case does not exist, attributing its role in absolutes to other mechanisms.
Tinker-OpenMM: Absolute and relative alchemical free energies using AMOEBA on GPUs.
Harger, Matthew; Li, Daniel; Wang, Zhi; Dalby, Kevin; Lagardère, Louis; Piquemal, Jean-Philip; Ponder, Jay; Ren, Pengyu
2017-09-05
The capabilities of the polarizable force fields for alchemical free energy calculations have been limited by the high computational cost and complexity of the underlying potential energy functions. In this work, we present a GPU-based general alchemical free energy simulation platform for polarizable potential AMOEBA. Tinker-OpenMM, the OpenMM implementation of the AMOEBA simulation engine has been modified to enable both absolute and relative alchemical simulations on GPUs, which leads to a ∼200-fold improvement in simulation speed over a single CPU core. We show that free energy values calculated using this platform agree with the results of Tinker simulations for the hydration of organic compounds and binding of host-guest systems within the statistical errors. In addition to absolute binding, we designed a relative alchemical approach for computing relative binding affinities of ligands to the same host, where a special path was applied to avoid numerical instability due to polarization between the different ligands that bind to the same site. This scheme is general and does not require ligands to have similar scaffolds. We show that relative hydration and binding free energy calculated using this approach match those computed from the absolute free energy approach. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)
2008-01-01
textabstractA country is said to have an absolute advantage over another country in the production of a good or service if it can produce that good or service using fewer real resources. Equivalently, using the same inputs, the country can produce more output. The concept of absolute advantage can
Squire, Jonathan; Hopkins, Philip F.
2018-04-01
We identify and study a number of new, rapidly growing instabilities of dust grains in protoplanetary disks, which may be important for planetesimal formation. The study is based on the recognition that dust-gas mixtures are generically unstable to a Resonant Drag Instability (RDI), whenever the gas, absent dust, supports undamped linear modes. We show that the "streaming instability" is an RDI associated with epicyclic oscillations; this provides simple interpretations for its mechanisms and accurate analytic expressions for its growth rates and fastest-growing wavelengths. We extend this analysis to more general dust streaming motions and other waves, including buoyancy and magnetohydrodynamic oscillations, finding various new instabilities. Most importantly, we identify the disk "settling instability," which occurs as dust settles vertically into the midplane of a rotating disk. For small grains, this instability grows many orders of magnitude faster than the standard streaming instability, with a growth rate that is independent of grain size. Growth timescales for realistic dust-to-gas ratios are comparable to the disk orbital period, and the characteristic wavelengths are more than an order of magnitude larger than the streaming instability (allowing the instability to concentrate larger masses). This suggests that in the process of settling, dust will band into rings then filaments or clumps, potentially seeding dust traps, high-metallicity regions that in turn seed the streaming instability, or even overdensities that coagulate or directly collapse to planetesimals.
Absolutely relative or relatively absolute: violations of value invariance in human decision making.
Teodorescu, Andrei R; Moran, Rani; Usher, Marius
2016-02-01
Making decisions based on relative rather than absolute information processing is tied to choice optimality via the accumulation of evidence differences and to canonical neural processing via accumulation of evidence ratios. These theoretical frameworks predict invariance of decision latencies to absolute intensities that maintain differences and ratios, respectively. While information about the absolute values of the choice alternatives is not necessary for choosing the best alternative, it may nevertheless hold valuable information about the context of the decision. To test the sensitivity of human decision making to absolute values, we manipulated the intensities of brightness stimuli pairs while preserving either their differences or their ratios. Although asked to choose the brighter alternative relative to the other, participants responded faster to higher absolute values. Thus, our results provide empirical evidence for human sensitivity to task irrelevant absolute values indicating a hard-wired mechanism that precedes executive control. Computational investigations of several modelling architectures reveal two alternative accounts for this phenomenon, which combine absolute and relative processing. One account involves accumulation of differences with activation dependent processing noise and the other emerges from accumulation of absolute values subject to the temporal dynamics of lateral inhibition. The potential adaptive role of such choice mechanisms is discussed.
Anisotropic gravitational instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Polyachenko, V.L.; Fridman, A.M.
1988-01-01
Exact solutions of stability problems are obtained for two anisotropic gravitational systems of different geometries - a layer of finite thickness at rest and a rotating cylinder of finite radius. It is shown that the anisotropic gravitational instability which develops in both cases is of Jeans type. However, in contrast to the classical aperiodic Jeans instability, this instability is oscillatory. The physics of the anisotropic gravitational instability is investigated. It is shown that in a gravitating layer this instability is due, in particular, to excitation of previously unknown interchange-Jeans modes. In the cylinder, the oscillatory Jeans instability is associated with excitation of a rotational branch, this also being responsible for the beam gravitational instability. This is the reason why this instability and the anisotropic gravitational instability have so much in common
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schechter, J.; Shahid, M. N.
2012-01-01
We discuss the possibility of using experiments timing the propagation of neutrino beams over large distances to help determine the absolute masses of the three neutrinos.......We discuss the possibility of using experiments timing the propagation of neutrino beams over large distances to help determine the absolute masses of the three neutrinos....
Spatiotemporal Evolution of Stimulated Raman Scattering in the Absolute and Convective Regimes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feng Wu; Li Xibo; Zheng Chunyang
2013-01-01
A three-wave interaction (3WI) code is developed to study the stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) in both absolute and convective regimes. In the simulations, the time and spatial evolutions of a plasma wave are described by temporal growth rate and spatial factor, respectively. The spatial factors in different phases and different instability regimes are investigated. It is found that the spatial factor is caused by the finite velocity of the pump wave in the first phase and by damping in the last phase. With inclusion of the spatial factor, the temporal growth rate decreases and the threshold for SRS for a finite frequency mismatch increases. Meanwhile, the effects of wave frequency mismatch on the temporal growth rate are also discussed. (basic plasma phenomena)
On the role of acoustic feedback in boundary-layer instability.
Wu, Xuesong
2014-07-28
In this paper, the classical triple-deck formalism is employed to investigate two instability problems in which an acoustic feedback loop plays an essential role. The first concerns a subsonic boundary layer over a flat plate on which two well-separated roughness elements are present. A spatially amplifying Tollmien-Schlichting (T-S) wave between the roughness elements is scattered by the downstream roughness to emit a sound wave that propagates upstream and impinges on the upstream roughness to regenerate the T-S wave, thereby forming a closed feedback loop in the streamwise direction. Numerical calculations suggest that, at high Reynolds numbers and for moderate roughness heights, the long-range acoustic coupling may lead to absolute instability, which is characterized by self-sustained oscillations at discrete frequencies. The dominant peak frequency may jump from one value to another as the Reynolds number, or the distance between the roughness elements, is varied gradually. The second problem concerns the supersonic 'twin boundary layers' that develop along two well-separated parallel flat plates. The two boundary layers are in mutual interaction through the impinging and reflected acoustic waves. It is found that the interaction leads to a new instability that is absent in the unconfined boundary layer. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
Beam--plasma instabilities and the beam--plasma discharge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kellogg, P.J.; Boswell, R.W.
1986-01-01
Using a new electron gun, a number of measurements bearing on the generation of beam--plasma discharge (BPD) in WOMBAT (waves on magnetized beams and turbulence) [R. W. Boswell and P. J. Kellogg, Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 565 (1983)] have been made. A beam--plasma discharge is an rf discharge in which the rf fields are provided by instabilities [W. D. Getty and L. D. Smullin, J. Appl. Phys. 34, 3421 (1963)]. The new gun has a narrower divergence angle than the old, and comparison of the BPD thresholds for the two guns verifies that the BPD ignition current is proportional to the cross-sectional area of the plasma. The high-frequency instabilities, precursors to the BPD, are identified with the two Trivelpiece--Gould modes [A. W. Trivelpiece and R. W. Gould, J. Appl. Phys. 30, 1784 (1959)]. Which frequency appears depends on the neutral pressure. The measured frequencies are not consistent with the simple interpretation of the lower frequency as a Cerenkov resonance with the low-Trivelpiece--Gould mode; it must be a cyclotron resonance. As is generally true in such beam--plasma interaction experiments, strong low-frequency waves appear at currents far below those necessary for BPD ignition. These low-frequency waves are shown to control the onset of the high-frequency precursors to the BPD. A mechanism for this control is suggested, which involves the conversion of a convective instability to an absolute one by trapping of the unstable waves in the density perturbations of the low-frequency waves. This process greatly reduces the current necessary for BPD ignition
Absolute nuclear material assay
Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA
2010-07-13
A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.
Instability of vortex pair leapfrogging
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tophøj, Laust; Aref, Hassan
2013-01-01
Leapfrogging is a periodic solution of the four-vortex problem with two positive and two negative point vortices all of the same absolute circulation arranged as co-axial vortex pairs. The set of co-axial motions can be parameterized by the ratio 0 vortex pair sizes at the time when one...... pair passes through the other. Leapfrogging occurs for α > σ2, where is the silver ratio. The motion is known in full analytical detail since the 1877 thesis of Gröbli and a well known 1894 paper by Love. Acheson ["Instability of vortex leapfrogging," Eur. J. Phys.21, 269-273 (2000...... pairs fly off to infinity, and a "walkabout" mode, where the vortices depart from leapfrogging but still remain within a finite distance of one another. We show numerically that this transition is more gradual, a result that we relate to earlier investigations of chaotic scattering of vortex pairs [L...
Buneman instability and Pierce instability in a collisionless bounded plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iizuka, Satoru; Saeki, Koichi; Sato, Noriyoshi; Hatta, Yoshisuke
1983-01-01
A systematic experiment is performed on the Buneman instability and the Pierce instability in a bounded plasma consisting of beam electrons and stationary ions. Current fluctuations are confirmed to be induced by the Buneman instability. On the other hand, the Pierce instability gives rise to a current limitation. The phenomena are well explained by Mikhailovskii's theory taking account of ion motion in a bounded plasma. (author)
Thermodynamics of negative absolute pressures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lukacs, B.; Martinas, K.
1984-03-01
The authors show that the possibility of negative absolute pressure can be incorporated into the axiomatic thermodynamics, analogously to the negative absolute temperature. There are examples for such systems (GUT, QCD) processing negative absolute pressure in such domains where it can be expected from thermodynamical considerations. (author)
Threshold current for the transverse single-bunch instability in PEP
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wilson, P.B.; Rivkin, L.
1982-08-01
For a bunch with charge q moving in a storage ring under the influence of a constant dipole wake potential of amplitude W 1 and constant transverse beta-function with amplitude β/sub t/, the two-macroparticle model for the transverse single-bunch instability predicts a threshold current. When this work is completed, an absolute prediction of the threshold current will be possible, at least to the extent that the transverse impedance of the rf cavities dominates the total impedance of the ring. A preliminary estimate of the fraction of the total dipole impedance exterior to the rf cavities is the purposes of this note. 4 refs., 3 tabs
Instabilities in inhomogeneous plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mikhailovsky, A.B.
1983-01-01
The plasma inhomogeneity across the magnetic field causes a wide class of instabilities which are called instabilities of an inhomogeneous plasma or gradient instabilities. The instabilities that can be studied in the approximation of a magnetic field with parallel straight field lines are treated first, followed by a discussion of the influence of shear on these instabilities. The instabilities of a weakly inhomogeneous plasma with the Maxwellian velocity distribution of particles caused by the density and temperature gradients are often called drift instabilities, and the corresponding types of perturbations are the drift waves. An elementary theory of drift instabilities is presented, based on the simplest equations of motion of particles in the field of low-frequency and long-wavelength perturbations. Following that is a more complete theory of inhomogeneous collisionless plasma instabilities which uses the permittivity tensor and, in the case of electrostatic perturbations, the scalar of permittivity. The results are used to study the instabilities of a strongly inhomogeneous plasma. The instabilities of a plasma in crossed fields are discussed and the electromagnetic instabilities of plasma with finite and high pressure are described. (Auth.)
Linear and nonlinear instability in vertical counter-current laminar gas-liquid flows
Schmidt, Patrick; Ó Náraigh, Lennon; Lucquiaud, Mathieu; Valluri, Prashant
2016-04-01
We consider the genesis and dynamics of interfacial instability in vertical gas-liquid flows, using as a model the two-dimensional channel flow of a thin falling film sheared by counter-current gas. The methodology is linear stability theory (Orr-Sommerfeld analysis) together with direct numerical simulation of the two-phase flow in the case of nonlinear disturbances. We investigate the influence of two main flow parameters on the interfacial dynamics, namely the film thickness and pressure drop applied to drive the gas stream. To make contact with existing studies in the literature, the effect of various density contrasts is also examined. Energy budget analyses based on the Orr-Sommerfeld theory reveal various coexisting unstable modes (interfacial, shear, internal) in the case of high density contrasts, which results in mode coalescence and mode competition, but only one dynamically relevant unstable interfacial mode for low density contrast. A study of absolute and convective instability for low density contrast shows that the system is absolutely unstable for all but two narrow regions of the investigated parameter space. Direct numerical simulations of the same system (low density contrast) show that linear theory holds up remarkably well upon the onset of large-amplitude waves as well as the existence of weakly nonlinear waves. For high density contrasts, corresponding more closely to an air-water-type system, linear stability theory is also successful at determining the most-dominant features in the interfacial wave dynamics at early-to-intermediate times. Nevertheless, the short waves selected by the linear theory undergo secondary instability and the wave train is no longer regular but rather exhibits chaotic motion. The same linear stability theory predicts when the direction of travel of the waves changes — from downwards to upwards. We outline the practical implications of this change in terms of loading and flooding. The change in direction of the
Linear and nonlinear instability in vertical counter-current laminar gas-liquid flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmidt, Patrick; Lucquiaud, Mathieu; Valluri, Prashant; Ó Náraigh, Lennon
2016-01-01
We consider the genesis and dynamics of interfacial instability in vertical gas-liquid flows, using as a model the two-dimensional channel flow of a thin falling film sheared by counter-current gas. The methodology is linear stability theory (Orr-Sommerfeld analysis) together with direct numerical simulation of the two-phase flow in the case of nonlinear disturbances. We investigate the influence of two main flow parameters on the interfacial dynamics, namely the film thickness and pressure drop applied to drive the gas stream. To make contact with existing studies in the literature, the effect of various density contrasts is also examined. Energy budget analyses based on the Orr-Sommerfeld theory reveal various coexisting unstable modes (interfacial, shear, internal) in the case of high density contrasts, which results in mode coalescence and mode competition, but only one dynamically relevant unstable interfacial mode for low density contrast. A study of absolute and convective instability for low density contrast shows that the system is absolutely unstable for all but two narrow regions of the investigated parameter space. Direct numerical simulations of the same system (low density contrast) show that linear theory holds up remarkably well upon the onset of large-amplitude waves as well as the existence of weakly nonlinear waves. For high density contrasts, corresponding more closely to an air-water-type system, linear stability theory is also successful at determining the most-dominant features in the interfacial wave dynamics at early-to-intermediate times. Nevertheless, the short waves selected by the linear theory undergo secondary instability and the wave train is no longer regular but rather exhibits chaotic motion. The same linear stability theory predicts when the direction of travel of the waves changes — from downwards to upwards. We outline the practical implications of this change in terms of loading and flooding. The change in direction of the
Kinetic instabilities in relativistic plasmas: the Harris instability revisited
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tautz, R.C.
2008-01-01
Plasma instabilities that generate aperiodic fluctuations are of outstanding importance in the astrophysical context. Two prominent examples are the electromagnetic Weibel instability and the electrostatic Harris instability, which operate in initially non-magnetized and magnetized plasmas, respectively. In this talk, the original formulation of the Harris instability will be reviewed and generalizations will be presented such as the inclusion of (1) relativistic effects, (2) ion effects, and (3) mode coupling. It will be shown that, with these modifications, a powerful method has been developed for the determination of both the existence and the growth rate of low-frequency instabilities. Applications can be found in astrophysical jets, where the rest frame can be used and so no parallel motion is present. At the end of the talk, how the particle composition of gamma-ray burst jets can be predicted using the Harris technique. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmitt, R.; Froehner, S.; Coblenz, G.; Christopoulos, G.
2006-01-01
This review addresses the pathoanatomical basics as well as the clinical and radiological presentation of instability patterns of the wrist. Carpal instability mostly follows an injury; however, other diseases, like CPPD arthropathy, can be associated. Instability occurs either if the carpus is unable to sustain physiologic loads (''dyskinetics'') or suffers from abnormal motion of its bones during movement (''dyskinematics''). In the classification of carpal instability, dissociative subcategories (located within proximal carpal row) are differentiated from non-dissociative subcategories (present between the carpal rows) and combined patterns. It is essential to note that the unstable wrist initially does not cause relevant signs in standard radiograms, therefore being ''occult'' for the radiologic assessment. This paper emphasizes the high utility of kinematographic studies, contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MR arthrography for detecting these predynamic and dynamic instability stages. Later in the natural history of carpal instability, static malalignment of the wrist and osteoarthritis will develop, both being associated with significant morbidity and disability. To prevent individual and socio-economic implications, the handsurgeon or orthopedist, as well as the radiologist, is challenged for early and precise diagnosis. (orig.)
Instability timescale for the inclination instability in the solar system
Zderic, Alexander; Madigan, Ann-Marie; Fleisig, Jacob
2018-04-01
The gravitational influence of small bodies is often neglected in the study of solar system dynamics. However, this is not always an appropriate assumption. For example, mutual secular torques between low mass particles on eccentric orbits can result in a self-gravity instability (`inclination instability'; Madigan & McCourt 2016). During the instability, inclinations increase exponentially, eccentricities decrease (detachment), and orbits cluster in argument of perihelion. In the solar system, the orbits of the most distant objects show all three of these characteristics (high inclination: Volk & Malhotra (2017), detachment: Delsanti & Jewitt (2006), and argument of perihelion clustering: Trujillo & Sheppard (2014)). The inclination instability is a natural explanation for these phenomena.Unfortunately, full N-body simulations of the solar system are unfeasible (N ≈ O(1012)), and the behavior of the instability depends on N, prohibiting the direct application of lower N simulations. Here we present the instability timescale's functional dependence on N, allowing us to extrapolate our simulation results to that appropriate for the solar system. We show that ~5 MEarth of small icy bodies in the Sedna region is sufficient for the inclination instability to occur in the outer solar system.
Danish Towns during Absolutism
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
This anthology, No. 4 in the Danish Urban Studies Series, presents in English recent significant research on Denmark's urban development during the Age of Absolutism, 1660-1848, and features 13 articles written by leading Danish urban historians. The years of Absolutism were marked by a general...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Saveliev A.N.
2012-09-01
Full Text Available In the paper the possibility of total 3D trapping of electron Bernstein (EB waves in the tokamak equatorial plane in the vicinity of the local density maximum produced by electron pump-out-effect is demonstrated. Thresholds and growth rates of the associated absolute (temporally growing parametric decay instability (PDI leading to anomalous absorption is predicted in the range of less than 100 kW. Its possible role in explanation of ion acceleration observed in ECRH experiments as well as in redistribution of the deposited power is discussed.
Hydrodynamic instabilities in inertial fusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoffman, N.M.
1994-01-01
This report discusses topics on hydrodynamics instabilities in inertial confinement: linear analysis of Rayleigh-Taylor instability; ablation-surface instability; bubble rise in late-stage Rayleigh-Taylor instability; and saturation and multimode interactions in intermediate-stage Rayleigh-Taylor instability
Wise, Paul H; Darmstadt, Gary L
2015-08-01
Despite considerable improvements in reproductive and newborn health throughout the world, relatively poor outcomes persist in areas plagued by conflict or political instability. To assess the contribution of areas of conflict and instability to global patterns of stillbirths and newborn deaths and to identify opportunities for effective intervention in these areas. Analysis of the available data on stillbirths and neonatal mortality in association with conflict and governance indicators, and review of epidemiological and political literature pertaining to the provision of health and public services in areas of conflict and instability. Of the 15 countries with the highest neonatal mortality rates in the world, 14 are characterized by chronic conflict or political instability. If India and China are excluded, countries experiencing chronic conflict or political instability account for approximately 42% of all neonatal deaths worldwide. Efforts to address adverse reproductive and newborn outcomes in these areas must adapt recommended intervention protocols to the special security and governance conditions associated with unstable political environment. Despite troubling relative and absolute indicators, the special requirements of improving reproductive and neonatal outcomes in areas affected by conflict and political instability have not received adequate attention. New integrated political and technical strategies will be required. This should include moving beyond traditional approaches concerned with complex humanitarian emergencies. Rather, global efforts must be based on a deeper understanding of the specific governance requirements associated with protracted and widespread health requirements. A focus on women's roles, regional strategies which take advantage of relative stability and governance capacity in neighbouring states, virtual infrastructure, and assistance regimens directed specifically to unstable areas may prove useful.
Effects of Exchange Rate Instability on Imports and Exports of Pakistan
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Atif Kafayat
2014-04-01
Full Text Available The instability in exchange rate (appreciation and depreciation in home currency is an important factor indetermination of trade balance of a country. Fluctuating exchange rates impacts the decision making of investors and traders, it shatters their confidence which ultimately leads to the slowness of trade process. In this research paper the effect of exchange rate instability is measured on imports and exports of Pakistan. For this purpose Regression analysis is used and it is calculated that if instability is created due to depreciation in home currency (Pak rupee then it has positive impact on Pakistan‘s exports, while it has absolutely no effect on imports of Pakistan. Since Pak rupee has very limited appreciation during last 20 years so appreciation effect of home currency can not be calculated on Imports and exports of Pakistan. In theoretical prospective the devaluation of home currency should decrease the volume of imports, because it will cost more for Pakistan to import goods from other countries. But our empirical findings show that, this is not the case between exchange rate and imports of Pakistan. The imports of Pakistan grew even in large figure as the home currency depreciated against other currencies. So this shows that depreciation of home currency do not effect the imports in of Pakistan. Our findings through regression analysis show that by decrease in value of home currency imports of Pakistan increase. So depreciation in home currency has no effect on imports volume.
Genomic instability following irradiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hacker-Klom, U.B.; Goehde, W.
2001-01-01
Ionising irradiation may induce genomic instability. The broad spectrum of stress reactions in eukaryontic cells to irradiation complicates the discovery of cellular targets and pathways inducing genomic instability. Irradiation may initiate genomic instability by deletion of genes controlling stability, by induction of genes stimulating instability and/or by activating endogeneous cellular viruses. Alternatively or additionally it is discussed that the initiation of genomic instability may be a consequence of radiation or other agents independently of DNA damage implying non nuclear targets, e.g. signal cascades. As a further mechanism possibly involved our own results may suggest radiation-induced changes in chromatin structure. Once initiated the process of genomic instability probably is perpetuated by endogeneous processes necessary for proliferation. Genomic instability may be a cause or a consequence of the neoplastic phenotype. As a conclusion from the data available up to now a new interpretation of low level radiation effects for radiation protection and in radiotherapy appears useful. The detection of the molecular mechanisms of genomic instability will be important in this context and may contribute to a better understanding of phenomenons occurring at low doses <10 cSv which are not well understood up to now. (orig.)
Near threshold absolute TDCS: First results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roesel, T.; Schlemmer, P.; Roeder, J.; Frost, L.; Jung, K.; Ehrhardt, H.
1992-01-01
A new method, and first results for an impact energy 2 eV above the threshold of ionisation of helium, are presented for the measurement of absolute triple differential cross sections (TDCS) in a crossed beam experiment. The method is based upon measurement of beam/target overlap densities using known absolute total ionisation cross sections and of detection efficiencies using known absolute double differential cross sections (DDCS). For the present work the necessary absolute DDCS for 1 eV electrons had also to be measured. Results are presented for several different coplanar kinematics and are compared with recent DWBA calculations. (orig.)
Absolute entropy of ions in methanol
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abakshin, V.A.; Kobenin, V.A.; Krestov, G.A.
1978-01-01
By measuring the initial thermoelectromotive forces of chains with bromo-silver electrodes in tetraalkylammonium bromide solutions the absolute entropy of bromide-ion in methanol is determined in the 298.15-318.15 K range. The anti Ssub(Brsup(-))sup(0) = 9.8 entropy units value is used for calculation of the absolute partial molar entropy of alkali metal ions and halogenide ions. It has been found that, absolute entropy of Cs + =12.0 entropy units, I - =14.0 entropy units. The obtained ion absolute entropies in methanol at 298.15 K within 1-2 entropy units is in an agreement with published data
Triclade: influence of a sinuous secondary instability on the Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boulet, M.; Griffond, J.
2004-01-01
Occurrence of a secondary instability developing after the Richtmyer-Meshkov (primary) instability is emphasized thanks to numerical simulations with the TRICLADE code. We are mainly considering 2D perturbations describes by trigonometric function cosine or [cosine]. However, the 3D case is also tackled. The sinuous secondary instability is characterized by the loss of the symmetries in the direction normal to the interface at its crests. It reduces the late time growing rate of the 'mushrooms' formed by the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability. Related simplified problems, like symmetrical Riemann problems or the Mallier-Maslowe array of counter-rotating vortices, allow us to perform 2D linear stability analysis. Thus, we show that the sinuous secondary instability is not a numerical artifact and that is comes from the continuous incompressible velocity field in the interface region. This instability implies temporal limitations for the validity of single mode simulations; therefore multimode simulations are necessary to study the ]ate-time behaviour of interfaces bitted by shocks. (authors)
Santangelo, Philip S; Reinhard, Iris; Koudela-Hamila, Susanne; Bohus, Martin; Holtmann, Jana; Eid, Michael; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich W
2017-11-01
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is defined by a pervasive pattern of instability. Although there is ample empirical evidence that unstable self-esteem is associated with a myriad of BPD-like symptoms, self-esteem instability and its temporal dynamics have received little empirical attention in patients with BPD. Even worse, the temporal interplay of affective instability and self-esteem instability has been neglected completely, although it has been hypothesized recently that the lack of specificity of affective instability in association with BPD might be explained by the highly intertwined temporal relationship between affective and self-esteem instability. To investigate self-esteem instability, its temporal interplay with affective instability, and its association with psychopathology, 60 patients with BPD and 60 healthy controls (HCs) completed electronic diaries for 4 consecutive days during their everyday lives. Participants reported their current self-esteem, valence, and tense arousal levels 12 times a day in approximately one-hr intervals. We used multiple state-of-the-art statistical techniques and graphical approaches to reveal patterns of instability, clarify group differences, and examine the temporal interplay of self-esteem instability and affective instability. As hypothesized, instability in both self-esteem and affect was clearly elevated in the patients with BPD. In addition, self-esteem instability and affective instability were highly correlated. Both types of instability were related to general psychopathology. Because self-esteem instability could not fully explain affective instability and vice versa and neither affective instability nor self-esteem instability was able to explain psychopathology completely, our findings suggest that these types of instability represent unique facets of BPD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Tearing instabilities in turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishizawa, A.; Nakajima, N.
2009-01-01
Full text: Effects of micro-turbulence on tearing instabilities are investigated by numerically solving a reduced set of two-fluid equations. Micro-turbulence excites both large-scale and small-scale Fourier modes through energy transfer due to nonlinear mode coupling. The energy transfer to large scale mode does not directly excite tearing instability but it gives an initiation of tearing instability. When tearing instability starts to grow, the excited small scale mode plays an important role. The mixing of magnetic flux by micro-turbulence is the dominant factor of non-ideal MHD effect at the resonant surface and it gives rise to magnetic reconnection which causes tearing instability. Tearing instabilities were investigated against static equilibrium or flowing equilibrium so far. On the other hand, the recent progress of computer power allows us to investigate interactions between turbulence and coherent modes such as tearing instabilities in magnetically confined plasmas by means of direct numerical simulations. In order to investigate effects of turbulence on tearing instabilities we consider a situation that tearing mode is destabilized in a quasi-equilibrium including micro-turbulence. We choose an initial equilibrium that is unstable against kinetic ballooning modes and tearing instabilities. Tearing instabilities are current driven modes and thus they are unstable for large scale Fourier modes. On the other hand kinetic ballooning modes are unstable for poloidal Fourier modes that are characterized by ion Larmor radius. The energy of kinetic ballooning modes spreads over wave number space through nonlinear Fourier mode coupling. We present that micro-turbulence affects tearing instabilities in two different ways by three-dimensional numerical simulation of a reduced set of two-fluid equations. One is caused by energy transfer to large scale modes, the other is caused by energy transfer to small scale modes. The former is the excitation of initial
Review of two-phase instabilities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kang, Han Ok; Seo, Han Ok; Kang, Hyung Suk; Cho, Bong Hyun; Lee, Doo Jeong
1997-06-01
KAERI is carrying out a development of the design for a new type of integral reactors. The once-through helical steam generator is important design features. The study on designs and operating conditions which prevent flow instability should precede the introduction of one-through steam generator. Experiments are currently scheduled to understand two-phase instability, evaluate the effect of each design parameter on the critical point, and determine proper inlet throttling for the prevention of instability. This report covers general two-phase instability with review of existing studies on this topics. The general classification of two phase flow instability and the characteristics of each type of instability are first described. Special attention is paid to BWR core flow instability and once-through steam generator instability. The reactivity feedback and the effect of system parameters are treated mainly for BWR. With relation to once-through steam generators, the characteristics of convective heating and dryout point oscillation are first investigated and then the existing experimental studies are summarized. Finally chapter summarized the proposed correlations for instability boundary conditions. (author). 231 refs., 5 tabs., 47 figs
Joint instability and osteoarthritis.
Blalock, Darryl; Miller, Andrew; Tilley, Michael; Wang, Jinxi
2015-01-01
Joint instability creates a clinical and economic burden in the health care system. Injuries and disorders that directly damage the joint structure or lead to joint instability are highly associated with osteoarthritis (OA). Thus, understanding the physiology of joint stability and the mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA is of clinical significance. The first section of this review discusses the structure and function of major joint tissues, including periarticular muscles, which play a significant role in joint stability. Because the knee, ankle, and shoulder joints demonstrate a high incidence of ligament injury and joint instability, the second section summarizes the mechanisms of ligament injury-associated joint instability of these joints. The final section highlights the recent advances in the understanding of the mechanical and biological mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA. These advances may lead to new opportunities for clinical intervention in the prevention and early treatment of OA.
MHD instabilities in astrophysical plasmas: very different from MHD instabilities in tokamaks!
Goedbloed, J. P.
2018-01-01
The extensive studies of MHD instabilities in thermonuclear magnetic confinement experiments, in particular of the tokamak as the most promising candidate for a future energy producing machine, have led to an ‘intuitive’ description based on the energy principle that is very misleading for most astrophysical plasmas. The ‘intuitive’ picture almost directly singles out the dominant stabilizing field line bending energy of the Alfvén waves and, consequently, concentrates on expansion schemes that minimize that contribution. This happens when the wave vector {{k}}0 of the perturbations, on average, is perpendicular to the magnetic field {B}. Hence, all macroscopic instabilities of tokamaks (kinks, interchanges, ballooning modes, ELMs, neoclassical tearing modes, etc) are characterized by satisfying the condition {{k}}0 \\perp {B}, or nearly so. In contrast, some of the major macroscopic instabilities of astrophysical plasmas (the Parker instability and the magneto-rotational instability) occur when precisely the opposite condition is satisfied: {{k}}0 \\parallel {B}. How do those instabilities escape from the dominance of the stabilizing Alfvén wave? The answer to that question involves, foremost, the recognition that MHD spectral theory of waves and instabilities of laboratory plasmas could be developed to such great depth since those plasmas are assumed to be in static equilibrium. This assumption is invalid for astrophysical plasmas where rotational and gravitational accelerations produce equilibria that are at best stationary, and the associated spectral theory is widely, and incorrectly, believed to be non-self adjoint. These complications are addressed, and cured, in the theory of the Spectral Web, recently developed by the author. Using this method, an extensive survey of instabilities of astrophysical plasmas demonstrates how the Alfvén wave is pushed into insignificance under these conditions to give rise to a host of instabilities that do not
Projective absoluteness for Sacks forcing
Ikegami, D.
2009-01-01
We show that Sigma(1)(3)-absoluteness for Sacks forcing is equivalent to the nonexistence of a Delta(1)(2) Bernstein set. We also show that Sacks forcing is the weakest forcing notion among all of the preorders that add a new real with respect to Sigma(1)(3) forcing absoluteness.
Forecasting Error Calculation with Mean Absolute Deviation and Mean Absolute Percentage Error
Khair, Ummul; Fahmi, Hasanul; Hakim, Sarudin Al; Rahim, Robbi
2017-12-01
Prediction using a forecasting method is one of the most important things for an organization, the selection of appropriate forecasting methods is also important but the percentage error of a method is more important in order for decision makers to adopt the right culture, the use of the Mean Absolute Deviation and Mean Absolute Percentage Error to calculate the percentage of mistakes in the least square method resulted in a percentage of 9.77% and it was decided that the least square method be worked for time series and trend data.
Joint Instability and Osteoarthritis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Darryl Blalock
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Joint instability creates a clinical and economic burden in the health care system. Injuries and disorders that directly damage the joint structure or lead to joint instability are highly associated with osteoarthritis (OA. Thus, understanding the physiology of joint stability and the mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA is of clinical significance. The first section of this review discusses the structure and function of major joint tissues, including periarticular muscles, which play a significant role in joint stability. Because the knee, ankle, and shoulder joints demonstrate a high incidence of ligament injury and joint instability, the second section summarizes the mechanisms of ligament injury-associated joint instability of these joints. The final section highlights the recent advances in the understanding of the mechanical and biological mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA. These advances may lead to new opportunities for clinical intervention in the prevention and early treatment of OA.
Nonlocal linear theory of the gradient drift instability in the equatorial electrojet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ronchi, C.; Similon, P.L.; Sudan, R.N.
1989-01-01
The linear global eigenmodes of the gradient drift instability in the daytime equatorial electrojet are investigated. A main feature of the analysis is the inclusion of ion-neutral and electron-neutral collision frequencies dependent on altitude. It is found that the basic characteristics and localization of the unstable modes are determined mainly by the profiles of the Pedersen and Hall mobilities, which are derived from the Cowling conductivity model and experimental data. The equilibrium density profile is parabolic, which is fairly representative of the actual measurements. The unstable modes are sensitive not to the details of this profile, but only to the average value of the gradient. The results are obtained from a direct numerical integration of nonlocal linearized equations. They are further analyzed through an eikonal analysis, which provides both an interpretation of the transient modes observed by Fu et al. (1986) and some additional physics insight into the linear evolution of the global unstable modes. Finally, it is shown that the previously reported short-wavelength stabilization effect due to velocity shear may be overshadowed by the presence of regions in which the transient modes can develop into absolute instabilities. copyright American Geophysical Union 1989
Relativistic gravitational instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schutz, B.F.
1987-01-01
The purpose of these lectures is to review and explain what is known about the stability of relativistic stars and black holes, with particular emphases on two instabilities which are due entirely to relativistic effects. The first of these is the post-Newtonian pulsational instability discovered independently by Chandrasekhar (1964) and Fowler (1964). This effectively ruled out the then-popular supermassive star model for quasars, and it sets a limit to the central density of white dwarfs. The second instability was also discovered by Chandrasekhar (1970): the gravitational wave induced instability. This sets an upper bound on the rotation rate of neutron stars, which is near that of the millisecond pulsar PSR 1937+214, and which is beginning to constrain the equation of state of neutron matter. 111 references, 5 figures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Qun-Feng; Nevsky, Alexander; Cardace, Marco; Schiller, Stephan, E-mail: Step.Schiller@uni-duesseldorf.de [Institut für Experimentalphysik, Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, 40225 Düsseldorf (Germany); Legero, Thomas; Häfner, Sebastian; Uhde, Andre; Sterr, Uwe [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany)
2014-11-15
We present a compact and robust transportable ultra-stable laser system with minimum fractional frequency instability of 1 × 10{sup −15} at integration times between 1 and 10 s. The system was conceived as a prototype of a subsystem of a microwave-optical local oscillator to be used on the satellite mission Space-Time Explorer and QUantum Equivalence Principle Space Test (STE-QUEST) ( http://sci.esa.int/ste-quest/ ). It was therefore designed to be compact, to sustain accelerations occurring during rocket launch, to exhibit low vibration sensitivity, and to reach a low frequency instability. Overall dimensions of the optical system are 40 cm × 20 cm × 30 cm. The acceleration sensitivities of the optical frequency in the three directions were measured to be 1.7 × 10{sup −11}/g, 8.0 × 10{sup −11}/g, and 3.9 × 10{sup −10}/g, and the absolute frequency instability was determined via a three-cornered hat measurement. Two additional cavity-stabilized lasers were used for this purpose, one of which had an instability σ{sub y} < 4 × 10{sup −16} at 1 s integration time. The design is also appropriate and useful for terrestrial applications.
Electron/electron acoustic instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gary, S.P.
1987-01-01
The electron acoustic wave becomes a normal mode of an unmagnetized collisionless plasma in the presence of two electron components with similar densities, but strongly disparate temperatures. The characteristic frequency of this mode is the plasma frequency of the cooler electron component. If these two electron components have a relative drift speed several times the thermal speed of the cooler component, the electron/electron acoustic instability may arise. This paper describes the parametric dependences of the threshold drift speed and maximum growth rate of this instability, and compares these with the same properties of the electron/ion acoustic instability. Under the condition of zero current, the electron/ion acoustic instability typically has the lower threshold drift speed, so that observation of the electron/electron acoustic instability is a strong indication of the presence of an electrical current in the plasma
Variance computations for functional of absolute risk estimates.
Pfeiffer, R M; Petracci, E
2011-07-01
We present a simple influence function based approach to compute the variances of estimates of absolute risk and functions of absolute risk. We apply this approach to criteria that assess the impact of changes in the risk factor distribution on absolute risk for an individual and at the population level. As an illustration we use an absolute risk prediction model for breast cancer that includes modifiable risk factors in addition to standard breast cancer risk factors. Influence function based variance estimates for absolute risk and the criteria are compared to bootstrap variance estimates.
Absolute determination of the deuterium content of heavy water, measurement of absolute density
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ceccaldi, M.; Riedinger, M.; Menache, M.
1975-01-01
The absolute density of two heavy water samples rich in deuterium (with a grade higher than 99.9%) was determined with the hydrostatic method. The exact isotopic composition of this water (hydrogen and oxygen isotopes) was very carefully studied. A theoretical estimate enabled us to get the absolute density value of isotopically pure D 2 16 O. This value was found to be 1104.750 kg.m -3 at t 68 =22.3 0 C and under the pressure of one atmosphere. (orig.) [de
The absolute environmental performance of buildings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brejnrod, Kathrine Nykjær; Kalbar, Pradip; Petersen, Steffen
2017-01-01
Our paper presents a novel approach for absolute sustainability assessment of a building's environmental performance. It is demonstrated how the absolute sustainable share of the earth carrying capacity of a specific building type can be estimated using carrying capacity based normalization factors....... A building is considered absolute sustainable if its annual environmental burden is less than its share of the earth environmental carrying capacity. Two case buildings – a standard house and an upcycled single-family house located in Denmark – were assessed according to this approach and both were found...... to exceed the target values of three (almost four) of the eleven impact categories included in the study. The worst-case excess was for the case building, representing prevalent Danish building practices, which utilized 1563% of the Climate Change carrying capacity. Four paths to reach absolute...
Instabilities in strongly coupled plasmas
Kalman, G J
2003-01-01
The conventional Vlasov treatment of beam-plasma instabilities is inappropriate when the plasma is strongly coupled. In the strongly coupled liquid state, the strong correlations between the dust grains fundamentally affect the conditions for instability. In the crystalline state, the inherent anisotropy couples the longitudinal and transverse polarizations, and results in unstable excitations in both polarizations. We summarize analyses of resonant and non-resonant, as well as resistive instabilities. We consider both ion-dust streaming and dust beam-plasma instabilities. Strong coupling, in general, leads to an enhancement of the growth rates. In the crystalline phase, a resonant transverse instability can be excited.
Phillips, Alfred, Jr.
Summ means the entirety of the multiverse. It seems clear, from the inflation theories of A. Guth and others, that the creation of many universes is plausible. We argue that Absolute cosmological ideas, not unlike those of I. Newton, may be consistent with dynamic multiverse creations. As suggested in W. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and with the Anthropic Principle defended by S. Hawking, et al., human consciousness, buttressed by findings of neuroscience, may have to be considered in our models. Predictability, as A. Einstein realized with Invariants and General Relativity, may be required for new ideas to be part of physics. We present here a two postulate model geared to an Absolute Summ. The seedbed of this work is part of Akhnaton's philosophy (see S. Freud, Moses and Monotheism). Most important, however, is that the structure of human consciousness, manifest in Kenya's Rift Valley 200,000 years ago as Homo sapiens, who were the culmination of the six million year co-creation process of Hominins and Nature in Africa, allows us to do the physics that we do. .
Genomic instability and radiation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Little, John B [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)
2003-06-01
Genomic instability is a hallmark of cancer cells, and is thought to be involved in the process of carcinogenesis. Indeed, a number of rare genetic disorders associated with a predisposition to cancer are characterised by genomic instability occurring in somatic cells. Of particular interest is the observation that transmissible instability can be induced in somatic cells from normal individuals by exposure to ionising radiation, leading to a persistent enhancement in the rate at which mutations and chromosomal aberrations arise in the progeny of the irradiated cells after many generations of replication. If such induced instability is involved in radiation carcinogenesis, it would imply that the initial carcinogenic event may not be a rare mutation occurring in a specific gene or set of genes. Rather, radiation may induce a process of instability in many cells in a population, enhancing the rate at which the multiple gene mutations necessary for the development of cancer may arise in a given cell lineage. Furthermore, radiation could act at any stage in the development of cancer by facilitating the accumulation of the remaining genetic events required to produce a fully malignant tumour. The experimental evidence for such induced instability is reviewed. (review)
Genomic instability and radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Little, John B
2003-01-01
Genomic instability is a hallmark of cancer cells, and is thought to be involved in the process of carcinogenesis. Indeed, a number of rare genetic disorders associated with a predisposition to cancer are characterised by genomic instability occurring in somatic cells. Of particular interest is the observation that transmissible instability can be induced in somatic cells from normal individuals by exposure to ionising radiation, leading to a persistent enhancement in the rate at which mutations and chromosomal aberrations arise in the progeny of the irradiated cells after many generations of replication. If such induced instability is involved in radiation carcinogenesis, it would imply that the initial carcinogenic event may not be a rare mutation occurring in a specific gene or set of genes. Rather, radiation may induce a process of instability in many cells in a population, enhancing the rate at which the multiple gene mutations necessary for the development of cancer may arise in a given cell lineage. Furthermore, radiation could act at any stage in the development of cancer by facilitating the accumulation of the remaining genetic events required to produce a fully malignant tumour. The experimental evidence for such induced instability is reviewed. (review)
Modes of storage ring coherent instabilities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, J.M.
1986-12-01
Longitudinal impedance in a beam and various modes of longitudinal coherent instabilities are discussed. The coasting beam coherent instability, microwave instability, and single-bunch longitudinal coherent instabilities are considered. The Vlasov equation is formulated, and a method of solving it is developed. The synchrotron modes are treated, which take the possible bunch shape distortion fully into consideration. A method of treating the synchrotron mode coupling in the case of a small bunch is discussed which takes advantage of the fact that only a few of the synchrotron modes can contribute in such a case. The effect of many bunches on the coherent motion of the beam and the longitudinal symmetric coupled bunch modes are discussed. The transverse impedance is then introduced, and the transverse coasting beam instability is discussed. Various bunched beam instabilities are discussed, including both single bunch instabilities and coupled bunch instabilities. The Vlasov equation for transverse as well as longitudinal motion of particles is introduced as well as a method of solving it within a linear approximation. Head-tail modes and short bunch instabilities and strong coupling instabilities in the long bunch case are covered. (LEW)
Modes of storage ring coherent instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, J.M.
1986-12-01
Longitudinal impedance in a beam and various modes of longitudinal coherent instabilities are discussed. The coasting beam coherent instability, microwave instability, and single-bunch longitudinal coherent instabilities are considered. The Vlasov equation is formulated, and a method of solving it is developed. The synchrotron modes are treated, which take the possible bunch shape distortion fully into consideration. A method of treating the synchrotron mode coupling in the case of a small bunch is discussed which takes advantage of the fact that only a few of the synchrotron modes can contribute in such a case. The effect of many bunches on the coherent motion of the beam and the longitudinal symmetric coupled bunch modes are discussed. The transverse impedance is then introduced, and the transverse coasting beam instability is discussed. Various bunched beam instabilities are discussed, including both single bunch instabilities and coupled bunch instabilities. The Vlasov equation for transverse as well as longitudinal motion of particles is introduced as well as a method of solving it within a linear approximation. Head-tail modes and short bunch instabilities and strong coupling instabilities in the long bunch case are covered
Thermal shrinkage for shoulder instability.
Toth, Alison P; Warren, Russell F; Petrigliano, Frank A; Doward, David A; Cordasco, Frank A; Altchek, David W; O'Brien, Stephen J
2011-07-01
Thermal capsular shrinkage was popular for the treatment of shoulder instability, despite a paucity of outcomes data in the literature defining the indications for this procedure or supporting its long-term efficacy. The purpose of this study was to perform a clinical evaluation of radiofrequency thermal capsular shrinkage for the treatment of shoulder instability, with a minimum 2-year follow-up. From 1999 to 2001, 101 consecutive patients with mild to moderate shoulder instability underwent shoulder stabilization surgery with thermal capsular shrinkage using a monopolar radiofrequency device. Follow-up included a subjective outcome questionnaire, discussion of pain, instability, and activity level. Mean follow-up was 3.3 years (range 2.0-4.7 years). The thermal capsular shrinkage procedure failed due to instability and/or pain in 31% of shoulders at a mean time of 39 months. In patients with unidirectional anterior instability and those with concomitant labral repair, the procedure proved effective. Patients with multidirectional instability had moderate success. In contrast, four of five patients with isolated posterior instability failed. Thermal capsular shrinkage has been advocated for the treatment of shoulder instability, particularly mild to moderate capsular laxity. The ease of the procedure makes it attractive. However, our retrospective review revealed an overall failure rate of 31% in 80 patients with 2-year minimum follow-up. This mid- to long-term cohort study adds to the literature lacking support for thermal capsulorrhaphy in general, particularly posterior instability. The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11420-010-9187-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Absolute flux scale for radioastronomy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ivanov, V.P.; Stankevich, K.S.
1986-01-01
The authors propose and provide support for a new absolute flux scale for radio astronomy, which is not encumbered with the inadequacies of the previous scales. In constructing it the method of relative spectra was used (a powerful tool for choosing reference spectra). A review is given of previous flux scales. The authors compare the AIS scale with the scale they propose. Both scales are based on absolute measurements by the ''artificial moon'' method, and they are practically coincident in the range from 0.96 to 6 GHz. At frequencies above 6 GHz, 0.96 GHz, the AIS scale is overestimated because of incorrect extrapolation of the spectra of the primary and secondary standards. The major results which have emerged from this review of absolute scales in radio astronomy are summarized
Non-thermal plasma instabilities induced by deformation of the electron energy distribution function
Dyatko, N. A.; Kochetov, I. V.; Napartovich, A. P.
2014-08-01
Non-thermal plasma is a key component in gas lasers, microelectronics, medical applications, waste gas cleaners, ozone generators, plasma igniters, flame holders, flow control in high-speed aerodynamics and others. A specific feature of non-thermal plasma is its high sensitivity to variations in governing parameters (gas composition, pressure, pulse duration, E/N parameter). This sensitivity is due to complex deformations of the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) shape induced by variations in electric field strength, electron and ion number densities and gas excitation degree. Particular attention in this article is paid to mechanisms of instabilities based on non-linearity of plasma properties for specific conditions: gas composition, steady-state and decaying plasma produced by the electron beam, or by an electric current pulse. The following effects are analyzed: the negative differential electron conductivity; the absolute negative electron mobility; the stepwise changes of plasma properties induced by the EEDF bi-stability; thermo-current instability and the constriction of the glow discharge column in rare gases. Some of these effects were observed experimentally and some of them were theoretically predicted and still wait for experimental confirmation.
Shoulder instability in professional football players.
Leclere, Lance E; Asnis, Peter D; Griffith, Matthew H; Granito, David; Berkson, Eric M; Gill, Thomas J
2013-09-01
Shoulder instability is a common problem in American football players entering the National Football League (NFL). Treatment options include nonoperative and surgical stabilization. This study evaluated how the method of treatment of pre-NFL shoulder instability affects the rate of recurrence and the time elapsed until recurrence in players on 1 NFL team. Retrospective cohort. Medical records from 1980 to 2008 for 1 NFL team were reviewed. There were 328 players included in the study who started their career on the team and remained on the team for at least 2 years (mean, 3.9 years; range, 2-14 years). The history of instability prior to entering the NFL and the method of treatment were collected. Data on the occurrence of instability while in the NFL were recorded to determine the rate and timing of recurrence. Thirty-one players (9.5%) had a history of instability prior to entering the NFL. Of the 297 players with no history of instability, 39 (13.1%) had a primary event at a mean of 18.4 ± 22.2 months (range, 0-102 months) after joining the team. In the group of players with prior instability treated with surgical stabilization, there was no statistical difference in the rate of recurrence (10.5%) or the timing to the instability episode (mean, 26 months) compared with players with no history of instability. Twelve players had shoulder instability treated nonoperatively prior to the NFL. Five of these players (41.7%) had recurrent instability at a mean of 4.4 ± 7.0 months (range, 0-16 months). The patients treated nonoperatively had a significantly higher rate of recurrence (P = 0.02) and an earlier time of recurrence (P = 0.04). The rate of contralateral instability was 25.8%, occurring at a mean of 8.6 months. Recurrent shoulder instability is more common in NFL players with a history of nonoperative treatment. Surgical stabilization appears to restore the rate and timing of instability to that of players with no prior history of instability.
Plasma physics and instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lashmore-Davies, C.N.
1981-01-01
These lectures procide an introduction to the theory of plasmas and their instabilities. Starting from the Bogoliubov, Born, Green, Kirkwood, and Yvon (BBGKY) hierarchy of kinetic equations, the additional concept of self-consistent fields leads to the fundamental Vlasov equation and hence to the warm two-fluid model and the one-fluid MHD, or cold, model. The properties of small-amplitude waves in magnetized (and unmagnetized) plasmas, and the instabilities to which they give rise, are described in some detail, and a complete chapter is devoted to Landau damping. The linear theory of plasma instabilities is illustrated by the current-driven electrostatic kind, with descriptions of the Penrose criterion and the energy principle of ideal MHD. There is a brief account of the application of feedback control. The non-linear theory is represented by three examples: quasi-linear velocity-space instabilities, three-wave instabilities, and the stability of an arbitrarily largeamplitude wave in a plasma. (orig.)
