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Sample records for absolute frequency reference

  1. Iodine frequency references for space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuldt, Thilo; Braxmaier, Claus; Döringshoff, Klaus; Peters, Achim; Oswald, Markus; Johann, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Optical frequency references are a key element for the realization of future space missions. They are needed for missions related to tests of fundamental physics, gravitational wave detection, Earth observation and navigation and ranging. In missions such as GRACE follow-on or LISA the optical frequency reference is used as light source for high-sensitivity inter-satellite distance metrology. While cavity-based systems are current baseline e.g. for LISA, frequency stabilization on a hyperfine transition in molecular iodine near 532 nm is a promising alternative. Due to its absolute frequency, iodine standards crucially simplify the initial spacecraft acquisition procedures. Current setups fulfill the GRACE-FO and LISA frequency stability requirements and are realized near Engineering Model level. We present the current status of our developments on Elegant Breadboard (EBB) and Engineering Model (EM) level taking into account specific design criteria for space compatibility such as compactness (size iodine spectroscopy EM: 38 × 18 × 10 cm 3 ) and robustness. Both setups achieved similar frequency stabilities of ∼ 1 · 10 −14 at an integration time of 1 s and below 5 · 10 −15 at integration times between 10 s and 1000 s. Furthermore, we present an even more compact design currently developed for a sounding rocket mission with launch in 2017. (paper)

  2. Electrothermal frequency reference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makinwa, K.A.A.; Kashmiri, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    An electrothermal frequency-locked loop (EFLL) circuit is described. This EFLL circuit includes an oscillator in a feedback loop. A drive circuit in the EFLL circuit generates a first signal having a fundamental frequency, and an electrothermal filter (ETF) in the EFLL circuit provides a second

  3. Technique for long and absolute distance measurement based on laser pulse repetition frequency sweeping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Alves, D.; Abreu, Manuel; Cabral, A.; Jost, Michael; Rebordão, J. M.

    2017-11-01

    In this work we present a technique to perform long and absolute distance measurements based on mode-locked diode lasers. Using a Michelson interferometer, it is possible to produce an optical cross-correlation between laser pulses of the reference arm with the pulses from the measurement arm, adjusting externally their degree of overlap either changing the pulse repetition frequency (PRF) or the position of the reference arm mirror for two (or more) fixed frequencies. The correlation of the travelling pulses for precision distance measurements relies on ultra-short pulse durations, as the uncertainty associated to the method is dependent on the laser pulse width as well as on a highly stable PRF. Mode-locked Diode lasers are a very appealing technology for its inherent characteristics, associated to compactness, size and efficiency, constituting a positive trade-off with regard to other mode-locked laser sources. Nevertheless, main current drawback is the non-availability of frequency-stable laser diodes. The laser used is a monolithic mode-locked semiconductor quantum-dot (QD) laser. The laser PRF is locked to an external stabilized RF reference. In this work we will present some of the preliminary results and discuss the importance of the requirements related to laser PRF stability in the final metrology system accuracy.

  4. Frequency comb calibrated frequency-sweeping interferometry for absolute group refractive index measurement of air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lijun; Wu, Xuejian; Wei, Haoyun; Li, Yan

    2017-04-10

    The absolute group refractive index of air at 194061.02 GHz is measured in real time using frequency-sweeping interferometry calibrated by an optical frequency comb. The group refractive index of air is calculated from the calibration peaks of the laser frequency variation and the interference signal of the two beams passing through the inner and outer regions of a vacuum cell when the frequency of a tunable external cavity diode laser is scanned. We continuously measure the refractive index of air for 2 h, which shows that the difference between measured results and Ciddor's equation is less than 9.6×10-8, and the standard deviation of that difference is 5.9×10-8. The relative uncertainty of the measured refractive index of air is estimated to be 8.6×10-8. The data update rate is 0.2 Hz, making it applicable under conditions in which air refractive index fluctuates fast.

  5. Enhanced Lamb dip for absolute laser frequency stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegman, A. E.; Byer, R. L.; Wang, S. C.

    1972-01-01

    Enhanced Lamb dip width is 5 MHz and total depth is 10 percent of peak power. Present configuration is useful as frequency standard in near infrared. Technique extends to other lasers, for which low pressure narrow linewidth gain tubes can be constructed.

  6. Utilizing a reference material for assessing absolute tumor mechanical properties in modality independent elastography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Kyu; Weis, Jared A.; Yankeelov, Thomas E.; Miga, Michael I.

    2014-03-01

    There is currently no reliable method for early characterization of breast cancer response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) [1,2]. Given that disruption of normal structural architecture occurs in cancer-bearing tissue, we hypothesize that further structural changes occur in response to NAC. Consequently, we are investigating the use of modalityindependent elastography (MIE) [3-8] as a method for monitoring mechanical integrity to predict long term outcomes in NAC. Recently, we have utilized a Demons non-rigid image registration method that allows 3D elasticity reconstruction in abnormal tissue geometries, making it particularly amenable to the evaluation of breast cancer mechanical properties. While past work has reflected relative elasticity contrast ratios [3], this study improves upon that work by utilizing a known stiffness reference material within the reconstruction framework such that a stiffness map becomes an absolute measure. To test, a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) cryogel phantom and a silicone rubber mock mouse tumor phantom were constructed with varying mechanical stiffness. Results showed that an absolute measure of stiffness could be obtained based on a reference value. This reference technique demonstrates the ability to generate accurate measurements of absolute stiffness to characterize response to NAC. These results support that `referenced MIE' has the potential to reliably differentiate absolute tumor stiffness with significant contrast from that of surrounding tissue. The use of referenced MIE to obtain absolute quantification of biomarkers is also translatable across length scales such that the characterization method is mechanics-consistent at the small animal and human application.

  7. Electrothermal frequency references in standard CMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Kashmiri, S Mahdi

    2013-01-01

    This book describes an alternative method of accurate on-chip frequency generation in standard CMOS IC processes. This method exploits the thermal-diffusivity of silicon, the rate at which heat diffuses through a silicon substrate.  This is the first book describing thermal-diffusivity-based frequency references, including the complete theoretical methodology supported by practical realizations that prove the feasibility of the method.  Coverage also includes several circuit and system-level solutions for the analog electronic circuit design challenges faced.   ·         Surveys the state-of-the-art in all-silicon frequency references; ·         Examines the thermal properties of silicon as a solution for the challenge of on-chip accurate frequency generation; ·         Uses simplified modeling approaches that allow an electronics engineer easily to simulate the electrothermal elements; ·         Follows a top-down methodology in circuit design, in which system-level des...

  8. The correction of vibration in frequency scanning interferometry based absolute distance measurement system for dynamic measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Cheng; Liu, Guodong; Liu, Bingguo; Chen, Fengdong; Zhuang, Zhitao; Xu, Xinke; Gan, Yu

    2015-10-01

    Absolute distance measurement systems are of significant interest in the field of metrology, which could improve the manufacturing efficiency and accuracy of large assemblies in fields such as aircraft construction, automotive engineering, and the production of modern windmill blades. Frequency scanning interferometry demonstrates noticeable advantages as an absolute distance measurement system which has a high precision and doesn't depend on a cooperative target. In this paper , the influence of inevitable vibration in the frequency scanning interferometry based absolute distance measurement system is analyzed. The distance spectrum is broadened as the existence of Doppler effect caused by vibration, which will bring in a measurement error more than 103 times bigger than the changes of optical path difference. In order to decrease the influence of vibration, the changes of the optical path difference are monitored by a frequency stabilized laser, which runs parallel to the frequency scanning interferometry. The experiment has verified the effectiveness of this method.

  9. The Absolute Stability Analysis in Fuzzy Control Systems with Parametric Uncertainties and Reference Inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bing-Fei; Ma, Li-Shan; Perng, Jau-Woei

    This study analyzes the absolute stability in P and PD type fuzzy logic control systems with both certain and uncertain linear plants. Stability analysis includes the reference input, actuator gain and interval plant parameters. For certain linear plants, the stability (i.e. the stable equilibriums of error) in P and PD types is analyzed with the Popov or linearization methods under various reference inputs and actuator gains. The steady state errors of fuzzy control systems are also addressed in the parameter plane. The parametric robust Popov criterion for parametric absolute stability based on Lur'e systems is also applied to the stability analysis of P type fuzzy control systems with uncertain plants. The PD type fuzzy logic controller in our approach is a single-input fuzzy logic controller and is transformed into the P type for analysis. In our work, the absolute stability analysis of fuzzy control systems is given with respect to a non-zero reference input and an uncertain linear plant with the parametric robust Popov criterion unlike previous works. Moreover, a fuzzy current controlled RC circuit is designed with PSPICE models. Both numerical and PSPICE simulations are provided to verify the analytical results. Furthermore, the oscillation mechanism in fuzzy control systems is specified with various equilibrium points of view in the simulation example. Finally, the comparisons are also given to show the effectiveness of the analysis method.

  10. A digital, constant-frequency pulsed phase-locked-loop instrument for real-time, absolute ultrasonic phase measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldren, H. A.; Perey, D. F.; Yost, W. T.; Cramer, K. E.; Gupta, M. C.

    2018-05-01

    A digitally controlled instrument for conducting single-frequency and swept-frequency ultrasonic phase measurements has been developed based on a constant-frequency pulsed phase-locked-loop (CFPPLL) design. This instrument uses a pair of direct digital synthesizers to generate an ultrasonically transceived tone-burst and an internal reference wave for phase comparison. Real-time, constant-frequency phase tracking in an interrogated specimen is possible with a resolution of 0.000 38 rad (0.022°), and swept-frequency phase measurements can be obtained. Using phase measurements, an absolute thickness in borosilicate glass is presented to show the instrument's efficacy, and these results are compared to conventional ultrasonic pulse-echo time-of-flight (ToF) measurements. The newly developed instrument predicted the thickness with a mean error of -0.04 μm and a standard deviation of error of 1.35 μm. Additionally, the CFPPLL instrument shows a lower measured phase error in the absence of changing temperature and couplant thickness than high-resolution cross-correlation ToF measurements at a similar signal-to-noise ratio. By showing higher accuracy and precision than conventional pulse-echo ToF measurements and lower phase errors than cross-correlation ToF measurements, the new digitally controlled CFPPLL instrument provides high-resolution absolute ultrasonic velocity or path-length measurements in solids or liquids, as well as tracking of material property changes with high sensitivity. The ability to obtain absolute phase measurements allows for many new applications than possible with previous ultrasonic pulsed phase-locked loop instruments. In addition to improved resolution, swept-frequency phase measurements add useful capability in measuring properties of layered structures, such as bonded joints, or materials which exhibit non-linear frequency-dependent behavior, such as dispersive media.

  11. Calibration-free absolute frequency response measurement of directly modulated lasers based on additional modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shangjian; Zou, Xinhai; Wang, Heng; Zhang, Yali; Lu, Rongguo; Liu, Yong

    2015-10-15

    A calibration-free electrical method is proposed for measuring the absolute frequency response of directly modulated semiconductor lasers based on additional modulation. The method achieves the electrical domain measurement of the modulation index of directly modulated lasers without the need for correcting the responsivity fluctuation in the photodetection. Moreover, it doubles measuring frequency range by setting a specific frequency relationship between the direct and additional modulation. Both the absolute and relative frequency response of semiconductor lasers are experimentally measured from the electrical spectrum of the twice-modulated optical signal, and the measured results are compared to those obtained with conventional methods to check the consistency. The proposed method provides calibration-free and accurate measurement for high-speed semiconductor lasers with high-resolution electrical spectrum analysis.

  12. Dynamic frequency-domain interferometer for absolute distance measurements with high resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, Jidong; Liu, Shenggang; Ma, Heli; Tao, Tianjiong; Wang, Xiang; Liu, Cangli; Tan, Hua

    2014-01-01

    A unique dynamic frequency-domain interferometer for absolute distance measurement has been developed recently. This paper presents the working principle of the new interferometric system, which uses a photonic crystal fiber to transmit the wide-spectrum light beams and a high-speed streak camera or frame camera to record the interference stripes. Preliminary measurements of harmonic vibrations of a speaker, driven by a radio, and the changes in the tip clearance of a rotating gear wheel show that this new type of interferometer has the ability to perform absolute distance measurements both with high time- and distance-resolution

  13. Dynamic frequency-domain interferometer for absolute distance measurements with high resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Jidong; Liu, Shenggang; Ma, Heli; Tao, Tianjiong; Wang, Xiang; Liu, Cangli; Tan, Hua

    2014-11-01

    A unique dynamic frequency-domain interferometer for absolute distance measurement has been developed recently. This paper presents the working principle of the new interferometric system, which uses a photonic crystal fiber to transmit the wide-spectrum light beams and a high-speed streak camera or frame camera to record the interference stripes. Preliminary measurements of harmonic vibrations of a speaker, driven by a radio, and the changes in the tip clearance of a rotating gear wheel show that this new type of interferometer has the ability to perform absolute distance measurements both with high time- and distance-resolution.

  14. Simplified absolute phase retrieval of dual-frequency fringe patterns in fringe projection profilometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jin; Mo, Rong; Sun, Huibin; Chang, Zhiyong; Zhao, Xiaxia

    2016-04-01

    In fringe projection profilometry, a simplified method is proposed to recover absolute phase maps of two-frequency fringe patterns by using a unique mapping rule. The mapping rule is designed from the rounded phase values to the fringe order of each pixel. Absolute phase can be recovered by the fringe order maps. Unlike the existing techniques, where the lowest frequency of dual- or multiple-frequency fringe patterns must be single, the presented method breaks the limitation and simplifies the procedure of phase unwrapping. Additionally, due to many issues including ambient light, shadow, sharp edges, step height boundaries and surface reflectivity variations, a novel framework of automatically identifying and removing invalid phase values is also proposed. Simulations and experiments have been carried out to validate the performances of the proposed method.

  15. Defining an absolute reference frame for 'clumped' isotope studies of CO 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Kate J.; Affek, Hagit P.; Passey, Benjamin H.; Schrag, Daniel P.; Eiler, John M.

    2011-11-01

    We present a revised approach for standardizing and reporting analyses of multiply substituted isotopologues of CO 2 (i.e., 'clumped' isotopic species, especially the mass-47 isotopologues). Our approach standardizes such data to an absolute reference frame based on theoretical predictions of the abundances of multiply-substituted isotopologues in gaseous CO 2 at thermodynamic equilibrium. This reference frame is preferred over an inter-laboratory calibration of carbonates because it enables all laboratories measuring mass 47 CO 2 to use a common scale that is tied directly to theoretical predictions of clumping in CO 2, regardless of the laboratory's primary research field (carbonate thermometry or CO 2 biogeochemistry); it explicitly accounts for mass spectrometric artifacts rather than convolving (and potentially confusing) them with chemical fractionations associated with sample preparation; and it is based on a thermodynamic equilibrium that can be experimentally established in any suitably equipped laboratory using commonly available materials. By analyzing CO 2 gases that have been subjected to established laboratory procedures known to promote isotopic equilibrium (i.e., heated gases and water-equilibrated CO 2), and by reference to thermodynamic predictions of equilibrium isotopic distributions, it is possible to construct an empirical transfer function that is applicable to data with unknown clumped isotope signatures. This transfer function empirically accounts for the fragmentation and recombination reactions that occur in electron impact ionization sources and other mass spectrometric artifacts. We describe the protocol necessary to construct such a reference frame, the method for converting gases with unknown clumped isotope compositions to this reference frame, and suggest a protocol for ensuring that all reported isotopic compositions (e.g., Δ 47 values; Eiler and Schauble, 2004; Eiler, 2007) can be compared among different laboratories and

  16. Thermal-Diffusivity-Based Frequency References in Standard CMOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kashmiri, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, a lot of research has been devoted to the realization of accurate integrated frequency references. A thermal-diffusivity-based (TD) frequency reference provides an alternative method of on-chip frequency generation in standard CMOS technology. A frequency-locked loop locks the

  17. New design and facilities for the International Database for Absolute Gravity Measurements (AGrav): A support for the Establishment of a new Global Absolute Gravity Reference System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wziontek, Hartmut; Falk, Reinhard; Bonvalot, Sylvain; Rülke, Axel

    2017-04-01

    After about 10 years of successful joint operation by BGI and BKG, the International Database for Absolute Gravity Measurements "AGrav" (see references hereafter) was under a major revision. The outdated web interface was replaced by a responsive, high level web application framework based on Python and built on top of Pyramid. Functionality was added, like interactive time series plots or a report generator and the interactive map-based station overview was updated completely, comprising now clustering and the classification of stations. Furthermore, the database backend was migrated to PostgreSQL for better support of the application framework and long-term availability. As comparisons of absolute gravimeters (AG) become essential to realize a precise and uniform gravity standard, the database was extended to document the results on international and regional level, including those performed at monitoring stations equipped with SGs. By this it will be possible to link different AGs and to trace their equivalence back to the key comparisons under the auspices of International Committee for Weights and Measures (CIPM) as the best metrological realization of the absolute gravity standard. In this way the new AGrav database accommodates the demands of the new Global Absolute Gravity Reference System as recommended by the IAG Resolution No. 2 adopted in Prague 2015. The new database will be presented with focus on the new user interface and new functionality, calling all institutions involved in absolute gravimetry to participate and contribute with their information to built up a most complete picture of high precision absolute gravimetry and improve its visibility. A Digital Object Identifier (DOI) will be provided by BGI to contributors to give a better traceability and facilitate the referencing of their gravity surveys. Links and references: BGI mirror site : http://bgi.obs-mip.fr/data-products/Gravity-Databases/Absolute-Gravity-data/ BKG mirror site: http

  18. Absolute frequency atlas from 915 nm to 985 nm based on laser absorption spectroscopy of iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nölleke, Christian; Raab, Christoph; Neuhaus, Rudolf; Falke, Stephan

    2018-04-01

    This article reports on laser absorption spectroscopy of iodine gas between 915 nm and 985 nm. This wavelength range is scanned utilizing a narrow linewidth and mode-hop-free tunable diode-laser whose frequency is actively controlled using a calibrated wavelength meter. This allows us to provide an iodine atlas that contains almost 10,000 experimentally observed reference lines with an uncertainty of 50 MHz. For common lines, good agreement is found with a publication by Gerstenkorn and Luc (1978). The new rich dataset allows existing models of the iodine molecule to be refined and can serve as a reference for laser frequency calibration and stabilization.

  19. JOKARUS - design of a compact optical iodine frequency reference for a sounding rocket mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schkolnik, Vladimir; Doeringshoff, Klaus; Gutsch, Franz Balthasar; Krutzik, Markus [Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Oswald, Markus [Universitaet Bremen, Zentrum fuer angewandte Raumfahrttechnologie und Mikrogravitation (ZARM), Bremen (Germany); Schuldt, Thilo [Institut fuer Raumfahrtsysteme, Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Bremen (Germany); Braxmaier, Claus [Universitaet Bremen, Zentrum fuer angewandte Raumfahrttechnologie und Mikrogravitation (ZARM), Bremen (Germany); Institut fuer Raumfahrtsysteme, Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Bremen (Germany); Lezius, Matthias; Holzwarth, Ronald [Menlo Systems GmbH, Martinsried (Germany); Kuerbis, Christian; Bawamia, Ahmad [Leibniz-Institut fuer Hoechstfrequenztechnik, Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Berlin (Germany); Peters, Achim [Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Leibniz-Institut fuer Hoechstfrequenztechnik, Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Berlin (Germany)

    2017-12-15

    We present the design of a compact absolute optical frequency reference for space applications based on hyperfine transitions in molecular iodine with a targeted fractional frequency instability of better than 3 x 10{sup -14} after 1 s. It is based on a micro-integrated extended cavity diode laser with integrated optical amplifier, fiber pigtailed second harmonic generation wave-guide modules, and a quasi-monolithic spectroscopy setup with operating electronics. The instrument described here is scheduled for launch end of 2017 aboard the TEXUS 54 sounding rocket as an important qualification step towards space application of iodine frequency references and related technologies. The payload will operate autonomously and its optical frequency will be compared to an optical frequency comb during its space flight. (orig.)

  20. Dissemination of optical-comb-based ultra-broadband frequency reference through a fiber network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, Shigeo; Kumagai, Motohiro; Li, Ying; Ido, Tetsuya; Ishii, Shoken; Mizutani, Kohei; Aoki, Makoto; Otsuka, Ryohei; Hanado, Yuko

    2016-08-22

    We disseminated an ultra-broadband optical frequency reference based on a femtosecond (fs)-laser optical comb through a kilometer-scale fiber link. Its spectrum ranged from 1160 nm to 2180 nm without additional fs-laser combs at the end of the link. By employing a fiber-induced phase noise cancellation technique, the linewidth and fractional frequency instability attained for all disseminated comb modes were of order 1 Hz and 10-18 in a 5000 s averaging time. The ultra-broad optical frequency reference, for which absolute frequency is traceable to Japan Standard Time, was applied in the frequency stabilization of an injection-seeded Q-switched 2051 nm pulse laser for a coherent light detection and ranging LIDAR system.

  1. Absolute measurements of the high-frequency magnetic dynamics in high-Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayden, S.M.; Dai, P.; Mook, H.A.; Perring, T.G.; Cheong, S.W.; Fisk, Z.; Dogan, F.; Mason, T.E.

    1997-01-01

    The authors review recent measurements of the high-frequency dynamic magnetic susceptibility in the high-T c superconducting systems La 2-x Sr x CuO 4 and YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6+x . Experiments were performed using the chopper spectrometers HET and MARI at the ISIS spallation source. The authors have placed their measurements on an absolute intensity scale, this allows systematic trends to be seen and comparisons with theory to be made. They find that the insulating S = 1/2 antiferromagnetic parent compounds show a dramatic renormalization in the spin wave intensity. The effect of doping on the response is to cause broadenings in wave vector and large redistributions of spectral weight in frequency

  2. Have human activities changed the frequencies of absolute extreme temperatures in eastern China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Tett, Simon F. B.; Yan, Zhongwei; Feng, Jinming

    2018-01-01

    Extreme temperatures affect populous regions, like eastern China, causing substantial socio-economic losses. It is beneficial to explore whether the frequencies of absolute or threshold-based extreme temperatures have been changed by human activities, such as anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). In this study, we compared observed and multi-model-simulated changes in the frequencies of summer days, tropical nights, icy days and frosty nights in eastern China for the years 1960-2012 by using an optimal fingerprinting method. The observed long-term trends in the regional mean frequencies of these four indices were +2.36, +1.62, -0.94, -3.02 days decade-1. The models performed better in simulating the observed frequency change in daytime extreme temperatures than nighttime ones. Anthropogenic influences are detectable in the observed frequency changes of these four temperature extreme indices. The influence of natural forcings could not be detected robustly in any indices. Further analysis found that the effects of GHGs changed the frequencies of summer days (tropical nights, icy days, frosty nights) by +3.48 ± 1.45 (+2.99 ± 1.35, -2.52 ± 1.28, -4.11 ± 1.48) days decade-1. Other anthropogenic forcing agents (dominated by anthropogenic aerosols) offset the GHG effect and changed the frequencies of these four indices by -1.53 ± 0.78, -1.49 ± 0.94, +1.84 ± 1.07, +1.45 ± 1.26 days decade-1, respectively. Little influence of natural forcings was found in the observed frequency changes of these four temperature extreme indices.

  3. Mounting system for optical frequency reference cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notcutt, Mark (Inventor); Hall, John L. (Inventor); Ma, Long-Sheng (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A technique for reducing the vibration sensitivity of laser-stabilizing optical reference cavities is based upon an improved design and mounting method for the cavity, wherein the cavity is mounted vertically. It is suspended at one plane, around the spacer cylinder, equidistant from the mirror ends of the cavity. The suspension element is a collar of an extremely low thermal expansion coefficient material, which surrounds the spacer cylinder and contacts it uniformly. Once the collar has been properly located, it is cemented in place so that the spacer cylinder is uniformly supported and does not have to be squeezed at all. The collar also includes a number of cavities partially bored into its lower flat surface, around the axial bore. These cavities are support points, into which mounting base pins will be inserted. Hence the collar is supported at a minimum of three points.

  4. Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foreman, Seth M.; Holman, Kevin W.; Hudson, Darren D.; Jones, David J.; Ye, Jun

    2007-01-01

    Three distinct techniques exist for distributing an ultrastable frequency reference over optical fibers. For the distribution of a microwave frequency reference, an amplitude-modulated continuous wave (cw) laser can be used. Over kilometer-scale lengths this approach provides an instability at 1 s of ∼3x10 -14 without stabilization of the fiber-induced noise and ∼1x10 -14 with active noise cancellation. An optical frequency reference can be transferred by directly transmitting a stabilized cw laser over fiber and then disseminated to other optical and microwave regions using an optical frequency comb. This provides an instability at 1 s of 2x10 -14 without active noise cancellation and 3x10 -15 with active noise cancellation [Recent results reduce the instability at 1 s to 6x10 -18 .] Finally, microwave and optical frequency references can be simultaneously transmitted using an optical frequency comb, and we expect the optical transfer to be similar in performance to the cw optical frequency transfer. The instability at 1 s for transfer of a microwave frequency reference with the comb is ∼3x10 -14 without active noise cancellation and -15 with active stabilization. The comb can also distribute a microwave frequency reference with root-mean-square timing jitter below 16 fs integrated over the Nyquist bandwidth of the pulse train (∼50 MHz) when high-bandwidth active noise cancellation is employed, which is important for remote synchronization applications

  5. Absolute spike frequency as a predictor of surgical outcome in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Ly; Sperling, Michael R; Skidmore, Christopher; Mintzer, Scott; Nei, Maromi

    2017-04-01

    Frequent interictal epileptiform abnormalities may correlate with poor prognosis after temporal lobe resection for refractory epilepsy. To date, studies have focused on limited resections such as selective amygdalohippocampectomy and apical temporal lobectomy without hippocampectomy. However, it is unclear whether the frequency of spikes predicts outcome after standard anterior temporal lobectomy. Preoperative scalp video-EEG monitoring data from patients who subsequently underwent anterior temporal lobectomy over a three year period and were followed for at least one year were reviewed for the frequency of interictal epileptiform abnormalities. Surgical outcome for those patients with frequent spikes (>60/h) was compared with those with less frequent spikes. Additionally, spike frequency was evaluated as a continuous variable and correlated with outcome to determine if increased spike frequency correlated with worse outcome, as assessed by modified Engel Class outcome. Forty-seven patients (18 men, 29 women; mean age 40 years at surgery) were included. Forty-six patients had standard anterior temporal lobectomy (24 right, 22 left) and one had a modified left temporal lobectomy. There was no significant difference in seizure outcome between those with frequent (57% Class I) vs. those with less frequent (58% Class I) spikes. Increased spike frequency did not correlate with worse outcome. Greater than 20 complex partial seizures/month and generalized tonic-clonic seizures within one year of surgery correlated with worse outcome. This study suggests that absolute spike frequency does not predict seizure outcome after anterior temporal lobectomy unlike in selective procedures, and should not be used as a prognostic factor in this population. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The web-based ASSO-food frequency questionnaire for adolescents: relative and absolute reproducibility assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippi, Anna Rita; Amodio, Emanuele; Napoli, Giuseppe; Breda, João; Bianco, Antonino; Jemni, Monèm; Censi, Laura; Mammina, Caterina; Tabacchi, Garden

    2014-12-17

    A new food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) has been recently developed within the Italian Adolescents and Surveillance System for the Obesity prevention (ASSO) Project; it was found to be appropriate for ranking adolescents in food and nutrient levels of intake. The aim of this study was to assess the relative and absolute reproducibility of the ASSO-FFQ for 24 food groups, energy and 52 nutrients. A test-retest study was performed on two ASSO-FFQs administered one month apart of each other to 185 adolescents, aged 14-17 and attending secondary schools in Palermo (Italy). Wilcoxon test assessed differences in median daily intakes between the two FFQs. Agreement was evaluated by quintiles comparison and weighted kappa. Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC) and Bland-Altman method assessed the relative and absolute reliability respectively. Significant difference (p food, water, soft drinks, carbohydrates and sugar. The subjects classified into the same or adjacent quintiles for food groups ranged from 62% (white bread) to 91% (soft drinks); for energy and nutrients from 64% (polyunsaturated fatty acids) to 90% (ethanol). Mean values of weighted kappa were 0.47 and 0.48, respectively for food groups and nutrients. Fair to good ICC values (>0.40) were assessed for thirteen food groups, energy and forty-three nutrients. Limits of Agreement were narrow for almost all food groups and all nutrients. The ASSO-FFQ is a reliable instrument for estimating food groups, energy and nutrients intake in adolescents.

  7. Simplified fringe order correction for absolute phase maps recovered with multiple-spatial-frequency fringe projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Yi; Peng, Kai; Lu, Lei; Zhong, Kai; Zhu, Ziqi

    2017-01-01

    Various kinds of fringe order errors may occur in the absolute phase maps recovered with multi-spatial-frequency fringe projections. In existing methods, multiple successive pixels corrupted by fringe order errors are detected and corrected pixel-by-pixel with repeating searches, which is inefficient for applications. To improve the efficiency of multiple successive fringe order corrections, in this paper we propose a method to simplify the error detection and correction by the stepwise increasing property of fringe order. In the proposed method, the numbers of pixels in each step are estimated to find the possible true fringe order values, repeating the search in detecting multiple successive errors can be avoided for efficient error correction. The effectiveness of our proposed method is validated by experimental results. (paper)

  8. Absolute distance measurement with extension of nonambiguity range using the frequency comb of a femtosecond laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yoon-Soo; Lee, Keunwoo; Han, Seongheum; Lee, Joohyung; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Seung-Woo

    2014-12-01

    We revisit the method of synthetic wavelength interferometry (SWI) for absolute measurement of long distances using the radio-frequency harmonics of the pulse repetition rate of a mode-locked femtosecond laser. Our intention here is to extend the nonambiguity range (NAR) of the SWI method using a coarse virtual wavelength synthesized by shifting the pulse repetition rate. The proposed concept of NAR extension is experimentally verified by measuring a ˜13-m distance with repeatability of 9.5 μm (root-mean-square). The measurement precision is estimated to be 31.2 μm in comparison with an incremental He-Ne laser interferometer. This extended SWI method is found to be well suited for long-distance measurements demanded in the fields of large-scale precision engineering, geodetic survey, and future space missions.

  9. Absolute Determination of High DC Voltages by Means of Frequency Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peier, Dirk; Schulz, Bernd

    1983-01-01

    A novel absolute measuring procedure is presented for the definition of fixed points of the voltage in the 100 kV range. The method is based on transit time measurements with accelerated electrons. By utilizing the selective interaction of a monoenergetic electron beam with the electromagnetic field of a special cavity resonator, the voltage is referred to fundamental constants and the base unit second. Possible balance voltages are indicated by a current detector. Experimental investigations are carried out with resonators in the normal conducting range. With a copper resonator operating at the temperature of boiling nitrogen (77 K), the relative uncertainty of the voltage points is estimated to be +/- 4 × 10-4. The technically realizable uncertainty can be reduced to +/- 1 × 10-5 by the proposed application of a superconducting niobium resonator. Thus this measuring device becomes suitable as a primary standard for the high-voltage range.

  10. Real-Time and Meter-Scale Absolute Distance Measurement by Frequency-Comb-Referenced Multi-Wavelength Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guochao Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We report on a frequency-comb-referenced absolute interferometer which instantly measures long distance by integrating multi-wavelength interferometry with direct synthetic wavelength interferometry. The reported interferometer utilizes four different wavelengths, simultaneously calibrated to the frequency comb of a femtosecond laser, to implement subwavelength distance measurement, while direct synthetic wavelength interferometry is elaborately introduced by launching a fifth wavelength to extend a non-ambiguous range for meter-scale measurement. A linearity test performed comparatively with a He–Ne laser interferometer shows a residual error of less than 70.8 nm in peak-to-valley over a 3 m distance, and a 10 h distance comparison is demonstrated to gain fractional deviations of ~3 × 10−8 versus 3 m distance. Test results reveal that the presented absolute interferometer enables precise, stable, and long-term distance measurements and facilitates absolute positioning applications such as large-scale manufacturing and space missions.

  11. Real-Time and Meter-Scale Absolute Distance Measurement by Frequency-Comb-Referenced Multi-Wavelength Interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guochao; Tan, Lilong; Yan, Shuhua

    2018-02-07

    We report on a frequency-comb-referenced absolute interferometer which instantly measures long distance by integrating multi-wavelength interferometry with direct synthetic wavelength interferometry. The reported interferometer utilizes four different wavelengths, simultaneously calibrated to the frequency comb of a femtosecond laser, to implement subwavelength distance measurement, while direct synthetic wavelength interferometry is elaborately introduced by launching a fifth wavelength to extend a non-ambiguous range for meter-scale measurement. A linearity test performed comparatively with a He-Ne laser interferometer shows a residual error of less than 70.8 nm in peak-to-valley over a 3 m distance, and a 10 h distance comparison is demonstrated to gain fractional deviations of ~3 × 10 -8 versus 3 m distance. Test results reveal that the presented absolute interferometer enables precise, stable, and long-term distance measurements and facilitates absolute positioning applications such as large-scale manufacturing and space missions.

  12. FINANCIAL STABILITY CROSS-REFERENCE BASED ON CALCULATION OF ABSOLUTE INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neli MUNTEAN

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The lack of applied methods in the national practice that would allow the realization of a complex analysis of financial stability in the corporate sector is one of the primary problems outlined in the process of organizing the fair and efficient management system of numerous factors that determine the financial performance in this sector. Under these circumstances, the need for a comprehensive analysis of financial stability in the corporate sector significantly increases, being an integrated part of the entity's financial situation analysis. The purpose and objectives of the article consist in the generalization of theoretical principles, financial stability analysis instruments and techniques in terms of absolute indicators adaptation to the norms and requirements of International Financial Reporting Standards, and in the comparative analysis of several methods that can be used to measure financial stability in the corporate sector. Thus, the following study, developed as a fusion of existing knowledge and authors own research, aims to provide a basis for reflection and discussion with theorists, practitioners and analysts within the financial field.

  13. The stars: an absolute radiometric reference for the on-orbit calibration of PLEIADES-HR satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meygret, Aimé; Blanchet, Gwendoline; Mounier, Flore; Buil, Christian

    2017-09-01

    The accurate on-orbit radiometric calibration of optical sensors has become a challenge for space agencies who gather their effort through international working groups such as CEOS/WGCV or GSICS with the objective to insure the consistency of space measurements and to reach an absolute accuracy compatible with more and more demanding scientific needs. Different targets are traditionally used for calibration depending on the sensor or spacecraft specificities: from on-board calibration systems to ground targets, they all take advantage of our capacity to characterize and model them. But achieving the in-flight stability of a diffuser panel is always a challenge while the calibration over ground targets is often limited by their BDRF characterization and the atmosphere variability. Thanks to their agility, some satellites have the capability to view extra-terrestrial targets such as the moon or stars. The moon is widely used for calibration and its albedo is known through ROLO (RObotic Lunar Observatory) USGS model but with a poor absolute accuracy limiting its use to sensor drift monitoring or cross-calibration. Although the spectral irradiance of some stars is known with a very high accuracy, it was not really shown that they could provide an absolute reference for remote sensors calibration. This paper shows that high resolution optical sensors can be calibrated with a high absolute accuracy using stars. The agile-body PLEIADES 1A satellite is used for this demonstration. The star based calibration principle is described and the results are provided for different stars, each one being acquired several times. These results are compared to the official calibration provided by ground targets and the main error contributors are discussed.

  14. Fringe order correction for the absolute phase recovered by two selected spatial frequency fringe projections in fringe projection profilometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yi; Peng, Kai; Yu, Miao; Lu, Lei; Zhao, Kun

    2017-08-01

    The performance of the two selected spatial frequency phase unwrapping methods is limited by a phase error bound beyond which errors will occur in the fringe order leading to a significant error in the recovered absolute phase map. In this paper, we propose a method to detect and correct the wrong fringe orders. Two constraints are introduced during the fringe order determination of two selected spatial frequency phase unwrapping methods. A strategy to detect and correct the wrong fringe orders is also described. Compared with the existing methods, we do not need to estimate the threshold associated with absolute phase values to determine the fringe order error, thus making it more reliable and avoiding the procedure of search in detecting and correcting successive fringe order errors. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated by the experimental results.

  15. An ultra-stable optical frequency reference for space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuldt, T.; Döringshoff, K.; Kovalchuk, E.; Pahl, J.; Gohlke, M.; Weise, D.; Johann, U.; Peters, A.; Braxmaier, C.

    2017-11-01

    We realized ultra-stable optical frequency references on elegant breadboard (EBB) and engineering model (EM) level utilizing Doppler-free spectroscopy of molecular iodine near 532nm. A frequency stability of about 1•10-14 at an integration time of 1 s and below 5•10-15 at integration times between 10 s and 100 s was achieved. These values are comparable to the currently best laboratory setups. Both setups use a baseplate made of glass material where the optical components are joint using a specific assembly-integration technology. Compared to the EBB setup, the EM setup is further developed with respect to compactness and mechanical and thermal stability. The EM setup uses a baseplate made of fused silica with dimensions of 380 x 180 x 40 mm3 and a specifically designed 100 x 100 x 30 mm3 rectangular iodine cell in nine-pass configuration with a specific robust cold finger design. The EM setup was subjected to thermal cycling and vibrational testing. Applications of such an optical frequency reference in space can be found in fundamental physics, geoscience, Earth observation, and navigation & ranging. One example is the proposed mSTAR (mini SpaceTime Asymmetry Research) mission, dedicated to perform a Kennedy-Thorndike experiment on a satellite in a sunsynchronous low-Earth orbit. By comparing an iodine standard to a cavity-based frequency reference and integration over 2 year mission lifetime, the Kennedy-Thorndike coefficient will be determined with up to two orders of magnitude higher accuracy than the current best ground experiment. In a current study, the compatibility of the payload with the SaudiSat-4 host vehicle is investigated.

  16. Research on spectrum broadening covering visible light of a fiber femtosecond optical frequency comb for absolute frequency measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Shuai; Wu, Tengfei; Li, Shuyi; Xia, Chuanqing; Han, Jibo; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Chunbo

    2018-03-01

    As a bridge connecting microwave frequency and optical frequency, femtosecond laser has important significance in optical frequency measurement. Compared with the traditional Ti-sapphire femtosecond optical frequency comb, with the advantages of compact structure, strong anti-interference ability and low cost, the fiber femtosecond optical frequency comb has a wider application prospect. An experiment of spectrum broadening in a highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber pumped by an Er-fiber mode-locked femtosecond laser is studied in this paper. Based on optical amplification and frequency doubling, the central wavelength of the output spectrum is 780nm and the average power is 232mW. With the femtosecond pulses coupled into two different photonic crystal fibers, the coverage of visible spectrum is up to 500nm-960nm. The spectral shape and width can be optimized by changing the polarization state for satisfying the requirments of different optical frequencies measurement.

  17. Absolute frequency list of the ν3-band transitions of methane at a relative uncertainty level of 10(-11).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Sho; Nakayama, Hirotaka; Iwakuni, Kana; Inaba, Hajime; Sasada, Hiroyuki

    2011-11-21

    We determine the absolute frequencies of 56 rotation-vibration transitions of the ν(3) band of CH(4) from 88.2 to 90.5 THz with a typical uncertainty of 2 kHz corresponding to a relative uncertainty of 2.2 × 10(-11) over an average time of a few hundred seconds. Saturated absorption lines are observed using a difference-frequency-generation source and a cavity-enhanced absorption cell, and the transition frequencies are measured with a fiber-laser-based optical frequency comb referenced to a rubidium atomic clock linked to the international atomic time. The determined value of the P(7) F(2)((2)) line is consistent with the International Committee for Weights and Measures recommendation within the uncertainty. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  18. The reference peak areas of the 1995 IAEA test spectra for gamma-ray spectrum analysis programs are absolute and traceable

    CERN Document Server

    Blaauw, M

    1999-01-01

    A previously validated algorithm for absolute peak area determination was used to verify the reference peak areas supplied with the 1995 IAEA test spectra for gamma-ray spectrometry. These reference peak areas turn out to be absolute and traceable to a precision of 0.9%: The reference peak areas are possibly too low by a factor 0.992+-0.009. It is proposed to employ the test spectra and reference areas to validate the peak areas obtained with any algorithm in gamma-ray spectrometry. (author)

  19. Simple programmable voltage reference for low frequency noise measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, V. E.; Chye, En Un

    2018-05-01

    The paper presents a circuit design of a low-noise voltage reference based on an electric double-layer capacitor, a microcontroller and a general purpose DAC. A large capacitance value (1F and more) makes it possible to create low-pass filter with a large time constant, effectively reducing low-frequency noise beyond its bandwidth. Choosing the optimum value of the resistor in the RC filter, one can achieve the best ratio between the transient time, the deviation of the output voltage from the set point and the minimum noise cut-off frequency. As experiments have shown, the spectral density of the voltage at a frequency of 1 kHz does not exceed 1.2 nV/√Hz the maximum deviation of the output voltage from the predetermined does not exceed 1.4 % and depends on the holding time of the previous value. Subsequently, this error is reduced to a constant value and can be compensated.

  20. Absolute parametric instability of low frequency waves in a 2-D nonuniform anisotropic warm plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaki, N.G.

    2004-01-01

    Using the separation method, the problem of absolute parametric instability (API) of electrostatic waves in magnetized pumped warm plasma is investigated. In this case the effect of static strong magnetic field is considered. The problem of strong magnetic field is solved in 2-D nonuniform plane plasma. The equations which describe the spatial part of the electric potential are obtained. Also the growth rates and conditions of the parametric instability for periodic cases are obtained. It is found that the spatial nonuniformity of the plasma exerts a stabilizing effect on the API. It is shown that the growth rates of periodic and aperiodic API in warm plasma are reduced in comparison with a cold plasma case

  1. Stabilization of the Absolute Frequency and Phase of a Compact, Low Jitter Modelocked Semiconductor Diode Laser

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Delfyett, Peter J., Jr

    2005-01-01

    .... This work represents, to our knowledge, the first stabilized modelocked diode laser using PDH that achieves both supermode elimination and optical frequency comb stabilization. The resulting optical comb source may be useful for advanced RF imaging radar for optical sampling in ADC or in novel waveform generation (DAC's).

  2. Radio frequency cavity analysis, measurement, and calibration of absolute Dee voltage for K-500 superconducting cyclotron at VECC, Kolkata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Som, Sumit; Seth, Sudeshna; Mandal, Aditya; Paul, Saikat; Duttagupta, Anjan [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata (India)

    2013-02-15

    Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre has commissioned a K-500 superconducting cyclotron for various types of nuclear physics experiments. The 3-phase radio-frequency system of superconducting cyclotron has been developed in the frequency range 9-27 MHz with amplitude and phase stability of 100 ppm and {+-}0.2{sup 0}, respectively. The analysis of the RF cavity has been carried out using 3D Computer Simulation Technology (CST) Microwave Studio code and various RF parameters and accelerating voltages ('Dee' voltage) are calculated from simulation. During the RF system commissioning, measurement of different RF parameters has been done and absolute Dee voltage has been calibrated using a CdTe X-ray detector along with its accessories and known X-ray source. The present paper discusses about the measured data and the simulation result.

  3. Radio frequency cavity analysis, measurement, and calibration of absolute Dee voltage for K-500 superconducting cyclotron at VECC, Kolkata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Som, Sumit; Seth, Sudeshna; Mandal, Aditya; Paul, Saikat; Duttagupta, Anjan

    2013-01-01

    Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre has commissioned a K-500 superconducting cyclotron for various types of nuclear physics experiments. The 3-phase radio-frequency system of superconducting cyclotron has been developed in the frequency range 9–27 MHz with amplitude and phase stability of 100 ppm and ±0.2 0 , respectively. The analysis of the RF cavity has been carried out using 3D Computer Simulation Technology (CST) Microwave Studio code and various RF parameters and accelerating voltages (“Dee” voltage) are calculated from simulation. During the RF system commissioning, measurement of different RF parameters has been done and absolute Dee voltage has been calibrated using a CdTe X-ray detector along with its accessories and known X-ray source. The present paper discusses about the measured data and the simulation result.

  4. Radio frequency cavity analysis, measurement, and calibration of absolute Dee voltage for K-500 superconducting cyclotron at VECC, Kolkata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Som, Sumit; Seth, Sudeshna; Mandal, Aditya; Paul, Saikat; Duttagupta, Anjan

    2013-02-01

    Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre has commissioned a K-500 superconducting cyclotron for various types of nuclear physics experiments. The 3-phase radio-frequency system of superconducting cyclotron has been developed in the frequency range 9-27 MHz with amplitude and phase stability of 100 ppm and ±0.20, respectively. The analysis of the RF cavity has been carried out using 3D Computer Simulation Technology (CST) Microwave Studio code and various RF parameters and accelerating voltages ("Dee" voltage) are calculated from simulation. During the RF system commissioning, measurement of different RF parameters has been done and absolute Dee voltage has been calibrated using a CdTe X-ray detector along with its accessories and known X-ray source. The present paper discusses about the measured data and the simulation result.

  5. Radio frequency cavity analysis, measurement, and calibration of absolute Dee voltage for K-500 superconducting cyclotron at VECC, Kolkata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Som, Sumit; Seth, Sudeshna; Mandal, Aditya; Paul, Saikat; Duttagupta, Anjan

    2013-02-01

    Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre has commissioned a K-500 superconducting cyclotron for various types of nuclear physics experiments. The 3-phase radio-frequency system of superconducting cyclotron has been developed in the frequency range 9-27 MHz with amplitude and phase stability of 100 ppm and ±0.2(0), respectively. The analysis of the RF cavity has been carried out using 3D Computer Simulation Technology (CST) Microwave Studio code and various RF parameters and accelerating voltages ("Dee" voltage) are calculated from simulation. During the RF system commissioning, measurement of different RF parameters has been done and absolute Dee voltage has been calibrated using a CdTe X-ray detector along with its accessories and known X-ray source. The present paper discusses about the measured data and the simulation result.

  6. Frequency of Medically Unexplained Symptoms in Homeopathy References of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavari M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: 25-50 percent of all patients who are visited by GPs, have complains that are not medically explained. Their management is a challenge for GPs. In homeopathy (a method of alternative medicine these symptoms are important for selection of remedies and in an effort to treat them. This study aimed at describing this existing situation by investigating the frequency of such complaints in the patients under study.Methods: This study is a cross-sectional study conducted in Isfahan in 2008 on 240 Patients who were visited in some of the clinics affiliated to Isfahan university of medical sciences. The patients were selected by convenient method. Data were gathered by the questionnaire and analyzed via SPSS 13.5 software using Chi-Square test.Results: Out of 240 patients, 150 were women (%65.4 and 90 were men(34.6%. 75.4 percent were 20-40 years old. 1.7 percent had no symptoms, 31.3 had 1-5 symptoms and 40.8 percent had 6-10 symptoms. The females had more symptoms than males. Symptoms of mind, GI, sleep and miscellaneous ones were 81.3, 80.4, 72.1 and 87.1 percent, respectively. The most frequent symptoms in each group were intrusive thought, salivation in sleep, waking frequently and dyspnea wearing tight collared clothes. Only 10.97 percent of patient referred to the physicians for these symptoms.Conclusion: The symptoms registered in homeopathy references have notable prevalence in the society but most of people with such symptoms will not go to a doctor for examination and treatment Therefore, it is very important to carry out more research regarding these symptoms. General population should receive more information and physicians, in turn, should use appropriate methods of therapy for treating these patients.

  7. A frequency domain global parameter estimation method for multiple reference frequency response measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, C. Y.; Tsuei, Y. G.; Allemang, R. J.; Brown, D. L.

    1988-10-01

    A method of using the matrix Auto-Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) model in the Laplace domain for multiple-reference global parameter identification is presented. This method is particularly applicable to the area of modal analysis where high modal density exists. The method is also applicable when multiple reference frequency response functions are used to characterise linear systems. In order to facilitate the mathematical solution, the Forsythe orthogonal polynomial is used to reduce the ill-conditioning of the formulated equations and to decouple the normal matrix into two reduced matrix blocks. A Complex Mode Indicator Function (CMIF) is introduced, which can be used to determine the proper order of the rational polynomials.

  8. An ultra-stable iodine-based frequency reference for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuldt, Thilo; Braxmaier, Claus; Doeringshoff, Klaus; Keetman, Anja; Reggentin, Matthias; Kovalchuk, Evgeny; Peters, Achim

    2012-07-01

    Future space missions require for ultra-stable optical frequency references. Examples are the gravitational wave detector LISA/eLISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna), the SpaceTime Asymmetry Research (STAR) program, the aperture-synthesis telescope Darwin and the GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) follow on mission exploring Earth's gravity. As high long-term frequency stability is required, lasers stabilized to atomic or molecular transitions are preferred, also offering an absolute frequency reference. Frequency stabilities in the 10 ^{-15} domains at longer integration times (up to several hours) are demonstrated in laboratory experiments using setups based on Doppler-free spectroscopy. Such setups with a frequency stability comparable to the hydrogen maser in the microwave domain, have the potential to be developed space compatible on a relatively short time scale. Here, we present the development of ultra-stable optical frequency references based on modulation-transfer spectroscopy of molecular iodine. Noise levels of 2\\cdot10 ^{-14} at an integration time of 1 s and below 3\\cdot10 ^{-15} at integration times between 100 s and 1000 s are demonstrated with a laboratory setup using an 80 cm long iodine cell in single-pass configuration in combination with a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser and standard optical components and optomechanic mounts. The frequency stability at longer integration times is (amongst other things) limited by the dimensional stability of the optical setup, i.e. by th pointing stability of the two counter-propagating beams overlapped in the iodine cell. With the goal of a future space compatible setup, a compact frequency standard on EBB (elegant breadboard) level was realized. The spectroscopy unit utilizes a baseplate made of Clearceram-HS, a glass ceramics with an ultra-low coefficient of thermal expansion of 2\\cdot10 ^{-8} K ^{-1}. The optical components are joint to the baseplate using adhesive bonding technology

  9. Contactless and absolute linear displacement detection based upon 3D printed magnets combined with passive radio-frequency identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windl, Roman; Abert, Claas; Bruckner, Florian; Huber, Christian; Vogler, Christoph; Weitensfelder, Herbert; Suess, Dieter

    2017-11-01

    Within this work a passive and wireless magnetic sensor, to monitor linear displacements, is proposed. We exploit recent advances in 3D printing and fabricate a polymer bonded magnet with a spatially linear magnetic field component corresponding to the length of the magnet. Regulating the magnetic compound fraction during printing allows specific shaping of the magnetic field distribution. A giant magnetoresistance magnetic field sensor is combined with a radio-frequency identification tag in order to passively monitor the exerted magnetic field of the printed magnet. Due to the tailored magnetic field, a displacement of the magnet with respect to the sensor can be detected within the sub-mm regime. The sensor design provides good flexibility by controlling the 3D printing process according to application needs. Absolute displacement detection using low cost components and providing passive operation, long term stability, and longevity renders the proposed sensor system ideal for structural health monitoring applications.

  10. Contactless and absolute linear displacement detection based upon 3D printed magnets combined with passive radio-frequency identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Windl

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Within this work a passive and wireless magnetic sensor, to monitor linear displacements, is proposed. We exploit recent advances in 3D printing and fabricate a polymer bonded magnet with a spatially linear magnetic field component corresponding to the length of the magnet. Regulating the magnetic compound fraction during printing allows specific shaping of the magnetic field distribution. A giant magnetoresistance magnetic field sensor is combined with a radio-frequency identification tag in order to passively monitor the exerted magnetic field of the printed magnet. Due to the tailored magnetic field, a displacement of the magnet with respect to the sensor can be detected within the sub-mm regime. The sensor design provides good flexibility by controlling the 3D printing process according to application needs. Absolute displacement detection using low cost components and providing passive operation, long term stability, and longevity renders the proposed sensor system ideal for structural health monitoring applications.

  11. Drug Treated Schizophrenia, Schizoaffective and Bipolar Disorder Patients Evaluated by qEEG Absolute Spectral Power and Mean Frequency Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wix-Ramos, Richard; Moreno, Xiomara; Capote, Eduardo; González, Gilbert; Uribe, Ezequiel; Eblen-Zajjur, Antonio

    2014-04-01

    Research of electroencephalograph (EEG) power spectrum and mean frequency has shown inconsistent results in patients with schizophrenic, schizoaffective and bipolar disorders during medication when compared to normal subjects thus; the characterization of these parameters is an important task. We applied quantitative EEG (qEEG) to investigate 38 control, 15 schizophrenic, 7 schizoaffective and 11 bipolar disorder subjects which remaine under the administration of psychotropic drugs (except control group). Absolute spectral power (ASP), mean frequency and hemispheric electrical asymmetry were measured by 19 derivation qEEG. Group mean values were compared with non parametrical Mann-Whitney test and spectral EEG maps with z-score method at p Schizoaffective patients received neuroleptic+benzodiazepine (71.4%) and for bipolar disorder patients neuroleptic+antiepileptic (81.8%). Schizophrenic (at all derivations except for Fp1, Fp2, F8 and T6) and schizoaffective (only at C3) show higher values of ASP (+57.7% and +86.1% respectively) compared to control group. ASP of bipolar disorder patients did not show differences against control group. The mean frequency was higher at Fp1 (+14.2%) and Fp2 (+17.4%) in bipolar disorder patients than control group, but no differences were found in frequencies between schizophrenic or schizoaffective patients against the control group. Majority of spectral differences were found at the left hemisphere in schizophrenic and schizoaffective but not in bipolar disorder subjects. The present report contributes to characterize quantitatively the qEEG in drug treated schizophrenic, schizoaffective or bipolar disorder patients.

  12. Component-Level Demonstration of a Microfabricated Atomic Frequency Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    Kitching, L. A. Liew, and J. Moreland, "A microfabricated atomic clock," Applied Physics Letters, vol. 85, pp. 1460-1462, 2004. [4] R. Lutwak , P...Symposium on Frequency Standards and Metrology, P. Gill, Ed. St. Andrews, Scotland: World Scientific, 2001, pp. 155-166. [31] R. Lutwak , D. Emmons...Frequency and Time Forum. Tampa, FL, 2003, pp. 31-32. [71] R. Lutwak , D. Emmons, T. English, W. Riley, A. Duwel, M. Varghese, D. K. Serkland, and

  13. The frequency of dietary references in homeopathic consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, Rubens Dolce

    2011-07-01

    A retrospective quantitative study on dietary references found in medical records of 2753 patients attending consultations from 10/1/1994 to 5/31/2007 was conducted. The symptoms found in the rubrics relating to food and drink aggravation and amelioration, aversion and craving of homeopathic repertories reflect diets at different places and times and do not correspond fully, to contemporary gastronomy. Desires for sweet and spicy foods were statistically more frequent, revealing the prevailing taste for such food among the studied population. Food cravings should be carefully analyzed before considering them as indications for choosing homeopathic therapy, they are less significant than aversions, aggravations and ameliorations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Reference Beam Pattern Design for Frequency Invariant Beamforming Based on Fast Fourier Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the field of fast Fourier transform (FFT-based frequency invariant beamforming (FIB, there is still an unsolved problem. That is the selection of the reference beam to make the designed wideband pattern frequency invariant (FI over a given frequency range. This problem is studied in this paper. The research shows that for a given array, the selection of the reference beam pattern is determined by the number of sensors and the ratio of the highest frequency to the lowest frequency of the signal (RHL. The length of the weight vector corresponding to a given reference beam pattern depends on the reference frequency. In addition, the upper bound of the weight length to ensure the FI property over the whole frequency band of interest is also given. When the constraints are added to the reference beam, it does not affect the FI property of the designed wideband beam as long as the symmetry of the reference beam is ensured. Based on this conclusion, a scheme for reference beam design is proposed.

  15. Absolute flux scale for radioastronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.P.; Stankevich, K.S.

    1986-01-01

    The authors propose and provide support for a new absolute flux scale for radio astronomy, which is not encumbered with the inadequacies of the previous scales. In constructing it the method of relative spectra was used (a powerful tool for choosing reference spectra). A review is given of previous flux scales. The authors compare the AIS scale with the scale they propose. Both scales are based on absolute measurements by the ''artificial moon'' method, and they are practically coincident in the range from 0.96 to 6 GHz. At frequencies above 6 GHz, 0.96 GHz, the AIS scale is overestimated because of incorrect extrapolation of the spectra of the primary and secondary standards. The major results which have emerged from this review of absolute scales in radio astronomy are summarized

  16. Positioning, alignment and absolute pointing of the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehr, F; Distefano, C

    2010-01-01

    A precise detector alignment and absolute pointing is crucial for point-source searches. The ANTARES neutrino telescope utilises an array of hydrophones, tiltmeters and compasses for the relative positioning of the optical sensors. The absolute calibration is accomplished by long-baseline low-frequency triangulation of the acoustic reference devices in the deep-sea with a differential GPS system at the sea surface. The absolute pointing can be independently verified by detecting the shadow of the Moon in cosmic rays.