A global algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity
McDougall, T. J.; Jackett, D. R.; Millero, F. J.; Pawlowicz, R.; Barker, P. M.
2012-12-01
The International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater - 2010 has defined the thermodynamic properties of seawater in terms of a new salinity variable, Absolute Salinity, which takes into account the spatial variation of the composition of seawater. Absolute Salinity more accurately reflects the effects of the dissolved material in seawater on the thermodynamic properties (particularly density) than does Practical Salinity. When a seawater sample has standard composition (i.e. the ratios of the constituents of sea salt are the same as those of surface water of the North Atlantic), Practical Salinity can be used to accurately evaluate the thermodynamic properties of seawater. When seawater is not of standard composition, Practical Salinity alone is not sufficient and the Absolute Salinity Anomaly needs to be estimated; this anomaly is as large as 0.025 g kg-1 in the northernmost North Pacific. Here we provide an algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity Anomaly for any location (x, y, p) in the world ocean. To develop this algorithm, we used the Absolute Salinity Anomaly that is found by comparing the density calculated from Practical Salinity to the density measured in the laboratory. These estimates of Absolute Salinity Anomaly however are limited to the number of available observations (namely 811). In order to provide a practical method that can be used at any location in the world ocean, we take advantage of approximate relationships between Absolute Salinity Anomaly and silicate concentrations (which are available globally).
Gravitational Instabilities in Circumstellar Disks
Kratter, Kaitlin; Lodato, Giuseppe
2016-09-01
Star and planet formation are the complex outcomes of gravitational collapse and angular momentum transport mediated by protostellar and protoplanetary disks. In this review, we focus on the role of gravitational instability in this process. We begin with a brief overview of the observational evidence for massive disks that might be subject to gravitational instability and then highlight the diverse ways in which the instability manifests itself in protostellar and protoplanetary disks: the generation of spiral arms, small-scale turbulence-like density fluctuations, and fragmentation of the disk itself. We present the analytic theory that describes the linear growth phase of the instability supplemented with a survey of numerical simulations that aim to capture the nonlinear evolution. We emphasize the role of thermodynamics and large-scale infall in controlling the outcome of the instability. Despite apparent controversies in the literature, we show a remarkable level of agreement between analytic predictions and numerical results. In the next part of our review, we focus on the astrophysical consequences of the instability. We show that the disks most likely to be gravitationally unstable are young and relatively massive compared with their host star, Md/M*≥0.1. They will develop quasi-stable spiral arms that process infall from the background cloud. Although instability is less likely at later times, once infall becomes less important, the manifestations of the instability are more varied. In this regime, the disk thermodynamics, often regulated by stellar irradiation, dictates the development and evolution of the instability. In some cases the instability may lead to fragmentation into bound companions. These companions are more likely to be brown dwarfs or stars than planetary mass objects. Finally, we highlight open questions related to the development of a turbulent cascade in thin disks and the role of mode-mode coupling in setting the maximum angular
Instability characteristics of fluidelastic instability of tube rows in crossflow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, S.S.; Jendrzejczyk, J.A.
1986-04-01
An experimental study is reported to investigate the jump phenomenon in critical flow velocities for tube rows with different pitch-to-diameter ratios and the excited and intrinsic instabilities for a tube row with a pitch-to-diameter ratio of 1.75. The experimental data provide additional insights into the instability phenomena of tube arrays in crossflow. 9 refs., 10 figs
A global algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. J. McDougall
2012-12-01
Full Text Available The International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater – 2010 has defined the thermodynamic properties of seawater in terms of a new salinity variable, Absolute Salinity, which takes into account the spatial variation of the composition of seawater. Absolute Salinity more accurately reflects the effects of the dissolved material in seawater on the thermodynamic properties (particularly density than does Practical Salinity.
When a seawater sample has standard composition (i.e. the ratios of the constituents of sea salt are the same as those of surface water of the North Atlantic, Practical Salinity can be used to accurately evaluate the thermodynamic properties of seawater. When seawater is not of standard composition, Practical Salinity alone is not sufficient and the Absolute Salinity Anomaly needs to be estimated; this anomaly is as large as 0.025 g kg^{−1} in the northernmost North Pacific. Here we provide an algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity Anomaly for any location (x, y, p in the world ocean.
To develop this algorithm, we used the Absolute Salinity Anomaly that is found by comparing the density calculated from Practical Salinity to the density measured in the laboratory. These estimates of Absolute Salinity Anomaly however are limited to the number of available observations (namely 811. In order to provide a practical method that can be used at any location in the world ocean, we take advantage of approximate relationships between Absolute Salinity Anomaly and silicate concentrations (which are available globally.
Helical instability in film blowing process: Analogy to buckling instability
Lee, Joo Sung; Kwon, Ilyoung; Jung, Hyun Wook; Hyun, Jae Chun
2017-12-01
The film blowing process is one of the most important polymer processing operations, widely used for producing bi-axially oriented film products in a single-step process. Among the instabilities observed in this film blowing process, i.e., draw resonance and helical motion occurring on the inflated film bubble, the helical instability is a unique phenomenon portraying the snake-like undulation motion of the bubble, having the period on the order of few seconds. This helical instability in the film blowing process is commonly found at the process conditions of a high blow-up ratio with too low a freezeline position and/or too high extrusion temperature. In this study, employing an analogy to the buckling instability for falling viscous threads, the compressive force caused by the pressure difference between inside and outside of the film bubble is introduced into the simulation model along with the scaling law derived from the force balance between viscous force and centripetal force of the film bubble. The simulation using this model reveals a close agreement with the experimental results of the film blowing process of polyethylene polymers such as low density polyethylene and linear low density polyethylene.
Functional Instability of the Ankle Joint: Etiopathogenesis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aydan ÖRSÇELİK
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Ankle sprain is one of the most common sports injuries. Chronic ankle instability is a common complication of ankle sprains. Two causes of chronic ankle instability are mechanical instability and functional instability. It is important to understand functional instability etiopathogenesis of the ankle joint in order to guide diagnosis and treatment. This article aims to understand the etiopathogenesis of functional ankle instability.
Chromosomal instability induced by ionizing radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morgan, W.F.; Marder, B.A.; Day, J.P.
1995-01-01
There is accumulating evidence indicating genomic instability can manifest multiple generations after cellular exposure to DNA damaging agents. For instance, some cells surviving exposure to ionizing radiations show delayed reproductive cell death, delayed mutation and / or delayed chromosomal instability. Such instability, especially chromosome destabilization has been implicated in mutation, gene amplification, cellular transformation, and cell killing. To investigate chromosomal instability following DNA damage, we have used fluorescence in situ hybridization to detect chromosomal rearrangements in a human/hamster somatic hybrid cell line following exposure to ionizing radiation. Delayed chromosomal instability was detected when multiple populations of uniquely arranged metaphases were observed in clonal isolates raised from single cells. The relationship between delayed chromosomal destabilization and other endpoints of genomic instability, namely; delayed mutation and gene amplification will be discussed, as will the potential cytogenetic and molecular mechanisms contributing to delayed chromosomal instability
Andersson, J K; Axelsson, P; Strömberg, J; Karlsson, J; Fridén, J
2016-09-01
A total of 20 patients scheduled for wrist arthroscopy, all with clinical signs of rupture to the triangular fibrocartilage complex and distal radioulnar joint instability, were tested pre-operatively by an independent observer for strength of forearm rotation. During surgery, the intra-articular pathology was documented by photography and also subsequently individually analysed by another independent hand surgeon. Arthroscopy revealed a type 1-B injury to the triangular fibrocartilage complex in 18 of 20 patients. Inter-rater reliability between the operating surgeon and the independent reviewer showed absolute agreement in all but one patient (95%) in terms of the injury to the triangular fibrocartilage complex and its classification. The average pre-operative torque strength was 71% of the strength of the non-injured contralateral side in pronation and supination. Distal radioulnar joint instability with an arthroscopically verified injury to the triangular fibrocartilage complex is associated with a significant loss of both pronation and supination torque. Case series, Level IV. © The Author(s) 2015.
Invariant and Absolute Invariant Means of Double Sequences
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abdullah Alotaibi
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We examine some properties of the invariant mean, define the concepts of strong σ-convergence and absolute σ-convergence for double sequences, and determine the associated sublinear functionals. We also define the absolute invariant mean through which the space of absolutely σ-convergent double sequences is characterized.
Nonlinear evolution of MHD instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bateman, G.; Hicks, H.R.; Wooten, J.W.; Dory, R.A.
1975-01-01
A 3-D nonlinear MHD computer code was used to study the time evolution of internal instabilities. Velocity vortex cells are observed to persist into the nonlinear evolution. Pressure and density profiles convect around these cells for a weak localized instability, or convect into the wall for a strong instability. (U.S.)
Dynamical Instability and Soliton Concept
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kartavenko, V.G.
1994-01-01
The problem of dynamical instability and clustering (stable fragments formation) in a breakup of excited nuclear systems are considered from the points of view of the soliton concept. It is noted that the volume (spinodal) instability can be associated with nonlinear terms, and the surface (Rayleigh-Taylor type) instability, with the dispersion terms in the evolution equations. The spinodal instability and the Rayleigh-Taylor instability may compensate each other and lead to stable quasi-soliton type objects. The simple analytical model is presented to illustrate this physical picture. The time evolution of an initially compressed cold nuclear system is analysed in the framework of the inverse mean-field method. It is demonstrated that the nonlinearity and dispersion terms of the evolution equations can lead to clusterization in the final channel. 8 p
Absolute measurement of a tritium standard
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hadzisehovic, M.; Mocilnik, I.; Buraei, K.; Pongrac, S.; Milojevic, A.
1978-01-01
For the determination of a tritium absolute activity standard, a method of internal gas counting has been used. The procedure involves water reduction by uranium and zinc further the measurement of the absolute disintegration rate of tritium per unit of the effective volume of the counter by a compensation method. Criteria for the choice of methods and procedures concerning the determination and measurement of gaseous 3 H yield, parameters of gaseous hydrogen, sample mass of HTO and the absolute disintegration rate of tritium are discussed. In order to obtain gaseous sources of 3 H (and 2 H), the same reversible chemical reaction was used, namely, the water - uranium hydride - hydrogen system. This reaction was proved to be quantitative above 500 deg C by measuring the yield of the gas obtained and the absolute activity of an HTO standard. A brief description of the measuring apparatus is given, as well as a critical discussion of the brass counter quality and the possibility of obtaining equal working conditions at the counter ends. (T.G.)
Cryogenic, Absolute, High Pressure Sensor
Chapman, John J. (Inventor); Shams. Qamar A. (Inventor); Powers, William T. (Inventor)
2001-01-01
A pressure sensor is provided for cryogenic, high pressure applications. A highly doped silicon piezoresistive pressure sensor is bonded to a silicon substrate in an absolute pressure sensing configuration. The absolute pressure sensor is bonded to an aluminum nitride substrate. Aluminum nitride has appropriate coefficient of thermal expansion for use with highly doped silicon at cryogenic temperatures. A group of sensors, either two sensors on two substrates or four sensors on a single substrate are packaged in a pressure vessel.
A developmental study of latent absolute pitch memory.
Jakubowski, Kelly; Müllensiefen, Daniel; Stewart, Lauren
2017-03-01
The ability to recall the absolute pitch level of familiar music (latent absolute pitch memory) is widespread in adults, in contrast to the rare ability to label single pitches without a reference tone (overt absolute pitch memory). The present research investigated the developmental profile of latent absolute pitch (AP) memory and explored individual differences related to this ability. In two experiments, 288 children from 4 to12 years of age performed significantly above chance at recognizing the absolute pitch level of familiar melodies. No age-related improvement or decline, nor effects of musical training, gender, or familiarity with the stimuli were found in regard to latent AP task performance. These findings suggest that latent AP memory is a stable ability that is developed from as early as age 4 and persists into adulthood.
Genomic instability and radiation risk in molecular pathways to colon cancer.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jan Christian Kaiser
Full Text Available Colon cancer is caused by multiple genomic alterations which lead to genomic instability (GI. GI appears in molecular pathways of microsatellite instability (MSI and chromosomal instability (CIN with clinically observed case shares of about 15-20% and 80-85%. Radiation enhances the colon cancer risk by inducing GI, but little is known about different outcomes for MSI and CIN. Computer-based modelling can facilitate the understanding of the phenomena named above. Comprehensive biological models, which combine the two main molecular pathways to colon cancer, are fitted to incidence data of Japanese a-bomb survivors. The preferred model is selected according to statistical criteria and biological plausibility. Imprints of cell-based processes in the succession from adenoma to carcinoma are identified by the model from age dependences and secular trends of the incidence data. Model parameters show remarkable compliance with mutation rates and growth rates for adenoma, which has been reported over the last fifteen years. Model results suggest that CIN begins during fission of intestinal crypts. Chromosomal aberrations are generated at a markedly elevated rate which favors the accelerated growth of premalignant adenoma. Possibly driven by a trend of Westernization in the Japanese diet, incidence rates for the CIN pathway increased notably in subsequent birth cohorts, whereas rates pertaining to MSI remained constant. An imbalance between number of CIN and MSI cases began to emerge in the 1980s, whereas in previous decades the number of cases was almost equal. The CIN pathway exhibits a strong radio-sensitivity, probably more intensive in men. Among young birth cohorts of both sexes the excess absolute radiation risk related to CIN is larger by an order of magnitude compared to the MSI-related risk. Observance of pathway-specific risks improves the determination of the probability of causation for radiation-induced colon cancer in individual patients
Beam instability Workshop - plenary sessions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2001-01-01
The purpose of this workshop was to provide a review of the mechanisms of limiting beam instabilities, their cures, including feedback, and beam measurement for synchrotron radiation light sources. 12 plenary sessions took place whose titles are: 1) challenging brilliance and lifetime issues with increasing currents; 2) limiting instabilities in multibunch; 3) experience from high currents in B factories; 4) longitudinal dynamics in high intensity/bunch; 5) Transverse instabilities for high intensity/bunch; 6) working group introduction from ESRF experience; 7) impedance modelling: simulations, minimization; 8) report on the broadband impedance measurements and modelling workshop; 9) feedback systems for synchrotron light sources; 10) beam instabilities diagnostics; 11) harmonic cavities: the pros and cons; and 12) experimental study of fast beam-ion instabilities at PLS. This document gathers the 12 articles that were presented during these sessions
Beam instability Workshop - plenary sessions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2001-07-01
The purpose of this workshop was to provide a review of the mechanisms of limiting beam instabilities, their cures, including feedback, and beam measurement for synchrotron radiation light sources. 12 plenary sessions took place whose titles are: 1) challenging brilliance and lifetime issues with increasing currents; 2) limiting instabilities in multibunch; 3) experience from high currents in B factories; 4) longitudinal dynamics in high intensity/bunch; 5) Transverse instabilities for high intensity/bunch; 6) working group introduction from ESRF experience; 7) impedance modelling: simulations, minimization; 8) report on the broadband impedance measurements and modelling workshop; 9) feedback systems for synchrotron light sources; 10) beam instabilities diagnostics; 11) harmonic cavities: the pros and cons; and 12) experimental study of fast beam-ion instabilities at PLS. This document gathers the 12 articles that were presented during these sessions.
Advancing Absolute Calibration for JWST and Other Applications
Rieke, George; Bohlin, Ralph; Boyajian, Tabetha; Carey, Sean; Casagrande, Luca; Deustua, Susana; Gordon, Karl; Kraemer, Kathleen; Marengo, Massimo; Schlawin, Everett; Su, Kate; Sloan, Greg; Volk, Kevin
2017-10-01
We propose to exploit the unique optical stability of the Spitzer telescope, along with that of IRAC, to (1) transfer the accurate absolute calibration obtained with MSX on very bright stars directly to two reference stars within the dynamic range of the JWST imagers (and of other modern instrumentation); (2) establish a second accurate absolute calibration based on the absolutely calibrated spectrum of the sun, transferred onto the astronomical system via alpha Cen A; and (3) provide accurate infrared measurements for the 11 (of 15) highest priority stars with no such data but with accurate interferometrically measured diameters, allowing us to optimize determinations of effective temperatures using the infrared flux method and thus to extend the accurate absolute calibration spectrally. This program is integral to plans for an accurate absolute calibration of JWST and will also provide a valuable Spitzer legacy.
Rivadeneira, Fernando; Zillikens, M Carola; De Laet, Chris Edh; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G; Beck, Thomas J; Pols, Huibert Ap
2007-11-01
We studied HSA measurements in relation to hip fracture risk in 4,806 individuals (2,740 women). Hip fractures (n = 147) occurred at the same absolute levels of bone instability in both sexes. Cortical instability (propensity of thinner cortices in wide diameters to buckle) explains why hip fracture risk at different BMD levels is the same across sexes. Despite the sexual dimorphism of bone, hip fracture risk is very similar in men and women at the same absolute BMD. We aimed to elucidate the main structural properties of bone that underlie the measured BMD and that ultimately determines the risk of hip fracture in elderly men and women. This study is part of the Rotterdam Study (a large prospective population-based cohort) and included 147 incident hip fracture cases in 4,806 participants with DXA-derived hip structural analysis (mean follow-up, 8.6 yr). Indices compared in relation to fracture included neck width, cortical thickness, section modulus (an index of bending strength), and buckling ratio (an index of cortical bone instability). We used a mathematical model to calculate the hip fracture distribution by femoral neck BMD, BMC, bone area, and hip structure analysis (HSA) parameters (cortical thickness, section modulus narrow neck width, and buckling ratio) and compared it with prospective data from the Rotterdam Study. In the prospective data, hip fracture cases in both sexes had lower BMD, thinner cortices, greater bone width, lower strength, and higher instability at baseline. In fractured individuals, men had an average BMD that was 0.09 g/cm(2) higher than women (p men and women. No significant differences were observed between the areas under the ROC curves of BMD (0.8146 in women and 0.8048 in men) and the buckling ratio (0.8161 in women and 0.7759 in men). The buckling ratio (an index of bone instability) portrays in both sexes the critical balance between cortical thickness and bone width. Our findings suggest that extreme thinning of cortices in
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seely, J.F.; Feldman, Uri; Holland, G.E.; Weaver, J.L.; Mostovych, A.N.; Obenschain, S.P.; Schmitt, A.J.; Lehmberg, R.; Kjornarattanawanich, Benjawan; Back, C.A.
2005-01-01
High-resolution vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectra were recorded from plasmas generated by the NIKE KrF laser for the purpose of observing emission from the two-plasmon decay instability (TPDI) at 2/3 the NIKE wavelength (165 nm). The targets were irradiated by up to 43 overlapping beams with intensity up to ≅10 14 W/cm 2 and with beam smoothing by induced spatial incoherence (ISI). The targets consisted of planar foils of CH, BN, Al, Si, S, Ti, Pd, and Au. Titanium-doped silica aerogels in Pyrex cylinders were also irradiated. The spectra of the target elements were observed from charge states ranging from the neutral atoms to five times ionized. The spectrometer was absolutely calibrated using synchrotron radiation, and absolute VUV plasma emission intensities were determined. Emission from the TPDI at 165-nm wavelength was not observed from any of the irradiated targets. An upper bound on the possible TPDI emission was less than 4x10 -8 the incident NIKE laser energy. The NIKE laser radiation backscattered from the silica aerogel targets at 248 nm was typically 6x10 -6 the incident NIKE laser energy, and the spectral broadening corresponded to the 1-THz bandwidth of the ISI smoothing. The spectra from the moderately charged plasma ions (up to five times ionized), spectral linewidths, absolute continuum emission level, and slope of the continuum were consistent with plasma temperatures in the 100-300-eV range
History of shoulder instability surgery.
Randelli, Pietro; Cucchi, Davide; Butt, Usman
2016-02-01
The surgical management of shoulder instability is an expanding and increasingly complex area of study within orthopaedics. This article describes the history and evolution of shoulder instability surgery, examining the development of its key principles, the currently accepted concepts and available surgical interventions. A comprehensive review of the available literature was performed using PubMed. The reference lists of reviewed articles were also scrutinised to ensure relevant information was included. The various types of shoulder instability including anterior, posterior and multidirectional instability are discussed, focussing on the history of surgical management of these topics, the current concepts and the results of available surgical interventions. The last century has seen important advancements in the understanding and treatment of shoulder instability. The transition from open to arthroscopic surgery has allowed the discovery of previously unrecognised pathologic entities and facilitated techniques to treat these. Nevertheless, open surgery still produces comparable results in the treatment of many instability-related conditions and is often required in complex or revision cases, particularly in the presence of bone loss. More high-quality research is required to better understand and characterise this spectrum of conditions so that successful evidence-based management algorithms can be developed. IV.
Ionospheric modification and parametric instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fejer, J.A.
1979-01-01
Thresholds and linear growth rates for stimulated Brillouin and Raman scattering and for the parametric decay instability are derived by using arguments of energy transfer. For this purpose an expression for the ponderomotive force is derived. Conditions under which the partial pressure force due to differential dissipation exceeds the ponderomotive force are also discussed. Stimulated Brillouin and Raman scattering are weakly excited by existing incoherent backscatter radars. The parametric decay instability is strongly excited in ionospheric heating experiments. Saturation theories of the parametric decay instability are therefore described. After a brief discussion of the purely growing instability the effect of using several pumps is discussed as well as the effects of inhomogenicity. Turning to detailed theories of ionospheric heating, artificial spread F is discussed in terms of a purely growing instability where the nonlinearity is due to dissipation. Field-aligned short-scale striations are explained in terms of dissipation of the parametrically excited Langmuir waves (plasma oscillations): they might be further amplified by an explosive instability (except the magnetic equator). Broadband absorption is probably responsible for the 'overshoot' effect: the initially observed level of parametrically excited Langmuir waves is much higher than the steady state level
Instabilities in mimetic matter perturbations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Firouzjahi, Hassan; Gorji, Mohammad Ali [School of Astronomy, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mansoori, Seyed Ali Hosseini, E-mail: firouz@ipm.ir, E-mail: gorji@ipm.ir, E-mail: shosseini@shahroodut.ac.ir, E-mail: shossein@ipm.ir [Physics Department, Shahrood University of Technology, P.O. Box 3619995161 Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2017-07-01
We study cosmological perturbations in mimetic matter scenario with a general higher derivative function. We calculate the quadratic action and show that both the kinetic term and the gradient term have the wrong sings. We perform the analysis in both comoving and Newtonian gauges and confirm that the Hamiltonians and the associated instabilities are consistent with each other in both gauges. The existence of instabilities is independent of the specific form of higher derivative function which generates gradients for mimetic field perturbations. It is verified that the ghost instability in mimetic perturbations is not associated with the higher derivative instabilities such as the Ostrogradsky ghost.
Spondylolisthesis and Posterior Instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Niggemann, P.; Beyer, H.K.; Frey, H.; Grosskurth, D.; Simons, P.; Kuchta, J.
2009-01-01
We present the case of a patient with a spondylolisthesis of L5 on S1 due to spondylolysis at the level L5/S1. The vertebral slip was fixed and no anterior instability was found. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in an upright MRI scanner, posterior instability at the level of the spondylolytic defect of L5 was demonstrated. A structure, probably the hypertrophic ligament flava, arising from the spondylolytic defect was displaced toward the L5 nerve root, and a bilateral contact of the displaced structure with the L5 nerve root was shown in extension of the spine. To our knowledge, this is the first case described of posterior instability in patients with spondylolisthesis. The clinical implications of posterior instability are unknown; however, it is thought that this disorder is common and that it can only be diagnosed using upright MRI
Spondylolisthesis and Posterior Instability
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Niggemann, P.; Beyer, H.K.; Frey, H.; Grosskurth, D. (Privatpraxis fuer Upright MRT, Koeln (Germany)); Simons, P.; Kuchta, J. (Media Park Klinik, Koeln (Germany))
2009-04-15
We present the case of a patient with a spondylolisthesis of L5 on S1 due to spondylolysis at the level L5/S1. The vertebral slip was fixed and no anterior instability was found. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in an upright MRI scanner, posterior instability at the level of the spondylolytic defect of L5 was demonstrated. A structure, probably the hypertrophic ligament flava, arising from the spondylolytic defect was displaced toward the L5 nerve root, and a bilateral contact of the displaced structure with the L5 nerve root was shown in extension of the spine. To our knowledge, this is the first case described of posterior instability in patients with spondylolisthesis. The clinical implications of posterior instability are unknown; however, it is thought that this disorder is common and that it can only be diagnosed using upright MRI.
Feedback stabilization of plasma instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cap, F.F.
1977-01-01
This paper reviews the theoretical and experimental aspects of feedback stabilization. After giving an outline of a general theoretical model for electrostatic instabilities the author provides a theoretical analysis of the suppression of various types of instability. Experiments which have been carried out on the feedback stabilization of various types of plasma instability are reported. An extensive list of references is given. (B.R.H.)
Multifragmentation: Surface instabilities or statistical decay
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moretto, L.G.; Tso, K.; Delis, D.; Colonna, N.; Wozniak, G.J.
1992-11-01
Boltzmann-Nordheim-Vlasov calculations show multifragmentation that seems to originate from surface instabilities. These instabilities are traced to a sheet instability caused by the proximity interaction. Experimental data, on the other hand, suggest that multifragmentation may be dominated by phase space
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NGS Absolute Gravity data (78 stations) was received in July 1993. Principal gravity parameters include Gravity Value, Uncertainty, and Vertical Gradient. The...
Neutron star pulsations and instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lindblom, L.
2001-01-01
Gravitational radiation (GR) drives an instability in certain modes of rotating stars. This instability is strong enough in the case of the r-modes to cause their amplitudes to grow on a timescale of tens of seconds in rapidly rotating neutron stars. GR emitted by these modes removes angular momentum from the star at a rate which would spin it down to a relatively small angular velocity within about one year, if the dimensionless amplitude of the mode grows to order unity. A pedagogical level discussion is given here on the mechanism of GR instability in rotating stars, on the relevant properties of the r-modes, and on our present understanding of the dissipation mechanisms that tend to suppress this instability in neutron stars. The astrophysical implications of this GR driven instability are discussed for young neutron stars, and for older systems such as low mass x-ray binaries. Recent work on the non-linear evolution of the r-modes is also presented. (author)
Multifragmentation: surface instabilities or statistical decay?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moretto, L.G.; Tso, K.; Delis, D.; Colonna, N.; Wozniak, G.J.
1993-01-01
Boltzmann-Nordheim-Vlasov calculations show multifragmentation that seems to originate from surface instabilities. These instabilities are traced to a sheet instability caused by the proximity interaction. Experimental data, on the other hand, suggest that multifragmentation may be dominated by phase space. (author)
Dynamic ultrasound of peroneal tendon instability.
Pesquer, Lionel; Guillo, Stéphane; Poussange, Nicolas; Pele, Eric; Meyer, Philippe; Dallaudière, Benjamin
2016-07-01
Ankle snapping may be caused by peroneal tendon instability. Anterior instability occurs after traumatic superior peroneal retinaculum injury, whereas peroneal tendon intrasheath subluxation is atraumatic. Whereas subluxation is mainly dynamic, ultrasound allows for the diagnosis and classification of peroneal instability because it allows for real-time exploration. The purpose of this review is to describe the anatomic and physiologic bases for peroneal instability and to heighten the role of dynamic ultrasound in the diagnosis of snapping.
Collective instabilities of self-gravitating systems, 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakamura, Takashi; Takahara, Fumio; Ikeuchi, Satoru
1975-01-01
The instability modes of rotating self-gravitating systems are investigated on the assumption of infinitely long cylinder. The systems under consideration are a collisionless stellar system with anisotropic velocity dispersion and a gaseous system with anisotropic pressure. In the collisionless stellar system, the Jeans instability mode and the Harris instability mode exist. The dispersion relation is solved numerically and the following results are obtained: the Harris instability occurs even in the region where Wu did not treat, and although its growth rate amounts to the order of angular velocity of the system for sufficient anisotropy, the Harris instability always accompanies the Jeans instability and the latter is always greater than the former in growth rate. In the gaseous system exist the Jeans instability mode and a certain overstable mode, which are different from the Harris instability mode. It is shown that the overstable mode occurs due to coupling of modes. In relation to these results, some problems in galactic structure are discussed. (auth.)
Electron beam instabilities in gyrotron beam tunnels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pedrozzi, M.; Alberti, S.; Hogge, J.P.; Tran, M.Q.; Tran, T.M.
1997-10-01
Electron beam instabilities occurring in a gyrotron electron beam can induce an energy spread which might significantly deteriorate the gyrotron efficiency. Three types of instabilities are considered to explain the important discrepancy found between the theoretical and experimental efficiency in the case of quasi-optical gyrotrons (QOG): the electron cyclotron maser instability, the Bernstein instability and the Langmuir instability. The low magnetic field gradient in drift tubes of QOG makes that the electron cyclotron maser instability can develop in the drift tube at very low electron beam currents. Experimental measurements show that with a proper choice of absorbing structures in the beam tunnel, this instability can be suppressed. At high beam currents, the electrostatic Bernstein instability can induce a significant energy spread at the entrance of the interaction region. The induced energy spread scales approximately linearly with the electron beam density and for QOG one observes that the beam density is significantly higher than the beam density of an equivalent cylindrical cavity gyrotron. (author) figs., tabs., refs
Mode-locking via dissipative Faraday instability.
Tarasov, Nikita; Perego, Auro M; Churkin, Dmitry V; Staliunas, Kestutis; Turitsyn, Sergei K
2016-08-09
Emergence of coherent structures and patterns at the nonlinear stage of modulation instability of a uniform state is an inherent feature of many biological, physical and engineering systems. There are several well-studied classical modulation instabilities, such as Benjamin-Feir, Turing and Faraday instability, which play a critical role in the self-organization of energy and matter in non-equilibrium physical, chemical and biological systems. Here we experimentally demonstrate the dissipative Faraday instability induced by spatially periodic zig-zag modulation of a dissipative parameter of the system-spectrally dependent losses-achieving generation of temporal patterns and high-harmonic mode-locking in a fibre laser. We demonstrate features of this instability that distinguish it from both the Benjamin-Feir and the purely dispersive Faraday instability. Our results open the possibilities for new designs of mode-locked lasers and can be extended to other fields of physics and engineering.
Genomic instability and radiation effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Christian Streffer
2007-01-01
Complete text of publication follows. Cancer, genetic mutations and developmental abnormalities are apparently associated with an increased genomic instability. Such phenomena have been frequently shown in human cancer cells in vitro and in situ. It is also well-known that individuals with a genetic predisposition for cancer proneness, such as ataxia telangiectesia, Fanconi anaemia etc. demonstrate a general high genomic instability e.g. in peripheral lymphocytes before a cancer has developed. Analogous data have been found in mice which develop a specific congenital malformation which has a genetic background. Under these aspects it is of high interest that ionising radiation can increase the genomic instability of mammalian cells after exposures in vitro an in vivo. This phenomenon is expressed 20 to 40 cell cycles after the exposure e.g. by de novo chromosomal aberrations. Such effects have been observed with high and low LET radiation, high LET radiation is more efficient. With low LET radiation a good dose response is observed in the dose range 0.2 to 2.0 Gy, Recently it has been reported that senescence and genomic instability was induced in human fibroblasts after 1 mGy carbon ions (1 in 18 cells are hit), apparently bystander effects also occurred under these conditions. The instability has been shown with DNA damage, chromosomal aberrations, gene mutation and cell death. It is also transferred to the next generation of mice with respect to gene mutations, chromosomal aberrations and congenital malformations. Several mechanisms have been discussed. The involvement of telomeres has gained interest. Genomic instability seems to be induced by a general lesion to the whole genome. The transmission of one chromosome from an irradiated cell to an non-irradiated cell leads to genomic instability in the untreated cells. Genomic instability increases mutation rates in the affected cells in general. As radiation late effects (cancer, gene mutations and congenital
Absolute isotopic abundances of Ti in meteorites
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Niederer, F.R.; Papanastassiou, D.A.; Wasserburg, G.J.
1985-01-01
The absolute isotope abundance of Ti has been determined in Ca-Al-rich inclusions from the Allende and Leoville meteorites and in samples of whole meteorites. The absolute Ti isotope abundances differ by a significant mass dependent isotope fractionation transformation from the previously reported abundances, which were normalized for fractionation using 46 Ti/ 48 Ti. Therefore, the absolute compositions define distinct nucleosynthetic components from those previously identified or reflect the existence of significant mass dependent isotope fractionation in nature. We provide a general formalism for determining the possible isotope compositions of the exotic Ti from the measured composition, for different values of isotope fractionation in nature and for different mixing ratios of the exotic and normal components. The absolute Ti and Ca isotopic compositions still support the correlation of 50 Ti and 48 Ca effects in the FUN inclusions and imply contributions from neutron-rich equilibrium or quasi-equilibrium nucleosynthesis. The present identification of endemic effects at 46 Ti, for the absolute composition, implies a shortfall of an explosive-oxygen component or reflects significant isotope fractionation. Additional nucleosynthetic components are required by 47 Ti and 49 Ti effects. Components are also defined in which 48 Ti is enhanced. Results are given and discussed. (author)
Centrifugally Driven Rayleigh-Taylor Instability
Scase, Matthew; Hill, Richard
2017-11-01
The instability that develops at the interface between two fluids of differing density due to the rapid rotation of the system may be considered as a limit of high-rotation rate Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Previously the authors have considered the effect of rotation on a gravitationally dominated Rayleigh-Taylor instability and have shown that some growth modes of instability may be suppressed completely by the stabilizing effect of rotation (Phys. Rev. Fluids 2:024801, Sci. Rep. 5:11706). Here we consider the case of very high rotation rates and a negligible gravitational field. The initial condition is of a dense inner cylinder of fluid surrounded by a lighter layer of fluid. As the system is rotated about the generating axis of the cylinder, the dense inner fluid moves away from the axis and the familiar bubbles and spikes of Rayleigh-Taylor instability develop at the interface. The system may be thought of as a ``fluid-fluid centrifuge''. By developing a model based on an Orr-Sommerfeld equation, we consider the effects of viscosity, surface tension and interface diffusion on the growth rate and modes of instability. We show that under particular circumstances some modes may be stabilized. School of Mathematical Sciences.
Thermal Shrinkage for Shoulder Instability
Toth, Alison P.; Warren, Russell F.; Petrigliano, Frank A.; Doward, David A.; Cordasco, Frank A.; Altchek, David W.; O’Brien, Stephen J.
2010-01-01
Thermal capsular shrinkage was popular for the treatment of shoulder instability, despite a paucity of outcomes data in the literature defining the indications for this procedure or supporting its long-term efficacy. The purpose of this study was to perform a clinical evaluation of radiofrequency thermal capsular shrinkage for the treatment of shoulder instability, with a minimum 2-year follow-up. From 1999 to 2001, 101 consecutive patients with mild to moderate shoulder instability underwent...
Investigating Absolute Value: A Real World Application
Kidd, Margaret; Pagni, David
2009-01-01
Making connections between various representations is important in mathematics. In this article, the authors discuss the numeric, algebraic, and graphical representations of sums of absolute values of linear functions. The initial explanations are accessible to all students who have experience graphing and who understand that absolute value simply…
Pearling Instabilities of a Viscoelastic Thread
Deblais, A.; Velikov, K. P.; Bonn, D.
2018-05-01
Pearling instabilities of slender viscoelastic threads have received much attention, but remain incompletely understood. We study the instabilities in polymer solutions subject to uniaxial elongational flow. Two distinctly different instabilites are observed: beads on a string and blistering. The beads-on-a-string structure arises from a capillary instability whereas the blistering instability has a different origin: it is due to a coupling between stress and polymer concentration. By varying the temperature to change the solution properties we elucidate the interplay between flow and phase separation.
Political Instability and Economic Growth
Alberto Alesina; Sule Ozler; Nouriel Roubini; Phillip Swagel
1992-01-01
This paper investigates the relationship between political instability and per capita GDP growth in a sample of 113 countries for the period 1950-1982. We define ?political instability? as the propensity of a government collapse, and we estimate a model in which political instability and economic growth are jointly determined. The main result of this paper is that in countries and time periods with a high propensity of government collapse, growth is significantly lower than otherwise. This ef...
Kinetic theory of tearing instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drake, J.F.; Lee, Y.C.
1977-01-01
The transition of the tearing instability from the collisional to the collisionless regime is investigated kinetically using a Fokker--Planck collision operator to represent electron-ion collisions. As a function of the collisionality of the plasma, the tearing instability falls into three regions, which are referred to as collisionless, semi-collisional, and collisional. The width Δ of the singular layer around kxB 0 =0 is limited by electron thermal motion along B 0 in the collisional and semi-collisional regimes and is typically smaller than rho/sub i/, the ion Larmor radius. Previously accepted theories, which are based on the assumption Δvery-much-greater-thanrho/sub i/, are found to be valid only in the collisional regime. The effects of density and temperature gradients on the instabilities are also studied. The tearing instability is only driven by the temperature gradient in the collisional and semi-collisional regimes. Numerical calculations indicate that the semi-collisional tearing instability is particularly relevant to present day high temperature tokamak discharges
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
more and more difficult to remove heat as one approaches absolute zero. This is the ... A new and active branch of engineering ... This temperature is called the critical temperature, Te' For sulfur dioxide the critical ..... adsorbent charcoal.
The Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the spherical pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, H.B.; Hilko, B.; Panarella, E.
1994-01-01
The spherical pinch (SP) concept is an outgrowth of the inertial confinement model (ICF). Unlike the ICF where instabilities, especially the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, have been studied extensively, the instability study of the spherical pinch has just begun. The Raleigh-Taylor instability is investigated for the first time in the SP in the present work. By using the simple condition for the Rayleigh-Taylor instability ∇p · ∇p < O (density and pressure gradients have opposite direction), we have qualitatively identified the regions for development of instabilities in the SP. It is found that the explosion phase (central discharge) is stable and instabilities take place in the imploding phase. However, the growth rate for the instability is not in exponential form, and the appearance of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability does not prevent the main shock wave from converging to the center of the sphere
Instability following total knee arthroplasty.
Rodriguez-Merchan, E Carlos
2011-10-01
Background Knee prosthesis instability (KPI) is a frequent cause of failure of total knee arthroplasty. Moreover, the degree of constraint required to achieve immediate and long-term stability in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is frequently debated. Questions This review aims to define the problem, analyze risk factors, and review strategies for prevention and treatment of KPI. Methods A PubMed (MEDLINE) search of the years 2000 to 2010 was performed using two key words: TKA and instability. One hundred and sixty-five initial articles were identified. The most important (17) articles as judged by the author were selected for this review. The main criteria for selection were that the articles addressed and provided solutions to the diagnosis and treatment of KPI. Results Patient-related risk factors predisposing to post-operative instability include deformity requiring a large surgical correction and aggressive ligament release, general or regional neuromuscular pathology, and hip or foot deformities. KPI can be prevented in most cases with appropriate selection of implants and good surgical technique. When ligament instability is anticipated post-operatively, the need for implants with a greater degree of constraint should be anticipated. In patients without significant varus or valgus malalignment and without significant flexion contracture, the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) can be retained. However, the PCL should be sacrificed when deformity exists particularly in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, previous patellectomy, previous high tibial osteotomy or distal femoral osteotomy, and posttraumatic osteoarthritis with disruption of the PCL. In most cases, KPI requires revision surgery. Successful outcomes can only be obtained if the cause of KPI is identified and addressed. Conclusions Instability following TKA is a common cause of the need for revision. Typically, knees with deformity, rheumatoid arthritis, previous patellectomy or high tibial osteotomy, and
Absolute spectrophotometry of Nova Cygni 1975
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kontizas, E.; Kontizas, M.; Smyth, M.J.
1976-01-01
Radiometric photoelectric spectrophotometry of Nova Cygni 1975 was carried out on 1975 August 31, September 2, 3. α Lyr was used as reference star and its absolute spectral energy distribution was used to reduce the spectrophotometry of the nova to absolute units. Emission strengths of Hα, Hβ, Hγ (in W cm -2 ) were derived. The Balmer decrement Hα:Hβ:Hγ was compared with theory, and found to deviate less than had been reported for an earlier nova. (author)
The Pragmatics of "Unruly" Dative Absolutes in Early Slavic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel E. Collins
2011-08-01
Full Text Available This chapter examines some uses of the dative absolute in Old Church Slavonic and in early recensional Slavonic texts that depart from notions of how Indo-European absolute constructions should behave, either because they have subjects coreferential with the (putative main-clause subjects or because they function as if they were main clauses in their own right. Such "noncanonical" absolutes have generally been written off as mechanistic translations or as mistakes by scribes who did not understand the proper uses of the construction. In reality, the problem is not with literalistic translators or incompetent scribes but with the definition of the construction itself; it is quite possible to redefine the Early Slavic dative absolute in a way that accounts for the supposedly deviant cases. While the absolute is generally dependent semantically on an adjacent unit of discourse, it should not always be regarded as subordinated syntactically. There are good grounds for viewing some absolutes not as dependent clauses but as independent sentences whose collateral character is an issue not of syntax but of the pragmatics of discourse.
Instabilities in thin tunnel junctions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Konkin, M.K.; Adler, J.G.
1978-01-01
Tunnel junctions prepared for inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy are often plagued by instabilities in the 0-500-meV range. This paper relates the bias at which the instability occurs to the barrier thickness
Summary of longitudinal instabilities workshop
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chasman, R.
1976-01-01
A five-day ISABELLE workshop on longitudinal instabilities was held at Brookhaven, August 9-13, 1976. About a dozen outside accelerator experts, both from Europe and the U.S.A., joined the local staff for discussions of longitudinal instabilities in ISABELLE. An agenda of talks was scheduled for the first day of the workshop. Later during the week, a presentation was given on the subject ''A more rigorous treatment of Landau damping in longitudinal beam instabilities''. A few progress meetings were held in which disagreements regarding calculations of coupling impedances were clarified. A summary session was held on the last day. Heavy emphasis was put on single bunched beam instabilities in the microwave region extending above the cut-off frequency of the ISABELLE vacuum chamber.
Instability of ties in compression
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Buch-Hansen, Thomas Cornelius
2013-01-01
Masonry cavity walls are loaded by wind pressure and vertical load from upper floors. These loads results in bending moments and compression forces in the ties connecting the outer and the inner wall in a cavity wall. Large cavity walls are furthermore loaded by differential movements from...... the temperature gradient between the outer and the inner wall, which results in critical increase of the bending moments in the ties. Since the ties are loaded by combined compression and moment forces, the loadbearing capacity is derived from instability equilibrium equations. Most of them are iterative, since...... exact instability solutions are complex to derive, not to mention the extra complexity introducing dimensional instability from the temperature gradients. Using an inverse variable substitution and comparing an exact theory with an analytical instability solution a method to design tie...
Fringe instability in constrained soft elastic layers.
Lin, Shaoting; Cohen, Tal; Zhang, Teng; Yuk, Hyunwoo; Abeyaratne, Rohan; Zhao, Xuanhe
2016-11-04
Soft elastic layers with top and bottom surfaces adhered to rigid bodies are abundant in biological organisms and engineering applications. As the rigid bodies are pulled apart, the stressed layer can exhibit various modes of mechanical instabilities. In cases where the layer's thickness is much smaller than its length and width, the dominant modes that have been studied are the cavitation, interfacial and fingering instabilities. Here we report a new mode of instability which emerges if the thickness of the constrained elastic layer is comparable to or smaller than its width. In this case, the middle portion along the layer's thickness elongates nearly uniformly while the constrained fringe portions of the layer deform nonuniformly. When the applied stretch reaches a critical value, the exposed free surfaces of the fringe portions begin to undulate periodically without debonding from the rigid bodies, giving the fringe instability. We use experiments, theory and numerical simulations to quantitatively explain the fringe instability and derive scaling laws for its critical stress, critical strain and wavelength. We show that in a force controlled setting the elastic fingering instability is associated with a snap-through buckling that does not exist for the fringe instability. The discovery of the fringe instability will not only advance the understanding of mechanical instabilities in soft materials but also have implications for biological and engineered adhesives and joints.
Topographic-driven instabilities in terrestrial bodies
Vantieghem, S.; Cebron, D.; Herreman, W.; Lacaze, L.
2013-12-01
Models of internal planetary fluid layers (core flows, subsurface oceans) commonly assume that these fluid envelopes have a spherical shape. This approximation however entails a serious restriction from the fluid dynamics point of view. Indeed, in the presence of mechanical forcings (precession, libration, nutation or tides) due to gravitational interaction with orbiting partners, boundary topography (e.g. of the core-mantle boundary) may excite flow instabilities and space-filling turbulence. These phenomena may affect heat transport and dissipation at the main order. Here, we focus on instabilities driven by longitudinal libration. Using a suite of theoretical tools and numerical simulations, we are able to discern a parameter range for which instability may be excited. We thereby consider deformations of different azimuthal order. This study gives the first numerical evidence of the tripolar instability. Furthermore, we explore the non-linear regime and investigate the amplitude as well as the dissipation of the saturated instability. Indeed, these two quantities control the torques on the solid layers and the thermal transport. Furthermore, based on this results, we address the issue of magnetic field generation associated with these flows (by induction or by dynamo process). This instability mechanism applies to both synchronized as non-synchronized bodies. As such, our results show that a tripolar instability might be present in various terrestrial bodies (Early Moon, Gallilean moons, asteroids, etc.), where it could participate in dynamo action. Simulation of a libration-driven tripolar instability in a deformed spherical fluid layer: snapshot of the velocity magnitude, where a complex 3D flow pattern is established.
Absolutyzm i pluralizm (ABSOLUTISM AND PLURALISM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Renata Ziemińska
2005-06-01
Full Text Available Alethic absolutism is a thesis that propositions can not be more or less true, that they are true or false for ever (if true at all and that their truth is independent on any circumstances of their assertion. In negative version, easier to defend, alethic absolutism claims the very same proposition can not be both true and false relative to circumstances of its assertion. Simple alethic pluralism is a thesis that we have many concepts of truth. It is a very good way to dissolve the controversy between alethic relativism and absolutism. Many philosophical concepts of truth are the best reason for such pluralism. If concept is meaning of a name, we have many concepts of truth because the name 'truth' was understood in many ways. The variety of meanings however can be superficial. Under it we can find one idea of truth expressed in correspondence truism or schema (T. The content of the truism is too poor to be content of anyone concept of truth, so it usually is connected with some picture of the world (ontology and we have so many concepts of truth as many pictures of the world. The authoress proposes the hierarchical pluralism with privileged classic (or correspondence in weak sense concept of truth as absolute property.Other author's publications:
Relativistic centrifugal instability
Gourgouliatos, Konstantinos N.; Komissarov, Serguei S.
2018-03-01
Near the central engine, many astrophysical jets are expected to rotate about their axis. Further out they are expected to go through the processes of reconfinement and recollimation. In both these cases, the flow streams along a concave surface and hence, it is subject to the centrifugal force. It is well known that such flows may experience the centrifugal instability (CFI), to which there are many laboratory examples. The recent computer simulations of relativistic jets from active galactic nuclei undergoing the process of reconfinement show that in such jets CFI may dominate over the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability associated with velocity shear (Gourgouliatos & Komissarov). In this letter, we generalize the Rayleigh criterion for CFI in rotating fluids to relativistic flows using a heuristic analysis. We also present the results of computer simulations which support our analytic criterion for the case of an interface separating two uniformly rotating cylindrical flows. We discuss the difference between CFI and the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in flows with curved streamlines.
History and Physical Examination for Shoulder Instability.
Haley, Col Chad A
2017-09-01
Glenohumeral instability frequently occurs in young active individuals especially those engaged in athletic and military activities. With advanced imaging and arthroscopic evaluation, our understanding of the injury patterns associated with instability has significantly improved. The majority of instability results from a traumatic anterior event which presents with common findings in the history, examination, and imaging studies. As such, a comprehensive evaluation of the patient is important to correctly diagnose the instability patterns and thus provide appropriate treatment intervention. With the correct diagnosis and improved surgical techniques, the majority of patients with instability can return to preinjury levels.
Electromagnetic theory of the radiative Pierce instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klochkov, D.N.; Rukhadze, A.A.
1997-01-01
A study is made of the radiative Pierce instability of a relativistic electron beam propagating in a waveguide in the presence of an infinitely strong magnetic field. The perturbation theory is used to find the growth rates and conditions of instability over a broad range of the beam current. It is shown that, under the Pierce boundary conditions, the instability is Raman in nature, and there is no current threshold for the instability. This allows the instability saturation level to be accurately determined from the condition for the violation of the Cherenkov resonance and the radiation efficiency to be estimated
Radiation-induced instability of human genome
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ryabchenko, N.N.; Demina, Eh.A.
2014-01-01
A brief review is dedicated to the phenomenon of radiation-induced genomic instability where the increased level of genomic changes in the offspring of irradiated cells is characteristic. Particular attention is paid to the problems of genomic instability induced by the low-dose radiation, role of the bystander effect in formation of radiation-induced instability, and its relationship with individual radiosensitivity. We believe that in accordance with the paradigm of modern radiobiology the increased human individual radiosensitivity can be formed due to the genome instability onset and is a significant risk factor for radiation-induced cancer
Radiation-induced chromosomal instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ritter, S.
1999-01-01
Recent studies on radiation-induced chromosomal instability in the progeny of exposed mammalian cells were briefly described as well as other related studies. For the analysis of chromosomal damage in clones, cells were seeded directly after exposure in cell well-dish to form single cell clones and post-irradiation chromosome aberrations were scored. Both exposure to isoeffective doses of X-ray or 270 MeV/u C-ions (13 keV/μm) increased the number of clones with abnormal karyotype and the increase was similar for X-ray and for C-ions. Meanwhile, in the progeny of cells for mass cultures, there was no indication of a delayed expression of chromosomal damage up to 40 population doublings after the exposure. A high number of aberrant cells were only observed directly after exposure to 10.7 MeV/u O-ions, i.e. in the first cycle cells and decreased with subsequent cell divisions. The reason for these differences in the radiation-induced chromosomal instability between clonal isolates and mass culture has not been clarified. Recent studies indicated that genomic instability occurs at a high frequency in the progeny of cells irradiated with both sparsely and densely ionizing radiation. Such genomic instability is thought likely to increase the risk of carcinogenesis, but more data are required for a well understanding of the health risks resulting from radiation-induced delayed instability. (M.N.)
Introducing the Mean Absolute Deviation "Effect" Size
Gorard, Stephen
2015-01-01
This paper revisits the use of effect sizes in the analysis of experimental and similar results, and reminds readers of the relative advantages of the mean absolute deviation as a measure of variation, as opposed to the more complex standard deviation. The mean absolute deviation is easier to use and understand, and more tolerant of extreme…
MR imaging in sports-related glenohumeral instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Woertler, Klaus; Waldt, Simone
2006-01-01
Sports-related shoulder pain and injuries represent a common problem. In this context, glenohumeral instability is currently believed to play a central role either as a recognized or as an unrecognized condition. Shoulder instabilities can roughly be divided into traumatic, atraumatic, and microtraumatic glenohumeral instabilities. In athletes, atraumatic and microtraumatic instabilities can lead to secondary impingement syndromes and chronic damage to intraarticular structures. Magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography is superior to conventional MR imaging in the diagnosis of labro-ligamentous injuries, intrinsic impingement, and SLAP (superior labral anteroposterior) lesions, and thus represents the most informative imaging modality in the overall assessment of glenohumeral instability. This article reviews the imaging criteria for the detection and classification of instability-related injuries in athletes with special emphasis on the influence of MR findings on therapeutic decisions. (orig.)
Taylor instability in rhyolite lava flows
Baum, B. A.; Krantz, W. B.; Fink, J. H.; Dickinson, R. E.
1989-01-01
A refined Taylor instability model is developed to describe the surface morphology of rhyolite lava flows. The effect of the downslope flow of the lava on the structures resulting from the Taylor instability mechanism is considered. Squire's (1933) transformation is developed for this flow in order to extend the results to three-dimensional modes. This permits assessing why ridges thought to arise from the Taylor instability mechanism are preferentially oriented transverse to the direction of lava flow. Measured diapir and ridge spacings for the Little and Big Glass Mountain rhyolite flows in northern California are used in conjunction with the model in order to explore the implications of the Taylor instability for flow emplacement. The model suggests additional lava flow features that can be measured in order to test whether the Taylor instability mechanism has influenced the flows surface morphology.
Tracking Code for Microwave Instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heifets, S.; SLAC
2006-01-01
To study microwave instability the tracking code is developed. For bench marking, results are compared with Oide-Yokoya results [1] for broad-band Q = 1 impedance. Results hint to two possible mechanisms determining the threshold of instability
Absolute calibration in vivo measurement systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kruchten, D.A.; Hickman, D.P.
1991-02-01
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is currently investigating a new method for obtaining absolute calibration factors for radiation measurement systems used to measure internally deposited radionuclides in vivo. Absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems will eliminate the need to generate a series of human surrogate structures (i.e., phantoms) for calibrating in vivo measurement systems. The absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems utilizes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to define physiological structure, size, and composition. The MRI image provides a digitized representation of the physiological structure, which allows for any mathematical distribution of radionuclides within the body. Using Monte Carlo transport codes, the emission spectrum from the body is predicted. The in vivo measurement equipment is calibrated using the Monte Carlo code and adjusting for the intrinsic properties of the detection system. The calibration factors are verified using measurements of existing phantoms and previously obtained measurements of human volunteers. 8 refs
Corona-induced electrohydrodynamic instabilities in low conducting liquids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vega, F.; Perez, A.T. [Depto. Electronica y Electromagnetismo, Facultad de Fisica, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Reina Mercedes, s/n. 41012, Sevilla (Spain)
2003-06-01
The rose-window electrohydrodynamic (EHD) instability has been observed when a perpendicular field with an additional unipolar ion injection is applied onto a low conducting liquid surface. This instability has a characteristic pattern with cells five to 10 times greater than those observed in volume instabilities caused by unipolar injection. We have used corona discharge from a metallic point to perform some measurements of the rose-window instability in low conducting liquids. The results are compared to the linear theoretical criterion for an ohmic liquid. They confirmed that the minimum voltage for this instability is much lower than that for the interfacial instability in high conducting liquids. This was predicted theoretically in the dependence of the critical voltage as a function of the non-dimensional conductivity. It is shown that in a non-ohmic liquid the rose window appears as a secondary instability after the volume instability. (orig.)
Instability and star evolution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mirzoyan, L.V.
1981-01-01
The observational data are discussed which testify that the phenomena of dynamical instability of stars and stellar systems are definite manifestations of their evolution. The study of these phenomena has shown that the instability is a regular phase of stellar evolution. It has resulted in the recognition of the most important regularities of the process of star formation concerning its nature. This became possible due to the discovery in 1947 of stellar associations in our Galaxy. The results of the study of the dynamical instability of stellar associations contradict the predictions of classical hypothesis of stellar condensation. These data supplied a basis for a new hypothesis on the formation of stars and nebulae by the decay of superdense protostars [ru
Incorrect Weighting of Absolute Performance in Self-Assessment
Jeffrey, Scott A.; Cozzarin, Brian
Students spend much of their life in an attempt to assess their aptitude for numerous tasks. For example, they expend a great deal of effort to determine their academic standing given a distribution of grades. This research finds that students use their absolute performance, or percentage correct as a yardstick for their self-assessment, even when relative standing is much more informative. An experiment shows that this reliance on absolute performance for self-evaluation causes a misallocation of time and financial resources. Reasons for this inappropriate responsiveness to absolute performance are explored.
Secondary instabilities of hypersonic stationary crossflow waves
Edelman, Joshua B.
A sharp, circular 7° half-angle cone was tested in the Boeing/AFOSR Mach-6 Quiet Tunnel at 6° angle of attack. Using a variety of roughness configurations, measurements were made using temperature-sensitive paint (TSP) and fast pressure sensors. High-frequency secondary instabilities of the stationary crossflow waves were detected near the aft end of the cone, from 110° to 163° from the windward ray. At least two frequency bands of the secondary instabilities were measured. The secondary instabilities have high coherence between upstream and downstream sensor pairs. In addition, the amplitudes of the instabilities increase with the addition of roughness elements near the nose of the cone. Two of the measured instabilities were captured over a range of axial Reynolds numbers of about 1 - 2 million, with amplitudes ranging from low to turbulent breakdown. For these instabilities, the wave speed and amplitude growth can be calculated. The wave speeds were all near the edge velocity. Measured growth before breakdown for the two instabilities are between e3 and e4 from background noise levels. The initial linear growth rates for the instabilities are near 50 /m. Simultaneous measurement of two frequency bands of the secondary instabilities was made during a single run. It was found that each mode was spatially confined within a small azimuthal region, and that the regions of peak amplitude for one mode correspond to regions of minimal amplitude for the other.
Hydro-osmotic Instabilities in Active Membrane Tubes
Al-Izzi, Sami C.; Rowlands, George; Sens, Pierre; Turner, Matthew S.
2018-03-01
We study a membrane tube with unidirectional ion pumps driving an osmotic pressure difference. A pressure-driven peristaltic instability is identified, qualitatively distinct from similar tension-driven Rayleigh-type instabilities on membrane tubes. We discuss how this instability could be related to the function and biogenesis of membrane bound organelles, in particular, the contractile vacuole complex. The unusually long natural wavelength of this instability is in agreement with that observed in cells.
Aeroelastic instability problems for wind turbines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Morten Hartvig
2007-01-01
This paper deals with the aeroelostic instabilities that have occurred and may still occur for modem commercial wind turbines: stall-induced vibrations for stall-turbines, and classical flutter for pitch-regulated turbines. A review of previous works is combined with derivations of analytical...... stiffness and chordwise position of the center of gravity along the blades are the main parameters for flutter. These instability characteristics are exemplified by aeroelastic stability analyses of different wind turbines. The review of each aeroelastic instability ends with a list of current research...... issues that represent unsolved aeroelostic instability problems for wind turbines. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....
Clinical and radiological instability following standard fenestration discectomy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mascarenhas Amrithlal
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Background: Post-surgical lumbar instability is an established complication but there is limited evidence in the literature regarding the incidence of lumbar instability following fenestration and discectomy. We analyzed our results following fenestration discectomy with a special focus on instability. Materials and Methods: Eighty-three patients between the age of 17 and 52 years who had undergone fenestration discectomy for a single-level lumbar intervertebral disc prolapse were followed-up for a period of 1-5 years. The criteria for instability included "instability catch,", "painful catch," and "apprehension." The working capacity of the patient and the outcome score of the surgery were assessed by means of the Oswestry disability score and the Prolo economic and functional outcome score. Flexion-extension lateral radiographs were taken and analyzed for abnormal tilt and translation. Results: Of the 83 patients included, 70 were men and 13 were women, with an average age of 37.35 years (17-52 years at 5 years follow-up. Clinical instability was seen in 10 (12.04% patients. Radiological instability was noted in 29 (34.9% patients. Only six (60% of the 10 patients who demonstrated clinical instability had radiological evidence of instability. Twenty (68.96% patients with radiological instability were asymptomatic. Three (10.34% patients with only radiological instability had unsatisfactory outcome. The Oswestry scoring showed an average score of 19.8%. Mild disability was noted in 59 (71.08% patients and moderate disability was seen in 24 (28.91% patients. None of the patients had severe disability. These outcomes were compared with the outcomes in other studies in the literature for microdiscectomy and the results were found to be comparable. Conclusion: The favorable outcome of this study is in good agreement with other studies on microdiscectomy. Clinical instability in 12.04% of the patients is in agreement with other studies. Radiological
Numerical MHD study for plasmoid instability in uniform resistivity
Shimizu, Tohru; Kondoh, Koji; Zenitani, Seiji
2017-11-01
The plasmoid instability (PI) caused in uniform resistivity is numerically studied with a MHD numerical code of HLLD scheme. It is shown that the PI observed in numerical studies may often include numerical (non-physical) tearing instability caused by the numerical dissipations. By increasing the numerical resolutions, the numerical tearing instability gradually disappears and the physical tearing instability remains. Hence, the convergence of the numerical results is observed. Note that the reconnection rate observed in the numerical tearing instability can be higher than that of the physical tearing instability. On the other hand, regardless of the numerical and physical tearing instabilities, the tearing instability can be classified into symmetric and asymmetric tearing instability. The symmetric tearing instability tends to occur when the thinning of current sheet is stopped by the physical or numerical dissipations, often resulting in the drastic changes in plasmoid chain's structure and its activity. In this paper, by eliminating the numerical tearing instability, we could not specify the critical Lundquist number Sc beyond which PI is fully developed. It suggests that Sc does not exist, at least around S = 105.
Edge instabilities of topological superconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hofmann, Johannes S. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Stuttgart (Germany); Assaad, Fakher F. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany); Schnyder, Andreas P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Stuttgart (Germany)
2016-07-01
Nodal topological superconductors display zero-energy Majorana flat bands at generic edges. The flatness of these edge bands, which is protected by time-reversal and translation symmetry, gives rise to an extensive ground state degeneracy and a diverging density of states. Therefore, even arbitrarily weak interactions lead to an instability of the flat-band edge states towards time-reversal and translation-symmetry broken phases, which lift the ground-state degeneracy. Here, we employ Monte Carlo simulations combined with mean-field considerations to examine the instabilities of the flat-band edge states of d{sub xy}-wave superconductors. We find that attractive interactions induce a complex s-wave pairing instability together with a density wave instability. Repulsive interactions, on the other hand, lead to ferromagnetism mixed with spin-triplet pairing at the edge. We discuss the implications of our findings for experiments on cuprate high-temperature superconductors.
WELLBORE INSTABILITY: CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Borivoje Pašić
2007-12-01
Full Text Available Wellbore instability is one of the main problems that engineers meet during drilling. The causes of wellbore instability are often classified into either mechanical (for example, failure of the rock around the hole because of high stresses, low rock strength, or inappropriate drilling practice or chemical effects which arise from damaging interaction between the rock, generally shale, and the drilling fluid. Often, field instances of instability are a result of a combination of both chemical and mechanical. This problem might cause serious complication in well and in some case can lead to expensive operational problems. The increasing demand for wellbore stability analyses during the planning stage of a field arise from economic considerations and the increasing use of deviated, extended reach and horizontal wells. This paper presents causes, indicators and diagnosing of wellbore instability as well as the wellbore stresses model.
Nonlinear behavior of the radiative condensation instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McCarthy, D.; Drake, J.F.
1991-01-01
An investigation of the nonlinear behavior of the radiative condensation instability is presented in a simple one-dimensional magnetized plasma. It is shown that the radiative condensation is typically a nonlinear instability---the growth of the instability is stronger once the disturbance reaches finite amplitude. Moreover, classical parallel thermal conduction is insufficient by itself to saturate the instability. Radiative collapse continues until the temperature in the high density condensation falls sufficiently to reduce the radiation rate
About the magneto-acoustic instabilities in mirrors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zvonkov, A.V.; Timofeev, A.V.
1984-01-01
It is shown that the characteristic of a plasma in mirrors anisotropy of io on distribution function versus velocities may results in the drive of magneto-acoustic instabilities. This instability, in contast to the well known Alyven oscillation instability, is driven on ion cyclotron frequency harmonics The instability in question has been possibly observed during the experiments a at the tmx device, where the oscillations have been excited both at the ion cycl tron frequency and harmonics
A general approach to optomechanical parametric instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Evans, M.; Barsotti, L.; Fritschel, P.
2010-01-01
We present a simple feedback description of parametric instabilities which can be applied to a variety of optical systems. Parametric instabilities are of particular interest to the field of gravitational-wave interferometry where high mechanical quality factors and a large amount of stored optical power have the potential for instability. In our use of Advanced LIGO as an example application, we find that parametric instabilities, if left unaddressed, present a potential threat to the stability of high-power operation.
Absolute instrumental neutron activation analysis at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heft, R.E.
1977-01-01
The Environmental Science Division at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory has in use a system of absolute Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Basically, absolute INAA is dependent upon the absolute measurement of the disintegration rates of the nuclides produced by neutron capture. From such disintegration rate data, the amount of the target element present in the irradiated sample is calculated by dividing the observed disintegration rate for each nuclide by the expected value for the disintegration rate per microgram of the target element that produced the nuclide. In absolute INAA, the expected value for disintegration rate per microgram is calculated from nuclear parameters and from measured values of both thermal and epithermal neutron fluxes which were present during irradiation. Absolute INAA does not depend on the concurrent irradiation of elemental standards but does depend on the values for thermal and epithermal neutron capture cross-sections for the target nuclides. A description of the analytical method is presented
Tidal instability in exoplanetary systems evolution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Le Gal P.
2011-02-01
Full Text Available A new element is proposed to play a role in the evolution of extrasolar planetary systems: the tidal (or elliptical instability. It comes from a parametric resonance and takes place in any rotating ﬂuid whose streamlines are (even slightly elliptically deformed. Based on theoretical, experimental and numerical works, we estimate the growth rate of the instability for hot-jupiter systems, when the rotation period of the star is known. We present the physical process, its application to stars, and preliminary results obtained on a few dozen systems, summarized in the form of a stability diagram. Most of the systems are trapped in the so-called "forbidden zone", where the instability cannot grow. In some systems, the tidal instability is able to grow, at short timescales compared to the system evolution. Implications are discussed in the framework of misaligned transiting systems, as the rotational axis of the star would be unstable in systems where this elliptical instability grows.
Generalized laser filamentation instability coupled to cooling instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liang, E.P.; Wong, J.; Garrison, J.
1984-01-01
We consider the propagation of laser light in an initially slightly nonuniform plasma. The classical dispersion relation for the laser filamentation growth rate (see e.g., B. Langdon, in the 1980 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Laser Program Annual Report, pp. 3-56, UCRL-50021-80, 1981) can be generalized to include other acoustical effects. For example, we find that the inclusion of potential imbalances in the heating and cooling rates of the ambient medium due to density and temperature perturbations can cause the laser filamentation mode to bifurcate into a cooling instability mode at long acoustic wavelengths. We also attempt to study semi-analytically the nonlinear evolution of this and related instabilities. These results have wide applications to a variety of chemical gas lasers and phenomena related to laser-target interactions (e.g., jet-like behavior)
Faraday instability on patterned surfaces
Feng, Jie; Rubinstein, Gregory; Jacobi, Ian; Stone, Howard
2013-11-01
We show how micro-scale surface patterning can be used to control the onset of the Faraday instability in thin liquid films. It is well known that when a liquid film on a planar substrate is subject to sufficient vibrational accelerations, the free surface destabilizes, exhibiting a family of non-linear standing waves. This instability remains a canonical problem in the study of spontaneous pattern formation, but also has practical uses. For example, the surface waves induced by the Faraday instability have been studied as a means of enhanced damping for mechanical vibrations (Genevaux et al. 2009). Also the streaming within the unstable layer has been used as a method for distributing heterogeneous cell cultures on growth medium (Takagi et al. 2002). In each of these applications, the roughness of the substrate significantly affects the unstable flow field. We consider the effect of patterned substrates on the onset and behavior of the Faraday instability over a range of pattern geometries and feature heights where the liquid layer is thicker than the pattern height. Also, we describe a physical model for the influence of patterned roughness on the destabilization of a liquid layer in order to improve the design of practical systems which exploit the Faraday instability.
Absolute Navigation Information Estimation for Micro Planetary Rovers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muhammad Ilyas
2016-03-01
Full Text Available This paper provides algorithms to estimate absolute navigation information, e.g., absolute attitude and position, by using low power, weight and volume Microelectromechanical Systems-type (MEMS sensors that are suitable for micro planetary rovers. Planetary rovers appear to be easily navigable robots due to their extreme slow speed and rotation but, unfortunately, the sensor suites available for terrestrial robots are not always available for planetary rover navigation. This makes them difficult to navigate in a completely unexplored, harsh and complex environment. Whereas the relative attitude and position can be tracked in a similar way as for ground robots, absolute navigation information, unlike in terrestrial applications, is difficult to obtain for a remote celestial body, such as Mars or the Moon. In this paper, an algorithm called the EASI algorithm (Estimation of Attitude using Sun sensor and Inclinometer is presented to estimate the absolute attitude using a MEMS-type sun sensor and inclinometer, only. Moreover, the output of the EASI algorithm is fused with MEMS gyros to produce more accurate and reliable attitude estimates. An absolute position estimation algorithm has also been presented based on these on-board sensors. Experimental results demonstrate the viability of the proposed algorithms and the sensor suite for low-cost and low-weight micro planetary rovers.
Coupled-bunch instabilities in the APS ring
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Emery, L.
1991-01-01
A study of coupled bunch instabilities for the APS storage ring is presented. The instabilities are driven by the higher-order modes of the fifteen 352-MHz single-cell RF cavities. These modes are modeled using the 2-D cavity program URMEL. The program ZAP is then used to estimate the growth time of the instabilities for an equally-spaced bunch pattern. The cavity modes most responsible for the instabilities will be singles out for damping. 7 refs., 5 tabs
Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in solar spicules
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H Ebadi
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Magneto hydrodynamic waves, propagating along spicules, may become unstable and the expected instability is of Kelvin-Helmholtz type. Such instability can trigger the onset of wave turbulence leading to an effective plasma heating and particle acceleration. In present study, two-dimensional magneto hydrodynamic simulations performed on a Cartesian grid is presented in spicules with different densities, moving at various speeds depending on their environment. Simulations being applied in this study show the onset of Kelvin-Helmholtz type instability and transition to turbulent flow in spicules. Development of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability leads to momentum and energy transport, dissipation, and mixing of fluids. When magnetic fields are involved, field amplification is also possible to take place
Model of oscillatory instability in vertically-homogeneous atmosphere
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. B. Rutkevich
2009-02-01
Full Text Available Existence and repeatability of tornadoes could be straightforwardly explained if there existed instability, responsible for their formation. However, it is well known that convection is the only instability in initially stable air, and the usual convective instability is not applicable for these phenomena. In the present paper we describe an instability in the atmosphere, which can be responsible for intense vortices. This instability appears in a fluid with Coriolis force and dissipation and has oscillatory behaviour, where the amplitude growth is accompanied by oscillations with frequency comparable to the growth rate of the instability. In the paper, both analytical analysis of the linear phase of the instability and nonlinear simulation of the developed stage of the air motion are addressed. This work was supported by the RFBR grant no. 09-05-00374-a.
Delayed chromosomal instability induced by DNA damage
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morgan, W.F.; Marder, B.A.; Day, J.P.
1994-01-01
Cellular exposure to DNA damaging agents rapidly results in a dose dependent increase in chromosomal breakage and gross structural chromosomal rearrangements. Over recent years, evidence has been accumulating indicating genomic instability can manifest multiple generations after cellular exposure to physical and chemical DNA damaging agents. Genomic instability manifests in the progeny of surviving cells, and has been implicated in mutation, gene application, cellular transformation, and cell killing. To investigate chromosome instability following DNA damage, we have used fluorescence in situ hybridization to detect chromosomal rearrangements in a human/hamster somatic hybrid cell line following exposure to ionizing radiation. Delayed chromosomal instability was detected when multiple populations of uniquely arranged metaphases were observed in clonal isolates raised from single cells surviving X-irradiation many generations after exposure. At higher radiation doses, chromosomal instability was observed in a relatively high frequency of surviving clones and, in general, those clones showed delayed chromosome instability also showed reduced survival as measured by colony forming ability
Absolute-magnitude distributions of supernovae
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Richardson, Dean; Wright, John [Department of Physics, Xavier University of Louisiana, New Orleans, LA 70125 (United States); Jenkins III, Robert L. [Applied Physics Department, Richard Stockton College, Galloway, NJ 08205 (United States); Maddox, Larry, E-mail: drichar7@xula.edu [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Southeastern Louisiana University, Hammond, LA 70402 (United States)
2014-05-01
The absolute-magnitude distributions of seven supernova (SN) types are presented. The data used here were primarily taken from the Asiago Supernova Catalogue, but were supplemented with additional data. We accounted for both foreground and host-galaxy extinction. A bootstrap method is used to correct the samples for Malmquist bias. Separately, we generate volume-limited samples, restricted to events within 100 Mpc. We find that the superluminous events (M{sub B} < –21) make up only about 0.1% of all SNe in the bias-corrected sample. The subluminous events (M{sub B} > –15) make up about 3%. The normal Ia distribution was the brightest with a mean absolute blue magnitude of –19.25. The IIP distribution was the dimmest at –16.75.
Calibration with Absolute Shrinkage
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Øjelund, Henrik; Madsen, Henrik; Thyregod, Poul
2001-01-01
In this paper, penalized regression using the L-1 norm on the estimated parameters is proposed for chemometric je calibration. The algorithm is of the lasso type, introduced by Tibshirani in 1996 as a linear regression method with bound on the absolute length of the parameters, but a modification...
Streaming gravity mode instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Shui.
1989-05-01
In this paper, we study the stability of a current sheet with a sheared flow in a gravitational field which is perpendicular to the magnetic field and plasma flow. This mixing mode caused by a combined role of the sheared flow and gravity is named the streaming gravity mode instability. The conditions of this mode instability are discussed for an ideal four-layer model in the incompressible limit. (author). 5 refs
Electrothermal instability growth in magnetically driven pulsed power liners
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peterson, Kyle J.; Sinars, Daniel B.; Yu, Edmund P.; Herrmann, Mark C.; Cuneo, Michael E.; Slutz, Stephen A.; Smith, Ian C.; Atherton, Briggs W.; Knudson, Marcus D.; Nakhleh, Charles
2012-01-01
This paper explores the role of electro-thermal instabilities on the dynamics of magnetically accelerated implosion systems. Electro-thermal instabilities result from non-uniform heating due to temperature dependence in the conductivity of a material. Comparatively little is known about these types of instabilities compared to the well known Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instability. We present simulations that show electrothermal instabilities form immediately after the surface material of a conductor melts and can act as a significant seed to subsequent MRT instability growth. We also present the results of several experiments performed on Sandia National Laboratories Z accelerator to investigate signatures of electrothermal instability growth on well characterized initially solid aluminum and copper rods driven with a 20 MA, 100 ns risetime current pulse. These experiments show excellent agreement with electrothermal instability simulations and exhibit larger instability growth than can be explained by MRT theory alone.
Analysis of fluid structural instability in water
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Piccirillo, N.
1997-02-01
Recent flow testing of stainless steel hardware in a high pressure/high temperature water environment produced an apparent fluid-structural instability. The source of instability was investigated by studying textbook theory and by performing NASTRAN finite element analyses. The modal analyses identified the mode that was being excited, but the flutter instability analysis showed that the design is stable if minimal structural damping is present. Therefore, it was suspected that the test hardware was the root cause of the instability. Further testing confirmed this suspicion
Intimate partner violence and housing instability.
Pavao, Joanne; Alvarez, Jennifer; Baumrind, Nikki; Induni, Marta; Kimerling, Rachel
2007-02-01
The mental and physical health consequences of intimate partner violence (IPV) have been well established, yet little is known about the impact of violence on a woman's ability to obtain and maintain housing. This cross-sectional study examines the relationship between recent IPV and housing instability among a representative sample of California women. It is expected that women who have experienced IPV will be at increased risk for housing instability as evidenced by: (1) late rent or mortgage, (2) frequent moves because of difficulty obtaining affordable housing, and/or (3) without their own housing. Data were taken from the 2003 California Women's Health Survey, a population-based, random-digit-dial, annual probability survey of adult California women (N=3619). Logistic regressions were used to predict housing instability in the past 12 months, adjusting for the following covariates; age, race/ethnicity, education, poverty status, marital status, children in the household, and past year IPV. In the multivariate model, age, race/ethnicity, marital status, poverty, and IPV were significant predictors of housing instability. After adjusting for all covariates, women who experienced IPV in the last year had almost four times the odds of reporting housing instability than women who did not experience IPV (adjusted odds ratio=3.98, 95% confidence interval: 2.94-5.39). This study found that IPV was associated with housing instability among California women. Future prospective studies are needed to learn more about the nature and direction of the relationship between IPV and housing instability and the possible associated negative health consequences.
Imaging findings in posterior instability of the shoulder
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harish, Srinivasan; Rebello, Ryan; O'Neill, John; Nagar, Arpit; Moro, Jaydeep; Pugh, David
2008-01-01
Posterior shoulder instability refers to the symptoms and signs resulting from excessive posterior translation of the humerus. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is the radiological modality of choice in the diagnostic assessment of posterior instability. Computed tomography (CT) is useful in the evaluation of osseous abnormalities associated with posterior instability. A detailed description of the posterior osseous and labroligamentous abnormalities has evolved recently, and many variant lesions of the posteroinferior labrum and/or capsular structures have been described. As the recommended surgical management of lesions associated with posterior instability is a lesion-specific approach, awareness of the specific lesions that have been described in association with posterior instability helps in pre-surgical planning. The purpose of this article is to review the classification of, and injury mechanisms leading to, posterior shoulder instability and to describe imaging findings associated with posterior instability, with emphasis on MR imaging. (orig.)
Imaging findings in posterior instability of the shoulder
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Harish, Srinivasan; Rebello, Ryan; O' Neill, John [St. Joseph' s Healthcare, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Hamilton, ON (Canada); McMaster University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Hamilton (Canada); Nagar, Arpit [St. Joseph' s Healthcare, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Moro, Jaydeep [St. Joseph' s Healthcare, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hamilton, ON (Canada); McMaster University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Hamilton (Canada); Pugh, David [Brantford General Hospital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Brantford, ON (Canada)
2008-08-15
Posterior shoulder instability refers to the symptoms and signs resulting from excessive posterior translation of the humerus. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is the radiological modality of choice in the diagnostic assessment of posterior instability. Computed tomography (CT) is useful in the evaluation of osseous abnormalities associated with posterior instability. A detailed description of the posterior osseous and labroligamentous abnormalities has evolved recently, and many variant lesions of the posteroinferior labrum and/or capsular structures have been described. As the recommended surgical management of lesions associated with posterior instability is a lesion-specific approach, awareness of the specific lesions that have been described in association with posterior instability helps in pre-surgical planning. The purpose of this article is to review the classification of, and injury mechanisms leading to, posterior shoulder instability and to describe imaging findings associated with posterior instability, with emphasis on MR imaging. (orig.)
Efficacy of intrahepatic absolute alcohol in unrespectable hepatocellular carcinoma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Farooqi, J.I.; Hameed, K.; Khan, I.U.; Shah, S.
2001-01-01
To determine efficacy of intrahepatic absolute alcohol injection in researchable hepatocellular carcinoma. A randomized, controlled, experimental and interventional clinical trial. Gastroenterology Department, PGMI, Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar during the period from June, 1998 to June, 2000. Thirty patients were treated by percutaneous, intrahepatic absolute alcohol injection sin repeated sessions, 33 patients were not given or treated with alcohol to serve as control. Both the groups were comparable for age, sex and other baseline characteristics. Absolute alcohol therapy significantly improved quality of life of patients, reduced the tumor size and mortality as well as showed significantly better results regarding survival (P< 0.05) than the patients of control group. We conclude that absolute alcohol is a beneficial and safe palliative treatment measure in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). (author)
Cultural diversity, economic development and societal instability
Nettle, D.; Grace, J.B.; Choisy, M.; Cornell, H.V.; Guegan, J.-F.; Hochberg, M.E.
2007-01-01
Background. Social scientists have suggested that cultural diversity in a nation leads to societal instability. However, societal instability may be affected not only by within-nation on ?? diversity, but also diversity between a nation and its neighbours or ?? diversity. It is also necessary to distinguish different domains of diversity, namely linguistic, ethnic and religious, and to distinguish between the direct effects of diversity on societal instability, and effects that are mediated by economic conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings. We assembled a large cross-national dataset with information on ?? and ?? cultural diversity, economic conditions, and indices of societal instability. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of cultural diversity on economics and societal stability. Results show that different type and domains of diversity have interacting effects. As previously documented, linguistic ?? diversity has a negative effect on economic performance, and we show that it is largely through this economic mechanism that it affects societal instability. For ?? diversity, the higher the linguistic diversity among nations in a region, the less stable the nation. But, religious ?? diversity has the opposite effect, reducing instability, particularly in the presence of high linguistic diversity. Conclusions. Within-nation linguistic diversity is associated with reduced economic performance, which, in turn, increases societal instability. Nations which differ linguistically from their neighbors are also less stable. However, religious diversity between, neighboring nations has the opposite effect, decreasing societal instability.
Cultural diversity, economic development and societal instability.
Nettle, Daniel; Grace, James B; Choisy, Marc; Cornell, Howard V; Guégan, Jean-François; Hochberg, Michael E
2007-09-26
Social scientists have suggested that cultural diversity in a nation leads to societal instability. However, societal instability may be affected not only by within-nation or alpha diversity, but also diversity between a nation and its neighbours or beta diversity. It is also necessary to distinguish different domains of diversity, namely linguistic, ethnic and religious, and to distinguish between the direct effects of diversity on societal instability, and effects that are mediated by economic conditions. We assembled a large cross-national dataset with information on alpha and beta cultural diversity, economic conditions, and indices of societal instability. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of cultural diversity on economics and societal stability. Results show that different types and domains of diversity have interacting effects. As previously documented, linguistic alpha diversity has a negative effect on economic performance, and we show that it is largely through this economic mechanism that it affects societal instability. For beta diversity, the higher the linguistic diversity among nations in a region, the less stable the nation. But, religious beta diversity has the opposite effect, reducing instability, particularly in the presence of high linguistic diversity. Within-nation linguistic diversity is associated with reduced economic performance, which, in turn, increases societal instability. Nations which differ linguistically from their neighbors are also less stable. However, religious diversity between neighboring nations has the opposite effect, decreasing societal instability.
Fingerprints of dynamical instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chomaz, Ph.; Colonna, M.; Guarnera, A.
1993-01-01
It is explained why any reduced descriptions, such as mean field approximation, are stochastic in nature. It is shown that the introduction of this stochastic dynamics leads to a predictive theory in a statistical sens whatever the individual trajectories are characterized by the occurrence of bifurcations, instabilities or phase transitions. Concerning nuclear matter, the spinodal instability is discussed. In such a critical situation, the possibility to replace the stochastic part of the collision integral in the Boltzmann-Langevin model by the numerical noise associated with the finite number of test particles in ordinary BUU treatment is studied. It is shown that the fingerprints of these instabilities are kept during the evolution because of the relatively long recombination time compared with the typical time scales imposed by the Coulomb repulsion and the possible collective expansion. (author) 5 refs., 12 figs
Planck absolute entropy of a rotating BTZ black hole
Riaz, S. M. Jawwad
2018-04-01
In this paper, the Planck absolute entropy and the Bekenstein-Smarr formula of the rotating Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole are presented via a complex thermodynamical system contributed by its inner and outer horizons. The redefined entropy approaches zero as the temperature of the rotating BTZ black hole tends to absolute zero, satisfying the Nernst formulation of a black hole. Hence, it can be regarded as the Planck absolute entropy of the rotating BTZ black hole.
Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space
Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA
2012-06-05
A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.
Electromagnetic theory of the radiative Pierce instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klochkov, D.N.; Rukhadze, A.A.
1997-01-01
The radiative Pierce instability of a relativistic electron beam in a waveguide stabilized by an infinite strong magnetic field is considered. the increment and conditions for instability development in a wide interval of the beam currents are determined on the basis of the perturbation theory. It is shown that the instability has always the Raman character and is threshold less in current for the Pierce boundary conditions. It permits sufficiently strictly to define the instability saturation level from breaking the resonance condition and to estimate the radiation efficiency
Size effects on cavitation instabilities
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Tvergaard, Viggo
2006-01-01
growth is here analyzed for such cases. A finite strain generalization of a higher order strain gradient plasticity theory is applied for a power-law hardening material, and the numerical analyses are carried out for an axisymmetric unit cell containing a spherical void. In the range of high stress...... triaxiality, where cavitation instabilities are predicted by conventional plasticity theory, such instabilities are also found for the nonlocal theory, but the effects of gradient hardening delay the onset of the instability. Furthermore, in some cases the cavitation stress reaches a maximum and then decays...... as the void grows to a size well above the characteristic material length....
Treatment of the subject of tearing instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paris, P.C.
1977-07-01
A simple approach is taken to the mechanics of potential instability associated with the steady tearing portion of J-Integral R-curves. The analysis is developed from simple examples of structural component (or test specimen) configurations with cracks, examining their instability possibilities individually, in order to draw more general conclusions about elastic-plastic cracking instability as contrasted to linear-elastic behavior. Finally, an attempt is made to model a more local cleavage-like instability for material in the fracture process zone just ahead of a crack tip. Results are then presented of a testing program which clearly demonstrates the appropriateness of the tearing instability analysis and which illustrates its broad potential for future application, as well as presenting guidelines for its further development. The material selected for analysis was Ni-Cr-Mo-V rotor steel
Surface instabilities in shock loaded granular media
Kandan, K.; Khaderi, S. N.; Wadley, H. N. G.; Deshpande, V. S.
2017-12-01
The initiation and growth of instabilities in granular materials loaded by air shock waves are investigated via shock-tube experiments and numerical calculations. Three types of granular media, dry sand, water-saturated sand and a granular solid comprising PTFE spheres were experimentally investigated by air shock loading slugs of these materials in a transparent shock tube. Under all shock pressures considered here, the free-standing dry sand slugs remained stable while the shock loaded surface of the water-saturated sand slug became unstable resulting in mixing of the shocked air and the granular material. By contrast, the PTFE slugs were stable at low pressures but displayed instabilities similar to the water-saturated sand slugs at higher shock pressures. The distal surfaces of the slugs remained stable under all conditions considered here. Eulerian fluid/solid interaction calculations, with the granular material modelled as a Drucker-Prager solid, reproduced the onset of the instabilities as seen in the experiments to a high level of accuracy. These calculations showed that the shock pressures to initiate instabilities increased with increasing material friction and decreasing yield strain. Moreover, the high Atwood number for this problem implied that fluid/solid interaction effects were small, and the initiation of the instability is adequately captured by directly applying a pressure on the slug surface. Lagrangian calculations with the directly applied pressures demonstrated that the instability was caused by spatial pressure gradients created by initial surface perturbations. Surface instabilities are also shown to exist in shock loaded rear-supported granular slugs: these experiments and calculations are used to infer the velocity that free-standing slugs need to acquire to initiate instabilities on their front surfaces. The results presented here, while in an idealised one-dimensional setting, provide physical understanding of the conditions required to
Casimir effect and thermodynamics of horizon instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hartnoll, Sean A.
2004-01-01
We propose a dual thermodynamic description of a classical instability of generalized black hole spacetimes. From a thermodynamic perspective, the instability is due to negative compressibility in regions where the Casimir pressure is large. The argument indicates how the correspondence between thermodynamic and classical instability for horizons may be extended to cases without translational invariance
Prevalence of knee instability in relation to sports activity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hahn, Thomas; Foldspang, Anders; Hansen, Thorsten Ingemann
2001-01-01
to be positively associated with female gender and different features of occupational work. In conclusion, knee instability is a commonly reported phenomenon among active athletes. It was found to be independent of the type and the amount of sports activity but highly dependent on female gender, type and amount......The objective was to estimate the prevalence of knee instability among active athletes and to investigate potential associations to type, amount and duration of sports participation. Based on a questionnaire, 339 athletes provided information about different features of occupation, sports activity...... and knee instability. The 12-month period prevalence of knee instability and constant or recurrent knee instability, and absence from sport and absence from work due to knee instability, was 22%, 14%, 5% and 1%, respectively. Knee instability as such, and constant or recurrent knee instability were found...
Conservation laws in baroclinic inertial-symmetric instabilities
Grisouard, Nicolas; Fox, Morgan B.; Nijjer, Japinder
2017-04-01
Submesoscale oceanic density fronts are structures in geostrophic and hydrostatic balance, but are more prone to instabilities than mesoscale flows. As a consequence, they are believed to play a large role in air-sea exchanges, near-surface turbulence and dissipation of kinetic energy of geostrophically and hydrostatically balanced flows. We will present two-dimensional (x, z) Boussinesq numerical experiments of submesoscale baroclinic fronts on the f-plane. Instabilities of the mixed inertial and symmetric types (the actual name varies across the literature) develop, with the absence of along-front variations prohibiting geostrophic baroclinic instabilities. Two new salient facts emerge. First, contrary to pure inertial and/or pure symmetric instability, the potential energy budget is affected, the mixed instability extracting significant available potential energy from the front and dissipating it locally. Second, in the submesoscale regime, the growth rate of this mixed instability is sufficiently large that significant radiation of near-inertial internal waves occurs. Although energetically small compared to e.g. local dissipation within the front, this process might be a significant source of near-inertial energy in the ocean.
Two-phase flow instability and propagation of disturbances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yadigaroglu, G.
1984-01-01
Various mechanisms of static and dynamic macroinstabilities, appearing in two-phase flows, have been considered. Types of instabilities, conditioned by the form of hydraulic characteristics of the channel and density waves are analyzed in detail. Problems of instabilities in nuclear reactor circuits, in particular problems of instabilities, conditioned by water and steam mixing and vapour condensation, and problems of steam generator operation instability are discussed
Simulations relevant to the beam instability in the foreshock
Cairns, I. H.; Nishikawa, K.-I.
1989-01-01
The results presently obtained from two-dimensional simulations of the reactive instability for Maxwellian beams and cutoff distributions are noted to be consistent with recent suggestions that electrons backstreaming into earth's foreshock have steep-sided cutoff distributions, which are initially unstable to the reactive instability, and that the back-reaction to the wave growth causes the instability to pass into its kinetic phase. It is demonstrated that the reactive instability is a bunching instability, and that the reactive instability saturates and passes over into the kinetic phase by particle trapping.
Off-equatorial current-driven instabilities ahead of approaching dipolarization fronts
Zhang, Xu; Angelopoulos, V.; Pritchett, P. L.; Liu, Jiang
2017-05-01
Recent kinetic simulations have revealed that electromagnetic instabilities near the ion gyrofrequency and slightly away from the equatorial plane can be driven by a current parallel to the magnetic field prior to the arrival of dipolarization fronts. Such instabilities are important because of their potential contribution to global electromagnetic energy conversion near dipolarization fronts. Of the several instabilities that may be consistent with such waves, the most notable are the current-driven electromagnetic ion cyclotron instability and the current-driven kink-like instability. To confirm the existence and characteristics of these instabilities, we used observations by two Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms satellites, one near the neutral sheet observing dipolarization fronts and the other at the boundary layer observing precursor waves and currents. We found that such instabilities with monochromatic signatures are rare, but one of the few cases was selected for further study. Two different instabilities, one at about 0.3 Hz and the other at a much lower frequency, 0.02 Hz, were seen in the data from the off-equatorial spacecraft. A parallel current attributed to an electron beam coexisted with the waves. Our instability analysis attributes the higher-frequency instability to a current-driven ion cyclotron instability and the lower frequency instability to a kink-like instability. The current-driven kink-like instability we observed is consistent with the instabilities observed in the simulation. We suggest that the currents needed to excite these low-frequency instabilities are so intense that the associated electron beams are easily thermalized and hence difficult to observe.
High-resolution MR imaging of glenohumeral instability lesions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rafii, M.; Firooznia, H.; Sherman, O.; Minkoff, J.; Sherman, M.; Golimbu, C.
1991-01-01
This paper determines the accuracy of conventual MR imaging in the diagnosis of glenohumeral instabilities and evaluates various pathologic aspects of these lesions. Records were reviewed in 80 consecutive patients with known or suspected instability who underwent MR imaging. The routine shoulder protocol included a proton density- or T2-weighted sequence. Surgical correlation was available in 31 cases. Diagnosis of glenohumeral instability was based on the presence of a combination of findings of appropriately located tear, osseous abnormality of glenoid margin, capsular abnormalities and Hill-Sachs deformity. In 28 surgically correlated patients with glenohumeral instability an accurate diagnosis was made in all but 1 case of posterior instability. A false diagnosis of instability was suggested in 3 cases by signal abnormality of the labrum and/or a prominent capsule
The Growth Effects of Institutional Instability
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Berggren, Niclas; Bergh, Andreas; Bjørnskov, Christian
Both institutional quality and institutional stability have been argued to stimulate economic growth. But to improve institutional quality, a country must endure a period of institutional change, which implies at least a little and possibly a lot of institutional instability. We investigate...... the growth effects of institutional quality and instability, using the political risk index from the ICRG in a cross-country study of 132 countries, measuring instability as the coefficient of variation. Using the aggregate index, we find evidence that institutional quality is positively linked to growth....... While institutional instability is negatively related to growth in the baseline case, there are indications that the effect can be positive in rich countries, suggesting that institutional reform is not necessarily costly even during a transition period. Sensitivity analysis, e.g., decomposing...
Mukherjee, Rabibrata; Das, Soma; Das, Anindya; Sharma, Satinder K; Raychaudhuri, Arup K; Sharma, Ashutosh
2010-07-27
We investigate the influence of gold nanoparticle addition on the stability, dewetting, and pattern formation in ultrathin polymer-nanoparticle (NP) composite films by examining the length and time scales of instability, morphology, and dynamics of dewetting. For these 10-50 nm thick (h) polystyrene (PS) thin films containing uncapped gold nanoparticles (diameter approximately 3-4 nm), transitions from complete dewetting to arrested dewetting to absolute stability were observed depending on the concentration of the particles. Experiments show the existence of three distinct stability regimes: regime 1, complete dewetting leading to droplet formation for nanoparticle concentration of 2% (w/w) or below; regime 2, partial dewetting leading to formation of arrested holes for NP concentrations in the range of 3-6%; and regime 3, complete inhibition of dewetting for NP concentrations of 7% and above. Major results are (a) length scale of instability, where lambdaH approximately hn remains unchanged with NP concentration in regime 1 (n approximately 2) but increases in regime 2 with a change in the scaling relation (n approximately 3-3.5); (b) dynamics of instability and dewetting becomes progressively sluggish with an increase in the NP concentration; (c) there are distinct regimes of dewetting velocity at low NP concentrations; (d) force modulation AFM, as well as micro-Raman analysis, shows phase separation and aggregation of the gold nanoparticles within each dewetted polymer droplet leading to the formation of a metal core-polymer shell morphology. The polymer shell could be removed by washing in a selective solvent, thus exposing an array of bare gold nanoparticle aggregates.
Jiskoot, Wim; Randolph, Theodore W; Volkin, David B; Middaugh, C Russell; Schöneich, Christian; Winter, Gerhard; Friess, Wolfgang; Crommelin, Daan J A; Carpenter, John F
2012-03-01
Protein instability and immunogenicity are two main roadblocks to the clinical success of novel protein drug delivery systems. In this commentary, we discuss the need for more extensive analytical characterization in relation to concerns about protein instability in injectable drug delivery systems for sustained release. We then will briefly address immunogenicity concerns and outline current best practices for using state-of-the-art analytical assays to monitor protein stability for both conventional and novel therapeutic protein dosage forms. Next, we provide a summary of the stresses on proteins arising during preparation of drug delivery systems and subsequent in vivo release. We note the challenges and difficulties in achieving the absolute requirement of quantitatively assessing the degradation of protein molecules in a drug delivery system. We describe the potential roles for academic research in further improving protein stability and developing new analytical technologies to detect protein degradation byproducts in novel drug delivery systems. Finally, we provide recommendations for the appropriate approaches to formulation design and assay development to ensure that stable, minimally immunogenic formulations of therapeutic proteins are created. These approaches should help to increase the probability that novel drug delivery systems for sustained protein release will become more readily available as effective therapeutic agents to treat and benefit patients. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Telomere dysfunction and chromosome instability
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Murnane, John P., E-mail: jmurnane@radonc.ucsf.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, 2340 Sutter Street, San Francisco, CA 94143-1331 (United States)
2012-02-01
The ends of chromosomes are composed of a short repeat sequence and associated proteins that together form a cap, called a telomere, that keeps the ends from appearing as double-strand breaks (DSBs) and prevents chromosome fusion. The loss of telomeric repeat sequences or deficiencies in telomeric proteins can result in chromosome fusion and lead to chromosome instability. The similarity between chromosome rearrangements resulting from telomere loss and those found in cancer cells implicates telomere loss as an important mechanism for the chromosome instability contributing to human cancer. Telomere loss in cancer cells can occur through gradual shortening due to insufficient telomerase, the protein that maintains telomeres. However, cancer cells often have a high rate of spontaneous telomere loss despite the expression of telomerase, which has been proposed to result from a combination of oncogene-mediated replication stress and a deficiency in DSB repair in telomeric regions. Chromosome fusion in mammalian cells primarily involves nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ), which is the major form of DSB repair. Chromosome fusion initiates chromosome instability involving breakage-fusion-bridge (B/F/B) cycles, in which dicentric chromosomes form bridges and break as the cell attempts to divide, repeating the process in subsequent cell cycles. Fusion between sister chromatids results in large inverted repeats on the end of the chromosome, which amplify further following additional B/F/B cycles. B/F/B cycles continue until the chromosome acquires a new telomere, most often by translocation of the end of another chromosome. The instability is not confined to a chromosome that loses its telomere, because the instability is transferred to the chromosome donating a translocation. Moreover, the amplified regions are unstable and form extrachromosomal DNA that can reintegrate at new locations. Knowledge concerning the factors promoting telomere loss and its consequences is
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 10. Approach to Absolute Zero Below 10 milli-Kelvin. R Srinivasan. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 10 October 1997 pp 8-16. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/10/0008-0016 ...
Population-based absolute risk estimation with survey data
Kovalchik, Stephanie A.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.
2013-01-01
Absolute risk is the probability that a cause-specific event occurs in a given time interval in the presence of competing events. We present methods to estimate population-based absolute risk from a complex survey cohort that can accommodate multiple exposure-specific competing risks. The hazard function for each event type consists of an individualized relative risk multiplied by a baseline hazard function, which is modeled nonparametrically or parametrically with a piecewise exponential model. An influence method is used to derive a Taylor-linearized variance estimate for the absolute risk estimates. We introduce novel measures of the cause-specific influences that can guide modeling choices for the competing event components of the model. To illustrate our methodology, we build and validate cause-specific absolute risk models for cardiovascular and cancer deaths using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Our applications demonstrate the usefulness of survey-based risk prediction models for predicting health outcomes and quantifying the potential impact of disease prevention programs at the population level. PMID:23686614
Diffusive instabilities in hyperbolic reaction-diffusion equations
Zemskov, Evgeny P.; Horsthemke, Werner
2016-03-01
We investigate two-variable reaction-diffusion systems of the hyperbolic type. A linear stability analysis is performed, and the conditions for diffusion-driven instabilities are derived. Two basic types of eigenvalues, real and complex, are described. Dispersion curves for both types of eigenvalues are plotted and their behavior is analyzed. The real case is related to the Turing instability, and the complex one corresponds to the wave instability. We emphasize the interesting feature that the wave instability in the hyperbolic equations occurs in two-variable systems, whereas in the parabolic case one needs three reaction-diffusion equations.
Systems and methods for controlling flame instability
Cha, Min Suk
2016-07-21
A system (62) for controlling flame instability comprising: a nozzle (66) coupled to a fuel supply line (70), an insulation housing (74) coupled to the nozzle, a combustor (78) coupled to the nozzle via the insulation housing, where the combustor is grounded (80), a pressure sensor (82) coupled to the combustor and configured to detect pressure in the combustor, and an instability controlling assembly coupled to the pressure sensor and to an alternating current power supply (86), where, the instability controlling assembly can control flame instability of a flame in the system based on pressure detected by the pressure sensor.
Nam, Seung-Min; Kim, Kyoung; Lee, Do Youn
2018-01-01
[Purpose] This study examined the effects of visual feedback balance training on the balance and ankle instability in adult men with functional ankle instability. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty eight adults with functional ankle instability, divided randomly into an experimental group, which performed visual feedback balance training for 20 minutes and ankle joint exercises for 10 minutes, and a control group, which performed ankle joint exercise for 30 minutes. Exercises were completed three times a week for 8 weeks. Bio rescue was used for balance ability. It measured limit of stability at one minute. For ankle instability was measured using Cumberland ankle instability tool (CAIT). This measure was performed before and after the experiments in each group. [Results] The experimental group had significant increase in the Limit of Stability and CAIT score. The control group had significant increase in CAIT score. While the Limit of Stability increased without significance. [Conclusion] In conclusion, visual feedback balance training can be recommended as a treatment method for patients with functional ankle instability.
Faraday instability in deformable domains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pucci, G.
2013-01-01
Hydrodynamical instabilities are usually studied either in bounded regions or free to grow in space. In this article we review the experimental results of an intermediate situation, in which an instability develops in deformable domains. The Faraday instability, which consists in the formation of surface waves on a liquid experiencing a vertical forcing, is triggered in floating liquid lenses playing the role of deformable domains. Faraday waves deform the lenses from the initial circular shape and the mutual adaptation of instability patterns with the lens boundary is observed. Two archetypes of behaviour have been found. In the first archetype a stable elongated shape is reached, the wave vector being parallel to the direction of elongation. In the second archetype the waves exceed the response of the lens border and no equilibrium shape is reached. The lens stretches and eventually breaks into fragments that have a complex dynamics. The difference between the two archetypes is explained by the competition between the radiation pressure the waves exert on the lens border and its response due to surface tension.
Lending sociodynamics and economic instability
Hawkins, Raymond J.