  17. Reference absolute and indexed values for left and right ventricular volume, function and mass from cardiac computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stojanovska, Jadranka; Prasitdumrong, Hutsaya; Patel, Smita; Sundaram, Baskaran; Gross, Barry H.; Yilmaz, Zeynep N.; Kazerooni, Ella A.

    2014-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) volumetric and functional parameters are important biomarkers for morbidity and mortality in patients with heart failure. To retrospectively determine reference mean values of LV and RV volume, function and mass normalised by age, gender and body surface area (BSA) from retrospectively electrocardiographically gated 64-slice cardiac computed tomography (CCT) by using automated analysis software in healthy adults. The study was approved by the institutional review board with a waiver of informed consent. Seventy-four healthy subjects (49% female, mean age 49.6±11) free of hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia with a normal CCT formed the study population. Analyses of LV and RV volume (end-diastolic, end-systolic and stroke volumes), function (ejection fraction), LV mass and inter-rater reproducibility were performed with commercially available analysis software capable of automated contour detection. General linear model analysis was performed to assess statistical significance by age group after adjustment for gender and BSA. Bland–Altman analysis assessed the inter-rater agreement. The reference range for LV and RV volume, function, and LV mass was normalised to age, gender and BSA. Statistically significant differences were noted between genders in both LV mass and RV volume (P-value<0.0001). Age, in concert with gender, was associated with significant differences in RV end-diastolic volume and LV ejection fraction (P-values 0.027 and 0.03). Bland–Altman analysis showed acceptable limits of agreement (±1.5% for ejection fraction) without systematic error. LV and RV volume, function and mass normalised to age, gender and BSA can be reported from CCT datasets, providing additional information important for patient management.

  18. Reference-free determination of tissue absorption coefficient by modulation transfer function characterization in spatial frequency domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiting; Zhao, Huijuan; Li, Tongxin; Yan, Panpan; Zhao, Kuanxin; Qi, Caixia; Gao, Feng

    2017-08-08

    Spatial frequency domain (SFD) measurement allows rapid and non-contact wide-field imaging of the tissue optical properties, thus has become a potential tool for assessing physiological parameters and therapeutic responses during photodynamic therapy of skin diseases. The conventional SFD measurement requires a reference measurement within the same experimental scenario as that for a test one to calibrate mismatch between the real measurements and the model predictions. Due to the individual physical and geometrical differences among different tissues, organs and patients, an ideal reference measurement might be unavailable in clinical trials. To address this problem, we present a reference-free SFD determination of absorption coefficient that is based on the modulation transfer function (MTF) characterization. Instead of the absolute amplitude that is used in the conventional SFD approaches, we herein employ the MTF to characterize the propagation of the modulated lights in tissues. With such a dimensionless relative quantity, the measurements can be naturally corresponded to the model predictions without calibrating the illumination intensity. By constructing a three-dimensional database that portrays the MTF as a function of the optical properties (both the absorption coefficient μ a and the reduced scattering coefficient [Formula: see text]) and the spatial frequency, a look-up table approach or a least-square curve-fitting method is readily applied to recover the absorption coefficient from a single frequency or multiple frequencies, respectively. Simulation studies have verified the feasibility of the proposed reference-free method and evaluated its accuracy in the absorption recovery. Experimental validations have been performed on homogeneous tissue-mimicking phantoms with μ a ranging from 0.01 to 0.07 mm -1 and [Formula: see text] = 1.0 or 2.0 mm -1 . The results have shown maximum errors of 4.86 and 7% for [Formula: see text] = 1.0 mm -1 and

  19. The relative frequency of common neuromuscular diagnoses in a reference center

    OpenAIRE

    Cotta, Ana; Paim, Júlia Filardi; Carvalho, Elmano; da-Cunha-Júnior, Antonio Lopes; Navarro, Monica M.; Valicek, Jaquelin; Menezes, Miriam Melo; Nunes, Simone Vilela; Xavier-Neto, Rafael; Baptista Junior, Sidney; Lima, Luciano Romero; Takata, Reinaldo Issao; Vargas, Antonio Pedro

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The diagnostic procedure in neuromuscular patients is complex. Knowledge of the relative frequency of neuromuscular diseases within the investigated population is important to allow the neurologist to perform the most appropriate diagnostic tests. Objective: To report the relative frequency of common neuromuscular diagnoses in a reference center. Methods: A 17-year chart review of patients with suspicion of myopathy. Results: Among 3,412 examinations, 1,603 (46.98%) yielded confir...

  20. Absolute advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractA country is said to have an absolute advantage over another country in the production of a good or service if it can produce that good or service using fewer real resources. Equivalently, using the same inputs, the country can produce more output. The concept of absolute advantage can

  1. Relative frequency and estimated minimal frequency of Lysosomal Storage Diseases in Brazil: Report from a Reference Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Giugliani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs comprise a heterogeneous group of more than 50 genetic conditions of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM caused by a defect in lysosomal function. Although there are screening tests for some of these conditions, diagnosis usually depends on specific enzyme assays, which are only available in a few laboratories around the world. A pioneer facility for the diagnosis of IEM and LSDs was established in the South of Brazil in 1982 and has served as a reference service since then. Over the past 34 years, samples from 72,797 patients were referred for investigation of IEM, and 3,211 were confirmed as having an LSD (4.41%, or 1 in 22, with 3,099 of these patients originating from Brazil. The rate of diagnosis has increased over time, in part due to the creation of diagnostic networks involving a large number of Brazilian services. These cases, referred from Brazilian regions, provide insight about the relative frequency of LSDs in the country. The large amount of data available allows for the estimation of the minimal frequency of specific LSDs in Brazil. The reported data could help to plan health care policies, as there are specific therapies available for most of the cases diagnosed.

  2. Flight-Like Optical Reference Cavity for GRACE Follow-On Laser Frequency Stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkner, W. M.; deVine, G.; Klipstein, W. M.; McKenzie, K.; Spero, R.; Thompson, R.; Yu, N.; Stephens, M.; Leitch, J.; Pierce, R.; hide

    2011-01-01

    We describe a prototype optical cavity and associated optics that has been developed to provide a stable frequency reference for a future space-based laser ranging system. This instrument is being considered for inclusion as a technology demonstration on the recently announced GRACE follow-on mission, which will monitor variations in the Earth's gravity field.

  3. How calibration and reference spectra affect the accuracy of absolute soft X-ray solar irradiance measured by the SDO/EVE/ESP during high solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didkovsky, Leonid; Wieman, Seth; Woods, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    The Extreme ultraviolet Spectrophotometer (ESP), one of the channels of SDO's Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE), measures solar irradiance in several EUV and soft x-ray (SXR) bands isolated using thin-film filters and a transmission diffraction grating, and includes a quad-diode detector positioned at the grating zeroth-order to observe in a wavelength band from about 0.1 to 7.0 nm. The quad diode signal also includes some contribution from shorter wavelength in the grating's first-order and the ratio of zeroth-order to first-order signal depends on both source geometry, and spectral distribution. For example, radiometric calibration of the ESP zeroth-order at the NIST SURF BL-2 with a near-parallel beam provides a different zeroth-to-first-order ratio than modeled for solar observations. The relative influence of "uncalibrated" first-order irradiance during solar observations is a function of the solar spectral irradiance and the locations of large Active Regions or solar flares. We discuss how the "uncalibrated" first-order "solar" component and the use of variable solar reference spectra affect determination of absolute SXR irradiance which currently may be significantly overestimated during high solar activity.

  4. Towards absolute quantification of allergenic proteins in food--lysozyme in wine as a model system for metrologically traceable mass spectrometric methods and certified reference materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryar, Adam; Pritchard, Caroline; Burkitt, William; Walker, Michael; O'Connor, Gavin; Burns, Duncan Thorburn; Quaglia, Milena

    2013-01-01

    Current routine food allergen quantification methods, which are based on immunochemistry, offer high sensitivity but can suffer from issues of specificity and significant variability of results. MS approaches have been developed, but currently lack metrological traceability. A feasibility study on the application of metrologically traceable MS-based reference procedures was undertaken. A proof of concept involving proteolytic digestion and isotope dilution MS for quantification of protein allergens in a food matrix was undertaken using lysozyme in wine as a model system. A concentration of lysozyme in wine of 0.95 +/- 0.03 microg/g was calculated based on the concentrations of two peptides, confirming that this type of analysis is viable at allergenically meaningful concentrations. The challenges associated with this promising method were explored; these included peptide stability, chemical modification, enzymatic digestion, and sample cleanup. The method is suitable for the production of allergen in food certified reference materials, which together with the achieved understanding of the effects of sample preparation and of the matrix on the final results, will assist in addressing the bias of the techniques routinely used and improve measurement confidence. Confirmation of the feasibility of MS methods for absolute quantification of an allergenic protein in a food matrix with results traceable to the International System of Units is a step towards meaningful comparison of results for allergen proteins among laboratories. This approach will also underpin risk assessment and risk management of allergens in the food industry, and regulatory compliance of the use of thresholds or action levels when adopted.

  5. Recent Experiments Leading to the Characterization of the Performance of Portable (He-Ne)/CH4 Lasers: Part II: Results of the 1986 LPTF Absolute Frequency Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clairon, A.; Dahmani, B.; Acef, O.; Granveaud, M.; Domnin, Yu S.; Pouchkine, S. B.; Tatarenkov, V. M.; Felder, R.

    1988-01-01

    Comparison of the VNIIFTRI and LPTF frequency multiplication chains has been carried out through the measurement of the frequency of a portable VNIIFTRI (He-Ne)/CH4 laser. Agreement is within 100 Hz (1.1 parts in 1012) and is secured by the very good medium-term frequency repeatability of the (He-Ne)/CH4 VNIIFTRI portable laser (a few parts in 1013). On the same occasion a measurement of the frequency of the BIPM (He-Ne)/CH4 reference laser (B.3) has been performed at LPTF. Other experiments carried out on the BIPM laser show that the reproducibility of the (He-Ne)/CH4 system could be improved by a systematic study and then by a better control of the various perturbing factors which influence the shape of the methane-saturated absorption peak.

  6. Absolute atomic oxygen and nitrogen densities in radio-frequency driven atmospheric pressure cold plasmas: Synchrotron vacuum ultra-violet high-resolution Fourier-transform absorption measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemi, K.; O'Connell, D.; Gans, T.; Oliveira, N. de; Joyeux, D.; Nahon, L.; Booth, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    Reactive atomic species play a key role in emerging cold atmospheric pressure plasma applications, in particular, in plasma medicine. Absolute densities of atomic oxygen and atomic nitrogen were measured in a radio-frequency driven non-equilibrium plasma operated at atmospheric pressure using vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) absorption spectroscopy. The experiment was conducted on the DESIRS synchrotron beamline using a unique VUV Fourier-transform spectrometer. Measurements were carried out in plasmas operated in helium with air-like N 2 /O 2 (4:1) admixtures. A maximum in the O-atom concentration of (9.1 ± 0.7)×10 20 m −3 was found at admixtures of 0.35 vol. %, while the N-atom concentration exhibits a maximum of (5.7 ± 0.4)×10 19 m −3 at 0.1 vol. %

  7. High frequency dielectric reference materials BCR projekt 43. Final report of phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chantry, G.

    1980-01-01

    The Group of High Frequency Specialists from Belgium, France, Germany, The Netherlands and the UK, was awarded contracts in 1975 to carry out a programme of measurements on the high frequency dielectric properties of materials. The object of this first phase of a projected three phase programme was to establish the reliability of existing methods of measurement and to examine the possibilities of specifying and producing some standard reference materials, both liquid and solid, which could be used for calibrating and checking the performance of industrial measurement equipment. The liquids chosen for the first phase were cyclohexane, cis and trans decalin, chlorobenzene and 0.1, 1, and 10% solutions of chlorobenzene in cyclohexane. Each group had a limited frequency range over which it could make meaningful measurements but there was sufficient overlap to ensure that all random and systematic errors could be quantitatively assayed. The real (epsilon') and imaginary (epsilon'') components of the complex permittivity for all the liquids were measured over the frequency range 10 - 3,000 GHz and for the two most lossy liquids (chlorobenzene and 10% chlorobenzene in cyclohexane) this range was extended downwards to one GHz. The programme established for the first time the possible experimental imprecisions to be expected in high frequency dielecric measurements and showed that the chosen liquids could be useful standard reference materials if sufficiently pure specimens could be obtained commercially at a reasonable price. The programme did however reveal an unexpected snag in that the liquids, especially cyclohexane, were found to be rather more liable to contamination than expected. Since cyclohexane is a very low-loss liquid, only a small amount of a lossy contaminant need be absorbed to make the observed loss increase dramatically. This report contains all the measured results in both tabular and graphical form and in addition full technical details are given of the

  8. Exploiting elastic anharmonicity in aluminum nitride matrix for phase-synchronous frequency reference generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghatge, Mayur; Tabrizian, Roozbeh

    2018-03-01

    A matrix of aluminum-nitride (AlN) waveguides is acoustically engineered to realize electrically isolated phase-synchronous frequency references through nonlinear wave-mixing. AlN rectangular waveguides are cross-coupled through a periodically perforated plate that is engineered to have a wide acoustic bandgap around a desirable frequency ( f1≈509 MHz). While the coupling plate isolates the matrix from resonant vibrations of individual waveguide constituents at f1, it is transparent to the third-order harmonic waves (3f1) that are generated through nonlinear wave-mixing. Therefore, large-signal excitation of the f1 mode in a constituent waveguide generates acoustic waves at 3f1 with an efficiency defined by elastic anharmonicity of the AlN film. The phase-synchronous propagation of the third harmonic through the matrix is amplified by a high quality-factor resonance mode at f2≈1529 MHz, which is sufficiently close to 3f1 (f2 ≅ 3f1). Such an architecture enables realization of frequency-multiplied and phase-synchronous, yet electrically and spectrally isolated, references for multi-band/carrier and spread-spectrum wireless communication systems.

  9. Frequency tracking and variable bandwidth for line noise filtering without a reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, John W; Collinger, Jennifer L; Degenhart, Alan D; Siewiorek, Daniel P; Smailagic, Asim; Wang, Wei

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a method for filtering line noise using an adaptive noise canceling (ANC) technique. This method effectively eliminates the sinusoidal contamination while achieving a narrower bandwidth than typical notch filters and without relying on the availability of a noise reference signal as ANC methods normally do. A sinusoidal reference is instead digitally generated and the filter efficiently tracks the power line frequency, which drifts around a known value. The filter's learning rate is also automatically adjusted to achieve faster and more accurate convergence and to control the filter's bandwidth. In this paper the focus of the discussion and the data will be electrocorticographic (ECoG) neural signals, but the presented technique is applicable to other recordings.

  10. Thin-film piezoelectric-on-silicon resonators for high-frequency reference oscillator applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolvand, Reza; Lavasani, Hossein M; Ho, Gavin K; Ayazi, Farrokh

    2008-12-01

    This paper studies the application of lateral bulk acoustic thin-film piezoelectric-on-substrate (TPoS) resonators in high-frequency reference oscillators. Low-motional-impedance TPoS resonators are designed and fabricated in 2 classes--high-order and coupled-array. Devices of each class are used to assemble reference oscillators and the performance characteristics of the oscillators are measured and discussed. Since the motional impedance of these devices is small, the transimpedance amplifier (TIA) in the oscillator loop can be reduced to a single transistor and 3 resistors, a format that is very power-efficient. The lowest reported power consumption is approximately 350 microW for an oscillator operating at approximately 106 MHz. A passive temperature compensation method is also utilized by including the buried oxide layer of the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate in the structural resonant body of the device, and a very small (-2.4 ppm/ degrees C) temperature coefficient of frequency is obtained for an 82-MHz oscillator.

  11. Frequency stabilization of a 2.05 μm laser using hollow-core fiber CO2 frequency reference cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meras, Patrick; Poberezhskiy, Ilya Y.; Chang, Daniel H.; Spiers, Gary D.

    2010-04-01

    We have designed and built a hollow-core fiber frequency reference cell, filled it with CO2, and used it to demonstrate frequency stabilization of a 2.05 μm Tm:Ho:YLF laser using frequency modulation (FM) spectroscopy technique. The frequency reference cell is housed in a compact and robust hermetic package that contains a several meter long hollow-core photonic crystal fiber optically coupled to index-guiding fibers with a fusion splice on one end and a mechanical splice on the other end. The package has connectorized fiber pigtails and a valve used to evacuate, refill it, or adjust the gas pressure. We have demonstrated laser frequency standard deviation decreasing from >450MHz (free-running) to laser wavelength is of particular interest for spectroscopic instruments due to the presence of many CO2 and H20 absorption lines in its vicinity. To our knowledge, this is the first reported demonstration of laser frequency stabilization at this wavelength using a hollow-core fiber reference cell. This approach enables all-fiber implementation of the optical portion of laser frequency stabilization system, thus making it dramatically more lightweight, compact, and robust than the traditional free-space version that utilizes glass or metal gas cells. It can also provide much longer interaction length of light with gas and does not require any alignment. The demonstrated frequency reference cell is particularly attractive for use in aircraft and space coherent lidar instruments for measuring atmospheric CO2 profile.

  12. 3C-Silicon Carbide Microresonators for Timing and Frequency Reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham S. Wood

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the drive to miniaturise and integrate reference oscillator components, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS resonators are excellent candidates to replace quartz crystals. Silicon is the most utilised resonator structural material due to its associated well-established fabrication processes. However, when operation in harsh environments is required, cubic silicon carbide (3C-SiC is an excellent candidate for use as a structural material, due to its robustness, chemical inertness and high temperature stability. In order to actuate 3C-SiC resonators, electrostatic, electrothermal and piezoelectric methods have been explored. Both electrothermal and piezoelectric actuation can be accomplished with simpler fabrication and lower driving voltages, down to 0.5 V, compared to electrostatic actuation. The vibration amplitude at resonance can be maximised by optimising the design and location of the electrodes. Electrical read out of the resonator can be performed with electrostatic or piezoelectric transduction. Finally, a great deal of research has focused on tuning the resonant frequency of a 3C-SiC resonator by adjusting the DC bias applied to the electrodes, with a higher (up to 160-times tuning range for electrothermal tuning compared to piezoelectric tuning. Electrothermal tuning lowers the frequency, while piezoelectric tuning can be used to raise the frequency.

  13. Absolute Summ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Alfred, Jr.

    Summ means the entirety of the multiverse. It seems clear, from the inflation theories of A. Guth and others, that the creation of many universes is plausible. We argue that Absolute cosmological ideas, not unlike those of I. Newton, may be consistent with dynamic multiverse creations. As suggested in W. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and with the Anthropic Principle defended by S. Hawking, et al., human consciousness, buttressed by findings of neuroscience, may have to be considered in our models. Predictability, as A. Einstein realized with Invariants and General Relativity, may be required for new ideas to be part of physics. We present here a two postulate model geared to an Absolute Summ. The seedbed of this work is part of Akhnaton's philosophy (see S. Freud, Moses and Monotheism). Most important, however, is that the structure of human consciousness, manifest in Kenya's Rift Valley 200,000 years ago as Homo sapiens, who were the culmination of the six million year co-creation process of Hominins and Nature in Africa, allows us to do the physics that we do. .

  14. The relative frequency of common neuromuscular diagnoses in a reference center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotta, Ana; Paim, Júlia Filardi; Carvalho, Elmano; da-Cunha-Júnior, Antonio Lopes; Navarro, Monica M; Valicek, Jaquelin; Menezes, Miriam Melo; Nunes, Simone Vilela; Xavier-Neto, Rafael; Baptista, Sidney; Lima, Luciano Romero; Takata, Reinaldo Issao; Vargas, Antonio Pedro

    2017-11-01

    The diagnostic procedure in neuromuscular patients is complex. Knowledge of the relative frequency of neuromuscular diseases within the investigated population is important to allow the neurologist to perform the most appropriate diagnostic tests. To report the relative frequency of common neuromuscular diagnoses in a reference center. A 17-year chart review of patients with suspicion of myopathy. Among 3,412 examinations, 1,603 (46.98%) yielded confirmatory results: 782 (48.78%) underwent molecular studies, and 821 (51.21%) had muscle biopsies. The most frequent diagnoses were: dystrophinopathy 460 (28.70%), mitochondriopathy 330 (20.59%), spinal muscular atrophy 158 (9.86%), limb girdle muscular dystrophy 157 (9.79%), Steinert myotonic dystrophy 138 (8.61%), facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy 99 (6.17%), and other diagnoses 261 (16.28%). Using the presently-available diagnostic techniques in this service, a specific limb girdle muscular dystrophy subtype diagnosis was reached in 61% of the patients. A neuromuscular-appropriate diagnosis is important for genetic counseling, rehabilitation orientation, and early treatment of respiratory and cardiac complications.

  15. The relative frequency of common neuromuscular diagnoses in a reference center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cotta

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The diagnostic procedure in neuromuscular patients is complex. Knowledge of the relative frequency of neuromuscular diseases within the investigated population is important to allow the neurologist to perform the most appropriate diagnostic tests. Objective: To report the relative frequency of common neuromuscular diagnoses in a reference center. Methods: A 17-year chart review of patients with suspicion of myopathy. Results: Among 3,412 examinations, 1,603 (46.98% yielded confirmatory results: 782 (48.78% underwent molecular studies, and 821 (51.21% had muscle biopsies. The most frequent diagnoses were: dystrophinopathy 460 (28.70%, mitochondriopathy 330 (20.59%, spinal muscular atrophy 158 (9.86%, limb girdle muscular dystrophy 157 (9.79%, Steinert myotonic dystrophy 138 (8.61%, facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy 99 (6.17%, and other diagnoses 261 (16.28%. Conclusion: Using the presently-available diagnostic techniques in this service, a specific limb girdle muscular dystrophy subtype diagnosis was reached in 61% of the patients. A neuromuscular-appropriate diagnosis is important for genetic counseling, rehabilitation orientation, and early treatment of respiratory and cardiac complications.

  16. Reference frames for spatial frequency in face representation differ in the temporal visual cortex and amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Mikio; Fujita, Ichiro

    2011-07-13

    Social communication in nonhuman primates and humans is strongly affected by facial information from other individuals. Many cortical and subcortical brain areas are known to be involved in processing facial information. However, how the neural representation of faces differs across different brain areas remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the reference frame for spatial frequency (SF) tuning of face-responsive neurons differs in the temporal visual cortex and amygdala in monkeys. Consistent with psychophysical properties for face recognition, temporal cortex neurons were tuned to image-based SFs (cycles/image) and showed viewing distance-invariant representation of face patterns. On the other hand, many amygdala neurons were influenced by retina-based SFs (cycles/degree), a characteristic that is useful for social distance computation. The two brain areas also differed in the luminance contrast sensitivity of face-responsive neurons; amygdala neurons sharply reduced their responses to low luminance contrast images, while temporal cortex neurons maintained the level of their responses. From these results, we conclude that different types of visual processing in the temporal visual cortex and the amygdala contribute to the construction of the neural representations of faces.

  17. Changes in the frequency of food intake among children and teenagers: monitoring in a reference service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariz, Larissa Soares; Medeiros, Carla Campos Muniz; Vieira, Caroline Evelin Nascimento Kluczynik; Enders, Bertha Cruz; Coura, Alexsandro Silva

    2013-01-01

    to identify changes in the food intake patterns among overweight children and teenagers, treated at a reference medical centre. the method used is that of a cohort study, between April 2010 and April 2011. A total of 109 children and teenagers, either obese or overweight, took part in the study. The population was divided into two subgroups depending on the permanence period (more than 6 months, and less than 6 months off the treatment). The chi-square test and logistic regression were carried out. the group which had been longer off the treatment tended to consume more soft drinks, pasta and fried foods, and less fruit and vegetables. The group with less time showed an improvement, with a reduction of consumption of soft drinks and other goodies. There was confirmation of an increased risk for consumption of soft drinks, pasta and goodies in general, as also detachment from the treatment in adolescence. The group with a longer period of monitoring has had a positive change in food intake frequency. The main contribution made by this study is that of showing that multiprofessional treatment, including some nursing care, is efficient in progressively changing the food intake of children and adolescents who are overweight.

  18. Absolute Salinity, ''Density Salinity'' and the Reference-Composition Salinity Scale: present and future use in the seawater standard TEOS-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, D. G.; Pawlowicz, R.; McDougall, T. J.; Feistel, R.; Marion, G. M.

    2011-01-01

    Salinity plays a key role in the determination of the thermodynamic properties of seawater and the new TEOS-101 standard provides a consistent and effective approach to dealing with relationships between salinity and these thermodynamic properties. However, there are a number of practical issues that arise in the application of TEOS-10, both in terms of accuracy and scope, including its use in the reduction of field data and in numerical models. First, in the TEOS-10 formulation for IAPSO Standard Seawater, the Gibbs function takes the Reference Salinity as its salinity argument, denoted SR, which provides a measure of the mass fraction of dissolved material in solution based on the Reference Composition approximation for Standard Seawater. We discuss uncertainties in both the Reference Composition and the Reference-Composition Salinity Scale on which Reference Salinity is reported. The Reference Composition provides a much-needed fixed benchmark but modified reference states will inevitably be required to improve the representation of Standard Seawater for some studies. However, the Reference-Composition Salinity Scale should remain unaltered to provide a stable representation of salinity for use with the TEOS-10 Gibbs function and in climate change detection studies. Second, when composition anomalies are present in seawater, no single salinity variable can fully represent the influence of dissolved material on the thermodynamic properties of seawater. We consider three distinct representations of salinity that have been used in previous studies and discuss the connections and distinctions between them. One of these variables provides the most accurate representation of density possible as well as improvements over Reference Salinity for the determination of other thermodynamic properties. It is referred to as "Density Salinity" and is represented by the symbol SAdens; it stands out as the most appropriate representation of salinity for use in dynamical physical

  19. Absolute Salinity, "Density Salinity" and the Reference-Composition Salinity Scale: present and future use in the seawater standard TEOS-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, D. G.; Pawlowicz, R.; McDougall, T. J.; Feistel, R.; Marion, G. M.

    2010-08-01

    Salinity plays a key role in the determination of the thermodynamic properties of seawater and the new TEOS-101 standard provides a consistent and effective approach to dealing with relationships between salinity and these thermodynamic properties. However, there are a number of practical issues that arise in the application of TEOS-10, both in terms of accuracy and scope, including its use in the reduction of field data and in numerical models. First, in the TEOS-10 formulation for IAPSO Standard Seawater, the Gibbs function takes the Reference Salinity as its salinity argument, denoted SR, which provides a measure of the mass fraction of dissolved material in solution based on the Reference Composition approximation for Standard Seawater. We discuss uncertainties in both the Reference Composition and the Reference-Composition Salinity Scale on which Reference Salinity is reported. The Reference Composition provides a much-needed fixed benchmark but modified reference states will inevitably be required to improve the representation of Standard Seawater for some studies. The Reference-Composition Salinity Scale should remain unaltered to provide a stable representation of salinity for use with the TEOS-10 Gibbs function and in climate change detection studies. Second, when composition anomalies are present in seawater, no single salinity variable can fully represent the influence of dissolved material on the thermodynamic properties of seawater. We consider three distinct representations of salinity that have been used in previous studies and discuss the connections and distinctions between them. One of these variables provides the most accurate representation of density possible as well as improvements over Reference Salinity for the determination of other thermodynamic properties. It is referred to as "Density Salinity" and is represented by the symbol SAdens; it stands out as the most appropriate representation of salinity for use in dynamical physical

  20. Absolute Salinity, ''Density Salinity'' and the Reference-Composition Salinity Scale: present and future use in the seawater standard TEOS-10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Wright

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Salinity plays a key role in the determination of the thermodynamic properties of seawater and the new TEOS-101 standard provides a consistent and effective approach to dealing with relationships between salinity and these thermodynamic properties. However, there are a number of practical issues that arise in the application of TEOS-10, both in terms of accuracy and scope, including its use in the reduction of field data and in numerical models.

    First, in the TEOS-10 formulation for IAPSO Standard Seawater, the Gibbs function takes the Reference Salinity as its salinity argument, denoted SR, which provides a measure of the mass fraction of dissolved material in solution based on the Reference Composition approximation for Standard Seawater. We discuss uncertainties in both the Reference Composition and the Reference-Composition Salinity Scale on which Reference Salinity is reported. The Reference Composition provides a much-needed fixed benchmark but modified reference states will inevitably be required to improve the representation of Standard Seawater for some studies. However, the Reference-Composition Salinity Scale should remain unaltered to provide a stable representation of salinity for use with the TEOS-10 Gibbs function and in climate change detection studies.

    Second, when composition anomalies are present in seawater, no single salinity variable can fully represent the influence of dissolved material on the thermodynamic properties of seawater. We consider three distinct representations of salinity that have been used in previous studies and discuss the connections and distinctions between them. One of these variables provides the most accurate representation of density possible as well as improvements over Reference Salinity for the determination of other thermodynamic properties. It is referred to as "Density Salinity" and is represented by the symbol

  1. An improved synchronous reference frame phase-locked loop for stand-alone variable speed constant frequency power generation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yi; Xu, Wei; Ke, Longzhang

    2017-01-01

    The phase-locked loop (PLL) based on conventional synchronous reference frame, i.e. dqPLL, is usually employed in grid-connected variable speed constant frequency (VSCF) power generation systems (PGSs). However, the voltage amplitude drop of stand-alone PGSs is often greater than that of the grid...

  2. A low temperature drift coefficient crystal-less frequency reference clock compensated by temperature sensor for microsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhiqiang; Wu, Ruixuan; Wang, Yuteng; Gao, Yuan; Liu, Xiaowei; Zhu, Jiaqi

    2018-05-01

    Quartz oscillator has been widely used as reference clock source in the microsystems due to its good performance. But a good crystal oscillator costs too much and its bulky size is not desired. This paper aims at designing an alternative integrated oscillator to replace the external quartz oscillator. The proposed circuit used maneatis delay cell to construct a ring oscillator for its superior linear I-V characteristic. As for a frequency reference clock, its frequency stability over temperature is required at first. After detailed mathematical deducing and careful analysis, a formula is proposed to describe the relationship between desired control voltage and temperature by assuming the frequency as constant. This paper utilized bipolar transistor as the temperature sensor, combining it with CTAT current source and resistor to create a first-order temperature compensation control voltage. The chip with typical frequency of 10 MHz was fabricated in a 0.35 μm CMOS technology and occupied 0.45 mm2. The measured results show that the frequency variation is ±0.2% for supply changes from 4.8 V to 5 V, and frequency variation is 48 ppm when the temperature change is from ‑40∘C to 85∘C, while the average current of the tested chip consumes 50 μA from 5 V.

  3. Frequency and Informativeness of Gestural Cues Accompanying Generic and Particular Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Meredith; Gelman, Susan A.; Stilwell, Sarah M.

    2015-01-01

    Generic noun phrases, or generics, refer to abstract categories ("Dogs" bark) rather than particular individuals ("Those dogs" bark). Study 1 investigated how parents use gestures in association with generic versus particular reference during naturalistic interactions with their 2- and 3-year-old children. Parents provided…

  4. Mercury Trapped Ion Frequency Standard for Ultra-Stable Reference Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Eric A. (Inventor); Hamell, Robert L. (Inventor); Tucker, Blake C. (Inventor); Larsen, Kameron (Inventor); Tjoelker, Robert L. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An atomic clock including an ion trap assembly, a C-field coil positioned for generating a first magnetic field in the interrogation region of the ion trap assembly, a compensation coil positioned for generating a second magnetic field in the interrogation region, wherein the combination of the first and second magnetic fields produces an ion number-dependent second order Zeeman shift (Zeeman shift) in the resonance frequency that is opposite in sign to an ion number-dependent second order Doppler shift (Doppler shift) in the resonance frequency, the C-field coil has a radius selected using data indicating how changes in the radius affect an ion-number-dependent shift in the resonance frequency, such that a difference in magnitude between the Doppler shift and the Zeeman shift is controlled or reduced, and the resonance frequency, including the adjustment by the Zeeman shift, is used to obtain the frequency standard.

  5. Basic Restriction and Reference Level in Anatomically-based Japanese Models for Low-Frequency Electric and Magnetic Field Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Yukinori; Hirata, Akimasa; Fujiwara, Osamu

    Human exposed to electric and/or magnetic fields at low frequencies may cause direct effect such as nerve stimulation and excitation. Therefore, basic restriction is regulated in terms of induced current density in the ICNIRP guidelines and in-situ electric field in the IEEE standard. External electric or magnetic field which does not produce induced quantities exceeding the basic restriction is used as a reference level. The relationship between the basic restriction and reference level for low-frequency electric and magnetic fields has been investigated using European anatomic models, while limited for Japanese model, especially for electric field exposures. In addition, that relationship has not well been discussed. In the present study, we calculated the induced quantities in anatomic Japanese male and female models exposed to electric and magnetic fields at reference level. A quasi static finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method was applied to analyze this problem. As a result, spatially averaged induced current density was found to be more sensitive to averaging algorithms than that of in-situ electric field. For electric and magnetic field exposure at the ICNIRP reference level, the maximum values of the induced current density for different averaging algorithm were smaller than the basic restriction for most cases. For exposures at the reference level in the IEEE standard, the maximum electric fields in the brain were larger than the basic restriction in the brain while smaller for the spinal cord and heart.

  6. Iterative normalization technique for reference sequence generation for zero-tail discrete fourier transform spread orthogonal frequency division multiplexing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    Systems, methods, apparatuses, and computer program products for generating sequences for zero-tail discrete fourier transform (DFT)-spread-orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) (ZT DFT-s-OFDM) reference signals. One method includes adding a zero vector to an input sequence...... of each of the elements, converting the sequence to time domain, generating a zero-padded sequence by forcing a zero head and tail of the sequence, and repeating the steps until a final sequence with zero-tail and flat frequency response is obtained....

  7. Relative frequency of immature CD34+/CD90+ subset in peripheral blood following mobilization correlates closely and inversely with the absolute count of harvested stem cells in multiple myeloma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balint Bela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Stem cells (SCs guarantee complete/longterm bone marrow (BM repopulation after SC-transplants. The aim of the study was to evaluate absolute count of total SCs (determined by ISHAGE-sequential-gating protocol – SCish and relative frequency of immature CD34+/CD90+ (CD90+SCish subset in peripheral blood (PB as predictive factors of mobilization and apheresis product (AP quality. Methods. Mobilization included chemotherapy and granulocytegrowth- factor (G-CSF. Harvesting was performed by Spectra- Optia-IDL-system. The SCsish were determined as a constitutional part of CD34+ cells in the “stem-cell-region” using FC- 500 flow-cytometer. In this study, the original ISHAGEsequential- gating protocol was modified by introduction of anti-CD90-PE monoclonal-antibody into the analysis of CD90 expression on SCish (CD90+SCish. The results were presented as a percentage of SCish per nucleated-cell count, absolute SCish count in μL of the PB or the AP, percentage of the CD90+SCish expressed to SCish and absolute CD90+SCish count in μL of the PB or the AP. Results. The absolute count of total SCish and CD90+SCish was significantly higher (p = 0.0007 and p = 0.0266, respectively in the AP than in the PB samples. The CD90+SCish/total SCish indexes from PB were higher than indexes from the AP (p = 0.039. The relative frequency of CD90+SCish showed a highly significant inverse correlation with the absolute count of total SCish in both, the PB and AP (p = 0.0003 and p = 0.0013 respectively. The relative frequency of CD90+SCish from the PB also showed a significant (p = 0.0002 inverse relationship with total SCish count in the AP. Patients with less than 10% CD90+SCish in the PB had evidently higher (p = 0.0025 total SCish count in the AP. Conclusion. We speculate that lower CD90+SCish yield in the AP is not a consequence of an inferior collection efficacy, but most likely a result of several still not fully resolved immature SC

  8. The Non-absoluteness of the Leading Position of the Frequency ——On the Vocabulary Design Criteria of Teaching Chinese to Speakers of Other Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Qinghua

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The design criteria of the vocabulary outline of the second language teaching vary according to the teaching objectives. Under the same objective, the criteria are often more than one. The multiple criteria are sometimes compatible and sometimes conflicting. Through analyzing and evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of the new Chinese Proficiency Test (HSK Vocabulary Outline, this paper reveals the interactions between the task objectives, the criterion conditions and processing strategies, as well as the interaction relationships between the multiple criteria features of the vocabulary outline designing process, and then abstracts the general principles and overall rules. The research results subvert the habitual knowledge that the frequency criterion position ranked first, which is always popular at least in the Chinese academic circle. It finds that the leading position of frequency criterion only exists in the criteria compatibility model. In the conflict model of the locutionary criteria, the stylistic criterion and syntactic criterion are strong criteria, while the word frequency criterion relegates to the weak position. In the conflict model of the locutionary and illocutionary criteria, the illocutionary criterion is strong criterion, while the locutionary criterion relegates to the weak position, which indicates that the language can’t be above its purpose of usage. This research is conducive to the improvement of the vocabulary outline. It also has certain practical significance to the disciplinary theories of Teaching Chinese to Speakers of Other Language or even to the whole second language teaching.

  9. MeerKAT time and frequency reference optical network: Preliminary design analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enoch K. Rotich Kipnoo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The MeerKAT telescope is a precursor to the Square Kilometre Array, which will rely on optical fibres to link the telescope receivers to a central processor point. The main aspects to consider for the fibre transport are astronomical data transmission as well as timing, monitoring and control. The astronomical data streams from individual dishes to a central building, while the clock signal is distributed from a central point to remote dishes in the telescope array. The MeerKAT telescope, for instance, demands highly accurate and stable clock distribution over up to 12 km of optical fibre to remote dishes. The clock distribution is required for digitisation of astronomical signals. Phase stability is thus critical both for short-term and long-term requirements. In this work, we focused on the short-term stability. Phase noise measurements were performed on optical transmitters used to distribute the clock signals so as to ascertain their contribution to the overall clock jitter of the system. A maximum jitter requirement of 130 fs for a 1.712-GHz clock signal for MeerKAT time and reference is achieved using a distributed feedback laser. We found that with optimised modulation depth, additional passive optical components in the link do not significantly degrade the phase noise response. A distributed feedback laser was proven to be a suitable optical source that will meet the performance and link budget requirements for the MeerKAT telescope.

  10. Realization of a frequency standard at 778 nm: absolute frequency measurement of the 2S-8S/D transitions in hydrogen and deuterium and determination of the Rydberg constant; Realisation d'un etalon de frequence a 778 nm: mesure absolue des frequences 2S-8S/D des atomes d'hydrogene et de deuterium et determination de la constante de rydberg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauvoir, B. de

    1996-12-15

    The purpose of this work is to design a 778 nm standard laser for performing an absolute measurement of 2S-8S/D frequencies of hydrogen and deuterium atoms. This frequency calibration is based on a 5S-5D two-photon transition of the rubidium atom. Metrological performance of this laser is 10 times as good as that of He-Ne laser calibrated on iodine. It has been shown that the passage of a laser radiation through an optic fiber does not deteriorate its metrological properties. 2S-8S/8D transitions have been excited in an atomic jet by a titanium-sapphire laser. Spurious effects can shift and broaden lines. In order to prevent these effects, a theoretical line has been shaped and adjusted on experimental signals. The frequency comparison between the excitation laser and the standard laser has led to the measurement of the absolute frequency of the line concerned. The value of the Rydberg constant has been deduced: R{sub {infinity}} = 109737.3156859 (10) cm{sup -1}. The comparison of experimental data between deuterium and hydrogen has allowed us to determine the value of the Lamb shift of the 2S state of deuterium: L(2S-2P) = 1059,230 (9) MHz.

  11. Frequency of Metabolic Risk Factors in Children with Urinary Tract Stones Referred to Hamadan Pediatric Nephrology Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.E. Momtaz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Urinary stones are among the most common complaints referred to nephrologist and urologists. Although incidence of urolithiasis is low in children compared to adults and only 7% of all urinary stones are diagnosed before the age of 16 but stones are detected more frequently in pediatric age group in recent years. Metabolic derangements, infection, neurogenic bladder and urinary obstruction are major risk factors of urolithiasis. Common metabolic risk factors of urolithiasis in children are hypercalciuria, uricosuria, hypocitraturia, hyperoxaluria, metabolic acidosis and cystinuria. There are many clinical studies about the frequency of these metabolic risk factors with different results reflecting difference in diet, geographic area and genetics in study populations. In this study we tried to evaluate the frequency of metabolic causes of urinary stones in children referred to Hamadan pediatric nephrology clinic.Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional-descriptive study 156 patients referred due to urinary stones to pediatric nephrology clinic underwent thorough metabolic evaluations including: serum calcium,phosphorus, uric acid, creatinine and non fasting random urine sample for calcium, creatinine , uric acid , oxalate, citrate and cystine . urine solute: creatinine ratios were calculated and compared with normative data.Results: Of 156 patients 136(87.2% had metabolic derangements including: hyperuricosuria in 71 (45.5%, hypercalciuria in 41(26.3%, hypocitraturia in 26 (16.7%, hyperoxaluria in 16(10.3%,cystinuria in 1(0.6% and metabolic acidosis in 39 (25%.Conclusion: High rate of metabolic derangement in pediatric urinary stone patients mandates proper metabolic evaluation in all of them. hyperuricosuria was the most common metbolic finding instead of hypercalciuria in this study. This could be due to differences in diet, geographic area and genetic background in various populations.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci

  12. Absolute nuclear material assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  13. Frequency and Clinical Manifestations of Scabies in Suspected Patients Referred to Health Centers of Kashan, Central Iran (2010 - 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Rasti

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Scabies is one of the most common itching contagious skin disorder in the world. The agent of disease is Sarcoptes scabiei. Objectives This study was conducted to determine the frequency and clinical manifestations of S. scabies in suspected patients referred to health centers of Kashan during 2010 - 2014. Methods This cross-sectional study was performed on 129 patients suspected to Sarcoptes scabiei. The demographic and clinical symptoms for each of patients were recorded in questionnaire by interview. A deep skin scrap was prepared and wet smear were prepared using 10% KOH. By observation of each form of Sarcoptes was identified as positive sample. The data were recorded in Spss. ver 16.5 and analyzed by X2 and fisher exact tests. Results The results of this study showed that 28 (21.7 % were Sarcoptes positive. The frequency of sarcoptes was higher in males (23% than females (20.6%. The difference was not statistically significant. The most cases were isolated in spring and winter. Sarcoptes infestation was the most in elderly and patients undergone dialysis. There is significant difference between disease and age group and underlying disease (P = 0.03, P = 0.014; respectively. Erosion or pustule was the most clinical signs in positive cases. Conclusions The results of study showed that the rate of scabies infestation in Kashan is relatively high, and the most cases were in elderly patients. Health education to increase awareness of the families for prevention of scabies was recommended.

  14. Danish Towns during Absolutism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This anthology, No. 4 in the Danish Urban Studies Series, presents in English recent significant research on Denmark's urban development during the Age of Absolutism, 1660-1848, and features 13 articles written by leading Danish urban historians. The years of Absolutism were marked by a general...

  15. ABSOLUTE NEUTRINO MASSES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schechter, J.; Shahid, M. N.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of using experiments timing the propagation of neutrino beams over large distances to help determine the absolute masses of the three neutrinos.......We discuss the possibility of using experiments timing the propagation of neutrino beams over large distances to help determine the absolute masses of the three neutrinos....

  16. Improved imputation accuracy of rare and low-frequency variants using population-specific high-coverage WGS-based imputation reference panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitt, Mario; Kals, Mart; Pärn, Kalle; Gabriel, Stacey B; Lander, Eric S; Palotie, Aarno; Ripatti, Samuli; Morris, Andrew P; Metspalu, Andres; Esko, Tõnu; Mägi, Reedik; Palta, Priit

    2017-06-01

    Genetic imputation is a cost-efficient way to improve the power and resolution of genome-wide association (GWA) studies. Current publicly accessible imputation reference panels accurately predict genotypes for common variants with minor allele frequency (MAF)≥5% and low-frequency variants (0.5≤MAF<5%) across diverse populations, but the imputation of rare variation (MAF<0.5%) is still rather limited. In the current study, we evaluate imputation accuracy achieved with reference panels from diverse populations with a population-specific high-coverage (30 ×) whole-genome sequencing (WGS) based reference panel, comprising of 2244 Estonian individuals (0.25% of adult Estonians). Although the Estonian-specific panel contains fewer haplotypes and variants, the imputation confidence and accuracy of imputed low-frequency and rare variants was significantly higher. The results indicate the utility of population-specific reference panels for human genetic studies.

  17. Spectrally narrow, long-term stable optical frequency reference based on a Eu3+:Y2SiO5 crystal at cryogenic temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qun-Feng; Troshyn, Andrei; Ernsting, Ingo; Kayser, Steffen; Vasilyev, Sergey; Nevsky, Alexander; Schiller, Stephan

    2011-11-25

    Using an ultrastable continuous-wave laser at 580 nm we performed spectral hole burning of Eu(3+):Y(2)SiO(5) at a very high spectral resolution. The essential parameters determining the usefulness as a macroscopic frequency reference, linewidth, temperature sensitivity, and long-term stability, were characterized using a H-maser stabilized frequency comb. Spectral holes with a linewidth as low as 6 kHz were observed and the upper limit of the drift of the hole frequency was determined to be 5±3 mHz/s. We discuss the necessary requirements for achieving ultrahigh stability in laser frequency stabilization to these spectral holes.

  18. The Absolute Deviation Rank Diagnostic Approach to Gear Tooth Composite Fault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangbin Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at nonlinear and nonstationary characteristics of the different degree with single fault gear tooth broken, pitting, and composite fault gear tooth broken-pitting, a method for the diagnosis of absolute deviation of gear faults is presented. The method uses ADAMS, respectively, set-up dynamics model of single fault gear tooth broken, pitting, and composite fault gear tooth broken-pitting, to obtain the result of different degree of broken teeth, pitting the single fault and compound faults in the meshing frequency, and the amplitude frequency doubling through simulating analysis. Through the comparison with the normal state to obtain the sensitive characteristic of the fault, the absolute value deviation diagnostic approach is used to identify the fault and validate it through experiments. The results show that absolute deviation rank diagnostic approach can realize the recognition of gear single faults and compound faults with different degrees and provide quick reference to determine the degree of gear fault.

  19. Mapping of radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure levels in outdoor environment and comparing with reference levels for general public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cansiz, Mustafa; Abbasov, Teymuraz; Kurt, M Bahattin; Celik, A Recai

    2018-03-01

    In this study, radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure levels were measured on the main streets in the city center of Diyarbakır, Turkey. Measured electric field levels were plotted on satellite imagery of Diyarbakır and were compared with exposure guidelines published by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). Exposure measurements were performed in dense urban, urban and suburban areas each day for 7 consecutive days. The measurement system consisted of high precision and portable spectrum analyzer, three-axis electric field antenna, connection cable and a laptop which was used to record the measurement samples as a data logger. The highest exposure levels were detected for two places, which are called Diclekent and Batıkent. It was observed that the highest instantaneous electric field strength value for Batıkent was 7.18 V/m and for Diclekent was 5.81 V/m. It was statistically determined that the main contributor band to the total exposure levels was Universal Mobile Telecommunications System band. Finally, it was concluded that all measured exposure levels were lower than the reference levels recommended by ICNIRP for general public health.

  20. NGS Absolute Gravity Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NGS Absolute Gravity data (78 stations) was received in July 1993. Principal gravity parameters include Gravity Value, Uncertainty, and Vertical Gradient. The...

  1. Approach To Absolute Zero

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    more and more difficult to remove heat as one approaches absolute zero. This is the ... A new and active branch of engineering ... This temperature is called the critical temperature, Te' For sulfur dioxide the critical ..... adsorbent charcoal.

  2. Encasing the Absolutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uroš Martinčič

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the issue of structure and case in English absolute constructions, whose subjects are deduced by several descriptive grammars as being in the nominative case due to its supposed neutrality in terms of register. This deduction is countered by systematic accounts presented within the framework of the Minimalist Program which relate the case of absolute constructions to specific grammatical factors. Each proposal is shown as an attempt of analysing absolute constructions as basic predication structures, either full clauses or small clauses. I argue in favour of the small clause approach due to its minimal reliance on transformations and unique stipulations. Furthermore, I propose that small clauses project a singular category, and show that the use of two cases in English absolute constructions can be accounted for if they are analysed as depictive phrases, possibly selected by prepositions. The case of the subject in absolutes is shown to be a result of syntactic and non-syntactic factors. I thus argue in accordance with Minimalist goals that syntactic case does not exist, attributing its role in absolutes to other mechanisms.

  3. Absolute spectrophotometry of Nova Cygni 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kontizas, E.; Kontizas, M.; Smyth, M.J.

    1976-01-01

    Radiometric photoelectric spectrophotometry of Nova Cygni 1975 was carried out on 1975 August 31, September 2, 3. α Lyr was used as reference star and its absolute spectral energy distribution was used to reduce the spectrophotometry of the nova to absolute units. Emission strengths of Hα, Hβ, Hγ (in W cm -2 ) were derived. The Balmer decrement Hα:Hβ:Hγ was compared with theory, and found to deviate less than had been reported for an earlier nova. (author)

  4. Auditory processing in absolute pitch possessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKetton, Larissa; Schneider, Keith A.

    2018-05-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is a rare ability in classifying a musical pitch without a reference standard. It has been of great interest to researchers studying auditory processing and music cognition since it is seldom expressed and sheds light on influences pertaining to neurodevelopmental biological predispositions and the onset of musical training. We investigated the smallest frequency that could be detected or just noticeable difference (JND) between two pitches. Here, we report significant differences in JND thresholds in AP musicians and non-AP musicians compared to non-musician control groups at both 1000 Hz and 987.76 Hz testing frequencies. Although the AP-musicians did better than non-AP musicians, the difference was not significant. In addition, we looked at neuro-anatomical correlates of musicianship and AP using structural MRI. We report increased cortical thickness of the left Heschl's Gyrus (HG) and decreased cortical thickness of the inferior frontal opercular gyrus (IFO) and circular insular sulcus volume (CIS) in AP compared to non-AP musicians and controls. These structures may therefore be optimally enhanced and reduced to form the most efficient network for AP to emerge.

  5. Selective injection locking of a multi-mode semiconductor laser to a multi-frequency reference beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramod, Mysore Srinivas; Yang, Tao; Pandey, Kanhaiya; Giudici, Massimo; Wilkowski, David

    2014-07-01

    Injection locking is a well known and commonly used method for coherent light amplification. Usually injection locking is obtained on a single-mode laser injected by a single-frequency seeding beam. In this work we show that selective injection locking of a single-frequency may also be achieved on a multi-mode semiconductor laser injected by a multi-frequency seeding beam, if the slave laser provides sufficient frequency filtering. This selective injection locking condition depends critically on the frequency detuning between the free-running slave emission frequency and each injected frequency component. Stable selective injection locking to a set of three seeding components separated by 1.2 GHz is obtained. This system provides an amplification up to 37 dB of each component. This result suggests that, using distinct slave lasers for each frequency line, a set of mutually coherent high-power radiation modes can be tuned in the GHz frequency domain.

  6. Comparison of Toxocariasis Frequency in Hyper- eosinophilic and Non-Eosinophilic Individuals Referred to Abadan Health Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharif Maraghi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxocariasis is a zoonotic helminthic infection of humans and animals caused by the larvae of intestinal parasites of dogs and cats (Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati, respectively. These nematodes develop in to their adult stage in the intestines of cats and dogs. Three clinical entities have been recognized in humans; visceral larva migrans, ocular larva migrans and covert toxocariasis. Eosinophilia is a common finding in infected patients Objectives: In this study the frequency of toxocariasis in eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic individuals referred to the laboratory of Abadan health centers was compared. Materials and Methods: Serum samples were collected from individuals attending the laboratory of health centers for any medical problem and were tested for complet blood count (CBC. The samples of patients were divided in to two groups, those with more than 10% peripheral eosinophils, as the eosinophilic group (n = 54 and those with normal eosinophils (0-3% as the non-eosinophilic group (n = 54. Samples were examined for anti-oxocara IgG by the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and confirmed western blotting. Results: Anti-oxocara IgG was detected in the sera of six (11.11% cases from the eosinophilic group and two (3.7% of the non-eosinophilic group by the ELISA method, but all had negative results for the western blot analysis. Conclusions: The results of this study indicated that the eosinophilic individuals might beexposed to other helminthic infections or allergic agents. Further studies are required with more samples with different ages and occupations.

  7. Calibration with Absolute Shrinkage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øjelund, Henrik; Madsen, Henrik; Thyregod, Poul

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, penalized regression using the L-1 norm on the estimated parameters is proposed for chemometric je calibration. The algorithm is of the lasso type, introduced by Tibshirani in 1996 as a linear regression method with bound on the absolute length of the parameters, but a modification...

  8. Approach to Absolute Zero

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 10. Approach to Absolute Zero Below 10 milli-Kelvin. R Srinivasan. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 10 October 1997 pp 8-16. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/10/0008-0016 ...

  9. Sub-nanometer periodic nonlinearity error in absolute distance interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongxing; Huang, Kaiqi; Hu, Pengcheng; Zhu, Pengfei; Tan, Jiubin; Fan, Zhigang

    2015-05-01

    Periodic nonlinearity which can result in error in nanometer scale has become a main problem limiting the absolute distance measurement accuracy. In order to eliminate this error, a new integrated interferometer with non-polarizing beam splitter is developed. This leads to disappearing of the frequency and/or polarization mixing. Furthermore, a strict requirement on the laser source polarization is highly reduced. By combining retro-reflector and angel prism, reference and measuring beams can be spatially separated, and therefore, their optical paths are not overlapped. So, the main cause of the periodic nonlinearity error, i.e., the frequency and/or polarization mixing and leakage of beam, is eliminated. Experimental results indicate that the periodic phase error is kept within 0.0018°.

  10. Generation of optical frequencies out of the frequency comb of a femtosecond laser for DWDM telecommunication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y-J; Chun, B J; Kim, Y; Hyun, S; Kim, S-W

    2010-01-01

    We exploit the frequency comb of a fs laser as the frequency ruler to generate reference optical frequencies for multi-channel DWDM (dense wavelength-division-multiplexing) telecommunication. Our fiber-based scheme of single-mode extraction enables on-demand generation of optical frequencies within the telecommunication band with an absolute frequency uncertainty of 9.1×10 -13 . The linewidth of extracted optical modes is less than 1 Hz, and the instability is measured 2.3×10 -15 at 10 s averaging. This outstanding performance of optical frequency generation would lead to a drastic improvement of the spectral efficiency for the next-generation DWDM telecommunication

  11. Iterative normalization technique for reference sequence generation for zero-tail discrete fourier transform spread orthogonal frequency division multiplexing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    , and performing an iterative manipulation of the input sequence. The performing of the iterative manipulation of the input sequence may include, for example: computing frequency domain response of the sequence, normalizing elements of the computed frequency domain sequence to unitary power while maintaining phase...

  12. Calibrating the absolute amplitude scale for air showers measured at LOFAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelles, A.; Hörandel, J. R.; Karskens, T.; Krause, M.; Corstanje, A.; Enriquez, J. E.; Falcke, H.; Rachen, J. P.; Rossetto, L.; Schellart, P.; Buitink, S.; Erdmann, M.; Krause, R.; Haungs, A.; Hiller, R.; Huege, T.; Link, K.; Schröder, F. G.; Norden, M. J.; Scholten, O.

    2015-01-01

    Air showers induced by cosmic rays create nanosecond pulses detectable at radio frequencies. These pulses have been measured successfully in the past few years at the LOw-Frequency ARray (LOFAR) and are used to study the properties of cosmic rays. For a complete understanding of this phenomenon and the underlying physical processes, an absolute calibration of the detecting antenna system is needed. We present three approaches that were used to check and improve the antenna model of LOFAR and to provide an absolute calibration of the whole system for air shower measurements. Two methods are based on calibrated reference sources and one on a calibration approach using the diffuse radio emission of the Galaxy, optimized for short data-sets. An accuracy of 19% in amplitude is reached. The absolute calibration is also compared to predictions from air shower simulations. These results are used to set an absolute energy scale for air shower measurements and can be used as a basis for an absolute scale for the measurement of astronomical transients with LOFAR

  13. Telling in-tune from out-of-tune: widespread evidence for implicit absolute intonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hedger, Stephen C; Heald, Shannon L M; Huang, Alex; Rutstein, Brooke; Nusbaum, Howard C

    2017-04-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the rare ability to name or produce an isolated musical note without the aid of a reference note. One skill thought to be unique to AP possessors is the ability to provide absolute intonation judgments (e.g., classifying an isolated note as "in-tune" or "out-of-tune"). Recent work has suggested that absolute intonation perception among AP possessors is not crystallized in a critical period of development, but is dynamically maintained by the listening environment, in which the vast majority of Western music is tuned to a specific cultural standard. Given that all listeners of Western music are constantly exposed to this specific cultural tuning standard, our experiments address whether absolute intonation perception extends beyond AP possessors. We demonstrate that non-AP listeners are able to accurately judge the intonation of completely isolated notes. Both musicians and nonmusicians showed evidence for absolute intonation recognition when listening to familiar timbres (piano and violin). When testing unfamiliar timbres (triangle and inverted sine waves), only musicians showed weak evidence of absolute intonation recognition (Experiment 2). Overall, these results highlight a previously unknown similarity between AP and non-AP possessors' long-term musical note representations, including evidence of sensitivity to frequency.