2011-11-01
We show how the dynamics of economic instability and financial crises articulated by Keynes in the General Theory and developed by Minsky as the Financial Instability Hypothesis can be formalized using Weidlich’s sociodynamics of opinion formation. The model addresses both the lending sentiment of a lender in isolation as well as the impact on that lending sentiment of the behavior of other lenders. The risk associated with lending is incorporated through a stochastic treatment of loan dynamics that treats prepayment and default as competing risks. With this model we are able to generate endogenously the rapid changes in lending opinion that attend slow changes in lending profitability and find these dynamics to be consistent with the rise and collapse of the non-Agency mortgage-backed securities market in 2007/2008. As the parameters of this model correspond to well-known phenomena in cognitive and social psychology, we can both explain why economic instability has proved robust to advances in risk measurement and suggest how policy for reducing economic instability might be formulated in an experimentally sound manner.
Absolute marine gravimetry with matter-wave interferometry.
Bidel, Y; Zahzam, N; Blanchard, C; Bonnin, A; Cadoret, M; Bresson, A; Rouxel, D; Lequentrec-Lalancette, M F
2018-02-12
Measuring gravity from an aircraft or a ship is essential in geodesy, geophysics, mineral and hydrocarbon exploration, and navigation. Today, only relative sensors are available for onboard gravimetry. This is a major drawback because of the calibration and drift estimation procedures which lead to important operational constraints. Atom interferometry is a promising technology to obtain onboard absolute gravimeter. But, despite high performances obtained in static condition, no precise measurements were reported in dynamic. Here, we present absolute gravity measurements from a ship with a sensor based on atom interferometry. Despite rough sea conditions, we obtained precision below 10 -5 m s -2 . The atom gravimeter was also compared with a commercial spring gravimeter and showed better performances. This demonstration opens the way to the next generation of inertial sensors (accelerometer, gyroscope) based on atom interferometry which should provide high-precision absolute measurements from a moving platform.
The large density electron beam-plasma Buneman instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mantei, T.D.; Doveil, F.; Gresillon, D.
1976-01-01
The threshold conditions and growth rate of the Buneman (electron beam-stationary ion) instability are calculated with kinetic theory, including a stationary electronic population. A criteria on the wave energy sign is used to separate the Buneman hydrodynamic instability from the ion-acoustic kinetic instability. The stationary electron population raises the instability threshold and, for large beam velocities yields a maximum growth rate oblique to the beam. (author)
Resistive hose instability in the Bennet beam
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nadezhdin, E.R.; Sorokin, G.A.
1983-01-01
Development of resistive hose instability of a relativistic electron beam with the Bennet current density distribution in a homogeneous unlimited plasma in the range of a high, 4πσ 0 a/c >> 1, and a low, 4πσ 0 a/c 0 =conductivity, c=light velocity, a = equilibrium beam radius) has been cansidered. Spatial and temporal increments of the instability development are calculated. In both cases the instability is of a convective nature. At 4πσ 0 a/c >> 1 the instability is shifted to the region of low frequencies as compared with the previously considered case of the Bennet profile of the plasma conductivity, σ(r)=σ 0 /(1+r 2 /a 2 ) 2 . It is shown that in an unlimited plasma a considerable decrease in the spatial and especially temporal increment of the instability development takes place
Role of microsatellite instability in colon cancer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Yu. Fedyanin
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Coloncancer is among leading causes of cancer morbidity and mortality both inRussiaand worldwide. Development of molecular biology lead to decoding of carcinogenesis and tumor progression mechanisms. These processes require accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations in a tumor cell.Coloncancer carcinogenesis is characterized by mutations cumulation in genes controlling growth and differentiation of epithelial cells, which leads to their genetic instability. Microsatellite instability is a type of genetic instability characterized by deterioration of mismatch DNA repair. This leads to faster accumulation of mutations in DNA. Loss of mismatch repair mechanism can easily be diagnosed by length of DNA microsatellites. These alterations are termed microsatellite instability. They can be found both in hereditary and sporadic colon cancers. This review covers the questions of microsatellite instability, its prognostic and predictive value in colon cancer.
[Patellar instability : diagnosis and treatment].
Ngo, Trieu Hoai Nam; Martin, Robin
2017-12-13
The aim of this paper is to present recent advances in surgical management of patellar instability. Several anatomical factors were reported to promote instability. We propose to classify them in two groups. Extra articular factors are valgus and torsion deformity. Articular factors include trochlea and patella dysplasia, tibial tubercle lateralization and medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) insufficiency. Acute patellar dislocations are treated conservatively, with exception for osteochondral and MPFL avulsion fractures that require acute reinsertion. Surgery is considered for recurrent instability. As we aim for a correction of all contributing elements, we prefer a two stages approach. Extra articular factors are treated first by osteotomy, followed by articular factors after 4-6 months. This allows separate rehabilitation protocols.
In-plane fluidelastic instability analysis for large steam generators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mureithi, Njuki; Olala, Stephen; Hadji, Abdallah
2015-01-01
Fluidelastic instability remains the most important vibration excitation mechanism in nuclear steam generators (SGs). Design guidelines, aimed at eliminating the possibility of fluidelastic instability, have been developed over the past 40 years. The design guidelines, based on the Connors equation, depend on a large database on cross-flow fluidelastic instability i.e. instability in the direction transverse to the flow. Past experience had shown that for an axi-symmetrically flexible tube, instability generally occurred in the transverse direction, at least at first. Although often not explicitly stated, there has been an implicit assumption that the in-plane direction was either stable, or would only suffer instability at velocities significantly higher than the transverse direction. This explains why SGs are fitted with anti-vibrations bars (AVBs) to mitigate transverse (out-of-plane) vibrations with no equivalent consideration for potential in-plane instability. This 'oversight' recently came to a head when SG at the San-Onofre NPP suffered in-plane fluidelastic instability. The present paper addresses the question of in-plane fluidelastic instability in large SGs. A historical review is presented to explain why this potential problem was left unresolved (or ignored) over the past 40+ years, and why engineers got away with it - at least until recently. Following the review, some recent work on in-plane fluidelastic instability modeling, using the quasi-steady model is presented. It is shown that in-plane fluidelastic instability can be fully modelled using this approach. The model results are used to propose some changes to existing design guidelines to cover the case of in-plane fluidelastic instability. (author)
Observation of Parametric Instability in Advanced LIGO.
Evans, Matthew; Gras, Slawek; Fritschel, Peter; Miller, John; Barsotti, Lisa; Martynov, Denis; Brooks, Aidan; Coyne, Dennis; Abbott, Rich; Adhikari, Rana X; Arai, Koji; Bork, Rolf; Kells, Bill; Rollins, Jameson; Smith-Lefebvre, Nicolas; Vajente, Gabriele; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Adams, Carl; Aston, Stuart; Betzweiser, Joseph; Frolov, Valera; Mullavey, Adam; Pele, Arnaud; Romie, Janeen; Thomas, Michael; Thorne, Keith; Dwyer, Sheila; Izumi, Kiwamu; Kawabe, Keita; Sigg, Daniel; Derosa, Ryan; Effler, Anamaria; Kokeyama, Keiko; Ballmer, Stefan; Massinger, Thomas J; Staley, Alexa; Heinze, Matthew; Mueller, Chris; Grote, Hartmut; Ward, Robert; King, Eleanor; Blair, David; Ju, Li; Zhao, Chunnong
2015-04-24
Parametric instabilities have long been studied as a potentially limiting effect in high-power interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Until now, however, these instabilities have never been observed in a kilometer-scale interferometer. In this Letter, we describe the first observation of parametric instability in a gravitational wave detector, and the means by which it has been removed as a barrier to progress.
Relative and absolute risk in epidemiology and health physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goldsmith, R.; Peterson, H.T. Jr.
1983-01-01
The health risk from ionizing radiation commonly is expressed in two forms: (1) the relative risk, which is the percentage increase in natural disease rate and (2) the absolute or attributable risk which represents the difference between the natural rate and the rate associated with the agent in question. Relative risk estimates for ionizing radiation generally are higher than those expressed as the absolute risk. This raises the question of which risk estimator is the most appropriate under different conditions. The absolute risk has generally been used for radiation risk assessment, although mathematical combinations such as the arithmetic or geometric mean of both the absolute and relative risks, have also been used. Combinations of the two risk estimators are not valid because the absolute and relative risk are not independent variables. Both human epidemiologic studies and animal experimental data can be found to illustrate the functional relationship between the natural cancer risk and the risk associated with radiation. This implies that the radiation risk estimate derived from one population may not be appropriate for predictions in another population, unless it is adjusted for the difference in the natural disease incidence between the two populations
Redetermination and absolute configuration of atalaphylline
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hoong-Kun Fun
2010-02-01
Full Text Available The title acridone alkaloid [systematic name: 1,3,5-trihydroxy-2,4-bis(3-methylbut-2-enylacridin-9(10H-one], C23H25NO4, has previously been reported as crystallizing in the chiral orthorhombic space group P212121 [Chantrapromma et al. (2010. Acta Cryst. E66, o81–o82] but the absolute configuration could not be determined from data collected with Mo radiation. The absolute configuration has now been determined by refinement of the Flack parameter with data collected using Cu radiation. All features of the molecule and its crystal packing are similar to those previously described.
Absolute calibration of sniffer probes on Wendelstein 7-X
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moseev, D.; Laqua, H. P.; Marsen, S.; Stange, T.; Braune, H.; Erckmann, V.; Gellert, F.; Oosterbeek, J. W.
2016-01-01
Here we report the first measurements of the power levels of stray radiation in the vacuum vessel of Wendelstein 7-X using absolutely calibrated sniffer probes. The absolute calibration is achieved by using calibrated sources of stray radiation and the implicit measurement of the quality factor of the Wendelstein 7-X empty vacuum vessel. Normalized absolute calibration coefficients agree with the cross-calibration coefficients that are obtained by the direct measurements, indicating that the measured absolute calibration coefficients and stray radiation levels in the vessel are valid. Close to the launcher, the stray radiation in the empty vessel reaches power levels up to 340 kW/m 2 per MW injected beam power. Furthest away from the launcher, i.e., half a toroidal turn, still 90 kW/m 2 per MW injected beam power is measured.
Absolute calibration of sniffer probes on Wendelstein 7-X
Moseev, D.; Laqua, H. P.; Marsen, S.; Stange, T.; Braune, H.; Erckmann, V.; Gellert, F.; Oosterbeek, J. W.
2016-08-01
Here we report the first measurements of the power levels of stray radiation in the vacuum vessel of Wendelstein 7-X using absolutely calibrated sniffer probes. The absolute calibration is achieved by using calibrated sources of stray radiation and the implicit measurement of the quality factor of the Wendelstein 7-X empty vacuum vessel. Normalized absolute calibration coefficients agree with the cross-calibration coefficients that are obtained by the direct measurements, indicating that the measured absolute calibration coefficients and stray radiation levels in the vessel are valid. Close to the launcher, the stray radiation in the empty vessel reaches power levels up to 340 kW/m2 per MW injected beam power. Furthest away from the launcher, i.e., half a toroidal turn, still 90 kW/m2 per MW injected beam power is measured.
Absolute calibration of sniffer probes on Wendelstein 7-X
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moseev, D., E-mail: dmitry.moseev@ipp.mpg.de; Laqua, H. P.; Marsen, S.; Stange, T.; Braune, H.; Erckmann, V. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Greifswald (Germany); Gellert, F. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Greifswald (Germany); Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität Greifswald, Greifswald (Germany); Oosterbeek, J. W. [Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven (Netherlands)
2016-08-15
Here we report the first measurements of the power levels of stray radiation in the vacuum vessel of Wendelstein 7-X using absolutely calibrated sniffer probes. The absolute calibration is achieved by using calibrated sources of stray radiation and the implicit measurement of the quality factor of the Wendelstein 7-X empty vacuum vessel. Normalized absolute calibration coefficients agree with the cross-calibration coefficients that are obtained by the direct measurements, indicating that the measured absolute calibration coefficients and stray radiation levels in the vessel are valid. Close to the launcher, the stray radiation in the empty vessel reaches power levels up to 340 kW/m{sup 2} per MW injected beam power. Furthest away from the launcher, i.e., half a toroidal turn, still 90 kW/m{sup 2} per MW injected beam power is measured.
Absolute magnitudes by statistical parallaxes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heck, A.
1978-01-01
The author describes an algorithm for stellar luminosity calibrations (based on the principle of maximum likelihood) which allows the calibration of relations of the type: Msub(i)=sup(N)sub(j=1)Σqsub(j)Csub(ij), i=1,...,n, where n is the size of the sample at hand, Msub(i) are the individual absolute magnitudes, Csub(ij) are observational quantities (j=1,...,N), and qsub(j) are the coefficients to be determined. If one puts N=1 and Csub(iN)=1, one has q 1 =M(mean), the mean absolute magnitude of the sample. As additional output, the algorithm provides one also with the dispersion in magnitude of the sample sigmasub(M), the mean solar motion (U,V,W) and the corresponding velocity ellipsoid (sigmasub(u), sigmasub(v), sigmasub(w). The use of this algorithm is illustrated. (Auth.)
Systematics of shoulder instability; Systematik der Schulterinstabilitaet
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kreitner, K.F.; Maehringer-Kunz, A. [Johannes-Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Mainz (Germany)
2015-03-01
Shoulder instability is defined as a symptomatic abnormal motion of the humeral head relative to the glenoid during active shoulder motion. Glenohumeral instabilities are classified according to the causative factors as the pathogenesis of instability plays an important role with respect to treatment options. Instabilities are classified into traumatic and atraumatic instabilities as part of a multidirectional instability syndrome and into microtraumatic instabilities. For diagnostics plain radiographs (''trauma series'') are performed to document shoulder dislocation and its successful repositioning. Direct magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography is the most important imaging modality for delineation of the different injury patterns of the labral-ligamentous complex and bony structures. Monocontrast computed tomography (CT) arthrography with the use of multidetector CT scanners represents an alternative imaging modality; however, MR imaging should be preferred in the work-up of shoulder instabilities due to the mostly younger age of patients. (orig.) [German] Unter einer Schulterinstabilitaet versteht man jede zu Beschwerden fuehrende Translation des Humeruskopfs in Relation zur Gelenkpfanne waehrend einer aktiven Bewegung der Schulter. Glenohumerale Instabilitaeten werden heute nach ihrer Aetiologie eingeteilt, da bei der Wahl der Therapie der Entstehungsmechanismus der Instabilitaet eine wichtige Rolle spielt. Danach unterscheidet man primaer traumatisch von atraumatisch entstandenen Instabilitaeten sowie Mikroinstabilitaeten. Bei der Diagnostik dienen konventionelle Roentgenuebersichtsaufnahmen nur noch zur Dokumentation einer Luxation und zur Beurteilung der Reposition. Die durch eine Instabilitaet hervorgerufenen Verletzungsfolgen am labroligamentaeren Komplex und den knoechernen Strukturen werden heute bevorzugt mit der direkten MR-Arthrographie dargestellt. Hierbei koennen unterschiedliche Verletzungsmuster dargestellt werden. Nach
Toward a definition of affective instability.
Renaud, Suzane M; Zacchia, Camillo
2012-01-01
Affective instability is a psychophysiological symptom observed in some psychopathologies. It is a complex construct that encompasses (1) primary emotions, or affects, and secondary emotions, with each category having its own characteristics, amplitude, and duration, (2) rapid shifting from neutral or valenced affect to intense affect, and (3) dysfunctional modulation of emotions. Affective instability is often confused with mood lability, as in bipolar disorders, as well as with other terms. To clarify the concept, we searched databases for the term affective instability and read related articles on the topic. In this article we situate the term within the current affective nomenclature and human emotional experience, explore its psychophysiological features, and place it within the context of psychopathology. We explain why the term can potentially be confused with mood pathology and then define affective instability as an inherited temperamental trait modulated by developmental experience.
3-D nonlinear evolution of MHD instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bateman, G.; Hicks, H.R.; Wooten, J.W.
1977-03-01
The nonlinear evolution of ideal MHD internal instabilities is investigated in straight cylindrical geometry by means of a 3-D initial-value computer code. These instabilities are characterized by pairs of velocity vortex cells rolling off each other and helically twisted down the plasma column. The cells persist until the poloidal velocity saturates at a few tenths of the Alfven velocity. The nonlinear phase is characterized by convection around these essentially fixed vortex cells. For example, the initially centrally peaked temperature profile is convected out and around to form an annulus of high temperature surrounding a small region of lower temperature. Weak, centrally localized instabilities do not alter the edge of the plasma. Strong, large-scale instabilities, resulting from a stronger longitudinal equilibrium current, drive the plasma against the wall. After three examples of instability are analyzed in detail, the numerical methods and their verification are discussed
Gravitational waves from instabilities in relativistic stars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andersson, Nils
2003-01-01
This paper provides an overview of stellar instabilities as sources of gravitational waves. The aim is to put recent work on secular and dynamical instabilities in compact stars in context, and to summarize the current thinking about the detectability of gravitational waves from various scenarios. As a new generation of kilometre length interferometric detectors is now coming online this is a highly topical theme. The review is motivated by two key questions for future gravitational-wave astronomy: are the gravitational waves from various instabilities detectable? If so, what can these gravitational-wave signals teach us about neutron star physics? Even though we may not have clear answers to these questions, recent studies of the dynamical bar-mode instability and the secular r-mode instability have provided new insights into many of the difficult issues involved in modelling unstable stars as gravitational-wave sources. (topical review)
New instability strip for hot degenerates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Starrfield, S.G.; Cox, A.N.; Hodson, S.W.
1980-01-01
A new kind of variable star, designated as PG1159-035 is distinguished not only by the complete lack of hydrogen in its spectrum but also by an effective temperature that exceeds 8 x 10 4 K. The star does not fall near any of the known regions of instability in the HR diagram which suggests that the instability mechanism will not be helium and hydrogen ionization as in the Cepheid variables. The more unusual compositions are examined in order to discover the cause of the instability in PG1159-035
Dynamics and instabilities in nuclear fragmentation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Colonna, M.; Guarnera, A.; Di Toro, M.; Latora, V.; Smerzi, A.; Catania Univ.
1993-01-01
A general procedure to identify instability regions which lead to multifragmentation events is presented. The method covers all possible sources of dynamical instabilities. Informations on the instability point, like the time when the nuclear system enters the critical region, the most unstable modes and the time constant of the exponential growing of the relative variances, are deduced without any numerical bias. Important memory effects in the fragmentation pattern are revealed. Some hints towards a fully dynamical picture of fragmentation processes are finally suggested. (author) 7 refs., 3 figs
Tearing instability in cylindrical plasma configuration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zelenyj, L.M.
1979-01-01
The effect of the neutral-layer cylindrical geometry on the development of the tearing instability has been investigated in detail. The increments of the instability for all the regimes have been found. The influence of cylindrical effects becomes manifesting itself at small, as compared to the layer characteristic thickness, distances from the axis, and, finally, the electron regime of the instability development transforms into an ion one. The results obtained are of interest for studying the plasma stability in the devices of the ''Astron'' type and in magnetospheres of cosmic objects
Numerical investigations of Z-pinch plasma instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duan Yaoyong; Guo Yonghui; Wang Wensheng; Qiu Aici
2004-01-01
A two-dimensional, radiation magneto-hydrodynamics model is applied to the simulation of Z-pinch plasma sausage instability. Different implosion mechanisms in the cases of the existence and the non-existence of instability are analyzed, and the effects of various initial density perturbation levels on the x-ray power and energy are investigated. Numerical results show that x-ray energy output is not susceptive to sausage instabilities in a certain extent but x-ray power versus time is evidently dependent on the instabilities. In addition, this paper also studies the effects of numerical treatment of extreme low density in Z-pinch simulations on numerical results
Gravitational instability in isotropic MHD plasma waves
Cherkos, Alemayehu Mengesha
2018-04-01
The effect of compressive viscosity, thermal conductivity and radiative heat-loss functions on the gravitational instability of infinitely extended homogeneous MHD plasma has been investigated. By taking in account these parameters we developed the six-order dispersion relation for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves propagating in a homogeneous and isotropic plasma. The general dispersion relation has been developed from set of linearized basic equations and solved analytically to analyse the conditions of instability and instability of self-gravitating plasma embedded in a constant magnetic field. Our result shows that the presence of viscosity and thermal conductivity in a strong magnetic field substantially modifies the fundamental Jeans criterion of gravitational instability.
Mizuno, Yosuke; Lyubarsky, Yuri; ishikawa, Ken-Ichi; Hardee, Philip E.
2010-01-01
We have investigated the development of current-driven (CD) kink instability through three-dimensional relativistic MHD simulations. A static force-free equilibrium helical magnetic configuration is considered in order to study the influence of the initial configuration on the linear and nonlinear evolution of the instability. We found that the initial configuration is strongly distorted but not disrupted by the kink instability. The instability develops as predicted by linear theory. In the non-linear regime the kink amplitude continues to increase up to the terminal simulation time, albeit at different rates, for all but one simulation. The growth rate and nonlinear evolution of the CD kink instability depends moderately on the density profile and strongly on the magnetic pitch profile. The growth rate of the kink mode is reduced in the linear regime by an increase in the magnetic pitch with radius and the non-linear regime is reached at a later time than for constant helical pitch. On the other hand, the growth rate of the kink mode is increased in the linear regime by a decrease in the magnetic pitch with radius and reaches the non-linear regime sooner than the case with constant magnetic pitch. Kink amplitude growth in the non-linear regime for decreasing magnetic pitch leads to a slender helically twisted column wrapped by magnetic field. On the other hand, kink amplitude growth in the non-linear regime nearly ceases for increasing magnetic pitch.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mizuno, Yosuke; Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi; Lyubarsky, Yuri; Hardee, Philip E.
2009-01-01
We have investigated the development of current-driven (CD) kink instability through three-dimensional relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations. A static force-free equilibrium helical magnetic configuration is considered in order to study the influence of the initial configuration on the linear and nonlinear evolution of the instability. We found that the initial configuration is strongly distorted but not disrupted by the kink instability. The instability develops as predicted by linear theory. In the nonlinear regime, the kink amplitude continues to increase up to the terminal simulation time, albeit at different rates, for all but one simulation. The growth rate and nonlinear evolution of the CD kink instability depend moderately on the density profile and strongly on the magnetic pitch profile. The growth rate of the kink mode is reduced in the linear regime by an increase in the magnetic pitch with radius and reaches the nonlinear regime at a later time than the case with constant helical pitch. On the other hand, the growth rate of the kink mode is increased in the linear regime by a decrease in the magnetic pitch with radius and reaches the nonlinear regime sooner than the case with constant magnetic pitch. Kink amplitude growth in the nonlinear regime for decreasing magnetic pitch leads to a slender helically twisted column wrapped by magnetic field. On the other hand, kink amplitude growth in the nonlinear regime nearly ceases for increasing magnetic pitch.
On some properties of longitudinal and transverse coupled-bunch instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kamiya, Yukihide.
1983-02-01
Some properties of longitudinal and transverse coupled-bunch instabilities have been investigated theoretically and computationally, mainly based on a rigid-bunch model. In this report, we will study Robinson's stability, sum rules of the instabilities and the cure of instabilities by producing the oscillation frequencies different from bunch to bunch, and also give the numerical examples for KEK-PF storage ring. KEYWORD: storage ring, accelerator, bunched beam, longitudinal instability, transverse instability, coupled-bunch instability. (author)
Kinetic theory of tearing instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hazeltine, R.D.; Dobrott, D.; Wang, T.S.
1975-01-01
The guiding-center kinetic equation with Fokker-Planck collision term is used to study, in cylindrical geometry, a class of dissipative instabilities of which the classical tearing mode is an archetype. Variational solution of the kinetic equation obviates the use of an approximate Ohm's law or adiabatic assumption, as used in previous studies, and it provides a dispersive relation which is uniformly valid for any ratio of wave frequency to collision frequency. One result of using the rigorous collision operator is the prediction of a new instability. This instability, driven by the electron temperature gradient, is predicted to occur under the long mean-free path conditions of present tokamak experiments, and has significant features in common with the kink-like oscillations observed in such experiments
Plasma instabilities in high electric fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Morawetz, K.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka
1994-01-01
expression is derived for the nonequilibrium dielectric function epsilon(K, omega). For certain values of momenta K and frequency omega, Imepsilon(K, omega) becomes negative, implying a plasma instability. This new instability exists only for strong electric fields, underlining its nonequilibrium origin....
A statistical model for instable thermodynamical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sommer, Jens-Uwe
2003-01-01
A generic model is presented for statistical systems which display thermodynamic features in contrast to our everyday experience, such as infinite and negative heat capacities. Such system are instable in terms of classical equilibrium thermodynamics. Using our statistical model, we are able to investigate states of instable systems which are undefined in the framework of equilibrium thermodynamics. We show that a region of negative heat capacity in the adiabatic environment, leads to a first order like phase transition when the system is coupled to a heat reservoir. This phase transition takes place without a phase coexistence. Nevertheless, all intermediate states are stable due to fluctuations. When two instable system are brought in thermal contact, the temperature of the composed system is lower than the minimum temperature of the individual systems. Generally, the equilibrium states of instable system cannot be simply decomposed into equilibrium states of the individual systems. The properties of instable system depend on the environment, ensemble equivalence is broken
Gravitational instability of thermally anisotropic plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, B.; Kalra, G.L.
1986-01-01
The equations of Chew, Goldberger, and Low (1956) modified to include the heat flux vector and self-gravitation are used to study the gravitational instability of unbounded plasma placed in a uniform static magnetic field. The linear stability analysis shows that some of the additional terms which arise as a result of higher moments are of the same order of magnitude as the terms in the original Chew, Goldberger, and Low theory. The influence of these terms on the gravitational instability has been specially examined. It is found that the gravitational instability sets in at a comparatively shorter wavelength and the growth rate is enhanced owing to the inclusion of these terms in the case where the propagation vector is along the magnetic field. The condition for instability is, however, unaltered when the direction of propagation is transverse to the direction of magnetic field. 19 references
Genetic instability in urinary bladder cancer: An evolving hallmark.
Wadhwa, N; Mathew, B B; Jatawa, S K; Tiwari, A
2013-01-01
Bladder cancer is a major health-care concern. A successful treatment of bladder cancer depends on its early diagnosis at the initial stage. Genetic instability is an essential early step toward the development of bladder cancer. This instability is found more often at the chromosomal level than at the nucleotide level. Microsatellite and chromosomal instability markers can be used as a prognostic marker for screening bladder cancer. Bladder cancer can be distinguished in two different categories according to genetic instability: Cancers with chromosomal level instability and cancers with nucleotide level instability. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) mismatch repair (MMR) system and its correlation with other biologic pathway, both are essential to understand the basic mechanisms of cancer development. Microsatellite instability occurs due to defects in DNA MMR genes, including human mutL homolog 1 and human mutL homolog 2. Chromosomal alterations including deletions on chromosome 3, 8, 9, 11, 13, 17 have been detected in bladder cancer. In the current review, the most recent literature of genetic instability in urinary bladder cancer has been summarized.
Genetic instability in urinary bladder cancer: An evolving hallmark
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N Wadhwa
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Bladder cancer is a major health-care concern. A successful treatment of bladder cancer depends on its early diagnosis at the initial stage. Genetic instability is an essential early step toward the development of bladder cancer. This instability is found more often at the chromosomal level than at the nucleotide level. Microsatellite and chromosomal instability markers can be used as a prognostic marker for screening bladder cancer. Bladder cancer can be distinguished in two different categories according to genetic instability: Cancers with chromosomal level instability and cancers with nucleotide level instability. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA mismatch repair (MMR system and its correlation with other biologic pathway, both are essential to understand the basic mechanisms of cancer development. Microsatellite instability occurs due to defects in DNA MMR genes, including human mutL homolog 1 and human mutL homolog 2. Chromosomal alterations including deletions on chromosome 3, 8, 9, 11, 13, 17 have been detected in bladder cancer. In the current review, the most recent literature of genetic instability in urinary bladder cancer has been summarized.
Curvature-Induced Instabilities of Shells
Pezzulla, Matteo; Stoop, Norbert; Steranka, Mark P.; Bade, Abdikhalaq J.; Holmes, Douglas P.
2018-01-01
Induced by proteins within the cell membrane or by differential growth, heating, or swelling, spontaneous curvatures can drastically affect the morphology of thin bodies and induce mechanical instabilities. Yet, the interaction of spontaneous curvature and geometric frustration in curved shells remains poorly understood. Via a combination of precision experiments on elastomeric spherical shells, simulations, and theory, we show how a spontaneous curvature induces a rotational symmetry-breaking buckling as well as a snapping instability reminiscent of the Venus fly trap closure mechanism. The instabilities, and their dependence on geometry, are rationalized by reducing the spontaneous curvature to an effective mechanical load. This formulation reveals a combined pressurelike term in the bulk and a torquelike term in the boundary, allowing scaling predictions for the instabilities that are in excellent agreement with experiments and simulations. Moreover, the effective pressure analogy suggests a curvature-induced subcritical buckling in closed shells. We determine the critical buckling curvature via a linear stability analysis that accounts for the combination of residual membrane and bending stresses. The prominent role of geometry in our findings suggests the applicability of the results over a wide range of scales.
Cavitation instabilities in hydraulic machines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsujimoto, Y
2013-01-01
Cavitation instabilities in hydraulic machines, hydro turbines and turbopump inducers, are reviewed focusing on the cause of instabilities. One-dimensional model of hydro turbine system shows that the overload surge is caused by the diffuser effect of the draft tube. Experiments show that this effect also causes the surge mode oscillations at part load. One dimensional model of a cavitating turbopump inducer shows that the mass flow gain factor, representing the cavity volume increase caused by the incidence angle increase is the cause of cavitation surge and rotating cavitation. Two dimensional model of a cavitating turbopump inducer shows that various modes of cavitation instabilities start to occur when the cavity length becomes about 65% of the blade spacing. This is caused by the interaction of the local flow near the cavity trailing edge with the leading edge of the next blade. It was shown by a 3D CFD that this is true also for real cases with tip cavitation. In all cases, it was shown that cavitation instabilities are caused by the fundamental characteristics of cavities that the cavity volume increases with the decrease of ambient pressure or the increase of the incidence angle
Mixed-Mode Oscillations in Complex-Plasma Instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mikikian, Maxime; Cavarroc, Marjorie; Coueedel, Lenaiec; Tessier, Yves; Boufendi, Laiefa
2008-01-01
Instabilities in dusty plasmas are frequent phenomena. We show that some instabilities can be described by mixed-mode oscillations often encountered in chemical systems or neuronal dynamics and studied through dynamical system theories. The time evolution of these instabilities is studied through the change in the associated waveform. Frequency and interspike interval are analyzed and compared to results obtained in other scientific fields concerned by mixed-mode oscillations
Forcing absoluteness and regularity properties
Ikegami, D.
2010-01-01
For a large natural class of forcing notions, we prove general equivalence theorems between forcing absoluteness statements, regularity properties, and transcendence properties over L and the core model K. We use our results to answer open questions from set theory of the reals.
Effect of impurities in the electrothermic instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Azevedo, M.T. de.
1982-04-01
It is proposed a model for a ''impure'' plasma based on the homogenous hydrogen plasma used in the theory formulated by Tomimura and Haines to explain the increasing of instable electrothermal modes with wave vector perpendicular to the applyed magnetic field. The impurities are implicity introduced in the transport coeficients of the model of two fluids through the effective charge number Z eff as suggested by Duechs et al., Furth etc... The results obtained are: (i) the greatest increasing ratio for the absolute mode (non-convective) decreases with the increasing of Z eff going to zero for a given value of these parameter which is denominated Z crit ; (ii) the wavelenght associated with that greatest ratio of increasing decreases with the increasing of Z eff ; (iii) Z crit x T eo /T io curves, where T eo and T io are the electronic and ionic temperatures of equilibri um show that, for each value of T eo (used as a parameter) there is a limiting value Z crit from which the plasma is stable, independently of the temperature ratio. The correlation of these results with that of a difuse pinch model, which shows the tendency in assume in the stationary state a filamental current structure is inconclusive with respect to the Z eff dependence. (M.W.O.) [pt
An exact linear dispersion relation for CRM instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choyal, Y; Minami, K
2011-01-01
An exact self-consistent linear dispersion relation of a large orbit electron beam including two principles of cyclotron emission with oscillation frequencies above and below the relativistic electron frequency is derived and analyzed numerically for the first time in the literature. The two principles are cyclotron resonance maser (CRM) instability and Cherenkov instability in the azimuthal direction. Self-consistency in the formulation and inclusion of proper boundary conditions have removed the unphysical instability existing for infinitely large k z observed in conventional dispersion relations of CRM instability.
Absolute calibration of sniffer probes on Wendelstein 7-X
Moseev, D.; Laqua, H.P.; Marsen, S.; Stange, T.; Braune, H.; Erckmann, V.; Gellert, F.J.; Oosterbeek, J.W.
Here we report the first measurements of the power levels of stray radiation in the vacuum vessel of Wendelstein 7-X using absolutely calibrated sniffer probes. The absolute calibration is achieved by using calibrated sources of stray radiation and the implicit measurement of the quality factor of
Absolute tense forms in Tswana | Pretorius | Journal for Language ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
These views were compared in an attempt to put forth an applicable framework for the classification of the tenses in Tswana and to identify the absolute tenses of Tswana. Keywords: tense; simple tenses; compound tenses; absolute tenses; relative tenses; aspect; auxiliary verbs; auxiliary verbal groups; Tswana Opsomming
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Langie, Sabine A S; Koppen, Gudrun; Desaulniers, Daniel
2015-01-01
function, chromosome segregation, telomere length). The purpose of this review is to describe the crucial aspects of genome instability, to outline the ways in which environmental chemicals can affect this cancer hallmark and to identify candidate chemicals for further study. The overall aim is to make......Genome instability is a prerequisite for the development of cancer. It occurs when genome maintenance systems fail to safeguard the genome's integrity, whether as a consequence of inherited defects or induced via exposure to environmental agents (chemicals, biological agents and radiation). Thus...
Instabilities and nonequilibrium structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tirapegui, E.; Villarroel, D.
1987-01-01
Physical systems can be studied both near to and far from equilibrium where instabilities appear. The behaviour in these two regions is reviewed in this book, from both the theoretical and application points of view. The influence of noise in these situations is an essential feature which cannot be ignored. It is therefore discussed using phenomenological and theoretical approaches for the numerous problems which still remain in the field. This volume should appeal to mathematicians and physicists interested in the areas of instability, bifurcation theory, dynamical systems, pattern formation, nonequilibrium structures and statistical mechanics. (Auth.)
Numerical methods on flow instabilities in steam generator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoshikawa, Ryuji; Hamada, Hirotsugu; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Yanagisawa, Hideki
2008-06-01
The phenomenon of two-phase flow instability is important for the design and operation of many industrial systems and equipment, such as steam generators. The designer's job is to predict the threshold of flow instability in order to design around it or compensate for it. So it is essential to understand the physical phenomena governing such instability and to develop computational tools to model the dynamics of boiling systems. In Japan Atomic Energy Agency, investigations on heat transfer characteristics of steam generator are being performed for the development of Sodium-cooled Fast Breeder Reactor. As one part of the research work, the evaluations of two-phase flow instability in the steam generator are being carried out experimentally and numerically. In this report, the numerical methods were studied for two-phase flow instability analysis in steam generator. For numerical simulation purpose, the special algorithm to calculate inlet flow rate iteratively with inlet pressure and outlet pressure as boundary conditions for the density-wave instability analysis was established. There was no need to solve property derivatives and large matrices, so the spurious numerical instabilities caused by discontinuous property derivatives at boiling boundaries were avoided. Large time-step was possible. The flow instability in single heat transfer tube was successfully simulated with homogeneous equilibrium model by using the present algorithm. Then the drift-flux model including the effects of subcooled boiling and two phase slip was adopted to improve the accuracy. The computer code was developed after selecting the correlations of drift velocity and distribution parameter. The capability of drift flux model together with the present algorithm for simulating density-wave instability in single tube was confirmed. (author)
Probative value of absolute and relative judgments in eyewitness identification.
Clark, Steven E; Erickson, Michael A; Breneman, Jesse
2011-10-01
It is well-accepted that eyewitness identification decisions based on relative judgments are less accurate than identification decisions based on absolute judgments. However, the theoretical foundation for this view has not been established. In this study relative and absolute judgments were compared through simulations of the WITNESS model (Clark, Appl Cogn Psychol 17:629-654, 2003) to address the question: Do suspect identifications based on absolute judgments have higher probative value than suspect identifications based on relative judgments? Simulations of the WITNESS model showed a consistent advantage for absolute judgments over relative judgments for suspect-matched lineups. However, simulations of same-foils lineups showed a complex interaction based on the accuracy of memory and the similarity relationships among lineup members.
Experimental study on low pressure flow instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiang Shengyao; Wu Xinxin; Wu Shaorong; Bo Jinhai; Zhang Youjie
1997-05-01
The experiment was performed on the test loop (HRTL-5), which simulates the geometry and system design of the 5 MW reactor. The flow behavior for a wide range of inlet subcooling, in which the flow undergoes from single phase to two phase, is described in a natural circulation system at low pressure (p = 0.1, 0.24 MPa). Several kinds of flow instability, e.g. subcooled boiling instability, subcooled boiling induced flashing instability, pure flashing instability as well as flashing coupled density wave instability and high frequency flow oscillation, are investigated. The mechanism of flashing and flashing concerned flow instability, which has never been studied well in this field, is especially interpreted. The experimental results show that, firstly, for a low pressure natural circulation system the two phase flow is unstable in most of inlet subcooling conditions, the two phase stable flow can only be reached at very low inlet subcooling; secondly, at high inlet subcooling the flow instability is dominated by subcooled boiling in the heated section, and at middle inlet subcooling is dominated by void flashing in the adiabatic long riser; thirdly, in two phase stable flow region the condition for boiling out of the core, namely, single phase flow in the heated section, two phase flow in the riser due to vapor flashing, can be realized. The experimental results are very important for the design and accident analysis of the vessel and swimming pool type natural circulation nuclear heating reactor. (7 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.)
On viscoelastic instability in polymeric filaments
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Hassager, Ole
1999-01-01
The 3D Lagrangian Integral Method is used to simulate the effects of surface tension on the viscoelastic end-plate instability, occuring in the rapid extension of some polymeric filaments between parallel plates. It is shovn that the surface tension delays the onset of the instability. Furthermore...
Ion-cyclotron instability in magnetic mirrors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pearlstein, L.D.
1987-01-01
This report reviews the role of ion-cyclotron frequency instability in magnetic mirrors. The modes discussed here are loss-cone or anisotropy driven. The discussion includes quasilinear theory, explosive instabilities of 3-wave interaction and non-linear Landau damping, and saturation due to non-linear orbits
Positioning, alignment and absolute pointing of the ANTARES neutrino telescope
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fehr, F; Distefano, C
2010-01-01
A precise detector alignment and absolute pointing is crucial for point-source searches. The ANTARES neutrino telescope utilises an array of hydrophones, tiltmeters and compasses for the relative positioning of the optical sensors. The absolute calibration is accomplished by long-baseline low-frequency triangulation of the acoustic reference devices in the deep-sea with a differential GPS system at the sea surface. The absolute pointing can be independently verified by detecting the shadow of the Moon in cosmic rays.
Single-mode coherent synchrotron radiation instability
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Heifets
2003-06-01
Full Text Available The microwave instability driven by the coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR has been previously studied [S. Heifets and G. V. Stupakov, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 5, 054402 (2002] neglecting effect of the shielding caused by the finite beam pipe aperture. In practice, the unstable mode can be close to the shielding threshold where the spectrum of the radiation in a toroidal beam pipe is discrete. In this paper, the CSR instability is studied in the case when it is driven by a single synchronous mode. A system of equations for the beam-wave interaction is derived and its similarity to the 1D free-electron laser theory is demonstrated. In the linear regime, the growth rate of the instability is obtained and a transition to the case of continuous spectrum is discussed. The nonlinear evolution of the single-mode instability, both with and without synchrotron damping and quantum diffusion, is also studied.
Does Absolute Synonymy exist in Owere-Igbo? | Omego | AFRREV ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Among Igbo linguistic researchers, determining whether absolute synonymy exists in Owere–Igbo, a dialect of the Igbo language predominantly spoken by the people of Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria, has become a thorny issue. While some linguistic scholars strive to establish that absolute synonymy exists in the lexical ...
On the shear instability in relativistic neutron stars
Corvino, Giovanni; Rezzolla, Luciano; Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; De Pietri, Roberto; Giacomazzo, Bruno
2010-06-01
We present new results on instabilities in rapidly and differentially rotating neutron stars. We model the stars in full general relativity and describe the stellar matter adopting a cold realistic equation of state based on the unified SLy prescription (Douchin and Haensel 2001 Astron. Astrophys. 380 151-67). We provide evidence that rapidly and differentially rotating stars that are below the expected threshold for the dynamical bar-mode instability, βc ≡ T/|W| ~= 0.25, do nevertheless develop a shear instability on a dynamical timescale and for a wide range of values of β. This class of instability, which has so far been found only for small values of β and with very small growth rates, is therefore more generic than previously found and potentially more effective in producing strong sources of gravitational waves. Overall, our findings support the phenomenological predictions made by Watts et al (2005 Astrophys. J. 618 L37) on the nature of the low-T/|W| instability as the manifestation of a shear instability in a region where the latter is possible only for small values of β. Furthermore, our results provide additional insight on shear instabilities and on the necessary conditions for their development.
On the shear instability in relativistic neutron stars
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Corvino, Giovanni; Rezzolla, Luciano; Giacomazzo, Bruno [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Golm (Germany); Bernuzzi, Sebastiano [Theoretical Physics Institute, University of Jena, 07743 Jena (Germany); De Pietri, Roberto, E-mail: Giovanni.Corvino@roma1.infn.i [Physics Department, Parma University and INFN, Parma (Italy)
2010-06-07
We present new results on instabilities in rapidly and differentially rotating neutron stars. We model the stars in full general relativity and describe the stellar matter adopting a cold realistic equation of state based on the unified SLy prescription (Douchin and Haensel 2001 Astron. Astrophys. 380 151-67). We provide evidence that rapidly and differentially rotating stars that are below the expected threshold for the dynamical bar-mode instability, {beta}{sub c} {identical_to} T/|W| {approx_equal} 0.25, do nevertheless develop a shear instability on a dynamical timescale and for a wide range of values of {beta}. This class of instability, which has so far been found only for small values of {beta} and with very small growth rates, is therefore more generic than previously found and potentially more effective in producing strong sources of gravitational waves. Overall, our findings support the phenomenological predictions made by Watts et al (2005 Astrophys. J. 618 L37) on the nature of the low-T/|W| instability as the manifestation of a shear instability in a region where the latter is possible only for small values of {beta}. Furthermore, our results provide additional insight on shear instabilities and on the necessary conditions for their development.
Midflexion instability in primary total knee replacement: a review
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ramappa Manjunath
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Midflexion instability in primary total knee replacement (TKR is an evolving concept. Successful treatment of instability requires an understanding of the different types of instability. Methods: A literature review was performed to identify information pertinent to midflexion instability in primary total knee replacement, utilising PRISMA guidelines. Databases searched included Embase, Medline, All of the Cochrane Library, PubMed and cross references. Results: Three factors, i.e., elevated joint line, multiradii femoral component and medial collateral ligament (MCL laxity, were identified to influence midflexion instability. Literature suggested mediolateral instability at 30–60° of flexion as diagnostic of midflexion instability. Literature search also revealed paucity in clinical studies analysing midflexion instability. Most of the evidence was obtained from cadaveric studies for elevated joint line and MCL laxity. Clinical studies on multiradii femoral component were limited by their small study size and early followup period. Conclusion: Elevated joint line, multiradii femoral component and MCL laxity have been suggested to cause midflexion laxity in primary TKR. Due to limitations in available evidence, this review was unable to raise the strength of overall evidence. Future well-designed clinical studies are essential to make definitive conclusions. This review serves as a baseline for future researchers and creates awareness for routine assessment of midflexion instability in primary total knee replacement.
Direct observation of nonequilibrium electroosmotic instability
Rubinstein, S.M.; Manukyan, G.; Staicu, A.D.; Rubinstein, I.; Zaltzman, B.; Lammertink, Rob G.H.; Mugele, Friedrich Gunther; Wessling, Matthias
2008-01-01
We present a visualization of the predicted instability in ionic conduction from a binary electrolyte into a charge selective solid. This instability develops when a voltage greater than critical is applied to a thin layer of copper sulfate flanked by a copper anode and a cation selective membrane.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takeda, Tatsuoki
1985-01-01
In this article analyses of the MHD stabilities which govern the global behavior of a fusion plasma are described from the viewpoint of the numerical computation. First, we describe the high accuracy calculation of the MHD equilibrium and then the analysis of the linear MHD instability. The former is the basis of the stability analysis and the latter is closely related to the limiting beta value which is a very important theoretical issue of the tokamak research. To attain a stable tokamak plasma with good confinement property it is necessary to control or suppress disruptive instabilities. We, next, describe the nonlinear MHD instabilities which relate with the disruption phenomena. Lastly, we describe vectorization of the MHD codes. The above MHD codes for fusion plasma analyses are relatively simple though very time-consuming and parts of the codes which need a lot of CPU time concentrate on a small portion of the codes, moreover, the codes are usually used by the developers of the codes themselves, which make it comparatively easy to attain a high performance ratio on the vector processor. (author)
Ion temperature gradient instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1989-01-01
Anomalous ion thermal conductivity remains an open physics issue for the present generation of high temperature Tokamaks. It is generally believed to be due to Ion Temperature Gradient Instability (η i mode). However, it has been difficult, if not impossible to identify this instability and study the anomalous transport due to it, directly. Therefore the production and identification of the mode is pursued in the simpler and experimentally convenient configuration of the Columbia Linear Machine (CLM). CLM is a steady state machine which already has all the appropriate parameters, except η i . This parameter is being increased to the appropriate value of the order of 1 by 'feathering' a tungsten screen located between the plasma source and the experimental cell to flatten the density profile and appropriate redesign of heating antennas to steepen the ion temperature profile. Once the instability is produced and identified, a thorough study of the characteristics of the mode can be done via a wide range of variation of all the critical parameters: η i , parallel wavelength, etc
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rahul Banerjee; Khan, M.; Mandal, L.K.; Roy, S.; Gupta, M.R.
2010-01-01
Complete text of publication follows. The Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instability and Richtmyer-Meshkov (R-M) instability are well known problems in the formation of some astrophysical structures such as the supernova remnants in the Eagle and Crab nebula. A core collapse supernova is driven by an externally powerful shock, and strong shocks are the breeding ground of hydrodynamic instability such as Rayleigh-Taylor instability or Richtmyer-Meshkov instability. These instabilities are also important issues in the design of targets for inertial confinement fusion (ICF). In an ICF target, a high density fluid is frequently accelerated by the pressure of a low density fluid and after ablation the density quickly decays. So, small ripples at such an interface will grow. Under potential flow model, the perturbed interface between heavier fluid and lighter fluid form bubble and spike like structures. The bubbles are in the form of columns of lighter fluid interleaved by falling spike of heavy fluid. In this paper, we like to presented the effect of viscosity and surface tension on Rayleigh-Taylor instability and Richtmyer-Meshkov instability under the non-linear Layzer's approach and described the displacement curvature, growth and velocity of the tip of the bubble as well as spike. It is seen that, in absence of surface tension the lowering of the asymptotic velocity of the tip of the bubble which is formed when the lighter fluid penetrates into the denser fluid and thus encounters the viscous drag due to the denser fluid, which depends only on the denser fluid's viscosity coefficient. On the other hand the asymptotic velocity of the tip of the spike formed as the denser fluid penetrates into the lighter fluid is reduced by an amount which depends only on the viscosity coefficient of the lighter fluid and the spike is resisted by the viscous drag due to the lighter fluid. However, in presence of surface tension the asymptotic velocity of the tip of the bubble (spike) and
Moral absolutism and ectopic pregnancy.
Kaczor, C
2001-02-01
If one accepts a version of absolutism that excludes the intentional killing of any innocent human person from conception to natural death, ectopic pregnancy poses vexing difficulties. Given that the embryonic life almost certainly will die anyway, how can one retain one's moral principle and yet adequately respond to a situation that gravely threatens the life of the mother and her future fertility? The four options of treatment most often discussed in the literature are non-intervention, salpingectomy (removal of tube with embryo), salpingostomy (removal of embryo alone), and use of methotrexate (MXT). In this essay, I review these four options and introduce a fifth (the milking technique). In order to assess these options in terms of the absolutism mentioned, it will also be necessary to discuss various accounts of the intention/foresight distinction. I conclude that salpingectomy, salpingostomy, and the milking technique are compatible with absolutist presuppositions, but not the use of methotrexate.
An Instability in Stratified Taylor-Couette Flow
Swinney, Harry
2015-11-01
In the late 1950s Russell Donnelly began conducting experiments at the University of Chicago on flow between concentric rotating cylinders, and his experiments together with complementary theory by his collaborator S. Chandrasekhar did much to rekindle interest in the flow instability discovered and studied by G.I. Taylor (1923). The present study concerns an instability in a concentric cylinder system containing a fluid with an axial density gradient. In 2005 Dubrulle et al. suggested that a `stratorotational instability' (SRI) in this system could provide insight into instability and angular momentum transport in astrophysical accretion disks. In 2007 the stratorotational instability was observed in experiments by Le Bars and Le Gal. We have conducted an experiment on the SRI in a concentric cylinder system (radius ratio η = 0 . 876) with buoyancy frequency N / 2 π = 0.25, 0.50, or 0.75 Hz. For N = 0.75 Hz we observe the SRI onset to occur for Ωouter /Ωinner > η , contrary to the prediction of Shalybkov and Rüdiger. Research conducted with Bruce Rodenborn and Ruy Ibanez.
Instability of flat space at finite temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gross, D.J.; Perry, M.J.; Yaffe, L.G.
1982-01-01
The instabilities of quantum gravity are investigated using the path-integral formulation of Einstein's theory. A brief review is given of the classical gravitational instabilities, as well as the stability of flat space. The Euclidean path-integral representation of the partition function is employed to discuss the instability of flat space at finite temperature. Semiclassical, or saddle-point, approximations are utilized. We show how the Jeans instability arises as a tachyon in the graviton propagator when small perturbations about hot flat space are considered. The effect due to the Schwarzschild instanton is studied. The small fluctuations about this instanton are analyzed and a negative mode is discovered. This produces, in the semiclassical approximation, an imaginary part of the free energy. This is interpreted as being due to the metastability of hot flat space to nucleate black holes. These then evolve by evaporation or by accretion of thermal gravitons, leading to the instability of hot flat space. The nucleation rate of black holes is calculated as a function of temperature
Dynamics of polaritons in semiconductor microcavities near instability thresholds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He, Peng-Bin
2012-01-01
A theoretical study is presented on the dynamics of polaritons in semiconductor microcavities near parametric instability thresholds. With upward or downward ramp of optical pump, different instability modes emerge in parameter space defined by damping and detuning. According to these modes, stationary short-wave, stationary periodic, oscillatory periodic, and oscillatory uniform parametric instabilities are distinguished. By multiple scale expansion, the dynamics near threshold can be described by a critical mode with a slowly varying amplitude for the last three instabilities. Furthermore, it is found that the evolutions of their amplitudes are governed by real or complex Ginzburg–Landau equations. -- Highlights: ► Phase diagrams for different instability in extended parameter space. ► Different instability modes near thresholds. ► Different envelop equations near thresholds obtained by multi-scale expansion.
Cinerama sickness and postural instability.
Bos, Jelte E; Ledegang, Wietse D; Lubeck, Astrid J A; Stins, John F
2013-01-01
Motion sickness symptoms and increased postural instability induced by motion pictures have been reported in a laboratory, but not in a real cinema. We, therefore, carried out an observational study recording sickness severity and postural instability in 19 subjects before, immediately and 45 min after watching a 1 h 3D aviation documentary in a cinema. Sickness was significantly larger right after the movie than before, and in a lesser extent still so after 45 min. The average standard deviation of the lateral centre of pressure excursions was significantly larger only right afterwards. When low-pass filtered at 0.1 Hz, lateral and for-aft excursions were both significantly larger right after the movie, while for-aft excursions then remained larger even after 45 min. Speculating on previous findings, we predict more sickness and postural instability in 3D than in 2D movies, also suggesting a possible, but yet unknown risk for work-related activities and vehicle operation. Watching motion pictures may be sickening and posturally destabilising, but effects in a cinema are unknown. We, therefore, carried out an observational study showing that sickness then is mainly an issue during the exposure while postural instability is an issue afterwards.
[Capsular retensioning in anterior unidirectional glenohumeral instability].
Benítez Pozos, Leonel; Martínez Molina, Oscar; Castañeda Landa, Ezequiel
2007-01-01
To present the experience of the Orthopedics Service PEMEX South Central Hospital in the management of anterior unidirectional shoulder instability with an arthroscopic technique consisting of capsular retensioning either combined with other anatomical repair procedures or alone. Thirty-one patients with anterior unidirectional shoulder instability operated-on between January 1999 and December 2005 were included. Fourteen patients underwent capsular retensioning and radiofrequency, and in 17 patients, capsular retensioning was combined with suture anchors. Patients with a history of relapsing glenohumeral dislocations and subluxations, with anterior instability with or without associated Bankart lesions were selected; all of them were young. The results were assessed considering basically the occurrence of instability during the postoperative follow-up. No cases of recurring instability occurred. Two cases had neuroma and one experienced irritation of the suture site. Six patients had residual limitation of combined lateral rotation and abduction movements, of a mean of 10 degrees compared with the healthy contralateral side. The most frequent incident was the leak of solutions to the soft tissues. Capsular retensioning, whether combined or not with other anatomical repair techniques, has proven to result in a highly satisfactory rate of glenohumeral stabilization in cases of anterior unidirectional instabilities. The arthroscopic approach offers the well-known advantages of causing less damage to the soft tissues, and a shorter time to starting rehabilitation therapy and exercises.
Hydrodynamick instabilities on ICF capsules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haan, S.W.
1991-01-01
This article summarizes our current understanding of hydrodynamic instabilities as relevant to ICF. First we discuss classical, single mode Rayleigh-Taylor instability, and nonlinear effects in the evolution of a single mode. Then we discuss multimode systems, considering: (1) the onset of nonlinearity; (2) a second order mode coupling theory for weakly nonlinear effects, and (3) the fully nonlinear regime. Two stabilization mechanisms relevant to ICF are described next: gradient scale length and convective stabilization. Then we describe a model which is meant to estimate the weakly nonlinear evolution of multi-mode systems as relevant to ICF, given the short-wavelength stabilization. Finally, we discuss the relevant code simulation capability, and experiments. At this time we are quite optimistic about our ability to estimate instability growth on ICF capsules, but further experiments and simulations are needed to verify the modeling. 52 refs
Coherent Instabilities of ILC Damping Ring
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heifets, S.; Stupakov, G.; Bane, K.; /SLAC
2006-09-27
The paper presents the first attempt to estimates the ILC damping ring impedance and compare thresholds of the classical instabilities for several designs initially proposed for the DR. The work was carried out in the spring of 2006. Since then the choice of the DR is narrowed. Nevertheless, the analysis described may be useful for the next iterations of the beam stability. Overall, the conventional instabilities will have little impact on the ring performance provided the careful design of the ring minimizes the impedance below acceptable level indicated above. The only exception is the transverse CB instability. The longitudinal CB is less demanding. However, even the transverse CB instability would have threshold current above nominal provided the aperture in the wigglers is increased from 8 mm to 16 mm. The microwave instability needs more studies. Nevertheless, we should remember that the ILC DR is different from existing high-current machines at least in two respects: absence of the beam-beam tune spread stabilizing beams in colliders, and unusual strict requirements for low emittance. That may cause new problems such as bunch emittance dilution due to high-frequency wakes (BPMs, grooves), etc. Even if such a possibility exists, it probably universal for all machines and ought be addressed in the design of vacuum components rather than have effect on the choice of the machine design.
Kinetic simulations of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sagert, Irina; Bauer, Wolfgang; Colbry, Dirk; Howell, Jim; Staber, Alec; Strother, Terrance
2014-01-01
We report on an ongoing project to develop a large scale Direct Simulation Monte Carlo code. The code is primarily aimed towards applications in astrophysics such as simulations of core-collapse supernovae. It has been tested on shock wave phenomena in the continuum limit and for matter out of equilibrium. In the current work we focus on the study of fluid instabilities. Like shock waves these are routinely used as test-cases for hydrodynamic codes and are discussed to play an important role in the explosion mechanism of core-collapse supernovae. As a first test we study the evolution of a single-mode Rayleigh-Taylor instability at the interface of a light and a heavy fluid in the presence of a gravitational acceleration. To suppress small-wavelength instabilities caused by the irregularity in the separation layer we use a large particle mean free path. The latter leads to the development of a diffusion layer as particles propagate from one fluid into the other. For small amplitudes, when the instability is in the linear regime, we compare its position and shape to the analytic prediction. Despite the broadening of the fluid interface we see a good agreement with the analytic solution. At later times we observe the development of a mushroom like shape caused by secondary Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities as seen in hydrodynamic simulations and consistent with experimental observations.
Adolescent patellar instability: current concepts review.
Clark, D; Metcalfe, A; Wogan, C; Mandalia, V; Eldridge, J
2017-02-01
Patellar instability most frequently presents during adolescence. Congenital and infantile dislocation of the patella is a distinct entity from adolescent instability and measurable abnormalities may be present at birth. In the normal patellofemoral joint an increase in quadriceps angle and patellar height are matched by an increase in trochlear depth as the joint matures. Adolescent instability may herald a lifelong condition leading to chronic disability and arthritis. Restoring normal anatomy by trochleoplasty, tibial tubercle transfer or medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction in the young adult prevents further instability. Although these techniques are proven in the young adult, they may cause growth arrest and deformity where the physis is open. A vigorous non-operative strategy may permit delay of surgery until growth is complete. Where non-operative treatment has failed a modified MPFL reconstruction may be performed to maintain stability until physeal closure permits anatomical reconstruction. If significant growth remains an extraosseous reconstruction of the MPFL may impart the lowest risk to the physis. If minor growth remains image intensifier guided placement of femoral intraosseous fixation may impart a small, but acceptable, risk to the physis. This paper presents and discusses the literature relating to adolescent instability and provides a framework for management of these patients. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:159-70. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.
Absolute instability of polaron mode in semiconductor magnetoplasma
Paliwal, Ayushi; Dubey, Swati; Ghosh, S.
2018-01-01
Using coupled mode theory under hydrodynamic regime, a compact dispersion relation is derived for polaron mode in semiconductor magnetoplasma. The propagation and amplification characteristics of the wave are explored in detail. The analysis deals with the behaviour of anomalous threshold and amplification derived from dispersion relation, as function of external parameters like doping concentration and applied magnetic field. The results of this investigation are hoped to be useful in understanding electron-longitudinal optical phonon interplay in polar n-type semiconductor plasmas under the influence of coupled collective cyclotron excitations. The best results in terms of smaller threshold and higher gain of polaron mode could be achieved by choosing moderate doping concentration in the medium at higher magnetic field. For numerical appreciation of the results, relevant data of III-V n-GaAs compound semiconductor at 77 K is used. Present study provides a qualitative picture of polaron mode in magnetized n-type polar semiconductor medium duly shined by a CO2 laser.
Surface instabilities during straining of anisotropic materials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Legarth, Brian Nyvang; Richelsen, Ann Bettina
2006-01-01
The development of instabilities in traction-free surfaces is investigated numerically using a unit cell model. Full finite strain analyses are conducted using isotropic as well as anisotropic yield criteria and both plane strain tension and compression are considered. In the load range of tensio...... of principal overall strain. For other orientations surface instabilities are seen when non-associated plastic flow is taken into account. Compared to tension, smaller compressive deformations are needed in order to initiate a surface instability....
How does political instability affect economic growth?
Aisen, Ari; Veiga, Francisco José
2011-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to empirically determine the effects of political instability on economic growth. Using the system-GMM estimator for linear dynamic panel data models on a sample covering up to 169 countries, and 5-year periods from 1960 to 2004, we find that higher degrees of political instability are associated with lower growth rates of GDP per capita. Regarding the channels of transmission, we find that political instability adversely affects growth by lowering the rates of pr...
Rayleigh-Taylor instability in inertial confinement fusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gupta, N.K.
1987-01-01
This report summarises the main results of theoretical analysis on the problem of Rayleigh-Tylor instability in inertial confinement fusion (ICF). Work presented in this report essentially covers four basic problems. Firstly, an analytical formulation to analyse the effects of plasma density inhomogeneities on the growth of the instability in plane geometry is presented. As a result of this analysis it is concluded that, for minimizing the growth rate of the instability, it may be advantageous to use the driver laser beams of higher irradiance and an optimum wave length in an ICF experiment. Secondly, a new formulation for the analysis of the instability in curved (cylindrical and spherical) geometries is presented. A general eigenvalue equation for the growth rate of the instability which is applicable for both plane and curved geometries is derived. A comparative study is made between the plane, cylindrical and spherical geometries. Also analytical expressions for the growth rates are obtained in the cases of spherical and cylindrical shell targets and their variations with respect to the aspect ratios of the shells are discussed. Thirdly, a semi-analytical analysis of the instability where the growth rate is obtained by solving numerically a (2N-1)x(2N-1) determinantal equation is presented. The semi-analytical analysis developed is applicable for the study of the growth of the instability in the present day multi-structured spherical shell targets. Finally, a dynamic analysis of the growth of the instability for a representative spherical solid target driven by laser beams symmetrically from all the sides is carried out numerically using a computer code developed for this purpose. This study confirms analytical predictions. Further, it is observed that an approximate analytical analysis with time independent density profile gives conservative estimates for the growth rate. In passing, the computer code is also used to estimate the pellet gain for spin
[Neurobiological aspects of personality disorders and emotional instability].
Petrovic, Predrag
2016-12-06
Neurobiological aspects of personality disorders and emotional instability ADHD and mental disorders encompassing emotional instability such as emotionally unstable personality disorder and antisocial personality disorder can potentially be explained by a suboptimal regulation of information processing in the brain. ADHD involves suboptimal function of non-emotional attentional regulatory processes and emotional instability involves suboptimal emotional regulation. A network including prefrontal areas, anterior cingulate cortex, basal ganglia and specific neuromodulatory systems such as the dopamine system are dysfunctional in both ADHD and emotional instability. One might suggest that a dimensional view better describes these mental states than categorical diagnoses.
Control of transversal instabilities in reaction-diffusion systems
Totz, Sonja; Löber, Jakob; Totz, Jan Frederik; Engel, Harald
2018-05-01
In two-dimensional reaction-diffusion systems, local curvature perturbations on traveling waves are typically damped out and vanish. However, if the inhibitor diffuses much faster than the activator, transversal instabilities can arise, leading from flat to folded, spatio-temporally modulated waves and to spreading spiral turbulence. Here, we propose a scheme to induce or inhibit these instabilities via a spatio-temporal feedback loop. In a piecewise-linear version of the FitzHugh–Nagumo model, transversal instabilities and spiral turbulence in the uncontrolled system are shown to be suppressed in the presence of control, thereby stabilizing plane wave propagation. Conversely, in numerical simulations with the modified Oregonator model for the photosensitive Belousov–Zhabotinsky reaction, which does not exhibit transversal instabilities on its own, we demonstrate the feasibility of inducing transversal instabilities and study the emerging wave patterns in a well-controlled manner.
Rayleigh-Taylor/gravitational instability in dense magnetoplasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ali, S., E-mail: shahid.ali@ncp.edu.p [National Centre for Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University Campus, Islamabad (Pakistan); IPFN, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Ahmed, Z. [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Department of Physics, Wah Campus (Pakistan); Mirza, Arshad M. [Theoretical Plasma Physics Group, Physics Department, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Ahmad, I. [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Department of Physics, Islamabad Campus (Pakistan)
2009-08-10
The Rayleigh-Taylor instability is investigated in a nonuniform dense quantum magnetoplasma. For this purpose, a quantum hydrodynamical model is used for the electrons whereas the ions are assumed to be cold and classical. The dispersion relation for the Rayleigh-Taylor instability becomes modified with the quantum corrections associated with the Fermi pressure law and the quantum Bohm potential force. Numerically, it is found that the quantum speed and density gradient significantly modify the growth rate of RT instability. In a dense quantum magnetoplasma case, the linear growth rate of RT instability becomes significantly higher than its classical value and the modes are found to be highly localized. The present investigation should be useful in the studies of dense astrophysical magnetoplasmas as well as in laser-produced plasmas.
Genomic instability--an evolving hallmark of cancer.
Negrini, Simona; Gorgoulis, Vassilis G; Halazonetis, Thanos D
2010-03-01
Genomic instability is a characteristic of most cancers. In hereditary cancers, genomic instability results from mutations in DNA repair genes and drives cancer development, as predicted by the mutator hypothesis. In sporadic (non-hereditary) cancers the molecular basis of genomic instability remains unclear, but recent high-throughput sequencing studies suggest that mutations in DNA repair genes are infrequent before therapy, arguing against the mutator hypothesis for these cancers. Instead, the mutation patterns of the tumour suppressor TP53 (which encodes p53), ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A; which encodes p16INK4A and p14ARF) support the oncogene-induced DNA replication stress model, which attributes genomic instability and TP53 and ATM mutations to oncogene-induced DNA damage.
Rayleigh-Taylor/gravitational instability in dense magnetoplasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ali, S.; Ahmed, Z.; Mirza, Arshad M.; Ahmad, I.
2009-01-01
The Rayleigh-Taylor instability is investigated in a nonuniform dense quantum magnetoplasma. For this purpose, a quantum hydrodynamical model is used for the electrons whereas the ions are assumed to be cold and classical. The dispersion relation for the Rayleigh-Taylor instability becomes modified with the quantum corrections associated with the Fermi pressure law and the quantum Bohm potential force. Numerically, it is found that the quantum speed and density gradient significantly modify the growth rate of RT instability. In a dense quantum magnetoplasma case, the linear growth rate of RT instability becomes significantly higher than its classical value and the modes are found to be highly localized. The present investigation should be useful in the studies of dense astrophysical magnetoplasmas as well as in laser-produced plasmas.
Absolute and Relative Socioeconomic Health Inequalities across Age Groups.
van Zon, Sander K R; Bültmann, Ute; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F; Reijneveld, Sijmen A
2015-01-01
The magnitude of socioeconomic health inequalities differs across age groups. It is less clear whether socioeconomic health inequalities differ across age groups by other factors that are known to affect the relation between socioeconomic position and health, like the indicator of socioeconomic position, the health outcome, gender, and as to whether socioeconomic health inequalities are measured in absolute or in relative terms. The aim is to investigate whether absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differ across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome and gender. The study sample was derived from the baseline measurement of the LifeLines Cohort Study and consisted of 95,432 participants. Socioeconomic position was measured as educational level and household income. Physical and mental health were measured with the RAND-36. Age concerned eleven 5-years age groups. Absolute inequalities were examined by comparing means. Relative inequalities were examined by comparing Gini-coefficients. Analyses were performed for both health outcomes by both educational level and household income. Analyses were performed for all age groups, and stratified by gender. Absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differed across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome, and gender. Absolute inequalities were most pronounced for mental health by household income. They were larger in younger than older age groups. Relative inequalities were most pronounced for physical health by educational level. Gini-coefficients were largest in young age groups and smallest in older age groups. Absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differed cross-sectionally across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome and gender. Researchers should critically consider the implications of choosing a specific age group, in addition to the indicator of socioeconomic position and health outcome
Approaching Pomeranchuk instabilities from ordered phase: A crossing-symmetric equation method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reidy, Kelly; Quader, Khandker; Bedell, Kevin
2014-01-01
We explore features of a 3D Fermi liquid near generalized Pomeranchuk instabilities using a tractable crossing-symmetric equation method. We approach the instabilities from the ordered ferromagnetic phase. We find “quantum multi-criticality” as approach to the ferromagnetic instability drives instability in other channel(s). It is found that a charge nematic instability precedes and is driven by Pomeranchuk instabilities in both the ℓ=0 spin and density channels
Simulation and quasilinear theory of proton firehose instability
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seough, Jungjoon [Korean Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Faculty of Human Development, University of Toyama, 3190, Gofuku, Toyama City, Toyama, 930-8555 (Japan); Yoon, Peter H. [University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Junga [Korean Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Korea, University of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2015-01-15
The electromagnetic proton firehose instability is driven by excessive parallel temperature anisotropy, T{sub ∥} > T{sub ⊥} (or more precisely, parallel pressure anisotropy, P{sub ∥} > P{sub ⊥}) in high-beta plasmas. Together with kinetic instabilities driven by excessive perpendicular temperature anisotropy, namely, electromagnetic proton cyclotron and mirror instabilities, its role in providing the upper limit for the temperature anisotropy in the solar wind is well-known. A recent Letter [Seough et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 071103 (2013)] employed quasilinear kinetic theory for these instabilities to explain the observed temperature anisotropy upper bound in the solar wind. However, the validity of quasilinear approach has not been rigorously tested until recently. In a recent paper [Seough et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 062118 (2014)], a comparative study is carried out for the first time in which quasilinear theory of proton cyclotron instability is tested against results obtained from the particle-in-cell simulation method, and it was demonstrated that the agreement was rather excellent. The present paper addresses the same issue involving the proton firehose instability. Unlike the proton cyclotron instability, however, it is found that the quasilinear approximation enjoys only a limited range of validity, especially for the wave dynamics and for the relatively high-beta regime. Possible causes and mechanisms responsible for the discrepancies are speculated and discussed.
Some things ought never be done: moral absolutes in clinical ethics.
Pellegrino, Edmund D
2005-01-01
Moral absolutes have little or no moral standing in our morally diverse modern society. Moral relativism is far more palatable for most ethicists and to the public at large. Yet, when pressed, every moral relativist will finally admit that there are some things which ought never be done. It is the rarest of moral relativists that will take rape, murder, theft, child sacrifice as morally neutral choices. In general ethics, the list of those things that must never be done will vary from person to person. In clinical ethics, however, the nature of the physician-patient relationship is such that certain moral absolutes are essential to the attainment of the good of the patient - the end of the relationship itself. These are all derivatives of the first moral absolute of all morality: Do good and avoid evil. In the clinical encounter, this absolute entails several subsidiary absolutes - act for the good of the patient, do not kill, keep promises, protect the dignity of the patient, do not lie, avoid complicity with evil. Each absolute is intrinsic to the healing and helping ends of the clinical encounter.
Relativistic Absolutism in Moral Education.
Vogt, W. Paul
1982-01-01
Discusses Emile Durkheim's "Moral Education: A Study in the Theory and Application of the Sociology of Education," which holds that morally healthy societies may vary in culture and organization but must possess absolute rules of moral behavior. Compares this moral theory with current theory and practice of American educators. (MJL)
Coherent betatron instability in the Tevatron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bogacz, S.A.; Harrison, M.; Ng, K.Y.
1988-01-01
The coherent betatron instability was first observed during the recent 1987-88 Tevatron fixed target run. In this operating mode 1000 consecutive bunches are loaded into the machine at 150 GeV with a bunch spacing of 18.8 /times/ 10 -9 sec (53 MHz). The normalized transverse emittance is typically 15 π /times/ 10 -6 m rad in each plane with a longitudinal emittance of about 1.5 eV-sec. The beam is accelerated to 800 GeV in 13 sec. and then it is resonantly extracted during a 23 sec flat top. As the run progressed the bunch intensities were increased until at about 1.4 /times/ 10 10 ppb (protons per bunch) we experienced the onset of a coherent horizontal oscillation taking place in the later stages of the acceleration cycle (>600 GeV). This rapidly developing coherent instability results in a significant emittance growth, which limits machine performance and in a catastrophic scenario it even prevents extraction of the beam. In this paper we will present a simple analytic description of the observed instability. We will show that a combination of a resistive wall coupled bunch effect and a single bunch slow head-tail instability is consistent with the above observations. Finally, a systematic numerical analysis of our model (growth-time vs chromaticity plots) points to the existence of the ≥1 slow head-tail modes as a plausible mechanism for the observed coherent instability. This last claim, as mentioned before, does not have conclusive experimental evidence, although it is based on a very good agreement between the measured values of the instability growth-time and the ones calculated on the basis of our model. 4 refs., 3 figs
Mix and hydrodynamic instabilities on NIF
Smalyuk, V. A.; Robey, H. F.; Casey, D. T.; Clark, D. S.; Döppner, T.; Haan, S. W.; Hammel, B. A.; MacPhee, A. G.; Martinez, D.; Milovich, J. L.; Peterson, J. L.; Pickworth, L.; Pino, J. E.; Raman, K.; Tipton, R.; Weber, C. R.; Baker, K. L.; Bachmann, B.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Bond, E.; Caggiano, J. A.; Callahan, D. A.; Celliers, P. M.; Cerjan, C.; Dixit, S. N.; Edwards, M. J.; Felker, S.; Field, J. E.; Fittinghoff, D. N.; Gharibyan, N.; Grim, G. P.; Hamza, A. V.; Hatarik, R.; Hohenberger, M.; Hsing, W. W.; Hurricane, O. A.; Jancaitis, K. S.; Jones, O. S.; Khan, S.; Kroll, J. J.; Lafortune, K. N.; Landen, O. L.; Ma, T.; MacGowan, B. J.; Masse, L.; Moore, A. S.; Nagel, S. R.; Nikroo, A.; Pak, A.; Patel, P. K.; Remington, B. A.; Sayre, D. B.; Spears, B. K.; Stadermann, M.; Tommasini, R.; Widmayer, C. C.; Yeamans, C. B.; Crippen, J.; Farrell, M.; Giraldez, E.; Rice, N.; Wilde, C. H.; Volegov, P. L.; Gatu Johnson, M.
2017-06-01
Several new platforms have been developed to experimentally measure hydrodynamic instabilities in all phases of indirect-drive, inertial confinement fusion implosions on National Ignition Facility. At the ablation front, instability growth of pre-imposed modulations was measured with a face-on, x-ray radiography platform in the linear regime using the Hydrodynamic Growth Radiography (HGR) platform. Modulation growth of "native roughness" modulations and engineering features (fill tubes and capsule support membranes) were measured in conditions relevant to layered DT implosions. A new experimental platform was developed to measure instability growth at the ablator-ice interface. In the deceleration phase of implosions, several experimental platforms were developed to measure both low-mode asymmetries and high-mode perturbations near peak compression with x-ray and nuclear techniques. In one innovative technique, the self-emission from the hot spot was enhanced with argon dopant to "self-backlight" the shell in-flight. To stabilize instability growth, new "adiabat-shaping" techniques were developed using the HGR platform and applied in layered DT implosions.
Posterior glenoid rim deficiency in recurrent (atraumatic) posterior shoulder instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weishaupt, D.; Zanetti, M.; Hodler, J.; Nyffeler, R.W.; Gerber, C.
2000-01-01
Objective. To assess the shape of the posterior glenoid rim in patients with recurrent (atraumatic) posterior instability.Design and patients. CT examinations of 15 shoulders with recurrent (atraumatic) posterior instability were reviewed in masked fashion with regard to abnormalities of the glenoid shape, specifically of its posterior rim. The glenoid version was also assessed. The findings were compared with the findings in 15 shoulders with recurrent anterior shoulder instability and 15 shoulders without instability. For all patients, surgical correlation was available.Results. Fourteen of the 15 (93%) shoulders with recurrent (atraumatic) posterior shoulder instability had a deficiency of the posteroinferior glenoid rim. In patients with recurrent anterior instability or stable shoulders such deficiencies were less common (60% and 73%, respectively). The craniocaudal length of the deficiencies was largest in patients with posterior instability. When a posteroinferior deficiency with a craniocaudal length of 12 mm or more was defined as abnormal, sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing recurrent (atraumatic) posterior instability were 86.7% and 83.3%, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference in glenoid version between shoulders with posterior instability and stable shoulders (P=0.01).Conclusion. Recurrent (atraumatic) posterior shoulder instability should be considered in patients with a bony deficiency of the posteroinferior glenoid rim with a craniocaudal length of more than 12 mm. (orig.)
Instability of a Vacuum Arc Centrifuge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hole, M.J.; Dallaqua, R.S.; Bosco, E. del; Simpson, S.W.
2003-01-01
Ever since conception of the Vacuum Arc Centrifuge (VAC) in 1980, periodic fluctuations in the ion saturation current and floating potential have been observed in Langmuir probe measurements in the rotation region of a VAC. Our theoretical and experimental research suggests that these fluctuations are in fact a pressure-gradient driven drift mode. In this work, we summarise the properties of a theoretical model describing the range of instabilities in the VAC plasma column, present theoretical predictions and compare with detailed experiments conducted on the PCEN centrifuge at the Brazilian National Space Research Institute (INPE). We conclude that the observed instability is a 'universal' instability, driven by the density-gradient, in a plasma with finite conductivity
Microsatellite instability in bladder cancer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gonzalez-Zulueta, M; Ruppert, J M; Tokino, K
1993-01-01
Somatic instability at microsatellite repeats was detected in 6 of 200 transitional cell carcinomas of the bladder. Instabilities were apparent as changes in (GT)n repeat lengths on human chromosome 9 for four tumors and as alterations in a (CAG)n repeat in the androgen receptor gene on the X...... or larger (> 2 base pairs) alterations in repeat length. All six tumors were low stage (Ta-T1), suggesting that these alterations can occur early in bladder tumorigenesis....
Surgical treatment of chest instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kitka, M.; Masek, M.
2015-01-01
Fractures of the ribs is the most common thoracic injury after blunt trauma. Chest wall instability (flail chest) is a common occurrence in the presence of multiple ribs fracture. Unilateral or bilateral fractures more ribs anteriorly or posteriorly will produce enough instability that paradoxical respiratory motion results in hypoventilation of an unacceptable degree. Open approach and surgical stabilisation of the chest preserved pulmonary function, improved pain control, minimized posttraumatic deformities and shorter back to work time. (author)
Clinical forms of shoulder instability in pediatric patients
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yaroslav N. Proshchenko
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Background. The recurrence rate of adolescent chronic shoulder instability is approximately 56%–68%. However, this pathology is often missed in childhood and adolescence. Aim. To identify the clinical forms of shoulder joint instability in pediatric patients. Materials and methods. The authors present the data from 57 pediatric patients aged 3−17 years with a total of 61 unstable shoulder joints. All patients were divided into groups according to the form of instability. Traumatic chronic shoulder instability was identified in 40 patients (Bankart and Hill–Sachs injuries. Of these, non-traumatic shoulder instability was diagnose in 17, including five with recurrent dislocation, and spontaneous shoulder dislocation due to dysplasia of glenoid and labrum was diagnosed in 12. Of the 57 patients in the study cohort, 53 underwent surgery. Postoperatively, two patients developed recurrent shoulder dislocation (Andreev–Boichev technique due type III shoulder dysplasia in the first patient and multidirectional injury in the second. Conclusions. Shoulder joint instability should be considered as the traumatic or non-traumatic form. Treatment decisions should be based on anatomical characteristics that predispose to recurrent dislocation.
Performance through Deformation and Instability
Bertoldi, Katia
2015-03-01
Materials capable of undergoing large deformations like elastomers and gels are ubiquitous in daily life and nature. An exciting field of engineering is emerging that uses these compliant materials to design active devices, such as actuators, adaptive optical systems and self-regulating fluidics. Compliant structures may significantly change their architecture in response to diverse stimuli. When excessive deformation is applied, they may eventually become unstable. Traditionally, mechanical instabilities have been viewed as an inconvenience, with research focusing on how to avoid them. Here, I will demonstrate that these instabilities can be exploited to design materials with novel, switchable functionalities. The abrupt changes introduced into the architecture of soft materials by instabilities will be used to change their shape in a sudden, but controlled manner. Possible and exciting applications include materials with unusual properties such negative Poisson's ratio, phononic crystals with tunable low-frequency acoustic band gaps and reversible encapsulation systems.
Anisotropy-Driven Instability in Intense Charged Particle Beams
Startsev, Edward; Qin, Hong
2005-01-01
In electrically neutral plasmas with strongly anisotropic distribution functions, free energy is available to drive different collective instabilities such as the electrostatic Harris instability and the transverse electromagnetic Weibel instability. Such anisotropies develop naturally in particle accelerators and may lead to a detoriation of beam quality. We have generalized the analysis of the classical Harris and Weibel instabilities to the case of a one-component intense charged particle beam with anisotropic temperature including the important effects of finite transverse geometry and beam space-charge. For a long costing beam, the delta-f particle-in-cell code BEST and the eighenmode code bEASt have been used to determine detailed 3D stability properties over a wide range of temperature anisotropy and beam intensity. A theoretical model is developed which describes the essential features of the linear stage of these instabilities. Both, the simulations and analytical theory, clearly show that moderately...
Parametric instabilities in advanced gravitational wave detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gras, S; Zhao, C; Blair, D G; Ju, L
2010-01-01
As the LIGO interferometric gravitational wave detectors have finished gathering a large observational data set, an intense effort is underway to upgrade these observatories to improve their sensitivity by a factor of ∼10. High circulating power in the arm cavities is required, which leads to the possibility of parametric instability due to three-mode opto-acoustic resonant interactions between the carrier, transverse optical modes and acoustic modes. Here, we present detailed numerical analysis of parametric instability in a configuration that is similar to Advanced LIGO. After examining parametric instability for a single three-mode interaction in detail, we examine instability for the best and worst cases, as determined by the resonance condition of transverse modes in the power and signal recycling cavities. We find that, in the best case, the dual recycling detector is substantially less susceptible to instability than a single cavity, but its susceptibility is dependent on the signal recycling cavity design, and on tuning for narrow band operation. In all cases considered, the interferometer will experience parametric instability at full power operation, but the gain varies from 3 to 1000, and the number of unstable modes varies between 7 and 30 per test mass. The analysis focuses on understanding the detector complexity in relation to opto-acoustic interactions, on providing insights that can enable predictions of the detector response to transient disturbances, and of variations in thermal compensation conditions.
Flow-Induced Instabilities in Pump-Turbines in China
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhigang Zuo
2017-08-01
Full Text Available The stability of pump-turbines is of great importance to the operation of pumped storage power (PSP stations. Both hydraulic instabilities and operational instabilities have been reported in PSP stations in China. In order to provide a reference to the engineers and scientists working on pump-turbines, this paper summarizes the hydraulic instabilities and performance characteristics that promote the operational instabilities encountered in pump-turbine operations in China. Definitions, analytical methods, numerical and experimental studies, and main results are clarified. Precautions and countermeasures are also provided based on a literature review. The gaps between present studies and the need for engineering practice are pointed out.
Effekten af absolut kumulation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kyvsgaard, Britta; Klement, Christian
2012-01-01
Som led i finansloven for 2011 blev regeringen og forligspartierne enige om at undersøge reglerne om strafudmåling ved samtidig pådømmelse af flere kriminelle forhold og i forbindelse hermed vurdere konsekvenserne af at ændre de gældende regler i forhold til kapacitetsbehovet i Kriminalforsorgens...... samlet bødesum ved en absolut kumulation i forhold til en modereret kumulation, som nu er gældende....
Magnetohydrodynamic instability in annular linear induction pump
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Araseki, Hideo; Kirillov, Igor R.; Preslitsky, Gennady V.; Ogorodnikov, Anatoly P.
2006-01-01
In the previous work, the authors showed some detailed aspects of the magnetohydrodynamic instability arising in an annular linear induction pump: the instability is accompanied with a low frequency pressure pulsation in the range of 0-10 Hz when the magnetic Reynolds number is larger than unity; the low frequency pressure pulsation is produced by the sodium vortices that come from some azimuthal non-uniformity of the applied magnetic field or of the sodium inlet velocity. In the present work, an experiment and a numerical analysis are carried out to verify the pump winding phase shift that is expected as an effective way to suppress the instability. The experimental data shows that the phase shift suppresses the instability unless the slip value is so high, but brings about a decrease of the developed pressure. The numerical results indicate that the phase shift causes a local decrease of the electromagnetic force, which results in the suppression of the instability and the decrease of the developed pressure. In addition, it is exhibited that the intensity of the double-supply-frequency pressure pulsation is in nearly the same level in the case with and without the phase shift
Preventing Instability Phenomenon in Gas-lift Optimization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammad Reza Mahdiani
2015-01-01
Full Text Available One of the problems that sometimes occur in gas allocation optimization is instability phenomenon. This phenomenon reduces the oil production and damages downhole and surface facilities. Different works have studied the stability and suggested some solutions to override it, but most of them (such as making the well intelligent are very expensive and thus they are not applicable to many cases. In this paper, as a new approach, the stability has been studied in gas allocation optimization problems. To prevent the instability, instability has been assumed as a constraint for the optimizer and then the optimizer has been run. For the optimization, first a genetic algorithm and then a hybrid of genetic algorithm and Newton-Quasi have been used, and their results are compared to ensure the good performance of the optimizer; afterwards, the effect of adding the instability constraint to the problem on production reduction have been discussed. The results show that the production loss with adding this constraint to the system is very small and this method does not need any additional and expensive facilities for preventing the instability. Therefore, the new method is applicable to different problems.
Some absolutely effective product methods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. P. Dikshit
1992-01-01
Full Text Available It is proved that the product method A(C,1, where (C,1 is the Cesàro arithmetic mean matrix, is totally effective under certain conditions concerning the matrix A. This general result is applied to study absolute Nörlund summability of Fourier series and other related series.
Secondary Instability of Second Modes in Hypersonic Boundary Layers
Li, Fei; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Chang, Chau-Lyan; White, Jeffery A.
2012-01-01
Second mode disturbances dominate the primary instability stage of transition in a number of hypersonic flow configurations. The highest amplification rates of second mode disturbances are usually associated with 2D (or axisymmetric) perturbations and, therefore, a likely scenario for the onset of the three-dimensionality required for laminar-turbulent transition corresponds to the parametric amplification of 3D secondary instabilities in the presence of 2D, finite amplitude second mode disturbances. The secondary instability of second mode disturbances is studied for selected canonical flow configurations. The basic state for the secondary instability analysis is obtained by tracking the linear and nonlinear evolution of 2D, second mode disturbances using nonlinear parabolized stability equations. Unlike in previous studies, the selection of primary disturbances used for the secondary instability analysis was based on their potential relevance to transition in a low disturbance environment and the effects of nonlinearity on the evolution of primary disturbances was accounted for. Strongly nonlinear effects related to the self-interaction of second mode disturbances lead to an upstream shift in the upper branch neutral location. Secondary instability computations confirm the previously known dominance of subharmonic modes at relatively small primary amplitudes. However, for the Purdue Mach 6 compression cone configuration, it was shown that a strong fundamental secondary instability can exist for a range of initial amplitudes of the most amplified second mode disturbance, indicating that the exclusive focus on subharmonic modes in the previous applications of secondary instability theory to second mode primary instability may not have been fully justified.
Rayleigh-Taylor instability in an equal mass plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Adak, Ashish, E-mail: ashish-adak@yahoo.com [Department of Instrumentation Science, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Ghosh, Samiran, E-mail: sran-g@yahoo.com [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Calcutta 92, Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700 009 (India); Chakrabarti, Nikhil, E-mail: nikhil.chakrabarti@saha.ac.in [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India)
2014-09-15
The Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability in an inhomogeneous pair-ion plasma has been analyzed. Considering two fluid model for two species of ions (positive and negative), we obtain the possibility of the existence of RT instability. The growth rate of the RT instability as usual depends on gravity and density gradient scale length. The results are discussed in context of pair-ion plasma experiments.
Instability induced by cross-diffusion in reaction-diffusion systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tian, Canrong; Lin, Zhigui; Pedersen, Michael
2010-01-01
In this paper the instability of the uniform equilibrium of a general strongly coupled reaction–diffusion is discussed. In unbounded domain and bounded domain the sufficient conditions for the instability are obtained respectively. The conclusion is applied to the ecosystem, it is shown that cros...... can induce the instability of an equilibrium which is stable for the kinetic system and for the self-diffusion–reaction system.......In this paper the instability of the uniform equilibrium of a general strongly coupled reaction–diffusion is discussed. In unbounded domain and bounded domain the sufficient conditions for the instability are obtained respectively. The conclusion is applied to the ecosystem, it is shown that cross-diffusion...
Anomalous plasma transport due to electron temperature gradient instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tokuda, Sinji; Ito, Hiroshi; Kamimura, Tetsuo.
1979-01-01
The collisionless drift wave instability driven by an electron temperature inhomogeneity (electron temperature gradient instability) and the enhanced transport processes associated with it are studied using a two-and-a-half dimensional particle simulation code. The simulation results show that quasilinear diffusion in phase space is an important mechanism for the saturation of the electron temperature gradient instability. Also, the instability yields particle fluxes toward the hot plasma regions. The heat conductivity of the electron temperature perpendicular to the magnetic field, T sub(e'), is not reduced by magnetic shear but remains high, whereas the heat conductivity of the parallel temperature, T sub(e''), is effectively reduced, and the instability stabilized. (author)
Plasma instability of a vacuum arc centrifuge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hole, M.J.; Dallaqua, R.S.; Simpson, S.W.; Del Bosco, E.
2002-01-01
Ever since conception of the vacuum arc centrifuge in 1980, periodic fluctuations in the ion saturation current and floating potential have been observed in Langmuir probe measurements in the rotation region of a vacuum arc centrifuge. In this work we develop a linearized theoretical model to describe a range of instabilities in the vacuum arc centrifuge plasma column, and then test the validity of the description through comparison with experiment. We conclude that the observed instability is a 'universal' instability, driven by the density gradient, in a plasma with finite conductivity
Self-focusing instability of two-dimensional solitons and vortices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kuznetsov, E.A.; Juul Rasmussen, J.
1995-01-01
The instability of two-dimensional solitons and vortices is demonstrated in the framework of the three-dimensional nonlinear Schrodinger equation (NLSE). The instability can be regarded as the analog of the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili instability [B. B. Kadomtsev and V. I. Petviashvili, Sov. Phys. Dokl...
Absolute measurement method of environment radon content
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ji Changsong
1989-11-01
A portable environment radon content device with a 40 liter decay chamber based on the method of Thomas double filter radon content absolute measurement has been developed. The correctness of the method of Thomas double filter absolute measurement has been verified by the experiments to measure the sampling gas density of radon that the theoretical density has been known. In addition, the intrinsic uncertainty of this method is also determined in the experiments. The confidence of this device is about 95%, the sensitivity is better than 0.37 Bqm -3 and the intrinsic uncertainty is less than 10%. The results show that the selected measuring and structure parameters are reasonable and the experimental methods are acceptable. In this method, the influence on the measured values from the radioactive equilibrium of radon and its daughters, the ratio of combination daughters to the total daughters and the fraction of charged particles has been excluded in the theory and experimental methods. The formula of Thomas double filter absolute measuring radon is applicable to the cylinder decay chamber, and the applicability is also verified when the diameter of exit filter is much smaller than the diameter of inlet filter
Hydrodynamic instabilities in astrophysics and ICF
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paul Drake, R.
2005-01-01
Inertial fusion systems and astrophysical systems both involve hydrodynamic effects, including sources of pressure, shock waves, rarefactions, and plasma flows. In the evolution of such systems, hydrodynamic instabilities naturally evolve. As a result, a fundamental understanding of hydrodynamic instabilities is necessary to understand their behavior. In addition, high-energy-density facilities designed for ICF purposes can be used to provide and experimental basis for understanding astrophysical processes. In this talk. I will discuss the instabilities that appear in astrophysics and ICF from the common perspective of the basic mechanisms at work. Examples will be taken from experiments aimed at ICF, from astrophysical systems, and from experiments using ICF systems to address issues in astrophysics. The high-energy-density research facilities of today can accelerate small but macroscopic amounts of material to velocities above 100 km/s, can heat such material to temperature above 100 eV, can produce pressures far above a million atmospheres (10''12 dybes/cm''2 or 0.1 TPascal), and can do experiments under these conditions that address basic physics issues. This enables on to devise experiments aimed directly at important process such as the Rayleigh Taylor instability at an ablating surface or at an embedded interface that is accelerating, the Richtmeyer Meshkov evolution of shocked interfaces, and the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability of shear flows. The talk will include examples of such phenomena from the laboratory and from astrophysics, and will discuss experiments to study them. (Author)
Study on absolute humidity influence of NRL-1 measuring apparatus for radon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shan Jian; Xiao Detao; Zhao Guizhi; Zhou Qingzhi; Liu Yan; Qiu Shoukang; Meng Yecheng; Xiong Xinming; Liu Xiaosong; Ma Wenrong
2014-01-01
The absolute humidity and temperature's effects on the NRL-1 measuring apparatus for radon were studied in this paper. By controlling the radon activity concentration of the radon laboratory in University of South China and improving the temperature and humidity adjust strategy, different correction factor values under different absolute humidities were obtained. Moreover, a correction curve between 1.90 and 14.91 g/m"3 was also attained. The results show that in the case of absolute humidity, when it is less than 2.4 g/m"3, collection efficiency of the NRL-1 measuring apparatus for radon tends to be constant, and the correction factor of the absolute humidity closes to 1. However, the correction factor increases nonlinearly along with the absolute humidity. (authors)
Helicobacter pylori infection generates genetic instability in gastric cells
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Machado, Ana Manuel Dantas; Figueiredo, Céu; Seruca, Raquel
2010-01-01
The discovery that Helicobacter pylori is associated with gastric cancer has led to numerous studies that investigate the mechanisms by which H. pylori induces carcinogenesis. Gastric cancer shows genetic instability both in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, besides impairment of important DNA repair...... of the host, such as oxidative damage, methylation, chromosomal instability, microsatellite instability, and mutations. Interestingly, H. pylori infection generates genetic instability in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. Based on the reviewed literature we conclude that H. pylori infection promotes gastric...
Radiation-induced transgenerational instability.
Dubrova, Yuri E
2003-10-13
To date, the analysis of mutation induction has provided an irrefutable evidence for an elevated germline mutation rate in the parents directly exposed to ionizing radiation and a number of chemical mutagens. However, the results of numerous publications suggest that radiation may also have an indirect effect on genome stability, which is transmitted through the germ line of irradiated parents to their offspring. This review describes the phenomenon of transgenerational instability and focuses on the data showing increased cancer incidence and elevated mutation rates in the germ line and somatic tissues of the offspring of irradiated parents. The possible mechanisms of transgenerational instability are also discussed.
RINGED ACCRETION DISKS: INSTABILITIES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pugliese, D.; Stuchlík, Z., E-mail: d.pugliese.physics@gmail.com, E-mail: zdenek.stuchlik@physics.cz [Institute of Physics and Research Centre of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Silesian University in Opava, Bezručovo náměstí 13, CZ-74601 Opava (Czech Republic)
2016-04-01
We analyze the possibility that several instability points may be formed, due to the Paczyński mechanism of violation of mechanical equilibrium, in the orbiting matter around a supermassive Kerr black hole. We consider a recently proposed model of a ringed accretion disk, made up by several tori (rings) that can be corotating or counter-rotating relative to the Kerr attractor due to the history of the accretion process. Each torus is governed by the general relativistic hydrodynamic Boyer condition of equilibrium configurations of rotating perfect fluids. We prove that the number of the instability points is generally limited and depends on the dimensionless spin of the rotating attractor.
Investigation of Parametric Instability of the Planetary Gear under Speed Fluctuations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xinghui Qiu
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Planetary gear is widely used in engineering and usually has symmetrical structure. As the number of teeth in contact changes during rotation, the time-varying mesh stiffness parametrically excites the planetary gear and may cause severe vibrations and instabilities. Taking speed fluctuations into account, the time-varying mesh stiffness is frequency modulated, and therefore sideband instabilities may arise and original instabilities are significantly affected. Considering two different speed fluctuations, original and sideband instabilities are numerically and analytically investigated. A rotational lumped-parameter model of the planetary gear is developed, in which the time-varying mesh stiffness, input speed fluctuations, and damping are considered. Closed-form approximations of instability boundaries for primary and combination instabilities are obtained by perturbation analysis and verified by numerical analysis. The effects of speed fluctuations and damping on parametric instability are systematically examined. Because of the frequency modulation, whether a parametric instability occurs cannot be simply predicted by the planet meshing phase which is applicable to constant speed. Besides adjusting the planet meshing phase, speed fluctuation supplies a new thought to minimize certain instability by adjusting the amplitude or frequency of the speed fluctuation. Both original and sideband instabilities are shrunken by damping, and speed fluctuation further shrinks the original instability.
Pionnier, Raphaël; Découfour, Nicolas; Barbier, Franck; Popineau, Christophe; Simoneau-Buessinger, Emilie
2016-03-01
The purpose of this study was to quantitatively and qualitatively assess dynamic balance with accuracy in individuals with chronic ankle instability (CAI). To this aim, a motion capture system was used while participants performed the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT). Reached distances for the 8 points of the star were automatically computed, thereby excluding any dependence to the experimenter. In addition, new relevant variables were also computed, such as absolute time needed to reach each distance, lower limb ranges of motion during unipodal stance, as well as absolute error of pointing. Velocity of the center of pressure and range of variation of ground reaction forces have also been assessed during the unipodal phase of the SEBT thanks to force plates. CAI group exhibited smaller reached distances and greater absolute error of pointing than the control group (p<0.05). Moreover, the ranges of motion of lower limbs joints, the velocity of the center of pressure and the range of variation of the ground reaction forces were all significantly smaller in the CAI group (p<0.05). These reduced quantitative and qualitative performances highlighted a lower dynamic postural control. The limited body movements and accelerations during the unipodal stance in the CAI group could highlight a protective strategy. The present findings could help clinicians to better understand the motor strategies used by CAI patients during dynamic balance and may guide the rehabilitation process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Beam Instabilities in Hadron Synchrotrons
Métral, E; Bartosik, H; Biancacci, N; Buffat, X; Esteban Muller, J F; Herr, W; Iadarola, G; Lasheen, A; Li, K; Oeftiger, A; Pieloni, T; Quartullo, D; Rumolo, G; Salvant, B; Schenk, M; Shaposhnikova, E; Tambasco, C; Timko, H; Zannini, C; Burov, A; Banfi, D; Barranco, J; Mounet, N; Boine-Frankenheim, O; Niedermayer, U; Kornilov, V; White, S
2016-01-01
Beam instabilities cover a wide range of effects in particle accelerators and they have been the subjects of intense research for several decades. As the machines performance was pushed new mechanisms were revealed and nowadays the challenge consists in studying the interplays between all these intricate phenomena, as it is very often not possible to treat the different effects separately. The aim of this paper is to review the main mechanisms, discussing in particular the recent developments of beam instability theories and simulations.
Aerodynamic instability: A case history
Eisenmann, R. C.
1985-01-01
The identification, diagnosis, and final correction of complex machinery malfunctions typically require the correlation of many parameters such as mechanical construction, process influence, maintenance history, and vibration response characteristics. The progression is reviewed of field testing, diagnosis, and final correction of a specific machinery instability problem. The case history presented addresses a unique low frequency instability problem on a high pressure barrel compressor. The malfunction was eventually diagnosed as a fluidic mechanism that manifested as an aerodynamic disturbance to the rotor assembly.
Instabilities of higher dimensional compactifications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Accetta, F.S.
1987-02-01
Various schemes for cosmological compactification of higher dimensional theories are considered. Possible instabilities which drive the ground state with static internal space to de Sitter-like expansion of all dimensions are discussed. These instabilities are due to semiclassical barrier penetration and classical thermal fluctuations. For the case of the ten dimensional Chapline-Manton action, it is possible to avoid such difficulties by balancing one-loop Casimir corrections against monopole contributions from the field strength H/sub MNP/ and fermionic condensates. 10 refs
Genomic DNA-based absolute quantification of gene expression in Vitis.
Gambetta, Gregory A; McElrone, Andrew J; Matthews, Mark A
2013-07-01
Many studies in which gene expression is quantified by polymerase chain reaction represent the expression of a gene of interest (GOI) relative to that of a reference gene (RG). Relative expression is founded on the assumptions that RG expression is stable across samples, treatments, organs, etc., and that reaction efficiencies of the GOI and RG are equal; assumptions which are often faulty. The true variability in RG expression and actual reaction efficiencies are seldom determined experimentally. Here we present a rapid and robust method for absolute quantification of expression in Vitis where varying concentrations of genomic DNA were used to construct GOI standard curves. This methodology was utilized to absolutely quantify and determine the variability of the previously validated RG ubiquitin (VvUbi) across three test studies in three different tissues (roots, leaves and berries). In addition, in each study a GOI was absolutely quantified. Data sets resulting from relative and absolute methods of quantification were compared and the differences were striking. VvUbi expression was significantly different in magnitude between test studies and variable among individual samples. Absolute quantification consistently reduced the coefficients of variation of the GOIs by more than half, often resulting in differences in statistical significance and in some cases even changing the fundamental nature of the result. Utilizing genomic DNA-based absolute quantification is fast and efficient. Through eliminating error introduced by assuming RG stability and equal reaction efficiencies between the RG and GOI this methodology produces less variation, increased accuracy and greater statistical power. © 2012 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.