  14. Absolute Memory for Tempo in Musicians and Non-Musicians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Gratton

    Full Text Available The ability to remember tempo (the perceived frequency of musical pulse without external references may be defined, by analogy with the notion of absolute pitch, as absolute tempo (AT. Anecdotal reports and sparse empirical evidence suggest that at least some individuals possess AT. However, to our knowledge, no systematic assessments of AT have been performed using laboratory tasks comparable to those assessing absolute pitch. In the present study, we operationalize AT as the ability to identify and reproduce tempo in the absence of rhythmic or melodic frames of reference and assess these abilities in musically trained and untrained participants. We asked 15 musicians and 15 non-musicians to listen to a seven-step `tempo scale' of metronome beats, each associated to a numerical label, and then to perform two memory tasks. In the first task, participants heard one of the tempi and attempted to report the correct label (identification task, in the second, they saw one label and attempted to tap the correct tempo (production task. A musical and visual excerpt was presented between successive trials as a distractor to prevent participants from using previous tempi as anchors. Thus, participants needed to encode tempo information with the corresponding label, store the information, and recall it to give the response. We found that more than half were able to perform above chance in at least one of the tasks, and that musical training differentiated between participants in identification, but not in production. These results suggest that AT is relatively wide-spread, relatively independent of musical training in tempo production, but further refined by training in tempo identification. We propose that at least in production, the underlying motor representations are related to tactus, a basic internal rhythmic period that may provide a body-based reference for encoding tempo.

  15. Effekten af absolut kumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyvsgaard, Britta; Klement, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Som led i finansloven for 2011 blev regeringen og forligspartierne enige om at undersøge reglerne om strafudmåling ved samtidig pådømmelse af flere kriminelle forhold og i forbindelse hermed vurdere konsekvenserne af at ændre de gældende regler i forhold til kapacitetsbehovet i Kriminalforsorgens...... samlet bødesum ved en absolut kumulation i forhold til en modereret kumulation, som nu er gældende....

  16. Musical Activity Tunes Up Absolute Pitch Ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Ribe, Lars Riisgaard

    2014-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify or produce pitches of musical tones without an external reference. Active AP (i.e., pitch production or pitch adjustment) and passive AP (i.e., pitch identification) are considered to not necessarily coincide, although no study has properly compared...

  17. High-frequency (8 to 16 kHz) reference thresholds and intrasubject threshold variability relative to ototoxicity criteria using a Sennheiser HDA 200 earphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, T

    2001-04-01

    The first purpose of this study was to determine high-frequency (8 to 16 kHz) thresholds for standardizing reference equivalent threshold sound pressure levels (RETSPLs) for a Sennheiser HDA 200 earphone. The second and perhaps more important purpose of this study was to determine whether repeated high-frequency thresholds using a Sennheiser HDA 200 earphone had a lower intrasubject threshold variability than the ASHA 1994 significant threshold shift criteria for ototoxicity. High-frequency thresholds (8 to 16 kHz) were obtained for 100 (50 male, 50 female) normally hearing (0.25 to 8 kHz) young adults (mean age of 21.2 yr) in four separate test sessions using a Sennheiser HDA 200 earphone. The mean and median high-frequency thresholds were similar for each test session and increased as frequency increased. At each frequency, the high-frequency thresholds were not significantly (p > 0.05) different for gender, test ear, or test session. The median thresholds at each frequency were similar to the 1998 interim ISO RETSPLs; however, large standard deviations and wide threshold distributions indicated very high intersubject threshold variability, especially at 14 and 16 kHz. Threshold repeatability was determined by finding the threshold differences between each possible test session comparison (N = 6). About 98% of all of the threshold differences were within a clinically acceptable range of +/-10 dB from 8 to 14 kHz. The threshold differences between each subject's second, third, and fourth minus their first test session were also found to determine whether intrasubject threshold variability was less than the ASHA 1994 criteria for determining a significant threshold shift due to ototoxicity. The results indicated a false-positive rate of 0% for a threshold shift > or = 20 dB at any frequency and a false-positive rate of 2% for a threshold shift >10 dB at two consecutive frequencies. This study verified that the output of high-frequency audiometers at 0 dB HL using

  18. Frequency of anti-Chlamydia trachomatis antibodies in infertile women referred to Tabriz Al-Zahra hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahtab Sattari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infertility is one of the major issues in society and its incidence is estimated to be almost 10-15%. Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis is an important cause of sexually transmitted diseases leading to infertility. Objective: This study was designed to determine the frequency of anti-C. trachomatis antibodies in infertile women at Al-zahra hospital, Tabriz, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the blood samples were collected randomly from 184 infertile women (case group and 100 pregnant women (control group. The frequency of specific IgG and IgM anti-C. trachomatis antibodies were evaluated using ELISA method. Results: The frequency of IgG anti-C. trachomatis antibody in the control and case groups was 18% and 35.88%, respectively. IgM anti-C. trachomatis antibody was found in 2% of controls and 5.44% of infertile women. Our results showed the significant differences between the case and control groups in anti-C. trachomatis antibodies (IgG, p=0.035 and IgM, p=0.004. Also, no significant relation was seen between the frequency of anti-C. trachomatis antibodies and age, location, and tubal factor infertility in our two study groups. Conclusion: According to high frequency of antibody anti-C. trachomatis among infertile women in competition to the control group, evaluation and treatment of Chlamydia infections is necessary in these patients

  19. Towards absolute neutrino masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, Petr [Kellogg Radiation Laboratory 106-38, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Various ways of determining the absolute neutrino masses are briefly reviewed and their sensitivities compared. The apparent tension between the announced but unconfirmed observation of the 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay and the neutrino mass upper limit based on observational cosmology is used as an example of what could happen eventually. The possibility of a 'nonstandard' mechanism of the 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay is stressed and the ways of deciding which of the possible mechanisms is actually operational are described. The importance of the 0{nu}{beta}{beta} nuclear matrix elements is discussed and their uncertainty estimated.

  20. Improved imputation of low-frequency and rare variants using the UK10K haplotype reference panel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Jie; Howie, Bryan; Mccarthy, Shane

    2015-01-01

    Imputing genotypes from reference panels created by whole-genome sequencing (WGS) provides a cost-effective strategy for augmenting the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) content of genome-wide arrays. The UK10K Cohorts project has generated a data set of 3,781 whole genomes sequenced at low de...

  1. Improved imputation of low-frequency and rare variants using the UK10K haplotype reference panel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Huang (Jie); B. Howie (Bryan); S. McCarthy (Shane); Y. Memari (Yasin); K. Walter (Klaudia); J.L. Min (Josine L.); P. Danecek (Petr); G. Malerba (Giovanni); E. Trabetti (Elisabetta); H.-F. Zheng (Hou-Feng); G. Gambaro (Giovanni); J.B. Richards (Brent); R. Durbin (Richard); N.J. Timpson (Nicholas); J. Marchini (Jonathan); N. Soranzo (Nicole); S.H. Al Turki (Saeed); A. Amuzu (Antoinette); C. Anderson (Carl); R. Anney (Richard); D. Antony (Dinu); M.S. Artigas; M. Ayub (Muhammad); S. Bala (Senduran); J.C. Barrett (Jeffrey); I.E. Barroso (Inês); P.L. Beales (Philip); M. Benn (Marianne); J. Bentham (Jamie); S. Bhattacharya (Shoumo); E. Birney (Ewan); D.H.R. Blackwood (Douglas); M. Bobrow (Martin); E. Bochukova (Elena); P.F. Bolton (Patrick F.); R. Bounds (Rebecca); C. Boustred (Chris); G. Breen (Gerome); M. Calissano (Mattia); K. Carss (Keren); J.P. Casas (Juan Pablo); J.C. Chambers (John C.); R. Charlton (Ruth); K. Chatterjee (Krishna); L. Chen (Lu); A. Ciampi (Antonio); S. Cirak (Sebahattin); P. Clapham (Peter); G. Clement (Gail); G. Coates (Guy); M. Cocca (Massimiliano); D.A. Collier (David); C. Cosgrove (Catherine); T. Cox (Tony); N.J. Craddock (Nick); L. Crooks (Lucy); S. Curran (Sarah); D. Curtis (David); A. Daly (Allan); I.N.M. Day (Ian N.M.); A.G. Day-Williams (Aaron); G.V. Dedoussis (George); T. Down (Thomas); Y. Du (Yuanping); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); I. Dunham (Ian); T. Edkins (Ted); R. Ekong (Rosemary); P. Ellis (Peter); D.M. Evans (David); I.S. Farooqi (I. Sadaf); D.R. Fitzpatrick (David R.); P. Flicek (Paul); J. Floyd (James); A.R. Foley (A. Reghan); C.S. Franklin (Christopher S.); M. Futema (Marta); L. Gallagher (Louise); P. Gasparini (Paolo); T.R. Gaunt (Tom); M. Geihs (Matthias); D. Geschwind (Daniel); C.M.T. Greenwood (Celia); H. Griffin (Heather); D. Grozeva (Detelina); X. Guo (Xiaosen); X. Guo (Xueqin); H. Gurling (Hugh); D. Hart (Deborah); A.E. Hendricks (Audrey E.); P.A. Holmans (Peter A.); L. Huang (Liren); T. Hubbard (Tim); S.E. Humphries (Steve E.); M.E. Hurles (Matthew); P.G. Hysi (Pirro); V. Iotchkova (Valentina); A. Isaacs (Aaron); D.K. Jackson (David K.); Y. Jamshidi (Yalda); J. Johnson (Jon); C. Joyce (Chris); K.J. Karczewski (Konrad); J. Kaye (Jane); T. Keane (Thomas); J.P. Kemp (John); K. Kennedy (Karen); A. Kent (Alastair); J. Keogh (Julia); F. Khawaja (Farrah); M.E. Kleber (Marcus); M. Van Kogelenberg (Margriet); A. Kolb-Kokocinski (Anja); J.S. Kooner (Jaspal S.); G. Lachance (Genevieve); C. Langenberg (Claudia); C. Langford (Cordelia); D. Lawson (Daniel); I. Lee (Irene); E.M. van Leeuwen (Elisa); M. Lek (Monkol); R. Li (Rui); Y. Li (Yingrui); J. Liang (Jieqin); H. Lin (Hong); R. Liu (Ryan); J. Lönnqvist (Jouko); L.R. Lopes (Luis R.); M.C. Lopes (Margarida); J. Luan; D.G. MacArthur (Daniel G.); M. Mangino (Massimo); G. Marenne (Gaëlle); W. März (Winfried); J. Maslen (John); A. Matchan (Angela); I. Mathieson (Iain); P. McGuffin (Peter); A.M. McIntosh (Andrew); A.G. McKechanie (Andrew G.); A. McQuillin (Andrew); S. Metrustry (Sarah); N. Migone (Nicola); H.M. Mitchison (Hannah M.); A. Moayyeri (Alireza); J. Morris (James); R. Morris (Richard); D. Muddyman (Dawn); F. Muntoni; B.G. Nordestgaard (Børge G.); K. Northstone (Kate); M.C. O'donovan (Michael); S. O'Rahilly (Stephen); A. Onoufriadis (Alexandros); K. Oualkacha (Karim); M.J. Owen (Michael J.); A. Palotie (Aarno); K. Panoutsopoulou (Kalliope); V. Parker (Victoria); J.R. Parr (Jeremy R.); L. Paternoster (Lavinia); T. Paunio (Tiina); F. Payne (Felicity); S.J. Payne (Stewart J.); J.R.B. Perry (John); O.P.H. Pietiläinen (Olli); V. Plagnol (Vincent); R.C. Pollitt (Rebecca C.); S. Povey (Sue); M.A. Quail (Michael A.); L. Quaye (Lydia); L. Raymond (Lucy); K. Rehnström (Karola); C.K. Ridout (Cheryl K.); S.M. Ring (Susan); G.R.S. Ritchie (Graham R.S.); N. Roberts (Nicola); R.L. Robinson (Rachel L.); D.B. Savage (David); P.J. Scambler (Peter); S. Schiffels (Stephan); M. Schmidts (Miriam); N. Schoenmakers (Nadia); R.H. Scott (Richard H.); R.A. Scott (Robert); R.K. Semple (Robert K.); E. Serra (Eva); S.I. Sharp (Sally I.); A.C. Shaw (Adam C.); H.A. Shihab (Hashem A.); S.-Y. Shin (So-Youn); D. Skuse (David); K.S. Small (Kerrin); C. Smee (Carol); G.D. Smith; L. Southam (Lorraine); O. Spasic-Boskovic (Olivera); T.D. Spector (Timothy); D. St. Clair (David); B. St Pourcain (Beate); J. Stalker (Jim); E. Stevens (Elizabeth); J. Sun (Jianping); G. Surdulescu (Gabriela); J. Suvisaari (Jaana); P. Syrris (Petros); I. Tachmazidou (Ioanna); R. Taylor (Rohan); J. Tian (Jing); M.D. Tobin (Martin); D. Toniolo (Daniela); M. Traglia (Michela); A. Tybjaerg-Hansen; A.M. Valdes; A.M. Vandersteen (Anthony M.); A. Varbo (Anette); P. Vijayarangakannan (Parthiban); P.M. Visscher (Peter); L.V. Wain (Louise); J.T. Walters (James); G. Wang (Guangbiao); J. Wang (Jun); Y. Wang (Yu); K. Ward (Kirsten); E. Wheeler (Eleanor); P.H. Whincup (Peter); T. Whyte (Tamieka); H.J. Williams (Hywel J.); K.A. Williamson (Kathleen); C. Wilson (Crispian); S.G. Wilson (Scott); K. Wong (Kim); C. Xu (Changjiang); J. Yang (Jian); G. Zaza (Gianluigi); E. Zeggini (Eleftheria); F. Zhang (Feng); P. Zhang (Pingbo); W. Zhang (Weihua)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractImputing genotypes from reference panels created by whole-genome sequencing (WGS) provides a cost-effective strategy for augmenting the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) content of genome-wide arrays. The UK10K Cohorts project has generated a data set of 3,781 whole genomes sequenced

  2. The new Absolute Quantum Gravimeter (AQG): first results and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvalot, Sylvain; Le Moigne, Nicolas; Merlet, Sebastien; Desruelle, Bruno; Lautier-Gaud, Jean; Menoret, Vincent; Vermeulen, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Cold atom gravimetry represents one of the most innovative evolution in gravity instrumentation since the last 20 years. The concept of measuring the gravitational acceleration by dropping atoms and the development of the first instrumental devices during this last decade quickly revealed the promising perspectives of this new generation of gravity meters enabling accurate and absolute measurements of the Earth's gravity field for a wide range of applications (geophysics, geodesy, metrology, etc.). The Absolute Quantum Gravimeter (AQG) gravity meter, developed by MUQUANS (Talence, France - http://www.muquans.com/) with the support of RESIF, the French Seismologic and Geodetic Network (http://www.resif.fr/) belongs to this new generation of instruments. It also represents the first commercial device based on the utilization of advanced matter-wave interferometry techniques, which allow to characterize precisely the vertical acceleration experienced by a cloud of cold atoms. Recently, the first operational unit (AQG01) has been achieved as a compact transportable gravimeter with the aim of satisfying absolute gravity measurements in laboratory conditions under the following specifications: measurements the μGal level at a few Hz cycling frequency, sensitivity of 50μGal/√Hz, immunity to ground vibrations, easy and quickness of operation, automated continuous data acquisition for several months, etc. In order to evaluate the current performances of the AQG01, several experiments are carried out in collaboration between RESIF user's teams and the MUQUANS manufacturer on different reference gravity sites and laboratories in France. These measurements performed in indoor conditions including simultaneous observations with classical reference gravity instruments (corner-cube absolute gravity meters, relative superconducting meters) as well with the Cold Atom Gravity meter (CAG) developed by LNE-SYRTE, lead to a first objective characterization of the performances of

  3. Thermodynamics of negative absolute pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukacs, B.; Martinas, K.

    1984-03-01

    The authors show that the possibility of negative absolute pressure can be incorporated into the axiomatic thermodynamics, analogously to the negative absolute temperature. There are examples for such systems (GUT, QCD) processing negative absolute pressure in such domains where it can be expected from thermodynamical considerations. (author)

  4. Absolute Gravimetry in Fennoscandia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettersen, B. R; TImmen, L.; Gitlein, O.

    The Fennoscandian postglacial uplift has been mapped geometrically using precise levelling, tide gauges, and networks of permanent GPS stations. The results identify major uplift rates at sites located around the northern part of the Gulf of Bothnia. The vertical motions decay in all directions...... motions) has its major axis in the direction of southwest to northeast and covers a distance of about 2000 km. Absolute gravimetry was made in Finland and Norway in 1976 with a rise-and fall instrument. A decade later the number of gravity stations was expanded by JILAg-5, in Finland from 1988, in Norway...... time series of several years are now available. Along the coast there are nearby tide gauge stations, many of which have time series of several decades. We describe the observing network, procedures, auxiliary observations, and discuss results obtained for selected sites. We compare the gravity results...

  5. Frequency of Eyelid Malpositions and their Treatment Results in Patients Referred to Ophthalmology Clinics in Educational Yazd Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rafieian

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Entropion and ectropion with involutional changes are the most common eyelid malpositions. Entropion is a condition in which the eyelid margin turns inwards against the globe and ectropion is a malposition in which the lid turns outwards or is pulled away its normal position from the globe. Knowledge of eyelid problems and their abnormalities is a key to plan a successful surgical procedure. Methods: This descriptive study lasted from Sep. 2008 to March 2009. We evaluated 78 patients with eyelid malpositions who referred to educational hospitals of Yazd. The patients were examined by an eye specialist. Each patient’s demographic data, type of eyelid malposition, specific treatment results and 6-month follow up of each patient were recorded by the questioners and then were analyzed statistically by SPSS13 software, chi-square and fisher exact test. Results: Among 78 cases, entropion was observed in 41 cases(52.6%, trichiasis in 31 cases(39.7%, ectropion in 27 cases(34.6% and distichiasis in 3 cases (3.8%. The Wies procedure proved to be influential in entropion treatment and lateral tarsal strip canthoplasty surgery also reported acceptable results in ectropion. Conclusion: The involutional changes were the most common causing factors for eyelid malpositions. Entropion appears most prevalently specially in right upper eyelid. The Wies and lateral tarsal strip canthoplasty procedures were thoroughly successful in treatment of entropion and ectropion of either upper or lower eyelids

  6. Investigating Frequency of Reasons for Referring to CBCT in a Private Imaging Center in Yazd from 2010 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Rafii

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A CBCT system (Cone Beam Computed Tomography is a new method in the application of radiography in dental science that provides three-dimensional data of the hard and soft tissue, without magnification or distotion. Information obtained via this diagnostic imaging can be utilized in treatment planning. Methods: In this retrospective descriptive study, the CBCT prescription of all dentists (DDS & Expert were investigated in a private Center of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology (426 patients in Yazd from Oct 2010 to Dec 2012 (26 months and the following information was extracted: age, sex, years of prescription, reason of prescription, academic level of prescriber. Moreover, data was analyzed utilizing SPSS Version 16. Results: The study results revealed that 64.8% of patients aged between 30 to 60 years. Prevalence of male and female patients was approximately equal. Most CBCT prescriptions were by general dentists (44% and then it belonged to Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons (32.2%. CBCT was requested most for implant (88%. Number of CBCT requests in 2010 was 18.5%; in 2011 was 29.3% and in 2012 was 52.1%. Conclusion: Patients referred for evaluation before implant involve one of the main reasons for the CBCT request. However, it seems that the using CBCT was not limited to implant and will be developed in oral and maxillofacial surgery, orthodontics, root canals therapy and other dental treatments.

  7. Absolute risk, absolute risk reduction and relative risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Andres Calvache

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article illustrates the epidemiological concepts of absolute risk, absolute risk reduction and relative risk through a clinical example. In addition, it emphasizes the usefulness of these concepts in clinical practice, clinical research and health decision-making process.

  8. Frequency locking of compact laser-diode modules at 633 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nölleke, Christian; Leisching, Patrick; Blume, Gunnar; Jedrzejczyk, Daniel; Pohl, Johannes; Feise, David; Sahm, Alexander; Paschke, Katrin

    2018-02-01

    This work reports on a compact diode-laser module emitting at 633 nm. The emission frequency can be tuned with temperature and current, while optical feedback of an internal DBR grating ensures single-mode operation. The laser diode is integrated into a micro-fabricated package, which includes optics for beam shaping, a miniaturized optical isolator, and a vapor cell as frequency reference. The achieved absolute frequency stability is below 10-8 , while the output power can be more than 10 mW. This compact absolute frequency-stabilized laser system can replace gas lasers and may be integrated in future quantum technology devices.

  9. Absolute radioactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, H.M.

    1983-01-01

    The radioactivity of a thin specimen can be determined directly, i.e. without reference to a standard and without knowing decay data, except for half-life, by means of counting at a given solid angle and by 4 πβ-γ coincidence measurement. In accordance with section 7 of the law on units, it is the task of PTB not only to represent the units and its derivation, but also to work out methods of adjusting national prototypes and normals to international prototypes and etalons in accordance with the international metre convention. (DG) [de

  10. Projective absoluteness for Sacks forcing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikegami, D.

    2009-01-01

    We show that Sigma(1)(3)-absoluteness for Sacks forcing is equivalent to the nonexistence of a Delta(1)(2) Bernstein set. We also show that Sacks forcing is the weakest forcing notion among all of the preorders that add a new real with respect to Sigma(1)(3) forcing absoluteness.

  11. Elementary, Middle, and High School Students Vary in Frequency and Purpose When Using Online Digital References. A review of: Silverstein, Joanne. “Just Curious: Children’s Use of Digital Reference for Unimposed Queries and Its Importance in Informal Education.” Library Trends 54.2 (Fall 2005): 228‐44.

    OpenAIRE

    Julie Stephens

    2006-01-01

    Objective – To determine 1) how and with what frequency children use digital references to answer their own unimposed questions; 2) whether digital reference services support their self‐initiated learning; 3) whether digital reference services support the transfer of student motivation and curiosity from the formal to the informal; and 4) what instructional and software designers should consider in creating tools that support learning.Design – Inductive analysis.Setting – Virtual Reference De...

  12. A developmental study of latent absolute pitch memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, Kelly; Müllensiefen, Daniel; Stewart, Lauren

    2017-03-01

    The ability to recall the absolute pitch level of familiar music (latent absolute pitch memory) is widespread in adults, in contrast to the rare ability to label single pitches without a reference tone (overt absolute pitch memory). The present research investigated the developmental profile of latent absolute pitch (AP) memory and explored individual differences related to this ability. In two experiments, 288 children from 4 to12 years of age performed significantly above chance at recognizing the absolute pitch level of familiar melodies. No age-related improvement or decline, nor effects of musical training, gender, or familiarity with the stimuli were found in regard to latent AP task performance. These findings suggest that latent AP memory is a stable ability that is developed from as early as age 4 and persists into adulthood.

  13. Advancing Absolute Calibration for JWST and Other Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieke, George; Bohlin, Ralph; Boyajian, Tabetha; Carey, Sean; Casagrande, Luca; Deustua, Susana; Gordon, Karl; Kraemer, Kathleen; Marengo, Massimo; Schlawin, Everett; Su, Kate; Sloan, Greg; Volk, Kevin

    2017-10-01

    We propose to exploit the unique optical stability of the Spitzer telescope, along with that of IRAC, to (1) transfer the accurate absolute calibration obtained with MSX on very bright stars directly to two reference stars within the dynamic range of the JWST imagers (and of other modern instrumentation); (2) establish a second accurate absolute calibration based on the absolutely calibrated spectrum of the sun, transferred onto the astronomical system via alpha Cen A; and (3) provide accurate infrared measurements for the 11 (of 15) highest priority stars with no such data but with accurate interferometrically measured diameters, allowing us to optimize determinations of effective temperatures using the infrared flux method and thus to extend the accurate absolute calibration spectrally. This program is integral to plans for an accurate absolute calibration of JWST and will also provide a valuable Spitzer legacy.

  14. Cryogenic, Absolute, High Pressure Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, John J. (Inventor); Shams. Qamar A. (Inventor); Powers, William T. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A pressure sensor is provided for cryogenic, high pressure applications. A highly doped silicon piezoresistive pressure sensor is bonded to a silicon substrate in an absolute pressure sensing configuration. The absolute pressure sensor is bonded to an aluminum nitride substrate. Aluminum nitride has appropriate coefficient of thermal expansion for use with highly doped silicon at cryogenic temperatures. A group of sensors, either two sensors on two substrates or four sensors on a single substrate are packaged in a pressure vessel.

  15. Relative frequency of human papillomavirus genotypes and related sociodemographic characteristics in women referred to a general hospital in Tehran, 2014- 2015: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahin Jamshidi Makiani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human papilloma virus (HPV is one of the major public health problems and the main causes of cervical cancer. The prevalence HPV infection in developing countries with low financial resources is high. Objective: This study aimed to determine the relative frequency of HPV genotypes and its sociodemographic characteristics in women referred to a general hospital in Tehran, Iran from 2014-2015. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in 400 women with Pap smear samples, referring to to a general hospital in Tehran, Iran from 2014- 2015. The detection of 28 HPV genotypes was performed by using the Multiplex PCR technique. The sociodemographic survey was conducted for each HPV positive woman. Results: HPV-positive infection was detected in 155 (38.75% women aged 17-85 years. HPV 16 (19.1% was the most prevalent type, followed by HPV 39 (12.5% and HPV 18 (8.9%. The highest rate of HPV infection was observed at the age of 36 years (7.7%. The level of education and economic situation of each woman were showed most of HPV-positive women had a high school diploma (34.6% and average economic situation (67,9%. 60.9% of these women were a housewife, and 67.3% lived in the capital . Conclusion: Determination of HPV genotype and risk factor related to HPV infection in each geographical region can lead to the production of effective vaccines against the HPV virus. It can also be useful for disease management and high sensitivity diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

  16. Relativistic Absolutism in Moral Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, W. Paul

    1982-01-01

    Discusses Emile Durkheim's "Moral Education: A Study in the Theory and Application of the Sociology of Education," which holds that morally healthy societies may vary in culture and organization but must possess absolute rules of moral behavior. Compares this moral theory with current theory and practice of American educators. (MJL)

  17. Forcing absoluteness and regularity properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikegami, D.

    2010-01-01

    For a large natural class of forcing notions, we prove general equivalence theorems between forcing absoluteness statements, regularity properties, and transcendence properties over L and the core model K. We use our results to answer open questions from set theory of the reals.

  18. Some absolutely effective product methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. P. Dikshit

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available It is proved that the product method A(C,1, where (C,1 is the Cesàro arithmetic mean matrix, is totally effective under certain conditions concerning the matrix A. This general result is applied to study absolute Nörlund summability of Fourier series and other related series.

  19. Athermal fiber laser for the SWARM absolute scalar magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourcault, W.; Léger, J.-M.; Costes, V.; Fratter, I.; Mondin, L.

    2017-11-01

    The Absolute Scalar Magnetometer (ASM) developed by CEA-LETI/CNES is an optically pumped 4He magnetic field sensor based on the Zeeman effect and an electronic magnetic resonance whose effects are amplified by a laser pumping process [1-2]. Consequently, the role of the laser is to pump the 4He atoms at the D0 transition as well as to allow the magnetic resonance signal detection. The ASM will be the scalar magnetic reference instrument of the three ESA Swarm satellites to be launched in 2012 in order to carry out the best ever survey of the Earth magnetic field and its temporal evolution. The sensitivity and accuracy of this magnetometer based on 4He optical pumping depend directly on the characteristics of its light source, which is the key sub-system of the sensor. We describe in this paper the selected fiber laser architecture and its wavelength stabilization scheme. Its main performance in terms of spectral emission, optical power at 1083 nm and intensity noise characteristics in the frequency bands used for the operation of the magnetometer, are then presented. Environmental testing results (thermal vacuum cycling, vibrations, shocks and ageing) are also reported at the end of this paper.

  20. Achieving Climate Change Absolute Accuracy in Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Thome, K. J; Leroy, S.; Corliss, J.; Anderson, J. G.; Ao, C. O.; Bantges, R.; Best, F.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission will provide a calibration laboratory in orbit for the purpose of accurately measuring and attributing climate change. CLARREO measurements establish new climate change benchmarks with high absolute radiometric accuracy and high statistical confidence across a wide range of essential climate variables. CLARREO's inherently high absolute accuracy will be verified and traceable on orbit to Système Internationale (SI) units. The benchmarks established by CLARREO will be critical for assessing changes in the Earth system and climate model predictive capabilities for decades into the future as society works to meet the challenge of optimizing strategies for mitigating and adapting to climate change. The CLARREO benchmarks are derived from measurements of the Earth's thermal infrared spectrum (5-50 micron), the spectrum of solar radiation reflected by the Earth and its atmosphere (320-2300 nm), and radio occultation refractivity from which accurate temperature profiles are derived. The mission has the ability to provide new spectral fingerprints of climate change, as well as to provide the first orbiting radiometer with accuracy sufficient to serve as the reference transfer standard for other space sensors, in essence serving as a "NIST [National Institute of Standards and Technology] in orbit." CLARREO will greatly improve the accuracy and relevance of a wide range of space-borne instruments for decadal climate change. Finally, CLARREO has developed new metrics and methods for determining the accuracy requirements of climate observations for a wide range of climate variables and uncertainty sources. These methods should be useful for improving our understanding of observing requirements for most climate change observations.

  1. Moral absolutism and ectopic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczor, C

    2001-02-01

    If one accepts a version of absolutism that excludes the intentional killing of any innocent human person from conception to natural death, ectopic pregnancy poses vexing difficulties. Given that the embryonic life almost certainly will die anyway, how can one retain one's moral principle and yet adequately respond to a situation that gravely threatens the life of the mother and her future fertility? The four options of treatment most often discussed in the literature are non-intervention, salpingectomy (removal of tube with embryo), salpingostomy (removal of embryo alone), and use of methotrexate (MXT). In this essay, I review these four options and introduce a fifth (the milking technique). In order to assess these options in terms of the absolutism mentioned, it will also be necessary to discuss various accounts of the intention/foresight distinction. I conclude that salpingectomy, salpingostomy, and the milking technique are compatible with absolutist presuppositions, but not the use of methotrexate.

  2. Absolute magnitudes by statistical parallaxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heck, A.

    1978-01-01

    The author describes an algorithm for stellar luminosity calibrations (based on the principle of maximum likelihood) which allows the calibration of relations of the type: Msub(i)=sup(N)sub(j=1)Σqsub(j)Csub(ij), i=1,...,n, where n is the size of the sample at hand, Msub(i) are the individual absolute magnitudes, Csub(ij) are observational quantities (j=1,...,N), and qsub(j) are the coefficients to be determined. If one puts N=1 and Csub(iN)=1, one has q 1 =M(mean), the mean absolute magnitude of the sample. As additional output, the algorithm provides one also with the dispersion in magnitude of the sample sigmasub(M), the mean solar motion (U,V,W) and the corresponding velocity ellipsoid (sigmasub(u), sigmasub(v), sigmasub(w). The use of this algorithm is illustrated. (Auth.)

  3. Absolute gravity measurements in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumberge, M. A.; Sasagawa, G.; Kappus, M.

    1986-08-01

    An absolute gravity meter that determines the local gravitational acceleration by timing a freely falling mass with a laser interferometer has been constructed. The instrument has made measurements at 11 sites in California, four in Nevada, and one in France. The uncertainty in the results is typically 10 microgal. Repeated measurements have been made at several of the sites; only one shows a substantial change in gravity.

  4. The Absolute Immanence in Deleuze

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Daeseung

    2013-01-01

    The absolute immanence in Deleuze Daeseung Park Abstract The plane of immanence is not unique. Deleuze and Guattari suppose a multiplicity of planes. Each great philosopher draws new planes on his own way, and these planes constitute the "time of philosophy". We can, therefore, "present the entire history of philosophy from the viewpoint of the institution of a plane of immanence" or present the time of philosophy from the viewpoint of the superposition and of the coexistence of planes. Howev...

  5. Absolute parametric instability in a nonuniform plane plasma ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The paper reports an analysis of the effect of spatial plasma nonuniformity on absolute parametric instability (API) of electrostatic waves in magnetized plane waveguides subjected to an intense high-frequency (HF) electric field using the separation method. In this case the effect of strong static magnetic field is ...

  6. Absolute parametric instability in a nonuniform plane plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The paper reports an analysis of the effect of spatial plasma nonuniformity on absolute parametric instability (API) of electrostatic waves in magnetized plane waveguides subjected to an intense high-frequency (HF) electric field using the separation method. In this case the effect of strong static magnetic field is considered.

  7. Absolute carrier phase effects in the two-color excitation of dipolar molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Alex; Meath, W.J.; Kondo, A.E.

    2002-01-01

    The pump-probe excitation of a two-level dipolar (d≠0) molecule, where the pump frequency is tuned to the energy level separation while the probe frequency is extremely small, is examined theoretically as an example of absolute phase control of excitation processes. The state populations depend on the probe field's absolute carrier phase but are independent of the pump field's absolute carrier phase. Interestingly, the absolute phase effects occur for pulse durations much longer and field intensities much weaker than those required to see such effects in single pulse excitation

  8. Standardization of the cumulative absolute velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, T.F.; Jacobson, J.P.

    1991-12-01

    EPRI NP-5930, ''A Criterion for Determining Exceedance of the Operating Basis Earthquake,'' was published in July 1988. As defined in that report, the Operating Basis Earthquake (OBE) is exceeded when both a response spectrum parameter and a second damage parameter, referred to as the Cumulative Absolute Velocity (CAV), are exceeded. In the review process of the above report, it was noted that the calculation of CAV could be confounded by time history records of long duration containing low (nondamaging) acceleration. Therefore, it is necessary to standardize the method of calculating CAV to account for record length. This standardized methodology allows consistent comparisons between future CAV calculations and the adjusted CAV threshold value based upon applying the standardized methodology to the data set presented in EPRI NP-5930. The recommended method to standardize the CAV calculation is to window its calculation on a second-by-second basis for a given time history. If the absolute acceleration exceeds 0.025g at any time during each one second interval, the earthquake records used in EPRI NP-5930 have been reanalyzed and the adjusted threshold of damage for CAV was found to be 0.16g-set

  9. Absolute beam current monitoring in endstation c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochna, C.

    1995-01-01

    The first few experiments at CEBAF require approximately 1% absolute measurements of beam currents expected to range from 10-25μA. This represents errors of 100-250 nA. The initial complement of beam current monitors are of the non intercepting type. CEBAF accelerator division has provided a stripline monitor and a cavity monitor, and the authors have installed an Unser monitor (parametric current transformer or PCT). After calibrating the Unser monitor with a precision current reference, the authors plan to transfer this calibration using CW beam to the stripline monitors and cavity monitors. It is important that this be done fairly rapidly because while the gain of the Unser monitor is quite stable, the offset may drift on the order of .5μA per hour. A summary of what the authors have learned about the linearity, zero drift, and gain drift of each type of current monitor will be presented

  10. Atomic frequency reference at 1033 nm for ytterbium (Yb)-doped fiber lasers and applications exploiting a rubidium (Rb) 5S_1/2 to 4D_5/2 one-colour two-photon transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ritayan; Condylis, Paul C.; Johnathan, Yik Jinen; Hessmo, Björn

    2017-04-01

    We demonstrate a two-photon transition of rubidium (Rb) atoms from the ground state (5$S_{1/2}$) to the excited state (4$D_{5/2}$), using a home-built ytterbium (Yb)-doped fiber amplifier at 1033 nm. This is the first demonstration of an atomic frequency reference at 1033 nm as well as of a one-colour two-photon transition for the above energy levels. A simple optical setup is presented for the two-photon transition fluorescence spectroscopy, which is useful for frequency stabilization for a broad class of lasers. This spectroscopy has potential applications in the fiber laser industry as a frequency reference, particularly for the Yb-doped fiber lasers. This two-photon transition also has applications in atomic physics as a background- free high- resolution atom detection and for quantum communication, which is outlined in this article.

  11. Absolute frequency shifts of iodine cells for laser stabilization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lazar, Josef; Hrabina, Jan; Jedlička, Petr; Číp, Ondřej

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 5 (2009), s. 450-456 ISSN 0026-1394 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200650504; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06007; GA MŠk 2C06012; GA AV ČR KAN311610701; GA MPO 2A-1TP1/127; GA MPO FT-TA3/133 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : laser stabilization * Nd :YAG laser Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.634, year: 2009

  12. Android Apps for Absolute Beginners

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Wallace

    2011-01-01

    Anybody can start building simple apps for the Android platform, and this book will show you how! Android Apps for Absolute Beginners takes you through the process of getting your first Android applications up and running using plain English and practical examples. It cuts through the fog of jargon and mystery that surrounds Android application development, and gives you simple, step-by-step instructions to get you started.* Teaches Android application development in language anyone can understand, giving you the best possible start in Android development * Provides simple, step-by-step exampl

  13. Absolute pitch: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, P E

    1977-11-01

    The auditory skill known as 'absolute pitch' is discussed, and it is shown that this differs greatly in accuracy of identification or reproduction of musical tones from ordinary discrimination of 'tonal height' which is to some extent trainable. The present writer possessed absolute pitch for almost any tone or chord over the normal musical range, from about the age of 17 to 52. He then started to hear all music one semitone too high, and now at the age of 71 it is heard a full tone above the true pitch. Tests were carried out under controlled conditions, in which 68 to 95 per cent of notes were identified as one semitone or one tone higher than they should be. Changes with ageing seem more likely to occur in the elasticity of the basilar membrane mechanisms than in the long-term memory which is used for aural analysis of complex sounds. Thus this experience supports the view that some resolution of complex sounds takes place at the peripheral sense organ, and this provides information which can be incorrect, for interpretation by the cortical centres.

  14. Absolute measurement of 152Eu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Hiroshi; Baba, Sumiko; Ichikawa, Shinichi; Sekine, Toshiaki; Ishikawa, Isamu

    1981-08-01

    A new method of the absolute measurement for 152 Eu was established based on the 4πβ-γ spectroscopic anti-coincidence method. It is a coincidence counting method consisting of a 4πβ-counter and a Ge(Li) γ-ray detector, in which the effective counting efficiencies of the 4πβ-counter for β-rays, conversion electrons, and Auger electrons were obtained by taking the intensity ratios for certain γ-rays between the single spectrum and the spectrum coincident with the pulses from the 4πβ-counter. First, in order to verify the method, three different methods of the absolute measurement were performed with a prepared 60 Co source to find excellent agreement among the results deduced by them. Next, the 4πβ-γ spectroscopic coincidence measurement was applied to 152 Eu sources prepared by irradiating an enriched 151 Eu target in a reactor. The result was compared with that obtained by the γ-ray spectrometry using a 152 Eu standard source supplied by LMRI. They agreed with each other within the error of 2%. (author)

  15. Cosmic backgrounds of relic gravitons and their absolute normalization

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Provided the consistency relations are not violated, the recent Bicep2 observations pin down the absolute normalization, the spectral slope and the maximal frequency of the cosmic graviton background produced during inflation. The properly normalized spectra are hereby computed from the lowest frequencies (of the order of the present Hubble rate) up to the highest frequency range in the GHz region. Deviations from the conventional paradigm cannot be excluded and are examined by allowing for different physical possibilities including, in particular, a running of the tensor spectral index, an explicit breaking of the consistency relations and a spike in the high-frequency tail of the spectrum coming either from a post-inflationary phase dominated by a stiff fluid of from the contribution of waterfall fields in a hybrid inflationary context. The direct determinations of the tensor to scalar ratio at low frequencies, if confirmed by the forthcoming observations, will also affect and constrain the high-frequencies...

  16. Absolute measurement of 85Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Tamaki

    1978-01-01

    An extension of 4πe.x-γ coincidence technique is described to measure the absolute disintegration rate of 85 Sr. This nuclide shows electron capture-gamma decay, and 514keV level of 85 Rb is a meta-stable state with half life of 0.958 μsec. Therefore, the conventional 4 πe.x-γ coincidence technique with about 1 μsec of resolution time can not be applied to this nuclide. To measure the absolute disintegration rate of this, the delayed 4 πe.x-γ coincidence technique with two different resolution time has been used. The disintegration rate was determined from four counting rates of electron-x ray, gamma ray and two coincidences, and the true disintegration rate could be obtained by extraporation of the electron-x ray detection efficiency to 1. Two resolution time appearing in the calculation formulas were determined from the chance coincidence between electron-x ray and delayed gamma ray signals. When the coincidence countings with three different resolution time were carried out by one coincidence circuit, the results calculated from all combinations did not agree each other. However, when the two coincidence circuits of the same type were used to fix the resolution time, a good coincidence absorption function was obtained and the disintegration rate was determined with accuracy of +- 0.5%. To evaluate the validity of the results the disintegration rates were measured by two NaI (Tl) scintillation detectors whose gamma-ray detection efficiency was previously determined and both results were agreed within accuracy of +- 0.5%. This method can be applied with nearly same accuracy for the beta-gamma decay nuclide possessing a meta-stable state of the half life below about 10 μsec. (auth.)

  17. Absolute GPS Positioning Using Genetic Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramillien, G.

    A new inverse approach for restoring the absolute coordinates of a ground -based station from three or four observed GPS pseudo-ranges is proposed. This stochastic method is based on simulations of natural evolution named genetic algorithms (GA). These iterative procedures provide fairly good and robust estimates of the absolute positions in the Earth's geocentric reference system. For comparison/validation, GA results are compared to the ones obtained using the classical linearized least-square scheme for the determination of the XYZ location proposed by Bancroft (1985) which is strongly limited by the number of available observations (i.e. here, the number of input pseudo-ranges must be four). The r.m.s. accuracy of the non -linear cost function reached by this latter method is typically ~10-4 m2 corresponding to ~300-500-m accuracies for each geocentric coordinate. However, GA can provide more acceptable solutions (r.m.s. errors < 10-5 m2), even when only three instantaneous pseudo-ranges are used, such as a lost of lock during a GPS survey. Tuned GA parameters used in different simulations are N=1000 starting individuals, as well as Pc=60-70% and Pm=30-40% for the crossover probability and mutation rate, respectively. Statistical tests on the ability of GA to recover acceptable coordinates in presence of important levels of noise are made simulating nearly 3000 random samples of erroneous pseudo-ranges. Here, two main sources of measurement errors are considered in the inversion: (1) typical satellite-clock errors and/or 300-metre variance atmospheric delays, and (2) Geometrical Dilution of Precision (GDOP) due to the particular GPS satellite configuration at the time of acquisition. Extracting valuable information and even from low-quality starting range observations, GA offer an interesting alternative for high -precision GPS positioning.

  18. Auditory working memory predicts individual differences in absolute pitch learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hedger, Stephen C; Heald, Shannon L M; Koch, Rachelle; Nusbaum, Howard C

    2015-07-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is typically defined as the ability to label an isolated tone as a musical note in the absence of a reference tone. At first glance the acquisition of AP note categories seems like a perceptual learning task, since individuals must assign a category label to a stimulus based on a single perceptual dimension (pitch) while ignoring other perceptual dimensions (e.g., loudness, octave, instrument). AP, however, is rarely discussed in terms of domain-general perceptual learning mechanisms. This is because AP is typically assumed to depend on a critical period of development, in which early exposure to pitches and musical labels is thought to be necessary for the development of AP precluding the possibility of adult acquisition of AP. Despite this view of AP, several previous studies have found evidence that absolute pitch category learning is, to an extent, trainable in a post-critical period adult population, even if the performance typically achieved by this population is below the performance of a "true" AP possessor. The current studies attempt to understand the individual differences in learning to categorize notes using absolute pitch cues by testing a specific prediction regarding cognitive capacity related to categorization - to what extent does an individual's general auditory working memory capacity (WMC) predict the success of absolute pitch category acquisition. Since WMC has been shown to predict performance on a wide variety of other perceptual and category learning tasks, we predict that individuals with higher WMC should be better at learning absolute pitch note categories than individuals with lower WMC. Across two studies, we demonstrate that auditory WMC predicts the efficacy of learning absolute pitch note categories. These results suggest that a higher general auditory WMC might underlie the formation of absolute pitch categories for post-critical period adults. Implications for understanding the mechanisms that underlie the

  19. Absolutism in diaries of suicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David

    2006-08-01

    Two diaries, one from a completed suicide and one from an attempted suicide, were examined for the use of three words indicating absolutist thinking (perfect, always, and never). The diary of the attempted suicide had a significantly higher frequency use of "never" (2.75 per 1,000 words versus 1.73) but not the other words.

  20. Determination of absolute internal conversion coefficients using the SAGE spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorri, J., E-mail: juha.m.t.sorri@jyu.fi [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); Greenlees, P.T.; Papadakis, P.; Konki, J. [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); Cox, D.M. [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Auranen, K.; Partanen, J.; Sandzelius, M.; Pakarinen, J.; Rahkila, P.; Uusitalo, J. [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); Herzberg, R.-D. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Smallcombe, J.; Davies, P.J.; Barton, C.J.; Jenkins, D.G. [Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-11

    A non-reference based method to determine internal conversion coefficients using the SAGE spectrometer is carried out for transitions in the nuclei of {sup 154}Sm, {sup 152}Sm and {sup 166}Yb. The Normalised-Peak-to-Gamma method is in general an efficient tool to extract internal conversion coefficients. However, in many cases the required well-known reference transitions are not available. The data analysis steps required to determine absolute internal conversion coefficients with the SAGE spectrometer are presented. In addition, several background suppression methods are introduced and an example of how ancillary detectors can be used to select specific reaction products is given. The results obtained for ground-state band E2 transitions show that the absolute internal conversion coefficients can be extracted using the methods described with a reasonable accuracy. In some cases of less intense transitions only an upper limit for the internal conversion coefficient could be given.

  1. Determination of absolute internal conversion coefficients using the SAGE spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorri, J.; Greenlees, P.T.; Papadakis, P.; Konki, J.; Cox, D.M.; Auranen, K.; Partanen, J.; Sandzelius, M.; Pakarinen, J.; Rahkila, P.; Uusitalo, J.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Smallcombe, J.; Davies, P.J.; Barton, C.J.; Jenkins, D.G.

    2016-01-01

    A non-reference based method to determine internal conversion coefficients using the SAGE spectrometer is carried out for transitions in the nuclei of "1"5"4Sm, "1"5"2Sm and "1"6"6Yb. The Normalised-Peak-to-Gamma method is in general an efficient tool to extract internal conversion coefficients. However, in many cases the required well-known reference transitions are not available. The data analysis steps required to determine absolute internal conversion coefficients with the SAGE spectrometer are presented. In addition, several background suppression methods are introduced and an example of how ancillary detectors can be used to select specific reaction products is given. The results obtained for ground-state band E2 transitions show that the absolute internal conversion coefficients can be extracted using the methods described with a reasonable accuracy. In some cases of less intense transitions only an upper limit for the internal conversion coefficient could be given.

  2. Absolute calibration and beam background of the Squid Polarimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaskiewicz, M.M.; Cameron, P.R.; Shea, T.J.

    1996-01-01

    The problem of beam background in Squid Polarimetry is not without residual benefits. The authors may deliberately generate beam background by gently kicking the beam at the spin tune frequency. This signal may be used to accomplish a simple and accurate absolute calibration of the polarimeter. The authors present details of beam background calculations and their application to polarimeter calibration, and suggest a simple proof-of-principle accelerator experiment

  3. Investigating Frequency of Temporo- Mandibular Dysfunctions in Complete Denture Wearers Referring to the Prosthesis Department of Dental School during 2013-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Lotfikamran

    2016-04-01

    Results: 46 patients (46% were male, 54 patients (54% were female, and the age range was 35-64 years. The range of using denture was 1-3 years and the mean duration of using denture was 2.52 ± 1.58 years. The most common age range for the relevant disorders was 40-50 years and the frequency of TMD was more in women than in men. Moreover, there was a significant relationship between age factor and Anamnestic index (P=0.037, whereas no significant relationship was observed between frequency of these disorders, level of education and also duration of using previous denture. Conclusion: The study findings revealed that it seems that with increasing age the rate of complaints from TMD problems increases.

  4. Preliminary investigation of the roles of military background and posttraumatic stress symptoms in frequency and recidivism of intimate partner violence perpetration among court-referred men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Tim; Wray, Alisha M; Rielage, Jennifer Klosterman

    2014-04-01

    Significant rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration have been identified among men with military backgrounds. Research indicates posttraumatic stress symptoms place military men at increased risk for IPV perpetration, but may be negatively associated with IPV among nonmilitary samples. However, no previous studies have directly compared court-referred IPV offenders with and without military experience, which may have clinical implications if posttraumatic stress symptoms are differentially associated with IPV perpetration across these two samples. Twenty court-referred IPV offenders with military background were demographically matched with 40 court-referred IPV offenders without military background. As anticipated, self- and partner-report of physically assaultive acts and injurious acts during baseline assessment showed significantly greater physical assault and injury perpetrated by offenders with military background. However, 1-year follow-up data on convictions indicated a significantly lower rate of recidivism among offenders with military background than among nonmilitary offenders. As hypothesized, symptoms of posttraumatic stress at intake showed a significant positive correlation with IPV perpetration among offenders with military background; however, this relationship showed a negative correlation among offenders without military background. Clinical implications are discussed including treatment avenues, such as Veterans Courts and other incarceration diversion programs, which may be particularly appropriate for offenders with military backgrounds.

  5. Absolute Gravity Datum in the Age of Cold Atom Gravimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, V. A.; Eckl, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    The international gravity datum is defined today by the International Gravity Standardization Net of 1971 (IGSN-71). The data supporting this network was measured in the 1950s and 60s using pendulum and spring-based gravimeter ties (plus some new ballistic absolute meters) to replace the prior protocol of referencing all gravity values to the earlier Potsdam value. Since this time, gravimeter technology has advanced significantly with the development and refinement of the FG-5 (the current standard of the industry) and again with the soon-to-be-available cold atom interferometric absolute gravimeters. This latest development is anticipated to provide improvement in the range of two orders of magnitude as compared to the measurement accuracy of technology utilized to develop ISGN-71. In this presentation, we will explore how the IGSN-71 might best be "modernized" given today's requirements and available instruments and resources. The National Geodetic Survey (NGS), along with other relevant US Government agencies, is concerned about establishing gravity control to establish and maintain high order geodetic networks as part of the nation's essential infrastructure. The need to modernize the nation's geodetic infrastructure was highlighted in "Precise Geodetic Infrastructure, National Requirements for a Shared Resource" National Academy of Science, 2010. The NGS mission, as dictated by Congress, is to establish and maintain the National Spatial Reference System, which includes gravity measurements. Absolute gravimeters measure the total gravity field directly and do not involve ties to other measurements. Periodic "intercomparisons" of multiple absolute gravimeters at reference gravity sites are used to constrain the behavior of the instruments to ensure that each would yield reasonably similar measurements of the same location (i.e. yield a sufficiently consistent datum when measured in disparate locales). New atomic interferometric gravimeters promise a significant

  6. Absolute entropy of ions in methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abakshin, V.A.; Kobenin, V.A.; Krestov, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    By measuring the initial thermoelectromotive forces of chains with bromo-silver electrodes in tetraalkylammonium bromide solutions the absolute entropy of bromide-ion in methanol is determined in the 298.15-318.15 K range. The anti Ssub(Brsup(-))sup(0) = 9.8 entropy units value is used for calculation of the absolute partial molar entropy of alkali metal ions and halogenide ions. It has been found that, absolute entropy of Cs + =12.0 entropy units, I - =14.0 entropy units. The obtained ion absolute entropies in methanol at 298.15 K within 1-2 entropy units is in an agreement with published data

  7. Near threshold absolute TDCS: First results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesel, T.; Schlemmer, P.; Roeder, J.; Frost, L.; Jung, K.; Ehrhardt, H.

    1992-01-01

    A new method, and first results for an impact energy 2 eV above the threshold of ionisation of helium, are presented for the measurement of absolute triple differential cross sections (TDCS) in a crossed beam experiment. The method is based upon measurement of beam/target overlap densities using known absolute total ionisation cross sections and of detection efficiencies using known absolute double differential cross sections (DDCS). For the present work the necessary absolute DDCS for 1 eV electrons had also to be measured. Results are presented for several different coplanar kinematics and are compared with recent DWBA calculations. (orig.)

  8. A novel approach for absolute radar calibration: formulation and theoretical validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Merker

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical framework of a novel approach for absolute radar calibration is presented and its potential analysed by means of synthetic data to lay out a solid basis for future practical application. The method presents the advantage of an absolute calibration with respect to the directly measured reflectivity, without needing a previously calibrated reference device. It requires a setup comprising three radars: two devices oriented towards each other, measuring reflectivity along the same horizontal beam and operating within a strongly attenuated frequency range (e.g. K or X band, and one vertical reflectivity and drop size distribution (DSD profiler below this connecting line, which is to be calibrated. The absolute determination of the calibration factor is based on attenuation estimates. Using synthetic, smooth and geometrically idealised data, calibration is found to perform best using homogeneous precipitation events with rain rates high enough to ensure a distinct attenuation signal (reflectivity above ca. 30 dBZ. Furthermore, the choice of the interval width (in measuring range gates around the vertically pointing radar, needed for attenuation estimation, is found to have an impact on the calibration results. Further analysis is done by means of synthetic data with realistic, inhomogeneous precipitation fields taken from measurements. A calibration factor is calculated for each considered case using the presented method. Based on the distribution of the calculated calibration factors, the most probable value is determined by estimating the mode of a fitted shifted logarithmic normal distribution function. After filtering the data set with respect to rain rate and inhomogeneity and choosing an appropriate length of the considered attenuation path, the estimated uncertainty of the calibration factor is of the order of 1 to 11 %, depending on the chosen interval width. Considering stability and accuracy of the method, an interval of

  9. Absolute and Functional Iron Deficiency Anemia among Different Tumors in Cancer Patients in South Part of Iran, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Seyed Mehdi; Mashhadi, Mohammad Ali; Mohammadi, Mehdi; Ebrahimi, Maryam; Allahyari, Abolghasem

    2017-01-01

    Background: Anemia is a common problem in cancer patients. This study aimed to investigate the frequency rate of absolute and functional iron deficiency anemia among different tumors and its distribution in different stages of cancer in solid tumors. Materials and Methods: This study was performed on 597 patients with cancer referred to Ali-Ebne-Abitaleb Hospital in Zahedan. Laboratory tests included serum iron, transferrin saturation, C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and complete blood count (CBC). The malignancy type and stages were recorded. Data were analysed using SPSS statistics software (Ver.19). Results: Four hundred and fifty-seven patients (76.5 %) diagnosed with solid tumors and 140 (23.5%) suffered from hematologic malignancies. Among patients with solid tumors, functional iron deficiency had the highest rate (300 patients had anemia and 243 (53.2%) of whom were functionally iron deficient), but in hematologic malignancies most of patients had not iron deficiency (66 patients had not iron deficiency against 12 patients had absolute iron deficiency and 62 patients had functional iron deficiency anemia) (P-value=0.021). No significant differences were observed among the various stages of cancers in terms of degrees of iron deficiency (P>0.05). Conclusion: The results of the study showed that solid tumors had a higher rate of absolute and functional iron deficiency anemia, compared to hematologic malignancies. But there was no difference between the different stages of the disease. PMID:28989585

  10. Survey of doses and frequency of X-ray examinations on children at the intensive care unit of a large reference pediatric hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrosa de Azevedo, Ana Cecilia; Osibote, Adelaja Otolorin; Bastos Boechat, Marcia Cristina

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This work aims to evaluate the entrance surface dose (ESD), the body organ dose (BOD) and the effective dose (E) resulting from pediatric radiological procedures with the use of portable X-ray equipments. Materials and methods: The software DoseCal was used to evaluate the doses imparted to patients. The children were classified according to their weight and age groups, and the study included three sectors of the intensive care unit of a large reference pediatric hospital in Rio de Janeiro. Results: A total of 518 radiographs have been performed (424 for chest and 94 for abdomen). The statistical data were compared with previously published results. The BOD is presented for the most exposed organs. Conclusion: The mean value of ESD and E varied widely among neonates. The highest number of radiographs per infant peaked 33 for chest examination in the age group 0-1 year

  11. Strongly nonlinear theory of rapid solidification near absolute stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal, Katarzyna N.; Altieri, Anthony L.; Davis, Stephen H.