Absolutely minimal extensions of functions on metric spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Milman, V A
1999-01-01
Extensions of a real-valued function from the boundary ∂X 0 of an open subset X 0 of a metric space (X,d) to X 0 are discussed. For the broad class of initial data coming under discussion (linearly bounded functions) locally Lipschitz extensions to X 0 that preserve localized moduli of continuity are constructed. In the set of these extensions an absolutely minimal extension is selected, which was considered before by Aronsson for Lipschitz initial functions in the case X 0 subset of R n . An absolutely minimal extension can be regarded as an ∞-harmonic function, that is, a limit of p-harmonic functions as p→+∞. The proof of the existence of absolutely minimal extensions in a metric space with intrinsic metric is carried out by the Perron method. To this end, ∞-subharmonic, ∞-superharmonic, and ∞-harmonic functions on a metric space are defined and their properties are established
Nonlinear development of the two-plasmon decay instability in three dimensions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vu, H. X. [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); DuBois, D. F.; Russell, D. A. [Lodestar Research Corporation, Boulder, Colorado 80301 (United States); Myatt, J. F.; Zhang, J. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States)
2014-04-15
Most recent experiments on the excitation of the two plasmon-decay (TPD) instability involve a three-dimensional (3D) array of overlapping laser beams. Our recent two dimensional (2D) simulations suggested that Langmuir cavitation and collapse are important nonlinear saturation mechanisms for TPD. There are important quantitative differences in the Langmuir collapse process in 2D and 3D. To address these and other issues, we have developed a 3D Zakharov code. It has been applied to study the evolution of TPD from absolute instabilities (arising from 3D laser geometries) to the nonlinear state (J. Zhang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. (submitted)). The present paper concentrates on the nonlinear saturated state excited by the collective action of two crossed laser beams with arbitrary polarizations. Remarkable agreement between 3D and 2D simulations is found for several averaged physical quantities when the beams are polarized in their common plane. As in the previous 2D simulations, we find: (a) the collective, initially convectively unstable triad modes dominate after a sub-picosecond burst, (b) Langmuir cavitation and collapse are important nonlinearities, and (c) that the statistics of intense cavitons are characteristic of a Gaussian random process. The 3D steady-state saturated Langmuir energy level is about 30% higher than in 2D. The auto-correlation functions of the Langmuir envelope field and of the low-frequency electron density field yield the spatial shape of the strongest collapsing cavitons which are 3D ellipsoids whose orientation depends on the laser polarizations. This tilting of the caviton's strongest electric field direction away from the normal to the target surface is a major new 3D result. This tilting may deflect the hot electron flux and thereby mitigate target preheat.
Anticipating Terrorist Safe Havens from Instability Induced Conflict
Shearer, Robert; Marvin, Brett
This chapter presents recent methods developed at the Center for Army Analysis to classify patterns of nation-state instability that lead to conflict. The ungoverned areas endemic to failed nation-states provide terrorist organizations with safe havens from which to plan and execute terrorist attacks. Identification of those states at risk for instability induced conflict should help to facilitate effective counter terrorism policy planning efforts. Nation-states that experience instability induced conflict are similar in that they share common instability factors that make them susceptible to experiencing conflict. We utilize standard pattern classification algorithms to identify these patterns. First, we identify features (political, military, economic and social) that capture the instability of a nation-state. Second, we forecast the future levels of these features for each nation-state. Third, we classify each future state’s conflict potential based upon the conflict level of those states in the past most similar to the future state.
Relativistic fluid model of the resistive hose instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Siambis, J.G.
1992-01-01
A systematic analysis of the hose instability using the relativistic fluid formulation is reported. In its basic nature, the hose instability is a macroscopic, low-frequency instability, hence a fluid model should, in principle, give an accurate account of the hose instability. It has been found that for zeroth-order beam displacements, giving rise to rigid beam displacements, the fluid wave equation and resulting dispersion relation are identical to the spread-mass model and the energy-group model results. When first-order fluid displacements are included as well, giving rise to compressible, nonfrozen displacements in the axial direction and beam cross-section distortion in the radial direction, then there is obtained a wave equation similar, but not identical to the multicomponent model. The dispersion relation is solved for numerically. The hose instability growth rate is found to be similar to the multicomponent model result, over part of the beam frame, real hose frequency range
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baba, Hiroshi; Baba, Sumiko; Ichikawa, Shinichi; Sekine, Toshiaki; Ishikawa, Isamu
1981-08-01
A new method of the absolute measurement for 152 Eu was established based on the 4πβ-γ spectroscopic anti-coincidence method. It is a coincidence counting method consisting of a 4πβ-counter and a Ge(Li) γ-ray detector, in which the effective counting efficiencies of the 4πβ-counter for β-rays, conversion electrons, and Auger electrons were obtained by taking the intensity ratios for certain γ-rays between the single spectrum and the spectrum coincident with the pulses from the 4πβ-counter. First, in order to verify the method, three different methods of the absolute measurement were performed with a prepared 60 Co source to find excellent agreement among the results deduced by them. Next, the 4πβ-γ spectroscopic coincidence measurement was applied to 152 Eu sources prepared by irradiating an enriched 151 Eu target in a reactor. The result was compared with that obtained by the γ-ray spectrometry using a 152 Eu standard source supplied by LMRI. They agreed with each other within the error of 2%. (author)
Absolute carrier phase effects in the two-color excitation of dipolar molecules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brown, Alex; Meath, W.J.; Kondo, A.E.
2002-01-01
The pump-probe excitation of a two-level dipolar (d≠0) molecule, where the pump frequency is tuned to the energy level separation while the probe frequency is extremely small, is examined theoretically as an example of absolute phase control of excitation processes. The state populations depend on the probe field's absolute carrier phase but are independent of the pump field's absolute carrier phase. Interestingly, the absolute phase effects occur for pulse durations much longer and field intensities much weaker than those required to see such effects in single pulse excitation
Light-induced ion-acoustic instability of rarefied plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krasnov, I.V.; Sizykh, D.V.
1987-01-01
A new method of ion-acoustic instability excitation under the effect of coherent light, resonance to ion quantum transitions on collisionless plasma, is suggested. The light-induced ion-acoustic instability (LIIAI) considered is based on the induced progressive nonequilibrium resonance particles in the field of travelling electromagnetic wave. Principal possibility to use LIIAI in high-resolution spectroscopy and in applied problems of plasma physics, related to its instability, is pointed out
Hydrodynamic instability of compressible fluid in porous medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Argal, Shraddha; Tiwari, Anita; Sharma, P K; Prajapati, R P
2014-01-01
The hydrodynamic Rayleigh -Taylor instability of two superposed compressible fluids in porous medium has been studied. The dispersion relation is derived for such a medium by using normal mode analysis. The RT instability is discussed for various simplified configuration. The effect of porosity and dynamic viscosity has been analyzed and it is observed that porosity and dynamic viscosity have stabilizing effect on the Rayleigh- Taylor instability of compressible fluids.
The role of arthroscopy in chronic elbow instability.
Goodwin, David; Dynin, Maria; Macdonnell, J Ryan; Kessler, Michael W
2013-12-01
Elbow arthroscopy has had an emerging role in the management of many disorders of the elbow. In patients with chronic elbow instability, several arthroscopic techniques have been described in the diagnosis and management of posterolateral rotatory instability and valgus instability. We performed a systematic review investigating the role of arthroscopy in posterolateral rotatory instability and valgus instability in the elbow using the PubMed and CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) databases, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, consisting of articles from peer-reviewed journals published in the English language after January 1, 1991. Search criteria initially identified 249 articles. Twenty-five articles met criteria for inclusion. This included 17 review articles, 4 cadaveric studies, 3 retrospective studies, and 1 prospective study. Two of the retrospective studies compared arthroscopic and open techniques. Articles included in this systematic review concluded that arthroscopy is an accurate adjunct to physical examination and imaging in the diagnosis of chronic elbow instability and affords an exceptional view of the joint with the ability to address intra-articular pathologic conditions. Arthroscopic surgical techniques have shown equivalent clinical outcomes in a comparison of arthroscopic and open techniques. Elbow arthroscopy is a valuable tool in the diagnosis and management of chronic elbow instability. Patients treated arthroscopically benefit from additional diagnostic techniques, improved visualization of the elbow joint, the ability to address coexisting intra-articular pathologic conditions, and minimal soft tissue injury with no clinical consequences in outcomes. With such significant advantages, the use of elbow arthroscopy is likely to expand in the management of chronic elbow instability. Level IV, systematic review. Copyright © 2013 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc
Tangential neutral-beam--driven instabilities in the Princeton beta experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heidbrink, W.W.; Bol, K.; Buchenauer, D.
1986-01-01
During tangential neutral-beam injection into the PBX tokamak, bursts of two types of instabilities are observed. One instability occurs in the frequency range 120--210 kHz and the other oscillates predominantly near the frequency of bulk plasma rotation (20--30 kHz). Both instabilities correlate with drops in neutron emission and bursts in charge-exchange neutral flux, indicating that beam ions are removed from the center of the plasma by the instabilities. The central losses are comparable to the losses induced by the fishbone instability during perpendicular injection
Theoretical analysis of mode instability in high-power fiber amplifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Kristian Rymann; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Broeng, Jes
2013-01-01
We present a simple theoretical model of transverse mode instability in high-power rare-earth doped fiber amplifiers. The model shows that efficient power transfer between the fundamental and higher-order modes of the fiber can be induced by a nonlinear interaction mediated through the thermo......-optic effect, leading to transverse mode instability. The temporal and spectral characteristics of the instability dynamics are investigated, and it is shown that the instability can be seeded by both quantum noise and signal intensity noise, while pure phase noise of the signal does not induce instability...
Bossa, Benjamin
2005-11-01
We address the problem of the free fall of a long, horizontal and narrow liquid layer squeezed in a vertical open Hele-Shaw cell. The layer destabilizes as it falls down, evolving into a series of liquid blobs linked together by thin bridges, which ultimately break, leaving the initially connex fluid layer as a set a disjointed drops. The mechanism of this instability is the onset of a vertical pressure gradient due to the curvature difference of the moving contact line between the advancing interface and the rear interface. This instability, whose growth rate scales with a non-trivial power of the capillary number, amplifies indifferently a broad band of wavenumbers because of the flat shape of its dispersion relation in the thin layer limit. We will finally comment on the nature of the final fragmentation process and drop size distributions.
The pathological phenotype of colon cancer with microsatellite instability
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Helene Schou; Bertelsen, Claus Anders; Henriksen, Rikke
2016-01-01
proteins: pMLH1, pMSH2, pMSH6 and pPMS2 for the determination of microsatellite instability. Microsatellite instability was defined as deficient expression of one or more of these proteins. RESULTS: Of the 833 patients, 177 had microsatellite instable tumours (21%). Using multivariable logistic regression...
The coalescence instability in solar flares
Tajima, T.; Brunel, F.; Sakai, J.-I.; Vlahos, L.; Kundu, M. R.
1985-01-01
The nonlinear coalescence instability of current carrying solar loops can explain many of the characteristics of the solar flares such as their impulsive nature, heating and high energy particle acceleration, amplitude oscillations of electromagnetic and emission as well as the characteristics of two-dimensional microwave images obtained during a flare. The plasma compressibility leads to the explosive phase of loop coalescence and its overshoot results in amplitude oscillations in temperatures by adiabatic compression and decompression. It is noted that the presence of strong electric fields and super-Alfvenic flows during the course of the instability play an important role in the production of nonthermal particles. A qualitative explanation on the physical processes taking place during the nonlinear stages of the instability is given.
Determination of absolute detection efficiencies for detectors of interest in homeland security
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ayaz-Maierhafer, Birsen; DeVol, Timothy A.
2007-01-01
The absolute total and absolute peak detection efficiencies of gamma ray detector materials NaI:Tl, CdZnTe, HPGe, HPXe, LaBr 3 :Ce and LaCl 3 :Ce were simulated and compared to that of polyvinyltoluene (PVT). The dimensions of the PVT detector were 188.82 cmx60.96 cmx5.08 cm, which is a typical size for a single-panel portal monitor. The absolute total and peak detection efficiencies for these detector materials for the point, line and spherical source geometries of 60 Co (1332 keV), 137 Cs (662 keV) and 241 Am (59.5 keV) were simulated at various source-to-detector distances using the Monte Carlo N-Particle software (MCNP5-V1.30). The comparison of the absolute total detection efficiencies for a point, line and spherical source geometry of 60 Co and 137 Cs at different source-to-detector distance showed that the absolute detection efficiency for PVT is higher relative to the other detectors of typical dimensions for that material. However, the absolute peak detection efficiency of some of these detectors are higher relative to PVT, for example the absolute peak detection efficiency of NaI:Tl (7.62 cm diameterx7.62 cm long), HPGe (7.62 cm diameterx7.62 cm long), HPXe (11.43 cm diameterx60.96 cm long), and LaCl 3 :Ce (5.08 cm diameterx5.08 cm long) are all greater than that of a 188.82 cmx60.96 cmx5.08 cm PVT detector for 60 Co and 137 Cs for all geometries studied. The absolute total and absolute peak detection efficiencies of a right circular cylinder of NaI:Tl with various diameters and thicknesses were determined for a point source. The effect of changing the solid angle on the NaI:Tl detectors showed that with increasing solid angle and detector thickness, the absolute efficiency increases. This work establishes a common basis for differentiating detector materials for passive portal monitoring of gamma ray radiation
Pierce instability and bifurcating equilibria
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Godfrey, B.B.
1981-01-01
The report investigates the connection between equilibrium bifurcations and occurrence of the Pierce instability. Electrons flowing from one ground plane to a second through an ion background possess a countable infinity of static equilibria, of which only one is uniform and force-free. Degeneracy of the uniform and simplest non-uniform equilibria at a certain ground plan separation marks the onset of the Pierce instability, based on a newly derived dispersion relation appropriate to all the equilibria. For large ground plane separations the uniform equilibrium is unstable and the non-uniform equilibrium is stable, the reverse of their stability properties at small separations. Onset of the Pierce instability at the first bifurcation of equilibria persists in more complicated geometries, providing a general criterion for marginal stability. It seems probable that bifurcation analysis can be a useful tool in the overall study of stable beam generation in diodes and transport in finite cavities
Regional and site-specific absolute humidity data for use in tritium dose calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Etnier, E.L.
1980-01-01
Due to the potential variability in average absolute humidity over the continental U.S., and the dependence of atmospheric 3 H specific activity on absolute humidity, availability of regional absolute humidity data is of value in estimating the radiological significance of 3 H releases. Most climatological data are in the form of relative humidity, which must be converted to absolute humidity for dose calculations. Absolute humidity was calculated for 218 points across the U.S., using the 1977 annual summary of U.S. Climatological Data, and is given in a table. Mean regional values are shown on a map. (author)
Role of parametric decay instabilities in generating ionospheric irregularities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuo, S.P.; Cheo, B.R.; Lee, M.C.
1983-01-01
We show that purely growing instabilities driven by the saturation spectrum of parametric decay instabilities can produce a broad spectrum of ionospheric irregularities. The threshold field Vertical BarE/sub th/Vertical Bar of the instabilities decreases with the scale lengths lambda of the ionospheric irregularities as Vertical BarE/sub th/Vertical Barproportionallambda -2 in the small-scale range ( -2 with scale lengths larger than a few kilometers. The excitation of kilometer-scale irregularities is strictly restricted by the instabilities themselves and by the spatial inhomogeneity of the medium. These results are drawn from the analyses of four-wave interaction. Ion-neutral collisions impose no net effect on the instabilities when the excited ionospheric irregularities have a field-aligned nature
Interplay between parametric instabilities in fusion - relevant laser plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huller, St.
2003-01-01
The control of parametric instabilities plays an important role in laser fusion. They are driven by the incident laser beams in the underdense plasma surrounding a fusion capsule and hinder the absorption process of incident laser light which is necessary to heat the fusion target. Due to its high intensity and power, the laser light modifies the plasma density dynamically, such that two or more parametric instabilities compete, in particular stimulated Brillouin scattering and the filamentation instability. The complicated interplay between these parametric instabilities is studied in detail by developing an adequate model accompanied by numerical simulations with multidimensional codes. The model is applied to generic and to smoothed laser beams, which are necessary to limit parametric instabilities, with parameters close to experimental conditions. (author)
Magnetic field dynamos and magnetically triggered flow instabilities
Stefani, F.; Albrecht, T.; Arlt, R.; Christen, M.; Gailitis, A.; Gellert, M.; Giesecke, A.; Goepfert, O.; Herault, J.; Kirillov, O. N.; Mamatsashvili, G.; Priede, J.; Rüdiger, G.; Seilmayer, M.; Tilgner, A.; Vogt, T.
2017-07-01
The project A2 of the LIMTECH Alliance aimed at a better understanding of those magnetohydrodynamic instabilities that are relevant for the generation and the action of cosmic magnetic fields. These comprise the hydromagnetic dynamo effect and various magnetically triggered flow instabilities, such as the magnetorotational instability and the Tayler instability. The project was intended to support the experimental capabilities to become available in the framework of the DREsden Sodium facility for DYNamo and thermohydraulic studies (DRESDYN). An associated starting grant was focused on the dimensioning of a liquid metal experiment on the newly found magnetic destabilization of rotating flows with positive shear. In this survey paper, the main results of these two projects are summarized.
Investigation of universal plasma instabilities. Final report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lashinsky, H.
1977-01-01
This project was undertaken in order to carry out a comprehensive experimental investigation of universal plasma instabilities under a variety of conditions and a wide range of experimental parameters to scale the results appropriately to make comparisons with plasmas of thermonuclear interest. Of particular importance are the roles played by collisions and resonance particles (Landau damping and excitation) and the various stages in the development of the instabilities i.e., the linear onset of the instability, the quasilinear stage, and the transition to turbulence. General nonlinear effects such as mode locking and mode competition, and the relation of these phenomena to plasma turbulence, are also of great interest and were studied experimentally. The ultimate aim was to measure certain plasma transport coefficients in the plasma under stable and turbulent conditions with the particular view of evaluating the effect of the universal plasma instabilities of plasma confinement in a magnetic field
Teaching Rayleigh–Plateau instabilities in the laboratory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fragkopoulos, A A; Ellis, P W; Fernandez-Nieves, A
2015-01-01
The breakup of a liquid jet into spherical droplets via the Rayleigh–Plateau instability is a common and fundamental part of fluid mechanics. However, teaching this instability in a laboratory setting is challenging, requiring sophisticated methods to generate and study the jet dynamics. Recently, toroidal droplets were shown to break into one or more spherical droplets in the thin-drop limit via the Rayleigh–Plateau instability. We propose a simple experimental setup to generate toroidal droplets that break up on the order of tens of seconds, allowing for easy video capture using a basic CCD camera. With this setup, it is possible to quantify the Rayleigh–Plateau instability in a pedagogical laboratory setting. In addition, the role of curvature on jet breakup can be explored using thick toroidal droplets. We envision this setup as a powerful teaching tool for one of the most fundamental fluid dynamics processes. (paper)
The Rayleigh-Taylor instability in inertial fusion, astrophysical plasma and flames
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bychkov, V; Modestov, M; Akkerman, V; Eriksson, L-E
2007-01-01
Previous results are reviewed and new results are presented on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in inertial confined fusion, flames and supernovae including gravitational and thermonuclear explosion mechanisms. The instability couples micro-scale plasma effects to large-scale hydrodynamic phenomena. In inertial fusion the instability reduces target compression. In supernovae the instability produces large-scale convection, which determines the fate of the star. The instability is often accompanied by mass flux through the unstable interface, which may have either a stabilizing or a destabilizing influence. Destabilization happens due to the Darrieus-Landau instability of a deflagration front. Still, it is unclear whether the instabilities lead to well-organized large-scale structures (bubbles) or to relatively isotropic turbulence (mixing layer)
Magnetically-Driven Convergent Instability Growth platform on Z.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Knapp, Patrick [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mattsson, Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Martin, Matthew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Benage, John F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jenkins, James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Albright, Brian James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2017-09-01
Hydrodynamic instability growth is a fundamentally limiting process in many applications. In High Energy Density Physics (HEDP) systems such as inertial confinement fusion implosions and stellar explosions, hydro instabilities can dominate the evolution of the object and largely determine the final state achievable. Of particular interest is the process by which instabilities cause perturbations at a density or material interface to grow nonlinearly, introducing vorticity and eventually causing the two species to mix across the interface. Although quantifying instabilities has been the subject of many investigations in planar geometry, few have been done in converging geometry. During FY17, the team executed six convergent geometry instability experiments. Based on earlier results, the platform was redesigned and improved with respect to load centering at installation making the installation reproducible and development of a new 7.2 keV, Co He-a backlighter system to better penetrate the liner. Together, the improvements yielded significantly improved experimental results. The results in FY17 demonstrate the viability of using experiments on Z to quantify instability growth in cylindrically convergent geometry. Going forward, we will continue the partnership with staff and management at LANL to analyze the past experiments, compare to hydrodynamics growth models, and design future experiments.
Low-frequency instabilities of electron-hole plasmas in crossed fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schneider, W.; Kirchesch, P.
1978-01-01
Using local point-contact probes, we observed two types of low-frequency instabilities in n-InSb at 85 K if the samples were exposed to crossed fields. One is a local density instability with threshold frequencies of f = 1 ... 20 Mc, the other a more turbulent current instability. The threshold values of U 0 and B for the onset of these instabilities and the dependence of their amplitudes on the fields have been measured. If a rectangular semiconductor slab is placed in crossed fields, regions of high electric field strength at opposite edges of the contacts are caused by the distortion of the Hall field, giving rise to the generation of electron-hole plasmas by impact ionization. These plasmas are the sources of the observed instabilities. This is especially evident in the case of the local density instability, which originates at the anode high field corner. Several possible reasons for the development of the instabilities are discussed. (orig.) [de
Confidence-Accuracy Calibration in Absolute and Relative Face Recognition Judgments
Weber, Nathan; Brewer, Neil
2004-01-01
Confidence-accuracy (CA) calibration was examined for absolute and relative face recognition judgments as well as for recognition judgments from groups of stimuli presented simultaneously or sequentially (i.e., simultaneous or sequential mini-lineups). When the effect of difficulty was controlled, absolute and relative judgments produced…
The short circuit instability in protoplanetary disks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hubbard, A.; McNally, C.P.; Mac Low, M.M.
2013-01-01
We introduce a magneto-hydrodynamic instability which occurs, among other locations, in the inner, hot regions of protoplanetary disks, and which alters the way in which resistive dissipation of magnetic energy into heat proceeds. This instability can be likened to both an electrical short circui...
Secular instabilities of Keplerian stellar discs
Kaur, Karamveer; Kazandjian, Mher V.; Sridhar, S.; Touma, Jihad R.
2018-05-01
We present idealized models of a razor-thin, axisymmetric, Keplerian stellar disc around a massive black hole, and study non-axisymmetric secular instabilities in the absence of either counter-rotation or loss cones. These discs are prograde mono-energetic waterbags, whose phase-space distribution functions are constant for orbits within a range of eccentricities (e) and zero outside this range. The linear normal modes of waterbags are composed of sinusoidal disturbances of the edges of distribution function in phase space. Waterbags that include circular orbits (polarcaps) have one stable linear normal mode for each azimuthal wavenumber m. The m = 1 mode always has positive pattern speed and, for polarcaps consisting of orbits with e normal modes for each m, which can be stable or unstable. We derive analytical expressions for the instability condition, pattern speeds, growth rates, and normal mode structure. Narrow bands are unstable to modes with a wide range in m. Numerical simulations confirm linear theory and follow the non-linear evolution of instabilities. Long-time integration suggests that instabilities of different m grow, interact non-linearly, and relax collisionlessly to a coarse-grained equilibrium with a wide range of eccentricities.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stupakov, G V [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)
1996-08-01
The ionization of residual gas by an electron beam in an accelerator generates ions that can resonantly couple to the beam through a wave propagating in the beam-ion system. Results of the study of a beam-ion instability are presented for a multi-bunch train taking into account the decoherence of ion oscillations due to the ion frequency spread and spatial variation of the ion frequency. It is shown that the combination of both effects can substantially reduce the growth rate of the instability. (author)
Oh, J.; Weaver, J. L.; Kehne, D. M.; Phillips, L. S.; Obenschain, S. P.; Serlin, V.; McLean, E. A.; Lehmberg, R. H.; Manka, C. K.
2009-11-01
With short wavelength (248 nm), large bandwidth (˜1 THz), and ISI beam smoothing, Nike KrF laser provides unique opportunities of LPI research for direct-drive inertial confinement fusion. Previous experiments at intensities (10^15˜10^16 W/cm^2) exceeded two-plasmon decay (TPD) instability threshold using 12 beam-lines of Nike laser.^a,b For further experiments to study LPI excitation in bigger plasma volumes, 44 Nike main beams have been used to produce plasmas with total laser energies up to 1 kJ of ˜350 psec FWHM pulses. This talk will present results of the recent LPI experiment focusing on light emission data in spectral ranges relevant to the Raman (SRS) and TPD instabilities. The primary diagnostics were time-resolved spectrometers with an absolute-intensity-calibrated photodiode array in (0.4˜0.8)φ0 and a streak camera near 0.5φ0. Blackbody temperature and expansion speed measurements of the plasmas were also made. The experiment was conducted at laser intensities of (1˜4)x10^15 W/cm^2 on solid planar CH targets. ^a J. L. Weaver, et al, NO4.14, APS DPP (2008) ^b J. Oh, et al, NO4.15, APS DPP (2008) * Work supported by DoE/NNSA and performed at Naval Research Laboratory.
Buneman instability in hot electron plasma (Te>>Ti)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khalil, S.M.; Sayed, Y.A.; Sayed, R.A.
1986-07-01
We shall investigate the linear excitation of electrostatic current Buneman instability in both unmagnetized and magnetized homogeneous plasma. The frequency, growth rate and conditions of excitation of such instability are obtained analytically. We consider that the current velocity u (due to relative streaming of ions and electrons) slightly exceeds the instability threshold velocity u cr and that the electron temperature is much higher than the ion temperature (T e >>T i ). (author)
On the instability increments of a stationary pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bud'ko, A.B.
1989-01-01
The stability of stationary pinch to helical modes is numerically studied. It is shown that in the case of a rather fast plasma pressure decrease to the pinch boundary, for example, for an isothermal diffusion pinch with Gauss density distribution instabilities with m=0 modes are the most quickly growing. Instability increments are calculated. A simple analytical expression of a maximum increment of growth of sausage instability for automodel Gauss profiles is obtained
Reflex muscle contraction in anterior shoulder instability.
Wallace, D A; Beard, D J; Gill, R H; Eng, B; Carr, A J
1997-01-01
Reduced proprioception may contribute to recurrent anterior shoulder instability. Twelve patients with unilateral shoulder instability were investigated for evidence of deficient proprioception with an activated pneumatic cylinder and surface electromyography electrodes; the contralateral normal shoulder was used as a control. The latency between onset of movement and the detection of muscle contraction was used as an index of proprioception. No significant difference in muscle contraction latency was detected between the stable and unstable shoulders, suggesting that there was no significant defect in muscular reflex activity. This study does not support the use proprioception-enhancing physiotherapy in the treatment of posttraumatic anterior shoulder instability.
Auditory working memory predicts individual differences in absolute pitch learning.
Van Hedger, Stephen C; Heald, Shannon L M; Koch, Rachelle; Nusbaum, Howard C
2015-07-01
Absolute pitch (AP) is typically defined as the ability to label an isolated tone as a musical note in the absence of a reference tone. At first glance the acquisition of AP note categories seems like a perceptual learning task, since individuals must assign a category label to a stimulus based on a single perceptual dimension (pitch) while ignoring other perceptual dimensions (e.g., loudness, octave, instrument). AP, however, is rarely discussed in terms of domain-general perceptual learning mechanisms. This is because AP is typically assumed to depend on a critical period of development, in which early exposure to pitches and musical labels is thought to be necessary for the development of AP precluding the possibility of adult acquisition of AP. Despite this view of AP, several previous studies have found evidence that absolute pitch category learning is, to an extent, trainable in a post-critical period adult population, even if the performance typically achieved by this population is below the performance of a "true" AP possessor. The current studies attempt to understand the individual differences in learning to categorize notes using absolute pitch cues by testing a specific prediction regarding cognitive capacity related to categorization - to what extent does an individual's general auditory working memory capacity (WMC) predict the success of absolute pitch category acquisition. Since WMC has been shown to predict performance on a wide variety of other perceptual and category learning tasks, we predict that individuals with higher WMC should be better at learning absolute pitch note categories than individuals with lower WMC. Across two studies, we demonstrate that auditory WMC predicts the efficacy of learning absolute pitch note categories. These results suggest that a higher general auditory WMC might underlie the formation of absolute pitch categories for post-critical period adults. Implications for understanding the mechanisms that underlie the
Radiologic signs of detrusor instability in children
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hidalgo Teran, D.G.; Podesta, M.; Mendel, R.
2004-01-01
Purpose: To revalue radiologic signs of detrusor instability in children. Material and Methods: Retrospective analysis of videourodynamic studies performed in 85 children consulting for urinary incontinence and/or infection. Patients were free from neuropathic diseases, alterations of the urinary tract, previous surgery or anticholinergic treatment. Images of the bladder coinciding to the peaks of unstable detrusor contractions in patients with unstable bladders, and those at the end of filling in stable bladders were analyzed. Results: Bladder outlets were open in 38 patients and close in 47. Detrusor instability was found in 97 % of those with an open bladder outlet and in 36 % when close. Bladder outlets were open in all cases with contractions stronger than 60 cm.water. All 'spinning-top' urethras were associated to contractions stronger than 70 cm.water. Most false negatives (close bladder outlet in unstable bladders) corresponded to contractions lower than 30 cm.water. Different shapes of the bladder were found irrespective of detrusor instability. Conclusions: 1) An open bladder outlet observed during bladder filling is a reliable sign of significant detrusor instability in children without neuropathy; 2) It is highly specific of instability; 3) Most false negatives coincide with low amplitude contractions; 4) 'Spinning-top' images indicate strong contractions. (author)
Calibrating the absolute amplitude scale for air showers measured at LOFAR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nelles, A.; Hörandel, J. R.; Karskens, T.; Krause, M.; Corstanje, A.; Enriquez, J. E.; Falcke, H.; Rachen, J. P.; Rossetto, L.; Schellart, P.; Buitink, S.; Erdmann, M.; Krause, R.; Haungs, A.; Hiller, R.; Huege, T.; Link, K.; Schröder, F. G.; Norden, M. J.; Scholten, O.
2015-01-01
Air showers induced by cosmic rays create nanosecond pulses detectable at radio frequencies. These pulses have been measured successfully in the past few years at the LOw-Frequency ARray (LOFAR) and are used to study the properties of cosmic rays. For a complete understanding of this phenomenon and the underlying physical processes, an absolute calibration of the detecting antenna system is needed. We present three approaches that were used to check and improve the antenna model of LOFAR and to provide an absolute calibration of the whole system for air shower measurements. Two methods are based on calibrated reference sources and one on a calibration approach using the diffuse radio emission of the Galaxy, optimized for short data-sets. An accuracy of 19% in amplitude is reached. The absolute calibration is also compared to predictions from air shower simulations. These results are used to set an absolute energy scale for air shower measurements and can be used as a basis for an absolute scale for the measurement of astronomical transients with LOFAR
Nonlinear Development and Secondary Instability of Traveling Crossflow Vortices
Li, Fei; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Duan, Lian; Chang, Chau-Lyan
2014-01-01
Transition research under NASA's Aeronautical Sciences Project seeks to develop a validated set of variable fidelity prediction tools with known strengths and limitations, so as to enable "sufficiently" accurate transition prediction and practical transition control for future vehicle concepts. This paper builds upon prior effort targeting the laminar breakdown mechanisms associated with stationary crossflow instability over a swept-wing configuration relevant to subsonic aircraft with laminar flow technology. Specifically, transition via secondary instability of traveling crossflow modes is investigated as an alternate scenario for transition. Results show that, for the parameter range investigated herein, secondary instability of traveling crossflow modes becomes insignificant in relation to the secondary instability of the stationary modes when the relative initial amplitudes of the traveling crossflow instability are lower than those of the stationary modes by approximately two orders of magnitudes or more. Linear growth predictions based on the secondary instability theory are found to agree well with those based on PSE and DNS, with the most significant discrepancies being limited to spatial regions of relatively weak secondary growth, i.e., regions where the primary disturbance amplitudes are smaller in comparison to its peak amplitude. Nonlinear effects on secondary instability evolution is also investigated and found to be initially stabilizing, prior to breakdown.
Instability in dynamic fracture
Fineberg, J.; Marder, M.
1999-05-01
The fracture of brittle amorphous materials is an especially challenging problem, because the way a large object shatters is intimately tied to details of cohesion at microscopic scales. This subject has been plagued by conceptual puzzles, and to make matters worse, experiments seemed to contradict the most firmly established theories. In this review, we will show that the theory and experiments fit within a coherent picture where dynamic instabilities of a crack tip play a crucial role. To accomplish this task, we first summarize the central results of linear elastic dynamic fracture mechanics, an elegant and powerful description of crack motion from the continuum perspective. We point out that this theory is unable to make predictions without additional input, information that must come either from experiment, or from other types of theories. We then proceed to discuss some of the most important experimental observations, and the methods that were used to obtain the them. Once the flux of energy to a crack tip passes a critical value, the crack becomes unstable, and it propagates in increasingly complicated ways. As a result, the crack cannot travel as quickly as theory had supposed, fracture surfaces become rough, it begins to branch and radiate sound, and the energy cost for crack motion increases considerably. All these phenomena are perfectly consistent with the continuum theory, but are not described by it. Therefore, we close the review with an account of theoretical and numerical work that attempts to explain the instabilities. Currently, the experimental understanding of crack tip instabilities in brittle amorphous materials is fairly detailed. We also have a detailed theoretical understanding of crack tip instabilities in crystals, reproducing qualitatively many features of the experiments, while numerical work is beginning to make the missing connections between experiment and theory.
Wziontek, Hartmut; Falk, Reinhard; Bonvalot, Sylvain; Rülke, Axel
2017-04-01
After about 10 years of successful joint operation by BGI and BKG, the International Database for Absolute Gravity Measurements "AGrav" (see references hereafter) was under a major revision. The outdated web interface was replaced by a responsive, high level web application framework based on Python and built on top of Pyramid. Functionality was added, like interactive time series plots or a report generator and the interactive map-based station overview was updated completely, comprising now clustering and the classification of stations. Furthermore, the database backend was migrated to PostgreSQL for better support of the application framework and long-term availability. As comparisons of absolute gravimeters (AG) become essential to realize a precise and uniform gravity standard, the database was extended to document the results on international and regional level, including those performed at monitoring stations equipped with SGs. By this it will be possible to link different AGs and to trace their equivalence back to the key comparisons under the auspices of International Committee for Weights and Measures (CIPM) as the best metrological realization of the absolute gravity standard. In this way the new AGrav database accommodates the demands of the new Global Absolute Gravity Reference System as recommended by the IAG Resolution No. 2 adopted in Prague 2015. The new database will be presented with focus on the new user interface and new functionality, calling all institutions involved in absolute gravimetry to participate and contribute with their information to built up a most complete picture of high precision absolute gravimetry and improve its visibility. A Digital Object Identifier (DOI) will be provided by BGI to contributors to give a better traceability and facilitate the referencing of their gravity surveys. Links and references: BGI mirror site : http://bgi.obs-mip.fr/data-products/Gravity-Databases/Absolute-Gravity-data/ BKG mirror site: http
Trisomy 21 and facial developmental instability.
Starbuck, John M; Cole, Theodore M; Reeves, Roger H; Richtsmeier, Joan T
2013-05-01
The most common live-born human aneuploidy is trisomy 21, which causes Down syndrome (DS). Dosage imbalance of genes on chromosome 21 (Hsa21) affects complex gene-regulatory interactions and alters development to produce a wide range of phenotypes, including characteristic facial dysmorphology. Little is known about how trisomy 21 alters craniofacial morphogenesis to create this characteristic appearance. Proponents of the "amplified developmental instability" hypothesis argue that trisomy 21 causes a generalized genetic imbalance that disrupts evolutionarily conserved developmental pathways by decreasing developmental homeostasis and precision throughout development. Based on this model, we test the hypothesis that DS faces exhibit increased developmental instability relative to euploid individuals. Developmental instability was assessed by a statistical analysis of fluctuating asymmetry. We compared the magnitude and patterns of fluctuating asymmetry among siblings using three-dimensional coordinate locations of 20 anatomic landmarks collected from facial surface reconstructions in four age-matched samples ranging from 4 to 12 years: (1) DS individuals (n = 55); (2) biological siblings of DS individuals (n = 55); 3) and 4) two samples of typically developing individuals (n = 55 for each sample), who are euploid siblings and age-matched to the DS individuals and their euploid siblings (samples 1 and 2). Identification in the DS sample of facial prominences exhibiting increased fluctuating asymmetry during facial morphogenesis provides evidence for increased developmental instability in DS faces. We found the highest developmental instability in facial structures derived from the mandibular prominence and lowest in facial regions derived from the frontal prominence. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Beam Instabilities in Circular Particle Accelerators
AUTHOR|(CDS)2067185
2017-01-01
The theory of impedance-induced bunched-beam coherent instabilities is reviewed following Laclare's formalism, adding the effect of an electronic damper in the transverse plane. Both single-bunch and coupled-bunch instabilities are discussed, both low-intensity and high-intensity regimes are analysed, both longitudinal and transverse planes are studied, and both short-bunch and long-bunch regimes are considered. Observables and mitigation measures are also examined.
MHD instability studies in ISX-B
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pare, V.K.; Dunlap, J.L.; Navarro, A.P.; Burris, R.D.
1979-01-01
MHD instabilities in Ohmically and beam heated ISX-B plasmas have been studied using collimated x-ray and Mirnov loop diagnostics. The diagnostic systems will be described and the instability signals will be illustrated for a variety of discharges. The latter will include those observed in connection with low and high β operation, density clamping, pellet injection, and deliberate introduction of toroidal field ripple
Absolute cross sections from the ''boomerang model'' for resonant electron-molecule scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dube, L.; Herzenberg, A.
1979-01-01
The boomerang model is used to calculate absolute cross sections near the 2 Pi/sub g/ shape resonance in e-N 2 scattering. The calculated cross sections are shown to satisfy detailed balancing. The exchange of electrons is taken into account. A parametrized complex-potential curve for the intermediate N 2 /sup ts-/ ion is determined from a small part of the experimental data, and then used to calculate other properties. The calculations are in good agreement with the absolute cross sections for vibrational excitation from the ground state, the absolute cross section v = 1 → 2, and the absolute total cross section
Jeans instability of self-gravitating magnetized strongly coupled plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prajapati, R P; Sharma, P K; Sanghvi, R K; Chhajlani, R K
2012-01-01
We investigate the Jeans instability of self-gravitating magnetized strongly coupled plasma. The equations of the problem are formulated using the generalized hydrodynamic model and a general dispersion relation is obtained using the normal mode analysis. This dispersion relation is discussed for transverse and longitudinal mode of propagations. The modified condition of Jeans instability is obtained for magnetized strongly coupled plasma. We find that strong coupling of plasma particles modify the fundamental criterion of Jeans gravitational instability. In transverse mode it is found that Jeans instability criterion gets modified due to the presence of magnetic field, shear viscosity and fluid viscosity but in longitudinal mode it is unaffected due to the presence of magnetic field. From the curves we found that all these parameters have stabilizing influence on the growth rate of Jeans instability.
Linear waves and instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bers, A.
1975-01-01
The electrodynamic equations for small-amplitude waves and their dispersion relation in a homogeneous plasma are outlined. For such waves, energy and momentum, and their flow and transformation, are described. Perturbation theory of waves is treated and applied to linear coupling of waves, and the resulting instabilities from such interactions between active and passive waves. Linear stability analysis in time and space is described where the time-asymptotic, time-space Green's function for an arbitrary dispersion relation is developed. The perturbation theory of waves is applied to nonlinear coupling, with particular emphasis on pump-driven interactions of waves. Details of the time--space evolution of instabilities due to coupling are given. (U.S.)
Imaging of patellofemoral instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Waldt, S.; Rummeny, E.J.
2012-01-01
Patellofemoral instability remains a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge due to its multifactorial genesis. The purpose of imaging is to systematically analyze predisposing factors, such as trochlear dysplasia, patella alta, tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove (TT-TG) distance, rotational deformities of the lower limb and patellar tilt. In order to evaluate anatomical abnormalities with a sufficient diagnostic accuracy, standardized measurement methods and implementation of various imaging modalities are necessary. Diagnosis of acute and often overlooked lateral patellar dislocation can be established with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) because of its characteristic patterns of injury. Damage to the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) has a significance just as high as the predisposing risk factors in relation to the cause of chronic instability. (orig.) [de
Richtmyer-Meshkov instability in elastic-plastic media
Piriz, Antonio R.; López Cela, Juan J.; Tahir, Naeem A.; Hoffmann, Dieter H. H.
2008-04-01
Hydrodynamic instabilities are of great importance in the LAPLAS (Laboratory of Planetary Sciences) experiment that is being designed for the study of high energy density states of matter in the framework of the FAIR projectDuring the implosion of the LAPLAS cylindrical target Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instability occurs when a shock is launched into a material pusher with elastic and plastic properties that determines the physics of the instability evolution. We have studied the evolution of the interface from which the shock is launched as a consequence of the RM instability. For this we have developed an analytical model and we have performed two-dimensional numerical simulations in order to validate the model. Model and simulations show the asymptotic stability state in which the interface oscillates elastically around a mean value higher than the initial perturbation amplitude. Such a mean value is determined by an initial plastic phase. Applications to the measurement of the yield strength of materials under extreme conditions are foreseen.
Control of Coherent Instabilities by Linear Coupling
Cappi, R; Möhl, D
2001-01-01
One of the main challenges in the design of high-energy colliders is the very high luminosity necessary to provide significant event rates. This imposes strong constraints to achieve and preserve beams of high brightness, i.e. intensity to emittance ratio, all along the injector chain. Amongst the phenomena that can blow up and even destroy the beam are transverse coherent instabilities. Two methods are widely used to damp these instabilities. The first one is Landau damping by non-linearities. The second consists in using an electronic feedback system. However, non-linearities are harmful to single-particle motion due to resonance phenomena, and powerful wideband feedback systems are expensive. It is shown in this paper that linear coupling is a further method that can be used to damp transverse coherent instabilities. The theory of collective motion is outlined, including the coupling of instability rise and damping rates, chromaticity and Landau damping. Experimental results obtained at the CERN PS are rep...
Genome organization, instabilities, stem cells, and cancer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Senthil Kumar Pazhanisamy
2009-01-01
Full Text Available It is now widely recognized that advances in exploring genome organization provide remarkable insights on the induction and progression of chromosome abnormalities. Much of what we know about how mutations evolve and consequently transform into genome instabilities has been characterized in the spatial organization context of chromatin. Nevertheless, many underlying concepts of impact of the chromatin organization on perpetuation of multiple mutations and on propagation of chromosomal aberrations remain to be investigated in detail. Genesis of genome instabilities from accumulation of multiple mutations that drive tumorigenesis is increasingly becoming a focal theme in cancer studies. This review focuses on structural alterations evolve to raise a variety of genome instabilities that are manifested at the nucleotide, gene or sub-chromosomal, and whole chromosome level of genome. Here we explore an underlying connection between genome instability and cancer in the light of genome architecture. This review is limited to studies directed towards spatial organizational aspects of origin and propagation of aberrations into genetically unstable tumors.
Simulations relevant to the beam instability in the foreshock
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cairns, I.H.; Nishikawa, K.I.
1989-01-01
Electrons backstreaming into Earth's foreshock generate waves near the plasma frequency f p by the beam instability. Tow versions of the beam instability exist: the reactive version, in which narrow-band waves grow by bunching the electrons in space, and the kinetic version, in which broadband growth occurs by a maser mechanism. Recently, it has been suggested that (1) the backstreaming electrons have steep-sided cutoff distributions which are initially unstable to the reactive instability, (2) the back reaction to the wave growth causes the instability to pass into its kinetic phase, and (3) the kinetic instability saturates by quasi-linear relaxation. In this paper the authors present two-dimensional simulations of the reactive instability for Maxwellian beams and cutoff distributions. They demonstrate that the reactive instability is a bunching instability and that the reactive instability saturates and passes over into the kinetic phase by particle trapping.A reactive/kinetic transition is shown to most likely occur within 1 km and 50 km of the bow shock. They suggest that the frequency of the intense narrow-band waves decrease from above f p to perhaps 0.9f p (dependent on the beam density) with increasing penetration into the high beam speed region of the foreshock, before the wave frequency rises again as the waves become broadband deeper in the foreshock. Both the simulation results and numerical solutions of the dispersion equation indicate that for the observed beam parameters the center frequency of the waves near the foreshock boundary should be between 0.9f p and 0.98f p , rather than above f p as previously believed. The simulation results indicate that the effects of spatial inhomogeneity are vital for a quantitative understanding of the foreshock waves
Higher-order modulation instability in nonlinear fiber optics.
Erkintalo, Miro; Hammani, Kamal; Kibler, Bertrand; Finot, Christophe; Akhmediev, Nail; Dudley, John M; Genty, Goëry
2011-12-16
We report theoretical, numerical, and experimental studies of higher-order modulation instability in the focusing nonlinear Schrödinger equation. This higher-order instability arises from the nonlinear superposition of elementary instabilities, associated with initial single breather evolution followed by a regime of complex, yet deterministic, pulse splitting. We analytically describe the process using the Darboux transformation and compare with experiments in optical fiber. We show how a suitably low frequency modulation on a continuous wave field induces higher-order modulation instability splitting with the pulse characteristics at different phases of evolution related by a simple scaling relationship. We anticipate that similar processes are likely to be observed in many other systems including plasmas, Bose-Einstein condensates, and deep water waves. © 2011 American Physical Society
Canonical momenta and numerical instabilities in particle codes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Godfrey, B.B.
1975-01-01
A set of warm plasma dispersion relations appropriate to a large class of electromagnetic plasma simulation codes is derived. The numerical Cherenkov instability is shown by analytic and numerical analysis of these dispersion relations to be the most significant nonphysical effect involving transverse electromagnetic waves. The instability arises due to a spurious phase shift between resonant particles and light waves, caused by a basic incompatibility between the Lagrangian treatment of particle positions and the Eulerian treatment of particle velocities characteristic of most PIC--CIC algorithms. It is demonstrated that, through the use of canonical momentum, this mismatch is alleviated sufficiently to completely eliminate the Cherenkov instability. Collateral effects on simulation accuracy and on other numerical instabilities appear to be minor
Inhomogeneity driven by Higgs instability in a gapless superconductor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giannakis, Ioannis; Hou Defu; Huang Mei; Ren Haicang
2007-01-01
The fluctuations of the Higgs and pseudo Nambu-Goldstone fields in the 2-flavor color superconductivity (2SC) phase with mismatched pairing are described in the nonlinear realization framework of the gauged Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. In the gapless 2SC phase, not only Nambu-Goldstone currents can be spontaneously generated, but also the Higgs field exhibits instablity. The Nambu-Goldstone currents generation indicates the formation of the single plane wave Larkin-Ovchinnikov-Fulde-Ferrel state and breaks rotation symmetry, while the Higgs instability favors spatial inhomogeneity and breaks translation invariance. In this paper, we focus on the Higgs instability which has not drawn much attention yet. The Higgs instability cannot be removed without a long range force, thus it persists in the gapless superfluidity and induces phase separation. In the case of gapless 2-flavor color superconductivity state, the Higgs instability can only be partially removed by the electric Coulomb energy. However, it is not excluded that the Higgs instability might be completely removed in the charge neutral gapless color-flavor locked phase by the color Coulomb energy
A highly accurate absolute gravimetric network for Albania, Kosovo and Montenegro
Ullrich, Christian; Ruess, Diethard; Butta, Hubert; Qirko, Kristaq; Pavicevic, Bozidar; Murat, Meha
2016-04-01
The objective of this project is to establish a basic gravity network in Albania, Kosovo and Montenegro to enable further investigations in geodetic and geophysical issues. Therefore the first time in history absolute gravity measurements were performed in these countries. The Norwegian mapping authority Kartverket is assisting the national mapping authorities in Kosovo (KCA) (Kosovo Cadastral Agency - Agjencia Kadastrale e Kosovës), Albania (ASIG) (Autoriteti Shtetëror i Informacionit Gjeohapësinor) and in Montenegro (REA) (Real Estate Administration of Montenegro - Uprava za nekretnine Crne Gore) in improving the geodetic frameworks. The gravity measurements are funded by Kartverket. The absolute gravimetric measurements were performed from BEV (Federal Office of Metrology and Surveying) with the absolute gravimeter FG5-242. As a national metrology institute (NMI) the Metrology Service of the BEV maintains the national standards for the realisation of the legal units of measurement and ensures their international equivalence and recognition. Laser and clock of the absolute gravimeter were calibrated before and after the measurements. The absolute gravimetric survey was carried out from September to October 2015. Finally all 8 scheduled stations were successfully measured: there are three stations located in Montenegro, two stations in Kosovo and three stations in Albania. The stations are distributed over the countries to establish a gravity network for each country. The vertical gradients were measured at all 8 stations with the relative gravimeter Scintrex CG5. The high class quality of some absolute gravity stations can be used for gravity monitoring activities in future. The measurement uncertainties of the absolute gravity measurements range around 2.5 micro Gal at all stations (1 microgal = 10-8 m/s2). In Montenegro the large gravity difference of 200 MilliGal between station Zabljak and Podgorica can be even used for calibration of relative gravimeters
Fluid Instabilities of Magnetar-Powered Supernovae
Chen, Ke-Jung
2017-05-01
Magnetar-powered supernova explosions are competitive models for explaining very luminous optical transits. Until recently, these explosion models were mainly calculated in 1D. Radiation emitted from the magnetar snowplows into the previous supernovae ejecta and causes a nonphysical dense shell (spike) found in previous 1D studies. This suggests that strong fluid instabilities may have developed within the magnetar-powered supernovae. Such fluid instabilities emerge at the region where luminous transits later occur, so they can affect the consequent observational signatures. We examine the magnetar-powered supernovae with 2D hydrodynamics simulations and find that the 1D dense shell transforms into the development of Rayleigh-Taylor and thin shell instabilities in 2D. The resulting mixing is able to fragment the entire shell and break the spherical symmetry of supernovae ejecta.
Two-stream instability in pulsar magnetospheres
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Usov, V.V.
1987-01-01
If the electron-positron plasma flow from the pulsar environment is stationary, the two-stream instability does not have enough time to develop in the pulsar magnetosphere. In that case the outflowing electron-positron plasma gathers into separate clouds. The clouds move along magnetic field lines and disperse as they go farther from the pulsar. At a distance of about 10 to the 8th cm from the pulsar surface, the high-energy particles of a given cloud catch up with the low-energy particles that belong to the cloud going ahead of it. In this region of a pulsar magnetosphere, the energy distribution of plasma particles is two-humped, and a two-stream instability may develop. The growth rate of the instability is quite sufficient for its development. 17 references
Bugli, M.; Guilet, J.; Müller, E.; Del Zanna, L.; Bucciantini, N.; Montero, P. J.
2018-03-01
Geometrically thick tori with constant specific angular momentum have been widely used in the last decades to construct numerical models of accretion flows on to black holes. Such discs are prone to a global non-axisymmetric hydrodynamic instability, known as Papaloizou-Pringle instability (PPI), which can redistribute angular momentum and also lead to an emission of gravitational waves. It is, however, not clear yet how the development of the PPI is affected by the presence of a magnetic field and by the concurrent development of the magnetorotational instability (MRI). We present a numerical analysis using three-dimensional GRMHD simulations of the interplay between the PPI and the MRI considering, for the first time, an analytical magnetized equilibrium solution as initial condition. In the purely hydrodynamic case, the PPI selects as expected the large-scale m = 1 azimuthal mode as the fastest growing and non-linearly dominant mode. However, when the torus is threaded by a weak toroidal magnetic field, the development of the MRI leads to the suppression of large-scale modes and redistributes power across smaller scales. If the system starts with a significantly excited m = 1 mode, the PPI can be dominant in a transient phase, before being ultimately quenched by the MRI. Such dynamics may well be important in compact star mergers and tidal disruption events.
Self-Induced Faraday Instability Laser
Perego, A. M.; Smirnov, S. V.; Staliunas, K.; Churkin, D. V.; Wabnitz, S.
2018-05-01
We predict the onset of self-induced parametric or Faraday instabilities in a laser, spontaneously caused by the presence of pump depletion, which leads to a periodic gain landscape for light propagating in the cavity. As a result of the instability, continuous wave oscillation becomes unstable even in the normal dispersion regime of the cavity, and a periodic train of pulses with ultrahigh repetition rate is generated. Application to the case of Raman fiber lasers is described, in good quantitative agreement between our conceptual analysis and numerical modeling.
Absolute and relative dosimetry for ELIMED
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cirrone, G. A. P.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and Institute of Physics Czech Academy of Science, ELI-Beamlines project, Na Slovance 2, Prague (Czech Republic); Cuttone, G.; Candiano, G.; Musumarra, A.; Pisciotta, P.; Romano, F. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania (Italy); Carpinelli, M. [INFN Sezione di Cagliari, c/o Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy); Leonora, E.; Randazzo, N. [INFN-Sezione di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Presti, D. Lo [INFN-Sezione di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, Catania, Italy and Università di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Via S. Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Raffaele, L. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and INFN-Sezione di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Tramontana, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and Università di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Via S. Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Cirio, R.; Sacchi, R.; Monaco, V. [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via P.Giuria, 1 10125 Torino, Italy and Università di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via P.Giuria, 1 10125 Torino (Italy); Marchetto, F.; Giordanengo, S. [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via P.Giuria, 1 10125 Torino (Italy)
2013-07-26
The definition of detectors, methods and procedures for the absolute and relative dosimetry of laser-driven proton beams is a crucial step toward the clinical use of this new kind of beams. Hence, one of the ELIMED task, will be the definition of procedures aiming to obtain an absolute dose measure at the end of the transport beamline with an accuracy as close as possible to the one required for clinical applications (i.e. of the order of 5% or less). Relative dosimetry procedures must be established, as well: they are necessary in order to determine and verify the beam dose distributions and to monitor the beam fluence and the energetic spectra during irradiations. Radiochromic films, CR39, Faraday Cup, Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) and transmission ionization chamber will be considered, designed and studied in order to perform a fully dosimetric characterization of the ELIMED proton beam.
Bulge Growth Through Disc Instabilities in High-Redshift Galaxies
Bournaud, Frédéric
The role of disc instabilities, such as bars and spiral arms, and the associated resonances, in growing bulges in the inner regions of disc galaxies have long been studied in the low-redshift nearby Universe. There it has long been probed observationally, in particular through peanut-shaped bulges (Chap. 14 10.1007/978-3-319-19378-6_14"). This secular growth of bulges in modern disc galaxies is driven by weak, non-axisymmetric instabilities: it mostly produces pseudobulges at slow rates and with long star-formation timescales. Disc instabilities at high redshift (z > 1) in moderate-mass to massive galaxies (1010 to a few 1011 M⊙ of stars) are very different from those found in modern spiral galaxies. High-redshift discs are globally unstable and fragment into giant clumps containing 108-9 M⊙ of gas and stars each, which results in highly irregular galaxy morphologies. The clumps and other features associated to the violent instability drive disc evolution and bulge growth through various mechanisms on short timescales. The giant clumps can migrate inward and coalesce into the bulge in a few 108 years. The instability in the very turbulent media drives intense gas inflows toward the bulge and nuclear region. Thick discs and supermassive black holes can grow concurrently as a result of the violent instability. This chapter reviews the properties of high-redshift disc instabilities, the evolution of giant clumps and other features associated to the instability, and the resulting growth of bulges and associated sub-galactic components.
Nucleation versus instability race in strained films
Liu, Kailang; Berbezier, Isabelle; David, Thomas; Favre, Luc; Ronda, Antoine; Abbarchi, Marco; Voorhees, Peter; Aqua, Jean-Noël
2017-10-01
Under the generic term "Stranski-Krastanov" are grouped two different growth mechanisms of SiGe quantum dots. They result from the self-organized Asaro-Tiller-Grinfel'd (ATG) instability at low strain, while at high strain, from a stochastic nucleation. While these regimes are well known, we elucidate here the origin of the transition between these two pathways thanks to a joint theoretical and experimental work. Nucleation is described within the master equation framework. By comparing the time scales for ATG instability development and three-dimensional (3D) nucleation onset, we demonstrate that the transition between these two regimes is simply explained by the crossover between their divergent evolutions. Nucleation exhibits a strong exponential deviation at low strain while ATG behaves only algebraically. The associated time scale varies with exp(1 /x4) for nucleation, while it only behaves as 1 /x8 for the ATG instability. Consequently, at high (low) strain, nucleation (instability) occurs faster and inhibits the alternate evolution. It is then this different kinetic evolution which explains the transition from one regime to the other. Such a kinetic view of the transition between these two 3D growth regimes was not provided before. The crossover between nucleation and ATG instability is found to occur both experimentally and theoretically at a Ge composition around 50% in the experimental conditions used here. Varying the experimental conditions and/or the system parameters does not allow us to suppress the transition. This means that the SiGe quantum dots always grow via ATG instability at low strain and nucleation at high strain. This result is important for the self-organization of quantum dots.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martin, Ch.E.
2005-12-15
Gas turbine burners are now widely operated in lean premixed combustion mode. This technology has been introduced in order to limit pollutants emissions (especially the NO{sub x}), and thus comply with environment norms. Nevertheless, the use of lean premixed combustion decreases the stability margin of the flames. The flames are then more prone to be disturbed by flow disturbances. Combustion instabilities are then a major problem of concern for modern gas turbine conception. Some active control systems have been used to ensure stability of gas turbines retro-fitted to lean premixed combustion. The current generation of gas turbines aims to get rid of these control devices getting stability by a proper design. To do so, precise and adapted numerical tools are needed even it is impossible at the moment to guarantee the absolute stability of a combustion chamber at the design stage. Simulation tools for unsteady combustion are now able to compute the whole combustion chamber. Its intrinsic precision, allows the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) to take into account numerous phenomena involved in combustion instabilities. Chemical modelling is an important element for the precision of reactive LES. This study includes the description of an optimisation tools for the reduced chemical kinetics. The capacity of the LES to capture combustion instabilities in gas turbine chamber is also demonstrated. The acoustic energy analysis points out that the boundary impedances of the combustion systems are of prime importance for their stability. (author)
High-pressure mechanical instability in rocks.
Byerlee, J D; Brace, W F
1969-05-09
At a confining pressure of a few kilobars, deformation of many sedimentary rocks, altered mafic rocks, porous volcanic rocks, and sand is ductile, in that instabilities leading to audible elastic shocks are absent. At pressures of 7 to 10 kilobars, however, unstable faulting and stick-slip in certain of these rocks was observed. This high pressure-low temperature instability might be responsible for earthquakes in deeply buried sedimentary or volcanic sequences.
Agricultural Markets Instability
Garrido, A.; Brümmer, B.; M'Barek, R.; Gielen-Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Morales-Opazo, C.
2016-01-01
Since the financial and food price crises of 2007, market instability has been a topic of major concern to agricultural economists and policy professionals. This volume provides an overview of the key issues surrounding food prices volatility, focusing primarily on drivers, long-term implications of
Role of oxidative DNA damage in genome instability and cancer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bignami, M.; Kunkel, T.
2009-01-01
Inactivation of mismatch repair (MMR) is associated with a dramatic genomic instability that is observed experimentally as a mutator phenotype and micro satellite instability (MSI). It has been implicit that the massive genetic instability in MMR defective cells simply reflects the accumulation of spontaneous DNA polymerase errors during DNA replication. We recently identified oxidation damage, a common threat to DNA integrity to which purines are very susceptible, as an important cofactor in this genetic instability
Philosophy as Inquiry Aimed at the Absolute Knowledge
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ekaterina Snarskaya
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Philosophy as the absolute knowledge has been studied from two different but closely related approaches: historical and logical. The first approach exposes four main stages in the history of European metaphysics that marked out types of “philosophical absolutism”: the evolution of philosophy brought to light metaphysics of being, method, morals and logic. All of them are associated with the names of Aristotle, Bacon/Descartes, Kant and Hegel. Then these forms are considered in the second approach that defined them as subject-matter of philosophy as such. Due to their overall, comprehensive character, the focus of philosophy on them justifies its claim on absoluteness as far as philosophy is aimed at comprehension of the world’s unity regardless of the philosopher’s background, values and other preferences. And that is its prerogative since no other form of consciousness lays down this kind of aim. Thus, philosophy is defined as an everlasting attempt to succeed in conceiving the world in all its multifold manifestations. This article is to try to clarify the claim of philosophy on the absolute knowledge.
Muszynska, A.
1985-01-01
The operation of rotor rigs used to demonstrate various instability phenomena occurring in rotating machines is described. The instability phenomena demonstrated included oil whirl/whip antiswirl, rub, loose rotating parts, water-lubricated bearing instabilities, and cracked shaft. The rotor rigs were also used to show corrective measures for preventing instabilities. Vibrational response data from the rigs were taken with modern, computerized instrumentation. The rotor nonsynchronous perturbation rig demonstrated modal identification techniques for rotor/bearing systems. Computer-aided data acquisition and presentation, using the dynamic stiffness method, makes it possible to identify rotor and bearing parameters for low modes. The shaft mode demonstrator presented the amplified modal shape line of the shaft excited by inertia forces of unbalance (synchronous perturbation). The first three bending modes of the shaft can be demonstrated. The user-friendly software, Orbits, presented a simulation of rotor precessional motion that is characteristic of various instability phenomena. The data presentation demonstration used data measured on a turbine driven compressor train as an example of how computer aided data acquisition and presentation assists in identifying rotating machine malfunctions.
Partnership Instability, School Readiness, and Gender Disparities
Cooper, Carey E.; Osborne, Cynthia A.; Beck, Audrey N.; McLanahan, Sara S.
2011-01-01
Trends in family formation during the past several decades have increased children's exposure to mothers' partnership instability, defined as an entrance into or exit from a coresidential union or a dating partnership. Instability, in turn, is associated with negative outcomes for children and adolescents. This study uses data from the Fragile…
The Viscoelastic End Plate Instability in the Stretch of Concentrated Polymer Solutions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Longin, Pierre-Yves; Bach, Anders
2001-01-01
We consider here a particular instability, an axis symmetry breaking meniscus instability that occurs etc.......We consider here a particular instability, an axis symmetry breaking meniscus instability that occurs etc....
New diagnostics and cures for coupled-bunch instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prabhakar, S.
2000-01-01
Electromagnetic interaction between a charged particle beam and its surroundings causes collective instabilities, which must be controlled if the new light sources and colliders are to meet their design goals. Control requires a combination of passive damping and fast active feedback on an unprecedented technological scale. Efficient instability diagnosis techniques are also needed for machines with large numbers of bunches. This thesis describes new methods of measuring and analyzing coupled-bunch instabilities in circular accelerators, and demonstrates the existence of a new cure. A new technique is demonstrated for simultaneous measurement of growth rates, damping rates and coherent tune shifts of all unstable coupled-bunch eigenmodes from a single 10-25-ms transient snapshot of beam motion. The technique has been used to locate and quantify beam impedance resonances at PEP-II, ALS and SPEAR. This method is faster than existing spectral scan methods by at least an order of magnitude, and has the added advantage of revealing coupled-bunch dynamics in the linear small-signal regime. A method is also presented for estimating beam impedance from multi-bunch fill shape and synchronous phase measurements. Phase space tracking of multi-bunch instabilities is introduced as a ''complete instability diagnostic.'' Digitized multi-bunch data is analyzed offline, to estimate the phase space trajectories of bunches and modes. Availability of phase space trajectories is shown to open up a variety of possibilities, including measurement of reactive impedance, and diagnosis of the fast beam-ion instability. Knowledge gained from longitudinal measurements (all made using a digital longitudinal feedback system) has been used to optimize cavity temperatures, tuner positions and feedback parameters, and also to identify sources of beam noise at the three machines. A matrix-based method is presented for analyzing the beneficial effect of bunch-to-bunch tune variation on instability
Instability of capitalism inflation, unemployment, and business cycles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adil H. Mouhammed
2006-12-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates the instability of capitalism defined as a condition under which capitalism creates inflation, unemployment, and business cycles. Great economists such as Marx, Veblen, and Schumpeter have examined this problem, concluding that capitalist instability will transform capitalism. A model is developed in this paper to investigate instability, and the finding is that the basic causebehind instability is the conflict on income share: wages and profits. The fluctuations in the share of profits create inflation, unemployment, and business cycles. This generalization has been verified by using data from the American economy for the 1970s, 1980s, and the 1990s. Over this period, the paper concludes, whenthe profit share is high, moderate inflation and employment were generated, and when profit share is low, inflation, unemployment, and business cycles have appeared.
Ordinary mode instability associated with thermal ring distribution
Hadi, F.; Yoon, P. H.; Qamar, A.
2015-02-01
The purely growing ordinary (O) mode instability driven by excessive parallel temperature anisotropy has recently received renewed attention owing to its potential applicability to the solar wind plasma. Previous studies of O mode instability have assumed either bi-Maxwellian or counter-streaming velocity distributions. For solar wind plasma trapped in magnetic mirror-like geometry such as magnetic clouds or in the vicinity of the Earth's collisionless bow shock environment, however, the velocity distribution function may possess a loss-cone feature. The O-mode instability in such a case may be excited for cyclotron harmonics as well as the purely growing branch. The present paper investigates the O-mode instability for plasmas characterized by the parallel Maxwellian distribution and perpendicular thermal ring velocity distribution in order to understand the general stability characteristics.
Ordinary mode instability associated with thermal ring distribution
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hadi, F.; Qamar, A. [Institute of Physics and Electronics, University of Peshawar, Peshawar 25000 (Pakistan); Yoon, P. H. [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)
2015-02-15
The purely growing ordinary (O) mode instability driven by excessive parallel temperature anisotropy has recently received renewed attention owing to its potential applicability to the solar wind plasma. Previous studies of O mode instability have assumed either bi-Maxwellian or counter-streaming velocity distributions. For solar wind plasma trapped in magnetic mirror-like geometry such as magnetic clouds or in the vicinity of the Earth's collisionless bow shock environment, however, the velocity distribution function may possess a loss-cone feature. The O-mode instability in such a case may be excited for cyclotron harmonics as well as the purely growing branch. The present paper investigates the O-mode instability for plasmas characterized by the parallel Maxwellian distribution and perpendicular thermal ring velocity distribution in order to understand the general stability characteristics.
Faraday instability of crystallization waves in 4He
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abe, H; Ueda, T; Morikawa, M; Saitoh, Y; Nomura, R; Okuda, Y
2007-01-01
Periodic modulation of the gravity acceleration makes a flat surface of a fluid unstable and standing waves are parametrically excited on the surface. This phenomenon is called Faraday instability. Since a crystal-superfluid interface of 4 He at low temperatures is very mobile and behaves like a fluid surface, Saarloos and Weeks predicted that Faraday instability of the crystallization waves exists in 4 He and that the threshold excitation for the instability depends on the crystal growth coefficient. We successfully observed the Faraday instability of the crystal-liquid interface at 160 mK. Faraday waves were parametrically generated at one half of the driving frequency 90 Hz. Amplitude of the Faraday wave becomes smaller at higher temperature due to decrease of the crystal growth coefficient and disappears above 200 mK
Vernon, P E
1977-11-01
The auditory skill known as 'absolute pitch' is discussed, and it is shown that this differs greatly in accuracy of identification or reproduction of musical tones from ordinary discrimination of 'tonal height' which is to some extent trainable. The present writer possessed absolute pitch for almost any tone or chord over the normal musical range, from about the age of 17 to 52. He then started to hear all music one semitone too high, and now at the age of 71 it is heard a full tone above the true pitch. Tests were carried out under controlled conditions, in which 68 to 95 per cent of notes were identified as one semitone or one tone higher than they should be. Changes with ageing seem more likely to occur in the elasticity of the basilar membrane mechanisms than in the long-term memory which is used for aural analysis of complex sounds. Thus this experience supports the view that some resolution of complex sounds takes place at the peripheral sense organ, and this provides information which can be incorrect, for interpretation by the cortical centres.
Absolute calibration technique for spontaneous fission sources
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zucker, M.S.; Karpf, E.
1984-01-01
An absolute calibration technique for a spontaneously fissioning nuclide (which involves no arbitrary parameters) allows unique determination of the detector efficiency for that nuclide, hence of the fission source strength
Ultraspinning instability of rotating black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dias, Oscar J. C.; Figueras, Pau; Monteiro, Ricardo; Santos, Jorge E.
2010-01-01
Rapidly rotating Myers-Perry black holes in d≥6 dimensions were conjectured to be unstable by Emparan and Myers. In a previous publication, we found numerically the onset of the axisymmetric ultraspinning instability in the singly spinning Myers-Perry black hole in d=7, 8, 9. This threshold also signals a bifurcation to new branches of axisymmetric solutions with pinched horizons that are conjectured to connect to the black ring, black Saturn and other families in the phase diagram of stationary solutions. We firmly establish that this instability is also present in d=6 and in d=10, 11. The boundary conditions of the perturbations are discussed in detail for the first time, and we prove that they preserve the angular velocity and temperature of the original Myers-Perry black hole. This property is fundamental to establishing a thermodynamic necessary condition for the existence of this instability in general rotating backgrounds. We also prove a previous claim that the ultraspinning modes cannot be pure gauge modes. Finally we find new ultraspinning Gregory-Laflamme instabilities of rotating black strings and branes that appear exactly at the critical rotation predicted by the aforementioned thermodynamic criterium. The latter is a refinement of the Gubser-Mitra conjecture.
Absolute luminosity measurements with the LHCb detector at the LHC
Aaij, R; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderson, J; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Arrabito, L; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Bailey, D S; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bates, A; Bauer, C; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Bediaga, I; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Brisbane, S; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Büchler-Germann, A; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Caicedo Carvajal, J M; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chiapolini, N; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Collins, P; Constantin, F; Conti, G; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Corti, G; Cowan, G A; Currie, R; D'Almagne, B; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; De Bonis, I; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Lorenzi, F; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Degaudenzi, H; Deissenroth, M; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Diniz Batista, P; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Eames, C; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisele, F; Eisenhardt, S; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; Elsasser, Ch; d'Enterria, D G; Esperante Pereira, D; Estève, L; Falabella, A; Fanchini, E; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garnier, J-C; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauvin, N; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Gregson, S; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harji, R; Harnew, N; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Hofmann, W; Holubyev, K; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Huston, R S; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Imong, J; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jahjah Hussein, M; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jaton, P; Jean-Marie, B; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Keaveney, J; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kim, Y M; Knecht, M; Koblitz, S; Koppenburg, P; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kruzelecki, K; Kucharczyk, M; Kukulak, S; Kumar, R; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Li, L; Li Gioi, L; Lieng, M; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Luisier, J; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Magnin, J; Malde, S; Mamunur, R M D; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinez Santos, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Maynard, B; Mazurov, A; McGregor, G; McNulty, R; Mclean, C; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Merkel, J; Messi, R; Miglioranzi, S; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Musy, M; Mylroie-Smith, J; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nardulli, J; Nasteva, I; Nedos, M; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Nies, S; Niess, V; Nikitin, N; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, B; Palacios, J; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Paterson, S K; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petrella, A; Petrolini, A; Pie Valls, B; Pietrzyk, B; Pilar, T; Pinci, D; Plackett, R; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; du Pree, T; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Rinnert, K; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodrigues, F; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogers, G J; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santinelli, R; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schleich, S; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M -H; Schwemmer, R; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shao, B; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skottowe, H P; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, A C; Smith, N A; Sobczak, K; Soler, F J P; Solomin, A; Soomro, F; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Styles, N; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Topp-Joergensen, S; Tran, M T; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urquijo, P; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Vervink, K; Viaud, B; Videau, I; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Visniakov, J; Vollhardt, A; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Voss, H; Wacker, K; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Witzeling, W; Wotton, S A; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yushchenko, O; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhong, L; Zverev, E; Zvyagin, A
2012-01-01
Absolute luminosity measurements are of general interest for colliding-beam experiments at storage rings. These measurements are necessary to determine the absolute cross-sections of reaction processes and are valuable to quantify the performance of the accelerator. LHCb has applied two methods to determine the absolute scale of its luminosity measurements for proton-proton collisions at the LHC with a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. In addition to the classic ``van der Meer scan'' method a novel technique has been developed which makes use of direct imaging of the individual beams using beam-gas and beam-beam interactions. This beam imaging method is made possible by the high resolution of the LHCb vertex detector and the close proximity of the detector to the beams, and allows beam parameters such as positions, angles and widths to be determined. The results of the two methods have comparable precision and are in good agreement. Combining the two methods, an overall precision of 3.5\\% in the absolute lumi...
Some effects of horizontal discretization on linear baroclinic and symmetric instabilities
Barham, William; Bachman, Scott; Grooms, Ian
2018-05-01
The effects of horizontal discretization on linear baroclinic and symmetric instabilities are investigated by analyzing the behavior of the hydrostatic Eady problem in ocean models on the B and C grids. On the C grid a spurious baroclinic instability appears at small wavelengths. This instability does not disappear as the grid scale decreases; instead, it simply moves to smaller horizontal scales. The peak growth rate of the spurious instability is independent of the grid scale as the latter decreases. It is equal to cf /√{Ri} where Ri is the balanced Richardson number, f is the Coriolis parameter, and c is a nondimensional constant that depends on the Richardson number. As the Richardson number increases c increases towards an upper bound of approximately 1/2; for large Richardson numbers the spurious instability is faster than the Eady instability. To suppress the spurious instability it is recommended to use fourth-order centered tracer advection along with biharmonic viscosity and diffusion with coefficients (Δx) 4 f /(32√{Ri}) or larger where Δx is the grid scale. On the B grid, the growth rates of baroclinic and symmetric instabilities are too small, and converge upwards towards the correct values as the grid scale decreases; no spurious instabilities are observed. In B grid models at eddy-permitting resolution, the reduced growth rate of baroclinic instability may contribute to partially-resolved eddies being too weak. On the C grid the growth rate of symmetric instability is better (larger) than on the B grid, and converges upwards towards the correct value as the grid scale decreases.
Absolute calibration of TFTR helium proportional counters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strachan, J.D.; Diesso, M.; Jassby, D.; Johnson, L.; McCauley, S.; Munsat, T.; Roquemore, A.L.; Loughlin, M.
1995-06-01
The TFTR helium proportional counters are located in the central five (5) channels of the TFTR multichannel neutron collimator. These detectors were absolutely calibrated using a 14 MeV neutron generator positioned at the horizontal midplane of the TFTR vacuum vessel. The neutron generator position was scanned in centimeter steps to determine the collimator aperture width to 14 MeV neutrons and the absolute sensitivity of each channel. Neutron profiles were measured for TFTR plasmas with time resolution between 5 msec and 50 msec depending upon count rates. The He detectors were used to measure the burnup of 1 MeV tritons in deuterium plasmas, the transport of tritium in trace tritium experiments, and the residual tritium levels in plasmas following 50:50 DT experiments
Robust adaptive control of the sawtooth instability in nuclear fusion
Bolder, J.J.; Witvoet, G.; Baar, de M.R.; Wouw, van de N.; Haring, M.A.M.; Westerhof, E.; Doelman, N.J.; Steinbuch, M.
2012-01-01
The sawtooth instability is a repetitive phenomenon occurring in plasmas of tokamak nuclear fusion reactors. Experimental studies of these instabilities and the effect they have on the plasma (notably the drive of secondary instabilities and consequent performance reduction) for a wide variety of
Thermal instabilities in low-mass subgiants?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Von Rudloff, I.R.; Vandenberg, D.A.; Hartwick, F.D.A.
1988-01-01
The thermal stability of evolving stars in globular clusters has been examined in order to determine whether or not gaps and the observationally inferred deep mixing near the base of the red-giant branch can be explained in terms of an instability of the hydrogen-burning shell. The results of this investigation are that, in agreement with previous suggestions, the greatest potential for such an instability occurs just at the point where a star begins to ascend the giant branch - i.e., where gaps are seen in some systems - but, in contrast with earlier predictions, the standard models do not actually become unstable. However, from all indications, the stability is believed to be marginal, and it is suggested that rotation, which has now been observed in some globulars, may be the mechanism by which an instability is produced. 36 references
Single bunch instabilities in an SSC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruth, R.D.
1984-01-01
In this note coherent instability thresholds are estimated for the SSC and discuss some of the subsequent design restrictions. The various instabilities are set out in a block diagram with the essential features of each. The assumption is made that long wavelength coupled bunch effects can be cured effectively by a feedback system (both longitudinal and transverse) and that the impedance of the feedback system is such as to cancel that of the environment (at low frequency). Alternatively, the long wake field is assumed to be exactly canceled, on the average, by a feedback wake field. This leaves only single bunch effects. Thresholds for fast-blowup are discussed both in the longitudinal and transverse and the transverse mode coupling instability more familiar in electron/positron storage rings is covered. The impedances considered are a broadband impedance and the resistive wall impedance
Thermal instability in a stratified plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hermanns, D.F.M.; Priest, E.R.
1989-01-01
The thermal instability mechansism has been studied in connection to observed coronal features, like, e.g. prominences or cool cores in loops. Although these features show a lot of structure, most studies concern the thermal instability in an uniform medium. In this paper, we investigate the thermal instability and the interaction between thermal modes and the slow magneto-acoustic subspectrum for a stratified plasma slab. We fomulate the relevant system of equations and give some straightforward properties of the linear spectrum of a non-uniform plasma slab, i.e. the existence of continuous parts in the spectrum. We present a numerical scheme with which we can investigate the linear spectrum for equilibrium states with stratification. The slow and thermal subspectra of a crude coronal model are given as a preliminary result. (author). 6 refs.; 1 fig
Eckhaus and Benjamin-Feir instabilities near a weakly inverted bifurcation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brand, H.R.; Deissler, R.J.
1992-01-01
We investigate how the criteria for two prototype instabilities in one-dimensional pattern-forming systems, namely for the Eckhaus instability and for the Benjamin-Feir instability, change as one goes from a continuous bifurcation to a spatially periodic or spatially and/or time-periodic state to the corresponding weakly inverted, i.e., hysteretic, cases. We also give the generalization to two-dimensional patterns in systems with anisotropy as they arise, for example, for hydrodynamic instabilities in nematic liquid crystals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Henriksen, M G; Søjbjerg, Jens Ole
1994-01-01
The effect of simultaneous ulnar and radial collateral ligament division on the kinematics of the elbow joint is studied in a cadaveric model. Severance of the anterior part of the ulnar collateral ligament and the annular ligament led to significant elbow joint instability in valgus and varus...
Instability and internet design
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sandra Braman
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Instability - unpredictable but constant change in one’s environment and the means with which one deals with it - has replaced convergence as the focal problem for telecommunications policy in general and internet policy in particular. Those who designed what we now call the internet during the first decade of the effort (1969-1979, who in essence served simultaneously as its policy-makers, developed techniques for coping with instability of value for network designers today and for those involved with any kind of large-scale sociotechnical infrastructure. Analysis of the technical document series that was medium for and record of that design process reveals coping techniques that began with defining the problem and went on to include conceptual labour, social practices, and technical approaches.
Laser Plasma Instability (LPI) Driven Light Scattering Measurements with Nike KrF Laser
Oh, J.; Weaver, J. L.; Kehne, D. M.; Obenschain, S. P.; McLean, E. A.; Lehmberg, R. H.
2008-11-01
With the short wavelength (248 nm), large bandwidth (1˜2 THz), and ISI beam smoothing, Nike KrF laser is expected to have higher LPI thresholds than observed at other laser facilities. Previous measurements using the Nike laser [J. L. Weaver et al, Phys. Plasmas 14, 056316 (2007)] showed no LPI evidence from CH targets up to I˜2x10^15 W/cm^2. For further experiments to detect LPI excitation, Nike capabilities have been extended to achieve higher laser intensities by tighter beam focusing and higher power pulses. This talk will present results of a recent LPI experiment with the extended Nike capabilities focusing on light emission data in spectral ranges relevant to the Raman (SRS) and Two-Plasmon Decay (TPD) instabilities. The primary diagnostics were time-resolved spectrometers with an absolute-intensity-calibrated photodiode array in (0.4˜0.8)φ0 and a streak camera near 0.5φ0. The measurements were conducted at laser intensities of 10^15˜10^16 W/cm^2 on planar targets of CH solids and RF foams.
Temperature-gradient instability induced by conducting end walls
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berk, H.L.; Ryutov, D.D.; Tsidulko, Yu.A.
1990-04-01
A new rapidly growing electron temperature gradient instability is found for a plasma in contact with a conducting wall. The linear instability analysis is presented and speculations are given for its nonlinear consequences. This instability illustrates that conducting walls can produce effects that are detrimental to plasma confinement. This mode should be of importance in open-ended systems including astrophysical plasmas, mirror machines and at the edge of tokamaks where field lines are open and are connected to limiters or divertors. 16 refs., 2 figs
Stimulus Probability Effects in Absolute Identification
Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen
2016-01-01
This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an absolute identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of…
Review on two-phase flow instabilities in narrow spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tadrist, L.
2007-01-01
Instabilities in two-phase flow have been studied since the 1950s. These phenomena may appear in power generation and heat transfer systems where two-phase flow is involved. Because of thermal management in small size systems, micro-fluidics plays an important role. Typical processes must be considered when the channel hydraulic diameter becomes very small. In this paper, a brief review of two-phase flow instabilities encountered in channels having hydraulic diameters greater than 10 mm are presented. The main instability types are discussed according to the existing experimental results and models. The second part of the paper examines two-phase flow instabilities in narrow spaces. Pool and flow boiling cases are considered. Experiments as well as theoretical models existing in the literature are examined. It was found that several experimental works evidenced these instabilities meanwhile only limited theoretical developments exist in the literature. In the last part of the paper an interpretation of the two-phase flow instabilities linked to narrow spaces are presented. This approach is based on characteristic time scales of the two-phase flow and bubble growth in the capillaries
Out-of-phase flashing induced instabilities in CIRCUS facility
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Christian Pablo Marcel; Van der Hagen, T.H.J.J. [Interfaculty Reactor Institute, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands)
2005-07-01
Full text of publication follows: Flashing-induced instabilities are very important during the startup phase of natural-circulation boiling water reactors. To study this type of instability an axial fully scaled facility named CIRCUS was constructed. Experiments at low power and low pressure (typical startup conditions) are carried out on this steam/water natural circulation loop with two parallel risers. A detailed measurement of the void-fraction profile is possible by using needle-probes and the use of glass tubes for the riser and core sections allow to use optical techniques for velocity measurements. The flashing and the mechanism of flashing-induced instabilities are analyzed paying special attention on the strong coupling effect between the two riser channels. It is clear from the experiments that the out-of-phase instability is much more susceptible to occur than the in-phase instability in a system with two parallel risers. The instability region is found as soon as the operational boundary between single-phase and two-phase operation is crossed. The relation between the period of the oscillations and the fluid transient time is also investigated. The stability map constructed using this experimental data is also discussed. (authors)
Bosonic instability of charged black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaina, A.B.; Ternov, I.M.
1986-01-01
The processes of spontaneous and induced production and accumulation of charged bosons on quasibound superradiant levels in the field of Kerr-Newman black hole is analysed. It is shown that bosonic instability may be caused exclusively by the rotation of the black hole. Particulary, the Reissner-Nordstrom configuration is stable. In the case of rotating and charged black hole the bosonic instability may cause an increase of charge of the black hole
Arthroscopic Findings in Anterior Shoulder Instability
Hantes, Michael; Raoulis, Vasilios
2017-01-01
Background: In the last years, basic research and arthroscopic surgery, have improved our understanding of shoulder anatomy and pathology. It is a fact that arthroscopic treatment of shoulder instability has evolved considerably over the past decades. The aim of this paper is to present the variety of pathologies that should be identified and treated during shoulder arthroscopy when dealing with anterior shoulder instability cases. Methods: A review of the current literature regarding arthros...
Absolute gravity measurements in California
Zumberge, M. A.; Sasagawa, G.; Kappus, M.
1986-08-01
An absolute gravity meter that determines the local gravitational acceleration by timing a freely falling mass with a laser interferometer has been constructed. The instrument has made measurements at 11 sites in California, four in Nevada, and one in France. The uncertainty in the results is typically 10 microgal. Repeated measurements have been made at several of the sites; only one shows a substantial change in gravity.
Oblique Alfvén instabilities driven by compensated currents
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Malovichko, P. [Main Astronomical Observatory, NASU, Kyiv (Ukraine); Voitenko, Y.; De Keyser, J., E-mail: voitenko@oma.be [Solar-Terrestrial Centre of Excellence, Space Physics Division, Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy, Ringlaan-3-Avenue Circulaire, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium)
2014-01-10
Compensated-current systems created by energetic ion beams are widespread in space and astrophysical plasmas. The well-known examples are foreshock regions in the solar wind and around supernova remnants. We found a new oblique Alfvénic instability driven by compensated currents flowing along the background magnetic field. Because of the vastly different electron and ion gyroradii, oblique Alfvénic perturbations react differently on the currents carried by the hot ion beams and the return electron currents. Ultimately, this difference leads to a non-resonant aperiodic instability at perpendicular wavelengths close to the beam ion gyroradius. The instability growth rate increases with increasing beam current and temperature. In the solar wind upstream of Earth's bow shock, the instability growth time can drop below 10 proton cyclotron periods. Our results suggest that this instability can contribute to the turbulence and ion acceleration in space and astrophysical foreshocks.
Oblique Alfvén instabilities driven by compensated currents
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malovichko, P.; Voitenko, Y.; De Keyser, J.
2014-01-01
Compensated-current systems created by energetic ion beams are widespread in space and astrophysical plasmas. The well-known examples are foreshock regions in the solar wind and around supernova remnants. We found a new oblique Alfvénic instability driven by compensated currents flowing along the background magnetic field. Because of the vastly different electron and ion gyroradii, oblique Alfvénic perturbations react differently on the currents carried by the hot ion beams and the return electron currents. Ultimately, this difference leads to a non-resonant aperiodic instability at perpendicular wavelengths close to the beam ion gyroradius. The instability growth rate increases with increasing beam current and temperature. In the solar wind upstream of Earth's bow shock, the instability growth time can drop below 10 proton cyclotron periods. Our results suggest that this instability can contribute to the turbulence and ion acceleration in space and astrophysical foreshocks.
Relational versus absolute representation in categorization.
Edwards, Darren J; Pothos, Emmanuel M; Perlman, Amotz
2012-01-01
This study explores relational-like and absolute-like representations in categorization. Although there is much evidence that categorization processes can involve information about both the particular physical properties of studied instances and abstract (relational) properties, there has been little work on the factors that lead to one kind of representation as opposed to the other. We tested 370 participants in 6 experiments, in which participants had to classify new items into predefined artificial categories. In 4 experiments, we observed a predominantly relational-like mode of classification, and in 2 experiments we observed a shift toward an absolute-like mode of classification. These results suggest 3 factors that promote a relational-like mode of classification: fewer items per group, more training groups, and the presence of a time delay. Overall, we propose that less information about the distributional properties of a category or weaker memory traces for the category exemplars (induced, e.g., by having smaller categories or a time delay) can encourage relational-like categorization.
Niggemann, Pascal; Kuchta, Johannes; Beyer, Hans-Konrad; Grosskurth, D; Schulze, Thorsten; Delank, Karl-Stefan
2011-10-15
Imaging study with an evaluation of incidences and clinical correlation. To evaluate the incidence of 3 different types of instabilities in patients with spondylolysis or isthmic spondylolisthesis. Clinical findings are correlated with imaging findings, and the imaging findings are analyzed with regard to their clinical implications. Spondylolysis and isthmic spondylolisthesis are common disorders. An unstable slip is the most well-known form of instability, but other forms also exist. However, the incidence of these instabilities and their clinical implications are yet unclear. A total of 140 patients with 141 levels of spondylolysis identified by MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) were included in this study. Using positional MRI, the instability of the slip, an increased angular movement, and movement in the spondylolytic cleft were assessed. On the basis of clinical findings, the patients were classified as presenting with either radicular or nonradicular symptoms. The incidence of the instabilities was recorded and correlated with the incidence of radicular symptoms. Fifteen patients had an unstable slip (anterior instability); 35, an increased angular movement (angular instability); and 34 patients, a movement in the spondylolytic cleft (posterior instability). All forms of instability could be found together. No instability at all was found in 76 patients. Radicular symptoms were found significantly more often in patients with one or more of the described instabilities compared with patients without instability. All 3 described forms of instability are common in spondylolysis or isthmic spondylolisthesis and associated with radicular pain. This finding stresses the value of positional MRI in the evaluation of patients with spondylolysis and isthmic spondylolisthesis, especially if radicular symptoms are present.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrei ACHIMAŞ CADARIU
2004-08-01
Full Text Available Assessments of a controlled clinical trial suppose to interpret some key parameters as the controlled event rate, experimental event date, relative risk, absolute risk reduction, relative risk reduction, number needed to treat when the effect of the treatment are dichotomous variables. Defined as the difference in the event rate between treatment and control groups, the absolute risk reduction is the parameter that allowed computing the number needed to treat. The absolute risk reduction is compute when the experimental treatment reduces the risk for an undesirable outcome/event. In medical literature when the absolute risk reduction is report with its confidence intervals, the method used is the asymptotic one, even if it is well know that may be inadequate. The aim of this paper is to introduce and assess nine methods of computing confidence intervals for absolute risk reduction and absolute risk reduction – like function.Computer implementations of the methods use the PHP language. Methods comparison uses the experimental errors, the standard deviations, and the deviation relative to the imposed significance level for specified sample sizes. Six methods of computing confidence intervals for absolute risk reduction and absolute risk reduction-like functions were assessed using random binomial variables and random sample sizes.The experiments shows that the ADAC, and ADAC1 methods obtains the best overall performance of computing confidence intervals for absolute risk reduction.
Induction of genetic instability by ionizing radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Little, J.B.
1999-01-01
Evidence is presented to support the hypothesis that radiation may induce a heritable, genome-wide process of instability that leads to an enhanced frequency of genetic changes occurring among the progeny of the original irradiated cell. This instability is transmissible over many generations of cell replication. Mutational instability is induced in a relatively large fraction (approximately 10 %) of the cell population, and may be modulated by factors acting in vivo. Thus, it cannot be a targeted event involving a specific gene or set of genes. There is no dose-response relationship in the range 2-12 Gy, suggesting that the instability phenotype may be induced by quite low radiation doses. The molecular mechanisms associated with the genesis of mutations in unstable populations differ from those for direct X-ray-induced mutations. These results suggest that it may not be possible to predict the nature of the dose-response relationship for the ultimate genetic effects of radiation based on a qualitative or quantitative analysis of the original DNA lesions. (author)
Taming Instabilities in Plasma Discharges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klinger, T.; Krahnstover, N. O.; Mausbach, T.; Piel, A.
2000-01-01
Recent experimental work on taming instabilities in plasma discharges is discussed. Instead of suppressing instabilities, it is desired to achieve control over their dynamics, done by perturbing appropriately the current flow in the external circuit of the discharge. Different discrete and continuous feedback as well as open-loop control schemes are applied. Chaotic oscillations in plasma diodes are controlled using the OGY discrete feedback scheme. This is demonstrated both in experiment and computer simulation. Weakly developed ionization wave turbulence is tamed by continuous feedback control. Open-loop control of stochastic fluctuations - stochastic resonance - is demonstrated in a thermionic plasma diode. (author)
Tangential neutral-beam-driven instabilities in the princeton beta experiment
Heidbrink, WW; Bol, K; Buchenauer, D; Fonck, R; Gammel, G; Ida, K; Kaita, R; Kaye, S; Kugel, H; LeBlanc, B; Morris, W; Okabayashi, M; Powell, E; Sesnic, S; Takahashi, H
1986-01-01
During tangential neutral-beam injection into the PBX tokamak, bursts of two types of instabilities are observed. One instability occurs in the frequency range 120-210 kHz and the other oscillates predominantly near the frequency of bulk plasma rotation (20-30 kHz). Both instabilities correlate with drops in neutron emission and bursts in charge-exchange neutral flux, indicating that beam ions are removed from the center of the plasma by the instabilities. The central losses are comparable to...
Lattice Boltzmann methods for global linear instability analysis
Pérez, José Miguel; Aguilar, Alfonso; Theofilis, Vassilis
2017-12-01
Modal global linear instability analysis is performed using, for the first time ever, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) to analyze incompressible flows with two and three inhomogeneous spatial directions. Four linearization models have been implemented in order to recover the linearized Navier-Stokes equations in the incompressible limit. Two of those models employ the single relaxation time and have been proposed previously in the literature as linearization of the collision operator of the lattice Boltzmann equation. Two additional models are derived herein for the first time by linearizing the local equilibrium probability distribution function. Instability analysis results are obtained in three benchmark problems, two in closed geometries and one in open flow, namely the square and cubic lid-driven cavity flow and flow in the wake of the circular cylinder. Comparisons with results delivered by classic spectral element methods verify the accuracy of the proposed new methodologies and point potential limitations particular to the LBM approach. The known issue of appearance of numerical instabilities when the SRT model is used in direct numerical simulations employing the LBM is shown to be reflected in a spurious global eigenmode when the SRT model is used in the instability analysis. Although this mode is absent in the multiple relaxation times model, other spurious instabilities can also arise and are documented herein. Areas of potential improvements in order to make the proposed methodology competitive with established approaches for global instability analysis are discussed.
Effect of Absolute From Hibiscus syriacus L. Flower on Wound Healing in Keratinocytes
Yoon, Seok Won; Lee, Kang Pa; Kim, Do-Yoon; Hwang, Dae Il; Won, Kyung-Jong; Lee, Dae Won; Lee, Hwan Myung
2017-01-01
Background: Proliferation and migration of keratinocytes are essential for the repair of cutaneous wounds. Hibiscus syriacus L. has been used in Asian medicine; however, research on keratinocytes is inadequate. Objective: To establish the dermatological properties of absolute from Hibiscus syriacus L. flower (HSF) and to provide fundamental research for alternative medicine. Materials and Methods: We identified the composition of HSF absolute using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. We also examined the effect of HSF absolute in HaCaT cells using the XTT assay, Boyden chamber assay, sprout-out growth assay, and western blotting. We conducted an in-vivo wound healing assay in rat tail-skin. Results: Ten major active compounds were identified from HSF absolute. As determined by the XTT assay, Boyden chamber assay, and sprout-out growth assay results, HSF absolute exhibited similar effects as that of epidermal growth factor on the proliferation and migration patterns of keratinocytes (HaCaT cells), which were significantly increased after HSF absolute treatment. The expression levels of the phosphorylated signaling proteins relevant to proliferation, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (Erk 1/2) and Akt, were also determined by western blot analysis. Conclusion: These results of our in-vitro and ex-vivo studies indicate that HSF absolute induced cell growth and migration of HaCaT cells by phosphorylating both Erk 1/2 and Akt. Moreover, we confirmed the wound-healing effect of HSF on injury of the rat tail-skin. Therefore, our results suggest that HSF absolute is promising for use in cosmetics and alternative medicine. SUMMARY Hisbiscus syriacus L. flower absolute increases HaCaT cell migration and proliferation.Hisbiscus syriacus L. flower absolute regulates phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 and Akt in HaCaT cell.Treatment with Hisbiscus syriacus L. flower induced sprout outgrowth.The wound in the tail-skin of rat was reduced by Hisbiscus syriacus
The thermo magnetic instability in hot viscose plasmas
Haghani, A.; Khosravi, A.; Khesali, A.
2017-10-01
Magnetic Rotational Instability (MRI) can not performed well in accretion disks with strong magnetic field. Studies have indicated a new type of instability called thermomagnetic instability (TMI) in systems where Nernst coefficient and gradient temperature were considered. Nernst coefficient would appear if Boltzman equation could be expanded through ω_{Be} (cyclotron frequency). However, the growth rate of this instability was two magnitude orders below MRI growth (Ωk), which could not act the same as MRI. Therefor, a higher growth rate of unstable modes was needed. In this paper, rotating viscid hot plasma with strong magnetic filed was studied. Firstly, a constant alpha viscosity was studied and then a temperature sensitive viscosity. The results showed that the temperature sensitive viscosity would be able to increase the growth rate of TMI modes significantly, hence capable of acting similar to MRI.
On the instability of a quasivacuum regime in a plasma diode
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zharinov, A.V.; Chikhachev, A.S.
1978-01-01
Instability of the plasma diode stationary state developing in the quasivacuum overcompensated regime is investigated by the method of plasma simulation with the charged sheet system. It is shown that instability developes during the time of the order of the electron transit time through the interelectrode space and is due to electron motion. Specific scale of growings disturbances decreases with current increase of electron emission and diminution of compensating parameter. Instability develops at current value exceeding critical one. The results obtained show, that instability under investigation is analogous to the Pierse instability
Affective instability as a clinical feature of avoidant personality disorder.
Snir, Avigal; Bar-Kalifa, Eran; Berenson, Kathy R; Downey, Geraldine; Rafaeli, Eshkol
2017-10-01
The current study's main goal was to examine whether affective instability is elevated among individuals suffering from avoidant personality disorder (APD) by comparing it to the affective instability found among individuals suffering from borderline personality disorder (BPD) as well that found among healthy controls. Adults (N = 152, aged 18-65 years) with BPD, APD, or no psychopathology participated in a 3-week computerized diary study. We examined temporal instability in negative affect using experience-sampling methods. Both within and between days, individuals with APD showed greater affective instability compared to the healthy control individuals, although less affective instability compared to individuals with BPD. The findings are in line with affective instability (or emotional lability) as a key dimension relevant across personality disorders. Additionally, they emphasize the need for research and clinical attention to affective characteristics (alongside the more readily recognized interpersonal characteristics) of APD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Impact of employment instability on socio-economic position of employees
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vyacheslav Nikolaevich Bobkov
2013-12-01
Full Text Available The subject of the article is the relationships in labor utilization. The article analyzes the impact of employment instability on the socio-economic situation of employees in Russia. Questions revealing the concept content of employment instability, its real forms and socio-economic consequences for employees are considered. Methods of statistical and sociological data analysis are applied. Indicators to measure the scope and level of employment instability of employees are calculated. The dynamics in the time of the size of employment instability in Russia are analyzed. The obtained results can be applied within national economic and social policy. The findings indicate that employment instability is high, and it threatens socio-economic position of the great number of employees in Russia. It is argued that, in these conditions, the most appropriate in the fight against the spread of employment instability are the set of government initiatives, proactive position of the Russian society and the expansion of societal forms of control over the government.
Instability of charged anti-de Sitter black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gwak, Bogeun; Lee, Bum-Hoon; Ro, Daeho
2016-01-01
We have studied the instability of charged anti-de Sitter black holes in four- or higher-dimensions under fragmentation. The unstable black holes under fragmentation can be broken into two black holes. Instability depends not only on the mass and charge of the black hole but also on the ratio between the fragmented black hole and its predecessor. We have found that the near extremal black holes are unstable, and Schwarzschild-AdS black holes are stable. These are qualitatively similar to black holes in four dimensions and higher. The detailed instabilities are numerically investigated.
Extensional and compressional instabilities in icy satellite lithospheres
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herrick, D.L.; Stevenson, D.J.
1990-01-01
The plausibility of invoking a lithospheric instability mechanism to account for the grooved terrains on Ganymede, Encedalus, and Miranda is presently evaluated in light of the combination of a simple mechanical model of planetary lithospheres and asthenospheres with recent experimental data for the brittle and ductile deformation of ice. For Ganymede, high surface gravity and warm temperatures render the achievement of an instability sufficiently great for the observed topographic relief virtually impossible; an instability of sufficient strength, however, may be able to develop on such smaller, colder bodies as Encedalus and Miranda. 15 refs
The fading American dream: Trends in absolute income mobility since 1940.
Chetty, Raj; Grusky, David; Hell, Maximilian; Hendren, Nathaniel; Manduca, Robert; Narang, Jimmy
2017-04-28
We estimated rates of "absolute income mobility"-the fraction of children who earn more than their parents-by combining data from U.S. Census and Current Population Survey cross sections with panel data from de-identified tax records. We found that rates of absolute mobility have fallen from approximately 90% for children born in 1940 to 50% for children born in the 1980s. Increasing Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth rates alone cannot restore absolute mobility to the rates experienced by children born in the 1940s. However, distributing current GDP growth more equally across income groups as in the 1940 birth cohort would reverse more than 70% of the decline in mobility. These results imply that reviving the "American dream" of high rates of absolute mobility would require economic growth that is shared more broadly across the income distribution. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Plasma wave instabilities in nonequilibrium graphene
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aryal, Chinta M.; Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang; Jauho, Antti-Pekka
2016-01-01
We study two-stream instabilities in a nonequilibrium system in which a stream of electrons is injected into doped graphene. As with equivalent nonequilibrium parabolic band systems, we find that the graphene systems can support unstable charge-density waves whose amplitudes grow with time. We...... of the injected electrons that maximizes the growth rate increases with increasing | q |. We compare the range and strength of the instability in graphene to that of two- and three-dimensional parabolic band systems....
Adiabatic instability in coupled dark energy/dark matter models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bean, Rachel; Flanagan, Eanna E.; Trodden, Mark
2008-01-01
We consider theories in which there exists a nontrivial coupling between the dark matter sector and the sector responsible for the acceleration of the Universe. Such theories can possess an adiabatic regime in which the quintessence field always sits at the minimum of its effective potential, which is set by the local dark matter density. We show that if the coupling strength is much larger than gravitational, then the adiabatic regime is always subject to an instability. The instability, which can also be thought of as a type of Jeans instability, is characterized by a negative sound speed squared of an effective coupled dark matter/dark energy fluid, and results in the exponential growth of small scale modes. We discuss the role of the instability in specific coupled cold dark matter and mass varying neutrino models of dark energy and clarify for these theories the regimes in which the instability can be evaded due to nonadiabaticity or weak coupling.