    2017-10-01

    We investigate the nonlinear evolution of the morphological deformation of a solid-liquid interface of a binary melt under rapid solidification conditions near two absolute stability limits. The first of these involves the complete stabilization of the system to cellular instabilities as a result of large enough surface energy. We derive nonlinear evolution equations in several limits in this scenario and investigate the effect of interfacial disequilibrium on the nonlinear deformations that arise. In contrast to the morphological stability problem in equilibrium, in which only cellular instabilities appear and only one absolute stability boundary exists, in disequilibrium the system is prone to oscillatory instabilities and a second absolute stability boundary involving attachment kinetics arises. Large enough attachment kinetics stabilize the oscillatory instabilities. We derive a nonlinear evolution equation to describe the nonlinear development of the solid-liquid interface near this oscillatory absolute stability limit. We find that strong asymmetries develop with time. For uniform oscillations, the evolution equation for the interface reduces to the simple form f''+(βf')2+f =0 , where β is the disequilibrium parameter. Lastly, we investigate a distinguished limit near both absolute stability limits in which the system is prone to both cellular and oscillatory instabilities and derive a nonlinear evolution equation that captures the nonlinear deformations in this limit. Common to all these scenarios is the emergence of larger asymmetries in the resulting shapes of the solid-liquid interface with greater departures from equilibrium and larger morphological numbers. The disturbances additionally sharpen near the oscillatory absolute stability boundary, where the interface becomes deep-rooted. The oscillations are time-periodic only for small-enough initial amplitudes and their frequency depends on a single combination of physical parameters, including the

  12. Introducing the Mean Absolute Deviation "Effect" Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorard, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits the use of effect sizes in the analysis of experimental and similar results, and reminds readers of the relative advantages of the mean absolute deviation as a measure of variation, as opposed to the more complex standard deviation. The mean absolute deviation is easier to use and understand, and more tolerant of extreme…

  13. Investigating Absolute Value: A Real World Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Margaret; Pagni, David

    2009-01-01

    Making connections between various representations is important in mathematics. In this article, the authors discuss the numeric, algebraic, and graphical representations of sums of absolute values of linear functions. The initial explanations are accessible to all students who have experience graphing and who understand that absolute value simply…

  14. An absolute distance interferometer with two external cavity diode lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, L; Meiners-Hagen, K; Abou-Zeid, A

    2008-01-01

    An absolute interferometer for length measurements in the range of several metres has been developed. The use of two external cavity diode lasers allows the implementation of a two-step procedure which combines the length measurement with a variable synthetic wavelength and its interpolation with a fixed synthetic wavelength. This synthetic wavelength is obtained at ≈42 µm by a modulation-free stabilization of both lasers to Doppler-reduced rubidium absorption lines. A stable reference interferometer is used as length standard. Different contributions to the total measurement uncertainty are discussed. It is shown that the measurement uncertainty can considerably be reduced by correcting the influence of vibrations on the measurement result and by applying linear regression to the quadrature signals of the absolute interferometer and the reference interferometer. The comparison of the absolute interferometer with a counting interferometer for distances up to 2 m results in a linearity error of 0.4 µm in good agreement with an estimation of the measurement uncertainty

  15. Balinese Frame of Reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Aryawibawa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Balinese Frame of Reference. Wassmann and Dasen (1998 did a study on the acquisition of Balinese frames of reference. They pointed out that, in addition to the dominant use of absolute system, the use of relative system was also observed. This article aims at verifying Wassmann and Dasen’ study. Employing monolingual Balinese speakers and using linguistic and non-linguistic tasks, Aryawibawa (2010, 2012, 2015 showed that Balinese subjects used an absolute system dominantly in responding the two tasks, e.g. The man is north/south/east/west of the car. Unlike Wassmann and Dasen’s results, no relative system was used by the subjects in solving the tasks. Instead of the relative system, an intrinsic system was also observed in this study, even though it was unfrequent. The article concludes that the absolute system was dominantly employed by Balinese speakers in describing spatial relations in Balinese. The use of the system seems to affect their cognitive functions.

  16. Frequency of fall-related injuries of female patients referred to the trauma center in the city of Kashan from years 2005 to 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayyah Mansour

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】 Objective: Falls are one of the life events leading to injury and in serious cases cause high morbidity and mortality. This research was conducted to determine the fall incidence among female population of Kashan city from the years 2005 to 2008. Methods: This was a retrospective research using existing data from the data bank of trauma center of Kashan University of Medical Sciences. Records of all the female patients treated at local hospitals with complete hospitalisation kept at the center were examined for 4 con-secutive years from 2005 to 2008. Results: A total of 2 094 female patients’ records were examined. A significantly higher incidence of injuy occurred in 2008 compared to 2005 (P<0.0001. In addition, the highest frequency of injury occurred in age group above 65 years (31.9% and in group with elementary education level (42.8%. Conclusion: The results showed that fall incidences occurred in the old age group above 65 years. Fall injuries at this age may cause disability. Therefore, preventive mea-sures should be taken, such as increasing the awareness of the aging population about the seriousness of fall incidence and encouraging the aged individuals to get involved in fitness program to remain physical fit and healthy. Key words: Accidental falls; Wounds and injuries; Female

  17. Proposal for an absolute, atomic definition of mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wignall, J.W.G.

    1991-11-01

    It is proposed that the mass of a particle be defined absolutely as its de Broglie frequency, measured as the mean de Broglie wavelength of the particle when it has a mean speed (v) and Lorentz factor γ; the masses of systems too large to have a measurable de Broglie wavelength mean are then to be derived by specifying the usual inertial and additive properties of mass. This definition avoids the use of an arbitrary macroscopic standard such as the prototype kilogram, and, if present theory is correct, does not even require the choice of a specific particle as a mass standard. Suggestions are made as to how this absolute mass can be realized and measured at the macroscopic level and, finally, some comments are made on the effect of the new definition on the form of the equations of physics. 19 refs

  18. Remote ultrasound palpation for robotic interventions using absolute elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Caitlin; Baghani, Ali; Rohling, Robert; Salcudean, Septimiu

    2012-01-01

    Although robotic surgery has addressed many of the challenges presented by minimally invasive surgery, haptic feedback and the lack of knowledge of tissue stiffness is an unsolved problem. This paper presents a system for finding the absolute elastic properties of tissue using a freehand ultrasound scanning technique, which utilizes the da Vinci Surgical robot and a custom 2D ultrasound transducer for intraoperative use. An external exciter creates shear waves in the tissue, and a local frequency estimation method computes the shear modulus. Results are reported for both phantom and in vivo models. This system can be extended to any 6 degree-of-freedom tracking method and any 2D transducer to provide real-time absolute elastic properties of tissue.

  19. A global algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, T. J.; Jackett, D. R.; Millero, F. J.; Pawlowicz, R.; Barker, P. M.

    2012-12-01

    The International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater - 2010 has defined the thermodynamic properties of seawater in terms of a new salinity variable, Absolute Salinity, which takes into account the spatial variation of the composition of seawater. Absolute Salinity more accurately reflects the effects of the dissolved material in seawater on the thermodynamic properties (particularly density) than does Practical Salinity. When a seawater sample has standard composition (i.e. the ratios of the constituents of sea salt are the same as those of surface water of the North Atlantic), Practical Salinity can be used to accurately evaluate the thermodynamic properties of seawater. When seawater is not of standard composition, Practical Salinity alone is not sufficient and the Absolute Salinity Anomaly needs to be estimated; this anomaly is as large as 0.025 g kg-1 in the northernmost North Pacific. Here we provide an algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity Anomaly for any location (x, y, p) in the world ocean. To develop this algorithm, we used the Absolute Salinity Anomaly that is found by comparing the density calculated from Practical Salinity to the density measured in the laboratory. These estimates of Absolute Salinity Anomaly however are limited to the number of available observations (namely 811). In order to provide a practical method that can be used at any location in the world ocean, we take advantage of approximate relationships between Absolute Salinity Anomaly and silicate concentrations (which are available globally).

  20. Early results from the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, J. C.; Cheng, E. S.; Shafer, R. A.; Eplee, R. E.; Isaacman, R. B.; Fixsen, D. J.; Read, S. M.; Meyer, S. S.; Weiss, R.; Wright, E. L.

    1991-01-01

    The Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) mapped 98 percent of the sky, 60 percent of it twice, before the liquid helium coolant was exhausted. The FIRAS covers the frequency region from 1 to 100/cm with a 7 deg angular resolution. The spectral resolution is 0.2/cm for frequencies less than 20/cm and 0.8/cm for higher frequencies. Preliminary results include: a limit on the deviations from a Planck curve of 1 percent of the peak brightness from 1 to 20/cm, a temperature of 2.735 +/- 0.06 K, a limit on the Comptonization parameter y of 0.001, on the chemical potential parameter mu of 0.01, a strong limit on the existence of a hot smooth intergalactic medium, and a confirmation that the dipole anisotropy spectrum is that of a Doppler shifted blackbody.

  1. Elementary, Middle, and High School Students Vary in Frequency and Purpose When Using Online Digital References. A review of: Silverstein, Joanne. “Just Curious: Children’s Use of Digital Reference for Unimposed Queries and Its Importance in Informal Education.” Library Trends 54.2 (Fall 2005: 228‐44.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Stephens

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine 1 how and with what frequency children use digital references to answer their own unimposed questions; 2 whether digital reference services support their self‐initiated learning; 3 whether digital reference services support the transfer of student motivation and curiosity from the formal to the informal; and 4 what instructional and software designers should consider in creating tools that support learning.Design – Inductive analysis.Setting – Virtual Reference Desk’s (VRD Learning Center (http://vrd.askvrd.org/ and the National Science Foundation’s (NSFdigital reference service (http://www.esteme.org during Excellence in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Education Week (ESTEME, April 11‐16, 2005.Subjects – Elementary (K‐5, middle (6‐8,and high school (9‐12 students from the general public. One hundred fourteen questions were analyzed, however there is no indication of the number of different students who submitted the questions.Methods – This study was conducted using a pool of 600 questions from students, teachers, parents, and the general public that were submitted to two digital reference services intended for students. Three hundred experts in the fields of Math and Science volunteered to answer the submitted questions during Excellence in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Education Week. Because the digital services employed a pull‐down menu to describe the user as a student, teacher, parent, etc., the questions could be narrowed to those submitted by students. The questions were also narrowed to those marked as “just curious” from a question purpose menu that contained categories including “written report,” “science fair project,” and “just curious.” A total of 114 unique questions from elementary, middle, and high school students were analyzed to determine the study objectives. The 114 questions were loaded into a qualitative software

  2. The absolute environmental performance of buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brejnrod, Kathrine Nykjær; Kalbar, Pradip; Petersen, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Our paper presents a novel approach for absolute sustainability assessment of a building's environmental performance. It is demonstrated how the absolute sustainable share of the earth carrying capacity of a specific building type can be estimated using carrying capacity based normalization factors....... A building is considered absolute sustainable if its annual environmental burden is less than its share of the earth environmental carrying capacity. Two case buildings – a standard house and an upcycled single-family house located in Denmark – were assessed according to this approach and both were found...... to exceed the target values of three (almost four) of the eleven impact categories included in the study. The worst-case excess was for the case building, representing prevalent Danish building practices, which utilized 1563% of the Climate Change carrying capacity. Four paths to reach absolute...

  3. Absolute calibration technique for spontaneous fission sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucker, M.S.; Karpf, E.

    1984-01-01

    An absolute calibration technique for a spontaneously fissioning nuclide (which involves no arbitrary parameters) allows unique determination of the detector efficiency for that nuclide, hence of the fission source strength

  4. MEAN OF MEDIAN ABSOLUTE DERIVATION TECHNIQUE MEAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    development of mean of median absolute derivation technique based on the based on the based on .... of noise mean to estimate the speckle noise variance. Noise mean property ..... Foraging Optimization,” International Journal of. Advanced ...

  5. Absolute exposure determination of cobalt-60 gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.S.; Ali, A.; Orfi, S.D.

    1986-02-01

    The report describes the procedure for the determination of absolute exposure for Cobalt-60 gamma radiation. A graphite cavity chamber, nominal volume of 1 cm 3 , manufactured by Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf has been used. The exposure rate at reference distance determined with the graphite chamber was compared with mean exposure rate measured with NPL-Therapy level X-ray exposure meter normalized to same date. An agreement of 0.39% was found between the two measuring systems, which seems to be very encouraging and quite satisfactory. (authors)

  6. Overspecification of colour, pattern, and size: Salience, absoluteness, and consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sammie eTarenskeen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The rates of overspecification of colour, pattern, and size are compared, to investigate how salience and absoluteness contribute to the production of overspecification. Colour and pattern are absolute attributes, whereas size is relative and less salient. Additionally, a tendency towards consistent responses is assessed. Using a within-participants design, we find similar rates of colour and pattern overspecification, which are both higher than the rate of size overspecification. Using a between-participants design, however, we find similar rates of pattern and size overspecification, which are both lower than the rate of colour overspecification. This indicates that although many speakers are more likely to include colour than pattern (probably because colour is more salient, they may also treat pattern like colour due to a tendency towards consistency. We find no increase in size overspecification when the salience of size is increased, suggesting that speakers are more likely to include absolute than relative attributes. However, we do find an increase in size overspecification when mentioning the attributes is triggered, which again shows that speakers tend refer in a consistent manner, and that there are circumstances in which even size overspecification is frequently produced.

  7. Growth references

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van

    2007-01-01

    A growth reference describes the variation of an anthropometric measurement within a group of individuals. A reference is a tool for grouping and analyzing data and provides a common basis for comparing populations.1 A well known type of reference is the age-conditional growth diagram. The

  8. A global algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. McDougall

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater – 2010 has defined the thermodynamic properties of seawater in terms of a new salinity variable, Absolute Salinity, which takes into account the spatial variation of the composition of seawater. Absolute Salinity more accurately reflects the effects of the dissolved material in seawater on the thermodynamic properties (particularly density than does Practical Salinity.

    When a seawater sample has standard composition (i.e. the ratios of the constituents of sea salt are the same as those of surface water of the North Atlantic, Practical Salinity can be used to accurately evaluate the thermodynamic properties of seawater. When seawater is not of standard composition, Practical Salinity alone is not sufficient and the Absolute Salinity Anomaly needs to be estimated; this anomaly is as large as 0.025 g kg−1 in the northernmost North Pacific. Here we provide an algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity Anomaly for any location (x, y, p in the world ocean.

    To develop this algorithm, we used the Absolute Salinity Anomaly that is found by comparing the density calculated from Practical Salinity to the density measured in the laboratory. These estimates of Absolute Salinity Anomaly however are limited to the number of available observations (namely 811. In order to provide a practical method that can be used at any location in the world ocean, we take advantage of approximate relationships between Absolute Salinity Anomaly and silicate concentrations (which are available globally.

  9. Frequency of referral of patients with safety-related contraindications to magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewey, Marc [Departments of Radiology, Charite, Medical School, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin (Germany)]. E-mail: marc.dewey@charite.de; Schink, Tania [Medical Biometry, Charite, Medical School, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin (Germany)]. E-mail: tania.schink@charite.de; Dewey, Charles F. [Radiology, Outpatient Centre Loebau, Poststr. 20, 02738 Loebau (Germany)]. E-mail: dewey@t-online.de

    2007-07-15

    Purpose: To analyse the frequency of patients with absolute and relative contraindications to magnetic resonance (MR) imaging who were actually referred to an outpatient imaging centre for an MR examination Materials and methods: Altogether a total of 51,547 consecutive patients were included between November 1997 and December 2005. Reasons preventing MR imaging were classified into the following categories: absolute and relative contraindications. Results: The referral frequency of patients with absolute contraindications to MR imaging was 0.41% (211 of 51,547 patients; 95% CI, 0.36-0.47%). The absolute contraindications were shrapnels located in biologically sensitive areas (121 patients, 0.23%; 95% CI, 0.20-0.28%), cardiac pacemakers (42 patients, 0.08%; 95% CI, 0.06-0.11%), and other unsafe implants (48 patients, 0.09%; 95% CI, 0.07-0.12%). Also patients with a relative contraindication to MR imaging were referred such as women with a first-trimester pregnancy (13 patients, 0.03%; 95% CI, 0.01-0.04%). Conclusion: Surprisingly, a considerable number of patients (0.41%) with cardiac pacemakers, other metallic implants (not approved for MR), or shrapnels are referred to MR facilities despite the well-known recommendations not to examine such patients. Thus, absolute contraindications to MR imaging are commonly found among patients referred for MR examinations and every effort needs to be made to screen patients prior to MR imaging for such contraindications to avoid detrimental results. Also, institutions placing implants (approved and unapproved for MR) should become legally responsible for providing the required information to the patients and their physicians.

  10. Frequency of referral of patients with safety-related contraindications to magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewey, Marc; Schink, Tania; Dewey, Charles F.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To analyse the frequency of patients with absolute and relative contraindications to magnetic resonance (MR) imaging who were actually referred to an outpatient imaging centre for an MR examination Materials and methods: Altogether a total of 51,547 consecutive patients were included between November 1997 and December 2005. Reasons preventing MR imaging were classified into the following categories: absolute and relative contraindications. Results: The referral frequency of patients with absolute contraindications to MR imaging was 0.41% (211 of 51,547 patients; 95% CI, 0.36-0.47%). The absolute contraindications were shrapnels located in biologically sensitive areas (121 patients, 0.23%; 95% CI, 0.20-0.28%), cardiac pacemakers (42 patients, 0.08%; 95% CI, 0.06-0.11%), and other unsafe implants (48 patients, 0.09%; 95% CI, 0.07-0.12%). Also patients with a relative contraindication to MR imaging were referred such as women with a first-trimester pregnancy (13 patients, 0.03%; 95% CI, 0.01-0.04%). Conclusion: Surprisingly, a considerable number of patients (0.41%) with cardiac pacemakers, other metallic implants (not approved for MR), or shrapnels are referred to MR facilities despite the well-known recommendations not to examine such patients. Thus, absolute contraindications to MR imaging are commonly found among patients referred for MR examinations and every effort needs to be made to screen patients prior to MR imaging for such contraindications to avoid detrimental results. Also, institutions placing implants (approved and unapproved for MR) should become legally responsible for providing the required information to the patients and their physicians

  11. Absolute isotopic abundances of Ti in meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederer, F.R.; Papanastassiou, D.A.; Wasserburg, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    The absolute isotope abundance of Ti has been determined in Ca-Al-rich inclusions from the Allende and Leoville meteorites and in samples of whole meteorites. The absolute Ti isotope abundances differ by a significant mass dependent isotope fractionation transformation from the previously reported abundances, which were normalized for fractionation using 46 Ti/ 48 Ti. Therefore, the absolute compositions define distinct nucleosynthetic components from those previously identified or reflect the existence of significant mass dependent isotope fractionation in nature. We provide a general formalism for determining the possible isotope compositions of the exotic Ti from the measured composition, for different values of isotope fractionation in nature and for different mixing ratios of the exotic and normal components. The absolute Ti and Ca isotopic compositions still support the correlation of 50 Ti and 48 Ca effects in the FUN inclusions and imply contributions from neutron-rich equilibrium or quasi-equilibrium nucleosynthesis. The present identification of endemic effects at 46 Ti, for the absolute composition, implies a shortfall of an explosive-oxygen component or reflects significant isotope fractionation. Additional nucleosynthetic components are required by 47 Ti and 49 Ti effects. Components are also defined in which 48 Ti is enhanced. Results are given and discussed. (author)

  12. Application of x-ray fluorescence (XRF) absolute analysis method for silica refractories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asakura, Hideo; Yamada, Yasujiro; Kansai, Kouhei; Tomatsu, Ichirou; Murata, Mamoru

    2015-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis is a rapid and precise quantitative analytical method for the determination of major and trace elements in many industries and academics. XRF analytical values are relative due to the use of the calibration curves calculated from measuring the reference standard materials such as Japanese Refractory Reference Materials (JRRM) series with certified values determined by wet chemical analysis. The development of the XRF analytical method from relative to absolute analysis will help much to determine the absolute values of samples from the fields where reference standard samples have not been prepared, and thus can be applied widely in many industries. The implement of the absolute XRF analysis for silica refractories requires high purity reagents and/or reference standard solution for the binary basic calibration curve, and theoretical matrix correction coefficients for the multi-components silica refractories analysis. The reproducibility and repeatability of this method for Al 2 O 3 5 mass% sample were 0.009 and 0.006 mass% in Al 2 O 3 and showed better values that those of ICP-AES recognized as an absolute method in JIS R 2212-2, which yielded 0.028 and 0.031 mass%, respectively. The XRF absolute analysis for JRRM 200 series, 201a and 205a does not show a bias but coincides with their certified values. (author)

  13. Absolute calibration in vivo measurement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruchten, D.A.; Hickman, D.P.

    1991-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is currently investigating a new method for obtaining absolute calibration factors for radiation measurement systems used to measure internally deposited radionuclides in vivo. Absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems will eliminate the need to generate a series of human surrogate structures (i.e., phantoms) for calibrating in vivo measurement systems. The absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems utilizes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to define physiological structure, size, and composition. The MRI image provides a digitized representation of the physiological structure, which allows for any mathematical distribution of radionuclides within the body. Using Monte Carlo transport codes, the emission spectrum from the body is predicted. The in vivo measurement equipment is calibrated using the Monte Carlo code and adjusting for the intrinsic properties of the detection system. The calibration factors are verified using measurements of existing phantoms and previously obtained measurements of human volunteers. 8 refs

  14. Amplitude and frequency stabilized solid-state lasers in the near infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laporta, P.; Taccheo, S.; Marano, M.; Svelto, O.; Bava, E.; Galzerano, G.; Svelto, C.

    2001-01-01

    In this article we present a comprehensive review of the work done by our group on the amplitude and frequency stabilization of diode-pumped near-infrared solid-state lasers. In particular, we describe experiments based on single-mode Nd:YAG (1064 nm), Er-Yb:glass (1530-1560 nm), and Tm-Ho:YAG (2097 nm) lasers, end-pumped by semiconductor laser diodes. Amplitude stabilization is achieved by means of optoelectronic control loops sensing the laser intensity fluctuations and feeding back the error signal to the current of the pump diodes. Frequency stabilization is pursued using rovibrational molecular lines as absolute frequency references by means of various frequency locking techniques. The most interesting stability results are described in some detail whereas the wide literature cited through the paper provides for a useful reference list of related topics and experiments. (author)

  15. Redetermination and absolute configuration of atalaphylline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoong-Kun Fun

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The title acridone alkaloid [systematic name: 1,3,5-trihydroxy-2,4-bis(3-methylbut-2-enylacridin-9(10H-one], C23H25NO4, has previously been reported as crystallizing in the chiral orthorhombic space group P212121 [Chantrapromma et al. (2010. Acta Cryst. E66, o81–o82] but the absolute configuration could not be determined from data collected with Mo radiation. The absolute configuration has now been determined by refinement of the Flack parameter with data collected using Cu radiation. All features of the molecule and its crystal packing are similar to those previously described.

  16. Comparing absolute and normalized indicators in scientific collaboration: a study in Environmental Science in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrini-Grácio, M.C.; Oliveira, E.F.T.

    2016-07-01

    This paper aims to conduct a comparative analysis of scientific collaboration proximity trends generated from absolute indicators and indicators of collaboration intensity in the field of Environmental Sciences in Latin America (LA), in order to identify possible existing biases in the absolute indicators of international cooperation, due to the magnitude of scientific production of these countries in mainstream science. More specifically, the objective is to analyze the compared forms of absolute and normalized values of co-authorship among Latin America countries and their main collaborators, in order to observe similarities and differences expressed by two indexes of frequency in relation to scientific collaboration trends in LA countries. In addition, we aim to visualize and analyze scientific collaboration networks with absolute and normalized indexes of co-authorship through SC among Latin America countries and their collaborators, comparing proximity evidenced by two generated collaborative networks - absolute and relative indicators. Data collection comprised a period of 10 years (2006-2015) for the countries from LA: Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, Chile and Colombia as they produced 94% of total production, a percentage considered representative and significant for this study. Then, we verified the co-authorship frequencies among the five countries and their key collaborators and builted the matrix with the indexes of co-authorship normalized through SC. Then, we generated two egocentric networks of scientific collaboration - absolute frequencies and normalized frequencies through SC using Pajek software. From the results, we observed the need for absolute and normalized indicators to describe the scientific collaboration phenomenon in a more thoroughly way, once these indicators provide complementary information. (Author)

  17. Absolutely relative or relatively absolute: violations of value invariance in human decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodorescu, Andrei R; Moran, Rani; Usher, Marius

    2016-02-01

    Making decisions based on relative rather than absolute information processing is tied to choice optimality via the accumulation of evidence differences and to canonical neural processing via accumulation of evidence ratios. These theoretical frameworks predict invariance of decision latencies to absolute intensities that maintain differences and ratios, respectively. While information about the absolute values of the choice alternatives is not necessary for choosing the best alternative, it may nevertheless hold valuable information about the context of the decision. To test the sensitivity of human decision making to absolute values, we manipulated the intensities of brightness stimuli pairs while preserving either their differences or their ratios. Although asked to choose the brighter alternative relative to the other, participants responded faster to higher absolute values. Thus, our results provide empirical evidence for human sensitivity to task irrelevant absolute values indicating a hard-wired mechanism that precedes executive control. Computational investigations of several modelling architectures reveal two alternative accounts for this phenomenon, which combine absolute and relative processing. One account involves accumulation of differences with activation dependent processing noise and the other emerges from accumulation of absolute values subject to the temporal dynamics of lateral inhibition. The potential adaptive role of such choice mechanisms is discussed.

  18. [Reference citation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brkić, Silvija

    2013-01-01

    Scientific and professional papers represent the information basis for scientific research and professional work. References important for the paper should be cited within the text, and listed at the end of the paper. This paper deals with different styles of reference citation. Special emphasis was placed on the Vancouver Style for reference citation in biomedical journals established by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. It includes original samples for citing various types of articles, both printed and electronic, as well as recommendations related to reference citation in accordance with the methodology and ethics of scientific research and guidelines for preparing manuscripts for publication.

  19. Det demokratiske argument for absolut ytringsfrihed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2014-01-01

    Artiklen diskuterer den påstand, at absolut ytringsfrihed er en nødvendig forudsætning for demokratisk legitimitet med udgangspunkt i en rekonstruktion af et argument fremsat af Ronald Dworkin. Spørgsmålet er, hvorfor ytringsfrihed skulle være en forudsætning for demokratisk legitimitet, og hvorfor...

  20. On the absolute measure of Beta activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez del Rio, C.; Jimenez Reynaldo, O.; Rodriguez Mayquez, E.

    1956-01-01

    A new method for absolute beta counting of solid samples is given. The mea surements is made with an inside Geiger-Muller tube of new construction. The backscattering correction when using an infinite thick mounting is discussed and results for different materials given. (Author)

  1. Absolute measurement of a tritium standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadzisehovic, M.; Mocilnik, I.; Buraei, K.; Pongrac, S.; Milojevic, A.

    1978-01-01

    For the determination of a tritium absolute activity standard, a method of internal gas counting has been used. The procedure involves water reduction by uranium and zinc further the measurement of the absolute disintegration rate of tritium per unit of the effective volume of the counter by a compensation method. Criteria for the choice of methods and procedures concerning the determination and measurement of gaseous 3 H yield, parameters of gaseous hydrogen, sample mass of HTO and the absolute disintegration rate of tritium are discussed. In order to obtain gaseous sources of 3 H (and 2 H), the same reversible chemical reaction was used, namely, the water - uranium hydride - hydrogen system. This reaction was proved to be quantitative above 500 deg C by measuring the yield of the gas obtained and the absolute activity of an HTO standard. A brief description of the measuring apparatus is given, as well as a critical discussion of the brass counter quality and the possibility of obtaining equal working conditions at the counter ends. (T.G.)

  2. Absolutyzm i pluralizm (ABSOLUTISM AND PLURALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Ziemińska

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Alethic absolutism is a thesis that propositions can not be more or less true, that they are true or false for ever (if true at all and that their truth is independent on any circumstances of their assertion. In negative version, easier to defend, alethic absolutism claims the very same proposition can not be both true and false relative to circumstances of its assertion. Simple alethic pluralism is a thesis that we have many concepts of truth. It is a very good way to dissolve the controversy between alethic relativism and absolutism. Many philosophical concepts of truth are the best reason for such pluralism. If concept is meaning of a name, we have many concepts of truth because the name 'truth' was understood in many ways. The variety of meanings however can be superficial. Under it we can find one idea of truth expressed in correspondence truism or schema (T. The content of the truism is too poor to be content of anyone concept of truth, so it usually is connected with some picture of the world (ontology and we have so many concepts of truth as many pictures of the world. The authoress proposes the hierarchical pluralism with privileged classic (or correspondence in weak sense concept of truth as absolute property.Other author's publications:

  3. Absolute Distance Measurements with Tunable Semiconductor Laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikel, Břetislav; Číp, Ondřej; Lazar, Josef

    T118, - (2005), s. 41-44 ISSN 0031-8949 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAB2065001 Keywords : tunable laser * absolute interferometer Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.661, year: 2004

  4. Thin-film magnetoresistive absolute position detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenland, J.P.J.

    1990-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the investigation of a digital absolute posi- tion-detection system, which is based on a position-information carrier (i.e. a magnetic tape) with one single code track on the one hand, and an array of magnetoresistive sensors for the detection of the information on the

  5. Stimulus Probability Effects in Absolute Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an absolute identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of…

  6. Absolute tightness: the chemists hesitate to invest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The safety requirements of industries as nuclear plants and the strengthening of regulations in the field of environment (more particularly those related to volatile organic compounds) have lead the manufacturers to build absolute tightness pumps. But these equipments do not answer all the problems and represent a high investment cost. In consequence, the chemists hesitate to invest. (O.L.)

  7. Solving Absolute Value Equations Algebraically and Geometrically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiyuan, Wei

    2005-01-01

    The way in which students can improve their comprehension by understanding the geometrical meaning of algebraic equations or solving algebraic equation geometrically is described. Students can experiment with the conditions of the absolute value equation presented, for an interesting way to form an overall understanding of the concept.

  8. Reference Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivens-Tatum, Wayne

    2006-01-01

    This article presents interesting articles that explore several different areas of reference assessment, including practical case studies and theoretical articles that address a range of issues such as librarian behavior, patron satisfaction, virtual reference, or evaluation design. They include: (1) "Evaluating the Quality of a Chat Service"…

  9. Income and Well-Being: Relative Income and Absolute Income Weaken Negative Emotion, but Only Relative Income Improves Positive Emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zonghuo; Chen, Li

    2016-01-01

    Whether relative income or absolute income could affect subjective well-being has been a bone of contention for years. Life satisfaction and the relative frequency of positive and negative emotions are parts of subjective well-being. According to the prospect theory, hedonic adaptation helps to explain why positive emotion is often so hard to be maintained, and negative emotion wouldn't be easy to be eliminated. So we expect the relationship between income and positive emotion is different from that between income and negative emotion. Given that regional reference is the main comparison mechanism, effects of regional average income on regional average subjective well-being should be potentially zero if only relative income matters. Using multilevel analysis, we tested the hypotheses with a dataset of 30,144 individuals from 162 counties in China. The results suggested that household income at the individual level is associated with life satisfaction, happiness and negative emotions. On the contrary, at a county level, household income is only associated with negative emotion. In other words, happiness and life satisfaction was only associated with relative income, but negative emotion was associated with relative income and absolute income. Without social comparison, income doesn't improve happiness, but it could weaken negative emotion. Therefore, it is possible for economic growth to weaken negative emotion without improving happiness. These findings also contribute to the current debate about the "Esterling paradox."

  10. Recent references

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramavataram, S.

    1991-01-01

    In support of a continuing program of systematic evaluation of nuclear structure data, the National Nuclear Data Center maintains a complete computer file of references to the nuclear physics literature. Each reference is tagged by a keyword string, which indicates the kinds of data contained in the article. This master file of Nuclear Structure References (NSR) contains complete keyword indexes to literature published since 1969, with partial indexing of older references. Any reader who finds errors in the keyword descriptions is urged to report them to the National Nuclear Data Center so that the master NSR file can be corrected. In 1966, the first collection of Recent References was published as a separate issue of Nuclear Data Sheets. Every four months since 1970, a similar indexed bibliography to new nuclear experiments has been prepared from additions to the NSR file and published. Beginning in 1978, Recent References was cumulated annually, with the third issue completely superseding the two issues previously published during a given year. Due to publication policy changes, cumulation of Recent Reference was discontinued in 1986. The volume and issue number of all the cumulative issues published to date are given. NNDC will continue to respond to individual requests for special bibliographies on nuclear physics topics, in addition to those easily obtained from Recent References. If the required information is available from the keyword string, a reference list can be prepared automatically from the computer files. This service can be provided on request, in exchange for the timely communication of new nuclear physics results (e.g., preprints). A current copy of the NSR file may also be obtained in a standard format on magnetic tape from NNDC. Requests for special searches of the NSR file may also be directed to the National Nuclear Data Center

  11. Absolute chronology and stratigraphy of Lepenski Vir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borić Dušan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, a number of specialist analyses were made on the material from old excavations of Mesolithic-Neolithic sites in the Danube Gorges. These new results altered significantly our understanding of the Lepenski Vir culture. The question of chronology of this regional phenomenon has been acute since the discovery of Lepenski Vir in the 1960s, and it remains of key importance for understanding the character of Mesolithic-Neolithic transformations in this and the neighbouring regions. The most heated debate was fuelled by the initial stratigraphic and chronological attribution of the type-site itself. There remained the question about the adequate dating of the most prominent phase at this site characterized by buildings with trapezoidal bases covered with limestone floors and with rectangular stone-lined hearths placed in the centre of these features. There have been suggestions that these features also contain Early Neolithic Starčevo type pottery and other similar items of material culture and should thus be dated to the Early Neolithic historical context. Moreover, the first series of conventional radiocarbon determinations (21 dates also suggested that the absolute chronology of these features should be confined to the period from around 6400-5500 cal BC (Fig. 1. Due to the importance of defining more precisely the chronology for the start of construction of these particular features at Lepenski Vir and for establishing the life-span of these buildings and their associated material culture, we have AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry dated a number of contexts from this site. The results are presented in this paper. The project was made possible through the Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerate Dating Service (ORADS programme funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC and the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC of the Great Britain. Apart from those dates presented in this paper, there are 29 previously published

  12. Information structure and reference tracking in complex sentences

    CERN Document Server

    Gijn, Rik van; Matic, Dejan

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses argument marking and reference tracking in Mekens complex clauses and their correlation to information structure. The distribution of pronominal arguments in Mekens simple clauses follows an absolutive pattern with main verbs. Complex clauses maintain the morphological absolutive argument marking, but show a nominative pattern with respect to argument reference tracking, since transitive and intransitive subjects function as syntactic pivots. The language extends the use of argument-marking verb morphology to control the reference of discourse participants across clauses.

  13. ARCADE 2 MEASUREMENT OF THE ABSOLUTE SKY BRIGHTNESS AT 3-90 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fixsen, D. J.; Kogut, A.; Wollack, E.; Levin, S.; Seiffert, M.; Limon, M.; Lubin, P.; Mirel, P.; Singal, J.; Villela, T.; Wuensche, C. A.

    2011-01-01

    The ARCADE 2 instrument has measured the absolute temperature of the sky at frequencies 3, 8, 10, 30, and 90 GHz, using an open-aperture cryogenic instrument observing at balloon altitudes with no emissive windows between the beam-forming optics and the sky. An external blackbody calibrator provides an in situ reference. Systematic errors were greatly reduced by using differential radiometers and cooling all critical components to physical temperatures approximating the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature. A linear model is used to compare the output of each radiometer to a set of thermometers on the instrument. Small corrections are made for the residual emission from the flight train, balloon, atmosphere, and foreground Galactic emission. The ARCADE 2 data alone show an excess radio rise of 54 ± 6 mK at 3.3 GHz in addition to a CMB temperature of 2.731 ± 0.004 K. Combining the ARCADE 2 data with data from the literature shows an excess power-law spectrum of T = 24.1 ± 2.1 (K) (ν/ν 0 ) -2.599±0.036 from 22 MHz to 10 GHz (ν 0 = 310 MHz) in addition to a CMB temperature of 2.725 ± 0.001 K.

  14. Consequences count: against absolutism at the end of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelling, Paul C

    2004-05-01

    There has been a considerable amount of debate in the nursing literature about euthanasia, and especially the distinctions between acts and omissions, and killing and letting die. These distinctions are required by opponents of euthanasia to justify allowing some cases of passive euthanasia while forbidding all cases of active euthanasia. This paper adds to the debate by arguing that the position that absolutely forbids euthanasia is theoretically inconsistent. The paper first considers the place of moral theory in analysing moral problems, within the framework of the principles of biomedical ethics. It is argued that despite a moral pluralism that operates in many areas, the legal status of euthanasia is based upon an absolute deontological position against deliberate killing, which cannot be overridden by appeals to favourable consequences. In order that certain forms of passive euthanasia can be allowed, this position allows distinctions within three pairs of concepts--acts and omissions, killing and letting die, and ordinary and extraordinary means. A further method of justifying certain actions near the end of life is the doctrine of double effect. These paired concepts and the doctrine of double effect are analysed with special reference to their consequences. The application of the doctrine of double effect and the three distinctions relies on consideration of their consequences, allowing in practice what in theory is denied. This is important because it weakens the absolute case against euthanasia, which disallows any direct consequentialist appeal. If consequences count in the application of the doctrine and the distinctions, then they should also count directly prior to their application. This strengthens the argument for active euthanasia in certain cases.

  15. Globular Clusters: Absolute Proper Motions and Galactic Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemel, A. A.; Glushkova, E. V.; Dambis, A. K.; Rastorguev, A. S.; Yalyalieva, L. N.; Klinichev, A. D.

    2018-04-01

    We cross-match objects from several different astronomical catalogs to determine the absolute proper motions of stars within the 30-arcmin radius fields of 115 Milky-Way globular clusters with the accuracy of 1-2 mas yr-1. The proper motions are based on positional data recovered from the USNO-B1, 2MASS, URAT1, ALLWISE, UCAC5, and Gaia DR1 surveys with up to ten positions spanning an epoch difference of up to about 65 years, and reduced to Gaia DR1 TGAS frame using UCAC5 as the reference catalog. Cluster members are photometrically identified by selecting horizontal- and red-giant branch stars on color-magnitude diagrams, and the mean absolute proper motions of the clusters with a typical formal error of about 0.4 mas yr-1 are computed by averaging the proper motions of selected members. The inferred absolute proper motions of clusters are combined with available radial-velocity data and heliocentric distance estimates to compute the cluster orbits in terms of the Galactic potential models based on Miyamoto and Nagai disk, Hernquist spheroid, and modified isothermal dark-matter halo (axisymmetric model without a bar) and the same model + rotating Ferre's bar (non-axisymmetric). Five distant clusters have higher-than-escape velocities, most likely due to large errors of computed transversal velocities, whereas the computed orbits of all other clusters remain bound to the Galaxy. Unlike previously published results, we find the bar to affect substantially the orbits of most of the clusters, even those at large Galactocentric distances, bringing appreciable chaotization, especially in the portions of the orbits close to the Galactic center, and stretching out the orbits of some of the thick-disk clusters.

  16. Absolute calibration of TFTR helium proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, J.D.; Diesso, M.; Jassby, D.; Johnson, L.; McCauley, S.; Munsat, T.; Roquemore, A.L.; Loughlin, M.

    1995-06-01

    The TFTR helium proportional counters are located in the central five (5) channels of the TFTR multichannel neutron collimator. These detectors were absolutely calibrated using a 14 MeV neutron generator positioned at the horizontal midplane of the TFTR vacuum vessel. The neutron generator position was scanned in centimeter steps to determine the collimator aperture width to 14 MeV neutrons and the absolute sensitivity of each channel. Neutron profiles were measured for TFTR plasmas with time resolution between 5 msec and 50 msec depending upon count rates. The He detectors were used to measure the burnup of 1 MeV tritons in deuterium plasmas, the transport of tritium in trace tritium experiments, and the residual tritium levels in plasmas following 50:50 DT experiments

  17. Absolute-magnitude distributions of supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, Dean; Wright, John [Department of Physics, Xavier University of Louisiana, New Orleans, LA 70125 (United States); Jenkins III, Robert L. [Applied Physics Department, Richard Stockton College, Galloway, NJ 08205 (United States); Maddox, Larry, E-mail: drichar7@xula.edu [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Southeastern Louisiana University, Hammond, LA 70402 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    The absolute-magnitude distributions of seven supernova (SN) types are presented. The data used here were primarily taken from the Asiago Supernova Catalogue, but were supplemented with additional data. We accounted for both foreground and host-galaxy extinction. A bootstrap method is used to correct the samples for Malmquist bias. Separately, we generate volume-limited samples, restricted to events within 100 Mpc. We find that the superluminous events (M{sub B} < –21) make up only about 0.1% of all SNe in the bias-corrected sample. The subluminous events (M{sub B} > –15) make up about 3%. The normal Ia distribution was the brightest with a mean absolute blue magnitude of –19.25. The IIP distribution was the dimmest at –16.75.

  18. Absolute and relative dosimetry for ELIMED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirrone, G. A. P.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and Institute of Physics Czech Academy of Science, ELI-Beamlines project, Na Slovance 2, Prague (Czech Republic); Cuttone, G.; Candiano, G.; Musumarra, A.; Pisciotta, P.; Romano, F. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania (Italy); Carpinelli, M. [INFN Sezione di Cagliari, c/o Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy); Leonora, E.; Randazzo, N. [INFN-Sezione di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Presti, D. Lo [INFN-Sezione di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, Catania, Italy and Università di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Via S. Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Raffaele, L. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and INFN-Sezione di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Tramontana, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and Università di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Via S. Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Cirio, R.; Sacchi, R.; Monaco, V. [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via P.Giuria, 1 10125 Torino, Italy and Università di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via P.Giuria, 1 10125 Torino (Italy); Marchetto, F.; Giordanengo, S. [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via P.Giuria, 1 10125 Torino (Italy)

    2013-07-26

    The definition of detectors, methods and procedures for the absolute and relative dosimetry of laser-driven proton beams is a crucial step toward the clinical use of this new kind of beams. Hence, one of the ELIMED task, will be the definition of procedures aiming to obtain an absolute dose measure at the end of the transport beamline with an accuracy as close as possible to the one required for clinical applications (i.e. of the order of 5% or less). Relative dosimetry procedures must be established, as well: they are necessary in order to determine and verify the beam dose distributions and to monitor the beam fluence and the energetic spectra during irradiations. Radiochromic films, CR39, Faraday Cup, Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) and transmission ionization chamber will be considered, designed and studied in order to perform a fully dosimetric characterization of the ELIMED proton beam.

  19. Absolute spectrophotometry of the β Lyr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnashev, V.I.; Skul'skij, M.Yu.

    1978-01-01

    In 1974 an absolute spectrophotometry of β Lyr was performed with the scanning spectrophotometer in the 3300-7400 A range. The energy distribution in the β Lyr spectrum is obtained. The β Lyr model is proposed. It is shown, that the continuous spectrum of the β Lyr radiation can be presented by the total radiation of the B8 3 and A5 3 two stars and of the gaseous envelope with Te =20000 K

  20. Absolute photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Pareek, P. N.

    1985-01-01

    The absolute values of photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen were measured from the ionization threshold to 120 A. An auto-ionizing resonance belonging to the 2S2P4(4P)3P(3Do, 3So) transition was observed at 479.43 A and another line at 389.97 A. The experimental data is in excellent agreement with rigorous close-coupling calculations that include electron correlations in both the initial and final states.

  1. Absolute purchasing power parity in industrial countries

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhibai; Bian, Zhicun

    2015-01-01

    Different from popular studies that focus on relative purchasing power parity, we study absolute purchasing power parity (APPP) in 21 main industrial countries. Three databases are used. Both the whole period and the sub-period are analyzed. The empirical proof shows that the phenomenon that APPP holds is common, and the phenomenon that APPP does not hold is also common. In addition, some country pairs and the pooled country data indicate that the nearer the GDPPs of two countries are, the mo...

  2. Internal descriptions of absolute Borel classes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holický, P.; Pelant, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 141, č. 1 (2004), s. 87-104 ISSN 0166-8641 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/00/1466; GA ČR GA201/03/0933 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : absolute Borel class * complete sequence of covers * open map Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.364, year: 2004

  3. The absolute differential calculus calculus of tensors

    CERN Document Server

    Levi-Cività, Tullio

    1926-01-01

    Written by a towering figure of twentieth-century mathematics, this classic examines the mathematical background necessary for a grasp of relativity theory. Tullio Levi-Civita provides a thorough treatment of the introductory theories that form the basis for discussions of fundamental quadratic forms and absolute differential calculus, and he further explores physical applications.Part one opens with considerations of functional determinants and matrices, advancing to systems of total differential equations, linear partial differential equations, algebraic foundations, and a geometrical intro

  4. An absolute deviation approach to assessing correlation.

    OpenAIRE

    Gorard, S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes two possible alternatives to the more traditional Pearson’s R correlation coefficient, both based on using the mean absolute deviation, rather than the standard deviation, as a measure of dispersion. Pearson’s R is well-established and has many advantages. However, these newer variants also have several advantages, including greater simplicity and ease of computation, and perhaps greater tolerance of underlying assumptions (such as the need for linearity). The first alter...

  5. Benzofuranoid and bicyclooctanoid neolignans:absolute configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarenga, M.A. de; Giesbrecht, A.M.; Gottlieb, O.R.; Yoshida, M.

    1977-01-01

    The naturally occuring benzofuranoid and bicyclo (3,2,1) octanoid neolignans have their relative configurations established by 1 H and 13 C NMR, inclusively with aid of the solvent shift technique. Interconversion of the benzofuranoid type compounds, as well as for a benzofuranoid to a bicyclooctanoid derivate, make ORD correlations, ultimately with (2S, 3S) - and (2R,3R)-2,3- dihydrobenzofurans, possible, and led to the absolute configurations of both series of neolignans [pt

  6. Least Squares Problems with Absolute Quadratic Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Schöne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes linear least squares problems with absolute quadratic constraints. We develop a generalized theory following Bookstein's conic-fitting and Fitzgibbon's direct ellipse-specific fitting. Under simple preconditions, it can be shown that a minimum always exists and can be determined by a generalized eigenvalue problem. This problem is numerically reduced to an eigenvalue problem by multiplications of Givens' rotations. Finally, four applications of this approach are presented.

  7. Mapping the absolute electromagnetic field strength of individual field components inside a photonic crystal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denis, T.; Reijnders, B.; Lee, J.H.H.; Vos, Willem L.; Boller, Klaus J.; van der Slot, Petrus J.M.

    2013-01-01

    We present a method to map the absolute electromagnetic field strength inside photonic crystals. We demonstrate our method by applying it to map the electric field component Ez of a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab at microwave frequencies. The slab is placed between two mirrors to create a

  8. Common pitfalls in statistical analysis: Absolute risk reduction, relative risk reduction, and number needed to treat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Priya; Pramesh, C. S.; Aggarwal, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    In the previous article in this series on common pitfalls in statistical analysis, we looked at the difference between risk and odds. Risk, which refers to the probability of occurrence of an event or outcome, can be defined in absolute or relative terms. Understanding what these measures represent is essential for the accurate interpretation of study results. PMID:26952180

  9. absolute measurement research for α-electroplating source covering ZnS(Ag)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Tianxia

    1999-01-01

    absolute measurement can be completed after the quantitative deposit (5 +- 1) mg/cm 2 with ZnS(Ag) on surface of the alpha electroplating source. The measuring efficiency is 100%. This method is suitable for both of electroplating ordinary sample and electroplating standard (of reference) source

  10. Absolute measurement method of environment radon content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Changsong

    1989-11-01

    A portable environment radon content device with a 40 liter decay chamber based on the method of Thomas double filter radon content absolute measurement has been developed. The correctness of the method of Thomas double filter absolute measurement has been verified by the experiments to measure the sampling gas density of radon that the theoretical density has been known. In addition, the intrinsic uncertainty of this method is also determined in the experiments. The confidence of this device is about 95%, the sensitivity is better than 0.37 Bqm -3 and the intrinsic uncertainty is less than 10%. The results show that the selected measuring and structure parameters are reasonable and the experimental methods are acceptable. In this method, the influence on the measured values from the radioactive equilibrium of radon and its daughters, the ratio of combination daughters to the total daughters and the fraction of charged particles has been excluded in the theory and experimental methods. The formula of Thomas double filter absolute measuring radon is applicable to the cylinder decay chamber, and the applicability is also verified when the diameter of exit filter is much smaller than the diameter of inlet filter

  11. PLEIADES ABSOLUTE CALIBRATION : INFLIGHT CALIBRATION SITES AND METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lachérade

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In-flight calibration of space sensors once in orbit is a decisive step to be able to fulfil the mission objectives. This article presents the methods of the in-flight absolute calibration processed during the commissioning phase. Four In-flight calibration methods are used: absolute calibration, cross-calibration with reference sensors such as PARASOL or MERIS, multi-temporal monitoring and inter-bands calibration. These algorithms are based on acquisitions over natural targets such as African deserts, Antarctic sites, La Crau (Automatic calibration station and Oceans (Calibration over molecular scattering or also new extra-terrestrial sites such as the Moon and selected stars. After an overview of the instrument and a description of the calibration sites, it is pointed out how each method is able to address one or several aspects of the calibration. We focus on how these methods complete each other in their operational use, and how they help building a coherent set of information that addresses all aspects of in-orbit calibration. Finally, we present the perspectives that the high level of agility of PLEIADES offers for the improvement of its calibration and a better characterization of the calibration sites.

  12. Absolutism versus doceañista liberalism. The Visual Counterattack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Reyero

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to identify some dominants themes within absolutists discourses and to sketch out how they are translated to images, in order to persuade against and to denigrate liberalism. Descriptions of public ornaments in events honoring king Ferdinand VII in 1814 and 1823 are used as the main reference sources. Absolutism is recognized looking for associations between images and words, resemblances, metaphors, symbols and iconographic matches. Visual imagery to achieve absolutist goal emphasized the primacy of the king, the rhetoric of vassalage, a strong motherland, the uniqueness of religion, and the exclusion of the political enemy. In order to totally eliminate the constitutional risk, the tradition was presented as a paradise of peace and happiness.

  13. An absolute scale for measuring the utility of money

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P. J.

    2010-07-01

    Measurement of the utility of money is essential in the insurance industry, for prioritising public spending schemes and for the evaluation of decisions on protection systems in high-hazard industries. Up to this time, however, there has been no universally agreed measure for the utility of money, with many utility functions being in common use. In this paper, we shall derive a single family of utility functions, which have risk-aversion as the only free parameter. The fact that they return a utility of zero at their low, reference datum, either the utility of no money or of one unit of money, irrespective of the value of risk-aversion used, qualifies them to be regarded as absolute scales for the utility of money. Evidence of validation for the concept will be offered based on inferential measurements of risk-aversion, using diverse measurement data.

  14. Absolute dimensions and masses of eclipsing binaries. V. IQ Persei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacy, C.H.; Frueh, M.L.; McDonald Observatory, Austin)

    1985-01-01

    New photometric and spectroscopic observations of the 1.7 day eclipsing binary IQ Persei (B8 + A6) have been analyzed to yield very accurate fundamental properties of the system. Reticon spectroscopic observations obtained at McDonald Observatory were used to determine accurate radial velocities of both stars in this slightly eccentric large light-ratio binary. A new set of VR light curves obtained at McDonald Observatory were analyzed by synthesis techniques, and previously published UBV light curves were reanalyzed to yield accurate photometric orbits. Orbital parameters derived from both sets of photometric observations are in excellent agreement. The absolute dimensions, masses, luminosities, and apsidal motion period (140 yr) derived from these observations agree well with the predictions of theoretical stellar evolution models. The A6 secondary is still very close to the zero-age main sequence. The B8 primary is about one-third of the way through its main-sequence evolution. 27 references

  15. A reference tristimulus colorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppeldauer, George P.

    2002-06-01

    A reference tristimulus colorimeter has been developed at NIST with a transmission-type silicon trap detector (1) and four temperature-controlled filter packages to realize the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) x(λ), y(λ) and z(λ) color matching functions (2). Instead of lamp standards, high accuracy detector standards are used for the colorimeter calibration. A detector-based calibration procedure is being suggested for tristimulus colorimeters wehre the absolute spectral responsivity of the tristimulus channels is determined. Then, color (spectral) correct and peak (amplitude) normalization are applied to minimize uncertainties caused by the imperfect realizations of the CIE functions. As a result of the corrections, the chromaticity coordinates of stable light sources with different spectral power distributions can be measured with uncertainties less than 0.0005 (k=1).

  16. Absolute and convective instability of a liquid sheet with transverse temperature gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Qing-Fei; Yang, Li-Jun; Tong, Ming-Xi; Wang, Chen

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The spatial–temporal instability of a liquid sheet with thermal effects was studied. • The flow can transit to absolutely unstable with certain flow parameters. • The effects of non-dimensional parameters on the transition were studied. -- Abstract: The spatial–temporal instability behavior of a viscous liquid sheet with temperature difference between the two surfaces was investigated theoretically. The practical situation motivating this investigation is liquid sheet heated by ambient gas, usually encountered in industrial heat transfer and liquid propellant rocket engines. The existing dispersion relation was used, to explore the spatial–temporal instability of viscous liquid sheets with a nonuniform temperature profile, by setting both the wave number and frequency complex. A parametric study was performed in both sinuous and varicose modes to test the influence of dimensionless numbers on the transition between absolute and convective instability of the flow. For a small value of liquid Weber number, or a great value of gas-to-liquid density ratio, the flow was found to be absolutely unstable. The absolute instability was enhanced by increasing the liquid viscosity. It was found that variation of the Marangoni number hardly influenced the absolute instability of the sinuous mode of oscillations; however it slightly affected the absolute instability in the varicose mode

  17. Number 13 / Part I. Music. 7. Grounds of Absolute Pitch Development in Yamaha Music School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iușcă Dorina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Absolute pitch is defined as the ability to identify the pitch class of a certain given sound without the aid of an external reference pitch (Takeuchi & Hulse, 1993; Deutsch, 2002. The incidence of absolute pitch is extremely rare among the general population, respectively 1 in 10.000 people and it depends on testing conditions such as the number of identified sounds, pitch Chroma, pitch height, timbre, register or requested reaction time, and also on subjects musical training commencing and Eastern-Asian origins. The way absolute pitch develops is described by three models: the tone language theory, the early training theory and the genetic theory. The early training theory states that absolute pitch appears due to the beginning of musical lessons during a critical development period situated before the age of 6. The educational implications of this theory are revealed in the principles and activities of Yamaha Music School which employs didactic strategies that naturally develop absolute pitch. Yamaha Music School is the largest private music education system from Japan, established by Torakusu Yamaha in 1954. Up to this day it has extended in 40 countries from Europe, Asia and the American continents, as it has about 710 million students and 30.000 teachers. The present study aims to illustrate a detailed analysis of the way the learning experiences offered by Yamaha School lead to the development of absolute pitch.

  18. Results of Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer and Infrared Integrating Sphere Comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reda, Ibrahim M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sengupta, Manajit [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dooraghi, Michael R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Grobner, Julian [Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos (PMOD); Thomann, Christian [Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos (PMOD); Long, Chuck [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; McComiskey, Allison [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Hall, Emiel [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Wacker, Stefan [Deutscher Wetterdienst

    2018-03-05

    Accurate and traceable atmospheric longwave irradiance measurements are required for understanding radiative impacts on the Earth's energy budget. The standard to which pyrgeometers are traceable is the interim World Infrared Standard Group (WISG), maintained in the Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos (PMOD). The WISG consists of four pyrgeometers that were calibrated using Rolf Philipona's Absolute Sky-scanning Radiometer [1]. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) facility has recently adopted the WISG to maintain the traceability of the calibrations of all Eppley precision infrared radiometer (PIR) pyrgeometers. Subsequently, Julian Grobner [2] developed the infrared interferometer spectrometer and radiometer (IRIS) radiometer, and Ibrahim Reda [3] developed the absolute cavity pyrgeometer (ACP). The ACP and IRIS were developed to establish a world reference for calibrating pyrgeometers with traceability to the International System of Units (SI). The two radiometers are unwindowed with negligible spectral dependence, and they are traceable to SI units through the temperature scale (ITS-90). The two instruments were compared directly to the WISG three times at PMOD and twice at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) facility to WISG-traceable pyrgeometers. The ACP and IRIS agreed within +/- 1 W/m2 to +/- 3 W/m2 in all comparisons, whereas the WISG references exhibit a 2-5 Wm2 low bias compared to the ACP/IRIS average, depending on the water vapor column, as noted in Grobner et al. [4]. Consequently, a case for changing the current WISG has been made by Grobner and Reda. However, during the five comparisons the column water vapor exceeded 8 mm. Therefore, it is recommended that more ACP and IRIS comparisons should be held under different environmental conditions and water vapor column content to better establish the traceability of these instruments to SI with established uncertainty.

  19. Absolute spectroscopy near 7.8 {\\mu} m with a comb-locked extended-cavity quantum-cascade-laser

    KAUST Repository

    Lamperti, Marco; Alsaif, Bidoor; Gatti, Davide; Fermann, Martin; Laporta, Paolo; Farooq, Aamir; Marangoni, Marco

    2017-01-01

    We report the first experimental demonstration of frequency-locking of an extended-cavity quantum-cascade-laser (EC-QCL) to a near-infrared frequency comb. The locking scheme is applied to carry out absolute spectroscopy of N2O lines near 7.87 {\\mu

  20. Absolute measurement of environmental radon content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Changsong

    1987-01-01

    A transportable meter for environmental radon measurement with a 40 liter decay chamber is designed on the principle of Thomas two-filter radon content absolute measurement. The sensitivity is 0.37 Bq·m -3 with 95% confidence level. This paper describes the experimental method of measuremment and it's intrinsic uncertainty. The typical intrinsic uncertainty (for n x 3.7 Bq·m -3 radon concentration) is <10%. The parameter of exit filter effeciency is introduced into the formula, and the verification is done for the case when the diameter of the exit filter is much less than the inlet one

  1. Fractional order absolute vibration suppression (AVS) controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halevi, Yoram

    2017-04-01

    Absolute vibration suppression (AVS) is a control method for flexible structures. The first step is an accurate, infinite dimension, transfer function (TF), from actuation to measurement. This leads to the collocated, rate feedback AVS controller that in some cases completely eliminates the vibration. In case of the 1D wave equation, the TF consists of pure time delays and low order rational terms, and the AVS controller is rational. In all other cases, the TF and consequently the controller are fractional order in both the delays and the "rational parts". The paper considers stability, performance and actual implementation in such cases.

  2. Absolute method of measuring magnetic susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, A.; Senftle, F.E.

    1959-01-01

    An absolute method of standardization and measurement of the magnetic susceptibility of small samples is presented which can be applied to most techniques based on the Faraday method. The fact that the susceptibility is a function of the area under the curve of sample displacement versus distance of the magnet from the sample, offers a simple method of measuring the susceptibility without recourse to a standard sample. Typical results on a few substances are compared with reported values, and an error of less than 2% can be achieved. ?? 1959 The American Institute of Physics.

  3. Communication: Probing the absolute configuration of chiral molecules at aqueous interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotze, Stephan, E-mail: lotze@amolf.nl; Versluis, Jan [FOM Institute for Atomic and Molecular Physics, Science Park 104, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Olijve, Luuk L. C.; Schijndel, Luuk van; Milroy, Lech G.; Voets, Ilja K. [Laboratory of Macromolecular and Organic Chemistry, Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, and Institute for Complex Molecular Systems, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Bakker, Huib J., E-mail: bakker@amolf.nl [FOM Institute AMOLF, Science Park 104, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-11-28

    We demonstrate that the enantiomers of chiral macromolecules at an aqueous interface can be distinguished with monolayer sensitivity using heterodyne-detected vibrational sum-frequency generation (VSFG). We perform VSFG spectroscopy with a polarization combination that selectively probes chiral molecular structures. By using frequencies far detuned from electronic resonances, we probe the chiral macromolecular structures with high surface specificity. The phase of the sum-frequency light generated by the chiral molecules is determined using heterodyne detection. With this approach, we can distinguish right-handed and left-handed helical peptides at a water-air interface. We thus show that heterodyne-detected VSFG is sensitive to the absolute configuration of complex, interfacial macromolecules and has the potential to determine the absolute configuration of enantiomers at interfaces.

  4. Linear ultrasonic motor for absolute gravimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Yue; Yao, Zhiyuan; Silberschmidt, Vadim V

    2017-05-01

    Thanks to their compactness and suitability for vacuum applications, linear ultrasonic motors are considered as substitutes for classical electromagnetic motors as driving elements in absolute gravimeters. Still, their application is prevented by relatively low power output. To overcome this limitation and provide better stability, a V-type linear ultrasonic motor with a new clamping method is proposed for a gravimeter. In this paper, a mechanical model of stators with flexible clamping components is suggested, according to a design criterion for clamps of linear ultrasonic motors. After that, an effect of tangential and normal rigidity of the clamping components on mechanical output is studied. It is followed by discussion of a new clamping method with sufficient tangential rigidity and a capability to facilitate pre-load. Additionally, a prototype of the motor with the proposed clamping method was fabricated and the performance tests in vertical direction were implemented. Experimental results show that the suggested motor has structural stability and high dynamic performance, such as no-load speed of 1.4m/s and maximal thrust of 43N, meeting the requirements for absolute gravimeters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Relational versus absolute representation in categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Darren J; Pothos, Emmanuel M; Perlman, Amotz

    2012-01-01

    This study explores relational-like and absolute-like representations in categorization. Although there is much evidence that categorization processes can involve information about both the particular physical properties of studied instances and abstract (relational) properties, there has been little work on the factors that lead to one kind of representation as opposed to the other. We tested 370 participants in 6 experiments, in which participants had to classify new items into predefined artificial categories. In 4 experiments, we observed a predominantly relational-like mode of classification, and in 2 experiments we observed a shift toward an absolute-like mode of classification. These results suggest 3 factors that promote a relational-like mode of classification: fewer items per group, more training groups, and the presence of a time delay. Overall, we propose that less information about the distributional properties of a category or weaker memory traces for the category exemplars (induced, e.g., by having smaller categories or a time delay) can encourage relational-like categorization.

  6. On the absolute meaning of motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Edwards

    Full Text Available The present manuscript aims to clarify why motion causes matter to age slower in a comparable sense, and how this relates to relativistic effects caused by motion. A fresh analysis of motion, build on first axiom, delivers proof with its result, from which significant new understanding and computational power is gained.A review of experimental results demonstrates, that unaccelerated motion causes matter to age slower in a comparable, observer independent sense. Whilst focusing on this absolute effect, the present manuscript clarifies its context to relativistic effects, detailing their relationship and incorporating both into one consistent picture. The presented theoretical results make new predictions and are testable through suggested experiment of a novel nature. The manuscript finally arrives at an experimental tool and methodology, which as far as motion in ungravitated space is concerned or gravity appreciated, enables us to find the absolute observer independent picture of reality, which is reflected in the comparable display of atomic clocks.The discussion of the theoretical results, derives a physical causal understanding of gravity, a mathematical formulation of which, will be presented. Keywords: Kinematics, Gravity, Atomic clocks, Cosmic microwave background

  7. Absolute determination of the deuterium content of heavy water, measurement of absolute density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceccaldi, M.; Riedinger, M.; Menache, M.

    1975-01-01

    The absolute density of two heavy water samples rich in deuterium (with a grade higher than 99.9%) was determined with the hydrostatic method. The exact isotopic composition of this water (hydrogen and oxygen isotopes) was very carefully studied. A theoretical estimate enabled us to get the absolute density value of isotopically pure D 2 16 O. This value was found to be 1104.750 kg.m -3 at t 68 =22.3 0 C and under the pressure of one atmosphere. (orig.) [de

  8. Forecasting Error Calculation with Mean Absolute Deviation and Mean Absolute Percentage Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khair, Ummul; Fahmi, Hasanul; Hakim, Sarudin Al; Rahim, Robbi

    2017-12-01

    Prediction using a forecasting method is one of the most important things for an organization, the selection of appropriate forecasting methods is also important but the percentage error of a method is more important in order for decision makers to adopt the right culture, the use of the Mean Absolute Deviation and Mean Absolute Percentage Error to calculate the percentage of mistakes in the least square method resulted in a percentage of 9.77% and it was decided that the least square method be worked for time series and trend data.

  9. Invariant and Absolute Invariant Means of Double Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Alotaibi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine some properties of the invariant mean, define the concepts of strong σ-convergence and absolute σ-convergence for double sequences, and determine the associated sublinear functionals. We also define the absolute invariant mean through which the space of absolutely σ-convergent double sequences is characterized.

  10. Parametric effects of word frequency effect in memory for mixed frequency lists

    OpenAIRE

    Lohnas, Lynn J.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The word frequency paradox refers to the finding that low frequency words are better recognized than high frequency words yet high frequency words are better recalled than low frequency words. Rather than comparing separate groups of low and high frequency words, we sought to quantify the functional relation between word frequency and memory performance across the broad range of frequencies typically used in episodic memory experiments. Here we report that both low frequency and high frequenc...

  11. How is an absolute democracy possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Bednarek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last part of the Empire trilogy, Commonwealth, Negri and Hardt ask about the possibility of the self-governance of the multitude. When answering, they argue that absolute democracy, understood as the political articulation of the multitude that does not entail its unification (construction of the people is possible. As Negri states, this way of thinking about political articulation is rooted in the tradition of democratic materialism and constitutes the alternative to the dominant current of modern political philosophy that identifies political power with sovereignty. The multitude organizes itself politically by means of the constitutive power, identical with the ontological creativity or productivity of the multitude. To state the problem of political organization means to state the problem of class composition: political democracy is at the same time economic democracy.

  12. Absolute partial photoionization cross sections of ethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, F. A.; Whitley, T. A.; Keller, P. R.; Taylor, J. W.

    1991-07-01

    Absolute partial photoionization cross sections for ionization out of the first four valence orbitals to the X 2B 3u, A 2B 3g, B 2A g and C 2B 2u states of the C 2H 4+ ion are presented as a function of photon energy over the energy range from 12 to 26 eV. The experimental results have been compared to previously published relative partial cross sections for the first two bands at 18, 21 and 24 eV. Comparison of the experimental data with continuum multiple scattering Xα calculations provides evidence for extensive autoionization to the X 2B 3u state and confirms the predicted shape resonances in ionization to the A 2B 3g and B 2A g states. Identification of possible transitions for the autoionizing resonances have been made using multiple scattering transition state calculations on Rydberg excited states.

  13. Absolute negative mobility in the anomalous diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ruyin; Chen, Chongyang; Nie, Linru

    2017-12-01

    Transport of an inertial Brownian particle driven by the multiplicative Lévy noise was investigated here. Numerical results indicate that: (i) The Lévy noise is able to induce absolute negative mobility (ANM) in the system, while disappearing in the deterministic case; (ii) the ANM can occur in the region of superdiffusion while disappearing in the region of normal diffusion, and the appropriate stable index of the Lévy noise makes the particle move along the opposite direction of the bias force to the maximum degree; (iii) symmetry breaking of the Lévy noise also causes the ANM effect. In addition, the intrinsic physical mechanism and conditions for the ANM to occur are discussed in detail. Our results have the implication that the Lévy noise plays an important role in the occurrence of the ANM phenomenon.

  14. A geometrically exact beam element based on the absolute nodal coordinate formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerstmayr, Johannes; Matikainen, Marko K.; Mikkola, Aki M.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, Reissner's classical nonlinear rod formulation, as implemented by Simo and Vu-Quoc by means of the large rotation vector approach, is implemented into the framework of the absolute nodal coordinate formulation. The implementation is accomplished in the planar case accounting for coupled axial, bending, and shear deformation. By employing the virtual work of elastic forces similarly to Simo and Vu-Quoc in the absolute nodal coordinate formulation, the numerical results of the formulation are identical to those of the large rotation vector formulation. It is noteworthy, however, that the material definition in the absolute nodal coordinate formulation can differ from the material definition used in Reissner's beam formulation. Based on an analytical eigenvalue analysis, it turns out that the high frequencies of cross section deformation modes in the absolute nodal coordinate formulation are only slightly higher than frequencies of common shear modes, which are present in the classical large rotation vector formulation of Simo and Vu-Quoc, as well. Thus, previous claims that the absolute nodal coordinate formulation is inefficient or would lead to ill-conditioned finite element matrices, as compared to classical approaches, could be refuted. In the introduced beam element, locking is prevented by means of reduced integration of certain parts of the elastic forces. Several classical large deformation static and dynamic examples as well as an eigenvalue analysis document the equivalence of classical nonlinear rod theories and the absolute nodal coordinate formulation for the case of appropriate material definitions. The results also agree highly with those computed in commercial finite element codes

  15. UNBIASED MOMENT-RATE SPECTRA AND ABSOLUTE SITE EFFECTS IN THE KACHCHH BASIN, INDIA, FROM THE ANALYSIS OF THE AFTERSHOCKS OF THE 2001 Mw 7.6 BHUJ EARTHQUAKE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malagnini, L; Bodin, P; Mayeda, K; Akinci, A

    2005-05-04

    What can be learned about absolute site effects on ground motions and about earthquake source spectra from recordings at temporary seismic stations, none of which could be considered a 'reference' (hard rock) site, for which no geotechnical information is available, in a very poorly instrumented region? This challenge motivated our current study of aftershocks of the 2001 Mw 7.6 Bhuj earthquake, in Western India. Crustal attenuation and spreading relationships based on the same data used here were determined in an earlier study. In this paper we decouple the ambiguity between absolute source radiation and site effects by first computing robust estimates of moment-rate spectra of about 200 aftershocks in each of two depth ranges. Using these new estimates of sourcespectra, and our understanding of regional wave propagation, we extract the absolute site terms of the sites of the temporary deployment. Absolute site terms (one for each component of the ground motion, for each station) are computed in an average sense, via an L{sub 1}-norm minimization, and results for each site are averaged over wide ranges of azimuths and takeoff angles. The Bhuj deployment is characterized by a variable shallow geology, mostly of soft sedimentary units. Vertical site terms in the region were observed to be almost featureless and slightly < 1.0 within wide frequency ranges. As a result, H/V spectral ratios mimic the absolute behaviors of absolute horizontal site terms, and they generally overpredict them. On the contrary, with respect to the results for sedimentary rock sites (limestone, dolomite) obtained by Malagnini et al. (2004), H/V spectral ratios in their study did not have much in common with absolute horizontal site terms. Spectral ratios between the vector sum of the computed horizontal site terms for the temporary deployment with respect to the same quantity computed at the hardest rock station available, BAC1, are seriously biased by its non-flat, non

  16. Variance computations for functional of absolute risk estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, R M; Petracci, E

    2011-07-01

    We present a simple influence function based approach to compute the variances of estimates of absolute risk and functions of absolute risk. We apply this approach to criteria that assess the impact of changes in the risk factor distribution on absolute risk for an individual and at the population level. As an illustration we use an absolute risk prediction model for breast cancer that includes modifiable risk factors in addition to standard breast cancer risk factors. Influence function based variance estimates for absolute risk and the criteria are compared to bootstrap variance estimates.

  17. Observer variability of absolute and relative thrombus density measurements in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Emilie M.M.; Yoo, Albert J.; Beenen, Ludo F.; Majoie, Charles B.; Berkhemer, Olvert A.; Blanken, Mark D. den; Wismans, Carrie; Niessen, Wiro J.; Marquering, Henk A.

    2016-01-01

    Thrombus density may be a predictor for acute ischemic stroke treatment success. However, only limited data on observer variability for thrombus density measurements exist. This study assesses the variability and bias of four common thrombus density measurement methods by expert and non-expert observers. For 132 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke, three experts and two trained observers determined thrombus density by placing three standardized regions of interest (ROIs) in the thrombus and corresponding contralateral arterial segment. Subsequently, absolute and relative thrombus densities were determined using either one or three ROIs. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was determined, and Bland-Altman analysis was performed to evaluate interobserver and intermethod agreement. Accuracy of the trained observer was evaluated with a reference expert observer using the same statistical analysis. The highest interobserver agreement was obtained for absolute thrombus measurements using three ROIs (ICCs ranging from 0.54 to 0.91). In general, interobserver agreement was lower for relative measurements, and for using one instead of three ROIs. Interobserver agreement of trained non-experts and experts was similar. Accuracy of the trained observer measurements was comparable to the expert interobserver agreement and was better for absolute measurements and with three ROIs. The agreement between the one ROI and three ROI methods was good. Absolute thrombus density measurement has superior interobserver agreement compared to relative density measurement. Interobserver variation is smaller when multiple ROIs are used. Trained non-expert observers can accurately and reproducibly assess absolute thrombus densities using three ROIs. (orig.)

  18. Observer variability of absolute and relative thrombus density measurements in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Emilie M.M. [Erasmus MC - University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 2040, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Department of Radiology, AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Yoo, Albert J. [Texas Stroke Institute, Plano, TX (United States); Beenen, Ludo F.; Majoie, Charles B. [Department of Radiology, AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Berkhemer, Olvert A. [Department of Radiology, AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Neurology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Blanken, Mark D. den; Wismans, Carrie [AMC, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Niessen, Wiro J. [Erasmus MC - University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 2040, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft (Netherlands); Marquering, Henk A. [Department of Radiology, AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); AMC, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Collaboration: on behalf of the MR CLEAN investigators

    2016-02-15

    Thrombus density may be a predictor for acute ischemic stroke treatment success. However, only limited data on observer variability for thrombus density measurements exist. This study assesses the variability and bias of four common thrombus density measurement methods by expert and non-expert observers. For 132 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke, three experts and two trained observers determined thrombus density by placing three standardized regions of interest (ROIs) in the thrombus and corresponding contralateral arterial segment. Subsequently, absolute and relative thrombus densities were determined using either one or three ROIs. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was determined, and Bland-Altman analysis was performed to evaluate interobserver and intermethod agreement. Accuracy of the trained observer was evaluated with a reference expert observer using the same statistical analysis. The highest interobserver agreement was obtained for absolute thrombus measurements using three ROIs (ICCs ranging from 0.54 to 0.91). In general, interobserver agreement was lower for relative measurements, and for using one instead of three ROIs. Interobserver agreement of trained non-experts and experts was similar. Accuracy of the trained observer measurements was comparable to the expert interobserver agreement and was better for absolute measurements and with three ROIs. The agreement between the one ROI and three ROI methods was good. Absolute thrombus density measurement has superior interobserver agreement compared to relative density measurement. Interobserver variation is smaller when multiple ROIs are used. Trained non-expert observers can accurately and reproducibly assess absolute thrombus densities using three ROIs. (orig.)

  19. Audio-visual interactions uniquely contribute to resolution of visual conflict in people possessing absolute pitch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujin Kim

    Full Text Available Individuals possessing absolute pitch (AP are able to identify a given musical tone or to reproduce it without reference to another tone. The present study sought to learn whether this exceptional auditory ability impacts visual perception under stimulus conditions that provoke visual competition in the form of binocular rivalry. Nineteen adult participants with 3-19 years of musical training were divided into two groups according to their performance on a task involving identification of the specific note associated with hearing a given musical pitch. During test trials lasting just over half a minute, participants dichoptically viewed a scrolling musical score presented to one eye and a drifting sinusoidal grating presented to the other eye; throughout the trial they pressed buttons to track the alternations in visual awareness produced by these dissimilar monocular stimuli. On "pitch-congruent" trials, participants heard an auditory melody that was congruent in pitch with the visual score, on "pitch-incongruent" trials they heard a transposed auditory melody that was congruent with the score in melody but not in pitch, and on "melody-incongruent" trials they heard an auditory melody completely different from the visual score. For both groups, the visual musical scores predominated over the gratings when the auditory melody was congruent compared to when it was incongruent. Moreover, the AP participants experienced greater predominance of the visual score when it was accompanied by the pitch-congruent melody compared to the same melody transposed in pitch; for non-AP musicians, pitch-congruent and pitch-incongruent trials yielded equivalent predominance. Analysis of individual durations of dominance revealed differential effects on dominance and suppression durations for AP and non-AP participants. These results reveal that AP is accompanied by a robust form of bisensory interaction between tonal frequencies and musical notation that boosts

  20. Absolute Lower Bound on the Bounce Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Ryosuke; Takimoto, Masahiro

    2018-03-01

    The decay rate of a false vacuum is determined by the minimal action solution of the tunneling field: bounce. In this Letter, we focus on models with scalar fields which have a canonical kinetic term in N (>2 ) dimensional Euclidean space, and derive an absolute lower bound on the bounce action. In the case of four-dimensional space, we show the bounce action is generically larger than 24 /λcr, where λcr≡max [-4 V (ϕ )/|ϕ |4] with the false vacuum being at ϕ =0 and V (0 )=0 . We derive this bound on the bounce action without solving the equation of motion explicitly. Our bound is derived by a quite simple discussion, and it provides useful information even if it is difficult to obtain the explicit form of the bounce solution. Our bound offers a sufficient condition for the stability of a false vacuum, and it is useful as a quick check on the vacuum stability for given models. Our bound can be applied to a broad class of scalar potential with any number of scalar fields. We also discuss a necessary condition for the bounce action taking a value close to this lower bound.

  1. Gyrokinetic statistical absolute equilibrium and turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jianzhou; Hammett, Gregory W.

    2010-01-01

    A paradigm based on the absolute equilibrium of Galerkin-truncated inviscid systems to aid in understanding turbulence [T.-D. Lee, Q. Appl. Math. 10, 69 (1952)] is taken to study gyrokinetic plasma turbulence: a finite set of Fourier modes of the collisionless gyrokinetic equations are kept and the statistical equilibria are calculated; possible implications for plasma turbulence in various situations are discussed. For the case of two spatial and one velocity dimension, in the calculation with discretization also of velocity v with N grid points (where N+1 quantities are conserved, corresponding to an energy invariant and N entropy-related invariants), the negative temperature states, corresponding to the condensation of the generalized energy into the lowest modes, are found. This indicates a generic feature of inverse energy cascade. Comparisons are made with some classical results, such as those of Charney-Hasegawa-Mima in the cold-ion limit. There is a universal shape for statistical equilibrium of gyrokinetics in three spatial and two velocity dimensions with just one conserved quantity. Possible physical relevance to turbulence, such as ITG zonal flows, and to a critical balance hypothesis are also discussed.

  2. Gyrokinetic Statistical Absolute Equilibrium and Turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Jian-Zhou; Hammett, Gregory W.

    2011-01-01

    A paradigm based on the absolute equilibrium of Galerkin-truncated inviscid systems to aid in understanding turbulence (T.-D. Lee, 'On some statistical properties of hydrodynamical and magnetohydrodynamical fields,' Q. Appl. Math. 10, 69 (1952)) is taken to study gyrokinetic plasma turbulence: A finite set of Fourier modes of the collisionless gyrokinetic equations are kept and the statistical equilibria are calculated; possible implications for plasma turbulence in various situations are discussed. For the case of two spatial and one velocity dimension, in the calculation with discretization also of velocity v with N grid points (where N + 1 quantities are conserved, corresponding to an energy invariant and N entropy-related invariants), the negative temperature states, corresponding to the condensation of the generalized energy into the lowest modes, are found. This indicates a generic feature of inverse energy cascade. Comparisons are made with some classical results, such as those of Charney-Hasegawa-Mima in the cold-ion limit. There is a universal shape for statistical equilibrium of gyrokinetics in three spatial and two velocity dimensions with just one conserved quantity. Possible physical relevance to turbulence, such as ITG zonal flows, and to a critical balance hypothesis are also discussed.

  3. Measurement of the 235 U absolute activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueno, C.C.; Santos, M.D.S.

    1993-01-01

    The absolute activity of 235 U contained in a sample was measured utilizing a sum-coincidence circuit which selects only the alpha particles emitted simultaneously with the 143 KeV gamma radiations from the 231 Th (product nucleus). The alpha particles were detected by means of a new type of a gas scintillating chamber, in which the light emitted by excitation of the gas atoms, due to the passage of a charged incoming particle, has its intensity increased by the action of an applied electric field. The gamma radiations were detected by means of a 1'x 1 1/2 Nal (TI) scintillation detector. The value obtained for the half-life of 235 U, (7.04+-0.01)10 8 y, was compared with the data available from various observers with used different experimental techniques. It is shown that our results are in excellent agreement with the best data available on the subject. (author) 15 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  4. [Tobacco and plastic surgery: An absolute contraindication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusiak, C; De Runz, A; Maschino, H; Brix, M; Simon, E; Claudot, F

    2017-08-01

    Smoking increases perioperative risk regarding wound healing, infection rate and failure of microsurgical procedures. There is no present consensus about plastic and aesthetic surgical indications concerning smoking patients. The aim of our study is to analyze French plastic surgeons practices concerning smokers. A questionnaire was send by e-mail to French plastic surgeons in order to evaluate their own operative indications: patient information about smoking dangers, pre- and postoperative delay of smoking cessation, type of intervention carried out, smoking cessation supports, use of screening test and smoking limit associated to surgery refusing were studied. Statistical tests were used to compare results according to practitioner activity (liberal or public), own smoking habits and time of installation. In 148 questionnaires, only one surgeon did not explain smoking risk. Of the surgeons, 49.3% proposed smoking-cessation supports, more frequently with public practice (P=0.019). In total, 85.4% of surgeons did not use screening tests. Years of installation affected operative indication with smoking patients (P=0.02). Pre- and postoperative smoking cessation delay were on average respectively 4 and 3 weeks in accordance with literature. Potential improvements could be proposed to smoking patients' care: smoking cessation assistance, screening tests, absolute contraindication of some procedures or level of consumption to determine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. A Fiducial Reference Stie for Satellite Altimetry in Crete, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertikas, Stelios; Donlon, Craig; Mavrocordatos, Constantin; Bojkov, Bojan; Femenias, Pierre; Parrinello, Tommaso; Picot, Nicolas; Desjonqueres, Jean-Damien; Andersen, Ole Baltazar

    2016-08-01

    With the advent of diverse satellite altimeters and variant measuring techniques, it has become mature in the scientific community, that an absolute reference Cal/Val site is regularly maintained to define, monitor, control the responses of any altimetric system.This work sets the ground for the establishment of a Fiducial Reference Site for ESA satellite altimetry in Gavdos and West Crete, Greece. It will consistently and reliably determine (a) absolute altimeter biases and their drifts; (b) relative bias among diverse missions; but also (c) continuously and independently connect different missions, on a common and reliable reference and also to SI-traceable measurements. Results from this fiducial reference site will be based on historic Cal/Val site measurement records, and will be the yardstick for building up capacity for monitoring climate change. This will be achieved by defining and assessing any satellite altimeter measurements to known, controlled and absolute reference signals with different techniques, processes and instrumentation.

  6. Comparison of absolute neutrophil to CD4 lymphocyte values as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1.5 x 109/L is therefore obviously not appropriate for people of negroid descent whose lower reference limit is ANC 1.3 x 109/L.6,7 Neutropenia remains the most common predisposing factor to infections in cancer pa- tients.1,8,9 The accepted definition of neutropenia is an absolute neutrophil count ≤ 1.5 x 109/L,8 though ...

  7. Dynamic Analysis of Offshore Oil Pipe Installation Using the Absolute Nodal Coordinate Formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmy D; Madsen, Søren B; Hyldahl, Per Christian

    2013-01-01

    The Absolute Nodal Coordinate Formulation (ANCF) has shown promising results in dynamic analysis of structures that undergo large deformation. The method relaxes the assumption of infinitesimal rotations. Being based in a fixed inertial reference frame leads to a constant mass matrix and zero......, are included to mimic the external forces acting on the pipe during installation. The scope of this investigation is to demonstrate the ability using the ANCF to analyze the dynamic behavior of an offshore oil pipe during installation...

  8. Photonic microwave signals with zeptosecond-level absolute timing noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiaopeng; Bouchand, Romain; Nicolodi, Daniele; Giunta, Michele; Hänsel, Wolfgang; Lezius, Matthias; Joshi, Abhay; Datta, Shubhashish; Alexandre, Christophe; Lours, Michel; Tremblin, Pierre-Alain; Santarelli, Giorgio; Holzwarth, Ronald; Le Coq, Yann

    2017-01-01

    Photonic synthesis of radiofrequency (RF) waveforms revived the quest for unrivalled microwave purity because of its ability to convey the benefits of optics to the microwave world. In this work, we perform a high-fidelity transfer of frequency stability between an optical reference and a microwave signal via a low-noise fibre-based frequency comb and cutting-edge photodetection techniques. We demonstrate the generation of the purest microwave signal with a fractional frequency stability below 6.5 × 10-16 at 1 s and a timing noise floor below 41 zs Hz-1/2 (phase noise below -173 dBc Hz-1 for a 12 GHz carrier). This outperforms existing sources and promises a new era for state-of-the-art microwave generation. The characterization is achieved through a heterodyne cross-correlation scheme with the lowermost detection noise. This unprecedented level of purity can impact domains such as radar systems, telecommunications and time-frequency metrology. The measurement methods developed here can benefit the characterization of a broad range of signals.

  9. Evaluation of the absolute regional temperature potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Shindell

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Absolute Regional Temperature Potential (ARTP is one of the few climate metrics that provides estimates of impacts at a sub-global scale. The ARTP presented here gives the time-dependent temperature response in four latitude bands (90–28° S, 28° S–28° N, 28–60° N and 60–90° N as a function of emissions based on the forcing in those bands caused by the emissions. It is based on a large set of simulations performed with a single atmosphere-ocean climate model to derive regional forcing/response relationships. Here I evaluate the robustness of those relationships using the forcing/response portion of the ARTP to estimate regional temperature responses to the historic aerosol forcing in three independent climate models. These ARTP results are in good accord with the actual responses in those models. Nearly all ARTP estimates fall within ±20% of the actual responses, though there are some exceptions for 90–28° S and the Arctic, and in the latter the ARTP may vary with forcing agent. However, for the tropics and the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes in particular, the ±20% range appears to be roughly consistent with the 95% confidence interval. Land areas within these two bands respond 39–45% and 9–39% more than the latitude band as a whole. The ARTP, presented here in a slightly revised form, thus appears to provide a relatively robust estimate for the responses of large-scale latitude bands and land areas within those bands to inhomogeneous radiative forcing and thus potentially to emissions as well. Hence this metric could allow rapid evaluation of the effects of emissions policies at a finer scale than global metrics without requiring use of a full climate model.

  10. Orion Absolute Navigation System Progress and Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Greg N.; D'Souza, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The absolute navigation design of NASA's Orion vehicle is described. It has undergone several iterations and modifications since its inception, and continues as a work-in-progress. This paper seeks to benchmark the current state of the design and some of the rationale and analysis behind it. There are specific challenges to address when preparing a timely and effective design for the Exploration Flight Test (EFT-1), while still looking ahead and providing software extensibility for future exploration missions. The primary onboard measurements in a Near-Earth or Mid-Earth environment consist of GPS pseudo-range and delta-range, but for future explorations missions the use of star-tracker and optical navigation sources need to be considered. Discussions are presented for state size and composition, processing techniques, and consider states. A presentation is given for the processing technique using the computationally stable and robust UDU formulation with an Agee-Turner Rank-One update. This allows for computational savings when dealing with many parameters which are modeled as slowly varying Gauss-Markov processes. Preliminary analysis shows up to a 50% reduction in computation versus a more traditional formulation. Several state elements are discussed and evaluated, including position, velocity, attitude, clock bias/drift, and GPS measurement biases in addition to bias, scale factor, misalignment, and non-orthogonalities of the accelerometers and gyroscopes. Another consideration is the initialization of the EKF in various scenarios. Scenarios such as single-event upset, ground command, and cold start are discussed as are strategies for whole and partial state updates as well as covariance considerations. Strategies are given for dealing with latent measurements and high-rate propagation using multi-rate architecture. The details of the rate groups and the data ow between the elements is discussed and evaluated.

  11. A nonmusical paradigm for identifying absolute pitch possessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, David A.; Olson, Ingrid R.; Marks, Lawrence E.; Gore, John C.

    2004-09-01

    The ability to identify and reproduce sounds of specific frequencies is remarkable and uncommon. The etiology and defining characteristics of this skill, absolute pitch (AP), have been very controversial. One theory suggests that AP requires a specific type of early musical training and that the ability to encode and remember tones depends on these learned musical associations. An alternate theory argues that AP may be strongly dependent on hereditary factors and relatively independent of musical experience. To date, it has been difficult to test these hypotheses because all previous paradigms for identifying AP have required subjects to employ knowledge of musical nomenclature. As such, these tests are insensitive to the possibility of discovering AP in either nonmusicians or musicians of non-Western training. Based on previous literature in pitch memory, a paradigm is presented that is intended to distinguish between AP possessors and nonpossessors independent of the subjects' musical experience. The efficacy of this method is then tested with 20 classically defined AP possessors and 22 nonpossessors. Data from these groups strongly support the validity of the paradigm. The use of a nonmusical paradigm to identify AP may facilitate research into many aspects of this phenomenon.

  12. Accurate absolute measurement of trapped Cs atoms in a MOT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talavera O, M.; Lopez R, M.; Carlos L, E. de; Jimenez S, S.

    2007-01-01

    A Cs-133 Magneto-Optical Trap (MOT) has been developed at the Time and Frequency Division of the Centro Nacional de Metrologia, CENAM, in Mexico. This MOT is part of a primary frequency standard based on ultra-cold Cs atoms, called CsF-1 clock, under development at CENAM. In this Cs MOT, we use the standard configuration (σ + - σ - ) 4-horizontal 2-vertical laser beams 1.9 cm in diameter, with 5 mW each. We use a 852 nm, 5 mW, DBR laser as a master laser which is stabilized by saturation spectroscopy. Emission linewidth of the master laser is l MHz. In order to amplify the light of the master laser, a 50 mW, 852 nm AlGaAs laser is used as slave laser. This slave laser is stabilized by light injection technique. A 12 MHz red shift of the light is performed by two double passes through two Acusto-Optic Modulators (AOMs). The optical part of the CENAMs MOT is very robust against mechanical vibration, acoustic noise and temperature changes in our laboratory, because none of our diode lasers use an extended cavity to reduce the linewidth. In this paper, we report results of our MOT characterization as a function of several operation parameters such as the intensity of laser beams, the laser beam diameter, the red shift of light, and the gradient of the magnetic field. We also report accurate absolute measurement of the number of Cs atoms trapped in our Cs MOT. We found up to 6 x 10 7 Cs atoms trapped in our MOT measured with an uncertainty no greater than 6.4%. (Author)

  13. Planck absolute entropy of a rotating BTZ black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, S. M. Jawwad

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the Planck absolute entropy and the Bekenstein-Smarr formula of the rotating Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole are presented via a complex thermodynamical system contributed by its inner and outer horizons. The redefined entropy approaches zero as the temperature of the rotating BTZ black hole tends to absolute zero, satisfying the Nernst formulation of a black hole. Hence, it can be regarded as the Planck absolute entropy of the rotating BTZ black hole.

  14. Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2012-06-05

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  15. Genomic DNA-based absolute quantification of gene expression in Vitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambetta, Gregory A; McElrone, Andrew J; Matthews, Mark A

    2013-07-01

    Many studies in which gene expression is quantified by polymerase chain reaction represent the expression of a gene of interest (GOI) relative to that of a reference gene (RG). Relative expression is founded on the assumptions that RG expression is stable across samples, treatments, organs, etc., and that reaction efficiencies of the GOI and RG are equal; assumptions which are often faulty. The true variability in RG expression and actual reaction efficiencies are seldom determined experimentally. Here we present a rapid and robust method for absolute quantification of expression in Vitis where varying concentrations of genomic DNA were used to construct GOI standard curves. This methodology was utilized to absolutely quantify and determine the variability of the previously validated RG ubiquitin (VvUbi) across three test studies in three different tissues (roots, leaves and berries). In addition, in each study a GOI was absolutely quantified. Data sets resulting from relative and absolute methods of quantification were compared and the differences were striking. VvUbi expression was significantly different in magnitude between test studies and variable among individual samples. Absolute quantification consistently reduced the coefficients of variation of the GOIs by more than half, often resulting in differences in statistical significance and in some cases even changing the fundamental nature of the result. Utilizing genomic DNA-based absolute quantification is fast and efficient. Through eliminating error introduced by assuming RG stability and equal reaction efficiencies between the RG and GOI this methodology produces less variation, increased accuracy and greater statistical power. © 2012 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  16. Superheterodyne configuration for two-wavelength interferometry applied to absolute distance measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Floch, Sebastien; Salvade, Yves; Droz, Nathalie; Mitouassiwou, Rostand; Favre, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    We present a new superheterodyne technique for long-distance measurements by two-wavelength interferometry (TWI). While conventional systems use two acousto-optic modulators to generate two different heterodyne frequencies, here the two frequencies result from synchronized sweeps of optical and radio frequencies. A distributed feedback laser source is injected in an intensity modulator that is driven at the half-wave voltage mode. A radio-frequency signal is applied to this intensity modulator to generate two optical sidebands around the optical carrier. This applied radio frequency consists of a digital ramp between 13 and 15 GHz, with 1 ms duration and with an accuracy of better than 1 ppm. Simultaneously, the laser source is frequency modulated by a current modulation that is synchronized on the radio-frequency ramp as well as on a triangle waveform. These two frequency-swept optical signals at the output of the modulator illuminate a Michelson interferometer and create two distinct distance-dependent heterodyne frequencies on the photodetector. The superheterodyne signal is then detected and bandpass filtered to retrieve the absolute distance measurement. Experiments between 1 and 15 m confirm the validity of this new concept, leading to a distance accuracy of ± 50 μm for a 1 ms acquisition time.

  17. Robust power system frequency control

    CERN Document Server

    Bevrani, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    This updated edition of the industry standard reference on power system frequency control provides practical, systematic and flexible algorithms for regulating load frequency, offering new solutions to the technical challenges introduced by the escalating role of distributed generation and renewable energy sources in smart electric grids. The author emphasizes the physical constraints and practical engineering issues related to frequency in a deregulated environment, while fostering a conceptual understanding of frequency regulation and robust control techniques. The resulting control strategi

  18. An Absolute Valve for the ITER Neutral Beam Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Ch.; Chuilon, B.; Michael, W.

    2006-01-01

    In the ITER reference design a fast shutter was included to limit tritium migration into the beamline vacuum enclosures. The need was recently identified to extend the functionality of the fast shutter to that of an absolute valve in order to facilitate injector maintenance procedures and to satisfy safety requirements in case of an in-vessel loss of coolant event. Three concepts have been examined satisfying the ITER requirements for speed of actuation, sealing performance over the required lifetime, and pressure differential in fault scenarios, namely: a rectangular closure section; a circular cross section; and a rotary JET-type valve. The rectangular section represents the most efficient usage of the available space envelope and leads to a minimum-mass system, although it requires greater total force for a given load per unit length of seal. However, a metallic seal of the '' hard/hard '' type, where the seal relies on the elastic properties of the material and does not utilise any type of spring device, can provide the required seal performance with typical loading of 200 kg/cm. The conceptual design of the proposed absolute valve will be presented. The aperture dimensions are 1.45 m high by 0.6 m wide, with minimum achievable leak rate of 1 · 10 -9 mbarl/s and maximum pressure differential of 3 bar across the valve. Sealing force is provided using two seal plates, linked by a 3 mm thick ' omega ' diaphragm, by pressurisation of the interspace to 8 bar; this allows for a relative movement of the plates of 2 mm. Movement of the device perpendicular to the beam direction is carried out using a novel magnetic drive in order to transmit the motive force across the vacuum boundary, similar to that demonstrated on a test-rig in an earlier study. The conceptual design includes provision of all the services such as pneumatics and water cooling to cope with the heat loads from neutral beams in quasi steady-state operation and from the ITER plasma. A future programme

  19. Absolute density measurements in the middle atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rapp

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last ten years a total of 25 sounding rockets employing ionization gauges have been launched at high latitudes ( ~ 70° N to measure total atmospheric density and its small scale fluctuations in an altitude range between 70 and 110 km. While the determination of small scale fluctuations is unambiguous, the total density analysis has been complicated in the past by aerodynamical disturbances leading to densities inside the sensor which are enhanced compared to atmospheric values. Here, we present the results of both Monte Carlo simulations and wind tunnel measurements to quantify this aerodynamical effect. The comparison of the resulting ‘ram-factor’ profiles with empirically determined density ratios of ionization gauge measurements and falling sphere measurements provides excellent agreement. This demonstrates both the need, but also the possibility, to correct aerodynamical influences on measurements from sounding rockets. We have determined a total of 20 density profiles of the mesosphere-lower-thermosphere (MLT region. Grouping these profiles according to season, a listing of mean density profiles is included in the paper. A comparison with density profiles taken from the reference atmospheres CIRA86 and MSIS90 results in differences of up to 40%. This reflects that current reference atmospheres are a significant potential error source for the determination of mixing ratios of, for example, trace gas constituents in the MLT region.Key words. Middle atmosphere (composition and chemistry; pressure, density, and temperature; instruments and techniques

  20. Absolute density measurements in the middle atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rapp

    Full Text Available In the last ten years a total of 25 sounding rockets employing ionization gauges have been launched at high latitudes ( ~ 70° N to measure total atmospheric density and its small scale fluctuations in an altitude range between 70 and 110 km. While the determination of small scale fluctuations is unambiguous, the total density analysis has been complicated in the past by aerodynamical disturbances leading to densities inside the sensor which are enhanced compared to atmospheric values. Here, we present the results of both Monte Carlo simulations and wind tunnel measurements to quantify this aerodynamical effect. The comparison of the resulting ‘ram-factor’ profiles with empirically determined density ratios of ionization gauge measurements and falling sphere measurements provides excellent agreement. This demonstrates both the need, but also the possibility, to correct aerodynamical influences on measurements from sounding rockets. We have determined a total of 20 density profiles of the mesosphere-lower-thermosphere (MLT region. Grouping these profiles according to season, a listing of mean density profiles is included in the paper. A comparison with density profiles taken from the reference atmospheres CIRA86 and MSIS90 results in differences of up to 40%. This reflects that current reference atmospheres are a significant potential error source for the determination of mixing ratios of, for example, trace gas constituents in the MLT region.

    Key words. Middle atmosphere (composition and chemistry; pressure, density, and temperature; instruments and techniques

  1. Hoeren unter Wasser: Absolute Reizschwellen und Richtungswahrnehnumg (Underwater Hearing: Absolute Thresholds and Sound Localization),

    Science.gov (United States)

    The article deals first with the theoretical foundations of underwater hearing, and the effects of the acoustical characteristics of water on hearing...lead to the conclusion that, in water , man can locate the direction of sound at low and at very high tonal frequencies of the audio range, but this ability is probably vanishing in the middle range of frequencies. (Author)

  2. A study on photonic crystal slab waveguide with absolute photonic band gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsumasa Satoh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Most of the conventional photonic crystal (PhC slab waveguides have a photonic bandgap (PBG only for one polarization state of two orthogonal polarization states. In this paper, westudy on an absolute PBG that can realize PBG for both polarizations in the same frequency range anddemonstrate that an absolute PBG can be realized in PhC structures proposed here. In the numericalanalysis and design of PhC structures, we employ the two-dimensional finite element method (FEMbased on the effective index method (EIM. First, we propose two-types of PhC structures with anabsolute PBG and show that a steering type PhC is superior to an air-ring type PhC to obtain a widebandabsolute PBG. It is also shown that the optimized steering type PhC has the absolute PBG whosebandwidth of 164 nm at the center wavelength of 1.55 μm. Furthermore, we design PhC waveguidesbased on the obtained PhC structure having an absolute PBG in order to obtain guided modes for bothpolarization states within the same wavelength range. The transmission properties of the designed PhCwaveguides are also investigated and 60 degree bends which are required in compact photonic circuitsare designed. From these results, the possibility to realize compact polarization multiplexing photonicdevices is shown.

  3. Nonlinear optical response of a gold surface in the visible range: A study by two-color sum-frequency generation spectroscopy. I. Experimental determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalstein, L; Revel, A; Humbert, C; Busson, B

    2018-04-07

    We experimentally determine the effective nonlinear second-order susceptibility of gold over the visible spectral range. To reach that goal, we probe by vibrational two-color sum-frequency generation spectroscopy the methyl stretching region of a dodecanethiol self-assembled monolayer adsorbed on a gold film. The sum-frequency generation spectra show a remarkable shape reversal when the visible probe wavelength is tuned from 435 to 705 nm. After correcting from Fresnel effects, the methyl stretching vibrations serve as an internal reference, allowing to extract the dispersion of the absolute phase and relative amplitude of the effective nonlinear optical response of gold in the visible range.

  4. Low Frequency Space Array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennison, B.; Weiler, K.W.; Johnston, K.J.

    1987-01-01

    The Low Frequency Space Array (LFSA) is a conceptual mission to survey the entire sky and to image individual sources at frequencies between 1.5 and 26 MHz, a frequency range over which the earth's ionosphere transmits poorly or not at all. With high resolution, high sensitivity observations, a new window will be opened in the electromagnetic spectrum for astronomical investigation. Also, extending observations down to such low frequencies will bring astronomy to the fundamental limit below which the galaxy becomes optically thick due to free-free absorption. A number of major scientific goals can be pursued with such a mission, including mapping galactic emission and absorption, studies of individual source spectra in a frequency range where a number of important processes may play a role, high resolution imaging of extended sources, localization of the impulsive emission from Jupiter, and a search for coherent emission processes. 19 references

  5. Does Absolute Synonymy exist in Owere-Igbo? | Omego | AFRREV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among Igbo linguistic researchers, determining whether absolute synonymy exists in Owere–Igbo, a dialect of the Igbo language predominantly spoken by the people of Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria, has become a thorny issue. While some linguistic scholars strive to establish that absolute synonymy exists in the lexical ...

  6. Absolute tense forms in Tswana | Pretorius | Journal for Language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These views were compared in an attempt to put forth an applicable framework for the classification of the tenses in Tswana and to identify the absolute tenses of Tswana. Keywords: tense; simple tenses; compound tenses; absolute tenses; relative tenses; aspect; auxiliary verbs; auxiliary verbal groups; Tswana Opsomming

  7. Absolute calibration of sniffer probes on Wendelstein 7-X

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moseev, D.; Laqua, H.P.; Marsen, S.; Stange, T.; Braune, H.; Erckmann, V.; Gellert, F.J.; Oosterbeek, J.W.

    Here we report the first measurements of the power levels of stray radiation in the vacuum vessel of Wendelstein 7-X using absolutely calibrated sniffer probes. The absolute calibration is achieved by using calibrated sources of stray radiation and the implicit measurement of the quality factor of

  8. Absolute instrumental neutron activation analysis at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heft, R.E.

    1977-01-01

    The Environmental Science Division at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory has in use a system of absolute Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Basically, absolute INAA is dependent upon the absolute measurement of the disintegration rates of the nuclides produced by neutron capture. From such disintegration rate data, the amount of the target element present in the irradiated sample is calculated by dividing the observed disintegration rate for each nuclide by the expected value for the disintegration rate per microgram of the target element that produced the nuclide. In absolute INAA, the expected value for disintegration rate per microgram is calculated from nuclear parameters and from measured values of both thermal and epithermal neutron fluxes which were present during irradiation. Absolute INAA does not depend on the concurrent irradiation of elemental standards but does depend on the values for thermal and epithermal neutron capture cross-sections for the target nuclides. A description of the analytical method is presented

  9. Implications of an absolute simultaneity theory for cosmology and universe acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipreos, Edward T

    2014-01-01

    An alternate Lorentz transformation, Absolute Lorentz Transformation (ALT), has similar kinematics to special relativity yet maintains absolute simultaneity in the context of a preferred reference frame. In this study, it is shown that ALT is compatible with current experiments to test Lorentz invariance only if the proposed preferred reference frame is locally equivalent to the Earth-centered non-rotating inertial reference frame, with the inference that in an ALT framework, preferred reference frames are associated with centers of gravitational mass. Applying this theoretical framework to cosmological data produces a scenario of universal time contraction in the past. In this scenario, past time contraction would be associated with increased levels of blueshifted light emissions from cosmological objects when viewed from our current perspective. The observation that distant Type Ia supernovae are dimmer than predicted by linear Hubble expansion currently provides the most direct evidence for an accelerating universe. Adjusting for the effects of time contraction on a redshift-distance modulus diagram produces a linear distribution of supernovae over the full redshift spectrum that is consistent with a non-accelerating universe.

  10. Implications of an absolute simultaneity theory for cosmology and universe acceleration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward T Kipreos

    Full Text Available An alternate Lorentz transformation, Absolute Lorentz Transformation (ALT, has similar kinematics to special relativity yet maintains absolute simultaneity in the context of a preferred reference frame. In this study, it is shown that ALT is compatible with current experiments to test Lorentz invariance only if the proposed preferred reference frame is locally equivalent to the Earth-centered non-rotating inertial reference frame, with the inference that in an ALT framework, preferred reference frames are associated with centers of gravitational mass. Applying this theoretical framework to cosmological data produces a scenario of universal time contraction in the past. In this scenario, past time contraction would be associated with increased levels of blueshifted light emissions from cosmological objects when viewed from our current perspective. The observation that distant Type Ia supernovae are dimmer than predicted by linear Hubble expansion currently provides the most direct evidence for an accelerating universe. Adjusting for the effects of time contraction on a redshift-distance modulus diagram produces a linear distribution of supernovae over the full redshift spectrum that is consistent with a non-accelerating universe.

  11. Tracking frequency laser distance gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.D.; Reasenberg, R.D.

    2005-01-01

    Advanced astronomical missions with greatly enhanced resolution and physics missions of unprecedented accuracy will require laser distance gauges of substantially improved performance. We describe a laser gauge, based on Pound-Drever-Hall locking, in which the optical frequency is adjusted to maintain an interferometer's null condition. This technique has been demonstrated with pm performance. Automatic fringe hopping allows it to track arbitrary distance changes. The instrument is intrinsically free of the nm-scale cyclic bias present in traditional (heterodyne) high-precision laser gauges. The output is a radio frequency, readily measured to sufficient accuracy. The laser gauge has operated in a resonant cavity, which improves precision, can suppress the effects of misalignments, and makes possible precise automatic alignment. The measurement of absolute distance requires little or no additional hardware, and has also been demonstrated. The proof-of-concept version, based on a stabilized HeNe laser and operating on a 0.5 m path, has achieved 10 pm precision with 0.1 s integration time, and 0.1 mm absolute distance accuracy. This version has also followed substantial distance changes as fast as 16 mm/s. We show that, if the precision in optical frequency is a fixed fraction of the linewidth, both incremental and absolute distance precision are independent of the distance measured. We discuss systematic error sources, and present plans for a new version of the gauge based on semiconductor lasers and fiber-coupled components

  12. Measuring Absolute RNA Copy Numbers at High Temporal Resolution Reveals Transcriptome Kinetics in Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick D.L. Owens

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcript regulation is essential for cell function, and misregulation can lead to disease. Despite technologies to survey the transcriptome, we lack a comprehensive understanding of transcript kinetics, which limits quantitative biology. This is an acute challenge in embryonic development, where rapid changes in gene expression dictate cell fate decisions. By ultra-high-frequency sampling of Xenopus embryos and absolute normalization of sequence reads, we present smooth gene expression trajectories in absolute transcript numbers. During a developmental period approximating the first 8 weeks of human gestation, transcript kinetics vary by eight orders of magnitude. Ordering genes by expression dynamics, we find that “temporal synexpression” predicts common gene function. Remarkably, a single parameter, the characteristic timescale, can classify transcript kinetics globally and distinguish genes regulating development from those involved in cellular metabolism. Overall, our analysis provides unprecedented insight into the reorganization of maternal and embryonic transcripts and redefines our ability to perform quantitative biology.

  13. Intraplate Vertical Land Movements Constrained by Absolute Gravity Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Camp, M.; Williams, S. D.; Hinzen, K. G.; Camelbeeck, T.

    2007-12-01

    We have conducted repeated absolute gravity (AG) measurements across the tectonically active intraplate regions in Northwest Europe: the Ardenne and the Roer Graben. At most of the stations measurements were undertaken since 2000 and repeated twice a year. Our analysis of these measurements, performed in Belgium and Germany, show that at all stations except Jülich, there is no detectable gravity variation higher than 10 nm s-2 at the 95% confidence level. This is equivalent to vertical movements of 5 mm/yr. Although not yet significant, the observed rates do not contradict the subsidence predicted by glacial isostatic adjustment models and provide an upper limit on the possible uplift of the Ardennes. In Jülich, a gravity rate of change of 36.7 nm s-2/year equivalent to 18.4 mm/yr is due to anthropogenic subsidence. The amplitudes of the seasonal variations range from 18±0.8 nms-2 to 43±29 nms-2, depending on the location. These variations should have a negligible effect on the long-term trend, but at the Membach reference station, were a longer time series is available, differences in the rates observed since 1996 and 1999 indicate that long-term environmental effects may influence the inferred trend. The observed seasonal effects also demonstrate the repeatability of AG measurements. In Ostend, the AG time series agrees with tide gauge data, global mean sea level and altimeter measurements but disagrees with the CGPS. This study indicates that, even in difficult conditions, AG measurements repeated once a year can resolve vertical land movements at a few mm level after 5 years. This also confirms the need to measure for decades, using accurate and stable geodetic techniques like AG, in order to constrain slow deformation processes in an intraplate context.

  14. Vertical Land Movements Constrained by Absolute Gravity Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Camp, M.; Williams, S. D.; Hinzen, K.; Camelbeeck, T.

    2009-05-01

    Repeated absolute gravity (AG) measurements have been performed across the tectonically active intraplate regions in Northwest Europe: the Ardenne and the Roer Graben. At most of the stations measurements were undertaken in 2000 and repeated twice a year. Analysis of these measurements, performed in Belgium and Germany, show that at all stations except Jülich, there is no detectable gravity variation higher than 10 nm s-2 at the 95% confidence level. This is equivalent to vertical movements of 5 mm/yr. Although not yet significant, the observed rates do not contradict the subsidence predicted by glacial isostatic adjustment models and provide an upper limit on the possible uplift of the Ardennes. In Jülich, a gravity rate of change of 36 nm -2/year, equivalent to 18 mm/yr, is at least in parts due to anthropogenic subsidence. The amplitudes of the seasonal variations range from 18±0.8 nm s-2 to 43±29 nm s-2, depending on the location. These variations should have a negligible effect on the long-term trend, but at the Membach reference station, were a longer time series is available, differences in the rates observed since 1996 and 1999 indicate that long-term environmental effects may influence the inferred trend. The observed seasonal effects also demonstrate the repeatability of AG measurements. This study indicates that, even in difficult conditions, AG measurements repeated once a year can resolve vertical land movements at a few mm level after 5 years. This also confirms the need to measure for decades, using accurate and stable geodetic techniques like AG, in order to constrain slow deformation processes.

  15. Frequency-Modulation Correlation Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, J. S.; Martonchik, J. V.

    1985-01-01

    New type of correlation spectrometer eliminates need to shift between two cells, one empty and one containing reference gas. Electrooptical phase modulator sinusoidally shift frequencies of sample transmission spectrum.

  16. Frequency stabilized lasers for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieber, Mike; Adkins, Mike; Pierce, Robert; Warden, Robert; Wallace, Cynthia; Weimer, Carl

    2014-09-01

    metrology, spectroscopy, atomic clocks and geodesy. This technology will be a key enabler to several proposed NASA science missions. Although lasers such as Q-switched Nd-YAG are now commonly used in space, other types of lasers - especially those with narrow linewidth - are still few in number and more development is required to advance their technology readiness. In this paper we discuss a reconfigurable laser frequency stabilization testbed, and end-to-end modeling to support system development. Two important features enabling testbed flexibility are that the controller, signal processing and interfaces are hosted on a field programmable gate array (FPGA) which has spacequalified equivalent parts, and secondly, fiber optic relay of the beam paths. Given the nonlinear behavior of lasers, FPGA implementation is a key system reliability aspect allowing on-orbit retuning of the control system and initial frequency acquisition. The testbed features a dual sensor system, one based upon a high finesse resonator cavity which provides relative stability through Pound-Drever-Hall (PDH) modulation and secondly an absolute frequency reference by dither locking to an acetylene gas cell (GC). To provide for differences between ground and space implementation, we have developed an end-to-end Simulink/ Matlab®-based control system model of the testbed components including the important noise sources. This model is in the process of being correlated to the testbed data which then can be used for trade studies, and estimation of space-based performance and sensitivities. A 1530 nm wavelength semiconductor laser is used for this initial work.