Rayleigh-Taylor instability of cylindrical jets with radial motion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, X.M.; Schrock, V.E.; Peterson, P.F.
1997-01-01
Rayleigh-Taylor instability of an interface between fluids with different densities subjected to acceleration normal to itself has interested researchers for almost a century. The classic analyses of a flat interface by Rayleigh and Taylor have shown that this type of instability depends on the direction of acceleration and the density differences of the two fluids. Plesset later analyzed the stability of a spherically symmetric flows (and a spherical interface) and concluded that the instability also depends on the velocity of the interface as well as the direction and magnitude of radial acceleration. The instability induced by radial motion in cylindrical systems seems to have been neglected by previous researchers. This paper analyzes the Rayleigh-Taylor type of instability for a cylindrical surface with radial motions. The results of the analysis show that, like the spherical case, the radial velocity also plays an important role. As an application, the example of a liquid jet surface in an Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) reactor design is analyzed. (orig.)
Dynamics and Instabilities of Vortex Pairs
Leweke, Thomas; Le Dizès, Stéphane; Williamson, Charles H. K.
2016-01-01
This article reviews the characteristics and behavior of counter-rotating and corotating vortex pairs, which are seemingly simple flow configurations yet immensely rich in phenomena. Since the reviews in this journal by Widnall (1975) and Spalart (1998) , who studied the fundamental structure and dynamics of vortices and airplane trailing vortices, respectively, there have been many analytical, computational, and experimental studies of vortex pair flows. We discuss two-dimensional dynamics, including the merging of same-sign vortices and the interaction with the mutually induced strain, as well as three-dimensional displacement and core instabilities resulting from this interaction. Flows subject to combined instabilities are also considered, in particular the impingement of opposite-sign vortices on a ground plane. We emphasize the physical mechanisms responsible for the flow phenomena and clearly present the key results that are useful to the reader for predicting the dynamics and instabilities of parallel vortices.
Microwave instability across the transition energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, S.Y.; Wang, J.M.
1985-01-01
It is well known that during the acceleration of hadrons in a storage ring, the beam always goes above the microwave instability threshold near the transition energy γ /SUB t/ . The reason is that the longitudinal revolution frequency spread of the beam which otherwise provides Landau damping vanishes at the transition energy. The amount of the beam dilution near the transition energy is determined by /tau/ /SUB th/ , the length of time when the beam stays unstable, and the growth rate of the instability. It is pointed out in this paper that /tau/ /SUB th/ is proportional to the fourth power of γ /SUB t/ , and thus the choice of a large γ /SUB t/ is not desirable from this point of view. An analysis is also given of the microwave instability induced beam dilution for the proposed Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at BNL
Microwave instability across the transition energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, S.Y.; Wang, J.M.
1985-01-01
It is well known that during the acceleration of hadrons in a storage ring, the beam always goes above the microwave instability threshold near the transition energy γ/sub t/. The reason is that the longitudinal revolution frequency spread of the beam which otherwise provides Landau damping vanishes at the transition energy. The amount of the beam dilution near the transition energy is determined by tau/sub th/, the length of time when the beam stays unstable, and the growth rate of the instability. It is pointed out in this paper that tau/sub th/ is proportional to the fourth power of γ/sub t/, and thus the choice of a large γ/sub t/ is not desirable from this point of view. An analysis is also given of the microwave instability induced beam dilution for the proposed Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at BNL
Breast tumor copy number aberration phenotypes and genomic instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fridlyand, Jane; Jain, Ajay N; McLennan, Jane; Ziegler, John; Chin, Koei; Devries, Sandy; Feiler, Heidi; Gray, Joe W; Waldman, Frederic; Pinkel, Daniel; Albertson, Donna G; Snijders, Antoine M; Ylstra, Bauke; Li, Hua; Olshen, Adam; Segraves, Richard; Dairkee, Shanaz; Tokuyasu, Taku; Ljung, Britt Marie
2006-01-01
Genomic DNA copy number aberrations are frequent in solid tumors, although the underlying causes of chromosomal instability in tumors remain obscure. Genes likely to have genomic instability phenotypes when mutated (e.g. those involved in mitosis, replication, repair, and telomeres) are rarely mutated in chromosomally unstable sporadic tumors, even though such mutations are associated with some heritable cancer prone syndromes. We applied array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) to the analysis of breast tumors. The variation in the levels of genomic instability amongst tumors prompted us to investigate whether alterations in processes/genes involved in maintenance and/or manipulation of the genome were associated with particular types of genomic instability. We discriminated three breast tumor subtypes based on genomic DNA copy number alterations. The subtypes varied with respect to level of genomic instability. We find that shorter telomeres and altered telomere related gene expression are associated with amplification, implicating telomere attrition as a promoter of this type of aberration in breast cancer. On the other hand, the numbers of chromosomal alterations, particularly low level changes, are associated with altered expression of genes in other functional classes (mitosis, cell cycle, DNA replication and repair). Further, although loss of function instability phenotypes have been demonstrated for many of the genes in model systems, we observed enhanced expression of most genes in tumors, indicating that over expression, rather than deficiency underlies instability. Many of the genes associated with higher frequency of copy number aberrations are direct targets of E2F, supporting the hypothesis that deregulation of the Rb pathway is a major contributor to chromosomal instability in breast tumors. These observations are consistent with failure to find mutations in sporadic tumors in genes that have roles in maintenance or manipulation of the genome
Inertioelastic Flow Instability at a Stagnation Point
Burshtein, Noa; Zografos, Konstantinos; Shen, Amy Q.; Poole, Robert J.; Haward, Simon J.
2017-10-01
A number of important industrial applications exploit the ability of small quantities of high molecular weight polymer to suppress instabilities that arise in the equivalent flow of Newtonian fluids, a particular example being turbulent drag reduction. However, it can be extremely difficult to probe exactly how the polymer acts to, e.g., modify the streamwise near-wall eddies in a fully turbulent flow. Using a novel cross-slot flow configuration, we exploit a flow instability in order to create and study a single steady-state streamwise vortex. By quantitative experiment, we show how the addition of small quantities (parts per million) of a flexible polymer to a Newtonian solvent dramatically affects both the onset conditions for this instability and the subsequent growth of the axial vorticity. Complementary numerical simulations with a finitely extensible nonlinear elastic dumbbell model show that these modifications are due to the growth of polymeric stress within specific regions of the flow domain. Our data fill a significant gap in the literature between the previously reported purely inertial and purely elastic flow regimes and provide a link between the two by showing how the instability mode is transformed as the fluid elasticity is varied. Our results and novel methods are relevant to understanding the mechanisms underlying industrial uses of weakly elastic fluids and also to understanding inertioelastic instabilities in more confined flows through channels with intersections and stagnation points.
Study on mechanism of combustion instability in a dump gas turbine combustor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Yeon Joo; Lee, Jong Ho; Jeon, Chong Hwan; Chang, Yonng June
2002-01-01
Combustion instabilities are an important concern associated with lean premixed combustion. Laboratory-scale dump combustor was used to understand the underlying mechanisms causing combustion instabilities. Experiments were conducted at atmospheric pressure and sound level meter was used to track the pressure fluctuations inside the combustor. Instability maps and phase-resolved OH chemiluminescence images were obtained at several conditions to investigate the mechanism of combustion instability and relations between pressure wave and heat release rate. It showed that combustion instability was susceptible to occur at higher value of equivalence ratio (>0.6) as the mean velocity was decreased. Instabilities exhibited a longitudinal mode with a dominant frequency of ∼341.8 Hz, which corresponded to a quarter wave mode of combustor. Heat release and pressure waves were in-phase when instabilities occurred. Rayleigh index distribution gave a hint about the location where the strong coherence of pressure and heat release existed. These results also give an insight to the control scheme of combustion instabilities. Emission test revealed that NO x emissions were affected by not only equivalence but also combustion instability
Absolute total cross sections for noble gas systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kam, P. van der.
1981-01-01
This thesis deals with experiments on the elastic scattering of Ar, Kr and Xe, using the molecular beam technique. The aim of this work was the measurement of the absolute value of the total cross section and the behaviour of the total cross section, Q, as function of the relative velocity g of the scattering partners. The author gives an extensive analysis of the glory structure in the total cross section and parametrizes the experimental results using a semiclassical model function. This allows a detailed comparison of the phase and amplitude of the predicted and measured glory undulations. He indicates how the depth and position of the potential well should be changed in order to come to an optimum description of the glory structure. With this model function he has also been able to separate the glory and attractive contribution to Q, and using the results from the extrapolation measurements he has obtained absolute values for Qsub(a). From these absolute values he has calculated the parameter C 6 that determines the strength of the attractive region of the potential. In two of the four investigated gas combinations the obtained values lie outside the theoretical bounds. (Auth.)
Mood instability and impulsivity as trait predictors of suicidal thoughts.
Peters, Evyn M; Balbuena, Lloyd; Marwaha, Steven; Baetz, Marilyn; Bowen, Rudy
2016-12-01
Impulsivity, the tendency to act quickly without adequate planning or concern for consequences, is a commonly cited risk factor for suicidal thoughts and behaviour. There are many definitions of impulsivity and how it relates to suicidality is not well understood. Mood instability, which describes frequent fluctuations of mood over time, is a concept related to impulsivity that may help explain this relationship. The purpose of this study was to determine whether impulsivity could predict suicidal thoughts after controlling for mood instability. This study utilized longitudinal data from the 2000 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (N = 2,406). There was a time interval of 18 months between the two waves of the study. Trait impulsivity and mood instability were measured with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders. Logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate baseline impulsivity and mood instability as predictors of future suicidal thoughts. Impulsivity significantly predicted the presence of suicidal thoughts, but this effect became non-significant with mood instability included in the same model. Impulsivity may be a redundant concept when predicting future suicidal thoughts if mood instability is considered. The significance is that research and therapy focusing on mood instability along with impulsivity may be useful in treating the suicidal patient. Mood instability and impulsivity both predict future suicidal thoughts. Impulsivity does not predict suicidal thoughts after controlling for mood instability. Assessing and treating mood instability could be important aspects of suicide prevention and risk management. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.
Results of Latarjet Coracoid Transfer to Revise Failed Arthroscopic Instability Repairs
Nicholson, Gregory P.; Rahman, Zain; Verma, Nikhil N.; Romeo, Anthony A.; Cole, Brian J.; Gupta, Anil Kumar; Bruce, Benjamin
2014-01-01
Objectives: Arthroscopic instability repair has supplanted open techniques to anatomically reconstruct anteroinferior instability pathology. Arthroscopic technique can fail for a variety of reasons. We have utilized the Latarjet as a revision option in failed arthroscopic instability repairs when there is altered surgical anatomy, capsular deficiency and/or glenoid bone compromise and recurrent glenohumeral instability. Methods: We reviewed 51 shoulders (40 ?, 11?) that underwent Latarjet cor...
Electroacoustic control of Rijke tube instability
Zhang, Yumin; Huang, Lixi
2017-11-01
Unsteady heat release coupled with pressure fluctuation triggers the thermoacoustic instability which may damage a combustion chamber severely. This study demonstrates an electroacoustic control approach of suppressing the thermoacoustic instability in a Rijke tube by altering the wall boundary condition. An electrically shunted loudspeaker driver device is connected as a side-branch to the main tube via a small aperture. Tests in an impedance tube show that this device has sound absorption coefficient up to 40% under normal incidence from 100 Hz to 400 Hz, namely over two octaves. Experimental result demonstrates that such a broadband acoustic performance can effectively eliminate the Rijke-tube instability from 94 Hz to 378 Hz (when the tube length varies from 1.8 m to 0.9 m, the first mode frequency for the former is 94 Hz and the second mode frequency for the latter is 378 Hz). Theoretical investigation reveals that the devices act as a damper draining out sound energy through a tiny hole to eliminate the instability. Finally, it is also estimated based on the experimental data that small amount of sound energy is actually absorbed when the system undergoes a transition from the unstable to stable state if the contrpaol is activated. When the system is actually stabilized, no sound is radiated so no sound energy needs to be absorbed by the control device.
Open capsular shift for multi directional shoulder instability.
Tankeren, E. van; Waal Malefijt, M.C. de; Loon, C. van
2002-01-01
We evaluated the outcome of open antero-inferior capsular shift in 17 patients with multidirectional instability of the shoulder who failed to respond to conservative treatment. Six shoulders presented with secondary impingement syndrome and 11 with involuntary instability. The mean duration of
Effect of Compliant Walls on Secondary Instabilities in Boundary-Layer Transition
Joslin, Ronald D.; Morris, Philip J.
1991-01-01
For aerodynamic and hydrodynamic vehicles, it is highly desirable to reduce drag and noise levels. A reduction in drag leads to fuel savings. In particular for submersible vehicles, a decrease in noise levels inhibits detection. A suggested means to obtain these reduction goals is by delaying the transition from laminar to turbulent flow in external boundary layers. For hydrodynamic applications, a passive device which shows promise for transition delays is the compliant coating. In previous studies with a simple mechanical model representing the compliant wall, coatings were found that provided transition delays as predicted from the semi-empirical e(sup n) method. Those studies were concerned with the linear stage of transition where the instability of concern is referred to as the primary instability. For the flat-plate boundary layer, the Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) wave is the primary instability. In one of those studies, it was shown that three-dimensional (3-D) primary instabilities, or oblique waves, could dominate transition over the coatings considered. From the primary instability, the stretching and tilting of vorticity in the shear flow leads to a secondary instability mechanism. This has been theoretical described by Herbert based on Floquet theory. In the present study, Herbert's theory is used to predict the development of secondary instabilities over isotropic and non-isotropic compliant walls. Since oblique waves may be dominant over compliant walls, a secondary theory extention is made to allow for these 3-D primary instabilities. The effect of variations in primary amplitude, spanwise wavenumber, and Reynolds number on the secondary instabilities are examined. As in the rigid wall case, over compliant walls the subharmonic mode of secondary instability dominates for low-amplitude primary disturbances. Both isotropic and non-isotropic compliant walls lead to reduced secondary growth rates compared to the rigid wall results. For high frequencies
Instabilities and vortex dynamics in shear flow of magnetized plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tajima, T.; Horton, W.; Morrison, P.J.; Schutkeker, J.; Kamimura, T.; Mima, K.; Abe, Y.
1990-03-01
Gradient-driven instabilities and the subsequent nonlinear evolution of generated vortices in sheared E x B flows are investigated for magnetized plasmas with and without gravity (magnetic curvature) and magnetic shear by using theory and implicit particle simulations. In the linear eigenmode analysis, the instabilities considered are the Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) instability and the resistive interchange instability. The presence of the shear flow can stabilize these instabilities. The dynamics of the K-H instability and the vortex dynamics can be uniformly described by the initial flow pattern with a vorticity localization parameter ε. The observed growth of the K-H modes is exponential in time for linearly unstable modes, secular for marginal mode, and absent until driven nonlinearly for linearly stable modes. The distance between two vortex centers experiences rapid merging while the angle θ between the axis of vortices and the external shear flow increases. These vortices proceed toward their overall coalescence, while shedding small-scale vortices and waves. The main features of vortex dynamics of the nonlinear coalescence and the tilt or the rotational instabilities of vortices are shown to be given by using a low dimension Hamiltonian representation for interacting vortex cores in the shear flow. 24 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab
Combustion instability modeling and analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Santoro, R.J.; Yang, V.; Santavicca, D.A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Sheppard, E.J. [Tuskeggee Univ., Tuskegee, AL (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering
1995-12-31
It is well known that the two key elements for achieving low emissions and high performance in a gas turbine combustor are to simultaneously establish (1) a lean combustion zone for maintaining low NO{sub x} emissions and (2) rapid mixing for good ignition and flame stability. However, these requirements, when coupled with the short combustor lengths used to limit the residence time for NO formation typical of advanced gas turbine combustors, can lead to problems regarding unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, as well as the occurrence of combustion instabilities. The concurrent development of suitable analytical and numerical models that are validated with experimental studies is important for achieving this objective. A major benefit of the present research will be to provide for the first time an experimentally verified model of emissions and performance of gas turbine combustors. The present study represents a coordinated effort between industry, government and academia to investigate gas turbine combustion dynamics. Specific study areas include development of advanced diagnostics, definition of controlling phenomena, advancement of analytical and numerical modeling capabilities, and assessment of the current status of our ability to apply these tools to practical gas turbine combustors. The present work involves four tasks which address, respectively, (1) the development of a fiber-optic probe for fuel-air ratio measurements, (2) the study of combustion instability using laser-based diagnostics in a high pressure, high temperature flow reactor, (3) the development of analytical and numerical modeling capabilities for describing combustion instability which will be validated against experimental data, and (4) the preparation of a literature survey and establishment of a data base on practical experience with combustion instability.
Absolute photonic band gap in 2D honeycomb annular photonic crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Dan; Gao, Yihua; Tong, Aihong; Hu, Sen
2015-01-01
Highlights: • A two-dimensional honeycomb annular photonic crystal (PC) is proposed. • The absolute photonic band gap (PBG) is studied. • Annular PCs show larger PBGs than usual air-hole PCs for high refractive index. • Annular PCs with anisotropic rods show large PBGs for low refractive index. • There exist optimal parameters to open largest band gaps. - Abstract: Using the plane wave expansion method, we investigate the effects of structural parameters on absolute photonic band gap (PBG) in two-dimensional honeycomb annular photonic crystals (PCs). The results reveal that the annular PCs possess absolute PBGs that are larger than those of the conventional air-hole PCs only when the refractive index of the material from which the PC is made is equal to 4.5 or larger. If the refractive index is smaller than 4.5, utilization of anisotropic inner rods in honeycomb annular PCs can lead to the formation of larger PBGs. The optimal structural parameters that yield the largest absolute PBGs are obtained
Kang, Chang Ho; Kim, Hee Kyung; Shiraj, Sahar; Anton, Christopher; Kim, Dong Hoon; Horn, Paul S
2016-07-01
Patellofemoral instability is one of the most common causes of cartilage damage in teenagers. To quantitatively evaluate the patellar cartilage in patients with patellofemoral instability using T2 relaxation time maps (T2 maps), compare the values to those in patients without patellofemoral instability and correlate them with morphological grades in patients with patellofemoral instability. Fifty-three patients with patellofemoral instability (mean age: 15.9 ± 2.4 years) and 53 age- and gender-matched patients without patellofemoral instability were included. Knee MR with axial T2 map was performed. Mean T2 relaxation times were obtained at the medial, central and lateral zones of the patellar cartilage and compared between the two groups. In the patellofemoral instability group, morphological grading of the patellar cartilage (0-4) was performed and correlated with T2 relaxation times. Mean T2 relaxation times were significantly longer in the group with patellofemoral instability as compared to those of the control group across the patellar cartilage (Student's t-test, Ppatellofemoral instability, patellar cartilage damage occurs across the entire cartilage with the highest T2 values at the apex. T2 relaxation times directly reflect the severity in low-grade cartilage damage, which implies an important role for T2 maps in differentiating between normal and low-grade cartilage damage.
Resilience of quasi-isodynamic stellarators against trapped-particle instabilities.
Proll, J H E; Helander, P; Connor, J W; Plunk, G G
2012-06-15
It is shown that in perfectly quasi-isodynamic stellarators, trapped particles with a bounce frequency much higher than the frequency of the instability are stabilizing in the electrostatic and collisionless limit. The collisionless trapped-particle instability is therefore stable as well as the ordinary electron-density-gradient-driven trapped-electron mode. This result follows from the energy balance of electrostatic instabilities and is thus independent of all other details of the magnetic geometry.
Dynamic instability forecasting for through-out sodium steam generators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aleksandrov, V.V.; Rassokhin, N.G.
1985-01-01
Simplified technique for determining boundaries of dynamic instability of through-out sodium steam generators is presented. The technique is based on the application of autoresonance concept to autooscillating model of dynamic instability of a steam-generating channel. Estimated model parameters and basic investigational results for different conditions are given. Assessment is performed according to the instability degree. Use of the technique is effective for multiversion studying of SG design at early designing stages
Absolute Distance Measurements with Tunable Semiconductor Laser
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Mikel, Břetislav; Číp, Ondřej; Lazar, Josef
T118, - (2005), s. 41-44 ISSN 0031-8949 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAB2065001 Keywords : tunable laser * absolute interferometer Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.661, year: 2004
MEAN OF MEDIAN ABSOLUTE DERIVATION TECHNIQUE MEAN ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
eobe
development of mean of median absolute derivation technique based on the based on the based on .... of noise mean to estimate the speckle noise variance. Noise mean property ..... Foraging Optimization,” International Journal of. Advanced ...
Space-charge-limit instabilities in electron beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coutsias, E.A.; Sullivan, D.J.
1983-01-01
The method of characteristics and multiple-scaling perturbation techniques are used to study the space-charge instability of electron beams. It is found that the stable oscillating state (virtual cathode) created when the space-charge limit is exceeded is similar to a collisionless shock wave. The oscillatory solution originates at the bifurcation point of two unstable steady states. Complementary behavior (virtual anode) results when an ion beam exceeds its space-charge limit. The virtual cathode can also exist in the presence of a neutralizing heavy-ion background. The Pierce instability, where the electron and ion charge densities are equal, is a special case of this broader class. Estimates of the nonlinear growth rate of the instability at the space-charge limit are given
A new necessary condition for Turing instabilities.
Elragig, Aiman; Townley, Stuart
2012-09-01
Reactivity (a.k.a initial growth) is necessary for diffusion driven instability (Turing instability). Using a notion of common Lyapunov function we show that this necessary condition is a special case of a more powerful (i.e. tighter) necessary condition. Specifically, we show that if the linearised reaction matrix and the diffusion matrix share a common Lyapunov function, then Turing instability is not possible. The existence of common Lyapunov functions is readily checked using semi-definite programming. We apply this result to the Gierer-Meinhardt system modelling regenerative properties of Hydra, the Oregonator, to a host-parasite-hyperparasite system with diffusion and to a reaction-diffusion-chemotaxis model for a multi-species host-parasitoid community. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Early Prevention Method for Power Systems Instability
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dmitrova, Evgenia
containing no voltage sources). The main functionality of the early prevention method is to deliver control solution allowing escape from instability on the basis of data obtained by PMU measurements. The developed algorithm performs identification of the optimal node for countermeasure application...... instability was created. Utilizing synthetic PMU data, the early prevention method proposed a location and an amount of the countermeasure which will prevent instability; the prediction of the resulting stability margins corresponding to application of the suggested countermeasure was carried out....... The predicted effect of the suggested countermeasure application is in a good agreement with the results obtained by RMS dynamic simulation. Developed method enables adaptive preventive control for near real-time stability maintenance. The achieved results are opening promising perspective for power system...
Genome instabilities arising from ribonucleotides in DNA.
Klein, Hannah L
2017-08-01
Genomic DNA is transiently contaminated with ribonucleotide residues during the process of DNA replication through misincorporation by the replicative DNA polymerases α, δ and ε, and by the normal replication process on the lagging strand, which uses RNA primers. These ribonucleotides are efficiently removed during replication by RNase H enzymes and the lagging strand synthesis machinery. However, when ribonucleotides remain in DNA they can distort the DNA helix, affect machineries for DNA replication, transcription and repair, and can stimulate genomic instabilities which are manifest as increased mutation, recombination and chromosome alterations. The genomic instabilities associated with embedded ribonucleotides are considered here, along with a discussion of the origin of the lesions that stimulate particular classes of instabilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nonlinear stage of a Z-pinch instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garanin, S.F.; Chernyshev, Y.D.
1987-01-01
The nonlinear evolution of the sausage instability is analyzed for a Z-pinch with a fully developed skin effect in the current. Two-dimensional numerical calculations carried out on the sausage instability show that its occurrence leads to a stage describable by a self-similar solution when the length of the neck is fixed and the plasma compression is isentropic. At a perturbation wavelength small in comparison with the pinch radius, this stage is preceded by a stage which reduces to a nonlinear Rayleigh--Taylor instability. The dynamics of the motion of magnetic field ''bubbles'' and of plasma ''jets'' is analyzed in this case. The plasma jets emerging from the pinch do not block the pinch from the current source
The relative and absolute speed of radiographic screen - film systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, In Ja; Huh, Joon
1993-01-01
Recently, a large number of new screen-film systems have become available for use in diagnostic radiology. These new screens are made of materials generally known as rare - earth phosphors which have high x-ray absorption and high x-ray to light conversion efficiency compared to calcium tungstate phosphors. The major advantage of these new systems is reduction of patient exposure due to their high speed or high sensitivity. However, a system with excessively high speed can result in a significant degradation of radiographic image quality. Therefore, the speed is important parameters for users of these system. Our aim of in this was to determine accurately and precisely the absolute speed and relative speeds of both new and conventional screen - film system. We determined the absolute speed in condition of BRH phantom beam quality and the relative speed were measured by a split - screen technique in condition of BRH and ANSI phantom beam quality. The absolute and the relative speed were determined for 8 kinds of screen - 4 kinds of film in regular system and 7 kinds pf screen - 7 kinds of film in ortho system. In this study we could know the New Rx, T - MAT G has the highest film speed, also know Green system's standard deviation of relative speed larger than blue system. It was realized that there were no relationship between the absolute speed and the blue system. It was realized that there were no relationship between the absolute speed and the relative speed in ortho or regular system
Dorsoradial capsulodesis for trapeziometacarpal joint instability.
Rayan, Ghazi; Do, Viet
2013-02-01
We describe an alternative method for treating chronic trapeziometacarpal (TM) joint instability after acute injury or chronic repetitive use of the thumb by performing a dorsoradial capsulodesis procedure. The procedure is done by imbricating the redundant TM joint dorsoradial ligament and capsule after reducing the joint by pronating the thumb. The dorsoradial capsulodesis is a reasonable reconstructive option for chronic TM joint instability and subluxation. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Energetic particle instabilities in fusion plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharapov, S.E.; Alper, B.; Challis, C.D.; Gryaznevich, M.P.; Kiptily, V.G.; Voitsekhovich, I.; Berk, H.L.; Breizman, B.N.; Borba, D.N.; Nabais, F.; Classen, I.G.J.; Edlund, E.M.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Fu, G.Y.; Ghantous, K.; Gorelenkov, N.N.; Kramer, G.J.; Nazikian, R.; Podesta, M.; White, R.B.; Eriksson, J.; Hellesen, C.; Fasoli, A.; Garcia-Munoz, M.; Lauber, P.; Thun, C. Perez von; Gassner, T.; Goloborodko, V.; Schoepf, K.; Yavorskij, V.; Hacquin, S.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Lilley, M.K.; Lisak, M.; Nyqvist, R.; Osakabe, M.; Todo, Y.; Toi, K.; Pinches, S.D.; Porkolab, M.; Shinohara, Koji; Van Zeeland, M.A.
2012-11-01
Remarkable progress has been made in diagnosing energetic particle instabilities on present-day machines and in establishing a theoretical framework for describing them. This overview describes the much improved diagnostics of Alfvén instabilities and modelling tools developed world-wide, and discusses progress in interpreting the observed phenomena. A multi-machine comparison is presented giving information on the performance of both diagnostics and modelling tools for different plasma conditions outlining expectations for ITER based on our present knowledge. (author)
Instability in Thoracolumbar Trauma: Is a New Definition Warranted?
Abbasi Fard, Salman; Skoch, Jesse; Avila, Mauricio J; Patel, Apar S; Sattarov, Kamran V; Walter, Christina M; Baaj, Ali A
2017-10-01
Review of the articles. The objective of this study was to review all articles related to spinal instability to determine a consensus statement for a contemporary, practical definition applicable to thoracolumbar injuries. Traumatic fractures of the thoracolumbar spine are common. These injuries can result in neurological deficits, disability, deformity, pain, and represent a great economic burden to society. The determination of spinal instability is an important task for spine surgeons, as treatment strategies rely heavily on this assessment. However, a clinically applicable definition of spinal stability remains elusive. A review of the Medline database between 1930 and 2014 was performed limited to papers in English. Spinal instability, thoracolumbar, and spinal stability were used as search terms. Case reports were excluded. We reviewed listed references from pertinent search results and located relevant manuscripts from these lists as well. The search produced a total of 694 published articles. Twenty-five articles were eligible after abstract screening and underwent full review. A definition for spinal instability was described in only 4 of them. Definitions were primarily based on biomechanical and classification studies. No definitive parameters were outlined to define stability. Thirty-six years after White and Panjabi's original definition of instability, and many classification schemes later, there remains no practical and meaningful definition for spinal instability in thoracolumbar trauma. Surgeon expertise and experience remains an important factor in stability determination. We propose that, at an initial assessment, a distinction should be made between immediate and delayed instability. This designation should better guide surgeons in decision making and patient counseling.
Absolute continuity of autophage measures on finite-dimensional vector spaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Raja, C R.E. [Stat-Math Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, Bangalore (India); [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)]. E-mail: creraja@isibang.ac.in
2002-06-01
We consider a class of measures called autophage which was introduced and studied by Szekely for measures on the real line. We show that the autophage measures on finite-dimensional vector spaces over real or Q{sub p} are infinitely divisible without idempotent factors and are absolutely continuous with bounded continuous density. We also show that certain semistable measures on such vector spaces are absolutely continuous. (author)
Assessment of Flow Instability in Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System (PAFS) Using RELAP5
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jeon, Seong-Su; Hong, Soon-Joon [FNC Tech., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Cheon, Jong; Kim, Han-Gon [KHNP, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2015-10-15
In this study, the occurrence possibility of both instabilities in PAFS is assessed with the best-estimate thermal hydraulic code, RELAP5. From the RELAP5 code analysis, the Ledinegg instability might not occur in PAFS. The DWO might occur in PAFS but the effect of the oscillation on the heat removal capacity of PAFS was not large. Therefore, it is concluded that PAFS is safe in terms of flow instabilities. Since PAFS is two-phase flow system, flow instabilities may occur. Flow instabilities may cause the severe deterioration of heat removal capability of PAFS due to the reduction of the condensate flow. For the reliable operation of PAFS, it is required to assess the flow instabilities in PAFS. The Ledinegg-type instability and the Density Wave Oscillation (DWO) are the representative static flow instability and the dynamic flow instability, respectively.
Det demokratiske argument for absolut ytringsfrihed
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lægaard, Sune
2014-01-01
Artiklen diskuterer den påstand, at absolut ytringsfrihed er en nødvendig forudsætning for demokratisk legitimitet med udgangspunkt i en rekonstruktion af et argument fremsat af Ronald Dworkin. Spørgsmålet er, hvorfor ytringsfrihed skulle være en forudsætning for demokratisk legitimitet, og hvorfor...
Thin-film magnetoresistive absolute position detector
Groenland, J.P.J.
1990-01-01
The subject of this thesis is the investigation of a digital absolute posi- tion-detection system, which is based on a position-information carrier (i.e. a magnetic tape) with one single code track on the one hand, and an array of magnetoresistive sensors for the detection of the information on the
Instabilities excited by head-on collisions of two relativistic electron beams
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kou Shu-Ying
1982-02-01
In this paper, we studied the instabilities excited by head-on collision of two relativistic electron beams in transporting, taking account of the magnetic field B/sub 0/ and the thermal pressure delp of the beams. The conditions under which the instabilities occur and the growth rate of instabilities are obtained. The results show that these instabilities can be excited or inhibited by controlling the velocity of the beams.
Effects of shock waves on Rayleigh-Taylor instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Yongtao; Shu Chiwang; Zhou Ye
2006-01-01
A numerical simulation of two-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations using a high-order weighted essentially nonoscillatory finite difference shock capturing scheme is carried out in this paper, to study the effect of shock waves on the development of Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Shocks with different Mach numbers are introduced ahead or behind the Rayleigh-Taylor interface, and their effect on the transition to instability is demonstrated and compared. It is observed that shock waves can speed up the transition to instability for the Rayleigh-Taylor interface significantly. Stronger shocks are more effective in this speed-up process
CHF Enhancement by Surface Patterning based on Hydrodynamic Instability Model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seo, Han; Bang, In Cheol [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)
2015-05-15
If the power density of a device exceeds the CHF point, bubbles and vapor films will be covered on the whole heater surface. Because vapor films have much lower heat transfer capabilities compared to the liquid layer, the temperature of the heater surface will increase rapidly, and the device could be damaged due to the heater burnout. Therefore, the prediction and the enhancement of the CHF are essential to maximizing the efficient heat removal region. Numerous studies have been conducted to describe the CHF phenomenon, such as hydrodynamic instability theory, macrolayer dryout theory, hot/dry spot theory, and bubble interaction theory. The hydrodynamic instability model, proposed by Zuber, is the predominant CHF model that Helmholtz instability attributed to the CHF. Zuber assumed that the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability wavelength is related to the Helmholtz wavelength. Lienhard and Dhir proposed a CHF model that Helmholtz instability wavelength is equal to the most dangerous RT wavelength. In addition, they showed the heater size effect using various heater surfaces. Lu et al. proposed a modified hydrodynamic theory that the Helmholtz instability was assumed to be the heater size and the area of the vapor column was used as a fitting factor. The modified hydrodynamic theories were based on the change of Helmholtz wavelength related to the RT instability wavelength. In the present study, the change of the RT instability wavelength, based on the heater surface modification, was conducted to show the CHF enhancement based on the heater surface patterning in a plate pool boiling. Sapphire glass was used as a base heater substrate, and the Pt film was used as a heating source. The patterning surface was based on the change of RT instability wavelength. In the present work the study of the CHF was conducted using bare Pt and patterned heating surfaces.
MHD instabilities in astrophysical plasmas: very different from MHD instabilities in tokamaks!
Goedbloed, J. P.
2018-01-01
The extensive studies of MHD instabilities in thermonuclear magnetic confinement experiments, in particular of the tokamak as the most promising candidate for a future energy producing machine, have led to an 'intuitive' description based on the energy principle that is very misleading for
DOES ABSOLUTE SYNONYMY EXIST IN OWERE-IGBO?
African Journals Online (AJOL)
USER
The researcher also interviewed native speakers of the dialect. The study ... The word 'synonymy' means sameness of meaning, i.e., a relationship in which more ... whether absolute synonymy exists in Owere–Igbo or not. ..... 'close this book'.
Pathways towards instability in financial networks
Bardoscia, Marco; Battiston, Stefano; Caccioli, Fabio; Caldarelli, Guido
2017-02-01
Following the financial crisis of 2007-2008, a deep analogy between the origins of instability in financial systems and complex ecosystems has been pointed out: in both cases, topological features of network structures influence how easily distress can spread within the system. However, in financial network models, the details of how financial institutions interact typically play a decisive role, and a general understanding of precisely how network topology creates instability remains lacking. Here we show how processes that are widely believed to stabilize the financial system, that is, market integration and diversification, can actually drive it towards instability, as they contribute to create cyclical structures which tend to amplify financial distress, thereby undermining systemic stability and making large crises more likely. This result holds irrespective of the details of how institutions interact, showing that policy-relevant analysis of the factors affecting financial stability can be carried out while abstracting away from such details.
KELVIN-HELMHOLTZ INSTABILITY OF A CORONAL STREAMER
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Feng, L.; Gan, W. Q. [Key Laboratory of Dark Matter and Space Astronomy, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 210008 Nanjing (China); Inhester, B., E-mail: lfeng@pmo.ac.cn [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Sonnensystemforschung, Max-Planck-Str.2, D-37191 Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany)
2013-09-10
Shear-flow-driven instability can play an important role in energy transfer processes in coronal plasma. We present for the first time the observation of a kink-like oscillation of a streamer that is probably caused by the streaming kink-mode Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI). The wave-like behavior of the streamer was observed by the Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph Experiment C2 and C3 on board the SOlar and Heliospheric Observatory. The observed wave had a period of about 70-80 minutes, and its wavelength increased from 2 R{sub Sun} to 3 R{sub Sun} in about 1.5 hr. The phase speeds of its crests and troughs decreased from 406 {+-} 20 to 356 {+-} 31 km s{sup -1} during the event. Within the same heliocentric range, the wave amplitude also appeared to increase with time. We attribute the phenomena to the MHD KHI, which occurs at a neutral sheet in a fluid wake. The free energy driving the instability is supplied by the sheared flow and sheared magnetic field across the streamer plane. The plasma properties of the local environment of the streamer were estimated from the phase speed and instability threshold criteria.
Impact of magnetic fields on the R-mode instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rezzolla, L.
2001-01-01
The instability of r-mode oscillations in rapidly rotating neutron stars has attracted attention as a potential mechanism for producing high frequency, almost periodic gravitational waves. The analyses carried out so far have shown the existence of the instability and have considered damping by shear and bulk viscosity, as well as the interaction with a solid star crust. However, the magnetohydrodynamic coupling of the modes with a stellar magnetic field, which is likely to be present, has not been fully investigated yet. Here we discuss the relevance of a magnetic field, its modifications under the action of the r-mode instability, and how the interaction between r-mode oscillations and a magnetic field might limit the onset and duration of the instability. (author)
Two-phase flow instabilities in a vertical annular channel
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Babelli, I.; Nair, S.; Ishii, M. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)
1995-09-01
An experimental test facility was built to study two-phase flow instabilities in vertical annular channel with emphasis on downward flow under low pressure and low flow conditions. The specific geometry of the test section is similar to the fuel-target sub-channel of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Mark 22 fuel assembly. Critical Heat Flux (CHF) was observed following flow excursion and flow reversal in the test section. Density wave instability was not recorded in this series of experimental runs. The results of this experimental study show that flow excursion is the dominant instability mode under low flow, low pressure, and down flow conditions. The onset of instability data are plotted on the subcooling-Zuber (phase change) numbers stability plane.
Parametric Instability in Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ju, L; Grass, S; Zhao, C; Degallaix, J; Blair, D G
2006-01-01
High frequency parametric instabilities in optical cavities are radiation pressure induced interactions between test mass mechanical modes and cavity optical modes. The parametric gain depends on the cavity power and the quality factor of the test mass internal modes (usually in ultrasonic frequency range), as well as the overlap integral for the mechanical and optical modes. In advanced laser interferometers which require high optical power and very low acoustic loss test masses, parametric instabilities could prevent interferometer operation if not suppressed. Here we review the problem of parametric instabilities in advanced detector configurations for different combinations of sapphire and fused silica test masses, and compare three methods for control or suppression of parametric instabilities-thermal tuning, surface damping and active feedback
Instability Suppression in a Swirl-Stabilized Combustor Using Microjet Air Injection
LaBry, Zachary
2010-01-04
In this study, we examine the effectiveness of microjet air injection as a means of suppressing thermoacoustic instabilities in a swirl-stabilized, lean-premixed propane/air combustor. High-speed stereo PIV measurements, taken to explore the mechanism of combustion instability, reveal that the inner recirculation zone plays a dominant role in the coupling of acoustics and heat release that leads to combustion instability. Six microjet injector configurations were designed to modify the inner and outer recirculation zones with the intent of decoupling the mechanism leading to instability. Microjets that injected air into the inner recirculation zone, swirling in the opposite sense to the primary swirl were effective in suppressing combustion instability, reducing the overall sound pressure level by up to 17 dB within a certain window of operating conditions. Stabilization was achieved near an equivalence ratio of 0.65, corresponding to the region where the combustor transitions from a 40 Hz instability mode to a 110 Hz instability mode. PIV measurements made of the stabilized flow revealed significant modification of the inner recirculation zone and substantial weakening of the outer recirculation zone.
Summary: Electron-cloud effects and fast-ion instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Furman, Miguel A.
2000-01-01
This is my summary of the talks on the electron-cloud effect and the fast-ion instability that were presented at the 8th ICFA Beam Dynamics Mini-Work shop on Two-Stream Instabilities in Particle Accelerators and Storage Rings,Santa Fe, NM, February 16--18, 2000
Unified formulation for inhomogeneity-driven instabilities in the lower-hybrid range
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silveira, O.J.G.; Ziebell, L.F.; Gaelzer, R.; Yoon, Peter H.
2002-01-01
A local dispersion relation that describes inhomogeneity-driven instabilities in the lower-hybrid range is derived following a procedure that correctly describes energy exchange between waves and particles in inhomogeneous media, correcting some inherent ambiguities associated with the standard formalism found in the literature. Numerical solutions of this improved dispersion relation show that it constitutes a unified formulation for the instabilities in the lower-hybrid range, describing the so-called modified two-stream instability, excited by the ion cross-field drift, including the ion Weibel instability, and also describing the lower-hybrid drift instability, which is due to inhomogeneity effects on the electron population
Towards absolute neutrino masses
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vogel, Petr [Kellogg Radiation Laboratory 106-38, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)
2007-06-15
Various ways of determining the absolute neutrino masses are briefly reviewed and their sensitivities compared. The apparent tension between the announced but unconfirmed observation of the 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay and the neutrino mass upper limit based on observational cosmology is used as an example of what could happen eventually. The possibility of a 'nonstandard' mechanism of the 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay is stressed and the ways of deciding which of the possible mechanisms is actually operational are described. The importance of the 0{nu}{beta}{beta} nuclear matrix elements is discussed and their uncertainty estimated.
Absolute migration of Pacific basin mid-ocean ridges since 85 Ma ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Mid-ocean ridges are major physiographic features that dominate the world seafloor. Their absolute motion and tectonics are recorded in magnetic lineations they created. The absolute migration of mid-ocean ridges in the Pacific basin since 85 Ma and their tectonic implications was investigated in this work and the results ...
Parametric instabilities in an electron beam plasma system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakach, R.; Cuperman, S.; Gell, Y.; Levush, B.
1981-01-01
The excitation of low frequency parametric instabilities by a finite wave length pump in a system consisting of a warm electron plasma traversed by a warm electron beam is investigated in a fluid dissipationless model. The dispersion relation for the three-dimensional problem in a magnetized plasma with arbitrary directions for the waves is derived, and the one-dimensional case is analyzed numerically. For the one-dimensional back-scattering decay process, it is found that when the plasma-electron Debye length (lambda sub(D)sup(p)) is larger than the beam-electron Debye length (lambda sub(D)sup(b)), two low frequency electrostatic instability branches with different growth rates may simultaneously exist. When lambda sub(D)sup(p) approximately lambda sub(D)sup(b), the large growth rate instability found in the analysis depends strongly on the amplitude of the pump field. In the case (lambda sub(D)sup(p) < lambda sub(D)sup(b)) only one low frequency instability branch is generally excited
The portrait of eikonal instability in Lovelock theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Konoplya, R.A. [Theoretical Astrophysics, Eberhard-Karls University of Tübingen, Tübingen 72076 (Germany); Zhidenko, A., E-mail: roman.konoplya@gmail.com, E-mail: olexandr.zhydenko@ufabc.edu.br [Centro de Matemática, Computação e Cognição, Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Rua Abolição, CEP: 09210-180, Santo André, SP (Brazil)
2017-05-01
Perturbations and eikonal instabilities of black holes and branes in the Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theory and its Lovelock generalization were considered in the literature for several particular cases, where the asymptotic conditions (flat, dS, AdS), the number of spacetime dimensions D , non-vanishing coupling constants (α{sub 1}, α{sub 2}, α{sub 3} etc.) and other parameters have been chosen in a specific way. Here we give a comprehensive analysis of the eikonal instabilities of black holes and branes for the most general Lovelock theory, not limited by any of the above cases. Although the part of the stability analysis is performed here purely analytically and formulated in terms of the inequalities for the black hole parameters, the most general case is treated numerically and the accurate regions of instabilities are presented. The shared Mathematica® code allows the reader to construct the regions of eikonal instability for any desired values of the parameters.
Nutation instability of spinning solid rocket motor spacecraft
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dan YANG
2017-08-01
Full Text Available The variation of mass, and moment of inertia of a spin-stabilized spacecraft leads to concern about the nutation instability. Here a careful analysis on the nutation instability is performed on a spacecraft propelled by solid rocket booster (SRB. The influences of specific solid propellant designs on transversal angular velocity are discussed. The results show that the typical SRB of End Burn suppresses the non-principal axial angular velocity. On the contrary, the frequently used SRB of Radial Burn could amplify the transversal angular velocity. The nutation instability caused by a design of Radial Burn could be remedied by the addition of End Burn at the same time based on the study of the combination design of both End Burn and Radial Burn. The analysis of the results proposes the design conception of how to control the nutation motion. The method is suitable to resolve the nutation instability of solid rocket motor with complex propellant patterns.
The portrait of eikonal instability in Lovelock theories
Konoplya, R. A.; Zhidenko, A.
2017-05-01
Perturbations and eikonal instabilities of black holes and branes in the Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theory and its Lovelock generalization were considered in the literature for several particular cases, where the asymptotic conditions (flat, dS, AdS), the number of spacetime dimensions D, non-vanishing coupling constants (α1, α2, α3 etc.) and other parameters have been chosen in a specific way. Here we give a comprehensive analysis of the eikonal instabilities of black holes and branes for the most general Lovelock theory, not limited by any of the above cases. Although the part of the stability analysis is performed here purely analytically and formulated in terms of the inequalities for the black hole parameters, the most general case is treated numerically and the accurate regions of instabilities are presented. The shared Mathematica® code allows the reader to construct the regions of eikonal instability for any desired values of the parameters.
Double Arc Instability in the Solar Corona
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ishiguro, N.; Kusano, K., E-mail: n-ishiguro@isee.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 Japan (Japan)
2017-07-10
The stability of the magnetic field in the solar corona is important for understanding the causes of solar eruptions. Although various scenarios have been suggested to date, the tether-cutting reconnection scenario proposed by Moore et al. is one of the widely accepted models to explain the onset process of solar eruptions. Although the tether-cutting reconnection scenario proposes that the sigmoidal field formed by internal reconnection is the magnetic field in the pre-eruptive state, the stability of the sigmoidal field has not yet been investigated quantitatively. In this paper, in order to elucidate the stability problem of the pre-eruptive state, we developed a simple numerical analysis in which the sigmoidal field is modeled by a double arc electric current loop and its stability is analyzed. As a result, we found that the double arc loop is more easily destabilized than the axisymmetric torus, and it becomes unstable even if the external field does not decay with altitude, which is in contrast to the axisymmetric torus instability. This suggests that tether-cutting reconnection may well work as the onset mechanism of solar eruptions, and if so, the critical condition for eruption under a certain geometry may be determined by a new type of instability rather than by the torus instability. Based on them, we propose a new type of instability called double arc instability (DAI). We discuss the critical conditions for DAI and derive a new parameter κ , defined as the product of the magnetic twist and the normalized flux of the tether-cutting reconnection.
Preliminary study of Rayleigh-Taylor instability in wire-array Z-pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He Kaihui; Feng Kaiming; Li Qiang; Gao Chunming
2000-01-01
It is important to research into the MHD Rayleigh-Taylor instability developed in Z-pinch implosion. A snowplough model of the single wire Z-pinch is presented. The perturbation amplitude of Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the wire-array Z-pinch is analyzed quantitatively. Sheared axial flow is put forward to mitigate and reduce the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. And other approaches used to mitigate MHD instability in such a super-fast process are explored
Absolute humidity and the seasonal onset of influenza in the continental United States.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jeffrey Shaman
2010-02-01
Full Text Available Much of the observed wintertime increase of mortality in temperate regions is attributed to seasonal influenza. A recent reanalysis of laboratory experiments indicates that absolute humidity strongly modulates the airborne survival and transmission of the influenza virus. Here, we extend these findings to the human population level, showing that the onset of increased wintertime influenza-related mortality in the United States is associated with anomalously low absolute humidity levels during the prior weeks. We then use an epidemiological model, in which observed absolute humidity conditions temper influenza transmission rates, to successfully simulate the seasonal cycle of observed influenza-related mortality. The model results indicate that direct modulation of influenza transmissibility by absolute humidity alone is sufficient to produce this observed seasonality. These findings provide epidemiological support for the hypothesis that absolute humidity drives seasonal variations of influenza transmission in temperate regions.
Stability and instability of hydromagnetic Taylor-Couette flows
Rüdiger, Günther; Gellert, Marcus; Hollerbach, Rainer; Schultz, Manfred; Stefani, Frank
2018-04-01
Decades ago S. Lundquist, S. Chandrasekhar, P. H. Roberts and R. J. Tayler first posed questions about the stability of Taylor-Couette flows of conducting material under the influence of large-scale magnetic fields. These and many new questions can now be answered numerically where the nonlinear simulations even provide the instability-induced values of several transport coefficients. The cylindrical containers are axially unbounded and penetrated by magnetic background fields with axial and/or azimuthal components. The influence of the magnetic Prandtl number Pm on the onset of the instabilities is shown to be substantial. The potential flow subject to axial fields becomes unstable against axisymmetric perturbations for a certain supercritical value of the averaged Reynolds number Rm bar =√{ Re ṡ Rm } (with Re the Reynolds number of rotation, Rm its magnetic Reynolds number). Rotation profiles as flat as the quasi-Keplerian rotation law scale similarly but only for Pm ≫ 1 while for Pm ≪ 1 the instability instead sets in for supercritical Rm at an optimal value of the magnetic field. Among the considered instabilities of azimuthal fields, those of the Chandrasekhar-type, where the background field and the background flow have identical radial profiles, are particularly interesting. They are unstable against nonaxisymmetric perturbations if at least one of the diffusivities is non-zero. For Pm ≪ 1 the onset of the instability scales with Re while it scales with Rm bar for Pm ≫ 1. Even superrotation can be destabilized by azimuthal and current-free magnetic fields; this recently discovered nonaxisymmetric instability is of a double-diffusive character, thus excluding Pm = 1. It scales with Re for Pm → 0 and with Rm for Pm → ∞. The presented results allow the construction of several new experiments with liquid metals as the conducting fluid. Some of them are described here and their results will be discussed together with relevant diversifications of
Overspecification of colour, pattern, and size: Salience, absoluteness, and consistency
Sammie eTarenskeen; Mirjam eBroersma; Mirjam eBroersma; Bart eGeurts
2015-01-01
The rates of overspecification of colour, pattern, and size are compared, to investigate how salience and absoluteness contribute to the production of overspecification. Colour and pattern are absolute attributes, whereas size is relative and less salient. Additionally, a tendency towards consistent responses is assessed. Using a within-participants design, we find similar rates of colour and pattern overspecification, which are both higher than the rate of size overspecification. Using a bet...
Overspecification of color, pattern, and size: salience, absoluteness, and consistency
Tarenskeen, S.L.; Broersma, M.; Geurts, B.
2015-01-01
The rates of overspecification of color, pattern, and size are compared, to investigate how salience and absoluteness contribute to the production of overspecification. Color and pattern are absolute and salient attributes, whereas size is relative and less salient. Additionally, a tendency toward consistent responses is assessed. Using a within-participants design, we find similar rates of color and pattern overspecification, which are both higher than the rate of size overspecification. Usi...