  17. Incorrect Weighting of Absolute Performance in Self-Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, Scott A.; Cozzarin, Brian

    Students spend much of their life in an attempt to assess their aptitude for numerous tasks. For example, they expend a great deal of effort to determine their academic standing given a distribution of grades. This research finds that students use their absolute performance, or percentage correct as a yardstick for their self-assessment, even when relative standing is much more informative. An experiment shows that this reliance on absolute performance for self-evaluation causes a misallocation of time and financial resources. Reasons for this inappropriate responsiveness to absolute performance are explored.

  18. Frequency standards

    CERN Document Server

    Riehle, Fritz

    2006-01-01

    Of all measurement units, frequency is the one that may be determined with the highest degree of accuracy. It equally allows precise measurements of other physical and technical quantities, whenever they can be measured in terms of frequency.This volume covers the central methods and techniques relevant for frequency standards developed in physics, electronics, quantum electronics, and statistics. After a review of the basic principles, the book looks at the realisation of commonly used components. It then continues with the description and characterisation of important frequency standards

  19. Absolute parametric instability of low-frequency waves in a 2D ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    solved in two-dimensional (2D) nonuniform plane plasma. Equations which describe the spatial part of the electric potential are obtained. Also, the growth rates and conditions of the parametric instability for periodic and aperiodic cases are obtained. It is found that the spatial nonuniformity of the plasma exerts a stabilizing ...

  20. Absolute 22Na radioactivity measurement by gamma efficiency variation of 4πβ-γ coincidence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, Yoshio; Kawada, Yasusi.

    1994-01-01

    The absolute radioactivity of 22 Na was obtained by gamma efficiency variation of 4πβ-γ coincidence method. Some other previous techniques, such as sum peak gate method based on the positron emission rate, relative measurement with calibrated ionization chambers, and gamma spectrometry with a HPGe detector, were also tried to ensure the present result. The results of these methods were in reasonable agreement with the present absolute measurement. The assayed source solution of this experiment was transferred to NBS type ampoules, and sealed ampoules were sent to the SIR (International Reference System) in BIPM, Taiwan and Indonesia for the international comparison. (author)

  1. Single frequency semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Zujie; Chen, Gaoting; Qu, Ronghui

    2017-01-01

    This book systematically introduces the single frequency semiconductor laser, which is widely used in many vital advanced technologies, such as the laser cooling of atoms and atomic clock, high-precision measurements and spectroscopy, coherent optical communications, and advanced optical sensors. It presents both the fundamentals and characteristics of semiconductor lasers, including basic F-P structure and monolithic integrated structures; interprets laser noises and their measurements; and explains mechanisms and technologies relating to the main aspects of single frequency lasers, including external cavity lasers, frequency stabilization technologies, frequency sweeping, optical phase locked loops, and so on. It paints a clear, physical picture of related technologies and reviews new developments in the field as well. It will be a useful reference to graduate students, researchers, and engineers in the field.

  2. Efficacy of intrahepatic absolute alcohol in unrespectable hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooqi, J.I.; Hameed, K.; Khan, I.U.; Shah, S.

    2001-01-01

    To determine efficacy of intrahepatic absolute alcohol injection in researchable hepatocellular carcinoma. A randomized, controlled, experimental and interventional clinical trial. Gastroenterology Department, PGMI, Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar during the period from June, 1998 to June, 2000. Thirty patients were treated by percutaneous, intrahepatic absolute alcohol injection sin repeated sessions, 33 patients were not given or treated with alcohol to serve as control. Both the groups were comparable for age, sex and other baseline characteristics. Absolute alcohol therapy significantly improved quality of life of patients, reduced the tumor size and mortality as well as showed significantly better results regarding survival (P< 0.05) than the patients of control group. We conclude that absolute alcohol is a beneficial and safe palliative treatment measure in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). (author)

  3. DOES ABSOLUTE SYNONYMY EXIST IN OWERE-IGBO?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    The researcher also interviewed native speakers of the dialect. The study ... The word 'synonymy' means sameness of meaning, i.e., a relationship in which more ... whether absolute synonymy exists in Owere–Igbo or not. ..... 'close this book'.

  4. Prognostic Value of Absolute versus Relative Rise of Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    maternal outcome than a relative rise in the systolic/diastolic blood pressure from mid pregnancy, which did not reach this absolute level. We conclude that in the Nigerian obstetric population, the practice of diagnosing pregnancy hypertension on ...

  5. Absolute calibration of sniffer probes on Wendelstein 7-X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moseev, D.; Laqua, H. P.; Marsen, S.; Stange, T.; Braune, H.; Erckmann, V.; Gellert, F.; Oosterbeek, J. W.

    2016-01-01

    Here we report the first measurements of the power levels of stray radiation in the vacuum vessel of Wendelstein 7-X using absolutely calibrated sniffer probes. The absolute calibration is achieved by using calibrated sources of stray radiation and the implicit measurement of the quality factor of the Wendelstein 7-X empty vacuum vessel. Normalized absolute calibration coefficients agree with the cross-calibration coefficients that are obtained by the direct measurements, indicating that the measured absolute calibration coefficients and stray radiation levels in the vessel are valid. Close to the launcher, the stray radiation in the empty vessel reaches power levels up to 340 kW/m 2 per MW injected beam power. Furthest away from the launcher, i.e., half a toroidal turn, still 90 kW/m 2 per MW injected beam power is measured.

  6. Absolute calibration of sniffer probes on Wendelstein 7-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseev, D.; Laqua, H. P.; Marsen, S.; Stange, T.; Braune, H.; Erckmann, V.; Gellert, F.; Oosterbeek, J. W.

    2016-08-01

    Here we report the first measurements of the power levels of stray radiation in the vacuum vessel of Wendelstein 7-X using absolutely calibrated sniffer probes. The absolute calibration is achieved by using calibrated sources of stray radiation and the implicit measurement of the quality factor of the Wendelstein 7-X empty vacuum vessel. Normalized absolute calibration coefficients agree with the cross-calibration coefficients that are obtained by the direct measurements, indicating that the measured absolute calibration coefficients and stray radiation levels in the vessel are valid. Close to the launcher, the stray radiation in the empty vessel reaches power levels up to 340 kW/m2 per MW injected beam power. Furthest away from the launcher, i.e., half a toroidal turn, still 90 kW/m2 per MW injected beam power is measured.

  7. Absolute calibration of sniffer probes on Wendelstein 7-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moseev, D., E-mail: dmitry.moseev@ipp.mpg.de; Laqua, H. P.; Marsen, S.; Stange, T.; Braune, H.; Erckmann, V. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Greifswald (Germany); Gellert, F. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Greifswald (Germany); Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität Greifswald, Greifswald (Germany); Oosterbeek, J. W. [Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2016-08-15

    Here we report the first measurements of the power levels of stray radiation in the vacuum vessel of Wendelstein 7-X using absolutely calibrated sniffer probes. The absolute calibration is achieved by using calibrated sources of stray radiation and the implicit measurement of the quality factor of the Wendelstein 7-X empty vacuum vessel. Normalized absolute calibration coefficients agree with the cross-calibration coefficients that are obtained by the direct measurements, indicating that the measured absolute calibration coefficients and stray radiation levels in the vessel are valid. Close to the launcher, the stray radiation in the empty vessel reaches power levels up to 340 kW/m{sup 2} per MW injected beam power. Furthest away from the launcher, i.e., half a toroidal turn, still 90 kW/m{sup 2} per MW injected beam power is measured.

  8. Probative value of absolute and relative judgments in eyewitness identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Steven E; Erickson, Michael A; Breneman, Jesse

    2011-10-01

    It is well-accepted that eyewitness identification decisions based on relative judgments are less accurate than identification decisions based on absolute judgments. However, the theoretical foundation for this view has not been established. In this study relative and absolute judgments were compared through simulations of the WITNESS model (Clark, Appl Cogn Psychol 17:629-654, 2003) to address the question: Do suspect identifications based on absolute judgments have higher probative value than suspect identifications based on relative judgments? Simulations of the WITNESS model showed a consistent advantage for absolute judgments over relative judgments for suspect-matched lineups. However, simulations of same-foils lineups showed a complex interaction based on the accuracy of memory and the similarity relationships among lineup members.

  9. Changes in Absolute Sea Level Along U.S. Coasts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map shows changes in absolute sea level from 1960 to 2016 based on satellite measurements. Data were adjusted by applying an inverted barometer (air pressure)...

  10. Confirmation of the absolute configuration of (−)-aurantioclavine

    KAUST Repository

    Behenna, Douglas C.; Krishnan, Shyam; Stoltz, Brian M.

    2011-01-01

    We confirm our previous assignment of the absolute configuration of (-)-aurantioclavine as 7R by crystallographically characterizing an advanced 3-bromoindole intermediate reported in our previous synthesis. This analysis also provides additional

  11. Frequency Synthesiser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drago, Salvatore; Sebastiano, Fabio; Leenaerts, Dominicus M.W.; Breems, Lucien J.; Nauta, Bram

    2016-01-01

    A low power frequency synthesiser circuit (30) for a radio transceiver, the synthesiser circuit comprising: a digital controlled oscillator configured to generate an output signal having a frequency controlled by an input digital control word (DCW); a feedback loop connected between an output and an

  12. Frequency synthesiser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drago, S.; Sebastiano, Fabio; Leenaerts, Dominicus Martinus Wilhelmus; Breems, Lucien Johannes; Nauta, Bram

    2010-01-01

    A low power frequency synthesiser circuit (30) for a radio transceiver, the synthesiser circuit comprising: a digital controlled oscillator configured to generate an output signal having a frequency controlled by an input digital control word (DCW); a feedback loop connected between an output and an

  13. A proposal to measure absolute environmental sustainability in lifecycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Margni, Manuele; Roy, Pierre-Olivier

    2016-01-01

    sustainable are therefore increasingly important. Such absolute indicators exist, but suffer from shortcomings such as incomplete coverage of environmental issues, varying data quality and varying or insufficient spatial resolution. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that life cycle assessment (LCA...... in supporting decisions aimed at simultaneously reducing environmental impacts efficiently and maintaining or achieving environmental sustainability. We have demonstrated that LCA indicators can be modified from being relative to being absolute indicators of environmental sustainability. Further research should...

  14. Overspecification of colour, pattern, and size: Salience, absoluteness, and consistency

    OpenAIRE

    Sammie eTarenskeen; Mirjam eBroersma; Mirjam eBroersma; Bart eGeurts

    2015-01-01

    The rates of overspecification of colour, pattern, and size are compared, to investigate how salience and absoluteness contribute to the production of overspecification. Colour and pattern are absolute attributes, whereas size is relative and less salient. Additionally, a tendency towards consistent responses is assessed. Using a within-participants design, we find similar rates of colour and pattern overspecification, which are both higher than the rate of size overspecification. Using a bet...

  15. Overspecification of color, pattern, and size: salience, absoluteness, and consistency

    OpenAIRE

    Tarenskeen, S.L.; Broersma, M.; Geurts, B.

    2015-01-01

    The rates of overspecification of color, pattern, and size are compared, to investigate how salience and absoluteness contribute to the production of overspecification. Color and pattern are absolute and salient attributes, whereas size is relative and less salient. Additionally, a tendency toward consistent responses is assessed. Using a within-participants design, we find similar rates of color and pattern overspecification, which are both higher than the rate of size overspecification. Usi...

  16. The Pragmatics of "Unruly" Dative Absolutes in Early Slavic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E. Collins

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This chapter examines some uses of the dative absolute in Old Church Slavonic and in early recensional Slavonic texts that depart from notions of how Indo-European absolute constructions should behave, either because they have subjects coreferential with the (putative main-clause subjects or because they function as if they were main clauses in their own right. Such "noncanonical" absolutes have generally been written off as mechanistic translations or as mistakes by scribes who did not understand the proper uses of the construction. In reality, the problem is not with literalistic translators or incompetent scribes but with the definition of the construction itself; it is quite possible to redefine the Early Slavic dative absolute in a way that accounts for the supposedly deviant cases. While the absolute is generally dependent semantically on an adjacent unit of discourse, it should not always be regarded as subordinated syntactically. There are good grounds for viewing some absolutes not as dependent clauses but as independent sentences whose collateral character is an issue not of syntax but of the pragmatics of discourse.

  17. Distance measurement using frequency-modulated continuous-wave ladar with calibration by a femtosecond frequency comb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Yang, Linghui; Lin, Jiarui; Zhu, Jigui

    2018-01-01

    Precise distance measurement is of interest for large-scale manufacturing, future space satellite missions, and other industrial applications. The ranging system with femtosecond optical frequency comb (FOFC) could offer high accuracy, stability and direct traceability to SI definition of the meter. Here, we propose a scheme for length measurement based on the frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) ladar with a FOFC. In this scheme, the reference interferometer in the FMCW ladar is calibrated by the intensity detection using the FOFC in the time domain within an optical wavelength resolution. With analysis of the theoretical model, this system has the potential to a high-speed, high-accuracy absolute distance measurement. Then, based on the experimental results, the evaluation of the performance of the calibration of the reference arm is discussed. In addition, the performance of this system is evaluated by a single position measurement with different tuning velocities of wavelength. The experimental results show that the reproducibility of the distance measurement is 10-5 level.

  18. SU-F-T-492: The Impact of Water Temperature On Absolute Dose Calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, N; Podgorsak, M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The Task Group 51 (TG 51) protocol prescribes that dose calibration of photon beams be done by irradiating an ionization chamber in a water tank at pre-defined depths. Methodologies are provided to account for variations in measurement conditions by applying correction factors. However, the protocol does not completely account for the impact of water temperature. It is well established that water temperature will influence the density of air in the ion chamber collecting volume. Water temperature, however, will also influence the size of the collecting volume via thermal expansion of the cavity wall and the density of the water in the tank. In this work the overall effect of water temperature on absolute dosimetry has been investigated. Methods: Dose measurements were made using a Farmer-type ion chamber for 6 and 23 MV photon beams with water temperatures ranging from 10 to 40°C. A reference ion chamber was used to account for fluctuations in beam output between successive measurements. Results: For the same beam output, the dose determined using TG 51 was dependent on the temperature of the water in the tank. A linear regression of the data suggests that the dependence is statistically significant with p-values of the slope equal to 0.003 and 0.01 for 6 and 23 MV beams, respectively. For a 10 degree increase in water phantom temperature, the absolute dose determined with TG 51 increased by 0.27% and 0.31% for 6 and 23 MV beams, respectively. Conclusion: There is a measurable effect of water temperature on absolute dose calibration. To account for this effect, a reference temperature can be defined and a correction factor applied to account for deviations from this reference temperature during beam calibration. Such a factor is expected to be of similar magnitude to most of the existing TG 51 correction factors.

  19. SU-F-T-492: The Impact of Water Temperature On Absolute Dose Calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, N [State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY (United States); Podgorsak, M [State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY (United States); Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The Task Group 51 (TG 51) protocol prescribes that dose calibration of photon beams be done by irradiating an ionization chamber in a water tank at pre-defined depths. Methodologies are provided to account for variations in measurement conditions by applying correction factors. However, the protocol does not completely account for the impact of water temperature. It is well established that water temperature will influence the density of air in the ion chamber collecting volume. Water temperature, however, will also influence the size of the collecting volume via thermal expansion of the cavity wall and the density of the water in the tank. In this work the overall effect of water temperature on absolute dosimetry has been investigated. Methods: Dose measurements were made using a Farmer-type ion chamber for 6 and 23 MV photon beams with water temperatures ranging from 10 to 40°C. A reference ion chamber was used to account for fluctuations in beam output between successive measurements. Results: For the same beam output, the dose determined using TG 51 was dependent on the temperature of the water in the tank. A linear regression of the data suggests that the dependence is statistically significant with p-values of the slope equal to 0.003 and 0.01 for 6 and 23 MV beams, respectively. For a 10 degree increase in water phantom temperature, the absolute dose determined with TG 51 increased by 0.27% and 0.31% for 6 and 23 MV beams, respectively. Conclusion: There is a measurable effect of water temperature on absolute dose calibration. To account for this effect, a reference temperature can be defined and a correction factor applied to account for deviations from this reference temperature during beam calibration. Such a factor is expected to be of similar magnitude to most of the existing TG 51 correction factors.

  20. Microwave measurements of the absolute values of absorption by water vapour in the atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, D C; Guiraud, F O

    1979-05-31

    MEASUREMENT of the absolute value of absorption by water vapour at microwave frequencies is difficult because the effect is so small. Far in the wings of the absorption lines, in the so-called 'windows' of the spectrum, it is especially difficult to achieve high accuracy in the free atmosphere. But it is in these windows that the behaviour of the absorption is important from both applied and scientific points of view. Satellite communications, remote sensing of the atmosphere, and radioastronomy, are all influenced by this behaviour. Measurements on an Earth-space path are reported here; the results indicate a nonlinear relationship between absorption and water-vapour content.

  1. High-precision gravity measurements using absolute and relative gravimeters at Mount Etna (Sicily, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Del Negro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurate detection of time gravity changes attributable to the dynamics of volcanoes requires high-precision gravity measurements. With the aim of improving the quality of data from the Mount Etna gravity network, we used both absolute and relative gravimeters in a hybrid method. In this report, some of the techniques for gravity surveys are reviewed, and the results related to each method are compared. We show how the total uncertainty estimated for the gravity measurements performed with this combined use of absolute and relative gravimeters is roughly comparable to that calculated when the measurements are acquired using only relative gravimeters (the traditional method. However, the data highlight how the hybrid approach improves the measurement capabilities for surveying the Mount Etna volcanic area. This approach enhances the accuracy of the data, and then of the four-dimensional surveying, which minimizes ambiguities inherent in the gravity measurements. As a case study, we refer to two gravity datasets acquired in 2005 and 2010 from the western part of the Etna volcano, which included five absolute and 13 relative stations of the Etna gravity network.

  2. Absolute/convective secondary instabilities and the role of confinement in free shear layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arratia, Cristóbal; Mowlavi, Saviz; Gallaire, François

    2018-05-01

    We study the linear spatiotemporal stability of an infinite row of equal point vortices under symmetric confinement between parallel walls. These rows of vortices serve to model the secondary instability leading to the merging of consecutive (Kelvin-Helmholtz) vortices in free shear layers, allowing us to study how confinement limits the growth of shear layers through vortex pairings. Using a geometric construction akin to a Legendre transform on the dispersion relation, we compute the growth rate of the instability in different reference frames as a function of the frame velocity with respect to the vortices. This approach is verified and complemented with numerical computations of the linear impulse response, fully characterizing the absolute/convective nature of the instability. Similar to results by Healey on the primary instability of parallel tanh profiles [J. Fluid Mech. 623, 241 (2009), 10.1017/S0022112008005284], we observe a range of confinement in which absolute instability is promoted. For a parallel shear layer with prescribed confinement and mixing length, the threshold for absolute/convective instability of the secondary pairing instability depends on the separation distance between consecutive vortices, which is physically determined by the wavelength selected by the previous (primary or pairing) instability. In the presence of counterflow and moderate to weak confinement, small (large) wavelength of the vortex row leads to absolute (convective) instability. While absolute secondary instabilities in spatially developing flows have been previously related to an abrupt transition to a complex behavior, this secondary pairing instability regenerates the flow with an increased wavelength, eventually leading to a convectively unstable row of vortices. We argue that since the primary instability remains active for large wavelengths, a spatially developing shear layer can directly saturate on the wavelength of such a convectively unstable row, by

  3. Tv & video engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, K G

    1991-01-01

    TV & Video Engineer's Reference Book presents an extensive examination of the basic television standards and broadcasting spectrum. It discusses the fundamental concepts in analogue and digital circuit theory. It addresses studies in the engineering mathematics, formulas, and calculations. Some of the topics covered in the book are the conductors and insulators, passive components, alternating current circuits; broadcast transmission; radio frequency propagation; electron optics in cathode ray tube; color encoding and decoding systems; television transmitters; and remote supervision of unatten

  4. Investigate the capability of INAA absolute method to determine the concentrations of 238U and 232Th in rock samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alnour, I.A.

    2014-01-01

    This work aimed to study the capability of INAA absolute method in determining the elemental concentration of 238 U and 232 Th in the rock samples. The INAA absolute method was implemented in PUSPATI TRIGA Mark II research reactor, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (NM). The accuracy of INAA absolute method was performed by analyzing the IAEA certified reference material (CRM) Soil-7. The analytical results showed the deviations between experimental and certified values were mostly less than 10 % with Z-score in most cases less than 1. In general, the results of analysed CRM Soil-7 show a good agreement between certified and experimental results which mean that the INAA absolute method can be used accurately for elemental analysis of uranium and thorium in various types of samples. The concentration of 238 U and 232 Th ranged from 1.77 to 24.25 and 0.88 to 95.50 ppm respectively. The highest value of 238 U and 232 Th was recorded for granite rock sample G17 of 238 U and sample G9 of 232 Th, whereas the lower value was 1.77 ppm of 238 U recorded in sandstone rock and 0.88 ppm of 232 Th for gabbro. Moreover, a comparison of the 238 U and 232 Th results obtained by the INAA absolute method shows an acceptable level of consistency with those obtained by the INAA relative method. (author)

  5. Relative and absolute risk in epidemiology and health physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldsmith, R.; Peterson, H.T. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The health risk from ionizing radiation commonly is expressed in two forms: (1) the relative risk, which is the percentage increase in natural disease rate and (2) the absolute or attributable risk which represents the difference between the natural rate and the rate associated with the agent in question. Relative risk estimates for ionizing radiation generally are higher than those expressed as the absolute risk. This raises the question of which risk estimator is the most appropriate under different conditions. The absolute risk has generally been used for radiation risk assessment, although mathematical combinations such as the arithmetic or geometric mean of both the absolute and relative risks, have also been used. Combinations of the two risk estimators are not valid because the absolute and relative risk are not independent variables. Both human epidemiologic studies and animal experimental data can be found to illustrate the functional relationship between the natural cancer risk and the risk associated with radiation. This implies that the radiation risk estimate derived from one population may not be appropriate for predictions in another population, unless it is adjusted for the difference in the natural disease incidence between the two populations

  6. Absolute Navigation Information Estimation for Micro Planetary Rovers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ilyas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides algorithms to estimate absolute navigation information, e.g., absolute attitude and position, by using low power, weight and volume Microelectromechanical Systems-type (MEMS sensors that are suitable for micro planetary rovers. Planetary rovers appear to be easily navigable robots due to their extreme slow speed and rotation but, unfortunately, the sensor suites available for terrestrial robots are not always available for planetary rover navigation. This makes them difficult to navigate in a completely unexplored, harsh and complex environment. Whereas the relative attitude and position can be tracked in a similar way as for ground robots, absolute navigation information, unlike in terrestrial applications, is difficult to obtain for a remote celestial body, such as Mars or the Moon. In this paper, an algorithm called the EASI algorithm (Estimation of Attitude using Sun sensor and Inclinometer is presented to estimate the absolute attitude using a MEMS-type sun sensor and inclinometer, only. Moreover, the output of the EASI algorithm is fused with MEMS gyros to produce more accurate and reliable attitude estimates. An absolute position estimation algorithm has also been presented based on these on-board sensors. Experimental results demonstrate the viability of the proposed algorithms and the sensor suite for low-cost and low-weight micro planetary rovers.

  7. The relative and absolute speed of radiographic screen - film systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, In Ja; Huh, Joon

    1993-01-01

    Recently, a large number of new screen-film systems have become available for use in diagnostic radiology. These new screens are made of materials generally known as rare - earth phosphors which have high x-ray absorption and high x-ray to light conversion efficiency compared to calcium tungstate phosphors. The major advantage of these new systems is reduction of patient exposure due to their high speed or high sensitivity. However, a system with excessively high speed can result in a significant degradation of radiographic image quality. Therefore, the speed is important parameters for users of these system. Our aim of in this was to determine accurately and precisely the absolute speed and relative speeds of both new and conventional screen - film system. We determined the absolute speed in condition of BRH phantom beam quality and the relative speed were measured by a split - screen technique in condition of BRH and ANSI phantom beam quality. The absolute and the relative speed were determined for 8 kinds of screen - 4 kinds of film in regular system and 7 kinds pf screen - 7 kinds of film in ortho system. In this study we could know the New Rx, T - MAT G has the highest film speed, also know Green system's standard deviation of relative speed larger than blue system. It was realized that there were no relationship between the absolute speed and the blue system. It was realized that there were no relationship between the absolute speed and the relative speed in ortho or regular system

  8. Standard Reference Tables -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Standard Reference Tables (SRT) provide consistent reference data for the various applications that support Flight Standards Service (AFS) business processes and...

  9. Frequency spirals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottino-Löffler, Bertrand; Strogatz, Steven H.

    2016-01-01

    We study the dynamics of coupled phase oscillators on a two-dimensional Kuramoto lattice with periodic boundary conditions. For coupling strengths just below the transition to global phase-locking, we find localized spatiotemporal patterns that we call “frequency spirals.” These patterns cannot be seen under time averaging; they become visible only when we examine the spatial variation of the oscillators' instantaneous frequencies, where they manifest themselves as two-armed rotating spirals. In the more familiar phase representation, they appear as wobbly periodic patterns surrounding a phase vortex. Unlike the stationary phase vortices seen in magnetic spin systems, or the rotating spiral waves seen in reaction-diffusion systems, frequency spirals librate: the phases of the oscillators surrounding the central vortex move forward and then backward, executing a periodic motion with zero winding number. We construct the simplest frequency spiral and characterize its properties using analytical and numerical methods. Simulations show that frequency spirals in large lattices behave much like this simple prototype.

  10. Frequency spirals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottino-Löffler, Bertrand; Strogatz, Steven H., E-mail: strogatz@cornell.edu [Center for Applied Mathematics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    We study the dynamics of coupled phase oscillators on a two-dimensional Kuramoto lattice with periodic boundary conditions. For coupling strengths just below the transition to global phase-locking, we find localized spatiotemporal patterns that we call “frequency spirals.” These patterns cannot be seen under time averaging; they become visible only when we examine the spatial variation of the oscillators' instantaneous frequencies, where they manifest themselves as two-armed rotating spirals. In the more familiar phase representation, they appear as wobbly periodic patterns surrounding a phase vortex. Unlike the stationary phase vortices seen in magnetic spin systems, or the rotating spiral waves seen in reaction-diffusion systems, frequency spirals librate: the phases of the oscillators surrounding the central vortex move forward and then backward, executing a periodic motion with zero winding number. We construct the simplest frequency spiral and characterize its properties using analytical and numerical methods. Simulations show that frequency spirals in large lattices behave much like this simple prototype.

  11. Perceiving pitch absolutely: Comparing absolute and relative pitch possessors in a pitch memory task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlaug Gottfried

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The perceptual-cognitive mechanisms and neural correlates of Absolute Pitch (AP are not fully understood. The aim of this fMRI study was to examine the neural network underlying AP using a pitch memory experiment and contrasting two groups of musicians with each other, those that have AP and those that do not. Results We found a common activation pattern for both groups that included the superior temporal gyrus (STG extending into the adjacent superior temporal sulcus (STS, the inferior parietal lobule (IPL extending into the adjacent intraparietal sulcus (IPS, the posterior part of the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA, and superior lateral cerebellar regions. Significant between-group differences were seen in the left STS during the early encoding phase of the pitch memory task (more activation in AP musicians and in the right superior parietal lobule (SPL/intraparietal sulcus (IPS during the early perceptual phase (ITP 0–3 and later working memory/multimodal encoding phase of the pitch memory task (more activation in non-AP musicians. Non-significant between-group trends were seen in the posterior IFG (more in AP musicians and the IPL (more anterior activations in the non-AP group and more posterior activations in the AP group. Conclusion Since the increased activation of the left STS in AP musicians was observed during the early perceptual encoding phase and since the STS has been shown to be involved in categorization tasks, its activation might suggest that AP musicians involve categorization regions in tonal tasks. The increased activation of the right SPL/IPS in non-AP musicians indicates either an increased use of regions that are part of a tonal working memory (WM network, or the use of a multimodal encoding strategy such as the utilization of a visual-spatial mapping scheme (i.e., imagining notes on a staff or using a spatial coding for their relative pitch height for pitch

  12. Spatiotemporal Evolution of Stimulated Raman Scattering in the Absolute and Convective Regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Wu; Li Xibo; Zheng Chunyang

    2013-01-01

    A three-wave interaction (3WI) code is developed to study the stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) in both absolute and convective regimes. In the simulations, the time and spatial evolutions of a plasma wave are described by temporal growth rate and spatial factor, respectively. The spatial factors in different phases and different instability regimes are investigated. It is found that the spatial factor is caused by the finite velocity of the pump wave in the first phase and by damping in the last phase. With inclusion of the spatial factor, the temporal growth rate decreases and the threshold for SRS for a finite frequency mismatch increases. Meanwhile, the effects of wave frequency mismatch on the temporal growth rate are also discussed. (basic plasma phenomena)

  13. Absolute marine gravimetry with matter-wave interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidel, Y; Zahzam, N; Blanchard, C; Bonnin, A; Cadoret, M; Bresson, A; Rouxel, D; Lequentrec-Lalancette, M F

    2018-02-12

    Measuring gravity from an aircraft or a ship is essential in geodesy, geophysics, mineral and hydrocarbon exploration, and navigation. Today, only relative sensors are available for onboard gravimetry. This is a major drawback because of the calibration and drift estimation procedures which lead to important operational constraints. Atom interferometry is a promising technology to obtain onboard absolute gravimeter. But, despite high performances obtained in static condition, no precise measurements were reported in dynamic. Here, we present absolute gravity measurements from a ship with a sensor based on atom interferometry. Despite rough sea conditions, we obtained precision below 10 -5  m s -2 . The atom gravimeter was also compared with a commercial spring gravimeter and showed better performances. This demonstration opens the way to the next generation of inertial sensors (accelerometer, gyroscope) based on atom interferometry which should provide high-precision absolute measurements from a moving platform.

  14. Absolute and Relative Socioeconomic Health Inequalities across Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zon, Sander K R; Bültmann, Ute; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2015-01-01

    The magnitude of socioeconomic health inequalities differs across age groups. It is less clear whether socioeconomic health inequalities differ across age groups by other factors that are known to affect the relation between socioeconomic position and health, like the indicator of socioeconomic position, the health outcome, gender, and as to whether socioeconomic health inequalities are measured in absolute or in relative terms. The aim is to investigate whether absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differ across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome and gender. The study sample was derived from the baseline measurement of the LifeLines Cohort Study and consisted of 95,432 participants. Socioeconomic position was measured as educational level and household income. Physical and mental health were measured with the RAND-36. Age concerned eleven 5-years age groups. Absolute inequalities were examined by comparing means. Relative inequalities were examined by comparing Gini-coefficients. Analyses were performed for both health outcomes by both educational level and household income. Analyses were performed for all age groups, and stratified by gender. Absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differed across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome, and gender. Absolute inequalities were most pronounced for mental health by household income. They were larger in younger than older age groups. Relative inequalities were most pronounced for physical health by educational level. Gini-coefficients were largest in young age groups and smallest in older age groups. Absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differed cross-sectionally across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome and gender. Researchers should critically consider the implications of choosing a specific age group, in addition to the indicator of socioeconomic position and health outcome

  15. Longitudinal Absolute Stability of a BWB Aircraft-Pilot System with Saturated Actuator Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Alice STATE

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the analysis of the P(ilot I(n-the-Loop O(scillations of the second category (with rate and position liming in the closed loop pilot-vehicle system, caused by the dynamic coupling between the human pilot and the aircraft. The analysis is made in the context of the longitudinal motion and the theoretical model of the airplane presented in this article is a (Blended(Wing (Body tailless configuration. In what concerns the human operator, this is expressed by the Synchronous Pilot Model, which is represented by a simple gain, without a specific delay. The Routh-Hurwitz criterion is used in order to analyze the longitudinal stability of the low-order pilot-airplane system without the influence of actuator nonlinearity (this means that the unsaturated actuator model is employed for the mentioned algebraic criterion. Most emphasis is put on the frequency Popov criterion, which is used to investigate the absolute stability property of the short-period model in the presence of the actuator rate saturation, in the condition of the Lurie problem. The transfer function of the longitudinal BWB model, obtained from open-loop analysis, has a double pole at the origin and, for the absolute stability feedback structure that contains the nonlinearity of the saturation type, the Popov frequency-domain inequalities are applied to the PIO II problem in this critical case.

  16. Camera-based speckle noise reduction for 3-D absolute shape measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Kuschmierz, Robert; Czarske, Jürgen; Fischer, Andreas

    2016-05-30

    Simultaneous position and velocity measurements enable absolute 3-D shape measurements of fast rotating objects for instance for monitoring the cutting process in a lathe. Laser Doppler distance sensors enable simultaneous position and velocity measurements with a single sensor head by evaluating the scattered light signals. The superposition of several speckles with equal Doppler frequency but random phase on the photo detector results in an increased velocity and shape uncertainty, however. In this paper, we present a novel image evaluation method that overcomes the uncertainty limitations due to the speckle effect. For this purpose, the scattered light is detected with a camera instead of single photo detectors. Thus, the Doppler frequency from each speckle can be evaluated separately and the velocity uncertainty decreases with the square root of the number of camera lines. A reduction of the velocity uncertainty by the order of one magnitude is verified by the numerical simulations and experimental results, respectively. As a result, the measurement uncertainty of the absolute shape is not limited by the speckle effect anymore.

  17. Mapping with MAV: Experimental Study on the Contribution of Absolute and Relative Aerial Position Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Skaloud

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study highlights the benefit of precise aerial position control in the context of mapping using frame-based imagery taken by small UAVs. We execute several flights with a custom Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV octocopter over a small calibration field equipped with 90 signalized targets and 25 ground control points. The octocopter carries a consumer grade RGB camera, modified to insure precise GPS time stamping of each exposure, as well as a multi-frequency/constellation GNSS receiver. The GNSS antenna and camera are rigidly mounted together on a one-axis gimbal that allows control of the obliquity of the captured imagery. The presented experiments focus on including absolute and relative aerial control. We confirm practically that both approaches are very effective: the absolute control allows omission of ground control points while the relative requires only a minimum number of control points. Indeed, the latter method represents an attractive alternative in the context of MAVs for two reasons. First, the procedure is somewhat simplified (e.g. the lever-arm between the camera perspective and antenna phase centers does not need to be determined and, second, its principle allows employing a single-frequency antenna and carrier-phase GNSS receiver. This reduces the cost of the system as well as the payload, which in turn increases the flying time.

  18. Total Synthesis and Absolute Configuration of the Marine Norditerpenoid Xestenone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Miyaoka

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Xestenone is a marine norditerpenoid found in the northeastern Pacific sponge Xestospongia vanilla. The relative configuration of C-3 and C-7 in xestenone was determined by NOESY spectral analysis. However the relative configuration of C-12 and the absolute configuration of this compound were not determined. The authors have now achieved the total synthesis of xestenone using their developed one-pot synthesis of cyclopentane derivatives employing allyl phenyl sulfone and an epoxy iodide as a key step. The relative and absolute configurations of xestenone were thus successfully determined by this synthesis.

  19. Absolute transition probabilities for 559 strong lines of neutral cerium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curry, J J, E-mail: jjcurry@nist.go [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8422 (United States)

    2009-07-07

    Absolute radiative transition probabilities are reported for 559 strong lines of neutral cerium covering the wavelength range 340-880 nm. These transition probabilities are obtained by scaling published relative line intensities (Meggers et al 1975 Tables of Spectral Line Intensities (National Bureau of Standards Monograph 145)) with a smaller set of published absolute transition probabilities (Bisson et al 1991 J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8 1545). All 559 new values are for lines for which transition probabilities have not previously been available. The estimated relative random uncertainty of the new data is +-35% for nearly all lines.

  20. A note on unique solvability of the absolute value equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taher Lotfi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available It is proved that applying sufficient regularity conditions to the interval matrix $[A-|B|,A+|B|]$‎, ‎we can create a new unique solvability condition for the absolute value equation $Ax+B|x|=b$‎, ‎since regularity of interval matrices implies unique solvability of their corresponding absolute value equation‎. ‎This condition is formulated in terms of positive definiteness of a certain point matrix‎. ‎Special case $B=-I$ is verified too as an application.

  1. Absolute decay parametric instability of high-temperature plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zozulya, A.A.; Silin, V.P.; Tikhonchuk, V.T.

    1986-01-01

    A new absolute decay parametric instability having wide spatial localization region is shown to be possible near critical plasma density. Its excitation is conditioned by distributed feedback of counter-running Langmuir waves occurring during parametric decay of incident and reflected pumping wave components. In a hot plasma with the temperature of the order of kiloelectronvolt its threshold is lower than that of a known convective decay parametric instability. Minimum absolute instability threshold is shown to be realized under conditions of spatial parametric resonance of higher orders

  2. Absolute analytical prediction of photonic crystal guided mode resonance wavelengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermannsson, Pétur Gordon; Vannahme, Christoph; Smith, Cameron

    2014-01-01

    numerically with methods such as rigorous coupled wave analysis. Here it is demonstrated how the absolute resonance wavelengths of such structures can be predicted by analytically modeling them as slab waveguides in which the propagation constant is determined by a phase matching condition. The model...... is experimentally verified to be capable of predicting the absolute resonance wavelengths to an accuracy of within 0.75 nm, as well as resonance wavelength shifts due to changes in cladding index within an accuracy of 0.45 nm across the visible wavelength regime in the case where material dispersion is taken...

  3. The bolometric, infrared and visual absolute magnitudes of Mira variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, B.S.C.; Feast, M.W.

    1981-01-01

    Statistical parallaxes, as well as stars with individually known distances are used to derive bolometric and infrared absolute magnitudes of Mira (Me) variables. The derived bolometric magnitudes are in the mean about 0.75 mag fainter than recent estimates. The problem of determining the pulsation constant is discussed. Miras with periods greater than 150 days probably pulsate in the first overtone. Those of shorter periods are anomalous and may be fundamental pulsators. It is shown that the absolute visual magnitudes at mean light of Miras with individually determined distances are consistent with values derived by Clayton and Feast from statistical parallaxes. (author)

  4. Effect of endogenous reference genes on digital PCR assessment of genetically engineered canola events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tigst Demeke

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR has been used for absolute quantification of genetically engineered (GE events. Absolute quantification of GE events by duplex ddPCR requires the use of appropriate primers and probes for target and reference gene sequences in order to accurately determine the amount of GE materials. Single copy reference genes are generally preferred for absolute quantification of GE events by ddPCR. Study has not been conducted on a comparison of reference genes for absolute quantification of GE canola events by ddPCR. The suitability of four endogenous reference sequences (HMG-I/Y, FatA(A, CruA and Ccf for absolute quantification of GE canola events by ddPCR was investigated. The effect of DNA extraction methods and DNA quality on the assessment of reference gene copy numbers was also investigated. ddPCR results were affected by the use of single vs. two copy reference genes. The single copy, FatA(A, reference gene was found to be stable and suitable for absolute quantification of GE canola events by ddPCR. For the copy numbers measured, the HMG-I/Y reference gene was less consistent than FatA(A reference gene. The expected ddPCR values were underestimated when CruA and Ccf (two copy endogenous Cruciferin sequences were used because of high number of copies. It is important to make an adjustment if two copy reference genes are used for ddPCR in order to obtain accurate results. On the other hand, real-time quantitative PCR results were not affected by the use of single vs. two copy reference genes. Keywords: Canola, Digital PCR, DNA extraction, GMO, Reference genes

  5. A fiducial reference site for satellite altimetry in Crete, Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertikas, Stelios; Donlon, Craig; Mavrokordatos, Constantin

    With the advent of diverse satellite altimeters and variant measuring techniques, it has become mature in the scientific community, that an absolute reference Cal/Val site is regularly maintained to define, monitor, control the responses of any altimetric system. This work sets the ground for the...

  6. Measured and modelled absolute gravity changes in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Emil; Forsberg, René; Strykowski, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    in Greenland. Theresult is compared with the initial measurements of absolute gravity (AG) change at selected GreenlandNetwork (GNET) sites.We find that observations are highly influenced by the direct attraction from the ice and ocean. Thisis especially evident in the measurements conducted at the GNET...

  7. Absolute luminosity measurements with the LHCb detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderson, J; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Arrabito, L; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Bailey, D S; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bates, A; Bauer, C; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Bediaga, I; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Brisbane, S; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Büchler-Germann, A; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Caicedo Carvajal, J M; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chiapolini, N; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Collins, P; Constantin, F; Conti, G; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Corti, G; Cowan, G A; Currie, R; D'Almagne, B; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; De Bonis, I; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Lorenzi, F; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Degaudenzi, H; Deissenroth, M; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Diniz Batista, P; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Eames, C; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisele, F; Eisenhardt, S; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; Elsasser, Ch; d'Enterria, D G; Esperante Pereira, D; Estève, L; Falabella, A; Fanchini, E; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garnier, J-C; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauvin, N; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Gregson, S; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harji, R; Harnew, N; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Hofmann, W; Holubyev, K; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Huston, R S; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Imong, J; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jahjah Hussein, M; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jaton, P; Jean-Marie, B; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Keaveney, J; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kim, Y M; Knecht, M; Koblitz, S; Koppenburg, P; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kruzelecki, K; Kucharczyk, M; Kukulak, S; Kumar, R; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Li, L; Li Gioi, L; Lieng, M; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Luisier, J; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Magnin, J; Malde, S; Mamunur, R M D; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinez Santos, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Maynard, B; Mazurov, A; McGregor, G; McNulty, R; Mclean, C; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Merkel, J; Messi, R; Miglioranzi, S; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Musy, M; Mylroie-Smith, J; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nardulli, J; Nasteva, I; Nedos, M; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Nies, S; Niess, V; Nikitin, N; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, B; Palacios, J; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Paterson, S K; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petrella, A; Petrolini, A; Pie Valls, B; Pietrzyk, B; Pilar, T; Pinci, D; Plackett, R; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; du Pree, T; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Rinnert, K; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodrigues, F; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogers, G J; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santinelli, R; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schleich, S; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M -H; Schwemmer, R; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shao, B; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skottowe, H P; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, A C; Smith, N A; Sobczak, K; Soler, F J P; Solomin, A; Soomro, F; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Styles, N; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Topp-Joergensen, S; Tran, M T; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urquijo, P; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Vervink, K; Viaud, B; Videau, I; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Visniakov, J; Vollhardt, A; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Voss, H; Wacker, K; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Witzeling, W; Wotton, S A; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yushchenko, O; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhong, L; Zverev, E; Zvyagin, A

    2012-01-01

    Absolute luminosity measurements are of general interest for colliding-beam experiments at storage rings. These measurements are necessary to determine the absolute cross-sections of reaction processes and are valuable to quantify the performance of the accelerator. LHCb has applied two methods to determine the absolute scale of its luminosity measurements for proton-proton collisions at the LHC with a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. In addition to the classic ``van der Meer scan'' method a novel technique has been developed which makes use of direct imaging of the individual beams using beam-gas and beam-beam interactions. This beam imaging method is made possible by the high resolution of the LHCb vertex detector and the close proximity of the detector to the beams, and allows beam parameters such as positions, angles and widths to be determined. The results of the two methods have comparable precision and are in good agreement. Combining the two methods, an overall precision of 3.5\\% in the absolute lumi...

  8. Lyman alpha SMM/UVSP absolute calibration and geocoronal correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenla, Juan M.; Reichmann, Edwin J.

    1987-01-01

    Lyman alpha observations from the Ultraviolet Spectrometer Polarimeter (UVSP) instrument of the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) spacecraft were analyzed and provide instrumental calibration details. Specific values of the instrument quantum efficiency, Lyman alpha absolute intensity, and correction for geocoronal absorption are presented.

  9. Absolute configurations of zingiberenols isolated from ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sesquiterpene alcohol zingiberenol, or 1,10-bisaboladien-3-ol, was isolated some time ago from ginger, Zingiber officinale, rhizomes, but its absolute configuration had not been determined. With three chiral centers present in the molecule, zingiberenol can exist in eight stereoisomeric forms. ...

  10. Fabricating the absolute fake: America in contemporary pop culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, J.

    2008-01-01

    Onze wereld wordt gedomineerd door de Amerikaanse popcultuur. Fabricating the Absolute Fake onderzoekt de dynamiek van Amerikanisering aan de hand van hedendaagse films, televisieprogramma's en popsterren die reflecteren op de vraag wat het betekent om Amerikaan in een mondiale popcultuur te zijn.

  11. Confirmation of the absolute configuration of (−)-aurantioclavine

    KAUST Repository

    Behenna, Douglas C.

    2011-04-01

    We confirm our previous assignment of the absolute configuration of (-)-aurantioclavine as 7R by crystallographically characterizing an advanced 3-bromoindole intermediate reported in our previous synthesis. This analysis also provides additional support for our model of enantioinduction in the palladium(II)-catalyzed oxidative kinetic resolution of secondary alcohols. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Multipliers for the Absolute Euler Summability of Fourier Series

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, the author has investigated necessary and sufficient conditions for the absolute Euler summability of the Fourier series with multipliers. These conditions are weaker than those obtained earlier by some workers. It is further shown that the multipliers are best possible in certain sense.

  13. The Absolute and the Relative Dimensions of Constitutional Rights

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alexy, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 1 (2017), s. 31-47 ISSN 0143-6503 Keywords : constitutional rights * judicial review * proportionality Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences OBOR OECD: Law Impact factor: 1.242, year: 2016 https://academic.oup.com/ojls/article/37/1/31/2669583/The-Absolute-and-the-Relative-Dimensions-of

  14. Europe's Other Poverty Measures: Absolute Thresholds Underlying Social Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavier, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The first thing many learn about international poverty measurement is that European nations apply a "relative" poverty threshold and that they also do a better job of reducing poverty. Unlike the European model, the "absolute" U.S. poverty threshold does not increase in real value when the nation's standard of living rises,…

  15. Absolute configuration of some dinorlabdanes from the copaiba oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, Adriano L.; Baptistela, Lucia H.B.; Imamura, Paulo M. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica], e-mail: imam@iqm.unicamp.br

    2009-07-01

    A novel ent-dinorlabdane ({iota})-13(R)-14,15-dinorlabd-8(17)-ene-3,13-diol was isolated from commercial copaiba oil along with two known dinorlabdanes. The absolute configuration of these dinorditerpenes was established for the first time through synthesis starting from known ({iota})-3-hydroxycopalic acid, which was also isolated from the same oleoresin. (author)

  16. Absolute Risk Aversion and the Returns to Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunello, Giorgio

    2002-01-01

    Uses 1995 Italian household income and wealth survey to measure individual absolute risk aversion of 1,583 married Italian male household heads. Uses this measure as an instrument for attained education in a standard-log earnings equation. Finds that the IV estimate of the marginal return to schooling is much higher than the ordinary least squares…

  17. Absolute differential yield of parametric x-ray radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shchagin, A.V.; Pristupa, V.I.; Khizhnyak, N.A.

    1993-01-01

    The results of measurements of absolute differential yield of parametric X-ray radiation (PXR) in thin single crystal are presented for the first time. It has been established that the experimental results are in good agreement with theoretical calculations according with kinematical theory. The influence of density effect on PXR properties is discussed. (author). 19 refs., 7 figs

  18. Absolute measurements of chlorine Cl+ cation single photoionization cross section

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez, E. M.; Juarez, A. M.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Aguilar, A.; Hernandez, L.; Antillon, A.; Macaluso, D.; Morales-Mori, A.; Gonzalez-Magana, O.; Hanstorp, D.; Covington, A. M.; Davis, V.; Calabrese, D.; Hinojosa, G.

    The photoionization of Cl+ leading to Cl2+ was measured in the photon energy range of 19.5-28.0 eV. A spectrum with a photon energy resolution of 15 meV normalized to absolute cross-section measurements is presented. The measurements were carried out by merging a Cl+ ion beam with a photon beam of

  19. Comments on the theory of absolute and convective instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oscarsson, T.E.; Roennmark, K.

    1986-10-01

    The theory of absolute and convective instabilities is discussed and we argue that the basis of the theory is questionable, since it describes the linear development of instabilities by their behaviour in the time asymptotic limit. In order to make sensible predictions on the linear development of instabilities, the problem should be studied on the finite time scale implied by the linear approximation. (authors)

  20. Global Absolute Poverty: Behind the Veil of Dollars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moatsos, M.

    2017-01-01

    The widely applied “dollar-a-day” methodology identifies global absolute poverty as declining precipitously since the early 80’s throughout the developing world. The methodological underpinnings of the “dollar-a-day” approach have been questioned in terms of adequately representing equivalent

  1. Global Absolute Poverty: Behind the Veil of Dollars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moatsos, M.

    2015-01-01

    The global absolute poverty rates of the World Bank demonstrate a continued decline of poverty in developing countries between 1983 and 2012. However, the methodology applied to derive these results has received extensive criticism by scholars for requiring the application of PPP exchange rates and

  2. Population-based absolute risk estimation with survey data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchik, Stephanie A.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.

    2013-01-01

    Absolute risk is the probability that a cause-specific event occurs in a given time interval in the presence of competing events. We present methods to estimate population-based absolute risk from a complex survey cohort that can accommodate multiple exposure-specific competing risks. The hazard function for each event type consists of an individualized relative risk multiplied by a baseline hazard function, which is modeled nonparametrically or parametrically with a piecewise exponential model. An influence method is used to derive a Taylor-linearized variance estimate for the absolute risk estimates. We introduce novel measures of the cause-specific influences that can guide modeling choices for the competing event components of the model. To illustrate our methodology, we build and validate cause-specific absolute risk models for cardiovascular and cancer deaths using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Our applications demonstrate the usefulness of survey-based risk prediction models for predicting health outcomes and quantifying the potential impact of disease prevention programs at the population level. PMID:23686614

  3. Rational functions with maximal radius of absolute monotonicity

    KAUST Repository

    Loczi, Lajos; Ketcheson, David I.

    2014-01-01

    -Kutta methods for initial value problems and the radius of absolute monotonicity governs the numerical preservation of properties like positivity and maximum-norm contractivity. We construct a function with p=2 and R>2s, disproving a conjecture of van de Griend

  4. Absolute configuration and antiprotozoal activity of minquartynoic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, H B; Christensen, Søren Brøgger; Kvist, L P

    2000-01-01

    Minquartynoic acid (1) was isolated as an antimalarial and antileishmanial constituent of the Peruvian tree Minquartia guianensis and its absolute configuration at C-17 established to be (+)-S through conversion to the known (+)-(S)-17-hydroxystearic acid (2) and confirmed using Mosher's method....

  5. Relative versus Absolute Stimulus Control in the Temporal Bisection Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Marilia Pinhiero; Machado, Armando

    2012-01-01

    When subjects learn to associate two sample durations with two comparison keys, do they learn to associate the keys with the short and long samples (relational hypothesis), or with the specific sample durations (absolute hypothesis)? We exposed 16 pigeons to an ABA design in which phases A and B corresponded to tasks using samples of 1 s and 4 s,…

  6. Absolute intensity calibration for ECE measurements on EAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yong; Liu Xiang; Zhao Hailin

    2014-01-01

    In this proceeding, the results of the in-situ absolute intensity calibration for ECE measurements on EAST are presented. A 32-channel heterodyne radiometer system and a Michelson interferometer on EAST have been calibrated independently, and preliminary results from plasma operation indicate a good agreement between the electron temperature profiles obtained with different systems. (author)

  7. Absolute dissipative drift-wave instabilities in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, L.; Chance, M.S.; Cheng, C.Z.

    1979-07-01

    Contrary to previous theoretical predictions, it is shown that the dissipative drift-wave instabilities are absolute in tokamak plasmas. The existence of unstable eigenmodes is shown to be associated with a new eigenmode branch induced by the finite toroidal couplings

  8. On quantum harmonic oscillator being subjected to absolute ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    On quantum harmonic oscillator being subjected to absolute potential state. SWAMI NITYAYOGANANDA. Ramakrishna Mission Ashrama, R.K. Beach, Visakhapatnam 530 003, India. E-mail: nityayogananda@gmail.com. MS received 1 May 2015; accepted 6 May 2016; published online 3 December 2016. Abstract.

  9. Partial sums of arithmetical functions with absolutely convergent ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For an arithmetical function f with absolutely convergent Ramanujan expansion, we derive an asymptotic formula for the ∑ n ≤ N f(n)$ with explicit error term. As a corollary we obtain new results about sum-of-divisors functions and Jordan's totient functions.

  10. 2002 reference document; Document de reference 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This 2002 reference document of the group Areva, provides information on the society. Organized in seven chapters, it presents the persons responsible for the reference document and for auditing the financial statements, information pertaining to the transaction, general information on the company and share capital, information on company operation, changes and future prospects, assets, financial position, financial performance, information on company management and executive board and supervisory board, recent developments and future prospects. (A.L.B.)

  11. Effect of endogenous reference genes on digital PCR assessment of genetically engineered canola events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeke, Tigst; Eng, Monika

    2018-05-01

    Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) has been used for absolute quantification of genetically engineered (GE) events. Absolute quantification of GE events by duplex ddPCR requires the use of appropriate primers and probes for target and reference gene sequences in order to accurately determine the amount of GE materials. Single copy reference genes are generally preferred for absolute quantification of GE events by ddPCR. Study has not been conducted on a comparison of reference genes for absolute quantification of GE canola events by ddPCR. The suitability of four endogenous reference sequences ( HMG-I/Y , FatA(A), CruA and Ccf) for absolute quantification of GE canola events by ddPCR was investigated. The effect of DNA extraction methods and DNA quality on the assessment of reference gene copy numbers was also investigated. ddPCR results were affected by the use of single vs. two copy reference genes. The single copy, FatA(A), reference gene was found to be stable and suitable for absolute quantification of GE canola events by ddPCR. For the copy numbers measured, the HMG-I/Y reference gene was less consistent than FatA(A) reference gene. The expected ddPCR values were underestimated when CruA and Ccf (two copy endogenous Cruciferin sequences) were used because of high number of copies. It is important to make an adjustment if two copy reference genes are used for ddPCR in order to obtain accurate results. On the other hand, real-time quantitative PCR results were not affected by the use of single vs. two copy reference genes.

  12. Reference Manual: Navy Message Words and Word Frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-29

    8217 NRL MEMORANDUM REPORT 4673 5 ALVIN 7 ALWAYS 3 ALYWIN 58 AM 1 AMARILLO 29 AMAYA 3 AMAZON 3 AMAZONE I AMAZONIA 11 AMBASSADOR 4 AMBIENT I AMBIGUITY 5...2 INVESTIGATE 3 INVESTIGATING 9 INVESTIGATION 1 INVESTIGATIONS 2 INVESTIGATIVE I INVESTMENT 8 INVITATION 6 INVITE I I INVITED 2 INVITES 6 INVOKE 2...MADDALENA I MADDEN 89 MADE 3 MADISON I MADRE 2 MADRID 11 MAERSK 2 MAESTRA 2 MAF 4 MAG I MAGAZINE I MAGGIORE 3 MAGILL 2 MAGNOLIA I MAGNUS I MAGSAYSAY 2

  13. Single and multispecies reference points for Baltic fish stocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gislason, Henrik

    1999-01-01

    reference points. Management advice based on biomass reference points will also differ. In the single species situation the combinations of cod and pelagic fishing effort for which the equilibrium spawning- stock biomass of the three species is above the biomass reference points forms a rectangular area......Single and multispecies models are used to examine the effect of species interaction on biological reference points for cod, herring, and sprat in the Baltic. The results demonstrate that reference points are different in single and multispecies contexts. Reference points for fishing mortality...... based on single-species yield and SSB calculations are difficult to use when natural mortality depends on the absolute abundance of the predators and their alternative prey. Reference points based on maximizing total yield from the system may lead to impractical results when species interact...

  14. Absolute spectroscopy near 7.8 {\\mu} m with a comb-locked extended-cavity quantum-cascade-laser

    KAUST Repository

    Lamperti, Marco

    2017-07-31

    We report the first experimental demonstration of frequency-locking of an extended-cavity quantum-cascade-laser (EC-QCL) to a near-infrared frequency comb. The locking scheme is applied to carry out absolute spectroscopy of N2O lines near 7.87 {\\\\mu}m with an accuracy of ~60 kHz. Thanks to a single mode operation over more than 100 cm^{-1}, the comb-locked EC-QCL shows great potential for the accurate retrieval of line center frequencies in a spectral region that is currently outside the reach of broadly tunable cw sources, either based on difference frequency generation or optical parametric oscillation. The approach described here can be straightforwardly extended up to 12 {\\\\mu}m, which is the current wavelength limit for commercial cw EC-QCLs.

  15. A new reference global instrumental earthquake catalogue (1900-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giacomo, D.; Engdahl, B.; Bondar, I.; Storchak, D. A.; Villasenor, A.; Bormann, P.; Lee, W.; Dando, B.; Harris, J.

    2011-12-01

    For seismic hazard studies on a global and/or regional scale, accurate knowledge of the spatial distribution of seismicity, the magnitude-frequency relation and the maximum magnitudes is of fundamental importance. However, such information is normally not homogeneous (or not available) for the various seismically active regions of the Earth. To achieve the GEM objectives (www.globalquakemodel.org) of calculating and communicating earthquake risk worldwide, an improved reference global instrumental catalogue for large earthquakes spanning the entire 100+ years period of instrumental seismology is an absolute necessity. To accomplish this task, we apply the most up-to-date techniques and standard observatory practices for computing the earthquake location and magnitude. In particular, the re-location procedure benefits both from the depth determination according to Engdahl and Villaseñor (2002), and the advanced technique recently implemented at the ISC (Bondár and Storchak, 2011) to account for correlated error structure. With regard to magnitude, starting from the re-located hypocenters, the classical surface and body-wave magnitudes are determined following the new IASPEI standards and by using amplitude-period data of phases collected from historical station bulletins (up to 1970), which were not available in digital format before the beginning of this work. Finally, the catalogue will provide moment magnitude values (including uncertainty) for each seismic event via seismic moment, via surface wave magnitude or via other magnitude types using empirical relationships. References Engdahl, E.R., and A. Villaseñor (2002). Global seismicity: 1900-1999. In: International Handbook of Earthquake and Engineering Seismology, eds. W.H.K. Lee, H. Kanamori, J.C. Jennings, and C. Kisslinger, Part A, 665-690, Academic Press, San Diego. Bondár, I., and D. Storchak (2011). Improved location procedures at the International Seismological Centre, Geophys. J. Int., doi:10.1111/j

  16. Generalized frame of reference with null congruence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrarese, G.; Antonelli, R.

    2000-01-01

    The paper derives the main properties of a generalized frame of reference with a null congruence (light flux), by means of adapted non-holonomic techniques; then it studies the geometry of the space-time in terms of non-orthogonal projection: longitudinal and transverse covariant derivatives and corresponding commutation formulae, decomposition of the Riemann and gravitational tensors, lie derivatives of the Ricci rotation coefficients, transverse Bianchi identity. Application to the (absolute and relative) light flux: kinematical characteristics and screen, Sachs theorems etc. are also given

  17. VBE reference framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afsarmanesh, H.; Camarinha-Matos, L.M.; Ermilova, E.; Camarinha-Matos, L.M.; Afsarmanesh, H.; Ollus, M.

    2008-01-01

    Defining a comprehensive and generic "reference framework" for Virtual organizations Breeding Environments (VBEs), addressing all their features and characteristics, is challenging. While the definition and modeling of VBEs has become more formalized during the last five years, "reference models"

  18. CMS Statistics Reference Booklet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The annual CMS Statistics reference booklet provides a quick reference for summary information about health expenditures and the Medicare and Medicaid health...

  19. Changing quantum reference frames

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, Matthew C.; Girelli, Florian; Bartlett, Stephen D.

    2013-01-01

    We consider the process of changing reference frames in the case where the reference frames are quantum systems. We find that, as part of this process, decoherence is necessarily induced on any quantum system described relative to these frames. We explore this process with examples involving reference frames for phase and orientation. Quantifying the effect of changing quantum reference frames serves as a first step in developing a relativity principle for theories in which all objects includ...

  20. Frequency Standards and Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Lute

    2009-04-01

    Preface / Lute Maleki -- Symposium history / Jacques Vanier -- Symposium photos -- pt. I. Fundamental physics. Variation of fundamental constants from the big bang to atomic clocks: theory and observations (Invited) / V. V. Flambaum and J. C. Berengut. Alpha-dot or not: comparison of two single atom optical clocks (Invited) / T. Rosenband ... [et al.]. Variation of the fine-structure constant and laser cooling of atomic dysprosium (Invited) / N. A. Leefer ... [et al.]. Measurement of short range forces using cold atoms (Invited) / F. Pereira Dos Santos ... [et al.]. Atom interferometry experiments in fundamental physics (Invited) / S. W. Chiow ... [et al.]. Space science applications of frequency standards and metrology (Invited) / M. Tinto -- pt. II. Frequency & metrology. Quantum metrology with lattice-confined ultracold Sr atoms (Invited) / A. D. Ludlow ... [et al.]. LNE-SYRTE clock ensemble: new [symbol]Rb hyperfine frequency measurement - spectroscopy of [symbol]Hg optical clock transition (Invited) / M. Petersen ... [et al.]. Precise measurements of S-wave scattering phase shifts with a juggling atomic clock (Invited) / S. Gensemer ... [et al.]. Absolute frequency measurement of the [symbol] clock transition (Invited) / M. Chwalla ... [et al.]. The semiclassical stochastic-field/atom interaction problem (Invited) / J. Camparo. Phase and frequency noise metrology (Invited) / E. Rubiola ... [et al.]. Optical spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen for an improved determination of the Rydberg constant / J. L. Flowers ... [et al.] -- pt. III. Clock applications in space. Recent progress on the ACES mission (Invited) / L. Cacciapuoti and C. Salomon. The SAGAS mission (Invited) / P. Wolf. Small mercury microwave ion clock for navigation and radioScience (Invited) / J. D. Prestage ... [et al.]. Astro-comb: revolutionizing precision spectroscopy in astrophysics (Invited) / C. E. Kramer ... [et al.]. High frequency very long baseline interferometry: frequency standards and

  1. Frequência etiológica da hipertensão pulmonar em ambulatório de referência na Bahia Frecuencia etiológica de la hipertensión pulmonar en un ambulatorio de referencia en Bahia Etiological frequency of pulmonary hypertension in a reference outpatient clinic in Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Machado

    2009-12-01

    etiologies, with possible geographic influences; however, few studies have described the etiological frequency of PH, especially in our country. It is not clear whether there is an association between etiology and pulmonary pressure level or symptom intensity. OBJECTIVES: 1 to describe the etiological prevalence of PH in the state of Bahia, Brazil; 2 to evaluate whether the etiology is a determinant factor for the pulmonary pressure level; 3 to evaluate whether the etiology is a determinant factor for functional class; 4 to identify the other predictors of pulmonary pressure level and functional class. METHODS: The present was an observational, cross-sectional study that analyzed individuals with PH treated at the Magalhaes Neto Outpatient Clinic, between June 2005 and December 2007. PH was defined as pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP > 40 mmHg measure at the echocardiogram. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or ventricular disease were excluded from the study. RESULTS: A total of 48 patients with PASP = 86 ± 24 mmHg were studied. Regarding the etiology, 42% of the patients were classified as idiopathic, followed by 25% as schistosomatic, 19% as congenital cardiopathy and 10% of chronic pulmonary embolism. A longer time of disease predicted higher pressures in patients with cardiopathy. Individuals with schistosomiasis had the best functional performance when compared to the others (456 ± 58 vs. 299 ± 138 meters, p=0.005. The schistosomatic etiology and younger age presented better functional class. CONCLUSIONS: 1 the idiopathic classification is the most prevalent, with schistosomiasis being the most frequent specific cause in our country; 2 patients with schistosomatic etiology and of younger age present better functional class. 3 the congenital cardiopathy results in a higher pressure level in the pulmonary artery, probably due to the longer duration of the disease.

  2. Absolute UV and VUV emission in the 110-400 nm region from 13.56 MHz driven hollow slot microplasmas operating in open air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, A; Yalin, A P; Surla, V; Stan, O; Hoshimiya, K; Yu, Z; Littlefield, Eric; Collins, G J

    2004-01-01

    We present absolute optical emission spectra in the 110-400 nm regions from radio-frequency-driven (13.56 MHz) hollow slot microplasmas operating in open air at atmospheric pressure. The term microplasma in our research refers to inter-electrode separation (100-600 μm) only, as electrode lengths are scalable from 1 to 30 cm. This creates an extended slot plasma and an associated afterglow plume as described herein. Spectra are presented for gas flows through the microelectrodes of argon and helium with small admixtures of hydrogen and nitrogen into open air. The spectra are discussed in terms of species origin and magnitude of the dominant emission lines. Atomic O and N lines dominate the 110-200 nm region, whereas, in the 200-400 nm region, NO, N 2 , N 2 + and NH molecular lines are strongest. The role of the N 2 A 3 Σ u state in the open air microplasmas is discussed and the second positive system of molecular nitrogen (N 2 (C 3 Π g -B 3 Π g )), is used to measure the rotational (gas) temperature. Finally, we compare the efficiency and magnitude of light emission from the open air microplasmas with values attainable from commercial sealed mercury lamps in the UVB and UVC regions

  3. Inversion of Multi-Station Schumann Resonance Background Records for Global Lightning Activity in Absolute Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, E. R.; Mushtak, V. C.; Guha, A.; Boldi, R. A.; Bor, J.; Nagy, T.; Satori, G.; Sinha, A. K.; Rawat, R.; Hobara, Y.; Sato, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Price, C. G.; Neska, M.; Alexander, K.; Yampolski, Y.; Moore, R. C.; Mitchell, M. F.; Fraser-Smith, A. C.

    2014-12-01

    Every lightning flash contributes energy to the TEM mode of the natural global waveguide that contains the Earth's Schumann resonances. The modest attenuation at ELF (0.1 dB/Mm) allows for the continuous monitoring of the global lightning with a small number of receiving stations worldwide. In this study, nine ELF receiving sites (in Antarctica (3 sites), Hungary, India, Japan, Poland, Spitsbergen and USA) are used to provide power spectra at 12-minute intervals in two absolutely calibrated magnetic fields and occasionally, one electric field, with up to five resonance modes each. The observables are the extracted modal parameters (peak intensity, peak frequency and Q-factor) for each spectrum. The unknown quantities are the geographical locations of three continental lightning 'chimneys' and their lightning source strengths in absolute units (C2 km2/sec). The unknowns are calculated from the observables by the iterative inversion of an evolving 'sensitivity matrix' whose elements are the partial derivatives of each observable for all receiving sites with respect to each unknown quantity. The propagation model includes the important day-night asymmetry of the natural waveguide. To overcome the problem of multiple minima (common in inversion problems of this kind), location information from the World Wide Lightning Location Network has been used to make initial guess solutions based on centroids of stroke locations in each chimney. Results for five consecutive days in 2009 (Jan 7-11) show UT variations with the African chimney dominating on four of five days, and America dominating on the fifth day. The amplitude variations in absolute source strength exceed that of the 'Carnegie curve' of the DC global circuit by roughly twofold. Day-to-day variations in chimney source strength are of the order of tens of percent. Examination of forward calculations performed with the global inversion solution often show good agreement with the observed diurnal variations at

  4. Performance of Different Light Sources for the Absolute Calibration of Radiation Thermometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, M. J.; Mantilla, J. M.; del Campo, D.; Hernanz, M. L.; Pons, A.; Campos, J.

    2017-09-01

    The evolving mise en pratique for the definition of the kelvin (MeP-K) [1, 2] will, in its forthcoming edition, encourage the realization and dissemination of the thermodynamic temperature either directly (primary thermometry) or indirectly (relative primary thermometry) via fixed points with assigned reference thermodynamic temperatures. In the last years, the Centro Español de Metrología (CEM), in collaboration with the Instituto de Óptica of Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (IO-CSIC), has developed several setups for absolute calibration of standard radiation thermometers using the radiance method to allow CEM the direct dissemination of the thermodynamic temperature and the assignment of the thermodynamic temperatures to several fixed points. Different calibration facilities based on a monochromator and/or a laser and an integrating sphere have been developed to calibrate CEM's standard radiation thermometers (KE-LP2 and KE-LP4) and filter radiometer (FIRA2). This system is based on the one described in [3] placed in IO-CSIC. Different light sources have been tried and tested for measuring absolute spectral radiance responsivity: a Xe-Hg 500 W lamp, a supercontinuum laser NKT SuperK-EXR20 and a diode laser emitting at 6473 nm with a typical maximum power of 120 mW. Their advantages and disadvantages have been studied such as sensitivity to interferences generated by the laser inside the filter, flux stability generated by the radiant sources and so forth. This paper describes the setups used, the uncertainty budgets and the results obtained for the absolute temperatures of Cu, Co-C, Pt-C and Re-C fixed points, measured with the three thermometers with central wavelengths around 650 nm.

  5. Absolute choline concentration measured by quantitative proton MR spectroscopy correlates with cell density in meningioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue, Qiang [University of Tsukuba, Department of Neurosurgery, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Tsukuba Science City, Ibaraki (Japan)]|[West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Huaxi MR Research Center, Department of Radiology, Chengdu (China); Shibata, Yasushi; Kawamura, Hiraku; Matsumura, Akira [University of Tsukuba, Department of Neurosurgery, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Tsukuba Science City, Ibaraki (Japan); Isobe, Tomonori [Kitasato University, Department of Medical Technology, School of Allied Health Sciences, Minato, Tokyo (Japan); Anno, Izumi [University of Tsukuba, Department of Radiology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Gong, Qi-Yong [West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Huaxi MR Research Center, Department of Radiology, Chengdu (China)]|[University of Liverpool, Division of Medical Imaging, Faculty of Medicine, Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    2009-01-15

    This study was aimed to investigate the relationship between quantitative proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) and pathological changes in meningioma. Twenty-two meningioma cases underwent single voxel 1H-MRS (point-resolved spectroscopy sequence, repetition time/echo time = 2,000 ms/68, 136, 272 ms). Absolute choline (Cho) concentration was calculated using tissue water as the internal reference and corrected according to intra-voxel cystic/necrotic parts. Pathological specimens were stained with MIB-1 antibody to measure cell density and proliferation index. Correlation analysis was performed between absolute Cho concentration and cell density and MIB-1 labeled proliferation index. Average Cho concentration of all meningiomas before correction was 2.95 {+-} 0.86 mmol/kg wet weight. It was increased to 3.23 {+-} 1.15 mmol/kg wet weight after correction. Average cell density of all meningiomas was 333 {+-} 119 cells/HPF, and average proliferation index was 2.93 {+-} 5.72%. A linear, positive correlation between cell density and Cho concentration was observed (r = 0.650, P = 0.001). After correction of Cho concentration, the correlation became more significant (r = 0.737, P < 0.001). However, no significant correlation between Cho concentration and proliferation index was found. There seemed to be a positive correlation trend after correction of Cho concentration but did not reach significant level. Absolute Cho concentration, especially Cho concentration corrected according to intra-voxel cystic/necrotic parts, reflects cell density of meningioma. (orig.)

  6. Absolute limit on rotation of gravitationally bound stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendenning, N. K.

    1994-03-01

    The authors seek an absolute limit on the rotational period for a neutron star as a function of its mass, based on the minimal constraints imposed by Einstein's theory of relativity, Le Chatelier's principle, causality, and a low-density equation of state, uncertainties which can be evaluated as to their effect on the result. This establishes a limiting curve in the mass-period plane below which no pulsar that is a neutron star can lie. For example, the minimum possible Kepler period, which is an absolute limit on rotation below which mass-shedding would occur, is 0.33 ms for a M = 1.442 solar mass neutron star (the mass of PSR1913+16). If the limit were found to be broken by any pulsar, it would signal that the confined hadronic phase of ordinary nucleons and nuclei is only metastable.

  7. Absolute elastic cross sections for electron scattering from SF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulley, R.J.; Uhlmann, L.J.; Dedman, C.J.; Buckman, S.J.; Cho, H.; Trantham, K.W.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Absolute differential cross sections for vibrationally elastic scattering of electrons from sulphur hexafluoride (SF 6 ) have been measured at fixed angles of 60 deg, 90 deg and 120 deg over the energy range of 5 to 15 eV, and also at 11 fixed energies between 2.7 and 75 eV for scattering angles between 10 deg and 180 deg. These measurements employ the magnetic angle-changing technique of Read and Channing in combination with the relative flow technique to obtain absolute elastic scattering cross sections at backward angles (135 deg to 180 deg) for incident energies below 15 eV. The results reveal some substantial differences with several previous determinations and a reasonably good level of agreement with a recent close coupling calculation

  8. ABSOLUTE AND COMPARATIVE SUSTAINABILITY OF FARMING ENTERPRISES IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bachev

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating absolute and comparative sustainability of farming enterprises is among the most topical issues for researchers, farmers, investors, administrators, politicians, interests groups and public at large. Nevertheless, in Bulgaria and most East European countries there are no comprehensive assessments on sustainability level of Bulgarian farms of different juridical type. This article applies a holistic framework and assesses absolute and comparative sustainability major farming structures in Bulgaria - unregistered farms of Natural Persons, Sole Traders, Cooperatives, and Companies. First, method of the study is outlined, and overall characteristics of surveyed farming enterprises presented. After that an assessment is made of integral, governance, economic, social, environmental sustainability of farming structures of different juridical type. Next, structure of farming enterprises with different sustainability levels is analyzed. Finally, conclusion from the study and directions for further research and amelioration of sustainability assessments suggested.

  9. Absolute dating of the Aegean Late Bronze Age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, P.M.

    1987-01-01

    A recent argument for raising the absolute date of the beginning of the Aegean Late Bronze (LB) Age to about 1700 B.C. is critically examined. It is argued here that: (1) the alabaster lid from Knossos did have the stratigraphical context assigned to it by Evans, in all probability Middle Minoan IIIA, c. 1650 B.C.; (2) the attempt to date the alabastron found in an early Eighteenth Dynasty context at Aniba to Late Minoan IIIA:1 is open to objections; (3) radiocarbon dates from Aegean LB I contexts are too wide in their calibrated ranges and too inconsistent both within and between site sets to offer any reliable grounds at present for raising Aegean LB I absolute chronology to 1700 B.C. Other evidence, however, suggests this period began about 1600 B.C., i.e. some fifty years earlier than the conventional date of 1550 B.C. (author)

  10. Limitations of absolute activity determination of I-125 sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelled, O; German, U; Kol, R; Levinson, S; Weinstein, M; Laichter, Y [Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Beersheba (Israel). Nuclear Research Center-Negev; Alphasy, Z [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba (Israel)

    1996-12-01

    A method for absolute determination of the activity of a I-125 source, based on the counting rate values of the 27 keV photons and the coincidence photon peak is given in the literature. It is based on the principle that if a radionuclide emits two photons in coincidence , a measurement of its disintegration rate in the photopeak and in the sum- peak can determinate it`s absolute activity. When using this method , the system calibration is simplified and parameters such as source geometry or source position relative to the detector have no significant influence. However, when the coincidence rate is very low, the application of this method is limited because of the statistics of the coincidence peak (authors).

  11. Rational functions with maximal radius of absolute monotonicity

    KAUST Repository

    Loczi, Lajos

    2014-05-19

    We study the radius of absolute monotonicity R of rational functions with numerator and denominator of degree s that approximate the exponential function to order p. Such functions arise in the application of implicit s-stage, order p Runge-Kutta methods for initial value problems and the radius of absolute monotonicity governs the numerical preservation of properties like positivity and maximum-norm contractivity. We construct a function with p=2 and R>2s, disproving a conjecture of van de Griend and Kraaijevanger. We determine the maximum attainable radius for functions in several one-parameter families of rational functions. Moreover, we prove earlier conjectured optimal radii in some families with 2 or 3 parameters via uniqueness arguments for systems of polynomial inequalities. Our results also prove the optimality of some strong stability preserving implicit and singly diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta methods. Whereas previous results in this area were primarily numerical, we give all constants as exact algebraic numbers.

  12. Synesthesia and rhythm. The road to absolute cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Roncero Palomar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Absolute cinema, developed during the historical avant-garde, con-tinued with a long artistic tradition that linked musical with visual experience. Due to cinema as médium of expression, this filmmakers were able to work with the moving image to develop concepts such as rhythm, also with more complex figures than the colored spots that other devices could create at those time. This study starts with the published texts in 1704 by Newton about color, and provides an overview of those artistic highlights that link image and sound, and which creates the origins of absolute cinema. The connections and equivalences between the visual and sound experiences used by these filmmakers are also studied in order to know if there was a continuous line with the origins of these studies or if there was a rupture and other later investigations were able to have more repercussion in their works.

  13. Purely absolutely continuous spectrum for almost Mathieu operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chulaevsky, V.; Delyon, F.

    1989-01-01

    Using a recent result of Sinai, the authors prove that the almost Mathieu operators acting on l 2 (Z), (H αλ Psi)(n) = Ψ(n + 1) + Ψ(n - 1) + λ cos(ωn + α) Ψ(n), have a purely absolutely continuous spectrum for almost all α provided that ω is a good irrational and λ is sufficiently small. Furthermore, the generalized eigenfunctions are quasiperiodic

  14. Results from a U.S. Absolute Gravity Survey,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    National Bureau of Standards. La . ... ,., 831A08 NOV -2- 1. Introduction We have recently completed an absolute gravity survey at twelve sites in the...Air Force Geophysics Laboratory (AFGL) and the Istituto di Metrologia -7- "G. Colonnetti" (IMGC) [Marson and Alasia, 1978, 19801. All three...for ab- solute measurements of the earth’s gravity, Metrologia , in press, 1982. L 4 !" Table 1. Gravity values transferred to the floor in gal (cm

  15. Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm with absolute monocytosis at presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaworski JM

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Joseph M Jaworski,1,2 Vanlila K Swami,1 Rebecca C Heintzelman,1 Carrie A Cusack,3 Christina L Chung,3 Jeremy Peck,3 Matthew Fanelli,3 Micheal Styler,4 Sanaa Rizk,4 J Steve Hou1 1Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Hahnemann University Hospital/Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Department of Pathology, Mercy Fitzgerald Hospital, Darby, PA, USA; 3Department of Dermatology, Hahnemann University Hospital/Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 4Department of Hematology/Oncology, Hahnemann University Hospital/Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm is an uncommon malignancy derived from precursors of plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Nearly all patients present initially with cutaneous manifestations, with many having extracutaneous disease additionally. While response to chemotherapy initially is effective, relapse occurs in most, with a leukemic phase ultimately developing. The prognosis is dismal. While most of the clinical and pathologic features are well described, the association and possible prognostic significance between peripheral blood absolute monocytosis (>1.0 K/µL and blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm have not been reported. We report a case of a 68-year-old man who presented with a rash for 4–5 months. On physical examination, there were multiple, dull-pink, indurated plaques on the trunk and extremities. Complete blood count revealed thrombocytopenia, absolute monocytosis of 1.7 K/µL, and a negative flow cytometry study. Biopsy of an abdominal lesion revealed typical features of blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm. Patients having both hematologic and nonhematologic malignancies have an increased incidence of absolute monocytosis. Recent studies examining Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients have suggested that this is a negative prognostic factor. The association between

  16. Definition of correcting factors for absolute radon content measurement formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Changsong; Xiao Ziyun; Yang Jianfeng

    1992-01-01

    The absolute method of radio content measurement is based on thomas radon measurement formula. It was found in experiment that the systematic error existed in radon content measurement by means of thomas formula. By the analysis on the behaviour of radon daughter five factors including filter efficiency, detector construction factor, self-absorbance, energy spectrum factor, and gravity factor were introduced into the thomas formula, so that the systematic error was eliminated. The measuring methods of the five factors are given

  17. THE ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDES OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE IN THE ULTRAVIOLET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Peter J.; Roming, Peter W. A.; Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall, Caryl; Hoversten, Erik A.; Pritchard, Tyler; Milne, Peter; Bufano, Filomena; Mazzali, Paolo; Elias-Rosa, Nancy; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Li Weidong; Foley, Ryan J.; Hicken, Malcolm; Kirshner, Robert P.; Gehrels, Neil; Holland, Stephen T.; Immler, Stefan; Phillips, Mark M.; Still, Martin

    2010-01-01

    We examine the absolute magnitudes and light-curve shapes of 14 nearby (redshift z = 0.004-0.027) Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) observed in the ultraviolet (UV) with the Swift Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope. Colors and absolute magnitudes are calculated using both a standard Milky Way extinction law and one for the Large Magellanic Cloud that has been modified by circumstellar scattering. We find very different behavior in the near-UV filters (uvw1 rc covering ∼2600-3300 A after removing optical light, and u ∼ 3000-4000 A) compared to a mid-UV filter (uvm2 ∼2000-2400 A). The uvw1 rc - b colors show a scatter of ∼0.3 mag while uvm2-b scatters by nearly 0.9 mag. Similarly, while the scatter in colors between neighboring filters is small in the optical and somewhat larger in the near-UV, the large scatter in the uvm2 - uvw1 colors implies significantly larger spectral variability below 2600 A. We find that in the near-UV the absolute magnitudes at peak brightness of normal SNe Ia in our sample are correlated with the optical decay rate with a scatter of 0.4 mag, comparable to that found for the optical in our sample. However, in the mid-UV the scatter is larger, ∼1 mag, possibly indicating differences in metallicity. We find no strong correlation between either the UV light-curve shapes or the UV colors and the UV absolute magnitudes. With larger samples, the UV luminosity might be useful as an additional constraint to help determine distance, extinction, and metallicity in order to improve the utility of SNe Ia as standardized candles.

  18. Mylar sources for the absolute determination of activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenillas, Pablo A.

    1999-01-01

    Strong Mylar foils 2.5 μm thick are proposed as an alternative to the very fragile Vyns foils for the preparation of the radioactive sources for absolute counting. Several experiments have been carried out with β and X-ray emitters to demonstrate the suitability of this material. The results show that Mylar can replace Vyns foils even for low energy β emitters. (author)

  19. Improved Harmony Search Algorithm with Chaos for Absolute Value Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouheng Tuo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an improved harmony search with chaos (HSCH is presented for solving NP-hard absolute value equation (AVE Ax - |x| = b, where A is an arbitrary square matrix whose singular values exceed one. The simulation results in solving some given AVE problems demonstrate that the HSCH algorithm is valid and outperforms the classical HS algorithm (CHS and HS algorithm with differential mutation operator (HSDE.

  20. Absolute Bunch Length Measurements by Incoherent Radiation Fluctuation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannibale, F.; Stupakov, G.V.; Zolotorev, M.S.; Filippetto, D.; Jagerhofer, L.

    2009-01-01

    By analyzing the pulse to pulse intensity fluctuations of the radiation emitted by a charge particle in the incoherent part of the spectrum, it is possible to extract information about the spatial distribution of the beam. At the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, we have developed and successfully tested a simple scheme based on this principle that allows for the absolute measurement of the rms bunch length. A description of the method and the experimental results are presented.

  1. Absolute efficiency calibration of HPGe detector by simulation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayani, K.; Pant, Amar D.; Verma, Amit K.; Bhosale, N.A.; Anilkumar, S.

    2018-01-01

    High resolution gamma ray spectrometry by HPGe detectors is a powerful radio analytical technique for estimation of activity of various radionuclides. In the present work absolute efficiency calibration of the HPGe detector was carried out using Monte Carlo simulation technique and results are compared with those obtained by experiment using standard radionuclides of 152 Eu and 133 Ba. The coincidence summing correction factors for the measurement of these nuclides were also calculated

  2. Absolute Pitch: Effects of Timbre on Note-Naming Ability

    OpenAIRE

    Vanzella, Patr?cia; Schellenberg, E. Glenn

    2010-01-01

    Background Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify or produce isolated musical tones. It is evident primarily among individuals who started music lessons in early childhood. Because AP requires memory for specific pitches as well as learned associations with verbal labels (i.e., note names), it represents a unique opportunity to study interactions in memory between linguistic and nonlinguistic information. One untested hypothesis is that the pitch of voices may be difficult for AP poss...

  3. Assembler absolute forward thick-target bremsstrahlung spectra program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niculescu, V.I.R.; Baciu, G.; Ionescu-Bujor, M.

    1981-12-01

    The program is intended to compute the absolute forward thick-target bremsstrahlung spectrum for electrons in the energy range 1-24 MeV. The program takes into account the following phenomena: multiple scattering, energy loss and the attenuation of the emitted gamma rays. The computer program is written in Assembler having a higher degree of generality and is more performant than the FORTRAN version. (authors)

  4. Campargue-type supersonic beam sources : absolute intensities, skimmer transmission and scaling laws for mono-atomic gases He, Ne and Ar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijerinck, H.C.W.; van Gerwen, R.J.F.; Kerstel, E.R.T.; Martens, J.F.M.; van Vliembergen, E.J.W.; Smits, M.R.T.; Kaashoek, G.H.

    1985-01-01

    The process of beam formation in a supersonic expansion into a high pressure (10-2 -1 Torr) expansion chamber, a so-called Campargue-type beam source, has been investigated, using the theoretical frame work of an ideal undisturbed expansion as a reference. Absolute values of the centre-line

  5. Philosophy as Inquiry Aimed at the Absolute Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Snarskaya

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Philosophy as the absolute knowledge has been studied from two different but closely related approaches: historical and logical. The first approach exposes four main stages in the history of European metaphysics that marked out types of “philosophical absolutism”: the evolution of philosophy brought to light metaphysics of being, method, morals and logic. All of them are associated with the names of Aristotle, Bacon/Descartes, Kant and Hegel. Then these forms are considered in the second approach that defined them as subject-matter of philosophy as such. Due to their overall, comprehensive character, the focus of philosophy on them justifies its claim on absoluteness as far as philosophy is aimed at comprehension of the world’s unity regardless of the philosopher’s background, values and other preferences. And that is its prerogative since no other form of consciousness lays down this kind of aim. Thus, philosophy is defined as an everlasting attempt to succeed in conceiving the world in all its multifold manifestations. This article is to try to clarify the claim of philosophy on the absolute knowledge.

  6. Neutron activation analysis of certified samples by the absolute method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadem, F.; Belouadah, N.; Idiri, Z.

    2015-07-01

    The nuclear reactions analysis technique is mainly based on the relative method or the use of activation cross sections. In order to validate nuclear data for the calculated cross section evaluated from systematic studies, we used the neutron activation analysis technique (NAA) to determine the various constituent concentrations of certified samples for animal blood, milk and hay. In this analysis, the absolute method is used. The neutron activation technique involves irradiating the sample and subsequently performing a measurement of the activity of the sample. The fundamental equation of the activation connects several physical parameters including the cross section that is essential for the quantitative determination of the different elements composing the sample without resorting to the use of standard sample. Called the absolute method, it allows a measurement as accurate as the relative method. The results obtained by the absolute method showed that the values are as precise as the relative method requiring the use of standard sample for each element to be quantified.

  7. A vibration correction method for free-fall absolute gravimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, J.; Wang, G.; Wu, K.; Wang, L. J.

    2018-02-01

    An accurate determination of gravitational acceleration, usually approximated as 9.8 m s-2, has been playing an important role in the areas of metrology, geophysics, and geodetics. Absolute gravimetry has been experiencing rapid developments in recent years. Most absolute gravimeters today employ a free-fall method to measure gravitational acceleration. Noise from ground vibration has become one of the most serious factors limiting measurement precision. Compared to vibration isolators, the vibration correction method is a simple and feasible way to reduce the influence of ground vibrations. A modified vibration correction method is proposed and demonstrated. A two-dimensional golden section search algorithm is used to search for the best parameters of the hypothetical transfer function. Experiments using a T-1 absolute gravimeter are performed. It is verified that for an identical group of drop data, the modified method proposed in this paper can achieve better correction effects with much less computation than previous methods. Compared to vibration isolators, the correction method applies to more hostile environments and even dynamic platforms, and is expected to be used in a wider range of applications.

  8. Absolute photoionization cross-section of the propargyl radical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savee, John D.; Welz, Oliver; Taatjes, Craig A.; Osborn, David L. [Sandia National Laboratories, Combustion Research Facility, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Soorkia, Satchin [Institut des Sciences Moleculaires d' Orsay, Universite Paris-Sud 11, Orsay (France); Selby, Talitha M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin, Washington County Campus, West Bend, Wisconsin 53095 (United States)

    2012-04-07

    Using synchrotron-generated vacuum-ultraviolet radiation and multiplexed time-resolved photoionization mass spectrometry we have measured the absolute photoionization cross-section for the propargyl (C{sub 3}H{sub 3}) radical, {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(E), relative to the known absolute cross-section of the methyl (CH{sub 3}) radical. We generated a stoichiometric 1:1 ratio of C{sub 3}H{sub 3} : CH{sub 3} from 193 nm photolysis of two different C{sub 4}H{sub 6} isomers (1-butyne and 1,3-butadiene). Photolysis of 1-butyne yielded values of {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(10.213 eV)=(26.1{+-}4.2) Mb and {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(10.413 eV)=(23.4{+-}3.2) Mb, whereas photolysis of 1,3-butadiene yielded values of {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(10.213 eV)=(23.6{+-}3.6) Mb and {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(10.413 eV)=(25.1{+-}3.5) Mb. These measurements place our relative photoionization cross-section spectrum for propargyl on an absolute scale between 8.6 and 10.5 eV. The cross-section derived from our results is approximately a factor of three larger than previous determinations.

  9. Absolute surface reconstruction by slope metrology and photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yue

    Developing the manufacture of aspheric and freeform optical elements requires an advanced metrology method which is capable of inspecting these elements with arbitrary freeform surfaces. In this dissertation, a new surface measurement scheme is investigated for such a purpose, which is to measure the absolute surface shape of an object under test through its surface slope information obtained by photogrammetric measurement. A laser beam propagating toward the object reflects on its surface while the vectors of the incident and reflected beams are evaluated from the four spots they leave on the two parallel transparent windows in front of the object. The spots' spatial coordinates are determined by photogrammetry. With the knowledge of the incident and reflected beam vectors, the local slope information of the object surface is obtained through vector calculus and finally yields the absolute object surface profile by a reconstruction algorithm. An experimental setup is designed and the proposed measuring principle is experimentally demonstrated by measuring the absolute surface shape of a spherical mirror. The measurement uncertainty is analyzed, and efforts for improvement are made accordingly. In particular, structured windows are designed and fabricated to generate uniform scattering spots left by the transmitted laser beams. Calibration of the fringe reflection instrument, another typical surface slope measurement method, is also reported in the dissertation. Finally, a method for uncertainty analysis of a photogrammetry measurement system by optical simulation is investigated.

  10. Absolutely minimal extensions of functions on metric spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milman, V A

    1999-01-01

    Extensions of a real-valued function from the boundary ∂X 0 of an open subset X 0 of a metric space (X,d) to X 0 are discussed. For the broad class of initial data coming under discussion (linearly bounded functions) locally Lipschitz extensions to X 0 that preserve localized moduli of continuity are constructed. In the set of these extensions an absolutely minimal extension is selected, which was considered before by Aronsson for Lipschitz initial functions in the case X 0 subset of R n . An absolutely minimal extension can be regarded as an ∞-harmonic function, that is, a limit of p-harmonic functions as p→+∞. The proof of the existence of absolutely minimal extensions in a metric space with intrinsic metric is carried out by the Perron method. To this end, ∞-subharmonic, ∞-superharmonic, and ∞-harmonic functions on a metric space are defined and their properties are established

  11. Absolute total cross sections for noble gas systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kam, P. van der.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis deals with experiments on the elastic scattering of Ar, Kr and Xe, using the molecular beam technique. The aim of this work was the measurement of the absolute value of the total cross section and the behaviour of the total cross section, Q, as function of the relative velocity g of the scattering partners. The author gives an extensive analysis of the glory structure in the total cross section and parametrizes the experimental results using a semiclassical model function. This allows a detailed comparison of the phase and amplitude of the predicted and measured glory undulations. He indicates how the depth and position of the potential well should be changed in order to come to an optimum description of the glory structure. With this model function he has also been able to separate the glory and attractive contribution to Q, and using the results from the extrapolation measurements he has obtained absolute values for Qsub(a). From these absolute values he has calculated the parameter C 6 that determines the strength of the attractive region of the potential. In two of the four investigated gas combinations the obtained values lie outside the theoretical bounds. (Auth.)

  12. Local absolute alcohol ablation for the treatment of recurrent pheochromocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang Mingyi; Wang Peijun; Lu Ying; Ma Jun; Tang Junjun; Xi Qian; Huang Zongliang; Gao Xiaolong

    2010-01-01

    Objective: to assess the clinical value of local injection of absolute alcohol under CT guidance in treating recurrent pheochromocytoma. Methods: Five patients with benign recurrent pheochromocytoma were enrolled in this study. Of the five cases, the lesions were located on the right side in three, on the left in one and on both sides in one. All the lesions were pathologically proved to be benign ones. Under CT guidance the ablation therapy with local injection of absolute alcohol was performed. The therapeutic results were observed and evaluated. Results: Thirty days after the treatment, different degrees of decrease in tumor size was observed on follow-up CT scans. All the patients were followed up for 9-42 months. During the follow-up period, both the blood pressure and the vanillyl mandelic acid (VMA) level in urine remained normal and no paroxysmal dizziness, headache or syncope occurred in all patients. Conclusion: For the treatment of recurrent pheochromocytoma the ablation therapy by using local injection of absolute alcohol under CT guidance is a safe and practical therapeutic means with definite and reliable effectiveness. (authors)

  13. IAEA biological reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parr, R.M.; Schelenz, R.; Ballestra, S.

    1988-01-01

    The Analytical Quality Control Services programme of the IAEA encompasses a wide variety of intercomparisons and reference materials. This paper reviews only those aspects of the subject having to do with biological reference materials. The 1988 programme foresees 13 new intercomparison exercises, one for major, minor and trace elements, five for radionuclides, and seven for stable isotopes. Twenty-two natural matrix biological reference materials are available: twelve for major, minor and trace elements, six for radionuclides, and four for chlorinated hydrocarbons. Seven new intercomparisons and reference materials are in preparation or under active consideration. Guidelines on the correct use of reference materials are being prepared for publication in 1989 in consultation with other major international producers and users of biological reference materials. The IAEA database on available reference materials is being updated and expanded in scope, and a new publication is planned for 1989. (orig.)

  14. Repeated absolute gravity measurements for monitoring slow intraplate vertical deformation in Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Camp, M. J.; de Viron, O.; Scherneck, H.; Hinzen, K. G.; Williams, S. D.; Lecocq, T.; Quinif, Y.; Camelbeeck, T.

    2011-12-01

    In continental plate interiors, ground surface movements are at the limit of the noise level and close to or below the accuracy of current geodetic techniques. Absolute gravity measurements are valuable to quantify slow vertical movements, as this instrument is drift free and, unlike GPS, independent of the terrestrial reference frame. Repeated absolute gravity (AG) measurements have been performed in Oostende (Belgian coastline) and at 8 stations along a southwest-northeast profile across the Belgian Ardennes and the Roer Valley Graben (Germany), in order to estimate the tectonic deformation in the area. The AG measurements, repeated once or twice a year, can resolve elusive gravity changes with a precision better than 3.7 nm/s2/yr (95% confidence interval) after 11 years, even in difficult conditions. After 8-15 years (depending on the station), we find that the gravity rates of change lie in the [-3.1, 8.1] nm/s2/yr interval and result from a combination of anthropogenic, climatic, tectonic, and Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) effects. After correcting for the GIA, the inferred gravity rates and consequently, the vertical land movements, reduce to zero within the uncertainty level at all stations except Jülich (due to man-induced subsidence) and Sohier (possibly, an artefact due to the shortness of the time series at that station).

  15. Tectonic, Climatic and Anthropogenic Vertical Land Movements in Western Europe by Repeated Absolute Gravity Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Camp, M. J.; de Viron, O.; Lecocq, T.; Hinzen, K. G.; Quinif, Y.; Williams, S. D.; Camelbeeck, T.

    2010-12-01

    In continental plate interiors, tectonic deformations are small and the associated ground surface movements remain close to or below the accuracy of current geodetic techniques, and at the limit of the noise level. An absolute gravimeter is an appropriate tool to quantify slow vertical movements, as this instrument, based on length and time standards, is drift free and does not depend on any terrestrial reference frame. Repeated absolute gravity (AG) measurements have been performed in Oostende (Belgian coastline) and at 8 stations along a southwest-northeast profile across the Belgian Ardennes and the Roer Valley Graben (Germany), in order to estimate the tectonic deformations in the area. After 7-13 years (depending on the station), we find evidence that the movements are no larger than a few millimeter per year and result from a combination of anthropogenic, climatic, tectonic, and Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) effects. This demonstrates the importance of precisely modeling the GIA effects in order to investigate intraplate tectonic deformations at the sub-millimeter level. This study also shows that AG measurements, repeated once or twice a year, can resolve vertical velocities at the 1.0 mm/yr level after 10 years, even in difficult conditions, provided that the gravimeter is carefully maintained.

  16. Absolute dual-comb spectroscopy at 1.55 μm by free-running Er:fiber lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassinerio, Marco; Gambetta, Alessio; Coluccelli, Nicola; Laporta, Paolo; Galzerano, Gianluca

    2014-06-01

    We report on a compact scheme for absolute referencing and coherent averaging for dual-comb based spectrometers, exploiting a single continuous-wave (CW) laser in a transfer oscillator configuration. The same CW laser is used for both absolute calibration of the optical frequency axis and the generation of a correction signal which is used for a real-time jitter compensation in a fully electrical feed-forward scheme. The technique is applied to a near-infrared spectrometer based on a pair of free-running mode-locked Er:fiber lasers, allowing to perform real-time absolute-frequency measurements over an optical bandwidth of more than 25 nm, with coherent interferogram averaging over 1-s acquisition time, leading to a signal-to-noise ratio improvement of 29 dB over the 50 μs single shot acquisition. Using 10-cm single pass cell, a value of 1.9 × 10-4 cm-1 Hz-0.5 noise-equivalent-absorption over 1 s integration time is obtained, which can be further scaled down with a multi-pass or resonant cavity. The adoption of a single CW laser, together with the absence of optical locks, and the full-fiber design makes this spectrometer a robust and compact system to be employed in gas-sensing applications.

  17. A Method for Absolute Determination of the Surface Areal Density of Functional Groups in Organic Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Hyegeun; Son, Jin Gyeong; Kim, Jeong Won; Yu, Hyunung; Lee, Tae Geol; Moon, Dae Won [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    To develop a methodology for absolute determination of the surface areal density of functional groups on organic and bio thin films, medium energy ion scattering (MEIS) spectroscopy was utilized to provide references for calibration of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) or Fourier transformation-infrared (FT-IR) intensities. By using the MEIS, XPS, and FT-IR techniques, we were able to analyze the organic thin film of a Ru dye compound (C{sub 58}H{sub 86}O{sub 8}N{sub 8}S{sub 2}Ru), which consists of one Ru atom and various stoichiometric functional groups. From the MEIS analysis, the absolute surface areal density of Ru atoms (or Ru dye molecules) was determined. The surface areal densities of stoichiometric functional groups in the Ru dye compound were used as references for the calibration of XPS and FT-IR intensities for each functional group. The complementary use of MEIS, XPS, and FT-IR to determine the absolute surface areal density of functional groups on organic and bio thin films will be useful for more reliable development of applications based on organic thin films in areas such as flexible displays, solar cells, organic sensors, biomaterials, and biochips.

  18. A probabilistic Poisson-based model accounts for an extensive set of absolute auditory threshold measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heil, Peter; Matysiak, Artur; Neubauer, Heinrich

    2017-09-01

    Thresholds for detecting sounds in quiet decrease with increasing sound duration in every species studied. The neural mechanisms underlying this trade-off, often referred to as temporal integration, are not fully understood. Here, we probe the human auditory system with a large set of tone stimuli differing in duration, shape of the temporal amplitude envelope, duration of silent gaps between bursts, and frequency. Duration was varied by varying the plateau duration of plateau-burst (PB) stimuli, the duration of the onsets and offsets of onset-offset (OO) stimuli, and the number of identical bursts of multiple-burst (MB) stimuli. Absolute thresholds for a large number of ears (>230) were measured using a 3-interval-3-alternative forced choice (3I-3AFC) procedure. Thresholds decreased with increasing sound duration in a manner that depended on the temporal envelope. Most commonly, thresholds for MB stimuli were highest followed by thresholds for OO and PB stimuli of corresponding durations. Differences in the thresholds for MB and OO stimuli and in the thresholds for MB and PB stimuli, however, varied widely across ears, were negative in some ears, and were tightly correlated. We show that the variation and correlation of MB-OO and MB-PB threshold differences are linked to threshold microstructure, which affects the relative detectability of the sidebands of the MB stimuli and affects estimates of the bandwidth of auditory filters. We also found that thresholds for MB stimuli increased with increasing duration of the silent gaps between bursts. We propose a new model and show that it accurately accounts for our results and does so considerably better than a leaky-integrator-of-intensity model and a probabilistic model proposed by others. Our model is based on the assumption that sensory events are generated by a Poisson point process with a low rate in the absence of stimulation and higher, time-varying rates in the presence of stimulation. A subject in a 3I-3AFC

  19. Excitation Location and Seasonal Variation of Transoceanic Infragravity Waves Observed at an Absolute Pressure Gauge Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonegawa, T.; Fukao, Y.; Shiobara, H.; Sugioka, H.; Ito, A.; Yamashita, M.

    2018-01-01

    An array of 10 absolute pressure gauges (APGs) deployed in deep water 50 km east of Aogashima, an island in southern Japan, observed several isolated signals in the infragravity wave (IGW) frequency band (0.002-0.03 Hz) during boreal summer, whereas relatively high IGW energy persisted during boreal winter. The isolated IGW shows dispersion with a delay time of 4-5 days as a function of frequency. Here we estimate the excitation locations of IGWs for the two seasons with estimated incoming direction of IGW, calculation of transoceanic IGW trajectories and propagation times, and spatiotemporal variations of significant wave heights from WAVEWATCH III. In boreal summer, the isolated IGWs are primarily caused by IGW energies excited at the shoreline of South America, based on the following three observations: IGWs observed at the array originated from the east: the easterly ray path from the array reaches South America: and an event-like IGWs were observed at the array when a storm approaches eastward to the shoreline of South America, in which the observed delay time of 4-5 days was also supported by the frequency-dependent calculation of IGW propagation times. In boreal winter, the incessant IGWs consist of transoceanic IGW energies leaked from the shoreline, primarily from North America, and secondly from South America and the western Aleutian Islands.

  20. Absolute quantification of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) RNA by the digital PCR technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatschart, R. B.; Almeida, D. O.; Heinemann, M. B.; Medeiros, M. N.; Granjeiro, J. M.; Folgueras-Flatschart, A. V.

    2015-01-01

    The quality control of cell lines used in research and industry is critical to ensure confidence in experimental results and to guarantee the safety of biopharmaceuticals to consumers. The BVDV is a common adventitious agent in many cell lines. We preliminarly evaluate the use of Digital Droplet PCR (ddPCR) for the detection and enumeration of genome copies of BVDV in cell culture and on FBS. The application of a commercial Real-Time PCR kit with the ddPCR technique was successful on different matrices. The technique allowed the absolute quantification of the genome without the use of calibration standards, suggesting its promising application on the development of reference materials for quantification of nucleic acids.

  1. Absolute atomic hydrogen density distribution in a hollow cathode discharge by two-photon polarization spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalo, A B; Rosa, M I de la; Perez, C; Mar, S; Gruetzmacher, K

    2004-01-01

    We report on quantitative measurements of ground-state atomic hydrogen densities in a stationary plasma far off thermodynamic equilibrium, generated in a hollow cathode discharge, by two-photon polarization spectroscopy via the 1S-2S transition. Absolute densities are obtained using a well established calibration method based on the non-resonant two-photon polarization signal of xenon gas at room temperature, which serves as the reference at the wavelength of the hydrogen transition. This study is dedicated to demonstrating the capability of two-photon polarization spectroscopy close to the detection limit. Therefore, it requires single-longitudinal mode UV-laser radiation provided by an advanced UV-laser spectrometer

  2. Determining {sup 252}Cf source strength by absolute passive neutron correlation counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croft, S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6166 (United States); Henzlova, D., E-mail: henzlova@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2013-06-21

    Physically small, lightly encapsulated, radionuclide sources containing {sup 252}Cf are widely used for a vast variety of industrial, medical, educational and research applications requiring a convenient source of neutrons. For many quantitative applications, such as detector efficiency calibrations, the absolute strength of the neutron emission is needed. In this work we show how, by using a neutron multiplicity counter the neutron emission rate can be obtained with high accuracy. This provides an independent and alternative way to create reference sources in-house for laboratories such as ours engaged in international safeguards metrology. The method makes use of the unique and well known properties of the {sup 252}Cf spontaneous fission system and applies advanced neutron correlation counting methods. We lay out the foundation of the method and demonstrate it experimentally. We show that accuracy comparable to the best methods currently used by national bodies to certify neutron source strengths is possible.

  3. The absolute radiometric calibration of the advanced very high resolution radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, P. N.; Teillet, P. M.; Ding, Y.

    1988-01-01

    An increasing number of remote sensing investigations require radiometrically calibrated imagery from NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiation (AVHRR) sensors. Although a prelaunch calibration is done for these sensors, there is no capability for monitoring any changes in the in-flight absolute calibration for the visible and near infrared spectral channels. Hence, the possibility of using the reflectance-based method developed at White Sands for in-orbit calibration of LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) and SPOT Haute Resolution Visible (HVR) data to calibrate the AVHRR sensor was investigated. Three diffrent approaches were considered: Method 1 - ground and atmospheric measurements and reference to another calibrated satellite sensor; Method 2 - ground and atmospheric measurements with no reference to another sensor; and Method 3 - no ground and atmospheric measurements but reference to another satellite sensor. The purpose is to describe an investigation on the use of Method 2 to calibrate NOAA-9 AVHRR channels 1 and 2 with the help of ground and atmospheric measurements at Rogers (dry) Lake, Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB) in the Mojave desert of California.

  4. The absolute radiometric calibration of the advanced very high resolution radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, P. N.; Teillet, P. M.; Ding, Y.

    1988-10-01

    An increasing number of remote sensing investigations require radiometrically calibrated imagery from NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiation (AVHRR) sensors. Although a prelaunch calibration is done for these sensors, there is no capability for monitoring any changes in the in-flight absolute calibration for the visible and near infrared spectral channels. Hence, the possibility of using the reflectance-based method developed at White Sands for in-orbit calibration of LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) and SPOT Haute Resolution Visible (HVR) data to calibrate the AVHRR sensor was investigated. Three diffrent approaches were considered: Method 1 - ground and atmospheric measurements and reference to another calibrated satellite sensor; Method 2 - ground and atmospheric measurements with no reference to another sensor; and Method 3 - no ground and atmospheric measurements but reference to another satellite sensor. The purpose is to describe an investigation on the use of Method 2 to calibrate NOAA-9 AVHRR channels 1 and 2 with the help of ground and atmospheric measurements at Rogers (dry) Lake, Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB) in the Mojave desert of California.

  5. Physics of Non-Inertial Reference Frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamalov, Timur F.

    2010-01-01

    Physics of non-inertial reference frames is a generalizing of Newton's laws to any reference frames. It is the system of general axioms for classical and quantum mechanics. The first, Kinematics Principle reads: the kinematic state of a body free of forces conserves and equal in absolute value to an invariant of the observer's reference frame. The second, Dynamics Principle extended Newton's second law to non-inertial reference frames and also contains additional variables there are higher derivatives of coordinates. Dynamics Principle reads: a force induces a change in the kinematic state of the body and is proportional to the rate of its change. It is mean that if the kinematic invariant of the reference frame is n-th derivative with respect the time, then the dynamics of a body being affected by the force F is described by the 2n-th differential equation. The third, Statics Principle reads: the sum of all forces acting a body at rest is equal to zero.

  6. A 'Global Reference' Comparator for Biosimilar Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Christopher J; Woollett, Gillian R

    2017-08-01

    Major drug regulators have indicated in guidance their flexibility to accept some development data for biosimilars generated with reference product versions licensed outside their own jurisdictions, but most authorities require new bridging studies between these versions and the versions of them licensed locally. The costs of these studies are not trivial in absolute terms and, due to the multiplier effect of required repetition by each biosimilar sponsor, their collective costs are substantial. Yet versions of biologics licensed in different jurisdictions usually share the same development data, and any manufacturing changes between versions have been justified by a rigorous comparability process. The fact that a biosimilar is usually expected to be licensed in multiple jurisdictions, in each case as similar to the local reference product, confirms that minor analytical differences between versions of reference biologics are typically inconsequential for clinical outcomes and licensing. A greatly simplified basis for selecting a reference comparator, that does not require conducting new bridging studies, is proposed and justified based on the shared data of the reference product versions as well as the proof offered where biosimilars have already been approved. The relevance of this proposal to the interchangeability designation available in the US is discussed.

  7. The Lean Reference Collection: Improving Functionality through Selection and Weeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Christopher W.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses references collections in academic libraries and offers guidelines for placing materials in a reference collection that focus on their suitability for true reference functions and the expected frequency of use. Problems with poorly managed collections are discussed, and the importance of selection policies and weeding are emphasized. (37…

  8. Simple method for absolute calibration of geophones, seismometers, and other inertial vibration sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kann, Frank van; Winterflood, John

    2005-01-01

    A simple but powerful method is presented for calibrating geophones, seismometers, and other inertial vibration sensors, including passive accelerometers. The method requires no cumbersome or expensive fixtures such as shaker platforms and can be performed using a standard instrument commonly available in the field. An absolute calibration is obtained using the reciprocity property of the device, based on the standard mathematical model for such inertial sensors. It requires only simple electrical measurement of the impedance of the sensor as a function of frequency to determine the parameters of the model and hence the sensitivity function. The method is particularly convenient if one of these parameters, namely the suspended mass is known. In this case, no additional mechanical apparatus is required and only a single set of impedance measurements yields the desired calibration function. Moreover, this measurement can be made with the device in situ. However, the novel and most powerful aspect of the method is its ability to accurately determine the effective suspended mass. For this, the impedance measurement is made with the device hanging from a simple spring or flexible cord (depending on the orientation of its sensitive axis). To complete the calibration, the device is weighed to determine its total mass. All the required calibration parameters, including the suspended mass, are then determined from a least-squares fit to the impedance as a function of frequency. A demonstration using both a 4.5 Hz geophone and a 1 Hz seismometer shows that the method can yield accurate absolute calibrations with an error of 0.1% or better, assuming no a priori knowledge of any parameters

  9. FFT swept filtering: a bias-free method for processing fringe signals in absolute gravimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Křen, Petr; Pálinkáš, Vojtech; Mašika, Pavel; Val'ko, Miloš

    2018-05-01

    Absolute gravimeters, based on laser interferometry, are widely used for many applications in geoscience and metrology. Although currently the most accurate FG5 and FG5X gravimeters declare standard uncertainties at the level of 2-3 μGal, their inherent systematic errors affect the gravity reference determined by international key comparisons based predominately on the use of FG5-type instruments. The measurement results for FG5-215 and FG5X-251 clearly showed that the measured g-values depend on the size of the fringe signal and that this effect might be approximated by a linear regression with a slope of up to 0.030 μGal/mV . However, these empirical results do not enable one to identify the source of the effect or to determine a reasonable reference fringe level for correcting g-values in an absolute sense. Therefore, both gravimeters were equipped with new measuring systems (according to Křen et al. in Metrologia 53:27-40, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1088/0026-1394/53/1/27 applied for FG5), running in parallel with the original systems. The new systems use an analogue-to-digital converter HS5 to digitize the fringe signal and a new method of fringe signal analysis based on FFT swept bandpass filtering. We demonstrate that the source of the fringe size effect is connected to a distortion of the fringe signal due to the electronic components used in the FG5(X) gravimeters. To obtain a bias-free g-value, the FFT swept method should be applied for the determination of zero-crossings. A comparison of g-values obtained from the new and the original systems clearly shows that the original system might be biased by approximately 3-5 μGal due to improperly distorted fringe signal processing.

  10. Performance evaluations of continuous glucose monitoring systems: precision absolute relative deviation is part of the assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermaier, Karin; Schmelzeisen-Redeker, Günther; Schoemaker, Michael; Klötzer, Hans-Martin; Kirchsteiger, Harald; Eikmeier, Heino; del Re, Luigi

    2013-07-01

    Even though a Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute proposal exists on the design of studies and performance criteria for continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems, it has not yet led to a consistent evaluation of different systems, as no consensus has been reached on the reference method to evaluate them or on acceptance levels. As a consequence, performance assessment of CGM systems tends to be inconclusive, and a comparison of the outcome of different studies is difficult. Published information and available data (as presented in this issue of Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology by Freckmann and coauthors) are used to assess the suitability of several frequently used methods [International Organization for Standardization, continuous glucose error grid analysis, mean absolute relative deviation (MARD), precision absolute relative deviation (PARD)] when assessing performance of CGM systems in terms of accuracy and precision. The combined use of MARD and PARD seems to allow for better characterization of sensor performance. The use of different quantities for calibration and evaluation, e.g., capillary blood using a blood glucose (BG) meter versus venous blood using a laboratory measurement, introduces an additional error source. Using BG values measured in more or less large intervals as the only reference leads to a significant loss of information in comparison with the continuous sensor signal and possibly to an erroneous estimation of sensor performance during swings. Both can be improved using data from two identical CGM sensors worn by the same patient in parallel. Evaluation of CGM performance studies should follow an identical study design, including sufficient swings in glycemia. At least a part of the study participants should wear two identical CGM sensors in parallel. All data available should be used for evaluation, both by MARD and PARD, a good PARD value being a precondition to trust a good MARD value. Results should be analyzed and

  11. Absolute distance measurement by dual-comb interferometry with multi-channel digital lock-in phase detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ruitao; Pollinger, Florian; Meiners-Hagen, Karl; Krystek, Michael; Bosse, Harald; Tan, Jiubin

    2015-01-01

    We present a dual-comb-based heterodyne multi-wavelength absolute interferometer capable of long distance measurements. The phase information of the various comb modes is extracted in parallel by a multi-channel digital lock-in phase detection scheme. Several synthetic wavelengths of the same order are constructed and the corresponding phases are averaged to deduce the absolute lengths with significantly reduced uncertainty. Comparison experiments with an incremental HeNe reference interferometer show a combined relative measurement uncertainty of 5.3 × 10 −7 at a measurement distance of 20 m. Combining the advantage of synthetic wavelength interferometry and dual-comb interferometry, our compact and simple approach provides sufficient precision for many industrial applications. (paper)

  12. Absolute distance measurement by dual-comb interferometry with multi-channel digital lock-in phase detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruitao; Pollinger, Florian; Meiners-Hagen, Karl; Krystek, Michael; Tan, Jiubin; Bosse, Harald

    2015-08-01

    We present a dual-comb-based heterodyne multi-wavelength absolute interferometer capable of long distance measurements. The phase information of the various comb modes is extracted in parallel by a multi-channel digital lock-in phase detection scheme. Several synthetic wavelengths of the same order are constructed and the corresponding phases are averaged to deduce the absolute lengths with significantly reduced uncertainty. Comparison experiments with an incremental HeNe reference interferometer show a combined relative measurement uncertainty of 5.3 × 10-7 at a measurement distance of 20 m. Combining the advantage of synthetic wavelength interferometry and dual-comb interferometry, our compact and simple approach provides sufficient precision for many industrial applications.

  13. Error Budget for a Calibration Demonstration System for the Reflected Solar Instrument for the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thome, Kurtis; McCorkel, Joel; McAndrew, Brendan

    2013-01-01

    A goal of the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission is to observe highaccuracy, long-term climate change trends over decadal time scales. The key to such a goal is to improving the accuracy of SI traceable absolute calibration across infrared and reflected solar wavelengths allowing climate change to be separated from the limit of natural variability. The advances required to reach on-orbit absolute accuracy to allow climate change observations to survive data gaps exist at NIST in the laboratory, but still need demonstration that the advances can move successfully from to NASA and/or instrument vendor capabilities for spaceborne instruments. The current work describes the radiometric calibration error budget for the Solar, Lunar for Absolute Reflectance Imaging Spectroradiometer (SOLARIS) which is the calibration demonstration system (CDS) for the reflected solar portion of CLARREO. The goal of the CDS is to allow the testing and evaluation of calibration approaches, alternate design and/or implementation approaches and components for the CLARREO mission. SOLARIS also provides a test-bed for detector technologies, non-linearity determination and uncertainties, and application of future technology developments and suggested spacecraft instrument design modifications. The resulting SI-traceable error budget for reflectance retrieval using solar irradiance as a reference and methods for laboratory-based, absolute calibration suitable for climatequality data collections is given. Key components in the error budget are geometry differences between the solar and earth views, knowledge of attenuator behavior when viewing the sun, and sensor behavior such as detector linearity and noise behavior. Methods for demonstrating this error budget are also presented.

  14. Indoor air: Reference bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D.; Staves, D.; McDonald, S.

    1989-07-01

    The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency initially established the indoor air Reference Bibliography in 1987 as an appendix to the Indoor Air Quality Implementation Plan. The document was submitted to Congress as required under Title IV--Radon Gas and Indoor Air Quality Research of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. The Reference Bibliography is an extensive bibliography of reference materials on indoor air pollution. The Bibliography contains over 4500 citations and continues to increase as new articles appear

  15. Android quick APIs reference

    CERN Document Server

    Cinar, Onur

    2015-01-01

    The Android Quick APIs Reference is a condensed code and APIs reference for the new Google Android 5.0 SDK. It presents the essential Android APIs in a well-organized format that can be used as a handy reference. You won't find any technical jargon, bloated samples, drawn out history lessons, or witty stories in this book. What you will find is a software development kit and APIs reference that is concise, to the point and highly accessible. The book is packed with useful information and is a must-have for any mobile or Android app developer or programmer. In the Android Quick APIs Refe

  16. The instantaneous frequency rate spectrogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecki, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    An accelerogram of the instantaneous phase of signal components referred to as an instantaneous frequency rate spectrogram (IFRS) is presented as a joint time-frequency distribution. The distribution is directly obtained by processing the short-time Fourier transform (STFT) locally. A novel approach to amplitude demodulation based upon the reassignment method is introduced as a useful by-product. Additionally, an estimator of energy density versus the instantaneous frequency rate (IFR) is proposed and referred to as the IFR profile. The energy density is estimated based upon both the classical energy spectrogram and the IFRS smoothened by the median filter. Moreover, the impact of an analyzing window width, additive white Gaussian noise and observation time is tested. Finally, the introduced method is used for the analysis of the acoustic emission of an automotive engine. The recording of the engine of a Lamborghini Gallardo is analyzed as an example.

  17. Automated absolute activation analysis with californium-252 sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacMurdo, K.W.; Bowman, W.W.

    1978-09-01

    A 100-mg 252 Cf neutron activation analysis facility is used routinely at the Savannah River Laboratory for multielement analysis of many solid and liquid samples. An absolute analysis technique converts counting data directly to elemental concentration without the use of classical comparative standards and flux monitors. With the totally automated pneumatic sample transfer system, cyclic irradiation-decay-count regimes can be pre-selected for up to 40 samples, and samples can be analyzed with the facility unattended. An automatic data control system starts and stops a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer and/or a delayed-neutron detector; the system also stores data and controls output modes. Gamma ray data are reduced by three main programs in the IBM 360/195 computer: the 4096-channel spectrum and pertinent experimental timing, counting, and sample data are stored on magnetic tape; the spectrum is then reduced to a list of significant photopeak energies, integrated areas, and their associated statistical errors; and the third program assigns gamma ray photopeaks to the appropriate neutron activation product(s) by comparing photopeak energies to tabulated gamma ray energies. Photopeak areas are then converted to elemental concentration by using experimental timing and sample data, calculated elemental neutron capture rates, absolute detector efficiencies, and absolute spectroscopic decay data. Calculational procedures have been developed so that fissile material can be analyzed by cyclic neutron activation and delayed-neutron counting procedures. These calculations are based on a 6 half-life group model of delayed neutron emission; calculations include corrections for delayed neutron interference from 17 O. Detection sensitivities of 239 Pu were demonstrated with 15-g samples at a throughput of up to 140 per day. Over 40 elements can be detected at the sub-ppM level

  18. Ablation of tumor and inflammatory tissue with absolute ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uflacker, R.; Paolini, R.M.; Nobrega, M.

    Absolute ethanol was used to ablate tumors, inflammatory lesions, and end-stage nephrosclerotic kidneys in 38 patients. Thirty patients had various types of renal tumors, and 3 had chronic end-stage renal failure with malignant hypertension. One patient had a fibrosarcoma of the right leg and one had a metastatis in the humerus from a renal carcinoma. A large adrenal carcinoma was treated with absolute ethanol in a patient who had liver metastases that were ablated one year after the first procedure. An additional patient had metastatic liver disease from a non-functioning adrenal carcinoma. The remaining patient had an extensive hypervascular inflammatory lesion (tuberculosis and aspergilloma) of the right upper pulmonary lobe. In addition to ethanol, coils were introduced in one patient and Gelfoam in another. The amount of ethanol used ranged from 5 to 50 ml. Twenty-two patients suffered from considerable transient pain during ethanol injection, but sedation was necessary in only 3 of them. Skin necrosis appeared in 2 patients requiring plastic reconstruction in one of them. Two patients died within 5 days of the procedure unrelated to the ablation. Two patients presented upper gastrointestinal bleeding within 2 days of the ethanol injection and one of these died in acute renal failure. One patient suffered from left colonic infarction after left renal tumor ablation, but survived for several months. Absolute ethanol was a useful and efficient sclerosing agent causing extensive tumor destruction and marked reduction of the vascularity in tumor and inflammatory lesions, but caused an 18% complication rate.

  19. Laboratory and field evaluation of the Partec CyFlow miniPOC for absolute and relative CD4 T-cell enumeration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djibril Wade

    Full Text Available A new CD4 point-of-care instrument, the CyFlow miniPOC, which provides absolute and percentage CD4 T-cells, used for screening and monitoring of HIV-infected patients in resource-limited settings, was introduced recently. We assessed the performance of this novel instrument in a reference laboratory and in a field setting in Senegal.A total of 321 blood samples were obtained from 297 adults and 24 children, all HIV-patients attending university hospitals in Dakar, or health centers in Ziguinchor. Samples were analyzed in parallel on CyFlow miniPOC, FACSCount CD4 and FACSCalibur to assess CyFlow miniPOC precision and accuracy.At the reference lab, CyFlow miniPOC, compared to FACSCalibur, showed an absolute mean bias of -12.6 cells/mm3 and a corresponding relative mean bias of -2.3% for absolute CD4 counts. For CD4 percentages, the absolute mean bias was -0.1%. Compared to FACSCount CD4, the absolute and relative mean biases were -31.2 cells/mm3 and -4.7%, respectively, for CD4 counts, whereas the absolute mean bias for CD4 percentages was 1.3%. The CyFlow miniPOC was able to classify HIV-patients eligible for ART with a sensitivity of ≥ 95% at the different ART-initiation thresholds (200, 350 and 500 CD4 cells/mm3. In the field lab, the room temperature ranged from 30 to 35°C during the working hours. At those temperatures, the CyFlow miniPOC, compared to FACSCount CD4, had an absolute and relative mean bias of 7.6 cells/mm3 and 2.8%, respectively, for absolute CD4 counts, and an absolute mean bias of 0.4% for CD4 percentages. The CyFlow miniPOC showed sensitivity equal or greater than 94%.The CyFlow miniPOC showed high agreement with FACSCalibur and FACSCount CD4. The CyFlow miniPOC provides both reliable absolute CD4 counts and CD4 percentages even under the field conditions, and is suitable for monitoring HIV-infected patients in resource-limited settings.

  20. 3D measurement of absolute radiation dose in grid therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trapp, J V; Warrington, A P; Partridge, M; Philps, A; Leach, M O; Webb, S

    2004-01-01

    Spatially fractionated radiotherapy through a grid is a concept which has a long history and was routinely used in orthovoltage radiation therapy in the middle of last century to minimize damage to the skin and subcutaneous tissue. With the advent of megavoltage radiotherapy and its skin sparing effects the use of grids in radiotherapy declined in the 1970s. However there has recently been a revival of the technique for use in palliative treatments with a single fraction of 10 to 20 Gy. In this work the absolute 3D dose distribution in a grid irradiation is measured for photons using a combination of film and gel dosimetry

  1. Optimal quantum error correcting codes from absolutely maximally entangled states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raissi, Zahra; Gogolin, Christian; Riera, Arnau; Acín, Antonio

    2018-02-01

    Absolutely maximally entangled (AME) states are pure multi-partite generalizations of the bipartite maximally entangled states with the property that all reduced states of at most half the system size are in the maximally mixed state. AME states are of interest for multipartite teleportation and quantum secret sharing and have recently found new applications in the context of high-energy physics in toy models realizing the AdS/CFT-correspondence. We work out in detail the connection between AME states of minimal support and classical maximum distance separable (MDS) error correcting codes and, in particular, provide explicit closed form expressions for AME states of n parties with local dimension \

  2. Absolute vibrational numbering from isotope shifts in fragmentary spectroscopic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashov, A.; Kowalczyk, P.; Jastrzebski, W.

    2018-05-01

    We discuss application of the isotope effect to establish the absolute vibrational numbering in electronic states of diatomic molecules. This is illustrated by examples of states with potential energy curves of both regular and irregular shape, with one or two potential minima. The minimum number of spectroscopic data (either term values or spectral line positions) necessary to provide a unique numbering is considered. We show that at favourable conditions just four term energies (or spectral lines) in one isotopologue and one term energy in the other suffice.

  3. Absolute photoionization cross-section of the methyl radical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taatjes, Craig A; Osborn, David L; Selby, Talitha M; Meloni, Giovanni; Fan, Haiyan; Pratt, Stephen T

    2008-10-02

    The absolute photoionization cross-section of the methyl radical has been measured using two completely independent methods. The CH3 photoionization cross-section was determined relative to that of acetone and methyl vinyl ketone at photon energies of 10.2 and 11.0 eV by using a pulsed laser-photolysis/time-resolved synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry method. The time-resolved depletion of the acetone or methyl vinyl ketone precursor and the production of methyl radicals following 193 nm photolysis are monitored simultaneously by using time-resolved synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry. Comparison of the initial methyl signal with the decrease in precursor signal, in combination with previously measured absolute photoionization cross-sections of the precursors, yields the absolute photoionization cross-section of the methyl radical; sigma(CH3)(10.2 eV) = (5.7 +/- 0.9) x 10(-18) cm(2) and sigma(CH3)(11.0 eV) = (6.0 +/- 2.0) x 10(-18) cm(2). The photoionization cross-section for vinyl radical determined by photolysis of methyl vinyl ketone is in good agreement with previous measurements. The methyl radical photoionization cross-section was also independently measured relative to that of the iodine atom by comparison of ionization signals from CH3 and I fragments following 266 nm photolysis of methyl iodide in a molecular-beam ion-imaging apparatus. These measurements gave a cross-section of (5.4 +/- 2.0) x 10(-18) cm(2) at 10.460 eV, (5.5 +/- 2.0) x 10(-18) cm(2) at 10.466 eV, and (4.9 +/- 2.0) x 10(-18) cm(2) at 10.471 eV. The measurements allow relative photoionization efficiency spectra of methyl radical to be placed on an absolute scale and will facilitate quantitative measurements of methyl concentrations by photoionization mass spectrometry.

  4. Absolute X-distribution and self-duality

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru, Andrei; Horváth, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Various models of QCD vacuum predict that it is dominated by excitations that are predominantly self-dual or anti-self-dual. In this work we look at the tendency for self-duality in the case of pure-glue SU(3) gauge theory using the overlap-based definition of the field-strength tensor. To gauge this property, we use the absolute X-distribution method which is designed to quantify the dynamical tendency for polarization for arbitrary random variables that can be decomposed in a pair of orthog...

  5. Predicting accurate absolute binding energies in aqueous solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jan Halborg

    2015-01-01

    Recent predictions of absolute binding free energies of host-guest complexes in aqueous solution using electronic structure theory have been encouraging for some systems, while other systems remain problematic. In this paper I summarize some of the many factors that could easily contribute 1-3 kcal......-represented by continuum models. While I focus on binding free energies in aqueous solution the approach also applies (with minor adjustments) to any free energy difference such as conformational or reaction free energy differences or activation free energies in any solvent....

  6. Including district heating pipelines in absolute liability laws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronau, W

    1977-10-01

    On January 1, 1978 the provisions of the Act Amending the Rules of Liability Damages have entered into force. Formally this means that the provisions of the Reich Liability Act (Reichshaftpflichtgesetz, RHG) and those of the Act on Liability with Respect to Property Damage of Railways and Tramways (SHG) are now combined under the new term of Liability Act (Haftpflichtgesetz). In material terms it means that the district heat industry with its supply pipelines is subject to absolute liability. This creates a liability situation for this industry which has been existing for the electricity and gas industries since 1943 as a result of an amendment of the Reich Liability Act.

  7. Absolute continuity of the distribution of some Markov geometric series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ai-hua; FAN; Ji-hong; ZHANG

    2007-01-01

    Let (∈n)≥0 be the Markov chain of two states with respect to the probability measure of the maximal entropy on the subshift space ∑A defined by Fibonacci incident matrix A.We consider the measure μλ of the probability distribution of the random series ∑∞n=0 εnλn (0 <λ< 1).It is proved that μλ is singular if λ∈ (0,√5-1/2) and that μλ is absolutely continuous for almost all λ∈ (√5-1/2,0.739).

  8. Lens transmission measurement for an absolute radiation thermometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, X.; Yuan, Z.; Lu, X.

    2013-01-01

    The lens transmission for the National Institute of Metrology of China absolute radiation thermometer is measured by a hybrid method. The results of the lens transmission measurements are 99.002% and 86.792% for filter radiometers with center wavelengths 633 nm and 900 nm, respectively. These results, after correcting for diffraction factors and the size-of-source effect when the lens is incorporated within the radiometer, can be used for measurement of thermodynamic temperature. The expanded uncertainty of the lens transmission measurement system has been evaluated. It is 1.3×10 −3 at 633 nm and 900 nm, respectively

  9. Faraday cup: absolute dosimetry for ELIMED beam line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leanza, R.; Romano, F.; Scuderi, V.; Amico, A.G.; Cuttone, G.; Larosa, G.; Milluzzo, G.; Petringa, G.; Pipek, J.; Cirrone, G.A.P.; Margarone, D.; Schillaci, F.

    2017-01-01

    The scientific community has shown a growing interest towards multidisciplinary applications of laser-driven beams. In this framework, the ELIMED (ELI-Beamlines MEDical and multidisciplinary applications) beamline will be the first transport beamline dedicated to the medical and multidisciplinary studies with laser-accelerated ion beams. Detectors for dosimetry represent one of key-element of the ELIMED beamline, allowing a dose delivering with good result as required in the clinical applications. In this contribution, a Faraday Cup for absolute dosimetry, designed and realized at INFN-LNS, is described.

  10. An Algorithm for Solving the Absolute Value Equation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rohn, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 18, - (2009), s. 589-599 E-ISSN 1081-3810 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/1957; GA ČR GC201/08/J020 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : absolute value equation * algorithm * regularity * singularity * theorem of the alternatives Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.892, year: 2009 http://www.math.technion.ac.il/iic/ ela / ela -articles/articles/vol18_pp589-599.pdf

  11. Adaptive Control with Reference Model Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanyan, Vahram; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a modification of the conventional model reference adaptive control (MRAC) architecture in order to improve transient performance of the input and output signals of uncertain systems. A simple modification of the reference model is proposed by feeding back the tracking error signal. It is shown that the proposed approach guarantees tracking of the given reference command and the reference control signal (one that would be designed if the system were known) not only asymptotically but also in transient. Moreover, it prevents generation of high frequency oscillations, which are unavoidable in conventional MRAC systems for large adaptation rates. The provided design guideline makes it possible to track a reference commands of any magnitude from any initial position without re-tuning. The benefits of the method are demonstrated with a simulation example

  12. Absolute quantitative proton NMR spectroscopy based on the amplitude of the local water suppression pulse. Quantification of brain water and metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E R; Henriksen, O

    1994-01-01

    Quantification in localized proton NMR spectroscopy has been achieved by various methods in recent years. A new method for absolute quantification is described in this paper. The method simultaneously rules out problems with B1 field inhomogeneity and coil loading, utilizing a relation between th......M and [NAA] = 9.15 +/- 0.74 nM. It is concluded that the quantification method is easily applied in vivo, and that the absolute concentrations obtained are similar to results in other studies except those relying on assumptions of the concentration of an internal reference. The advantage...

  13. Marketing Reference Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, O. Gene

    1995-01-01

    Relates the marketing concept to library reference services. Highlights include a review of the literature and an overview of marketing, including research, the marketing mix, strategic plan, marketing plan, and marketing audit. Marketing principles are applied to reference services through the marketing mix elements of product, price, place, and…

  14. Reference class forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    optimisme og misinformation. RCF bygger på teorier, som vandt Daniel Kahneman Nobelprisen i økonomi i 2002. RCF estimerer budgettet for et givet projekt på grundlag af de faktiske udfald for budgetterne i en reference-klasse af projekter. RCF udføres i tre trin: 1. Identifikation af en relevant reference...

  15. Input signal shaping based on harmonic frequency response function for suppressing nonlinear optical frequency in frequency-scanning interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu; Liu, Zhigang; Deng, Wen; Deng, Zhongwen

    2018-05-01

    Frequency-scanning interferometry (FSI) using an external cavity diode laser (ECDL) is essential for many applications of the absolute distance measurement. However, owing to the hysteresis and creep of the piezoelectric actuator inherent in the ECDL, the optical frequency scanning exhibits a nonlinearity that seriously affects the phase extraction accuracy of the interference signal and results in the reduction of the measurement accuracy. To suppress the optical frequency nonlinearity, a harmonic frequency synthesis method for shaping the desired input signal instead of the original triangular wave is presented. The effectiveness of the presented shaping method is demonstrated through the comparison of the experimental results. Compared with an incremental Renishaw interferometer, the standard deviation of the displacement measurement of the FSI system is less than 2.4 μm when driven by the shaped signal.

  16. High frequency source localization in a shallow ocean sound channel using frequency difference matched field processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthmann, Brian M; Song, H C; Dowling, David R

    2015-12-01

    Matched field processing (MFP) is an established technique for source localization in known multipath acoustic environments. Unfortunately, in many situations, particularly those involving high frequency signals, imperfect knowledge of the actual propagation environment prevents accurate propagation modeling and source localization via MFP fails. For beamforming applications, this actual-to-model mismatch problem was mitigated through a frequency downshift, made possible by a nonlinear array-signal-processing technique called frequency difference beamforming [Abadi, Song, and Dowling (2012). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 132, 3018-3029]. Here, this technique is extended to conventional (Bartlett) MFP using simulations and measurements from the 2011 Kauai Acoustic Communications MURI experiment (KAM11) to produce ambiguity surfaces at frequencies well below the signal bandwidth where the detrimental effects of mismatch are reduced. Both the simulation and experimental results suggest that frequency difference MFP can be more robust against environmental mismatch than conventional MFP. In particular, signals of frequency 11.2 kHz-32.8 kHz were broadcast 3 km through a 106-m-deep shallow ocean sound channel to a sparse 16-element vertical receiving array. Frequency difference MFP unambiguously localized the source in several experimental data sets with average peak-to-side-lobe ratio of 0.9 dB, average absolute-value range error of 170 m, and average absolute-value depth error of 10 m.

  17. Communication: The absolute shielding scales of oxygen and sulfur revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komorovsky, Stanislav; Repisky, Michal; Malkin, Elena; Ruud, Kenneth, E-mail: kenneth.ruud@uit.no [Centre for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, University of Tromsø — The Arctic University of Norway, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway); Gauss, Jürgen [Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Duesbergweg 10-14, D-55128 Mainz (Germany)

    2015-03-07

    We present an updated semi-experimental absolute shielding scale for the {sup 17}O and {sup 33}S nuclei. These new shielding scales are based on accurate rotational microwave data for the spin–rotation constants of H{sub 2}{sup 17}O [Puzzarini et al., J. Chem. Phys. 131, 234304 (2009)], C{sup 17}O [Cazzoli et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 4, 3575 (2002)], and H{sub 2}{sup 33}S [Helgaker et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 244308 (2013)] corrected both for vibrational and temperature effects estimated at the CCSD(T) level of theory as well as for the relativistic corrections to the relation between the spin–rotation constant and the absolute shielding constant. Our best estimate for the oxygen shielding constants of H{sub 2}{sup 17}O is 328.4(3) ppm and for C{sup 17}O −59.05(59) ppm. The relativistic correction for the sulfur shielding of H{sub 2}{sup 33}S amounts to 3.3%, and the new sulfur shielding constant for this molecule is 742.9(4.6) ppm.

  18. Absolute analytical prediction of photonic crystal guided mode resonance wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermannsson, Pétur Gordon; Vannahme, Christoph; Smith, Cameron L. C.; Kristensen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    A class of photonic crystal resonant reflectors known as guided mode resonant filters are optical structures that are widely used in the field of refractive index sensing, particularly in biosensing. For the purposes of understanding and design, their behavior has traditionally been modeled numerically with methods such as rigorous coupled wave analysis. Here it is demonstrated how the absolute resonance wavelengths of such structures can be predicted by analytically modeling them as slab waveguides in which the propagation constant is determined by a phase matching condition. The model is experimentally verified to be capable of predicting the absolute resonance wavelengths to an accuracy of within 0.75 nm, as well as resonance wavelength shifts due to changes in cladding index within an accuracy of 0.45 nm across the visible wavelength regime in the case where material dispersion is taken into account. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the model is valid beyond the limit of low grating modulation, for periodically discontinuous waveguide layers, high refractive index contrasts, and highly dispersive media.

  19. DI3 - A New Procedure for Absolute Directional Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Geese

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The standard observatory procedure for determining a geomagnetic field's declination and inclination absolutely is the DI-flux measurement. The instrument consists of a non-magnetic theodolite equipped with a single-axis fluxgate magnetometer. Additionally, a scalar magnetometer is needed to provide all three components of the field. Using only 12 measurement steps, all systematic errors can be accounted for, but if only one of the readings is wrong, the whole measurement has to be rejected. We use a three-component sensor on top of the theodolites telescope. By performing more measurement steps, we gain much better control of the whole procedure: As the magnetometer can be fully calibrated by rotating about two independent directions, every combined reading of magnetometer output and theodolite angles provides the absolute field vector. We predefined a set of angle positions that the observer has to try to achieve. To further simplify the measurement procedure, the observer is guided by a pocket pc, in which he has only to confirm the theodolite position. The magnetic field is then stored automatically, together with the horizontal and vertical angles. The DI3 measurement is periodically performed at the Niemegk Observatory, allowing for a direct comparison with the traditional measurements.

  20. Absolute counting of neutrophils in whole blood using flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunck, Marion E G; Andersen, Stacey B; Timmins, Nicholas E; Osborne, Geoffrey W; Nielsen, Lars K

    2014-12-01

    Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) is used clinically to monitor physiological dysfunctions such as myelosuppression or infection. In the research laboratory, ANC is a valuable measure to monitor the evolution of a wide range of disease states in disease models. Flow cytometry (FCM) is a fast, widely used approach to confidently identify thousands of cells within minutes. FCM can be optimised for absolute counting using spiked-in beads or by measuring the sample volume analysed. Here we combine the 1A8 antibody, specific for the mouse granulocyte protein Ly6G, with flow cytometric counting in straightforward FCM assays for mouse ANC, easily implementable in the research laboratory. Volumetric and Trucount™ bead assays were optimized for mouse neutrophils, and ANC values obtained with these protocols were compared to ANC measured by a dual-platform assay using the Orphee Mythic 18 veterinary haematology analyser. The single platform assays were more precise with decreased intra-assay variability compared with ANC obtained using the dual protocol. Defining ANC based on Ly6G expression produces a 15% higher estimate than the dual protocol. Allowing for this difference in ANC definition, the flow cytometry counting assays using Ly6G can be used reliably in the research laboratory to quantify mouse ANC from a small volume of blood. We demonstrate the utility of the volumetric protocol in a time-course study of chemotherapy induced neutropenia using four drug regimens. © 2014 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  1. Achilles: A Homeric hero enamoured with the absolute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evzonas, Nicolas

    2017-07-21

    This article explores through a psychoanalytical lens the character of Achilles in Homer's Iliad, the matrix behind the Western conception of heroism. The contribution reveals the psychological link binding the words and acts of the most valiant of warriors in Antiquity, which is situated in myth and termed "the Eros of the absolute." The paroxystic ideality underlying the aforementioned myth, which is rooted in the anthropological need to believe, is at the origin of Achilles' legendary μῆνις, that is, the flood of rage triggered by contests for supremacy, aggravated by the loss of his war comrade, aroused by the drama of aging and death, and then transfigured through song and memory. The main claim of the author is that Iliad, despite its seeming lack of attention to interiority, is launched by the archetypal emotion of wrath and owes its appeal to its hero's embrace of heroic idealism in an excessive, radical and absolute way that results in a captivating narcissism and sadomasochistic antithesis of ideality. This argument leads to the conclusion that Homer is the Father of the "primitive horde" of affects. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  2. PROFIT AND LOSS ACCOUNT – SYNTHETIC EXPRESSION OF ABSOLUTE RETURN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRON VASILE CRISTIAN IOACHIM

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study has as main objective the presentation of the current state of knowledge regarding the profit and loss account as part of the financial statements which express in absolute value the profitability of companies and the empirical analysis of these concepts based on the information submitted by OMV Petrom between 2011 and 2015. Thus, in the first part we present several approaches from the specialized literature regarding the aspects mentioned above. The second part follows a vertical and horizontal analysis of key indicators used for measuring the absolute return. For the horizontal analysis we pursued the evolution in time of the following indicators: Gross Margin, Earnings Before Interest and Taxes (EBIT, Financial Result, Gross and Net Result. The vertical analysis aimed to explain the formation of the Gross Result via EBIT (which was also analyzed through the Gross Margin and other specific elements and of the Financial Result (which was also analyzed through the different types of financial income and expenses. The results of the study revealed problems of profitability in the years 2014 and 2015 which, in our opinion, can be attributed to poor management of the commercial activity, exploration activity (research and development, distribution and financial activity.

  3. Absolute values of neutrino masses: status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilenky, S.M.; Giunti, C.; Grifols, J.A.; Masso, E.

    2003-01-01

    Compelling evidences in favor of neutrino masses and mixing obtained in the last years in Super-Kamiokande, SNO, KamLAND and other neutrino experiments made the physics of massive and mixed neutrinos a frontier field of research in particle physics and astrophysics. There are many open problems in this new field. In this review we consider the problem of the absolute values of neutrino masses, which apparently is the most difficult one from the experimental point of view. We discuss the present limits and the future prospects of β-decay neutrino mass measurements and neutrinoless double-β decay. We consider the important problem of the calculation of nuclear matrix elements of neutrinoless double-β decay and discuss the possibility to check the results of different model calculations of the nuclear matrix elements through their comparison with the experimental data. We discuss the upper bound of the total mass of neutrinos that was obtained recently from the data of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey and other cosmological data and we discuss future prospects of the cosmological measurements of the total mass of neutrinos. We discuss also the possibility to obtain information on neutrino masses from the observation of the ultra high-energy cosmic rays (beyond the GZK cutoff). Finally, we review the main aspects of the physics of core-collapse supernovae, the limits on the absolute values of neutrino masses from the observation of SN1987A neutrinos and the future prospects of supernova neutrino detection

  4. Ultra-stable long distance optical frequency distribution using the Internet fiber network and application to high-precision molecular spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, O; Chanteau, B; Bercy, A; Argence, B; Darquié, B; Chardonnet, C; Amy-Klein, A; Nicolodi, D; Zhang, W; Abgrall, M; Haboucha, A; Kanj, A; Rovera, D; Achkar, J; Pottie, P-E; Coq, Y Le; Santarelli, G

    2013-01-01

    We report an optical link of 540 km for ultrastable frequency distribution over the Internet fiber network. The phase-noise compensated link shows a fractional frequency instability in full bandwidth of 3×10 −14 at one second measurement time and 2×10 −18 at 30 000 s. This work is a significant step towards a sustainable wide area ultrastable optical frequency distribution and comparison network. Time transfer was demonstrated simultaneously on the same link and led to an absolute time accuracy (250 ps) and long-term timing stability (20 ps) which outperform the conventional satellite transfer methods by one order of magnitude. Current development addresses the question of multiple users distribution in the same metropolitan area. We demonstrate on-line extraction and first results show frequency stability at the same level as with conventional link. We also report an application to coherent frequency transfer to the mid-infrared. We demonstrate the frequency stabilisation of a mid-infrared laser to the near-infrared frequency reference transferred through the optical link. Fractional stability better than 4×10 −14 at 1 s averaging time was obtained, opening the way to ultrahigh resolution spectroscopy of molecular rovibrational transitions

  5. Improved Strategies and Optimization of Calibration Models for Real-time PCR Absolute Quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real-time PCR absolute quantification applications rely on the use of standard curves to make estimates of DNA target concentrations in unknown samples. Traditional absolute quantification approaches dictate that a standard curve must accompany each experimental run. However, t...

  6. Dynamics of electron scattering in absolutely transparent channels in three-barrier structures in the case of two-photon transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pashkovskii, A. B., E-mail: solidstate10@mail.ru [Shokin Joint-Stock Company ISTOK Research and Production Corporation (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-15

    Solution of the Schrödinger equation, which describes resonant transitions between three quantum levels in large-signal and high-frequency electric fields, is generalized to the case of the detuning of frequencies and energies from those exactly resonant for asymmetric three-barrier resonance-tunneling structures with thin high barriers. The dependence of the shape of the resonance levels on the amplitude and frequency of electric fields is studied. It is shown that the number of regions of absolute transparency can be as large as four depending on the microwave-field amplitude.

  7. Uranium reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donivan, S.; Chessmore, R.

    1987-07-01

    The Technical Measurements Center has prepared uranium mill tailings reference materials for use by remedial action contractors and cognizant federal and state agencies. Four materials were prepared with varying concentrations of radionuclides, using three tailings materials and a river-bottom soil diluent. All materials were ground, dried, and blended thoroughly to ensure homogeneity. The analyses on which the recommended values for nuclides in the reference materials are based were performed, using independent methods, by the UNC Geotech (UNC) Chemistry Laboratory, Grand Junction, Colorado, and by C.W. Sill (Sill), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho. Several statistical tests were performed on the analytical data to characterize the reference materials. Results of these tests reveal that the four reference materials are homogeneous and that no large systematic bias exists between the analytical methods used by Sill and those used by TMC. The average values for radionuclides of the two data sets, representing an unbiased estimate, were used as the recommended values for concentrations of nuclides in the reference materials. The recommended concentrations of radionuclides in the four reference materials are provided. Use of these reference materials will aid in providing uniform standardization among measurements made by remedial action contractors. 11 refs., 9 tabs

  8. Nanosatellite High-Precision Magnetic Missions Enabled by Advances in a Stand-Alone Scalar/Vector Absolute Magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulot, G.; Leger, J. M.; Vigneron, P.; Jager, T.; Bertrand, F.; Coisson, P.; Deram, P.; Boness, A.; Tomasini, L.; Faure, B.

    2017-12-01

    Satellites of the ESA Swarm mission currently in operation carry a new generation of Absolute Scalar Magnetometers (ASM), which nominally deliver 1 Hz scalar for calibrating the relative flux gate magnetometers that complete the magnetometry payload (together with star cameras, STR, for attitude restitution) and providing extremely accurate scalar measurements of the magnetic field for science investigations. These ASM instruments, however, can also operate in two additional modes, a high-frequency 250 Hz scalar mode and a 1 Hz absolute dual-purpose scalar/vector mode. The 250 Hz scalar mode already allowed the detection of until now very poorly documented extremely low frequency whistler signals produced by lightning in the atmosphere, while the 1 Hz scalar/vector mode has provided data that, combined with attitude restitution from the STR, could be used to produce scientifically relevant core field and lithospheric field models. Both ASM modes have thus now been fully validated for science applications. Efforts towards developing an improved and miniaturized version of this instrument is now well under way with CNES support in the context of the preparation of a 12U nanosatellite mission (NanoMagSat) proposed to be launched to complement the Swarm satellite constellation. This advanced miniaturized ASM could potentially operate in an even more useful mode, simultaneously providing high frequency (possibly beyond 500 Hz) absolute scalar data and self-calibrated 1 Hz vector data, thus providing scientifically valuable data for multiple science applications. In this presentation, we will illustrate the science such an instrument taken on board a nanosatellite could enable, and report on the current status of the NanoMagSat project that intends to take advantage of it.

  9. Geographies of High Frequency Trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grindsted, Thomas Skou

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the geographies of high frequency trading. Today shares shift hands within micro seconds, giving rise to a form of financial geographies termed algorithmic capitalism. This notion refers to the different spatio-temporalities produced by high frequency trading, under...... the valuation of time. As high frequency trading accelerates financial markets, the paper examines the spatio-temporalities of automated trading by the ways in which the speed of knowledge exploitation in financial markets is not only of interest, but also the expansion between different temporalities....... The paper demonstrates how the intensification of time-space compression produces radical new dynamics in the financial market and develops information rent in HFT as convertible to a time rent and a spatio-temporal rent. The final section discusses whether high frequency trading only responds to crises...

  10. Time and Frequency Activities at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tjoelker, R. L

    2007-01-01

    ...). When implemented into the DSN Frequency and Timing Subsystem (FTS), these technologies provide precise and stable phase, frequency, and time references for NASA's deep space communication, tracking, navigation, and radio science activities...

  11. Active Low-frequency Vertical Vibration Isolation System for Precision Measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Kang; LI Gang; HU Hua; WANG Lijun

    2017-01-01

    Low-frequency vertical vibration isolation systems play important roles in precision measurements to reduce seismic and environmental vibration noise.Several types of active vibration isolation systems have been developed.However,few researches focus on how to optimize the test mass install position in order to improve the vibration transmissibility.An active low-frequency vertical vibration isolation system based on an earlier instrument,the Super Spring,is designed and implemented.The system,which is simple and compact,consists of two stages:a parallelogram-shaped linkage to ensure vertical motion,and a simple spring-mass system.The theoretical analysis of the vibration isolation system is presented,including terms erroneously ignored before.By carefully choosing the mechanical parameters according to the above analysis and using feedback control,the resonance frequency of the system is reduced from 2.3 to 0.03 Hz,a reduction by a factor of more than 75.The vibration isolation system is installed as an inertial reference in an absolute gravimeter,where it improved the scatter of the absolute gravity values by a factor of 5.The experimental results verifies the improved performance of the isolation system,making it particularly suitable for precision experiments.The improved vertical vibration isolation system can be used as a prototype for designing high-performance active vertical isolation systems.An improved theoretical model of this active vibration isolation system with beam-pivot configuration is proposed,providing fundamental guidelines for vibration isolator design and assembling.

  12. STL pocket reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lischner, Ray

    2003-01-01

    The STL Pocket Reference describes the functions, classes, and templates in that part of the C++ standard library often referred to as the Standard Template Library (STL). The STL encompasses containers, iterators, algorithms, and function objects, which collectively represent one of the most important and widely used subsets of standard library functionality. The C++ standard library, even the subset known as the STL, is vast. It's next to impossible to work with the STL without some sort of reference at your side to remind you of template parameters, function invocations, return types--ind

  13. Handbook of reference electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Inzelt, György; Scholz, Fritz

    2013-01-01

    Reference Electrodes are a crucial part of any electrochemical system, yet an up-to-date and comprehensive handbook is long overdue. Here, an experienced team of electrochemists provides an in-depth source of information and data for the proper choice and construction of reference electrodes. This includes all kinds of applications such as aqueous and non-aqueous solutions, ionic liquids, glass melts, solid electrolyte systems, and membrane electrodes. Advanced technologies such as miniaturized, conducting-polymer-based, screen-printed or disposable reference electrodes are also covered. Essen

  14. Regular Expression Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Stubblebine, Tony

    2007-01-01

    This handy little book offers programmers a complete overview of the syntax and semantics of regular expressions that are at the heart of every text-processing application. Ideal as a quick reference, Regular Expression Pocket Reference covers the regular expression APIs for Perl 5.8, Ruby (including some upcoming 1.9 features), Java, PHP, .NET and C#, Python, vi, JavaScript, and the PCRE regular expression libraries. This concise and easy-to-use reference puts a very powerful tool for manipulating text and data right at your fingertips. Composed of a mixture of symbols and text, regular exp

  15. Neptunium: a bibliographic reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosley, R.E.

    1979-06-01

    A comprehensive bibliograhy of the literature on the element neptunium published prior to January 1976 is presented. A short abstract is given for each listed reference, with a few exceptions. The references are divided into sections categorized as General, Man-Made Sources (Reactors), Man-Made Sources (Fuel Reprocessing), Chemistry (Solubility), Chemistry (Compounds), Chemistry (Isotopes), Analyses (Instrumental), Analyses (Chemical), Chemical (Animal), Biological (Effects), Biological (Animal-Metabolism-Retention), Biological (Air Movement), Biological (Human Inhalation), Measurement, and Dosimetry. The bibliography contains author and keyword indexes and was compiled to serve as a quick reference source for neptunium-related work. 184 citations

  16. CSS Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Eric

    2011-01-01

    When you're working with CSS and need a quick answer, CSS Pocket Reference delivers. This handy, concise book provides all of the essential information you need to implement CSS on the fly. Ideal for intermediate to advanced web designers and developers, the 4th edition is revised and updated for CSS3, the latest version of the Cascading Style Sheet specification. Along with a complete alphabetical reference to CSS3 selectors and properties, you'll also find a short introduction to the key concepts of CSS. Based on Cascading Style Sheets: The Definitive Guide, this reference is an easy-to-us

  17. Biomedical Engineering Desk Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Ratner, Buddy D; Schoen, Frederick J; Lemons, Jack E; Dyro, Joseph; Martinsen, Orjan G; Kyle, Richard; Preim, Bernhard; Bartz, Dirk; Grimnes, Sverre; Vallero, Daniel; Semmlow, John; Murray, W Bosseau; Perez, Reinaldo; Bankman, Isaac; Dunn, Stanley; Ikada, Yoshito; Moghe, Prabhas V; Constantinides, Alkis

    2009-01-01

    A one-stop Desk Reference, for Biomedical Engineers involved in the ever expanding and very fast moving area; this is a book that will not gather dust on the shelf. It brings together the essential professional reference content from leading international contributors in the biomedical engineering field. Material covers a broad range of topics including: Biomechanics and Biomaterials; Tissue Engineering; and Biosignal Processing* A hard-working desk reference providing all the essential material needed by biomedical and clinical engineers on a day-to-day basis * Fundamentals, key techniques,

  18. LINQ Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Albahari, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Ready to take advantage of LINQ with C# 3.0? This guide has the detail you need to grasp Microsoft's new querying technology, and concise explanations to help you learn it quickly. And once you begin to apply LINQ, the book serves as an on-the-job reference when you need immediate reminders. All the examples in the LINQ Pocket Reference are preloaded into LINQPad, the highly praised utility that lets you work with LINQ interactively. Created by the authors and free to download, LINQPad will not only help you learn LINQ, it will have you thinking in LINQ. This reference explains: LINQ's ke

  19. R quick syntax reference

    CERN Document Server

    Tollefson, Margot

    2014-01-01

    The R Quick Syntax Reference is a handy reference book detailing the intricacies of the R language. Not only is R a free, open-source tool, R is powerful, flexible, and has state of the art statistical techniques available. With the many details which must be correct when using any language, however, the R Quick Syntax Reference makes using R easier.Starting with the basic structure of R, the book takes you on a journey through the terminology used in R and the syntax required to make R work. You will find looking up the correct form for an expression quick and easy. With a copy of the R Quick

  20. On Frequency Combs in Monolithic Resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savchenkov A. A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Optical frequency combs have become indispensable in astronomical measurements, biological fingerprinting, optical metrology, and radio frequency photonic signal generation. Recently demonstrated microring resonator-based Kerr frequency combs point the way towards chip scale optical frequency comb generator retaining major properties of the lab scale devices. This technique is promising for integrated miniature radiofrequency and microwave sources, atomic clocks, optical references and femtosecond pulse generators. Here we present Kerr frequency comb development in a historical perspective emphasizing its similarities and differences with other physical phenomena. We elucidate fundamental principles and describe practical implementations of Kerr comb oscillators, highlighting associated solved and unsolved problems.

  1. On Frequency Combs in Monolithic Resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenkov, A. A.; Matsko, A. B.; Maleki, L.

    2016-06-01

    Optical frequency combs have become indispensable in astronomical measurements, biological fingerprinting, optical metrology, and radio frequency photonic signal generation. Recently demonstrated microring resonator-based Kerr frequency combs point the way towards chip scale optical frequency comb generator retaining major properties of the lab scale devices. This technique is promising for integrated miniature radiofrequency and microwave sources, atomic clocks, optical references and femtosecond pulse generators. Here we present Kerr frequency comb development in a historical perspective emphasizing its similarities and differences with other physical phenomena. We elucidate fundamental principles and describe practical implementations of Kerr comb oscillators, highlighting associated solved and unsolved problems.

  2. Use of an untuned cavity for absolute power measurements of the harmonics above 100 GHz from an IMPATT oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn-Jones, D. T.; Knight, R. J.; Gebbie, H. A.

    1980-07-01

    A new technique of measuring absolute power exploiting an untuned cavity and Fourier spectroscopy has been used to examine the power spectrum of the harmonics and other overtones produced by a 95 GHz IMPATT oscillator. The conditions which favor the production of a rich harmonic spectrum are not those which maximize the fundamental power. Under some conditions of mismatch at the fundamental frequency it is possible to produce over 200 microW of harmonic power in the 100-200 GHz region comparable with the fundamental power from the oscillator.

  3. A measurement to analyze the relative change in the Absolute Parity of Power Purchase: An application to the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago Rodriguez Feijoo; Alejandro Rodriguez Caro; Carlos Gonzalez Correa

    2003-01-01

    In the present paper an index to measure the changes in the Absolute Purchasing Power Parity. in the short term of a group of territories that conform an unique market, using the information of the Harmonized Index of Consumer Prices and the Exchange Rates. This measurement is utilized to study the change in relative prices of the countries of the European Union for the period 1991-2002, and the fulfillment of the theory of the Relative Purchasing Power Parity, taking as a reference the Absol...

  4. Effects of Warmness and Spatial Nonuniformity of the Plasma Waveguide on Periodic Absolute Parametric Instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaki, N.G.; Bekheit, A.H.

    2011-01-01

    The periodic absolute parametric instability (API) of the low-frequency oscillations excited by a monochromatic pumping field of arbitrary amplitude in a warm I-D nonuniform magneto active plasma is investigated. One can use the separation method to solve the two-fluid plasma equations which describe the system. The method used enables us to determine the frequencies and growth rates of unstable modes and the self-consistent electric field. Plasma electrons are considered to have a thermal velocity. One can examine different solutions for the spatial equation in the following cases: A) API in uniform Plasma B) API in nonuniform plasma, we study this case for two variants: B.1) Exact harmonic oscillator and B.2) Bounded harmonic oscillator (bounded plasma). Increment is found in the buildup of the oscillations, and it is shown that the spatial nonuniformity of the plasma exerts a stabilizing effect on the parametric instability. It is shown that the growth rate of API in warm plasma is reduced compared to cold plasma. It is found also that the warmness of the plasma has no effect on the solution of the space part of the problem ( only through the separation constant )

  5. Effects of warmness and spatial nonuniformity of plasma waveguide on periodic absolute parametric instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaki, N.G.; Bekheit, A.H.

    2011-01-01

    The periodic absolute parametric instability (API) of the low-frequency oscillations excited by a monochromatic pumping field of an arbitrary amplitude in a warm 1-D (one-dimensional) nonuniform magnetoactive plasma is investigated. The separation method can be used for solving the two-fluid plasma equations describing the system. By applying this method we were able to determine the frequencies and growth rates of unstable modes and the self-consistent electric field. Plasma electrons are considered to have a thermal velocity. Different solutions for the spatial equation can be obtained the following cases: A) API in a uniform plasma, B) API in a nonuniform plasma. The latter has been studied here for two cases: B.1) the exact harmonic oscillator and B.2) the bounded harmonic oscillator (a bounded plasma). An increment has been found in the build-up of the oscillations, and it has been shown that the spatial nonuniformity of the plasma exerts the stabilizing effect on the parametric instability. A reduced growth rate of API in the warm plasma, in comparison to the cold plasma, is reported. It has also been found that the warmness of the plasma has no effect on the solution of the space part of the problem (only through the separation constant). (authors)

  6. Regional absolute conductivity reconstruction using projected current density in MREIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajib, Saurav Z K; Kim, Hyung Joong; Woo, Eung Je; Kwon, Oh In

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) is a non-invasive technique for imaging the internal conductivity distribution in tissue within an MRI scanner, utilizing the magnetic flux density, which is introduced when a current is injected into the tissue from external electrodes. This magnetic flux alters the MRI signal, so that appropriate reconstruction can provide a map of the additional z-component of the magnetic field (B z ) as well as the internal current density distribution that created it. To extract the internal electrical properties of the subject, including the conductivity and/or the current density distribution, MREIT techniques use the relationship between the external injection current and the z-component of the magnetic flux density B = (B x , B y , B z ). The tissue studied typically contains defective regions, regions with a low MRI signal and/or low MRI signal-to-noise-ratio, due to the low density of nuclear magnetic resonance spins, short T 2 or T* 2 relaxation times, as well as regions with very low electrical conductivity, through which very little current traverses. These defective regions provide noisy B z data, which can severely degrade the overall reconstructed conductivity distribution. Injecting two independent currents through surface electrodes, this paper proposes a new direct method to reconstruct a regional absolute isotropic conductivity distribution in a region of interest (ROI) while avoiding the defective regions. First, the proposed method reconstructs the contrast of conductivity using the transversal J-substitution algorithm, which blocks the propagation of severe accumulated noise from the defective region to the ROI. Second, the proposed method reconstructs the regional projected current density using the relationships between the internal current density, which stems from a current injection on the surface, and the measured B z data. Combining the contrast conductivity distribution in the entire imaging

  7. Probabilistic performance estimators for computational chemistry methods: The empirical cumulative distribution function of absolute errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernot, Pascal; Savin, Andreas

    2018-06-01

    Benchmarking studies in computational chemistry use reference datasets to assess the accuracy of a method through error statistics. The commonly used error statistics, such as the mean signed and mean unsigned errors, do not inform end-users on the expected amplitude of prediction errors attached to these methods. We show that, the distributions of model errors being neither normal nor zero-centered, these error statistics cannot be used to infer prediction error probabilities. To overcome this limitation, we advocate for the use of more informative statistics, based on the empirical cumulative distribution function of unsigned errors, namely, (1) the probability for a new calculation to have an absolute error below a chosen threshold and (2) the maximal amplitude of errors one can expect with a chosen high confidence level. Those statistics are also shown to be well suited for benchmarking and ranking studies. Moreover, the standard error on all benchmarking statistics depends on the size of the reference dataset. Systematic publication of these standard errors would be very helpful to assess the statistical reliability of benchmarking conclusions.

  8. Recent developments in time-frequency analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Loughlin, Patrick

    1998-01-01

    Recent Developments in Time-Frequency Analysis brings together in one place important contributions and up-to-date research results in this fast moving area. Recent Developments in Time-Frequency Analysis serves as an excellent reference, providing insight into some of the most challenging research issues in the field.

  9. Laser frequency stabilization using a transfer interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Shira; Sawaoka, Hiromitsu; Bhatt, Nishant; Potnis, Shreyas; Vutha, Amar C.

    2018-03-01

    We present a laser frequency stabilization system that uses a transfer interferometer to stabilize slave lasers to a reference laser. Our implementation uses off-the-shelf optical components along with microcontroller-based digital feedback, and offers a simple, flexible, and robust way to stabilize multiple laser frequencies to better than 1 MHz.

  10. Optimal primitive reference frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, David

    2011-01-01

    We consider the smallest possible directional reference frames allowed and determine the best one can ever do in preserving quantum information in various scenarios. We find that for the preservation of a single spin state, two orthogonal spins are optimal primitive reference frames; and in a product state, they do approximately 22% as well as an infinite-sized classical frame. By adding a small amount of entanglement to the reference frame, this can be raised to 2(2/3) 5 =26%. Under the different criterion of entanglement preservation, a very similar optimal reference frame is found; however, this time it is for spins aligned at an optimal angle of 87 deg. In this case 24% of the negativity is preserved. The classical limit is considered numerically, and indicates under the criterion of entanglement preservation, that 90 deg. is selected out nonmonotonically, with a peak optimal angle of 96.5 deg. for L=3 spins.

  11. Reference Climatological Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Reference Climatological Stations (RCS) network represents the first effort by NOAA to create and maintain a nationwide network of stations located only in areas...

  12. Toxicity Reference Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxicity Reference Database (ToxRefDB) contains approximately 30 years and $2 billion worth of animal studies. ToxRefDB allows scientists and the interested...

  13. Python essential reference

    CERN Document Server

    Beazley, David M

    2009-01-01

    Python Essential Reference is the definitive reference guide to the Python programming language — the one authoritative handbook that reliably untangles and explains both the core Python language and the most essential parts of the Python library. Designed for the professional programmer, the book is concise, to the point, and highly accessible. It also includes detailed information on the Python library and many advanced subjects that is not available in either the official Python documentation or any other single reference source. Thoroughly updated to reflect the significant new programming language features and library modules that have been introduced in Python 2.6 and Python 3, the fourth edition of Python Essential Reference is the definitive guide for programmers who need to modernize existing Python code or who are planning an eventual migration to Python 3. Programmers starting a new Python project will find detailed coverage of contemporary Python programming idioms.

  14. Collaborative networks: Reference modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camarinha-Matos, L.M.; Afsarmanesh, H.

    2008-01-01

    Collaborative Networks: Reference Modeling works to establish a theoretical foundation for Collaborative Networks. Particular emphasis is put on modeling multiple facets of collaborative networks and establishing a comprehensive modeling framework that captures and structures diverse perspectives of

  15. Ozone Standard Reference Photometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Standard Reference Photometer (SRP) Program began in the early 1980s as collaboration between NIST and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to design,...

  16. Enterprise Reference Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickham, Grandin; Saile, Lynn; Havelka, Jacque; Fitts, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Johnson Space Center (JSC) offers two extensive libraries that contain journals, research literature and electronic resources. Searching capabilities are available to those individuals residing onsite or through a librarian s search. Many individuals have rich collections of references, but no mechanisms to share reference libraries across researchers, projects, or directorates exist. Likewise, information regarding which references are provided to which individuals is not available, resulting in duplicate requests, redundant labor costs and associated copying fees. In addition, this tends to limit collaboration between colleagues and promotes the establishment of individual, unshared silos of information The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) team has utilized a centralized reference management tool during the development, test, and operational phases of this project. The Enterprise Reference Library project expands the capabilities developed for IMM to address the above issues and enhance collaboration across JSC. Method: After significant market analysis for a multi-user reference management tool, no available commercial tool was found to meet this need, so a software program was built around a commercial tool, Reference Manager 12 by The Thomson Corporation. A use case approach guided the requirements development phase. The premise of the design is that individuals use their own reference management software and export to SharePoint when their library is incorporated into the Enterprise Reference Library. This results in a searchable user-specific library application. An accompanying share folder will warehouse the electronic full-text articles, which allows the global user community to access full -text articles. Discussion: An enterprise reference library solution can provide a multidisciplinary collection of full text articles. This approach improves efficiency in obtaining and storing reference material while greatly reducing labor, purchasing and

  17. Comparability of reference values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossbach, M.; Stoeppler, M.

    1993-01-01

    Harmonization of certified values in Reference Materials (RMs) can be carried out by applying nuclear analytical techniques to RMs of various matrix types and concentration levels. Although RMs generally should not be used as primary standards the cross evaluation of concentrations in RMs leads to better compatibility of reference values and thus to a greater agreement between analytical results from different laboratories using these RMs for instrument calibration and quality assurance. (orig.)

  18. Electronics engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, L W

    1976-01-01

    Electronics Engineer's Reference Book, 4th Edition is a reference book for electronic engineers that reviews the knowledge and techniques in electronics engineering and covers topics ranging from basics to materials and components, devices, circuits, measurements, and applications. This edition is comprised of 27 chapters; the first of which presents general information on electronics engineering, including terminology, mathematical equations, mathematical signs and symbols, and Greek alphabet and symbols. Attention then turns to the history of electronics; electromagnetic and nuclear radiatio

  19. 2002 reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This 2002 reference document of the group Areva, provides information on the society. Organized in seven chapters, it presents the persons responsible for the reference document and for auditing the financial statements, information pertaining to the transaction, general information on the company and share capital, information on company operation, changes and future prospects, assets, financial position, financial performance, information on company management and executive board and supervisory board, recent developments and future prospects. (A.L.B.)

  20. Testing hypotheses on frequency effects in first language acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærbæk, Laila; Basbøll, Hans

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of extensive literature studies, Ambridge, Kidd, Rowland and Theakston (2015) present five theses on frequency effects on language acquisition: i) the Levels and Kinds Thesis argues that frequency effects exist at all levels and are of many different kinds (e.g., type and token...... frequency effects as well as absolute and relative frequency effects); ii) the Age of Acquisition Thesis argues that all other things being equal, frequent forms will be acquired before less frequent forms. Since all other things are not equal, this claim does not entail a one-to-one relationship between...... frequency and age of acquisition; iii) the Prevent Error Thesis argues that high-frequency forms prevent (or reduce) errors in contexts in which they are the target; iv) the Cause Error Thesis argues that high-frequency forms also cause errors in contexts in which a competing, related lower-frequency form...